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1

Bacteriological (fecal and total coliform) quality of Pakistani coastal water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The coliform bacteria group consists of several genera of bacteria belonging to the family enterobacteriaceae. These are harmless bacteria, mostly live in soil, water, and digestive system of animals. Fecal coliform bacteria, which belongs to this group, are present in large numbers in feces and intestinal tract of human beings and other warm-blooded animals which can enter into water bodies from human and animal waste. Swimming in water having high levels of Fecal coliform bacteria increases the chance of developing illness (fever, nausea or stomach cramps) from pathogens entering the body through mouth, nose, ears or cuts in the skin. The objective of the present study was to characterize the bathing quality of Pakistani coastal water with respect to coliform bacteria. Total and Fecal coliform bacteria were determined at seven different locations along Pakistan coast using membrane filtration (MF) technique. 100 ml of water was passed through 0.45 micron (mu) filter paper. These filter papers were put on pads, soaked in Lauryle sulphate broth in petri-dishes and incubated at 44 deg. C for Fecal and 37 deg. for Total coliform for 24 hours. Significantly high population of Fecal and Total coliform bacteria was recorded at Karachi harbour area and Indus delta region. Results indicate that a large amount of domestically originated waste is being discharged into these locations without any pre-treatment (e.g., screening, activated sludge, by using filtration beds etc.) resulting in a poor seawater quality making it unfit for bathing. (author)

2010-01-01

2

A comparison of ten USEPA approved total coliform/E. coli tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 2002, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has approved ten enzyme-based total coliform and E. coli detection tests for examination of drinking water. These tests include: Colilert, Colilert-18, Colisure, m-Coli Blue 24, Readycult Coliforms 100, Chromocult, Coliscan, E * Colite, Colitag and MI Agar. The utility of the enzyme based test systems is based on both the ability of the test to detect the target organisms at low levels and the ability of the test system to suppress the growth of non-target organisms that might result in false positive results. Differences in the ability of some of these methods to detect total coliform and E. coli, as well as suppress Aeromonas spp., a common cause of "false positive" results, have been observed. As a result, this study was undertaken to elucidate the strengths and weaknesses of each method. Water samples were collected from three geographically and chemically diverse groundwaters in Wisconsin. One-hundred milliliter aliquots were individually spiked with both low concentrations (one to ten organisms) and high concentrations (fifty to one-hundred) of each of five different total coliform organisms (Serratia, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, E. coli, & Klebsiella). These spiked samples were used to test the capability of ten enzyme-based test systems to both detect and enumerate the spiked organisms. In addition, 100 ml samples were independently spiked with two different strains of Aeromonas spp. at six different levels, to assess the ability of each enzyme-based test to suppress Aeromonas spp. Analysis of the data indicated that wide variability exists among USEPA approved tests to detect and quantify total coliforms, as well as suppress Aeromonas spp. PMID:17674575

Olstadt, Jeremy; Schauer, James Jay; Standridge, Jon; Kluender, Sharon

2007-06-01

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Prevelance of total coliforms, faecal coliforms and E. coli in Rawalpindi vegetable markets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nutritional value of vegetables and high prices of meat and meat originated food compel common people to consume plant originated food particularly salad vegetables. Microbial population of vegetable surfaces contains a large number of pathogenic bacteria including members of Enterobactereace like Escherichia coli (E. coli. A survey was conducted in three major markets of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Tomato, lettuce, cabbage and cucumber samples were collected from three shops of each market. Each vegetable was analysed as unwashed and washed for total coliforms, faecal coliforms and E. coli by FAO (Food Quality Manual. About two hundred and fifty E. coli isolates were preserved, serotyped for presence of O157 serotype. Total coliforms, faecal coliforms and E. coli count exceeded the permissible limits in most samples. The highest Total coliforms were associated with cabbage (3.78 log10 cfu/g. Cucumber was the least contaminated by Total coliforms (2.15 log10 cfu/g. E. coli was detected in tomato, lettuce, cucumber and cabbage. Washed samples showed reduced bacterial population. Seventy six isolates of E. coli were biochemically characterized and serotyped for O157 antigen. A majority of strains could not be identified by serotyping. These findings conclude with high potentially pathogenic microbial load on salad vegetables and urge for preventive action on priority basis.

Sadia Alam

2013-12-01

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Ultrasonic Technology Effectiveness in Total Coliforms Disinfection of Water  

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Full Text Available The effect of ultrasonic upon the destruction of total coliforms has been studied in this research. Also, the impact of power intensity and ultrasonic frequency on the germicidal effectiveness of sonification has been explored. The results obtained from the work carried out have shown that ultrasonic can be used effectively for water disinfection and increase in percent kill for coliforms may occur with increase in contact time to ultrasonic in the 42 kHz. These results suggest that ultrasonic in this frequency is capable to some degree in inactivating total coliforms in water.

A.H. Mahvi

2005-01-01

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VALIDITY OF FECAL COLIFORMS, TOTAL COLIFORMS, AND FECAL STREPTOCOCCI AS INDICATORS OF VIRUSES IN CHLORINATED PRIMARY SEWAGE EFFLUENTS  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantities of combined chlorine that usually destroyed more than 99.999% of the indigenous fecal coliforms, total coliforms, and fecal streptococci in primary sewage effluents destroyed only 85 to 99% of the indigenous viruses present. Viruses were recovered from five of eight ch...

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Enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli from source water by the defined substrate technology.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many water utilities are required to monitor source water for the presence of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, or both. The Colilert system, an application of the defined substrate technology, simultaneously detects the presence of both total coliforms and Escherichia coli directly from a water sample. After incubation, the formula becomes yellow if total coliforms are present and fluorescent at 366 nm if E. coli is in the same sample. No confirmatory tests are required. The Colilert system ...

Edberg, S. C.; Allen, M. J.; Smith, D. B.; Kriz, N. J.

1990-01-01

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Enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli from source water by the defined substrate technology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many water utilities are required to monitor source water for the presence of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, or both. The Colilert system, an application of the defined substrate technology, simultaneously detects the presence of both total coliforms and Escherichia coli directly from a water sample. After incubation, the formula becomes yellow if total coliforms are present and fluorescent at 366 nm if E. coli is in the same sample. No confirmatory tests are required. The Colilert system was previously assessed with distribution water in a national evaluation in both most-probably-number and presence-absence formats and found to produce data equivalent to those obtained by using Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (Standard Methods). The Colilert system was now compared with Standard Methods multiple-tube fermentation (MTF) for the enumeration of total coliforms and E. coli from surface water. All MTF tubes were confirmed according to Standard Methods, and subcultures were made to identify isolates to the species level. The Colilert system was found equally sensitive to MTF testing by regression, t test, chi-square, and likelihood fraction analyses. Specificity of the Colilert system was shown by the isolation of a species of total coliform or E. coli after the appropriate color change. The Colilert test can be used for source water samples when enumeration is required, and the benefits previously described for distribution water testing--sensitivity, specificity, less labor, lower cost, faster results, no noncoliform heterotroph interference--are applicable to this type of water analysis. PMID:2407184

Edberg, S C; Allen, M J; Smith, D B; Kriz, N J

1990-02-01

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Comparison of Verification Procedures for the Membrane Filter Total Coliform Technique  

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Verification of membrane filter total coliform colonies from drinking water was increased 87% by testing for the presence of ?-galactosidase and cytochrome oxidase, compared with verification by determination of gas production in lauryl tryptose broth. Over 90% of the coliforms verified by testing for ?-galactosidase and cytochrome oxidase were representative of the typical coliform genera.

1983-01-01

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Disinfection of total coli-forms in unchlorinated secondary effluent with electron beam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate the disinfection of total coli-forms in the effluent of secondary sewage treatment plant with radiation, electron beam has introduced. Unchlorinated secondary effluent was irradiated at different dose of 0.2-1.0 kGy with 1 MeV, 40kW electron accelerator. It is observed that nearly 100% reduction in E-Coli. and total coli-forms were achieved with a dose of 0.8kGy. Even with the lower dose of 0.2kGy, the E-Coli. and total coli-forms were successfully inactivated to the level of the new guideline for discharged effluent that has been effective from 2003 in Korea. Besides disinfection of total coli-forms, approximately 50% of removal in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) was also observed at a dose of 0.2kGy. More than 20% removal in suspended solids (SS) and turbidity was also observed at a dose of 1.0kGy. The application of electron beam irradiation appeared to be one of the options to reuse effluent from sewage treatment plant as agricultural or industrial water. (author)

2004-09-01

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Bactérias coliformes totais e coliformes de origem fecal em águas usadas na dessedentação de animais Total and fecal coliform bacteria in animal drinking water  

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Full Text Available Foram colhidas 105 amostras de água sendo 44 de mananciais e de 61 bebedouros, a partir das quais foram realizadas as determinações dos NMP (Número Mais Provável de bactérias coliformes totais e fecais. De acordo com a Portaria GM/0013 de 15 de janeiro de 1976, da Secretaria Especial do Meio Ambiente do Ministério do Interior, os 44 mananciais revelaram-se dentro dos parâmetros estabelecidos. Embora não haja referência com relação a bebedouros, aplicando-se os valores estabelecidos para mananciais, das 61 amostras estudadas, somente 6 (9,8% não poderiam ser usadas para a dessedentação de animais. Das 105 amostras analisadas, verificou-se que as condições sanitárias revelaram-se não satisfatórias em 6 (5,7% amostras de bebedouros quanto a coliformes fecais, sendo 3 (2,8% também com relação a coliformes totais.The objective of the present experiment was to get information on the sanitary quality of water drunk by animals in the Botucatu region, S. Paulo State, Brazil. MPN (More Provable Number counts of coliform and fecal coliform bacteria of 105 water samples were made. Of these samples 44 were taken from fountains and 61 from watering troughs. According to the Brazilian government directive, of the Ministry of the Interior, the 44 fountains were shown to be in accordance with the established parameters. As this government directive does not make reference to watering troughs, applying the same values established for fountains, it was observed that of 61 of the samples examined, only 6 (9.8% proved to be outside the parameters. Of the 105 samples examined, all showed good sanitary conditions, except 6 samples (9.8% of watering troughs in relation to fecal coliforms. Of these 6 samples, 3 showed bad sanitary conditions too, but only regard to total coliforms.

Luiz Carlos Souza

1983-04-01

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Antimicrobial resistant coliform bacteria in the Gomti river water and determination of their tolerance level  

Science.gov (United States)

The distribution of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, sulfonamides, tetracycline, and streptomycin among coliform in the Gomti river water samples was investigated. The coliform populations were isolated on Mac Conky and eosin methylene blue (EMB) agar plates supplemented with antibiotics. The incidence of resistance among the coliform population varied considerably in different drug and water sampling sites. Coliform bacteria showed lower drug resistant viable count in sampling site-III (receiving treated wastewater) as compared to more polluted site-I and site-II. Viable count of coliform population obtained on both medium was recorded higher against erythromycin from sampling site-III. Lower viable count of coliforms was recorded against tetracycline in site-II and III. Similar resistance pattern was obtained in the frequency of E. coli and Enterobacter species from all the three sampling sites. Percentage of antibiotic resistant E. coli was observed higher than Enterobacter spp among the total coliforms against all antibiotics tested without Erythromycin and penicillin in site-I and II respectively. Isolates of E. coli and Enterobacter spp. showed their tolerance level (MIC) in the range of 2-100 against the antibiotics tested. Maximum number of isolates of both genus exhibited their MICs at lower concentration range 2-5µg/ml against ciprofloxacin, tetracyclin and amoxycillin. Abbreviations EMB - Eosin methylene blue, IMViC tests - Indole, Methyl Red, Voges Proskauer and Citrate Utilization Tests, MIC - Minimum inhibitory concentration.

Akhter, Asma; Imran, Mohd; Akhter, Firoz

2014-01-01

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Evaluation of the Autoanalysis Colilert test for detection and enumeration of total coliforms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Autoanalysis Colilert (AC) test was compared with the membrane filter (MF), 10-tube multiple-tube fermentation (MTF) technique, and the presence-absence test as described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater for the detection and enumeration of total coliforms in water. The methods were evaluated with 31 samples from seven different sources. Each sample was analyzed by each of the techniques, using replicate 100-ml sample volumes. A total of 582 confirmed tubes were positive by the MTF test, and 533 tubes were positive by the AC test. Statistical analysis of the most-probable-number comparability data showed a statistically significant difference in the number of positive tubes, with the MTF test resulting in more positive tubes. There were no statistically significant differences in precision between the two methods. All the methods were comparable in detection of total coliforms. Levels of heterotrophic bacteria generally encountered in drinking water did not interfere with detection or enumeration of coliforms by the AC test. PMID:2513773

Covert, T C; Shadix, L C; Rice, E W; Haines, J R; Freyberg, R W

1989-10-01

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Disinfection of total coli-forms in the effluent from municipal wastewater plant with electron beam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electron beam has introduced to investigate the effect of radiation on the disinfection of coliforms in the effluent from the municipal wastewater treatment plant. Unchlorinated secondary effluent was irradiated at different dose of 0.2 - 1.0 kGy with 1 MeV, 40 kW electron accelerator. It is observed that nearly 100% reduction in E. coli and total coliforms were achieved with a dose of 0.8 kGy. Even with the lower dose of 0.2 kGy, the E. coli and total coliforms were successfully inactivated to the level of the new guideline for discharged effluent that has been effective from 2003 in Korea. Based on the data obtained in the experiments, industrial scale plant was designed with 0.2 kGy for the flow rate of 100,000 m3 effluent per day. The overall cost for plant construction is approximately 4.0?4.5M$, and the operation cost is around 1M$/yr. This is quite reasonable when compared to other advanced oxidation techniques such as Ozonation, UV techniques etc. (author)

2006-08-01

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COMPARISON OF VERIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR THE MEMBRANE FILTER TOTAL COLIFORM TECHNIQUE  

Science.gov (United States)

Verification of membrane filter total coliform colonies from drinking water was increased 87% by testing for the presence of beta-galactosidase and cytochrome oxidase, compared with verification by determination of gas production in lauryl tryptose broth. Over 90% of the coliform...

15

ESCHERICHIA COLI AND TOTAL COLIFORMS IN WATER AND SEDIMENTS AT LAKE MARINAS  

Science.gov (United States)

Escherichia coli, a fecal coliform, and total coliforms were monitored between September 1999 to October 2001 in five marinas on Lake Texoma, located on the Oklahoma and Texas border. General trend was that densities of E. coli were lower in the summer season due to the lower ...

16

Evaluation of total and thermotolerant coliforms on lettuce self service restaurants in Sinop-MT  

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Full Text Available Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. is the leafy vegetable most consumed in the world and present high content of pro vitamin A in green leaves; it’s rich in calcium and iron and presents reasonable amounts of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and C. When eaten raw in salads they can to transmit pathogens if are inadequately cleaned. This study aimed to evaluate the microbiological quality of lettuce served in self-service restaurants in the city of Sinop – MT, concerning the total and thermotolerant coliforms. The laboratory analysis used was the Most Probable Number method (MPN. All samples were positive for total coliforms, reaching values above 1100 MPN/g, and when analyzed to confirm the presence of coliforms tolerant, all samples were negative. These results allowed observing that the values found for tolerant coliforms are within the standards established by legislation, but the total coliform count indicates poor hygiene lettuce served and consumed

P. C. Perondi

2013-11-01

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The Efficiency of Removal of Total Coliforms, Faecal Coliforms and Coliphages in a Wastewater Treatment Plant in Riyadh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Limited water resources in Saudi Arabia necessitate the re-use of treated wastewater for irrigation, industrial and recreational purposes. The large numbers of pathogenic agents present in wastewater requires continuous monitoring of the removal of such agents from water prior to re-use. In a one year study total and faecal coliforms and coliphages were estimated in monthly samples from a wastewater treatment plant in Riyadh to evaluate the removal efficiency of such indicators at various lev...

Fattouh, F. A.; Al-kahtani, M. T.

2002-01-01

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75 FR 40925 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule  

Science.gov (United States)

...Coliform Rule (USEPA 2010b). [GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED...represented by total organic carbon (TOC)) that contribute...Estimates for the Proposed RTCR A computer simulation model was used to...outputs. [[Page 40990

2010-07-14

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Total coliform detection in drinking water: comparison of membrane filtration with Colilert and Coliquik.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Colilert (CL) and Coliquik (CQ) systems were compared in a presence-absence format against the Standard Methods membrane filtration (MF) technique to determine whether differences existed in total coliform detection. Approximately 750 water samples were collected from distribution systems, covered and uncovered storage reservoirs, well sites, and the influent to drinking water treatment plants. Samples were analyzed for total coliforms and heterotrophic bacteria with MF, CL, and CQ. The a...

Olson, B. H.; Clark, D. L.; Milner, B. B.; Stewart, M. H.; Wolfe, R. L.

1991-01-01

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Bacteria holding times for fecal coliform by mFC agar method and total coliform and Escherichia coli by Colilert-18 Quanti-Tray method.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacteria holding-time experiments of up to 62 h were performed on five surface-water samples from four urban stream sites in the vicinity of Atlanta, GA, USA that had relatively high densities of coliform bacteria (Escherichia coli densities were all well above the US Environmental Protection Agency criterion of 126 colonies (100 ml)(-1) for recreational waters). Holding-time experiments were done for fecal coliform using the membrane filtration modified fecal coliform (mFC) agar method and for total coliform and E. coli using the Colilert-18 Quanti-Tray method. The precisions of these analytical methods were quantified. Precisions determined for fecal coliform indicated that the upper bound of the ideal range of counts could reasonably be extended upward and would improve precision. For the Colilert-18 method, analytical precisions were similar to the theoretical precisions for this method. Fecal and total coliform densities did not change significantly with holding times up to about 27 h. Limited information indicated that fecal coliform densities might be stable for holding times of up to 62 h, whereas total coliform densities might not be stable for holding times greater than about 27 h. E. coli densities were stable for holding times of up to 18 h--a shorter period than indicated from a previous studies. These results should be applicable to non-regulatory monitoring sampling designs for similar urban surface-water sample types. PMID:19165613

Aulenbach, Brent T

2010-02-01

 
 
 
 
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Removal of total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, and helminth eggs in Swine production wastewater treated in anaerobic and aerobic reactors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work evaluated the performance of two treatment systems in reducing indicators of biological contamination in swine production wastewater. System I consisted of two upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors, with 510 and 209?L in volume, being serially arranged. System II consisted of a UASB reactor, anaerobic filter, trickling filter, and decanter, being also organized in series, with volumes of 300, 190, 250, and 150?L, respectively. Hydraulic retention times (HRT) applied in the first UASB reactors were 40, 30, 20, and 11?h in systems I and II. The average removal efficiencies of total and thermotolerant coliforms in system I were 92.92% to 99.50% and 94.29% to 99.56%, respectively, and increased in system II to 99.45% to 99.91% and 99.52% to 99.93%, respectively. Average removal rates of helminth eggs in system I were 96.44% to 99.11%, reaching 100% as in system II. In reactor sludge, the counts of total and thermotolerant coliforms ranged between 10(5) and 10(9)?MPN (100?mL)(-1), while helminth eggs ranged from 0.86 to 9.27?eggs?g(-1)?TS. PMID:24812560

Zacarias Sylvestre, Silvia Helena; Lux Hoppe, Estevam Guilherme; de Oliveira, Roberto Alves

2014-01-01

22

Removal of Total Coliforms, Thermotolerant Coliforms, and Helminth Eggs in Swine Production Wastewater Treated in Anaerobic and Aerobic Reactors  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work evaluated the performance of two treatment systems in reducing indicators of biological contamination in swine production wastewater. System I consisted of two upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors, with 510 and 209?L in volume, being serially arranged. System II consisted of a UASB reactor, anaerobic filter, trickling filter, and decanter, being also organized in series, with volumes of 300, 190, 250, and 150?L, respectively. Hydraulic retention times (HRT) applied in the first UASB reactors were 40, 30, 20, and 11?h in systems I and II. The average removal efficiencies of total and thermotolerant coliforms in system I were 92.92% to 99.50% and 94.29% to 99.56%, respectively, and increased in system II to 99.45% to 99.91% and 99.52% to 99.93%, respectively. Average removal rates of helminth eggs in system I were 96.44% to 99.11%, reaching 100% as in system II. In reactor sludge, the counts of total and thermotolerant coliforms ranged between 105 and 109?MPN (100?mL)?1, while helminth eggs ranged from 0.86 to 9.27?eggs?g?1?TS.

Zacarias Sylvestre, Silvia Helena; Lux Hoppe, Estevam Guilherme; de Oliveira, Roberto Alves

2014-01-01

23

Quantitative determination of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in marine waters with chromogenic and fluorogenic media.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study compared the performance of LMX(R) broth (LMX), Chromocult Coliform(R) agar (CC) and Chromocult Coliform agar plus cefsulodin (10 microg ml-1) (CC-CFS), with standard methods multiple tube fermentation (MTF), for the enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli from marine recreational waters. LMX and CC are two media designed to concurrently detect total coliform (TC) bacteria and E. coli by the specific action of beta-galactosidase (total coliforms) and beta-glucuronidase (E. coli). Overall results for the TC test showed that LMX, CC and MTF recovered 2.63, 1.95 and 1.90 times as many TCs as CC-CFS, respectively. Data from the multiple range test showed significant differences (P LMX. The traditional MTF was less sensitive for E. coli enumeration. However, there was no statistically significant differences between LMX, CC, CC-CFS and the MTF method for E. coli enumeration. Background interference was reduced on CC-CFS and the counts obtained reflected more accurately the number of TCs. Therefore, the contribution of beta-galactosidase positive, non coliform bacteria (Aeromonas spp. and Vibrio spp.) to TC counts should not be neglected. PMID:10735996

Geissler, K; Manafi, M; Amorós, I; Alonso, J L

2000-02-01

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Total coliform detection in drinking water: comparison of membrane filtration with Colilert and Coliquik.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Colilert (CL) and Coliquik (CQ) systems were compared in a presence-absence format against the Standard Methods membrane filtration (MF) technique to determine whether differences existed in total coliform detection. Approximately 750 water samples were collected from distribution systems, covered and uncovered storage reservoirs, well sites, and the influent to drinking water treatment plants. Samples were analyzed for total coliforms and heterotrophic bacteria with MF, CL, and CQ. The agreements between CL and MF and between CQ and MF were both greater than 94.8%, which indicates that both may be acceptable methods for total coliform detection. Disagreement between the CL and CQ methods was primarily due to false-negative results. Furthermore, laboratory and field inoculation methods were compared for CL, more than 98% agreement was obtained. This finding indicates that sampling and immediate field inoculation may be an alternative to the traditional laboratory inoculation. PMID:1854206

Olson, B H; Clark, D L; Milner, B B; Stewart, M H; Wolfe, R L

1991-05-01

25

The Effect of Various Ecosystems on the Levels of Fecal Coliforms  

Science.gov (United States)

: The purpose of this experiment was to determine if various ecosystems affect the levels of fecal coliforms. An ecosystem, or ecological system, is a community that has all the physical aspects of its habitat such as the water, soil, and weather. Fecal coliforms are a special group of bacteria, which live and reproduce in the intestines of warm-blooded animals. In this experiment, four ecosystems-- a wetland, up stream of a wetland, down stream of a wetland, and Reedy Creek--were tested for levels of fecal coliforms. It was hypothesized that fecal coliform levels will be greater in Reedy Creek because it meanders through an urban area, has eroded banks, and contains channelized sections and lower upstream because of the decreasing urbanization and lower population density. The data expressed that the average number of fecal coliforms at the wetland site was 57 fecal coliforms per 100mL of water. Upstream of the wetland contained an average of 580 fecal coliforms per 100mL of water. The site down stream of the wetland and 170 fecal coliforms per 100mL of water and Reedy Creek contained 603 fecal coliforms per 100mL of water. Data demonstrated that Reedy Creek had the greatest level of fecal coliforms and the wetland site contained the least amount of fecal coliforms. Reedy Creek fecal coliform levels were greater because the creek meanders through an urban area and humans or animals can contaminate its ecosystem. The volume of the water in the wetland may have caused the wetland site to contain the least number of fecal coliforms. This data partially supported the hypothesis. If the experimenter had gathered more water samples for a longer duration, then the data would show if there were a serious health hazard or an anomaly from the defecation of a wandering animal.

Belcher, X. W.

2002-05-01

26

Analysis of The Microbiological Contamination (Total And Fecal Coliforms) In The Bay Of Santa Marta, Colombian Caribbean  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the purpose of making an analysis of the microbiological level of contamination and the main sources of contamination in the Bay of Santa Marta (BSM), water samples were collected to measure the concentrations of total and fecal coliforms in 11 stations and two levels of depth (1 and 20 m). For the time of greater precipitations were stops values of total and fecal coliforms, in both depth levels; appearing a similar condition for the dry time. Based on a conceptual scale it was obtained that the BSM presents an average degree of contamination for activities of primary contact (swimming and diving), nevertheless, exist several sources of contamination (submarine emissary, river, seaport, among others) that are generating a high impact on this ecosystem. The high values of contamination that are registered in the BSM find associate to the proximity that has this to the urban zones.

2008-01-01

27

Molecular method for detection of total coliforms in drinking water samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work demonstrates the ability of a bacterial concentration and recovery procedure combined with three different PCR assays targeting the lacZ, wecG, and 16S rRNA genes, respectively, to detect the presence of total coliforms in 100-ml samples of potable water (presence/absence test). PCR assays were first compared to the culture-based Colilert and MI agar methods to determine their ability to detect 147 coliform strains representing 76 species of Enterobacteriaceae encountered in fecal and environmental settings. Results showed that 86 (58.5%) and 109 (74.1%) strains yielded a positive signal with Colilert and MI agar methods, respectively, whereas the lacZ, wecG, and 16S rRNA PCR assays detected 133 (90.5%), 111 (75.5%), and 146 (99.3%) of the 147 total coliform strains tested. These assays were then assessed by testing 122 well water samples collected in the Québec City region of Canada. Results showed that 97 (79.5%) of the samples tested by culture-based methods and 95 (77.9%), 82 (67.2%), and 98 (80.3%) of samples tested using PCR-based methods contained total coliforms, respectively. Consequently, despite the high genetic variability of the total coliform group, this study demonstrated that it is possible to use molecular assays to detect total coliforms in potable water: the 16S rRNA molecular assay was shown to be as efficient as recommended culture-based methods. This assay might be used in combination with an Escherichia coli molecular assay to assess drinking water quality. PMID:24771030

Maheux, Andrée F; Boudreau, Dominique K; Bisson, Marc-Antoine; Dion-Dupont, Vanessa; Bouchard, Sébastien; Nkuranga, Martine; Bergeron, Michel G; Rodriguez, Manuel J

2014-07-15

28

Application of a good manufacturing practices checklist and enumeration of total coliform in swine feed mills  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A cross-sectional study in four swine feed mills aimed to evaluate the correlation between the score of the inspection checklist defined in the Normative Instruction 4 (IN 4/ Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply, and the enumeration of total coliforms throughout the manufacturing process. The most of non-conformities was found in the physical structure of the feed mills. Feed mill B showed the lowest number of unconformities while units A and D had the largest number of nonconformities. In 38.53% (489/1269 of the samples the presence of total coliform was detected, however no significant difference in the bacterial counts was observed between sampling sites and feed mills. The logistic regression pointed higher odds ratio (OR for total coliforms isolation at dosing (OR = 9.51, 95% CI: 4.43 to 20.41, grinding (OR = 7.10, 95% CI = 3.27 to 15.40 and residues (OR = 6.21, 95% CI: 3.88 to 9.95 In spite of having the second score in the checklist inspection, feed mill C presented the highest odds for total coliforms isolation (OR= 2,43, IC 95%: 1,68-3,53. The data indicate no association between the score of checklist and the presence of hygienic indicators in feed mills.

Debora da Cruz Payao Pellegrini

2014-02-01

29

Comparison of total coliform, fecal coliform, and enterococcus bacterial indicator response for ocean recreational water quality testing.  

Science.gov (United States)

In July 1999, California's ocean recreational bacterial water quality standards were changed from a total coliform (TC) test to a standard requiring testing for all three bacterial indicators: TC, fecal coliforms (FC), and enterococci (EC). To compare the relationship between the bacterial indicators, and the effect that changing the standards would have on recreational water regulatory actions, three regional studies were conducted along the southern California shoreline from Santa Barbara to San Diego, California. Two studies were conducted during dry weather and one following a large storm event. In each study, samples were collected at over 200 sites which were selected using a stratified random design, with strata consisting of open beach areas and rocky shoreline, and areas near freshwater outlets that drain land-based runoff. During the dry weather studies, samples were collected once per week for 5 weeks. For the storm event study, sampling occurred on a single day about 24 h following the storm. The three indicator bacteria were measured at each site and the results were compared to the single sample standards (TC > 10,000; FC > 400 and EC > 104 MPN or cfu/100 ml). EC was the indicator that failed the single sample standards most often. During the wet weather study, 99% of all standard failures were detected using EC, compared with only 56% for FC, and 40% for TC. During the Summer Study, EC was again the indicator that failed the single sample standards most often, with 60% of the failures for EC alone. The increased failure of the EC standard occurred consistently regardless of whether the sample was collected at a beach or rocky shoreline site, or at a site near a freshwater outlet. Agreement among indicators was better during wet weather than during dry weather. During dry weather, agreement among indicators was better near freshwater outlets than along open shoreline. Cumulatively, our results suggest that replacement of a TC standard with an EC standard will lead to a five-fold increase in failures during dry weather and a doubling of failures during wet weather. Replacing a TC standard with one based on all three indicators will lead to an eight-fold increase in failures. Changes in the requirements for water quality testing have strong implications for increases in beach closures and restrictions. PMID:12600392

Noble, R T; Moore, D F; Leecaster, M K; McGee, C D; Weisberg, S B

2003-04-01

30

Rapid detection of total and fecal coliforms in water by enzymatic hydrolysis of 4-methylumbelliferone-beta-D-galactoside.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Three fluorogenic methylumbelliferone (MU) substrates were evaluated for rapid detection of total and fecal coliform bacteria (TC and FC) in drinking water. 4-MU-beta-D-galactoside, MU-heptanoate, and MU-glucuronide were used to determine enzyme activity as a surrogate measure of coliform concentration. Coliforms occurring in river water and in potable water artificially contaminated with raw sewage were tested. The initial rate of hydrolysis (delta F) of MU-beta-D-galactoside showed promise ...

1988-01-01

31

Use of Readycult? - LMX for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in milk Uso do Readycult? para enumeração de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em leite  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Readycult? - LMX is a rapid method to test for the presence of total coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli in water, giving results in 24h. It is based on reactions of specific microbial enzymes or indicator nutrients of the medium. The goal of this paper was to study the use of Readycult? - LMX to detect total coliform and E. coli in milk. One hundred twenty five samples of pasteurized and raw milk, collected in Londrina, PR, Brazil, were tested simultaneously by the most probable...

Vanerli Beloti; Márcia de Aguiar Ferreira Barros; Maurício Pinto Nunes; Elsa Helena Walter de Santana; Luís Augusto Nero; Juliana Aparecida de Souza

2002-01-01

32

Evaluation of the Autoanalysis Colilert test for detection and enumeration of total coliforms.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The Autoanalysis Colilert (AC) test was compared with the membrane filter (MF), 10-tube multiple-tube fermentation (MTF) technique, and the presence-absence test as described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater for the detection and enumeration of total coliforms in water. The methods were evaluated with 31 samples from seven different sources. Each sample was analyzed by each of the techniques, using replicate 100-ml sample volumes. A total of 582 confirmed tubes ...

Covert, T. C.; Shadix, L. C.; Rice, E. W.; Haines, J. R.; Freyberg, R. W.

1989-01-01

33

Detection of false-positives among total and fecal coliform counts by factorial analysis of correspondence.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Application of an analysis of correspondence to the biochemical characteristics of total and fecal coliforms isolated in the Ivory Coast permitted us to separate two small clusters of isolates different from the main clusters, which included isolates from human and animal feces. The isolates grouped in the small clusters were from water samples. An analysis of the biochemical characteristics which permitted the segregation of the "water-specific" isolates from the main clusters indicates that...

Joncas, M.; Michaud, S.; Carmichael, J. P.; Lavoie, M. C.

1985-01-01

34

Use of Readycult? - LMX for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in milk / Uso do Readycult? para enumeração de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em leite  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O Readycult? - LMX é um método rápido, que permite resultados em 24h para detecção de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli. Indicado para detecção destes microrganismos em água, baseia-se em reações de enzimas específicas dos coliformes com nutrientes-indicadores do meio. O objetivo deste trabalho f [...] oi estudar sua utilização para enumeração de coliformes e E. coli em leite. 125 amostras de leite cru e pasteurizado coletadas na cidade de Londrina, PR, Brasil, foram submetidas à determinação do Número Mais Provável (NMP) de coliformes totais e E. coli pela técnica de tubos múltiplos, utilizando-se simultaneamente o Caldo Lactosado Bile Verde Brilhante (CLBVB) e o Readycult? - LMX. A análise estatística indicou uma correlação entre os resultados obtidos pelos dois métodos de 0,8224 para coliformes totais e de 0,8603 para E. coli. Observou-se que o Readycult? - LMX e o CLBVB deram resultados semelhantes, mas o Readycult? - LMX foi mais fácil de ser utilizado. Além disso, os resultados foram mais rapidamente obtidos (24h). Abstract in english Readycult? - LMX is a rapid method to test for the presence of total coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli in water, giving results in 24h. It is based on reactions of specific microbial enzymes or indicator nutrients of the medium. The goal of this paper was to study the use of Readycult? - LMX to [...] detect total coliform and E. coli in milk. One hundred twenty five samples of pasteurized and raw milk, collected in Londrina, PR, Brazil, were tested simultaneously by the most probable number (MPN) method using Brilliant Green Bile Lactose Broth (2%) (BRILA) and Readycult? - LMX. The Readycult? - LMX test was evaluated for sensitivity, simplicity, and speed of results. There was a significant correlation between the results obtained by the two methods for total coliforms (r: 0.8224) and for E. coli (r: 0.8603). The two methods yielded similar results, but Readycult? - LMX was easier to use. In addition, results were available as early as 24h.

Vanerli, Beloti; Márcia de Aguiar Ferreira, Barros; Maurício Pinto, Nunes; Elsa Helena Walter de, Santana; Luís Augusto, Nero; Juliana Aparecida de, Souza.

35

Use of Readycult[tm] - LMX for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Readycult[tm] - LMX is a rapid method to test for the presence of total coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli in water, giving results in 24h. It is based on reactions of specific microbial enzymes or indicator nutrients of the medium. The goal of this paper was to study the use of Readycult[tm] - LMX to detect total coliform and E. coli in milk. One hundred twenty five samples of pasteurized and raw milk, collected in Londrina, PR, Brazil, were tested simultaneously by the most probable number (MPN method using Brilliant Green Bile Lactose Broth (2% (BRILA and Readycult[tm] - LMX. The Readycult[tm] - LMX test was evaluated for sensitivity, simplicity, and speed of results. There was a significant correlation between the results obtained by the two methods for total coliforms (r: 0.8224 and for E. coli (r: 0.8603. The two methods yielded similar results, but Readycult[tm] - LMX was easier to use. In addition, results were available as early as 24h.

Beloti Vanerli

2002-01-01

36

Variability in the Characterization of Total Coliforms, Fecal Coliforms and Escherichia coli in Recreational Water Supplies of North Mississippi, USA.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, is a historical organism for the detection of fecal pollution in water supplies. The presence of E. coli indicates a potential contamination of the water supply by other more hazardous human pathogens. In order to accurately determine the presence and degree of fecal contamination, it is important that standard methods approved by the US Environmental Protection Agency are designed to determine the presence of E. coli in a water supply, and distinguish E. coli from other coliform bacteria (e.g. Citrobacter, Klebsiella and Enterobacter). These genera of bacteria are present not only in fecal matter, but also in soil and runoff water and are not good indicators of fecal contamination. There is also ambiguity in determining a positive result for fecal coliforms on M-FC filters by a blue colony. When all variations of blue, including light blue or glossy blue, were examined, confirmation methods agreed with the positive M-FC result less often than when colonies that the technician would merely call "blue", with no descriptors, were examined. Approximately 48 % of M-FC positive colonies were found to be E. coli with 4 methylumbelliferyl-?-D-glucuronide (MUG), and only 23 % of samples producing a positive result on M-FC media were found to be E. coli using API-20E test strips and current API-20E profiles. The majority of other M-FC blue colonies were found to be Klebsiella or were unidentifiable with current API-20E profiles. Two positive M-FC colonies were found to be Kluyvera with API-20E, both of which cleaved MUG and produced fluorescence under UV light, a characteristic used to differentiate E. coli from other fecal coliforms. PMID:24952738

Fiello, M; Mikell, A T; Moore, M T; Cooper, C M

2014-08-01

37

Disinfection of total coli-forms in the effluent from municipal wastewater plant with electron beam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Average annual rainfall in Korea is around 1,270mm and is about 30% more than that of the world (973mm), but it varies too much with season and area to control for withdrawal. By considering the high population density (3rd in the world), the annual rainfall per capita is decreased to only 1/11 (3,000 ton/yr/man) of the world average. And even worse, 2/3 of those rainfalls are concentrated in 2 or 3 months in summer and hence only 24% of rainfall could be accessible for human uses. Demand for fresh water in our country increases gradually with industrialization and urbanization, but the supply has limitations in its increasing. To observe the applicability of electron beam treatment for disinfection of the effluent from municipal sewage treatment plant, the effectiveness of electron beam irradiation in the disinfection of wastewater and the improvement of the water quality were measured by determining the changes in organic matter as indicated by the measurement of BOD, COD and TOC. The experiments were conducted with 1MeV, 40kW electron accelerator at EBTECH. Co. Ltd., in Korea. The absorbed doses for all of the experiments were in the region of 0.2kGy - 1.0kGy. The effluent used for this research was from the Daejeon sewage treatment plant, and the effluent is taken after the activated sludge treatment - just prior to discharge. Estimates of E-Coil. and total coli-forms of bacteria were determined by the membrane filter procedures EPA Method. After irradiation, the change of characteristics in effluent was measured as BOD and COD, EPA method. The bench scale electron beam irradiation system used in this research is shown. It is observed that nearly 100% of E-Coli. and total coli-forms were inactivated with a dose of 0.8kGy. Even with the lower dose of 0.2kGy, the E-Coli. and total coli-forms were successfully inactivated to the level of the guideline for effluent discharge. Besides disinfection of total coli-forms, approximately 50% of removal in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) was pronounced at a dose of 0.2kGy. More than 20% removal in suspended solids (SS) and turbidity was also observed at a dose of 1.0kGy. Based on the data obtained in the laboratory experiments, the suitable doses are determined as around 0.2 kGy for the flow rate of 100,000m3 effluent per day. Therefore, accelerator with the power of 400kW is applied for economies and compactness of the plant. Cost for high power accelerator is around 2.0?2.5M$ and building, piping, other equipment and construction works could be estimated 1.0?1.5M$. Even by considering the additional cost for tax, insurance and documentation as 0.5M$, the overall cost for plant construction is approximately 4.0?4.5M$. Expected construction period includes 11 months in civil and installation works and 3 months for trial operation. To estimate the operation cost, the electricity consumption is estimated for accelerator with 500kW (80% efficiency) and other equipment in additional 300kW to the total of 800kW. Based on the year round operation (8400hr/yr), it costs 336,000$/yr when the cost of electricity (kWh) was assumed to be 0.05$. The labor cost is calculated 3-shift with one additional operator and is approximately 100,000$/yr. Thus, the actual operation cost for 100,000m3/day plants is 436,000$/yr and if we consider the interest and depreciation of investment, the cost comes up to around 1M$/yr. It is approximately 0.12$/m3 for construction and 0.03$/m3/yr for operation of above re-use plant, and is inexpensive compared to other advanced oxidation techniques such as Ozonation, UV techniques etc

2005-06-05

38

Analytical limits of four beta-glucuronidase and beta-galactosidase-based commercial culture methods used to detect Escherichia coli and total coliforms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Colilert (Colilert), Readycult Coliforms 100 (Readycult), Chromocult Coliform agar ES (Chromocult), and MI agar (MI) are beta-galactosidase and beta-glucuronidase-based commercial culture methods used to assess water quality. Their analytical performance, in terms of their respective ability to detect different strains of Escherichia coli and total coliforms, had never been systematically compared with pure cultures. Here, their ability to detect beta-glucuronidase production from E. coli isolates was evaluated by using 74 E. coli strains of different geographic origins and serotypes encountered in fecal and environmental settings. Their ability to detect beta-galactosidase production was studied by testing the 74 E. coli strains as well as 33 reference and environmental non-E. coli total coliform strains. Chromocult, MI, Readycult, and Colilert detected beta-glucuronidase production from respectively 79.9, 79.9, 81.1, and 51.4% of the 74 E. coli strains tested. These 4 methods detected beta-galactosidase production from respectively 85.1, 73.8, 84.1, and 84.1% of the total coliform strains tested. The results of the present study suggest that Colilert is the weakest method tested to detect beta-glucuronidase production and MI the weakest to detect beta-galactosidase production. Furthermore, the high level of false-negative results for E. coli recognition obtained by all four methods suggests that they may not be appropriate for identification of presumptive E. coli strains. PMID:18760312

Maheux, Andrée F; Huppé, Vicky; Boissinot, Maurice; Picard, François J; Bissonnette, Luc; Bernier, Jean-Luc T; Bergeron, Michel G

2008-12-01

39

Characterization of E. coli and total coliform organisms isolated from Wisconsin Waters and Reassessment of their public health significance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In 1989 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency promulgated Revised National Primary Drinking Water Regulations pursuant to the federal Safe Drinking Water Act. For Wisconsin, the law drastically increased the number of water systems required to test for microbiological contaminants. The law also introduced the requirement that laboratories not only look for the {open_quotes}total coliform{close_quotes} group of bacteria, but also the subgroup of fecal coliforms or E. coli are found and thus dictates public notification or {open_quotes}boil water orders.{close_quotes} The number of microbiological contamination events detected and the frequency of {open_quotes}boil{close_quotes} orders has increased drastically because of the Act. Concurrent with this increased visibility of microbiological contamination events has come a growing suspicion that we, as public health officials, may be unnecessarily alarming the public when, in fact, there is no real public health threat. This suspicion if fueled by recent reports documenting a number of situations in wells and distribution systems where coliform organisms were growing and multiplying in biofilms yielding positive tests, but where no fecal contamination had actually occurred. The fact that the profile of coliform species found in drinking water is very different from the coliform profile of feces, also leads one to question the significance of total coliform presence in potable water.

Standridge, J.; Barman, M.; Sonzogni, W.C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

1996-11-01

40

Avaliação do padrão coliformes a 45ºC e comparação da eficiência das técnicas dos tubos múltiplos e Petrifilm EC na detecção de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em alimentos / Coliforms at 45ºc and comparison of most probable number method and Petrifilm EC for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli of foods  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Coliformes fecais são definidos como coliformes capazes de fermentar a lactose com produção de gás em 48 h a 45ºC. Escherichia coli, juntamente com algumas cepas de Enterobacter e Klebsiella, podem apresentar essas características. Entretanto, apenas a presença de Escherichia coli em alimentos indic [...] a contaminação fecal por ser encontrada em grande quantidade no trato gastrointestinal do homem e animais de sangue quente, não sendo isolada normalmente em outros nichos. A denominação clássica de coliformes fecais foi alterada para coliformes a 45ºC, na Resolução nº 12 da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a presença de E. coli entre os coliformes a 45ºC e comparar a eficiência das técnicas dos tubos múltiplos e Petrifilm EC na detecção de coliformes totais e E. coli em queijo Minas, lingüiça frescal, hortaliças e fubá. Petrifilm EC mostrou-se mais sensível na detecção de E. coli em relação ao método de tubos múltiplos, o qual apresentou resultados falso-negativos ou contagens subestimadas de E. coli, principalmente para amostras de alimentos de origem animal. Petrifilm EC foi o mais eficiente e prático, sendo um método alternativo adequado para a enumeração de coliformes totais e E. coli em alimentos. Abstract in english Fecal coliforms are defined as coliforms that ferment lactose with gas production within 48 hours at 45ºC. Escherichia coli and some strains of Enterobacter and Klebsiella show these same characteristics. However, only the presence of E. coli can indicate fecal contamination of foods, because it is [...] abundantly found in the intestinal tract of all warm-blooded animals, including the humans, and it is not usually found in others niches. The classic denomination of fecal coliforms was changed to coliforms at 45ºC in the Resolution nº 12/2001 of the National Surveillance Agency of Brazil. The objectives of this study were to analyse the presence of E. coli among the coliforms at 45ºC and to compare the methods of Most Probable Number Method (MPN) and Petrifilm EC in their efficiency to detect E. coli in Minas cheese, sausage, fresh vegetables and corn flower samples. Petrifilm EC was more accurate method than MNP method, which presented false negative results or underestimation of E. coli. In conclusion, Petrifilm EC was an efficient and practical method to detect E. coli. Therefore, it may be alternatively used for enumeration of total coliforms and E. coli in foods.

M.P., Silva; D.R., Cavalli; T.C.R.M., Oliveira.

 
 
 
 
41

Study on the Total Coliforms Count and Coli Titter in the Waters of Kardzhali Reservoir, Bulgaria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine TC (total coliforms and coli titter from two sampling stations in the aquatory of Kardzhali Dam Lake and one station in River Arda, in August, 2011. The values of the TC index in the reservoir vary from 1900±674 cfu/100ml in station I, to 1293±194 cfu/100ml in station II, while the TC value of River Arda reaches 1698±134 cfu/100ml. In Reservoir Kardzhali, the smallest volume of water in which Escherichia coli cells were found, varies between 5 and 15 ml, while for the River Arda the value of coli titter is equal to 1. With highest percentage, regarding the presence of microbiological species in the reservoir waters, is the genus Klebsiella (70%, followed by Citrobacter (15%, Enterobacter (10% and Serratia (5%, respectively represented by the species Klebsiella oxytoca, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae and Serattia marcescens. In the river Arda two genuses were found - Serratia (50% and Salmonella (50%.

Oliver Y. Todorov

2012-12-01

42

Inactivation and injury of total coliform bacteria after primary disinfection of drinking water by TiO2 photocatalysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study the potential application of TiO2 photocatalysis as primary disinfection system of drinking water was investigated in terms of coliform bacteria inactivation and injury. As model water the effluent of biological denitrification unit for nitrate removal from groundwater, which is characterized by high organic matter and bacteria release, was used. The injury of photocatalysis on coliform bacteria was characterized by means of selective (mEndo) and less selective (mT7) culture media. Different catalyst loadings as well as photolysis and adsorption effects were investigated. Photocatalysis was effective in coliform bacteria inactivation (91-99% after 60 min irradiation time, depending on both catalyst loading and initial density of coliform bacteria detected by mEndo), although no total removal was observed after 60 min irradiation time. The contribution of adsorption mechanism was significant (60-98% after 60 min, depending on catalyst loading) compared to previous investigations probably due to the nature of source water rich in particulate organic matter and biofilm. Photocatalysis process did not result in any irreversible injury (98.8% being the higher injury) under investigated conditions, thus a bacteria regrowth may take place under optimum environment conditions if any final disinfection process (e.g., chlorine or chlorine dioxide) is not used.

