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COMPARISON OF ESCHERICHIA COLI, TOTAL COLIFORM, AND FECAL COLIFORM POPULATIONS AS INDICATORS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT EFFICIENCY  

Science.gov (United States)

Escherichia coli, total coliform, and fecal coliform data were collected from two wastewater treatment facilities, a subsurface constructed wetlands, and the receiving stream. Results are presented from individual wastewater treatment process streams, final effluent and river sit...

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A comparison of ten USEPA approved total coliform/E. coli tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 2002, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has approved ten enzyme-based total coliform and E. coli detection tests for examination of drinking water. These tests include: Colilert, Colilert-18, Colisure, m-Coli Blue 24, Readycult Coliforms 100, Chromocult, Coliscan, E * Colite, Colitag and MI Agar. The utility of the enzyme based test systems is based on both the ability of the test to detect the target organisms at low levels and the ability of the test system to suppress the growth of non-target organisms that might result in false positive results. Differences in the ability of some of these methods to detect total coliform and E. coli, as well as suppress Aeromonas spp., a common cause of "false positive" results, have been observed. As a result, this study was undertaken to elucidate the strengths and weaknesses of each method. Water samples were collected from three geographically and chemically diverse groundwaters in Wisconsin. One-hundred milliliter aliquots were individually spiked with both low concentrations (one to ten organisms) and high concentrations (fifty to one-hundred) of each of five different total coliform organisms (Serratia, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, E. coli, & Klebsiella). These spiked samples were used to test the capability of ten enzyme-based test systems to both detect and enumerate the spiked organisms. In addition, 100 ml samples were independently spiked with two different strains of Aeromonas spp. at six different levels, to assess the ability of each enzyme-based test to suppress Aeromonas spp. Analysis of the data indicated that wide variability exists among USEPA approved tests to detect and quantify total coliforms, as well as suppress Aeromonas spp. PMID:17674575

Olstadt, Jeremy; Schauer, James Jay; Standridge, Jon; Kluender, Sharon

2007-06-01

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75 FR 14607 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli  

Science.gov (United States)

...Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli...guidance for industry entitled ``Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli...issued a final rule amending its bottled water regulations to require that...

2010-03-26

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Comparison of Verification Procedures for the Membrane Filter Total Coliform Technique  

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Verification of membrane filter total coliform colonies from drinking water was increased 87% by testing for the presence of ?-galactosidase and cytochrome oxidase, compared with verification by determination of gas production in lauryl tryptose broth. Over 90% of the coliforms verified by testing for ?-galactosidase and cytochrome oxidase were representative of the typical coliform genera.

Lechevallier, Mark W.; Cameron, Susan C.; Mcfeters, Gordon A.

1983-01-01

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Disinfection of total coli-forms in unchlorinated secondary effluent with electron beam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate the disinfection of total coli-forms in the effluent of secondary sewage treatment plant with radiation, electron beam has introduced. Unchlorinated secondary effluent was irradiated at different dose of 0.2-1.0 kGy with 1 MeV, 40kW electron accelerator. It is observed that nearly 100% reduction in E-Coli. and total coli-forms were achieved with a dose of 0.8kGy. Even with the lower dose of 0.2kGy, the E-Coli. and total coli-forms were successfully inactivated to the level of the new guideline for discharged effluent that has been effective from 2003 in Korea. Besides disinfection of total coli-forms, approximately 50% of removal in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) was also observed at a dose of 0.2kGy. More than 20% removal in suspended solids (SS) and turbidity was also observed at a dose of 1.0kGy. The application of electron beam irradiation appeared to be one of the options to reuse effluent from sewage treatment plant as agricultural or industrial water. (author)

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Evaluation of total and thermotolerant coliforms on lettuce self service restaurants in Sinop-MT  

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Full Text Available Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. is the leafy vegetable most consumed in the world and present high content of pro vitamin A in green leaves; it’s rich in calcium and iron and presents reasonable amounts of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and C. When eaten raw in salads they can to transmit pathogens if are inadequately cleaned. This study aimed to evaluate the microbiological quality of lettuce served in self-service restaurants in the city of Sinop – MT, concerning the total and thermotolerant coliforms. The laboratory analysis used was the Most Probable Number method (MPN. All samples were positive for total coliforms, reaching values above 1100 MPN/g, and when analyzed to confirm the presence of coliforms tolerant, all samples were negative. These results allowed observing that the values found for tolerant coliforms are within the standards established by legislation, but the total coliform count indicates poor hygiene lettuce served and consumed

P. C. Perondi

2013-11-01

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Bacteria holding times for fecal coliform by mFC agar method and total coliform and Escherichia coli by Colilert??-18 Quanti-Tray ?? method  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacteria holding-time experiments of up to 62 h were performed on five surface-water samples from four urban stream sites in the vicinity of Atlanta, GA, USA that had relatively high densities of coliform bacteria (Escherichia coli densities were all well above the US Environmental Protection Agency criterion of 126 colonies (100 ml)???-???1 for recreational waters). Holding-time experiments were done for fecal coliform using the membrane filtration modified fecal coliform (mFC) agar method and for total coliform and E. coli using the Colilert??-18 Quanti-Tray ?? method. The precisions of these analytical methods were quantified. Precisions determined for fecal coliform indicated that the upper bound of the ideal range of counts could reasonably be extended upward and would improve precision. For the Colilert??-18 method, analytical precisions were similar to the theoretical precisions for this method. Fecal and total coliform densities did not change significantly with holding times up to about 27 h. Limited information indicated that fecal coliform densities might be stable for holding times of up to 62 h, whereas total coliform densities might not be stable for holding times greater than about 27 h. E. coli densities were stable for holding times of up to 18 h-a shorter period than indicated from a previous studies. These results should be applicable to non-regulatory monitoring sampling designs for similar urban surface-water sample types. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Aulenbach, B. T.

2010-01-01

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Disinfection of total coli-forms in the effluent from municipal wastewater plant with electron beam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

edures EPA Method. After irradiation, the change of characteristics in effluent was measured as BOD and COD, EPA method. The bench scale electron beam irradiation system used in this research is shown. It is observed that nearly 100% of E-Coli. and total coli-forms were inactivated with a dose of 0.8kGy. Even with the lower dose of 0.2kGy, the E-Coli. and total coli-forms were successfully inactivated to the level of the guideline for effluent discharge. Besides disinfection of total coli-forms, approximately 50% of removal in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) was pronounced at a dose of 0.2kGy. More than 20% removal in suspended solids (SS) and turbidity was also observed at a dose of 1.0kGy. Based on the data obtained in the laboratory experiments, the suitable doses are determined as around 0.2 kGy for the flow rate of 100,000m3 effluent per day. Therefore, accelerator with the power of 400kW is applied for economies and compactness of the plant. Cost for high power accelerator is around 2.0?2.5M$ and building, piping, other equipment and construction works could be estimated 1.0?1.5M$. Even by considering the additional cost for tax, insurance and documentation as 0.5M$, the overall cost for plant construction is approximately 4.0?4.5M$. Expected construction period includes 11 months in civil and installation works and 3 months for trial operation. To estimate the operation cost, the electricity consumption is estimated for accelerator with 500kW (80% efficiency) and other equipment in additional 300kW to the total of 800kW. Based on the year round operation (8400hr/yr), it costs 336,000$/yr when the cost of electricity (kWh) was assumed to be 0.05$. The labor cost is calculated 3-shift with one additional operator and is approximately 100,000$/yr. Thus, the actual operation cost for 100,000m3/day plants is 436,000$/yr and if we consider the interest and depreciation of investment, the cost comes up to around 1M$/yr. It is approximately 0.12$/m3 for construction and 0.03$/m3/yr for operation of above re-use plant, and is inexpensive compared to other advanced oxidation techniques such as Ozonation, UV techniques etc

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A new membrane filtration medium for simultaneous detection and enumeration of Escherichia coli and total coliforms.  

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Recovery of total coliforms and Escherichia coli on a new membrane filtration (MF) medium was evaluated with 25 water samples from seven states. Testing of the new medium, m-ColiBlue24 broth, was conducted according to a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency protocol. For comparison, this same protocol was used to measure recovery of total coliforms and E. coli with two standard MF media, m-Endo broth and mTEC broth. E. coli recovery on the new medium was also compared to recovery on nutrient ...

Grant, M. A.

1997-01-01

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ANÁLISIS DE LA CONTAMINACIÓN MICROBIOLÓGICA (COLIFORMES TOTALES Y FECALES) EN LA BAHÍA DE SANTA MARTA, CARIBE COLOMBIANO / Analysis Of The Microbiological Contamination (Total And Fecales Coliforms) In The Bay Of Santa Marta, Colombian Caribbean  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el fin de realizar un análisis del nivel de contaminación microbiológica y de las principales fuentes de contaminación en la Bahía de Santa Marta (BSM), se colectaron muestras de agua para medir las concentraciones de coliformes totales y fecales en 11 estaciones y dos niveles de profundidad (1 [...] y 20 m). Para la época de mayores precipitaciones se encontraron altos valores de coliformes totales y fecales, en los dos niveles de profundidad; presentándose una condición similar para la época seca. Con base a una escala conceptual se obtuvo que la BSM presenta un grado de contaminación medio para actividades de contacto primario (natación y buceo), sin embargo, existen varias fuentes de contaminación (emisario submarino, río, puerto marítimo, entre otras) que están generando un alto impacto sobre este ecosistema. Los altos valores de contaminación que se registran en la BSM se encuentran asociados a la proximidad que tiene esta a las zonas urbanas. Abstract in english With the purpose of making an analysis of the microbiological level of contamination and the main sources of contamination in the Bay of Santa Marta (BSM), water samples were collected to measure the concentrations of total and fecals coliforms in 11 stations and two levels of depth (1 and 20 m). Fo [...] r the time of greater precipitations were stops values of total and fecals coliforms, in both depth levels; appearing a similar condition for the dry time. Based on a conceptual scale it was obtained that the BSM presents an average degree of contamination for activities of primary contact (swimming and diving), nevertheless, exist several sources of contamination (submarine emissary, river, seaport, among others) that are generating a high impact on this ecosystem. The high values of contamination that are registered in the BSM find associate to the proximity that has this to the urban zones.

LINA MARÍA, RAMOS-ORTEGA; LUÍS A, VIDAL; SANDRA, VILARDY; LINA, SAAVEDRA-DÍAZ.

2008-12-01

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Application of a good manufacturing practices checklist and enumeration of total coliform in swine feed mills  

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Full Text Available A cross-sectional study in four swine feed mills aimed to evaluate the correlation between the score of the inspection checklist defined in the Normative Instruction 4 (IN 4/ Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply, and the enumeration of total coliforms throughout the manufacturing process. The most of non-conformities was found in the physical structure of the feed mills. Feed mill B showed the lowest number of unconformities while units A and D had the largest number of nonconformities. In 38.53% (489/1269 of the samples the presence of total coliform was detected, however no significant difference in the bacterial counts was observed between sampling sites and feed mills. The logistic regression pointed higher odds ratio (OR for total coliforms isolation at dosing (OR = 9.51, 95% CI: 4.43 to 20.41, grinding (OR = 7.10, 95% CI = 3.27 to 15.40 and residues (OR = 6.21, 95% CI: 3.88 to 9.95 In spite of having the second score in the checklist inspection, feed mill C presented the highest odds for total coliforms isolation (OR= 2,43, IC 95%: 1,68-3,53. The data indicate no association between the score of checklist and the presence of hygienic indicators in feed mills.

Debora da Cruz Payao Pellegrini

2014-02-01

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Use of Readycult? - LMX for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in milk / Uso do Readycult? para enumeração de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em leite  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O Readycult? - LMX é um método rápido, que permite resultados em 24h para detecção de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli. Indicado para detecção destes microrganismos em água, baseia-se em reações de enzimas específicas dos coliformes com nutrientes-indicadores do meio. O objetivo deste trabalho f [...] oi estudar sua utilização para enumeração de coliformes e E. coli em leite. 125 amostras de leite cru e pasteurizado coletadas na cidade de Londrina, PR, Brasil, foram submetidas à determinação do Número Mais Provável (NMP) de coliformes totais e E. coli pela técnica de tubos múltiplos, utilizando-se simultaneamente o Caldo Lactosado Bile Verde Brilhante (CLBVB) e o Readycult? - LMX. A análise estatística indicou uma correlação entre os resultados obtidos pelos dois métodos de 0,8224 para coliformes totais e de 0,8603 para E. coli. Observou-se que o Readycult? - LMX e o CLBVB deram resultados semelhantes, mas o Readycult? - LMX foi mais fácil de ser utilizado. Além disso, os resultados foram mais rapidamente obtidos (24h). Abstract in english Readycult? - LMX is a rapid method to test for the presence of total coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli in water, giving results in 24h. It is based on reactions of specific microbial enzymes or indicator nutrients of the medium. The goal of this paper was to study the use of Readycult? - LMX to [...] detect total coliform and E. coli in milk. One hundred twenty five samples of pasteurized and raw milk, collected in Londrina, PR, Brazil, were tested simultaneously by the most probable number (MPN) method using Brilliant Green Bile Lactose Broth (2%) (BRILA) and Readycult? - LMX. The Readycult? - LMX test was evaluated for sensitivity, simplicity, and speed of results. There was a significant correlation between the results obtained by the two methods for total coliforms (r: 0.8224) and for E. coli (r: 0.8603). The two methods yielded similar results, but Readycult? - LMX was easier to use. In addition, results were available as early as 24h.

Vanerli, Beloti; Márcia de Aguiar Ferreira, Barros; Maurício Pinto, Nunes; Elsa Helena Walter de, Santana; Luís Augusto, Nero; Juliana Aparecida de, Souza.

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Use of Readycult? - LMX for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in milk / Uso do Readycult? para enumeração de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em leite  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O Readycult? - LMX é um método rápido, que permite resultados em 24h para detecção de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli. Indicado para detecção destes microrganismos em água, baseia-se em reações de enzimas específicas dos coliformes com nutrientes-indicadores do meio. O objetivo deste trabalho f [...] oi estudar sua utilização para enumeração de coliformes e E. coli em leite. 125 amostras de leite cru e pasteurizado coletadas na cidade de Londrina, PR, Brasil, foram submetidas à determinação do Número Mais Provável (NMP) de coliformes totais e E. coli pela técnica de tubos múltiplos, utilizando-se simultaneamente o Caldo Lactosado Bile Verde Brilhante (CLBVB) e o Readycult? - LMX. A análise estatística indicou uma correlação entre os resultados obtidos pelos dois métodos de 0,8224 para coliformes totais e de 0,8603 para E. coli. Observou-se que o Readycult? - LMX e o CLBVB deram resultados semelhantes, mas o Readycult? - LMX foi mais fácil de ser utilizado. Além disso, os resultados foram mais rapidamente obtidos (24h). Abstract in english Readycult? - LMX is a rapid method to test for the presence of total coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli in water, giving results in 24h. It is based on reactions of specific microbial enzymes or indicator nutrients of the medium. The goal of this paper was to study the use of Readycult? - LMX to [...] detect total coliform and E. coli in milk. One hundred twenty five samples of pasteurized and raw milk, collected in Londrina, PR, Brazil, were tested simultaneously by the most probable number (MPN) method using Brilliant Green Bile Lactose Broth (2%) (BRILA) and Readycult? - LMX. The Readycult? - LMX test was evaluated for sensitivity, simplicity, and speed of results. There was a significant correlation between the results obtained by the two methods for total coliforms (r: 0.8224) and for E. coli (r: 0.8603). The two methods yielded similar results, but Readycult? - LMX was easier to use. In addition, results were available as early as 24h.

Vanerli, Beloti; Márcia de Aguiar Ferreira, Barros; Maurício Pinto, Nunes; Elsa Helena Walter de, Santana; Luís Augusto, Nero; Juliana Aparecida de, Souza.

2002-01-01

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Use of Readycult? - LMX for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in milk Uso do Readycult? para enumeração de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em leite  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Readycult? - LMX is a rapid method to test for the presence of total coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli in water, giving results in 24h. It is based on reactions of specific microbial enzymes or indicator nutrients of the medium. The goal of this paper was to study the use of Readycult? - LMX to detect total coliform and E. coli in milk. One hundred twenty five samples of pasteurized and raw milk, collected in Londrina, PR, Brazil, were tested simultaneously by the most probable number (MPN method using Brilliant Green Bile Lactose Broth (2% (BRILA and Readycult? - LMX. The Readycult? - LMX test was evaluated for sensitivity, simplicity, and speed of results. There was a significant correlation between the results obtained by the two methods for total coliforms (r: 0.8224 and for E. coli (r: 0.8603. The two methods yielded similar results, but Readycult? - LMX was easier to use. In addition, results were available as early as 24h.O Readycult? - LMX é um método rápido, que permite resultados em 24h para detecção de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli. Indicado para detecção destes microrganismos em água, baseia-se em reações de enzimas específicas dos coliformes com nutrientes-indicadores do meio. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar sua utilização para enumeração de coliformes e E. coli em leite. 125 amostras de leite cru e pasteurizado coletadas na cidade de Londrina, PR, Brasil, foram submetidas à determinação do Número Mais Provável (NMP de coliformes totais e E. coli pela técnica de tubos múltiplos, utilizando-se simultaneamente o Caldo Lactosado Bile Verde Brilhante (CLBVB e o Readycult? - LMX. A análise estatística indicou uma correlação entre os resultados obtidos pelos dois métodos de 0,8224 para coliformes totais e de 0,8603 para E. coli. Observou-se que o Readycult? - LMX e o CLBVB deram resultados semelhantes, mas o Readycult? - LMX foi mais fácil de ser utilizado. Além disso, os resultados foram mais rapidamente obtidos (24h.

Vanerli Beloti

2002-01-01

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New Medium for the Simultaneous Detection of Total Coliforms and Escherichia coli in Water  

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A new membrane filter agar medium (MI agar) containing a chromogen, indoxyl-beta-D-glucuronide, and a fluorogen, 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside, was developed to simultaneously detect and enumerate Escherichia coli and total coliforms (TC) in water samples on the basis of their enzyme activities. TC produced beta-galactosidase, which cleaved 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside to form 4-methylumbelliferone, a compound that fluoresced under longwave UV light (366 nm), ...

Brenner, K. P.; Rankin, C. C.; Roybal, Y. R.; Stelma, G. N.; Scarpino, P. V.; Dufour, A. P.

1993-01-01

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Comparison of media for recovery of total coliform bacteria from chemically treated water.  

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Five broth media and two solid media were compared for their ability to quantitatively recover total coliform bacteria from chemically treated water. M-Endo LES and mT7 media were used in the membrane filter technique. Lauryl tryptose broth, lactose broth, presence-absence broth, lactose broth with twice the amount of lactose, and lauryl tryptose broth with twice the amount of sodium lauryl sulfate were used in the fermentation tube procedure. The differences in recovery were not significant ...

Rice, E. W.; Fox, K. R.; Nash, H. D.; Read, E. J.; Smith, A. P.

1987-01-01

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Endotoxin, Coliform, and Dust Levels in Various Types of Rodent Bedding  

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Endotoxins in grain dust, household dust, and animal bedding may induce respiratory symptoms in rodents and humans. We assayed the endotoxin, coliform, and dust levels in 20 types of rodent bedding. Endotoxin concentrations were measured by using a commercial test kit, coliform counts were determined by using conventional microbiologic procedures, and dust content was evaluated by using a rotating–tapping shaker. Paper bedding types contained significantly less endotoxin than did other bedd...

Whiteside, Tanya E.; Thigpen, Julius E.; Kissling, Grace E.; Grant, Mary G.; Forsythe, Diane B.

2010-01-01

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New medium for the simultaneous detection of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in water.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new membrane filter agar medium (MI agar) containing a chromogen, indoxyl-beta-D-glucuronide, and a fluorogen, 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside, was developed to simultaneously detect and enumerate Escherichia coli and total coliforms (TC) in water samples on the basis of their enzyme activities. TC produced beta-galactosidase, which cleaved 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside to form 4-methylumbelliferone, a compound that fluoresced under longwave UV light (366 nm), while E. coli produced beta-glucuronidase, which cleaved indoxyl-beta-D-glucuronide to form a blue color. The new medium TC and E. coli recoveries were compared with those of mEndo agar and two E. coli media, mTEC agar and nutrient agar supplemented with 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide, using natural water samples and spiked drinking water samples. On average, the new medium recovered 1.8 times as many TC as mEndo agar, with greatly reduced background counts (< or = 7%). These differences were statistically significant (significance level, 0.05). Although the overall analysis revealed no statistically significant difference between the E. coli recoveries on MI agar and mTEC agar, the new medium recovered more E. coli in 16 of 23 samples (69.6%). Both MI agar and mTEC agar recovered significantly more E. coli than nutrient agar supplemented with 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide. Specificities for E. coli, TC, and noncoliforms on MI agar were 95.7% (66 of 69 samples), 93.1% (161 of 173 samples), and 93.8% (61 of 65 samples), respectively. The E. coli false-positive and false-negative rates were both 4.3%. This selective and specific medium, which employs familiar membrane filter technology [corrected] to analyze several types of water samples, is less expensive than the liquid chromogen and fluorogen media and may be useful for compliance monitoring of drinking water. PMID:8285660

Brenner, K P; Rankin, C C; Roybal, Y R; Stelma, G N; Scarpino, P V; Dufour, A P

1993-11-01

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Comparative performance of Colisure (TM) and accepted methods in the detection of chlorine-injured total coliforms and E.coli.  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies were done to examine the comparability of Colisure (TM) and accepted reference methods to detect low numbers of total coliform bacteria and E.coli subjected to chlorine stress. Colisure (TM) is a medium designed to concurrently detect coliform bacteria and E.coli in drinking water by the specific action of beta-galactosidase (total coliforms) and beta-glucuronidase (E.coli). The methods used to compare the performance of various media followed a protocol established by the USEPA. Samples (31) of sewage from six different regions of the US were treated with sufficient concentrations of chlorine (1.2-2.5mg/l) to reduce viability 1-3 logs (39% average injury) and diluted with drinking water to achieve ca. 3 viable coliforms/100ml. The mean log reductions in viable bacteria, determined with various media following disinfection of the 31 samples were: mEndo = 1.87 (TC), Colisure (TM) = 1.55 (TC), mTec = 3.63 (E.coli) and Colisure (TM) = 2.01 (E.coli). When Colisure (TM) was compared with accepted methods to detect total coliforms in the dilute, disinfected samples, Colisure (TM) yielded results that were 1.6 times greater than LTB confirmed in BGLB at 28h. Colisure (TM) also detected 1.7 times greater levels of E.coli than LTB confirmed in EC/MUG at 28h. Sensitivity and specificity of Colisure (TM) were between 96 and 100% when positive and negative tests were verified. These findings indicate that Colisure (TM) is superior to certain accepted reference methods in the detection of chlorine-injured coliforms and E.coli under conditions that resemble contaminated drinking water. PMID:11539133

McFeters, G A; Broadaway, S C; Pyle, B H; Pickett, M; Egozy, Y

1995-01-01

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Chlorine disinfection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, total coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis: revisiting reclaimed water regulations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pathogenic organisms can be transmitted orally through drinking water or through skin and mucosae by both direct and indirect contact, and their presence in water thus has a negative impact on public health. In wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), water is disinfected to inactivate pathogens. The quantification of several microbial indicators in aquatic systems is required to estimate the biological quality of such systems. So far, coliform bacteria have been used as traditional indicators world-wide. This study has assessed the resistance of total coliforms, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis to three dosages of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) at two exposure times. The bacteria were isolated from secondary effluents of a WWTP located in Hidalgo, Mexico. The results show that the number of colony-forming units of all studied bacterial types decreased when both the NaClO concentration and exposure times increased. However, they were not eliminated. The inclusion of the species Pseudomonas aeruginosa in regulations for treated wastewater quality as a new indicator is highly recommended due to its importance as an opportunistic pathogen. The detection of this species along with the traditional organisms could be particulary significant for reclaimed water to be used with direct human contact. PMID:22156117

Coronel-Olivares, Claudia; Reyes-Gómez, Lidia María; Hernández-Muñoz, Aurelio; Martínez-Falcón, Ana Paola; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Gabriela A; Iturbe, Ulises

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Suitability of total coliform ?-D-galactosidase activity and CFU counts in monitoring faecal contamination of environmental water samples  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Total coliforms are a group of bacteria found in high numbers in mammalian intestines; hence their presence in water indicates the possible contamination with faecal material. Total and faecal coliform counts were monitored over a period of 18 months using mFC, m-Endo and CM1046 media together with [...] enzymatic assays on 215 environmental water samples obtained from the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. A positive correlation, with an R² value of 0.9393 was observed between faecal and total coliform colony units employing mFc and m-Endo media, and 0.8818 using CM1046 media. Also, a positive correlation was observed between Escherichia coli colony-forming units and ?-d-galactosidase (B-GAL) activity (R²=0.8542). Overall, this study indicated that faecal contamination of environmental water samples could be monitored by measuring total coliform ?-galactosidase activity and total coliform colony-forming units.

VC, Wutor; CA, Togo; BI, Pletschke.

2009-01-01

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Determinación de microorganismos indicadores de calidad sanitaria. Coliformes totales, coliformes fecales y aerobios mesófilos en agua potable envasada y distribuida en San Diego, estado Carabobo, Venezuela. / Determination of sanitary quality index microorganisms. Total coliforms, fecal coliforms and aerobic mesophiles in drinking water bottle and distributed in San Diego, Carabobo state, Venezuela.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El consumo de agua potable envasada contaminada con microorganismos patógenos puede ocasionar enfermedades de origen entérico. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar y comparar, mediante dos métodos de análisis, la presencia de microorganismos indicadores de calidad sanitaria, tales como colifor [...] mes totales, coliformes fecales y aerobios mesófilos, en dos marcas comerciales de agua potable, distribuidas en San Diego, estado Carabobo, Venezuela. Para ello se recolectaron 30 muestras de agua potable en presentación de bidones de 20 litros de capacidad, divididas en 15 muestras marca A y 15 marca B. Para la identificación microbiológica se emplearon el método rápido Petrifilm y el método tradicional de siembra en profundidad según las especificaciones del Método Estándar para el Análisis de Aguas Potables y las normas nacionales COVENIN. Los resultados obtenidos no mostraron diferencias significativas para el recuento microbiológico de coliformes totales y de aerobios mesófilos, por el método tradicional de siembra en profundidad y el método rápido de siembra en placas Petrifilm (r = 0,9), para las marcas de agua A y B (p = 0,5). Tres muestras (13%) presentaron recuentos menores de 10 µfc/ml para coliformes totales para la marca de agua A, y siete (47%) para la marca B. Ninguna muestra presentó coliformes fecales. En conclusión, ambos métodos siguen siendo de elección para el análisis de agua potable envasada, y aunque el método de Petrifilm presente ciertas ventajas con respecto al método tradicional de siembra en profundidad, este último sigue siendo el más utilizado en la mayoría de los laboratorios de análisis microbiológicos. Ambas marcas de agua potable presentaron recuentos microbiológicos fuera de especificaciones, según las recomendaciones de las normas respectivas, por lo que su consumo puede representar un riesgo para la salud del consumidor. Abstract in english The consumption of polluted drinking water bottles with pathogen microorganisms, can cause enteric origin illnesses. The aim of this work was to determine and to compare, by two analysis methods, the presence of sanitary quality index microorganisms, such as total coliforms, fecal coliforms and aero [...] bic mesophiles, in two registered trade-marks of drinking water, distributed in San Diego, Carabobo State, Venezuela. Thirty samples of drinking water were gathered in 20 liters capacity drums presentation, divided in 15 samples brand A and 15 samples brand B respectively. For the microbiological identification, we used the Petrifilm quick test and the traditional method of depth seeding, according to the Standard Methods for the Analysis of Waters specifications and the COVENIN national norms. For the microbiological recount of total coliforms and aerobic mesophiles, the results did not show significant differences for the traditional method of depth seeding and the Petrifilm plates quick test seeding (r = 0,9), for the water brands A and B (p= 0,5). Three samples (13%) presented smaller recounts than 10 UFC/ml for total coliforms for water brand A, and seven (47%) for brand B. No sample presented fecal coliforms. In conclusion, both methods keep on being election for the analysis of bottle drinking water bottle, and although Petrifilm test presents certain advantages regarding the traditional method of depth seeding, this last one continues being the more used method of analysis in most of microbiological laboratories. Both registered trade-marks of drinking water presented microorganisms recounts outside of specifications, according to the recommendations of the respective norms, therefore, their consumption can represent a risk for the consumer’s health.

J, Silva; L, Ramírez; A, Alfieri; G, Rivas; M, Sánchez.

2004-01-01

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Effects of repeated-low level sodium chlorate administration on ruminal and fecal coliforms in sheep.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral sodium chlorate administration on reducing total coliform populations in ewes. A 30% sodium chlorate product or a sodium chloride placebo was administered to twelve lactating Dorper X Blackbelly or Pelibuey crossbred ewes averaging 65 kg body weight. The ewes were adapted to diet and management. Ewes were randomly assigned (4/treatment) to one of three treatments which were administered twice daily by oral gavage for five consecutive days: a control (TC) consisting of 3 g sodium chloride/animal/d, a T3 treatment consisting of 1.8 g of sodium chlorate/animal/d, and a T9 treatment consisting of 5.4 g sodium chlorate/animal/d; the latter was intended to approximate a lowest known effective dose. Ruminal samples collected by stomach tube and freshly voided fecal samples were collected daily beginning 3 days before treatment initiation and for 6 days thereafter. Contents were cultured quantitatively to enumerate total coliforms. There were no significant differences in total coliform numbers (log10 cfu/g) in the feces between treatments (P = 0.832). There were differences (P < 0.02) in ruminal coliform counts (log10 cfu/mL) between treatments (4.1, 4.3 and 5.0 log10/mL contents in TC, T3 and T9 Treatments, respectively) which tended to increase from the beginning of treatment until the 5th day of treatment (P < 0.05). Overall, we did not obtain the expected results with oral administration of sodium chloride at the applied doses. By comparing the trends in coliform populations in the rumen contents in all treatments, there was an increase over the days. The opposite trend occurred in the feces, due mainly to differences among rumen contents and feces in ewes administered the T9 treatment (P = 0.06). These results suggest that the low chlorate doses used here were suboptimal for the control of coliforms in the gastrointestinal tract of ewes. PMID:25310812

Arzola, Claudio; Copado, Ramon; Epps, Sharon V R P; Rodriguez-Almeida, Felipe; Ruiz-Barrera, Oscar; Rodriguez-Muela, Carlos; Corral-Luna, Agustin; Castillo-Castillo, Yamicela; Diaz-Plascencia, Daniel

2014-12-01

24

75 FR 18205 - Total Coliform Rule Revisions-Notice of Stakeholder Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

...Coliform Rule Revisions--Notice of Stakeholder Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection...of the Committee is that EPA conduct stakeholder outreach as the Agency develops the...Collection Partnership; opportunities for stakeholders to provide feedback on assessment...

2010-04-09

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75 FR 53267 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule; Extension of...  

Science.gov (United States)

...information, contact the Safe Drinking Water Hotline, Telephone...indication of coliform contamination in the distribution system...incentives for improved water system operation. See...Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water. [FR Doc....

2010-08-31

26

Study on the Total Coliforms Count and Coli Titter in the Waters of Kardzhali Reservoir, Bulgaria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine TC (total coliforms and coli titter from two sampling stations in the aquatory of Kardzhali Dam Lake and one station in River Arda, in August, 2011. The values of the TC index in the reservoir vary from 1900±674 cfu/100ml in station I, to 1293±194 cfu/100ml in station II, while the TC value of River Arda reaches 1698±134 cfu/100ml. In Reservoir Kardzhali, the smallest volume of water in which Escherichia coli cells were found, varies between 5 and 15 ml, while for the River Arda the value of coli titter is equal to 1. With highest percentage, regarding the presence of microbiological species in the reservoir waters, is the genus Klebsiella (70%, followed by Citrobacter (15%, Enterobacter (10% and Serratia (5%, respectively represented by the species Klebsiella oxytoca, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae and Serattia marcescens. In the river Arda two genuses were found - Serratia (50% and Salmonella (50%.

Oliver Y. Todorov

2012-12-01

27

Total Coliforms and Turbidity Removal of Water in the Continuous Sand Filter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The continuous filter is a kind of sand filter, which will operate without any interruptions for backwashing and also it accepts high-suspended solid levels in feed stream. Fouled sand is continuously removed from the filter bed, washed and recycled back without interruption with filtration process. Various samples of water with certain amounts of turbidity enter through a feed pipe and being distributed to the filter. A central column runs from top to bottom of the filter. The water is led through an outer tube in the column by a set of radial, distributor arms. The polluted water flows up ward through the sand bed. The water emerges; clean, in the top section of the tank, and eventually spills over a weir, and then inters into a discharge pipe. In this research, the continuous sand filter was studied to determine its disinfection efficiency in addition to turbidity removal. The results showed that the filtered water had a high quality and the turbidity reduction was 95.5 %. Inspecting the work of the filter had revealed that the removal rates of coliforms and microbial colonies were 99.67 % and 98.99 % respectively. On the other hand, by the use of direct filtration, turbidity reduction was over 97 %. In direct filtration, drinking water with less than 1 NTU turbidity was provided. This continuous sand filter has the advantage of stable operation and more energy saving as compared to the conventional ones.

AH Mahvi

2003-09-01

28

Endotoxin, coliform, and dust levels in various types of rodent bedding.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endotoxins in grain dust, household dust, and animal bedding may induce respiratory symptoms in rodents and humans. We assayed the endotoxin, coliform, and dust levels in 20 types of rodent bedding. Endotoxin concentrations were measured by using a commercial test kit, coliform counts were determined by using conventional microbiologic procedures, and dust content was evaluated by using a rotating-tapping shaker. Paper bedding types contained significantly less endotoxin than did other bedding types; the highest levels of endotoxin were detected in hardwood and corncob beddings. The range of endotoxin content for each bedding type was: corncob bedding, 1913 to 4504 endotoxin units per gram (EU/g); hardwood bedding, 3121 to 5401 EU/g; corncob-paper mixed bedding, 1586 to 2416 EU/g; and paper bedding, less than 5 to 105 EU/g. Coliform counts varied from less than 10 to 7591 cfu/g in corncob beddings, 90 to 4010 cfu/g in corncob-paper mixed beddings, less than 10 to 137 cfu/g in hardwood beddings, and less than 10 cfu/g in paper beddings. Average dust content was less than 0.15% in all commercial bedding types. We conclude that paper bedding is the optimal bedding type for conducting LPS inhalation studies and that rodent bedding containing high levels of endotoxin may alter the results of respiratory and immunologic studies in rodents. PMID:20353693

Whiteside, Tanya E; Thigpen, Julius E; Kissling, Grace E; Grant, Mary G; Forsythe, Diane

2010-03-01

29

Inactivation and injury of total coliform bacteria after primary disinfection of drinking water by TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study the potential application of TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis as primary disinfection system of drinking water was investigated in terms of coliform bacteria inactivation and injury. As model water the effluent of biological denitrification unit for nitrate removal from groundwater, which is characterized by high organic matter and bacteria release, was used. The injury of photocatalysis on coliform bacteria was characterized by means of selective (mEndo) and less selective (mT7) culture media. Different catalyst loadings as well as photolysis and adsorption effects were investigated. Photocatalysis was effective in coliform bacteria inactivation (91-99% after 60 min irradiation time, depending on both catalyst loading and initial density of coliform bacteria detected by mEndo), although no total removal was observed after 60 min irradiation time. The contribution of adsorption mechanism was significant (60-98% after 60 min, depending on catalyst loading) compared to previous investigations probably due to the nature of source water rich in particulate organic matter and biofilm. Photocatalysis process did not result in any irreversible injury (98.8% being the higher injury) under investigated conditions, thus a bacteria regrowth may take place under optimum environment conditions if any final disinfection process (e.g., chlorine or chlorine dioxide) is not used.

Rizzo, Luigi, E-mail: l.rizzo@unisa.it [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano (Italy)

2009-06-15

30

Inactivation and injury of total coliform bacteria after primary disinfection of drinking water by TiO2 photocatalysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study the potential application of TiO2 photocatalysis as primary disinfection system of drinking water was investigated in terms of coliform bacteria inactivation and injury. As model water the effluent of biological denitrification unit for nitrate removal from groundwater, which is characterized by high organic matter and bacteria release, was used. The injury of photocatalysis on coliform bacteria was characterized by means of selective (mEndo) and less selective (mT7) culture media. Different catalyst loadings as well as photolysis and adsorption effects were investigated. Photocatalysis was effective in coliform bacteria inactivation (91-99% after 60 min irradiation time, depending on both catalyst loading and initial density of coliform bacteria detected by mEndo), although no total removal was observed after 60 min irradiation time. The contribution of adsorption mechanism was significant (60-98% after 60 min, depending on catalyst loading) compared to previous investigations probably due to the nature of source water rich in particulate organic matter and biofilm. Photocatalysis process did not result in any irreversible injury (98.8% being the higher injury) under investigated conditions, thus a bacteria regrowth may take place under optimum environment conditions if any final disinfection process (e.g., chlorine or chlorine dioxide) is not used.

31

Inactivation and injury of total coliform bacteria after primary disinfection of drinking water by TiO2 photocatalysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study the potential application of TiO(2) photocatalysis as primary disinfection system of drinking water was investigated in terms of coliform bacteria inactivation and injury. As model water the effluent of biological denitrification unit for nitrate removal from groundwater, which is characterized by high organic matter and bacteria release, was used. The injury of photocatalysis on coliform bacteria was characterized by means of selective (mEndo) and less selective (mT7) culture media. Different catalyst loadings as well as photolysis and adsorption effects were investigated. Photocatalysis was effective in coliform bacteria inactivation (91-99% after 60 min irradiation time, depending on both catalyst loading and initial density of coliform bacteria detected by mEndo), although no total removal was observed after 60 min irradiation time. The contribution of adsorption mechanism was significant (60-98% after 60 min, depending on catalyst loading) compared to previous investigations probably due to the nature of source water rich in particulate organic matter and biofilm. Photocatalysis process did not result in any irreversible injury (98.8% being the higher injury) under investigated conditions, thus a bacteria regrowth may take place under optimum environment conditions if any final disinfection process (e.g., chlorine or chlorine dioxide) is not used. PMID:18990490

Rizzo, Luigi

2009-06-15

32

COMPARISON OF THE RECOVERIES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AND TOTAL COLIFORMS FROM DRINKING WATER BY THE MI AGAR METHOD AND THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY-APPROVED MEMBRANE FILTER METHOD  

Science.gov (United States)

Drinking water regulations under the Final Coliform Rule require that total coliform-positive drinking water samples be examined for the presence of Escherichia coli or fecal coliforms. The current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-approved membrane filter (MF) method for E. c...

33

LISTERIA SPP., COLIFORMES TOTAIS E FECAIS E E.COLI NO LEITE CRU E PASTEURIZADO DE UMA INDÚSTRIA DE LATICÍNIOS, NO ESTADO DA PARAÍBA (BRASIL) / LISTERIA SPP., TOTAL COLIFORM, FECAL COLIFORM AND E.COLI ON RAW AND PASTEURIZED MILK ON A DAIRY INDUSTRY, (PARAÍBA, BRAZIL)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Investigou-se a qualidade microbiológica do leite in natura e na linha de produção (leite recém-pasteurizado e leite ensacado), de uma usina de beneficiamento em Campina Grande-PB. Foi pesquisada a presença de Listeria spp. e sua diversidade de espécies, os níveis de coliformes totais (CT), coliform [...] es fecais (CF) e Escherichia coli. Analisou-se um total de 75 amostras de leite, sendo 45 de leite cru, 15 de leite recém-pasteurizado e 15 de leite ensacado. Os resultados foram reunidos em dois grupos segundo o período de monitoramento: antes e após mudanças no processo de higienização da usina. Foi evidenciada elevada contaminação nas amostras de leite cru nas duas épocas. Na primeira (março-abril/1998), todas as amostras de leite beneficiado estiveram fora dos padrões da legislação vigente para CT e CF; na segunda (maio-agosto/1998), houve acentuada redução dos níveis destas bactérias indicadoras, porém as melhorias na higienização não foram suficientes para solucionar este problema, visto que 11,1% das amostras recém-pasteurizadas estavam fora dos padrões para CT e 33,3% para CF. Das amostras ensacadas, 22,2% estavam fora dos padrões para CT e 44,4% para CF. Comparando-se os resultados de CT, CF, e E.coli nas amostras de leite recém-pasteurizado e não ensacado com as amostras de leite ensacado, foi verificado que as amostras após serem pasteurizadas e ensacadas apresentaram valores de CT e CF levemente mais elevados, sugerindo contaminação durante o processo de ensacamento ou falhas na armazenagem. Observou-se que 33 (73,3%) das amostras de leite cru e 9 (30%) das de leite pasteurizado estavam contaminadas com Listeria spp., sendo identificadas L. monocytogenes em 17 (51,5%) amostras de leite cru e em 9 (100%) de leite beneficiado (4 recém-pasteurizadas e 5 ensacadas). Em relação à diversidade de espécies, nas amostras de leite cru foram encontradas: L. monocytogenes (66,6%), L. innocua (25,3%), L. ivanovii (3,9%), L. welshimeri (2,5%) e L. grayi (1,5%). Nas amostras de leite pasteurizado isolaram-se: L. monocyogenes e L. innocua. O conjunto dos resultados evidenciou deficiências higiênico-sanitárias no leite in natura e ao longo do processo de produção, resultando em porcentagens elevadas de amostras que ultrapassaram os valores padrões de CT e CF além de apresentarem-se contaminadas por Listeria spp., com predominância de L. monocytogenes, sugerindo a existência de uma relação direta entre os altos índices de coliformes e a presença de Listeria spp. Abstract in english The microbiological quality of raw and pasteurized milk was studied along its line production in a dairy factory in Paraíba State, Brazil. Listeria monocytogenes was frequent found in raw milk and the levels of total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC) and Escherichia coli, were high in the same sa [...] mples. The results of 75 milk studied samples (45 raw milk, 15 recently pasteurized and 15 sacked), were distributed in two clusters, according its collected period (before and after changes in factory's hygienic process). Both raw samples groups showed high contamination. In the first period (March-April/1998), all the pasteurized milk were out of total and fecal coliforms standards. During the second period (May-August/1998), there was a significant reduction of coliforms levels, however the progress in hygienic conditions were not enough for eliminate the contamination: 11.1% of recent pasteurized milk samples and 22.2% of sacked milk samples were out of TC and also 33.3% and 44.4% recent pasteurized and sacked milk samples. Sacked milk presented more TC and FC than recent pasteurized milk, suggesting contamination after pasteurization or failure at storage. Listeria spp. was found in 33 raw milk samples (73.3%) and in 9 (30%) of pasteurized milk samples. L. monocytogenes was isolated in 17 (51.5%) raw milk samples and in 9 (100%) pasteurized milk samples (4 recent-pasteurized and 5 sacked). The Listeria spp. di

Raïssa Mayer Ramalho, CATÃO; Beatriz Susana Ovruski de, CEBALLOS.

34

40 CFR 141.803 - Coliform sampling.  

Science.gov (United States)

...coliform sample results —(1) Negative routine coliform sample results...results are total coliform-negative, then the air carrier must...coliform-positive and E. coli -negative result, then the air carrier...of an E. coli -positive event resulting from: (1)...

2010-07-01

35

Coliformes totales, fecales y algunas enterobacterias, Sthaphylococcus sp. y hongos en ensaladas para perro calientes expendidas en la ciudad de Maracay, Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las comidas rápidas que se expenden en las calles, poseen fuerte potencialidad para la transmisión de enfermedades gastrointestinales debido a que son alimentos extensamente manipulados. De estos alimentos los vegetales representan un sustrato adecuado para la proliferación de gérmenes patógenos. Se [...] determinó la presencia de Coliformes totales, Coliformes fecales, otras Enterobacterias y Staphylococcus sp. y Hongos en las muestras de ensaladas crudas para perros calientes expendidas en el centro de la ciudad de Maracay, Venezuela. Se empleó la técnica del Número Más Probable para cuantificar los Coliformes y Staphylococcus sp. Posteriormente se identificaron parcialmente las cepas de Coliformes y de Staphylococcus sp aisladas. También se cuantificó la presencia de Hongos en dichas ensaladas. Se les determinó el pH y la acidez y su relación con el crecimiento microbiano. El resultado para Coliformes totales fue 1,44 x 10(5) NMP/g; Coliformes fecales 4,57 x 10(4) NMP/g; no se detectó E. coli en las muestras analizadas, sin embargo de 87 cepas aisladas se determinó la presencia de Citrobacter freunndi Variedad I (45,09% de las cepas aisladas), Citrobacter freundii Variedad II (21,57%), Enterobacter aerogenes Variedad I (17,65%) y Enterobacter aerogenes Variedad II (15,69%); Staphylococcus sp. 3,93 x 10(6) NMP/g. Las 52 cepas de presuntos Staphylococcus sp. resultaron coagulasa negativa; Hongos 4,5 x 10(4) UFC/g, Penicillium sp., Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp. fueron identificadas parcialmente. Las ensaladas crudas presentaban un pH y una acidez de 5,92 y 0,78 ml NaOH respectivamente Abstract in english Total and fecal coliforms, some enterobacteria, Staphylococcus sp. and moulds in salads for hot dogs sold in Maracay city, Venezuela. Fast food sold on the streets are good vehicule to transmit gastrointestind diseases to consumers because they are highly manipulated. The vegetables are a good media [...] for pathogens growth. Raw vegetables salads for hotdog sold in Maracay city were studied. Total and fecal Coliforms and Staphylococcus sp. were cuantified by the Most Probable Number Technique. Coliforms and Staphylococcus isolated were partially identified. Also the mould population was cuantified and identified. Microbial growth was correlated with pH and acidity measurements. MPN/g of Total Coliforms was 1,44 x 10(5) and 4,57 x 10(4) for fecal Coliforms. E. coli was no detected. 87 isolated from the Coliforms were partilly identified as Citrobacter freundii variety I (45,09% of the isolated), C. freundii variety II (21,57%), Enterobacter aerogenes variety I ( 17,65%) and E. aerogenes variety II (15,69%); Staphylococcus sp. 3,93 x 10(6) MPN/g and all of its isolated (52) were coagulase negative. The mould population was 4,5 x 10(4) ufc/g, Penicillium sp., Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp. were partially identified. The salads presented a pH of 5,92 and an acidity of 0,78 ml of NaOH

Laura, Acevedo; Clever, Mendoza; Rafael, Oyón.

2001-12-01

36

Comparison of the recoveries of Escherichia coli and total coliforms from drinking water by the MI agar method and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-approved membrane filter method.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Drinking water regulations under the Final Coliform Rule require that total coliform-positive drinking water samples be examined for the presence of Escherichia coli or fecal coliforms. The current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-approved membrane filter (MF) method for E. coli requires two media, an MF transfer, and a total incubation time of 28 h. A newly developed MF method, the MI agar method, containing indoxyl-beta-D-glucuronide and 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside for...

Brenner, K. P.; Rankin, C. C.; Sivaganesan, M.; Scarpino, P. V.

1996-01-01

37

COMPARISON OF MEMBRANE FILTER, MULTIPLE-FERMENTATION-TUBE, AND PRESENCE-ABSENCE TECHNIQUES FOR DETECTING TOTAL COLIFORMS IN SMALL COMMUNITY WATER SYSTEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

Methods for detecting total coliform bacteria in drinking water were compared using 1483 different drinking water samples from 15 small community water systems in Vermont and New Hampshire. The methods included the membrane filter (MF) technique, a ten tube fermentation tube tech...

38

Disinfection of waterborne coliform bacteria using Luffa cylindrica fruit and seed extracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the potential of extracts of the plant Luffa cylindrica to act as disinfectants of drinking water. Aqueous extracts of the seeds and fruit of L. cylindrica were tested against total and faecal coliform bacteria in surface water by varying the extract doses and contact times. Inactivation of both faecal coliforms and total coliforms was highly variable and dose-dependent. The maximum coliform inactivation achieved in any trial was 86%. Fruit extracts were more successful at inactivating total coliforms than faecal coliforms. Seed extracts achieved higher coliform inactivation levels than fruit extracts generally. Overall, the antimicrobial potential of seeds and fruit from L. cylindrica was demonstrated; however the disinfection performance was less than would be required for these extracts to be considered reliable disinfectants for drinking water treatment. PMID:20088208

Shaheed, Ameer; Templeton, Michael R; Matthews, Robert L; Tripathi, Sabitri K; Bhattarai, Kiran

2009-12-01

39

Total Coliforms and Turbidity Removal of Water in the Continuous Sand Filter  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The continuous filter is a kind of sand filter, which will operate without any interruptions for backwashing and also it accepts high-suspended solid levels in feed stream. Fouled sand is continuously removed from the filter bed, washed and recycled back without interruption with filtration process. Various samples of water with certain amounts of turbidity enter through a feed pipe and being distributed to the filter. A central column runs from top to bottom of the filter. The water is led t...

Ah, Mahvi; Sheikhi, R.; Naddafi, K.

2003-01-01

40

40 CFR 141.21 - Coliform sampling.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Accordingly, the system must notify the...Analytical methodology. (1) The...total coliform analysis, regardless...Public water systems need only determine...Public water systems must conduct total coliform analyses in accordance... Organism Methodology 12...

2010-07-01

 
 
 
 
41

40 CFR 141.21 - Coliform sampling.  

Science.gov (United States)

... (3) Public water systems must conduct total coliform analyses in accordance... (5) Public water systems must conduct fecal coliform analysis in accordance... (6) Public water systems must conduct analysis of...

2010-07-01

42

40 CFR 141.21 - Coliform sampling.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Product as a Test for Detection and Identification of Coliforms...of 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG...of 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG...Method for the Simultaneous Detection of Total Coliforms and...

2010-07-01

43

Evaluation of the efficiency of the application of uv for microbial inactivation (total coliforms and escherichia coli in a wastewater treatment plant (Sucuri In Cuiabá/MT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate a UV disinfection system process, in real scale, in Sucuri WWTP, Cuiabá/MT/Brazil, for total coliforms and Escherichia coli. The effluent came from anaerobium treatment (UASB, followed by aerobium treatment (ASBF. The system’s performance was evaluated from July to November, 2008. The experiments followed physical-chemical analysis to evaluate the influence of pH and Total Suspended Solids (TSS parameters in the UV efficiency, beyond total phosphorous, to verify the foam formation observed in UASB reactor and after disinfection. The results for this research suggested deficiencies in inactivation process for coliforms: it was one logarithm unit of removal for each. The pH parameter was in the average of 7,5. About TSS, the system presented 52% of removal efficiency, which is one of the factors that causes the system deficiencies. About the variable total phosphorous, it was observed that there was none removal of the parameter. Although it’s been reported that the limitant effect of the low quality of the sewage in the UV’s performance, in practice, even under unfavorable TSS conditions, the results showed the viability about using this method in real treatment systems. Keywords: UV desinfection; UASB reactor; domestic effluent.

Thais dos Santos Borges

2009-12-01

44

40 CFR 141.21 - Coliform sampling.  

Science.gov (United States)

...affiliate of Merck KGgA, Darmstadt Germany), 480 S. Democrat Road...affiliate of Merck KGgA, Darmstadt Germany), 480 S. Democrat Road...the total coliform-positive culture by one of the following...a total coliform-positive culture to EC medium supplemented...

2010-07-01

45

Presencia de entamoeba histolytica, ascaris lumbricoides y coliformes totales en ensaladas para perrocalientes, expendidas en el centro de la ciudad de Maracay, Mayo-Junio de 2002. / Entamoeba histolytica, ascaris lumbricoides and total coliforms in salads for hotdog sold in Maracay city’s downtown  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Muchas enfermedades de transmisión alimentaria, cuya etiología incluye bacterias, virus, hongos, parásitos, productos químicos y toxinas, se registran actualmente. En el estado Aragua, Venezuela, las parasitosis son un problema de Salud Pública, siendo la más importante la amebiasis producida por En [...] tamoeba histolytica. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la presencia de parásitos intestinales (Entamoeba histolytica y Ascaris lumbricoides) y coliformes totales en ensaladas para perrocalientes expendidas en el centro de la ciudad de Maracay, estado Aragua. Se realizaron análisis físico-químicos (pH, acidez) y microbiológicos. Se obtuvo una media de pH de 5,41 y para la acidez de 0,47 ml de NaOH 0,1 N. El 20% de las muestras estaban contaminadas con parásitos intestinales, en las cuales el 19,51% presentaron quistes de protozoarios, el 0,39% huevos de helmintos y una media de medias de 2,05 x 10(6) NMP/g. de coliformes totales. No existió diferencia significativa entre las muestras analizadas para los parámetros estudiados. Existió correlación lineal entre el pH y los quistes de Entamoeba histolytica. Abstract in english Many illnesses of food transmission reported at the moment have it etiological agent in bacterias, virus, moulds, parasites, chemical products and toxins. In Aragua state, Venezuela the parasitosis is a problem of Public Health, being the most important the Amibiasis by Entamoeba histolytica. The ob [...] jective of the investigation was to determine the presence of intestinal parasites (Entamoeba histolytica and Ascaris lumbricoides) and total coliforms in salads for hot dogs expended in downtown of Maracay, Aragua. and microbiological and physical-chemical analysis (pH, Acidity) carried out. A mean of pH of 5,41 was obtained and an acidity of 0,47 ml of NaOH 0,1 N. 20% of the samples were polluted with intestinal parasites, where 19,51% presented cysts of protozoa, 0,39% helminthic eggs and a mean of mean of 2,05 x 10(6) NMP/g of total coliforms. Significant difference didn’t exist among the samples analyzed for the studied parameters. Lineal correlation existed between the pH and the cysts of Entamoeba histolytica.

Z, Cartaya; C, Mendoza; R, Oyón.

46

40 CFR 141.803 - Coliform sampling.  

Science.gov (United States)

40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01...Section 141.803 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...analyze that total coliform-positive culture medium to determine if E. coli...

2010-07-01

47

40 CFR 141.21 - Coliform sampling.  

Science.gov (United States)

...of collection. Sample results from this...be included in determining compliance with...in one or more sample containers of any size, as long as...may be used for determining if a total coliform-positive sample, as...

2010-07-01

48

40 CFR 141.803 - Coliform sampling.  

Science.gov (United States)

... (a) Analytical methodology. Air carriers...the sampling and analysis requirements under...carriers must conduct analyses for total coliform...to initiation of analysis may not exceed 30 hours. Systems are encouraged...

2010-07-01

49

Enterococci vs coliforms as a possible fecal contamination indicator: baseline data for Karachi.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fecal contamination of drinking water is the major cause of water borne illnesses. For long time coliforms are exploited as fecal contamination indicator. However, recent studies indicate low survival rate of coliforms in stress conditions, hence it's use as indicator of fecal pollution is being abandoned in many parts of the developed world. Implementation of such strategy demands availability of local data in the cities like Karachi. The present study provides a comparison between coliforms and enterococcal load and its variation in sewage samples collected (June, August and November, 2006) from eighteen towns of Karachi. All the diluted samples were selective media to obtain colony-forming units (CFU) mainly for coliforms and enterococci. The bacteria isolated were identified on the basis of conventional microbiological methods. Observations thus obtained were subjected to rigorous statistical analysis. The total load of enterococci was found in range of 1.27-8.47 X 10(7) as compared to coliforms (3.03-13.9 X 10(7)). However, segregation of data reveals greater inter town variability in CFU/ml both in coliforms and enterococci as suggested by their cumulative standard deviation +/-1.5 X 107. Furthermore, CFU/ml of both coliforms and enterococci also varies to variable scale when collected at different time intervals and at intra town level. Conclusively, the studies suggest high survival rate and lower variability of Enterococci compared to escherichia hence indicating its potential advantage to be used as fecal contamination indicator. PMID:17416563

Hussain, Mushtaq; Rasool, Sheikh Ajaz; Khan, Muhammad Tanweer; Wajid, Abdul

2007-04-01

50

40 CFR 141.21 - Coliform sampling.  

Science.gov (United States)

...analyze that total coliform-positive culture medium to determine if fecal coliforms...the State before the end of the next business day. (2) The State has the discretion...affiliate of Merck KGgA, Darmstadt Germany), 480 S. Democrat Road, Gibbstown...MMO-MUG test may further analyze the culture for the presence of E. coli by...transferring a 0.1 ml, 28-hour MMO-MUG......

2010-07-01

51

Incidence of Coliform in Butter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Microbial examination of 50 samples of both packed and unpacked butter was carried out. The samples were examined for total viable count, mould and yeast count, spore formers and coliform. The microbial load in the unpacked sample of butter was highest i.e., 3.8 x 106/gm - 6.6 x l06/gm. The coliform count was found maximum in unpacked sample and one of the packed sample of butter (Kausar brand i.e., 39/ml. The unpacked sample of butter contained highest number of aerobic spore formers i.e., 280/gm. The anaerobic spore-formers were found absent in 20 samples of butter and the rest contained in the range of 0-170/gm. The yeast cultures were found only in the sample of Lyallpur and Kausar butter. The mould count of these samples ranged from 0-280/gm.

Ikram-ul-Haq

2001-01-01

52

Evaluation of Commercial Colilert18-Quantitray® Method by ISO Techniques for Enumeration and Quantification of Total Coliforms and Escherichia coli in Drinking-Water of Buraidah, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present investigation, the Colilert18-QuantiTray® test is compared with ISO 9308-2:1999 Multiple-Tube Fermentation (MTF and 9308-1:2000 Membrane Filtration (MF methods for the detection of coliforms and E. coli in Buraidah drinking water. Regarding sensitivity and specificity of test methods using MTF as reference, the MF method showed a weak sensitivity, while the Colilert18® test showed the highest one. On the other hand, MF method exhibited a higher specificity compared with Colilert18® test. A moderately strong relationship among test methods of coliforms log transformed counts obtained with MF (cfu/100 mL and Coliert18®/Quanti-Tray (MPN/100 mL tests compared to MPN-MTF method was demonstrated. Regression analysis revealed the presence of strong linear correlations (p<0.01 between the three test methods and standard plate count of detecting the concentration of serially diluted E. coli LMG 2092 with high regression coefficients with MF and Colilert18® and lower value for MTF. The Colilert18® had E. coli detection down to 5 MPN/100 mL (? 0.05/1 mL. Results showed that Coliert18®/Quanti-Tray method is comparable with ISO methods further, the former method has more advantages such as higher sensitivity, maximum detection limit ability and time and labor saving.

A. Al-Turki

2009-01-01

53

Arsenic presence and coliforms in drinking water of the Tecuala municipality, Nayarit, Mexico; Presencia de arsenico y coliformes en agua potable del municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit, Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Total arsenic concentrations (t As) and the presence of total and fecal coliforms in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, Mexico, were determined. The presence of t As was analyzed by means of hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Total and fecal coliforms were determined through the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. According to the results, the mean concentration of t As in Tecuala wa 15.82 {mu}g/L, in Atotonilco 19.88 {mu}g/L, in Pajaritos 21.49 {mu}g/L, in Quimichis 17.80 {mu}g/L, and in Playas de Novillero 19.79 {mu}g/L. The t As concentrations in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, are within the limit set by the Mexican official standards (25 {mu}g/L); still, they are over the limit established by the World Health Organization (10 {mu}g/L). The concentration of coliforms in water from wells 1 and 3 was 180 MPN/100 ml and 43 MPN/100 ml for well water 2. The presence of total and fecal coliforms, suggest the infiltration of sewage which could increase the levels of dissolved arsenic. The results of this study will serve as an antecedent of the water quality in Tecuala, Nayarit. (Author)

Mora B, D.; Gonzalez A, C. A.; Medina D, I. M.; Robledo M, M. L.; Rojas G, A. E. [Universidad Autonoma de Nayarit, Secretaria de Investigacion y Posgrado, Ciudad de la Cultura Amado Nervo, 63155 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); Sanchez P, L. C.; Del Razo, L. M., E-mail: aerg81@gmail.com [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Departamento de Toxicologia, Av. IPN No. 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

2012-07-01

54

40 CFR 141.21 - Coliform sampling.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Presence/Absence Membrane Filter Test Method for Detection and...methods which use a membrane filter, transfer the total coliform-positive...forceps and carefully curl and insert the membrane into a tube of...swab the entire membrane filter surface with a...

2010-07-01

55

40 CFR 141.803 - Coliform sampling.  

Science.gov (United States)

...the air carrier must analyze that total coliform-positive culture medium to determine if E. coli is present. (6) Routine...Topical Anti-microbial Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use” in the galleys and lavatories; and other...

2010-07-01

56

Injured coliforms in drinking water.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coliforms were enumerated by using m-Endo agar LES and m-T7 agar in 102 routine samples of drinking water from three New England community water systems to investigate the occurrence and significance of injured coliforms. Samples included water collected immediately after conventional treatment, during the backwash cycle, at various points in the distribution system, and 1 week after the break and subsequent repair of a distribution main. Injured coliforms in these samples averaged greater th...

Mcfeters, G. A.; Kippin, J. S.; Lechevallier, M. W.

1986-01-01

57

GULF OF MEXICO PROGRAM/BAY OF ST. LOUIS WATER QUALITY STUDY -- DEVELOPMENT OF TOTAL MAXIMUM DAILY LOAD FOR FECAL COLIFORM BACTERIA (TMDL) IN HANCOCK, HARRISON AND PEARL RIVER COUNTIES, MS  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this project is to determine the various sources of fecal coliforms to determine the loading contributed by the various sources; and to determine the numbers of fecal coliforms that can be assimilated by the waters of the Bay without exceeding the standards for wat...

58

Arsenic presence and coliforms in drinking water of the Tecuala municipality, Nayarit, Mexico  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total arsenic concentrations (t As) and the presence of total and fecal coliforms in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, Mexico, were determined. The presence of t As was analyzed by means of hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Total and fecal coliforms were determined through the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. According to the results, the mean concentration of t As in Tecuala wa 15.82 ?g/L, in Atotonilco 19.88 ?g/L, in Pajaritos 21.49 ?g/L, in Quimichis 17.80 ?g/L, and in Playas de Novillero 19.79 ?g/L. The t As concentrations in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, are within the limit set by the Mexican official standards (25 ?g/L); still, they are over the limit established by the World Health Organization (10 ?g/L). The concentration of coliforms in water from wells 1 and 3 was 180 MPN/100 ml and 43 MPN/100 ml for well water 2. The presence of total and fecal coliforms, suggest the infiltration of sewage which could increase the levels of dissolved arsenic. The results of this study will serve as an antecedent of the water quality in Tecuala, Nayarit. (Author)

59

INTERLABORATORY EVALUATION OF MI AGAR AND THE US ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY-APPROVED MEMBRANE FILTER METHOD FOR THE RECOVERY OF TOTAL COLIFORMS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI FROM DRINKING WATER  

Science.gov (United States)

A new membrane filter (MF) medium, MI agar, recently validated for use in recovering chlorine-damaged total coloiforms (TC) and Escherichia coli from drinking water, was compared to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-approved MF method(mEndo agar and nutrient agar suppl...

60

Effects of UV light disinfection on antibiotic-resistant coliforms in wastewater effluents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total coliforms and total coliforms resistant to streptomycin, tetracycline, or chloramphenicol were isolated from filtered activated sludge effluents before and after UV light irradiation. Although the UV irradiation effectively disinfected the wastewater effluent, the percentage of the total surviving coliform population resistant to tetracycline or chloramphenicol was significantly higher than the percentage of the total coliform population resistant to those antibiotics before UV irradiation. This finding was attributed to the mechanism of R-factor mediated resistance to tetracycline. No significant difference was noted for the percentage of the surviving total coliform population resistant to streptomycin before or after UV irradiation. Multiple drug resistant to patterns of 300 total coliform isolates revealed that 82% were resistant to two or more antibiotics. Furthermore, 46% of these isolates were capable of transferring antibiotic resistance to a sensitive strain of Escherichia coli

 
 
 
 
61

FECAL COLIFORM INCREASE AFTER CENTRIFUGATION  

Science.gov (United States)

The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) recently published a report titled Examination of Reactivation and Regrowth of Fecal Coliforms in Anaerobically Digested Sludges. Seven full-scale publicly owned treatment facilities were sampled several times to determine if bacte...

62

The presence-absence coliform test for monitoring drinking water quality.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The concern for improved monitoring of the sanitary quality of drinking water has prompted interest in alternative methods for the detection of total coliform bacteria. A simplified qualitative presence-absence test has been proposed as an alternate procedure for detecting coliform bacteria in potable water. In this paper data from four comparative studies were analyzed to compare the recovery of total coliform bacteria from drinking water using the presence-absence test, the multiple ferment...

Rice, E. W.; Geldreich, E. E.; Read, E. J.

1989-01-01

63

Coliform density in oyster culture waters and its relationship with environmental factors / Densidade de coliformes em águas de cultivo de ostras e sua relação com fatores ambientais  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as densidades de coliformes totais e termotolerantes, em água de cultivo de ostra de Cananeia, SP, e correlacionar estas densidades com variáveis ambientais e as variações das marés. Foram coletadas amostras de água superficial em duas condições de maré (sizígia [...] e quadratura) de três áreas do Município de Cananéia (Mandira, Itapitangui e Cooperostra). As três áreas estudadas apresentaram boas condições para cultivo, quanto à densidade de coliformes. Diferenças significativas foram registradas entre as condições de marés quanto à concentração total de coliformes; no entanto, o mesmo procedimento não se aplicou para coliformes termotolerantes. Nenhuma correlação foi observada entre a temperatura da água, o pH e as concentrações de coliformes total e termotolerantes. As densidades de coliformes correlacionaram-se positivamente com a pluviosidade e negativamente com a salinidade. O número de coliformes foi significativamente diferente nas marés de sizígia e de quadratura. O simples diagnóstico das condições ambientais é insuficiente para avaliar a qualidade da água de cultivo de ostras. Um programa de monitoramento contínuo de áreas cultivadas é necessário tanto para avaliar o potencial dessas águas, como para garantir o consumo seguro de frutos do mar, além de constituir-se como instrumento importante para a compreensão das relações entre a contaminação por coliformes e as variáveis ambientais envolvidas. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the total and thermotolerant coliform densities in the oyster culture water of Cananeia, SP, Brazil, correlating these densities with environmental variables and tidal variations. Superficial water samples were collected in two tide conditions (spring and n [...] eap) from three areas of Cananéia municipality (Mandira, Itapitangui and Cooperostra). The three studied areas showed good conditions for the culture regarding coliform densities. The two tidal conditions differed significantly as to total coliform concentration; however, the same procedure was not performed for thermotolerant coliforms. No correlation was observed between water temperature, pH, and concentrations of total and thermotolerant coliforms. Coliform density was positively correlated with rainfall and negatively correlated with salinity. Spring and neap tides differed significantly as to coliform number. Simple diagnosis of environmental conditions of the crop fields is insufficient to assess water quality of shellfish cultivation. A continuous monitoring program of planted areas is necessary both for the assessment of water quality potential for marine culture and for ensuring safe consumption of seafood, besides constituting an important tool to understand the relationships between contamination and the involved environmental variables.

Luciene, Mignani; Edison, Barbieri; Helcio Luis de Almeida, Marques; Ana Julia Fernandes Cardoso de, Oliveira.

2013-08-01

64

Coliform and Metal Contamination in Lago de Colina, a Recreational Water Body in Chihuahua State, Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lago de Colina (Colina Lake is located about 180 km south of the city of Chihuahua (Mexico, and during the Semana Santa (Holy Week vacation period its recreational use is high. The objective of this study was to quantify coliform and heavy metal levels in this water body before and after the Holy Week vacation period in 2010. Twenty sampling points were randomly selected and two water samples were collected at each point near the surface (0.30 m and at 1 m depth. After the Holy Week vacation the same twenty points were sampled at the same depths. Therefore, a total 80 water samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliforms and levels of the following metals: Al, As, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si and Zn. It was hypothesized that domestic tourism contaminated this water body, and as a consequence, could have a negative impact on visitor health. An analysis of variance (ANOVA study was performed for each element and its interactions considering a factorial design where factor A was sample date and factor B was sample depth. Fecal coliforms were only detected at eight sampling points in the first week, but after Holy Week, both fecal and total coliforms were detected at most sampling points. The concentrations of Al, B, Na, Ni and Se were only statistically different for factor A. The levels of Cr, Cu, K and Mg was different for both date and depth, but the dual factor interaction was not significant. The amount of Ca and Zn was statistically different due to date, depth and their interaction. No significant differences were found for any factor or the interaction for the elements As, Fe and Mn. Because of the consistent results, it is concluded that local tourism is contaminating the recreational area of Colina Lake, Chihuahua, Mexico.

Hector Rubio-Arias

2011-06-01

65

40 CFR 141.803 - Coliform sampling.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-07-01 false Coliform sampling. 141.803 Section 141.803...Water Rule § 141.803 Coliform sampling. (a) Analytical methodology. Air carriers must follow the sampling and analysis requirements under...

2010-07-01

66

40 CFR 141.21 - Coliform sampling.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Public water systems need only...Public water systems must conduct...coliform analyses in accordance...Fermentation Technique 3,4,5...Public water systems must conduct...coliform analysis in accordance...When the MTF Technique or...

2010-07-01

67

Distribution of coliform bacteria in waste water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biological activity of water can be apparently judged by the colonization of bacteria (microbes. In order to find out the extent of pollution and the relationship between inorganic matters and microbiota, a quantitative and qualitative analysis of bacteria in various types of sewage waters, namely sewage water by the residential colonies (group I, industrial waste water (group II, sewage treatment hub (group III, unorganized collected waste water (group IV and old residential waste collection center (group V, of Bikaner city (Rajasthan, India was carried out from February, 2010 to May, 2010. Water samples were taken from surface only owing to low depth and investigated for various abiotic factors (viz. transparency, pH, carbonate, bicarbonate, total alkalinity, total hardness, salinity, chloride, calcium, magnesium, sulphate, nitrate, silica, and inorganic phosphorous and biotic factors (viz. number and diversity of bacteria. The domestic sewage water causes major water borne diseases basing upon Total Bacterial Count (TBC and coliform Count (CC. The coliform count in the present study ranged from 2.5 to 5.12 MPN/mL. Comparision of microbial population in sewage water from all different Groups was done and the higher values of TBC and CC were recorded only in Sewage treatement hub (Group III.

Chandan Kumar Bahura

2012-01-01

68

Presencia de arsénico y coliformes en agua potable del municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit, México / Presence of arsenic and coliforms in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se determinaron las concentraciones de arsénico total (AsT) y la presencia de coliformes totales y fecales en agua potable del municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit, México. La determinación de AsT se realizó por espectrofotometría de fluorescencia atómica, por generación de hidruros; la detección de colifo [...] rmes totales y fecales se realizó con la técnica del número más probable (NMP). De acuerdo a los resultados obtenidos, la concentración media de AsT en la cabecera municipal de Tecuala fue de 15.82 µg/L, en el ejido de Atotonilco de 19.88 µg/L, en Pajaritos de 21.49 µg/L, en Quimichis de 17.80 µg/L y en Playas de Novillero de 19.79 µg/L. Aunque las concentraciones de AsT en el agua potable del municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit, se encuentran dentro del límite establecido por las Normas Oficiales Mexicanas (25 µg/L), rebasan el límite establecido por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, que establece un máximo de 10 µg/L. La concentración de coliformes en el agua procedente de los pozos 1 y 3 fue de 180 NMP/100 mL y de 43 NMP/100 mL para el agua del pozo 2. La presencia de coliformes totales y fecales, sugiere la infiltración de aguas negras lo que podría incrementar los niveles de arsénico disuelto. Los resultados de este estudio servirán como antecedente sanitario de la calidad del agua de los pozos que abastecen el municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit. Abstract in english Total arsenic concentrations (tAs) and the presence of total and fecal coliforms in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, Mexico, were determined. The presence of tAs was analyzed by means of hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Total and fecal coliforms were determined through the M [...] ost Probable Number (MPN) method. According to the results, the mean concentration of tAs in Tecuala was 15.82 µg/L, in Atotonilco 19.88 µg/L, in Pajaritos 21.49 µg/L, in Quimichis 17.80 µg/L, and in Playas de Novillero 19.79 µg/L. The tAs concentrations in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, are within the limit set by the Mexican official standards (25 µg/L); still, they are over the limit established by the World Health Organization (10 µg/L). The concentration of coliforms in water from wells 1 and 3 was 180 MPN/100 mL and 43 MPN/100 mL for well water 2. The presence of total and fecal coliforms, suggest the infiltration of sewage which could increase the levels of dissolved arsenic. The results of this study will serve as an antecedent of the water quality in Tecuala, Nayarit.

Daniel, MORA-BUENO; Luz del Carmen, SÁNCHEZ-PEÑA; Luz María, DEL RAZO; Cyndia Azucena, GONZÁLEZ-ARIAS; Irma Martha, MEDINA-DÍAZ; María de Lourdes, ROBLEDO-MARENCO; Aurora Elizabeth, ROJAS-GARCÍA.

69

Presencia de arsénico y coliformes en agua potable del municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit, México / Presence of arsenic and coliforms in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se determinaron las concentraciones de arsénico total (AsT) y la presencia de coliformes totales y fecales en agua potable del municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit, México. La determinación de AsT se realizó por espectrofotometría de fluorescencia atómica, por generación de hidruros; la detección de colifo [...] rmes totales y fecales se realizó con la técnica del número más probable (NMP). De acuerdo a los resultados obtenidos, la concentración media de AsT en la cabecera municipal de Tecuala fue de 15.82 µg/L, en el ejido de Atotonilco de 19.88 µg/L, en Pajaritos de 21.49 µg/L, en Quimichis de 17.80 µg/L y en Playas de Novillero de 19.79 µg/L. Aunque las concentraciones de AsT en el agua potable del municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit, se encuentran dentro del límite establecido por las Normas Oficiales Mexicanas (25 µg/L), rebasan el límite establecido por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, que establece un máximo de 10 µg/L. La concentración de coliformes en el agua procedente de los pozos 1 y 3 fue de 180 NMP/100 mL y de 43 NMP/100 mL para el agua del pozo 2. La presencia de coliformes totales y fecales, sugiere la infiltración de aguas negras lo que podría incrementar los niveles de arsénico disuelto. Los resultados de este estudio servirán como antecedente sanitario de la calidad del agua de los pozos que abastecen el municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit. Abstract in english Total arsenic concentrations (tAs) and the presence of total and fecal coliforms in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, Mexico, were determined. The presence of tAs was analyzed by means of hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Total and fecal coliforms were determined through the M [...] ost Probable Number (MPN) method. According to the results, the mean concentration of tAs in Tecuala was 15.82 µg/L, in Atotonilco 19.88 µg/L, in Pajaritos 21.49 µg/L, in Quimichis 17.80 µg/L, and in Playas de Novillero 19.79 µg/L. The tAs concentrations in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, are within the limit set by the Mexican official standards (25 µg/L); still, they are over the limit established by the World Health Organization (10 µg/L). The concentration of coliforms in water from wells 1 and 3 was 180 MPN/100 mL and 43 MPN/100 mL for well water 2. The presence of total and fecal coliforms, suggest the infiltration of sewage which could increase the levels of dissolved arsenic. The results of this study will serve as an antecedent of the water quality in Tecuala, Nayarit.

Daniel, MORA-BUENO; Luz del Carmen, SÁNCHEZ-PEÑA; Luz María, DEL RAZO; Cyndia Azucena, GONZÁLEZ-ARIAS; Irma Martha, MEDINA-DÍAZ; María de Lourdes, ROBLEDO-MARENCO; Aurora Elizabeth, ROJAS-GARCÍA.

2012-05-01

70

THERMOTOLERANT NON-FECAL SOURCE 'KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE': VALIDITY OF THE FECAL COLIFORM TEST IN RECREATIONAL WATERS  

Science.gov (United States)

Wisconsin pulp and paper mill processing plants were evaluated for fecal coliform and total Klebsiella (i.e., thermotolerant and thermointolerant) bacterial concentrations. Using the standard fecal coliform test, up to 90 per cent of non-fecal source thermo-tolerant K. pneumoniae...

71

Formación de biopelículas y susceptibilidad antimicrobiana entre coliformes aislados en agua potable embotellada en Carabobo, Venezuela / Biofilms formation and antimicrobial susceptibility among coliforms isolated in bottled drinking water in Carabobo, Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Bacterias indicadoras de contaminación tales como bacterias heterótrofas, coliformes totales y termotolerantes fueron enumeradas en agua potable embotellada usando métodos estándar y filtración a través de membrana. El desarrollo de biopelículas y la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana (método de Kirby-B [...] auer) fueron evaluados sobre sesenta aislados de coliformes seleccionados de forma aleatoria. De 50 muestras, en un elevado porcentaje (94), se observó niveles de bacterias heterotróficas por encima de 100 UFC/mL de agua, 38 % presentó al menos una UFC/100 mL de coliformes totales o termotolerantes, mientras que, 30 % y 28 %, presentaron más de diez UFC/100 mL para ambos indicadores, respectivamente. Las especies de coliformes identificadas en mayor proporción fueron, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli y Klebsiella oxytoca. Usando un ensayo in vitro para detectar la formación de biopelículas se determinó que entre un 75,8 y 79,2 % de los coliformes totales y termotolerantes, respectivamente, fueron descritos como moderados o fuertes formadores de biopelículas. No se observaron diferencias significativas (P>0,05) con respecto a la capacidad de formación de biopelículas entre los dos grupos. La mayoría de los aislados resultaron susceptibles frente a los antimicrobianos evaluados, únicamente dos especies presentaron fenotipos de resistencia no naturales. Perfiles de multiresistencia, típicos de especies asociadas con actividades clínicas o veterinarias, fueron identificados en un aislado de Enterobacter cloacae (betalactamasas tipo AmpC derreprimida) y un aislado de Escherichia coli fue resistente a ampicilina. Este estudio sugiere que el agua potable en botellones plásticos que se expende en algunas áreas urbanas de Carabobo, Venezuela, puede representar un riesgo para la salud. Abstract in english Pollution indicator bacteria such as heterotrophic bacteria, total and thermotolerant coliforms were quantified in bottled drinking water using standard method and membrane filter procedure. Biofilm formation and antimicrobial susceptibility (Kirby-Bauer method) were tested on sixty randomly selecte [...] d coliform strains. Among 50 water samples, a large percentage (94) were found with heterotrophic bacteria levels above 100 CFU/mL, 46 % showed at least one CFU/100 mL of thermotolerant or total coliformes whereas 28 % and 30 % showed more than ten CFU/100 mL for both indicators. Coliform species found in higher proportion were, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella oxytoca. Using an "in vitro" assay for biofilms formation it was determined that between 75.8 y 79.2 % of total and thermotolerant coliforms, respectively, were found to be moderate or strong biofilm formers. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between both groups regarding the capacity for biofilm formation. Most of the isolates were susceptible against the antibiotics tested and only two species showed unnatural resistance phenotypes. Multiresistance profiles, typical of strains associated with human clinical or veterinary activities were identified in one Enterobacter cloacae isolated (derepressed AmpC beta-lactamases) and one Escherichia coli strain was ampicilin resistant. This study suggests that the water sold in some plastic bottles in some urban areas near by Carabobo, Venezuela, may be a risk to health.

Tomás, Rojas; Alejandra, Montoya; Alejandra, Moreno; Ritneybi, Mujica; Ysvette, Vásquez.

2012-06-01

72

Formación de biopelículas y susceptibilidad antimicrobiana entre coliformes aislados en agua potable embotellada en Carabobo, Venezuela / Biofilms formation and antimicrobial susceptibility among coliforms isolated in bottled drinking water in Carabobo, Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Bacterias indicadoras de contaminación tales como bacterias heterótrofas, coliformes totales y termotolerantes fueron enumeradas en agua potable embotellada usando métodos estándar y filtración a través de membrana. El desarrollo de biopelículas y la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana (método de Kirby-B [...] auer) fueron evaluados sobre sesenta aislados de coliformes seleccionados de forma aleatoria. De 50 muestras, en un elevado porcentaje (94), se observó niveles de bacterias heterotróficas por encima de 100 UFC/mL de agua, 38 % presentó al menos una UFC/100 mL de coliformes totales o termotolerantes, mientras que, 30 % y 28 %, presentaron más de diez UFC/100 mL para ambos indicadores, respectivamente. Las especies de coliformes identificadas en mayor proporción fueron, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli y Klebsiella oxytoca. Usando un ensayo in vitro para detectar la formación de biopelículas se determinó que entre un 75,8 y 79,2 % de los coliformes totales y termotolerantes, respectivamente, fueron descritos como moderados o fuertes formadores de biopelículas. No se observaron diferencias significativas (P>0,05) con respecto a la capacidad de formación de biopelículas entre los dos grupos. La mayoría de los aislados resultaron susceptibles frente a los antimicrobianos evaluados, únicamente dos especies presentaron fenotipos de resistencia no naturales. Perfiles de multiresistencia, típicos de especies asociadas con actividades clínicas o veterinarias, fueron identificados en un aislado de Enterobacter cloacae (betalactamasas tipo AmpC derreprimida) y un aislado de Escherichia coli fue resistente a ampicilina. Este estudio sugiere que el agua potable en botellones plásticos que se expende en algunas áreas urbanas de Carabobo, Venezuela, puede representar un riesgo para la salud. Abstract in english Pollution indicator bacteria such as heterotrophic bacteria, total and thermotolerant coliforms were quantified in bottled drinking water using standard method and membrane filter procedure. Biofilm formation and antimicrobial susceptibility (Kirby-Bauer method) were tested on sixty randomly selecte [...] d coliform strains. Among 50 water samples, a large percentage (94) were found with heterotrophic bacteria levels above 100 CFU/mL, 46 % showed at least one CFU/100 mL of thermotolerant or total coliformes whereas 28 % and 30 % showed more than ten CFU/100 mL for both indicators. Coliform species found in higher proportion were, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella oxytoca. Using an "in vitro" assay for biofilms formation it was determined that between 75.8 y 79.2 % of total and thermotolerant coliforms, respectively, were found to be moderate or strong biofilm formers. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between both groups regarding the capacity for biofilm formation. Most of the isolates were susceptible against the antibiotics tested and only two species showed unnatural resistance phenotypes. Multiresistance profiles, typical of strains associated with human clinical or veterinary activities were identified in one Enterobacter cloacae isolated (derepressed AmpC beta-lactamases) and one Escherichia coli strain was ampicilin resistant. This study suggests that the water sold in some plastic bottles in some urban areas near by Carabobo, Venezuela, may be a risk to health.

Tomás, Rojas; Alejandra, Montoya; Alejandra, Moreno; Ritneybi, Mujica; Ysvette, Vásquez.

73

Serum total glutathione-s-transferase levels in oral cancer  

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We conducted a study wherein serum total glutathione-s-transferase levels were measured in patients (n = 27) with various stages of biopsy proven oral cancer (squamous cell carcinoma) and age and sex matched healthy human volunteers (n=10). In all patients with oral cancer, serum total glutathione-s-transferase was measured before the onset of treatment. There was a significant increase in serum total glutathione-s-transferse levels in patients with stage IV oral cancer as compared to stage I...

Prabhu Krishnananda; Bhat Gopalakrishna

2007-01-01

74

Coliform Bacteria: The Effect of Sediments on Decay Rates and on Required Detention Times in Stormwater BMPs  

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Full Text Available Fecal indicator bacteria, such as total coliforms and E. coli, are a challenge to control in urban and rural stormwater runoff. To assess the challenges of improving bacterial water quality standards in surface waters, microcosm experiments were conducted to assess how decay rates of total coliforms and E. coli are affected by sediments and associated organic matter. Samples were collected at a lake embayment to create laboratory microcosms consisting of different combinations of unsterilized and sterilized water and sediment. Calculated first-order decay rate constants ranged from 0.021 to 0.047 h-1 for total coliforms and 0.017 and 0.037 h-1 for E. coli, depending on how each microcosm was prepared. It is evident that sediment in contact with the water column decreases bacteria decay rate, showing that care should be taken when designing stormwater treatment measures. In addition, high organic carbon content in the sediment temporarily increased bacteria concentrations in the water column. The results demonstrate that stormwater treatment measures, such as extended detention basins and constructed wetlands, must hold water for several days to allow for reduction of bacterial concentrations to acceptable levels. In addition, to troubleshoot detention basins and constructed wetlands for causes of high effluent bacterial concentrations, analyses of sediment, organic carbon, and water column depth should be conducted.

Danielle C. Usner

2012-08-01

75

[Comparison of techniques for coliform bacteria extraction from sediment of Xochimilco Lake, Mexico].  

Science.gov (United States)

The need to separate bacteria from sediment in order to appropriately count them has led to test the efficacy of different techniques. In this research, traditional techniques such as manual shaking, homogenization, ultrasonication, and surfactant are compared. Moreover, the possibility of using a set of enzymes (pancreatine) and an antibiotic (ampicillin) for sediment coliform extraction is proposed. Samples were obtained from Xochimilco Lake in Mexico City. The most probable number of coliform bacteria was determined after applying the appropriate separation procedure. Most of the techniques tested led to numbers similar to those of the control (manual shaking). Only with the use of ampicillin, a greater total coliform concentration was observed (Mann-Whitney, z = 2.09; p = 0.03). It is possible to propose the use of ampicillin as a technique for total coliform extraction; however, it is necessary to consider sensitivity of bacteria to the antibiotic. PMID:24165142

Fernández-Rendón, Carlos L; Barrera-Escorcia, Guadalupe

2013-01-01

76

Asellus aquaticus as a Potential Carrier of Escherichia coli and Other Coliform Bacteria into Drinking Water Distribution Systems  

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Full Text Available Individuals of the water louse, Asellus aquaticus, enter drinking water distribution systems in temperate parts of the world, where they establish breeding populations. We analysed populations of surface water A. aquaticus from two ponds for associated faecal indicator bacteria and assessed the risk of A. aquaticus transporting bacteria into distribution systems. Concentrations of up to two E. coli and five total coliforms·mL?1 were measured in the water and 200 E. coli and >240 total coliforms·mL?1 in the sediments of the investigated ponds. Concentrations of A. aquaticus associated bacteria never exceeded three E. coli and six total coliforms·A. aquaticus?1. During exposure to high concentrations of coliforms, concentrations reached 350 coliforms·A. aquaticus?1. A. aquaticus associated E. coli were only detected as long as E. coli were present in the water and sediment. The calculated probability of exceeding drinking water guideline values in non-disinfected systems by intrusion of A. aquaticus was low. Only in scenarios with narrow pipes and low flows, did total coliforms exceed guideline values, implying that the probability of detection by routine monitoring is also low. The study expands the knowledge base for evaluating incidents with presence of coliform indicators in drinking water by showing that intruding A. aquaticus were not important carriers of E. coli or other coliform bacteria even when emerging from faecally contaminated waters.

Hans-Jørgen Albrechtsen

2013-03-01

77

ANALYZING BIOSOLIDS FOR FECAL COLIFORM AND SALMONELLAE  

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Current federal regulations required monitoring for fecal coliforms or Salmonella in biosolids destined for land application. Standard protocols designed to quantify these organisms in water or wastewater were identified and specified in these regulations. However, proto...

78

RAPID MONITORING OF INDICATOR COLIFORMS IN DRINKING WATER BY AN ENZYMATIC ASSAY  

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Coliform group has been extensively used as an indicator of drinking water quality and historically led to the public health protection concept. Multiple tube fermentation technique has been currently used for assessment of the microbial quality of drinking water. This method, however, has limitations. Enzymatic assay constitute an alternative approach for detecting indicator bacteria, namely total coliforms and E.coli in various aquatic environments. This study compared the performance of LM...

Jalali, M. Nikaeen ?. A. Pejhan ?. M.

2009-01-01

79

The Impact of Rainfall on Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Bayou Dorcheat (North Louisiana  

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Full Text Available Fecal coliform bacteria are the most common pollutant in rivers and streams. In Louisiana, it has been reported that 37% of surveyed river miles, 31% of lakes, and 23% of estuarine water had some level of contamination. The objective of this research was to assess the effect of surface runoff amounts and rainfall amount parameters on fecal coliform bacterial densities in Bayou Dorcheat in Louisiana. Bayou Dorcheat has been designated by the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality as a waterway that has uses such as primary contact recreation, secondary contact recreation, propagation of fish and wildlife, agriculture and as being an outstanding natural resource water. Samples from Bayou Dorcheat were collected monthly and analyzed for the presence of fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms isolated from these samples were identified to the species level. The analysis of the bacterial levels was performed following standard test protocols as described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Information regarding the rainfall amounts and surface runoff amounts for the selected years was retrieved from the Louisiana Office of State Climatology. It was found that a significant increase in the fecal coliform numbers may be associated with average rainfall amounts. Possible sources of elevated coliform counts could include sewage discharges from municipal treatment plants and septic tanks, storm water overflows, and runoff from pastures and range lands. It can be concluded that nonpoint source pollution that is carried by surface runoff has a significant effect on bacterial levels in water resources.

Paul B. Tchounwou

2006-03-01

80

Nutrient-Induced Growth of Coliform and HPC Bacteria in Drinking-Water Pipes  

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Full Text Available We conducted a study on a model drinking water distribution system to evaluate the impact of nutrient in the form of sodium acetate on the growth and survival of coliform and heterotrophic plate count (HPC bacteria for a maximum of 21 days residence time of water in pipes. Our results show that, besides the nutrient added and the absence of any additional source of contamination and additional supply of nutrient, there was significant growth of the above mentioned bacteria in the pipes and bottles for a couple of days, after which the bacterial population began to decrease. The results indicate that the bacteria used the nutrient to grow and multiply until the nutrient was totally consumed and became depleted in the bulk water phase, after which the bacterial population reached a near stationary level and subsequently declined. This suggests the death of some of the bacteria and their dead cells were used by other bacteria for growth and survival. Using a detection limit of 3.3 CFU/100 mL for the coliforms, the study shows that after sometime, no bacteria were found in the water phase of the pipe, however, the biofilm in the pipes still harbored some of the bacteria. The results have revealed that the bacteria also have the tendency to move from the water phase to the biofilm since the latter provides a more suitable environment for bacteria to thrive on and grow, thus prolonging their survival in the system.

Samuel Boakye Dampare

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
81

Evaluation of Total Oxidative Level and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Cases with Chronic Viral Hepatitis  

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Full Text Available Objective: Oxidative stress is described as an instability between production of free radicals from cells and antioxidant defence of the body. The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation of total antioxidant capacity (TAC and total oxidative level (TOL with the severity of the disease and reliability of these parameters in the follow up of response to treatment in cases with chronic viral hepatitis (CVH.Methods: Between January 2004-March 2006, 73 cases with CVH were included in the study. The ages of the patients ranged from 15 to 70 years. Diagnosis of CVH was confirmed by clinical serological, and biochemical markers. The cases were divided into two groups: Group 1 as HBsAg-positive or anti-HCV-positive but HBV DNA or HCV RNA-negative and Group 2 as proven CVH. TAC, lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH, and TOL of the sera were studied according to Erel method, and statistically evaluated by ?2 test in all the cases. Results: TAC, LOOH and TOL were found statistically significantly different between two groups. Average values of TAC were 1.8±0.5 mmol Trolox-Eqv./L and 1.0±0.15 mmol Trolox-Eqv./L in Group 1 and Group 2 ( p=0.0001 respectively. Average values of LOOH were 5.3±2.8 µmol H202 in Group 1 and 10.6±10.1 µmol H202 in Group 2 (p=0.002. Average values of TOL were 10.2±5.9 µmol H2O2 Eqv./L in Group 1 and 18.5±16.6 µmol H2O2 Eqv./L in Group 2 (p=0.004.Conclusions: TAC was found higher, and TOL and LOOH were found lower in Group 1 than Group 2. The evaluation of plasma TAC, TOS ve LOOH levels may be important activation markers for the follow up of CVH.

Fatma S?rmatel

2009-12-01

82

Determination of total mercury in nuts at ultratrace level.  

Science.gov (United States)

Total mercury, at ?g kg(-1) level, was determined in different types of nuts (cashew nut, Brazil nuts, almond, pistachio, peanut, walnut) using a direct mercury analyser after previous sample defatting and by cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry. There is not enough sensitivity in the second approach to determine Hg in previously digested samples due to the strong matrix effect. Mercury levels in 25 edible nut samples from Brazil and Spain were found in the range from 0.6 to 2.7?g kg(-1) by using the pyrolysis of sample after the extraction of the nut fat. The accuracy of the proposed method was confirmed by analysing certified reference materials of Coal Fly Ash-NIST SRM 1633b, Fucus-IAEA 140 and three unpolished Rice Flour NIES-10. The observed results were in good agreement with the certified values. The recoveries of different amounts of mercury added to nut samples ranged from 94 to 101%. RSD values corresponding to three measurements varied between 2.0 and 14% and the limit of detection and quantification of the method were 0.08 and 0.3?g kg(-1), respectively. PMID:25064238

da Silva, Maria José; Paim, Ana Paula S; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Cervera, M Luisa; de la Guardia, Miguel

2014-08-01

83

40 CFR 141.21 - Coliform sampling.  

Science.gov (United States)

...coliform-positive culture medium to determine...of the next business day. (2...Darmstadt Germany), 480 S...analyze the culture for the presence...28-hour MMO-MUG culture to EC Medium...of the next business day after...

2010-07-01

84

Coliforms and Escherichia coli in waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study shows the evaluation of a defined substrate method, Colilert 18/Quanty Tray, for the simultaneous detection of Coliforms bacteria and Escherichia coli in water. The results obtained indicate that this method represents a valid alternative to the traditional methods considering sensitivity, specificity, repeatability but also rapidity and simplicity of use

85

Removal of fecal coliforms in stabilization lagoons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The treatment of residual waters by means of stabilization lagoons, it has been a method very used due to their low costs of operation and maintenance, as well as to their efficiency in the removal of organic matter and of microorganisms pathogens. The pathogens removal, measure in terms of fecal coliforms, CF, is one of the objectives of the design and of the control of the operation of plants of treatment of residual waters. In this article summary the main results of the experimental evaluation of the removal of fecal coliforms, In a treatment system for stabilization lagoons. In 1987 the plant of treatment of Chia 1 the main components of the treatment system are an entrance structure, composed by a mitigation tank, to which he receives a 24 diameter pipe with a slope of 0.98% that transports the residual water of a sector of the Chia municipality. The average concentration of fecal coliforms is not affected notably by the hour of sampling. The value of the coliforms concentration in the tributary is of 1.0*106 NMP/100 mL, the concentration in the final tributary is bigger than the one demanded for the watering water without restrictions 3.4*104 NMP/100 mL. The removal average in the system is acceptable during the sampling period, keeping in mind that this compound for two lagoons in series, under anaerobic conditions

86

40 CFR 141.21 - Coliform sampling.  

Science.gov (United States)

...coliform-positive culture medium to determine...end of the next business day. (2) The...KGgA, Darmstadt Germany), 480 S. Democrat...further analyze the culture for the presence...28-hour MMO-MUG culture to EC Medium...end of the next business day after it...

2010-07-01

87

40 CFR 141.21 - Coliform sampling.  

Science.gov (United States)

...coliform-positive culture medium to determine...the end of the next business day. (2) The State...further analyze the culture for the presence of...28-hour MMO-MUG culture to EC Medium + MUG...the end of the next business day after it...

2010-07-01

88

Why have total cholesterol levels declined in most developed countries?  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Our paper addresses three major public health issues: cholesterol, statins and policies to prevent cardiovascular disease. Discussion Total cholesterol levels in whole populations have fallen substantially in the USA, UK and most other developed countries. This has greatly contributed to decreases in cardiovascular disease deaths. The evidence identifying diet as the major contributor to these historical falls in cholesterol is powerful and consistent. Large falls occurred before statins were introduced. Additional substantial falls occurred before statins were widely used. Now, up to 14% adults in Western populations currently receive statins for primary prevention. Furthermore, because diet is now only slowly improving, the statin contribution currently appears proportionately larger. Summary In conclusion, diet change explains most of the historical falls in cholesterol. Until very recently, the contribution from statins has been surprisingly modest. Furthermore, many middle income countries may have neither the resources nor the infrastructure for mass statin therapy. Further substantial falls in cholesterol are therefore unlikely to be obtained simply by increased use of statins or dietary advice to individuals if unsupported by the wider environment. This further emphasises the need for more effective structural policies. Regulatory and fiscal interventions could easily eradicate industrial transfats, halve the intake of dietary saturated fat, and subsidise healthier fats.

Ford Earl S

2011-08-01

89

Control of coliform bacteria detected from diarrhea associated patients by extracts of Moringa oleifera.  

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The aims of this study were to determine the total population of coliform bacteria in the samples collected from diarrhea associated patients from the local area of Bangladesh and to examine the antibacterial efficacy of leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) against the isolated coliform bacteria. The coliform bacteria detected in these samples by some microbial-biochemical tests such as Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella sp., Enterobacter sp., Klebsiella pneumoniae and Serratia marcescens. The total isolation rate of coliform bacterial species was ranged from 38.01-3.51%. At the concentration of 300 ig/disc, the organic extracts of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Moringa oleifera leaf exhibited a remarkable antibacterial effect against all the tested bacterial pathogens. The zones of inhibition against all the tested bacterial pathogens were found in the range of 8.0 to 23.2 mm, along with their respective minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 62.5-1000 ig/mL. The results obtained in this study suggest that the extracts from Moringa oleifera leaf can be a source of natural antimicrobials with potential applications in pharmaceutical industry to control coliform bacteria. PMID:20677603

Rahman, M M; Rahman, M M; Akhter, S; Jamal, M A H M; Pandeya, D R; Haque, M A; Alam, M F; Rahman, A

2010-03-01

90

Coliform accumulation in Amphibalanus amphitrite (Darwin, 1854) (Cirripedia) and its use as an organic pollution bioindicator in the estuarine area of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Samples of water and barnacles Amphibalanus amphitrite were collected from Recife, Brazil, to assess if it accumulates total (TC) and thermotolerant coliforms (TTC) related with sewage pollution. The Most Probable Number (MPN) values and the standard procedures for examination of shellfish were used. Comparatively with the water samples, the highest coliform values came from the barnacles, with TC values ranging from 2.4 x 10(6) MPN.g-1, and TTC ranging from > 2.4 x 10(3) to 2.9 x 10(5) MPN.g-1. Barnacles accumulate the TC Ewingella americana, and the TTC Escherichia coli, Enterobacter gergoviae, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Enterobacter sakazakii. The results provided an indication of the level of organic contamination at the sampling locations and that this species could be a good organic pollution bioindicator. PMID:20549061

Farrapeira, C M R; Mendes, E S; Dourado, J; Guimarães, J

2010-05-01

91

Comparación de técnicas para la extracción de bacterias coliformes del sedimento del lago de Xochimilco, México / Comparison of techniques for coliform bacteria extraction from sediment of Xochimilco Lake, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La necesidad de separar a las bacterias del sedimento para lograr un conteo adecuado ha llevado a probar la eficiencia de distintas técnicas. En este trabajo se comparan técnicas tradicionales: agitación manual, homogenización, ultrasonicación y adición de surfactante. Además, se propone la posibili [...] dad de usar un conjunto de enzimas (pancreatina) y un antibiótico (ampicilina) para la extracción de coliformes del sedimento. Las muestras se obtuvieron del lago de Xochimilco, Ciudad de México. Después de aplicar cada técnica de separación de bacterias se determinó el número más probable de coliformes. La mayoría de las técnicas probadas generaron números similares a la técnica tomada como control (agitación manual). Únicamente se observó una mayor concentración de coliformes totales con el uso de la ampicilina (Mann-Whitney, z = 2,09; p = 0,03). Es posible proponer el uso de la ampicilina como técnica para la extracción de coliformes totales, sin embargo, es necesario considerar la sensibilidad de las bacterias al antibiótico. Abstract in english The need to separate bacteria from sediment in order to appropriately count them has led to test the efficacy of different techniques. In this research, traditional techniques such as manual shaking, homogenization, ultrasonication, and surfactant are compared. Moreover, the possibility of using a s [...] et of enzymes (pancreatine) and an antibiotic (ampicillin) for sediment coliform extraction is proposed. Samples were obtained from Xochimilco Lake in Mexico City. The most probable number of coliform bacteria was determined after applying the appropriate separation procedure. Most of the techniques tested led to numbers similar to those of the control (manual shaking). Only with the use of ampicillin, a greater total coliform concentration was observed (Mann-Whitney, z = 2.09; p = 0.03). It is possible to propose the use of ampicillin as a technique for total coliform extraction; however, it is necessary to consider sensitivity of bacteria to the antibiotic.

Carlos L, Fernández-Rendón; Guadalupe, Barrera-Escorcia.

2013-09-01

92

Assessment of the efficiency of ColiSure™ for coliforms Escherichia coli enumeration in pasteurizad milk /
Avaliação do desempenho do ColiSure™ na enumeração de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em leite pasteurizado
 

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In the dairy industry the coliforms detection can he used as indicative of hygiene production of the raw milk and the contamination after-pasteurization. The traditional methods for the enumeration of the total and faecal coliforms are laborious and needs an incubation time of 96 hours. Rapid methods for detection of these microorganisms have been developed and among them the ColsSuroit is a rapid method that gives results in 24 hours and involves defined substrates for simultaneous determina...

Elsa Helena Walter de Santana; Luís Augusto Nero; Márcia de Aguiar Ferreira Barros; Vanerli Beloti; Juliana Aparecida Souza; Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo Franco

2000-01-01

93

Fecal coliform-related bacterial and coliphage populations in five lakes of southeastern Spain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, fecal and total coliforms, fecal streptococci and coliphages were isolated from five protected lakes in the Antequera area of Spain over the time from January to March (1994-96). The water samples contained large number of heterotrophic bacteria (mean counts 0.2 to 5.0 x 10(7) cfu per 100 ml). Most of the lakes contained fecal streptococci and a relationship between streptococci and salinity of the water samples was established. Coliphages were isolated from lakes containing fecal coliform and these bacteria were taxonomically identified as E. coli. Coliform bacilli do not seem to be an adequate indicator of fecal pollution for these ephemeral small lakes. PMID:9880932

Calvo, C; Gómez, M A; González-López, J

1998-11-01

94

Random total antiepileptic drug levels and seizure control during pregnancy.  

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It is concluded that subtherapeutic serum levels of antiepileptic drugs correlated highly with the increased frequency of seizure in these pregnant women. Monitoring of state of seizure control in epileptic pregnant women should be made regularly during the course of their pregnancies.

M. A. Al-Bunyan

2001-04-01

95

Application of decision-tree technique to assess herd specific risk factors for coliform mastitis in sows  

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The aim of the study was to investigate factors associated with coliform mastitis in sows, determined at herd level, by applying the decision-tree technique. Coliform mastitis represents an economically important disease in sows after farrowing that also affects the health, welfare and performance of the piglets. The decision-tree technique, a data mining method, may be an effective tool for making large datasets accessible and different sow herd information comparable. It is based on the C4....

Kerstin Reiners; Nicole Kemper; Imke Traulsen; Imke Gerjets

2011-01-01

96

Male Accessory Gland Infection: Relevance of Serum Total Testosterone Levels  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim of the present study was to evaluate the different ultrasound characterization of fertile symptomatic patients with MAGI (male accessory gland infection) according to different serum concentrations of total T (TT). We analyzed the ultrasound and hormonal data of 200 patients aged between 24.0 and 67.0 years. Patients were divided into six groups according to the sextile distribution of TT. Patients with serum concentrations of TT 6.6?ng?mL?1 showed a frequency of ultrasound criteria suggestive for bilateral form of prostatitis and prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis and significantly lower compared to the other examined groups. At multivariate logistic regression analysis adjusted for age and BMI, TT was an independent predictive factor of prostatovesiculitis (OR = 0.818 [95% CI: 0.675–0.992]; P < 0.01) and prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis (OR = 0.714 [95% CI: 0.578–0.880]; P < 0.01), which represent the main forms of complicated MAGI. The results of this study suggest that male hypogonadism could be associated with a different ultrasound characterization of these patients.

Condorelli, R. A.; Calogero, A. E.; Vicari, E.; Favilla, V.; Cimino, S.; Russo, G. I.; Morgia, G.; La Vignera, S.

2014-01-01

97

Antagonistic effect of Lactobacillus strains against gas-producing coliforms isolated from colicky infants  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Infantile colic is a common disturb within the first 3 months of life, nevertheless the pathogenesis is incompletely understood and treatment remains an open issue. Intestinal gas production is thought to be one of the causes of abdominal discomfort in infants suffering from colic. However, data about the role of the amount of gas produced by infants' colonic microbiota and the correlation with the onset of colic symptoms are scanty. The benefit of supplementation with lactobacilli been recently reported but the mechanisms by which they exert their effects have not yet been fully defined. This study was performed to evaluate the interaction between Lactobacillus spp. strains and gas-forming coliforms isolated from stools of colicky infants. Results Strains of coliforms were isolated from stools of 45 colicky and 42 control breastfed infants in McConkey Agar and identified using PCR with species-specific primers, and the BBL™ Enterotube™ II system for Enterobacteriaceae. Gas-forming capability of coliforms was assessed in liquid cultures containing lactose as sole carbon source. The average count of total coliforms in colicky infants was significantly higher than controls: 5.98 (2.00-8.76 log10 vs 3.90 (2.50-7.10 CFU/g of faeces (p = 0.015. The following strains were identified: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae and Enterococcus faecalis. Then, 27 Lactobacillus strains were tested for their antagonistic effect against coliforms both by halo-forming method and in liquid co-cultures. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.delbrueckii DSM 20074 and L. plantarum MB 456 were able to inhibit all coliforms strains (halo-forming method, also in liquid co-cultures, thus demonstrating an antagonistic activity. Conclusions This study shows that two out of 27 strains of Lactobacillus examined possess an antimicrobial effect against six species of gas-forming coliforms isolated from colicky infants. Our findings may stimulate new researches to identify which Lactobacillus strains can improve colicky symptoms by acting on coliforms gut colonization.

Oggero Roberto

2011-06-01

98

Níveis periféricos de testosterona total em touros Guzerá / Peripheral levels of total testosterone in Guzerat bulls  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram avaliados 24 touros da raça Guzerá, de 24 a 34 meses de idade, com o objetivo de estudar o perfil da concentração sérica de testosterona e sua variação relativa à idade, peso corporal e características andrológicas. A concentração média de testosterona foi de 1,36 ng/mL, com influência do horá [...] rio de coleta nos níveis circulantes. A equação de regressão da concentração sérica de testosterona em função do peso corporal dos animais apresentou efeito linear, sugerindo que, para cada quilograma a mais no peso corporal, ocorre acréscimo de 0,0082 ng/mL nas concentrações de testosterona. A regressão da concentração sérica de testosterona e a circunferência escrotal (CE) também apresentou efeito linear indicando que, para cada centímetro a mais na CE nos touros Guzerá, ocorreu aumento de 0,2319 ng/mL na concentração de testosterona. A regressão da concentração espermática do sêmen em função da concentração sérica de testosterona apresentou efeito linear, os resultados mostram que, para cada 0,1 ng/mL a mais na concentração de testosterona circulante, ocorreu aumento de 9,29 x 10(6) espermatozoides/mL de sêmen. Os resultados indicam que os níveis circulantes de testosterona podem auxiliar na identificação e seleção de touros Guzerá, com maior potencial reprodutivo. Abstract in english Twenty-four Guzerat bulls were evaluated from 24 to 34 months of age, aiming to determinate the bulls serum testosterone concentration profile and their variation according to age, body weight and andrologic traits. The average of testosterone concentration was 1.36 ng/mL, with effect of time at har [...] vest on circulating levels. The regression equation of testosterone according to body weight showed linear effect, suggesting that for each kilogram added to the body weight, an increase of 0.0082 ng/mL on serum testosterone concentrations occurs; and the regression of testosterone according to scrotal circumference (SC) also showed a linear effect. The results show that for each centimeter added to SC in Guzerat bulls, an increase of 0.2319 ng/mL on testosterone concentrations occurs. The regression of sperm concentration according to serum testosterone showed a linear effect, the results show that for each 0.1 ng/mL added to serum testosterone concentration, an increase of 9.29x10(6) spermatozoa/mL of semen occurs. The results indicate that circulating levels of testosterone may help on identification and selection of Guzerat bulls with major reproductive potential.

Juliano Cesar, Dias; Venício José de, Andrade; Lucas Luz, Emerick; Jorge André Matias, Martins; Vicente Ribeiro do, Vale Filho.

2014-03-01

99

Transit effects on fecal Escherichia coli O157 prevalence and coliform concentrations in feedlot cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our objectives were to evaluate the effects of transportation and lairage on fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157 (E. coli O157), total Escherichia coli, and total coliforms in feedlot cattle, and the relationships between E. coli O157 prevalence and total E. coli population. The study was a randomized complete block design with a split-plot including 2 treatments: a nontransported group, which remained in its pen at all times, and a transported group, which was transported for 1 h in a trailer and subsequently unloaded in a different pen. The experiment was repeated on 3 different days (blocking factor) with 20 steers/d (10 steers/treatment, 60 total). Fecal samples were taken pretransport (h 0) and after 4 and 28 h, lairage from freshly voided fecal pats were taken from each animal. One gram of feces was transferred to a PBS tube, serially diluted, and plated onto Petrifilm for enumeration of total coliforms. Another sample (1 g) was added to gram-negative broth containing cefixime, cefsulodin, and vancomycin, and subjected to immunomagnetic separation. Resulting beads were plated onto MacConkey agar with sorbitol, cefixime, and tellurite. Nonsorbitol fermenting colonies were selected and tested for indole production and O157 antigen agglutination. Results were confirmed using an API 20E kit. Prevalence of E. coli O157 was transient across blocks. E. coli O157 prevalence revealed no treatment × sampling time interaction (P = 0.179) or sampling time effect (P = 0.937), but a tendency for a treatment effect (P = 0.092). Numbers of E. coli and other coliforms did not change across blocks. No effect of treatment (P > 0.7) was observed on total E. coli concentrations or total coliforms. However, tendencies for treatment × sampling time interactions were observed on both populations (P transport stress on E. coli O157 prevalence and the changes undergone in pathogen shedding patterns after transportation. PMID:24352970

Aperce, C C; Alvarado, C A; Miller, K A; Van Bibber-Krueger, C L; Drouillard, J S

2014-02-01

100

COMPOSITE SAMPLING FOR DETECTION OF COLIFORM BACTERIA IN WATER SUPPLY  

Science.gov (United States)

Low densities of coliform bacteria introduced into distribution systems may survive in protected habitats. These organisms may interfere with and cause confusion in the use of the coliforms as indicators of sewage contamination of drinking water. Methods of increasing the probabi...

 
 
 
 
101

COMPOSITE SAMPLINGS FOR DETECTION OF COLIFORM BACTERIA IN WATER SUPPLY  

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Low densities of coliform bacteria introduced into distribution systems may survive in protected habitats. hese organisms may interfere with and cause confusion in the use of the coliforms as indicators of sewage contamination of drinking water. ethods of increasing the probabili...