2009-06-15

43

Inactivation and injury of total coliform bacteria after primary disinfection of drinking water by TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this study the potential application of TiO{sub 2} photocatalysis as primary disinfection system of drinking water was investigated in terms of coliform bacteria inactivation and injury. As model water the effluent of biological denitrification unit for nitrate removal from groundwater, which is characterized by high organic matter and bacteria release, was used. The injury of photocatalysis on coliform bacteria was characterized by means of selective (mEndo) and less selective (mT7) culture media. Different catalyst loadings as well as photolysis and adsorption effects were investigated. Photocatalysis was effective in coliform bacteria inactivation (91-99% after 60 min irradiation time, depending on both catalyst loading and initial density of coliform bacteria detected by mEndo), although no total removal was observed after 60 min irradiation time. The contribution of adsorption mechanism was significant (60-98% after 60 min, depending on catalyst loading) compared to previous investigations probably due to the nature of source water rich in particulate organic matter and biofilm. Photocatalysis process did not result in any irreversible injury (98.8% being the higher injury) under investigated conditions, thus a bacteria regrowth may take place under optimum environment conditions if any final disinfection process (e.g., chlorine or chlorine dioxide) is not used.

Rizzo, Luigi, E-mail: l.rizzo@unisa.it [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Salerno, 84084 Fisciano (Italy)

2009-06-15

44

Determination of Escherichia coli Contamination with Chromocult Coliform Agar Showed a High Level of Discrimination Efficiency for Differing Fecal Pollution Levels in Tropical Waters of Kampala, Uganda  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Escherichia coli, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and sulfite-reducing anaerobic spore formers from different polluted sites in a tropical environment were determined in order to test for their indication ability for fecal contamination. Quantification of E. coli contamination with Chromocult coliform agar proved to be efficient and feasible for determining fecal pollutions in the investigated area within 24 h. The other microbial parameters showed a lower ability to differentiate sites and...

Byamukama, Dennis; Kansiime, Frank; Mach, Robert L.; Farnleitner, Andreas H.

2000-01-01

45

Generation of fecal and total coliform surges by stream flow manipulation in the absence of normal hydrometeorological stimuli.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The response of Escherichia coli and total coliform concentration to increases in river discharge was investigated. Artificial hydrographs were generated on eight occasions between 21 October 1979 and 3 March 1981 by releasing water from Thruscross Reservoir in North Yorkshire into Fewston Reservoir. The majority of the releases were made after rainless periods to isolate the effects of stream channel entrainment from those induced by rainfall on the land surface. In the absence of rainfall, ...

Mcdonald, A.; Kay, D.; Jenkins, A.

1982-01-01

46

Evaluation of colilert-marine water for detection of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in the marine environment.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A test that allows for early detection of fecally contaminated coastal water would enhance public health protection. Colilert-Marine Water (Colilert-MW; Environetics, Branford, Conn.) is a rapid 24-h test that has recently been developed to detect total coliforms and Escherichia coli in coastal water. We performed a premarketing evaluation of the Colilert-MW product, testing it in parallel with the multiple tube fermentation (MTF) method for 86 coastal water samples in southern California. St...

Palmer, C. J.; Tsai, Y. L.; Lang, A. L.; Sangermano, L. R.

1993-01-01

47

Evaluation of colilert-marine water for detection of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in the marine environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

A test that allows for early detection of fecally contaminated coastal water would enhance public health protection. Colilert-Marine Water (Colilert-MW; Environetics, Branford, Conn.) is a rapid 24-h test that has recently been developed to detect total coliforms and Escherichia coli in coastal water. We performed a premarketing evaluation of the Colilert-MW product, testing it in parallel with the multiple tube fermentation (MTF) method for 86 coastal water samples in southern California. Statistical analysis was performed by using paired t tests and linear regression. Bacterial isolates were evaluated by biochemical and genetic analysis. The results of this study showed a strong correlation between the traditional MTF and the Colilert-MW method for detection of total coliforms (r = 0.95) and E. coli (r = 0.89) in ocean water samples. Paired t-test results indicated that the Colilert-MW and MTF were equivalent in detecting E. coli and that the Colilert-MW may be more sensitive in the detection of total coliforms. We conclude that Colilert-MW would be a useful tool with which to monitor coastal beach water. PMID:8481005

Palmer, C J; Tsai, Y L; Lang, A L; Sangermano, L R

1993-03-01

48

National field evaluation of a defined substrate method for the simultaneous detection of total coliforms and Escherichia coli from drinking water: comparison with presence-absence techniques.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A defined substrate method was applied to drinking water to simultaneously enumerate total coliforms and total Escherichia coli directly from samples. After incubation at 35 degrees C for 24 h, the development of yellow in an initially colorless solution was specific for total coliforms; fluorescence at 366 nm in the same tube(s) or vessel demonstrated the presence of E. coli. No confirmatory or completed steps were necessary. Known as autoanalysis colilert (AC), this method was constituted a...

Edberg, S. C.; Allen, M. J.; Smith, D. B.

1989-01-01

49

Development of multiplex PCR for the detection of total coliform bacteria for Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens in drinking water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Multiplex PCR amplification of lacZ, uidA and plc genes was developed for the simultaneous detection of total coliform bacteria for Escherichia coli and Clostridium perfringens, in drinking water. Detection by agarose gel electrophoresis yielded a band of 876 bp for the lacZ gene of all coliform bacteria; a band of 147 bp for the uidA gene and a band of 876 bp for the lacZ gene of all strains of E. coli; a band of 280 bp for the p/c gene for all strains of C. perfringens; and a negative result for all three genes when tested with other bacteria. The detection limit was 100 pg for E. coli and C. perfringens, and 1 ng for coliform bacteria when measured with purified DNA. This assay was applied to the detection of these bacteria in spiked water samples. Spiked water samples with 0-1,000 CFU/ml of coliform bacteria and/or E. coli and/or C. perfringens were detected by this multiplex PCR after a pre-enrichment step to increase the sensitivity and to ensure that the detection was based on the presence of cultivable bacteria. The result of bacterial detection from the multiplex PCR was comparable with that of a standard plate count on selective medium (p=0.62). When using standard plate counts as a gold standard, the sensitivity for this test was 99.1% (95% CI 95.33, 99.98) and the specificity was 90.9 % (95% CI 75.67, 98.08). Multiplex PCR amplification with a pre-enrichment step was shown to be an effective, sensitive and rapid method for the simultaneous detection of these three microbiological parameters in drinking water. PMID:15906661

Tantawiwat, Suwalee; Tansuphasiri, Unchalee; Wongwit, Waranya; Wongchotigul, Varee; Kitayaporn, Dwip

2005-01-01

50

COMPARISON OF THE RECOVERIES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AND TOTAL COLIFORMS FROM DRINKING WATER BY THE MI AGAR METHOD AND THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY-APPROVED MEMBRANE FILTER METHOD  

Science.gov (United States)

Drinking water regulations under the Final Coliform Rule require that total coliform-positive drinking water samples be examined for the presence of Escherichia coli or fecal coliforms. The current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-approved membrane filter (MF) method for E. c...

51

Coliformes totales, fecales y algunas enterobacterias, Sthaphylococcus sp. y hongos en ensaladas para perro calientes expendidas en la ciudad de Maracay, Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las comidas rápidas que se expenden en las calles, poseen fuerte potencialidad para la transmisión de enfermedades gastrointestinales debido a que son alimentos extensamente manipulados. De estos alimentos los vegetales representan un sustrato adecuado para la proliferación de gérmenes patógenos. Se [...] determinó la presencia de Coliformes totales, Coliformes fecales, otras Enterobacterias y Staphylococcus sp. y Hongos en las muestras de ensaladas crudas para perros calientes expendidas en el centro de la ciudad de Maracay, Venezuela. Se empleó la técnica del Número Más Probable para cuantificar los Coliformes y Staphylococcus sp. Posteriormente se identificaron parcialmente las cepas de Coliformes y de Staphylococcus sp aisladas. También se cuantificó la presencia de Hongos en dichas ensaladas. Se les determinó el pH y la acidez y su relación con el crecimiento microbiano. El resultado para Coliformes totales fue 1,44 x 10(5) NMP/g; Coliformes fecales 4,57 x 10(4) NMP/g; no se detectó E. coli en las muestras analizadas, sin embargo de 87 cepas aisladas se determinó la presencia de Citrobacter freunndi Variedad I (45,09% de las cepas aisladas), Citrobacter freundii Variedad II (21,57%), Enterobacter aerogenes Variedad I (17,65%) y Enterobacter aerogenes Variedad II (15,69%); Staphylococcus sp. 3,93 x 10(6) NMP/g. Las 52 cepas de presuntos Staphylococcus sp. resultaron coagulasa negativa; Hongos 4,5 x 10(4) UFC/g, Penicillium sp., Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp. fueron identificadas parcialmente. Las ensaladas crudas presentaban un pH y una acidez de 5,92 y 0,78 ml NaOH respectivamente Abstract in english Total and fecal coliforms, some enterobacteria, Staphylococcus sp. and moulds in salads for hot dogs sold in Maracay city, Venezuela. Fast food sold on the streets are good vehicule to transmit gastrointestind diseases to consumers because they are highly manipulated. The vegetables are a good media [...] for pathogens growth. Raw vegetables salads for hotdog sold in Maracay city were studied. Total and fecal Coliforms and Staphylococcus sp. were cuantified by the Most Probable Number Technique. Coliforms and Staphylococcus isolated were partially identified. Also the mould population was cuantified and identified. Microbial growth was correlated with pH and acidity measurements. MPN/g of Total Coliforms was 1,44 x 10(5) and 4,57 x 10(4) for fecal Coliforms. E. coli was no detected. 87 isolated from the Coliforms were partilly identified as Citrobacter freundii variety I (45,09% of the isolated), C. freundii variety II (21,57%), Enterobacter aerogenes variety I ( 17,65%) and E. aerogenes variety II (15,69%); Staphylococcus sp. 3,93 x 10(6) MPN/g and all of its isolated (52) were coagulase negative. The mould population was 4,5 x 10(4) ufc/g, Penicillium sp., Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp. were partially identified. The salads presented a pH of 5,92 and an acidity of 0,78 ml of NaOH

Acevedo, Laura; Mendoza, Clever; Oyón, Rafael.

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LISTERIA SPP., COLIFORMES TOTAIS E FECAIS E E.COLI NO LEITE CRU E PASTEURIZADO DE UMA INDÚSTRIA DE LATICÍNIOS, NO ESTADO DA PARAÍBA (BRASIL) / LISTERIA SPP., TOTAL COLIFORM, FECAL COLIFORM AND E.COLI ON RAW AND PASTEURIZED MILK ON A DAIRY INDUSTRY, (PARAÍBA, BRAZIL)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Investigou-se a qualidade microbiológica do leite in natura e na linha de produção (leite recém-pasteurizado e leite ensacado), de uma usina de beneficiamento em Campina Grande-PB. Foi pesquisada a presença de Listeria spp. e sua diversidade de espécies, os níveis de coliformes totais (CT), coliform [...] es fecais (CF) e Escherichia coli. Analisou-se um total de 75 amostras de leite, sendo 45 de leite cru, 15 de leite recém-pasteurizado e 15 de leite ensacado. Os resultados foram reunidos em dois grupos segundo o período de monitoramento: antes e após mudanças no processo de higienização da usina. Foi evidenciada elevada contaminação nas amostras de leite cru nas duas épocas. Na primeira (março-abril/1998), todas as amostras de leite beneficiado estiveram fora dos padrões da legislação vigente para CT e CF; na segunda (maio-agosto/1998), houve acentuada redução dos níveis destas bactérias indicadoras, porém as melhorias na higienização não foram suficientes para solucionar este problema, visto que 11,1% das amostras recém-pasteurizadas estavam fora dos padrões para CT e 33,3% para CF. Das amostras ensacadas, 22,2% estavam fora dos padrões para CT e 44,4% para CF. Comparando-se os resultados de CT, CF, e E.coli nas amostras de leite recém-pasteurizado e não ensacado com as amostras de leite ensacado, foi verificado que as amostras após serem pasteurizadas e ensacadas apresentaram valores de CT e CF levemente mais elevados, sugerindo contaminação durante o processo de ensacamento ou falhas na armazenagem. Observou-se que 33 (73,3%) das amostras de leite cru e 9 (30%) das de leite pasteurizado estavam contaminadas com Listeria spp., sendo identificadas L. monocytogenes em 17 (51,5%) amostras de leite cru e em 9 (100%) de leite beneficiado (4 recém-pasteurizadas e 5 ensacadas). Em relação à diversidade de espécies, nas amostras de leite cru foram encontradas: L. monocytogenes (66,6%), L. innocua (25,3%), L. ivanovii (3,9%), L. welshimeri (2,5%) e L. grayi (1,5%). Nas amostras de leite pasteurizado isolaram-se: L. monocyogenes e L. innocua. O conjunto dos resultados evidenciou deficiências higiênico-sanitárias no leite in natura e ao longo do processo de produção, resultando em porcentagens elevadas de amostras que ultrapassaram os valores padrões de CT e CF além de apresentarem-se contaminadas por Listeria spp., com predominância de L. monocytogenes, sugerindo a existência de uma relação direta entre os altos índices de coliformes e a presença de Listeria spp. Abstract in english The microbiological quality of raw and pasteurized milk was studied along its line production in a dairy factory in Paraíba State, Brazil. Listeria monocytogenes was frequent found in raw milk and the levels of total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC) and Escherichia coli, were high in the same sa [...] mples. The results of 75 milk studied samples (45 raw milk, 15 recently pasteurized and 15 sacked), were distributed in two clusters, according its collected period (before and after changes in factory's hygienic process). Both raw samples groups showed high contamination. In the first period (March-April/1998), all the pasteurized milk were out of total and fecal coliforms standards. During the second period (May-August/1998), there was a significant reduction of coliforms levels, however the progress in hygienic conditions were not enough for eliminate the contamination: 11.1% of recent pasteurized milk samples and 22.2% of sacked milk samples were out of TC and also 33.3% and 44.4% recent pasteurized and sacked milk samples. Sacked milk presented more TC and FC than recent pasteurized milk, suggesting contamination after pasteurization or failure at storage. Listeria spp. was found in 33 raw milk samples (73.3%) and in 9 (30%) of pasteurized milk samples. L. monocytogenes was isolated in 17 (51.5%) raw milk samples and in 9 (100%) pasteurized milk samples (4 recent-pasteurized and 5 sacked). The Listeria spp. di

Raïssa Mayer Ramalho, CATÃO; Beatriz Susana Ovruski de, CEBALLOS.

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Evaluation of Petrifilm™ EC and HS for total coliforms and Escherichia coli enumeration in water / Avaliação do Petrifilm™ EC e HS para enumeração de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em água  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Petrifilm™ EC e HS foram comparados ao método do Número Mais Provável (NMP) para determinar sua eficiência na enumeração de coliformes totais e E. coli em 145 amostras de água (76 de água in natura e 69 de água de abastecimento). Em água in natura, Petrifilm™ HS e EC mostraram boa correlação com o m [...] étodo de NMP. Em água clorada ( Abstract in english Petrifilm™ EC and HS were compared to the MPN method to determine their efficacy to enumerate total coliforms and E. coli in 145 samples of water (76 water in natura, 69 drinking water). For water in natura, Petrifilm™ HS and EC showed good correlation with MPN method. In chlorinated water ([...] /100 mL and negatives) the agreement was low. For E.coli enumeration, Petrifilm™ EC showed a good correlation with MPN method. The results indicated that Petrifilm™ EC and HS are accurate to enumerate coliforms and E. coli in water when the expected counts are higher than 20/100 mL.

Vanerli, Beloti; Juliana Aparecida de, Souza; Márcia de Aguiar Ferreira, Barros; Luís Augusto, Nero; Marcos Rodrigues de, Mattos; Viviane Vieira, Gusmão; Luciane Bilia de, Moraes.

54

Evaluation of Petrifilm™ EC and HS for total coliforms and Escherichia coli enumeration in water Avaliação do Petrifilm™ EC e HS para enumeração de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em água  

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Full Text Available Petrifilm™ EC and HS were compared to the MPN method to determine their efficacy to enumerate total coliforms and E. coli in 145 samples of water (76 water in natura, 69 drinking water. For water in natura, Petrifilm™ HS and EC showed good correlation with MPN method. In chlorinated water (Petrifilm™ EC e HS foram comparados ao método do Número Mais Provável (NMP para determinar sua eficiência na enumeração de coliformes totais e E. coli em 145 amostras de água (76 de água in natura e 69 de água de abastecimento. Em água in natura, Petrifilm™ HS e EC mostraram boa correlação com o método de NMP. Em água clorada (< 20 col/100 mL e negativas a concordância foi baixa. Para enumeração de E. coli, Petrifilm™ EC mostrou boa correlação com o método de NMP. Os resultados indicaram que Petrifilm™ EC e HS podem ser usados com segurança para enumeração de coliformes totais e E. coli em água, desde que as contagens esperadas sejam maiores que 20/100 mL.

Vanerli Beloti

2003-12-01

55

COMPARISON OF MEMBRANE FILTER, MULTIPLE-FERMENTATION-TUBE, AND PRESENCE-ABSENCE TECHNIQUES FOR DETECTING TOTAL COLIFORMS IN SMALL COMMUNITY WATER SYSTEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

Methods for detecting total coliform bacteria in drinking water were compared using 1483 different drinking water samples from 15 small community water systems in Vermont and New Hampshire. The methods included the membrane filter (MF) technique, a ten tube fermentation tube tech...

56

Total Coliforms and Turbidity Removal of Water in the Continuous Sand Filter  

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The continuous filter is a kind of sand filter, which will operate without any interruptions for backwashing and also it accepts high-suspended solid levels in feed stream. Fouled sand is continuously removed from the filter bed, washed and recycled back without interruption with filtration process. Various samples of water with certain amounts of turbidity enter through a feed pipe and being distributed to the filter. A central column runs from top to bottom of the filter. The water is led t...

Ah, Mahvi; Sheikhi, R.; Naddafi, K.

2003-01-01

57

Three-dimensional modeling of fecal coliform in the Tidal Basin and Washington Channel, Washington, DC.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fecal coliform are widely used as bacterial indicator in the United States and around the world. Fecal coliform impaired water is highly possible to be polluted by pathogenic bacteria. The Tidal Basin and Washington Channel in Washington, DC are on the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) list due to the high fecal coliform level. To support TMDL development, a three-dimensional numerical model of fecal coliform was developed using the EFDC framework. The model calculates the transport of fecal coliform under the influences of flap gate operations and tidal elevation. The original EFDC code was modified to calculate the die-off of fecal coliform under the impact of temperature and solar radiation intensity. The watershed contribution is expressed as storm water inflow and the load carried by the runoff. Model results show that fecal coliform vary strongly in space in both the Tidal Basin and Washington Channel. The storm water only impacts a small area around the storm water outfall in the Tidal Basin and the impacts are negligible in the Washington Channel due to dilution. The water from the Potomac River may affect the fecal coliform level in the area close to the flap gate in the Tidal Basin. The fecal coliform level in the Washington Channel is mainly controlled by the fecal coliform level in the Anacostia River, which is located at the open boundary of the Washington Channel. The potential sediment layer storage of fecal coliform was analyzed and it was found that the sediment layer fecal coliform level could be much higher than the water column fecal coliform level and becomes a secondary source under high bottom shear stress condition. The developed model built solid connection of fecal coliform source and concentration in the water column and has been used to develop TMDL. PMID:16854806

Bai, Sen; Lung, Wu-Seng

2006-01-01

58

National field evaluation of a defined substrate method for the simultaneous detection of total coliforms and Escherichia coli from drinking water: comparison with presence-absence techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

A defined substrate method was applied to drinking water to simultaneously enumerate total coliforms and total Escherichia coli directly from samples. After incubation at 35 degrees C for 24 h, the development of yellow in an initially colorless solution was specific for total coliforms; fluorescence at 366 nm in the same tube(s) or vessel demonstrated the presence of E. coli. No confirmatory or completed steps were necessary. Known as autoanalysis colilert (AC), this method was constituted as a presence-absence test and compared with the methods described in Standard Methods (SM) in the P-A format. Seven water utilities representing a wide geological and hydrological spectrum participated in the evaluation. A total of 702 split drinking water samples were analyzed. Of these, 358 were negative in both tests (SM- and AC-); 302 were positive (SM+ and AC+); and 42 were mixed (SM+ and AC-, 20; AC+ and SM-, 22). The overall agreement rate was 94%. Comparison of the SM and AC results by nonparametric statistics demonstrated no differences. Heterotrophic plate count bacteria exerted no discernible effect on the AC test. By subculture, each time the AC test was yellow, a total coliform was present; when the test was fluorescent, E. coli was isolated. PMID:2658802

Edberg, S C; Allen, M J; Smith, D B

1989-04-01

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Use of the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN and bacterial source tracking for development of the fecal coliform total maximum daily load (TMDL) for Blacks Run, Rockingham County, Virginia  

Science.gov (United States)

Impairment of surface waters by fecal coliform bacteria is a water-quality issue of national scope and importance. Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires that each State identify surface waters that do not meet applicable water-quality standards. In Virginia, more than 175 stream segments are on the 1998 Section 303(d) list of impaired waters because of violations of the water-quality standard for fecal coliform bacteria. A total maximum daily load (TMDL) will need to be developed by 2006 for each of these impaired streams and rivers by the Virginia Departments of Environmental Quality and Conservation and Recreation. A TMDL is a quantitative representation of the maximum load of a given water-quality constituent, from all point and nonpoint sources, that a stream can assimilate without violating the designated water-quality standard. Blacks Run, in Rockingham County, Virginia, is one of the stream segments listed by the State of Virginia as impaired by fecal coliform bacteria. Watershed modeling and bacterial source tracking were used to develop the technical components of the fecal coliform bacteria TMDL for Accotink Creek. The Hydrological Simulation Program?FORTRAN (HSPF) was used to simulate streamflow, fecal coliform concentrations, and source-specific fecal coliform loading in Blacks Run. Ribotyping, a bacterial source tracking technique, was used to identify the dominant sources of fecal coliform bacteria in the Blacks Run watershed. Ribotyping also was used to determine the relative contributions of specific sources to the observed fecal coliform load in Blacks Run. Data from the ribotyping analysis were incorporated into the calibration of the fecal coliform model. Study results provide information regarding the calibration of the streamflow and fecal coliform bacteria models and also identify the reductions in fecal coliform loads required to meet the TMDL for Blacks Run. The calibrated streamflow model simulated observed streamflow characteristics with respect to total annual runoff, seasonal runoff, average daily streamflow, and hourly stormflow. The calibrated fecal coliform model simulated the patterns and range of observed fecal coliform bacteria concentrations. Observed fecal coliform bacteria concentrations during low-flow periods ranged from 40 to 7,000 colonies per 100 milliliters, and peak concentrations during storm-flow periods ranged from 33,000 to 260,000 colonies per 100 milliliters. Simulated source-specific contributions of fecal coliform bacteria to instream load were matched to the observed contributions from the dominant sources, which were cats, cattle, deer, dogs, ducks, geese, horses, humans, muskrats, poultry, raccoons, and sheep. According to model results, a 95-percent reduction in the current fecal coliform load delivered from the watershed to Blacks Run would result in compliance with the designated water-quality goals and associated TMDL.

Moyer, Douglas L.; Hyer, Kenneth E.

2003-01-01

60

Use of the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN and Bacterial Source Tracking for Development of the fecal coliform Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for Accotink Creek, Fairfax County, Virginia  

Science.gov (United States)

Impairment of surface waters by fecal coliform bacteria is a water-quality issue of national scope and importance. Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires that each State identify surface waters that do not meet applicable water-quality standards. In Virginia, more than 175 stream segments are on the 1998 Section 303(d) list of impaired waters because of violations of the water-quality standard for fecal coliform bacteria. A total maximum daily load (TMDL) will need to be developed by 2006 for each of these impaired streams and rivers by the Virginia Departments of Environmental Quality and Conservation and Recreation. A TMDL is a quantitative representation of the maximum load of a given water-quality constituent, from all point and nonpoint sources, that a stream can assimilate without violating the designated water-quality standard. Accotink Creek, in Fairfax County, Virginia, is one of the stream segments listed by the State of Virginia as impaired by fecal coliform bacteria. Watershed modeling and bacterial source tracking were used to develop the technical components of the fecal coliform bacteria TMDL for Accotink Creek. The Hydrological Simulation Program?FORTRAN (HSPF) was used to simulate streamflow, fecal coliform concentrations, and source-specific fecal coliform loading in Accotink Creek. Ribotyping, a bacterial source tracking technique, was used to identify the dominant sources of fecal coliform bacteria in the Accotink Creek watershed. Ribotyping also was used to determine the relative contributions of specific sources to the observed fecal coliform load in Accotink Creek. Data from the ribotyping analysis were incorporated into the calibration of the fecal coliform model. Study results provide information regarding the calibration of the streamflow and fecal coliform bacteria models and also identify the reductions in fecal coliform loads required to meet the TMDL for Accotink Creek. The calibrated streamflow model simulated observed streamflow characteristics with respect to total annual runoff, seasonal runoff, average daily streamflow, and hourly stormflow. The calibrated fecal coliform model simulated the patterns and range of observed fecal coliform bacteria concentrations. Observed fecal coliform bacteria concentrations during low-flow periods ranged from 25 to 800 colonies per 100 milliliters, and peak concentrations during storm-flow periods ranged from 19,000 to 340,000 colonies per 100 milliliters. Simulated source-specific contributions of fecal coliform bacteria to instream load were matched to the observed contributions from the dominant sources, which were cats, deer, dogs, ducks, geese, humans, muskrats, and raccoons. According to model results, an 89-percent reduction in the current fecal coliform load delivered from the watershed to Accotink Creek would result in compliance with the designated water-quality goals and associated TMDL.

Moyer, Douglas L.; Hyer, Kenneth E.

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Comparison of nine brands of membrane filter and the most-probable-number methods for total coliform enumeration in sewage-contaminated drinking water.  

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Nine different brands of membrane filter were compared in the membrane filtration (MF) method, and those with the highest yields were compared against the most-probable-number (MPN) multiple-tube method for total coliform enumeration in simulated sewage-contaminated tap water. The water was chlorinated for 30 min to subject the organisms to stresses similar to those encountered during treatment and distribution of drinking water. Significant differences were observed among membranes in four o...

1980-01-01

62

Qualidade higiênica de leite caprino por contagem de coliformes e estafilococos / Goat's milk quality by coliform's and staphylococci counting  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os padrões higiênicos do leite de mistura caprino produzido por oito propriedades associadas a uma cooperativa na região do Vale do Taquari - RS. Foram realizadas duas visitas às propriedades durante o período de maior produção leiteira. As propriedades foram a [...] valiadas quanto às instalações, ao manejo de ordenha e ao armazenamento do leite.Foram coletadas amostras de leite e água em cada visita. As amostras de água apresentaram contagem de coliformes dentro dos limites propostos pela legislação vigente, já as de leite apresentaram contagens de coliformes totais que variaram de zero a 1,4 x 10(6)UFC mL-1. Em apenas duas propriedades foram encontrados coliformes fecais. Não foram identificados estafilococos coagulase-positiva nas amostras. Não foi evidenciada relação significativa entre os sistemas de resfriamento e ordenha empregados na propriedade e a presença de coliformes no leite. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to evaluate the current hygiene-sanitary quality of milk produced by eight dairy goat farms located in Vale do Taquari region, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. On each farm, two samplings were performed during the highest milk yield period. At each sampling, bulk milk and [...] water samples were taken, and farms were checked for their facilities, milking management and milk storage. Water samples were subjected to fecal coliform enumeration, while milk samples were tested for total and fecal colifoms as well as for coagulase-positive staphylococci. Water samples presented fecal coliform levels according to the national legislation. In milk samples total coliform counts up to 1.4 x 10(6)CFU mL-1 were found. Coagulase-positive staphylococci were not isolated and fecal coliforms were detected in two farms. No correlation was observed between the number of total coliforms and milking management and milk storage.

Carina Philomena Tebisch, Gottardi; Renata Fernandes, Muricy; Marisa, Cardoso; Verônica, Schmidt.

63

Coliforms in aerosols generated by a municipal solid waste recovery system.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Airborne total and fecal coliform concentrations averaged 2.1 X 10(3) and 9.9 X 10(2)/m3, respectively, inside an operating solid waste recovery system. Installation of dust control equipment reduced these levels by 50%. Frequency of recovery of coliforms also dropped by 15%.

Lembke, L. L.; Kniseley, R. N.

1980-01-01

64

Comparison of membrane filtration and Autoanalysis Colilert presence-absence techniques for analysis of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in drinking water samples.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Over a 4-month period, 950 samples of treated drinking water were analyzed for total coliforms (TC) and Escherichia coli by both membrane filtration (MF) and Autoanalysis Colilert presence-absence (AC) techniques. The two tests agreed 97% of the time on the basis of presumptive TC results and 98.5% of the time on the basis of verified TC results. Samples which produced disagreement between the two tests were most often TC positive by MF and TC negative by AC. E. coli was recovered four times:...

Lewis, C. M.; Mak, J. L.

1989-01-01

65

Effect of various oral dose levels of a trimethoprim/sulphadiazine mixture on Bordetella bronchiseptica infection and on the proliferation of trimethoprim-resistant faecal coliforms in pigs.  

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When a 1:5 mixture of trimethoprim (TMP) and sulphadiazine was fed to pigs intra-nasally infected with bordetella bronchiseptica, 10 mg/kg/day was shown to be highly effective in suppressing the organism. This dose level had little effect on numbers of TMP-resistant coliforms in faeces, but oral doses of 30 mg/kg/day eventually selected a resistant population. It is suggested that the proliferation of resistant coliforms would be minimized by administration of the lowest oral dose rates of an...

Dassanayake, L.; White, G.

1983-01-01

66

Use of the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN and bacterial source tracking for development of the fecal coliform total maximum daily load (TMDL) for Christians Creek, Augusta County, Virginia  

Science.gov (United States)

Impairment of surface waters by fecal coliform bacteria is a water-quality issue of national scope and importance. Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires that each State identify surface waters that do not meet applicable water-quality standards. In Virginia, more than 175 stream segments are on the 1998 Section 303(d) list of impaired waters because of violations of the water-quality standard for fecal coliform bacteria. A total maximum daily load (TMDL) will need to be developed by 2006 for each of these impaired streams and rivers by the Virginia Departments of Environmental Quality and Conservation and Recreation. A TMDL is a quantitative representation of the maximum load of a given water-quality constituent, from all point and nonpoint sources, that a stream can assimilate without violating the designated water-quality standard. Christians Creek, in Augusta County, Virginia, is one of the stream segments listed by the State of Virginia as impaired by fecal coliform bacteria. Watershed modeling and bacterial source tracking were used to develop the technical components of the fecal coliform bacteria TMDL for Christians Creek. The Hydrological Simulation Program?FORTRAN (HSPF) was used to simulate streamflow, fecal coliform concentrations, and source-specific fecal coliform loading in Christians Creek. Ribotyping, a bacterial source tracking technique, was used to identify the dominant sources of fecal coliform bacteria in the Christians Creek watershed. Ribotyping also was used to determine the relative contributions of specific sources to the observed fecal coliform load in Christians Creek. Data from the ribotyping analysis were incorporated into the calibration of the fecal coliform model. Study results provide information regarding the calibration of the streamflow and fecal coliform bacteria models and also identify the reductions in fecal coliform loads required to meet the TMDL for Christians Creek. The calibrated streamflow model simulated observed streamflow characteristics with respect to total annual runoff, seasonal runoff, average daily streamflow, and hourly stormflow. The calibrated fecal coliform model simulated the patterns and range of observed fecal coliform bacteria concentrations. Observed fecal coliform bacteria concentrations during low-flow periods ranged from 40 to 2,000 colonies per 100 milliliters, and peak concentrations during stormflow periods ranged from 23,000 to 730,000 colonies per 100 milliliters. Additionally, fecal coliform bacteria concentrations were generally higher upstream and lower downstream. Simulated source-specific contributions of fecal coliform bacteria to instream load were matched to the observed contributions from the dominant sources, which were beaver, cats, cattle, deer, dogs, ducks, geese, horses, humans, muskrats, poultry, raccoons, and sheep. According to model results, a 96-percent reduction in the current fecal coliform load delivered from the watershed to Christians Creek would result in compliance with the designated water-quality goals and associated TMDL.

Moyer, Douglas L.; Hyer, Kenneth E.

2003-01-01

67

Comparison of commercially available kits with standard methods for the detection of coliforms and Escherichia coli in foods.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Three commercially available kits that were supplemented with substrates for enzyme reactions were evaluated to determine their abilities to detect coliforms and fecal coliforms in foods. Japanese and U.S. Food and Drug Administration standard methods, as well as two agar plate methods, were compared with the three commercial kits. A total of 50 food samples from various retailers were examined. The levels of detection of coliforms were high with the commercial kits (78 to 98%) compared with ...

Venkateswaran, K.; Murakoshi, A.; Satake, M.

1996-01-01

68

Comparison of membrane filtration and Autoanalysis Colilert presence-absence techniques for analysis of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in drinking water samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over a 4-month period, 950 samples of treated drinking water were analyzed for total coliforms (TC) and Escherichia coli by both membrane filtration (MF) and Autoanalysis Colilert presence-absence (AC) techniques. The two tests agreed 97% of the time on the basis of presumptive TC results and 98.5% of the time on the basis of verified TC results. Samples which produced disagreement between the two tests were most often TC positive by MF and TC negative by AC. E. coli was recovered four times: twice by MF only, and twice by AC only but without the diagnostic fluorescence reaction. In two samples, E. coli could not be isolated from fluorescence-positive AC tests. On the basis of these results, the AC test was implemented as the routine analytical procedure for TC but not for E. coli. PMID:2694959

Lewis, C M; Mak, J L

1989-12-01

69

What do fecal coliforms indicate in tropical waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High densities of total and fecal coliform bacteria have been detected in pristine streams and in ground water samples collected from many tropical parts of the world, even in epiphytic vegetation 10 m above ground in the rain forest of Puerto Rico. Nucleic acid (DNA) analyses of Escherichia coli from pristine tropical environs has indicated that they are identical to clinical isolates of E. coli. Many tropical source waters have been shown to have enteric pathogens in the complete absence of coliforms. Diffusion chamber studies with E. coli at several tropical sites reveal that this bacterium can survive indefinitely in most freshwaters in Puerto Rico. An evaluation of methods for the enumeration of fecal coliforms showed that currently used media have poor reliability as a result of large numbers of false positive and false negative results when applied to tropical water samples. Total and fecal coliform bacteria are not reliable indicators of recent biological contamination of waters in tropical areas. Fecal streptococci and coliphages in tropical waters, violate the same under lying assumptions of indicator assays as the coliforms. Anaerobic bacteria like Bifidobacterium spp. and Clostridium perfringens show some promise in terms of survival but not in ease of enumeration and media specificity. The best course at present lies in using current techniques for direct enumeration of pathogens by fluorescent staining and nucleic acid analysis and developing tropical maximum containmant levels for certain resistant pathogens in tropical waters. 66 refs.

Hazen, T.C.

1988-01-01

70

Incidence of Coliform in Butter  

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Microbial examination of 50 samples of both packed and unpacked butter was carried out. The samples were examined for total viable count, mould and yeast count, spore formers and coliform. The microbial load in the unpacked sample of butter was highest i.e., 3.8 x 106/gm - 6.6 x l06/gm. The coliform count was found maximum in unpacked sample and one of the packed sample of butter (Kausar brand) i.e., 39/ml. The unpacked sample of butter contained highest number of aerobic spore formers i.e., ...

Ikram-ul-Haq; Nuzhat Inam; Sikander Ali; Qadeer, M. A.

2001-01-01

71

Incidence of R factors in coliform, fecal coliform, and Salmonella populations of the Red River in Canada.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coliforms, fecal coliforms, and Salmonella were isolated from the Red River, Manitoba, Canada, and identified. These organisms were then examined for resistance to 12 antibiotics. Some fecal coliforms were resistant to all 12 antibiotics, and 18% of the Salmonella isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics. A total of 52.9% of the fecal coliforms resistant to three or more antibiotics were able to transfer single or multiple resistance (R) determinants to the Salmonella recipient, and...

Bell, J. B.; Macrae, W. R.; Elliott, G. E.

1980-01-01

72

R factors in coliform-fecal coliform sewage flora of the prairies and Northwest Territories of Canada.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coliform and fecal coliform populations found in the raw sewages and final sewage effluents of the prairie provinces and the Northwest Territories were examined for antibiotic resistance and the possession of R factors. It was determined that 8.91% of the total coliform and 10.80% of the fecal coliform populations carried R factors. The following numbers of combinations of R determinants were found: 39 in the Escherichia coli population, 6 in the Citrobacter population, 20 in the Enterobacter...

Bell, J. B.; Macrae, W. R.; Elliott, G. E.

1981-01-01

73

RAPID MONITORING OF INDICATOR COLIFORMS IN DRINKING WATER BY AN ENZYMATIC ASSAY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Coliform group has been extensively used as an indicator of drinking water quality and historically led to the public health protection concept. Multiple tube fermentation technique has been currently used for assessment of the microbial quality of drinking water. This method, however, has limitations. Enzymatic assay constitute an alternative approach for detecting indicator bacteria, namely total coliforms and E.coli in various aquatic environments. This study compared the performance of LMX® broth as an enzymatic assay with the standard methods multiple tube fermentation technique and presence–absence test, for the detection of indicator coliforms in drinking water samples. In addition, the potential effect of water quality on the microbial detection method was assayed through measurement of some physicochemical parameters. From the 50 drinking water samples tested, 8 (16% and 7 (14% contained total coliforms and E.coli as indicated by all three techniques. Although on average the LMX recovered more total coliforms and E.Coli numbers comparing to multiple tube fermentation, but there was no significant difference. A significant difference existed between the level of residual chlorine for positive and negative samples. In conclusion, enzymatic assay showed a rapid and less labor method, allowing the simultaneous detection of total coliforms and E.coli. The method is particularly useful in the early warning of fecal pollution of drinking water.

M. Nikaeen ? A. Pejhan ? M. Jalali

2009-01-01

74

National field evaluation of a defined substrate method for the simultaneous enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli from drinking water: comparison with the standard multiple tube fermentation method.  

Science.gov (United States)

A defined substrate method was developed to simultaneously enumerate total coliforms and Escherichia coli from drinking waters without the need for confirmatory or completed tests. It is a new method based on technology that uses a hydrolyzable substrate as a specific indicator-nutrient for the target microbes. No equipment other than a 35 degrees C incubator and long-wavelength (366-nm) light is necessary. To perform the test, one only has to add water to the powdered ingredients in a tube or flask. If total coliforms are present in the water sample, the solution will change from its normal colorless state (no target microbes present) to yellow. The specific presence of E. coli will cause the same tube to fluoresce under a longwave (366-nm) UV lamp. The test, called Autoanalysis Colilert (AC), was compared with Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater 10-tube multiple tube fermentation (MTF) in a national evaluation. Five utilities, representing six U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regions, participated. All water samples came from distribution systems. Split samples from a wide variety of water sources were analyzed for the MPN-versus-MPN comparison. A total of 1,086 tubes were positive by MTF, and 1,279 were positive by AC. There was no statistical difference between MTF and AC. Species identifications from positive tubes confirmed the sensitivity of the AC. A national evaluation of the AC test showed that it: (i) was as sensitive as Standard Methods MTF, (ii) specifically enumerated 1 total coliform per 100 ml, in a maximum of 24 h, (iii) simultaneously enumerated 1 E. coli per 100 ml in the same analysis, (iv) was not subject to false-positive or false-negative results by heterotrophic bacteria, (v) did not require confirmatory tests, (vi) grew injured coliforms, (vii) was easy to inoculate, and (viii) was very easy to interpret. PMID:3046490

Edberg, S C; Allen, M J; Smith, D B

1988-06-01

75

Fecal coliform modeling under two flow scenarios in St. Louis Bay of Mississippi.  

Science.gov (United States)

St. Louis Bay, along with its two major tributaries, Wolf River and Jourdan River, are included in the Mississippi 1998 Section 303(d) List for violation of the designated water use of recreation and shellfish harvesting. Fecal coliform was identified as one of the pollutants that caused the water quality impairment. In order to facilitate the total maximum daily loads (TMDL) development, the fecal coliform dynamics was investigated under 2 flow scenarios with a calibrated and validated modeling framework by integration of Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC) and Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF). EFDC was used to model the hydrodymics and fecal coliform transportation in the Bay and the tributaries, whereas HSPF was applied to compute the flow and fecal coliform loadings from the watersheds. The total amount of precipitation in the dry year simulation corresponds to a 50-year return period of low flow condition, and a 10-year return period of high flow condition for wet weather simulation. For EFDC modeling, the fecal coliform sources considered were the contributions from the 2 upper watersheds (no tidal influence), the 28 small surrounding watershed, and 12 municipal, industrial, and domestic point sources. When simulating the fecal coliform loadings from the 2 upper watersheds using HSPF, the simulated non-point source loadings of fecal coliform included wildlife, land application of hog and cattle manure, land application of poultry litter, and grazing animals. The EFDC modeling results indicated that the wet weather exerted greater stress on fecal coliform water quality conditions. The number of exceedance of fecal coliform water quality standard in wet year simulation is much higher than that in dry year simulation. The impact of the upper rural watersheds loads on fecal coliform levels in the St. Louis Bay is much less significant than that from the surrounding urban runoff. Fecal coliform TMDL development should be based on high flow conditions since the decision makers are more concerned about worse scenarios. This fecal coliform modeling research would provide useful information of critical condition selection for TMDLs development in similar coastal areas. PMID:20390869

Liu, Zhijun; Hashim, Noor B; Kingery, William L; Huddleston, David H

2010-01-01

76

Remoção de matéria orgânica, coliformes totais e nitrificação no tratamento de esgotos domésticos por filtros de areia / Organic matter and total coliform removal and nitrification in the treatment of domestic wastewater by sand filter  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Segundo o IBGE (2000), 73% dos municípios brasileiros possuem menos de 20.000 habitantes, que em sua maior parte vive na zona rural ou em pequenos núcleos urbanos. Quase a totalidade dos esgotos destas cidades é lançada nos corpos hídricos, contribuindo com o agravamento dos problemas de saúde públi [...] ca e ambiental. Esses danos podem ser minimizados com o emprego de sistemas de tratamento simples, eficientes, sustentáveis e economicamente viáveis. O filtro anaeróbio com recheio de bambu combinado com filtros de areia satisfaria estas exigências, propiciando um efluente adequado para disposição nos cursos d'água ou para reúso, resguardando as fontes de água potável. A aplicação piloto deste método demonstrou que no emprego de baixas cargas de efluente anaeróbio nos filtros de areia havia uma remoção superior a 96% da DBO, adequação na emissão de coliformes totais e uma completa nitrificação. Aumentando-se as cargas, ocorria uma pequena redução da eficiência, no entanto os resultados ainda eram satisfatórios. Abstract in english According to IBGE (2000) 73% of the Brazilian cities are considered small communities with population smaller than 20,000 inhabitants. The majority of domestic wastewater of these places is normally disposed in rivers with no treatment. As a consequence, the irregular disposal may cause health and e [...] nvironmental problems. To reduce this risk it is necessary to develop treatment systems that are simple, efficient, sustainable and of low cost. The treatment of wastewater using up flow anaerobic filter combined with sand filters would be able to satisfy these exigencies, producing an effluent that could be disposed in rivers or even be reused, safeguarding the sources of potable water. The system achieved BOD removal of 96% and complete nitrification for the application of low loads. The increase of the applied loads caused a reduction in the efficiency; however the final values were still satisfactory.

Tonetti, Adriano Luiz; Coraucci Filho, Bruno; Stefanutti, Ronaldo; Figueiredo, Roberto Feijó de; São Pedro, Camilla Cristina Okano.

77

Comparison of methods of enumerating coliforms after UV disinfection.  

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In view of the differences that have been found between the most-probable-number and membrane filtration methods for the recovery of coliforms from chlorinated samples, the survival of total and fecal coliforms in UV-irradiated effluent samples, as tested by the most-probable-number and standard single-step membrane filtration methods, was compared. There were no significant differences in the survival of total and fecal coliforms, as tested by the two methods. In a separate set of experiment...

Qualls, R. G.; Chang, J. C.; Ossoff, S. F.; Johnson, J. D.

1984-01-01

78

Incidence of Coliform in Butter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Microbial examination of 50 samples of both packed and unpacked butter was carried out. The samples were examined for total viable count, mould and yeast count, spore formers and coliform. The microbial load in the unpacked sample of butter was highest i.e., 3.8 x 106/gm - 6.6 x l06/gm. The coliform count was found maximum in unpacked sample and one of the packed sample of butter (Kausar brand i.e., 39/ml. The unpacked sample of butter contained highest number of aerobic spore formers i.e., 280/gm. The anaerobic spore-formers were found absent in 20 samples of butter and the rest contained in the range of 0-170/gm. The yeast cultures were found only in the sample of Lyallpur and Kausar butter. The mould count of these samples ranged from 0-280/gm.