102

INTERACTIONS BETWEEN HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT BACTERIA AND COLIFORM ORGANISMS  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies were initiated to investigate the interactions between heterotrophic plate count bacteria and coliform organisms. The authors used spiked samples to show that heterotrophic plate count bacteria could reduce coliform densities by more than 3 logs within 8 days. Some hetero...

103

Determinação do nível de contaminação por coliformes totais no queijo Minas comercializado na região metropolitana de Salvador - Bahia.  

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Full Text Available RESUMO: O leite e os seus produtos lácteos têm sido usados como alimento para o homem desde os primórdios da civilização. A limpeza e a sanitização na indústria de alimentos são operações primordiais no controle higiênico-sanitário dos alimentos e visam evitar a contaminação dos mesmos. Assim como, em fase final da produção, por exemplo, durante o envase onde as embalagens utilizadas para os queijos frescos tem como principais funções evitar grandes perdas de umidade e a contaminação microbiológica. Foram realizadas seis coisas, perfazendo 24 (75% amostras de queijo minas-frescal analisadas de sete diferentes marcas, sendo oito (33,33% representando a marca B, cinco (20,83%. a marca C, quatro (16,66% a marca D, três (12,50% a marca E, dois (8,33% a marca F, uma (4,16% a marca G e uma (4,16% a marca H, enquanto foram analisadas seis (25% amostras de queijo minas-padrão, em três diferentes marcas perfazendo três (50% amostras da marca A1, duas (33,33% da marca A2 e uma (16,66% da marca A3, realizadas diluições e semeadas, em triplicatas, em tubos de ensaio contendo caldo lactose-bile-verde brilhante e tubos de Durham (37C /24-48 h. Das seis amostras de quejo minas padrão analisadas 100% delas estavam com nível baixo de coliformes totais (NMP, menos de 30 bac/g, já das 24 amostras de queijo minas frescal das sete diferentes marcas pesquisadas 18 (75% apresentaram-se, em média, com níveis de coliformes totais (NMP significativos, igual ou acima de 102. Foram encontrados exemplares de queijo minas em condições impróprias para o consumo, já que o número de coliformes totais foram significativos e comuns, sendo estes indicadores de qualidade do produto, podendo então, vir a provocar problemas de saúde pública, sendo um risco à saúde humana PALAVRAS CHAVE: Queijo, qualidade, coliformes totais SUMMARY: Milk and derivatives have been used as food since the origin of te civilization. Cleanness and sanitation in food industry are primordial action in te hygienic and sanitary control of te foods and prevent your contamination. just as, in final stage of production, for example, in tine bottle, which packing used for fresh cheese may be principals functions to prevent large loss of humidity and microbiological contamination. Six collect were accomplished, an total of 24 (75% samples of â??minas- frescalâ? cheese were analyzed of seven differents marks, eight (33.33% of the mark B, five (20.83% of the mark C (16.66% of the mark D, three (12.50% of the mark E, two (8.33% of the mark F, one (4.16% of the mark G, and one (4.16% of te mark H, while were accomplished and analyzed six (25% samples of â??minas-padrãoâ? cheese, of three differents marks and total of three (50% samples of te mark A1, two (33.33% of the mark A2 and one (16.66% of the mark A3, dissolved and seeding, in third copy, in trail tubs whit brilliant-green bile broth 2%. and tubs of Durham (37C/ 24-48h. Or six samples of â??minas-padrãoâ? cheese analyzed 100% were with level low of coliforms totals (NMP, <30 bac/g in 24 samples of â??minas frescalâ? cheese of the seven differents marks studied 18 (75% showed, on the average, with numbers of coliforms totals (NMP significant, >102 . â??Minasâ? cheese examples were found in incorrect conditions for the consume, because the number of coliforms totals were significant and common and serving as product quality indicators, causing troubles of public health, a risk for the human health. KEYWORDS: Cheese, quality, coliforms totais

T. C. N. Martinez

2005-03-01

104

US EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) perspective on AOC (assimilable organic carbon) research as related to coliform colonization and compliance problems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The biological stability of treated drinking water has become a major concern for water utilities. The U.S. E.P.A. is concerned from the perspective of coliform MCL compliance and remediation of coliform biofilm problems. The levels of readily assimilable nutrients present in treated water are affected by water treatment processes, but of greatest concern are those processes, such as ozonation, that cause increases in the levels of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and therefore contribute to biological instability of the water. Thus, the combined use of ozonation (pre-oxidant) and a lower disinfectant residual as an approach to reducing disinfectant byproducts may result in increased bacterial growth, including coliforms, in the distribution system. Information is needed on: the AOC flux level that stimulate coliform growth in biofilm: the specific nutrients and concentrations that can stimulate growth of both coliforms and HPC; treatment strategies to reduce AOC levels and strategies to effectively control biofilm formation where AOC levels cannot be reduced.

Reasoner, D.J.; Rice, E.W.

1989-01-01

105

Coliform accumulation in Amphibalanus amphitrite (Darwin, 1854) (Cirripedia) and its use as an organic pollution bioindicator in the estuarine area of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil / Acumulação de coliformes em Amphibalanus amphitrite (Darwin, 1854) (Cirripedia) e seu uso como bioindicador de poluição orgânica na área estuarina do Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Amostras de água e cirrípedes Amphibalanus amphitrite foram coletados em Recife, Brasil, para avaliar se estes acumulam coliformes totais (CT) e termo-tolerantes (TTC) relacionados à poluição por esgoto doméstico. Foram utilizados os valores de Números Mais Prováveis (NMP) e os procedimentos padrões [...] para exame de bivalves. Comparativamente às amostras de água, os valores mais altos de coliformes foram dos cirrípedes, com valores de TC variando de 2,4 × 10(6) NMP.g-1, e TTC variando de > 2,4 × 10³ a 2,9 × 10(5) NMP.g-1. Os cirrípedes acumularam TC Ewingella americana e TTC Escherichia coli, Enterobacter gergoviae, Enterobacter aerogenes e Enterobacter sakazakii. Os resultados proveram uma indicação de que há contaminação orgânica nas localidades de amostras e que esta espécie pode ser um bioindicador bom de poluição orgânica. Abstract in english Samples of water and barnacles Amphibalanus amphitrite were collected from Recife, Brazil, to assess if it accumulates total (TC) and thermotolerant coliforms (TTC) related with sewage pollution. The Most Probable Number (MPN) values and the standard procedures for examination of shellfish were used [...] . Comparatively with the water samples, the highest coliform values came from the barnacles, with TC values ranging from 2.4 × 10(6) MPN.g-1, and TTC ranging from > 2.4 × 10³ to 2.9 × 10(5) MPN.g-1. Barnacles accumulate the TC Ewingella americana, and the TTC Escherichia coli, Enterobacter gergoviae, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Enterobacter sakazakii. The results provided an indication of the level of organic contamination at the sampling locations and that this species could be a good organic pollution bioindicator.

CMR, Farrapeira; ES, Mendes; J., Dourado; J, Guimarães.

106

Coliform accumulation in Amphibalanus amphitrite (Darwin, 1854 (Cirripedia and its use as an organic pollution bioindicator in the estuarine area of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil Acumulação de coliformes em Amphibalanus amphitrite (Darwin, 1854 (Cirripedia e seu uso como bioindicador de poluição orgânica na área estuarina do Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Samples of water and barnacles Amphibalanus amphitrite were collected from Recife, Brazil, to assess if it accumulates total (TC and thermotolerant coliforms (TTC related with sewage pollution. The Most Probable Number (MPN values and the standard procedures for examination of shellfish were used. Comparatively with the water samples, the highest coliform values came from the barnacles, with TC values ranging from 2.4 × 10(6 MPN.g-1, and TTC ranging from > 2.4 × 10³ to 2.9 × 10(5 MPN.g-1. Barnacles accumulate the TC Ewingella americana, and the TTC Escherichia coli, Enterobacter gergoviae, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Enterobacter sakazakii. The results provided an indication of the level of organic contamination at the sampling locations and that this species could be a good organic pollution bioindicator.Amostras de água e cirrípedes Amphibalanus amphitrite foram coletados em Recife, Brasil, para avaliar se estes acumulam coliformes totais (CT e termo-tolerantes (TTC relacionados à poluição por esgoto doméstico. Foram utilizados os valores de Números Mais Prováveis (NMP e os procedimentos padrões para exame de bivalves. Comparativamente às amostras de água, os valores mais altos de coliformes foram dos cirrípedes, com valores de TC variando de 2,4 × 10(6 NMP.g-1, e TTC variando de > 2,4 × 10³ a 2,9 × 10(5 NMP.g-1. Os cirrípedes acumularam TC Ewingella americana e TTC Escherichia coli, Enterobacter gergoviae, Enterobacter aerogenes e Enterobacter sakazakii. Os resultados proveram uma indicação de que há contaminação orgânica nas localidades de amostras e que esta espécie pode ser um bioindicador bom de poluição orgânica.

CMR Farrapeira

2010-05-01

107

Evaluation of Coliform and Enterococcus as Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Frozen Meat and Vegetables in Ankara  

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Objective: In this study, it was aimed to evaluate 120 frozen meat and vegetable samples (meat ball, minced meat, small chunks, broccoli, peas and cauliflower) purchased from different supermarkets in Ankara, Turkey for the presence of fecal coliform and fecal Enterococcus as indicator microorganisms and to determine of other bacteriological criteria in these samples. Method: One hundred twenty samples including frozen meat and vegetables were analyzed for isolation of total aerobic bacteria,...

C?itak, Sumru; Gu?ndog?an, Neslihan; Kala, Erol

2009-01-01

108

Molecular identification of coliform bacteria isolated from drinking water reservoirs with traditional methods and the Colilert-18 system.  

Science.gov (United States)

The accuracy of a traditional method (lactose utilization with acid and gas production) for the detection of coliform bacteria and E. coli was tested in comparison with method ISO 9308-1 (based on acid formation from lactose) and the Colilert-18 system (detection of beta-galactosidase). A total of 345 isolates were identified after isolation from water samples using API 20E strips. The Colilert-18 led to the highest number of positive findings (95% of the isolates were assigned to coliforms), whereas the ISO-9308-1 method resulted only in 29% coliform findings. With the traditional method only 15% were rated positive. Most of the isolates were identified by the API 20E system as Enterobacter spp. (species of the Enterobacter cloacae complex), Serratia spp., Citrobacter spp.and Klebsiella spp.; but species identification remained vague in several cases. A more detailed identification of 126 pure cultures by using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and analysis of the hsp60 gene resulted in the identification of Enterobacter nimipressuralis, E. amnigenus, E. asburiae, E. hormaechei, and Serratia fonticola as predominat coliforms. These species are beta-galactosidase positive, but show acid formation from lactose often after a prolonged incubation time. They are often not of fecal origin and may interfere with the ability to accurately detect coliforms of fecal origin. PMID:17870668

Kämpfer, Peter; Nienhüser, Anita; Packroff, Gabriele; Wernicke, Frank; Mehling, Arnd; Nixdorf, Katja; Fiedler, Stefanie; Kolauch, Claudia; Esser, Michael

2008-07-01

109

Yeasts and coliform bacteria of water accumulated in bromeliads of mangrove and sand dune ecosystems of southeast Brazil.  

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Yeasts and coliform bacteria were isolated from water that accumulated in the central cups and adjacent leaf axilae of two bromeliads, Neoregelia cruenta of a coastal sand dune and Quesnelia quesneliana of a mangrove ecosystem near the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The mean total coliform counts were above 10,000 per 100 mL for waters of both plants, but the mean fecal coliform counts were only 74 per 100 mL for Q. quesneliana and mostly undetected in water from N. cruenta. Of 90 fecal coliform isolates, 51 were typical of Escherichia coli in colony morphology and indol, methyl red, Volges-Proskauer, and citrate (IMViC) tests. Seven representatives of the typical E. coli cultures were identified as this species, but the identifications of nine other coliform bacteria were mostly dubious. The yeast community of N. cruenta was typical of plant surfaces with basidiomycetous yeasts anamorphs, and the black yeast Aureobasidium pullulans was prevalent. Quesnelia quesneliana had a substantial proportion of ascomycetous yeasts and their anamorphs, including a probable new biotype of Saccharomyces unisporus. Our results suggested that the microbial communities in bromeliad waters are typically autochtonous and not contaminants. PMID:8261333

Hagler, A N; Rosa, C A; Morais, P B; Mendonça-Hagler, L C; Franco, G M; Araujo, F V; Soares, C A

1993-10-01

110

PROTOZOAN SOURCES OF SPONTANEOUS COLIFORM OCCURRENCE IN CHLORINATED DRINKING WATER  

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The spontaneous occurrence of coliforms in chlorinated drinking waters has resulted in concern over their potential source and mechanism(s) of introduction into water delivery systems. Previous observations related to protozoal resistance to chlorine coupled with the ingestion of...

111

Teste alternativo para detecção de coliformes em leite humano ordenhado  

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Full Text Available Objetivo: comparar um método alternativo com o teste do número mais provável (NMP para detecção de coliformes totais em leite humano ordenhado. Métodos: 343 amostras de leite humano ordenhado, obtidas a partir de frascos oriundos de coleta domiciliar, recebidas pelo Banco de Leite Humano do Instituto Fernandes Figueira - IFF, por doadoras previamente orientadas, foram encaminhadas ao laboratório de controle de alimentos do IFF e empregadas na comparação de dois métodos: 1 - técnica do número mais provável, conforme descrito no Standard methods for the examination of dairy products; 2 - método alternativo proposto. Resultados: os microorganismos do grupo coliformes foram detectados em 31,2% das amostras analisadas, com populações variando de 3,0 x 100 a 1,1 x 104 coliformes totais N.M.P/ml. A comparação do teste clássico com o alternativo revelou resultados semelhantes quanto à recuperação de microorganismos coliformes em amostras de leite humano ordenhado. O método alternativo detectou a presença de coliformes totais em todas as amostras contaminadas e em quatro amostras não contaminadas, segundo o teste de NMP. Conclusão: o teste alternativo permite constatar a presença ou ausência de coliformes, tornando-se útil no controle de qualidade dos frascos de leite humano ordenhado pasteurizados, manipulados nos bancos de leite humano. Portanto, o teste de NMP pode ser substituído pelo teste alternativo, que poderá ser empregado como rotina nos bancos de leite humano, já que seu custo equivale a 1/7 do tradicional.

Novak Franz R.

2002-01-01

112

A follow up on the distribution of coliform bacteria along the Jordanian coastline of the gulf of Aq aba  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey of the occurrence of enteric indicator organisms (e. g. total and fecal coliform) and enteric pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella sp.) was undertaken at ten sites, along the northern coast of the Gulf of Aq aba (Jordan)m during the period October 1994 to September 1995. Both total coliforms and Escherichia coli counts were within the accepted international standards for marine bathing water. the mean value per 100 ml seawater ranged between 18 to 70(n=12 months) for total coliforms, 1 to 27 (n=8 mon thus) for Escherichia coli and 1 to 9 (n = 8 months) for Salmonella species. The analysis of va rance for total coliforms revealed a highly significant temporal variations (P<0.001), but no significant spatial differences were found .Whereas, Salmonella sp. counts showed significant spatial variations (P<0.001), with the Border site being significantly different from the other sites except the Palace site. These results suggest that the hygienic water quality at the Jordanian side of the Gulf of Aq aba, is good all over the year although the sewage discharge from Ei lat might cause a health hazard as to be the major source of enteric pathogenic bacteria. (authors). 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

113

Total and antigen-specific Ige levels in umbilical cord blood  

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Full Text Available Abstract The present study was conducted to learn whether the perinatal and environmental factors could influence the total and antigen-specific IgE levels in umbilical cord blood. Retrospective data were obtained from 173 mother-infant pairs. Total and specific (for children's food, wheat/grass and house dust mite-HDM cord blood IgE levels were determined using the immunoassay test. The total cord blood IgE was between 0.0-23.08 IU/ml (mean 0.55 ± 2.07 IU/ml; median 0.16 IU/ml. Total IgE levels were significantly higher in boys compared with girls (OR = 2.2; P = 0.007, and in newborns with complicated pregnancy (OR = 2.7; P = 0.003. A greater number of siblings correlated with increases in the total cord blood IgE (P

Sybilski AJ

2009-12-01

114

Investigação teórica do processo de redução de coliformes em leitos cultivados / Theoretical investigation of coliform reduction in constructed wetland  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo mostra a continuidade da pesquisa sugerida por Amendola et al. (2003), para o caso em que se quer buscar maior precisão na investigação teórica do processo de redução de poluentes, em função do meio suporte usado em sistemas de leitos cultivados. Esta investigação se dá via modelagem mat [...] emática e simulação numérica do processo descrito por uma equação diferencial parcial de difusão-advecção, que envolve constantes que caracterizam o meio suporte (Moreno-Grau, 1996) e deve ser associada a condições iniciais e de contorno, estabelecidas de acordo com um procedimento experimental previamente realizado. Para resolução da equação implementa-se um algoritmo baseado no esquema implícito do método de diferenças finitas que, executado no MATLAB 6.1, gera valores da concentração dos poluentes que dependem dos valores das referidas constantes. Os resultados obtidos da simulação são comparados com valores de referência para a determinação do valor do coeficiente de dispersão longitudinal que, por sua vez, gera o menor resíduo para cada tipo de meio suporte do leito cultivado. Os resultados obtidos levam à conclusão de que o leito cultivado com brita e pneu picado é mais eficiente que aquele só com brita na remoção de coliformes fecais e totais. Abstract in english This paper shows the continuity of the research, as suggested by Amendola et al. (2003), when looking for better accuracy in the theoretical investigation of the pollutant reduction as a function of the support bed used in constructed wetland. This investigation is performed through the mathematical [...] modeling and numerical simulation of the process, which is described by an advection-diffusion differential equation. This equation depends on certain constants which characterize the support bed (Moreno-Grau, 1996), and must be associated to the initial and boundary conditions established according to the experimental procedure. To solve the equation an algorithm based on the implicit scheme of the finite difference method was implemented which, when ran with MATLAB 6.1, generated values for the pollutant concentration which depend on the mentioned constants. The results obtained with the simulation were compared with the reference values to determine the longitudinal dispersion coefficient value which leads to the least residual value for each kind of support bed. The obtained results lead to the conclusion that the constructed wetland with crushed stone and chopped tires is better than the one with crushed stone alone to reduce fecal and total coliforms.

Mariângela, Amendola; Anderson L., Souza.

2007-12-01

115

Total and antigen-specific Ige levels in umbilical cord blood  

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Abstract The present study was conducted to learn whether the perinatal and environmental factors could influence the total and antigen-specific IgE levels in umbilical cord blood. Retrospective data were obtained from 173 mother-infant pairs. Total and specific (for children's food, wheat/grass and house dust mite-HDM) cord blood IgE levels were determined using the immunoassay test. The total cord blood IgE was between 0.0-23.08 IU/ml (mean 0.55 ± 2.07 IU/ml; median 0.16 IU/ml). ...

Aj, Sybilski; Doboszynska A; Samolinski B

2009-01-01

116

Elimination of coliforms and Salmonella spp. in sheep meat by gamma irradiation treatment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study aimed at evaluating the bacteriological effects of the treatment of sheep meat contaminated with total coliforms, coliforms at 45 °C and Salmonella spp. by using irradiation at doses of 3 kGy and 5 kGy. Thirty sheep meat samples were collected from animals located in Rio de Janeiro State, [...] Brazil, and then grouped in three lots including 10 samples: non-irradiated (control); irradiated with 3 kGy; and irradiated with 5 kGy. Exposure to gamma radiation in a 137Cs source-driven irradiating facility was perfomed at the Nuclear Defense Section of the Brazilian Army Technological Center (CTEx) in Rio de Janeiro. The samples were kept under freezing temperature (-18 °C) until the analyses, which occurred in two and four months after irradiation. The results were interpreted by comparison with the standards of the current legislation and demonstrated that non-irradiated samples were outside the parameters established by law for all groups of bacteria studied. Gamma irradiation was effective in inactivating those microorganisms at both doses tested and the optimal dose was achieved at 3 kGy. The results have shown not only the need for sanitary conditions improvements in slaughter and processing of sheep meat but also the irradiation effectiveness to eliminate coliform bacteria and Salmonella spp.

Luciana Salles Vasconcelos, Henriques; Fábio da Costa, Henry; João Batista, Barbosa; Silvania Alves, Ladeira; Silvia Menezes de Faria, Pereira; Isabela Maria da Silva, Antonio; Gina Nunes, Teixeira; Meire Lelis Leal, Martins; Helio de Carvalho, Vital; Dália dos Prazeres, Rodrigues; Eliane Moura Falavina dos, Reis.

1147-11-01

117

Elimination of coliforms and Salmonella spp. in sheep meat by gamma irradiation treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed at evaluating the bacteriological effects of the treatment of sheep meat contaminated with total coliforms, coliforms at 45 °C and Salmonella spp. by using irradiation at doses of 3 kGy and 5 kGy. Thirty sheep meat samples were collected from animals located in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, and then grouped in three lots including 10 samples: non-irradiated (control); irradiated with 3 kGy; and irradiated with 5 kGy. Exposure to gamma radiation in a (137)Cs source-driven irradiating facility was performed at the Nuclear Defense Section of the Brazilian Army Technological Center (CTEx) in Rio de Janeiro. The samples were kept under freezing temperature (-18 °C) until the analyses, which occurred in two and four months after irradiation. The results were interpreted by comparison with the standards of the current legislation and demonstrated that non-irradiated samples were outside the parameters established by law for all groups of bacteria studied. Gamma irradiation was effective in inactivating those microorganisms at both doses tested and the optimal dose was achieved at 3 kGy. The results have shown not only the need for sanitary conditions improvements in slaughter and processing of sheep meat but also the irradiation effectiveness to eliminate coliform bacteria and Salmonella spp. PMID:24688504

Henriques, Luciana Salles Vasconcelos; da Costa Henry, Fábio; Barbosa, João Batista; Ladeira, Silvania Alves; de Faria Pereira, Silvia Menezes; da Silva Antonio, Isabela Maria; Teixeira, Gina Nunes; Martins, Meire Lelis Leal; de Carvalho Vital, Helio; dos Prazeres Rodrigues, Dália; dos Reis, Eliane Moura Falavina

2013-12-01

118

Association of serum total bilirubin levels with diastolic dysfunction in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is one of the main characteristics of heart failure patients with a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. As bilirubin is regarded as an important endogenous antioxidant molecule, serum total bilirubin levels were compared between heart fail [...] ure patients with a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction and normal controls in this study. We recruited 327 heart failure patients with a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction and 200 healthy controls. Patients were divided into 4 subgroups by their comprehensive echocardiographic manifestations, 1-mild, 2-moderate, 3-severe (reversible restrictive), 4-severe (fixed restrictive). Total bilirubin levels were compared using stepwise multiple regressions adjusted for selected factors. RESULTS: After adjusting for gender, age, smoking, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and triglyceride, serum total bilirubin levels were significantly lower in the heart failure group compared with the control group (P

Huan, Zheng; Ye, Li; Nanzi, Xie.

119

Evaluación de tres métodos para la inactivación de coliformes y Escherichia coli presentes en agua residual doméstica, empleada para riego  

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Full Text Available Evaluation of three methods for the inactivation of coliforms and Escherichia coli present in domestic wastewaters used inirrigation. Objective. To evaluate three treatments (facultative stabilization ponds, heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO2 and chemicaldisinfection with sodium hypochlorite for the inactivation of coliforms and Escherichia coli present in domestic wastewaters used inagricultural irrigation. Materials and methods. Wastewater was characterized by physical, chemical and microbiological analyses and wasthen exposed to a facultative pond treatment (FPT, post-photocatalytic treatment (PTFTiO2/UV and post-chemical treatment (PTQNaClOto assess the disinfecting capacity of each method in the inactivation of total coliforms and E. coli. Three new samples of wastewater wereprocessed and used in irrigation tests on a laboratory-scale basis for 30 days, using Lactuca sativa cultivar. Batavia as a model plant andevaluating the initial and final concentrations of the two groups. Results. PTFTiO2/UV was significantly higher than FPT and PTQNaClO(p<0.0001, obtaining 100% of inactivation of coliforms and E. coli after 30 minutes of irradiation at a reactor scale. Regarding the irrigationtests with L. sativa, we showed that using water treated by PTFTiO2/UV there is no contamination with E. coli and coliforms after 30 days.On the contrary, plants irrigated with water treated by FPT and PTQNaClO showed an increase in the two populations originating a contamination problem in the vegetable by the end of the laboratory experiments. Conclusion. The heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO2was an effective method in the reduction of coliforms and E. coli present in domestic wastewater.

Andrea Sánchez- Garibello

2010-08-01

120

A comparison of total antioxidant levels in breast-fed and formula-fed infants  

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Full Text Available Aim: We aimed to evaluate the effect of breast milk and formula on the total antioxidant capacity of the plasma. Material and Method: The oxidative stress index was calculated by measuring plasma total antioxidant level and total oxidant level in 35 infants between the ages of 3 and 6 months. The study approved by the ethics committe (14.10.2009-10/7.Results: No significant differences were observed between the two groups in respect of age, gender, plasma total antioxidant status and total oxidant status. Plasma total antioxidant levels were higher in the breast-fed group than the formula-fed group (p=0.004. Plasma total antioxidant status was lower in the breast-fed group compared to the formula-fed infants (p=0.019. The oxidative stress index values of the breast-fed group were lower than formula-fed infants (p=0.006. Conclusions: Breast milk provides better antioxidant defence than does formula in infants before six months of age. (Turk Arch Ped 2012; 47: 95-8

Abdullah Alp?nar

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
121

Changing of Total Protein and Plasma Cholinesterase Levels Depending on Age in Human  

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Full Text Available In this study, differences of acetylcholinesterase and total protein levels which plays very important role in nervous system and some of the related diseases like Alzhemier, Down sendrome, Parkinson in the different age groups in human were investigated. Cholinesterase and total protein levels of 200 healthy people`s blood plasma that are between 7-60 years old were investigated by using spectrophotometric techniques. There was no corelation between plasma cholinesterase activity and age groups. Total ?protein levels that are 7-12 years old group shows differences than the other groups. Disfunction of food uptake and situation of social cultural cause decreasing the total blood protein in 7-12 years old groups. Meanwhile, this difference in total protein for this group is not enough to predict for some of the disease which to become fact in future. There was no any study on differences of blood plasma acetylcholinesterase and total protein levels in the different age groups in human for Turkey. Because of this specifity this study has original quality and necessary for investigators which study in this area.

Nuray Unat

2005-01-01

122

The Relationship between Total Bilirubin Levels and Total Mortality in Older Adults: The United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004  

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Objective Due to its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, bilirubin has been associated with reduced cardiovascular risk. A recent study demonstrated an L-shaped association of pre-treatment total bilirubin levels with total mortality in a statin-treated cohort. We therefore investigated the association of total bilirubin levels with total mortality in a nationally representative sample of older adults from the general population. Methods A total of 4,303 participants aged ?60 years from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004 with mortality data followed up through December 31, 2006 were included in this analysis, with a mean follow-up period of 4.5 years. Results Participants with total bilirubin levels of 0.1–0.4 mg/dl had the highest mortality rate (19.8%). Compared with participants with total bilirubin levels of 0.5–0.7 mg/dl and in a multivariable regression model, a lower total bilirubin level of 0.1–0.4 mg/dl was associated with higher risk of total mortality (hazard ratios, 1.36; 95% confidence interval, 1.07–1.72; P?=?0.012), while higher levels (?0.8 mg/dl) also tended to be associated with higher risk of total mortality, but this did not reach statistical significance (hazard ratios, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.98–1.56; P?=?0.072). Conclusion In this nationally representative sample of older adults, the association of total bilirubin levels with total mortality was the highest among those with a level between 0.1 and 0.4 mg/dl. Further studies are needed to investigate whether higher total bilirubin levels could be associated with a higher mortality risk, compared to a level of 0.5–0.7 mg/dl. PMID:24728477

Ong, Kwok-Leung; Allison, Matthew A.; Cheung, Bernard M. Y.; Wu, Ben J.; Barter, Philip J.; Rye, Kerry-Anne

2014-01-01

123

The measurement of total serum IgE levels in rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A direct solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the measurement of total serum IgE in the rat has been developed. The assay is very sensitive with a lower limit of detection of 5 ng/ml. The intra and interassay reproducibility proves to be very acceptable and the specificity is demonstrated by looking at the interference by other immunoglobulins. Preliminary results on total serum IgE levels are given

124

Normal levels of total body sodium and chlorine by neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In vivo neutron activation analysis was used to measure total body sodium and chlorine in 18 male and 18 female normal adults. Corrections for body size were developed. Normalisation factors were derived which enable the prediction of the normal levels of sodium and chlorine in a subject. The coefficient of variation of normalised sodium was 5.9% in men and 6.9% in women, and of normalised chlorine 9.3% in men and 5.5% in women. In the range examined (40-70 years) no significant age dependence was observed for either element. Total body sodium was correlated with total body chlorine and total body calcium. Sodium excess, defined as the amount of body sodium in excess of that associated with chlorine, also correlated well with total body calcium. In females there was a mean annual loss of sodium excess of 1.2% after the menopause, similar to the loss of calcium. (author)

125

Total serum IgE levels in soil-transmitted helminth infected children with atopy symptoms  

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Full Text Available Background High total serum immunoglobulin E(IgE levels and eosinophilia are markers for atopy, but other factors may also play a key role in affecting atopy, such as intestinal parasitic infection. Helminthiasis has been associated with a reduced risk of atopy and asthma symptoms in areas with high prevalence of parasitic infections. Objective To assess for associations between total serum IgE level and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH infection, as well as between STH infection and allergy symptoms. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study on 84 consecutively-enrolled children, aged 7–13 years, in the Secanggang Subdistrict, Langkat District, North Sumatera Province. Subjects were enrolled into one of two groups, with or without STH infection. Total serum IgE measurements and stool STH examinations were performed in all subjects. Data on atopy or allergy symptoms were obtained by parental interview. Results The 42 subjects with STH infection had significantly higher mean total serum Ig E levels than the 42 subjects without infection, 1,131.26 IU/mL and 744.76 IU/mL, respectively (P=0.029. We also found significant positive associations between STH infection and asthma symptoms (P=0.049, as well as eczema symptoms (P=0.044. Conclusion Mean total serum IgE level is higher in STH-infected subjects than in those without infection. In addition, STH infection is positively associated with asthma and eczema symptoms.

Hendri Wijaya

2014-05-01

126

Asellus aquaticus as a Potential Carrier of Escherichia coli and Other Coliform Bacteria into Drinking Water Distribution Systems  

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Individuals of the water louse, Asellus aquaticus, enter drinking water distribution systems in temperate parts of the world, where they establish breeding populations. We analysed populations of surface water A. aquaticus from two ponds for associated faecal indicator bacteria and assessed the risk of A. aquaticus transporting bacteria into distribution systems. Concentrations of up to two E. coli and five total coliforms·mL?1 were measured in the water and 200 E. coli and >240 total coli...

Hans-Jørgen Albrechtsen; Erik Arvin; Erling Nissen; Christensen, Sarah C. B.

2013-01-01

127

High-sensitivity dry rehydratable film method for enumeration of coliforms in dairy products: collaborative study.  

Science.gov (United States)

A dry-film coliform count plate that is inoculated with 5 mL sample was compared with the Violet Red Bile Agar plate method in a collaborative study by 18 laboratories. Products analyzed were 2% milk, chocolate milk, cream, vanilla ice cream, cottage cheese, and cheese. Collaborators tested blind duplicate uninoculated samples and samples inoculated at low, medium, and high level. Significantly (P dry-film method from 2% milk samples at the 3 inoculum levels, the chocolate milk at the low- and high-inoculum levels, and the cream at the high-inoculum level. Significantly higher counts were obtained by the agar method for cottage cheese samples at the low-inoculum level. The repeatability standard deviation for the dry-film method was significantly higher for the high-inoculum level chocolate milk sample and the medium-inoculum level cottage cheese. The same statistic was significantly higher for the agar method at all 3 inoculum levels in the 2% milk and the medium-inoculum level cream. The high-sensitivity dry rehydratable film method for enumeration of coliforms in dairy products has been adopted first action by AOAC INTERNATIONAL. PMID:9170650

Curiale, M S; Gangar, V; D'onorio, A; Gambrel-Lenarz, S; McAllister, J S

1997-01-01

128

Effect of elevated total CoA levels on metabolic pathways in cultured hepatocytes  

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Livers from fasted rats have 30% higher total CoA levels than fed rats. To determine whether this increase of total CoA influences metabolism, the rates of gluconeogenesis, fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis were measured in hepatocytes with cyanamide (CYM) or pantothenate (PA) deficient medium used to vary total CoA levels independently of hormonal status. Primary cultures of rat hepatocytes were incubated 14 hrs with Bt2 cAMP, dexamethasone + theophylline in PA deficient medium or with CYM (500 ?M) + PA, rinsed and preincubated 0.5 hr to remove the CYM. Hepatocytes treated with CYM had total CoA levels 10-24% higher than PA deficient cells and lower rates of glucose production from lactate + pyruvate (L/P) or from alanine (0.23 +/- 0.05 and 0.089 +/- 0.02 ?m/mg protein, respectively in CYM treated cells compared to 0.33 +/- 0.06 and 0.130 +/- 0.006 in PA deficient cells). This decrease was not due to CYM per se, as the direct addition of CYM stimulated glucose production from L/P. CYM treated cells with 15-40% higher total CoA and 30% higher fatty acyl-CoA levels had the same rates of [14C]-palmitate oxidation as PA deficient cells. However, rates of ketogenesis were lower in CYM treated cells (163 +/- 11 nm/mg compared to 217 +/- 14 nm/mg protein). These results suggest that physiological alterations of hepatic total CoA levels are not necessary for fasting rates of gluconeogenesis, fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis

129

Occurrence of coliforms in water samples of the Perequê and Penedo Rivers in Paraná, Brazil  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os rios Perequê e Penedo têm suas fontes na planície de Praia Leste e fluem para o mar entre os municípios de Pontal do Sul e Ponta do Poço. Ambos pertencem à sub-bacia da Baía de Paranaguá e são partes da bacia hidrográfica do Oceano Atlântico (Estado do Paraná). Foram selecionados quatro sítios ao [...] longo do Rio Perequê (Estações 1-4) e um no Rio Penedo (Estação 5) para monitorar a poluição de água em um período de 12 meses. Durante o período de dezembro de 1995 e novembro de 1996, foram coletadas de cada local, 3 amostras de 100 ml água em frascos esterilizados e transportadas para o laboratório em caixas com gelo. Foram analisadas a ocorrência de coliformes totais (TC) e fecais (FC), temperatura e pH. A contaminação de coliformes foi menor nos sítios 1 e 5 do que em outros locais, provavelmente por causa da menor influência de áreas urbanizadas. A água na estação 4 estava fortemente contaminada por causa de sua proximidade a um canal de esgoto. Este estudo demonstrou que a água dos rios Pequerê e Penedo, "habitats" para várias espécies de camarões de água doce, estão contaminados com coliformes totais e fecais, e esta ocorrência não está relacionada com a temperatura ou pH. Abstract in english The Perequê and Penedo rivers flow through the plains of Praia de Leste and fall into the sea between the municipalities of Pontal do Sul and Ponta do Poço. Both of these rivers belong to the sub-basin of Paranaguá Bay, and are constituent parts of the hydrographic basin of the Atlantic Ocean (State [...] of Paraná). Four sites along the Perequê River (Stations 1-4) and one along the Penedo River (Station 5) were monitorated for water pollution over a 12-month period. During the period of December 1995 to November 1996, three water samples were collected from each site, placed in sterilized bottles and transported to the laboratory in ice-boxes. They were analyzed for the occurrence of total and fecal coliforms, temperature and pH. Fecal pollution was detected throughout the period of study. Coliform contamination was smaller in Station 1 and 5 than in any other sites, probably due to lesser influence from urbanized areas. Water at Station 4 was strongly contaminated due to its close proximity to a sewage canal. This study demonstrated that the Pequerê and Penedo rivers, freshwater shrimps habitats, were heavily contaminated with fecal indicator bacteria, and this occurrence was not related with temperature or pH.

Ilma Hiroko, Higuti; Ivone Rodrigues, Macena; Setuko, Masunari; Mario de Oliveira, Branco Filho; Marita Maciel Moreira, Blaskowiski; Aguinaldo José do, Nascimento.

1998-08-01

130

Occurrence of coliforms in water samples of the Perequê and Penedo Rivers in Paraná, Brazil  

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Full Text Available The Perequê and Penedo rivers flow through the plains of Praia de Leste and fall into the sea between the municipalities of Pontal do Sul and Ponta do Poço. Both of these rivers belong to the sub-basin of Paranaguá Bay, and are constituent parts of the hydrographic basin of the Atlantic Ocean (State of Paraná. Four sites along the Perequê River (Stations 1-4 and one along the Penedo River (Station 5 were monitorated for water pollution over a 12-month period. During the period of December 1995 to November 1996, three water samples were collected from each site, placed in sterilized bottles and transported to the laboratory in ice-boxes. They were analyzed for the occurrence of total and fecal coliforms, temperature and pH. Fecal pollution was detected throughout the period of study. Coliform contamination was smaller in Station 1 and 5 than in any other sites, probably due to lesser influence from urbanized areas. Water at Station 4 was strongly contaminated due to its close proximity to a sewage canal. This study demonstrated that the Pequerê and Penedo rivers, freshwater shrimps habitats, were heavily contaminated with fecal indicator bacteria, and this occurrence was not related with temperature or pH.Os rios Perequê e Penedo têm suas fontes na planície de Praia Leste e fluem para o mar entre os municípios de Pontal do Sul e Ponta do Poço. Ambos pertencem à sub-bacia da Baía de Paranaguá e são partes da bacia hidrográfica do Oceano Atlântico (Estado do Paraná. Foram selecionados quatro sítios ao longo do Rio Perequê (Estações 1-4 e um no Rio Penedo (Estação 5 para monitorar a poluição de água em um período de 12 meses. Durante o período de dezembro de 1995 e novembro de 1996, foram coletadas de cada local, 3 amostras de 100 ml água em frascos esterilizados e transportadas para o laboratório em caixas com gelo. Foram analisadas a ocorrência de coliformes totais (TC e fecais (FC, temperatura e pH. A contaminação de coliformes foi menor nos sítios 1 e 5 do que em outros locais, provavelmente por causa da menor influência de áreas urbanizadas. A água na estação 4 estava fortemente contaminada por causa de sua proximidade a um canal de esgoto. Este estudo demonstrou que a água dos rios Pequerê e Penedo, "habitats" para várias espécies de camarões de água doce, estão contaminados com coliformes totais e fecais, e esta ocorrência não está relacionada com a temperatura ou pH.

Ilma Hiroko Higuti

1998-08-01

131

Occurrence of coliforms in water samples of the Perequê and Penedo Rivers in Paraná, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os rios Perequê e Penedo têm suas fontes na planície de Praia Leste e fluem para o mar entre os municípios de Pontal do Sul e Ponta do Poço. Ambos pertencem à sub-bacia da Baía de Paranaguá e são partes da bacia hidrográfica do Oceano Atlântico (Estado do Paraná). Foram selecionados quatro sítios ao [...] longo do Rio Perequê (Estações 1-4) e um no Rio Penedo (Estação 5) para monitorar a poluição de água em um período de 12 meses. Durante o período de dezembro de 1995 e novembro de 1996, foram coletadas de cada local, 3 amostras de 100 ml água em frascos esterilizados e transportadas para o laboratório em caixas com gelo. Foram analisadas a ocorrência de coliformes totais (TC) e fecais (FC), temperatura e pH. A contaminação de coliformes foi menor nos sítios 1 e 5 do que em outros locais, provavelmente por causa da menor influência de áreas urbanizadas. A água na estação 4 estava fortemente contaminada por causa de sua proximidade a um canal de esgoto. Este estudo demonstrou que a água dos rios Pequerê e Penedo, "habitats" para várias espécies de camarões de água doce, estão contaminados com coliformes totais e fecais, e esta ocorrência não está relacionada com a temperatura ou pH. Abstract in english The Perequê and Penedo rivers flow through the plains of Praia de Leste and fall into the sea between the municipalities of Pontal do Sul and Ponta do Poço. Both of these rivers belong to the sub-basin of Paranaguá Bay, and are constituent parts of the hydrographic basin of the Atlantic Ocean (State [...] of Paraná). Four sites along the Perequê River (Stations 1-4) and one along the Penedo River (Station 5) were monitorated for water pollution over a 12-month period. During the period of December 1995 to November 1996, three water samples were collected from each site, placed in sterilized bottles and transported to the laboratory in ice-boxes. They were analyzed for the occurrence of total and fecal coliforms, temperature and pH. Fecal pollution was detected throughout the period of study. Coliform contamination was smaller in Station 1 and 5 than in any other sites, probably due to lesser influence from urbanized areas. Water at Station 4 was strongly contaminated due to its close proximity to a sewage canal. This study demonstrated that the Pequerê and Penedo rivers, freshwater shrimps habitats, were heavily contaminated with fecal indicator bacteria, and this occurrence was not related with temperature or pH.

Ilma Hiroko, Higuti; Ivone Rodrigues, Macena; Setuko, Masunari; Mario de Oliveira, Branco Filho; Marita Maciel Moreira, Blaskowiski; Aguinaldo José do, Nascimento.

132

The Comparison of Total Fumonisin and Total Aflatoxin Levels in Biscuit and Cookie Samples in Babol City, Northern Iran  

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Full Text Available Background: Fumonisins and aflatoxins are mycotoxins that are produced by Fusarium and Aspergillus genus respectively. Due to the toxicity of aflatoxin and fumonisin and its effects on human and animals’ health, the purpose of this study was analysis of total fumonisin and total aflatoxin contamination in biscuit and cookie samples in Babol City, Northern Iran.Methods: Thirty biscuit (n=15 and cookie (n=15 samples were randomly collected at supermarkets in Babol City in winter 2011. Competitive ELISA was conducted for total fumonisin and total aflatoxin separately.Results: Out of 30 biscuit and cookie samples, 28 (93.4% samples were contaminated with 4ppm of total fumonisin. From 30 samples, 26 (86.7% were contaminated with <4ppb of total aflatoxin and 4 (13.3% were positive in total aflatoxin with ?4ppb and highest contamination rate was found 7.9 ppb in biscuit samples. Contamination rate of samples by total aflatoxin was higher than total fumonisin.Conclusion: Since biscuits and cookies are extensively used among all ages of humans, consumption of contaminated food causes different diseases in human. Therefore, determination, management, and prevention of mycotoxins according to the climatic conditions should be considered.

Issa Gholamour Azizi

2013-04-01

133

Comparative seric TGF(?1, ?2) levels and platelets count response in total body irradiated baboons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total body irradiation associated or not with r-hIL-6 treatment a relation between TGF-?1 and TGF-?2 blood levels and platelets count. During radio-induced thrombocytopenia, by decreasing its ability to inhibit proliferation of stem cells and megakaryocytopoiesis, the TGF-? falling induced a favorable condition for hematopoietic recovery. (author)

134

Total Cholesterol Level for Assessing Pancreatic Insufficiency Due to Chronic Pancreatitis  

Science.gov (United States)

Background/Aims To determine the nutritional markers important for assessing the degree of pancreatic insufficiency due to chronic pancreatitis in routine clinical practice. Methods A total of 137 patients with chronic pancreatitis were followed up for more than 1 year. They were divided into two groups: a pancreatic diabetes mellitus (DM) group, consisting of 47 patients undergoing medical treatment for DM of pancreatic origin, and a nonpancreatic DM group, consisting of 90 other patients (including 86 patients without DM). Serum albumin, prealbumin, total cholesterol, cholinesterase, magnesium, and hemoglobin were compared between the two groups. Results The total cholesterol was significantly lower in the pancreatic than the nonpancreatic DM group (164 mg/dL vs 183 mg/dL, respectively; p=0.0028). Cholinesterase was significantly lower in the former group (263 U/L vs 291 U/L, respectively; p=0.016). Among the 37 patients with nonalcoholic pancreatitis, there was no difference in the cholinesterase levels between the pancreatic and nonpancreatic (296 U/L vs 304 U/L, respectively; p=0.752) DM groups, although cholesterol levels remained lower in the former (165 mg/dL vs 187 mg/dL, respectively; p=0.052). Conclusions Cholinesterase levels are possibly affected by concomitant alcoholic liver injury. The total cholesterol level should be considered when assessing pancreatic insufficiency due to chronic pancreatitis.

Hirano, Kenji; Saito, Tomotaka; Mizuno, Suguru; Tada, Minoru; Sasahira, Naoki; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Matsukawa, Miho; Umefune, Gyotane; Akiyama, Dai; Saito, Kei; Kawahata, Shuhei; Takahara, Naminatsu; Uchino, Rie; Hamada, Tsuyoshi; Miyabayashi, Koji; Mohri, Dai; Sasaki, Takashi; Kogure, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Natsuyo; Nakai, Yosuke; Koike, Kazuhiko

2014-01-01

135

Application of decision-tree technique to assess herd specific risk factors for coliform mastitis in sows  

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Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate factors associated with coliform mastitis in sows, determined at herd level, by applying the decision-tree technique. Coliform mastitis represents an economically important disease in sows after farrowing that also affects the health, welfare and performance of the piglets. The decision-tree technique, a data mining method, may be an effective tool for making large datasets accessible and different sow herd information comparable. It is based on the C4.5-algorithm which generates trees in a top-down recursive strategy. The technique can be used to detect weak points in farm management. Two datasets of two farms in Germany, consisting of sow-related parameters, were analysed and compared by decision-tree algorithms. Data were collected over the period of April 2007 to August 2010 from 987 sows (499 CM-positive sows and 488 CM-negative sows and 596 sows (322 CM-positive sows and 274 CM-negative sows, respectively. Depending on the dataset, different graphical trees were built showing relevant factors at the herd level which may lead to coliform mastitis. To our understanding, this is the first time decision-tree modeling was used to assess risk factors for coliform mastitis. Herd specific risk factors for the disease were illustrated what could prove beneficial in disease and herd management.

Kerstin Reiners

2011-02-01

136

Effects of buddleja officinalis total flavonoids on serum testosterone level of castrated male rats with xeroma  

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Full Text Available AIM:To observe buddleja officinalis total flavonoids' effect on the basal tear secretion amount, tear film stability, lacrimal gland histomorphology and serum testosterone level of castrated male rat model with xeroma, to study the mechanism of rat xeroma caused by buddleja officinalis total flavones' anti-sex hormones disorders.MEATHODS: A total of 150 Wistar male rats of 1 month old, weighted about 200g, were randomly divided into 5 groups with 30 rats in each group with A representing normal group; B representing sham operation group; C representing surgery control group; D representing group treated with androgen; E representing group treated with buddleja officinalis total flavonoids. For the groups C, D, E, the bilateral testicle and epididymis were excised; For group B, scrota were incised without removal of the testicles, as the sham operation group; For group A, nothing was done. One week after modeling when the wound was to be healed, drug was given to each group. Respectively at the 1st month, 3rd, and 5th months after treatment, 10 rats were randomly selected in each group, to receive Schirmer I test, tear breakup time measurement. Blood serum testosterone levels were tested in the fifth month. RESUITS: For groups D and E, the Schirmer I test measurements were significantly higher than that of group C(PPPCONCLUSION: Decreased androgen levels can lead to xeroma, and removal of bilateral testes and epididymis can successfully establish the animal models of xeroma in rats caused by decreased androgen levels. Buddleja officinalis total flavonoids have androgenic effect, which produces the similar treatment effect of xeroma with testosterone propionate. Buddleja officinalis total flavonoids may become a new treatment for xeroma.

Wen-Juan Li

2013-11-01

137

COLIFORM NON-COMPLIANCE NIGHTMARES IN WATER SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

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Coliform occurrences in distribution systems have created a great concern for both utilities and water authorities because of the implied public health implications and failure to meet Federal regulations. Many of the known cases involve systems in the east and midwest. The commo...

138

BIOASSAY PROCEDURES FOR PREDICTING COLIFORM BACTERIAL GROWTH IN DRINKING WATER  

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Water quality degradation due to the growth of microorganisms is an area of concern for many water utilities. o date, the procedures developed or determining the amount of biodegradable material present in potable water have utilized heterotrophic non-coliform bacteria as bioassa...

139

Total and lipid bound sialic acid levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome  

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Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate serum total and lipid bound sialic acid (TSA&LBSA levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS.Material and Methods: Forty women with PCOS and 35 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Serum TSA, LBSA, follicle stimulating hormone, lutenizing hormone, estradiol, thyroid stimulating hormone, prolactin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, free testosterone, total testosterone, 17-OH progesterone, sex hormone binding globulin, cortisol, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein were measured in each subject. Insulin resistance was estimated by fasting insulin level, fasting glucose: insulin ratio and 75-g glucose tolerance test for 2 hours. Results: Serum TSA levels were not significantly different between the groups. Serum LBSA levels were higher in patients with PCOS compared to the control group. TSA was correlated with androstenedione and HOMA-IR in the PCOS group. Positive correlations were found between LBSA and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate in patients with PCOS. After correction for BMI, the only existing significant correlation was between LBSA and follicle stimulating hormone.Conclusion: Serum LBSA levels, which has previously been found to be higher in cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus, are elevated in PCOS.

Osman Ça?layan

2012-06-01

140

Hypogonadism and subnormal total testosterone levels in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus  

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Objective: To determine the frequency of testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The Gbagada General Hospital, Gbagada Lagos, Nigeria, from December 2009 to May 2010. Methodology: A total of 203 men with type 2 DM aged 30-86 years were evaluated for TDS by a combination of positive ADAM (androgen deficiency in the ageing male) scores and subnormal total testosterone levels. Mild testosterone deficiency referred to total testosterone (TT) levels of 8-12 nmol/L with symptoms of hypogonadism and severe testosterone deficiency referred to TT levels < 8 nmol/L with or without hypogonadal symptoms. Results: Mild and severe TDS were present in 18.3% and 17% respectively of the study subjects. Commonly occurring clinical parameters of the TDS were erectile dysfunction and loss of libido, which were documented in 63% and 60% respectively in the study subjects. The majority of clinical features of the TDS were comparable in men with and without the TDS. Conclusion: About a third of men with type 2 DM had the TDS. The majority of the symptoms of hypogonadism are largely non-specific and their occurrence is comparable in men with and without low testosterone levels; thus, underscoring the need to have testosterone levels determined in men presenting with such symptoms. (author)

 
 
 
 
141

Immunoglobulin levels in dogs after total-body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation  

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The influence of total-body irradiation (TBI) and autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation on serum immunoglobulin subclasses was determined in a dog model. Only IgG1 levels decreased after low-dose (+/- 4.5 Gy) TBI, but levels of all immunoglobulin classes fell after high-dose TBI (8.5 GyX1 or 2X6.0 Gy). After autologous bone marrow transplantation IgM levels were the first and IgE levels were the last to return to normal. After successful allogeneic bone marrow transplantation prolonged low IgM and IgE levels were found but IgA levels increased rapidly to over 150% of pretreatment values. A comparison of dogs with or without clinical signs or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), revealed no differences in IgM levels. Dogs with GVHD had higher IgA but lower IgE levels. Dogs that rejected their allogeneic bone marrow cells showed significant early rises in IgE and IgA levels in comparison with dogs with GVHD. These results differ from the observations made on Ig levels in human bone marrow transplant patients. No significant differences in phytohemagglutinin stimulation tests were found between dogs with or without GVHD or dogs receiving an autologous transplant for the first four months after TBI and transplantation. An early primary or secondary involvement of humoral immunity in GVHD and graft rejection in dogs is postulated

142

Total Salivary Anti-oxidant Levels, Dental Development and Oral Health Status in Childhood Obesity  

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Background: The objectives of this study were to assess the total antioxidant levels, dental development, and oral health status in childhood obesity. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 children aged 6-12 years consisting of both genders from different school along Coastal Karnataka, India were part of the study and were categorized into obese/overweight, and normal children based on body mass index for age and sex. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels determined by phosphomolybidic acid and spectrophotometric method were considered. Oral hygiene index-simplified, modified gingival index and dentition status index were used to analyze oral health status. Dental development was assessed using a clinical method and correlated with standard chronology of human dentition. Results: Levels of the total salivary antioxidants were increased in the study group which is very highly significant when compared with control group, oral health status in both the study group and control group was good. Number of children in study group showing accelerated dental development is relatively less when compared with control group, but is not statistically significant. Conclusion: Salivary TAC was significantly high in overweight and obese children than their normal counterparts. Prevalence of dental caries was high in obese/overweight children when compared to normal children.

Gunjalli, Gururaj; Kumar, K Naveen; Jain, Swapnil Kumar; Reddy, Satheesh Kumar; Shavi, Girish R; Ajagannanavar, Sunil Lingaraj

2014-01-01

143

Modelling faecal coliform mortality in water hyacinths ponds  

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Removal of faecal coliforms was investigated in pilot-scale water hyacinths ponds. The investigation was conducted to evaluate the role of solar intensity, pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, sedimentation, and attachment of faecal coliforms on Eichhornia crassipes on disappearance of bacteria in water hyacinths ponds. A mathematical model that used the plug flow philosophy and incorporating the aforementioned factors was developed to predict faecal coliform mortality rate. The proposed multifactor model satisfactorily predicted mortality rate of faecal coliforms in a pilot-scale water hyacinths ponds. After optimization of the parameters, mortality rate constant for pH ( kpH) was 0.001, mortality rate constant for DO ( kDO) was 0.0037 and solar intensity mortality rate constant k s was 0.0102 cm 2/cal. The results also showed that the thickness of biofilm ( Lf) was 2.5 × 10 -4 m, and the effective surface area of water hyacinths roots per unit surface area of pond ( Rs) was 10.4 m 2/m 2. The results further showed that environmental factors such as solar intensity and pH were the key factors when water hyacinths ponds have a large exposed surface area. However, attachment of bacteria to water hyacinths played a major role in ponds fully covered with water hyacinths. The inclusion of sedimentation parameters in the model improved model efficiency by only 3.2%. It was concluded that sedimentation is not a major factor governing faecal coliform disappearance in water hyacinths pond systems receiving pretreated wastewaters.

Mayo, A. W.; Kalibbala, M.

144

Tear ascorbic acid levels and the total antioxidant status in contact lens wearers: A pilot study  

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Full Text Available Aims: The tear ascorbate owing to its high concentration, functions as an effective antioxidant against the oxidative damage of cornea. Contact lens wearers (CLW are prone to oxidative stress due to the lens-induced hypoxic conditions. A pilot study was done to compare the tear ascorbic acid level and the total antioxidant capacity give as in normal and CLW. Materials and Methods: In this study 21 CLW (Mean age 23 ± 3 years ; M-2, F-19, who were daily wear users, with duration of wear not more than four years, along with age-matched 28 controls (Mean age 28 ± 3 ; M-15, F-13 were recruited in the study for collection of reflex tears using Schirmer?s strip. Ascorbic acid in tears was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, total antioxidant capacity (TAC and total protein assay by spectrophotometric analysis. Results: CLW showed no significant change in the tear ascorbic acid levels (0.4 ± 0.26 mM compared to the control subjects (0.61 ± 0.59 mM. The amount of ascorbic acid in tears did not correlate with the TAC or the total protein of the tears. The mean TAC in CLW was 0.69 ± 0.16 mM, with a total protein of 1.35 ± 0.46?mg/ml while in controls it was 0.7 ± 0.18 mM and 1.21 ± 0.47 mg/ml respectively . Conclusions: Soft contact lens wear did not show any significant change in tear ascorbic acid, TAC and total protein levels compared to controls.

Venkata Sai

2009-01-01

145

Fluoxetine Decreased Serum Total Cholesterol and Triglyceride Levels in a Hypercholesterolemic Patient with Postpartum Depression  

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Full Text Available Objective: To report the case of a 28-year old hypercholesterolemic female with postpartum depression, whose triglyceride (TG and total cholesterol (TC levels decreased while being treated with fluoxetine. Method: A 28-year old female, with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder with postpartum onset based on DSM-IV criteria, was hospitalized at a mental health hospital. Her past history included another episode of depression 4 months after giving birth to her second child, which was 12 years prior to her recent episode. Her serum total cholestrol and triglyceride levels were measured prior to the initiation of medication. Then fluoxetine was initiated at a daily dose of 20 mg and had been increased to 40 mg per day at the time of discharge. The lipid profile measurements was repeated at week 4 and 8 following treatment. Results: Total cholesterol level was reduced from 242 mg/dL at baseline to 224 mg/dL at week 4 and to 202 mg/dL at week 8; triglyceride level was decreased from 516 mg/dL to 448 mg/dL at week 4 and to 404 mg/dL at week 8. Conclusions: Fluoxetine may be an appropriate treatment for hyperlipidemic women with postpartum depression..

Hossein Khalili

2006-05-01

146

CORRELATION BETWEEN TOTAL PLASMA HOMOCYSTEINE LEVEL AND GRADING OF CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE  

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Full Text Available Elevated total plasma homocysteine (tHcy levels constitute a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD. A possible relationship was investigated between admission plasma homocysteine level and the angiographic severity and extension of coronary artery disease in patients with CAD. This study looks at the relationship between total plasma homocysteine and severity of coronary artery disease. From April 2006 to December 2006, 100 consecutive patients (65 male and 35 female that referred to our institute for coronary artery bypass graft surgery enrolled. Fasting blood samples for homocysteine were obtained on admission. Plasma homocysteine concentration was measured with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Our patients presented in Group 1, total plasma homocysteine >12 micromoles per liter and Group 2, total plasma homocysteine =<12 micromoles per liter. Vessel score assessed the number of vessels with significant stenosis and grading of atherosclerosis (Extent Score was intended to assess the atherosclerotic involvement of the entire arterial length and circumscribe. Our study was shown age > 60 years was correlated with high tHcy, but gender, hypertension, history of smoking, hypercholesterolemia, family history, and diabetes mellitus were not statistically difference between two groups. A positive correlation was found between abnormal plasma homocysteine level and vessel score (r = 0.35; p=0.002. Moreover, a positive correlation was also found with extent score (r = 0.46; p =0.002. As results of these scoring, there was a better correlation between the tHcy level and the extent of CAD when compared with the vessel score (r = 0.68, p < 0.001. Abnormal elevated homocysteine levels in patients with coronary artery disease correlated with the extent of atherosclerotic disease.

S. J. Mirhoseini

2008-05-01

147

Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism and total serum cholesterol level in Iranian population  

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Full Text Available Background: Apolipoprotein E (APOE is known as a major regulator of blood lipid levels in humans. A number of APOE gene allelic variants have been reported including E2, E3 and E4. Recent studies suggested a role for APOE in obesity and increased Body Mass Index (BMI and plasma lipid levels in obese children. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the association between APOE genetic variants and the BMI and lipid profile in an Iranian cohort. Setting and Design: Samples were obtained from subjects who participated in a study based on the WHO-designed MONICA (multinational monitoring of trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease study for coronary artery disease risk assessment in Zone 17 of Tehran. The study was approved by the local ethical committee. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects included in this study. Materials and Methods: Subjects (n=320 were recruited. The level of triglyceride (TG and total serum cholesterol was tested for all subjects in this study. Genotyping for APOE was carried using polymerase chain reaction-Restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLPtechnique. Statistical Analysis: Levels of significance were determined using contingency tables by either Chi-square or Fisher exact analysis using the STATA (v8 software. The analysis of regression and significance of differences for level of cholesterol and TG was established by one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett post hoc multiple comparison tests using SPSS software Version 11.5. Results: The frequency of allele E2 was significantly higher in patients with total serum cholesterol level <200 mg/dl (P 0.01 OR 2.1 95% CI 1.1-4.2. Conclusion: The association found in this study between allele E2 and lower total cholesterol level had been reported in previous studies. We have also observed that the frequency of genotype E2/E3 and E2/E4 was significantly higher in patients with normal total serum cholesterol level compared to patients with abnormal cholesterol (P=0.003 OR 2.4 95% CI; 1.3-4.6. Our data needs to be repeated in a larger population with more information for serum LDL and HDL levels and their subgroups.

Bazzaz J

2010-01-01

148

Efeito da oxigenação por agitação manual da água na eficiência de inativação de coliformes termotolerantes utilizando luz solar para desinfecção em batelada / Effect of oxygenation by manual agitation of water on inactivation efficiency of thermotolerant coliforms using solar light batch disinfection  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foi avaliado o efeito da agitação manual de amostras de água submetidas à desinfecção solar na eficiência de inativação de coliformes termotolerantes. Garrafas com agitação prévia e sem agitação foram expostas à radiação solar no horário das 9h às 15h (seis horas no total) e analisados o teor de oxi [...] gênio dissolvido (OD) e concentração de coliformes termotolerantes de hora em hora. A desinfecção com luz solar mostrou-se capaz de melhorar a qualidade sanitária da água, reduzindo a concentração de coliformes termotolerantes em até quatro unidades logarítmicas (de 1,03 x 10(6) até 2,6 x 10¹NMP/100 mL). Com a agitação manual, houve oxigenação considerável nas amostras de água (máxima concentração de OD de 6,61 mg/L nas amostras de águas agitadas e de 5,56 mg/L nas amostras sem agitação), porém o aumento de OD na água não teve efeito significativo sobre a inativação dos coliformes termotolerantes (p>0,05). Abstract in english This study aimed at evaluating the manual agitation effect on inactivation efficiency of thermotolerant coliforms of water bottles submitted to solar disinfection. Agitated bottles and non-agitated bottles were exposed to sunlight from 9:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. Dissolved oxygen (DO) and thermotolerant [...] coliforms concentrations were analyzed hourly. The solar disinfection improved the water quality, reducing thermotolerant coliforms concentration by 4 logs (from 1.0 x 10(6) to 2.6 x 10¹MPN/100 mL). With the manual agitation, there was considerable oxygenation in the water samples (maximum of 6.61 mg/L in samples with manual agitation and of 5.56 mg/L for those without agitation), but the increase in DO had no significant effect on the inactivation of thermotolerant coliforms (p>0.05).

Márcio Pessoa, Botto; Francisco Suetônio Bastos, Mota; Beatriz Susana Ovruski de, Ceballos.

149

Estimation of Ionized Calcium and Corrected Total Calcium Concentration Based on Serum Albumin Level  

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Full Text Available Ionized calcium is the physiologically active fraction of serum calcium and therefore its evaluation is an important clinical parameter both in mammals and birds. In the present study, concentration of total calcium (tCa, ionized calcium (iCa based on the serum albumin level and on the total protein content, and corrected total calcium (ctCa based on the serum albumin level were evaluated, and the correlation between these biochemical parameters was investigated in broiler chickens. The average serum iCa was 4.91±0.49g/dL representing 51.76±0.53% from the ctCa. The correlation coefficient between tCa and albumin (r = 0.8608 was greater than that between tCa and total protein (r = 0.7997. Our study illustrated that iCa and ctCa concentrations calculated from tCa and albumin are better indicators of calcium homeostasis than tCa concentrations alone.

Rodica C?pri??

2013-05-01

150

Measuring total health inequality: adding individual variation to group-level differences  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have revealed large variations in average health status across social, economic, and other groups. No study exists on the distribution of the risk of ill-health across individuals, either within groups or across all people in a society, and as such a crucial piece of total health inequality has been overlooked. Some of the reason for this neglect has been that the risk of death, which forms the basis for most measures, is impossible to observe directly and difficult to estimate. Methods We develop a measure of total health inequality – encompassing all inequalities among people in a society, including variation between and within groups – by adapting a beta-binomial regression model. We apply it to children under age two in 50 low- and middle-income countries. Our method has been adopted by the World Health Organization and is being implemented in surveys around the world; preliminary estimates have appeared in the World Health Report (2000. Results Countries with similar average child mortality differ considerably in total health inequality. Liberia and Mozambique have the largest inequalities in child survival, while Colombia, the Philippines and Kazakhstan have the lowest levels among the countries measured. Conclusions Total health inequality estimates should be routinely reported alongside average levels of health in populations and groups, as they reveal important policy-related information not otherwise knowable. This approach enables meaningful comparisons of inequality across countries and future analyses of the determinants of inequality.

Gakidou Emmanuela

2002-08-01

151

Fluctuation of Corrected Serum Calcium Levels Following Partial and Total Thyroidectomy  

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Full Text Available Objectives: To identify any fluctuation of corrected serum calcium levels and to determine the presence of sub-clinical hypocalcaemia following partial and total thyroidectomy with preservation of at least two parathyroid glands. Design: A prospective study. Setting: Tertiary Head & Neck referral unit. Patients: Eighty five patients undergoing partial or total thyroidectomy with or without laryngectomy from April 2003 to April 2009 were included in the study. Corrected serum calcium levels (CCSL were noted preoperatively and postoperatively on day 1, day 7 and 6 months. Results: Forty six patients underwent hemi-thyroidectomy (HT, 29 underwent total thyroidectomy (TT and 10 underwent total thyroidectomy with laryngectomy (TTL. Nine (19.56% patients in the HT group, 6 (24.14% in the TT group and 3 (30.0% in the TTL group developed hypocalcaemia postoperatively which was most significant on 1st postoperative day. This improved by 7th postoperative day in each group when the change in calcium levels became statistically insignificant. Six patients (3 patients had HT, 2 had TT and 1 had TTL developed sub-clinical mild hypocalcaemia which was persistent at 6 months follow-up. Conclusion: The most significant changes in corrected serum calcium levels occur within first 24 hours after thyroid surgery. Thereafter most patients return to normocalcaemia within a seven-day period. Despite preservation of parathyroid glands there is a subgroup of patients who develop sub-clinical hypocalcaemia which persists even at six months but does not require treatment.

Vikas Malik

2011-09-01

152

Coliform and Metal Contamination in Lago de Colina, a Recreational Water Body in Chihuahua State, Mexico  

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Lago de Colina (Colina Lake) is located about 180 km south of the city of Chihuahua (Mexico), and during the Semana Santa (Holy Week) vacation period its recreational use is high. The objective of this study was to quantify coliform and heavy metal levels in this water body before and after the Holy Week vacation period in 2010. Twenty sampling points were randomly selected and two water samples were collected at each point near the surface (0.30 m) and at 1 m depth. After the Holy Week vacat...

Hector Rubio-Arias; Rey, Nora I.; Quintana, Rey M.; Virginia Nevarez, G.; Oskar Palacios

2011-01-01

153

Total Testosterone Levels and the Effect of Sildenafil on Type 2 Diabetics with Erectile Dysfunction  

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Full Text Available Objectives: Hypotestosteronemia has been reported in approximately half of type 2 diabetic men in general. This study aims to assess serum total testosterone levels in type 2 diabetics with erectile dysfunction and to correlate the degree of improvement between sildenafil citrate and testosterone levels. Methods: A cross sectional and prospective comparative interventional study was conducted at the Diabetic Clinic of Assalam Teaching Hospital in Mosul, during the period from January 1, 2009 through to December 31, 2011. The study enrolled 120 type 2 diabetic males with erectile dysfunction who were analyzed with regard to age, duration of diabetes, duration and severity of erectile dysfunction, serum total testosteron levels and the degree of response to sildenafil citrate in terms of testosterone levels. The data were statistically analyzed using the independent two-sample Student t test, ?2 test and Pearson correlation test. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Thirty six percent of type 2 diabetic males with erectile dysfunction were found to have low serum testosterone levels. The hypotestosteronemic and normotestosteronemic subgroups were not significantly different in terms of mean age, duration of diabetes, reduction of libido, and reduction in erectile function. The rate and the degree of improvement of erection by sildenafil in the normo-and-hypotestosteronemic respondents were not significantly different, but the degree of improvement by sildenafil was significantly correlated to testosterone levels among the hypotestosteronemic group. Conclusion: Hypotestosteronemia was found in 36% of type 2 diabetic males with erectile dysfunction. The degree of improvement of erectile dysfunction by sildenafil was directly proportional to the serum testosterone levels among the hypotestosteronemic group. Therapeutic supplement with testosterone preparation in the hypotestosteronemic diabetics with erectile dysfunction may improve their response to sildenafil.

Nabeel Najib Fadhil Hadeed

2014-01-01

154

Comparison of the presence-absence and membrane filter techniques for coliform detection in small, nonchlorinated water distribution systems.  

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The traditional membrane filter (American Public Health Association, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 16th ed., American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C., 1985) and presence-absence (P-A) (J. A. Clark, Can. J. Microbiol. 14:13-18, 1968) techniques for the detection of coliform bacteria were compared in a small nonchlorinated drinking water distribution system by using total positive samples and frequency-of-occurrence analyses. No significant difference...

Bancroft, K.; Nelson, E. T.; Childers, G. W.

1989-01-01

155

A comparison between faecal sterols and coliform counts in the investigation of sewage contamination in sediments  

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Full Text Available In September 2002, nine sediment samples (0-2 cm were collected from Botafogo Cove (southwestern part of Guanabara Bay in order to compare the use of chemical (coprostanol and biological markers (E. coli and total coliforms in identifying faecal contamination. The values found (organic carbon - 6.0 to 64.8 mg g-1; coprostanol - 1.4 to 105 µg g-1; E. coli - Em setembro de 2002, foram coletadas nove amostras de sedimento superficial (0-2 cm na Enseada de Botafogo (sudoeste da Baía de Guanabara/RJ, a fim de comparar o uso de marcadores químicos (coprostanol e biológicos (E. coli e coliformes totais na identificação da contaminação fecal da região. Os resultados obtidos (carbono orgânico - 6,0 to 64,8 mg g-1; coprostanol - 1,4 to 105 µg g-1; E. coli - < 30 to 2400 NMP/10g e coliformes totais - 40 to 9300 NMP/10g foram iguais ou maiores aos observados em outras áreas contaminadas da Baía de Guanabara. Nas estações próximas à linha de costa, as concentrações de coprostanol e as contagens das bactérias confirmaram que o esgoto doméstico se acumulou no sedimento da enseada. As concentrações de coprostanol se mantiveram altas nas estações distantes das fontes de contaminação, porém o material fecal representou uma menor fração do carbono orgânico. Nessas mesmas estações, redução na contagem de colimetria foi proporcionalmente mais alta, provavelmente pela baixa sobrevivência das bactérias devido ao efeito de luz, salinidade e temperatura. durante o transporte e deposição das partículas de esgoto. Portanto, baseando-se nos resultados obtidos, o coprostanol foi um indicador mais adequado da contaminação fecal nos sedimentos da Enseada de Botafogo.

Renata Lima da Costa

2005-12-01

156

Determination of total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nickel ferrocyanide compounds (Na2-xCsxNiFe (CN)6) were produced in a scavenging process to remove 137Cs from Hanford Site single-shell tank waste supernates. Methods for determining total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes are needed for the evaluation of potential exothermic reactions between cyanide and oxidizers such as nitrate and for safe storage, processing, and management of the wastes in compliance with regulatory requirements. Hanford Site laboratory experience in determining cyanide in high-level wastes is summarized. Modifications were made to standard cyanide methods to permit improved handling of high-level waste samples and to eliminate interferences found in Hanford Site waste matrices. Interferences and associated procedure modifications caused by high nitrates/nitrite concentrations, insoluble nickel ferrocyanides, and organic complexants are described

157

Comparison Of Serum Calcium, Phosphorus And Total Protein Levels, In Pregnancy With Or Without Hypertensive Disorders  

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Full Text Available Background: Pre-eclampsia is characterized by hypertension development and proteinuria during pregnancy. Hypertension disorder is a leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and death in worldwide. Although the pathophysiology of hypertension during pregnancy is unclear, but there is consensus that early diagnosis and aggressive treatment is warranted to prevent complicated to both fetus and mother. The changes of serum trace elements during pregnancy are paramount important to predict and good understanding the situation of patients. The aim of this study was about this issue. Materials and Methods: In a case-control study we investigated the possible differences in the level of serum calcium, phosphorus and total protein in 55 healthy pregnant and 52 pregnant with hypertensive disease at 32-40 weeks of gestational age during the recent two years in Loghman hospital of Tehran. Some information such as age, blood group, parity number and blood pressure was taken from patients by a questionnaire. Results: The case population consisted of 22 sever preeclampsia, 15 mild preeclampsia, 8 eclampsia, and 7 chronic hypertensive. The mean serum calcium concentration (mg/dl was 9.18?0.74 in control group, 8.81?0.9 in mild preeclampsia, 7.85?0.38 in sever preeclampsia, 7.83? 0.47 in eclampsia, 8.91? 0.3 in chronic blood pressure. The mean serum phosphorus (mg/dl level observed, 4.27 in sever preeclampsia, 3.74 in eclampsia, 3.59 in mild eclampsia, 4.09 in chronic blood pressure, and 3.43 in control pregnant women. The mean serum total protein concentration level in sever preeclampsia and eclampsia was 5.46 and 5.04 mg/dl respectively. Conclusion: In conclusion, sever preeclampsia and eclampsia are associated with decreased level of calcium, total protein, and increased concentration of phosphorus.

Rashid Pooraei M

2005-06-01

158

The impact of different demand allocation rules on total stock levels  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Esse artigo compara duas diferentes regras para alocação da demanda às instalações de serviço e seus impactos nos níveis totais de estoque: a regra proposta por Tyagi & Das (1998) e a prática de transferência entre instalações. Os métodos do lote econômico de compras e do ponto de pedido são usados [...] para determinação dos níveis de estoque de ciclo e de segurança. É demonstrado que a minimização dos níveis agregados de estoque nessas regras leva a diferentes políticas de alocação freqüentemente adotadas pelas empresas: compartilhamento de uma única instalação de serviço, instalações de serviço dedicadas e descentralização total do atendimento. Análises de sensibilidade são conduzidas para identificar as variáveis mais relevantes, responsáveis pela diferença nos níveis totais de estoque entre essas três políticas. Os resultados sugerem diferentes oportunidades que podem favorecer uma dada política em detrimento das outras. Um quadro conceitual sintetizando os achados é apresentado, de modo a auxiliar na tomada de decisão. Os impactos potenciais em termos de níveis de serviço e dos custos de distribuição também são avaliados em termos qualitativos. Abstract in english This manuscript compares two different rules for allocating demands to serving facilities and their impact on total stock levels: the one proposed by Tyagi & Das (1998) and the cross filling practice. The EOQ and the ROP methods are used for setting cycle and safety stocks. Its is demonstrated that [...] the minimization of the consolidated inventory levels within these rules leads to different allocation policies, frequently adopted by companies: one single facility sharing, dedicated facilities and full decentralization. Sensitivity analyses are conducted to identify the most relevant variables accountable for the differences in total stock levels among these three policies. Results suggest different benefit opportunities that may favor one policy to the detriment of the others. A framework synthesizing the findings is presented, so as to help in decision making. Potential impacts in terms of service levels and distribution costs are also evaluated qualitatively.

Peter, Wanke.

2010-04-01

159

Low-level waste disposal performance assessments - Total source-term analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities is regulated by DOE. DOE Order 5820.2A establishes policies, guidelines, and minimum requirements for managing radioactive waste. Requirements for disposal of low-level waste emplaced after September 1988 include providing reasonable assurance of meeting stated performance objectives by completing a radiological performance assessment. Recently, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board issued Recommendation 94-2, open-quotes Conformance with Safety Standards at Department of Energy Low-Level Nuclear Waste and Disposal Sites.close quotes One of the elements of the recommendation is that low-level waste performance assessments do not include the entire source term because low-level waste emplaced prior to September 1988, as well as other DOE sources of radioactivity in the ground, are excluded. DOE has developed and issued guidance for preliminary assessments of the impact of including the total source term in performance assessments. This paper will present issues resulting from the inclusion of all DOE sources of radioactivity in performance assessments of low-level waste disposal facilities

160

Effect of preoperative hemoglobin A(1c) level on acute postoperative complications of total joint arthroplasty.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diabetes mellitus is a well-established risk factor for postoperative complications of total joint arthroplasty (TJA). We conducted a study to identify a specific hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level at which immediate postoperative complication rates increased after TJA. HbA1c levels were measured within 90 days preoperatively. Complications were documented during the acute postoperative period. Charts were reviewed, and each patient was given a score based on how many of these postoperative complications occurred. Overall, 1118 patients were retrospectively analyzed between 2009 and 2011. Patients were grouped into 5 HbA1c level ranges, and a mean postoperative complication point score was obtained for each group. We found that mean postoperative complication rates increased along with HbA1c levels; HbA1c levels higher than 7.5% correlate strongly with a higher rate of postoperative complications. These findings provide a good foundation for prospective studies and further evidence of the effects of HbA1c levels. If an adequate treatment plan for these patients emerges, these findings may help lower readmission rates as well. PMID:24278910

Goldstein, Daniel T; Durinka, Joel B; Martino, Nicole; Shilling, Jack W

2013-10-01

 
 
 
 
161

Low-level waste disposal performance assessments - Total source-term analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities is regulated by DOE. DOE Order 5820.2A establishes policies, guidelines, and minimum requirements for managing radioactive waste. Requirements for disposal of low-level waste emplaced after September 1988 include providing reasonable assurance of meeting stated performance objectives by completing a radiological performance assessment. Recently, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board issued Recommendation 94-2, {open_quotes}Conformance with Safety Standards at Department of Energy Low-Level Nuclear Waste and Disposal Sites.{close_quotes} One of the elements of the recommendation is that low-level waste performance assessments do not include the entire source term because low-level waste emplaced prior to September 1988, as well as other DOE sources of radioactivity in the ground, are excluded. DOE has developed and issued guidance for preliminary assessments of the impact of including the total source term in performance assessments. This paper will present issues resulting from the inclusion of all DOE sources of radioactivity in performance assessments of low-level waste disposal facilities.

Wilhite, E.L.

1995-12-31

162

Seminal plasma total antioxidant capacity and vitamin- C levels in asthenozoospermia: a case- control study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Defective sperm function is now recognized as one of the most important causes of male infertility. Seminal plasma possesses a rich source of different enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as vitamin C (ascorbic acid that protect spermatozoa against oxidative stress as one of the mediators of infertility causing sperm dysfunction and low sperm quality. The aim of this study was investigation of seminal total antioxidant capacity and determination of vitamin C effects on sperm motility. "n"nMethods: We designed a case-control study with a total subject of 62 males. Sperm parameters were analyzed according to World Health Organization guidelines (WHO, 1999. Total antioxidant capacity and vitamin C level of seminal plasma were measured in the 32 normozoospermic as the control group and 32 asthenospermic men as the case group using FRAP (Ferric Reducing of Antioxidants Powers and RP-HPLC (Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography methods, respectively. "n"nResults: Our results indicated that total antioxidant capacity levels in the seminal plasma of asthenospermic men were significantly lower than healthy men (p=0.002. In addition, we found a positive correlation between reduced total antioxidant capacity levels and low sperm motility. Vitamin C levels of seminal plasma in asthenospermic men were statistically lower than control men (p=0.01."n"nConclusions: It is suggested that asthenospermia could be related to an antioxidant deficiency or it's reduction.

Ali Bidmeshkipour

2010-03-01

163

Survival of Fecal Coliforms in Dry-Composting Toilets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The dry-composting toilet, which uses neither water nor sewage infrastructure, is a practical solution in areas with inadequate sewage disposal and where water is limited. These systems are becoming increasingly popular and are promoted to sanitize human excreta and to recycle them into fertilizer for nonedible plants, yet there are few data on the safety of this technology. This study analyzed fecal coliform reduction in approximately 90 prefabricated, dry-composting toilets (Sistema Integra...

Redlinger, Thomas; Graham, Jay; Corella-barud, Vero?nica; Avitia, Raquel

2001-01-01

164

Remoção de coliformes do esgoto por meio de espécies vegetais  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de substratos e de espécies vegetais, nativas ou naturalizadas da região de Goiânia-GO, na remoção de coliformes do esgoto, num sistema de tratamento do tipo zona de raízes com fluxo subsuperficial descendente, precedido de decantação. O experimento foi conduzido no campus Samambaia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, em Goiânia. Após passar por uma caixa de decantação, o esgoto primário foi aplicado, diariamente, em módulos de tratamento contendo as espécies vegetais taboa (Typha angustifolia L., lírio-do-brejo (Hedychium coronarium J. König, conta-de-lágrima (Coix lacryma-jobi L. e capim Angola (Urochloa mutica (Forssk. T. Q. Nguyen, cultivadas em substratos com areia e/ou casca de coco. Foram construídos dezesseis módulos de tratamento, distantes dois metros uns dos outros, agrupados quatro a quatro, num delineamento experimental de parcelas subdivididas, sendo as parcelas representadas pelos substratos e as subparcelas pelas espécies vegetais. As repetições foram constituídas pelas amostragens do esgoto, que ocorreram quinzenalmente. As amostras do esgoto bruto, primário e secundário foram submetidas a análises laboratoriais e os resultados foram utilizados no cálculo de eficiência na remoção/redução dos coliformes do esgoto. Os valores de eficiência foram submetidos ao teste de Tukey-Kramer. O sistema de tratamento do tipo zona de raízes mostrou-se bastante eficiente na remoção de coliformes, atingindo níveis próximos à totalidade. As espécies vegetais comportaram-se de maneira semelhante na remoção dos coliformes fecais e o substrato com casca de coco mostrou-se menos eficiente que os substratos com areia.

Rogério de Araújo Almeida

2005-12-01

165

Survival of coliforms and bacterial pathogens within protozoa during chlorination.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The susceptibility of coliform bacteria and bacterial pathogens to free chlorine residuals was determined before and after incubation with amoebae and ciliate protozoa. Viability of bacteria was quantified to determine their resistance to free chlorine residuals when ingested by laboratory strains of Acanthamoeba castellanii and Tetrahymena pyriformis. Cocultures of bacteria and protozoa were incubated to facilitate ingestion of the bacteria and then were chlorinated, neutralized, and sonicat...

King, C. H.; Shotts, E. B.; Wooley, R. E.; Porter, K. G.

1988-01-01

166

Remoção de coliformes do esgoto por meio de espécies vegetais  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de substratos e de espécies vegetais, nativas ou naturalizadas da região de Goiânia-GO, na remoção de coliformes do esgoto, num sistema de tratamento do tipo zona de raízes com fluxo subsuperficial descendente, precedido de decantação. O experimento foi conduzido no campus Samambaia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, em Goiânia. Após passar por uma caixa de decantação, o esgoto primário foi aplicado, diariamente, em módu...

Rogério de Araújo Almeida; Nilza Alves Marques de Almeida

2005-01-01

167

Total mercury and methylmercury levels in fish from hydroelectric reservoirs in Tanzania.  

Science.gov (United States)

Total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) levels have been determined in fish species representing various tropic levels in four major hydroelectric reservoirs (Mtera, Kidatu, Hale-Pangani, Nyumba ya Mungu) located in two distinct geographical areas in Tanzania. The Mtera and Kidatu reservoirs are located along the Great Ruaha River drainage basin in the southern central part of the country while the other reservoirs are located within the Pangani River basin in the north eastern part of Tanzania. Fish mercury levels ranged from 5 to 143 microg/kg (mean 40 microg/kg wet weight) in the Mtera Reservoir, and from 7 to 119 microg/kg (mean 21 microg/kg) in the Kidatu Reservoir downstream of the Great Ruaha River. The lowest THg levels, in the range 1-10 microg/kg (mean 5 microg/kg), were found in fish from the Nyumba ya Mungu (NyM) Reservoir, which is one of the oldest reservoirs in the country. Fish mercury levels in the Pangani and Hale mini-reservoirs, downstream of the NyM Reservoir, were in the order of 3-263 microg/kg, with an average level of 21 microg/kg. These THg levels are among the lowest to be reported in freshwater fish from hydroelectric reservoirs. Approximately 56-100% of the total mercury in the fish was methylmercury. Herbivorous fish species contained lower THg levels than the piscivorous species; this was consistent with similar findings in other fish studies. In general the fish from the Tanzanian reservoirs contained very low mercury concentrations, and differed markedly from fish in hydroelectric reservoirs of similar age in temperate and other regions, which are reported to contain elevated mercury concentrations. The low levels of mercury in the fish correlated with low background concentrations of THg in sediment and flooded soil (mean 2-8 microg/kg dry weight) in the reservoir surroundings. This suggested a relatively clean reservoir environment that has not been significantly impacted by mercury contamination from natural or anthropogenic sources. PMID:12663196

Ikingura, J R; Akagi, H

2003-03-20

168

Geographical distribution and background levels of total mercury in air in Japan and neighbouring countries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Concentrations of total atmospheric mercury were determined in air collected from several locations in Japan and neighbouring countries to elucidate the geographical distribution and the background levels of total mercury in environmental air. The concentrations of mercury in urban air in Japan were 2.3-67 ng/m3, mean value 11.2 ng/m3. Those values were higher relative to those in urban air of other countries around Japan. In the past, a large quantity of mercury was used as an agricultural fungicide and a chloralkali catalyst in Japan. Therefore, the concentrations of mercury in rural air were higher rather than those in urban air. This phenomenon supports the hypothesis that the residual mercury used in the paddy field in the 1970s still remains in soils of Japan. PMID:9569944

Nakagawa, R; Hiromoto, M

1997-02-01

169

Increased total serum random cortisol levels predict mortality in critically ill trauma patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dysfunction in the hypothalamopituitary adrenal axis is thought to exist; however, there continues to be controversy about what level of serum cortisol corresponds to adrenal insufficiency. Few studies have focused on the significance of serum random cortisol in the critically ill trauma patient. Trauma patients with total serum random cortisol levels drawn in the intensive care unit within the first seven days of hospitalization were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome measured was in-hospital mortality. Two hundred forty-two patients were analyzed. Nonsurvivors had significantly higher mean cortisol levels than survivors (28.7 ± 15.80 ?g/dL vs 22.9 ± 12.35 ?g/dL, P = 0.01). Patients with cortisol 30 ?g/dL or greater were more likely to die with odds ratio of 2.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5 to 5). The odds ratio increased to 4.0 and 3.8 (95% CI, 1.4 to 11.4 and 1.3 to 10.9) when cortisol was drawn on hospital Day 2 and Days 3 through 7, respectively. Among nonsurvivors, patients with an injury severity score less than 25 had significantly higher cortisol levels than patients with an Injury Severity Score 25 or higher (35.3 ± 19.21 ?g/dL vs 25.7 ± 13.21 ?g/dL, P = 0.009). Patients with massive transfusion, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, or solid organ injury did not have significantly different cortisol levels. The covariate-adjusted area under the receiver operating characteristic curve indicated that cortisol level has a 77 per cent accuracy in differentiating survivors from nonsurvivors. Higher cortisol levels were predictive of mortality in critically ill trauma patients. Whether serum cortisol level is a marker that can be modified remains an area of interest for future study. PMID:25347501

Pandya, Urmil; Polite, Nathan; Wood, Teresa; Lieber, Michael

2014-11-01

170

Millennial total sea-level commitments projected with the Earth system model of intermediate complexity LOVECLIM  

Science.gov (United States)

Sea-level is expected to rise for a long time to come, even after stabilization of human-induced climatic warming. Here we use simulations with the Earth system model of intermediate complexity LOVECLIM to project sea-level changes over the third millennium forced with atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations that stabilize by either 2000 or 2100 AD. The model includes 3D thermomechanical models of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets coupled to an atmosphere and an ocean model, a global glacier melt algorithm to account for the response of mountain glaciers and ice caps, and a procedure for assessing oceanic thermal expansion from oceanic heat uptake. Four climate change scenarios are considered to determine sea-level commitments. These assume a 21st century increase in greenhouse gases according to SRES scenarios B1, A1B and A2 with a stabilization of the atmospheric composition after the year 2100. One additional scenario assumes 1000 years of constant atmospheric composition from the year 2000 onwards. For our preferred model version, we find an already committed total sea-level rise of 1.1 m by 3000 AD. In experiments with greenhouse gas concentration stabilization at 2100 AD, the total sea-level rise ranges between 2.1 m (B1), 4.1 m (A1B) and 6.8 m (A2). In all scenarios, more than half of this amount arises from the Greenland ice sheet, thermal expansion is the second largest contributor, and the contribution of glaciers and ice caps is small as it is limited by the available ice volume of maximally 25 cm of sea-level equivalent. Additionally, we analysed the sensitivity of the sea-level contributions from an ensemble of nine different model versions that cover a large range of climate sensitivity realized by model parameter variations of the atmosphere-ocean model. Selected temperature indices are found to be good predictors for sea-level contributions from the different components of land ice and oceanic thermal expansion after 1000 years.

Goelzer, H.; Huybrechts, P.; Raper, S. C. B.; Loutre, M.-F.; Goosse, H.; Fichefet, T.

2012-12-01

171

Millennial total sea-level commitments projected with the Earth system model of intermediate complexity LOVECLIM  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sea-level is expected to rise for a long time to come, even after stabilization of human-induced climatic warming. Here we use simulations with the Earth system model of intermediate complexity LOVECLIM to project sea-level changes over the third millennium forced with atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations that stabilize by either 2000 or 2100 AD. The model includes 3D thermomechanical models of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets coupled to an atmosphere and an ocean model, a global glacier melt algorithm to account for the response of mountain glaciers and ice caps, and a procedure for assessing oceanic thermal expansion from oceanic heat uptake. Four climate change scenarios are considered to determine sea-level commitments. These assume a 21st century increase in greenhouse gases according to SRES scenarios B1, A1B and A2 with a stabilization of the atmospheric composition after the year 2100. One additional scenario assumes 1000 years of constant atmospheric composition from the year 2000 onwards. For our preferred model version, we find an already committed total sea-level rise of 1.1 m by 3000 AD. In experiments with greenhouse gas concentration stabilization at 2100 AD, the total sea-level rise ranges between 2.1 m (B1), 4.1 m (A1B) and 6.8 m (A2). In all scenarios, more than half of this amount arises from the Greenland ice sheet, thermal expansion is the second largest contributor, and the contribution of glaciers and ice caps is small as it is limited by the available ice volume of maximally 25 cm of sea-level equivalent. Additionally, we analysed the sensitivity of the sea-level contributions from an ensemble of nine different model versions that cover a large range of climate sensitivity realized by model parameter variations of the atmosphere–ocean model. Selected temperature indices are found to be good predictors for sea-level contributions from the different components of land ice and oceanic thermal expansion after 1000 years. (letter)

172

Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of whey protein hydrolysates generated at different total solids levels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Whey protein hydrolysates were generated at different total solids (TS) levels (50–300 g/l) using the commercially available proteolytic preparation DebitraseTM HYW20, while enzyme to substrate ratio, pH and temperature were maintained constant. Hydrolysis proceeded at a faster rate at lower TS reaching a degree of hydrolysis (DH) of 16.6% at 300 g TS/l, compared with a DH of 22.7% at 50 g TS/l after 6 h hydrolysis. The slower breakdown of intact whey proteins at high TS was ...

Spellman, David; O Cuinn, Gerard; Fitzgerald, Richard J.

2005-01-01

173

Fecal coliform loadings and stocks in buttermilk bay, Massachusetts, USA, and management implications  

Science.gov (United States)

Abundance of fecal caliform bacteria is a weak index of the presence of human pathogens in wastewater entering coastal waters. In spite of this, use of fecal caliform indices for management purposes is widespread. To gain insight into interpretation of fecal coliform data, we evaluated size of stocks of fecal coliforms in water, sediments, and sea wrack, in Buttermilk Bay, a coastal embayment in Massachusetts. Sediments contained most of the fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms in sediments were as much as one order of magnitude more abundant than in the water column or in sea wrack. The fecal coliforms in sediments of Buttermilk Bay were so abundant that resuspension of fecal coliforms from just the top 2 cm of muddy sediments could add sufficient cells to the water column to have the whole bay exceed the federal limit of fecal coliforms for shellfishing. The major sources of fecal coliforms to the bay were water-fowls, surface runoff, groundwater, and streams. Waterfowl were the largest source of fecal coliforms during cold months; surface runoff, streams, and groundwater were most important during warm months. Redirection of surface runoff pipes is unlikely to be a very successful management action since contributions via this source are insufficient to account for the measured increases in concentrations of fecal coliforms in water. Removal of waterfowl is also unlikely to be useful, since fecal coliform concentrations leading to closures of shellfish beds and swimming areas are most frequent during warm months when waterfowl are rarest. Rates of loss of fecal caliform cells from the water column by death and tidal exchange were high. Mortality of cells was about an order of magnitude larger than losses by tidal exchange. The amounts of fecal coliforms brought into the bay by waterfowl, surface runoff, groundwater, and streams are an order of magnitude smaller than the losses by mortality and tidal removal. This implies that there is an additional source of fecal coliforms within the bay. We suggest that resuspension of the upper layers of sediments can easily account for the fecal coliforms present in the water. Fecal coliform content of water and shellfish were not correlated. In contrast, sediment and shellfish fecal coliform abundances were significantly related. Monitoring of fecal coliforms in sediments may provide a better assessment of shellfish than sampling of water. The large fecal coliform stock in sediments should be the first priority for management. Efforts ought to be directed toward the reduction of sediment fecal coliform stocks. Lowering nutrient additions to coastal water bodies may be one practical approach.

Valiela, Ivan; Alber, Merryl; Lamontagne, Michael

1991-09-01

174

Fluctuations in serum magnesium levels during total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol.  

Science.gov (United States)

Forty patients who underwent eye surgery under total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol where investigated in order to determine the fluctuations of serum magnesium levels during anaesthesia. Six blood samples were taken before anaesthesia, after induction, 1 hour later, 2 hours later, after recovery, and 24 hours after surgery. In the same time intervals, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, heart rate and temperature were recorded. The results showed a statistically significant decrease in serum magnesium levels during anaesthesia. No correlations between this decrease and the fluctuations of blood pressure, heart rate or temperature were found. These results indicate that there is a shift of magnesium into the tissue stores due to the state of anaesthesia, possibly by a direct effect of the anaesthetic agents on the cell membrane itself. Further investigation is needed with other techniques and agents employed in general anaesthesia. PMID:8819094

Nastou, H; Sarros, G; Palta, M; Nastos, A; Sarrou, V; Anastassopoulou, J

1996-03-01

175

Pollution studies of Kabul river and its tributes for the assessment of organic strength and fecal coliform  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty eight samples of water from Kabul River and its tributaries starting from Warsak Reservoir to the confluence point of Kabul and Indus Rivers covering a stretch of about 90 km and the waste water being discharged by different drains into the river were collected systematically and analysed for total organic strength as Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and degradable organics as Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) using standard methods. River water samples from different locations were also analysed bacteriologically for Fecal coliforms. All the waste water samples and river water in a few locations were found to be high in COD, BOD and Fecal coliform rendering it unfit for irrigation and human consumption. The results also suggest that the Board Mills and from different tanneries are the main sources of organic pollution in the Kabul River. Reduction in fish crop in Kabul River could be referred to the increased organic pollution. (author)

176

Growth performance, digestibility and faecal coliform bacteria in weaned piglets fed a cereal-based diet including either chicory (Cichorium intybus L) or ribwort (Plantago lanceolata L) forage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-five weaned 35-day-old piglets were used in a 35-day growth experiment to evaluate the effect of inclusion of chicory and ribwort forage in a cereal-based diet on growth performance, feed intake, digestibility and shedding of faecal coliform bacteria. A total of seven experimental diets were formulated, a cereal-based basal diet (B), and six diets with inclusion of 40, 80 and 160 g/kg chicory (C40, C80 and C160) or ribwort (R40, R80 and R160). Piglets had ad libitum access to feed and water throughout the experiment. Three and five weeks post-weaning faeces samples for determination of digestibility were collected once a day for five subsequent days. Additional faeces samples for determination of coliform counts were collected at days 1, 16 and 35 post-weaning. Piglets fed diet R160 had the lowest average daily feed intake (DFI) and daily weight gain (DWG), and differed (P chicory diets and diet B. Inclusion of chicory or ribwort had a minor negative impact on the coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) of dry matter, organic matter and crude protein, whereas inclusion of both chicory and ribwort resulted in higher CTTAD of non-starch polysaccharides and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). The CTTAD of arabinose were higher for diets C160 and R160 than for diet B (P chicory do not negatively affect performance, whereas high inclusion of ribwort have a negative impact on feed consumption and consequently on growth rate. Both herbs have a higher digestibility of fibre compared to cereal fibre. Chicory and ribwort are both promising as feedstuffs to weaned piglets, but the low palatability of ribwort limits the inclusion level. PMID:22439952

Ivarsson, E; Frankow-Lindberg, B E; Andersson, H K; Lindberg, J E

2011-02-01

177

Survey of PAC Performance for Removal of Turbidity, COD, Coliform Bacteria, Heterotrophic Bacteria from Water of Karoon River  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Backgrounds and Objectives: Selection of proper coagulants for turbidity removal and determination of effective methods to reduce coagulants dose and related costs in water treatment plants is of critical importance. The present study investigates the effect of returned sludge on improving the performance of poly-aluminum chloride (PAC in turbidity, coliform bacteria, heterotrophic bacteria removal from drinking water during rapid mixing phase. Materials and Methods: In order to determine the optimal returned sludge volume injected during rapid mixing with PAC for turbidity, total coliform and hetrophic bacteria, experiments were conducted based on variables such as injected silt volume (from 0 - 125 ml, and varying turbidities from 58 - 112 NTU. At the end of each JAR experiments, remaining turbidity , microbial parameters of samples were measured . Coagulant efficiency in turbidity removal and microbial parameters were determined by Covariance, Duncan analyses and graphs were drawn by MS Excel . The results statistically showed significant among variables (P<0.05. Results: The results showed that the maximum turbidity removal efficiency of 98.92 at 30 ppm was 10 ml while the maximum turbidity removal efficiency of 98.31 at 10 ppm was 4 ml. The maximum total coliform removal efficiency  of 95.68 obtained for 10 ppm in 10 cc injected sludge volume.Conclusion: This study shows that addition of returned sludge to flash mixing can reduce the turbidity of samples.

N Alavi Bakhtiarvand

2011-10-01

178

A high-throughput screening assay for determining cellular levels of total tau protein.  

Science.gov (United States)

The microtubule-associated protein (MAP) tau has been implicated in the pathology of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. In the past decade, the hyperphosphorylated and aggregated states of tau protein have been important targets in the drug discovery field for the potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Although several compounds have been reported to reduce the hyperphosphorylated state of tau or impact the stabilization of tau, their therapeutic activities are remain to be validated. Recently, reduction of total cellular tau protein has emerged as an alternate intervention point for drug development and a potential treatment of tauopathies. We have developed and optimized homogenous assays, using the AlphaLISA and HTRF assay technologies, for the quantification of total cellular tau protein levels in the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line. The signal-to-basal ratios were 375 and 5.3, and the Z' factors were 0.67 and 0.60 for the AlphaLISA and HTRF tau assays, respectively. The clear advantages of these homogeneous tau assays over conventional total tau assays, such as ELISA and Western blot, are the elimination of plate wash steps and miniaturization of the assay into 1536-well plate format for the ultra-high-throughput screening of large compound libraries. PMID:23905996

Dehdashti, Seameen J; Zheng, Wei; Gever, Joel R; Wilhelm, Robert; Nguyen, Dac-Trung; Sittampalam, Gurusingham; McKew, John C; Austin, Christopher P; Prusiner, Stanley B

2013-09-01

179

Molecular and Bacteriological Examination of Milk from Different Milch Animals with Special Reference to Coliforms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, 20 samples of raw milk of cow, buffalo and goat and pasteurized milk were collected from the local market and were analyzed for microbial count and IMViC tests to determine the coliform load in the sample. Further, the presence of E. coli was confirmed by using PCR. Majority of the milk samples of different origin were found to be contaminated by the coliform group of bacteria. Nine samples were found to be positive for E. coli by PCR analysis. Pasteurized milk samples did not showed presence of E. coli by PCR, but they showed considerable count of bacterial growth by total plate count method. The results indicated that analyzed milk could contribute a potential risk for public health in the cases that it was consumed or used in the production of dairy products without being pasteurized or being subjected to a sufficient heat process. Moreover, PCR is less labor intensive and more rapid for bacterial identification.

T.S. Parekh

2008-01-01

180

Coliform bacteria removal from sewage in constructed wetlands planted with Mentha aquatica.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study evaluated the performance of the species Mentha aquatica in constructed wetlands of horizontal subsurface flow (CW-HSSF) with regard to the removal of coliforms bacteria in an effluent from the primary treatment of sewage as well as to obtain adjustment parameters of the bacterial decay kinetic model along the length of the CW-HSSF. Therefore, four CW-HSSFs measuring 24.0 m x 1.0 m x 0.35 m were built and filled with number 0 gravel as the support medium to a height of 0.20m. Two of the CW-HSSFs were planted with the species M. aquatica, while the other two remained uncultivated. Cultivation of M. aquatica in CW-HSSF resulted in total coliforms (TC) and Escherichia coli (EC) removals from 0.9 to 1.3 log units greater than those obtained in the uncultivated experimental plots, for the hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 4.5 and 6.0 days. For HRT ranged from 1.5 to 6.0 days, the highest removal efficiencies in counts of TC and EC were obtained when using longer HRT. The mathematical models evaluated showed good fit to average counts of TC and EC highlighting the modified first-order kinetic model with the inclusion of the power parameter in the HRT variable. PMID:24956804

Avelar, Fabiana F; de Matos, Antonio T; de Matos, Mateus P; Borges, Alisson C

2014-08-01

 
 
 
 
181

BRUCELLA AND COLIFORM ORGANISMS IN FRESH CHEESE PRODUCED IN HAMADAN – 2000  

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Full Text Available Milk and its Products possess high nutritional value. It could be a desirable source for growing of pathogenic microorganisms. The objectives of this study was to obtain the frequency of pathogenic bacterial agents (i.e. brucella spp. and coliforms in fresh cheese in Hamedan.
A total of 210 cheese samples were collected randomly from Hamadan and its rural area for a period of six months. 50 to 100 gm of fresh cheese was purchesed in each time and one gram weighted to preparation of diluted concentration in selective media. The data were gathered through a questionnaire and analysed using IEPI6"; system.
Of 210 samples, only 5 cases (2.4 percent of Brucella spp. Were isolated, however, all samples tested were positive for Coliforms contaminations (100 percent. E.coli type I was 143 (68.1 percent. E.coli type 11 42 (19.8 percent. The other major pathogenic bacteria isolated were as follows: Staph aureus 8.1 percent, Bacillus cereus 4.7 percent, psuedomonas 1.9 percent and Salmonella typhimurium 1.2 percent.
Because of isolation of the pathogenic bacteria such as Brucella species, Pathogenic Cofiforms and Staph aures, from fresh cheese, and the role of them in transition of infectious disease, it is recommended that high health cares must be performed to preparation and distribution of fresh cheese.

R YOUSEFI MASHOUF

2002-12-01

182

Faecal coliforms, faecal enterococci, Salmonella Typhi and Acanthamoeba spp. UV inactivation in three different biological effluents  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Efficiency of UV-light to inactivate microbial indicators, Salmonella Typhi and Acanthamoeba spp. was studied in three different biological secondary effluents. Even though effluents differed in terms of their total suspended solids content, transmittance and particle size distribution, the UV-light [...] dose required to fulfil WHO agricultural water reuse criteria was the same (30 mW-s/cm²), because the particle content with sizes >40 |xm was similar and very small. Using this dosage, 3 log of Salmonella Typhi and faecal enterococci were also inactivated. To avoid faecal coliform and Salmonella Typhi photoreactivation, the UV dose had to be doubled and in the process 2.5 log of Acanthamoeba spp. were also inactivated. This is interesting because its presence in wastewater, pathogenicity and resistance to conventional disinfection processes has been reported in the literature. Additionally, it was found that the faecal coliforms' inactivation rate constant was the lowest one of all the bacteria studied (Salmonella Typhi and faecal enterococci), suggesting the limitation of this indicator when several kinds of pathogens are present, as is the case in developing countries.

NA, Beltrán; BE, Jiménez.

183

Comparison of two methods of assessing total body water at sea level and increasing high altitude.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluid retention is a recognized feature of acute mountain sickness. However, accurate assessment of hydration, including the quantification of body water, has traditionally relied on expensive and non-portable equipment limiting its utility in the field setting. We compared the assessment of total body water (TBW) and their relationship to total body weight using two non-invasive methods using the NICas single-frequency bioimpedance analysis (SF-BIA) system and the BodyStat QuadScan 4000 multifrequency BIA system (MF-BIA). TBW measurements were performed at rest at sea level and at high altitude (HA) at 3833 m postexercise and at rest and thereafter at rest at 4450 m and 5129 m on 47 subjects. The average age was 34·5 ± 9·3 years with an age range of 21-54 years (70·2% male). There were strong correlations between TBW assessment with both methods at sea level (r = 0·90; 95% CI 0·78-0·95: Pr = 0·92; 0·89-0·94: Pr = 0·91; Pr = 0·83; P<0·0001). The overall agreement between the two TBW methods was good, but the 95% confidence intervals around these agreements were relatively wide. We conclude that there was reasonable agreement between the two methods of BIA for TBW, but this agreement was lower at HA. PMID:24797153

Boos, C J; Holdsworth, D A; Hall, D P; Mellor, A; O'Hara, J; Woods, D R

2014-11-01

184

Total plasma level of antioxidant and immune system function in radiology and nuclear medicine staff  

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Full Text Available Background: Despite major diagnostic and industrial progresses in the technology and use of Ionizing radiations, they have been found to be harmful to the health of the radiology and nuclear medicine staffs. Since Ionizing radiations have the potential to produce free radicals, therefore, it is likely that the total plasma level of anti-oxidant in medical and nuclear medicine staffs could be reduced.Methods: In this case-control study the relationship of total anti oxidant level of plasma and the function of immune cells such as lymphocyte proliferating response using MTT method, Neutrophil chemotaxi, Intensity of respiratory burst (NBT and evaluation of IL-2 and IL-4 (ELISA were investigated. 101 samples were collected for this study and they were assigned as two groups: 61 samples cases from radiology and nuclear medicine staffs of Tehran University Of Medical Science hospitals (Shariaty, Imam Khomeyni, Ghalb-e-Tehran were assigned as the exposed group, whereas, 40 samples from Pediatric, Orthopedic, Infirmary and Emergencies wards were assigned as control group. Using heparinized syringes, 8 to 10 ml of blood samples were collected from each person with age between 25 to 50, averaging 36.4±7.2, and several assays including Anii Oxidant Capacity of Total Plasma (FRAP Method, T cell proliferative response to PHA mitogen (MTT Method, Chemotaxi of neutrophils and Magnitude of respiratory burst were carried out on these samples. The results were analyzed using spirman correlation analysis.Results: The results showed that exposure to ionizing radiation chronically with low dosed had no effect on chemotaxis of neutorophils and intensity of respiratory burst, but could have effect on lymphocyte function specially in cytokines secretion like IL-2 which are essential in the immune responses.Conclusion: This study indicates that long term low dose ionizing radiation may have effect in some parts of the immune function."n 

Kalamzadeh A

2007-10-01

185

Total Quality Management in Classroom at University Level in Islamabad City  

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Full Text Available The progress of a country inter-depends on the quality of education provided to its citizens. Higher level Education is the most important stage in education system of any country. This stage provides educated graduates and skilled workers that immediatelyenters into the practical field and takes over the responsibilities. That is why to increase the quality of education at this stage is the foremost mission of all the countries. By defining the term, quality is the level of satisfaction for which the consumer pays. In thecase of education, the Consumer is the student as well as society. Therefore, quality education is the standard of education that satisfies the students and society both. The main objectives of this study were to identify the indicators of Total Quality Management(T.Q.M in classroom to study the efforts of teachers to ensure TQM in classroom and to identify the ways to improve the quality of education at higher level.From the findings of the study it was revealed that the teachers did not covered the five standards of TQM elements completely, students were not completely satisfied by the teaching methodology during knowledge transitory process. Most of the teachers were not prepared before delivering there lectures, teacher showed biasness that discouraged the students. Teacher also ignored the daily assessment of the students, and use of the audio visual (AV aids in classroom, obsolete teaching material, and ineffective material caused failure to produce total quality education, and failed to produce skilled workforce. Based upon the conclusion of the study it is recommended that teacher may be punctual, teacher should use AV aids for teaching in classroom, teachers may be prepared well before delivering the lecture, teacher may encourage the classroom discussion, andteacher may treat equally in classroom.

Tanvir Kayani

2012-12-01

186

Leveling Process of Total Electron Content (TEC Using Malaysian Global Positioning System (GPS Data  

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Full Text Available The signals from the satellites of the Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS travel through the earth's ionosphere on their way to GPS receivers. However, ionospheric delay is one of the main sources of error in GPS. The magnitude of the ionospheric delay is influenced by the Total Electron Content (TEC along the radio wave path from a GPS satellite to the ground receiver. This study investigates the TEC using GPS data collected from Wisma Tanah, Kuala Lumpur, KTPK (3° 10' 15.44"N, 101° 43' 03.35"E station and processed and analyzed under quiet geomagnetic day at the equatorial region on 8 November 2005. This research assesses the errors translated from the code-delay to the carrier-phase ionospheric observable by the so-called leveling process, which was applied to reduce multipath from the data. It was found that the leveled carrier-phase ionosphere observable was affected by a systematic error, produced by code-delay multipath through the leveling procedure. The effects, however, do not cancel after averaging all the data. Dual frequency carrier-phase and code-delay GPS observations are combined to obtain ionospheric observable related to the slant TEC (TECs along the satellite-receiver line of sight (los. This results in the absolute differential delay and the remaining noise was discarded. These are the first results obtained using TEC-GPS technique for TEC measurement in Malaysia.

Y. Norsuzila

2008-01-01

187

Research of total levels on DNA methylation in plant based on HPLC analysis  

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Full Text Available HPLC analysis is important for determination of total level on DNA methylation in plants. It can be used to help characterise epigenetic changes during growth, development and stress. HPLC methods have been optimised for mammalian and microbial DNA, but not for plants. This article examines several important factors in the HPLC analysis of plant DNA methylation including extraction and purification of DNA and HPLC conditions choice by using leaves of rice seedling. The experimental results showed that RNA of nucleic acid was removed by using RNase A. This study also identified critical components of HPLC analysis. With the optimized method of HPLC conditions, the better result was achieved in the chromatogram of cytosine and 5-methylcytosine in genomic DNA acid hydrolysis. The study would offer a comprehensive guide for the stringent analysis of DNA methylation in plants.

Qiang Chen

2013-04-01

188

Level of agreement between coding sources of percentage total body surface area burnt (%TBSA).  

Science.gov (United States)

The percentage of total body surface area burnt (%TBSA) is a critical measure of burn injury severity and a key predictor of burn injury outcome. This study evaluated the level of agreement between four sources of %TBSA using 120 cases identified through the Victorian State Trauma Registry. Expert clinician, ICD-10-AM, Abbreviated Injury Scale, and burns registry coding were compared using measures of agreement. There was near-perfect agreement (weighted Kappa statistic 0.81-1) between all sources of data, suggesting that ICD-10-AM is a valid source of %TBSA and use of ICD-10-AM codes could reduce the resource used by trauma and burns registries capturing this information. PMID:21430305

Watterson, Dina; Cleland, Heather; Picton, Natalie; Simpson, Pam M; Gabbe, Belinda J

2011-01-01

189

Analysis of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD Level of Distribution Network Using DVR  

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Full Text Available The modern sensitive, Non-linear and sophisticated load affects the power quality. Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR provides the fast, flexible and efficient solution to improve the power quality for such distribution network [8]. The active power, reactive power, variation of voltage, flicker, harmonics, and electrical behavior of switching operations are the major source of affecting power quality. The intent of this paper is to demonstrate the improvements obtained with DVR in power system network using MATLAB/SIMULINK. In this paper, an overview of the DVR, its functions, configurations, components, control strategies are reviewed. The Simulation results are presented to illustrate the performance of DVR in Total Harmonic Distortion (THD. The results showed clearly the performance of using DVR in improving THD level.