Ikram-ul-Haq

2001-01-01

79

Enumeration of Escherichia coli and coliforms in surface water by multiple tube fermentation and membrane filter methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current investigation was carried out in order to compare directly the multiple tube fermentation method (MTF), using standard procedures (lactose broth, LB) and the Colilert reagent, with the membrane filter method (MF) using Les Endo agar (LEA), m-faecal coliform agar (mFCA) and chromogenic coliform agar (CCA), for recovery of coliforms and Escherichia coli in 80 surface water samples. Total coliforms were isolated from 100% of samples by all methodologies. Faecal coliforms/E. coli were detected in 100% of samples by MTF methods, but only in 75.5% by MF-mFCA and in 86.2% by MF-CCA. Even if MTF-LB counts were consistently higher, the Colilert reagent accurately determined total coliforms and E. coli levels within 24 h with no additional confirmatory tests. Therefore, it could be a powerful tool for rapidly assessing possible faecal contamination and a suitable alternative to the traditional MTF and MF techniques utilized for coliform detection. PMID:11092193

Grasso, G M; Sammarco, M L; Ripabelli, G; Fanelli, I

2000-01-01

80

Evaluation of the lactose Tergitol-7, m-Endo LES, Colilert 18, Readycult Coliforms 100, Water-Check-100, 3M Petrifilm EC and DryCult Coliform test methods for detection of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in water samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study we compared the reference membrane filtration (MF) lactose Tergitol-7 (LTTC) method ISO 9308-1:2000 with the MF m-Endo LES method SFS 3016:2001, the defined substrate chromogenic/fluorogenic Colilert 18, Readycult Coliforms and Water Check methods, and ready-made culture media, 3M Petrifilm EC and DryCult Coli methods for the detection of coliforms and Escherichia coli in various water samples. When the results of E. coli detection were compared between test methods, the highest agreement (both tests negative or positive) with the LTTC method was calculated for the m-Endo LES method (83.6%), followed by Colilert 18 (82.7%), Water-Check (81.8%) and Readycult (78.4%), whereas Petrifilm EC (70.6%) and DryCult Coli (68.9%) showed the weakest agreement. The m-Endo LES method was the only method showing no statistical difference in E. coli counts compared with the LTTC method, whereas the Colilert 18 and Readycult methods gave significantly higher counts for E. coli than the LTTC method. In general, those tests based on the analysis of a 1-ml sample (Petrifilm EC and DryCult Coli) showed weak sensitivity (39.5-52.5%) but high specificity (90.9-78.8%). PMID:16916531

Hörman, Ari; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

2006-10-01

 
 
 
 
81

National field evaluation of a defined substrate method for the simultaneous enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli from drinking water: comparison with the standard multiple tube fermentation method.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A defined substrate method was developed to simultaneously enumerate total coliforms and Escherichia coli from drinking waters without the need for confirmatory or completed tests. It is a new method based on technology that uses a hydrolyzable substrate as a specific indicator-nutrient for the target microbes. No equipment other than a 35 degrees C incubator and long-wavelength (366-nm) light is necessary. To perform the test, one only has to add water to the powdered ingredients in a tube o...

Edberg, S. C.; Allen, M. J.; Smith, D. B.

1988-01-01

82

Evaluation of Commercial Colilert18-Quantitray® Method by ISO Techniques for Enumeration and Quantification of Total Coliforms and Escherichia coli in Drinking-Water of Buraidah, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present investigation, the Colilert18-QuantiTray® test is compared with ISO 9308-2:1999 Multiple-Tube Fermentation (MTF and 9308-1:2000 Membrane Filtration (MF methods for the detection of coliforms and E. coli in Buraidah drinking water. Regarding sensitivity and specificity of test methods using MTF as reference, the MF method showed a weak sensitivity, while the Colilert18® test showed the highest one. On the other hand, MF method exhibited a higher specificity compared with Colilert18® test. A moderately strong relationship among test methods of coliforms log transformed counts obtained with MF (cfu/100 mL and Coliert18®/Quanti-Tray (MPN/100 mL tests compared to MPN-MTF method was demonstrated. Regression analysis revealed the presence of strong linear correlations (p<0.01 between the three test methods and standard plate count of detecting the concentration of serially diluted E. coli LMG 2092 with high regression coefficients with MF and Colilert18® and lower value for MTF. The Colilert18® had E. coli detection down to 5 MPN/100 mL (? 0.05/1 mL. Results showed that Coliert18®/Quanti-Tray method is comparable with ISO methods further, the former method has more advantages such as higher sensitivity, maximum detection limit ability and time and labor saving.

A. Al-Turki

2009-01-01

83

Contamination of Coliforms in Different Paper Currency Notes of Bangladesh  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To determine the degree of contamination of taka notes, samples of the notes circulating in different local markets and people of different professions in Khulna region of Bangladesh were collected. Coliforms, the indicator organisms in taka notes were determined by multiple tube method and identified with differential media and data were analyzed. About 80±5% of old two-taka notes were contaminated with total coliforms and 16±4% of notes were found contaminated with fecal coliforms. But co...

Jakir Hosen, M.; Dilara Islam Sarif; Masuder Rahman, M.; Md. Abul Kalam Azad

2006-01-01

84

40 CFR 141.21 - Coliform sampling.  

Science.gov (United States)

...requirements of this section. (e) Fecal coliforms/Escherichia coli (E. coli...culture medium to determine if fecal coliforms are present, except that the...test for E. coli in lieu of fecal coliforms. If fecal coliforms or E....

2010-07-01

85

Arsenic presence and coliforms in drinking water of the Tecuala municipality, Nayarit, Mexico; Presencia de arsenico y coliformes en agua potable del municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit, Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Total arsenic concentrations (t As) and the presence of total and fecal coliforms in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, Mexico, were determined. The presence of t As was analyzed by means of hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Total and fecal coliforms were determined through the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. According to the results, the mean concentration of t As in Tecuala wa 15.82 {mu}g/L, in Atotonilco 19.88 {mu}g/L, in Pajaritos 21.49 {mu}g/L, in Quimichis 17.80 {mu}g/L, and in Playas de Novillero 19.79 {mu}g/L. The t As concentrations in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, are within the limit set by the Mexican official standards (25 {mu}g/L); still, they are over the limit established by the World Health Organization (10 {mu}g/L). The concentration of coliforms in water from wells 1 and 3 was 180 MPN/100 ml and 43 MPN/100 ml for well water 2. The presence of total and fecal coliforms, suggest the infiltration of sewage which could increase the levels of dissolved arsenic. The results of this study will serve as an antecedent of the water quality in Tecuala, Nayarit. (Author)

Mora B, D.; Gonzalez A, C. A.; Medina D, I. M.; Robledo M, M. L.; Rojas G, A. E. [Universidad Autonoma de Nayarit, Secretaria de Investigacion y Posgrado, Ciudad de la Cultura Amado Nervo, 63155 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); Sanchez P, L. C.; Del Razo, L. M., E-mail: aerg81@gmail.com [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Departamento de Toxicologia, Av. IPN No. 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

2012-07-01

86

Fate of coliform bacteria in composted beef cattle feedlot manure.  

Science.gov (United States)

The link between livestock production, manure management, and human health has received much public attention in recent years. Composting is often promoted as a means of sanitizing manure to ensure that pathogenic bacteria are not spread to a wider environment during land application. In a two-year study (1998 and 1999) in southern Alberta, we examined the fate of coliform bacteria during windrow composting of cattle (Bos taurus) manure from feedlot pens bedded with cereal straw or wood chips. Numbers of total coliforms (TC) and Escherichia coli declined as the composting period progressed. In 1998, TC levels (mean of both bedding types) were log10 7.86 cells g(-1) dry wt. for raw manure on Day 0, log10 3.38 cells g(-1) by Day 7, and log10 1.69 cells g(-1) by Day 14. More than 99.9% of TC and E. coli was eliminated in the first 7 d when average windrow temperatures ranged from 33.5 to 41.5 degrees C. The type of bedding did not influence the numbers of TC or E. coli. Dessication probably played a minor role in coliform elimination, since water loss was low ( 7.0 log10 CFU g(-1) dry wt., where CFU is colony forming units) throughout the composting period, possibly causing an antagonistic effect. Land application of compost, with its nondetectable levels of E. coli compared with raw manure, should minimize environmental risk in areas of intensive livestock production. PMID:12931908

Larney, Francis J; Yanke, L Jay; Miller, James J; McAllister, Tim A

2003-01-01

87

40 CFR 141.21 - Coliform sampling.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Edberg et al.), Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Volume 55, pp. 1003-1008, April 1989. (Note: The Autoanalysis Colilert System is an MMO-MUG test). If the MMO-MUG test is total coliform-positive after a 24-hour incubation, test...

2010-07-01

88

Fecal Coliforms in Antarctica  

Science.gov (United States)

In this interrupted case study, students explore the environmental consequences of Antarctic research as they design experiments to assess the impact of disposing untreated sewage from a research station into the ocean. Students review experimental methods to measure coliform bacteria, examine data, and decide what actions, if any, should be taken. The can be used in either a non-majors course in science literacy or a general microbiology class studying bacterial detection methods. For non-majors, the instructor would emphasize the mechanics of data collection and analysis and may touch on the environmental implications of finding fecal coliforms in Antarctic waters. For microbiology students, the instructor would highlight the bacteriology and pair the case with a lab.

Nold, Stephen C.

2002-01-01

89

EVALUATION OF M-T7 AGAR AS A FECAL COLIFORM MEDIUM  

Science.gov (United States)

The m-T/7 agar, designed to improve recoveries of injured total coliforms, was evaluated for its effectiveness as a fecal coliform medium. The time and temperature of preincubation were found to be crucial to the optimal recovery of fetal coliforms. Isolation rates for fecal coli...

90

Contamination of Coliforms in Different Paper Currency Notes of Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To determine the degree of contamination of taka notes, samples of the notes circulating in different local markets and people of different professions in Khulna region of Bangladesh were collected. Coliforms, the indicator organisms in taka notes were determined by multiple tube method and identified with differential media and data were analyzed. About 80±5% of old two-taka notes were contaminated with total coliforms and 16±4% of notes were found contaminated with fecal coliforms. But comparatively newer two-taka notes showed that 43±3% were contaminated with total coliforms and 5±2% were with fecal coliforms, suggesting the notion that more handled taka notes were contaminated more intensely even by fecal coliforms. Ten taka notes also represented the same pattern of results as two-taka notes, indicating that taka notes may carry enteric pathogens. This study also revealed that porsaline paper notes were easily vulnerable to coliforms contamination whereas polymer paper notes were almost free from coliforms suggesting that polymer paper notes are safer to use than porsaline paper notes.

M. Jakir Hosen

2006-01-01

91

Identification of Total and Fecal Coliforms and Heterotrophic to Microbiological Method and E.coli O157:H7 to Immunological, and Real Time PCR Methods in IsfahanWater Treatment Plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "n "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives:Total and Fecal coliforms (TC and FC, heterotrophic plate count (HPC, were counted by microbiological method and E.coli O157:H7 were detected through immunological and Real time PCRmethods inwater intake and all of units of Isfahanwater treatment plant (IWTP."nMaterials and Methods: The microbial profile including TC, FC, and HPC, were monitored and turbidity and total organic carbon were analyzed in 8 locations of water intake, and unit operation and processes of IWTP, including, inlet, sedimentation, ozonation, and filtration and finished water. Immunological method through anti-serum kits and molecular method of RT-PCR were used to detect E.coli O157:H7 in the 8 locations and also the sludge of the sedimentation basin and filters backwash water of IWTP."nResults: Survival of E.coli O157:H7 in sludge sample of sedimentation basin was indicated by formation of agglutination particles in immunological method and through indicator probes in the RT-PCR method. However, E.coli O157:H7 was not detected in water samples of other units of IWTP. The removal percent of TC, FC, and HPC were: 59.5, 49, and 54.8 % in sedimentation basin; 66, 45.8, and 57 % in ozonation;: 98.8, 98, and 78.8 in the filtration; and 96, 100, 91% in disinfection, respectively."nConclusion: This study approved the existence of the pathogenic coliform, E.coli O157:H7 in the"nsludge of sedimentation basin. Absent of E.coli O157:H7 in the finished water indicates that the existing units of IWTP could eliminate these pathogenic bacteria, before reaching the final units of the plant, including the filters and disinfection.

A Nouhi

2010-10-01

92

Isolation of Fecal Coliform Bacteria from the Diamondback Terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin centrata)  

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Total and fecal coliform bacteria were isolated from the cloaca and feces of the estuarine diamondback terrapin. The majority of samples contained fecal coliforms. Escherichia coli was the predominant fecal coliform species isolated, and members of the genus Salmonella were isolated from 2 of 39 terrapins. Fecal coliform numbers are used to regulate shellfish harvests, and diamondback terrapins inhabit the brackish-water habitats where oyster beds are found; therefore, these findings have imp...

Harwood, Valerie J.; Butler, Joseph; Parrish, Danny; Wagner, Victoria

1999-01-01

93

Arsenic presence and coliforms in drinking water of the Tecuala municipality, Nayarit, Mexico  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total arsenic concentrations (t As) and the presence of total and fecal coliforms in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, Mexico, were determined. The presence of t As was analyzed by means of hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Total and fecal coliforms were determined through the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. According to the results, the mean concentration of t As in Tecuala wa 15.82 ?g/L, in Atotonilco 19.88 ?g/L, in Pajaritos 21.49 ?g/L, in Quimichis 17.80 ?g/L, and in Playas de Novillero 19.79 ?g/L. The t As concentrations in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, are within the limit set by the Mexican official standards (25 ?g/L); still, they are over the limit established by the World Health Organization (10 ?g/L). The concentration of coliforms in water from wells 1 and 3 was 180 MPN/100 ml and 43 MPN/100 ml for well water 2. The presence of total and fecal coliforms, suggest the infiltration of sewage which could increase the levels of dissolved arsenic. The results of this study will serve as an antecedent of the water quality in Tecuala, Nayarit. (Author)

2012-01-01

94

Frequency of transferable multiple antibiotic resistance amongst coliform bacteria isolated from a treated sewage effluent in Antofagasta, Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria from raw and treated water from activated sludge of a sewage treatment plant were isolated on eosin methylene blue agar (EMB) plates in the separate presence of ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and streptomycin. Antibiotic resistant coliforms obtained [...] from inflow and effluent waters were studied to determine influences of treatment on the species composition, resistance patterns and transferable resistance in these bacteria. The bacterial counts obtained showed a high proportion of antibiotic resistant coliforms in the treated effluent. The resistant coliform species were eliminated at different rates by the treatment. Escherichia coli decreased, whereas the proportion of Klebsiella sp increased. The percentage of multiple-resistant isolates increased at the end of the treatment process. The high frequency of resistance was to ampicillin, followed by tetracycline and sulpha-trimethoprim. Moderate incidence of resistance was to streptomycin, chloramphenicol and cephradine. The lowest rate of resistance was to kanamicin and nalidixic acid. Mating experiments of multiple-resistant coliforms with an E. coli K-12 donor confirmed the capability of transferring its resistance. The results of this study suggested that wastewater treatment could reduce the total number of enteric bacteria in sewage, but may increase the proportion of antibiotic resistant coliforms in effluent water. Environmental release and agricultural use of treated sewage effluent containing bacteria having elevated antibiotic resistance levels presents a potential public health risk, as well as the risk of transferring the antibiotic resistance to bacterial populations in the environment.

Juan, Silva; Gabriela, Castillo; Lorena, Callejas; Héctor, López; Janet, Olmos.

2006-10-15

95

GULF OF MEXICO PROGRAM/BAY OF ST. LOUIS WATER QUALITY STUDY -- DEVELOPMENT OF TOTAL MAXIMUM DAILY LOAD FOR FECAL COLIFORM BACTERIA (TMDL) IN HANCOCK, HARRISON AND PEARL RIVER COUNTIES, MS  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this project is to determine the various sources of fecal coliforms to determine the loading contributed by the various sources; and to determine the numbers of fecal coliforms that can be assimilated by the waters of the Bay without exceeding the standards for wat...

96

Injured coliforms in drinking water.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Coliforms were enumerated by using m-Endo agar LES and m-T7 agar in 102 routine samples of drinking water from three New England community water systems to investigate the occurrence and significance of injured coliforms. Samples included water collected immediately after conventional treatment, during the backwash cycle, at various points in the distribution system, and 1 week after the break and subsequent repair of a distribution main. Injured coliforms in these samples averaged greater th...

Mcfeters, G. A.; Kippin, J. S.; Lechevallier, M. W.

1986-01-01

97

Effects of UV light disinfection on antibiotic-resistant coliforms in wastewater effluents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total coliforms and total coliforms resistant to streptomycin, tetracycline, or chloramphenicol were isolated from filtered activated sludge effluents before and after UV light irradiation. Although the UV irradiation effectively disinfected the wastewater effluent, the percentage of the total surviving coliform population resistant to tetracycline or chloramphenicol was significantly higher than the percentage of the total coliform population resistant to those antibiotics before UV irradiation. This finding was attributed to the mechanism of R-factor mediated resistance to tetracycline. No significant difference was noted for the percentage of the surviving total coliform population resistant to streptomycin before or after UV irradiation. Multiple drug resistant to patterns of 300 total coliform isolates revealed that 82% were resistant to two or more antibiotics. Furthermore, 46% of these isolates were capable of transferring antibiotic resistance to a sensitive strain of Escherichia coli

1982-01-01

98

Effects of UV light disinfection on antibiotic-resistant coliforms in wastewater effluents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Total coliforms and total coliforms resistant to streptomycin, tetracycline, or chloramphenicol were isolated from filtered activated sludge effluents before and after UV light irradiation. Although the UV irradiation effectively disinfected the wastewater effluent, the percentage of the total surviving coliform population resistant to tetracycline or chloramphenicol was significantly higher than the percentage of the total coliform population resistant to those antibiotics before UV irradiation. This finding was attributed to the mechanism of R-factor mediated resistance to tetracycline. No significant difference was noted for the percentage of the surviving total coliform population resistant to streptomycin before or after UV irradiation. Multiple drug resistant to patterns of 300 total coliform isolates revealed that 82% were resistant to two or more antibiotics. Furthermore, 46% of these isolates were capable of transferring antibiotic resistance to a sensitive strain of Escherichia coli.

Meckes, M.C.

1982-02-01

99

40 CFR 141.21 - Coliform sampling.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Detection and Identification of Coliform Bacteria and Escherichla coli in Finished Waters...Detection and Identification of Coliform Bacteria and Escherichla coli in Finished Waters...Identification of Coliforms and E. coli Bacteria in Drinking Water and Source Water...

2010-07-01

100

Evaluation of m-T7 agar as a fecal coliform medium.  

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m-T7 agar, designed to improve recoveries of injured total coliforms, was evaluated for its effectiveness as a fecal coliform medium. The time and temperature of preincubation were found to be crucial to the optimal recovery of fetal coliforms. Isolation rates for fecal coliforms on m-T7 agar from sewage effluents were the highest when plates were preincubated at 37 degrees C for 8 h before transfer to 44.5 degrees C for 12 h. The medium was found to produce consistently higher fecal coliform...

Lechevallier, M. W.; Jakanoski, P. E.; Camper, A. K.; Mcfeters, G. A.

1984-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

INTERLABORATORY EVALUATION OF MI AGAR AND THE US ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY-APPROVED MEMBRANE FILTER METHOD FOR THE RECOVERY OF TOTAL COLIFORMS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI FROM DRINKING WATER  

Science.gov (United States)

A new membrane filter (MF) medium, MI agar, recently validated for use in recovering chlorine-damaged total coloiforms (TC) and Escherichia coli from drinking water, was compared to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-approved MF method(mEndo agar and nutrient agar suppl...

102

Differential susceptibility of aeromonads and coliforms to cefsulodin.  

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Cefsulodin was evaluated as a potential selective agent for aeromonads. Resistance of Aeromonas and coliform isolates was determined by using a standard disk diffusion technique. A total of 119 Aeromonas and 78 coliform strains were isolated. For 102 of 130 [corrected] Aeromonas isolates (environmental and reference strains), the MIC of cefsulodin was < 8 micrograms/ml. Results of MIC tests by the agar dilution method showed that a concentration of cefsulodin of 10 micrograms/ml or less inhib...

Alonso, J. L.; Amoros, I.; Alonso, M. A.

1996-01-01

103

FECAL COLIFORM INCREASE AFTER CENTRIFUGATION  

Science.gov (United States)

The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) recently published a report titled Examination of Reactivation and Regrowth of Fecal Coliforms in Anaerobically Digested Sludges. Seven full-scale publicly owned treatment facilities were sampled several times to determine if bacte...

104

Coliform and Metal Contamination in Lago de Colina, a Recreational Water Body in Chihuahua State, Mexico  

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Full Text Available Lago de Colina (Colina Lake is located about 180 km south of the city of Chihuahua (Mexico, and during the Semana Santa (Holy Week vacation period its recreational use is high. The objective of this study was to quantify coliform and heavy metal levels in this water body before and after the Holy Week vacation period in 2010. Twenty sampling points were randomly selected and two water samples were collected at each point near the surface (0.30 m and at 1 m depth. After the Holy Week vacation the same twenty points were sampled at the same depths. Therefore, a total 80 water samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliforms and levels of the following metals: Al, As, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si and Zn. It was hypothesized that domestic tourism contaminated this water body, and as a consequence, could have a negative impact on visitor health. An analysis of variance (ANOVA study was performed for each element and its interactions considering a factorial design where factor A was sample date and factor B was sample depth. Fecal coliforms were only detected at eight sampling points in the first week, but after Holy Week, both fecal and total coliforms were detected at most sampling points. The concentrations of Al, B, Na, Ni and Se were only statistically different for factor A. The levels of Cr, Cu, K and Mg was different for both date and depth, but the dual factor interaction was not significant. The amount of Ca and Zn was statistically different due to date, depth and their interaction. No significant differences were found for any factor or the interaction for the elements As, Fe and Mn. Because of the consistent results, it is concluded that local tourism is contaminating the recreational area of Colina Lake, Chihuahua, Mexico.

Hector Rubio-Arias

2011-06-01

105

Coliform and Metal Contamination in Lago de Colina, a Recreational Water Body in Chihuahua State, Mexico  

Science.gov (United States)

Lago de Colina (Colina Lake) is located about 180 km south of the city of Chihuahua (Mexico), and during the Semana Santa (Holy Week) vacation period its recreational use is high. The objective of this study was to quantify coliform and heavy metal levels in this water body before and after the Holy Week vacation period in 2010. Twenty sampling points were randomly selected and two water samples were collected at each point near the surface (0.30 m) and at 1 m depth. After the Holy Week vacation the same twenty points were sampled at the same depths. Therefore, a total 80 water samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliforms and levels of the following metals: Al, As, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si and Zn. It was hypothesized that domestic tourism contaminated this water body, and as a consequence, could have a negative impact on visitor health. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) study was performed for each element and its interactions considering a factorial design where factor A was sample date and factor B was sample depth. Fecal coliforms were only detected at eight sampling points in the first week, but after Holy Week, both fecal and total coliforms were detected at most sampling points. The concentrations of Al, B, Na, Ni and Se were only statistically different for factor A. The levels of Cr, Cu, K and Mg was different for both date and depth, but the dual factor interaction was not significant. The amount of Ca and Zn was statistically different due to date, depth and their interaction. No significant differences were found for any factor or the interaction for the elements As, Fe and Mn. Because of the consistent results, it is concluded that local tourism is contaminating the recreational area of Colina Lake, Chihuahua, Mexico.

Rubio-Arias, Hector; Rey, Nora I.; Quintana, Rey M.; Nevarez, G. Virginia; Palacios, Oskar

2011-01-01

106

Full-scale studies of factors related to coliform regrowth in drinking water.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

An 18-month survey of 31 water systems in North America was conducted to determine the factors that contribute to the occurrence of coliform bacteria in drinking water. The survey included analysis of assimilable organic carbon (AOC), coliforms, disinfectant residuals, and operational parameters. Coliform bacteria were detected in 27.8% of the 2-week sampling periods and were associated with the following factors: filtration, temperature, disinfectant type and disinfectant level, AOC level, c...

Lechevallier, M. W.; Welch, N. J.; Smith, D. B.

1996-01-01

107

Relationship among fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. in shellfish.  

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The relationship of fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. was examined in freshly harvested and stored shellfish. In 16 of 40 freshly collected oyster samples, fecal coliform levels were above the recommended wholesale level suggested by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program (less than or equal to 230/100 g), and Salmonella spp. were present in three of these samples. Salmonella spp. were not, however, present in any sample containing less than 230 fecal coliforms per 100...

Hood, M. A.; Ness, G. E.; Blake, N. J.

1983-01-01

108

Serum total glutathione-s-transferase levels in oral cancer  

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We conducted a study wherein serum total glutathione-s-transferase levels were measured in patients (n = 27) with various stages of biopsy proven oral cancer (squamous cell carcinoma) and age and sex matched healthy human volunteers (n=10). In all patients with oral cancer, serum total glutathione-s-transferase was measured before the onset of treatment. There was a significant increase in serum total glutathione-s-transferse levels in patients with stage IV oral cancer as compared to stage I...

Prabhu Krishnananda; Bhat Gopalakrishna

2007-01-01

109

Distribution of coliform bacteria in waste water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biological activity of water can be apparently judged by the colonization of bacteria (microbes. In order to find out the extent of pollution and the relationship between inorganic matters and microbiota, a quantitative and qualitative analysis of bacteria in various types of sewage waters, namely sewage water by the residential colonies (group I, industrial waste water (group II, sewage treatment hub (group III, unorganized collected waste water (group IV and old residential waste collection center (group V, of Bikaner city (Rajasthan, India was carried out from February, 2010 to May, 2010. Water samples were taken from surface only owing to low depth and investigated for various abiotic factors (viz. transparency, pH, carbonate, bicarbonate, total alkalinity, total hardness, salinity, chloride, calcium, magnesium, sulphate, nitrate, silica, and inorganic phosphorous and biotic factors (viz. number and diversity of bacteria. The domestic sewage water causes major water borne diseases basing upon Total Bacterial Count (TBC and coliform Count (CC. The coliform count in the present study ranged from 2.5 to 5.12 MPN/mL. Comparision of microbial population in sewage water from all different Groups was done and the higher values of TBC and CC were recorded only in Sewage treatement hub (Group III.

Chandan Kumar Bahura

2012-01-01

110

Evaluation of Commercial Colilert18-Quantitray® Method by ISO Techniques for Enumeration and Quantification of Total Coliforms and Escherichia coli in Drinking-Water of Buraidah, Saudi Arabia  

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In the present investigation, the Colilert18-QuantiTray® test is compared with ISO 9308-2:1999 Multiple-Tube Fermentation (MTF) and 9308-1:2000 Membrane Filtration (MF) methods for the detection of coliforms and E. coli in Buraidah drinking water. Regarding sensitivity and specificity of test methods using MTF as reference, the MF method showed a weak sensitivity, while the Colilert18® test showed the highest one. On the other hand, MF method exhibited a higher ...

Al-turki, A.; El-ziney, M. G.

2009-01-01

111

THERMOTOLERANT NON-FECAL SOURCE 'KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE': VALIDITY OF THE FECAL COLIFORM TEST IN RECREATIONAL WATERS  

Science.gov (United States)

Wisconsin pulp and paper mill processing plants were evaluated for fecal coliform and total Klebsiella (i.e., thermotolerant and thermointolerant) bacterial concentrations. Using the standard fecal coliform test, up to 90 per cent of non-fecal source thermo-tolerant K. pneumoniae...

112

Serum total glutathione-s-transferase levels in oral cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We conducted a study wherein serum total glutathione-s-transferase levels were measured in patients (n = 27 with various stages of biopsy proven oral cancer (squamous cell carcinoma and age and sex matched healthy human volunteers (n=10. In all patients with oral cancer, serum total glutathione-s-transferase was measured before the onset of treatment. There was a significant increase in serum total glutathione-s-transferse levels in patients with stage IV oral cancer as compared to stage II (P = 0.001 and stage III (P = 0.002 oral cancer. This shows that alterations in serum total Glutathione-s-transferase levels may have a role in cancer progression.

Prabhu Krishnananda

2007-01-01

113

Formación de biopelículas y susceptibilidad antimicrobiana entre coliformes aislados en agua potable embotellada en Carabobo, Venezuela / Biofilms formation and antimicrobial susceptibility among coliforms isolated in bottled drinking water in Carabobo, Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Bacterias indicadoras de contaminación tales como bacterias heterótrofas, coliformes totales y termotolerantes fueron enumeradas en agua potable embotellada usando métodos estándar y filtración a través de membrana. El desarrollo de biopelículas y la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana (método de Kirby-B [...] auer) fueron evaluados sobre sesenta aislados de coliformes seleccionados de forma aleatoria. De 50 muestras, en un elevado porcentaje (94), se observó niveles de bacterias heterotróficas por encima de 100 UFC/mL de agua, 38 % presentó al menos una UFC/100 mL de coliformes totales o termotolerantes, mientras que, 30 % y 28 %, presentaron más de diez UFC/100 mL para ambos indicadores, respectivamente. Las especies de coliformes identificadas en mayor proporción fueron, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli y Klebsiella oxytoca. Usando un ensayo in vitro para detectar la formación de biopelículas se determinó que entre un 75,8 y 79,2 % de los coliformes totales y termotolerantes, respectivamente, fueron descritos como moderados o fuertes formadores de biopelículas. No se observaron diferencias significativas (P>0,05) con respecto a la capacidad de formación de biopelículas entre los dos grupos. La mayoría de los aislados resultaron susceptibles frente a los antimicrobianos evaluados, únicamente dos especies presentaron fenotipos de resistencia no naturales. Perfiles de multiresistencia, típicos de especies asociadas con actividades clínicas o veterinarias, fueron identificados en un aislado de Enterobacter cloacae (betalactamasas tipo AmpC derreprimida) y un aislado de Escherichia coli fue resistente a ampicilina. Este estudio sugiere que el agua potable en botellones plásticos que se expende en algunas áreas urbanas de Carabobo, Venezuela, puede representar un riesgo para la salud. Abstract in english Pollution indicator bacteria such as heterotrophic bacteria, total and thermotolerant coliforms were quantified in bottled drinking water using standard method and membrane filter procedure. Biofilm formation and antimicrobial susceptibility (Kirby-Bauer method) were tested on sixty randomly selecte [...] d coliform strains. Among 50 water samples, a large percentage (94) were found with heterotrophic bacteria levels above 100 CFU/mL, 46 % showed at least one CFU/100 mL of thermotolerant or total coliformes whereas 28 % and 30 % showed more than ten CFU/100 mL for both indicators. Coliform species found in higher proportion were, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella oxytoca. Using an "in vitro" assay for biofilms formation it was determined that between 75.8 y 79.2 % of total and thermotolerant coliforms, respectively, were found to be moderate or strong biofilm formers. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between both groups regarding the capacity for biofilm formation. Most of the isolates were susceptible against the antibiotics tested and only two species showed unnatural resistance phenotypes. Multiresistance profiles, typical of strains associated with human clinical or veterinary activities were identified in one Enterobacter cloacae isolated (derepressed AmpC beta-lactamases) and one Escherichia coli strain was ampicilin resistant. This study suggests that the water sold in some plastic bottles in some urban areas near by Carabobo, Venezuela, may be a risk to health.

Rojas, Tomás; Montoya, Alejandra; Moreno, Alejandra; Mujica, Ritneybi; Vásquez, Ysvette.

114

Fecal coliforms, caffeine and carbamazepine in stormwater collection systems in a large urban area.  

Science.gov (United States)

Water samples from streams, brooks and storm sewer outfall pipes that collect storm waters across the Island of Montréal were analyzed for caffeine, carbamazepine and fecal coliforms. All samples contained various concentrations of these tracers, indicating a widespread sanitary contamination in urban environments. Fecal coliforms and caffeine levels ranged over several orders of magnitude with a modest correlation between caffeine and fecal coliforms (R(2) value of 0.558). An arbitrary threshold of 400 ng caffeine L(-1) allows us to identify samples with an elevated fecal contamination, as defined by more than 200 colony-forming units per 100 mL (cfu 100 mL(-1)) of fecal coliforms. Low caffeine levels were sporadically related to high fecal coliform counts. Lower levels of caffeine and fecal coliforms were observed in the brooks while the larger streams and storm water discharge points contained over ten times more. The carbamazepine data showed little or no apparent correlation to caffeine. These data suggest that this storm water collection system, located in a highly urbanized urban environment, is widely contaminated by domestic sewers as indicated by the ubiquitous presence of fecal contaminants as well as caffeine and carbamazepine. Caffeine concentrations were relatively well correlated to fecal coliforms, and could potentially be used as a chemical indicator of the level of contamination by sanitary sources. The carbamazepine data was not significantly correlated to fecal coliforms and of little use in this dataset. PMID:22075053

Sauvé, Sébastien; Aboulfadl, Khadija; Dorner, Sarah; Payment, Pierre; Deschamps, Guy; Prévost, Michèle

2012-01-01

115

Comparison of the hydrophobic-grid membrane filter procedure and standard methods for coliform analysis of water.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The hydrophobic-grid membrane filter (HGMF) has been proposed as an alternate method to the standard membrane filter (MF) procedure for the detection and enumeration of coliforms from water. Eight samples of nonchlorinated wastewater effluents were analyzed by the HGMF, standard MF, and tube fermentation most-probable-number methods for fecal coliforms, and eight samples each of polluted surface and dosed drinking waters were analyzed by the same methods for total coliforms. The drinking wate...

Mcdaniels, A. E.; Bordner, R. H.; Menkedick, J. R.; Weber, C. I.

1987-01-01

116

Testing of higher levels of automatisation of total stations  

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The theme of this final thesis is testing higher levels of automation of universal total station, where we tested the Leica TCRA1102plus. This paper discusses the development of surveying and their breakdown. Lists and describes the systems, which enabled a higher degree of automation in modern surveying and facilitate the operator's work in the field. In the practical part of the thesis we tested automation system of tachymeter Leica TCRA1102plus namely, we compared the accuracy of the a...

Spreicer, Marko

2013-01-01

117

Chlorine injury and the comparative performance of Colisure (TM), ColiLert (TM) and ColiQuik (TM) for the enumeration of coliform bacteria and E.coli in drinking water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several factors have stimulated interest in recently developed substrate specific media for the detection of coliform bacteria in water. This study compared the performance of Colisure (TM) (Millipore), ColiLert (TM) (Environetics) and ColiQuick (TM) (Hach) with accepted membrane filtration and MPN methodologies for the enumeration of total coliforms and E. coli in chlorinated water. The performance of all three media was compared, in MPN configuration, with LTB/MPN (confirmed) using a variety of drinking and source water samples, both with and without chlorination. The Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test yielded statistical correlations between results obtained with each of the three new enzyme detection media and accepted reference methods for the detection of low numbers of total coliforms. Another series of tests compared the performance of Colisure with accepted methods (LTB/MPN confirmed with BGLB and EC-MUG) in the detection of total coliforms and E. coli in sewage-spiked samples simulating contaminated drinking water, using an USEPA/AWWA test protocol. The results demonstrated that Colisure detected these indicator bacteria with greater sensitivity than the accepted methods and that this difference increased between 24 and 28 hours of incubation. The results of this study collectively support the validity of the new enzyme detection method for the detection of low levels of coliform bacteria and E. coli in source water and contaminated drinking water. PMID:11537608

McFeters, G A; Pyle, B H; Gillis, S J; Acomb, C J; Ferrazza, D

1993-01-01

118

Total and free thyroid hormone levels in chronic renal failure.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The levels of serum total thyroxine (TT4, triiodothyronine (TT3, free T3, (FT3 free T4 (FT4 and thyrotropin (TSH were measured in 127 clinically euthyroid patients with varying grades of chronic renal failure (CRF; and 97 healthy individuals. They were grouped as: Group I containing 93 patients on conservative management; Group II containing 34 patients on regular dialysis therapy; and Group III (normals. Group I patients showed significant decrease in TT3, TT4 and FT3 levels (p less than 0.001 as compared to Group III, whereas FT4 and TSH values in group I were not significantly altered. TT3, TT4 and FT3 levels reduced as the severity of renal damage increased. Variations in TT3, TT4, FT3, FT4 and TSH levels in Group II patients were similar to those in Group I, except for a decrease in TSH levels (p less than 0.05 as compared to normals. Several thyroid function tests are abnormal in CRF patients, however, finding of normal FT4 and TSH levels would indicate functional euthyroid status.

Mehta H

1991-04-01

119

Response of coliform populations in streambed sediment and water column to changes in nutrient concentrations in water.  

Science.gov (United States)

As sediments increasingly become recognized as reservoirs of indicator and pathogen microorganisms, an understanding of the persistence of indicator organisms becomes important for assessment and predictions of microbial water quality. The objective of this work was to observe the response of water column and sediment coliform populations to the change in nutrient concentrations in the water column. Survival experiments were conducted in flow-through chambers containing sandy sediments. Bovine feces were collected fresh and introduced into sediment. Sixteen days later, the same fecal material was autoclaved and diluted to provide three levels - 1×, 0.5×, and 0.1× of nutrient concentrations - spike in water column. Total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and total aerobic heterotrophic bacterial concentrations were monitored in water and sediment. Bacteria responded to the nutrient spike with initial growth both in the water column and in sediment. The response of bacterial concentrations in water column was nonlinear, with no significant changes at 0.1 and .5× spikes, but a substantial change at 1× spike. Bacteria in sediment responded to the spikes at all added nutrient levels. Coliform inactivation rates both in sediment and in water after the initial growth occurred, were not significantly different from the inactivation rates before spike. These results indicate that introduction of nutrients into the water column results in nonlinear response of E. coli concentrations both in water and in sediments, followed by the inactivation with the same rate as before introduction of nutrients. PMID:24839925

Shelton, D R; Pachepsky, Y A; Kiefer, L A; Blaustein, R A; McCarty, G W; Dao, T H

2014-08-01

120

Comparison of commercially available kits with standard methods for the detection of coliforms and Escherichia coli in foods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three commercially available kits that were supplemented with substrates for enzyme reactions were evaluated to determine their abilities to detect coliforms and fecal coliforms in foods. Japanese and U.S. Food and Drug Administration standard methods, as well as two agar plate methods, were compared with the three commercial kits. A total of 50 food samples from various retailers were examined. The levels of detection of coliforms were high with the commercial kits (78 to 98%) compared with the levels of detection with the standard methods (80 to 83%) and the agar plate methods (56 to 83%). Among the kits tested, the Colilert kit had highest level of recovery of coliforms (98%), and the level of recovery of Escherichia coli as determined by beta-glucuronidase activity with the Colilert kit (83%) was comparable to the level of recovery obtained by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration method (87%). Isolation of E. coli on the basis of the beta-glucuronidase enzyme reaction was found to be good. Levine's eosine methylene blue agar, which has been widely used in various laboratories to isolate E. coli was compared with 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG)-supplemented agar for isolation of E. coli. Only 47% of the E. coli was detected when eosine methylene blue agar was used; however, when violet red bile (VRB)-MUG agar was used, the E. coli detection rate was twice as high. Of the 200 E. coli strains isolated, only 2 were found to be MUG negative, and the gene responsible for beta-glucuronidase activity (uidA gene) was detected by the PCR method in these 2 strains. Of the 90 false-positive strains isolated that exhibited various E. coli characteristic features, only 2 non-E.coli strains hydrolyzed MUG and produced fluorescent substrate in VRB-MUG agar. However, the PCR did not amplify uidA gene products in these VRB-MUG fluorescence-positive strains. PMID:8779561

Venkateswaran, K; Murakoshi, A; Satake, M

1996-07-01

 
 
 
 
121

Microtechnique for isolating fecal coliforms from soil.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A most-probable-number microtitration technique for isolating fecal coliforms from soil was developed. A correlation coefficient of 0.86, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.76 less than zeta less than 0.92, was obtained when this technique was compared with the standard elevated-temperature fecal coliform most-probable-number procedure.

Hartel, P. G.; Hagedorn, C.

1983-01-01

122

Metal ion levels in total hip arthroplasty versus hip resurfacing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies suggest that the tapered interface between stem and femoral head may be a substantial source of cobalt and chromium ion release after metal-on-metal (MOM) total hip arthroplasty (THA). This study compared patient ion levels after MOM hip resurfacing (HR) and MOM THA performed with identical acetabular components. 110 HRs were compared with 22 THAs. All had well-oriented components, unilateral implants, and serum ion studies beyond one year post-operatively. The HR group's median cobalt value was 1.11 ?g/L vs. 2.86 ?g/L for the THA patients. The HR group's median chromium value was 1.49 ?g/L vs. 2.94 ?g/L for THA. Significantly higher THA ion levels suggest a source of ions other than the MOM bearing itself. PMID:23618754

Johnson, Alicia J; Le Duff, Michel J; Yoon, James P; Al-Hamad, Mariam; Amstutz, Harlan C

2013-08-01

123

Antibiotic resistance and R plasmids in coliforms isolated from some Malaysian cooked foods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Forty samples of Malaysian cooked foods were examined for the presence of antibiotic-resistant coliforms and R plasmids. Twenty seven (68%) of the foods had antibiotic-resistant coliforms and 5 (13%) had R plasmids. Nineteen samples (48%) had total bacterial counts over 10(6) per gm and in 5 samples, no coliforms were detected. Our findings show that cooked food may be one possible way by which R plasmids are spread. The control of the spread of R plasmids is discussed. PMID:7147009

Khor, S Y; Lim, Y S; Jegathesan, M

1982-06-01

124

Asellus aquaticus as a Potential Carrier of Escherichia coli and Other Coliform Bacteria into Drinking Water Distribution Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Individuals of the water louse, Asellus aquaticus, enter drinking water distribution systems in temperate parts of the world, where they establish breeding populations. We analysed populations of surface water A. aquaticus from two ponds for associated faecal indicator bacteria and assessed the risk of A. aquaticus transporting bacteria into distribution systems. Concentrations of up to two E. coli and five total coliforms·mL?1 were measured in the water and 200 E. coli and >240 total coliforms·mL?1 in the sediments of the investigated ponds. Concentrations of A. aquaticus associated bacteria never exceeded three E. coli and six total coliforms·A. aquaticus?1. During exposure to high concentrations of coliforms, concentrations reached 350 coliforms·A. aquaticus?1. A. aquaticus associated E. coli were only detected as long as E. coli were present in the water and sediment. The calculated probability of exceeding drinking water guideline values in non-disinfected systems by intrusion of A. aquaticus was low. Only in scenarios with narrow pipes and low flows, did total coliforms exceed guideline values, implying that the probability of detection by routine monitoring is also low. The study expands the knowledge base for evaluating incidents with presence of coliform indicators in drinking water by showing that intruding A. aquaticus were not important carriers of E. coli or other coliform bacteria even when emerging from faecally contaminated waters.

Hans-Jørgen Albrechtsen

2013-03-01

125

Effect of ambient temperature storage on potable water coliform population estimations.  

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The effect of the length of time between sampling potable water and performing coliform analyses has been a long-standing controversial issue in environmental microbiology. The issue is of practical importance since reducing the sample-to-analysis time may substantially increase costs for water analysis programs. Randomly selected samples (from those routinely collected throughout the State of Wisconsin) were analyzed for total coliforms after being held at room temperature (20 +/- 2 degrees ...

Standridge, J. H.; Delfino, J. J.

1983-01-01

126

Evaluation of Total Oxidative Level and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Cases with Chronic Viral Hepatitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: Oxidative stress is described as an instability between production of free radicals from cells and antioxidant defence of the body. The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation of total antioxidant capacity (TAC and total oxidative level (TOL with the severity of the disease and reliability of these parameters in the follow up of response to treatment in cases with chronic viral hepatitis (CVH.Methods: Between January 2004-March 2006, 73 cases with CVH were included in the study. The ages of the patients ranged from 15 to 70 years. Diagnosis of CVH was confirmed by clinical serological, and biochemical markers. The cases were divided into two groups: Group 1 as HBsAg-positive or anti-HCV-positive but HBV DNA or HCV RNA-negative and Group 2 as proven CVH. TAC, lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH, and TOL of the sera were studied according to Erel method, and statistically evaluated by ?2 test in all the cases. Results: TAC, LOOH and TOL were found statistically significantly different between two groups. Average values of TAC were 1.8±0.5 mmol Trolox-Eqv./L and 1.0±0.15 mmol Trolox-Eqv./L in Group 1 and Group 2 ( p=0.0001 respectively. Average values of LOOH were 5.3±2.8 µmol H202 in Group 1 and 10.6±10.1 µmol H202 in Group 2 (p=0.002. Average values of TOL were 10.2±5.9 µmol H2O2 Eqv./L in Group 1 and 18.5±16.6 µmol H2O2 Eqv./L in Group 2 (p=0.004.Conclusions: TAC was found higher, and TOL and LOOH were found lower in Group 1 than Group 2. The evaluation of plasma TAC, TOS ve LOOH levels may be important activation markers for the follow up of CVH.

Fatma S?rmatel

2009-12-01

127

Comparison of media for enumeration of coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli in non-disinfected water.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work alternative media for detection and enumeration of E. coli and coliform bacteria were compared to the reference method ISO 9308-1 (LTTC) using non-disinfected water samples with background flora. The alternative media included LES Endo agar medium (LES Endo), Colilert-18 with 51-well Quanti-tray (Colilert), Chromocult Coliform agar (CC), Harlequin E. coli/Coliform medium (HECM) and Chromogenic Escherichia coli/Coliform medium (CECM). A total of 110 samples of groundwater, bathing water and spiked water was used. Our results revealed that confirmation of coliform bacteria counts is necessary, not only on lactose-based LTTC and LES Endo media, but also on the chromogenic agar media tested, due to the growth of oxidase positive colonies. LTTC and CC media also allowed the growth of some morphologically typical coliform colonies containing gram-positive bacteria. The recovery of coliform bacteria was lower on LES Endo than on LTTC. In most cases Colilert, CC, HECM and CECM gave higher coliform counts than LTTC. The use of the LTTC medium led to higher E. coli counts than obtained with any of the alternative mediums. There are three explanations for this: (1) high sensitivity of LTTC, (2) false positives on LTTC or (3) false negatives especially with Colilert, but also with chromogenic agar media. Although LTTC was found to be a very sensitive medium, the high degree of background growth of non-disinfected waters disturbed substantially the use of it. In conclusion, our results suggest that Colilert, CC and CECM are potential alternative media for detection of coliform bacteria and E. coli from non-disinfected water. PMID:17150268

Pitkänen, Tarja; Paakkari, Piia; Miettinen, Ilkka T; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi; Paulin, Lars; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

2007-03-01

128

Enumeration of coliform bacteria in wastewater solids using defined substrate technology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Commercially available defined substrate technology for the enumeration of coliform bacteria was investigated for its applicability to waste activated sludge (WAS) solids. The defined substrate, Colilert, in conjunction with the QuantiTray enumeration system, was compared with multiple-tube fermentation (MTF). Multiple-tube fermentation analyses (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [U.S. EPA]-accepted methods for the enumeration of coliforms in wastewater solids) were conducted on settled wastewater solids using lauryl tryptose broth as the presumptive phase and brilliant-green lactose bile broth for the confirmed phase of total coliform enumeration. Both EC medium for fecal coliform identification and EC-4-methyl-umbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG) media for Escherichia coli for the MTF completed phase were also conducted on the WAS. Samples analyzed included raw WAS and WAS that had been pasteurized at 70 degrees C for 15 and 30 minutes, respectively. Twenty replicates of each sample were measured to demonstrate statistical equivalence of the total coliform numbers for all three WAS samples (raw, 15-minute pasteurization, and 30-minute pasteurization). Results show that both systems provided statistically equal total coliform most probable numbers (MPNs) for all samples tested. As expected, fecal coliform numbers identified by the MTF technique were statistically higher than E. coli enumerated by Colilert-QuantiTray. However, the E. coli MPN generated by the MTF method was found to be statistically equal to the Colilert-QuantiTray numbers. Because of its ease of use and reduced time to obtain the analysis, the Colilert-QuantiTray system can be useful in enumerating coliforms in WAS. However, more data are required to definitively show equivalence of the commercially available defined substrate technology to the U.S.-EPA accepted protocol. It is hoped that the results of this study will help form a database for the acceptance of the Colilert-QuantiTray system for WAS bacterial analyses. PMID:12540092

Kramer, T A; Liu, J

2002-01-01

129

FECAL COLIFORM INCREASE AFTER CENTRIFUGATION: EPA PERSPECTIVE  

Science.gov (United States)

The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) recently published a report titled Examination of Reactivation and Regrowth of Fecal Coliforms in Anaerobically Digested Sludges. Seven full-scale publicly owned treatment facilities were sampled several times to determine if bacte...

130

ANALYZING BIOSOLIDS FOR FECAL COLIFORM AND SALMONELLAE  

Science.gov (United States)

Current federal regulations required monitoring for fecal coliforms or Salmonella in biosolids destined for land application. Standard protocols designed to quantify these organisms in water or wastewater were identified and specified in these regulations. However, proto...

131

Why have total cholesterol levels declined in most developed countries?  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Our paper addresses three major public health issues: cholesterol, statins and policies to prevent cardiovascular disease. Discussion Total cholesterol levels in whole populations have fallen substantially in the USA, UK and most other developed countries. This has greatly contributed to decreases in cardiovascular disease deaths. The evidence identifying diet as the major contributor to these historical falls in cholesterol is powerful and consistent. Large falls occurred before statins were introduced. Additional substantial falls occurred before statins were widely used. Now, up to 14% adults in Western populations currently receive statins for primary prevention. Furthermore, because diet is now only slowly improving, the statin contribution currently appears proportionately larger. Summary In conclusion, diet change explains most of the historical falls in cholesterol. Until very recently, the contribution from statins has been surprisingly modest. Furthermore, many middle income countries may have neither the resources nor the infrastructure for mass statin therapy. Further substantial falls in cholesterol are therefore unlikely to be obtained simply by increased use of statins or dietary advice to individuals if unsupported by the wider environment. This further emphasises the need for more effective structural policies. Regulatory and fiscal interventions could easily eradicate industrial transfats, halve the intake of dietary saturated fat, and subsidise healthier fats.

Ford Earl S

2011-08-01

132

Enumeration of coliforms and Escherichia coli in frozen black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon by conventional and rapid methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conventional (most probable number, MPN) and rapid methods-including Chromocult coliform agar (CCA), Fluorocult(R) LMX broth (LMX), and Petrifilm Escherichia coli count plates (PEC) for enumeration of coliforms and E. coli in frozen black tiger shrimp from Thailand were compared in order to assess the possibility of using one of the rapid methods for routine analysis. Enumeration of coliforms and E. coli from 18 samples of regular frozen black tiger shrimp and 156 samples of frozen black tiger shrimp experimentally contaminated with coliforms or E. coli at concentrations of approximately 10, approximately 10(2), and approximately 10(3) CFU g(-1) revealed that at the level of approximately 10 CFU g(-1), coliform numbers ranked as LMX>CCA>MPN=PEC and E. coli as MPN=LMX=PEC=CCA. At the level of approximately 10(2) CFU g(-1), coliform numbers ranked as LMX>MPN=PEC=CCA and E. coli as MPN=LMX>PEC=CCA. At the level of 10(3) CFU g(-1), coliforms ranked as LMX>MPN=CCA>PEC and E. coli as MPN>LMX>CCA>PEC. Agreements with the conventional MPN method for coliforms were LMX 108%, PEC 87.2%, and CCA 91.2% and agreements for E. coli were LMX 101%, PEC 95.7%, and CCA 96.3%. Sensitivities (%) ranked LMX>MPN>CCA=PEC for coliforms and E. coli, whereas equal specificities (100%) of all methods for coliforms and E. coli were demonstrated. Rankings for the other parameters compared were: convenience, PEC>CCA=LMX>MPN; time to detection, MPN>LMX=PEC=CCA; expense, MPN=PEC>CCA>LMX; labor, MPN>LMX=CCA>PEC; accuracy for coliforms, PEC>CCA>MPN>LMX; and accuracy for E. coli, PEC=CCA>LMX>MPN. PMID:12457585

Suwansonthichai, Sasithorn; Rengpipat, Sirirat

2003-03-15

133

The Impact of Rainfall on Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Bayou Dorcheat (North Louisiana  

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Full Text Available Fecal coliform bacteria are the most common pollutant in rivers and streams. In Louisiana, it has been reported that 37% of surveyed river miles, 31% of lakes, and 23% of estuarine water had some level of contamination. The objective of this research was to assess the effect of surface runoff amounts and rainfall amount parameters on fecal coliform bacterial densities in Bayou Dorcheat in Louisiana. Bayou Dorcheat has been designated by the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality as a waterway that has uses such as primary contact recreation, secondary contact recreation, propagation of fish and wildlife, agriculture and as being an outstanding natural resource water. Samples from Bayou Dorcheat were collected monthly and analyzed for the presence of fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms isolated from these samples were identified to the species level. The analysis of the bacterial levels was performed following standard test protocols as described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Information regarding the rainfall amounts and surface runoff amounts for the selected years was retrieved from the Louisiana Office of State Climatology. It was found that a significant increase in the fecal coliform numbers may be associated with average rainfall amounts. Possible sources of elevated coliform counts could include sewage discharges from municipal treatment plants and septic tanks, storm water overflows, and runoff from pastures and range lands. It can be concluded that nonpoint source pollution that is carried by surface runoff has a significant effect on bacterial levels in water resources.

Paul B. Tchounwou

2006-03-01

134

The impact of rainfall on fecal coliform bacteria in Bayou Dorcheat (North Louisiana).  

Science.gov (United States)

Fecal coliform bacteria are the most common pollutant in rivers and streams. In Louisiana, it has been reported that 37% of surveyed river miles, 31% of lakes, and 23% of estuarine water had some level of contamination. The objective of this research was to assess the effect of surface runoff amounts and rainfall amount parameters on fecal coliform bacterial densities in Bayou Dorcheat in Louisiana. Bayou Dorcheat has been designated by the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality as a waterway that has uses such as primary contact recreation, secondary contact recreation, propagation of fish and wildlife, agriculture and as being an outstanding natural resource water. Samples from Bayou Dorcheat were collected monthly and analyzed for the presence of fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms isolated from these samples were identified to the species level. The analysis of the bacterial levels was performed following standard test protocols as described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Information regarding the rainfall amounts and surface runoff amounts for the selected years was retrieved from the Louisiana Office of State Climatology. It was found that a significant increase in the fecal coliform numbers may be associated with average rainfall amounts. Possible sources of elevated coliform counts could include sewage discharges from municipal treatment plants and septic tanks, storm water overflows, and runoff from pastures and range lands. It can be concluded that nonpoint source pollution that is carried by surface runoff has a significant effect on bacterial levels in water resources. PMID:16823083

Hill, Dagne D; Owens, William E; Tchounwou, Paul B

2006-03-01

135

Comparison of four membrane filter methods for fecal coliform enumeration in tropical waters.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Four membrane filter methods for the enumeration of fecal coliforms were compared for accuracy, specificity, and recovery. Water samples were taken several times from 13 marine, 1 estuarine, and 4 freshwater sites around Puerto Rico, from pristine waters and waters receiving treated and untreated sewage and effluent from a tuna cannery and a rum distillery. Differences of 1 to 3 orders of magnitude in the levels of fecal coliforms were observed in some samples by different recovery techniques...

Santiago-mercado, J.; Hazen, T. C.

1987-01-01

136

The Impact of Rainfall on Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Bayou Dorcheat (North Louisiana)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fecal coliform bacteria are the most common pollutant in rivers and streams. In Louisiana, it has been reported that 37% of surveyed river miles, 31% of lakes, and 23% of estuarine water had some level of contamination. The objective of this research was to assess the effect of surface runoff amounts and rainfall amount parameters on fecal coliform bacterial densities in Bayou Dorcheat in Louisiana. Bayou Dorcheat has been designated by the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality as a w...

Hill, Dagne D.; Owens, William E.; Tchounwou, Paul B.

2006-01-01

137

Serum total proteins and serum total cholesterol levels in Gaolao Cattle  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The healthy female Gaolao cattle were selected and divided in three groups of ten animals each with reference to age. The blood samples were processed for clear serum collection and estimation of serum total proteins, albumin, globulin, albumin and globulin ratio and serum total cholesterol. It is reported that female calves had low total proteins, albumin and globulin than the adult cows. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(4.000): 115-116

2008-01-01

138

Fecal coliform bacteria disappearance rates in a north-central Gulf of Mexico estuary  

Science.gov (United States)

Fecal coliform levels in surface waters often peak after a major rain event. Thereafter, they decrease or disappear from water with time and can concentrate in sediments at high densities. Their dynamics in coastal waters is a function of bacterial loading from inflowing streams and rivers, mass transport, and losses due to death and sedimentation. We used water quality data collected from Mississippi Sound before, during and after 12 rainfall events to assess the effects of rainfall on fecal coliform levels, estimate fecal coliform disappearance rates, and evaluate the influence of season on fecal coliform loss rates. Fecal coliforms typically peaked within 48 h after a rain event, and then decreased precipitously, whereas the Pearl River (a major inflow into the western Mississippi Sound) stage often peaked within 96 h. Fecal coliform disappearance rates per day varied from -0.214 to -0.743 (mean = -0.428). Loss rates were higher in November/December (-0.64 ± 0.06SE) than in January (-0.45 ± 0.03SE) or February/March (-0.35 ± 0.03SE), perhaps due to seasonal differences in water temperature and/or intensities of solar radiation. It took an average of 6 days (range: 0.3-12.9 days) for the geometric mean FC levels to fall to 14 MPN per 100 ml. These data are useful for managing shellfish harvesting areas in Mississippi Sound and other river-influenced estuaries.

Chigbu, P.; Gordon, S.; Strange, T. R.

2005-10-01

139

Contamination of water wells in Khoms city with pathogenic coliform bacteria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

240 Samples from 60 water wells in and around the area of city of Khoms city (in northwestern Libya) were analyzed over four successive seasons for count of faecal Coliform bacteria, of which antibiotic resistance was later assessed. Standard methods were used for analysis of faecla coliform bacteria. Water wells contained varying levels of faecal coliform bacteria ranging from a Most Probable Number of 0 to 1.8 x 103 cfu/100 ml, with zero isolates at autumn and winter seasons, while wells dug at private farms had the highest percentage of contamination, reaching 56.6% of wells in autumn, and also had the highest number of faecal coliform isolates, 1,8x103 cfu/100 ml, in spring and summer seasons, strains of isolated Escherichia coli were most sensitive to chloramphenicol, and most resistant to tetracycline. (author)

2007-01-01

140

Nutrient-Induced Growth of Coliform and HPC Bacteria in Drinking-Water Pipes  

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Full Text Available We conducted a study on a model drinking water distribution system to evaluate the impact of nutrient in the form of sodium acetate on the growth and survival of coliform and heterotrophic plate count (HPC bacteria for a maximum of 21 days residence time of water in pipes. Our results show that, besides the nutrient added and the absence of any additional source of contamination and additional supply of nutrient, there was significant growth of the above mentioned bacteria in the pipes and bottles for a couple of days, after which the bacterial population began to decrease. The results indicate that the bacteria used the nutrient to grow and multiply until the nutrient was totally consumed and became depleted in the bulk water phase, after which the bacterial population reached a near stationary level and subsequently declined. This suggests the death of some of the bacteria and their dead cells were used by other bacteria for growth and survival. Using a detection limit of 3.3 CFU/100 mL for the coliforms, the study shows that after sometime, no bacteria were found in the water phase of the pipe, however, the biofilm in the pipes still harbored some of the bacteria. The results have revealed that the bacteria also have the tendency to move from the water phase to the biofilm since the latter provides a more suitable environment for bacteria to thrive on and grow, thus prolonging their survival in the system.

Samuel Boakye Dampare

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
141

Total mercury and methyl mercury levels in british estuarine sediments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The most recent results from an ongoing, large-scale study of total mercury and methyl mercury concentrations in sediments of Mersey Estuary, U.K., are presented. Correlations between total mercury, methyl mercury, silt, and organic carbon contents of the sediments are compared with previously reported results. The influence of redox potential and sulfide content of a sediment on the ambient concentration of methyl mercury and on the growth and decay of methyl mercury concentrations in sediments after sampling is discussed. Evidence suggests that sulfide concentrations may control methyl mercury concentrations in estuary sediments.

Bartlett, P.D.; Craig, P.J.

1981-01-01

142

Coliform Bacteria: The Effect of Sediments on Decay Rates and on Required Detention Times in Stormwater BMPs  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Fecal indicator bacteria, such as total coliforms and E. coli, are a challenge to control in urban and rural stormwater runoff. To assess the challenges of improving bacterial water quality standards in surface waters, microcosm experiments were conducted to assess how decay rates of total coliforms and E. coli are affected by sediments and associated organic matter. Samples were collected at a lake embayment to create laboratory microcosms consisting of ...

Kinnaman, Alison R.; Surbeck, Cristiane Q.; Usner, Danielle C.

2012-01-01

143

Total remotely measures the level of fuel tanks; Total jauge les cuves de fioul a distance  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A pressure and temperature sensor immersed at the bottom of industrial or domestic fuel tanks allows to measure the remaining quantity of fuel with a 2% maximum precision. This value is regularly measured and sent via SMS to the computer room of SilentSoft, a service contractor of Total company. This method allows to anticipate the clients' tank dry up and to optimize the fuel deliveries. Short article. (J.S.)

Anon.

2006-02-15

144

A comparison between faecal sterols and coliform counts in the investigation of sewage contamination in sediments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In September 2002, nine sediment samples (0-2 cm) were collected from Botafogo Cove (southwestern part of Guanabara Bay) in order to compare the use of chemical (coprostanol) and biological markers (E. coli and total coliforms) in identifying faecal contamination. The values found (organic carbon - 6.0 to 64.8 mg g-1; coprostanol - 1.4 to 105 µg g-1; E. coli - < 30 to 2400 NMP/10g and total coliforms - 40 to 9300 NMP/10g) were similar to or even higher than those observed in other contaminat...

Renata Lima da Costa; Carreira, Renato S.

2005-01-01

145

Coliform accumulation in Amphibalanus amphitrite (Darwin, 1854) (Cirripedia) and its use as an organic pollution bioindicator in the estuarine area of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Samples of water and barnacles Amphibalanus amphitrite were collected from Recife, Brazil, to assess if it accumulates total (TC) and thermotolerant coliforms (TTC) related with sewage pollution. The Most Probable Number (MPN) values and the standard procedures for examination of shellfish were used. Comparatively with the water samples, the highest coliform values came from the barnacles, with TC values ranging from 2.4 x 10(6) MPN.g-1, and TTC ranging from > 2.4 x 10(3) to 2.9 x 10(5) MPN.g-1. Barnacles accumulate the TC Ewingella americana, and the TTC Escherichia coli, Enterobacter gergoviae, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Enterobacter sakazakii. The results provided an indication of the level of organic contamination at the sampling locations and that this species could be a good organic pollution bioindicator. PMID:20549061

Farrapeira, C M R; Mendes, E S; Dourado, J; Guimarães, J

2010-05-01

146

Investigation of total ? and total ? radioactive level of environment mediator in the Dushu lake campus of Suzhou university  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To get the message of natural radioactive level in the Dushu lake cam- pus of Suzhou university. Methods: Different types of water, soil and food in this region were collected, and then the level of total ? and total ? radioactivity of the sample was investigated applying model BH1216 equipment which measuring was used for low background total ? and ? radioactivity. Results: Total ? in city water, surface water and soil were 0.061 Bq/L, 0.104 Bq/L, 1708 Bq/kg respectively, total ? were 0.183 Bq/L, 0.319 Bq/L, 780 Bq/kg respectively, total ? in chive, potato, water bamboo, pork, fish were 1.83, 2.36, 1.84, 3.40, 3.76 Bq/kg respectively, total ? of Fish bone was at infra-monitoring lower limit, total ? in them were 70.81, 96.71, 60.63, 86.20, 97.51, 73.94 Bq/kg respectively. Conclusion: The results of the investigation display that the total radioactivity in drinking water and food don't exceed limits, in surface water and soil is at normal natural background. It can be concluded that this region has not been polluted by the artificial radioactivity and the environment of human habitation is healthy and safe. (authors)

2008-03-01

147

THAWING PROCEDURES FOR HOSPITAL-MADE ENTERAL FEEDINGS: SURVIVAL OF COLIFORM AND MESOPHILIC AEROBIC BACTERIA  

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Full Text Available

ABSTRACT: This study had the purpose to observe the effect of thawing procedures on survival of coliform and mesophilic aerobic bacteria in hospital-made enteral feedings. The samples are represented by three different lots. The tests were realized in three moments: immediately after the sample preparation and after freezing during 1 or 2 months. The thawing procedures were denominated convencional and alternative. The first, used by hospital, utilizes water bath at 50ºC, considering the time spent from the total thawing to its distribution in the infirmaries. The second was the fast thawing made by microwaving. The results showed that the reduction of the mesophiles and coliform was related to the time the samples were frozen. The results obtained indicate an advantage of the alternative method, which presented lower total and fecal coliform counts than the conventional one. KEYWORDS: Enteral feedings; thawing; food microbiology.

Kathia Rossi Rolim LOPES

2009-07-01

148

Transferable antibiotic resistance among thermotolerant coliforms from rural drinking water in India.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 231 thermotolerant coliforms was isolated from rural drinking water from four states of India. Of these, 220 isolates were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphemicol, streptomycin and tetracycline. Multiple (MAR), double and single antibiotic resistances were observed in 31.4, 48.6 and 13.7% of the isolates, respectively. Out of 177 antibiotic-resistant isolates examined for transmissibility, only 15.3% were able to transfer their resistances to Escherichia coli K-12 recipient. The resistances were transferred by 32.5% of MAR, 21.9% of double resistant and 7.6% of single resistant isolates. Ampicillin resistance was transferable in 14.69% strains while resistances for the rest of the antibiotics were transferable in less than 4% strains. MAR strains of E. coli and Klebsiella sp. showed highest levels of R-plasmid transfer.

Gaur, A.; Ramteke, P. W.; Pathak, S. P.; Bhattacherjee, J. W.

1992-01-01

149

Removal of fecal coliforms in stabilization lagoons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The treatment of residual waters by means of stabilization lagoons, it has been a method very used due to their low costs of operation and maintenance, as well as to their efficiency in the removal of organic matter and of microorganisms pathogens. The pathogens removal, measure in terms of fecal coliforms, CF, is one of the objectives of the design and of the control of the operation of plants of treatment of residual waters. In this article summary the main results of the experimental evaluation of the removal of fecal coliforms, In a treatment system for stabilization lagoons. In 1987 the plant of treatment of Chia 1 the main components of the treatment system are an entrance structure, composed by a mitigation tank, to which he receives a 24 diameter pipe with a slope of 0.98% that transports the residual water of a sector of the Chia municipality. The average concentration of fecal coliforms is not affected notably by the hour of sampling. The value of the coliforms concentration in the tributary is of 1.0*106 NMP/100 mL, the concentration in the final tributary is bigger than the one demanded for the watering water without restrictions 3.4*104 NMP/100 mL. The removal average in the system is acceptable during the sampling period, keeping in mind that this compound for two lagoons in series, under anaerobic conditions

1997-01-01

150

Coliforms and Escherichia coli in waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study shows the evaluation of a defined substrate method, Colilert 18/Quanty Tray, for the simultaneous detection of Coliforms bacteria and Escherichia coli in water. The results obtained indicate that this method represents a valid alternative to the traditional methods considering sensitivity, specificity, repeatability but also rapidity and simplicity of use

2005-11-01

151

40 CFR 141.21 - Coliform sampling.  

Science.gov (United States)

...P-A) Coliform Test 5,7 9221D. ONPG-MUG Test 8 9223. Colisure Test. 9 E*Colite ® Test. 10 m-ColiBlue24...also be used: 9221 A, B, D-99, 9222 A, B, C-97, and 9223 B-97. Standard Methods Online are available at...

2010-07-01

152

Comparación de técnicas para la extracción de bacterias coliformes del sedimento del lago de Xochimilco, México / Comparison of techniques for coliform bacteria extraction from sediment of Xochimilco Lake, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La necesidad de separar a las bacterias del sedimento para lograr un conteo adecuado ha llevado a probar la eficiencia de distintas técnicas. En este trabajo se comparan técnicas tradicionales: agitación manual, homogenización, ultrasonicación y adición de surfactante. Además, se propone la posibili [...] dad de usar un conjunto de enzimas (pancreatina) y un antibiótico (ampicilina) para la extracción de coliformes del sedimento. Las muestras se obtuvieron del lago de Xochimilco, Ciudad de México. Después de aplicar cada técnica de separación de bacterias se determinó el número más probable de coliformes. La mayoría de las técnicas probadas generaron números similares a la técnica tomada como control (agitación manual). Únicamente se observó una mayor concentración de coliformes totales con el uso de la ampicilina (Mann-Whitney, z = 2,09; p = 0,03). Es posible proponer el uso de la ampicilina como técnica para la extracción de coliformes totales, sin embargo, es necesario considerar la sensibilidad de las bacterias al antibiótico. Abstract in english The need to separate bacteria from sediment in order to appropriately count them has led to test the efficacy of different techniques. In this research, traditional techniques such as manual shaking, homogenization, ultrasonication, and surfactant are compared. Moreover, the possibility of using a s [...] et of enzymes (pancreatine) and an antibiotic (ampicillin) for sediment coliform extraction is proposed. Samples were obtained from Xochimilco Lake in Mexico City. The most probable number of coliform bacteria was determined after applying the appropriate separation procedure. Most of the techniques tested led to numbers similar to those of the control (manual shaking). Only with the use of ampicillin, a greater total coliform concentration was observed (Mann-Whitney, z = 2.09; p = 0.03). It is possible to propose the use of ampicillin as a technique for total coliform extraction; however, it is necessary to consider sensitivity of bacteria to the antibiotic.

Fernández-Rendón, Carlos L; Barrera-Escorcia, Guadalupe.

153

Níveis periféricos de testosterona total em touros Guzerá / Peripheral levels of total testosterone in Guzerat bulls  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram avaliados 24 touros da raça Guzerá, de 24 a 34 meses de idade, com o objetivo de estudar o perfil da concentração sérica de testosterona e sua variação relativa à idade, peso corporal e características andrológicas. A concentração média de testosterona foi de 1,36 ng/mL, com influência do horá [...] rio de coleta nos níveis circulantes. A equação de regressão da concentração sérica de testosterona em função do peso corporal dos animais apresentou efeito linear, sugerindo que, para cada quilograma a mais no peso corporal, ocorre acréscimo de 0,0082 ng/mL nas concentrações de testosterona. A regressão da concentração sérica de testosterona e a circunferência escrotal (CE) também apresentou efeito linear indicando que, para cada centímetro a mais na CE nos touros Guzerá, ocorreu aumento de 0,2319 ng/mL na concentração de testosterona. A regressão da concentração espermática do sêmen em função da concentração sérica de testosterona apresentou efeito linear, os resultados mostram que, para cada 0,1 ng/mL a mais na concentração de testosterona circulante, ocorreu aumento de 9,29 x 10(6) espermatozoides/mL de sêmen. Os resultados indicam que os níveis circulantes de testosterona podem auxiliar na identificação e seleção de touros Guzerá, com maior potencial reprodutivo. Abstract in english Twenty-four Guzerat bulls were evaluated from 24 to 34 months of age, aiming to determinate the bulls serum testosterone concentration profile and their variation according to age, body weight and andrologic traits. The average of testosterone concentration was 1.36 ng/mL, with effect of time at har [...] vest on circulating levels. The regression equation of testosterone according to body weight showed linear effect, suggesting that for each kilogram added to the body weight, an increase of 0.0082 ng/mL on serum testosterone concentrations occurs; and the regression of testosterone according to scrotal circumference (SC) also showed a linear effect. The results show that for each centimeter added to SC in Guzerat bulls, an increase of 0.2319 ng/mL on testosterone concentrations occurs. The regression of sperm concentration according to serum testosterone showed a linear effect, the results show that for each 0.1 ng/mL added to serum testosterone concentration, an increase of 9.29x10(6) spermatozoa/mL of semen occurs. The results indicate that circulating levels of testosterone may help on identification and selection of Guzerat bulls with major reproductive potential.

Dias, Juliano Cesar; Andrade, Venício José de; Emerick, Lucas Luz; Martins, Jorge André Matias; Vale Filho, Vicente Ribeiro do.

154

The Seasonality of Fecal Coliform Bacteria Pollution and its Influence on Closures of Shellfish Harvesting Areas in Mississippi Sound  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Runoff from agricultural lands and farm animal feedlots is one of the major sources of fecal coliforms in surface waters, and fecal coliform (FC) bacteria concentrations tend to vary with season because of seasonal variations in climatic factors. However, El Niño -Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events may affect the extent and patterns of seasonality in FC levels in coastal waters. Water quality monitoring data for shellfish management collected during El Niño (1990, 1992, 1997), a...

Paulinus Chigbu; Scott Gordon; Tchounwou, Paul B.

2005-01-01

155

Transit effects on fecal Escherichia coli O157 prevalence and coliform concentrations in feedlot cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our objectives were to evaluate the effects of transportation and lairage on fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157 (E. coli O157), total Escherichia coli, and total coliforms in feedlot cattle, and the relationships between E. coli O157 prevalence and total E. coli population. The study was a randomized complete block design with a split-plot including 2 treatments: a nontransported group, which remained in its pen at all times, and a transported group, which was transported for 1 h in a trailer and subsequently unloaded in a different pen. The experiment was repeated on 3 different days (blocking factor) with 20 steers/d (10 steers/treatment, 60 total). Fecal samples were taken pretransport (h 0) and after 4 and 28 h, lairage from freshly voided fecal pats were taken from each animal. One gram of feces was transferred to a PBS tube, serially diluted, and plated onto Petrifilm for enumeration of total coliforms. Another sample (1 g) was added to gram-negative broth containing cefixime, cefsulodin, and vancomycin, and subjected to immunomagnetic separation. Resulting beads were plated onto MacConkey agar with sorbitol, cefixime, and tellurite. Nonsorbitol fermenting colonies were selected and tested for indole production and O157 antigen agglutination. Results were confirmed using an API 20E kit. Prevalence of E. coli O157 was transient across blocks. E. coli O157 prevalence revealed no treatment × sampling time interaction (P = 0.179) or sampling time effect (P = 0.937), but a tendency for a treatment effect (P = 0.092). Numbers of E. coli and other coliforms did not change across blocks. No effect of treatment (P > 0.7) was observed on total E. coli concentrations or total coliforms. However, tendencies for treatment × sampling time interactions were observed on both populations (P < 0.08), as well as a tendency for a sampling time effect on total E. coli (P = 0.087) and an effect on total coliforms (P = 0.004). Prevalence of E. coli O157 was not correlated with the concentration of total E. coli (P = 0.954). Results suggest that shedding of E. coli O157 and coliforms can vary within a period of 29 h. Greater statistical power and pathogen quantification, as well as hide sampling and stress-related measurements, are needed to be able to conclude on the effects of transport stress on E. coli O157 prevalence and the changes undergone in pathogen shedding patterns after transportation. PMID:24352970

Aperce, C C; Alvarado, C A; Miller, K A; Van Bibber-Krueger, C L; Drouillard, J S

2014-02-01

156

Total and antigen-specific Ige levels in umbilical cord blood  

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The present study was conducted to learn whether the perinatal and environmental factors could influence the total and antigen-specific IgE levels in umbilical cord blood. Retrospective data were obtained from 173 mother-infant pairs. Total and specific (for children's food, wheat/grass and house dust mite-HDM) cord blood IgE levels were determined using the immunoassay test. The total cord blood IgE was between 0.0-23.08 IU/ml (mean 0.55 ± 2.07 IU/ml; median 0.16 IU/ml). Total IgE levels we...

2009-01-01

157

Antagonistic effect of Lactobacillus strains against gas-producing coliforms isolated from colicky infants  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Infantile colic is a common disturb within the first 3 months of life, nevertheless the pathogenesis is incompletely understood and treatment remains an open issue. Intestinal gas production is thought to be one of the causes of abdominal discomfort in infants suffering from colic. However, data about the role of the amount of gas produced by infants' colonic microbiota and the correlation with the onset of colic symptoms are scanty. The benefit of supplementation with lactobacilli been recently reported but the mechanisms by which they exert their effects have not yet been fully defined. This study was performed to evaluate the interaction between Lactobacillus spp. strains and gas-forming coliforms isolated from stools of colicky infants. Results Strains of coliforms were isolated from stools of 45 colicky and 42 control breastfed infants in McConkey Agar and identified using PCR with species-specific primers, and the BBL™ Enterotube™ II system for Enterobacteriaceae. Gas-forming capability of coliforms was assessed in liquid cultures containing lactose as sole carbon source. The average count of total coliforms in colicky infants was significantly higher than controls: 5.98 (2.00-8.76 log10 vs 3.90 (2.50-7.10 CFU/g of faeces (p = 0.015. The following strains were identified: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae and Enterococcus faecalis. Then, 27 Lactobacillus strains were tested for their antagonistic effect against coliforms both by halo-forming method and in liquid co-cultures. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.delbrueckii DSM 20074 and L. plantarum MB 456 were able to inhibit all coliforms strains (halo-forming method, also in liquid co-cultures, thus demonstrating an antagonistic activity. Conclusions This study shows that two out of 27 strains of Lactobacillus examined possess an antimicrobial effect against six species of gas-forming coliforms isolated from colicky infants. Our findings may stimulate new researches to identify which Lactobacillus strains can improve colicky symptoms by acting on coliforms gut colonization.

Oggero Roberto

2011-06-01

158

Bacterial interference with coliform colony sheen production on membrane filters.  

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The membrane filter (MF) method for detection and enumeration of coliform bacteria in drinking water requires that the coliforms both grow and produce a green metallic sheen when the filter is incubated on modified Endo medium at 35 degrees C for 22 h. Large numbers of noncoliform bacteria, which are enumerated by the standard plate count (SPC) technique, can interfere with the detection of coliforms on MF. This paper presents quantitative evidence from laboratory experiments on the interfere...

1984-01-01

159

Inheritance of total serum IgE (basal levels) in man.  

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Since allergic individuals with atopic allergy tend to have higher total serum IgE levels than do nonallergic subjects, family studies of total serum IgE levels are necessary in delineating the genetic and environmental factors involved in the expression of allergic disease. However, previous studies do not agree as to the genetic basis of total IgE production. To try to resolve this conflict, a total of 278 individuals from 42 nuclear families ascertained for large family size (at least four...

Meyers, D. A.; Beaty, T. H.; Freidhoff, L. R.; Marsh, D. G.

1987-01-01

160

Coliform accumulation in Amphibalanus amphitrite (Darwin, 1854 (Cirripedia and its use as an organic pollution bioindicator in the estuarine area of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil Acumulação de coliformes em Amphibalanus amphitrite (Darwin, 1854 (Cirripedia e seu uso como bioindicador de poluição orgânica na área estuarina do Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Samples of water and barnacles Amphibalanus amphitrite were collected from Recife, Brazil, to assess if it accumulates total (TC and thermotolerant coliforms (TTC related with sewage pollution. The Most Probable Number (MPN values and the standard procedures for examination of shellfish were used. Comparatively with the water samples, the highest coliform values came from the barnacles, with TC values ranging from 2.4 × 10(6 MPN.g-1, and TTC ranging from > 2.4 × 10³ to 2.9 × 10(5 MPN.g-1. Barnacles accumulate the TC Ewingella americana, and the TTC Escherichia coli, Enterobacter gergoviae, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Enterobacter sakazakii. The results provided an indication of the level of organic contamination at the sampling locations and that this species could be a good organic pollution bioindicator.Amostras de água e cirrípedes Amphibalanus amphitrite foram coletados em Recife, Brasil, para avaliar se estes acumulam coliformes totais (CT e termo-tolerantes (TTC relacionados à poluição por esgoto doméstico. Foram utilizados os valores de Números Mais Prováveis (NMP e os procedimentos padrões para exame de bivalves. Comparativamente às amostras de água, os valores mais altos de coliformes foram dos cirrípedes, com valores de TC variando de 2,4 × 10(6 NMP.g-1, e TTC variando de > 2,4 × 10³ a 2,9 × 10(5 NMP.g-1. Os cirrípedes acumularam TC Ewingella americana e TTC Escherichia coli, Enterobacter gergoviae, Enterobacter aerogenes e Enterobacter sakazakii. Os resultados proveram uma indicação de que há contaminação orgânica nas localidades de amostras e que esta espécie pode ser um bioindicador bom de poluição orgânica.

CMR Farrapeira

2010-05-01

 
 
 
 
161

EFFECT OF NONCOLIFORMS ON COLIFORM DETECTION IN POTABLE GROUNDWATER: IMPROVED RECOVERY WITH AN ANAEROBIC MEMBRANE FILTER TECHNIQUE  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 529 well and distribution potable water samples were analyzed for total coliforms by the most-probable-number and membrane filter (MF) techniques. Standard plate count bacteria and MF noncoliform bacteria were also enumerated. This anaerobic modification of the standar...

162

Determinação do nível de contaminação por coliformes totais no queijo Minas comercializado na região metropolitana de Salvador - Bahia.  

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Full Text Available RESUMO: O leite e os seus produtos lácteos têm sido usados como alimento para o homem desde os primórdios da civilização. A limpeza e a sanitização na indústria de alimentos são operações primordiais no controle higiênico-sanitário dos alimentos e visam evitar a contaminação dos mesmos. Assim como, em fase final da produção, por exemplo, durante o envase onde as embalagens utilizadas para os queijos frescos tem como principais funções evitar grandes perdas de umidade e a contaminação microbiológica. Foram realizadas seis coisas, perfazendo 24 (75% amostras de queijo minas-frescal analisadas de sete diferentes marcas, sendo oito (33,33% representando a marca B, cinco (20,83%. a marca C, quatro (16,66% a marca D, três (12,50% a marca E, dois (8,33% a marca F, uma (4,16% a marca G e uma (4,16% a marca H, enquanto foram analisadas seis (25% amostras de queijo minas-padrão, em três diferentes marcas perfazendo três (50% amostras da marca A1, duas (33,33% da marca A2 e uma (16,66% da marca A3, realizadas diluições e semeadas, em triplicatas, em tubos de ensaio contendo caldo lactose-bile-verde brilhante e tubos de Durham (37C /24-48 h. Das seis amostras de quejo minas padrão analisadas 100% delas estavam com nível baixo de coliformes totais (NMP, menos de 30 bac/g, já das 24 amostras de queijo minas frescal das sete diferentes marcas pesquisadas 18 (75% apresentaram-se, em média, com níveis de coliformes totais (NMP significativos, igual ou acima de 102. Foram encontrados exemplares de queijo minas em condições impróprias para o consumo, já que o número de coliformes totais foram significativos e comuns, sendo estes indicadores de qualidade do produto, podendo então, vir a provocar problemas de saúde pública, sendo um risco à saúde humana PALAVRAS CHAVE: Queijo, qualidade, coliformes totais SUMMARY: Milk and derivatives have been used as food since the origin of te civilization. Cleanness and sanitation in food industry are primordial action in te hygienic and sanitary control of te foods and prevent your contamination. just as, in final stage of production, for example, in tine bottle, which packing used for fresh cheese may be principals functions to prevent large loss of humidity and microbiological contamination. Six collect were accomplished, an total of 24 (75% samples of â??minas- frescalâ? cheese were analyzed of seven differents marks, eight (33.33% of the mark B, five (20.83% of the mark C (16.66% of the mark D, three (12.50% of the mark E, two (8.33% of the mark F, one (4.16% of the mark G, and one (4.16% of te mark H, while were accomplished and analyzed six (25% samples of â??minas-padrãoâ? cheese, of three differents marks and total of three (50% samples of te mark A1, two (33.33% of the mark A2 and one (16.66% of the mark A3, dissolved and seeding, in third copy, in trail tubs whit brilliant-green bile broth 2%. and tubs of Durham (37C/ 24-48h. Or six samples of â??minas-padrãoâ? cheese analyzed 100% were with level low of coliforms totals (NMP, <30 bac/g in 24 samples of â??minas frescalâ? cheese of the seven differents marks studied 18 (75% showed, on the average, with numbers of coliforms totals (NMP significant, >102 . â??Minasâ? cheese examples were found in incorrect conditions for the consume, because the number of coliforms totals were significant and common and serving as product quality indicators, causing troubles of public health, a risk for the human health. KEYWORDS: Cheese, quality, coliforms totais

T. C. N. Martinez

2005-03-01

163

Significance of the Rate of Decrease in Fibrinogen Level after Total Hepatectomy in Dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

An initial gradual decrease in fibrinogen level was observed after one-stage total hepatectomy in 17 dogs, which, unlike previous observations by this method, suggests a gradual 'natural' decay rate for fibrinogen, agreeing with estimates derived from the...

R. B. Rutherford R. M. Hardaway

1965-01-01

164

Total plasma level of antioxidant and immune system function in radiology and nuclear medicine staff  

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Background: Despite major diagnostic and industrial progresses in the technology and use of Ionizing radiations, they have been found to be harmful to the health of the radiology and nuclear medicine staffs. Since Ionizing radiations have the potential to produce free radicals, therefore, it is likely that the total plasma level of anti-oxidant in medical and nuclear medicine staffs could be reduced.Methods: In this case-control study the relationship of total anti oxidant level of plasma and...

Kalamzadeh A; Keihani A; Hajati J; Nooraei M; Latifinia A; Zaker F; Khansari N

2007-01-01

165

COMPOSITE SAMPLING FOR DETECTION OF COLIFORM BACTERIA IN WATER SUPPLY  

Science.gov (United States)

Low densities of coliform bacteria introduced into distribution systems may survive in protected habitats. These organisms may interfere with and cause confusion in the use of the coliforms as indicators of sewage contamination of drinking water. Methods of increasing the probabi...

166

COMPOSITE SAMPLINGS FOR DETECTION OF COLIFORM BACTERIA IN WATER SUPPLY  

Science.gov (United States)

Low densities of coliform bacteria introduced into distribution systems may survive in protected habitats. hese organisms may interfere with and cause confusion in the use of the coliforms as indicators of sewage contamination of drinking water. ethods of increasing the probabili...

167

Thermotolerant coliforms are not a good surrogate for Campylobacter spp. in environmental water.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to assess the importance of quantitatively detecting Campylobacter spp. in environmental surface water. The prevalence and the quantity of Campylobacter spp., thermotolerant coliforms, and Escherichia coli in 2,471 samples collected weekly, over a 2-year period, from 13 rivers and 12 streams in the Eastern Townships, Québec, Canada, were determined. Overall, 1,071 (43%), 1,481 (60%), and 1,463 (59%) samples were positive for Campylobacter spp., thermotolerant coliforms, and E. coli, respectively. There were weak correlations between the weekly distributions of Campylobacter spp. and thermotolerant coliforms (Spearman's rho coefficient = 0.27; P = 0.008) and between the quantitative levels of the two classes of organisms (Kendall tau-b correlation coefficient = 0.233; P thermotolerant coliforms. These findings suggest that microbial monitoring of raw water by using only fecal indicator organisms is not sufficient for assessing the occurrence or the load of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. Insights into the role of environmental water as sources for sporadic Campylobacter infection will require genus-specific monitoring techniques. PMID:19734335

St-Pierre, Karen; Lévesque, Simon; Frost, Eric; Carrier, Nathalie; Arbeit, Robert D; Michaud, Sophie

2009-11-01

168

Thermotolerant Coliforms Are Not a Good Surrogate for Campylobacter spp. in Environmental Water ?  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to assess the importance of quantitatively detecting Campylobacter spp. in environmental surface water. The prevalence and the quantity of Campylobacter spp., thermotolerant coliforms, and Escherichia coli in 2,471 samples collected weekly, over a 2-year period, from 13 rivers and 12 streams in the Eastern Townships, Québec, Canada, were determined. Overall, 1,071 (43%), 1,481 (60%), and 1,463 (59%) samples were positive for Campylobacter spp., thermotolerant coliforms, and E. coli, respectively. There were weak correlations between the weekly distributions of Campylobacter spp. and thermotolerant coliforms (Spearman's ? coefficient = 0.27; P = 0.008) and between the quantitative levels of the two classes of organisms (Kendall tau-b correlation coefficient = 0.233; P thermotolerant coliforms. These findings suggest that microbial monitoring of raw water by using only fecal indicator organisms is not sufficient for assessing the occurrence or the load of thermophilic Campylobacter spp. Insights into the role of environmental water as sources for sporadic Campylobacter infection will require genus-specific monitoring techniques.

St-Pierre, Karen; Levesque, Simon; Frost, Eric; Carrier, Nathalie; Arbeit, Robert D.; Michaud, Sophie

2009-01-01

169

Association of serum total bilirubin levels with diastolic dysfunction in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is one of the main characteristics of heart failure patients with a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. As bilirubin is regarded as an important endogenous antioxidant molecule, serum total bilirubin levels were compared between heart fail [...] ure patients with a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction and normal controls in this study. We recruited 327 heart failure patients with a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction and 200 healthy controls. Patients were divided into 4 subgroups by their comprehensive echocardiographic manifestations, 1-mild, 2-moderate, 3-severe (reversible restrictive), 4-severe (fixed restrictive). Total bilirubin levels were compared using stepwise multiple regressions adjusted for selected factors. RESULTS: After adjusting for gender, age, smoking, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and triglyceride, serum total bilirubin levels were significantly lower in the heart failure group compared with the control group (P

Huan, Zheng; Ye, Li; Nanzi, Xie.

170

Adding rungs to the exporting ladder: plant-level exporting dynamics and total factor productivity growth  

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We use panel data on Mexican manufacturing plants to study the dynamics of plant-level exporting activity at both the extensive and the intensive margins and the connection between exporting dynamics and plant-level total factor productivity growth. We find that exporting activity has a ladder structure. Most entries and exits take place at the bottom of the ladder and account for a small share of gross, industry-level changes in exports, employment, output, and productivity. The dynamics at ...

Voicu, Alexandru

2008-01-01

171

Tryptase haplotype in mastocytosis: Relationship to disease variant and diagnostic utility of total tryptase levels  

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Serum mast cell tryptase levels are used as a diagnostic criterion and surrogate marker of disease severity in mastocytosis. Approximately 29% of the healthy population lacks ? tryptase genes; however, it is not known whether lack of ? tryptase genes leads to variability in tryptase levels or impacts on disease severity in mastocytosis. We have thus analyzed tryptase haplotype in patients with mastocytosis, computing correlations between haplotype and plasma total and mature tryptase levels...

Akin, Cem; Soto, Darya; Brittain, Erica; Chhabra, Adhuna; Schwartz, Lawrence B.; Caughey, George H.; Metcalfe, Dean D.

2007-01-01

172

A low level of serum total testosterone is independently associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease  

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Abstract Background The association between low serum testosterone levels, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and metabolic syndrome is now well known. However, the relationship between hepatic steatosis and serum testosterone levels has not been extensively studied. Our aim was to investigate the association of serum total testosterone levels with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), adjusting for the influence of VAT and insulin resistance. Methods This study...

Kim Sunmi; Kwon Hyuktae; Park Jin-Ho; Cho Belong; Kim Donghee; Oh Seung-Won; Lee Cheol; Choi Ho-Chun

2012-01-01

173

Transferable antibiotic resistance among thermotolerant coliforms from rural drinking water in India.  

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A total of 231 thermotolerant coliforms was isolated from rural drinking water from four states of India. Of these, 220 isolates were resistant to ampicillin, chloramphemicol, streptomycin and tetracycline. Multiple (MAR), double and single antibiotic resistances were observed in 31.4, 48.6 and 13.7% of the isolates, respectively. Out of 177 antibiotic-resistant isolates examined for transmissibility, only 15.3% were able to transfer their resistances to Escherichia coli K-12 recipient. The r...

Gaur, A.; Ramteke, P. W.; Pathak, S. P.; Bhattacherjee, J. W.

1992-01-01

174

BRUCELLA AND COLIFORM ORGANISMS IN FRESH CHEESE PRODUCED IN HAMADAN – 2000  

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Milk and its Products possess high nutritional value. It could be a desirable source for growing of pathogenic microorganisms. The objectives of this study was to obtain the frequency of pathogenic bacterial agents (i.e. brucella spp. and coliforms) in fresh cheese in Hamedan.
A total of 210 cheese samples were collected randomly from Hamadan and its rural area for a pe...

Yousefi Mashouf, R.

2002-01-01

175

Colonization and Disinfection of Biofilms Hosting Coliform-Colonized Carbon Fines  

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The documented release of carbon fines from granular activated carbon filters is a concern for drinking water utilities, since these particles may carry coliform and even pathogenic bacteria through the disinfection barrier. Such a breakthrough could have an impact on distribution system biofilms. Using total cell counts, specific monoclonal antibody staining, and computerized image analysis, we monitored the colonization of introduced Klebsiella pneumoniae associated with carbon fines in mix...

1996-01-01

176

PRESENCIA DE ARSÉNICO Y COLIFORMES EN AGUA POTABLE DEL MUNICIPIO DE TECUALA, NAYARIT, MÉXICO  

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Full Text Available Se determinaron las concentraciones de arsénico total (AsT y la presencia de coliformes totales y fecales en agua potable del municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit, México. La determinación de AsT se realizó por espectrofotometría de fluorescencia atómica, por generación de hidruros; la detección de coliformes totales y fecales se realizó con la técnica del número más probable (NMP. De acuerdo a los resultados obtenidos, la concentración media de AsT en la cabecera municipal de Tecuala fue de 15.82 Mg/L, en el ejido de Atotonilco de 19.88 Mg/L, en Pajaritos de 21.49 Mg/L, en Quimichis de 17.80 Mg/L y en Playas de Novillero de 19.79 Mg/L. Aunque las concentraciones de AsT en el agua potable del municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit, se encuentran dentro del límite establecido por las Normas Oficiales Mexicanas (25 Mg/L, rebasan el límite establecido por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, que establece un máximo de 10 Mg/L. La concentración de coliformes en el agua procedente de los pozos 1 y 3 fue de 180 NMP/100 mL y de 43 NMP/100 mL para el agua del pozo 2. La presencia de coliformes totales y fecales, sugiere la infiltración de aguas negras lo que podría incrementar los niveles de arsénico disuelto. Los resultados de este estudio servirán como antecedente sanitario de la calidad del agua de los pozos que abastecen el municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit.