Himanshu Kalara

2014-08-01

190

Arsenic in rice: I. Estimating normal levels of total arsenic in rice grain.  

Science.gov (United States)

High levels of arsenic (As) in rice grain are a potential concern for human health. Variability in total As in rice was evaluated using 204 commercial rice samples purchased mostly in retail stores in upstate New York and supplemented with samples from Canada, France, Venezuela, and other countries. Total As concentration in rice varied from 0.005 to 0.710 mg kg(-1). We combined our data set with literature values to derive a global "normal" range of 0.08-0.20 mg kg(-1) for As concentration in rice. The mean As concentrations for rice from the U.S. and Europe (both 0.198 mg kg(-1)) were statistically similar and significantly higher than rice from Asia (0.07 mg kg(-1)). Using two large data sets from Bangladesh, we showed that As contaminated irrigation water, but not soil, led to increased grain As concentration. Wide variability found in U.S. rice grain was primarily influenced by region of growth rather than commercial type, with rice grown in Texas and Arkansas having significantly higher mean As concentrations than that from California (0.258 and 0.190 versus 0.133 mg kg(-1)). Rice from one Texas distributor was especially high, with 75% of the samples above the global "normal" range, suggesting production in an As contaminated environment. PMID:18546734

Zavala, Yamily J; Duxbury, John M

2008-05-15

191

Economical Appraisal of Total Aflatoxin Level in the Poultry Feeds by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Single-bounce attenuated total reflectance (SB-ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been used for the quantitative determination of total aflatoxins in the broiler poultry feed. An FTIR calibration spanning the range 1-70 micro g/L aflatoxin standards in (70:30, v/v) methanol-water solvent system based on partial least square (PLS) model, developed by relating mid IR region between 3755-950 cm/ sub -1/. The excellent coefficient of various (using 0.998) was achieved with 1.49 relative mean square error of calibration (RMSEC). Aflatoxins from each of eight poultry feeds was extracted and the determined by the widely used commercially available Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) procedure and the SB-ATR/FTIR method. The SB-ATR/FTIR aflatoxins predictions were related to those determined by the ELISA method by linear regression, producing an R value of 0.989 and a SD of +- 2.80 micro g/L. The result of the study clearly indicated that FT-IR spectroscopy due to its rapidity and simplicity along with data manipulation by advance computer software could be effectively used for routine determination of aflatoxins present in the poultry feeds at very low level. (author)

192

Total antioxidant levels are low during active TB and rise with anti-tuberculosis therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

In tuberculosis, oxidative stress is a result of tissue inflammation, poor dietary intake of micronutrients due to illness, free radical burst from activated macrophages, and anti-tuberculosis drugs. These free radicals may in turn contribute towards pulmonary inflammation if not neutralized by antioxidants. The total antioxidant status (TAS) of individuals is a function of dietary, enzymatic, and other systemic antioxidants and is therefore an indicator of the free radical load. Our aim was to evaluate the TAS of healthy and M. tuberculosis-infected persons from a high TB incidence community, as well as tuberculosis patients at various stages of antituberculosis drug treatment and to correlate results with plasma micronutrient levels. Blood plasma samples from TB infected patients and following antituberculosis drug treatment were assayed for TAS, vitamins A, E and Zinc. Statistical analysis of results was by one-way ANOVA and the Tukey multiple comparison post test. Active TB patients showed a significantly lower TAS (P < 0.001) compared to the community controls. We also show that TAS values increase during therapy. Results correlated with micronutrients vitamin A and zinc but vitamin E remained unaffected. We suggest that total antioxidant status of TB patients should be considered for more effective disease control and that diets low in antioxidants may render individuals susceptible to tuberculosis. PMID:15085934

Wiid, I; Seaman, T; Hoal, E G; Benade, A J S; Van Helden, Paul D

2004-02-01

193

Macadamia nut consumption lowers plasma total and LDL cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic men.  

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This study was conducted to assess the cholesterol-lowering potential of macadamia nuts. Seventeen hypercholesterolemic men (mean age 54 y) were given macadamia nuts (40-90 g/d), equivalent to 15% energy intake, for 4 wk. Plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and homocysteine concentrations and the fatty acid composition of plasma lipids were determined before and after treatment. Plasma MUFA 16:1(n-7), 18:1(n-7) and 20:1(n-9) were elevated after intervention with macadamia nuts. Plasma (n-6) and (n-3) PUFA concentrations were unaffected by macadamia nut consumption. Plasma total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations decreased by 3.0 and 5.3%, respectively, and HDL cholesterol levels increased by 7.9% in hypercholesterolemic men after macadamia nut consumption. Plasma triglyceride and homocysteine concentrations were not affected by treatment. Macadamia nut consumption was associated with a significant increase in the relative intake of MUFA and a reduced relative intake of saturated fatty acids and PUFA. This study demonstrates that macadamia nut consumption as part of a healthy diet favorably modifies the plasma lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic men despite their diet being high in fat. PMID:12672919

Garg, Manohar L; Blake, Robert J; Wills, Ron B H

2003-04-01

194

Antibiotic Resistance of Enterococci and Coliform Bacteria in Dairy Products from Commercial Farms  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of enterococci and coliform bacteria isolated from sheep and cows cheese from commercial farms. Susceptibilities of isolated enterococci and coliform bacteria were tested using the disk diffusion method. The bacteria were tested on antibiotics enrofloxacin, sulphonamides, tetracycline and streptomycin. All isolates of Enterococcus strains were resistant of all used antibiotics. The similar results were detected of coliform bacteria on tested antibiotics.

Ivana Nováková

2010-05-01

195

Investigation of Coliform Removal from Drinking Water by Electrolysis  

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Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The practice of eliminating pathogenic microorganisms in water dates back to ancient times. The most common methods for water disinfection are using chemicals, Ozonation, Ultra Violet ray, Membrane Processes and etc. There has been considerable interest in disinfection of water by using electrochemical methods in recent years. The main purpose of this study is to conduct experimental investigation of water disinfection by using the electrolysis method. Inactivation and killing Coliform in polluted waters was investigated by different voltage, electrodes (Al, St and Cu and distance between electrodes.Materials & Methods: The polluted water was prepared by adding a colony of coliform growth on EMB in raw water. Experiments were done similarly via the same electrolyzes time, electrodes distance and voltage intensity for all types of combinations of electrodes respectively. Results: The experimental results show that the removal efficiency depends on the voltage and electrodes material. From the experiments carried out at 10 V. and at current intensity of 135 mA, it was found that five-minute period was sufficient for disinfecting water using Stainless Steel electrodes.Conclusion: Due to the results, the electrochemical methods can be proposed as a promising cleaning and purifying method for water disinfection.

A. Rahmani

2008-07-01

196

Antibacterial behavior of silver-modified clinoptilolite-heulandite rich tuff on coliform microorganisms from wastewater in a column system.  

Science.gov (United States)

The water disinfecting behavior of silver-modified clinoptilolite-heulandite rich tuff (ZSAg) as an antibacterial agent against coliform microorganisms from water in a continuous mode was investigated. Silver recovery from the disinfected effluents by the sodium-modified clinoptilolite-heulandite rich tuff (ZSNa) was also considered. Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739) and total coliform microorganisms, as indicators of microbiological contamination of water, were chosen to achieve the disinfection of synthetic wastewater or municipal wastewater. Ammonium (NH(4)(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) ions were added to the synthetic wastewater as an interfering chemical species on the disinfection processes. The antibacterial activity of the ZSAg as a bactericide was measured by the coliform concentration as evaluated by the APHA method. The amount of silver in the disinfected effluents was determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The inactivation of the ZSAg was calculated from the breakthrough curves based on the model reported by Gupta et al. It was found that when the silver concentration in the effluent is less than 0.6 microg/mL, the bacterial survival percentage increased and the volume of disinfected water diminished. The total silver amounts found in the effluent at the end of the disinfection processes varied depending on the water treated (synthetic or municipal wastewater). The presence of NH(4)(+) ions in synthetic wastewater influent notably improved the disinfected water volume (zero NVC/100mL), in comparison to the disinfection of the same influent without NH(4)(+) ions. A contrary water disinfection behavior was observed in the presence of Cl(-) ions. The silver recovery does not depend on the mass of the sodium zeolitic bed according with the wastewater to be treated (synthetic or municipal wastewater) and the presence of NH(4)(+) or Cl(-) ions in the influent also influenced the silver recovery from wastewater. The ZSNa did not have antibacterial activity. Therefore the amount of bactericide agent (silver-modified natural zeolite), coliform microorganisms from water (E. coli or consort of coliform microorganisms) as well as the water quality (synthetic wastewater or municipal wastewater) influenced both the disinfection process and the silver recovery in a column system. PMID:17573181

De la Rosa-Gómez, I; Olguín, M T; Alcántara, D

2008-09-01

197

COLIFORMES TERMOTOLERANTES EN AGUAS DE LAS POBLACIONES COSTERAS Y PALAFÍTICAS DE LA CIÉNAGA GRANDE DE SANTA MARTA, COLOMBIA / Fecals Coliforms in Waters of Coastal and Palafiticos Populations of Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta es el sistema lagunar costero más grande e importante de Colombia y el más extenso del Caribe. En su territorio se alojan siete poblaciones carentes de un sistema de saneamiento básico adecuado, que vierten sus desechos sin ningún tipo de tratamiento directamente a l [...] a ciénaga. Teniendo en cuenta la importancia ambiental de este cuerpo de agua y con el objeto de conocer su calidad sanitaria se determinaron las concentraciones de Coliformes termotolerantes en aguas adyacentes de dos poblaciones costeras (Tasajera e isla del Rosario) y tres palafiticas (Buenavista, Nueva Venecia y Trojas de Cataca) durante el periodo 2004-2007. Adicionalmente, se realizaron mediciones de pH, temperatura, salinidad y oxígeno disuelto en cada sitio de muestreo. Las mayores concentraciones de Coliformes se encontraron en el palafito Trojas de Cataca, en la época seca mayor de cada año (7.800-9.000 NMP/ 100 mL) y los menores niveles en la estación Buenavista (2-1.100 NMP/100mL). El patrón de comportamiento de las densidades de Coliformes en las poblaciones costeras fue similar en el tiempo y no se observó ninguna relación directa entre las variables fisicoquímicas y el grupo Coliformes. Dado lo observado, se considera importante vigilar la calidad del agua en el estuario, teniendo en cuenta que constituye una fuente potencial de riesgo para el desarrollo de las actividades económicas de la zona y para la salud de los pobladores. Abstract in english The coastal lagoon system most important and biggest of Colombia and the largest in the Caribbean is the Cienaga Grande of Santa Marta. In their territory, seven populations lacking of an appropriate sanitation system, that pour their waste directly without any treatment to the cienaga. Keeping in m [...] ind the importance of this body of water and in order to know their sanitary quality the concentrations of thermotolerant coliforms were determined in two coastal (Tasajera and Isla del Rosario) and three palafitics populations (Buenavista, Nueva Venecia and Trojas de Cataca) during the period 2004-2007. Additionally, pH, temperature, salinity and oxygen measurements were carried out in each station. The highest coliforms concentrations were found in Trojas de Cataca, in the dry season more each year (7,800-9,000 MPN/100ml) and the lowest level in Buenavista station (2-1,100 MPN/100mL). The behavior pattern of Coliform densities in coastal populations was similar in the time and there was no direct relationship between physicochemical variables and Coliform group. It is important take care and watch over the estuary quality, taking into account that constitutes a potential risk source for economic activities development of the area and for the residents health.

SILVIA, NARVÁEZ; MARTHA, GÓMEZ; JORGE, ACOSTA.

198

COLIFORMES TERMOTOLERANTES EN AGUAS DE LAS POBLACIONES COSTERAS Y PALAFÍTICAS DE LA CIÉNAGA GRANDE DE SANTA MARTA, COLOMBIA / Fecals Coliforms in Waters of Coastal and Palafiticos Populations of Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta es el sistema lagunar costero más grande e importante de Colombia y el más extenso del Caribe. En su territorio se alojan siete poblaciones carentes de un sistema de saneamiento básico adecuado, que vierten sus desechos sin ningún tipo de tratamiento directamente a l [...] a ciénaga. Teniendo en cuenta la importancia ambiental de este cuerpo de agua y con el objeto de conocer su calidad sanitaria se determinaron las concentraciones de Coliformes termotolerantes en aguas adyacentes de dos poblaciones costeras (Tasajera e isla del Rosario) y tres palafiticas (Buenavista, Nueva Venecia y Trojas de Cataca) durante el periodo 2004-2007. Adicionalmente, se realizaron mediciones de pH, temperatura, salinidad y oxígeno disuelto en cada sitio de muestreo. Las mayores concentraciones de Coliformes se encontraron en el palafito Trojas de Cataca, en la época seca mayor de cada año (7.800-9.000 NMP/ 100 mL) y los menores niveles en la estación Buenavista (2-1.100 NMP/100mL). El patrón de comportamiento de las densidades de Coliformes en las poblaciones costeras fue similar en el tiempo y no se observó ninguna relación directa entre las variables fisicoquímicas y el grupo Coliformes. Dado lo observado, se considera importante vigilar la calidad del agua en el estuario, teniendo en cuenta que constituye una fuente potencial de riesgo para el desarrollo de las actividades económicas de la zona y para la salud de los pobladores. Abstract in english The coastal lagoon system most important and biggest of Colombia and the largest in the Caribbean is the Cienaga Grande of Santa Marta. In their territory, seven populations lacking of an appropriate sanitation system, that pour their waste directly without any treatment to the cienaga. Keeping in m [...] ind the importance of this body of water and in order to know their sanitary quality the concentrations of thermotolerant coliforms were determined in two coastal (Tasajera and Isla del Rosario) and three palafitics populations (Buenavista, Nueva Venecia and Trojas de Cataca) during the period 2004-2007. Additionally, pH, temperature, salinity and oxygen measurements were carried out in each station. The highest coliforms concentrations were found in Trojas de Cataca, in the dry season more each year (7,800-9,000 MPN/100ml) and the lowest level in Buenavista station (2-1,100 MPN/100mL). The behavior pattern of Coliform densities in coastal populations was similar in the time and there was no direct relationship between physicochemical variables and Coliform group. It is important take care and watch over the estuary quality, taking into account that constitutes a potential risk source for economic activities development of the area and for the residents health.

SILVIA, NARVÁEZ; MARTHA, GÓMEZ; JORGE, ACOSTA.

2008-12-01

199

Nível de testosterona total em mulheres pós-menopausa com olho seco Total testosterone level in postmenopausal women with dry eye  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o nível sérico de testosterona total entre mulheres pós-menopausa divididas em 3 grupos: controle, olho seco leve a moderado e olho seco intenso. MÉTODOS: No ambulatório de climatério foram selecionadas 29 mulheres pós-menopausa que não faziam reposição hormonal há pelo menos 8 semanas. Critérios de exclusão: alterações palpebrais mecânicas, pterígio, obstrução de vias lacrimais, inflamação intra-ocular e uso de lente de contato. As mulheres selecionadas foram submetidas à dosagem de testosterona total, aplicação do questionário OSDI (Ocular Surface Disease Index e exame oftalmológico para detecção de olho seco. As mulheres foram divididas em 3 grupos conforme o resultado do escore OSDI e do exame oftalmológico. RESULTADOS: Cinco pacientes foram classificadas como ausência de olho seco, 15 com olho seco leve a moderado e 4 com olho seco intenso. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre a média dos valores das idades (p=0,3915; nível de instrução (p=0,9333; doenças associadas (p=0,2551; tipo de medicação utilizada (p=0,2844 e nível sérico de testosterona total entre os grupos (p=0,1275. CONCLUSÃO: Não encontramos diferença estatisticamente significativa entre o nível de testosterona total entre mulheres pós-menopausa com olho seco. Novos estudos clínicos com maior amostra são necessários para melhor esclarecer a relação dos níveis séricos dos androgênios nos portadores de olho seco.PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare total testosterone blood level among three groups of postmenopausal women: control, mild to moderate dry eye and severe dry eye. METHODS: Twenty-nine postmenopausal women were selected. The exclusion criteria were: hormone replacement therapy in the last 8 weeks, mechanical palpebral abnormalities, pterygium, lacrimal obstructions, intraocular inflammation or contact lens use. A blood sample was collected for total testosterone level determination, and the patients were submitted to an ophthalmologic examination (emphasizing on dry eye detection and answered the OSDI (Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire. Five patients were excluded. Postmenopausal women were divided into three groups according to OSDI score and the ophthalmic examination. RESULTS: Five patients were classified in the no dry eye group (control, fifteen in the mild to moderate dry eye group and four in the severe dry eye group. There were no statistically significant differences regarding mean age (p=0.3915; instruction level (p=0.9333; number of comorbidities (p=0.2551; medication taken (p=0.2844 and total testosterone level among those groups (p=0.1275. CONCLUSION: Further research with a greater bigger sample is necessary to establish the relation of androgen levels in dry eye patients.

Maria Cecília Barros Duarte

2007-06-01

200

Nível de testosterona total em mulheres pós-menopausa com olho seco / Total testosterone level in postmenopausal women with dry eye  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Comparar o nível sérico de testosterona total entre mulheres pós-menopausa divididas em 3 grupos: controle, olho seco leve a moderado e olho seco intenso. MÉTODOS: No ambulatório de climatério foram selecionadas 29 mulheres pós-menopausa que não faziam reposição hormonal há pelo menos 8 se [...] manas. Critérios de exclusão: alterações palpebrais mecânicas, pterígio, obstrução de vias lacrimais, inflamação intra-ocular e uso de lente de contato. As mulheres selecionadas foram submetidas à dosagem de testosterona total, aplicação do questionário OSDI (Ocular Surface Disease Index) e exame oftalmológico para detecção de olho seco. As mulheres foram divididas em 3 grupos conforme o resultado do escore OSDI e do exame oftalmológico. RESULTADOS: Cinco pacientes foram classificadas como ausência de olho seco, 15 com olho seco leve a moderado e 4 com olho seco intenso. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre a média dos valores das idades (p=0,3915); nível de instrução (p=0,9333); doenças associadas (p=0,2551); tipo de medicação utilizada (p=0,2844) e nível sérico de testosterona total entre os grupos (p=0,1275). CONCLUSÃO: Não encontramos diferença estatisticamente significativa entre o nível de testosterona total entre mulheres pós-menopausa com olho seco. Novos estudos clínicos com maior amostra são necessários para melhor esclarecer a relação dos níveis séricos dos androgênios nos portadores de olho seco. Abstract in english PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare total testosterone blood level among three groups of postmenopausal women: control, mild to moderate dry eye and severe dry eye. METHODS: Twenty-nine postmenopausal women were selected. The exclusion criteria were: hormone replacement therapy in the [...] last 8 weeks, mechanical palpebral abnormalities, pterygium, lacrimal obstructions, intraocular inflammation or contact lens use. A blood sample was collected for total testosterone level determination, and the patients were submitted to an ophthalmologic examination (emphasizing on dry eye detection) and answered the OSDI (Ocular Surface Disease Index) questionnaire. Five patients were excluded. Postmenopausal women were divided into three groups according to OSDI score and the ophthalmic examination. RESULTS: Five patients were classified in the no dry eye group (control), fifteen in the mild to moderate dry eye group and four in the severe dry eye group. There were no statistically significant differences regarding mean age (p=0.3915); instruction level (p=0.9333); number of comorbidities (p=0.2551); medication taken (p=0.2844) and total testosterone level among those groups (p=0.1275). CONCLUSION: Further research with a greater bigger sample is necessary to establish the relation of androgen levels in dry eye patients.

Maria Cecília Barros, Duarte; Natércia Trindade, Pinto; Hamilton, Moreira; Ana Tereza Ramos, Moreira; Daniel, Wasilewski.

 
 
 
 
201

CETP gene polymorphism in the caucasian population of West Siberia and in groups contrast by total serum cholesterol levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

TaqIB polymorphism of the gene encoding cholesterol ester transporting protein (CETP) was analyzed in the Caucasian population of West Siberia and in groups contrast by total serum cholesterol content. The patients were selected for the study from the main sample of HAPIEE project (9600 examined subjects aged 45-69 years, 50% men). Analysis was carried out in 293 patients with high levels of total cholesterol (>300 mg/dl), 293 patients with normal and low levels of total cholesterol (0.05). Associations of CETP gene TaqIB (rs708272) polymorphism with HDL cholesterol levels was detected in groups with high and low total cholesterol levels (p=0.014 and p=0.008). CETP gene TaqIB polymorphism B2B2 genotype was associated with high level of HDL cholesterol and a more favorable lipid profile. PMID:25073458

Shakhtshneider, E V; Kulikov, I V; Maksimov, V N; Ragino, Yu I; Ivanova, M V; Voevoda, M I

2014-07-01

202

Neutron total cross section of sulfur: Single level to multilevel to optical model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This paper is a further analysis of the high resolution total cross section of sulfur for 25--1100 keV neutrons that previously were measured by Halperin, Johnson, Winters, and Macklin and evaluated by single-level analysis. The usual procedure in reporting the results of high resolution neutron cross sections has been to present the data and resonance parameters with corresponding neutron strength functions resulting from some type of R-matrix analysis. Often the important nonresonant phase shifts are not reported. In this paper, making use of both strength functions and phase shifts, we extend the analysis to include an average nuclear potential (a spherical optical model). An optical model analysis not only facilitates comparison with a broad spectrum of other nucleon-nucleus experiments, but also may provide an incentive for microstructure calculations. Six average empirical functions, two each for s/sub 1/2/, p/sub 1/2/, and p/sub 3/2/ partial waves, are derived from the R-matrix analysis. From these we deduce optical model parameters, the real and imaginary well depths for s- and p-wave neutrons, and the spin-orbit well depth for p waves. The resulting real well is deeper for p waves than for s waves and for averages over partial waves at higher energies. The depth of the imaginary wells are about half those deduced at higher energies. An interesting feature of the analysis is that the multilevel curve including interference effects is produced from single-level parameters including the phase shifts

203

Variability of groundwater levels and total organic carbon in the riparian zone of a boreal catchment  

Science.gov (United States)

The riparian zone is a narrow corridor where hillslopes (and their associated hydrobiogeochemical processes) interface with the river system. As such, the riparian zone serves as the last piece of landscape with which water interacts as it transitions from being water flowing primarily through the landscape (i.e., shallow groundwater) to water flowing primarily on the landscape (i.e., stream water). This study investigates the spatiotemporal variability in riparian-zone soil water total organic carbon (TOC) and its relation to the shallow groundwater table using observations from the recently instrumented riparian observatory in the Krycklan catchment study area located in boreal northern Sweden. In general, there is a decrease in TOC concentration with depth down through the soil profile. The rate of this decrease was variable among the six monthly samplings used in this study. The spatial variability of soil water TOC in the riparian zone was connected to the spatial variability of the shallow groundwater levels. This demonstrated the importance of the temporal variation of flow pathways and the mixing of waters from different sources of TOC moving into and through the riparian zone. The coupled variation of the hydrologic and biogeochemical systems raised questions about the ability of simple lumped approaches to accurately predict how in-stream TOC concentrations will change with climate and/or land use. The integrated sampling approach in the riparian observatory covers both hydrologic and biogeochemical aspects of soil water TOC and provides a basis for development and testing of distributed, physically based transport models.

Lyon, Steve W.; Grabs, Thomas; Laudon, Hjalmar; Bishop, Kevin H.; Seibert, Jan

2011-03-01

204

Manageable risk factors associated with bacterial and coliform counts in unpasteurized bulk milk in Flemish dairy herds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Associations between herd management practices and both bacterial counts (BC) and coliform counts (CC) from 254 and 242 dairy herds in Flanders (Belgium), respectively, were studied. Data were analyzed using multivariable, multilevel linear regression analysis, allowing variance components analyses. Both BC and CC fluctuated throughout the year, although the milk quality parameters followed an opposite pattern. Bacterial count values decreased with each increase of the cleaning frequency of the cubicles (once per week, once per day, twice per day, or more than twice per day) between January and March. Herds with a conventional milking parlor had substantially lower BC than herds where the cows were milked using an automatic milking system. Lower BC were observed when the milking parlor was equipped with an automatic cluster removal system, when premilking teat disinfection was applied, when the dry cows were supplemented with a mix of minerals and vitamins, and when the teats were prepared either first wet and dried or via an automatic milking system. Milking cows with a high-pipeline milking parlor setup or with an automatic milking system was associated with substantially higher CC values. Herds where prepartum heifers were often treated with antimicrobials before calving had a lower CC than farms where heifers were either not or only rarely treated. Most variation in BC and CC resided at the herd level rather than at the observation level, indicating that management is important in the control of both BC and CC. Still, only a small proportion of the total variance was explained by factors capturing information related to the milking, herd health, and dry cow management, which suggests that the bacteriological milk quality and, in particular, CC is primarily driven by other factors than the ones included in this study. PMID:24704236

Piepers, S; Zrimšek, P; Passchyn, P; De Vliegher, S

2014-06-01

205

Investigating Storm-Induced Total Water Levels on Complex Barred Beaches  

Science.gov (United States)

Water levels in coastal environments are not static, but rather vary from a range of factors including mean sea level, tides, storm surge, and wave runup. Cumulatively these superimposed factors determine the total water level (TWL), the extent of which has major implications for coastal erosion and inundation during periods of high energy. Storm-induced, super-elevated water levels pose a threat to low lying coastal regions, as clearly demonstrated by recent events such as Hurricanes Sandy and Katrina. For this reason, the ability to accurately predict the TWL is crucial for both emergency managers and coastal planners. While some components of TWL are well understood (e.g., tides) there is still significant uncertainty in predicting runup, a process that can be a major contributor to instantaneous TWLs. Traditionally, empirical relationships derived from observational field data have been used to estimate runup, including wave setup and both incident and infragravity swash (Stockdon et al., 2006). While these formulations have shown skill in predicting the runup extent on natural beaches, these equations consider only the most basic contributing factors - namely the mean foreshore beach slope, the offshore wave height, and offshore wave period. Not included in these empirical estimates is the role of nearshore morphology on TWLs. However, it has long been recognized that nearshore sandbars act as natural barriers to coastal erosion during storm events by dissipating wave energy far from the beach face. Nonetheless, the influence of nearshore morphology on inner surf zone processes, including wave runup, is poorly understood. Recent pioneering studies (eg., Soldini et al., 2013 and Stephens et al., 2011) have explored the role of simple nearshore features (single Gaussian bars) on swash processes. Many locations in the world, however, are characterized by more complex morphologies such as multiple barred systems. Further, in many such places, including Columbia River Littoral Cell (USA), Duck, NC (USA), Hasaki (Japan), and the Netherlands, a net offshore bar migration (NOM) cycle has been observed whereby bars migrate seaward across the surf zone and decay offshore on interannual cycles. Depending on the stage of the cycle, the number and configuration of the bars may differ widely. For example in the Columbia River Littoral Cell there are typically 2 to 4 nearshore bars. In 1999, the outermost bar crest was located in a water depth of 6.5 m (relative to MLLW) while in 2009 it was located only in 3 m of water. Such large differences in nearshore morphology clearly influence wave breaking patterns and have the potential for influencing the corresponding wave runup as well. Here we apply a numerical, short-wave averaged yet long-wave resolving, non-linear hydrodynamic model (XBeach) to investigate the role that real world (non-synthetic), complex morphologies exert on TWLs. Model simulations under moderate to extreme wave forcing conditions are being used to develop relationships between offshore wave conditions, bar configuration, and runup extent. Additionally, we are exploring how, under the same wave conditions, a particular location may be more vulnerable to flooding simply based on the stage of the NOM cycle. Comparisons with the Stockdon et al. (2006) runup equation will be made to assess traditional empirical approaches relative to model predictions.

Cohn, N.; Ruggiero, P.; Walstra, D.

2013-12-01

206

Total serum magnesium level in icteric neonates before and after phototherapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nBackground: Deposition of bilirubin in neurons causes permanent neuronal injury. Bilirubin exhibits an affinity for the phospholipids of plasma membrane like N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors. Magnesium is an NMDA antagonist and it acts against the neurotoxic effects of bilirubin. We compared pre- and post-phototherapy serum magnesium level of neonates with hyperbilirubinemia to find the best time of discharge and evaluate new management techniques such as magnesium supplementation."n "nMethods: In this semi-experimental study, we evaluated neonates admitted in Ali Asghar Children's Hospital in Tehran, Iran with signs of icter from 2009 to 2010. The inclusion criteria included age less than four weeks, no history of magnesium sulfate administration in the mother and absence of sepsis."n "nResults: From 106 patients with icter, 50.9% were male and 49.1% were female neonates. Their mean gestational age was 37.34?1.286 (33-41 weeks and the mean birth weight was 3172.12?436.936 (2022-4300 grams. The frequency of underlying causes of hyperbillirubinemia included: ABO mismatch 9.34%, Rh incompatibility 4.7%, breastfeeding 16% and breast milk 44.3%. There was a significant difference (P?0.001 between serum magnesium levels before (2.24mg/dl and after phototherapy (2.12mg/dl. There were no significant differences between serum magnesium values in the two sexes (male=2.28, female=2.19, among different gestational age groups (<34 wks=2.35, 35-37 wks=2.27, >38 wks=2.17, between different birth weight groups (1500-2500 g=2.4 and >2500 g=2.23 or severity of hyperbilirubinemia (mild=2.23, moderate=2.21 and severe=2.29."n "nConclusion: Phototherapy decreases the total magnesium concentration and magnesium administration will prevent bilirubin neurotoxicity in icteric neonates.

Khosravi N

2011-10-01

207

Thyrocalcitonin: its importance on the regulation of the plasmatic levels in total thyroidectomy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of thyrocalcitonin ou calcium and blood phosphorus is studied. Twelve patients with adenocarcinoma of the thyroid, previously submited to total thyroidectomy and complementary radioiodine theraphy, are studied

208

Anaerobic incubation of membrane filter cultures for improved detection of fecal coliforms from recreational waters.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Anaerobic incubation of membrane filter cultures significantly enhanced detection of fecal coliforms in surface-water samples from recreational beaches. In contrast to standard aerobic incubation, anaerobic incubation suppressed overgrowth of masking, noncoliform bacteria but did not increase the frequency of fecal coliform recovery.

Doyle, J. D.; Tunnicliff, B.; Brickler, S. K.; Kramer, R. E.; Sinclair, N. A.

1984-01-01

209

Antimicrobial substances produced by coliform strains active against foodborne pathogens.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, 31 coliform strains were isolated from salad, cheese, and meat products sold in commercial establishments in Rio de Janeiro city, and were tested for antibiotic resistance and antimicrobial substance production. Thirteen strains (41.9%) were resistant to at least one antibiotic tested, among which one presented resistance to nine different antibiotics. Two strains (6.4%) exhibited inhibitory activity against the indicator strains, Escherichia coli LMIFRJ and Salmonella enterica I. The antimicrobial substances that they produced were sensitive to proteolytic enzymes, suggesting that they might be bacteriocins. The producer strains were identified as Klebsiella ozaenae and Raoultella terrigena. Although they had similar spectrums of action, the bacteriocins were shown to be different. Both of them were able to inhibit E. coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Salmonella strains, including antibiotic-resistant ones. Our results suggest that these bacteriocins, named klebicin K and raoultellin L, could have potential use against some foodborne pathogens. PMID:19895262

Fleming, Luana Rocha; Bolzan, Dayana Nascimento; Nascimento, Janaína Dos Santos

2010-03-01

210

La sensibilidad del grupo coliforme como indicador de la presencia de enterobacterias patógenas en cuatro cuerpos acuáticos de México / The coliform group sensitivity as indicator of the enteropathogenic bacteria presence in four water bodies from Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La contaminación microbiológica en los cuerpos acuáticos se caracteriza a través de la detección de organismos indicadores como las bacterias coliformes totales (CT) y fecales (CF). El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la sensibilidad de estos indicadores para predecir la presencia de enteroba [...] cterias patógenas en cuatro cuerpos acuáticos mexicanos. Dos con mayor influencia humana: lago de Pátzcuaro, Mich. y ecosistema lacustre de Xochimilco, D. F y dos con menor: la laguna de Metztitlán, Hgo. y el lago Zirahuén, Mich. Se cuantificaron coliformes totales y coliformes fecales en agua y sedimento por la técnica del Número Más Probable y se aislaron bacterias entéricas del agua mediante el uso de medios de cultivo selectivos. Se evaluaron: el índice de sensibilidad, el riesgo atribuible y la presenciaausencia de indicadores y patógenos. Pátzcuaro y Xochimilco mostraron alta contaminación bacteriana. El sedimento presentó mayor concentración de CT y CF que el agua. Los CF mostraron ser indicadores más confiables para predecir la presencia de Salmonella y Shigella, con una sensibilidad para cada género de 60 y 75% y un riesgo atribuible del 58 y 67%. Los CF mostraron una relación presencia-ausencia con un porcentaje de casos verdaderos del 82 a 88%. En contraste, los CT mostraron un riesgo atribuible bajo (inferior a 27%) y un alto porcentaje de falsos positivos (65%), lo que impidió considerarlo como un buen indicador. Es conveniente evaluar la presencia de indicadores y patógenos simultáneamente para determinar el riesgo sanitario al caracterizar la calidad microbiológica en ecosistemas acuáticos. Abstract in english Microbiological pollution in water bodies is characterized through the detection of indicator organisms like total coliform (TC) and fecal coliform (FC) bacteria. The objective of the present paper was to determine the sensibility of these indicators of the presence of pathogenic enterobacteria in f [...] our Mexican aquatic systems. Two with major anthropogenic influence: Patzcuaro Lake and Xochimilco Lake ecosystem; and two with less: Metztitlan Lagoon and Zirahuen Lake. TC and FC were quantified with the Most Probable Number technique in water and sediment and enteric bacteria were isolated in water using selective culture media. The sensibility index, the risk attributable, and the presenceabsence of indicators and pathogens were evaluated. Patzcuaro and Xochimilco showed high bacterial pollution. The sediment presented higher concentrations of total and fecal coliforms than water. FC were the most reliable indicators to predict the presence of Salmonella and Shigella, with a sensitivity of 60 and 75%, an attributable risk of 58 and 67% for each genus. FC showed a presence-absence relationship with a percentage of true cases of 82 to 88%. In contrast, TC showed a low attributable risk, inferior to 27% and a high percentage of false positives (65%), which impede to consider it a good indicator. It is convenient to evaluate the presence of indicators and pathogens simultaneously to determine the sanitary risk when characterizing microbial water quality in aquatic ecosystems.

Guadalupe, Barrera-Escorcia; Carlos Leopoldo, Fernández-Rendón; Irma, Wong-Chang; Patricia, Ramírez Romero.

2013-04-01

211

Remoción mediante vermicomposteo de los coliformes fecales presentes en lodos biológicos / Vermicomposting of biological sludge for coliforms reduction  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se buscó establecer el efecto de la densidad inicial de lombrices en la remoción de patógenos, mediante vermicomposteo de lodo, usando como indicador el número más probable de coliformes fecales (NMPCF). El lodo utilizado se generó en una planta de aireación extendida, se trabajó con [...] 4 densidades: alta con 0,2 kg lombrices/kg lodo, media con 0,1 kg lombrices/ kg lodo, baja con 0,05 kg lombrices/kg lodo y un blanco sin la adición de lombrices al lodo. Al segundo día de experimentación con la densidad media se logró una mayor remoción, estadísticamente significativa, del NMPCF que la obtenida con la densidad alta. El mismo día, todas las densidades lograron la clasificación de lodo clase B según United States Enviroment Protection Agency. Entre el día 13 y el 20 las muestras con densidades alta, baja y media lograron la clasificación clase A, no así el blanco. Al día 20 tanto la densidad media como la alta lograron el 100% de remoción de los coliformes fecales. Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of stoking density on the pathogens reduction, through the sludge vermicomposting, using the most probable number of fecal coliforms as indicator. The sludge used was generated at an extended aeration system; the stoking density was investig [...] ated at 0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 kg-worms/kg-sludge plus a control without worms. At the second day of experimentation the 0.1 kg/kg density achieved a significantly higher removal than the 0.2 kg/kg density. In the same day, all the stoking densities achieved the United States Environment Agency class B sludge standards. Between the 13 and 20 day all the stoking densities, with the exception of the control, achieved the USEPA class A standards. On day 20 the removal in the two biggest stoking densities was 100%.

Carmen Verónica, Droppelmann; Carolina Pía, Gaete; Paulina, Miranda.

2009-09-01

212

Tratamento de esgotos sanitários em sistemas reatores UASB/wetlands construídas de fluxo horizontal: eficiência e estabilidade de remoção de matéria orgânica, sólidos, nutrientes e coliformes Domestic wastewater treatment in UASB-horizontal flow constructed wetlands systems: organic matter, solids, nutrients and coliforms removal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho apresentou os resultados de um estudo realizado durante 19 meses sobre o comportamento de wetlands construídas na remoção de matéria orgânica, sólidos, nutrientes e coliformes, em unidades em escala piloto de fluxo horizontal, subsuperficial e superficial, com tempo de detenção hidráulica entre 1,3 a 5,3 dias, operando como pós-tratamento de efluentes de reatores UASB (esgotos sanitários. A remoção de matéria orgânica e de sólidos mostrou-se elevada e estável, com eficiências médias de 70, 80 e 60% para SST, DBO5 e DQO, respectivamente. A remoção de nutrientes, após início promissor, mostrou-se instável e aparentemente influenciada pela temperatura. O sistema de tratamento revelou elevado potencial de remoção de coliformes, embora com variações relativamente amplas ao longo do período de operação: ? 2 log10 de remoção de coliformes totais e 2-4 log10 de remoção de Escherichia coli.This work presented the results of a 19-month study on the performance of constructed wetlands in terms of organic matter, solids, nutrients and coliforms removal in pilot scale unities with horizontal, subsurface and surface flow, with hydraulic retention time from 1.3 to 5.3 days, as post-treatment of UASB effluents (domestic wastewater. Organic matter and solids were effectively and consistently removed, with average values of 70, 80 and 60% for TSS, BOD5 and COD, respectively. Nutrients removal, after a promising start up, became unstable and apparently influenced by temperature. The treatment system has also shown high potential to remove coliforms, although with relatively wide variations over the study period: ? 2 log10 reduction of total coliforms and 2-4 log10 reduction of Escherichia coli.

Maria Lúcia Calijuri

2009-09-01

213

Tratamento de esgotos sanitários em sistemas reatores UASB/wetlands construídas de fluxo horizontal: eficiência e estabilidade de remoção de matéria orgânica, sólidos, nutrientes e coliformes / Domestic wastewater treatment in UASB-horizontal flow constructed wetlands systems: organic matter, solids, nutrients and coliforms removal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho apresentou os resultados de um estudo realizado durante 19 meses sobre o comportamento de wetlands construídas na remoção de matéria orgânica, sólidos, nutrientes e coliformes, em unidades em escala piloto de fluxo horizontal, subsuperficial e superficial, com tempo de detenção hidrául [...] ica entre 1,3 a 5,3 dias, operando como pós-tratamento de efluentes de reatores UASB (esgotos sanitários). A remoção de matéria orgânica e de sólidos mostrou-se elevada e estável, com eficiências médias de 70, 80 e 60% para SST, DBO5 e DQO, respectivamente. A remoção de nutrientes, após início promissor, mostrou-se instável e aparentemente influenciada pela temperatura. O sistema de tratamento revelou elevado potencial de remoção de coliformes, embora com variações relativamente amplas ao longo do período de operação: ? 2 log10 de remoção de coliformes totais e 2-4 log10 de remoção de Escherichia coli. Abstract in english This work presented the results of a 19-month study on the performance of constructed wetlands in terms of organic matter, solids, nutrients and coliforms removal in pilot scale unities with horizontal, subsurface and surface flow, with hydraulic retention time from 1.3 to 5.3 days, as post-treatmen [...] t of UASB effluents (domestic wastewater). Organic matter and solids were effectively and consistently removed, with average values of 70, 80 and 60% for TSS, BOD5 and COD, respectively. Nutrients removal, after a promising start up, became unstable and apparently influenced by temperature. The treatment system has also shown high potential to remove coliforms, although with relatively wide variations over the study period: ? 2 log10 reduction of total coliforms and 2-4 log10 reduction of Escherichia coli.

Maria Lúcia, Calijuri; Rafael Kopschitz Xavier, Bastos; Tiago de Brito, Magalhães; Bruna Cesca, Capelete; Edgard Henrique Oliveira, Dias.

2009-09-01

214

Tratamento de esgotos sanitários em sistemas reatores UASB/wetlands construídas de fluxo horizontal: eficiência e estabilidade de remoção de matéria orgânica, sólidos, nutrientes e coliformes / Domestic wastewater treatment in UASB-horizontal flow constructed wetlands systems: organic matter, solids, nutrients and coliforms removal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho apresentou os resultados de um estudo realizado durante 19 meses sobre o comportamento de wetlands construídas na remoção de matéria orgânica, sólidos, nutrientes e coliformes, em unidades em escala piloto de fluxo horizontal, subsuperficial e superficial, com tempo de detenção hidrául [...] ica entre 1,3 a 5,3 dias, operando como pós-tratamento de efluentes de reatores UASB (esgotos sanitários). A remoção de matéria orgânica e de sólidos mostrou-se elevada e estável, com eficiências médias de 70, 80 e 60% para SST, DBO5 e DQO, respectivamente. A remoção de nutrientes, após início promissor, mostrou-se instável e aparentemente influenciada pela temperatura. O sistema de tratamento revelou elevado potencial de remoção de coliformes, embora com variações relativamente amplas ao longo do período de operação: ? 2 log10 de remoção de coliformes totais e 2-4 log10 de remoção de Escherichia coli. Abstract in english This work presented the results of a 19-month study on the performance of constructed wetlands in terms of organic matter, solids, nutrients and coliforms removal in pilot scale unities with horizontal, subsurface and surface flow, with hydraulic retention time from 1.3 to 5.3 days, as post-treatmen [...] t of UASB effluents (domestic wastewater). Organic matter and solids were effectively and consistently removed, with average values of 70, 80 and 60% for TSS, BOD5 and COD, respectively. Nutrients removal, after a promising start up, became unstable and apparently influenced by temperature. The treatment system has also shown high potential to remove coliforms, although with relatively wide variations over the study period: ? 2 log10 reduction of total coliforms and 2-4 log10 reduction of Escherichia coli.

Maria Lúcia, Calijuri; Rafael Kopschitz Xavier, Bastos; Tiago de Brito, Magalhães; Bruna Cesca, Capelete; Edgard Henrique Oliveira, Dias.

215

Clinical and Radiological Mid-Term Outcomes of Lumbar Single-Level Total Disc Replacement.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT: Study Design. Prospective single-center case cohort study.Objective. Evaluation of clinical and radiographic outcomes of a consecutive 122-patient cohort with discogenic back pain, at 2 - to 10-year follow-up periods, treated by a single surgeon, with CHARITÉ® Artificial Disc (DePuy Spine, Raynham, MA, USA).Summary of Background Data. Minimum two-year clinical and radiographic Level 1 data for the first lumbar artificial disc, the CHARITÉ® Artificial Disc, has recently been published, demonstrating sustained clinical benefit of the device for the treatment of degenerative disc disease (DDD).Methods. Patients were assessed preoperatively using clinical outcome measures, including Visual Analogue Score (VAS) back and leg, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short Form - 36 (SF-36), and Roland-Morris Questionnaires (RMDQ), and further assessed postoperatively, 3-months, 6-months, 12-months, and yearly thereafter.Results. Average follow-up was 44.9±23.3 months (n = 122). The median age at surgery was 43.0±9.0 years. Preoperative diagnosis included DDD in 118 (96.7%) and internal disc disruption (IDD) in 4 (3.3%). Surgery was performed at L5-S1 in 96 (77.9%) patients and at L4-5 in 27 (22.1%). Statistically significant clinical improvements from baseline were observed on VAS (back and leg), ODI, SF-36 PCS, SF-36 MCS, and RMDQ from 3 months onwards. Back VAS scores decreased from 78.2±21.3 preoperatively to 21.9±27.8 by final follow-up. ODI scores decreased from 51.1±17.3 to 16.2±17.9 at last follow-up. The RMDQ scores also decreased, from 16.7±4.7 to 4.2±5.8. SF-36 PCS and MCS increased from 25.7±11.0 to 46.4±10.3 for PCS and from 35.5±17.4 to 51.6±10.8 for MCS. Patient satisfaction surveys indicated that 90.56% patients rated their satisfaction with the surgery as "excellent" or "good" at 2 years. Range of motion averaged 8.6°±3.5° (median: 8.0°) at the last follow-up time point.Conclusions. Outcomes verify the clinical efficacy of total disc replacement (TDR) for treatment of discogenic back pain with or without radiculopathy. The outcomes instruments demonstrated statistically significant improvements from 3 months onwards. PMID:21912307

Scott-Young, Matthew N; Lee, Matthew J; Nielsen, David E A; Magno, Carly L; Kimlin, Kristy R; Mitchell, Evan O

2011-09-01

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Coliform concentration reduction and related performance evaluation of a down-flow anaerobic fixed bed reactor treating low-strength saline wastewater.  

Science.gov (United States)

Low-strength saline wastewater may be generated by tourist facilities, industries and communities located in coastal areas. Sea salts, mostly chlorides, when present in wastewaters at high concentrations, can cause inhibition on biological treatment processes. In this study, a laboratory down-flow anaerobic fixed bed reactor (DFAFBR) was used for treating saline wastewater. This wastewater was simulated by dilution of piggery manure in a synthetic saline water to obtain a final total COD concentration in the range of 1100-2900 mg/l and a salt concentration of 15 g/l. The DFAFBR was operated at hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 96, 48, 24 and 12 h. The results showed that at sea salts concentrations in the range from 5 to 15 g/l, total coliform concentration reduction efficiencies higher than 97% were achieved. A decrease in the total and faecal coliform concentration reduction efficiencies from 99.5% to 90.5% and 92.5%, respectively, was observed when the HRT decreased from 96 to 12 h. Enumeration of coliform bacteria isolated from the biofilm in different zones of the reactor showed that more than 94% of the total amount was removed in the upper zone. A HRT of 24 h was required to obtain total COD, organic-N, total-P and faecal coliform concentration reduction efficiencies higher than 72%, 51%, 39% and 98%, respectively. A concentration of 8.4 g/l for chlorides, 1.25 g/l for sulphates and 4.6 g/l for sodium did not affect the process performance. PMID:15158503

Rovirosa, Nobel; Sánchez, Enrique; Cruz, Mario; Veiga, Maria C; Borja, Rafael

2004-09-01

217

Total Quality Management in the Classroom: Applications to University-Level Mathematics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes a Total Quality Management-based system of instruction that is used in a variety of undergraduate mathematics courses. The courses that incorporate this approach include mathematics appreciation, introductory calculus, and advanced applied linear algebra. (DDR)

Williams, Frank

1995-01-01

218

Quantification of active and total transforming growth factor-? levels in serum and solid organ tissues by bioassay  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-? is a multi-factorial peptide growth factor that has a vital role in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, inflammation, and tissue repair. Quantification of biologically active TGF-? levels in tissues is crucial to illustrate mechanisms involved in various physiological and pathological processes, but direct measurement of bioactive TGF-? level in the tissue has been hampered by lack of reliable methods. Here, we introduced mink lung epithelial cell bioassay to quantify both active and total TGF-? levels in serum and protein lysates from solid organs in the mouse model. Findings Mink lung epithelial cells were stably transfected with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 promoter/luciferase construct, in which bioactive TGF-? level was represented by luciferase activity. Serum total TGF-? levels were comparable between the bioassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, but active TGF-? levels measured by ELISA were significantly lower than those obtained by the bioassay. Active and total TGF-? levels in the solid organs including heart, liver, and kidney were also measured. Total TGF-? levels were relatively comparable among these organs, but active TGF-? levels were slightly higher in hearts and kidneys than in livers. Positive luciferase activities in the bioassay were almost completely inhibited by adding pan-TGF-? neutralizing antibodies, suggesting its high specificity to bioactive TGF-?. We also measured myocardial TGF-? levels after myocardial infarction and sham control by the bioassay, and compared the values with those obtained by ELISA. The bioassay demonstrated that both active and total tissue TGF-? levels were significantly higher in post-myocardial infarction than in sham myocardium. ELISA was markedly less sensitive in detecting both active and total TGF-? levels than our bioassay and failed to show any statistically significant difference in TGF-? levels between myocardial infarction and sham myocardium. Conclusions Our data suggested that the bioassay was significantly more sensitive than ELISA in detecting active TGF-? in serum and both active and total TGF-? in solid organ tissues. The bioassay will be useful in investigating TGF-? profile in various solid organs in physiological and pathological conditions.

Khan Shaukat A

2012-11-01

219

Association between Plasma PFOA and PFOS Levels and Total Cholesterol in a Middle-Aged Danish Population  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are used in a variety of consumer products and have been detected worldwide in human blood. Recent studies mainly of highly exposed populations have indicated that PFOA and PFOS may affect serum cholesterol levels, but the magnitude of the effect may be inconsistent across exposure levels. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between plasma PFOA and PFOS and total cholesterol in a general, middle-aged Danish population. The study population comprised 753 individuals (663 men and 90 women), 50-65 years of age, nested within a Danish cohort of 57,053 participants. Blood samples were taken from all cohort members at enrolment (1993-1997) and stored in a biobank at -150°C. Plasma levels of PFOA and PFOS and serum levels of total cholesterol were measured. The associations between plasma PFOA and PFOS levels and total cholesterol levels were analysed by generalized linear models, both crude and adjusted for potential confounders. We observed statistically significant positive associations between both perfluorinated compounds and total cholesterol, e.g. a 4.4 [95% CI ?=? 1.1-7.8] higher concentration of total cholesterol (mg/dL) per interquartile range of PFOA plasma level. Sex and prevalent diabetes appeared to modify the association between PFOA and PFOS, respectively, and cholesterol. In conclusion, this study indicated positive associations between plasma PFOA and PFOS levels and total cholesterol in a middle-aged Danish population, although whether the observed pattern of results reflects a causal association is unclear.

Eriksen, Kirsten T; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

2013-01-01

220

Association between Plasma PFOA and PFOS Levels and Total Cholesterol in a Middle-Aged Danish Population  

Science.gov (United States)

Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are used in a variety of consumer products and have been detected worldwide in human blood. Recent studies mainly of highly exposed populations have indicated that PFOA and PFOS may affect serum cholesterol levels, but the magnitude of the effect may be inconsistent across exposure levels. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between plasma PFOA and PFOS and total cholesterol in a general, middle-aged Danish population. The study population comprised 753 individuals (663 men and 90 women), 50–65 years of age, nested within a Danish cohort of 57,053 participants. Blood samples were taken from all cohort members at enrolment (1993–1997) and stored in a biobank at -150°C. Plasma levels of PFOA and PFOS and serum levels of total cholesterol were measured. The associations between plasma PFOA and PFOS levels and total cholesterol levels were analysed by generalized linear models, both crude and adjusted for potential confounders. We observed statistically significant positive associations between both perfluorinated compounds and total cholesterol, e.g. a 4.4 [95% CI ?=? 1.1–7.8] higher concentration of total cholesterol (mg/dL) per interquartile range of PFOA plasma level. Sex and prevalent diabetes appeared to modify the association between PFOA and PFOS, respectively, and cholesterol. In conclusion, this study indicated positive associations between plasma PFOA and PFOS levels and total cholesterol in a middle-aged Danish population, although whether the observed pattern of results reflects a causal association is unclear. PMID:23441227

Eriksen, Kirsten T.; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; McLaughlin, Joseph K.; Lipworth, Loren; Tj?nneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; S?rensen, Mette

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Evaluation of tea cups washing water contamination to fecal coliform at traditional tea shops in Sari, Iran  

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Full Text Available Background and purpose: Most traditional tea shop owners use a bowl to wash tea cups in Sari city (North of Iran. There are more than 140 traditional tea shops in the city. Unfortunately most people drinking at these shops as well as health authorities do not pay attention to the health criteria of the shop. The objective of this study was to examin the tea cups washing water of traditional tea shops for contamination to fecal coliform in Sari city.Materials and Methods: Twenty traditional tea shops (16% were randomly selected for this study in different areas of the city. Multistage (3 stages samples were taken from tea set of the shops. All samples were collected from the tea sets of the shops without prior notice. The samples were transferred to the laboratory in cold box as quickly as possible.Results: Forty four samples from a total of 60 (66.6% were positive for total coliforms. Also 32 samples (33.3% were positive for fecal coliforms. Number of bacteria in the samples varied from zero to over 1100 per 100 cc sample. The study showed that in warmer situations the contamination was higher. The results showed that the differences between contamination rates in both groups of internal and external traditional tea shops were insignificant.Conclusion: The results showed that only two samples in multistage sampling were not contaminated and in all other samples at least in one stage of sampling, contamination was detected. The results of this study is an important message for food administration.

Z. Yousefi

2006-01-01

222

Human apoB contributes to increased serum total apo(a level in LPA transgenic mice  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The Lp(a lipoprotein (Lp(a consists of the polymorphic glycoprotein apolipoprotein(a (apo(a, which is attached by a disulfide bond to apolipoprotein B (apoB. Apo(a, which has high homology with plasminogen, is present only in primates and hedgehogs. However, transgenic mice and rabbits with high serum apo(a levels exist. Liver is the main site for apo(a synthesis, but the site of removal is uncertain. To examine differences between transgenic mice expressing the LPA gene and mice capable of forming Lp(a particles, LPA-YAC transgenic mice and hAPOB transgenic mice were crossed and their offspring examined. Results Comparison of LPA-YAC with LPA-YAC/hAPOB transgenic mice showed that LPA-YAC/hAPOB transgenic mice have higher serum total apo(a and total cholesterol level than mice lacking the hAPOB gene. However, hepatic apo(a mRNA level was higher in LPA-YAC transgenic mice than in LPA-YAC/hAPOB transgenic mice. Feeding of a high-cholesterol/high-fat diet to male LPA-YAC transgenic mice with or without the hAPOB gene resulted in reduced serum total apo(a and hepatic apo(a mRNA level. Conclusion In conclusion, the higher serum total apo(a level in LPA-YAC/hAPOB transgenic mice than in LPA-YAC transgenic mice is not caused by increased apo(a synthesis. Lower hepatic apo(a mRNA level in LPA-YAC/hAPOB than in LPA-YAC transgenic mice may suggest that the increase in total apo(a level is a result of apo(a accumulation in serum. Furthermore, observed higher serum total cholesterol level in LPA-YAC/hAPOB transgenic mice than either in wild type or LPA-YAC transgenic mice may further suggest that human APOB transgenicity is a factor that contributes to increased serum total apo(a and cholesterol levels. Our results on reduced serum total apo(a and hepatic apo(a mRNA levels in HCHF fed male LPA-YAC transgenic mice confirm earlier findings in females, and show that there are no sex difference in mechanisms for lowering apo(a level in response to HCHF feeding.