Luz Maru00EDa DEL RAZO

2012-01-01

177

A comparison of total antioxidant levels in breast-fed and formula-fed infants  

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Full Text Available Aim: We aimed to evaluate the effect of breast milk and formula on the total antioxidant capacity of the plasma. Material and Method: The oxidative stress index was calculated by measuring plasma total antioxidant level and total oxidant level in 35 infants between the ages of 3 and 6 months. The study approved by the ethics committe (14.10.2009-10/7.Results: No significant differences were observed between the two groups in respect of age, gender, plasma total antioxidant status and total oxidant status. Plasma total antioxidant levels were higher in the breast-fed group than the formula-fed group (p=0.004. Plasma total antioxidant status was lower in the breast-fed group compared to the formula-fed infants (p=0.019. The oxidative stress index values of the breast-fed group were lower than formula-fed infants (p=0.006. Conclusions: Breast milk provides better antioxidant defence than does formula in infants before six months of age. (Turk Arch Ped 2012; 47: 95-8

Abdullah Alp?nar

2012-06-01

178

Optimization of Steam Pressure Levels in a Total Site Using a Thermoeconomic Method  

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Full Text Available The present study aims to develop a thermoeconomic-based approach for optimization of steam levels in a steam production and distribution system by use of the specific exergy costing (SPECO method for determining optimum steam levels to minimize the cost caused by exergy destruction. In the field of total site optimization, incremental cost of the utility system caused by exergy destruction has been selected as an objective function and the result is compared with the case that energy minimization has been selected as the prime objective. The steam levels are optimized considering steam demand at each level, output power generated by turbines, boiler duty, fuel and cold utility requirements as well as capital cost of equipments. The analysis showed that thermoeconomic (exergoeconomic approach in optimization not only can change the optimum structure of steam levels but also may reduce the total cost of utility system up to 8%.

Shahin Shamsi

2012-03-01

179

Discrimination Efficacy of Fecal Pollution Detection in Different Aquatic Habitats of a High-Altitude Tropical Country, Using Presumptive Coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens Spores  

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The performance of rapid and practicable techniques that presumptively identify total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC), Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens spores (CP) by testing them on a pollution gradient in differing aquatic habitats in a high-altitude tropical country was evaluated during a 12-month period. Site selection was based on high and low anthropogenic influence criteria of paired sites including six spring, six stream, and four lakeshore sites spread over central ...

Byamukama, Denis; Mach, Robert L.; Kansiime, Frank; Manafi, Mohamad; Farnleitner, Andreas H.

2005-01-01

180

The measurement of total serum IgE levels in rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A direct solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the measurement of total serum IgE in the rat has been developed. The assay is very sensitive with a lower limit of detection of 5 ng/ml. The intra and interassay reproducibility proves to be very acceptable and the specificity is demonstrated by looking at the interference by other immunoglobulins. Preliminary results on total serum IgE levels are given

1977-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

The effect of single-level, total disc arthroplasty on sagittal balance parameters: a prospective study  

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A prospective radiographic study of the influence of total disc replacement on spinal sagittal balance. The goal of this study was to prospectively determine the effect of a single-level, total disc replacement on the sagittal balance of the spine, especially on sacral tilt (ST), pelvic tilt (PT), and lumbar lordosis. It has been shown that lumbar fusion may deleteriously alter the sagittal balance of the spine, including a decrease in the ST and lumbar lordosis. Clinically, postfusion pain h...

Le Huec, Jc; Basso, Y.; Mathews, H.; Mehbod, A.; Aunoble, S.; Friesem, T.; Zdeblick, T.

2005-01-01

182

Total and lipid bound sialic acid levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome  

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Objective: To evaluate serum total and lipid bound sialic acid (TSA&LBSA) levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Material and Methods: Forty women with PCOS and 35 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Serum TSA, LBSA, follicle stimulating hormone, lutenizing hormone, estradiol, thyroid stimulating hormone, prolactin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, free testosterone, total testosterone, 17-OH progesterone, sex hormone binding globulin, cortisol, tot...

2012-01-01

183

Normal levels of total body sodium and chlorine by neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In vivo neutron activation analysis was used to measure total body sodium and chlorine in 18 male and 18 female normal adults. Corrections for body size were developed. Normalisation factors were derived which enable the prediction of the normal levels of sodium and chlorine in a subject. The coefficient of variation of normalised sodium was 5.9% in men and 6.9% in women, and of normalised chlorine 9.3% in men and 5.5% in women. In the range examined (40-70 years) no significant age dependence was observed for either element. Total body sodium was correlated with total body chlorine and total body calcium. Sodium excess, defined as the amount of body sodium in excess of that associated with chlorine, also correlated well with total body calcium. In females there was a mean annual loss of sodium excess of 1.2% after the menopause, similar to the loss of calcium. (author)

1983-01-01

184

Molecular identification of coliform bacteria isolated from drinking water reservoirs with traditional methods and the Colilert-18 system.  

Science.gov (United States)

The accuracy of a traditional method (lactose utilization with acid and gas production) for the detection of coliform bacteria and E. coli was tested in comparison with method ISO 9308-1 (based on acid formation from lactose) and the Colilert-18 system (detection of beta-galactosidase). A total of 345 isolates were identified after isolation from water samples using API 20E strips. The Colilert-18 led to the highest number of positive findings (95% of the isolates were assigned to coliforms), whereas the ISO-9308-1 method resulted only in 29% coliform findings. With the traditional method only 15% were rated positive. Most of the isolates were identified by the API 20E system as Enterobacter spp. (species of the Enterobacter cloacae complex), Serratia spp., Citrobacter spp.and Klebsiella spp.; but species identification remained vague in several cases. A more detailed identification of 126 pure cultures by using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and analysis of the hsp60 gene resulted in the identification of Enterobacter nimipressuralis, E. amnigenus, E. asburiae, E. hormaechei, and Serratia fonticola as predominat coliforms. These species are beta-galactosidase positive, but show acid formation from lactose often after a prolonged incubation time. They are often not of fecal origin and may interfere with the ability to accurately detect coliforms of fecal origin. PMID:17870668

Kämpfer, Peter; Nienhüser, Anita; Packroff, Gabriele; Wernicke, Frank; Mehling, Arnd; Nixdorf, Katja; Fiedler, Stefanie; Kolauch, Claudia; Esser, Michael

2008-07-01

185

Yeasts and coliform bacteria of water accumulated in bromeliads of mangrove and sand dune ecosystems of southeast Brazil.  

Science.gov (United States)

Yeasts and coliform bacteria were isolated from water that accumulated in the central cups and adjacent leaf axilae of two bromeliads, Neoregelia cruenta of a coastal sand dune and Quesnelia quesneliana of a mangrove ecosystem near the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The mean total coliform counts were above 10,000 per 100 mL for waters of both plants, but the mean fecal coliform counts were only 74 per 100 mL for Q. quesneliana and mostly undetected in water from N. cruenta. Of 90 fecal coliform isolates, 51 were typical of Escherichia coli in colony morphology and indol, methyl red, Volges-Proskauer, and citrate (IMViC) tests. Seven representatives of the typical E. coli cultures were identified as this species, but the identifications of nine other coliform bacteria were mostly dubious. The yeast community of N. cruenta was typical of plant surfaces with basidiomycetous yeasts anamorphs, and the black yeast Aureobasidium pullulans was prevalent. Quesnelia quesneliana had a substantial proportion of ascomycetous yeasts and their anamorphs, including a probable new biotype of Saccharomyces unisporus. Our results suggested that the microbial communities in bromeliad waters are typically autochtonous and not contaminants. PMID:8261333

Hagler, A N; Rosa, C A; Morais, P B; Mendonça-Hagler, L C; Franco, G M; Araujo, F V; Soares, C A

1993-10-01

186

Intraoperative serum parathyroid hormone level is an indicator of hypocalcaemia in total thyroidectomy patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Postoperative hypocalcaemia is the most frequent and common complication after total thyroidectomy. It is necessary to diagnose or to predict hypocalcaemia immediately after total thyroidectomy for minimizing complications. A prospective observational study was carried out in the Department of Clinical Pathology in collaboration with Department of Microbiology & Immunology, Department of Surgery, Department of Otolaryngology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) and Department of Otolaryngology, Dhaka Medical College & Hospital (DMC&H), Dhaka, during the period of September 2010 to August 2011 to evaluate intraoperative (20 minutes after total thyroidectomy) parathyroid hormone (PTH) measurement as a predictor of post thyroidectomy hypocalcaemia. Total 65 patients were enrolled in this study those came for total thyroidectomy. Postoperative hypocalcaemia developed in 25 cases. Intraoperative PTH was assessed and significant correlation was found between intraoperative PTH level and development of hypocalcaemia. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, negative predictive value of intraoperative serum PTH for prediction of post total thyroidectomy hypocalcaemia were 84.0%, 85.0%, 84.6%, 77.8%, and 89.5% respectively. Because of the high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of intraoperative serum PTH of this study, the early prediction of hypocalcaemia could be made by single assay of intraoperative serum PTH level at 20 minutes after total thyroidectomy. PMID:23540182

Islam, M S; Sultana, T; Paul, D; Huq, A H M Z; Chowdhury, A A; Ferdous, C; Ahmed, A N N

2012-12-01

187

Immunoglobulin patterns in keratoconus with particular reference to total and specific IgE levels.  

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A selection of sufferers from keratoconus and random controls were assessed in order to substantiate claims that there existed a significant incidence of patients with both keratoconus and a raised serum level of immunoglobulin E. The results appeared to confirm a high incidence of raised total serum IgE levels in patients with keratoconus and also indicated that the additional measurement of serum specific IgE was more sensitive than total IgE. In fact 59% of the patients with keratoconus in...

Kemp, E. G.; Lewis, C. J.

1982-01-01

188

[A new method for the detection of coliforms and Escherichia coli in water intended for human consumption.].  

Science.gov (United States)

The ISO reference method, defined by the European Drinking Water Directive for the enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in water intended for human consumption, has various limitations, especially related to discrepancies observed with the new taxonomic classification of the coliform group. A study was therefore performed to compare the above reference method with another rapid method, the DST/Colilert, and to evaluate the phenotypical characteristics of isolated microrganisms. The ISO reference method failed to detect a significant proportion of coliforms and E. coli in water and furthermore, it enumerated microrganisms belonging to other groups. The DST/Colilert method was found instead to be a suitable alternative method for the detection of bacterial indicators. PMID:17206239

Bonadonna, Lucia; Cataldo, Claudia; Chiaretti, Gianluca; Coccia, Annamaria; Semproni, Maurizio

2005-01-01

189

The Relationship Between Depressive Status and Total Cholesterol Levels in a Bomb Plant Workers  

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Aim: There is significant amount of evidence linking low cholesterol levels to aggressive behaviors, depression and suicide. Material and Methods: The objective of this study was to determine whether a correlation exists between serum total cholesterol levels and depressive state in 77 male workers labouring in a bomb plant and in 80 male office personnel. Depressive statuses of the subjects were determined by using Beck Depression Rating Scale and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. Results: ...

Hakan Boyunaga; Levent Kenar; Hatice Keles; Mahir Gulec; Omer Oguzturk

2010-01-01

190

Optimization of Steam Pressure Levels in a Total Site Using a Thermoeconomic Method  

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The present study aims to develop a thermoeconomic-based approach for optimization of steam levels in a steam production and distribution system by use of the specific exergy costing (SPECO) method for determining optimum steam levels to minimize the cost caused by exergy destruction. In the field of total site optimization, incremental cost of the utility system caused by exergy destruction has been selected as an objective function and the result is compared with the case that energy minimi...

Shahin Shamsi; Omidkhah, Mohammad R.

2012-01-01

191

The Comparison of Total Fumonisin and Total Aflatoxin Levels in Biscuit and Cookie Samples in Babol City, Northern Iran  

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Full Text Available Background: Fumonisins and aflatoxins are mycotoxins that are produced by Fusarium and Aspergillus genus respectively. Due to the toxicity of aflatoxin and fumonisin and its effects on human and animals’ health, the purpose of this study was analysis of total fumonisin and total aflatoxin contamination in biscuit and cookie samples in Babol City, Northern Iran.Methods: Thirty biscuit (n=15 and cookie (n=15 samples were randomly collected at supermarkets in Babol City in winter 2011. Competitive ELISA was conducted for total fumonisin and total aflatoxin separately.Results: Out of 30 biscuit and cookie samples, 28 (93.4% samples were contaminated with 4ppm of total fumonisin. From 30 samples, 26 (86.7% were contaminated with <4ppb of total aflatoxin and 4 (13.3% were positive in total aflatoxin with ?4ppb and highest contamination rate was found 7.9 ppb in biscuit samples. Contamination rate of samples by total aflatoxin was higher than total fumonisin.Conclusion: Since biscuits and cookies are extensively used among all ages of humans, consumption of contaminated food causes different diseases in human. Therefore, determination, management, and prevention of mycotoxins according to the climatic conditions should be considered.

Issa Gholamour Azizi

2013-04-01

192

A comparison between faecal sterols and coliform counts in the investigation of sewage contamination in sediments  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Em setembro de 2002, foram coletadas nove amostras de sedimento superficial (0-2 cm) na Enseada de Botafogo (sudoeste da Baía de Guanabara/RJ), a fim de comparar o uso de marcadores químicos (coprostanol) e biológicos (E. coli e coliformes totais) na identificação da contaminação fecal da região. Os [...] resultados obtidos (carbono orgânico - 6,0 to 64,8 mg g-1; coprostanol - 1,4 to 105 µg g-1; E. coli - Abstract in english In September 2002, nine sediment samples (0-2 cm) were collected from Botafogo Cove (southwestern part of Guanabara Bay) in order to compare the use of chemical (coprostanol) and biological markers (E. coli and total coliforms) in identifying faecal contamination. The values found (organic carbon - [...] 6.0 to 64.8 mg g-1; coprostanol - 1.4 to 105 µg g-1; E. coli -

Renata Lima da, Costa; Renato S., Carreira.

193

Comparison of Fecal Coliform Agar and Violet Red Bile Lactose Agar for Fecal Coliform Enumeration in Foods  

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A 24-h direct plating method for fecal coliform enumeration with a resuscitation step (preincubation for 2 h at 37 ± 1°C and transfer to 44 ± 1°C for 22 h) using fecal coliform agar (FCA) was compared with the 24-h standardized violet red bile lactose agar (VRBL) method. FCA and VRBL have equivalent specificities and sensitivities, except for lactose-positive non-fecal coliforms such as Hafnia alvei, which could form typical colonies on FCA and VRBL. Recovery of cold-stressed Escherichia ...

Leclercq, A.; Wanegue, C.; Baylac, P.

2002-01-01

194

Determination of fecal contamination origin in reclaimed water open-air ponds using biochemical fingerprinting of enterococci and fecal coliforms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Low levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) were recently detected in two reclaimed water open-air ponds used to irrigate a golf course located in Northeastern Spain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a biochemical fingerprinting method to track the origin of fecal contamination in water with low FIB levels, as in the aforementioned ponds. We also aimed to determine whether FIB presence was due to regrowth of the reclaimed water populations or to a contribution of fecal matter whose source was in the golf facility. Three hundred and fifty enterococcal strains and 308 fecal coliform strains were isolated from the ponds and reclamation plant, and they were biochemically phenotyped. In addition, the inactivation of several microbial fecal pollution indicators (fecal coliforms, total bifidobacteria, sorbitol-fermenting bifidobacteria, somatic bacteriophages, and bacteriophages infecting Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron) was studied using a mesocosm in situ in order to obtain information about their decay rate. Although FIB concentration was low, the biochemical fingerprinting provided evidence that the origin of the fecal contamination in the ponds was not related to the reclaimed water. Biochemical fingerprinting thus proved to be a successful approach, since other microbial source-tracking methods perform poorly when dealing with low fecal load matrices. Furthermore, the mesocosm assays indicated that none of the microbial fecal indicators was able to regrow in the ponds. Finally, the study highlights the fact that reclaimed water may be recontaminated in open-air reservoirs, and therefore, its microbial quality should be monitored throughout its use. PMID:23054766

Casanovas-Massana, Arnau; Blanch, Anicet R

2013-05-01

195

Antibiotic resistance among different species of fecal coliforms isolated from water samples.  

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The distribution of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, sulfonamides, tetracycline, and streptomycin among fecal coliforms in sewage, surface waters, and sea water was investigated. The incidence of resistant strains among isolates varied significantly among the water samples, without obvious connection with the water source or the level of pollution. The average frequency of multiple resistance was not always high in the same samples in which the overall resistance was high. The speci...

Niemi, M.; Sibakov, M.; Niemela, S.

1983-01-01

196

Hypogonadism and subnormal total testosterone levels in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To determine the frequency of testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The Gbagada General Hospital, Gbagada Lagos, Nigeria, from December 2009 to May 2010. Methodology: A total of 203 men with type 2 DM aged 30-86 years were evaluated for TDS by a combination of positive ADAM (androgen deficiency in the ageing male) scores and subnormal total testosterone levels. Mild testosterone deficiency referred to total testosterone (TT) levels of 8-12 nmol/L with symptoms of hypogonadism and severe testosterone deficiency referred to TT levels < 8 nmol/L with or without hypogonadal symptoms. Results: Mild and severe TDS were present in 18.3% and 17% respectively of the study subjects. Commonly occurring clinical parameters of the TDS were erectile dysfunction and loss of libido, which were documented in 63% and 60% respectively in the study subjects. The majority of clinical features of the TDS were comparable in men with and without the TDS. Conclusion: About a third of men with type 2 DM had the TDS. The majority of the symptoms of hypogonadism are largely non-specific and their occurrence is comparable in men with and without low testosterone levels; thus, underscoring the need to have testosterone levels determined in men presenting with such symptoms. (author)

2011-09-01

197

Total and lipid bound sialic acid levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome  

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Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate serum total and lipid bound sialic acid (TSA&LBSA levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS.Material and Methods: Forty women with PCOS and 35 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Serum TSA, LBSA, follicle stimulating hormone, lutenizing hormone, estradiol, thyroid stimulating hormone, prolactin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, free testosterone, total testosterone, 17-OH progesterone, sex hormone binding globulin, cortisol, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein were measured in each subject. Insulin resistance was estimated by fasting insulin level, fasting glucose: insulin ratio and 75-g glucose tolerance test for 2 hours. Results: Serum TSA levels were not significantly different between the groups. Serum LBSA levels were higher in patients with PCOS compared to the control group. TSA was correlated with androstenedione and HOMA-IR in the PCOS group. Positive correlations were found between LBSA and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate in patients with PCOS. After correction for BMI, the only existing significant correlation was between LBSA and follicle stimulating hormone.Conclusion: Serum LBSA levels, which has previously been found to be higher in cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus, are elevated in PCOS.

Osman Ça?layan

2012-06-01

198

Fecal coliforms on environmental surfaces in two day care centers.  

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A survey of environmental surfaces in two Atlanta area day care centers was conducted to determine the prevalence of fecal coliform bacteria, considered a marker for the presence of fecal contamination which might contain pathogenic parasites, bacteria, or viruses. Fecal coliforms were found in 17 (4.3%) of 398 representative samples of building surfaces, furniture, and other objects. These surfaces may be involved in the chain of transmission of enteric diseases among children. Therefore, di...

Weniger, B. G.; Ruttenber, A. J.; Goodman, R. A.; Juranek, D. D.; Wahlquist, S. P.; Smith, J. D.

1983-01-01

199

Frequency distribution of coliforms in water distribution systems.  

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Nine small water distribution systems were sampled intensively to determine the patterns of dispersion of coliforms. The frequency distributions of confirmed coliform counts were compatible with either the negative-binomial or the lognormal distribution. They were not compatible with either the Poisson or Poisson-plus-added zeroes distribution. The implications of the use of the lognormal distributional model were further evaluated because of its previous use in water quality studies. The geo...

1983-01-01

200

Storm and Seasonal Distributions of Fecal Coliforms and Cryptosporidium  

Science.gov (United States)

The transmission of disease in ground water is a topic of great concern to government agencies, ground water specialists, and the general public. The purpose of this study was to compare the temporal variability in storm flow of fecal coliform bacteria densities and Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst densities in agriculturally impacted karst ground water. Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst densities ranged from 0 to 1,050 oocysts/l, and mean storm densities ranged from 3.5 to 156.8 oocysts/l. Fecal coliform densities ranged from less than 1 CFU/100ml to more than 40,000 CFU/100ml, and geometric mean storm densities ranged from 1.7 CFU/100ml to more than 7,000 CFU/100ml. Fecal coliform densities correlated well with flow during storms, but Cryptosporidium oocyst densities exhibited a great deal of sample to sample variability and were not correlated with flow. Fecal coliform densities did not correlate positively with Cryptosporidium oocyst densities. Fecal coliform densities were greatest at storm peaks, when sediment loads were also greatest. Multiple transport mechanisms for fecal coliform bacteria and C. parvum oocysts may necessitate various agricultural land management and livestock health maintenance practices to control movement of pathogens to karst ground water.

Boyer, Douglas G.; Kuczynska, Ewa

2003-12-01

 
 
 
 
201

Immunoglobulin levels in dogs after total-body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of total-body irradiation (TBI) and autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation on serum immunoglobulin subclasses was determined in a dog model. Only IgG1 levels decreased after low-dose (+/- 4.5 Gy) TBI, but levels of all immunoglobulin classes fell after high-dose TBI (8.5 GyX1 or 2X6.0 Gy). After autologous bone marrow transplantation IgM levels were the first and IgE levels were the last to return to normal. After successful allogeneic bone marrow transplantation prolonged low IgM and IgE levels were found but IgA levels increased rapidly to over 150% of pretreatment values. A comparison of dogs with or without clinical signs or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), revealed no differences in IgM levels. Dogs with GVHD had higher IgA but lower IgE levels. Dogs that rejected their allogeneic bone marrow cells showed significant early rises in IgE and IgA levels in comparison with dogs with GVHD. These results differ from the observations made on Ig levels in human bone marrow transplant patients. No significant differences in phytohemagglutinin stimulation tests were found between dogs with or without GVHD or dogs receiving an autologous transplant for the first four months after TBI and transplantation. An early primary or secondary involvement of humoral immunity in GVHD and graft rejection in dogs is postulated

1985-01-01

202

Tear ascorbic acid levels and the total antioxidant status in contact lens wearers: A pilot study  

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Full Text Available Aims: The tear ascorbate owing to its high concentration, functions as an effective antioxidant against the oxidative damage of cornea. Contact lens wearers (CLW are prone to oxidative stress due to the lens-induced hypoxic conditions. A pilot study was done to compare the tear ascorbic acid level and the total antioxidant capacity give as in normal and CLW. Materials and Methods: In this study 21 CLW (Mean age 23 ± 3 years ; M-2, F-19, who were daily wear users, with duration of wear not more than four years, along with age-matched 28 controls (Mean age 28 ± 3 ; M-15, F-13 were recruited in the study for collection of reflex tears using Schirmer?s strip. Ascorbic acid in tears was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, total antioxidant capacity (TAC and total protein assay by spectrophotometric analysis. Results: CLW showed no significant change in the tear ascorbic acid levels (0.4 ± 0.26 mM compared to the control subjects (0.61 ± 0.59 mM. The amount of ascorbic acid in tears did not correlate with the TAC or the total protein of the tears. The mean TAC in CLW was 0.69 ± 0.16 mM, with a total protein of 1.35 ± 0.46?mg/ml while in controls it was 0.7 ± 0.18 mM and 1.21 ± 0.47 mg/ml respectively . Conclusions: Soft contact lens wear did not show any significant change in tear ascorbic acid, TAC and total protein levels compared to controls.

Venkata Sai

2009-01-01

203

Ten-Year Outcome of Serum Metal Ion Levels After Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract: We previously reported on the metal ion concentrations of cobalt, chromium, and titanium that were found in the serum of patients three years after they had undergone primary total hip arthroplasty as compared with the concentrations found in the serum of control patients who did not have an implant. This study is a concise update on the serum metal levels found in a cohort of these patients ten years after the time of hip implantation. Of the original seventy-five subjects, metal ion levels were available for forty patients (53%). Ten patients (hybrid group) had received a hybrid total hip replacement that consisted of a modular cobalt-alloy femoral stem with a cobalt-alloy femoral head that had been inserted with cement and a titanium acetabular socket that had been inserted without cement. Nine patients (cobalt-chromium [CoCr] group) had received an implant with an extensively porous-coated modular cobalt-alloy femoral stem and femoral head along with a titanium acetabular socket; the femoral and acetabular components had each been inserted without cement. Eight patients (titanium group) had undergone insertion of a proximally porous-coated modular titanium-alloy femoral stem with a cobalt-alloy femoral head and a titanium acetabular socket; the femoral and acetabular components had each been inserted without cement. Thirteen patients (control group) from the original control group of patients who had not received an implant served as control subjects. Serum metal levels were measured with use of high-resolution sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The hybrid total hip arthroplasty group had mean cobalt levels that were 3.2 times higher at 120 months than they were at baseline, and the cobalt levels in that group were significantly higher than those in the titanium total hip arthroplasty group at thirty-six, sixty, eighty-four, ninety-six, and 120 months (p < 0.01). The hybrid group had mean chromium levels that were 3.9 times higher at 120 months than they were at baseline, and the CoCr total hip arthroplasty group had chromium levels that were 3.6 times higher at 120 months than they were at baseline. The serum titanium levels were higher in the titanium group at all follow-up time intervals as compared with the levels in all other groups, and the level in the titanium group at 120 months was eighteen times higher than it was at baseline (p < 0.01). Patients with well-functioning primary metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacements had elevated serum metal levels for as many as ten years postoperatively. Furthermore, metal release at the modular femoral head-neck junctions, rather than passive dissolution from porous ingrowth surfaces, was likely the dominant source of serum cobalt and chromium. Level of Evidence: Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

Levine, Brett R.; Hsu, Andrew R.; Skipor, Anastasia K.; Hallab, Nadim J.; Paprosky, Wayne G.; Galante, Jorge O.; Jacobs, Joshua J.

2013-01-01

204

Levels of total mercury in predatory fish sold in Canada in 2005  

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Total mercury was analysed in 188 samples of predatory fish purchased at the retail level in Canada in 2005. The average concentrations (ng g?1, range) were: sea bass 329 (38–1367), red snapper 148 (36–431), orange roughy 543 (279–974), fresh water trout 55 (20–430), grouper 360 (8–1060), black cod 284 (71–651), Arctic char 37 (28–54), king fish 440 (42–923), tilefish 601 (79–1164) and marlin 854 (125–2346). The Canadian standard for maximum total mercury allowed in the ...

Dabeka, R. W.; Mckenzie, A. D.; Forsyth, D. S.

2011-01-01

205

Fluoxetine Decreased Serum Total Cholesterol and Triglyceride Levels in a Hypercholesterolemic Patient with Postpartum Depression  

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Full Text Available Objective: To report the case of a 28-year old hypercholesterolemic female with postpartum depression, whose triglyceride (TG and total cholesterol (TC levels decreased while being treated with fluoxetine. Method: A 28-year old female, with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder with postpartum onset based on DSM-IV criteria, was hospitalized at a mental health hospital. Her past history included another episode of depression 4 months after giving birth to her second child, which was 12 years prior to her recent episode. Her serum total cholestrol and triglyceride levels were measured prior to the initiation of medication. Then fluoxetine was initiated at a daily dose of 20 mg and had been increased to 40 mg per day at the time of discharge. The lipid profile measurements was repeated at week 4 and 8 following treatment. Results: Total cholesterol level was reduced from 242 mg/dL at baseline to 224 mg/dL at week 4 and to 202 mg/dL at week 8; triglyceride level was decreased from 516 mg/dL to 448 mg/dL at week 4 and to 404 mg/dL at week 8. Conclusions: Fluoxetine may be an appropriate treatment for hyperlipidemic women with postpartum depression..

Hossein Khalili

2006-05-01

206

CORRELATION BETWEEN TOTAL PLASMA HOMOCYSTEINE LEVEL AND GRADING OF CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE  

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Full Text Available Elevated total plasma homocysteine (tHcy levels constitute a risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD. A possible relationship was investigated between admission plasma homocysteine level and the angiographic severity and extension of coronary artery disease in patients with CAD. This study looks at the relationship between total plasma homocysteine and severity of coronary artery disease. From April 2006 to December 2006, 100 consecutive patients (65 male and 35 female that referred to our institute for coronary artery bypass graft surgery enrolled. Fasting blood samples for homocysteine were obtained on admission. Plasma homocysteine concentration was measured with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Our patients presented in Group 1, total plasma homocysteine >12 micromoles per liter and Group 2, total plasma homocysteine =<12 micromoles per liter. Vessel score assessed the number of vessels with significant stenosis and grading of atherosclerosis (Extent Score was intended to assess the atherosclerotic involvement of the entire arterial length and circumscribe. Our study was shown age > 60 years was correlated with high tHcy, but gender, hypertension, history of smoking, hypercholesterolemia, family history, and diabetes mellitus were not statistically difference between two groups. A positive correlation was found between abnormal plasma homocysteine level and vessel score (r = 0.35; p=0.002. Moreover, a positive correlation was also found with extent score (r = 0.46; p =0.002. As results of these scoring, there was a better correlation between the tHcy level and the extent of CAD when compared with the vessel score (r = 0.68, p < 0.001. Abnormal elevated homocysteine levels in patients with coronary artery disease correlated with the extent of atherosclerotic disease.

S. J. Mirhoseini

2008-05-01

207

Coliform accumulation in Amphibalanus amphitrite (Darwin, 1854) (Cirripedia) and its use as an organic pollution bioindicator in the estuarine area of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil Acumulação de coliformes em Amphibalanus amphitrite (Darwin, 1854) (Cirripedia) e seu uso como bioindicador de poluição orgânica na área estuarina do Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil  

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Samples of water and barnacles Amphibalanus amphitrite were collected from Recife, Brazil, to assess if it accumulates total (TC) and thermotolerant coliforms (TTC) related with sewage pollution. The Most Probable Number (MPN) values and the standard procedures for examination of shellfish were used. Comparatively with the water samples, the highest coliform values came from the barnacles, with TC values ranging from 2.4 × 10(6) MPN.g-1, and TTC ranging from > 2.4 ...

Cmr, Farrapeira; Es, Mendes; Dourado, J.; Guimara?es, J.

2010-01-01

208

Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism and total serum cholesterol level in Iranian population  

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Full Text Available Background: Apolipoprotein E (APOE is known as a major regulator of blood lipid levels in humans. A number of APOE gene allelic variants have been reported including E2, E3 and E4. Recent studies suggested a role for APOE in obesity and increased Body Mass Index (BMI and plasma lipid levels in obese children. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the association between APOE genetic variants and the BMI and lipid profile in an Iranian cohort. Setting and Design: Samples were obtained from subjects who participated in a study based on the WHO-designed MONICA (multinational monitoring of trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease study for coronary artery disease risk assessment in Zone 17 of Tehran. The study was approved by the local ethical committee. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects included in this study. Materials and Methods: Subjects (n=320 were recruited. The level of triglyceride (TG and total serum cholesterol was tested for all subjects in this study. Genotyping for APOE was carried using polymerase chain reaction-Restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLPtechnique. Statistical Analysis: Levels of significance were determined using contingency tables by either Chi-square or Fisher exact analysis using the STATA (v8 software. The analysis of regression and significance of differences for level of cholesterol and TG was established by one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett post hoc multiple comparison tests using SPSS software Version 11.5. Results: The frequency of allele E2 was significantly higher in patients with total serum cholesterol level <200 mg/dl (P 0.01 OR 2.1 95% CI 1.1-4.2. Conclusion: The association found in this study between allele E2 and lower total cholesterol level had been reported in previous studies. We have also observed that the frequency of genotype E2/E3 and E2/E4 was significantly higher in patients with normal total serum cholesterol level compared to patients with abnormal cholesterol (P=0.003 OR 2.4 95% CI; 1.3-4.6. Our data needs to be repeated in a larger population with more information for serum LDL and HDL levels and their subgroups.

Bazzaz J

2010-01-01

209

A simplified precise method for adjusting serum levels of persistent organohalogen pollutants to total serum lipids.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to obtain biomarker values that reflect body burden of persistent organohalogen pollutants (POP), concentrations of lipophilic POP in serum or plasma are generally expressed on a lipid weight basis, and not on a fresh weight basis. There are two different approaches to determine the lipid content in serum and plasma. The gravimetric determination is more expensive, and longer experience is needed as compared with the preferable enzymatic determination. Clinical chemistry laboratories at most hospitals perform enzymatic determinations of cholesterol and triglycerides on a routine basis, whereas analysis of phospholipids is not part of these analyses. In the present study, therefore, we evaluated the association between the sum of measured triglyceride, cholesterol, and phospholipid levels in serum among 617 individuals with the sum of only triglyceride and cholesterol levels. There was a very strong linear association between the sums of serum concentrations of triglycerides and cholesterols and the total lipid concentrations. As much as 97.2% of the variation in total lipid concentrations was explained by the sum of the triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations, with the following regression: Total lipid=0.9+1.3 *(Cholesterol+Triglycerides). Almost identical relationships were recorded in subgroups with men, women and subjects of different age. Thus, total lipid concentrations in blood serum can be accurately estimated by analyzing only cholesterol and triglycerides in the matrix. PMID:16005493

Rylander, Lars; Nilsson-Ehle, Peter; Hagmar, Lars

2006-01-01

210

Estimation of Ionized Calcium and Corrected Total Calcium Concentration Based on Serum Albumin Level  

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Full Text Available Ionized calcium is the physiologically active fraction of serum calcium and therefore its evaluation is an important clinical parameter both in mammals and birds. In the present study, concentration of total calcium (tCa, ionized calcium (iCa based on the serum albumin level and on the total protein content, and corrected total calcium (ctCa based on the serum albumin level were evaluated, and the correlation between these biochemical parameters was investigated in broiler chickens. The average serum iCa was 4.91±0.49g/dL representing 51.76±0.53% from the ctCa. The correlation coefficient between tCa and albumin (r = 0.8608 was greater than that between tCa and total protein (r = 0.7997. Our study illustrated that iCa and ctCa concentrations calculated from tCa and albumin are better indicators of calcium homeostasis than tCa concentrations alone.

Iuliana Cretescu

2013-05-01

211

Coliform bacteria in New Jersey domestic wells: influence of geology, laboratory, and method.  

Science.gov (United States)

Following passage of the New Jersey Private Well Testing Act, 50,800 domestic wells were tested between 2002 and 2007 for the presence of total coliform (TC) bacteria. Wells containing TC bacteria were further tested for either fecal coliform or Escherichia coli (FC/E. coli) bacteria. Analysis of the data, generated by 39 laboratories, revealed that the rate of coliform detections in groundwater (GW) was influenced by the laboratory and the method used, and also by geology. Based on one sample per well, TC and FC/E. coli were detected in wells located in bedrock 3 and 3.7 times more frequently, respectively, than in wells located in the unconsolidated strata of the Coastal Plain. In bedrock, detection rates were higher in sedimentary rock than in igneous or metamorphic rock. Ice-age glaciers also influenced detection rates, most likely by removing material in some areas and depositing thick layers of unconsolidated material in other areas. In bedrock, coliform bacteria were detected more often in wells with a pH of 3 to 6 than in wells with a pH of 7 to 10 whereas the reverse was true in the Coastal Plain. TC and FC/E. coli bacteria were detected in 33 and 9.5%, respectively, of sedimentary rock wells with pH 3 to 6. Conversely, for Coastal Plain wells with pH 3 to 6, detection rates were 4.4% for TC and 0.6% for FC/E. coli. PMID:23025712

Atherholt, Thomas B; Bousenberry, Raymond T; Carter, Gail P; Korn, Leo R; Louis, Judith B; Serfes, Michael E; Waller, Debra A

2013-01-01

212

Effect of a second joint arthroplasty on metal ion levels after primary total hip arthroplasty.  

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Serum metal ion levels increase after primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) regardless of bearing surface. We conducted a study to determine the effect of a second joint arthroplasty on existing serum metal ion levels at long-term followup. Twelve patients underwent primary THA and then either another THA (8 patients) or total knee arthroplasty (TKA) (4 patients). The secondary procedures were performed a mean of 102.7 months (range, 36-144 months) after the index surgeries. The secondary THA group had significantly elevated levels of cobalt ion at 36 and 48 months, chromium ion at 12 and 24 months, and titanium ion at 48 and 72 months. The TKA group had no significant differences in cobalt, chromium, or titanium ion levels up to 72 months after surgery. Overall, when metal-polyethylene THA was performed after primary THA, there was a trend toward elevated serum metal ion levels at all follow-up intervals. This trend should be investigated with larger clinical trials. PMID:24278909

Hsu, Andrew R; Levine, Brett R; Skipor, Anastasia K; Hallab, Nadim J; Paprosky, Wayne G; Jacobs, Joshua J

2013-10-01

213

Investigação teórica do processo de redução de coliformes em leitos cultivados Theoretical investigation of coliform reduction in constructed wetland  

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Full Text Available Este artigo mostra a continuidade da pesquisa sugerida por Amendola et al. (2003, para o caso em que se quer buscar maior precisão na investigação teórica do processo de redução de poluentes, em função do meio suporte usado em sistemas de leitos cultivados. Esta investigação se dá via modelagem matemática e simulação numérica do processo descrito por uma equação diferencial parcial de difusão-advecção, que envolve constantes que caracterizam o meio suporte (Moreno-Grau, 1996 e deve ser associada a condições iniciais e de contorno, estabelecidas de acordo com um procedimento experimental previamente realizado. Para resolução da equação implementa-se um algoritmo baseado no esquema implícito do método de diferenças finitas que, executado no MATLAB 6.1, gera valores da concentração dos poluentes que dependem dos valores das referidas constantes. Os resultados obtidos da simulação são comparados com valores de referência para a determinação do valor do coeficiente de dispersão longitudinal que, por sua vez, gera o menor resíduo para cada tipo de meio suporte do leito cultivado. Os resultados obtidos levam à conclusão de que o leito cultivado com brita e pneu picado é mais eficiente que aquele só com brita na remoção de coliformes fecais e totais.This paper shows the continuity of the research, as suggested by Amendola et al. (2003, when looking for better accuracy in the theoretical investigation of the pollutant reduction as a function of the support bed used in constructed wetland. This investigation is performed through the mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of the process, which is described by an advection-diffusion differential equation. This equation depends on certain constants which characterize the support bed (Moreno-Grau, 1996, and must be associated to the initial and boundary conditions established according to the experimental procedure. To solve the equation an algorithm based on the implicit scheme of the finite difference method was implemented which, when ran with MATLAB 6.1, generated values for the pollutant concentration which depend on the mentioned constants. The results obtained with the simulation were compared with the reference values to determine the longitudinal dispersion coefficient value which leads to the least residual value for each kind of support bed. The obtained results lead to the conclusion that the constructed wetland with crushed stone and chopped tires is better than the one with crushed stone alone to reduce fecal and total coliforms.

Mariângela Amendola

2007-12-01

214

Investigação teórica do processo de redução de coliformes em leitos cultivados / Theoretical investigation of coliform reduction in constructed wetland  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo mostra a continuidade da pesquisa sugerida por Amendola et al. (2003), para o caso em que se quer buscar maior precisão na investigação teórica do processo de redução de poluentes, em função do meio suporte usado em sistemas de leitos cultivados. Esta investigação se dá via modelagem mat [...] emática e simulação numérica do processo descrito por uma equação diferencial parcial de difusão-advecção, que envolve constantes que caracterizam o meio suporte (Moreno-Grau, 1996) e deve ser associada a condições iniciais e de contorno, estabelecidas de acordo com um procedimento experimental previamente realizado. Para resolução da equação implementa-se um algoritmo baseado no esquema implícito do método de diferenças finitas que, executado no MATLAB 6.1, gera valores da concentração dos poluentes que dependem dos valores das referidas constantes. Os resultados obtidos da simulação são comparados com valores de referência para a determinação do valor do coeficiente de dispersão longitudinal que, por sua vez, gera o menor resíduo para cada tipo de meio suporte do leito cultivado. Os resultados obtidos levam à conclusão de que o leito cultivado com brita e pneu picado é mais eficiente que aquele só com brita na remoção de coliformes fecais e totais. Abstract in english This paper shows the continuity of the research, as suggested by Amendola et al. (2003), when looking for better accuracy in the theoretical investigation of the pollutant reduction as a function of the support bed used in constructed wetland. This investigation is performed through the mathematical [...] modeling and numerical simulation of the process, which is described by an advection-diffusion differential equation. This equation depends on certain constants which characterize the support bed (Moreno-Grau, 1996), and must be associated to the initial and boundary conditions established according to the experimental procedure. To solve the equation an algorithm based on the implicit scheme of the finite difference method was implemented which, when ran with MATLAB 6.1, generated values for the pollutant concentration which depend on the mentioned constants. The results obtained with the simulation were compared with the reference values to determine the longitudinal dispersion coefficient value which leads to the least residual value for each kind of support bed. The obtained results lead to the conclusion that the constructed wetland with crushed stone and chopped tires is better than the one with crushed stone alone to reduce fecal and total coliforms.

Mariângela, Amendola; Anderson L., Souza.

215

Fluctuation of Corrected Serum Calcium Levels Following Partial and Total Thyroidectomy  

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Full Text Available Objectives: To identify any fluctuation of corrected serum calcium levels and to determine the presence of sub-clinical hypocalcaemia following partial and total thyroidectomy with preservation of at least two parathyroid glands. Design: A prospective study. Setting: Tertiary Head & Neck referral unit. Patients: Eighty five patients undergoing partial or total thyroidectomy with or without laryngectomy from April 2003 to April 2009 were included in the study. Corrected serum calcium levels (CCSL were noted preoperatively and postoperatively on day 1, day 7 and 6 months. Results: Forty six patients underwent hemi-thyroidectomy (HT, 29 underwent total thyroidectomy (TT and 10 underwent total thyroidectomy with laryngectomy (TTL. Nine (19.56% patients in the HT group, 6 (24.14% in the TT group and 3 (30.0% in the TTL group developed hypocalcaemia postoperatively which was most significant on 1st postoperative day. This improved by 7th postoperative day in each group when the change in calcium levels became statistically insignificant. Six patients (3 patients had HT, 2 had TT and 1 had TTL developed sub-clinical mild hypocalcaemia which was persistent at 6 months follow-up. Conclusion: The most significant changes in corrected serum calcium levels occur within first 24 hours after thyroid surgery. Thereafter most patients return to normocalcaemia within a seven-day period. Despite preservation of parathyroid glands there is a subgroup of patients who develop sub-clinical hypocalcaemia which persists even at six months but does not require treatment.

Vikas Malik

2011-09-01

216

Fluoxetine Decreased Serum Total Cholesterol and Triglyceride Levels in a Hypercholesterolemic Patient with Postpartum Depression  

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Objective: To report the case of a 28-year old hypercholesterolemic female with postpartum depression, whose triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels decreased while being treated with fluoxetine. Method: A 28-year old female, with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder with postpartum onset based on DSM-IV criteria, was hospitalized at a mental health hospital. Her past history included another episode of depression 4 months after giving birth to her second child, which was 12 y...

Padideh Ghaeli; Esmail Shahsavand; Majid Sadeghi; Hossein Khalili

2006-01-01

217

Tear ascorbic acid levels and the total antioxidant status in contact lens wearers: A pilot study  

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Aims: The tear ascorbate owing to its high concentration, functions as an effective antioxidant against the oxidative damage of cornea. Contact lens wearers (CLW) are prone to oxidative stress due to the lens-induced hypoxic conditions. A pilot study was done to compare the tear ascorbic acid level and the total antioxidant capacity give as in normal and CLW. Materials and Methods: In this study 21 CLW (Mean age 23 ± 3 years ; M-2, F-19), who were dail...

Venkata Sai; Narayanasamy Angayarkanni; Srinivasan Vidhya; Iyer Geetha; Sivaramakrishnan Ramakrishnan; Subramanian Madhumathi; Mahadevan Rajeshwari

2009-01-01

218

Total Testosterone Levels and the Effect of Sildenafil on Type 2 Diabetics with Erectile Dysfunction  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives Hypotestosteronemia has been reported in approximately half of type 2 diabetic men in general. This study aims to assess serum total testosterone levels in type 2 diabetics with erectile dysfunction and to correlate the degree of improvement between sildenafil citrate and testosterone levels. Methods A cross sectional and prospective comparative interventional study was conducted at the Diabetic Clinic of Assalam Teaching Hospital in Mosul, during the period from January 1, 2009 through to December 31, 2011. The study enrolled 120 type 2 diabetic males with erectile dysfunction who were analyzed with regard to age, duration of diabetes, duration and severity of erectile dysfunction, serum total testosteron levels and the degree of response to sildenafil citrate in terms of testosterone levels. The data were statistically analyzed using the independent two-sample Student t test, ?2 test and Pearson correlation test. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Thirty six percent of type 2 diabetic males with erectile dysfunction were found to have low serum testosterone levels. The hypotestosteronemic and normotestosteronemic subgroups were not significantly different in terms of mean age, duration of diabetes, reduction of libido, and reduction in erectile function. The rate and the degree of improvement of erection by sildenafil in the normo-and-hypotestosteronemic respondents were not significantly different, but the degree of improvement by sildenafil was significantly correlated to testosterone levels among the hypotestosteronemic group. Conclusion Hypotestosteronemia was found in 36% of type 2 diabetic males with erectile dysfunction. The degree of improvement of erectile dysfunction by sildenafil was directly proportional to the serum testosterone levels among the hypotestosteronemic group. Therapeutic supplement with testosterone preparation in the hypotestosteronemic diabetics with erectile dysfunction may improve their response to sildenafil.