Teivainen Päivi A

2004-05-01

223

Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on levels of serum autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus and in rheumatoid arthritis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on serum levels of autoantibodies, and of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and pneumococcal polysaccharide in patients with lupus nephritis were compared with those previously observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Baseline levels of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid and tetanus toxoid decreased significantly after TLI in patients with lupus and RA, but antibody levels to pneumococcal polysaccharide remained unchanged. After TLI, the levels of antinuclear and anti-DNA antibodies were reduced significantly in lupus, but levels of rheumatoid factor, antinuclear, and antigranulocyte antibodies all tended to increase in RA

224

Detección de Salmonella y coliformes fecales en agua de uso agrícola para la producción de melón "Cantaloupe" / Detection of Salmonella and fecal coliforms in water for agricultural use destined to melon"Cantaloupe"  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El agua que se utiliza en la producción de cultivos hortofrutícolas representa una fuente potencial de microorganismos que ocasionan enfermedades de transmisión alimentaria. Con el objetivo de evaluar la calidad sanitaria de diferentes fuentes de agua empleadas en la producción de melón Cantaloupe ( [...] Cucumis melo L. [grupo reticulatus] cv. Ovación y Caminos), en Zirándaro de los Chávez, Guerrero, se analizaron 71 muestras de agua provenientes de dos unidades de campo (23) y de una unidad de empaque (48) mediante métodos bacteriológicos convencionales para la detección deSalmonella spp, y por el método de filtración en membrana y el crecimiento en medios selectivos, para la detección de coliformes fecales, como indicadores de contaminación fecal. Del total de muestras de agua analizadas sólo tres muestras de campo resultaron positivas a la presencia de Salmonella spp. y nueve muestras, siete de campo y dos de la unidad de empaque, resultaron positivas a coliformes fecales. Salmonella spp. y coliformes fecales se detectaron principalmente en muestras de agua no clorada a 29 °C y 7.5 de pH, en promedio. En pruebas de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR), dos de cuatro cepas presuntivas de Salmonella ssp. dieron amplificaciones positivas con los iniciadores Sal-3 y Sal-4, y invA-1 e invA-2; de las otras dos, sólo dieron amplificación positiva con Sal-3 y Sal-4. Aparentemente se tiene más de una raza o serovar de Salmonella en la región. Estos resultados sugieren que algunas de las fuentes de agua empleadas en la producción de melón Cantaloupe en Zirándaro de los Chávez, Guerrero, no cumplen con la normatividad sanitaria por lo que estas fuentes deben establecerse como puntos prerequisitos de control para evitar la contaminación de melones frescos con patógenos de humanos. Abstract in english Water used in the production of horticultural crops represents a potential source of microorganisms that cause food-transmitted diseases. In order to evaluate the sanitary quality of different agricultural water sources used in the production of Cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melo L. [group reticulatus] [...] cv. Ovacion and Caminos), in Zirandaro Chavez, Guerrero, 71 water samples were analyzed from two field units (23) and one packaging house unit (48) through traditional bacteriological methods, to detect Salmonella spp, and the filtering membrane method and growth selective media, to detect fecal coliforms, as fecal contamination indicators. Of the total analyzed water samples only three field samples were positive to Salmonella spp. and nine samples, seven coming from the field and two from the packaging house, were positive to fecal coliforms. Salmonella spp. and fecal coliforms were detected mainly in non-chlorinated water samples at 29 °C and pH of 7.5, on average. Two out of four presumptive Salmonella spp. isolates were confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers Sal-3 and Sal-4, and invA-1 and invA-2; the other two were only confirmed with Sal-3 y Sal-4. Apparently more than one race or serovar of Salmonella spp. are present in this region. Results suggest that some water sources used in the Cantaloupe melon production in Zirandaro Chavez, Guerrero, do not meet sanitary standards therefore these sources should be considered as critical control points to prevent fresh melon contamination with human pathogens.

Carmela, Hernández-Domínguez; Ana María, Hernández-Anguiano; Cristóbal, Cháidez-Quiroz; Gilberto, Rendón-Sánchez; Trevor, Suslow.

2008-03-01

225

Detección de Salmonella y coliformes fecales en agua de uso agrícola para la producción de melón "Cantaloupe" / Detection of Salmonella and fecal coliforms in water for agricultural use destined to melon"Cantaloupe"  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El agua que se utiliza en la producción de cultivos hortofrutícolas representa una fuente potencial de microorganismos que ocasionan enfermedades de transmisión alimentaria. Con el objetivo de evaluar la calidad sanitaria de diferentes fuentes de agua empleadas en la producción de melón Cantaloupe ( [...] Cucumis melo L. [grupo reticulatus] cv. Ovación y Caminos), en Zirándaro de los Chávez, Guerrero, se analizaron 71 muestras de agua provenientes de dos unidades de campo (23) y de una unidad de empaque (48) mediante métodos bacteriológicos convencionales para la detección deSalmonella spp, y por el método de filtración en membrana y el crecimiento en medios selectivos, para la detección de coliformes fecales, como indicadores de contaminación fecal. Del total de muestras de agua analizadas sólo tres muestras de campo resultaron positivas a la presencia de Salmonella spp. y nueve muestras, siete de campo y dos de la unidad de empaque, resultaron positivas a coliformes fecales. Salmonella spp. y coliformes fecales se detectaron principalmente en muestras de agua no clorada a 29 °C y 7.5 de pH, en promedio. En pruebas de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR), dos de cuatro cepas presuntivas de Salmonella ssp. dieron amplificaciones positivas con los iniciadores Sal-3 y Sal-4, y invA-1 e invA-2; de las otras dos, sólo dieron amplificación positiva con Sal-3 y Sal-4. Aparentemente se tiene más de una raza o serovar de Salmonella en la región. Estos resultados sugieren que algunas de las fuentes de agua empleadas en la producción de melón Cantaloupe en Zirándaro de los Chávez, Guerrero, no cumplen con la normatividad sanitaria por lo que estas fuentes deben establecerse como puntos prerequisitos de control para evitar la contaminación de melones frescos con patógenos de humanos. Abstract in english Water used in the production of horticultural crops represents a potential source of microorganisms that cause food-transmitted diseases. In order to evaluate the sanitary quality of different agricultural water sources used in the production of Cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melo L. [group reticulatus] [...] cv. Ovacion and Caminos), in Zirandaro Chavez, Guerrero, 71 water samples were analyzed from two field units (23) and one packaging house unit (48) through traditional bacteriological methods, to detect Salmonella spp, and the filtering membrane method and growth selective media, to detect fecal coliforms, as fecal contamination indicators. Of the total analyzed water samples only three field samples were positive to Salmonella spp. and nine samples, seven coming from the field and two from the packaging house, were positive to fecal coliforms. Salmonella spp. and fecal coliforms were detected mainly in non-chlorinated water samples at 29 °C and pH of 7.5, on average. Two out of four presumptive Salmonella spp. isolates were confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers Sal-3 and Sal-4, and invA-1 and invA-2; the other two were only confirmed with Sal-3 y Sal-4. Apparently more than one race or serovar of Salmonella spp. are present in this region. Results suggest that some water sources used in the Cantaloupe melon production in Zirandaro Chavez, Guerrero, do not meet sanitary standards therefore these sources should be considered as critical control points to prevent fresh melon contamination with human pathogens.

Carmela, Hernández-Domínguez; Ana María, Hernández-Anguiano; Cristóbal, Cháidez-Quiroz; Gilberto, Rendón-Sánchez; Trevor, Suslow.

226

Níveis de fósforo total em dietas para alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo Dietary total phosphorus levels for Nile tilapia fingerlings  

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Full Text Available Objetivando-se determinar a exigência de fósforo em dietas para alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, foram utilizados 432 alevinos com peso inicial de 0,60 ± 0,02 g, mantidos em 36 aquários de 150 L. Foi utilizado delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos (0,55; 0,73; 0,94; 1,14; 1,37 e 1,59% de fósforo total, seis repetições e 12 peixes por unidade experimental. Os peixes foram alimentados com rações contendo 32% de PB e 3.000 kcal ED/kg, durante 40 dias. Verificou-se efeito quadrático dos níveis de fósforo na dieta sobre a conversão alimentar e a taxa de eficiência protéica, sendo estimados os melhores resultados com 1,10% de fósforo total. Houve efeito linear dos níveis de fósforo na dieta sobre a taxa de eficiência de retenção de P e a taxa de eficiência de P. Para as demais variáveis, não houve efeito dos níveis de fósforo da dieta. A exigência de P em dietas para alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo é de 1,10%.Four hundred and thirty-two Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings averaging initial weight of 0.60 ± 0.02 g were allotted to thirty-six 150 L-aquaria to determine total phosphorus requirement. The experiment was analyzed as a completely randomized design, with six treatments (0.55, 0.73, 0.94, 1.14, 1.37, and 1.59% of total phosphorus, six replicates and 12 fishes per experimental unit. The fishes were fed diets with 32% of CP and 3,000 kcal of DE/kg, during 40 days. Quadratic effect was observed for feed/gain ratio and protein efficiency rate and the best results were estimated with 1.10% of total phosphorus, for both variables. Linear effect of the dietary phosphorus levels on P retention efficiency rate and P efficiency rate was noticed. No treatment effect on the other variables was observed. The dietary total phosphorus requirement for Nile tilapia corresponds to 1.10%.

Felipe Barbosa Ribeiro

2006-08-01

227

Evaluación de tres métodos para la inactivación de coliformes y Escherichia coli presentes en agua residual doméstica, empleada para riego / Evaluation of three methods for the inactivation of coliforms and Escherichia coli present in domestic wastewaters used in irrigation / Avaliação de três métodos para a inativação de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli presentes em águas residuais domésticas utilizadas para a irrigação  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Objetivo. Avaliar três tratamentos (lagoas, fotocatálise com TiO2 e desinfecção química) para inativação de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli presentes em águas residuais domésticas utilizadas na irrigação dos cultivos. Materiais e métodos. O efluente foi caracterizado por analises físicos, quími [...] cos e microbiológicos. Posteriormente foi submetido a tratamento de lagoas facultativas (TLF), pós-tratamento fotocatalítico (PTF TiO2/UV) e pós-tratamento químico (PTQ NaClO). Avaliando a capacidade desinfetante de cada um para inativar coliformes totais e E. coli. Posteriormente, foram processados três novos lotes de águas residuais para testar a irrigação em escala de laboratório por 30 dias, utilizando-se como modelo plantas de Lactuca sativa variedade Batavia e avaliando a concentração inicial e final dos dois grupos. Resultados. O PTFTiO2/UV foi significativamente maior a TLFLF e PTQ NaClO (p Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Evaluar tres tratamientos (lagunaje, fotocatálisis con TiO2 y desinfección química) para la inactivación de coliformes totales y Escherichia coli presentes en agua residual doméstica empleada para riego agrícola. Materiales y métodos. El agua residual fue caracterizada por medio de análisi [...] s físicos, químicos y microbiológicos. Posteriormente fue sometida a un tratamiento de lagunaje facultativo (TLF), pos tratamiento fotocatalítico (PTFTiO2/UV) y pos tratamiento químico (PTQ NaClO). Valorando la capacidad desinfectante de cada uno de ellos para inactivar coliformes totales y E. coli. A continuación se procesaron tres nuevos lotes de agua residual y se utilizaron para realizar pruebas de riego a escala de laboratorio por 30 días, empleando como modelo plantas de Lactuca sativa variedad Batavia y evaluando la concentración inicial y final de los dos grupos. Resultados. El PTFTiO2/UV fue significativamente superior que TLFLF y el PTQ NaClO (p Abstract in english Objective. To evaluate three treatments (facultative stabilization ponds, heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO2 and chemical disinfection with sodium hypochlorite) for the inactivation of coliforms and Escherichia coli presen in domestic wastewaters used in agricultural irrigation. Materials and me [...] thods. Wastewater was characterized by physical, chemical and microbiological analyses and was then exposed to a facultative pond treatment (FPT), post-photocatalytic treatment (PTFTiO2/UV) and post-chemical treatment (PTQNaClO) to assess the disinfecting capacity of each method in the inactivation of total coliforms and E. coli. Three new samples of wastewater were processed and used in irrigation tests on a laboratory-scale basis for 30 days, using Lactuca sativa cultivar. Batavia as a model plant and evaluating the initial and final concentrations of the two groups. Results. PTFTiO2/UV was significantly higher than FPT and PTQNaClO (p

Naydú, Rojas-Higuera; Andrea, Sánchez-Garibello; Adriana, Matiz-Villamil; Juan Carlos, Salcedo-Reyes; Ana Karina, Carrascal-Camacho; Aura M, Pedroza-Rodríguez.

228

Evaluación de tres métodos para la inactivación de coliformes y Escherichia coli presentes en agua residual doméstica, empleada para riego / Evaluation of three methods for the inactivation of coliforms and Escherichia coli present in domestic wastewaters used in irrigation / Avaliação de três métodos para a inativação de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli presentes em águas residuais domésticas utilizadas para a irrigação  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Objetivo. Avaliar três tratamentos (lagoas, fotocatálise com TiO2 e desinfecção química) para inativação de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli presentes em águas residuais domésticas utilizadas na irrigação dos cultivos. Materiais e métodos. O efluente foi caracterizado por analises físicos, quími [...] cos e microbiológicos. Posteriormente foi submetido a tratamento de lagoas facultativas (TLF), pós-tratamento fotocatalítico (PTF TiO2/UV) e pós-tratamento químico (PTQ NaClO). Avaliando a capacidade desinfetante de cada um para inativar coliformes totais e E. coli. Posteriormente, foram processados três novos lotes de águas residuais para testar a irrigação em escala de laboratório por 30 dias, utilizando-se como modelo plantas de Lactuca sativa variedade Batavia e avaliando a concentração inicial e final dos dois grupos. Resultados. O PTFTiO2/UV foi significativamente maior a TLFLF e PTQ NaClO (p Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Evaluar tres tratamientos (lagunaje, fotocatálisis con TiO2 y desinfección química) para la inactivación de coliformes totales y Escherichia coli presentes en agua residual doméstica empleada para riego agrícola. Materiales y métodos. El agua residual fue caracterizada por medio de análisi [...] s físicos, químicos y microbiológicos. Posteriormente fue sometida a un tratamiento de lagunaje facultativo (TLF), pos tratamiento fotocatalítico (PTFTiO2/UV) y pos tratamiento químico (PTQ NaClO). Valorando la capacidad desinfectante de cada uno de ellos para inactivar coliformes totales y E. coli. A continuación se procesaron tres nuevos lotes de agua residual y se utilizaron para realizar pruebas de riego a escala de laboratorio por 30 días, empleando como modelo plantas de Lactuca sativa variedad Batavia y evaluando la concentración inicial y final de los dos grupos. Resultados. El PTFTiO2/UV fue significativamente superior que TLFLF y el PTQ NaClO (p Abstract in english Objective. To evaluate three treatments (facultative stabilization ponds, heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO2 and chemical disinfection with sodium hypochlorite) for the inactivation of coliforms and Escherichia coli presen in domestic wastewaters used in agricultural irrigation. Materials and me [...] thods. Wastewater was characterized by physical, chemical and microbiological analyses and was then exposed to a facultative pond treatment (FPT), post-photocatalytic treatment (PTFTiO2/UV) and post-chemical treatment (PTQNaClO) to assess the disinfecting capacity of each method in the inactivation of total coliforms and E. coli. Three new samples of wastewater were processed and used in irrigation tests on a laboratory-scale basis for 30 days, using Lactuca sativa cultivar. Batavia as a model plant and evaluating the initial and final concentrations of the two groups. Results. PTFTiO2/UV was significantly higher than FPT and PTQNaClO (p

Naydú, Rojas-Higuera; Andrea, Sánchez-Garibello; Adriana, Matiz-Villamil; Juan Carlos, Salcedo-Reyes; Ana Karina, Carrascal-Camacho; Aura M, Pedroza-Rodríguez.

2010-05-01

229

Radioiodine total body scan versus serum thyroglobulin levels in follow-up of patients with thyroid cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two groups of patients were studied to compare the efficacy of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels to 131I total body scans in the follow-up of patients with thyroid cancer. All of the group of 30 patients without recurrence had undetectable Tg levels on and off thyroid hormone replacement, and all had negative total body scan results although eight patients showed uptake in remnant thyroid tissue. In the second group of 37 patients with documented recurrent or metastatic disease, 34 (92%) had positive serum Tg levels, although the levels in five of these patients were undetectable while on thyroid replacement, and 31 (84%) had positive total body scan results. The false negative results of the two tests were not overlapping, and of those with positive Tg levels, 29 showed a significant increase once thyroid hormone therapy had been withdrawn. We conclude that although the percentages of positive Tg levels and body scan results in patients with recurrent disease are similar, both tests are required to minimize the number of patients with undiagnosed metastases. Second, thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression has a definite although unpredictable effect on serum Tg levels in patients with thyroid cancer, and thyroid hormone should be withdrawn prior to measurement of serum Tg to minimize the number of false negative results

230

Polymorphisms in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene influence plasma total homocysteine levels.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is a risk factor for various disorders. We investigated whether functional polymorphisms in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) influence tHcy, since COMT activity produces S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), a homocysteine precursor. We hypothesized that high activity COMT variants would be associated with high tHcy, since they presumably result in increased formation of SAH. We genotyped 780 community-dwelling elderly individuals for functional COMT (Val(...

Tunbridge, Em; Harrison, Pj; Warden, Dr; Johnston, C.; Refsum, H.; Smith, Ad

2008-01-01

231

Total Factor Productivity of Korean Manufacturing Industries : Comparison of Competing Models with Firm-Level Data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents the parametric estimation of the rates of technical change and total factor productivity (TFP) growth of 7,462 Korean manufacturing firms for the period 1987 to 2007. Two alternative formulations of technical change measured by the time trend and the general index approaches are estimated with panel data models assuming flexible functional forms. Several extensions of each approach are also considered and their benefits and limitations are discussed. In addition to making ...

Lo?o?f, Hans; Oh, Donghyun; Heshmati, Almas

2009-01-01

232

The contribution of worksite physical activity to total daily physical activity levels in professional occupations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study investigated the amount of physical activity that occurred during work and total waking hours in a sample of New Zealand professional office workers. Data were collected over three days using a retrospective self-report recall (Three day physical activity recall [3DPAR]), and pedometers (Yamax Digiwalker SW-700). Fifty-six participants (27 men and 29 women) reported their activities over a three-day period and wore two sealed, hip-mounted pedometers. One pedometer was worn during w...

Badland, H. M.; Schofield, G. M.

2004-01-01

233

Dry rehydratable films for enumeration of coliforms and aerobic bacteria in dairy products: collaborative study.  

Science.gov (United States)

A collaborative study was conducted to compare proposed dry-film plating methods, using aerobic count plates and coliform count plates, to standard agar plating methods for quantifying aerobic bacteria and coliforms in dairy products. In this study, 5 food products (chocolate milk, pasteurized cheese, nonfat dry milk, evaporated milk, and vanilla ice cream), selected as representative dairy products, were analyzed by 11 collaborating laboratories. The results indicate that the dry-film plating methods are equivalent to or better than the agar plating methods. The aerobic count and coliform count dry-film plating methods have been adopted official first action. PMID:2496099

Curiale, M S; Fahey, P; Fox, T L; McAllister, J S

1989-01-01

234

Association between Plasma PFOA and PFOS Levels and Total Cholesterol in a Middle-Aged Danish Population  

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Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are used in a variety of consumer products and have been detected worldwide in human blood. Recent studies mainly of highly exposed populations have indicated that PFOA and PFOS may affect serum cholesterol levels, but the magnitude of the effect may be inconsistent across exposure levels. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between plasma PFOA and PFOS and total cholesterol in a general...

Eriksen, Kirsten T.; Raaschou-nielsen, Ole; Mclaughlin, Joseph K.; Lipworth, Loren; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Sørensen, Mette

2013-01-01

235

75 FR 49930 - Stakeholder Meeting Regarding Re-Evaluation of Currently Approved Total Coliform Analytical Methods  

Science.gov (United States)

...PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9190-2] Stakeholder Meeting Regarding Re-Evaluation of...will have a technical dialogue with stakeholders regarding re-evaluation of currently...analytical methods. At these meetings, stakeholders will be given an opportunity to...

2010-08-16

236

78 FR 10269 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule  

Science.gov (United States)

...2008. The Walkerton Health Study, 2002-2008...Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care. 76 pp. (includes...Modlin, J.F. 1986. Perinatal Echovirus Infection...2010. Long-term health risks for children...

2013-02-13

237

75 FR 42440 - Total Coliform Rule Revisions-Notice of Public Information Meetings  

Science.gov (United States)

...Rule Revisions--Notice of Public Information Meetings AGENCY: Environmental...Protection Agency (EPA) is hosting public information meetings on the proposed Revised...July 14, 2010. During the public information meetings, EPA will...

2010-07-21

238

Metal ion levels in patients with a lumbar metal-on-metal total disc replacement: should we be concerned?  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether concerns about the release of metal ions in metal-on-metal total hip replacements (THR) should be extended to patients with metal-bearing total disc replacements (TDR). Cobalt and chromium levels in whole blood and serum were measured in ten patients with a single-level TDR after a mean follow-up of 34.5 months (13 to 61) using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. These metal ion levels were compared with pre-operative control levels in 81 patients and with metal ion levels 12 months after metal-on-metal THR (n = 21) and resurfacing hip replacement (n = 36). Flexion-extension radiographs were used to verify movement of the TDR. Cobalt levels in whole blood and serum were significantly lower in the TDR group than in either the THR (p = 0.007) or the resurfacing group (p cobalt in whole blood appeared to be significantly higher (p < 0.001). The median range of movement of the TDR was 15.5° (10° to 22°). These results suggest that there is minimal cause for concern about high metal ion concentrations after TDR, as the levels appear to be only moderately elevated. However, spinal surgeons using a metal-on-metal TDR should still be aware of concerns expressed in the hip replacement literature about toxicity from elevated metal ion levels, and inform their patients appropriately. PMID:21705569

Bisseling, P; Zeilstra, D J; Hol, A M; van Susante, J L C

2011-07-01

239

The long-term changes in liver DNA and total protein contents following low level sarin exposure in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

1. The changes in contents of DNA and total protein in the liver of the rats exposed to low level sarin by inhalation at 3, 6 and 12 months following the exposure were studied. The influence of sarin on the DNA and protein metabolism in liver was determined by the measurements of incorporation of tritiated thymidine into DNA, the concentration of DNA and total protein. 2. Our results show that not only symptomatic level 3 but also asymptomatic levels 1 and 2 of sarin are able to significantly decrease the incorporation of radiolabelled thymidine without changing total concentrations of DNA as well as protein at three months following sarin exposure. On the other hand, the significant decrease in total contents of DNA and protein in liver without the changes in the incorporation of tritiated thymidine was determined in liver six months following sarin exposure. Practically no significant changes in the metabolism of DNA and protein were observed at 12 months following sarin exposure. 3. Thus, not only clinically manifested intoxication but also low-level, asymptomatic exposure to nerve agents such as sarin is able to influence the metabolism of nucleic acids as well as proteins even several months following the exposure. PMID:10934781

Kassa, J; Skopec, F; Vachek, J

2000-01-01

240

Avaliação de ensaios analíticos para detecção de coliformes fecais em queijo Minas / Evaluation of analytical methods for detecting of fecal coliforms in Minas cheese  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram submetidas à pesquisa de coliformes fecais, utilizando-se a técnica do número mais provável (NMP/g), 168 amostras de variedades de queijo Minas (20 frescal, 48 canastra e 100 padronizado) coletadas em Belo Horizonte. Para a comparação de diferentes ensaios em temperatura elevada, utilizou-se o [...] caldo EC isoladamente, e caldos EC e triptofano em paralelo. Visando à pesquisa de indol foi realizado ensaio para confirmação de produção de beta-D-glucuronidase e indol em caldo fluorocult lauril sulfato. Os resultados demonstraram não haver diferença estatística significativa entre as três metodologias utilizadas para a pesquisa de coliformes fecais, considerando os índices de aceitação definidos pelos padrões legais de inspeção de queijo Minas. A facilidade de execução do ensaio da beta-D-glucuronidase em caldo fluorocult lauril sulfato, associada à confiabilidade dos resultados e demanda de tempo (redução de 96 para até 48h), permitem sugeri-lo como método de escolha para enumeração de coliformes em queijo Minas. Abstract in english There were submitted to fecal coliforms enumeration, according to the most probable number (MPN/g) method, 168 samples of "Minas" cheese varieties (20 white, 48 "canastra" and 199 standardized), collected in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. In order to comparing different assays under high temperature, there [...] was used EC broth isolated, and EC broth and tryptophane broth in parallel. With the aim of indol search, it was carried out an assay for beta-D-glucuronidase in indol production in fluorocult lauryl sulphate broth. The results did not show significant statistical difference among the three approaches used for fecal coliforms research, considering the acceptance indexes established by legal standards for "Minas" cheese inspection. The feasibility for beta-D-glucuronidase assay in fluorocult lauryl sulphate broth, coupled with results’ confidence and time required (reduction from 96 to up to 48h), suggest it as a preference method for fecal coliforms enumeration in "Minas" cheese.

M.L., Pereira; M.C.A., Gastelois; E.M.A.F., Bastos; W.T., Caiaffa; E.S.C., Faleiro.

1999-10-01

 
 
 
 
241

Selective detection and enumeration of fecal coliforms in water by potentiometric measurement of lipoic acid reduction.  

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Water samples of various origins were inoculated into a specific coliform-selective lactose broth provided with lipoic (thioctic) acid, and the time evolution of the redox potential of the cultures was monitored during incubation at 41 degrees C by use of gold versus reference electrodes. Positive potential-time responses, i.e., 100-mV potential shifts recorded within 20 h of inoculation, were related to the initial number of fecal coliforms in the broth determined by control enumeration tech...

Jouenne, T.; Junter, G. A.; Charriere, G.

1985-01-01

242

The levels of total protein and protein fractions in the serum of rabbits infected with Eimeria stiedai.  

Science.gov (United States)

The total protein levels in rabbits infected with Eimeria stiedai together with the alterations in the different protein fractions over a period of 35 days were studied. It was observed that from the second week of infection onwards a progressive increase took place in total proteins; the electrophoretic study revealed that the hyperproteinemia is mainly due to the increase in gamma-globulins accompanied by a decrease in the concentration of albumin and a increase in alpha and beta-globulins. These protein alterations induce an important modification in the albumin/globulin. ratio which decreases considerably. PMID:3813422

Gomez-Bautista, M; Garcia, M V; Rojo-Vazquez, F A

1986-01-01

243

Total Mercury and Methylmercury Levels in Fish from the Department Madre de Díos, Peru  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Very little is known about environmental contamination in most otter species. In the range of the Giant Otter, Pteronura brasiliensis, gold miners discharge a great deal of methylmercury into the environment, and this is known to biomagnify in the food chain. Assays for methylmercury were carried out on fish collected in the Madre de Dios department of Peru, from near gold mining areas, and also from more than 100km away; additional fish were obtained from fish markets. Results show that significant contamination occurs in fish bigger than the normal prey size of the otters, but at present, there are low levels in prey species - this should be monitored closely in future.

Gutleb A.C.

1993-02-01

244

Fecal coliform management using a coupled hydrodynamics and water quality model for the river Ravi in Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Fecal Coliform (FC) management framework is developed incorporating segmentation of river reaches, hydrodynamic and water quality models and FC management under critical winter low flow conditions for a highly polluted River Ravi. FC die-off rate in the river is determined from a field survey of a selected river reach. The travel time calculated with the help of a hydrodynamic model is 0.25 days in the selected reach. FC die-off rate (Kb) was found to be 1.2 day/sup -1/ at 20 degree C. Model calibration with monitoring data set reveals reasonable agreement of the simulation results with the measured field values under low flow conditions. Presently, the river is receiving raw wastewater and the simulation results shows very high fecal coliform levels up to 100 X 10/sup 6/ MPN/100mL in the river water. These levels are much higher than the required recreation and irrigation standards. Simulations are carried out to assess water quality for the future fecal pollution loads in year 2025 and the results reveal that up to 6 log reduction in FC is required at the wastewater out falls, whereas, 5 log reduction would be sufficient for surface drains to meet desired FC standards under low flow conditions. (author)

245

Serum Total Homocysteine Level: A True Cardiovascular Risk Factor or an Acute Phase Reactant Protein?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death in the developed world1.In Pakistan; the disease seems to follow an accelerated course with ischaemic events occurring a decade earlier than those reported worldwide2. While many risk factors of cardiovascular diseases are well established, many are still under evaluation; like homocysteine, which is now being considered an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases3.Homocysteine is a sulfur containing amino acid which is not our dietary constituent but is formed by metabolism of methionine, another amino acid present in our daily protein diet. In case of excess formation of homocysteine as compared to its consumption, it appears in urine if levels are too high3. Normal plasma homocysteine concentration ranges from 5 to 15?mol/litre. Of this, almost 75% is bound to proteins, especially albumin, through disulfide bond. Classification of hyperhomocysteinemia described by Kang SS 4 is followed widely.Moderate hyperhomocysteinemia (15 to 30 ?mol/litreIntermediate hyperhomocysteinemia (30 to 100?mol/litreSevere hyperhomocysteinemia (>100 ?mol/litre

Dr. Malik Asif Humayoun et al.

2011-08-01

246

Assessment of serum selenium levels in 2-month-old sucking calves using total reflection technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The assessment of selenium status of livestock is an important aspect of production medicine as evidence for the influence of low Se levels on disease resistance in ruminants is reviewed with emphasis on susceptibility to various pathologies (such as infections, exudative diathesis, pneumonia, pancreatic degeneration). Additional evidence suggests that Se deficiency may cause muscular dystrophy in calves, while, severe deficiency has been associated with cardiomyopathy and even death. Serum Se content is a good indicator of the short term Se status and reflects the recent dietary intake of the element. Since serum Se content is a good indicator of the short term status of the element and reflects the its recent dietary intake, the present work is aimed to determine Se concentration in serum from a group of 2 months old sucking calves suspected to be severely deficient. We used the TX 2000 X-ray spectrometer manufactured by Ital Structures. The energy resolution (FWHM) of the Si(Li) detector was 137 eV for Mn K?. Among nuclear techniques the TXRF method is the best suitable for trace element analysis in liquid or dissolved samples and can deal much easier with elemental investigation. Physical basis of used analytical method, experimental set up and the sample preparation procedure are described. The concentration data obtained are presented and discussed. (author)

247

Assessment of serum selenium levels in 2-month-old sucking calves using Total Reflection Technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The assessment of selenium status of livestock is an important aspect of production medicine as evidence for the influence of low Se levels on disease resistance in ruminants is reviewed with emphasis on susceptibility to various pathologies (such as infections, exudative diathesis, pneumonia, pancreatic degeneration). Additional evidence suggests that Se deficiency may cause muscular dystrophy in calves, while, severe deficiency has been associated with cardiomyopathy and even death. Serum Se content is a good indicator of the short term Se status and reflects the recent dietary intake of the element. Since Serum Se content is a good indicator of the short term status of the element and reflects the its recent dietary intake, the present work is aimed to determine Se concentration in serum from a group of 2 month old sucking calves suspected to be severely deficient. We used the TX 2000 X-ray spectrometer manufactured by Ital Structures. The energy resolution (FWHM) of the Si(Li) detector was 137 eV for Mn K?. Among nuclear techniques the TXRF method is the best suitable for trace element analysis in liquid or dissolved samples and can deal much easier with elemental investigation. Physical basis of used analytical method, experimental set up and the sample preparation procedure are described. The concentration data obtained are presented and discussed

248

Effects of lysine levels of diets formulated based on total or digestible amino acids on broiler carcass composition  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The study was conducted to evaluate carcass yield and chemical composition of thigh and breast muscles of broilers fed three different lysine requirement levels: high lysine (+10% NRC), standard (NRC) and low lysine (-10% NRC) and two ways of expressing amino acids in feedstuffs (total or digestible [...] amino acids). The results of this study showed that diet formulation based on digestible amino acids significantly influenced breast yield and abdominal fat deposition. The study showed that increasing lysine level (+10% NRC) of diet significantly increased both carcass and breast percentage and also carcass, breast and thigh weight. The interaction between digestible amino acids and lysine requirement levels affected carcass and breast percentage. Feeding broilers high lysine diets (+10% NRC) significantly increased lysine content in breast and thigh. The response to formulation based on digestible amino acids was maximized when broilers received the high lysine level diet.

J, Nasr; F, Kheiri.

249

Effects of lysine levels of diets formulated based on total or digestible amino acids on broiler carcass composition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate carcass yield and chemical composition of thigh and breast muscles of broilers fed three different lysine requirement levels: high lysine (+10% NRC, standard (NRC and low lysine (-10% NRC and two ways of expressing amino acids in feedstuffs (total or digestible amino acids. The results of this study showed that diet formulation based on digestible amino acids significantly influenced breast yield and abdominal fat deposition. The study showed that increasing lysine level (+10% NRC of diet significantly increased both carcass and breast percentage and also carcass, breast and thigh weight. The interaction between digestible amino acids and lysine requirement levels affected carcass and breast percentage. Feeding broilers high lysine diets (+10% NRC significantly increased lysine content in breast and thigh. The response to formulation based on digestible amino acids was maximized when broilers received the high lysine level diet.

J Nasr

2012-12-01

250

Effects of lysine levels of diets formulated based on total or digestible amino acids on broiler carcass composition  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The study was conducted to evaluate carcass yield and chemical composition of thigh and breast muscles of broilers fed three different lysine requirement levels: high lysine (+10% NRC), standard (NRC) and low lysine (-10% NRC) and two ways of expressing amino acids in feedstuffs (total or digestible [...] amino acids). The results of this study showed that diet formulation based on digestible amino acids significantly influenced breast yield and abdominal fat deposition. The study showed that increasing lysine level (+10% NRC) of diet significantly increased both carcass and breast percentage and also carcass, breast and thigh weight. The interaction between digestible amino acids and lysine requirement levels affected carcass and breast percentage. Feeding broilers high lysine diets (+10% NRC) significantly increased lysine content in breast and thigh. The response to formulation based on digestible amino acids was maximized when broilers received the high lysine level diet.

J, Nasr; F, Kheiri.

2012-12-01

251

The level of total sialic acid, alfa-antitrypsin, ceruloplasmin in the serum of patients with choroidal melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melanoma of the choroid is a fatal disease because of its metastases. The quest is ongoing for more reliable serum markers for detecting and staging ocular melanoma. Total serum sialic acid and acute phase proteins are valuable adjuncts in the management of malignancies, including melanoma. The aim of the paper was to asses the level of total sialic acid (TSA), total sialic acid to total protein (TP) ratio (TSA/TP) and the level of alfa-antitrypsin (AAT) and ceruloplasmin (CER) in patients with choroidal melanoma. The concentrations of TSA, TP, AAT and CER were evaluated in 61 patients with choroidal melanoma and 84 healthy controls. 36 patients had larger tumors and 25 patients had smaller melanomas. 36 patients were treated with brachytherapy. The mean concentration of TSA in all intraocular melanoma patients was 84.86 +/- 19.37 mg/dl and was significantly higher than in control group 53.63 +/- 8.47 mg/dl (p evaluation of patients with choroidal melanoma. PMID:12898929

Matysik, Anna; Toczo?owski, Jerzy; Starzycka, Maria; Jakubowska-Solarska, Beata; Solski, Janusz; Romanowska-Dixon, Bozena; Lewandowska-Furmanik, Maria

2002-01-01

252

Total Level of Serum Homocysteine in Males and Females with Coronary Heart Disease of Different Age Groups  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Elevated plasma total homocysteine concentration is a risk factor of cardiovascular disease. Total homocysteine level is a strong predictor of mortality in-patient with an angiographically confirmed Coronary Heart Disease (CHD, so we want to know at what age in males and females elevated homocysteine will be significantly elevated and this will help for better management and prognosis by decreasing the level of homocysteine. Approach: Plasma level of homocysteine was determined in male and female patients below and above 50 years old, who have coronary heart disease with diabetes or without diabetes. Fifty two coronary heart diseases with type 2 diabetic patients and a matched number of healthy subjects as a control and another 52 coronary heart disease patients without diabetes were included in this study. Plasma homocysteine was determined by Enzymatic Immuno Sorbant Assay (ELISA. Results: Plasma homocysteine level in coronary heart disease diabetic male and female patients who are -1, respectively, while it is 28.12±9.5 and 29.44±4.3 umol L-1 in male and female patients >50 years old, respectively. Plasma homocysteine level in coronary heart disease nondiabetic male and female patients who are -1, respectively, while it is 26.9±1.1 and 27.56±6.8 umol L-1 in male and female patients >50 years old, respectively. Conclusion: It is concluded that plasma level of homocysteine is significantly elevated in diabetic coronary heart disease female patients above 50 years old and significantly elevated in nondiabetic coronary heart disease males and female patients, thus nondiabetic coronary heart disease male and female patients and diabetic coronary female patients are at high risk of vascular diseases. It is recommended that these patients may take supplementation of folate and vitamin B12 to reduce the level of homocysteine.

Faisal I. Mohammad

2010-01-01

253

The relationship between total sialic acid levels and antioxidant status in the tadpoles of Bufo viridis and Rana ridibunda ridibunda.  

Science.gov (United States)

Total sialic acid levels (TSA), antioxidant enzymes activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were investigated during the developmental period in tadpoles of the predominantly terrestrial amphibian B. viridis and the predominantly aquatic amphibian R. r. ridibunda. Maximum TSA levels were observed in B. viridis and R. r. ridibunda at the fifth and third week of their development, respectively. SOD and CAT activity variations during development in B. viridis were higher than in R. r. ridibunda. Although SOD activity in B. viridis was higher than R. r. ridibunda at the eighth week, SOD activity increased 19.2-fold in R. r. ridibunda and 10.4-fold in B. viridis between the first and eighth week. CAT activity in R. r. ridibunda did not significantly change (p>0.001) until the fifth week then increased, whereas in B. viridis CAT increased after the third week. In contrast to the rise in the antioxidant enzyme activities, LPO levels tended to decrease during the developmental period. Levels of LPO showed a similar trend until the third week for both species. The minimum LPO levels in B. viridis and R. r. ridibunda were 23+/-1.2 and 146+/-7.3 nmol MDA g(-1) tissue, at the eighth week, respectively. While decreasing LPO levels correlated with increasing antioxidant enzyme activities, TSA tended to decrease after reaching a maximum point. PMID:12910479

Cava?, Levent; Tarhan, Leman

2003-09-01

254

UREA LEVEL IN COWS’ MILK FED ON TOTAL MIXED RATION (TMR AND TRADITIONAL SYSTEM IN SUMMER AND WINTER SEASON  

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Full Text Available In the research urea content in milk and frequency of the occurrence of samples with different urea level in milk of cows fed on total mixed ration (TMR and traditional system in summer and winter season were analyzed. Analysis covered 14272 of milk samples. On account of urea level they were divided on three groups: to 140, 141-250 and above 250 mg of urea in 1 liter of milk. It was found that average urea content in milk of cows fed on total mixed rations (TMR amounted to 196 mg.l-1. Milk of cows from farm applying traditional feeding system included 184 mg.l-1 of that constituent average. Both these values therefore could have been recognized as optimal. Urea level pointed out to the energy-protein unbalancing of feed rations in 55.6% (TMR and 57.7% (traditional of milk samples. Urea level in milk of cows fed in traditional system was at p?0.01 higher (196 mg.l-1 in summer than in winter season (166 mg.l-1. In winter feeding season the frequency of the occurrence of milk samples indicating the lack of protein in feed rations (to 140 mg of urea in 1 liter was 11.9% higher than in summer season.

Ewa JANU?

2009-08-01

255

Comparative analysis of radon sources' contribution into total radon indoor levels for Altai and Tomsk regions of Russian Federation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of climatic, geological and architecture features of two regions was carried out from radon potential point of view. Altaiskii Krai and Tomsk Oblast are situated in the south of West Siberia. Therefore, the continental climate with a high dynamics of climatic and ecological parameters is typical for both regions. Architecture and building material types are alike in many aspects. However, geological features of these regions differ substantially. This may cause a difference in distributions of radon levels in buildings. Radon levels inside buildings of rural and urban types were measured using SSNTDs, charcoal canisters and radon-monitors Alpha-GUARD PQ2000 (confirmative measurements). Exposure periods were 1-3 months in different year seasons. The experimental results were statistically analyzed. The contributions of main radon sources into total level were revealed and the gradation of sources was made. The results of the comparative analysis and discussion are presented in the paper

256

The effect of dietary garlic supplementation on body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, faecal score, faecal coliform count and feeding cost in crossbred dairy calves.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty-six crossbred calves (Holstein cross) of 5 days of age were used to study the effect of garlic extract feeding on their performance up to the age of 2 months (pre-ruminant stage). They were randomly allotted into treatment and control groups (18 numbers in each group). Performance was evaluated by measuring average body weight (BW) gain, feed intake (dry matter (DM), total digestible nutrient (TDN) and crude protein (CP)), feed conversion efficiency (FCE; DM, TDN and CP), faecal score, faecal coliform count and feeding cost. Diets were the same for the both groups. In addition, treatment group received garlic extract supplementation at 250 mg/kg BW per day per calf. Body weight measured weekly, feed intake measured twice daily, proximate analysis of feeds and fodders analysed weekly, faecal scores monitored daily and faecal coliform count done weekly. There was significant increase in average body weight gain, feed intake and FCE and significant decrease in severity of scours as measured by faecal score and faecal coliform count in the treatment group compared to the control group (P < 0.01). Feed cost per kilogramme BW gain was significantly lower in the treatment group compared to control group (P < 0.01). The results suggest that garlic extract can be supplemented to the calves for better performance. PMID:20012194

Ghosh, Sudipta; Mehla, Ram K; Sirohi, S K; Roy, Biswajit

2010-06-01

257

Beverages obtained from soda fountain machines in the U.S. contain microorganisms, including coliform bacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ninety beverages of three types (sugar sodas, diet sodas and water) were obtained from 20 self-service and 10 personnel-dispensed soda fountains, analyzed for microbial contamination, and evaluated with respect to U.S. drinking water regulations. A follow-up study compared the concentration and composition of microbial populations in 27 beverages collected from 9 soda fountain machines in the morning as well as in the afternoon. Ice dispensed from these machines was also examined for microbial contamination. While none of the ice samples exceeded U.S. drinking water standards, coliform bacteria was detected in 48% of the beverages and 20% had a heterotrophic plate count greater than 500cfu/ml. Statistical analyses revealed no difference in levels of microbial contamination between beverage types or between those dispensed from self-service and personnel-dispensed soda fountains. More than 11% of the beverages analyzed contained Escherichia coli and over 17% contained Chryseobacterium meningosepticum. Other opportunistic pathogenic microorganisms isolated from the beverages included species of Klebsiella, Staphylococcus, Stenotrophomonas, Candida, and Serratia. Most of the identified bacteria showed resistance to one or more of the 11 antibiotics tested. These findings suggest that soda fountain machines may harbor persistent communities of potentially pathogenic microorganisms which may contribute to episodic gastric distress in the general population and could pose a more significant health risk to immunocompromised individuals. These findings have important public health implications and signal the need for regulations enforcing hygienic practices associated with these beverage dispensers. PMID:19926155

White, Amy S; Godard, Renee D; Belling, Carolyn; Kasza, Victoria; Beach, Rebecca L

2010-01-31

258

VIALS: An Eulerian tool based on total variation and the level set method for studying dynamical systems  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose a new Eulerian tool to study complicated dynamical systems based on the average growth in the surface area of a family of level surfaces represented implicitly by a level set function. Since this proposed quantity determines the temporal variation of the averaged surface area of all level surfaces, we name the quantity the Variation of the Integral over Area of Level Surfaces (VIALS). Numerically, all these infinitely many level surfaces are advected according to the given dynamics by solving one single linear advection equation. To develop a computationally efficient approach, we apply the coarea formula and rewrite the surface area integral as a simple integral relating the total variation (TV) of the level set function. The proposed method can be easily incorporated with a recent Eulerian algorithm for efficient computation of flow maps to speed up our approach. We will also prove that the proposed VIALS is closely related to the computation of the finite time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) in the Lagrangian coherent structure (LCS) extraction. This connects our proposed Eulerian approach to widely used Lagrangian techniques for understanding complicated dynamical systems.

You, Guoqiao; Leung, Shingyu

2014-06-01

259

Serum Total and Lipid Bound Sialic Acid Levels in Patients With Benign and Nonmelanom Malignant Skin Tumors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It has been reported that sialic acid containing oligosaccharides play an important rolein the adhesion between cancer cells and endothelial cells and metastatic potential of tumorcells is proportional to cell surface sialylation. In the present study, we investigatedwhether there is a change in serum total and lipid bound sialic acid levels of patientswith benign and non-melanom malignant skin tumors and, evaluated whether the measurementof sialic acid levels may be useful clinically in distinguishing patients with benignskin tumors from those with non-melanom malignant skin tumors. In this study, 27patients with malignant skin tumors (16 men, age 50.78 ± 12.46 years, 39 patients withbenign skin tumors (17 men, age 48.59 ± 16.23 years were included. Serum total andlipid bound sialic acid determination was performed by the thiobarbituric acid methoddescribed by Warren and, the resorsinol method described by Katopodis, respectively.Student’s T test and Z test were used to analyze the results. The mean serum total andlipid bound sialic acid levels were found to be 63.01 ± 11.89 mg/dl and 15.77 ± 2.44mg/dl, respectively in patients with benign skin tumors; and 65.95 ± 7.30 mg/dl and16.70 ± 3.80 mg/dl, respectively in patients with non-melanom malignant skin tumors.Serum total sialic acid and lipid bound sialic acid of patients with benign skin tumorswere not different from those of patients with non-melanom malignant skin tumors. Thepercentage of lipid bound sialic acid was found to be 25.3 in patients with non-melanommalignant skin tumors, 25 in patients with benign skin tumors. There was no significantdifference between the value of lipid bound sialic acid percentage in these groups. Ourfinding that there is no significant difference between serum total and lipid-bound sialicacid levels of patients with non melanom malignant skin tumors which are not able tometastase and patients with benign skin tumors supports the studies reporting that sialicacids play an important role in metastases.

Beyhan Çak?r

2007-05-01

260

A transient increase in total head phosphotyrosine levels is observed upon the emergence of Aedes aegypti from the pupal stage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of protein tyrosine residues constitutes a major biochemical regulatory mechanism for the cell. We report a transient increase in the total tyrosine phosphorylation of the Aedes aegypti head during the first days after emergence from the pupal stage. This correl [...] ates with an initial reduction in total head protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity. Similarly, phosphotyrosine (pTyr)-containing bands are seen in extracts prepared from both male and female heads and are spread among a variety of structures including the antennae, proboscis and the maxillary palps combined with the proboscis. Also, mosquitoes treated with sodium orthovanadate, a classical PTP inhibitor, show reduced blood-feeding activity and higher head tyrosine phosphorylation levels. These results suggest that pTyr-mediated signalling pathways may play a role in the initial days following the emergence of the adult mosquito from the pupal stage.

Willy, Jablonka; Raquel, Senna; Thaisa, Nahu; Guilherme, Ventura; Lidiane, Menezes; Mário Alberto C, Silva-Neto.

2011-08-01

 
 
 
 
261

A transient increase in total head phosphotyrosine levels is observed upon the emergence of Aedes aegypti from the pupal stage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of protein tyrosine residues constitutes a major biochemical regulatory mechanism for the cell. We report a transient increase in the total tyrosine phosphorylation of the Aedes aegypti head during the first days after emergence from the pupal stage. This correl [...] ates with an initial reduction in total head protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity. Similarly, phosphotyrosine (pTyr)-containing bands are seen in extracts prepared from both male and female heads and are spread among a variety of structures including the antennae, proboscis and the maxillary palps combined with the proboscis. Also, mosquitoes treated with sodium orthovanadate, a classical PTP inhibitor, show reduced blood-feeding activity and higher head tyrosine phosphorylation levels. These results suggest that pTyr-mediated signalling pathways may play a role in the initial days following the emergence of the adult mosquito from the pupal stage.

Willy, Jablonka; Raquel, Senna; Thaisa, Nahu; Guilherme, Ventura; Lidiane, Menezes; Mário Alberto C, Silva-Neto.

262

A transient increase in total head phosphotyrosine levels is observed upon the emergence of Aedes aegypti from the pupal stage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of protein tyrosine residues constitutes a major biochemical regulatory mechanism for the cell. We report a transient increase in the total tyrosine phosphorylation of the Aedes aegypti head during the first days after emergence from the pupal stage. This correlates with an initial reduction in total head protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP activity. Similarly, phosphotyrosine (pTyr-containing bands are seen in extracts prepared from both male and female heads and are spread among a variety of structures including the antennae, proboscis and the maxillary palps combined with the proboscis. Also, mosquitoes treated with sodium orthovanadate, a classical PTP inhibitor, show reduced blood-feeding activity and higher head tyrosine phosphorylation levels. These results suggest that pTyr-mediated signalling pathways may play a role in the initial days following the emergence of the adult mosquito from the pupal stage.

Willy Jablonka

2011-08-01

263

Computer modeling of fecal coliform contamination of an urban estuarine system.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study is focused on the investigation of the sources, distribution and fate of fecal coliform populations in the North Fork of the New River that flows through the City of Fort Lauderdale, Florida, USA. The dynamics of this brackish river are driven by weak tides, regulated freshwater discharges, overland runoff, storm water drainage from sewers, and groundwater exchange. Extensive field studies failed to document any alleged source(s) of contamination, including birds, domesticated and undomesticated mammals, humans, septic tank leakage, urban runoff, non-point discharges from agricultural lands, waste disposal from live-aboard vessels and/or in situ re-growth of fecal coliform. In order to facilitate field sampling, and support the data analyses efforts, computer simulations were applied to assess the likelihood of the various possible pollution scenarios. The physically based computer model used is the WASP (Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program Modeling System) of the US Environmental Protection Agency. In addition, the Neural Network MATLAB Toolbox was utilized for data analysis. WASP was able to accurately simulate the water hydrodynamics and coliform concentrations within the North Fork, while the neural network assisted in identifying correlations between fecal coliform and the various parameters involved. The numerical results supported the conclusion that fecal coliform were introduced by the animal populations along the riverbanks and by storm water washout of the adjacent drainage basins and the banks. The problem is exaggerated due to the low flashing capacity of the river. PMID:11724500

Scarlatos, P D

2001-01-01

264

Total digestible nutrient levels in supplements for finishing steers in the rainy season: nutritional characteristics and microbial efficiency  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of total digestible nutrient (TDN) levels in supplements on rumen pH, ruminal ammonia nitrogen concentration, intake and digestibility, nitrogen balance and microbial efficiency in beef cattle grazing on Marandu grass during the rainy season. T [...] he supplements comprised a mineral mixture, ground corn grain, soybean hulls, roasted soybeans and urea:ammonium sulfate. The mineral mix (MM) and supplements were supplied at 800, 1,600 and 2,400 g/animal/day, contained 500, 1,000 and 1,500 g of TDN, respectively, and were termed S500, S1000 and S1500. Supplemental crude protein (CP) was fixed at 300g animal/day for all supplementing strategies. Four crossbred rumen-fistulated steers, with an average weight of 512kg, were utilized. The animals were distributed in a 4×4 Latin square in four paddocks of 0.25 ha. The rumen nitrogen concentration was increased by 63% after four hours of supplementation. Supplements with increased TDN levels did not alter the total dry matter and forage intakes, although the TDN levels linearly increased the non-fibrous carbohydrates intake. Additionally, most supplements did not alter the digestibility of the diet nutrients.The nitrogen balance was similar in all treatments. However, supplements with the highest TDN levels linearly improved the microbial efficiency of finishing beef cattle that were pasture-grazed during the rainy season. Supplements with in creasing TDN levels improve the microbial efficiency during the rainy season.

Jefferson Fabiano Werner, Koscheck; Joanis Tilemahos, Zervoudakis; Luciana Keiko, Hatamoto Zervoudakis; Luciano da Silva, Cabral; André Alves de, Oliveira; João Marcos Beltrame, Benatti; Daniel Marino Guedes de, Carvalho; Renata Pereira da, Silva.

2013-11-01

265

Rasch analysis of the Iowa Level of Assistance Scale in patients with total hip and knee arthroplasty.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to carry out a psychometric analysis, using both Classical Test Theory and Rasch analysis (RA) methods, of the Iowa Level of Assistance Scale (ILAS) administered in patients with recent total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty, to examine its metric properties and provide insights for a refined version. A total of 203 patients who had undergone THA or total knee arthroplasty were assessed using the ILAS for assistance needed during functional activities (ILAS-funct) and need for assistive devices (ILAS-dev) before discharge from the orthopedic ward. The responses were psychometrically analyzed using the Classical Test Theory and RA. Cronbach's ? was adequate only for group comparisons (ILAS-funct, 0.82; ILAS-dev, 0.79). The two domains (ILAS-funct and ILAS-dev) showed a good correlation. According to RA rating scale diagnostics, ILAS-funct showed two disordered response category thresholds: of the seven different response levels of 'assistance', only five were appreciably discernible. All five ILAS-funct items fitted the model and did not show either local dependence or differential item functioning across age groups or sex. ILAS-dev presented two unused response categories, which precluded Rasch calibration and subsequent analyses. ILAS-funct showed sound psychometric properties, but the rating system of ILAS-funct could be simplified, at least collapsing the response categories 5 (failed) and 6 (not tested). In ILAS-dev, the presence of unused response categories calls for a reconsideration of its scaling options and methods. PMID:24406302

Benedetti, Maria Grazia; Franchignoni, Franco; Morri, Mattia; Franchini, Natalia; Natali, Emanuela; Giordano, Andrea

2014-06-01

266

Pré-resfriamento na redução de coliformes em carcaças de frango de corte / Immersion chilling in fecal coliforms count reduction on broiler carcasses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar a análise individual (plano de duas classes) e a análise por lotes (plano de três classes), priorizado pelo plano amostragem oficial da ANVISA, na influência do pré-resfriamento de carcaças de frangos de corte na redução da contaminação por coliformes termotole [...] rantes. Foram analisadas 240 carcaças de frangos de corte, sendo coletadas 120 amostras antes e 120 após a etapa de pré-resfriamento, para quantificação de coliformes termotolerantes pela técnica de contagem em placas. As médias das contagens obtidas das carcaças coletadas antes e após o pré-resfriamento foram diferentes, com uma redução média de 0,99log10 UFC g-1 de coliformes termotolerantes. Na interpretação dos resultados obtidos antes do pré-resfriamento pela análise individual, 16,7% (20/120) das carcaças foram classificadas como inaceitáveis, enquanto, pela análise por lotes, foram 37,5% (45/120). Houve associação entre a aceitabilidade dos lotes e a passagem pelo chiller com um valor de Odds Ratio de 35,48. Ficou demonstrada a importância da utilização do plano de análise por lotes e da etapa de pré-resfriamento no processo de produção, sendo decisivos para a aceitação dos lotes de carcaças de aves para comercialização pelos parâmetros vigentes na legislação nacional. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to assess the influence of immersion chilling on broiler carcasses contamination by fecal coliforms counting in a poultry slaughterhouse under Federal Sanitary Inspection by individual and three class plan interpretation of the results. Two hundred and forty broiler c [...] arcasses, being collected 120 before and 120 after passage thought chillers, were analyzed for coliform counting by plate count technique. The averages of the counts obtained from all carcasses collected before and after immersion chilling were different, with an average reduction of 0.99log10 CFU g-1 of fecal coliforms. Regarding individual results (two class plan) before chilling, 16.7% (20/120) of the carcasses were classified as unacceptable, against 37.5% (45/120) regarding lots results (three class plan). There was a strong association between the acceptability of lots and immersion chilling with an Odds Ratio value of 35.48. It was demonstrated the importance of the official sampling plan and immersion chilling in the production process, being decisive for the acceptance of the chicken carcass lots by the national legislation standards.