Hadeed, Nabeel Najib Fadhil; Thanoon, Imad Abdul-Jabar; Al-Mukhtar, Samir Burhanaldin

2014-01-01

219

Coliformes em água de abastecimento de lojas fast-food da Região Metropolitana de Recife (PE, Brasil Coliforms in the water supply of fast-food chains in the Metropolitan Region of Recife, in the state of Pernambuco (Brazil  

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Full Text Available A garantia do fornecimento de água potável nos serviços de alimentação é uma questão relevante para a saúde pública. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade microbiológica da água destinada ao abastecimento de uma rede de lojas fast-food da cidade de Recife (PE e Região Metropolitana e comparar os resultados aos padrões estabelecidos pela Portaria nº 518/2004 do Ministério da Saúde. Mensalmente, foi analisada uma amostra proveniente de uma das torneiras da área de manipulação das oito lojas investigadas, perfazendo 96 amostras ao longo de um ano, todas coletadas em duplicata. As análises seguiram a metodologia estabelecida na American Public Health Association (APHA para realização do ensaio presuntivo utilizando o Teste Presença-Ausência, considerando-se o padrão de potabilidade determinado na legislação pertinente. Os resultados revelaram que 11,46% de todas as amostras apresentaram água contaminada por coliformes totais e 1,04% contaminação por coliformes termotolerantes. Conclui-se, portanto, que a qualidade da água disponível nos estabelecimentos produtores de alimentos estudados encontra-se em estado de alerta, uma vez que o percentual significativo das amostras analisadas mostrava-se impróprio para o consumo humano de acordo com a legislação vigente, a qual preconiza ausência de coliformes totais e termotolerantes.A guaranteed supply of clean drinking water in food outlets is a relevant subject for public health. The scope of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of 96 water samples of a network of fast-food stores in the city of Recife (state of Pernambuco, Brazil and Metropolitan Area and to compare the results to the standards established by Brazilian Health Ministry decree nº 518/2004. Every month, a double sample from one of the faucets in the food preparation area of the eight stores investigated was analyzed, totaling 96 samples over one year. The analyses followed the established methodology of American Public Health Association (APHA, in order to conduct the Presence-Absence Test, considering the potability standard in pertinent legislation. Results revealed that 11.46% and 1.04% of samples contained water contaminated with total coliforms and thermotolerant coliforms, respectively. The quality of the water in the food establishments studied is thus a health hazard since a significant percentage of samples analyzed were inappropriate for human consumption in accordance with current legislation, which stipulates the absence of total coliforms and thermotolerant coliforms.

Maria Anunciada Leal Porto

2011-05-01

220

Coliformes em água de abastecimento de lojas fast-food da Região Metropolitana de Recife (PE, Brasil) / Coliforms in the water supply of fast-food chains in the Metropolitan Region of Recife, in the state of Pernambuco (Brazil)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A garantia do fornecimento de água potável nos serviços de alimentação é uma questão relevante para a saúde pública. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade microbiológica da água destinada ao abastecimento de uma rede de lojas fast-food da cidade de Recife (PE) e Região Metropolitana [...] e comparar os resultados aos padrões estabelecidos pela Portaria nº 518/2004 do Ministério da Saúde. Mensalmente, foi analisada uma amostra proveniente de uma das torneiras da área de manipulação das oito lojas investigadas, perfazendo 96 amostras ao longo de um ano, todas coletadas em duplicata. As análises seguiram a metodologia estabelecida na American Public Health Association (APHA) para realização do ensaio presuntivo utilizando o Teste Presença-Ausência, considerando-se o padrão de potabilidade determinado na legislação pertinente. Os resultados revelaram que 11,46% de todas as amostras apresentaram água contaminada por coliformes totais e 1,04% contaminação por coliformes termotolerantes. Conclui-se, portanto, que a qualidade da água disponível nos estabelecimentos produtores de alimentos estudados encontra-se em estado de alerta, uma vez que o percentual significativo das amostras analisadas mostrava-se impróprio para o consumo humano de acordo com a legislação vigente, a qual preconiza ausência de coliformes totais e termotolerantes. Abstract in english A guaranteed supply of clean drinking water in food outlets is a relevant subject for public health. The scope of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of 96 water samples of a network of fast-food stores in the city of Recife (state of Pernambuco, Brazil) and Metropolitan Area and to [...] compare the results to the standards established by Brazilian Health Ministry decree nº 518/2004. Every month, a double sample from one of the faucets in the food preparation area of the eight stores investigated was analyzed, totaling 96 samples over one year. The analyses followed the established methodology of American Public Health Association (APHA), in order to conduct the Presence-Absence Test, considering the potability standard in pertinent legislation. Results revealed that 11.46% and 1.04% of samples contained water contaminated with total coliforms and thermotolerant coliforms, respectively. The quality of the water in the food establishments studied is thus a health hazard since a significant percentage of samples analyzed were inappropriate for human consumption in accordance with current legislation, which stipulates the absence of total coliforms and thermotolerant coliforms.

Maria Anunciada Leal, Porto; Amanda de Morais, Oliveira; Ana Elizabeth Cavalcante, Fai; Tânia Lúcia Montenegro, Stamford.

 
 
 
 
221

Coliformes em água de abastecimento de lojas fast-food da Região Metropolitana de Recife (PE, Brasil) / Coliforms in the water supply of fast-food chains in the Metropolitan Region of Recife, in the state of Pernambuco (Brazil)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A garantia do fornecimento de água potável nos serviços de alimentação é uma questão relevante para a saúde pública. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade microbiológica da água destinada ao abastecimento de uma rede de lojas fast-food da cidade de Recife (PE) e Região Metropolitana [...] e comparar os resultados aos padrões estabelecidos pela Portaria nº 518/2004 do Ministério da Saúde. Mensalmente, foi analisada uma amostra proveniente de uma das torneiras da área de manipulação das oito lojas investigadas, perfazendo 96 amostras ao longo de um ano, todas coletadas em duplicata. As análises seguiram a metodologia estabelecida na American Public Health Association (APHA) para realização do ensaio presuntivo utilizando o Teste Presença-Ausência, considerando-se o padrão de potabilidade determinado na legislação pertinente. Os resultados revelaram que 11,46% de todas as amostras apresentaram água contaminada por coliformes totais e 1,04% contaminação por coliformes termotolerantes. Conclui-se, portanto, que a qualidade da água disponível nos estabelecimentos produtores de alimentos estudados encontra-se em estado de alerta, uma vez que o percentual significativo das amostras analisadas mostrava-se impróprio para o consumo humano de acordo com a legislação vigente, a qual preconiza ausência de coliformes totais e termotolerantes. Abstract in english A guaranteed supply of clean drinking water in food outlets is a relevant subject for public health. The scope of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of 96 water samples of a network of fast-food stores in the city of Recife (state of Pernambuco, Brazil) and Metropolitan Area and to [...] compare the results to the standards established by Brazilian Health Ministry decree nº 518/2004. Every month, a double sample from one of the faucets in the food preparation area of the eight stores investigated was analyzed, totaling 96 samples over one year. The analyses followed the established methodology of American Public Health Association (APHA), in order to conduct the Presence-Absence Test, considering the potability standard in pertinent legislation. Results revealed that 11.46% and 1.04% of samples contained water contaminated with total coliforms and thermotolerant coliforms, respectively. The quality of the water in the food establishments studied is thus a health hazard since a significant percentage of samples analyzed were inappropriate for human consumption in accordance with current legislation, which stipulates the absence of total coliforms and thermotolerant coliforms.

Maria Anunciada Leal, Porto; Amanda de Morais, Oliveira; Ana Elizabeth Cavalcante, Fai; Tânia Lúcia Montenegro, Stamford.

222

Determination of total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nickel ferrocyanide compounds (Na{sub 2-x}Cs{sub x}NiFe (CN){sub 6}) were produced in a scavenging process to remove {sup 137}Cs from Hanford Site single-shell tank waste supernates. Methods for determining total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes are needed for the evaluation of potential exothermic reactions between cyanide and oxidizers such as nitrate and for safe storage, processing, and management of the wastes in compliance with regulatory requirements. Hanford Site laboratory experience in determining cyanide in high-level wastes is summarized. Modifications were made to standard cyanide methods to permit improved handling of high-level waste samples and to eliminate interferences found in Hanford Site waste matrices. Interferences and associated procedure modifications caused by high nitrates/nitrite concentrations, insoluble nickel ferrocyanides, and organic complexants are described.

Winters, W.I. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Pool, K.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-05-01

223

Determination of total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nickel ferrocyanide compounds (Na_2_-_xCs_xNiFe (CN)_6) were produced in a scavenging process to remove "1"3"7Cs from Hanford Site single-shell tank waste supernates. Methods for determining total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes are needed for the evaluation of potential exothermic reactions between cyanide and oxidizers such as nitrate and for safe storage, processing, and management of the wastes in compliance with regulatory requirements. Hanford Site laboratory experience in determining cyanide in high-level wastes is summarized. Modifications were made to standard cyanide methods to permit improved handling of high-level waste samples and to eliminate interferences found in Hanford Site waste matrices. Interferences and associated procedure modifications caused by high nitrates/nitrite concentrations, insoluble nickel ferrocyanides, and organic complexants are described

1994-08-14

224

The impact of different demand allocation rules on total stock levels  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Esse artigo compara duas diferentes regras para alocação da demanda às instalações de serviço e seus impactos nos níveis totais de estoque: a regra proposta por Tyagi & Das (1998) e a prática de transferência entre instalações. Os métodos do lote econômico de compras e do ponto de pedido são usados [...] para determinação dos níveis de estoque de ciclo e de segurança. É demonstrado que a minimização dos níveis agregados de estoque nessas regras leva a diferentes políticas de alocação freqüentemente adotadas pelas empresas: compartilhamento de uma única instalação de serviço, instalações de serviço dedicadas e descentralização total do atendimento. Análises de sensibilidade são conduzidas para identificar as variáveis mais relevantes, responsáveis pela diferença nos níveis totais de estoque entre essas três políticas. Os resultados sugerem diferentes oportunidades que podem favorecer uma dada política em detrimento das outras. Um quadro conceitual sintetizando os achados é apresentado, de modo a auxiliar na tomada de decisão. Os impactos potenciais em termos de níveis de serviço e dos custos de distribuição também são avaliados em termos qualitativos. Abstract in english This manuscript compares two different rules for allocating demands to serving facilities and their impact on total stock levels: the one proposed by Tyagi & Das (1998) and the cross filling practice. The EOQ and the ROP methods are used for setting cycle and safety stocks. Its is demonstrated that [...] the minimization of the consolidated inventory levels within these rules leads to different allocation policies, frequently adopted by companies: one single facility sharing, dedicated facilities and full decentralization. Sensitivity analyses are conducted to identify the most relevant variables accountable for the differences in total stock levels among these three policies. Results suggest different benefit opportunities that may favor one policy to the detriment of the others. A framework synthesizing the findings is presented, so as to help in decision making. Potential impacts in terms of service levels and distribution costs are also evaluated qualitatively.

Peter, Wanke.

225

The impact of different demand allocation rules on total stock levels  

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Full Text Available This manuscript compares two different rules for allocating demands to serving facilities and their impact on total stock levels: the one proposed by Tyagi & Das (1998 and the cross filling practice. The EOQ and the ROP methods are used for setting cycle and safety stocks. Its is demonstrated that the minimization of the consolidated inventory levels within these rules leads to different allocation policies, frequently adopted by companies: one single facility sharing, dedicated facilities and full decentralization. Sensitivity analyses are conducted to identify the most relevant variables accountable for the differences in total stock levels among these three policies. Results suggest different benefit opportunities that may favor one policy to the detriment of the others. A framework synthesizing the findings is presented, so as to help in decision making. Potential impacts in terms of service levels and distribution costs are also evaluated qualitatively.Esse artigo compara duas diferentes regras para alocação da demanda às instalações de serviço e seus impactos nos níveis totais de estoque: a regra proposta por Tyagi & Das (1998 e a prática de transferência entre instalações. Os métodos do lote econômico de compras e do ponto de pedido são usados para determinação dos níveis de estoque de ciclo e de segurança. É demonstrado que a minimização dos níveis agregados de estoque nessas regras leva a diferentes políticas de alocação freqüentemente adotadas pelas empresas: compartilhamento de uma única instalação de serviço, instalações de serviço dedicadas e descentralização total do atendimento. Análises de sensibilidade são conduzidas para identificar as variáveis mais relevantes, responsáveis pela diferença nos níveis totais de estoque entre essas três políticas. Os resultados sugerem diferentes oportunidades que podem favorecer uma dada política em detrimento das outras. Um quadro conceitual sintetizando os achados é apresentado, de modo a auxiliar na tomada de decisão. Os impactos potenciais em termos de níveis de serviço e dos custos de distribuição também são avaliados em termos qualitativos.

Peter Wanke

2010-04-01

226

Comparison Of Serum Calcium, Phosphorus And Total Protein Levels, In Pregnancy With Or Without Hypertensive Disorders  

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Full Text Available Background: Pre-eclampsia is characterized by hypertension development and proteinuria during pregnancy. Hypertension disorder is a leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and death in worldwide. Although the pathophysiology of hypertension during pregnancy is unclear, but there is consensus that early diagnosis and aggressive treatment is warranted to prevent complicated to both fetus and mother. The changes of serum trace elements during pregnancy are paramount important to predict and good understanding the situation of patients. The aim of this study was about this issue. Materials and Methods: In a case-control study we investigated the possible differences in the level of serum calcium, phosphorus and total protein in 55 healthy pregnant and 52 pregnant with hypertensive disease at 32-40 weeks of gestational age during the recent two years in Loghman hospital of Tehran. Some information such as age, blood group, parity number and blood pressure was taken from patients by a questionnaire. Results: The case population consisted of 22 sever preeclampsia, 15 mild preeclampsia, 8 eclampsia, and 7 chronic hypertensive. The mean serum calcium concentration (mg/dl was 9.18?0.74 in control group, 8.81?0.9 in mild preeclampsia, 7.85?0.38 in sever preeclampsia, 7.83? 0.47 in eclampsia, 8.91? 0.3 in chronic blood pressure. The mean serum phosphorus (mg/dl level observed, 4.27 in sever preeclampsia, 3.74 in eclampsia, 3.59 in mild eclampsia, 4.09 in chronic blood pressure, and 3.43 in control pregnant women. The mean serum total protein concentration level in sever preeclampsia and eclampsia was 5.46 and 5.04 mg/dl respectively. Conclusion: In conclusion, sever preeclampsia and eclampsia are associated with decreased level of calcium, total protein, and increased concentration of phosphorus.

Rashid Pooraei M

2005-06-01

227

Coliform bacteria as in indicator of sewerage water mixing with drinking water sources in Rawalpindi city  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The coliform group of bacteria are consider to be one of the prominent indicators of surface/groundwater pollution as their presence in drinking water sources shows that water has been in contact with soil, plants, septic tanks or sewerage lines/drains. As a part of surface/groundwater pollution studies in various areas of Rawalpindi city coliform bacteria have been determined in the available drinking sources to evaluate their possible connection with the nearby septic tanks and sewerage lines/drains. Selective water samples were tapped from 72 domestic dug wells, and 98 municipal corporation tube-wells and associated water supply lines in some poorly drained areas of Rawalpindi. These samples were analyzed using membrane filter technique. In general, the sampled areas have indicated poor water quality w.r.t. coliform activity. 52% samples of the collected samples have indicated presence of Ecoli. Of these, 73% samples mostly collected from the poorly drained areas have shown significant counts of Ecoli. These water are rendered unfit for drinking purposes. Thirteen water samples collected indicated toxic levels of Ecoli in the municipal water supply caused due to a known leakage in the main domestic water supply line. The presence of coliform in the tube-well water supply taps are thus attributed to ruptures in the underground water supply lines. Present study reveals that general sanitary condition and water quality in the city are poor and that there is an urgent need of improvement in the water treatment and distribution systems by the concern quaters. (Orig./A.B.)

1993-01-01

228

Seminal plasma total antioxidant capacity and vitamin- C levels in asthenozoospermia: a case- control study  

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Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Defective sperm function is now recognized as one of the most important causes of male infertility. Seminal plasma possesses a rich source of different enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as vitamin C (ascorbic acid that protect spermatozoa against oxidative stress as one of the mediators of infertility causing sperm dysfunction and low sperm quality. The aim of this study was investigation of seminal total antioxidant capacity and determination of vitamin C effects on sperm motility. "n"nMethods: We designed a case-control study with a total subject of 62 males. Sperm parameters were analyzed according to World Health Organization guidelines (WHO, 1999. Total antioxidant capacity and vitamin C level of seminal plasma were measured in the 32 normozoospermic as the control group and 32 asthenospermic men as the case group using FRAP (Ferric Reducing of Antioxidants Powers and RP-HPLC (Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography methods, respectively. "n"nResults: Our results indicated that total antioxidant capacity levels in the seminal plasma of asthenospermic men were significantly lower than healthy men (p=0.002. In addition, we found a positive correlation between reduced total antioxidant capacity levels and low sperm motility. Vitamin C levels of seminal plasma in asthenospermic men were statistically lower than control men (p=0.01."n"nConclusions: It is suggested that asthenospermia could be related to an antioxidant deficiency or it's reduction.

Ali Bidmeshkipour

2010-03-01

229

Totally confined explosive welding. [apparatus to reduce noise level and protect personnel during explosive bonding  

Science.gov (United States)

A method and associated apparatus for confining the undesirable by-products and limiting noise of explosive welding are discussed. The apparatus consists fo a simple enclosure into which the explosive is placed and within which the explosion occurs. The shape of the enclosure, the placement of the explosive, and the manner in which the enclosure is placed upon the material to be welded determine the force of the explosion transmitted to the proposed bond area. The explosion is totally confined within the enclosure thus reducing the noise level and preventing debris from being strewn about to contaminate the weld area or create personnel hazards.

Bement, L. J. (inventor)

1974-01-01

230

Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of whey protein hydrolysates generated at different total solids levels  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Whey protein hydrolysates were generated at different total solids (TS) levels (50–300 g/l) using the commercially available proteolytic preparation DebitraseTM HYW20, while enzyme to substrate ratio, pH and temperature were maintained constant. Hydrolysis proceeded at a faster rate at lower TS reaching a degree of hydrolysis (DH) of 16.6% at 300 g TS/l, compared with a DH of 22.7% at 50 g TS/l after 6 h hydrolysis. The slower breakdown of intact whey proteins at high TS was ...

Spellman, David; O Cuinn, Gerard; Fitzgerald, Richard J.

2005-01-01

231

Determination of uranium at ppb level by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TRXRF) spectrometry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An investigation of the occurrence of uranium at PPb (parts per billion) level has been conducted by total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis technique. For this, various aqueous solution of uranium having different concentrations have been analysed on TRXRF spectrometer, developed indigenously in our laboratory. The minimum detection limit achieved for the uranium with this spectrometer, by measuring U-M? was found to 0.1 ppm (100 ppb). A comparison of the achieved detection limit has also been discussed by considering U-L? fluorescence line instead of measuring U-M? fluorescence x-rays. (author)

2001-12-01

232

Application of decision-tree technique to assess herd specific risk factors for coliform mastitis in sows  

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Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate factors associated with coliform mastitis in sows, determined at herd level, by applying the decision-tree technique. Coliform mastitis represents an economically important disease in sows after farrowing that also affects the health, welfare and performance of the piglets. The decision-tree technique, a data mining method, may be an effective tool for making large datasets accessible and different sow herd information comparable. It is based on the C4.5-algorithm which generates trees in a top-down recursive strategy. The technique can be used to detect weak points in farm management. Two datasets of two farms in Germany, consisting of sow-related parameters, were analysed and compared by decision-tree algorithms. Data were collected over the period of April 2007 to August 2010 from 987 sows (499 CM-positive sows and 488 CM-negative sows and 596 sows (322 CM-positive sows and 274 CM-negative sows, respectively. Depending on the dataset, different graphical trees were built showing relevant factors at the herd level which may lead to coliform mastitis. To our understanding, this is the first time decision-tree modeling was used to assess risk factors for coliform mastitis. Herd specific risk factors for the disease were illustrated what could prove beneficial in disease and herd management.

Kerstin Reiners

2011-02-01

233

Assessment of Total Protein, Albumin, Creatinine and Aspartate Transaminase level in Toxemia of Pregnancy  

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Full Text Available Preeclampsia is majorly a clinical disorder of pregnancy (occurring after 20 weeks of gestation in previously normotensive women with unknown pathophysiology and associated organ dysfunctions. This study determined the biochemical changes associated with preeclampsia in the serum and urine. Blood pressure, serum total protein, albumin, creatinine and aspartate transaminase level and urinary protein were assessed (using standard methods in 105 primigravidae. There was no significant difference (p>0.05 in booking systolic and diastolic blood pressure but significant differences (p<0.05 existed between systolic and diastolic blood pressure of preeclamptic patients and controls. Also, 9 (10.1% out of 89 that completed the study had preeclampsia, 3 (3.4% had pregnancy induced hypertension only while 77 (86.5% remained normotensive. Serum total protein (50.11±3.33, albumin (22.67±1.22 and globulin (27.44±3.78 levels were found to be significantly low (p< 0.05 in preeclampsia as compared to the control (69.33±1.5, 37.78±2.59 and 31.56±3.25, respectively while serum Aspartate Transaminase (27.11±4.73 and creatinine (90.44±1.74 levels were found to be significantly higher (p<0.05 in preeclampsia than controls (8.56±3.17 and 62.67±1.58, respectively. The outcome of the pregnancy shows that two patients had abortion, one had preterm delivery and one had intrapartum eclampsia. Conclusively, results of hematologic and biochemical parameters should be considered for the timing delivery of women with pre-eclampsia as indicated by high levels of AST, blood pressure greater than or equal to 140/90 mmHg and proteinuria of ?300 mg/24 h.

T.A. Banjo

2013-01-01

234

Plasma oxidative stress and total thiol levels in Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, we investigated the pro- and antioxidant status of patients with a pathogenesis of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in terms of their role in its pathogenesis. During the study period, 34 children and 41 adults were diagnosed with CCHF. The control group consisted of healthy age- and gender-matched children and adults. Serum levels of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), and plasma total thiol (TTL) were evaluated and compared between groups. The difference in mean TAC values between CCHF patients and healthy controls was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Mean TOS, OSI, and TTL values were significantly lower in CCHF patients than in healthy controls (P CCHF than in their healthy counterparts (P CCHF when compared separately with healthy controls (P CCHF (P > 0.05). Our results suggest that TTL may play a more important role in CCHF pathogenesis than the other parameters investigated. The mean TOS and OSI values were higher in the control group than in CCHF patients. PMID:24451097

Karadag-Oncel, Eda; Erel, Ozcan; Ozsurekci, Yasemin; Caglayik, Dilek Yagci; Kaya, Ali; Gozel, Mustafa Gokhan; Icagasioglu, Fusun Dilara; Engin, Aynur; Korukluoglu, Gulay; Uyar, Yavuz; Elaldi, Nazif; Ceyhan, Mehmet

2014-01-01

235

Homocystein Level and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

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Full Text Available Background and Objective: Oxidant-antioxidant imbalance plays a key role in pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. This study aimed to evaluate homocystiene and total antioxidant capacity in COPD patients, compared to smoker and non-smoker healthy people. Material and Methods: We measured total antioxidant capacity with Cayman Kit, uric acid with Pars Azmoon kit? homocysteine with ELISA Kit and inflammatory cells (leukocytes in 29 COPD patients, 29 smokers and 29 non-smokers. Results: Uric acid was significantly higher in COPD patients compared to healthy smokers and healthy non-smokers (p<0.05. Total antioxidant capacity was significantly lower in COPD patients compared to healthy, non smokers (p=0. 003. In COPD patients, homocysteine and leukocytes levels were significantly higher than those in healthy smokers (P<0.05 and healthy non- smokers (p<0.001. Conclusion: According to high inflammatory cells and low antioxidant capacity in COPD, early administration of appropriate medication is recommended to reduce systemic and topical inflammation. Reduction in the exposure to oxidizing compounds can slow the process of degradation and damage to lungs. Keywords: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; Homocysteine; Oxidative Stress

Shirakdehi, MS. (MSc

2014-06-01

236

Total plasma level of antioxidant and immune system function in radiology and nuclear medicine staff  

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Full Text Available Background: Despite major diagnostic and industrial progresses in the technology and use of Ionizing radiations, they have been found to be harmful to the health of the radiology and nuclear medicine staffs. Since Ionizing radiations have the potential to produce free radicals, therefore, it is likely that the total plasma level of anti-oxidant in medical and nuclear medicine staffs could be reduced.Methods: In this case-control study the relationship of total anti oxidant level of plasma and the function of immune cells such as lymphocyte proliferating response using MTT method, Neutrophil chemotaxi, Intensity of respiratory burst (NBT and evaluation of IL-2 and IL-4 (ELISA were investigated. 101 samples were collected for this study and they were assigned as two groups: 61 samples cases from radiology and nuclear medicine staffs of Tehran University Of Medical Science hospitals (Shariaty, Imam Khomeyni, Ghalb-e-Tehran were assigned as the exposed group, whereas, 40 samples from Pediatric, Orthopedic, Infirmary and Emergencies wards were assigned as control group. Using heparinized syringes, 8 to 10 ml of blood samples were collected from each person with age between 25 to 50, averaging 36.4±7.2, and several assays including Anii Oxidant Capacity of Total Plasma (FRAP Method, T cell proliferative response to PHA mitogen (MTT Method, Chemotaxi of neutrophils and Magnitude of respiratory burst were carried out on these samples. The results were analyzed using spirman correlation analysis.Results: The results showed that exposure to ionizing radiation chronically with low dosed had no effect on chemotaxis of neutorophils and intensity of respiratory burst, but could have effect on lymphocyte function specially in cytokines secretion like IL-2 which are essential in the immune responses.Conclusion: This study indicates that long term low dose ionizing radiation may have effect in some parts of the immune function."n 

Kalamzadeh A

2007-10-01

237

Characteristics of High-density Lipoprotein Subclasses Distribution for Subjects with Desirable Total Cholesterol Levels  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate alteration of high density lipoproteins (HDL subclasses distribution in different total cholesterol (TC levels, mainly the characteristics of HDL subclasses distribution in desirable TC levels and analyze the related mechanisms. Methods ApoA-I contents of plasma HDL subclasses were determined by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled with immunodetection. 486 Chinese Adults subjects were assigned to different TC groups according to the third Report of NCEP (ATP- III guidelines. Results The increase in contents of small pre?1-HDL, HDL3c, HDL3b, and HDL3a particles clustered and reduce in HDL2b with increased of TC. The distribution of HDL subclasses have shown abnormality characterized by the lower HDL2b (324.2 mg/L contents and the higher pre?1-HDL (90.4 mg/L contents for desirable TC Chinese subjects. Among 176 desirable TC subjects, 58.6% subjects with triglyceride (TG Conclusions The particles size of HDL subclasses shifted towards smaller with increased TC levels. The TC was liner with HDL2b contents and those can be reduced 17 mg/L for 0.5 mmol/L increment in TC levels. The HDL subclasses distribution phenotype was not expectation for Chinese Population with desirable TC levels. Thus, from the HDL subclasses distribution point, when assessing the coronary heart disease(CHD risk not only rely on the TC levels, but also the concentrations of TG, HDL-C and LDL-C must considered in case the potential risk for desirable TC subjects with other plasma lipids metabolism disorders.

Xu Yanhua

2011-04-01

238

Transrectal ultrasound in detecting prostate cancer compared with serum total prostate-specific antigen levels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We carried out a retrospective study to review the efficiency of grey-scale transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) in detecting prostate cancer compared with the data in recent published work, including alternative imaging methods of the prostate gland. Our study group consisted of 830 patients who underwent TRUS-guided biopsy of the prostate between May 2000 and June 2004. The relation between abnormal TRUS findings and serum total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) levels was evaluated in patients with prostate cancer who were divided into three different groups according to serum tPSA levels. Group I included patients with tPSA levels of 4-9.9 ng/mL, group II included tPSA levels of 10-19.9 ng/mL and group III included patients with tPSA levels of 20 ng/mL or more. In general, TRUS detected 185 (64%) of 291 cancers with a specificity of 89%, a PPV of 76% and an accuracy of 80%. TRUS findings enabled the correct identification of 22 (56%) of the 39 cancers in group I, 28 (30%) of the 93 cancers in group II and 135 (85%) of the 159 cancers in group III. In conclusion, TRUS alone has a limited potential to identify prostate cancer, especially in patients with tPSA levels lower than 20 ng/mL. Therefore, increased numbers of systematically placed biopsy cores must be taken or alternative imaging methods are required to direct TRUS-guided biopsy for improving prostate cancer detection.

2008-02-01

239

Total Quality Management in Classroom at University Level in Islamabad City  

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Full Text Available The progress of a country inter-depends on the quality of education provided to its citizens. Higher level Education is the most important stage in education system of any country. This stage provides educated graduates and skilled workers that immediatelyenters into the practical field and takes over the responsibilities. That is why to increase the quality of education at this stage is the foremost mission of all the countries. By defining the term, quality is the level of satisfaction for which the consumer pays. In thecase of education, the Consumer is the student as well as society. Therefore, quality education is the standard of education that satisfies the students and society both. The main objectives of this study were to identify the indicators of Total Quality Management(T.Q.M in classroom to study the efforts of teachers to ensure TQM in classroom and to identify the ways to improve the quality of education at higher level.From the findings of the study it was revealed that the teachers did not covered the five standards of TQM elements completely, students were not completely satisfied by the teaching methodology during knowledge transitory process. Most of the teachers were not prepared before delivering there lectures, teacher showed biasness that discouraged the students. Teacher also ignored the daily assessment of the students, and use of the audio visual (AV aids in classroom, obsolete teaching material, and ineffective material caused failure to produce total quality education, and failed to produce skilled workforce. Based upon the conclusion of the study it is recommended that teacher may be punctual, teacher should use AV aids for teaching in classroom, teachers may be prepared well before delivering the lecture, teacher may encourage the classroom discussion, andteacher may treat equally in classroom.

Tanvir Kayani

2012-12-01

240

Leveling Process of Total Electron Content (TEC Using Malaysian Global Positioning System (GPS Data  

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Full Text Available The signals from the satellites of the Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS travel through the earth's ionosphere on their way to GPS receivers. However, ionospheric delay is one of the main sources of error in GPS. The magnitude of the ionospheric delay is influenced by the Total Electron Content (TEC along the radio wave path from a GPS satellite to the ground receiver. This study investigates the TEC using GPS data collected from Wisma Tanah, Kuala Lumpur, KTPK (3° 10' 15.44"N, 101° 43' 03.35"E station and processed and analyzed under quiet geomagnetic day at the equatorial region on 8 November 2005. This research assesses the errors translated from the code-delay to the carrier-phase ionospheric observable by the so-called leveling process, which was applied to reduce multipath from the data. It was found that the leveled carrier-phase ionosphere observable was affected by a systematic error, produced by code-delay multipath through the leveling procedure. The effects, however, do not cancel after averaging all the data. Dual frequency carrier-phase and code-delay GPS observations are combined to obtain ionospheric observable related to the slant TEC (TECs along the satellite-receiver line of sight (los. This results in the absolute differential delay and the remaining noise was discarded. These are the first results obtained using TEC-GPS technique for TEC measurement in Malaysia.

Y. Norsuzila

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Efeito da oxigenação por agitação manual da água na eficiência de inativação de coliformes termotolerantes utilizando luz solar para desinfecção em batelada / Effect of oxygenation by manual agitation of water on inactivation efficiency of thermotolerant coliforms using solar light batch disinfection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foi avaliado o efeito da agitação manual de amostras de água submetidas à desinfecção solar na eficiência de inativação de coliformes termotolerantes. Garrafas com agitação prévia e sem agitação foram expostas à radiação solar no horário das 9h às 15h (seis horas no total) e analisados o teor de oxi [...] gênio dissolvido (OD) e concentração de coliformes termotolerantes de hora em hora. A desinfecção com luz solar mostrou-se capaz de melhorar a qualidade sanitária da água, reduzindo a concentração de coliformes termotolerantes em até quatro unidades logarítmicas (de 1,03 x 10(6) até 2,6 x 10¹NMP/100 mL). Com a agitação manual, houve oxigenação considerável nas amostras de água (máxima concentração de OD de 6,61 mg/L nas amostras de águas agitadas e de 5,56 mg/L nas amostras sem agitação), porém o aumento de OD na água não teve efeito significativo sobre a inativação dos coliformes termotolerantes (p>0,05). Abstract in english This study aimed at evaluating the manual agitation effect on inactivation efficiency of thermotolerant coliforms of water bottles submitted to solar disinfection. Agitated bottles and non-agitated bottles were exposed to sunlight from 9:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. Dissolved oxygen (DO) and thermotolerant [...] coliforms concentrations were analyzed hourly. The solar disinfection improved the water quality, reducing thermotolerant coliforms concentration by 4 logs (from 1.0 x 10(6) to 2.6 x 10¹MPN/100 mL). With the manual agitation, there was considerable oxygenation in the water samples (maximum of 6.61 mg/L in samples with manual agitation and of 5.56 mg/L for those without agitation), but the increase in DO had no significant effect on the inactivation of thermotolerant coliforms (p>0.05).

Márcio Pessoa, Botto; Francisco Suetônio Bastos, Mota; Beatriz Susana Ovruski de, Ceballos.

242

Efeito da oxigenação por agitação manual da água na eficiência de inativação de coliformes termotolerantes utilizando luz solar para desinfecção em batelada Effect of oxygenation by manual agitation of water on inactivation efficiency of thermotolerant coliforms using solar light batch disinfection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foi avaliado o efeito da agitação manual de amostras de água submetidas à desinfecção solar na eficiência de inativação de coliformes termotolerantes. Garrafas com agitação prévia e sem agitação foram expostas à radiação solar no horário das 9h às 15h (seis horas no total e analisados o teor de oxigênio dissolvido (OD e concentração de coliformes termotolerantes de hora em hora. A desinfecção com luz solar mostrou-se capaz de melhorar a qualidade sanitária da água, reduzindo a concentração de coliformes termotolerantes em até quatro unidades logarítmicas (de 1,03 x 10(6 até 2,6 x 10¹NMP/100 mL. Com a agitação manual, houve oxigenação considerável nas amostras de água (máxima concentração de OD de 6,61 mg/L nas amostras de águas agitadas e de 5,56 mg/L nas amostras sem agitação, porém o aumento de OD na água não teve efeito significativo sobre a inativação dos coliformes termotolerantes (p>0,05.This study aimed at evaluating the manual agitation effect on inactivation efficiency of thermotolerant coliforms of water bottles submitted to solar disinfection. Agitated bottles and non-agitated bottles were exposed to sunlight from 9:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. Dissolved oxygen (DO and thermotolerant coliforms concentrations were analyzed hourly. The solar disinfection improved the water quality, reducing thermotolerant coliforms concentration by 4 logs (from 1.0 x 10(6 to 2.6 x 10¹MPN/100 mL. With the manual agitation, there was considerable oxygenation in the water samples (maximum of 6.61 mg/L in samples with manual agitation and of 5.56 mg/L for those without agitation, but the increase in DO had no significant effect on the inactivation of thermotolerant coliforms (p>0.05.

Márcio Pessoa Botto

2009-09-01

243

STANDARDIZATION AND VALIDATION OF METHODS FOR ENUMERATION OF FECAL COLIFORM AND SALMONELLA IN BIOSOLIDS  

Science.gov (United States)

Current federal regulations required monitoring for fecal coliforms or Salmonella in biosolids destined for land application. Methods used for analysis of fecal coliforms and Salmonella were reviewed and a standard protocol was developed. The protocols were then...

244

Research of total levels on DNA methylation in plant based on HPLC analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available HPLC analysis is important for determination of total level on DNA methylation in plants. It can be used to help characterise epigenetic changes during growth, development and stress. HPLC methods have been optimised for mammalian and microbial DNA, but not for plants. This article examines several important factors in the HPLC analysis of plant DNA methylation including extraction and purification of DNA and HPLC conditions choice by using leaves of rice seedling. The experimental results showed that RNA of nucleic acid was removed by using RNase A. This study also identified critical components of HPLC analysis. With the optimized method of HPLC conditions, the better result was achieved in the chromatogram of cytosine and 5-methylcytosine in genomic DNA acid hydrolysis. The study would offer a comprehensive guide for the stringent analysis of DNA methylation in plants.

Qiang Chen

2013-04-01

245

Rainfall-Induced Release of Fecal Coliforms and Other Manure Constituents: Comparison and Modeling?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Modeling release of fecal coliforms is an important component of fate and transport simulations related to environmental water quality. Manure constituents other than fecal coliforms may serve as natural tracers of fecal contamination provided that their release from manure to runoff is similar to the fecal coliform release. The objectives of this work were to compare release of fecal coliforms (FC), chloride (Cl?), organic carbon (OC), and water-soluble phosphorus (P) from dissolving manur...

Guber, A. K.; Shelton, D. R.; Pachepsky, Y. A.; Sadeghi, A. M.; Sikora, L. J.

2006-01-01

246

Analytical method of total {beta} activity in high level radioactive solution. Possibility of application of GM counter method to total {beta} analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Analytical design of RETE set up a GM counter method as an analytical method of total {beta} activity in the high level radioactive solution. To confirm the fundamental properties of GM counter, RI test was carried out by use of {sup 90}Sr as pure {beta} source and {sup 137}Cs as {beta} and {gamma} source. Hot test of the light water reactor reprocessing liquid waste indicated that this method could be used as the analytical method of total {beta} in the high level radioactive solution. Important results were explained as following: the detection efficiency of GM counter at {gamma} ray 0.06 to 0.66 MeV was 0.25% or below. Its effect on the total {beta} ray measurement was negligible. The internal conversion electron radiated from {sup 137}Cs ({sup 137m}Ba) gave positive effect on the total counter and the effect on the nuclide components in the light water reactor reprocessing liquid waste was about 3.5%. The total beta activity in the light water reactor reprocessing liquid waste was determined by this method, and the values obtained were 7.4 x 10{sup 9} and 8.3 x 10{sup 9} Bq/ml which agreed with the values by ORIGEN-2 etc. Reproducibility of the total {beta} activity, analytical value by high dilute solution-GM counter direct method was in the range of 1.8% (RSD) that was enough to a process analytical method. (S.Y.)

Shiba, Masanori [Joyo Industry Co. Ltd., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Funakoshi, Tomomasa; Suganuma, Takashi; Tanaka, Yasumasa

1997-11-01

247

Modelling faecal coliform mortality in water hyacinths ponds  

Science.gov (United States)

Removal of faecal coliforms was investigated in pilot-scale water hyacinths ponds. The investigation was conducted to evaluate the role of solar intensity, pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, sedimentation, and attachment of faecal coliforms on Eichhornia crassipes on disappearance of bacteria in water hyacinths ponds. A mathematical model that used the plug flow philosophy and incorporating the aforementioned factors was developed to predict faecal coliform mortality rate. The proposed multifactor model satisfactorily predicted mortality rate of faecal coliforms in a pilot-scale water hyacinths ponds. After optimization of the parameters, mortality rate constant for pH ( kpH) was 0.001, mortality rate constant for DO ( kDO) was 0.0037 and solar intensity mortality rate constant k s was 0.0102 cm 2/cal. The results also showed that the thickness of biofilm ( Lf) was 2.5 × 10 -4 m, and the effective surface area of water hyacinths roots per unit surface area of pond ( Rs) was 10.4 m 2/m 2. The results further showed that environmental factors such as solar intensity and pH were the key factors when water hyacinths ponds have a large exposed surface area. However, attachment of bacteria to water hyacinths played a major role in ponds fully covered with water hyacinths. The inclusion of sedimentation parameters in the model improved model efficiency by only 3.2%. It was concluded that sedimentation is not a major factor governing faecal coliform disappearance in water hyacinths pond systems receiving pretreated wastewaters.

Mayo, A. W.; Kalibbala, M.

248

Baseline levels of total-body radioactivity determined by whole-body monitoring  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey is being carried out in Cambridge with the aim of measuring the total-body burden of a number of gamma emitting radionuclides. Cambridgeshire was chosen for the survey for its low natural and artificial background radioactivity in order to provide a baseline for other, similar surveys around the country. 137Cs, 134Cs and 40K, radon daughters, thorium daughters and certain nuclides used in nuclear medicine and radiobiology have been observed. The site has a very low radon level and hence we are in a position to measure the body burden of radon daughters in or on volunteers. Over 1050 volunteers have already been measured and with large numbers from the same population; accuracy can be achieved by combining the results from a large sample, giving much improved statistics. The statistical validity of deductions based on this large population sample will be discussed together with the relevance of the work to attempt to establish baseline data on the body levels of radioactivity from the population. (Author)

1990-04-02

249

Comparison of the presence-absence and membrane filter techniques for coliform detection in small, nonchlorinated water distribution systems.  

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The traditional membrane filter (American Public Health Association, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 16th ed., American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C., 1985) and presence-absence (P-A) (J. A. Clark, Can. J. Microbiol. 14:13-18, 1968) techniques for the detection of coliform bacteria were compared in a small nonchlorinated drinking water distribution system by using total positive samples and frequency-of-occurrence analyses. No significant difference...

1989-01-01

250

Total serum calcium level may have adverse effects on serum cholesterol and triglycerides among female university faculty and staffs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our previous studies showed that serum calcium level may have influence in the blood pressure to older male subjects, but the relationship between serum calcium level and blood lipids is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between total serum calcium level and blood lipids. In our study, total serum calcium level and blood lipids were measured among 1,075 subjects, with age range of 30-60 years, who were recruited for the routine health screening in 2006. The results showed that serum calcium level was positively correlated with triglyceride and total cholesterol weight, but not HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in female subjects (P 0.05). These findings suggest that a higher total serum calcium level may have a adverse effects on serum cholesterol and triglycerides among female subjects. PMID:24488790

He, Lianping; Qian, Yifan; Ren, Xiaohua; Jin, Yuelong; Chang, Weiwei; Li, Jie; Chen, Yan; Song, Xiuli; Tang, Hui; Ding, Lingling; Guo, Daoxia; Yao, Yingshui

2014-03-01

251

Controlled disposal of domestic effluent sewage in the ground to reduce fecal coliforms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The indiscriminate launching in water bodies of domestic sewage without treatment, or even treated, but without appropriate disinfection, contributes with significant amount of organisms of the called "coliform group” that can carry specific illnesses agents propagated through the water. The application of effluent in the ground, instead of direct disposal in water courses, in addition to being an alternative way for the disposal of residues and biological control of pollutants, constitutes an adequate way of nutrients supply to the soil and plants. So, this work had as objective the evaluation of the reduction of fecal coliforms, after controlled applications of 60 days treated effluent in cultivated soil, by analyzing the increase of fluorescent rhizobacterias Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus spp. present in the rhizospheres of different crops. The experiment was developed in field conditions in the Experimental Farm of Department of Agrarian Sciences of the University of Taubaté, municipality of Taubaté, SP. The Experimental design consisted of random blocks, with five treatments including annual crops (Oats, Barley, Triticale - a cross between wheat and rye, Black Beans and non-cultivated soil as witness - blank reference and four repetitions, totalizing 20 ground plots with area of 2 m x 1 m with 50 cm space among plots on a Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latossol. Results from the microbial analyses of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil indicated that the rhizosphere of oats had denser rhizobacterias than the other crops. However, the greatest efficiency was found in the reduction of thermo-tolerant coliforms for both black beans and non-cultivated soil.

Paulo Fortes Neto

2008-12-01

252

A comparison between faecal sterols and coliform counts in the investigation of sewage contamination in sediments  

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Full Text Available In September 2002, nine sediment samples (0-2 cm were collected from Botafogo Cove (southwestern part of Guanabara Bay in order to compare the use of chemical (coprostanol and biological markers (E. coli and total coliforms in identifying faecal contamination. The values found (organic carbon - 6.0 to 64.8 mg g-1; coprostanol - 1.4 to 105 µg g-1; E. coli - Em setembro de 2002, foram coletadas nove amostras de sedimento superficial (0-2 cm na Enseada de Botafogo (sudoeste da Baía de Guanabara/RJ, a fim de comparar o uso de marcadores químicos (coprostanol e biológicos (E. coli e coliformes totais na identificação da contaminação fecal da região. Os resultados obtidos (carbono orgânico - 6,0 to 64,8 mg g-1; coprostanol - 1,4 to 105 µg g-1; E. coli - < 30 to 2400 NMP/10g e coliformes totais - 40 to 9300 NMP/10g foram iguais ou maiores aos observados em outras áreas contaminadas da Baía de Guanabara. Nas estações próximas à linha de costa, as concentrações de coprostanol e as contagens das bactérias confirmaram que o esgoto doméstico se acumulou no sedimento da enseada. As concentrações de coprostanol se mantiveram altas nas estações distantes das fontes de contaminação, porém o material fecal representou uma menor fração do carbono orgânico. Nessas mesmas estações, redução na contagem de colimetria foi proporcionalmente mais alta, provavelmente pela baixa sobrevivência das bactérias devido ao efeito de luz, salinidade e temperatura. durante o transporte e deposição das partículas de esgoto. Portanto, baseando-se nos resultados obtidos, o coprostanol foi um indicador mais adequado da contaminação fecal nos sedimentos da Enseada de Botafogo.

Renata Lima da Costa

2005-12-01

253

THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN G6PD DEFICIENCY AND TOTAL SERUM BILIRUBIN LEVEL IN ICTERIC NEONATES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nGlucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is the most important disease of the hexose monophosphate pathway. Deficiency of this enzym can lead to hemolysis of red blood cells. Our aim was to study the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in relation to neonatal jaundice. We studied 456 clinically icteric neonates Laboratory investigations included determination of direct and indirect serum bilirubin concentrations, blood group typing, direct coomb's test, hemoglobin, blood smear, reticulocyte count and G6PD level. We divided these neonates to 3 groups based on total serum bilirubin level (TSB: TSB< 20 mg%, TSB=20-25 mg%, and TSB>25 mg%. In only 35 (7.6% of cases G6PD deficiency was diagnosed. All of these babies were male. From 456 icteric neonates, 213 cases belong to group 1 (TSB<20 mg%, 158 cases belong to group 2 (TSB=20-25 mg% and 85 cases belong to group 3 (TSB>25 mg%. 16 neonates from 213 neonates of group 1, 6 neonates from 158 neonates of group 2 and 13 neonates from 85 neonates of group 3 had G6PD deficiency. There was statistically significant difference of prevalence of G6PD deficiency between group 2 and 3 ( 15.3% vs 3.8%( P = 0.001. Between groups 1 vs 2 and 1 vs 3 no statistically significant difference was found. Early detection of this enzymopathy regardless of sex and close surveillance of the affected newborns may be important in reducing the risk of severe hyperbilirubinemia. This emphasizes the necessity of neonatal screening on cord blood samples for G6PD deficiency.