Vanessa Silva, Simas; Felipe Faccini dos, Santos; Raquel, Gouvêa; Maria Helena Cosendey de, Aquino; Dayse Lima da Costa, Abreu; Elmiro Rosendo do, Nascimento; Virginia Léo de Almeida, Pereira.

1618-16-01

267

Effect of Energy Levels of Diets Formulated on Total and Digestible Amino Acid Basis on Performance of Female Broiler  

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Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of different levels of energy and method for formulation of Amino Acid (AA requirements of diets, this experiment was conducted using 294 female broiler chicks. The experiment was carried out using a complete block design with a 7x2 factorial arrangement. Factors were included different levels of energy (7 energy levels and formulation methods of diets AA requirements (total and digestible. Results showed that feed consumption decreased by increasing level of energy. Body weight and feed conversion ratio were promoted by increasing level of energy. Formulation methods of AA requirement had significant effect on cumulative feed consumption, weight gain (in grower period and feed conversion ratio (p<0.05. Interaction effects of independent factors affected on cumulative feed consumption, body weight and feed conversion ratio (p<0.05. Abdominal fat pad were significantly lower in chicks fed diets formulated on digestible AA basis. Energy content of diets affected fat pad significantly. Abdominal fat pad increased significantly as ME content of diets increased. Results showed that formulation of diet on digestible AA contained the low energy resulted in promotion of performance.

Marziyeh Ghafari

2007-01-01

268

Evaluation of the levels of total volatile bases and trimethyleamine formed in fish stored at low temperature  

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Full Text Available The levels of total volatile bases (TVB and trimethylamine (TMA formed in three species of saline water fish stored at – 4°C were investigated as indices of spoilage. The data showed that the concentration of TVB (mg/100g sample in Tilapia spp. ranged from 19.40 – 61.00; Mugil cephalus 10.30 – 41.10 and Carassius auratus 12.50 – 66.7 during the maximum storage period of 20 days, while TMA levels (mg/100g sample over the same storage period and conditions ranged from Tilapia spp., Mugil Cephalus and Carassious auratus. The data showed that the concentration of TVB and TMA increased with increasing storage time. These data may be used in formulating appropriate food safety limits for consumption of refrigerated fresh fish products in Nigeria.

M. Horsfall Jnr

2006-06-01

269

Serum total homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) levels in acute myocardial infarction and their response to treatment with vitamins serum total homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) levels in acute myocardial infarction and their response to treatment with vitamins  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the relationship of serum total homocysteine (tHcy) and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels with systemic hypertension, Diabetes mellitus and smoking as risk factors in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and changes in the former levels with vitamins supplementation. Study Design: An interventional study. Place and Duration of Study: Medical College for Women and Hospital (MCW and H), Dhaka, Bangladesh, from July 2008 to December 2009. Methodology: Consecutive AMI patients were recruited from the Coronary Care Unit (CCU) at MCW and H, Dhaka. Blood samples were collected at inclusion (Patient-I0). They were given conventional treatments and prescribed vitamins (vitamins B6=25 mg, B12=2 mg and folic acid=2.5 mg) daily for 2 months. After follow-up, blood samples were taken again (Patient-II0). A group of 25 normal subjects were also included as controls. Serum tHcy and Lp(a) were measured by kinetic method and nephelometric method respectively. Results: Serum tHcy (macor mol/L) and Lp(a) (mg/dl) levels were elevated in Patient-I that reduced in Patient-II after vitamins supplementation, but not to the normal control level. tHcy of Patient-I0 was 25.1 +- 4.7 macro mol/L, of Patient-II0 was 20.1 +- 4.5 mu mol/L and of controls 12.1 +- 3.3, p 0.1). However, in a significant proportion of patients tHcy and Lp(a) levels were reduced to control levels (tHcy: p < 0.001, Lp(a): p < 0.01). Conclusion: These results indicated that tHcy and Lp(a) levels were possibly atherogenic risk factors independent of conventional risk factors. Since both tHcy and Lp(a) levels responded in a similar fashion, a common point of the metabolic and pathogenetic pathways of tHcy and Lp(a) may be influenced by the vitamins supplementation. (author)

270

Plasma Total Homocysteine Levels are not Associated with Medial Temporal Lobe Atrophy, but with White Matter Changes in Alzheimer's Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Background and purpose Elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) levels are reported to be associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanism by which homocysteine contributes to the pathogenesis of AD is as yet unknown. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between white matter changes (WMC) and medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and plasma levels of tHcy in AD patients. Methods Seventy-two patients with a clinical diagnosis of probable AD were recruited to the study. Plasma tHcy levels, vascular risk factors, and WMC and MTA on brain MRI were evaluated in all patients. The AD patients were classified into two groups: those with no or minimal WMC (69.2±8.8 years, mean±SD, n=36) and those with moderate-to-severe WMC (74.6±4.6 years, n=36) on brain MRI. Results In a univariate logistic regression analysis, the risk of moderate-to-severe WMC in AD was significantly associated with increasing age, female gender, lower education level, hypertension, high plasma tHcy levels, and lower Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed only high plasma tHcy as the independent and significant risk factor for moderate-to-severe WMC [odds ratio (OR; adjusted for age, gender, education level, MMSE score, and hypertension comparing the top tertile - tHcy levels ?12.9 µmol/L - with the bottom tertile - tHcy levels ?9.4 µmol/L)=7.35; 95% confidence interval, confidence interval=1.36-39.84; p=0.02], and age as a borderline significant risk factor (OR=1.08, 95% CI=0.99-1.19, p=0.09) in AD patients. Plasma tHcy levels were not correlated significantly with either right or left MTA. Conclusions Our results suggest that the vascular pathway mediates the association between elevated plasma tHcy levels and AD. PMID:19587815

Kim, Sung Rae; Ha, Choong Kun; Park, Shin Goo; Pyun, Hae Wook; Yoon, Dae Hyun

2009-01-01

271

Application of annular centrifugal contactors in the hot test of the improved total partitioning process for high level liquid waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

High level liquid waste (HLLW) produced from the reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel still contains moderate amounts of uranium, transuranium (TRU) actinides, (90)Sr, (137)Cs, etc., and thus constitutes a permanent hazard to the environment. The partitioning and transmutation (P&T) strategy has increasingly attracted interest for the safe treatment and disposal of HLLW, in which the partitioning of HLLW is one of the critical technical issues. An improved total partitioning process, including a TRPO (tri-alkylphosphine oxide) process for the removal of actinides, a CESE (crown ether strontium extraction) process for the removal of Sr, and a CECE (calixcrown ether cesium extraction) process for the removal of Cs, has been developed to treat Chinese HLLW. A 160-hour hot test of the improved total partitioning process was carried out using 72-stage 10-mm-dia annular centrifugal contactors (ACCs) and genuine HLLW. The hot test results showed that the average DFs of total ? activity, Sr and Cs were 3.57 × 10(3), 2.25 × 10(4) and 1.68 × 10(4) after the hot test reached equilibrium, respectively. During the hot test, 72-stage 10-mm-dia ACCs worked stable, continuously with no stage failing or interruption of the operation. PMID:25016455

Duan, Wuhua; Chen, Jing; Wang, Jianchen; Wang, Shuwei; Feng, Xiaogui; Wang, Xinghai; Li, Shaowei; Xu, Chao

2014-08-15

272

Evaluación de la tasa de aclaración de la almeja dulceacuícola Anodontites tortolis en un medio con coliformes Escherichia coli / Clearance rate of faecal coliforms by netropical freshwater clam  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En condiciones de laboratorio se evaluón acute; la eficiencia de la almeja de agua dulce (Anodontites tortolis) para disminuir la carga de coliformes fecales (Escherichia coli) determinada mediante filtración en membrana por 8 horas. El experimento se diseñó con dos tratamientos (densidades de seis [...] (T1) y ocho almejas (T2) más un control) con tres replicaciones. Se encontraron diferencias significativas (P Abstract in english Under laboratory conditions the efficiency of the freshwater clam Anodontites tortolis to diminish the quantity of faecal coliforms, determined by the membrane filtration method during eight hours was evaluated. The experiment was design with two treatments (two densities of six (T1) and eight clams [...] (T2) and a control) and three replications. Statistical significant differences (P

Juan René, Mallama Leyton; Angela Inés, Guzmán Alvis.

273

Physical activity level, leisure activities and related quality of life 1 year after lumbar decompression or total hip arthroplasty  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

PURPOSE: Lumbar decompression surgery (LDS) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) are frequently performed in the elderly population, but very little is known about their subsequent physical capacity and participation in leisure activities. Despite similar demographics and comorbidities, it is questionable whether LDS patients achieve equally high levels of physical capacity and quality of life postoperatively as do THA patients. The aim was to compare the physical activity level, participation in leisure activities and related quality of life 1 year after an LDS and THA procedure. METHODS: Data from 95 THA patients and 83 LDS patients were gathered from questionnaires on self-reported physical activity level, leisure activities and quality of life. RESULTS: LDS and THA patients reported equally moderate levels of physical activity. The median score was 42.3 METs/day (IQR 37.9; 47.7) for the LDS group and 41.0 METs/day (IQR 38.5; 48.5) for the THA group (p = 0.79). Weekly time consumption for leisure activities inthe LDS group was a median of 420 min/week (IQR 210; 660) compared to a median of 480 min/week (IQR 240; 870) in the THA group (p = 0.16). Regarding quality of life, LDS patients reported significantly worse Euroqol Five Dimensions scores with a median value of 0.740 (IQR 0.68; 0.82) compared to THA patients' median of 0.824 (IQR 0.72; 1.0), p 

Rolving, Nanna; Obling, Kirstine HØj

2012-01-01

274

Plasma total antioxidant capacity is associated with dietary intake and plasma level of antioxidants in postmenopausal women.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has been associated with a high consumption of fruits and vegetables. However, limited information is available on whether plasma TAC reflects the dietary intake of antioxidants and the levels of individual antioxidants in plasma. By using three different assays, the study aimed to determine if plasma TAC can effectively predict dietary intake of antioxidants and plasma antioxidant status. Forty overweight and apparently healthy postmenopausal women were recruited. Seven-day food records and 12-h fasting blood samples were collected for dietary and plasma antioxidant assessments. Plasma TAC was determined by vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC), ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. TAC values determined by VCEAC were highly correlated with FRAP (r=0.79, Pintakes of ?-tocopherol (P<.001), ?-carotene (P<.05), anthocyanidins (P<.05), flavones (P<.05), proanthocyanidins (P<.01) and TAC (P<.05), as well as with plasma total phenolics (P<.05), ?-tocopherol (P<.001), ?-cryptoxanthin (P<.05) and uric acid (P<.05). The findings indicate that plasma TAC measured by VCEAC reflects both dietary and plasma antioxidants and represents more closely the plasma antioxidant levels than ORAC and FRAP. PMID:22617460

Wang, Ying; Yang, Meng; Lee, Sang-Gil; Davis, Catherine G; Kenny, Anne; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

2012-12-01

275

STUDIES ON BLOOD GLUCOSE, TOTAL PROTEINS, UREA AND CHOLESTEROL LEVELS IN CYCLIC, NON-CYCLIC AND ENDOMETRITIC CROSSBRED COWS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Seventy-five crossbred cows kept at the Livestock Experimental Station, Qadirabad, District Sahiwal were divided into three equal groups i.e. cyclic, non cyclic and endometritic. Blood samples were collected from all the experimental animals, serum was separated and stored at –20?C until assayed for glucose (g/dl, total protein (g/dl, urea (mg/dl and cholesterol (mg/dl. The results revealed significantly (P<0.05 higher values of glucose (58.08 ? 2.59 and cholesterol (290.72 ? 15.95 in endometritic cows as compared to cyclic (50.72 ? 1.12, 199.12 ? 9.38 and non-cyclic cows (50.56 ? 1.12, 202.96 ? 14.84. Total protein level differed significantly (P<0.05 among cows of all the three groups, being highest in endometritic (19.16 ? 1.00, followed by non cyclic (15.23 ? 0.89 and lowest in cyclic (9.19 ? 0.45 cows. However, serum level of urea did not differ in cyclic (30.88 ? 2.42, non cyclic (33.80 ? 3.43 and endometritic (37.12 ? 3.45 animals, although highest value was recorded in endometritic animals.

Ijaz Ahmad, L.A. Lodhi, Z.I. Qureshi and M. Younis1

2004-04-01

276

Enumeração de coliformes fecais e presença de Salmonella sp. em queijo Minas / Enumeration of fecal coliforms and presense of Salmonella sp. in Minas cheese  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram submetidas à contagem de coliformes fecais e pesquisa de Salmonella sp. 168 amostras de variedades de queijo Minas (20 frescal, 48 canastra e 100 padronizado) coletadas em Belo Horizonte no período de 1995 a 1996. Foram adquiridos queijos com e sem registro no Serviço de Inspeção Federal (SIF) [...] para avaliar a diferença de qualidade microbiológica. Os resultados evidenciaram ausência de Salmonella sp. em todas as amostras de queijo. Entretanto, verificou-se que 90% das amostras de queijo Minas frescal, 81,2% de Minas canastra e 52% de Minas padronizado apresentavam elevada contagem de coliformes fecais, sendo essas superiores aos valores permitidos para inspeção. Não houve diferença estatística significativa entre os queijos com e sem SIF com relação aos resultados das análises microbiológicas de queijo Minas frescal padronizado. Abstract in english There were submitted to the fecal coliforms enumeration and Samonella sp. search 168 samples of "Minas" cheese varieties (20 white, 48 "canastra" and 100 standardized), collected in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, from 1995 to 1996. There were purchased cheeses with and without Federal Inspection Service (F [...] IS) register, in order to evaluate microbiological quality difference. However, it was verified that 90.0% of the "Minas" white cheese, 81.2% of the "canastra Minas" and 52.0% of the standardized "Minas" presented high fecal coliforms counts, which were superior to the inspection allowed values. There was no significant statistical difference among FIS registered and not registered cheeses concerning "Minas" white and standardized cheeses microbiological analysis.

M.L., Pereira; M.C.A., Gastelois; E.M.A.F., Bastos; W.T., Caiaffa; E.S.C., Faleiro.

277

The Effect of Laetiporus sp. (Bull. ex Fr. Bond. et Sing. (Polyporaceae Extract on Total Blood Cholesterol Level  

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Full Text Available A study on the effect of a local medicinal mushroom, Laetiporus sp. (Polyporaceae extract on total blood cholesterol level has been conducted using Wistar rats with high cholesterol feed and prophylthiouracil (PTU as hypercholesterolemia inducing agent. The study was aimed to evaluate the inhibition and reduction effect of the dried (hot water extract of grain grown mycelia on hypercholesterolemia of the rat model. The rats were randomly classified into tested group and control group, each group consists of six rats. After a preliminary study, two doses level of the extract, i.e., 55 and 110 mg kg-1 b.wt. were tested, respectively. Commercial lovastatin tablet at a dose of 1.8 mg kg-1 b.wt. was also incorporated in the test as reference medicine. Total blood cholesterol level was observed once a week over 4 weeks. The trial was also conducted on human by involving 19 volunteers. They were asked to consume one Laetiporus sp. capsule per day after meal before going to bed over 30 days. The fungal extract at dose 55 mg kg-1 b.wt. could inhibit the blood cholesterol level by an average of 11.0% and dose 110 mg kg-1 b.wt. could inhibit by an average of 19.0% compared to commercial lovastatin at dose 1.8 mg kg-1 b.wt. which could inhibit at an average of 14.6% over 4 weeks. On the other hand, dose 110 mg kg-1 b.wt. could reduce blood cholesterol level by an average of 11.4%, compared to commercial lovastatin tablet which could reduce by an average of 5.5% over 4 weeks. In addition, blood cholesterol level was found to be reduced in 14 out of 19 (73.6% of human volunteers while 5 out of 19 (26.4% were increased. It is concluded that the mycelial extract of Laetiporus sp. is potential to be used as an anti hypercholesterolemia agent.

Afifah Bambang Sutjiatmo

2010-01-01

278

Avaliação da presença de coliformes, bolores e leveduras em amostras de mel orgânico de abelhas africanizadas das ilhas do alto rio Paraná / Presence of coliforms, molds and yeasts in organic honey samples of Africanized honeybees from Paraná River islands  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido para caracterizar a microbiota do mel produzido nas ilhas Floresta e Laranjeira do alto rio Paraná, na região de Porto Brasílio, Paraná (PR). O mel foi coletado diretamente das melgueiras das colônias avaliadas, em três apiários distribuídos nas ilhas Floresta e [...] Laranjeira. O período de coleta das amostras de mel foi de novembro de 2005 a fevereiro de 2006, perfazendo o total de 24 amostras de mel orgânico produzido por abelhas Apis mellifera africanizadas. Seguindo o método das normas internacionais da Compendium of Methods for the Microbiology Examination of Foods, os parâmetros analisados foram: presença de coliformes a 35°C e 45°C e quantificação de bolores e leveduras. Verificou-se que todas as amostras apresentaram-se em conformidade com o Regulamento Técnico MERCOSUL de Identidade e Qualidade do Mel (MERCOSUL/GMC/RES no 15/94). As amostras analisadas indicaram excelente qualidade microbiológica para o mel orgânico. Abstract in english This research was carried out to characterize the microbial flora of the organic honey produced in Paraná River islands. The honey was directly collected in the evaluated colonies, in three apiaries distributed at Floresta and Laranjeira Islands. The collection period was from November 2005 to Febru [...] ary 2006. It was evaluated 24 organic honey samples produced by Africanized honeybees. Following the international standard Compendium method for the Microbiology Examination of Foods, the analyzed parameters used were: presence of coliforms at 35°C and 45°C, and molds and yeasts quantification. All samples were in conformity with the MERCOSUL Technical Regulation Identity and Quality for Honey (MERCOSUL/GMC/RES no. 15/94. The analyzed samples indicated excellent microbiologic honey quality.

Eloi Machado, Alves; Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de, Toledo; Luis Carlos, Marchini; Maria Josiane, Sereia; Augusta Carolina de Camargo Carmello, Moreti; Emi Rainildes, Lorenzetti; Carolina Antunes, Neves; Alethéia Alves, Santos.

2222-22-01

279

Serum levels of insulin like growth factor-l and total protein in newborn calves offered different amounts of colostrums  

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Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to determine the concentrations of insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I and total protein in blood serum from calves consuming different amounts of colostrum during the first 32 h of postnatal life, as well as at 7 days old. The experiment involved two groups of calves. The first group was offered the standard amount of colostrum while the second group received half the recommended amount. At birth serum concentration of IGF-I was in the range from 5 to 13 nmol/L. Compared to the initial level there was a marked decrease of mean IGF-I concentration in both groups of calves at 2 h after the first intake of colostrum. Thereafter, the level gradually increased until 20 h of age, more markedly in the group which received the full ration of colostrum. The highest mean IGF-I concentrations were recorded at 20 h in both groups (11.81 nmol/L for group one and 8.96 nmol/L for group two, and were significantly higher than values recorded 2h after the first intake of colostrum. Two hours after the third intake of colostrum, serum concentration of IGF-I dropped in both groups, compared with the value recorded at 20 h. During the time period from 4hto32h after birth, the calves that received the standard amount of colostrum had a significantly higher mean concentration of serum IGF-I than the calves which received an insufficient amount. Calves were born with serum concentrations of total proteins, which were lower than those found for adult animals. Serum protein concentrations in the calves that consumed normal amounts of colostrum increased more rapidly than in the calves that received insufficient amounts of colostrum. Presumably, total protein concentrations increased as a consequence of colostral immunoglobulin absorption. Thus our results indicate that the amounts of colostrum received during the first 32 h of postnatal life had strong effects on the serum concentrations of IGF-I and total proteins. The differences in IGF-I concentrations between the two groups of calves may have been a consequence of greater colostral IGF-I absorption and/or the result of greater absorption of other colostral components, which stimulate endogenous synthesis of this bioactive substance in the tissues of neonatal calves.

Kirovski Danijela

2002-01-01

280

Effect of ionophore supplementation on the incidence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella and antimicrobial susceptibility of fecal coliforms in Stocker cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

To examine the effect of ionophore supplementation on fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella, crossbred beef calves (n=113; mean body weight [BW], 243 kg) were fed a mineral supplement with ionophore (1.76 g lasalocid/kg) for 61 days (d). Control calves received an identical mineral supplement without lasalocid. Calves were pastured on fescue/bermudagrass paddocks and supplemented with a corn/wheat midds/soybean meal supplement (1.5% of BW/d). Upon arrival, cattle were fed a commercial receiving ration containing 1 g chlorotetracycline/kg for 10 d. Sick calves were administered one or a combination of the following: Nuflor (florfenicol), Baytril (eurofloxacin), Micotil (tilmicosin), or LA 200 (oxytetracycline). Fecal samples were collected immediately prior to ionophore supplementation, approximately midway and at the end of the experimental period (60 d total ionophore feeding) for isolation of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella. Putative fecal coliforms were also isolated at these sampling times and examined for antimicrobial susceptibility. The study was replicated over a two year period (year 1, n=53 head; year 2, n=60 head). Ionophore supplementation had no effect (p>0.10) on the incidence of calves shedding E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella. The percentage of calves shedding E. coli O157:H7 varied throughout the experimental period from 0 to 30%, while Salmonella was cultured from only three calves over the 2-year experimental period. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of putative fecal coliforms were consistent with antibiotic treatments administered during the study (observed resistance to chlortetracycline, florfenicol, oxytetracycline), while only one treatment effect was observed. Ionophore treatment resulted in a significantly higher number of coliform isolates resistant to ampicillin compared to controls in year 1, but not year 2. A number of fecal coliform isolates demonstrated resistance to multiple antibiotics, however, this was not affected (p>0.10) by ionophore supplementation. Mineral intakes, BW gain, and the number of sick calves were similar (p>0.10) among treatments. Ionophore supplementation had no affect on fecal shedding of E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella and a negligible impact on antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of fecal coliforms in beef calves. PMID:16972777

Edrington, T S; Looper, M L; Duke, S E; Callaway, T R; Genovese, K J; Anderson, R C; Nisbet, D J

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Do field tests for hydrocarbon contamination in soil indicate levels of specific compounds or fractions rather than total hydrocarbons  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Contaminated sites can be quickly assessed through field tests that estimate concentrations of hydrocarbons in soils. If the field tests are appropriate, these assessments help direct efficient remediation activities such as excavation of contaminated soil. If the tests are too conservative, material that meets applicable criteria may be excavated unnecessarily at a high cost. If the tests are not conservative enough, material that does not meet criteria could be left in place, thereby requiring future reclamation at additional expense. This paper described the Organic Vapour Analysis (OVA) and PetroFLAG{sup R} field tests that are presumed to indicate the level of total hydrocarbons in a sample. However, information from recent remediation projects show that OVA results best represent levels of BTEX and hydrocarbon fraction F1. PetroFLAG best represents levels of fraction F2, F3 and F4. Results of field and laboratory data obtained from 580 samples collected from 63 sites were correlated to show that OVA is the most appropriate test for light-end hydrocarbons such as BTEX and F1, while PetroFLAG is the most appropriate test for heavy-end hydrocarbons. When both tests are used simultaneously, field assessors can optimize remediation efforts because they have a complete assessment of hydrocarbon contamination on given site.

Gooding, G.; Cotton, M. [Solstice Canada Corp., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

2005-07-01

282

Lake level change and total water discharge in East Africa Rift Valley from satellite-based observations  

Science.gov (United States)

The measurement of total basin water discharge is important for understanding the hydrological and climatologic issues related to the water and energy cycles. Climatic extreme events are normal climatic occurrences in Africa. For example, extensive droughts are regular features in the last few decades in parts of East Africa, which suffers from a lack of in situ observations as well as a lack of regional hydrological models. In this study, multi-disciplinary different types of space-borne observations and global hydrological models are used to study total water discharge in the Great Rift Valley of East Africa (i.e. Lakes Victoria, Tanganyika, and Malawi) from January 2003 to December 2012. The data include the following: (1) total water storage (TWS) variations from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), (2) the lake level variations from Satellite Alimetric data, (3) rainfall from Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) products, (4) soil moisture from WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM), and (5) water fluxes from Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). Results show that a significant decline in the average lake level is found for all of the three lakes between 2003 and 2006. GRACE TWS variations of the whole basin area show the same pattern of variation as the average lake level variations estimated from Altimetric data. The TWS in the basin area of Lakes Victoria and Malawi is governed by the surface water stored in each lake itself, while for Lake Tanganyika, it is governed by both surface water and the soil moisture content in the basin area. Furthermore, the effect of rainfall on TWS is also studied. A phase lag of ~ 2 months is found between TRMM rainfall and GRACE TWS (generally, rainfall precedes the GRACE TWS) for the three lakes. In addition, the regional evapotranspiration ET is estimated from the water balance equation using GRACE land-water solutions, rainfall data from TRMM and runoff values obtained as a fraction of rainfall. It is found that the computed ET represents approximately 90% of the rainfall over the study region.

Hassan, Ayman A.; Jin, Shuanggen

2014-06-01

283

Levels of polybrominated diphenyl-ethers and polybrominated dioxins in fish, total diet study food groups, and Japanese meals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since they were found in mother's milk and blood in several studies, the polybrominated diphenyl-ethers (PBDEs) and other polybrominated flame-retardants (BFRs) that are used in plastics, electrical appliances, and textiles have been recognized as ubiquitous pollutants. BFRs are precursors of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/ polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs). Recently, 2,3,7,8-TBDD/Fs and PBDEs have been detected in adipose tissue and blood in Japanese people. Food is naturally suspected. However, there is very few information on food contamination with those brominated compounds in Japan. Therefore, we measured the levels of PBDEs and PBDD/Fs in various fish samples, meal samples, and total diet study (TDS) food groups and estimated Japanese people's dietary intake of PBDD/Fs and PBDEs.

Ashizuka, Y.; Nakagawa, R.; Hori, T.; Tobiishi, K.; Iida, T. [Fukuoka Inst. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Dazaifu (Japan)

2004-09-15

284

Tryptophan-enriched cereal intake improves nocturnal sleep, melatonin, serotonin, and total antioxidant capacity levels and mood in elderly humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin and serotonin rhythms, which exhibit a close association with the endogenous circadian component of sleep, are attenuated with increasing age. This decrease seems to be linked to sleep alterations in the elderly. Chrononutrition is a field of chronobiology that establishes the principle of consuming foodstuffs at times of the day when they are more useful for health, improving, therefore, biorhythms and physical performance. Our aim was to analyze whether the consumption of cereals enriched with tryptophan, the precursor of both serotonin and melatonin, may help in the reconsolidation of the sleep/wake cycle and counteract depression and anxiety in 35 middle-aged/elderly (aged 55-75 year) volunteers in a simple blind assay. Data were collected for 3 weeks according to the following schedule: The control week participants consumed standard cereals (22.5 mg tryptophan in 30 g cereals per dose) at breakfast and dinner; for the treatment week, cereals enriched with a higher dose of tryptophan (60 mg tryptophan in 30 g cereals per dose) were eaten at both breakfast and dinner; the posttreatment week volunteers consumed their usual diet. Each participant wore a wrist actimeter that logged activity during the whole experiment. Urine was collected to analyze melatonin and serotonin urinary metabolites and to measure total antioxidant capacity. The consumption of cereals containing the higher dose in tryptophan increased sleep efficiency, actual sleep time, immobile time, and decreased total nocturnal activity, sleep fragmentation index, and sleep latency. Urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels, and urinary total antioxidant capacity also increased respectively after tryptophan-enriched cereal ingestion as well as improving anxiety and depression symptoms. Cereals enriched with tryptophan may be useful as a chrononutrition tool for alterations in the sleep/wake cycle due to age. PMID:22622709

Bravo, R; Matito, S; Cubero, J; Paredes, S D; Franco, L; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, A B; Barriga, C

2013-08-01

285

How much locomotive activity is needed for an active physical activity level: analysis of total step counts  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity level (PAL. The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of locomotive activity to PAL using total step counts measured in a calorimeter study. Methods PAL, calculated as total energy expenditure divided by basal metabolic rate, was evaluated in 11 adult men using three different conditions for 24-hour human calorimeter measurements: a low-activity day (L-day targeted at a low active level of PAL (1.45, and a high-frequency moderate activity day (M-day or a high-frequency vigorous activity day (V-day targeted at an active level of PAL (1.75. These subjects were permitted only light activities except prescribed activities. In a separate group of 41 adults, free-living PAL was evaluated using doubly-labeled water (DLW. In both experiments, step counts per day were also measured using an accelerometer. Results In the human calorimeter study, PAL and step counts were 1.42 ± 0.10 and 8,973 ± 543 steps/d (L-day, 1.82 ± 0.14 and 29,588 ± 1,126 steps/d (M-day, and 1.74 ± 0.15 and 23,755 ± 1,038 steps/d (V-day, respectively. In the DLW study, PAL and step counts were 1.73 ± 0.15 and 10,022 ± 2,605 steps/d, and there was no significant relationship between PAL and daily step counts. Conclusions These results indicate that an enormous number of steps are needed for an active level of PAL if individuals extend physical activity-induced energy expenditure by only locomotive activity. Therefore, non-locomotive activity such as household activity should also play a significant role in increasing PAL under free-living conditions.

Ohkawara Kazunori

2011-11-01

286

Influence of Mansonella perstans microfilaraemia on total IgE levels in Gabonese patients co-infected with Loa loa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mansonella (M.) perstans filariasis is widely found in Africa, including Gabon where Loa loa is also endemic. This study reports the total IgE titres according to different bioclinical forms of single or co-infection with L. loa and M. perstans in 138 patients and 20 healthy controls. The median parasite density was significantly higher in cases of loiasis. IgE titres were higher in patients with microscopic dual-infection and in the group of patients with occult loiasis plus M. perstans microfilaraemia (8425 [5292-20,679]KUI/L and 6304 [1045-10,326]KUI/L, respectively), compared to individuals with either microfilaraemic Loa loa (3368 [1414-7074]KUI/L) or Mansonella (4370 [1478-7334]KUI/L) single infections (p<0.01). IgE levels were positively correlated with M. perstans microfilaraemia (rho=0.27; p<0.01). Compared to single infections, dual M. perstans-L. loa infection induces very high total IgE titres. Studies correlating IgE titres and clinical symptoms are needed to confirm the involvement of this immunoglobulin in the pathological processes during filariasis. PMID:24280145

Bouyou-Akotet, M K; Moussavou Boussougou, M N; Ovono-Abessolo, F; Owono-Medang, M; Kombila, M

2014-03-01

287

Distinct Genetic Signatures for Variability in Total and Free Serum Thyroxine Levels in Four Sets of Recombinant Inbred Mice  

Science.gov (United States)

C3H/He and BALB/c mice have elevated serum thyroxine levels associated with low deiodinase type-1 activity whereas C57BL/6 (B6) mice have low thyroxine levels and elevated deiodinase type-1 activity. High-resolution genetic maps are available for four sets of recombinant inbred (RI) mice derived from B6 parents bred to C3H/He, BALB/c, DBA/2, or A strains. Total and free T4 (T-T4 and F-T4) levels in females from these RI sets (BXH, CXB, BXD, and AXBXA) were analyzed to test two hypotheses: first, serum T4 variability is linked to the deiodinase type-1 gene; second, because of their shared B6 parent, the RI sets will share linkages responsible for T-T4 or F-T4 variability. A number of chromosomes (Chr) and loci were linked to T-T4 (Chr 1, 4, 13, 11) or F-T4 (Chr 1, 6, 13, 18, 19). Linkage between T-T4 and Chr 4 was limited to CXB and BXH strains, but the locus was distinct from the deiodinase type-1 gene. Surprisingly, many linkages were unique providing “genetic signatures” for T-T4 or F-T4 in each set of RI mice. Indeed, the strongest linkage between T-T4 (or F-T4) and a Chr 2 locus (logarithm of the odds scores >4.4) was only observed in AXBXA strains. Some loci corresponded to genes/Chr associated in humans with variable TSH or T-T4 levels. Unlike inbred mice, human populations are extremely diverse. Consequently, our data suggest that the contributions of unique chromosomes/loci controlling T-T4 and F-T4 in distinct human subgroups are likely to be “buried” in genetic analyses of heterogeneous human populations. PMID:21209025

Lu, Lu; Aliesky, Holly A.; Williams, Robert W.; Rapoport, Basil

2011-01-01

288

Single dose testosterone increases total cholesterol levels and induces the expression of HMG CoA Reductase  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol is mainly synthesised in liver and the rate-limiting step is the reduction of 3-hydroxy-3methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA to mevalonate, a reaction catalysed by HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR. There is a comprehensive body of evidence documenting that anabolic-androgenic steroids are associated with deleterious alterations of lipid profile. In this study we investigated whether a single dose of testosterone enanthate affects the cholesterol biosynthesis and the expression of HMGCR. Methods 39 healthy male volunteers were given 500 mg testosterone enanthate as single intramuscular dose of Testoviron®--Depot. The total cholesterol levels prior to and two days after testosterone administration were analysed. Protein expression of HMGCR in whole blood was investigated by Western blotting. In order to study whether testosterone regulates the mRNA expression of HMGCR, in vitro studies were performed in a human liver cell-line (HepG2. Results The total cholesterol level was significantly increased 15% two days after the testosterone injection (p = 0.007. This is the first time a perturbation in the lipoprotein profile is observed after only a single dose of testosterone. Moreover, the HMGCR mRNA and protein expression was induced by testosterone in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Conclusion Here we provide a molecular explanation how anabolic androgenic steroids may impact on the cholesterol homeostasis, i.e. via an increase of the HMGCR expression. Increasing knowledge and understanding of AAS induced side-effects is important in order to find measures for treatment and care of these abusers.

Gårevik Nina

2012-03-01

289

Influence of Ileo-Caecal Cannulation and Oxytetracycline on Ileo-Caecal and Rectal Coliform Populations in Pigs  

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Full Text Available The effect of surgery (insertion of an ileo-caecal cannula and a subsequent parenteral treatment with oxytetracycline on the ileo-caecal and rectal coliform populations in 7 Swedish Yorkshire castrates were studied. Samples were collected during surgery as well as 3, 7, 14 and 20 days post surgery. The diversity of the enteric coliform flora was initially high both in the ileo-caecal ostium and in rectum. No alteration in the diversity of the enteric coliform flora was observed following surgery and treatment with oxytetracycline. As the insertion of ileo-caecal cannulas did not affect the intestinal coliform flora this study gives support to the use of this technique to mirror processes in the small intestine of pigs. Further, the diversity of the enteric coliform flora was unaffected by the parenteral treatment with oxytetracycline.

Wallgren P

2001-12-01

290

Níveis de fósforo total em dietas para alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo Dietary total phosphorus levels for Nile tilapia fingerlings  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objetivando-se determinar a exigência de fósforo em dietas para alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), foram utilizados 432 alevinos com peso inicial de 0,60 ± 0,02 g, mantidos em 36 aquários de 150 L. Foi utilizado delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos (0,55; 0,73; 0,94; 1,14; 1,37 e 1,59% de fósforo total), seis repetições e 12 peixes por unidade experimental. Os peixes foram alimentados com rações contendo 32% de PB e 3.000 kcal ED/kg, durante ...

Felipe Barbosa Ribeiro; Eduardo Arruda Teixeira Lanna; Marcos Antonio Delmondes Bomfim; Juarez Lopes Donzele; Anderson Saraiva de Freitas; Maíra Paula de Sousa; Moisés Quadros

2006-01-01

291

COMPARING THREE SAMPLING DESIGNS FOR MONITORING COLIFORMS IN SMALL COMMUNITY WATER SYSTEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

Three sampling designs: weekly, monthly and spatial cluster are compared as to their effectiveness in detecting coliform contamination in small community drinking water systems. Water samples were collected over a one-year period from fifteen drinking water systems in rural commu...

292

Two-temperature membrane filter method for enumerating fecal coliform bacteria from chlorinated effluents.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reports indicate that the standard membrane filter (MF) technique for recovery of fecal coliform bacteria from chlorinated sewage effluents is less effective than the multiple-tube (or most-probable-number [MPN]) procedure. A modified MF method was developed that requires a preincubation period of 5 h at 35 degrees C followed by 18+/-1 h at 44.5 degrees C. This procedure was evaluated by using both laboratory- and plant-chlorinated primary and secondary effluents. Results obtained by the modified MF method compared favorably with those of the MPN technique for the enumeration of fecal coliforms from chlorinated effluent. Agreement between these two methods was greatest with samples from secondary treatment plants. The average recovery of fecal coliforms by the standard MF procedure was only 14% that of the MPN method, whereas with the modified technique recovery was increased to 68% of the MPN counts. Enhanced recovery resulting from a simple modification in the incubation schedule makes the MF method a valuable adjunct for enumerating fecal coliforms from chlorinated effluents. PMID:327935

Green, B L; Clausen, E M; Litsky, W

1977-01-01

293

DETECTION OF FECAL COLIFORMS IN WATER USING 14C-MANNITOL  

Science.gov (United States)

Interest in rapid bacterial detection methods for sanitary indicator bacteria in water prompted a study of the use of 14C-mannitol (UL) to detect fecal coliforms (FC). implemethod was developed using m-FC broth, membrane filtration, and two-temperature incubation (35oC for 2 h, f...

294

PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA-FECAL COLIFORM RELATIONSHIPS IN ESTUARINE AND FRESH RECREATIONAL WATERS  

Science.gov (United States)

This study has shown that Pseudomonas aeruginosa cannot be used as the basis of water standards for the prevention of enteric disease during the recreational use of surface waters. However, P. aeruginosa determinations, when used in conjunction with the assay of fecal coliforms o...

295

Modeling manure-borne bromide and fecal coliform transport with runoff and infiltration at a hillslope.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hillslope vegetated buffers are recommended to prevent water pollution from agricultural runoff. However, models to predict the efficacy of different grass buffer designs are lacking. The objective of this work was to develop and test a mechanistic model of coupled surface and subsurface flow and transport of bacteria and a conservative tracer on hillslopes. The testing should indicate what level of complexity and observation density might be needed to capture essential processes in the model. We combined the three-dimensional FEMWATER model of saturated-unsaturated subsurface flow with the Saint-Venant model for runoff. The model was tested with data on rainfall-induced fecal coliforms (FC) and bromide (Br) transport from manure applied at vegetated and bare 6-m long plots. The calibration of water retention parameters was unnecessary, and the same manure release parameters could be used both for simulations of Br and FC. Surface straining rates were similar for Br and bacteria. Simulations of Br and FC concentrations were least successful for the funnels closest to the source. This could be related to the finger-like flow of the manure from the strip along the bare slopes, to the transport of Br and FC with manure colloids that became strained at the grass slope, and to the presence of micro-ponds at the grassed slope. The two-dimensional model abstraction of the actual 3D transport worked well for flux-averaged concentrations. The model developed in this work is suitable to simulate surface and subsurface transport of agricultural contaminants on hillslopes and to evaluate efficiency of grass strip buffers, especially when lateral subsurface flow is important. PMID:16935412

Kouznetsov, M Y; Roodsari, R; Pachepsky, Y A; Shelton, D R; Sadeghi, A M; Shirmohammadi, A; Starr, J L

2007-08-01

296

Detection of fecal coliforms in water by using [14C]mannitol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Interest in rapid bacterial detection methods for sanitary indicator bacteria in water prompted a study of the use of [U-14C]mannitol to detect fecal coliforms (FC). A simple method which used m-FC broth, membrane filtration, and two-temperature incubation (35 degrees C for 2 h followed by 44.5 degrees C for 2.5 h) was developed. [U-14C]mannitol was added to the medium, and the temperature was raised to 44.5 degrees C after 2 h at 35 degrees C. 14CO2 was collected as Ba14CO3 and assayed by liquid scintillation spectroscopy. Correlations were examined between FC cell numbers at the start of incubation (standard 24-h FC test) and Ba14CO3 counts per minute after 4.5 h. Results indicated that FC numbers ranging from 1 x 10(1) to 2.1 x 10(5) cells could be detected in 4.5 h. Within-sample reproducibility at all cell concentrations was good, but sample-to-sample reproducibility was variable. Comparisons between m-FC broth and m-FC broth modified by substituting D-mannitol for lactose indicated that the standard m-FC broth was the better test medium. Results from experiments in which dimethyl sulfoxide was used to increase permeability of FC to [U-14C]mannitol indicated no increase in 14CO2 production due to dimethyl sulfoxide. Detection of FC by this method may be useful for rapid estimation of FC levels in freshwater recreational areas, for estimating the quality of potable source water, and potentially for emergency testing of potable water, suspected of contamination dueable water, suspected of contamination due to distribution line breaks or cross-connections

297

Wavelet differentiation of optoacoustic signals for monitoring of total hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation level in small blood vessels  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a rapid, robust method of signal processing useful for optoacoustic monitoring of total hemoglobin concentration ([THb]) and oxygen saturation level in small blood vessels. Our method includes the wavelet-based regularization of the difference operator which is a typical discrete approximation of the derivative. The optimal degree of regularization is defined by the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We applied the proposed method to Monte Carlo-modeled signals from a cylinder simulating the human radial artery (diameter 1.6 mm, depth from skin 2 mm, and [THb] varied in a wide range from 4 - 16 g/dL). We obtained N-shaped signals and found that the maximum of the first derivative between the front and rear walls systematically correlates with the actual value of [THb]. We estimated the accuracy of [THb] reconstruction from the maximum of the first derivative as 0.32 +/- 0.18 g/dL (mean value +/- SD) at an SNR typical for our in vivo experiments at the wavelength of 1064 nm. We also demonstrated that the difference between the maxima of the first derivative of the signals obtained at 700 nm and 1000 nm depends on oxygen saturation level.

Patrikeev, I.; Brecht, H.-P.; Petrov, Y. Y.; Petrova, I. Y.; Prough, D. S.; Esenaliev, R. O.

2007-02-01

298

Correlation of salivary and serum IgG, IgA levels with total protein in oral submucous fibrosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a disabling, potentially malignant condition of the oral cavity. The aetiology of OSMF is multifactorial but remains obscure. Although arecanut is considered to be the most important causative agent, responses observed in individuals using arecanut vary in relation to quantity and duration. It is considered that an immunological process is responsible for the pathogenesis of disease. We correlated salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA), salivary immunoglobulin G (IgG) and serum immunoglobulin A (IgA), serum immunoglobulin G (IgG), levels by turbidometric immunoassay. We estimated the levels of total serum protein (TSP) and haemoglobin (Hb) to determine the role of nutritional deficiency. The study population comprised 30 cases of OSMF and 10 controls. Five milliliters of blood and 2 ml of saliva were collected. Quantitative analysis of serum and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hb were estimated by Biuret and cyanmethaemoglobin methods, respectively. All patients showed significant (P OSMF. PMID:21467820

Patidar, Kalpana A; Parwani, Rajkumar N; Wanjari, Sangeeta Panjab

2011-03-01

299

Plasma total homocysteine level in association with folate, pyridoxine, and cobalamin status among Iranian primary breast cancer patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently the elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentration has been concerned as the secondary feature of tumoral proliferation and enhances the likelihood of thrombogenesis in cancer patients. The objective of this study was to determine the associations between folate, cobalamin, and pyridoxine with fasting plasma tHcy concentration in breast cancer (BC) patients. The intake levels of nutrients were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire in 141 newly diagnosed BC patients. The plasma tHcy and pyridoxal-5-phosphate were measured using high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector. Plasma tHcy levels were observed to be significantly higher among BC participants with Stage III where the plasma concentrations of folate was also comparatively less (P pyridoxine was even being consumed less at this stage (P 394 pmol/l) and folate (>11.4 ng/ml) vs. the lowest categories were associated with reduced odds of high tHcy occurrence with 0.20 (95% confidence interval: 0.04-0.98) and 0.14 (95% confidence interval: 0.03-0.64), respectively. In conclusion, nutrition-related methyl-group insufficiency could lead to imbalance in tHcy metabolism, as a possible cancer marker. PMID:25157842

Pirouzpanah, Saeed; Taleban, Forough-Azam; Mehdipour, Parvin; Atri, Morteza; Foroutan-Ghaznavi, Mitra

2014-10-01

300

Evaluation of total adiponectin, adipocyte fatty acid binding protein and fibroblast growth factor 21 levels in individuals with metabolic syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although many studies have investigated the relationships of several adipokines to metabolic syndrome (MetS), the interrelationships of adiponectin (ADP), adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF 21) have not been described in detail. We examined 209 asymptomatic dyslipidemic patients divided into MetS+ (n=73) and MetS- (n=136) groups. The aim of study was to evaluate the relationships between observed adipokines, to compare the levels of total ADP, A-FABP and FGF 21 in individuals with and without MetS, and to elucidate the relationships of individual adipokines to lipid parameters, markers of insulin resistance and endothelial hemostatic markers in these groups. In MetS+ group, we found the independent positive association ADP with A-FABP (beta=0.4888, p=0.0382), A-FABP with FGF 21 (beta=0.3811, p=0.0002) and von Willebrand factor (beta=0.4502, p=0.0013), and FGF 21 with A-FABP (beta=0.4422, p=0.0002). Our study has confirmed the well-established risk profile of subjects with MetS, although clinically asymptomatic. MetS+ patients had also lower levels of ADP and higher levels of A-FABP and FGF 21. Our study evaluated the interrelationships of ADP, A-FABP and FGF 21 in asymptomatic dyslipidemic subjects with diagnosis of MetS. Especially strong association between A-FABP and FGF 21 needs to be clarified in further studies. PMID:24397811

Novotny, D; Vaverkova, H; Karasek, D; Lukes, J; Slavik, L; Malina, P; Orsag, J

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Total diet study on pesticide residues in France: levels in food as consumed and chronic dietary risk to consumers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic dietary exposure to pesticide residues was assessed for the French population using a total diet study (TDS) to take into account realistic levels in foods as consumed at home (table-ready). Three hundred and twenty-five pesticides and their transformation products, grouped into 283 pesticides according to their residue definition, were sought in 1235 composite samples corresponding to 194 individual food items that cover 90% of the adult and child diet. To make up the composite samples, about 19,000 food products were bought during different seasons from 2007 to 2009 in 36 French cities and prepared according to the food preparation practices recorded in the individual and national consumption survey (INCA2). The results showed that 37% of the samples contained one or more residues. Seventy-three pesticides were detected and 55 quantified at levels ranging from 0.003 to 8.7mg/kg. The most frequently detected pesticides, identified as monitoring priorities in 2006, were the post-harvest insecticides pirimiphos-methyl and chlorpyrifos-methyl-particularly in wheat-based products-together with chlorpyrifos, iprodione, carbendazim and imazalil, mainly in fruit and fruit juices. Dietary intakes were estimated for each subject of INCA2 survey, under two contamination scenarios to handle left-censored data: lower-bound scenario (LB) where undetected results were set to zero, and upper-bound (UB) scenario where undetected results were set to the detection limit. For 90% of the pesticides, exposure levels were below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) under the two scenarios. Under the LB scenario, which tends to underestimate exposure levels, only dimethoate intakes exceeded the ADI for high level consumers of cherry (0.6% of children and 0.4% of adults). This pesticide, authorised in Europe, and its metabolite were detected in both cherries and endives. Under the UB scenario, that overestimates exposure, a chronic risk could not be excluded for nine other pesticides (dithiocarbamates, ethoprophos, carbofuran, diazinon, methamidophos, disulfoton, dieldrin, endrin and heptachlor). For these pesticides, more sensitive analyses of the main food contributors are needed in order to refine exposure assessment. PMID:22595191

Nougadère, Alexandre; Sirot, Véronique; Kadar, Ali; Fastier, Antony; Truchot, Eric; Vergnet, Claude; Hommet, Frédéric; Baylé, Joëlle; Gros, Philippe; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

2012-09-15

302

The Effect of Short-term Frozen Storage on the Chemical Composition and Coliform Microflora of Wara Cheese `Wara Cheese under Frozen Storage`  

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Full Text Available The effect of short-term frozen (-20°C storage on the chemical composition, pH and coliform bacterial count (cbc of Wara cheese was investigated. Wara cheese at day old contained 31.00% total solids, 38.26% fat, 33.14% protein, 3.39% ash, 69.00% moisture, 376.50 * 105 cfu g-1 coliform bacteria and a pH of 5.04. At the end of 3 days of frozen storage, average total solids, fat, protein, moisture and ash were found, respectively, 33.25, 35.45, 36.63, 66.75 and 3.88%, while values for pH and cbc were 4.65 and 63.50 * 105 cfu g-1. Daily differences obtained in the parameters observed during frozen storage were similar except for the total solids content that was significantly different (p<0.01. A superior and highly significant correlation (r = 0.664, p<0.01 was found between pH and cbc, while cbc had a positive correlation (r = 0.366 with moisture content.

O.A. Alalade

2007-01-01

303

Cigarette smoking, educational level and total and site-specific cancer: a cohort study in men in Lithuania.  

Science.gov (United States)

Smoking is an established risk factor for cancer. However, most studies have been carried out on western populations, and less is known about the impact in central and eastern Europe. Our objective was to investigate the association between cigarette smoking, educational level and risk of cancer in a Lithuanian population-based cohort study. The study included 6976 men initially free from cancer. During the follow-up (1978-2008), 1780 cancer cases were identified. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). In addition, the burden of cancer attributable to smoking was assessed by the population attributable fraction. Following adjustment for age, education, alcohol consumption and BMI, for current compared with never smokers, highly significant and strongly elevated estimates were found for total (HR=1.79, 95% CI 1.59-2.02), tobacco-related (HR=2.52, 95% CI 2.16-2.95), upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) (HR=5.77, 95% CI 2.73-12.21), lung (HR=10.47, 95% CI 6.74-16.25), bladder (HR=3.31, 95% CI 1.71-6.41) and liver (HR=4.64, 95% CI 1.53-14.08) cancer. Findings suggest a lower risk of prostate cancer in current smokers. In addition, the occurrence of lung and UADT cancer was significantly elevated in men in the lowest educational attainment category. If smoking had not occurred, ?23% of total cancer, 37% of tobacco-related, 77% of lung, 58% of UADT, 43% of liver and 45% of bladder cancer cases could have been prevented in this cohort of men. Cancer-control strategies focused on reducing smoking should be a public health priority. PMID:24589745

Everatt, R?ta; Kuzmickien?, Irena; Virvi?i?t?, Dalia; Tamoši?nas, Abdonas

2014-11-01

304

Measuring Partial Pressure of Ammonia in Arterial or Venous Blood VS total Ammonia Levels in Hepatic Encephalopathy  

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Full Text Available AIM: To find out the correlation between clinical grade of hepaticencephalopathy and different serum ammonia levels, namely,serum arterial ammonia, serum venous ammonia, partial pressureof ammonia in arterial plasma and partial pressure of ammonia invenous plasma.METHODS: After informed consent from patients or their relatives,100 patients in hepatic encephalopathy due to advanced liver disease,were examined for their clinical grade of hepatic encephalopathywithin 24 hours of admission. Fasting arterial and venous bloodsamples were collected and sent to lab within 30 min. ection. BloodpH was measured in both samples for each patient. Ammonia levelswere measured directly by an enzymatic UV-Method. Partial pressurein a given sample was calculated by the recommended formula, usingtotal ammonia and blood pH of the respective sample.RESULTS: Maximum number of patients (53% in this study was inclinical grade I of hepatic encephalopathy, 30% were in grade II, and12% were in Grade III. Only 5% were in grade IV. While comparingmeans of serum arterial ammonia (0.26049, serum venous ammonia(0.264, partial pressure of ammonia in arterial blood (4.520 andpartial pressure of ammonia (4.357 in venous blood with clinicalgrades of hepatic encephalopathy, they increased with increasingclinical grade of hepatic encephalopathy with p-values of 0.001, 0.01,0.002, and 0.003 respectively. Partial pressure of ammonia in venousblood was most strongly associated with hepatic encephalopathy(p-value 0.001 followed by serum venous ammonia (p-value 0.002.CONCLUSIONS: Total arterial ammonia, total venous ammonia,partial pressure of arterial ammonia, and partial pressure of venousammonia, all are positively and significantly correlated withworsening clinical grades of hepatic encephalopathy. Partial pressureof ammonia in venous blood followed by that in serum venousammonia were most strongly associated with grade of hepaticencephalopathy.

Mohammad Asif Mehmood

2013-05-01

305

Serum Levels Of Free And Total Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF)-1 And IGF Binding Protein-3 In Normal And Growth Hormone Deficient Children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) reflect the endogenous GH secretion in healthy children, which makes them good diagnostic markers for screening growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in short children, although some controversy still exists. Only a minor fraction of the total IGF-1 circulates in its free form, which is believed to be the biologically active form. Serum levels of free IGF-1, total IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured in 144 healthy children (72 boys and 72 girls, aged from 0 to 16 years) and in 12 pre-pubertal GH deficient (GHD) children to study the correlation between the age and free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels. In healthy subjects (both sexes), serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were low in infancy, increasing during puberty and declining thereafter. Free IGF-1 in serum occupied about 0.97-1.45 % of the total IGF-1 values, and the ratios of free IGF-1 to total IGF-1 were significantly increased in the pubertal age groups than in the pre-pubertal age groups. Serum levels of free IGF-1 showed significant positive correlation with those of total IGF-I and IGFBP-3. Serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in patients with GHD were decreased significantly with increasing the degree of hypopituitarism. These observations suggest that the increase in serum free IGF-1 level during puberty was caused by a dramatic increase in total IGF-1 rather than IGFBP-3. Also, high levels of these hormones may play an important role in pubertal growth spurt and may become a useful tool for diagnosing GHD and predicting growth response to long term GH therapy

306

Serum levels of free and total insulin-link growth factor (IGF)-1 and (IGF) binding protein-3 in normal and growth hormone deficient children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor- 1 (IGF-1) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) reflect endogenous GH secretion in healthy children, which makes them good diagnostic markers for screening GH deficiency (GHD) in short children, although some controversy still exists. Only a minor fraction of the total IGF-1 circulates in its free form, which is believed to be the biologically active form. Serum levels of free IGF-1, total IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured in 144 healthy children (72 boys and 72 girls, aged from 0 to 16 years) and in 12 prepubertal GH. deficient (GHD) children to study correlation between the age and free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels. In healthy subjects (both sexes), serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were low in infancy, increasing during puberty and declining thereafter. Free IGF-1 in serum occupied about 0.97. 1.45 % of the total IGF-1 values, and the ratios of free IGF-1 to total IGF-1 were significantly increased in the pubertal age groups than in the prepubertal age groups. Serum levels of free IGF-1 showed significant positive correlation with those of total IGF-I and IGFBP-3. Serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in patients with GHD decreased significantly with increasing degree of hypopituitarism. These observations suggest that the increase in serum free IGF-1 level during puberty was caused by a dramatic increase in total IGF-1 rather than IGFBP-3. Also, high levels of these hormones may play an important role in pubertal growth spurt and may become a useful tool for diagnosing GHD and predicting growth response to long term GH therapy

307

Effect of different fibrous and nonfiber carbohydrate levels on nutrients digestibility of total mixed ration using in vivo in buffalo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of different levels of NDF on chewing behavior and their relationship with ruminal acidity, 3 ruminally fistulated buffalo steers (average BW = 389.6 ±7.5 Kg were allotted in a change over design in Agriculture and Natural Resource center of Uremia city of Iran. Two diets with 2 levels of NDF were used as treatments. First and second diets had 52 and 47 % of NDF, respectively. The experiment had two periods and each period’s take 15d for adaptation, 7d for sample collection and determination of nutrient digestibility and for determination of passage rate, 2d for measuring ruminal pH, and 3d for measuring chewing activity. Using Penn Stat Particle Separator (PSPS, distribution, geometric mean, its standard deviation and physically effective factor (pef of diets were determined. Animals fed ad libitum at 09:00a.m and 21:00p.m. The time that spent for eating and rumination were optically recorded in 24h with 5 minutes intervals and total chewing activity calculated from sum of eating and rumination time. There were no significant differences between chemical composition, particles distribution, geometric mean, its standard deviation and physically effective factor (pef of diets, dry matter intake (kg/d and nutrients intake (NDF, ADF, NFC and crude protein and their digestibility, but digestibility ADF, NDF and NFC decreased as content of fiber increased(P1.18 increased (P1.18 increased (P<0.05.