S. Behjati-Ardakani

2007-07-01

254

Growth performance, digestibility and faecal coliform bacteria in weaned piglets fed a cereal-based diet including either chicory (Cichorium intybus L) or ribwort (Plantago lanceolata L) forage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-five weaned 35-day-old piglets were used in a 35-day growth experiment to evaluate the effect of inclusion of chicory and ribwort forage in a cereal-based diet on growth performance, feed intake, digestibility and shedding of faecal coliform bacteria. A total of seven experimental diets were formulated, a cereal-based basal diet (B), and six diets with inclusion of 40, 80 and 160 g/kg chicory (C40, C80 and C160) or ribwort (R40, R80 and R160). Piglets had ad libitum access to feed and water throughout the experiment. Three and five weeks post-weaning faeces samples for determination of digestibility were collected once a day for five subsequent days. Additional faeces samples for determination of coliform counts were collected at days 1, 16 and 35 post-weaning. Piglets fed diet R160 had the lowest average daily feed intake (DFI) and daily weight gain (DWG), and differed (P < 0.05) from piglets fed diets B, R40 and R80. There were no differences in DFI and DWG between the chicory diets and diet B. Inclusion of chicory or ribwort had a minor negative impact on the coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) of dry matter, organic matter and crude protein, whereas inclusion of both chicory and ribwort resulted in higher CTTAD of non-starch polysaccharides and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). The CTTAD of arabinose were higher for diets C160 and R160 than for diet B (P < 0.05), and the CTTAD of uronic acid was higher for diets C40, C80, C160, R80 and R160 than for diet B (P < 0.05). Age affected the CTTAD for all parameters (P < 0.05) except for NDF, with higher values at 5 than at 3 weeks post-weaning. The coliform counts decreased with increasing age (P < 0.05), but was not affected by treatment. The results indicate that inclusion of up to 160 g/kg of chicory do not negatively affect performance, whereas high inclusion of ribwort have a negative impact on feed consumption and consequently on growth rate. Both herbs have a higher digestibility of fibre compared to cereal fibre. Chicory and ribwort are both promising as feedstuffs to weaned piglets, but the low palatability of ribwort limits the inclusion level. PMID:22439952

Ivarsson, E; Frankow-Lindberg, B E; Andersson, H K; Lindberg, J E

2011-02-01

255

Method used to estimate screening-level Total Failure Probability for human error events  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This document briefly describes the method used to estimate a screening value for the Total Failure Probability (FT) of human error events that are identified in the fault trees which describe potential liquid UF6 release accidents at two US Gaseous Diffusion Plants. A discussion is provided of the assumptions, limitations, and overall logic of the FT assignment method, and a description is presented of how the method is employed. The description herein presents the screening technique used to quantify human errors in the accident analysis portion of the Gaseous Diffusion Plant Safety Analysis Report Upgrade Program. Specifically, the basic events analyzed here are given in the fault trees for one facility at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) and one at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). These plants are primarily chemical processing facilities that deal with a slightly radioactive process gas, low-enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF6). A Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) was not accomplished while drawing the fault trees; the accomplishment of an HRA would be determined by the overall study results. The method described herein provides a framework within which a conservative estimate of human error probability can be made at the screening level for use in the event trees and fault trees

1994-08-14

256

Pollution studies of Kabul river and its tributes for the assessment of organic strength and fecal coliform  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty eight samples of water from Kabul River and its tributaries starting from Warsak Reservoir to the confluence point of Kabul and Indus Rivers covering a stretch of about 90 km and the waste water being discharged by different drains into the river were collected systematically and analysed for total organic strength as Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and degradable organics as Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) using standard methods. River water samples from different locations were also analysed bacteriologically for Fecal coliforms. All the waste water samples and river water in a few locations were found to be high in COD, BOD and Fecal coliform rendering it unfit for irrigation and human consumption. The results also suggest that the Board Mills and from different tanneries are the main sources of organic pollution in the Kabul River. Reduction in fish crop in Kabul River could be referred to the increased organic pollution. (author)

1999-03-01

257

Copper and ceruloplasmin levels in relation to total thiols and GST in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients  

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Presence of oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is well proved. Current study was undertaken to know the relation between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and copper along with antioxidants like total thiols and ceruloplasmin, and antioxidant enzyme glutathione S transferase (GST). The study group consisted of a total of 201 subjects which included nondiabetic healthy control subjects (n = 78) and diabetic patients (n = 123). Plasma total thiols, GST, copper and ceruloplasmin levels...

Sarkar, A.; Dash, S.; Barik, B. K.; Muttigi, Manjunatha S.; Kedage, V.; Shetty, J. K.; Prakash, M.

2010-01-01

258

Preharvest evaluation of coliforms, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in organic and conventional produce grown by Minnesota farmers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microbiological analyses of fresh fruits and vegetables produced by organic and conventional farmers in Minnesota were conducted to determine the coliform count and the prevalence of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and E. coli O157:H7. A total of 476 and 129 produce samples were collected from 32 organic and 8 conventional farms, respectively. The samples included tomatoes, leafy greens, lettuce, green peppers, cabbage, cucumbers, broccoli, strawberries, apples, and seven other types of produce. The numbers of fruits and vegetables was influenced by their availability at participating farms and varied from 11 strawberry samples to 108 tomato samples. Among the organic farms, eight were certified by accredited agencies and the rest reported the use of organic practices. All organic farms used aged or composted animal manure as fertilizer. The average coliform counts in both organic and conventional produce were 2.9 log most probable number per g. The percentages of E. coli-positive samples in conventional and organic produce were 1.6 and 9.7%, respectively. However, the E. coli prevalence in certified organic produce was 4.3%, a level not statistically different from that in conventional samples. Organic lettuce had the largest prevalence of E. coli (22.4%) compared with other produce types. Organic samples from farms that used manure or compost aged less than 12 months had a prevalence of E. coli 19 times greater than that of farms that used older materials. Serotype O157:H7 was not detected in any produce samples, but Salmonella was isolated from one organic lettuce and one organic green pepper. These results provide the first microbiological assessment of organic fruits and vegetables at the farm level. PMID:15151224

Mukherjee, Avik; Speh, Dorinda; Dyck, Elizabeth; Diez-Gonzalez, Francisco

2004-05-01

259

Thyrocalcitonin: its importance on the regulation of the plasmatic levels in total thyroidectomy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of thyrocalcitonin ou calcium and blood phosphorus is studied. Twelve patients with adenocarcinoma of the thyroid, previously submited to total thyroidectomy and complementary radioiodine theraphy, are studied

1975-01-01

260

Survival of Fecal Coliforms in Dry-Composting Toilets  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The dry-composting toilet, which uses neither water nor sewage infrastructure, is a practical solution in areas with inadequate sewage disposal and where water is limited. These systems are becoming increasingly popular and are promoted to sanitize human excreta and to recycle them into fertilizer for nonedible plants, yet there are few data on the safety of this technology. This study analyzed fecal coliform reduction in approximately 90 prefabricated, dry-composting toilets (Sistema Integra...

Redlinger, Thomas; Graham, Jay; Corella-barud, Vero?nica; Avitia, Raquel

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Comparison of four membrane filter methods for fecal coliform enumeration.  

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Four membrane filter methods fecal coliform enumeration were evaluated and compared in six laboratories based on determination of accuracy, specificity, upper counting limit, and recovery comparability. Recovery accuracy with pure cultures ranged from 89 to 100% for m-FC, mTEC (a procedure developed for thermotolerant Escherichia coli), and m-FC2 methods (the latter incorporating a 2-h, 35 degrees C resuscitation period), but was less than 60% for the MacConkey membrane broth method. These fi...

Pagel, J. E.; Qureshi, A. A.; Young, D. M.; Vlassoff, L. T.

1982-01-01

262

Survival of fecal coliforms in dry-composting toilets.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dry-composting toilet, which uses neither water nor sewage infrastructure, is a practical solution in areas with inadequate sewage disposal and where water is limited. These systems are becoming increasingly popular and are promoted to sanitize human excreta and to recycle them into fertilizer for nonedible plants, yet there are few data on the safety of this technology. This study analyzed fecal coliform reduction in approximately 90 prefabricated, dry-composting toilets (Sistema Integral de Reciclamiento de Desechos Orgánicos [SIRDOs]) that were installed on the U.S.-Mexico border in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. The purpose of this study was to determine fecal coliform reduction over time and the most probable method of this reduction. Biosolid waste samples were collected and analyzed at approximately 3 and 6 months and were classified based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards. Results showed that class A compost (high grade) was present in only 35.8% of SIRDOs after 6 months. The primary mechanism for fecal coliform reduction was found to be desiccation rather than biodegradation. There was a significant correlation (P = 0.008) between classification rating and percent moisture categories of the biosolid samples: drier samples had a greater proportion of class A samples. Solar exposure was critical for maximal class A biosolid end products (P = 0.001). This study only addressed fecal coliforms as an indicator organism, and further research is necessary to determine the safety of composting toilets with respect to other pathogenic microorganisms, some of which are more resistant to desiccation. PMID:11526002

Redlinger, T; Graham, J; Corella-Barud, V; Avitia, R

2001-09-01

263

Fate of coliforms and pathogenic parasite in four full-scale sewage treatment systems in India.  

Science.gov (United States)

The occurrence and removal of fecal indicators (total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC), fecal streptococci (FS)) and pathogens (helminthes eggs) were studied in various municipal wastewater treatment processes (UASB + FPU, ASP, EA, WSP). The reductions in TC and FC concentrations were usually between 2.0 and 2.5 log units in up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor incorporated with final polishing unit (UASB + FPU). Almost similar reduction was observed in activated sludge process system (ASP) and waste stabilization ponds system (WSP), while it was log 3.0 in extended aeration system (EA). UASB + FPU and WSP systems were observed more efficient to reduce helminthes eggs at almost 100%, whereas only 97% removal was observed in case of ASP and EA system. In addition to monitoring of indicator organisms, turbidity, suspended solids (SS), and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) were used as indirect measure of the potential presence of microorganisms. Interrelationship of BOD, SS, and turbidity with fecal indicator bacteria concentration in influent and effluent manifest that improvement of the microbiological quality of wastewater is strongly linked to the removal of BOD and SS. PMID:21136285

Tyagi, Vinay Kumar; Sahoo, B K; Khursheed, Anwar; Kazmi, A A; Ahmad, Z; Chopra, A K

2011-10-01

264

Coliform bacteria removal from sewage in constructed wetlands planted with Mentha aquatica.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study evaluated the performance of the species Mentha aquatica in constructed wetlands of horizontal subsurface flow (CW-HSSF) with regard to the removal of coliforms bacteria in an effluent from the primary treatment of sewage as well as to obtain adjustment parameters of the bacterial decay kinetic model along the length of the CW-HSSF. Therefore, four CW-HSSFs measuring 24.0 m x 1.0 m x 0.35 m were built and filled with number 0 gravel as the support medium to a height of 0.20m. Two of the CW-HSSFs were planted with the species M. aquatica, while the other two remained uncultivated. Cultivation of M. aquatica in CW-HSSF resulted in total coliforms (TC) and Escherichia coli (EC) removals from 0.9 to 1.3 log units greater than those obtained in the uncultivated experimental plots, for the hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 4.5 and 6.0 days. For HRT ranged from 1.5 to 6.0 days, the highest removal efficiencies in counts of TC and EC were obtained when using longer HRT. The mathematical models evaluated showed good fit to average counts of TC and EC highlighting the modified first-order kinetic model with the inclusion of the power parameter in the HRT variable. PMID:24956804

Avelar, Fabiana F; de Matos, Antonio T; de Matos, Mateus P; Borges, Alisson C

2014-08-01

265

Molecular and Bacteriological Examination of Milk from Different Milch Animals with Special Reference to Coliforms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, 20 samples of raw milk of cow, buffalo and goat and pasteurized milk were collected from the local market and were analyzed for microbial count and IMViC tests to determine the coliform load in the sample. Further, the presence of E. coli was confirmed by using PCR. Majority of the milk samples of different origin were found to be contaminated by the coliform group of bacteria. Nine samples were found to be positive for E. coli by PCR analysis. Pasteurized milk samples did not showed presence of E. coli by PCR, but they showed considerable count of bacterial growth by total plate count method. The results indicated that analyzed milk could contribute a potential risk for public health in the cases that it was consumed or used in the production of dairy products without being pasteurized or being subjected to a sufficient heat process. Moreover, PCR is less labor intensive and more rapid for bacterial identification.

T.S. Parekh

2008-01-01

266

Temporal Changes in Total Serum Immunoglobulin E Levels in East German Children and the Effect of Potential Predictors  

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Background: Elevated total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels are a prominent feature of allergic and parasitic diseases. An epidemiologic study was conducted in East German children to describe trends in the development of total serum IgE levels and analyze the impact of potential determinants. Methods: The study consisted of three cross-sectional surveys in 1992-1993, 1995-1996 and 1998-1999 and was conducted in three areas of the former German Democratic Republic. In total, 8,051 question...

2012-01-01

267

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EFFICIENCY LEVEL OF WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT AND RETURN ON TOTAL ASSETS IN ISE (ISTANBUL STOCK EXCHANGE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In our study we aimed to determine the relationship between efficiency level of firms being traded in ISE in working capital management and their return on total assets. We tried to explain the relationship between different indicators relating to efficiency in working capital management and their return on total assets through two models. According to the results in terms of both all the firms involved in the study and sectors there is a significance negative relationship between cash conversion cycle, net working capital level, current ratio, accounts receivable period, inventory period and return on total assets.

Mehmet DEN

2009-09-01

268

[Coliforms in the water supply of fast-food chains in the Metropolitan Region of Recife, in the state of Pernambuco (Brazil)].  

Science.gov (United States)

A guaranteed supply of clean drinking water in food outlets is a relevant subject for public health. The scope of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of 96 water samples of a network of fast-food stores in the city of Recife (state of Pernambuco, Brazil) and Metropolitan Area and to compare the results to the standards established by Brazilian Health Ministry decree nº 518/2004. Every month, a double sample from one of the faucets in the food preparation area of the eight stores investigated was analyzed, totaling 96 samples over one year. The analyses followed the established methodology of American Public Health Association (APHA), in order to conduct the Presence-Absence Test, considering the potability standard in pertinent legislation. Results revealed that 11.46% and 1.04% of samples contained water contaminated with total coliforms and thermotolerant coliforms, respectively. The quality of the water in the food establishments studied is thus a health hazard since a significant percentage of samples analyzed were inappropriate for human consumption in accordance with current legislation, which stipulates the absence of total coliforms and thermotolerant coliforms. PMID:21655739

Porto, Maria Anunciada Leal; Oliveira, Amanda de Morais; Fai, Ana Elizabeth Cavalcante; Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro

2011-05-01

269

Clinical and Radiological Mid-Term Outcomes of Lumbar Single-Level Total Disc Replacement.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT: Study Design. Prospective single-center case cohort study.Objective. Evaluation of clinical and radiographic outcomes of a consecutive 122-patient cohort with discogenic back pain, at 2 - to 10-year follow-up periods, treated by a single surgeon, with CHARITÉ® Artificial Disc (DePuy Spine, Raynham, MA, USA).Summary of Background Data. Minimum two-year clinical and radiographic Level 1 data for the first lumbar artificial disc, the CHARITÉ® Artificial Disc, has recently been published, demonstrating sustained clinical benefit of the device for the treatment of degenerative disc disease (DDD).Methods. Patients were assessed preoperatively using clinical outcome measures, including Visual Analogue Score (VAS) back and leg, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short Form - 36 (SF-36), and Roland-Morris Questionnaires (RMDQ), and further assessed postoperatively, 3-months, 6-months, 12-months, and yearly thereafter.Results. Average follow-up was 44.9±23.3 months (n = 122). The median age at surgery was 43.0±9.0 years. Preoperative diagnosis included DDD in 118 (96.7%) and internal disc disruption (IDD) in 4 (3.3%). Surgery was performed at L5-S1 in 96 (77.9%) patients and at L4-5 in 27 (22.1%). Statistically significant clinical improvements from baseline were observed on VAS (back and leg), ODI, SF-36 PCS, SF-36 MCS, and RMDQ from 3 months onwards. Back VAS scores decreased from 78.2±21.3 preoperatively to 21.9±27.8 by final follow-up. ODI scores decreased from 51.1±17.3 to 16.2±17.9 at last follow-up. The RMDQ scores also decreased, from 16.7±4.7 to 4.2±5.8. SF-36 PCS and MCS increased from 25.7±11.0 to 46.4±10.3 for PCS and from 35.5±17.4 to 51.6±10.8 for MCS. Patient satisfaction surveys indicated that 90.56% patients rated their satisfaction with the surgery as "excellent" or "good" at 2 years. Range of motion averaged 8.6°±3.5° (median: 8.0°) at the last follow-up time point.Conclusions. Outcomes verify the clinical efficacy of total disc replacement (TDR) for treatment of discogenic back pain with or without radiculopathy. The outcomes instruments demonstrated statistically significant improvements from 3 months onwards. PMID:21912307

Scott-Young, Matthew N; Lee, Matthew J; Nielsen, David E A; Magno, Carly L; Kimlin, Kristy R; Mitchell, Evan O

2011-09-01

270

Allergic diseases, drug adverse reactions and total immunoglobulin E levels in lupus erythematosus patients.  

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BACKGROUND: The association of allergic diseases, drug adverse reactions and elevated total immunoglobulin E (IgE) concentration in systemic lupus erythematosus patients remains controversial. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of those features in active and inactive systemic lupus erythematosus patients, and in the control group as well. METHODS: Total IgE concentration was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study ...

Anna Wozniacka; Anna Sysa-Jedrzejowska; Ewa Robak; Zbigniew Samochocki; Malgorzata Zak-Prelich

2003-01-01

271

Salmonelas e coliformes fecais em águas de bebida para animais / Salmonellas and fecal conforms in animal drinking water  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese De um total de 402 propriedades rurais do Município de Botucatu, SP (Brasil) com atividades de exploração pecuária, foram sorteadas 60 (15%) pelo processo de amostragem probabilística simples. Nestas 60 propriedades localizaram-se 113 bebedouros que eram os mais utilizados pelos animais para sua des [...] sedentação. Foram colhidas amostras de água desses bebedouros visando a pesquisa de bactérias do gênero Salmonella, a determinação do Número Mais Provável (NMP) de bactérias coliformes fecais e a verificação do pH e da temperatura. Obteve-se isolamento positivo para salmonelas nas amostras de água de 15 (13,27%) bebedouros correspondentes a 12 (20%) das 60 propriedades visitadas, identificando-se os seguintes sorotipos: S. dublin, S. newport, S. madelia, S. IV 43:g, z57: -, S. saphra, S. glostrup, S. IV ochsenzool, S. I 9, 12:i: - e dois novos sorotipos S. IV 41:z52: - e S. IV 50:d:-. Das 113 amostras de água analisadas, 14 (12,39%) apresentaram-se com NMP/100 mL de coliformes fecais acima de 4.000. Não foi constatada associação entre o isolamento positivo de salmonelas e NMP/100 mL de coliformes fecais acima de 4.000. O isolamento de salmonelas e NMP/100 mL de coliformes fecais acima de 4.000 deu-se em temperaturas superiores a 18°C e em pH entre 6,0 e 7,0. Abstract in english Sixty small farms of Botucatu County, S.Paulo, Brazil, given over to cattle breeding were studied. These farms account for 15% of the total of 402 farms that exist in the county. The sample was drawn by simple probabilistic technique. There were found to be one hundred and thirteen drinking places l [...] ocated on the farms. Samples of water were taken from these drinking places and examined for bacteria of the genus Salmonella, for the determination of Most Probable Number (MNP) of fecal coliform bacteria as well as determination of the water's pH. Water temperature was measured before collection. Samples from 15 drinking places (13.3%) were positive for Salmonella. The drinking places belonged to 12 of the sixty farms studied (20%). The following serotypes were identifie d: S. dublin, S. newport, S. madelia, S. IV 43:g,z57:-, S. saphra, S. glostrup, S. IV ochsenzool; S. I9,12:i:-and two new serotypes S. IV 41:z52:- and S. IV 50:d:-. Of the 113 samples studied 14 (12,4%) presented MPN/100ml of fecal coliforms above 4,000. There was no relationship between MPN/100ml of fecal coliforms above 4,000 and positivity for Salmonella. Highest positivity both for Salmonella and MPN/100mL of fecal coliforms over 4,000 occurred at temperatures above 18°C. As regards pH, in both situations the highest positivity occurred between 6.0 and 7.0.

Souza, Luiz Carlos de; laria, Sebastião Timo; Paim, Gil Vianna.

272

Salmonelas e coliformes fecais em águas de bebida para animais / Salmonellas and fecal conforms in animal drinking water  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese De um total de 402 propriedades rurais do Município de Botucatu, SP (Brasil) com atividades de exploração pecuária, foram sorteadas 60 (15%) pelo processo de amostragem probabilística simples. Nestas 60 propriedades localizaram-se 113 bebedouros que eram os mais utilizados pelos animais para sua des [...] sedentação. Foram colhidas amostras de água desses bebedouros visando a pesquisa de bactérias do gênero Salmonella, a determinação do Número Mais Provável (NMP) de bactérias coliformes fecais e a verificação do pH e da temperatura. Obteve-se isolamento positivo para salmonelas nas amostras de água de 15 (13,27%) bebedouros correspondentes a 12 (20%) das 60 propriedades visitadas, identificando-se os seguintes sorotipos: S. dublin, S. newport, S. madelia, S. IV 43:g, z57: -, S. saphra, S. glostrup, S. IV ochsenzool, S. I 9, 12:i: - e dois novos sorotipos S. IV 41:z52: - e S. IV 50:d:-. Das 113 amostras de água analisadas, 14 (12,39%) apresentaram-se com NMP/100 mL de coliformes fecais acima de 4.000. Não foi constatada associação entre o isolamento positivo de salmonelas e NMP/100 mL de coliformes fecais acima de 4.000. O isolamento de salmonelas e NMP/100 mL de coliformes fecais acima de 4.000 deu-se em temperaturas superiores a 18°C e em pH entre 6,0 e 7,0. Abstract in english Sixty small farms of Botucatu County, S.Paulo, Brazil, given over to cattle breeding were studied. These farms account for 15% of the total of 402 farms that exist in the county. The sample was drawn by simple probabilistic technique. There were found to be one hundred and thirteen drinking places l [...] ocated on the farms. Samples of water were taken from these drinking places and examined for bacteria of the genus Salmonella, for the determination of Most Probable Number (MNP) of fecal coliform bacteria as well as determination of the water's pH. Water temperature was measured before collection. Samples from 15 drinking places (13.3%) were positive for Salmonella. The drinking places belonged to 12 of the sixty farms studied (20%). The following serotypes were identifie d: S. dublin, S. newport, S. madelia, S. IV 43:g,z57:-, S. saphra, S. glostrup, S. IV ochsenzool; S. I9,12:i:-and two new serotypes S. IV 41:z52:- and S. IV 50:d:-. Of the 113 samples studied 14 (12,4%) presented MPN/100ml of fecal coliforms above 4,000. There was no relationship between MPN/100ml of fecal coliforms above 4,000 and positivity for Salmonella. Highest positivity both for Salmonella and MPN/100mL of fecal coliforms over 4,000 occurred at temperatures above 18°C. As regards pH, in both situations the highest positivity occurred between 6.0 and 7.0.

Souza, Luiz Carlos de; laria, Sebastião Timo; Paim, Gil Vianna.

273

Salmonelas e coliformes fecais em águas de bebida para animais Salmonellas and fecal conforms in animal drinking water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available De um total de 402 propriedades rurais do Município de Botucatu, SP (Brasil com atividades de exploração pecuária, foram sorteadas 60 (15% pelo processo de amostragem probabilística simples. Nestas 60 propriedades localizaram-se 113 bebedouros que eram os mais utilizados pelos animais para sua dessedentação. Foram colhidas amostras de água desses bebedouros visando a pesquisa de bactérias do gênero Salmonella, a determinação do Número Mais Provável (NMP de bactérias coliformes fecais e a verificação do pH e da temperatura. Obteve-se isolamento positivo para salmonelas nas amostras de água de 15 (13,27% bebedouros correspondentes a 12 (20% das 60 propriedades visitadas, identificando-se os seguintes sorotipos: S. dublin, S. newport, S. madelia, S. IV 43:g, z57: -, S. saphra, S. glostrup, S. IV ochsenzool, S. I 9, 12:i: - e dois novos sorotipos S. IV 41:z52: - e S. IV 50:d:-. Das 113 amostras de água analisadas, 14 (12,39% apresentaram-se com NMP/100 mL de coliformes fecais acima de 4.000. Não foi constatada associação entre o isolamento positivo de salmonelas e NMP/100 mL de coliformes fecais acima de 4.000. O isolamento de salmonelas e NMP/100 mL de coliformes fecais acima de 4.000 deu-se em temperaturas superiores a 18°C e em pH entre 6,0 e 7,0.Sixty small farms of Botucatu County, S.Paulo, Brazil, given over to cattle breeding were studied. These farms account for 15% of the total of 402 farms that exist in the county. The sample was drawn by simple probabilistic technique. There were found to be one hundred and thirteen drinking places located on the farms. Samples of water were taken from these drinking places and examined for bacteria of the genus Salmonella, for the determination of Most Probable Number (MNP of fecal coliform bacteria as well as determination of the water's pH. Water temperature was measured before collection. Samples from 15 drinking places (13.3% were positive for Salmonella. The drinking places belonged to 12 of the sixty farms studied (20%. The following serotypes were identifie d: S. dublin, S. newport, S. madelia, S. IV 43:g,z57:-, S. saphra, S. glostrup, S. IV ochsenzool; S. I9,12:i:-and two new serotypes S. IV 41:z52:- and S. IV 50:d:-. Of the 113 samples studied 14 (12,4% presented MPN/100ml of fecal coliforms above 4,000. There was no relationship between MPN/100ml of fecal coliforms above 4,000 and positivity for Salmonella. Highest positivity both for Salmonella and MPN/100mL of fecal coliforms over 4,000 occurred at temperatures above 18°C. As regards pH, in both situations the highest positivity occurred between 6.0 and 7.0.

Luiz Carlos de Souza

1992-10-01

274

Quantification of active and total transforming growth factor-? levels in serum and solid organ tissues by bioassay  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-? is a multi-factorial peptide growth factor that has a vital role in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, inflammation, and tissue repair. Quantification of biologically active TGF-? levels in tissues is crucial to illustrate mechanisms involved in various physiological and pathological processes, but direct measurement of bioactive TGF-? level in the tissue has been hampered by lack of reliable methods. Here, we introduced mink lung epithelial cell bioassay to quantify both active and total TGF-? levels in serum and protein lysates from solid organs in the mouse model. Findings Mink lung epithelial cells were stably transfected with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 promoter/luciferase construct, in which bioactive TGF-? level was represented by luciferase activity. Serum total TGF-? levels were comparable between the bioassay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, but active TGF-? levels measured by ELISA were significantly lower than those obtained by the bioassay. Active and total TGF-? levels in the solid organs including heart, liver, and kidney were also measured. Total TGF-? levels were relatively comparable among these organs, but active TGF-? levels were slightly higher in hearts and kidneys than in livers. Positive luciferase activities in the bioassay were almost completely inhibited by adding pan-TGF-? neutralizing antibodies, suggesting its high specificity to bioactive TGF-?. We also measured myocardial TGF-? levels after myocardial infarction and sham control by the bioassay, and compared the values with those obtained by ELISA. The bioassay demonstrated that both active and total tissue TGF-? levels were significantly higher in post-myocardial infarction than in sham myocardium. ELISA was markedly less sensitive in detecting both active and total TGF-? levels than our bioassay and failed to show any statistically significant difference in TGF-? levels between myocardial infarction and sham myocardium. Conclusions Our data suggested that the bioassay was significantly more sensitive than ELISA in detecting active TGF-? in serum and both active and total TGF-? in solid organ tissues. The bioassay will be useful in investigating TGF-? profile in various solid organs in physiological and pathological conditions.

Khan Shaukat A

2012-11-01

275

Association between Plasma PFOA and PFOS Levels and Total Cholesterol in a Middle-Aged Danish Population  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are used in a variety of consumer products and have been detected worldwide in human blood. Recent studies mainly of highly exposed populations have indicated that PFOA and PFOS may affect serum cholesterol levels, but the magnitude of the effect may be inconsistent across exposure levels. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between plasma PFOA and PFOS and total cholesterol in a general, middle-aged Danish population. The study population comprised 753 individuals (663 men and 90 women), 50-65 years of age, nested within a Danish cohort of 57,053 participants. Blood samples were taken from all cohort members at enrolment (1993-1997) and stored in a biobank at -150°C. Plasma levels of PFOA and PFOS and serum levels of total cholesterol were measured. The associations between plasma PFOA and PFOS levels and total cholesterol levels were analysed by generalized linear models, both crude and adjusted for potential confounders. We observed statistically significant positive associations between both perfluorinated compounds and total cholesterol, e.g. a 4.4 [95% CI â??=â?? 1.1-7.8] higher concentration of total cholesterol (mg/dL) per interquartile range of PFOA plasma level. Sex and prevalent diabetes appeared to modify the association between PFOA and PFOS, respectively, and cholesterol. In conclusion, this study indicated positive associations between plasma PFOA and PFOS levels and total cholesterol in a middle-aged Danish population, although whether the observed pattern of results reflects a causal association is unclear.

Eriksen, Kirsten T; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

2013-01-01

276

Human apoB contributes to increased serum total apo(a level in LPA transgenic mice  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The Lp(a lipoprotein (Lp(a consists of the polymorphic glycoprotein apolipoprotein(a (apo(a, which is attached by a disulfide bond to apolipoprotein B (apoB. Apo(a, which has high homology with plasminogen, is present only in primates and hedgehogs. However, transgenic mice and rabbits with high serum apo(a levels exist. Liver is the main site for apo(a synthesis, but the site of removal is uncertain. To examine differences between transgenic mice expressing the LPA gene and mice capable of forming Lp(a particles, LPA-YAC transgenic mice and hAPOB transgenic mice were crossed and their offspring examined. Results Comparison of LPA-YAC with LPA-YAC/hAPOB transgenic mice showed that LPA-YAC/hAPOB transgenic mice have higher serum total apo(a and total cholesterol level than mice lacking the hAPOB gene. However, hepatic apo(a mRNA level was higher in LPA-YAC transgenic mice than in LPA-YAC/hAPOB transgenic mice. Feeding of a high-cholesterol/high-fat diet to male LPA-YAC transgenic mice with or without the hAPOB gene resulted in reduced serum total apo(a and hepatic apo(a mRNA level. Conclusion In conclusion, the higher serum total apo(a level in LPA-YAC/hAPOB transgenic mice than in LPA-YAC transgenic mice is not caused by increased apo(a synthesis. Lower hepatic apo(a mRNA level in LPA-YAC/hAPOB than in LPA-YAC transgenic mice may suggest that the increase in total apo(a level is a result of apo(a accumulation in serum. Furthermore, observed higher serum total cholesterol level in LPA-YAC/hAPOB transgenic mice than either in wild type or LPA-YAC transgenic mice may further suggest that human APOB transgenicity is a factor that contributes to increased serum total apo(a and cholesterol levels. Our results on reduced serum total apo(a and hepatic apo(a mRNA levels in HCHF fed male LPA-YAC transgenic mice confirm earlier findings in females, and show that there are no sex difference in mechanisms for lowering apo(a level in response to HCHF feeding.

Teivainen Päivi A

2004-05-01

277

Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on levels of serum autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus and in rheumatoid arthritis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on serum levels of autoantibodies, and of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and pneumococcal polysaccharide in patients with lupus nephritis were compared with those previously observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Baseline levels of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid and tetanus toxoid decreased significantly after TLI in patients with lupus and RA, but antibody levels to pneumococcal polysaccharide remained unchanged. After TLI, the levels of antinuclear and anti-DNA antibodies were reduced significantly in lupus, but levels of rheumatoid factor, antinuclear, and antigranulocyte antibodies all tended to increase in RA

1986-01-01

278

[Temporal and spatial variations of coliforms and Escherichia coli in fluvial recreational waters (Salado River, Santa Fe, Argentina). Relationship with the quality standards].  

Science.gov (United States)

There are no standards accepted by all the countries to fix top concentrations of microbiological indicators in recreational waters. Even now there is still a considerable discussion either in USA as in Europe. The universal application of a bacteriological quality criterion is hard due to several environmental factors that affect the relation between the indicator, the exposition and the health risks. Our purpose was to present a case study as an example of the influence of the climatic conditions in the application of the most known standards (Environmental Protection Agency of USA, Council of European Communities, World Organization of Health, and others from Canada, South Africa and Hong Kong). The pluvial rainfall increased the number of E. coli, thermotolerant coliforms (C Te), and total coliforms (CT) 6-10 fold, in comparison to the number registered during the steady-state conditions of the system. However, not all the standards included that factor. In Summer, hourly, daily and weekly variations were proved, therefore the standards that suggest fortnightly sampling frequencies would not be convenient in that system. Although the main source of variation was time, spatial variability was also detected. The percentage of E. coli among the C Te was very variable, but the average resulted low (26%) compared to the levels in temperate regions of other countries (> 90%). According to the directives proposed by the Commission of European Communities, the parameter has been changed (C Te for E. coli), but the standard has remained (2000/100 ml). Thus, the directive would be more permissive. PMID:10509393

Emiliani, F; Lajmanovich, R; Acosta, M A; Bonetto, S

1999-01-01

279

Diurnal variations in unconjugated and total plasma estriol levels in late normal pregnancy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diurnal variations in plasma unconjugated and total estriol were assessed in 11 third-trimester subjects with uncomplicated pregnancies. Commercially available 125I-labeled radioimmunoassay kits were used. Total plasma estriols reach a nadir during the hours of sleep (400 and 700 hours) which exceeds the episodic fluctuations seen from day to day or during a given 90-minute period. Plasma unconjugated estriol fluctuations over 24 hours did not significantly exceed our previously reported episodic fluctuation of 15.6 +/- 8.2%. The data are interpreted as showing no circadian rhythm, but reflecting, in the case of total plasma estriols, an effect of improved renal clearance during hours of rest. Plasma unconjugated estriol emerges as the test of choice in the monitoring of high-risk pregnancies. PMID:571590

Compton, A A; Kirkish, L S; Parra, J; Stoecklein, S; Barclay, M L; McCann, D S

1979-05-01

280

Rapid detection of coliforms in drinking water of Arak city using multiplex PCR method in comparison with the standard method of culture (Most Probably Number)  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To analyse molecular detection of coliforms and shorten the time of PCR. Methods Rapid detection of coliforms by amplification of lacZ and uidA genes in a multiplex PCR reaction was designed and performed in comparison with most probably number (MPN) method for 16 artificial and 101 field samples. The molecular method was also conducted on isolated coliforms from positive MPN samples; standard sample for verification of microbial method certificated reference material; isolated strains from certificated reference material and standard bacteria. The PCR and electrophoresis parameters were changed for reducing the operation time. Results Results of PCR for lacZ and uidA genes were similar in all of standard, operational and artificial samples and showed the 876 bp and 147 bp bands of lacZ and uidA genes by multiplex PCR. PCR results were confirmed by MPN culture method by sensitivity 86% (95% CI: 0.71-0.93). Also the total execution time, with a successful change of factors, was reduced to less than two and a half hour. Conclusions Multiplex PCR method with shortened operation time was used for the simultaneous detection of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in distribution system of Arak city. It's recommended to be used at least as an initial screening test, and then the positive samples could be randomly tested by MPN.

Fatemeh, Dehghan; Reza, Zolfaghari Mohammad; Mohammad, Arjomandzadegan; Salomeh, Kalantari; Reza, Ahmari Gholam; Hossein, Sarmadian; Maryam, Sadrnia; Azam, Ahmadi; Mana, Shojapoor; Negin, Najarian; Reza, Kasravi Alii; Saeed, Falahat

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

How much locomotive activity is needed for an active physical activity level: analysis of total step counts  

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Abstract Background Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity level (PAL). The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of locomotive activity to PAL using total step counts measured in a calorimeter study. Methods PAL, calculated as total energy expenditure divided by basal me...

Ohkawara Kazunori; Ishikawa-Takata Kazuko; Park Jong; Tabata Izumi; Tanaka Shigeho

2011-01-01

282

Níveis de fósforo total em dietas para alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo / Dietary total phosphorus levels for Nile tilapia fingerlings  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivando-se determinar a exigência de fósforo em dietas para alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), foram utilizados 432 alevinos com peso inicial de 0,60 ± 0,02 g, mantidos em 36 aquários de 150 L. Foi utilizado delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos (0,55; 0,7 [...] 3; 0,94; 1,14; 1,37 e 1,59% de fósforo total), seis repetições e 12 peixes por unidade experimental. Os peixes foram alimentados com rações contendo 32% de PB e 3.000 kcal ED/kg, durante 40 dias. Verificou-se efeito quadrático dos níveis de fósforo na dieta sobre a conversão alimentar e a taxa de eficiência protéica, sendo estimados os melhores resultados com 1,10% de fósforo total. Houve efeito linear dos níveis de fósforo na dieta sobre a taxa de eficiência de retenção de P e a taxa de eficiência de P. Para as demais variáveis, não houve efeito dos níveis de fósforo da dieta. A exigência de P em dietas para alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo é de 1,10%. Abstract in english Four hundred and thirty-two Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings averaging initial weight of 0.60 ± 0.02 g were allotted to thirty-six 150 L-aquaria to determine total phosphorus requirement. The experiment was analyzed as a completely randomized design, with six treatments (0.55, 0.73, [...] 0.94, 1.14, 1.37, and 1.59% of total phosphorus), six replicates and 12 fishes per experimental unit. The fishes were fed diets with 32% of CP and 3,000 kcal of DE/kg, during 40 days. Quadratic effect was observed for feed/gain ratio and protein efficiency rate and the best results were estimated with 1.10% of total phosphorus, for both variables. Linear effect of the dietary phosphorus levels on P retention efficiency rate and P efficiency rate was noticed. No treatment effect on the other variables was observed. The dietary total phosphorus requirement for Nile tilapia corresponds to 1.10%.

Felipe Barbosa, Ribeiro; Eduardo Arruda Teixeira, Lanna; Marcos Antonio Delmondes, Bomfim; Juarez Lopes, Donzele; Anderson Saraiva de, Freitas; Maíra Paula de, Sousa; Moisés, Quadros.

283

Níveis de fósforo total em dietas para alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo Dietary total phosphorus levels for Nile tilapia fingerlings  

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Full Text Available Objetivando-se determinar a exigência de fósforo em dietas para alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, foram utilizados 432 alevinos com peso inicial de 0,60 ± 0,02 g, mantidos em 36 aquários de 150 L. Foi utilizado delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos (0,55; 0,73; 0,94; 1,14; 1,37 e 1,59% de fósforo total, seis repetições e 12 peixes por unidade experimental. Os peixes foram alimentados com rações contendo 32% de PB e 3.000 kcal ED/kg, durante 40 dias. Verificou-se efeito quadrático dos níveis de fósforo na dieta sobre a conversão alimentar e a taxa de eficiência protéica, sendo estimados os melhores resultados com 1,10% de fósforo total. Houve efeito linear dos níveis de fósforo na dieta sobre a taxa de eficiência de retenção de P e a taxa de eficiência de P. Para as demais variáveis, não houve efeito dos níveis de fósforo da dieta. A exigência de P em dietas para alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo é de 1,10%.Four hundred and thirty-two Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings averaging initial weight of 0.60 ± 0.02 g were allotted to thirty-six 150 L-aquaria to determine total phosphorus requirement. The experiment was analyzed as a completely randomized design, with six treatments (0.55, 0.73, 0.94, 1.14, 1.37, and 1.59% of total phosphorus, six replicates and 12 fishes per experimental unit. The fishes were fed diets with 32% of CP and 3,000 kcal of DE/kg, during 40 days. Quadratic effect was observed for feed/gain ratio and protein efficiency rate and the best results were estimated with 1.10% of total phosphorus, for both variables. Linear effect of the dietary phosphorus levels on P retention efficiency rate and P efficiency rate was noticed. No treatment effect on the other variables was observed. The dietary total phosphorus requirement for Nile tilapia corresponds to 1.10%.

Felipe Barbosa Ribeiro

2006-08-01

284

Assessment of the efficiency of ColiSure™ for coliforms Escherichia coli enumeration in pasteurizad milk / Avaliação do desempenho do ColiSure™ na enumeração de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em leite pasteurizado  

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Full Text Available In the dairy industry the coliforms detection can he used as indicative of hygiene production of the raw milk and the contamination after-pasteurization. The traditional methods for the enumeration of the total and faecal coliforms are laborious and needs an incubation time of 96 hours. Rapid methods for detection of these microorganisms have been developed and among them the ColsSuroit is a rapid method that gives results in 24 hours and involves defined substrates for simultaneous determination of total conforms and E. coli in water based in specific enzymatic reactions of these microorganisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate its utilization in milk. Ninety-five samples of pasteurized milk were collected from the markets in Londrina city, Parana and analyzed by the Most Probable Number (NMP enumeration using the Brilliant Green Bile Lactose Broth (BGBL and ColiSure™. There was a correlation of 0.80 betwee-n the mediums when the incubation time was 43 hours for total conforms. The low down occurrence of E. coffin the analyzed samples made impossible to comparate the performance of methods for this microorganism. Compfementary analysis showed a greater sensibility and especifity of the ColiSure™ in comparation with the BGBL. The CofiSure™ can be indicated as a substitute for the traditional method, with the advantage to be faster and easier.Na indústria láctea a detecção de microrganismos do grupo coliformes é utilizada como indicativo da higiene na produção do leite e de contaminação pós-pasteurizaçüo. Os métodos tradicionais para a enumeração de coliformes totais e fecais são trabalhosos, com tempo de incubação longo, de até 96 horas. Métodos rápidos para a detecção destes microrganismos têm sido desenvolvidos na área de microbiologia de alimentos. O ColiSure™ é um método rápido, que fornece resultados simultaneamente para a presença ou a ausência de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em água em 24 horas, baseando-se em reações enzimáticas específicas destes microrganismos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar sua utilização para enumeração destes microrganismos em leite. Foram colhidas 95 amostras do loite pasteurizado no comércio de Londrina, Paraná, para a enumeração do Número Mais Provável (NMP, comparando o meio ColiSure™ com o Caldo Lactosado Bile Verde Brilhante (CLBVB. A análise estatística indicou uma correlação de 0,80 entre os dois meios quando o período de incubação foi de 48 horas para coliformes totais. Devido ú baixa ocorrência de E.coli nas amostras analisadas não foi possível comparar o desempenho dos métodos para enumeração desses microrganismos. Realizou-se então, um experimento para avaliar a sensibilidade do CotiSuro™ na detecção de E. coli. Contra provas realizadas demonstraram maior sensibilidade e especificidade do ColiSure™ quando comparado com o CLBVB, para detecção de coliformes totais, podendo substituir o método padrão, com a vantagem de apresentar maior praticidade e rapidez na obtenção dos resultados.

Elsa Helena Walter de Santana

2000-12-01

285

Modification of delayed-incubation procedure for detection of fecal coliforms in water.  

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Three holding media, including the vitamin-free Casitone holding medium (m-VFC) recommended by Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater for use with the delayed-incubation membrane filter procedure, were compared for their ability to maintain viability of fecal coliforms. Each medium was tested according to the procedure described in the above reference with 60 to 80 pure cultures of fecal coliforms and a variety of natural water samples containing fecal coliforms. Fecal c...

Chen, M.; Hickey, P. J.

1983-01-01

286

Isolation of fecal coliforms from pristine sites in a tropical rain forest.  

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Samples collected from water accumulated in leaf axilae of bromeliads (epiphytic flora) in a tropical rain forest were found to harbor fecal coliforms. Random identification of fecal coliform-positive isolates demonstrated the presence of Escherichia coli. This bacterium was also isolated from bromeliad leaf surfaces. These data indicate that E. coli may be part of the phyllosphere microflora and not simply a transient bacterium of this habitat. The isolation of fecal coliforms from these sit...

Rivera, S. C.; Hazen, T. C.; Toranzos, G. A.

1988-01-01

287

Implications of coliform variability in the assessment of the sanitary quality of recreational waters.  

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The most widely used indicator of the sanitary quality of recreational waters is the coliform group of bacteria. Present techniques of coliform enumeration are imprecise, and this fact is too often overlooked in routine water quality surveys as well as in research efforts seeking quantitative relationships between coliform density and the health effects of recreational waters. To illustrate this point, three years of data gathered by the New York City Department of Health as part of their rou...

1985-01-01

288

Antibiotic Resistance of Enterococci and Coliform Bacteria in Dairy Products from Commercial Farms  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of enterococci and coliform bacteria isolated from sheep and cows cheese from commercial farms. Susceptibilities of isolated enterococci and coliform bacteria were tested using the disk diffusion method. The bacteria were tested on antibiotics enrofloxacin, sulphonamides, tetracycline and streptomycin. All isolates of Enterococcus strains were resistant of all used antibiotics. The similar results were detected of coliform bacteria on tested antibiotics.

Ivana Nováková

2010-05-01

289

COLIFORMES TERMOTOLERANTES EN AGUAS DE LAS POBLACIONES COSTERAS Y PALAFÍTICAS DE LA CIÉNAGA GRANDE DE SANTA MARTA, COLOMBIA / Fecals Coliforms in Waters of Coastal and Palafiticos Populations of Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta es el sistema lagunar costero más grande e importante de Colombia y el más extenso del Caribe. En su territorio se alojan siete poblaciones carentes de un sistema de saneamiento básico adecuado, que vierten sus desechos sin ningún tipo de tratamiento directamente a l [...] a ciénaga. Teniendo en cuenta la importancia ambiental de este cuerpo de agua y con el objeto de conocer su calidad sanitaria se determinaron las concentraciones de Coliformes termotolerantes en aguas adyacentes de dos poblaciones costeras (Tasajera e isla del Rosario) y tres palafiticas (Buenavista, Nueva Venecia y Trojas de Cataca) durante el periodo 2004-2007. Adicionalmente, se realizaron mediciones de pH, temperatura, salinidad y oxígeno disuelto en cada sitio de muestreo. Las mayores concentraciones de Coliformes se encontraron en el palafito Trojas de Cataca, en la época seca mayor de cada año (7.800-9.000 NMP/ 100 mL) y los menores niveles en la estación Buenavista (2-1.100 NMP/100mL). El patrón de comportamiento de las densidades de Coliformes en las poblaciones costeras fue similar en el tiempo y no se observó ninguna relación directa entre las variables fisicoquímicas y el grupo Coliformes. Dado lo observado, se considera importante vigilar la calidad del agua en el estuario, teniendo en cuenta que constituye una fuente potencial de riesgo para el desarrollo de las actividades económicas de la zona y para la salud de los pobladores. Abstract in english The coastal lagoon system most important and biggest of Colombia and the largest in the Caribbean is the Cienaga Grande of Santa Marta. In their territory, seven populations lacking of an appropriate sanitation system, that pour their waste directly without any treatment to the cienaga. Keeping in m [...] ind the importance of this body of water and in order to know their sanitary quality the concentrations of thermotolerant coliforms were determined in two coastal (Tasajera and Isla del Rosario) and three palafitics populations (Buenavista, Nueva Venecia and Trojas de Cataca) during the period 2004-2007. Additionally, pH, temperature, salinity and oxygen measurements were carried out in each station. The highest coliforms concentrations were found in Trojas de Cataca, in the dry season more each year (7,800-9,000 MPN/100ml) and the lowest level in Buenavista station (2-1,100 MPN/100mL). The behavior pattern of Coliform densities in coastal populations was similar in the time and there was no direct relationship between physicochemical variables and Coliform group. It is important take care and watch over the estuary quality, taking into account that constitutes a potential risk source for economic activities development of the area and for the residents health.