Gh. Manafiazar

2010-02-01

308

Effect of dark chocolate on plasma epicatechin levels, DNA resistance to oxidative stress and total antioxidant activity in healthy subjects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dark chocolate (DC) may be cardioprotective by antioxidant properties of flavonoids. We investigated the effect of DC (860 mg polyphenols, of which 58 mg epicatechin) compared with white chocolate (WC; 5 mg polyphenols, undetectable epicatechin) on plasma epicatechin levels, mononuclear blood cells (MNBC) DNA damage and plasma total antioxidant activity (TAA). Twenty healthy subjects followed a balanced diet (55 % of energy from carbohydrates, 30 % from fat and 1 g protein/kg body weight) for 4 weeks. Since the 14th day until the 27th day, they introduced daily 45 g of either WC (n 10) or DC (n 10). Whole experimental period was standardised in antioxidant intake. Blood samples were collected at T(0), after 2 weeks (T(14)), 2 h and 22 h after the first chocolate intake (T(14+2 h) and T(14+22 h)), and at 27th day, before chocolate intake (T(27)), 2 h and 22 h after (T(27+2 h) and T(27+22 h)). Samples, except for T(14+2 h) and T(27+2 h), were fasting collected. Detectable epicatechin levels were observed exclusively 2 h after DC intake (T(14+2 h) = 0.362 (se 0.052) micromol/l and T(27+2 h) = 0.369 (se 0.041) micromol/l); at the same times corresponded lower MNBC DNA damages (T(14+2 h) = - 19.4 (se 3.4) % v. T(14), P stress, probably for flavonoid kinetics. PMID:19889244

Spadafranca, A; Martinez Conesa, C; Sirini, S; Testolin, G

2010-04-01

309

Influence of Ileo-Caecal Cannulation and Oxytetracycline on Ileo-Caecal and Rectal Coliform Populations in Pigs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of surgery (insertion of an ileo-caecal cannula) and a subsequent parenteral treatment with oxytetracycline on the ileo-caecal and rectal coliform populations in 7 Swedish Yorkshire castrates were studied. Samples were collected during surgery as well as 3, 7, 14 and 20 days post surgery. The diversity of the enteric coliform flora was initially high both in the ileo-caecal ostium and in rectum. No alteration in the diversity of the enteric coliform flora was observed following sur...

2001-01-01

310

Determination of Total Serum Protein Levels Fed by Hot Smoked Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Diets in Rats  

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The effects on total serum protein levels of rats fed by hot smoked Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were investigated. Four diets containing fresh and hot smoked rainbow trout flesh and vitamin were prepared and commercial pellet food purchased. Four groups of female Wistar rats were fed with the diets for 28 days. Total serum protein and detection of protein bands using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-Page) were evaluated. The total serum prote...

Levent Izci; Sengul Bilgin; Mustafa Unlusayin; Suleyman Kaleli; Ali Gunlu

2008-01-01

311

Influence of pH and Oxidant Ozone to Amount of Bacterium Coliform at Hospital Waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Influence of pH and oxidant ozone to amount of bacterium coliform at hospital waste have been done. As sample is liquid waste Public Hospital of town (RSUD) Yogyakarta. Sample waste processed by 3 kinds of treatment, that is first certain ozone waste during, that is waste given by the third and just chalk of waste given by the certain and ozonization chalk during. From third the treatment, in the reality third treatment which can give the maximal result, that is waste given the chalk until pH waste 8.5 and ozonization during 40 minute give the following result : bacterium coliform from 810.000 MPN become 0 MPN ( cell / 100 mL). This result have fulfilled the conditions as according to decision of Governor of DIY no. 65 year 1999 for the waste of faction II, that is waste used for the irrigation of fishery and agriculture. (author)

312

Comparison of thermotolerant coliforms and Escherichia coli densities in freshwater bodies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Fecal bacterial indicator analyses have been widely used for monitoring the water quality. This study was designed to determine the ratio between the density of Escherichia coli and other Thermotolerant Coliforms (TtC) bacteria from freshwater samples collected for a two-year period of monitoring. T [...] tC were enumerated by membrane filtration on mFC agar. E. coli enumeration was done by two methods: TtC colonies identified in mFC were inoculated in EC-MUG or water samples were filtered and inoculated in modified mTEC agar media, and both methods were compared for quantitative recovery of E. coli. The results pointed out a mean percentage of E. coli among other thermotolerant coliforms (E. coli/TtC ratio) of 84.3% in mFC media. Taking these results into account, a mandatory standard of 1000 thermotolerant coliforms would correspond to 800 E. coli and the adoption of these E. coli based standards will represent a major improvement for the monitoring of freshwater quality.

Elayse M., Hachich; Marisa, Di Bari; Ana Paula G., Christ; Cláudia C., Lamparelli; Solange S., Ramos; Maria Inês Z., Sato.

313

Antibacterial Activities of Jatropha curcas (LINN) on Coliforms Isolated from Surface Waters in Akure, Nigeria.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study investigated the antibacterial activities of hot water, ethanol and acetone extracts of Jatropha curcas (LINN) leaves on coliforms isolated from surface waters using growth inhibition indices based on agar plate technique. The percentage recovery of the extracts was 19.17%, 18.10% and 18.80% for hot water, ethanol and acetone respectively. Phytochemical screening of the extracts was also determined. Qualitative phytochemical screening showed that the plant extracts contained steroids, tannins, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides, while alkaloids, phlobatannin, terpenoids and anthraquinones were absent. Only ethanolic extract did not possess saponins. Aqueous extracts of J. curcas compared most favourably with the standard antibiotics (gentamycin) on all the coliform bacteria except on K. pneumoniae and E. coli likely due to a measurably higher antibacterial activity compared to the organic extracts. The minimum inhibitory concentration of the aqueous extract ranged from 3.00 to 7.00 mg/L while minimum bactericidal concentration ranged from 4.00 to 10.00 mg/L. Aqueous extract of J. curcas could be used as antibacterial agents against diseases caused by coliforms. PMID:24711746

Dada, E O; Ekundayo, F O; Makanjuola, O O

2014-03-01

314

Escherichia coli and fecal-coliform bacteria as indicators of recreational water quality  

Science.gov (United States)

In 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommended that Escherichia coli (E. coli) be used in place of fecal-coliform bacteria in State recreational water-quality standards as an indicator of fecal contamination. This announcement followed an epidemiological study in which E. coli concentration was shown to be a better predictor of swimming-associated gastrointestinal illness than fecal-coliform concentration. Water-resource managers from Ohio have decided to collect information specific to their waters and decide whether to use E. coli or fecal-coliform bacteria as the basis for State recreational water-quality standards. If one indicator is a better predictor of recreational water quality than the other and if the relation between the two indicators is variable, then the indicator providing the most accurate measure of recreational water quality should be used in water-quality standards. Water-quality studies of the variability of concentrations of E. coli to fecal-coliform bacteria have shown that (1) concentrations of the two indicators are positively correlated, (2) E. coli to fecal-coliform ratios differ considerably from site to site, and (3) the E. coli criteria recommended by USEPA may be more difficult to meet than current (1992) fecal-coliform standards. In this study, a statistical analysis was done on concentrations of E. coli and fecal-coliform bacteria in water samples collected by two government agencies in Ohio-- the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission (ORSANCO). Data were organized initially into five data sets for statistical analysis: (1) Cuyahoga River, (2) Olentangy River, (3) Scioto River, (4) Ohio River at Anderson Ferry, and (5) Ohio River at Cincinnati Water Works and Tanners Creek. The USGS collected the data in sets 1, 2, and 3, whereas ORSANCO collected the data in sets 4 and 5. The relation of E. coli to fecal-coliform concentration was investigated by use of linear-regression analysis and analysis of covariance. Log-transformed E. coli and fecal-coliform concentrations were highly correlated in all data sets (r-values ranged from 0.929 to 0.984). Linear regression analysis on USGS and ORSANCO data sets showed that concentration of E. coli could be predicted from fecal-coliform concentration (coefficients of determination (R2) ranged from 0.863 to 0.970). Results of analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) indicated that the predictive equations among the three USGS data sets and two ORSANCO data sets were not significantly different and that the data could be pooled into two large data sets, one for USGS data and one for ORSANCO data. However, results of ANCOVA indicated that USGS and ORSANCO data could not be pooled into one large data set. Predictions of E. coli concentrations calculated for USGS And ORSANCO regression relations, based on fecal-coliform concentrations set to equal Ohio water-quality standards, further showed the differences in E. coli to fecal-coliform relations among data sets. For USGS data, a predicted geometric mean of 176 col/100 mL (number of colonies per 100 milliliters) was greater than the current geometric-mean E. coli standard for bathing water of 126 col/100mL. In contrast, for ORSANCO data, the predicted geometric mean of 101 col/100 mL was less than the current E. coli standard. The risk of illness associated with predicted E. coli concentrations for USGS and ORSANCO data was evaluated by use of the USEPA regression equation that predicts swimming-related gastroenteritis rates from E. coli concentrations.1 The predicted geometric-mean E. coli concentrations for bathing water of 176 col/100 mL for USGS data and 101 col/100 mL for ORSANCO data would allow 9.4 and 7.1 gastrointestinal illnesses per 1,000 swimmers, respectively. This prediction compares well with the illness rate of 8 individuals per 1,000 swimmers estimated by the USEPA for an E. coli concentration of 126 col/100 mL. Therefore, the

Francy, D. S.; Myers, D. N.; Metzker, K. D.

1993-01-01

315

Comparison of thermotolerant coliforms and Escherichia coli densities in freshwater bodies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fecal bacterial indicator analyses have been widely used for monitoring the water quality. This study was designed to determine the ratio between the density of Escherichia coli and other Thermotolerant Coliforms (TtC bacteria from freshwater samples collected for a two-year period of monitoring. TtC were enumerated by membrane filtration on mFC agar. E. coli enumeration was done by two methods: TtC colonies identified in mFC were inoculated in EC-MUG or water samples were filtered and inoculated in modified mTEC agar media, and both methods were compared for quantitative recovery of E. coli. The results pointed out a mean percentage of E. coli among other thermotolerant coliforms (E. coli/TtC ratio of 84.3% in mFC media. Taking these results into account, a mandatory standard of 1000 thermotolerant coliforms would correspond to 800 E. coli and the adoption of these E. coli based standards will represent a major improvement for the monitoring of freshwater quality.

Elayse M. Hachich

2012-06-01

316

Combined Effect of heat stress and radiation exposure on levels of testosterone lactate dehydrogenase, total lipids and cholesterol in blood plasma and testicular tissue of male albino rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hyperthermia and radiotherapy are used as relatively successful modalities in the treatment of some diseases. This work aims to gain a better understanding about the testicular physiological changes caused by a combined stress of heat and gamma radiation. Rats were divided into four groups : 1.Control, 2.Irradiated at a dose level 6 Gy, 3.Exposed to heat tress for one, 3, 5 and 7 days and group 4 exposed to heat tress as group 3 followed by irradiation directly at the end of heat treatment. Plasma levels of testosterone, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total lipids and total cholesterol, as well as, testicular content of total lipids and total cholesterol were detected. Results showed that irradiation (6 Gy) induced significant decreases (P<0.001) in plasma testosterone level, whereas, it elevated significantly the plasma levels of LDH activity and total cholesterol. The heat stress caused significant declines in plasma testosterone , LDH (after 1, 3 and 5 days) and total lipids, but not testicular content of total lipids. Conversely, it increased the rectal temperature and both, plasma and testicular tissue content of total cholesterol levels. The whole-body gamma irradiation direcrly post heat stress intervals boosted the heat stress effect on all the examined parameters. Hence it could be concluded that exposure to whole-body gamma irradiation in high ambient temperatures diminished the testicular function by decreasing the sexual hormone testosterone although its precursor cholesterol increased in both plasma and testicular tissue. This combined treatment seemed to block the mechanism of testosterone formation in testicular tissue, and in turn, decresed its levels in plasma. Further investigations are needed to study such combined effect of heat stress andirradiation on the testicular potency and the testicular function

317

Temperature range for growth of Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 and selected coliforms in E. coli medium.  

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Escherichia coli serotype O157H:7 and five other fecal and nonfecal coliforms were tested for minimum and maximum temperatures for growth in E. coli medium by using a temperature gradient incubator with a mean temperature increment of 1.67 degrees C (+/- 0.392). The temperature range for growth of E. coli O157:H7 is inconsistent with that of other fecal coliforms, suggesting that this pathogen is excluded with standard enumeration procedures used for foods and water.

Raghubeer, E. V.; Matches, J. R.

1990-01-01

318

Enrichment of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) with functional selenium originating from garlic: effect of enrichment period and depuration on total selenium level and sensory properties  

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We wanted to optimize the procedure for the selenium enrichment of farmed African catfish, using garlic as dietary selenium source. In the first experiment we established the relation between the length of the selenium enrichment period and the resulting total selenium level in the fillet of the fish. It was found that at a dietary level of 11.7 mg kg?1 Se, a total selenium level in the fillet of 0.7 mg kg?1 was reached in a relatively short enrichment period of 10 days before harvest. In...

Schram, E.; Schelvis-smit, A. A. M.; Heul, J. W.; Luten, J. B.

2010-01-01

319

Serum testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin and total calcium levels predict the calcaneal speed of sound in men  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: Variations in sex hormones and the calcium balance can influence bone health in men. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between the calcaneal speed of sound and biochemical determinants of bone mass, such as sex hormones, parathyroid hormones and serum calcium. METHODS: [...] Data from 549 subjects from the Malaysian Aging Male Study, which included Malay and Chinese men aged 20 years and older residing in the Klang Valley, were used for analysis. The subjects' calcaneal speed of sound was measured, and their blood was collected for biochemical analysis. Two sets of multiple regression models were generated for the total/bioavailable testosterone and estradiol to avoid multicollinearity. RESULTS: The multiple regression results revealed that bioavailable testosterone and serum total calcium were significant predictors of the calcaneal speed of sound in the adjusted model. After adjustment for ethnicity and body mass index, only bioavailable testosterone remained significant; the total serum calcium was marginally insignificant. In a separate model, the total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin were significant predictors, whereas the total serum calcium was marginally insignificant. After adjustment for ethnicity and body mass index (BMI), the significance persisted for total testosterone and SHBG. After further adjustment for age, none of the serum biochemical determinants was a significant predictor of the calcaneal speed of sound. CONCLUSION: There is a significant age-dependent relationship between the calcaneal speed of sound and total testosterone, bioavailable testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in Chinese and Malay men in Malaysia. The relationship between total serum calcium and calcaneal speed of sound is ethnicity-dependent.

Kok-Yong, Chin; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman; Isa Naina, Mohamed; Wan Zurinah Wan, Ngah.

320

Serum testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin and total calcium levels predict the calcaneal speed of sound in men  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: Variations in sex hormones and the calcium balance can influence bone health in men. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between the calcaneal speed of sound and biochemical determinants of bone mass, such as sex hormones, parathyroid hormones and serum calcium. METHODS: [...] Data from 549 subjects from the Malaysian Aging Male Study, which included Malay and Chinese men aged 20 years and older residing in the Klang Valley, were used for analysis. The subjects' calcaneal speed of sound was measured, and their blood was collected for biochemical analysis. Two sets of multiple regression models were generated for the total/bioavailable testosterone and estradiol to avoid multicollinearity. RESULTS: The multiple regression results revealed that bioavailable testosterone and serum total calcium were significant predictors of the calcaneal speed of sound in the adjusted model. After adjustment for ethnicity and body mass index, only bioavailable testosterone remained significant; the total serum calcium was marginally insignificant. In a separate model, the total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin were significant predictors, whereas the total serum calcium was marginally insignificant. After adjustment for ethnicity and body mass index (BMI), the significance persisted for total testosterone and SHBG. After further adjustment for age, none of the serum biochemical determinants was a significant predictor of the calcaneal speed of sound. CONCLUSION: There is a significant age-dependent relationship between the calcaneal speed of sound and total testosterone, bioavailable testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in Chinese and Malay men in Malaysia. The relationship between total serum calcium and calcaneal speed of sound is ethnicity-dependent.

Kok-Yong, Chin; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman; Isa Naina, Mohamed; Wan Zurinah Wan, Ngah.

2012-08-01

 
 
 
 
321

Total Antioxidant Status, Vitamins A, C and ?-carotene Levels of Children with P. falciparum Infection in University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH, Calabar  

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Full Text Available By using standard procedures, total antioxidant level, vitamins A, C, and ?-carotene were assessed in 122 malaria infected children. The haemoglobin and parasite density status of the children were also measured. Sixty healthy children were used as controls. It was observed that all parameters measured were significantly lower in malaria infected children when compared with the respective control values. Malaria parasitemia correlated strongly and negatively with total antioxidant and haemoglobin levels (r=0.-432 and 0.-503, P<0.01 respectively but weakly with vitamin A level (r=0.-196, P<0.05. Reductions in the levels of total antioxidant and vitamin A were dependent on the severity of malaria. The more severe the malaria the lower the levels of total antioxidant and vitamin A. Ratios of vitamin A to vitamin C and beta-carotene to vitamin C were similar in both malaria-infected children and controls indicating a constant proportional relationship between vitamin A and beta-carotene to vitamin C. From this study it is observed that there is a general depression in antioxidant levels suggesting that antioxidant intervention may be crucial in the treatment of malaria infection. Furthermore lowered levels of antioxidants especially of vitamin C in malaria infection also suggest lowered immunity of host, which may be responsible for some of the complications of malaria infection.

J.O. Akpotuzor

2007-01-01

322

Comparison and Recovery of Escherichia coli and Thermotolerant Coliforms in Water with a Chromogenic Medium Incubated at 41 and 44.5?C  

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This study compared the performance of a commercial chromogenic medium, CHROMagarECC (CECC), and CECC supplemented with sodium pyruvate (CECCP) with the membrane filtration lauryl sulfate-based medium (mLSA) for enumeration of Escherichia coli and non-E. coli thermotolerant coliforms (KEC). To establish that we could recover the maximum KEC and E. coli population, we compared two incubation temperature regimens, 41 and 44.5°C. Statistical analysis by the Fisher test of data did not demonstrate any statistically significant differences (P = 0.05) in the enumeration of E. coli for the different media (CECC and CECCP) and incubation temperatures. Variance analysis of data performed on KEC counts showed significant differences (P = 0.01) between KEC counts at 41 and 44.5°C on both CECC and CECCP. Analysis of variance demonstrated statistically significant differences (P = 0.05) in the enumeration of total thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) on CECC and CECCP compared with mLSA. Target colonies were confirmed to be E. coli at a rate of 91.5% and KEC of likely fecal origin at a rate of 77.4% when using CECCP incubated at 41°C. The results of this study showed that CECCP agar incubated at 41°C is efficient for the simultaneous enumeration of E. coli and KEC from river and marine waters. PMID:10427079

Alonso, Jose L.; Soriano, Adela; Carbajo, Oscar; Amoros, Inmaculada; Garelick, Hemda

1999-01-01

323

Comparison and recovery of Escherichia coli and thermotolerant coliforms in water with a chromogenic medium incubated at 41 and 44.5 degrees C.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compared the performance of a commercial chromogenic medium, CHROMagarECC (CECC), and CECC supplemented with sodium pyruvate (CECCP) with the membrane filtration lauryl sulfate-based medium (mLSA) for enumeration of Escherichia coli and non-E. coli thermotolerant coliforms (KEC). To establish that we could recover the maximum KEC and E. coli population, we compared two incubation temperature regimens, 41 and 44.5 degrees C. Statistical analysis by the Fisher test of data did not demonstrate any statistically significant differences (P = 0.05) in the enumeration of E. coli for the different media (CECC and CECCP) and incubation temperatures. Variance analysis of data performed on KEC counts showed significant differences (P = 0.01) between KEC counts at 41 and 44.5 degrees C on both CECC and CECCP. Analysis of variance demonstrated statistically significant differences (P = 0.05) in the enumeration of total thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) on CECC and CECCP compared with mLSA. Target colonies were confirmed to be E. coli at a rate of 91.5% and KEC of likely fecal origin at a rate of 77.4% when using CECCP incubated at 41 degrees C. The results of this study showed that CECCP agar incubated at 41 degrees C is efficient for the simultaneous enumeration of E. coli and KEC from river and marine waters. PMID:10427079

Alonso, J L; Soriano, A; Carbajo, O; Amoros, I; Garelick, H

1999-08-01

324

Influence of intravascular low level He-Ne laser irradiation on iNOS, total-NOS, and ET-1 in acute spinal cord-injured rabbits  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To research the influence of intravascular low level Laser irradiation (ILLLI) on total NOS, iNOS, and ET-1 in spinal cord following acute spinal cord injury (ASCI), and discuss the protective effects of ILLLI on neurons .Methods 72 rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups: treatment group, injury group and control group. In treatment group and injury group, after laminectomy at the level of T-13, ASCI was performed by using Allen"s method with slight modification (6g×10cm) on rabbits. After injury, rabbits were treated immediately with He-Ne laser (power 5 mW, 1 hour per day for 10 days). At the day of 10th after treatment, total-NOS, iNOS, and ET-1 in spinal cord tissues were measured. Results The expression level of total-NOS, iNOS, and ET-1 in spinal cord in injury group were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05), while after ILLLI the level of these index in treatment group decreased statistically significantly compared with those in injury group (P<0.05). Conclusion ILLLI can significantly decrease the expression level of total-NOS, iNOS, and ET-1 in spinal cord. It indicates that ILLLI can relieve the overexpression of total-NOS, iNOS, and ET-1 ,and thus can perform protective effects on neurons in the course of secondary spinal cord injury (SSCI) following ASCI

Yin, Zhenchun; Dong, Yinghai; Zhu, Jing

2005-07-01

325

The influence of adiponectin G276T gene polymorphism on changes in total and high molecular weight adiponectin levels by exercise training  

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Full Text Available Adiponectin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone and regulates the metabolism of lipid and glucose. We examined the influence of adiponectin G276T gene polymorphism on changes in total or high molecular weight adiponectin levels by exercise training. A randomized parallel-design study (n = 53; 40 women and 13 men; age range, 32 - 65 years was conducted. Participants were randomly assigned to the exercise (n = 26 or control (n = 27 group and received exercise training for 70 min 2 times per week for 12 weeks and exercise advice at the baseline, respectively. Blood sample were obtained before and after the intervention. The primary outcomes were changes in total adiponectin and high molecular weight adiponectin levels. At the baseline, the participants with and without 276G allele did not differ with the total and high molecular weight adiponectin levels in the entire study population. No significant difference in the change in the total and high molecular weight adiponectin levels between the subjects with the G276G genotype and 276T allele carriers were found. This study provides evidence that the G276T polymorphism of the adiponectin gene is not associated with the magnitude of the effect of twice-weekly exercise training on the total and high molecular weight adiponectin levels.

Daisuke Ando

2011-12-01

326

Physical activity is inversely associated with total homocysteine levels, independent of C677T MTHFR genotype and plasma B vitamins  

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The homocysteine level is considered to be a product of genetic and lifestyle interactions, mainly mutated methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and the intake of folate, vitamin B12 and pyridoxine, and their blood levels. Physical activity has been associated with lower homocysteine levels in some population studies, especially among elderly subjects. To further elucidate the observed association between homocysteine and physical activity, while accounting for the effect of the MTHFR C...

Dankner, Rachel; Chetrit, Angela; Ken Dror, Gie; Sela, Ben-ami

2007-01-01

327

Growth and total-N content of Prosopis juliflora (SW) D. C. are stimulated by low NaCl levels  

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In this study the early effects of salinity on growth, total N and ion accumulation and partitioning in Prosopis juliflora (common name algaroba) were studied with 30-day-old plants grown for 8 days in aerated nutrient solution (NS) free of (control) or supplied with 25, 50, 75 and 100 mmol.L-1 NaCl. Plants grown in 25 and 50 mmol.L-1 NaCl accumulated a total dry mass (DM) and shoot N content greater than the control. However, at 75 and 100 mmol.L-1 NaCl such parameters were diminished. Whole...

Viégas Ricardo Almeida; Fausto Maria José Martins; Queiroz José Elenildo; Rocha Iza Marineves Almeida; Silveira Joaquim Albenísio Gomes; Viégas Pedro Roberto Almeida

2004-01-01

328

Estado trófico e bioacumulação do fósforo total no cultivo de peixes em tanques-rede na área aquícola do reservatório de Itaipu = Trophic level and bioaccumulation of total phosphorus in cage fish rearing in the aquaculture area at Itaipu reservoir  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A intensa produção de peixes e utilização dos recursos hídricos podecomprometer a qualidade e disponibilidade da água, além de afetar a capacidade de suporte do ambiente, causando eutrofização e, consequentemente, a poluição do mesmo. Realizouse um estudo das variáveis físico-químicas da água e dos teores de fósforo total (P-total no sedimento, rações e peixes cultivados em tanques-rede em uma área aquícola localizada no reservatório da Itaipu, no município de Santa Helena, Estado do Paraná, objetivando monitorar a qualidade da água e determinar o índice de eutrofização total da área de cultivo, além de analisar a bioacumulação de P-total nos peixes e sedimento. As variáveis físicoquímicas da água mantiveram valores normais indicados pelo Conama. A concentração média de P-total na área aquícola foi de 28,41 IET e com transparência por disco de Secchide 2,74 m, enquadrando o ambiente como oligotrófico. Houve correlação de 0,55 (p The intense production of fishes and the use of water resources can compromise the quality and availability of water, in addition to its effects on environmental carrying capacity, causing eutrophication andconsequently water pollution. Therefore, the objective of this study was to monitor the physical-chemical water variables and to measure the total phosphorus (total-P in sediment, feed and fish in cage culture in an aquaculture area situated at the Itaipu reservoirin Santa Helena – Paraná State, observing water quality and determining the total eutrophic level on the aquaculture area, in addition to analyzing total-P bioaccumulation in fish andsediment. The physical-chemical water variables presented normal values as indicated by Conama. The mean concentration of total-P for the aquaculture area was 28.41 IET and Secchi disc transparency of 2.74 m, giving it an oligotrophic classification. There was acorrelation of 0.55 (p < 0.01 between these two variables. The bioaccumulation of total-P in sediments decreased from 0.76 to 0.35 g kg-1 during this period. Mean fish accumulation ranged from 0.30 to 2.82 g kg-1. This activity can be used in the biomanipulation of total-P in similar reservoirs.

Guilherme Wolff Bueno

2008-07-01

329

Thermo-tolerant coliform bacteria decay rates in a full scale waste stabilization pond system in northeast Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents the results for thermo-tolerant coliform (TTC) decay rates (K(b)) in a full scale WSP system located in Natal-RN, northeast Brazil. The series comprises a primary facultative pond (2 m deep), followed by two maturation ponds (1.5 m deep) giving a total area of 11 ha. The influent sewage and the pond effluents were monitored weekly during a seven month period. The results showed that the K(b) values predicted by the Marais equation assuming a hydraulic regime of complete mixing overestimated TTC die-off rates. The K(b) value adopted in the project design was 6.20 d(-1) but the mean value found for the WSP system during the monitoring programme was only 0.85 d(-1). This value is low compared to the values cited in the literature for shallow ponds (design stage and the negative influence of high wind conditions on the mixing regime in the water columns of the ponds. Thus values for K(b) adopted at the design stage of WSP systems should be coherent with the hydraulic flow model, the type of pond, pond depth, and with the surface organic loading. PMID:21436574

Macedo, S L; Araújo, A L C; Pearson, H W

2011-01-01

330

Assessment of total and organic mercury levels in blue sharks (Prionace glauca) from the south and southeastern Brazilian coast.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mercury occurrence was evaluated in samples of edible muscle tissue of 27 blue sharks (Prionace glauca) caught in the Atlantic Ocean, adjacent to the south and southeastern Brazilian coast, indicating a slight increase in comparison with previous data obtained for the same studied area and being higher than those fish caught at different sites of the Atlantic Ocean. Total Hg concentrations ranged from 0.46 to 2.40 mg kg(-1) with the organic Hg fraction ranging between 0.44 and 2.37 mg kg(-1). A negative correlation between total Hg concentration in muscle tissue and blue shark size was obtained, and 40% of samples analyzed had Hg concentrations higher than 1.0 mg kg(-1) Hg, the maximum concentration permitted in Brazilian predator fish. Data obtained showed that total Hg can be used as a reliable predictor of organic Hg in blue shark muscle because 95 to 98% of the total Hg measured was found to be organic mercury. The wide range of Hg concentrations obtained for our set of samples can be explained by the heterogeneity of sampled population and the large size of the studied area. Given the adverse toxicological effects of Hg on animals and humans, a regular monitoring program of Hg contamination in Brazilian marine ecosystem can be recommended. PMID:24801656

de Carvalho, Gabriel Gustinelli Arantes; Degaspari, Iracema Alves Manoel; Branco, Vasco; Canário, João; de Amorim, Alberto Ferreira; Kennedy, Valerie Helen; Ferreira, José Roberto

2014-06-01

331

Radiation-hardening-by-design with circuit-level modeling of total ionizing dose effects in modern CMOS technologies  

Science.gov (United States)

Physical model of total ionizing dose (TID) effects previously developed and successfully verified by authors was embedded to BSIM3v3 model implemented using Verilog-A language. This tool is fully compatible with standard SPICE simulators and allows taking into account the electrical bias conditions for each transistor during irradiation.

Gorbunov, M. S.; Zebrev, G. I.; Osipenko, P. N.

2010-02-01

332

Nível sérico de IgE total em alergia respiratória: estudo em pacientes com alto risco de infecção por helmintos Total IgE level in respiratory allergy: study of patients at high risk for helminthic infection  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Eosinofilia e elevação de IgE sérica são expressões de atopia, contudo há fatores intervenientes como, por exemplo, as parasitoses intestinais. Esta pesquisa verifica a relação entre IgE sérica total, eosinófilos e IgE específica anti-áscaris em indivíduos portadores de asma e/ou rinite alérgica. MÉTODOS: Estudo do tipo transversal em adolescentes portadores de asma e/ou rinite alérgica que foram examinados quanto ao nível sérico de IgE total, de IgE anti-áscaris e de contagem dos eosinófilos sangüíneos. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 101 pacientes com idade entre 12 e 21 anos. A mediana da IgE foi 660 UI/mL (P25-75 243,5-1500, e a dos eosinófilos foi 510 células/mm³ (P25-75 284-811. A IgE anti-áscaris foi positiva em 73% (74/101 da amostra, mas houve apenas 33,7% (34/101 de positividade ao parasitológico de fezes. Os coeficientes de correlação encontrados foram: 0,34 (p = 0,001 entre IgE total e eosinófilos, 0,52 (p OBJECTIVE: Eosinophilia and increased serum IgE levels are indicators of atopy; however, other factors can also play a key role, such as intestinal parasitic infections. This study assesses the relationship between total serum IgE, eosinophil count, and anti-Ascaris IgE in individuals with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in adolescents with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis. The patients had their total serum IgE, anti-Ascaris IgE and eosinophil count measured. RESULTS: A total of 101 patients aged 12 to 21 years were assessed. Median IgE level was 660 IU/mL (P25-75 243.5-1500, and the eosinophil count corresponded to 510 cells/mm³ (P25-75 284-811. Anti-Ascaris IgE was positive in 73% (74/101 of the individuals, but parasitological stool examination yielded positive results in only 33.7% (34/101. The correlation coefficients were the following: 0.34 (p = 0.001 between total IgE level and eosinophil count, 0.52 (p < 0.001 between total IgE level and anti-Ascaris IgE, and 0.26 (p = 0.01 between eosinophil count and anti-Ascaris IgE. The final multiple linear regression model pointed out that anti-Ascaris IgE contributed to a total serum IgE level with a coefficient of determination (adjusted R² of 0.25 (F = 12.35; p < 0.001. This effect occurred regardless of eosinophil count and of the presence of intestinal helminthic infection. CONCLUSION: In patients with respiratory allergy and increased total serum IgE levels living in areas where there is a high risk for helminthic infections, the quantification of anti-Ascaris IgE can be more useful and more insightful than the parasitological stool examination.

Décio Medeiros

2006-08-01

333

Removal of Escherichia coli and faecal coliforms from surface water and groundwater by household water treatment devices/systems: a sustainable solution for improving water quality in rural communities of the Southern African development community region.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is significant evidence that household water treatment devices/systems (HWTS) are capable of dramatically improving microbially contaminated water quality. The purpose of this study was to examine five filters [(biosand filter-standard (BSF-S); biosand filter-zeolite (BSF-Z); bucket filter (BF); ceramic candle filter (CCF); and silver-impregnated porous pot (SIPP)] and evaluate their ability to improve the quality of drinking water at the household level. These HWTS were manufactured in the workshop of the Tshwane University of Technology and evaluated for efficiency to remove turbidity, faecal coliforms and Escherichia coli from multiple water source samples, using standard methods. The flow rates ranged from 0.05 L/h to 2.49 L/h for SIPP, 1 L/h to 4 L/h for CCF, 0.81 L/h to 6.84 L/h for BSF-S, 1.74 L/h to 19.2 L/h and 106.5 L/h to 160.5 L/h for BF The turbidity of the raw water samples ranged between 2.17 and 40.4 NTU. The average turbidity obtained after filtration ranged from 0.6 to 8 NTU (BSF-S), 1 to 4 NTU (BSF-Z), 2 to 11 NTU (BF), and from 0.6 to 7 NTU (CCF) and 0.7 to 1 NTU for SIPP. The BSF-S, BSF-Z and CCF removed 2 to 4 log(10) (99% to 100%) of coliform bacteria, while the BF removed 1 to 3 log (90% to 99.9%) of these bacteria. The performance of the SIPP in removing turbidity and indicator bacteria (>5 log(10), 100%) was significantly higher compared to that of the other HWTS (p < 0.05). The findings of this study indicate that the SIPP can be an effective and sustainable HWTS for the Southern African Development Community (SADC) rural communities, as it removed the total concentration of bacteria from test water, can be manufactured using locally available materials, and is easy to operate and to maintain. PMID:22470284

Mwabi, Jocelyne K; Mamba, Bhekie B; Momba, Maggy N B

2012-01-01

334

Removal of Escherichia coli and Faecal Coliforms from Surface Water and Groundwater by Household Water Treatment Devices/Systems: A Sustainable Solution for Improving Water Quality in Rural Communities of the Southern African Development Community Region  

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Full Text Available There is significant evidence that household water treatment devices/systems (HWTS are capable of dramatically improving microbially contaminated water quality. The purpose of this study was to examine five filters [(biosand filter-standard (BSF-S; biosand filter-zeolite (BSF-Z; bucket filter (BF; ceramic candle filter (CCF; and silver-impregnated porous pot (SIPP] and evaluate their ability to improve the quality of drinking water at the household level. These HWTS were manufactured in the workshop of the Tshwane University of Technology and evaluated for efficiency to remove turbidity, faecal coliforms and Escherichia coli from multiple water source samples, using standard methods. The flow rates ranged from 0.05 L/h to 2.49 L/h for SIPP, 1 L/h to 4 L/h for CCF, 0.81 L/h to 6.84 L/h for BSF-S, 1.74 L/h to 19.2 L/h and 106.5 L/h to 160.5 L/h for BF The turbidity of the raw water samples ranged between 2.17 and 40.4 NTU. The average turbidity obtained after filtration ranged from 0.6 to 8 NTU (BSF-S, 1 to 4 NTU (BSF-Z, 2 to 11 NTU (BF, and from 0.6 to 7 NTU (CCF and 0.7 to 1 NTU for SIPP. The BSF-S, BSF-Z and CCF removed 2 to 4 log10 (99% to 100% of coliform bacteria, while the BF removed 1 to 3 log (90% to 99.9% of these bacteria. The performance of the SIPP in removing turbidity and indicator bacteria (>5 log10, 100% was significantly higher compared to that of the other HWTS (p < 0.05. The findings of this study indicate that the SIPP can be an effective and sustainable HWTS for the Southern African Development Community (SADC rural communities, as it removed the total concentration of bacteria from test water, can be manufactured using locally available materials, and is easy to operate and to maintain.

Jocelyne K. Mwabi

2012-01-01

335

Load leveling total system. Part 2. Development of load leveling logic for residential customer; Fuka heijunka total system. 2. Kateiyo juyoka wo taisho to shita heijunka ronri no kaihatsu  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It is essential, in order to meet steadily increasing demands for electrical power, to develop techniques for effective utilization of energy and load leveling. Described herein is development, by the aid of linear programming, of logic for daily management of charge/discharge of load conditioners and reverse power flow, for predicted loads and patterns of power generated by photovoltaic cells installed at individual customers. It is aimed at minimizing power rate and leveling of load at distribution systems. Predicted loads, outputs by photovoltaic cell units and different power rates by time zone for the next day are inputted, to determine the charge/discharge schedules and power supply/reverse flow patterns for that day, in order to minimize power rates and level loads at higher hierarchical levels. The logic-aided daily simulation for various districts confirms the operational patterns that realize improved utilization of pole-mounted transformers while reducing costs at customers, and effects of prediction errors. 4 refs., 14 figs.

Asari, M.; Nanahara, T. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

1995-05-01

336

Growth and total-N content of Prosopis juliflora (SW D. C. are stimulated by low NaCl levels  

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Full Text Available In this study the early effects of salinity on growth, total N and ion accumulation and partitioning in Prosopis juliflora (common name algaroba were studied with 30-day-old plants grown for 8 days in aerated nutrient solution (NS free of (control or supplied with 25, 50, 75 and 100 mmol.L-1 NaCl. Plants grown in 25 and 50 mmol.L-1 NaCl accumulated a total dry mass (DM and shoot N content greater than the control. However, at 75 and 100 mmol.L-1 NaCl such parameters were diminished. Whole plant transpiration rates were higher with 25 and 50 mmol.L-1 NaCl and lower with 75 and 100 mmol.L-1 NaCl. Salinity did not influence shoot (80% and root (70% water content (WC but reduced the K+ content of shoot while that of root was not affected. Increasing external NaCl concentrations increased K+/Na+ ratios of both plant parts. The data support the hypothesis that increase in transpiration rates and in shoot total N may account for growth stimulation of algaroba under mild salinity.

Viégas Ricardo Almeida

2004-01-01

337

Nível sérico de IgE total em alergia respiratória: estudo em pacientes com alto risco de infecção por helmintos / Total IgE level in respiratory allergy: study of patients at high risk for helminthic infection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Eosinofilia e elevação de IgE sérica são expressões de atopia, contudo há fatores intervenientes como, por exemplo, as parasitoses intestinais. Esta pesquisa verifica a relação entre IgE sérica total, eosinófilos e IgE específica anti-áscaris em indivíduos portadores de asma e/ou rinite al [...] érgica. MÉTODOS: Estudo do tipo transversal em adolescentes portadores de asma e/ou rinite alérgica que foram examinados quanto ao nível sérico de IgE total, de IgE anti-áscaris e de contagem dos eosinófilos sangüíneos. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 101 pacientes com idade entre 12 e 21 anos. A mediana da IgE foi 660 UI/mL (P25-75 243,5-1500), e a dos eosinófilos foi 510 células/mm³ (P25-75 284-811). A IgE anti-áscaris foi positiva em 73% (74/101) da amostra, mas houve apenas 33,7% (34/101) de positividade ao parasitológico de fezes. Os coeficientes de correlação encontrados foram: 0,34 (p = 0,001) entre IgE total e eosinófilos, 0,52 (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Eosinophilia and increased serum IgE levels are indicators of atopy; however, other factors can also play a key role, such as intestinal parasitic infections. This study assesses the relationship between total serum IgE, eosinophil count, and anti-Ascaris IgE in individuals with asthma an [...] d/or allergic rhinitis. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in adolescents with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis. The patients had their total serum IgE, anti-Ascaris IgE and eosinophil count measured. RESULTS: A total of 101 patients aged 12 to 21 years were assessed. Median IgE level was 660 IU/mL (P25-75 243.5-1500), and the eosinophil count corresponded to 510 cells/mm³ (P25-75 284-811). Anti-Ascaris IgE was positive in 73% (74/101) of the individuals, but parasitological stool examination yielded positive results in only 33.7% (34/101). The correlation coefficients were the following: 0.34 (p = 0.001) between total IgE level and eosinophil count, 0.52 (p

Décio, Medeiros; Almerinda Rego, Silva; José Angelo, Rizzo; Maria Eugênia, Motta; Francisca Hosana Bezerra de, Oliveira; Emanuel Sávio Cavalcanti, Sarinho.

2006-08-01

338

Thermotolerant Coliform and Escherichia coli Detection and Enumeration Through Multiple Tube Fermentation  

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Full Text Available The first objective of present study was to comparing the Modified (M and Standard (S media using MPN-technique for simple and rapid detection of Faecal Coliform (FC and E. coli in different aquatic environments. The second objective was the comparison between the efficiency of four modified media (M-m7hfc broth, M-A-1, M-MacConky and M-EC media for detection and enumeration of faecal coliform and E. coli especially in water sources. The results of MPN ratios between modified and standard media (M/S media for each of FC and E. coli were more greater than one time, indicating more suitability for the modified formulas. Results indicate that a high faecal coliform recovery was recorded using M-EC medium from water samples. All sewage and ground water samples showed good results when using M-m7hfc broth and M-A-1 media, respectively. A high recovery of E. coli detection was observed using M-MacConky and M-A-1 media from sewage, treated sewage Nile and ground water samples. M-EC and M-MacConky media gave a high E. coli recovery from sludge samples. This comparison illustrates the MPN-technique with M-EC and M-MacConky a s the best performance characteristic of all media tested as judgment for FC or E. coli recovery with great efficiency and specificity in the tested water sources. Thus MPN-technique with modified media approach as described here proved suitable for the rapid, sensitive, specific and economic means for the detection and enumeration of FC and E. coli from different aquatic environments in a single step at the same time.

M.M. Kamel

2006-01-01

339

Investigation of the 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, total antioxidant and nitric oxide levels of serum in dogs infected with Babesia vogeli.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxidative stress was defined as corruption of balance between oxidant-antioxidant states in favor of oxidants. In this study, it was aimed to determine oxidative stress in naturally infected dogs with Babesia vogeli. The 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), nitric oxide (NO) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels in the sera were analyzed by ELISA. 8-OHdG levels increased in B. vogeli infected dogs compared to control group (P0.05). PMID:24882747

Ciftci, Gulay; Ural, Kerem; Aysul, Nuran; Cenesiz, Sena; Guzel, Murat; Pekmezci, Didem; Sogut, Mehtap Ünlü

2014-08-29

340

New medium for improved recovery of coliform bacteria from drinking water.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new membrane filter medium was developed for the improved recovery of injured coliforms from drinking water. The new medium, termed m-T7, consists of 5.0 g of Difco Proteose Peptone no. 3, 20 g of lactose, 3.0 g of yeast extract, 0.4 ml of Tergitol 7 (25% solution), 5.0 g of polyoxyethylene ether W-1, 0.1 g of bromthymol blue, 0.1 g of bromcresol purple, and 15 g of agar per liter of distilled water. Additional selectivity may be obtained by aseptically adding 0.1 microgram of penicillin G ...

Lechevallier, M. W.; Cameron, S. C.; Mcfeters, G. A.

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Comparison of volatile organic levels between sites and seasons for the total exposure assessment methodology (TEAM) study  

Science.gov (United States)

Comparisons were made between volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in breath, personal air, fixed-site outdoor air and water samples from a probability (random) sample of individuals in Bayonne/Elizabeth, New Jersey; Los Angeles and Pittsburg/Antioch, California; Greensboro, North Carolina; and Devils Lake, North Dakota. In addition, comparisons were made between seasons in the Bayonne/Elizabeth and Los Angeles sites where the same individuals were sampled in two seasons. The most striking differences between sites and seasons were in outdoor air samples. For this medium the concentrations in Los Angeles in the winter season were much higher than in Bayonne/Elizabeth, New Jersey in the winter. However, in the summer season this difference was not evident due to a dramatic decrease in VOC levels in Los Angeles in the summer. Outdoor VOC levels in Greensboro and Devils Lake were usually dramatically lower than both Bayonne/Elizabeth and the California sites. Concentration levels for the breath and personal air samples were usually higher in the winter than the spring or summer. This was particularly true in Los Angeles for personal air samples. For the breath samples, this pattern was not clearcut and, in fact, Bayonne/Elizabeth tended to have higher concentrations in the summer. For water samples, Devils Lake had particularly low VOC levels. Bromoform, which was found in California samples, was almost never present in Bayonne/Elizabeth, Greensboro and Devils Lake samples.

Hartwell, T. D.; Pellizzari, E. D.; Perritt, R. L.; Whitmore, R. W.; Zelon, H. S.; Wallace, L.

342

Effect of feeding level on ileal and total tract digestibility of nutrients and energy from soybean meal-based diets for piglets.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 36 piglets with an initial body weight (BW) of 5.6 ± 0.7 kg, fitted with simple T-cannulas at the distal ileum, were used to evaluate the effect of three graded feeding levels (50, 75 or 100 g/kg BW(0.75)  day) on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N) and energy, and on ATTD of organic matter (OM), ether extracts (EE), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and digestible (DE), metabolisable (ME) and net energy (NE) content in soybean meal (SBM)-casein-cornstarch-based diets. The AID of DM, N and energy and ATTD of NDF, ADF and EE in the diets were not affected (p > 0.05) by the feed intake (FI) level. There was a small decrease in ATTD of DM, N (CP), OM, ash and energy, and in DE, ME and NE content in the diets (p animals. Estimation of true total tract digestibility of N, EE and ash by regression analysis was affected by their decrease in ATTD with increasing FI level, as estimates for true digestibility were lower compared to their apparent values. The present results suggest that FI level can affect both apparent and true total tract nutrient digestibility in piglets. PMID:24589011

Goerke, M; Mosenthin, R; Jezierny, D; Sauer, N; Piepho, H-P; Messerschmidt, U; Eklund, M

2014-12-01

343

Survey of total and inorganic arsenic content in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) from Norwegian fiords: Revelation of unusual high levels of inorganic arsenic  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present study reports the findings of unusual high levels of inorganic arsenic in samples of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). A total of 175 pooled samples of blue mussels from various locations along the Norwegian coastline were analyzed for their content of total arsenic and inorganic arsenic. Total arsenic was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) following microwave-assisted acidic digestion of the samples. Inorganic arsenic was determined using an anion-exchange HPLC-ICPMS method following microwave-assisted alkaline solubilization of the samples. For the majority of the samples (78%) the concentration of total arsenic was below 3 mg kg(-1) wet weight (ww) and inorganic arsenic constituted

Sloth, Jens JØrgen

2008-01-01

344

Total system performance predictions (TSPA-1995) for the potential high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The management and operating contractor for the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has been recently completed a new performance assessment of the ability of the repository to isolate and contain nuclear waste for long time periods (up to 1,000,000 years). Sensitivity analyses determine the most important physical parameters and processes, using the most current information and models

345

Effects of radiation and ?-tocopherol on saliva flow rate, amylase activity, total protein and electrolyte levels in oral cavity cancer  

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Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate early and late effects of radiation and a-tocopherol on the secretion rate of saliva and on selected saliva salivary parameters in oral cavity cancer patients. Patients & Methods: Eighty-nine histologically confirmed oral cavity cancer patients (OCC were enrolled in the study. Resting whole saliva was collected before, during and at the end of the radiation therapy (RT and simultaneous supplementation with ? - tocopherol to the radiation treated patients (RT + AT. Results: Salivary flow rate, pH, amylase activity, total protein, sodium and potassium were analyzed. Increased pH, potassium and decreased flow rate, amylase activity, protein content and sodium were observed in 6 weeks of radiation treated patients when compared to OCC patients. A significant improvement of those parameters was observed on ? - tocopherol supplementation in RT + AT patients. Conclusion: Supplementation with ? - tocopherol improves the salivary flow rate thereby, maintains salivary parameters.

Chitra S

2008-01-01

346

Evaluation of the level of skill required of operators of a computer-assisted radiologic total lung capacity measurement system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research was conducted to obtain information regarding the feasibility of using non-medical personnel to obtain measurements of radiologic total lung capacity (TLC). Operators from each of four groups (general undergraduates, nursing students, medical students, radiologists) differing in the amount of medical training and/or experience reading x-rays, performed each of two tasks. The first task was the measurement of radiologic TLC for a set of twenty x-rays. The second task consisted of tracing the outline of the anatomical structures that must be identified in the execution of the radiologic TLC measurement task. Data from the radiologic TLC measurement task were used to identify possible group differences in the reliability and validity of the measures. The reliability analyses were performed within the framework of Generalizability Theory. While the results are not conclusive, due to small sizes, the analyses suggest that group differences in reliability of the measures, if they exist, are small

347

Total arsenic accumulation in yabbies (Cherax destructor Clark) exposed to elevated arsenic levels in Victorian gold mining areas, Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arsenic is a proven carcinogen often found at high concentrations in association with gold and other heavy metals. The freshwater yabby, Cherax destructor Clark (Decapoda, Parastacidae), is a ubiquitous species native to Australia's central and eastern regions, with a growing international commercial market. However, in this region of Australia, yabby farmers often harvest organisms from old mine tailings dams with elevated environmental arsenic levels. Yabbies exposed to elevated environmental arsenic were found to accumulate and store as much as 100 microg/g arsenic in their tissues. The accumulation is proportional to the concentration of arsenic in the sediment and is high enough to be of concern for people who eat the yabbies. A comparison of arsenic levels in wild and lab-fed animals also was performed. Although there was no significant difference in the level of arsenic in the various organs of the wild animals, the animals purchased from a yabby farm showed a significantly higher arsenic concentration in their hepatopancreas (3.7 +/- 0.9 microg/g) compared to other organs (0.6-1.8 microg/g). Furthermore, after a 40-d exposure to food containing 200 to 300 microg/g inorganic arsenic, arsenate (As[V])-exposed animals showed a significant increase in tissue-specific arsenic accumulation, whereas arsenite (As[III])-exposed animals showed a lower, nonsignificant increase in As uptake, primarily in the hepatopancreas. These results have important implications for yabby growers and consumers alike. PMID:18198937

Williams, Gemma; West, Jan M; Snow, Elizabeth T

2008-06-01

348

Duodenal bypass does not decrease glucose levels of lean individuals with gastric cancer submitted to partial or total gastrectomy / O desvio do duodeno não diminui os níveis glicêmicos em indivíduos magros com câncer gástrico submetidos a gastrectomia parcial ou total  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Alterações no metabolismo da glucose após cirúrgias bariátricas podem ser creditadas ao desvio do duodeno. Este estudo avaliou o efeito do desvio do duodeno nos níveis glicêmicos de pacientes magros submetidos a gastrectomia por câncer. Foram revistos 56 pacientes não-diabéticos e 6 pacientes diabét [...] icos submetidos a gastrectomia com reconstrução em Y-de-Roux por câncer (gastrectomia parcial em 66% e total em 34%). Os níveis glicêmicos não se alteraram significantemente depois da operação (P = 0,5). Houve melhora do diabetes em um paciente com medicação oral. Em conclusão, o desvio duodenal não diminui os níveis glicêmicos de indivíduos magros tratados por câncer gástrico. Abstract in english Change in glucose metabolism after bariatric operations may be credited to duodenal bypass. This study aims to evaluate the effect of duodenal bypass on glucose levels in lean individuals submitted to gastrectomy for gastric cancer. We reviewed 56 non-diabetic and 6 diabetic patients submitted to ga [...] strectomy and Roux-en-Y for gastric cancer (partial gastrectomy in 66%/total gastrectomy in 34%). Glucose levels were not significantly altered after operation (P = 0.5). Diabetes control was improved in one patient with oral medication. In conclusion, duodenal bypass do not decrease glucose levels in lean individuals treated for gastric cancer.

Fernando A., Herbella; Ana C., Tineli; Jorge L., Wilson Jr; Jose C., Del Grande.

349

Duodenal bypass does not decrease glucose levels of lean individuals with gastric cancer submitted to partial or total gastrectomy O desvio do duodeno não diminui os níveis glicêmicos em indivíduos magros com câncer gástrico submetidos a gastrectomia parcial ou total  

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Full Text Available Change in glucose metabolism after bariatric operations may be credited to duodenal bypass. This study aims to evaluate the effect of duodenal bypass on glucose levels in lean individuals submitted to gastrectomy for gastric cancer. We reviewed 56 non-diabetic and 6 diabetic patients submitted to gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y for gastric cancer (partial gastrectomy in 66%/total gastrectomy in 34%. Glucose levels were not significantly altered after operation (P = 0.5. Diabetes control was improved in one patient with oral medication. In conclusion, duodenal bypass do not decrease glucose levels in lean individuals treated for gastric cancer.Alterações no metabolismo da glucose após cirúrgias bariátricas podem ser creditadas ao desvio do duodeno. Este estudo avaliou o efeito do desvio do duodeno nos níveis glicêmicos de pacientes magros submetidos a gastrectomia por câncer. Foram revistos 56 pacientes não-diabéticos e 6 pacientes diabéticos submetidos a gastrectomia com reconstrução em Y-de-Roux por câncer (gastrectomia parcial em 66% e total em 34%. Os níveis glicêmicos não se alteraram significantemente depois da operação (P = 0,5. Houve melhora do diabetes em um paciente com medicação oral. Em conclusão, o desvio duodenal não diminui os níveis glicêmicos de indivíduos magros tratados por câncer gástrico.

Fernando A. Herbella

2009-09-01

350

Comparison of a waterless hand-hygiene preparation and soap-and-water hand washing to reduce coliforms on hands in animal exhibit settings.  

Science.gov (United States)

Outbreaks of enteric disease associated with exposure to live animals on exhibit have occurred with increasing frequency in recent years. Possibly the most important pathogen causing such outbreaks is Escherichia coli O157:H7, because of the serious illness it can cause. Hand hygiene is consistently protective against disease among persons exposed to animals implicated in these outbreaks. Livestock barns have limited hand-washing facilities, therefore a waterless hand-sanitizing gel would be a potentially preventive measure readily available to visitors and animal exhibitors. This study compared the reduction of bacterial counts on hands of animal exhibitors when soap and water was used or when an ethanol-based hand gel was used after animal handling. Participants were youth and adults involved with showing livestock. The sanitation methods were similar in reducing the total bacteria and coliform counts on the hands of the participants (Wilcoxon rank sum test P values 0.12 and 0.69 respectively). PMID:16492319

Davis, M A; Sheng, H; Newman, J; Hancock, D D; Hovde, C J

2006-10-01

351

COLIFORMES FECAIS, ESTAFILOCOCOS COAGULASE POSITIVA (ECP, Salmonella SPP. E Campylobacter SPP. EM LINGÜIÇA FRESCAL  

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Full Text Available

Lingüiça frescal faz parte dos alimentos expostos à contaminações e constitue um excelente meio para desenvolvimento e multiplicação de microrganismos. Assim, a presente pesquisa teve como objetivo verificar a qualidade microbiológica de 106 amostras de lingüiça frescal de carne de frango, mista (carne bovina e suína e de carne suína, fabricadas artesanalmente e sob inspeção, no município de Jaboticabal – SP, Brasil. Determinou-se o númer