SILVIA, NARVÁEZ; MARTHA, GÓMEZ; JORGE, ACOSTA.

290

COLIFORMES TERMOTOLERANTES EN AGUAS DE LAS POBLACIONES COSTERAS Y PALAFÍTICAS DE LA CIÉNAGA GRANDE DE SANTA MARTA, COLOMBIA Fecals Coliforms in Waters of Coastal and Palafiticos Populations of Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta es el sistema lagunar costero más grande e importante de Colombia y el más extenso del Caribe. En su territorio se alojan siete poblaciones carentes de un sistema de saneamiento básico adecuado, que vierten sus desechos sin ningún tipo de tratamiento directamente a la ciénaga. Teniendo en cuenta la importancia ambiental de este cuerpo de agua y con el objeto de conocer su calidad sanitaria se determinaron las concentraciones de Coliformes termotolerantes en aguas adyacentes de dos poblaciones costeras (Tasajera e isla del Rosario y tres palafiticas (Buenavista, Nueva Venecia y Trojas de Cataca durante el periodo 2004-2007. Adicionalmente, se realizaron mediciones de pH, temperatura, salinidad y oxígeno disuelto en cada sitio de muestreo. Las mayores concentraciones de Coliformes se encontraron en el palafito Trojas de Cataca, en la época seca mayor de cada año (7.800-9.000 NMP/ 100 mL y los menores niveles en la estación Buenavista (2-1.100 NMP/100mL. El patrón de comportamiento de las densidades de Coliformes en las poblaciones costeras fue similar en el tiempo y no se observó ninguna relación directa entre las variables fisicoquímicas y el grupo Coliformes. Dado lo observado, se considera importante vigilar la calidad del agua en el estuario, teniendo en cuenta que constituye una fuente potencial de riesgo para el desarrollo de las actividades económicas de la zona y para la salud de los pobladores.The coastal lagoon system most important and biggest of Colombia and the largest in the Caribbean is the Cienaga Grande of Santa Marta. In their territory, seven populations lacking of an appropriate sanitation system, that pour their waste directly without any treatment to the cienaga. Keeping in mind the importance of this body of water and in order to know their sanitary quality the concentrations of thermotolerant coliforms were determined in two coastal (Tasajera and Isla del Rosario and three palafitics populations (Buenavista, Nueva Venecia and Trojas de Cataca during the period 2004-2007. Additionally, pH, temperature, salinity and oxygen measurements were carried out in each station. The highest coliforms concentrations were found in Trojas de Cataca, in the dry season more each year (7,800-9,000 MPN/100ml and the lowest level in Buenavista station (2-1,100 MPN/100mL. The behavior pattern of Coliform densities in coastal populations was similar in the time and there was no direct relationship between physicochemical variables and Coliform group. It is important take care and watch over the estuary quality, taking into account that constitutes a potential risk source for economic activities development of the area and for the residents health.

SILVIA NARVÁEZ

291

[Correlations between dietetic fiber and serum levels of total cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol].  

Science.gov (United States)

We have studied 10 male subjects, in good health to look for a probable correlation between dietetic fibre and serum concentration of total cholesterol, cholesterol-HDL and triglycerides. The dosages have been made before and immediately after that the subjects had assumed, with a diet, during 13 weeks, 10 g for day of dietetic fibre. The results show a significative statistical decrease and increase. Show a significative statistical decrease (p less than 0,025) of total cholesterol and that in agreement with the literature, and an increase (p less than 0,0125) of cholesterol-HDL. Consequently it's possible to affirm that the dietetic fibre has an antiatherogenic capacity. PMID:6303369

Battista, P; Di Primio, R; Di Luzio, A; Nubile, G; Di Tano, G

1983-01-31

292

Microplate fecal coliform method to monitor stream water pollution.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A study has been carried out on the Moselle River by means of a microtechnique based on the most-probable-number method for fecal coliform enumeration. This microtechnique, in which each serial dilution of a sample is inoculated into all 96 wells of a microplate, was compared with the standard membrane filter method. It showed a marked overestimation of about 14% due, probably, to the lack of absolute specificity of the method. The high precision of the microtechnique (13%, in terms of the co...

Maul, A.; Block, J. C.

1983-01-01

293

Coliforms Everywhere! Using Microbiology to Teach the Scientific Method  

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Full Text Available The scientific method is a fundamental concept in science. In this exercise the scientific method is taught as a hands-on investigative laboratory experience. Students generate a hypothesis concerning the environmental distribution of coliforms, design and execute an experimental test of that hypothesis, and analyze the resulting data. The exercise is safe and straightforward. It is appropriate for use in undergraduate laboratory courses for science majors and secondary school students and undergraduate non-majors with the appropriate mathematical backgrounds. Students learn both the process by which science progresses, as well as more advanced concepts in microbiology and statistics.

Cindy R. Cisar

2010-12-01

294

Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism and total serum cholesterol level in Iranian population  

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Background: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is known as a major regulator of blood lipid levels in humans. A number of APOE gene allelic variants have been reported including E2, E3 and E4. Recent studies suggested a role for APOE in obesity and increased Body Mass Index (BMI) and plasma lipid levels in obese children. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the association between APOE genetic variants and the BMI and lipid profile in an Iranian cohort. Se...

2010-01-01

295

Total matrix metalloproteinase-8 serum levels in patients labouring preterm and patients with threatened preterm delivery.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Preterm labour and prematurity are still a main cause of perinatal morbidity nowadays. The aim of our study was to assess the role of MMP-8 as a predictive marker of preterm delivery. Four groups of patients were involved to the study: I - pregnant women at 24-34 weeks of gestation with any symptoms of threatened preterm labour; II - threatened preterm labour patients between 24-34 weeks of gestation; III - preterm vaginal delivery patients; IV - healthy term vaginal delivery patients. Serum concentration of total MMP-8 was measured using two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. There were no significant differences in the median concentrations of total MMP-8 between physiological pregnancy and threatened preterm labour patients with existing uterine contractility. No significant differences of total MMP-8 were either found between healthy term and preterm labouring patients. The studies on a larger population are needed to reject the hypothesis that preterm labour is connected with increased MMP-8 plasma concentrations of women in preterm labour and threatened preterm delivery.

Piotr Lauda?ski

2010-11-01

296

Distribution of sewage pollution around a maritime Antarctic research station indicated by faecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens and faecal sterol markers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study describes the distribution of sewage pollution markers (faecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens and faecal sterols) in seawater and marine sediments around Rothera Research Station, Antarctic Peninsula. Untreated sewage waste has been released from this site since 1975, creating the potential for long-term contamination of the benthic environment. Faecal coliform concentrations in seawater reached background levels within 300 m of the outfall. In sediment cores, both C. perfringens and faecal coliform concentrations declined with distance from the outfall, though C. perfringens persisted at greater depths in the sediment. High concentrations of 5{beta}(H)-cholestan-3{beta}-ol (coprostanol) relative to the corresponding 5{alpha}-epimer (cholestanol), indicative of sewage pollution, were only found in sediments within 200 m of the sewage outfall. This study has shown that sewage contamination is limited to the immediate vicinity of the sewage outfall. Nevertheless, a sewage treatment plant was installed in February 2003 to reduce this contamination further. - Sewage contamination of seawater and marine sediments near Rothera Research Station (Antarctic Peninsula) was limited to the immediate vicinity of the outfall.

Hughes, Kevin A.; Thompson, Anu

2004-02-01

297

Immunological methods for quantifying free and total serum IgE levels in allergy patients receiving omalizumab (Xolair) therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Omalizumab (humanized-IgG1 anti-human IgE Fc, Xolair) complexes circulating IgE, blocking IgE binding to high affinity epsilon Fc receptors (FcepsilonR1) on mast cells and basophils. Free (non-Omalizumab bound) IgE levels in serum are a measure of effective Omalizumab dosing. The goal of this study was to quantify free (non-Omalizumab-complexed) and total serum IgE levels in asthma patients on Xolair. The concentration of (non-Omalizumab bound) free IgE in human serum was measured using a solid phase immunoenzymetric assay (IEMA) in which IgE was captured from serum with monoclonal anti-human IgE (clone HP6061) and detected with labeled-FcepsilonR1alpha. In a companion total human serum IEMA, IgE was captured from serum with the same anti-human IgE (clone HP6061) and all bound IgE was detected with labeled monoclonal anti-human IgE Fc (clone HP6029). Free and total IgE levels were quantified in pre- and 1 and 3 months post Omalizumab therapy sera from 12 allergic asthma patients. In the absence of Omalizumab, working ranges of the free and total IgE IEMAs were comparable (10-1000 kIU/l), with excellent precision, reproducibility and parallelism. Pre-Omalizumab total and free IgE levels by IEMA were highly correlated (r2=0.99, Y=0.9X+0.32, p90%) occurred at [Omalizumab:IgE] molar ratios of 2-20. Total IgE levels in 12 asthmatics increased from pre-therapy levels (52-658 kIU/l) by 1.5-5.5-fold at 1 month and 1.7-8.6 fold at 3 months of uninterrupted Omalizumab treatment. Free IgE levels fell by 49%-97% at 1 month and 45%-98% by 3 months of Omalizumab treatment. Free and total IgE levels by IEMA aid in monitoring patients receiving Omalizumab therapy. PMID:16045925

Hamilton, Robert G; Marcotte, Gregory V; Saini, Sarbjit S

2005-08-01

298

The Association Among Lipoprotein-associated Phospholipase A2 Levels, Total Antioxidant Capacity and Arousal in Male Patients with OSA  

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Full Text Available Background: The mechanisms of the increased cardiac and vascular events in patients with OSA are not well understood. Arousal which is an important component of OSA was associated with increased sympathetic activation and electrocardiographic changes which prone to arrhythmias. We planned to examine the association among arousal, circulating Lp-PLA2 and total antioxidant capacity in male patients with OSA.Methods: Fifty male patients with newly diagnosed OSA were enrolled the study. A full-night polysomnography was performed and arousal index was obtained. Lp-PLA2 concentrations were measured in serum samples with the PLAC Test. Total antioxidant capacity in patients was determined with Antioxidant Assay Kit.Results: Arousal was positively correlated with LP-PLA2 levels (r=0.43, p=0.002 and was negatively correlated with total antioxidant capacity (r= -0.29, p=0.04. Elevated LP-PLA2 levels and decreased total antioxidant activities were found in the highest arousal quartile compared with the lowest and 2nd quartiles (p=0.02, p=0.05, respectively. LP-PLA2 was an independently predictor of arousal index in regression model (?=0.357, p=0.002Conclusions: This study demonstrated a moderate linear relationship between arousal and LP-PLA2 levels. Also, total antioxidant capacities were decreased in the higher arousal index. Based on the study result, the patients with higher arousal index may be prone to vascular events.

Taha T. Bekci, Mehmet Kayrak, Aysel Kiyici, Emin Maden, Hatem Ari, Zeynettin Kaya, Turgut Teke, Hakan Akilli

2011-01-01

299

Total and methyl mercury levels in wild mammals from the PreCambrian Shield area of south central Ontario, Canada  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

It has been established that elevated mercury levels in fish occur in areas remote from recognized point sources of mercury contamination. It may be expected, therefore, that mercury levels may also be accumulated through natural processes in wild mammals inhabiting those areas. A process for demethylating organic mercury to less toxic inorganic mercury has been suggested in some marine mammals exposed to high mercury levls. It is possible that similar demethylating process exists in terrestial mammals which are exposed to elevated levels of mercury in their diet. Natural mercury levels in fish have been reported in the PreCambrian Shield of the Muskoka District. The present paper compares total and methyl mercury levels occurring in various organs of wilder beaver, raccoon and otter representing herbivorous, omnivorous and carnivorous life styles, collected from the same general area where substantial mercury levels are known to occur in fish.

Wren, C. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario); MacCrimmon, H.; Frank, R.; Suda, P.

1980-07-01

300

Estimation and comparative study of serum total sialic acid levels as tumor markers in oral cancer and precancer  

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Full Text Available Background: Tumor markers are a major part of the secondary prevention and thus the detection of malignancies. Neoplasms often have an increased concentration of sialic acid on the tumor cell surface and are shed or secreted by some of these cells which increase the concentration in blood. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 90 subjects equally divided into three groups viz, healthy individuals, oral cancer and precancer. The estimation of serum total sialic acid level was done according to Plucinsky et al by resorcinol reagent method. The statistical analysis was carried out by using SPSS 10.0 software. Results: The mean serum total sialic acid (TSA level in oral precancer and oral cancer group was statistically significant (P<0.05. In oral cancer group when stage I and stage II were compared with stage III and stage IV, it was statistically significant (P<0.05. Histopathologically, oral cancer and precancer did not show statistically significant values (P>0.05. The present study also suggested that no correlation exists between habit of tobacco chewing / betel nut chewing / smoking or alcohol consumption with that of serum total sialic acid levels. Conclusion: Serum total sialic acid levels can be used as an adjunctive diagnostic marker in head and neck cancer.

Joshi Manjiri

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Manageable risk factors associated with bacterial and coliform counts in unpasteurized bulk milk in Flemish dairy herds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Associations between herd management practices and both bacterial counts (BC) and coliform counts (CC) from 254 and 242 dairy herds in Flanders (Belgium), respectively, were studied. Data were analyzed using multivariable, multilevel linear regression analysis, allowing variance components analyses. Both BC and CC fluctuated throughout the year, although the milk quality parameters followed an opposite pattern. Bacterial count values decreased with each increase of the cleaning frequency of the cubicles (once per week, once per day, twice per day, or more than twice per day) between January and March. Herds with a conventional milking parlor had substantially lower BC than herds where the cows were milked using an automatic milking system. Lower BC were observed when the milking parlor was equipped with an automatic cluster removal system, when premilking teat disinfection was applied, when the dry cows were supplemented with a mix of minerals and vitamins, and when the teats were prepared either first wet and dried or via an automatic milking system. Milking cows with a high-pipeline milking parlor setup or with an automatic milking system was associated with substantially higher CC values. Herds where prepartum heifers were often treated with antimicrobials before calving had a lower CC than farms where heifers were either not or only rarely treated. Most variation in BC and CC resided at the herd level rather than at the observation level, indicating that management is important in the control of both BC and CC. Still, only a small proportion of the total variance was explained by factors capturing information related to the milking, herd health, and dry cow management, which suggests that the bacteriological milk quality and, in particular, CC is primarily driven by other factors than the ones included in this study. PMID:24704236

Piepers, S; Zrimšek, P; Passchyn, P; De Vliegher, S

2014-06-01

302

Investigation of Coliform Removal from Drinking Water by Electrolysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The practice of eliminating pathogenic microorganisms in water dates back to ancient times. The most common methods for water disinfection are using chemicals, Ozonation, Ultra Violet ray, Membrane Processes and etc. There has been considerable interest in disinfection of water by using electrochemical methods in recent years. The main purpose of this study is to conduct experimental investigation of water disinfection by using the electrolysis method. Inactivation and killing Coliform in polluted waters was investigated by different voltage, electrodes (Al, St and Cu and distance between electrodes.Materials & Methods: The polluted water was prepared by adding a colony of coliform growth on EMB in raw water. Experiments were done similarly via the same electrolyzes time, electrodes distance and voltage intensity for all types of combinations of electrodes respectively. Results: The experimental results show that the removal efficiency depends on the voltage and electrodes material. From the experiments carried out at 10 V. and at current intensity of 135 mA, it was found that five-minute period was sufficient for disinfecting water using Stainless Steel electrodes.Conclusion: Due to the results, the electrochemical methods can be proposed as a promising cleaning and purifying method for water disinfection.

A. Rahmani

2008-07-01

303

Total serum magnesium level in icteric neonates before and after phototherapy  

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"nBackground: Deposition of bilirubin in neurons causes permanent neuronal injury. Bilirubin exhibits an affinity for the phospholipids of plasma membrane like N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Magnesium is an NMDA antagonist and it acts against the neurotoxic effects of bilirubin. We compared pre- and post-phototherapy serum magnesium level of neonates with hyperbilirubinemia to find the best time of discharge and evaluate new management techniques such as magnesium supplementation...

Khosravi N; Aminian A; Taghipour R

2011-01-01

304

Total error in a plug-in estimator of level sets  

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Given a probability density f on R^d, the minimum volume set of probability content á can be estimated by the level set of the same probability content corresponding to a kernel estimator of f. We obtain convergence rates for this plug-in estimator with respect to a measure-based distance between sets. This distance has a straightforward interpretation in the context of cluster analysis.

Bai?llo, Amparo

2003-01-01

305

La sensibilidad del grupo coliforme como indicador de la presencia de enterobacterias patógenas en cuatro cuerpos acuáticos de México / The coliform group sensitivity as indicator of the enteropathogenic bacteria presence in four water bodies from Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La contaminación microbiológica en los cuerpos acuáticos se caracteriza a través de la detección de organismos indicadores como las bacterias coliformes totales (CT) y fecales (CF). El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la sensibilidad de estos indicadores para predecir la presencia de enteroba [...] cterias patógenas en cuatro cuerpos acuáticos mexicanos. Dos con mayor influencia humana: lago de Pátzcuaro, Mich. y ecosistema lacustre de Xochimilco, D. F y dos con menor: la laguna de Metztitlán, Hgo. y el lago Zirahuén, Mich. Se cuantificaron coliformes totales y coliformes fecales en agua y sedimento por la técnica del Número Más Probable y se aislaron bacterias entéricas del agua mediante el uso de medios de cultivo selectivos. Se evaluaron: el índice de sensibilidad, el riesgo atribuible y la presenciaausencia de indicadores y patógenos. Pátzcuaro y Xochimilco mostraron alta contaminación bacteriana. El sedimento presentó mayor concentración de CT y CF que el agua. Los CF mostraron ser indicadores más confiables para predecir la presencia de Salmonella y Shigella, con una sensibilidad para cada género de 60 y 75% y un riesgo atribuible del 58 y 67%. Los CF mostraron una relación presencia-ausencia con un porcentaje de casos verdaderos del 82 a 88%. En contraste, los CT mostraron un riesgo atribuible bajo (inferior a 27%) y un alto porcentaje de falsos positivos (65%), lo que impidió considerarlo como un buen indicador. Es conveniente evaluar la presencia de indicadores y patógenos simultáneamente para determinar el riesgo sanitario al caracterizar la calidad microbiológica en ecosistemas acuáticos. Abstract in english Microbiological pollution in water bodies is characterized through the detection of indicator organisms like total coliform (TC) and fecal coliform (FC) bacteria. The objective of the present paper was to determine the sensibility of these indicators of the presence of pathogenic enterobacteria in f [...] our Mexican aquatic systems. Two with major anthropogenic influence: Patzcuaro Lake and Xochimilco Lake ecosystem; and two with less: Metztitlan Lagoon and Zirahuen Lake. TC and FC were quantified with the Most Probable Number technique in water and sediment and enteric bacteria were isolated in water using selective culture media. The sensibility index, the risk attributable, and the presenceabsence of indicators and pathogens were evaluated. Patzcuaro and Xochimilco showed high bacterial pollution. The sediment presented higher concentrations of total and fecal coliforms than water. FC were the most reliable indicators to predict the presence of Salmonella and Shigella, with a sensitivity of 60 and 75%, an attributable risk of 58 and 67% for each genus. FC showed a presence-absence relationship with a percentage of true cases of 82 to 88%. In contrast, TC showed a low attributable risk, inferior to 27% and a high percentage of false positives (65%), which impede to consider it a good indicator. It is convenient to evaluate the presence of indicators and pathogens simultaneously to determine the sanitary risk when characterizing microbial water quality in aquatic ecosystems.

Guadalupe, Barrera-Escorcia; Carlos Leopoldo, Fernández-Rendón; Irma, Wong-Chang; Patricia, Ramírez Romero.

306

Energy in the Greek economy: a total energy approach at the macro level  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Energy is a source of aggregate supply shocks and balance of payments disturbances. To analyse the role of energy at the macro level of the Greek economy, it is embedded in an aggregate production function with vintage capital-energy interactions. An aggregate energy demand function emerges. Energy demand is then split among alternative forms by quantity share equations, and an aggregate energy price is estimated. Energy price simulation results (using the entire macro model that energy forms part of) are also reported. (author).

Papatheodorou, Y.E. (Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon (CA). Dept. of Economics)

1990-10-01

307

Total and Parity-Projected Level Densities of Iron-Region Nuclei in the Auxiliary Fields Monte Carlo Shell Model  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We use the auxiliary fields Monte Carlo method for the shell model in the complete (pf+0g9/2 ) shell to calculate level densities. We introduce parity projection techniques which enable us to calculate the parity dependence of the level density. Results are presented for 56Fe, where the calculated total level density is found to be in good agreement with the experimental level density. The parity-projected densities are well described by a backshifted Bethe formula, but with significant dependence of the single-particle level-density and backshift parameters on parity. We compare our exact results with those of the thermal Hartree-Fock approximation. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

1997-10-01

308

Comparative study of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) methods for high-level mixed waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hanford tank waste is a complex, nonhomogeneous sludge, slurry, or salt-cake mixture requiring robust methods for analytical characterization. While numerous total organic carbon (TOC) methods are described in the literature, no single TOC method has been found to be ideal for this caustic, high-salt, sometime high-fluoride matrix. Three TOC methods have been in use at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and one complementary method is in place at Westinghouse Hanford Company. All have been found to have strengths and weaknesses when applied to the Hanford tank waste problem. These TOC methods include silver-catalyzed hot persulfate wet oxidation in batch-mode with coulometry detection, two methods for high-temperature furnace oxidation with coulometry detection, and UV-catalyzed persulfate oxidation with nondispersive infrared detection. To provide comparative data on these four methods, a recovery study of carbon compounds, which are relevant to Hanford tank waste, has been performed. One major conclusion is that it is most useful to have multiple methods available for the analysis of this waste material. The comparative study is discussed, operational experience in TOC analysis from these laboratories is described, and strengths and weaknesses in the methods are summarized

1994-08-14

309

Comparative study of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) methods for high-level mixed waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Hanford tank waste is a complex, nonhomogeneous sludge, slurry, or salt-cake mixture requiring robust methods for analytical characterization. While numerous total organic carbon (TOC) methods are described in the literature, no single TOC method has been found to be ideal for this caustic, high-salt, sometime high-fluoride matrix. Three TOC methods have been in use at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and one complementary method is in place at Westinghouse Hanford Company. All have been found to have strengths and weaknesses when applied to the Hanford tank waste problem. These TOC methods include silver-catalyzed hot persulfate wet oxidation in batch-mode with coulometry detection, two methods for high-temperature furnace oxidation with coulometry detection, and UV-catalyzed persulfate oxidation with nondispersive infrared detection. To provide comparative data on these four methods, a recovery study of carbon compounds, which are relevant to Hanford tank waste, has been performed. One major conclusion is that it is most useful to have multiple methods available for the analysis of this waste material. The comparative study is discussed, operational experience in TOC analysis from these laboratories is described, and strengths and weaknesses in the methods are summarized.

Baldwin, D.L.; Stromatt, R.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Winters, W.I. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-08-01

310

Survey of drug and phage resistance and colicin and hemolysin production among coliforms isolated in the Ivory Coast.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Analysis of 178 strains isolated as total and fecal coliforms in the Ivory Coast revealed that (i) hemolytic activity was scarce (0.6%) among this bacterial population; (ii) the most prevalent colicins detected were, in decreasing order, E, I, A, and G; (iii) the frequency of coliphage and drug resistance was similar to that observed in other countries, except for those of drug-resistant strains in animal feces, which were lower than in countries where animals are antibiotic fed; and (iv) one...

Trudel, L.; Arriaga-alba, M.; Lavoie, M. C.

1984-01-01

311

Evaluation of Colilert-18 for Detection of Coliforms and Eschericha coli in Subtropical Freshwater  

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The accuracy of Colilert-18 as a test for coliforms and Escherichia coli in subtropical freshwater was evaluated by using API 20E strips and fatty acid methyl ester analysis. The false-positive and -negative rates of detection were 7.4 and 3.5%, respectively, for E. coli and 9.6 and 6.3%, respectively, for coliforms.

Chao, Kuo-kuang; Chao, Chen-ching; Chao, Wei-liang

2004-01-01

312

Anaerobic incubation of membrane filter cultures for improved detection of fecal coliforms from recreational waters.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Anaerobic incubation of membrane filter cultures significantly enhanced detection of fecal coliforms in surface-water samples from recreational beaches. In contrast to standard aerobic incubation, anaerobic incubation suppressed overgrowth of masking, noncoliform bacteria but did not increase the frequency of fecal coliform recovery.

Doyle, J. D.; Tunnicliff, B.; Brickler, S. K.; Kramer, R. E.; Sinclair, N. A.

1984-01-01

313

Evaluation of Colilert-18 for detection of coliforms and Eschericha coli in subtropical freshwater.  

Science.gov (United States)

The accuracy of Colilert-18 as a test for coliforms and Escherichia coli in subtropical freshwater was evaluated by using API 20E strips and fatty acid methyl ester analysis. The false-positive and -negative rates of detection were 7.4 and 3.5%, respectively, for E. coli and 9.6 and 6.3%, respectively, for coliforms. PMID:14766614

Chao, Kuo-Kuang; Chao, Chen-Ching; Chao, Wei-Liang

2004-02-01

314

False-positive coliform reaction mediated by Aeromonas in the Colilert defined substrate technology system.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Colilert defined substrate technology system allows specific, one-step detection of both coliforms and Escherichia coli while claiming to suppress the influence of non-coliform heterotrophs. The Colilert assay was examined in order to determine whether organisms from the genus Aeromonas could interfere and cause production of a false-positive coliform result as aquatic Aeromonas are known to constitute a fraction of the heterotrophic population found in drinking water. Results obtained clearly demonstrate that Aeromonas sp. can elicit a positive coliform type reaction at very low densities. Cell suspensions as low as 1 x 10(1) cells 10 ml-1 were observed to yield a positive reaction using Colilert reagent 4 weeks short of shelf-life expiry. Use of aged Colilert for monitoring water quality could lead to overestimation of coliforms as Aeromonas have been identified in many treated drinking water supplies. PMID:9674164

Landre, J P; Gavriel, A A; Lamb, A J

1998-05-01

315

Assessment of serum selenium levels in 2-month-old sucking calves using Total Reflection Technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The assessment of selenium status of livestock is an important aspect of production medicine as evidence for the influence of low Se levels on disease resistance in ruminants is reviewed with emphasis on susceptibility to various pathologies (such as infections, exudative diathesis, pneumonia, pancreatic degeneration). Additional evidence suggests that Se deficiency may cause muscular dystrophy in calves, while, severe deficiency has been associated with cardiomyopathy and even death. Serum Se content is a good indicator of the short term Se status and reflects the recent dietary intake of the element. Since Serum Se content is a good indicator of the short term status of the element and reflects the its recent dietary intake, the present work is aimed to determine Se concentration in serum from a group of 2 month old sucking calves suspected to be severely deficient. We used the TX 2000 X-ray spectrometer manufactured by Ital Structures. The energy resolution (FWHM) of the Si(Li) detector was 137 eV for Mn K?. Among nuclear techniques the TXRF method is the best suitable for trace element analysis in liquid or dissolved samples and can deal much easier with elemental investigation. Physical basis of used analytical method, experimental set up and the sample preparation procedure are described. The concentration data obtained are presented and discussed

1999-11-22

316

Evaluation of tea cups washing water contamination to fecal coliform at traditional tea shops in Sari, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and purpose: Most traditional tea shop owners use a bowl to wash tea cups in Sari city (North of Iran. There are more than 140 traditional tea shops in the city. Unfortunately most people drinking at these shops as well as health authorities do not pay attention to the health criteria of the shop. The objective of this study was to examin the tea cups washing water of traditional tea shops for contamination to fecal coliform in Sari city.Materials and Methods: Twenty traditional tea shops (16% were randomly selected for this study in different areas of the city. Multistage (3 stages samples were taken from tea set of the shops. All samples were collected from the tea sets of the shops without prior notice. The samples were transferred to the laboratory in cold box as quickly as possible.Results: Forty four samples from a total of 60 (66.6% were positive for total coliforms. Also 32 samples (33.3% were positive for fecal coliforms. Number of bacteria in the samples varied from zero to over 1100 per 100 cc sample. The study showed that in warmer situations the contamination was higher. The results showed that the differences between contamination rates in both groups of internal and external traditional tea shops were insignificant.Conclusion: The results showed that only two samples in multistage sampling were not contaminated and in all other samples at least in one stage of sampling, contamination was detected. The results of this study is an important message for food administration.

Z. Yousefi

2006-01-01

317

Regional sea level variability, total relative sea level rise and its impacts on islands and coastal zones of Indian Ocean over sixty years  

Science.gov (United States)

Using an EOF based two dimensional past sea level reconstruction and tide gauge records we investigate the climate-related sea level changes (uniform global mean rise plus regional variability) in the Indian Ocean since 1950. We find that over 60 years, the climate related sea level rate is in the order of 1.5 mm/yr over the entire Indian Ocean with rates varying between 0.9 mm/yr to 1.9 mm/yr at various specified locations. We also observe that at a regional scale, the sea level rates highly differ during the recent decades. For example, during the two recent decades, the western coasts of Australia, some parts of South East Asia and few island regions in central Indian Ocean exhibit sea level rates in the order of 6-7mm/yr that are linked to the ocean circulation variability and air sea interactions, whereas the rest of the Indian Ocean does not exhibit such higher sea level rates for the same time period. There is also a strong influence of the Indian Ocean Dipole events on the interannual sea level variability of the Indian Ocean. By estimating the local vertical land motion with the help of GPS data wherever available, we also calculate the total relative sea level rate (climate-related sea level change plus vertical land motion) at several locations and thereby the direct impacts of sea level change on the coastal and island zones of the Indian Ocean. A by-product of this study is also the availability of long term (60 years) of sea level data obtained from the 2-D past sea level reconstruction that successfully replaces short-term, erroneous tide gauge data when interpolated at the tide gauge locations or acts as a substitute for tide gauges that are sparsely available

Palanisamy, H. K.; Cazenave, A. A.; Meyssignac, B.; Woppelmann, G.

2012-12-01

318

Regional sea level variability, total relative sea level rise and its impacts on islands and coastal zones of Indian Ocean over the last sixty years  

Science.gov (United States)

Indian Ocean is the home to many tropical low lying islands and highly populated coastal zones. Since a few recent decades, many of these zones have been gaining a lot of international attention due to fears of sea level rise and possible submersions of islands. In this study we estimate sea level rise and regional sea level variability in Indian Ocean (20°E-140°E, 30°N-35°S) over a period of 60 years from 1950 until 2009. We determine the climatic factors that influence the sea level change and variability in this region. We find that the changes in the Indian Ocean sea level are of steric origin and are also driven by short-term Indian Ocean Dipole events. The trend in this region over 60 years amounts to 1.5 mm/yr, a value lesser (although not statistically different) than the global mean sea level rise over the same period. There is also an east-west increase in sea level trend pattern below 15°S latitude which is more amplified since the two recent decades. Climate-related sea level changes are also studied at different sites in the Indian ocean corresponding to the existence of tide gauge records and has been found that over the long term period (60 years), the sea level trend at most of the individual locations are well within the global mean sea level rise. Total relative sea level change which is the sum of climate-related sea level change and vertical land motion is also estimated at 5 locations with the help of GPS and DORIS measures.

Palanisamy, H.; Cazenave, A.; Meyssignac, B.; Soudarin, L.; Wöppelmann, G.; Becker, M.

2014-05-01

319

Spirulina platensis effects on the levels of total cholesterol, HDL and triacylglycerols in rabbits fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet  

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In this work, hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits by feeding them a high cholesterol diet (CD, 350 mg/d) and the effects of supplementing this diet with 0.5 g/d Spirulina platensis was evaluated by measuring the levels of serum total-cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TAG) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol) at the start of the experiment and after 30 d and 60 d. It was found that the levels of serum cholesterol decreased from 1,054±101 mg.dL-1 in the rabbits fed a CD wit...

Luciane Maria Colla; Ana Luiza Muccillo-Baisch; Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa

2008-01-01

320

Diets formulated on total or digestible amino acid basis with different energy levels and physical form on broiler performance  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We studied the effects of two different systems of expressing amino acid requirements (total - TAA or digestible - DAA), two energy levels (2,900 or 3,200 kcal of ME/kg) and two physical forms (mash or pellet) on the performance of male broilers from 21 to 42 d of age. Diets formulated on DAA basis [...] improved feed conversion (p

A, Maiorka; F, Dahlke; AM, Penz; AM, Kessler.

 
 
 
 
321

Fluctuations in total antioxidant capacity, catalase activity, and hydrogen peroxide levels of follicular fluid during bovine folliculogenesis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Follicular fluid is an important environment for oocyte development, yet current knowledge regarding its in vivo oxidant and antioxidant levels remains limited. Examining follicular fluid oxidants and antioxidants will improve understanding of their changes in vivo and contribute to optimization of in vitro maturation conditions. The aim of our study was to consider select markers, namely catalase (CAT) enzyme activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in follicu...

Gupta, Sajal; Choi, Audrey; Yu, Hope Y.; Czerniak, Suzanne M.; Holick, Emily A.; Paolella, Louis J.; Agarwal, Ashok; Combelles, Catherine M. H.

2011-01-01

322

Remoción mediante vermicomposteo de los coliformes fecales presentes en lodos biológicos / Vermicomposting of biological sludge for coliforms reduction  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En este trabajo se buscó establecer el efecto de la densidad inicial de lombrices en la remoción de patógenos, mediante vermicomposteo de lodo, usando como indicador el número más probable de coliformes fecales (NMPCF). El lodo utilizado se generó en una planta de aireación extendida, se trabajó con [...] 4 densidades: alta con 0,2 kg lombrices/kg lodo, media con 0,1 kg lombrices/ kg lodo, baja con 0,05 kg lombrices/kg lodo y un blanco sin la adición de lombrices al lodo. Al segundo día de experimentación con la densidad media se logró una mayor remoción, estadísticamente significativa, del NMPCF que la obtenida con la densidad alta. El mismo día, todas las densidades lograron la clasificación de lodo clase B según United States Enviroment Protection Agency. Entre el día 13 y el 20 las muestras con densidades alta, baja y media lograron la clasificación clase A, no así el blanco. Al día 20 tanto la densidad media como la alta lograron el 100% de remoción de los coliformes fecales. Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of stoking density on the pathogens reduction, through the sludge vermicomposting, using the most probable number of fecal coliforms as indicator. The sludge used was generated at an extended aeration system; the stoking density was investig [...] ated at 0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 kg-worms/kg-sludge plus a control without worms. At the second day of experimentation the 0.1 kg/kg density achieved a significantly higher removal than the 0.2 kg/kg density. In the same day, all the stoking densities achieved the United States Environment Agency class B sludge standards. Between the 13 and 20 day all the stoking densities, with the exception of the control, achieved the USEPA class A standards. On day 20 the removal in the two biggest stoking densities was 100%.

Carmen Verónica, Droppelmann; Carolina Pía, Gaete; Paulina, Miranda.

323

Total Level of Serum Homocysteine in Males and Females with Coronary Heart Disease of Different Age Groups  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Elevated plasma total homocysteine concentration is a risk factor of cardiovascular disease. Total homocysteine level is a strong predictor of mortality in-patient with an angiographically confirmed Coronary Heart Disease (CHD, so we want to know at what age in males and females elevated homocysteine will be significantly elevated and this will help for better management and prognosis by decreasing the level of homocysteine. Approach: Plasma level of homocysteine was determined in male and female patients below and above 50 years old, who have coronary heart disease with diabetes or without diabetes. Fifty two coronary heart diseases with type 2 diabetic patients and a matched number of healthy subjects as a control and another 52 coronary heart disease patients without diabetes were included in this study. Plasma homocysteine was determined by Enzymatic Immuno Sorbant Assay (ELISA. Results: Plasma homocysteine level in coronary heart disease diabetic male and female patients who are -1, respectively, while it is 28.12±9.5 and 29.44±4.3 umol L-1 in male and female patients >50 years old, respectively. Plasma homocysteine level in coronary heart disease nondiabetic male and female patients who are -1, respectively, while it is 26.9±1.1 and 27.56±6.8 umol L-1 in male and female patients >50 years old, respectively. Conclusion: It is concluded that plasma level of homocysteine is significantly elevated in diabetic coronary heart disease female patients above 50 years old and significantly elevated in nondiabetic coronary heart disease males and female patients, thus nondiabetic coronary heart disease male and female patients and diabetic coronary female patients are at high risk of vascular diseases. It is recommended that these patients may take supplementation of folate and vitamin B12 to reduce the level of homocysteine.

Faisal I. Mohammad

2010-01-01

324

Detección de Salmonella y coliformes fecales en agua de uso agrícola para la producción de melón "Cantaloupe" / Detection of Salmonella and fecal coliforms in water for agricultural use destined to melon"Cantaloupe"  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El agua que se utiliza en la producción de cultivos hortofrutícolas representa una fuente potencial de microorganismos que ocasionan enfermedades de transmisión alimentaria. Con el objetivo de evaluar la calidad sanitaria de diferentes fuentes de agua empleadas en la producción de melón Cantaloupe ( [...] Cucumis melo L. [grupo reticulatus] cv. Ovación y Caminos), en Zirándaro de los Chávez, Guerrero, se analizaron 71 muestras de agua provenientes de dos unidades de campo (23) y de una unidad de empaque (48) mediante métodos bacteriológicos convencionales para la detección deSalmonella spp, y por el método de filtración en membrana y el crecimiento en medios selectivos, para la detección de coliformes fecales, como indicadores de contaminación fecal. Del total de muestras de agua analizadas sólo tres muestras de campo resultaron positivas a la presencia de Salmonella spp. y nueve muestras, siete de campo y dos de la unidad de empaque, resultaron positivas a coliformes fecales. Salmonella spp. y coliformes fecales se detectaron principalmente en muestras de agua no clorada a 29 °C y 7.5 de pH, en promedio. En pruebas de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR), dos de cuatro cepas presuntivas de Salmonella ssp. dieron amplificaciones positivas con los iniciadores Sal-3 y Sal-4, y invA-1 e invA-2; de las otras dos, sólo dieron amplificación positiva con Sal-3 y Sal-4. Aparentemente se tiene más de una raza o serovar de Salmonella en la región. Estos resultados sugieren que algunas de las fuentes de agua empleadas en la producción de melón Cantaloupe en Zirándaro de los Chávez, Guerrero, no cumplen con la normatividad sanitaria por lo que estas fuentes deben establecerse como puntos prerequisitos de control para evitar la contaminación de melones frescos con patógenos de humanos. Abstract in english Water used in the production of horticultural crops represents a potential source of microorganisms that cause food-transmitted diseases. In order to evaluate the sanitary quality of different agricultural water sources used in the production of Cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melo L. [group reticulatus] [...] cv. Ovacion and Caminos), in Zirandaro Chavez, Guerrero, 71 water samples were analyzed from two field units (23) and one packaging house unit (48) through traditional bacteriological methods, to detect Salmonella spp, and the filtering membrane method and growth selective media, to detect fecal coliforms, as fecal contamination indicators. Of the total analyzed water samples only three field samples were positive to Salmonella spp. and nine samples, seven coming from the field and two from the packaging house, were positive to fecal coliforms. Salmonella spp. and fecal coliforms were detected mainly in non-chlorinated water samples at 29 °C and pH of 7.5, on average. Two out of four presumptive Salmonella spp. isolates were confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers Sal-3 and Sal-4, and invA-1 and invA-2; the other two were only confirmed with Sal-3 y Sal-4. Apparently more than one race or serovar of Salmonella spp. are present in this region. Results suggest that some water sources used in the Cantaloupe melon production in Zirandaro Chavez, Guerrero, do not meet sanitary standards therefore these sources should be considered as critical control points to prevent fresh melon contamination with human pathogens.

Carmela, Hernández-Domínguez; Ana María, Hernández-Anguiano; Cristóbal, Cháidez-Quiroz; Gilberto, Rendón-Sánchez; Trevor, Suslow.

325

In vivo serum titanium ion levels following modular neck total hip arthroplasty--10 year results in 67 patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of the present cross-sectional study was to determine in vivo titanium ion levels following cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA) using a modular stem system with different shapes for femoral canal fit and multiple neck options. A consecutive series of 173 patients (190 hips) who underwent cementless modular neck THA and a ceramic on polyethylene bearing with a median follow-up of 9 (7-13) years was evaluated retrospectively. According to a standardized protocol, titanium ion measurements were performed on 67 patients using high-resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Ion levels were compared to a control group comprising patients with non-modular titanium implants (n=11) and to individuals without implants (n=23). Modular neck THA did not result in elevated titanium ion levels compared to non-modular THA. Compared to individuals without implants, both modular THA and non-modular THA showed elevated titanium ion levels. Absolute titanium ion levels, however, were comparatively low for both implants. The data suggest that the present modular stem system does not result in elevated systemic titanium ion levels in the medium term when compared to non-modular stems. Further longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate the use of systemic titanium ion levels as an objective diagnostic tool to identify THA failure and to monitor patients following revision surgery. PMID:23232209

Omlor, G W; Kretzer, J P; Reinders, J; Streit, M R; Bruckner, T; Gotterbarm, T; Aldinger, P R; Merle, C

2013-04-01

326

Comparative analysis of radon sources' contribution into total radon indoor levels for Altai and Tomsk regions of Russian Federation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of climatic, geological and architecture features of two regions was carried out from radon potential point of view. Altaiskii Krai and Tomsk Oblast are situated in the south of West Siberia. Therefore, the continental climate with a high dynamics of climatic and ecological parameters is typical for both regions. Architecture and building material types are alike in many aspects. However, geological features of these regions differ substantially. This may cause a difference in distributions of radon levels in buildings. Radon levels inside buildings of rural and urban types were measured using SSNTDs, charcoal canisters and radon-monitors Alpha-GUARD PQ2000 (confirmative measurements). Exposure periods were 1-3 months in different year seasons. The experimental results were statistically analyzed. The contributions of main radon sources into total level were revealed and the gradation of sources was made. The results of the comparative analysis and discussion are presented in the paper

2005-11-01

327

Mutation in APOA1 predicts increased risk of ischaemic heart disease and total mortality without low HDL cholesterol levels  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether mutations in APOA1 affect levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and to predict risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and total mortality in the general population. BACKGROUND: Epidemiologically, risk of IHD is inversely related to HDL cholesterol levels. Mutations in apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, the major protein constituent of HDL, might be associated with low HDL cholesterol and predispose to IHD and early death. DESIGN: We resequenced APOA1 in 190 individuals and examined the effect of mutations on HDL cholesterol, risk of IHD, myocardial infarction (MI) and mortality in 10 440 individuals in the prospective Copenhagen City Heart Study followed for 31 years. Results were validated in an independent case-control study (n = 16 035). Additionally, we determined plasma ratios of mutant to wildtype (WT) apoA-I in human heterozygotes and functional effects of mutations in adenovirus-transfected mice. RESULTS: We identified a new mutation, A164S (1 : 500 in the general population), which predicted hazard ratios for IHD, MI and total mortality of 3.2 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6-6.5], 5.5 (95% CI: 2.6-11.7) and 2.5 (95% CI: 1.3-4.8), respectively, in heterozygotes compared with noncarriers. Mean reduction in survival time in heterozygotes was 10 years (P < 0.0001). Results for IHD and MI were confirmed in the case-control study. Furthermore, the ratio of mutant S164 to WT A164 apoA-I in plasma of heterozygotes was reduced. In addition, A164S heterozygotes had normal plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels, including HDL cholesterol and apoA-I, and this finding was confirmed in adenovirus-transfected mice. CONCLUSIONS: A164S is the first mutation in APOA1 to be described that predicts an increased risk of IHD, MI and total mortality without low HDL cholesterol levels.

Haase, C L; Frikke-Schmidt, R

2011-01-01

328

Involvement of hepatic IL-1 in the strain-dependent sex differences in serum total cholesterol levels in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The strain and sex differences in serum total cholesterol (TC) levels were examined in F344 and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. A sex difference (malerats but not in SD rats. The strain-dependent sex difference (malestrain-dependent sex difference in hepatic HMGR gene expression was closely correlated with the levels of hepatic interleukins (ILs), especially of IL-1?, which acts as a positive regulator for the hepatic HMGR gene. Hepatic IL-1? protein expression was higher in female F344 rats than in male F344 rats and compared with male and female SD rats. Similar to hepatic IL-1? protein expression, serum TC levels were highest in female F344 rats than in the other groups of rats. Serum TC and hepatic IL-1? levels in male F344 rats were similar to those in male and female SD rats. The present findings demonstrate for the first time that strain-dependent sex difference in serum TC level between F344 and SD rats is, at least in part, related to difference in the IL-1?-mediated HMGR gene expression level in the liver. PMID:24694611

Kumagai, Yoichi; Sekimoto, Masashi; Okamoto, Minako; Kurita, Ryuzo; Kojima, Misaki; Degawa, Masakuni

2014-01-01

329

VIALS: An Eulerian tool based on total variation and the level set method for studying dynamical systems  

Science.gov (United States)

We propose a new Eulerian tool to study complicated dynamical systems based on the average growth in the surface area of a family of level surfaces represented implicitly by a level set function. Since this proposed quantity determines the temporal variation of the averaged surface area of all level surfaces, we name the quantity the Variation of the Integral over Area of Level Surfaces (VIALS). Numerically, all these infinitely many level surfaces are advected according to the given dynamics by solving one single linear advection equation. To develop a computationally efficient approach, we apply the coarea formula and rewrite the surface area integral as a simple integral relating the total variation (TV) of the level set function. The proposed method can be easily incorporated with a recent Eulerian algorithm for efficient computation of flow maps to speed up our approach. We will also prove that the proposed VIALS is closely related to the computation of the finite time Lyapunov exponent (FTLE) in the Lagrangian coherent structure (LCS) extraction. This connects our proposed Eulerian approach to widely used Lagrangian techniques for understanding complicated dynamical systems.

You, Guoqiao; Leung, Shingyu

2014-06-01

330

A transient increase in total head phosphotyrosine levels is observed upon the emergence of Aedes aegypti from the pupal stage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of protein tyrosine residues constitutes a major biochemical regulatory mechanism for the cell. We report a transient increase in the total tyrosine phosphorylation of the Aedes aegypti head during the first days after emergence from the pupal stage. This correl [...] ates with an initial reduction in total head protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity. Similarly, phosphotyrosine (pTyr)-containing bands are seen in extracts prepared from both male and female heads and are spread among a variety of structures including the antennae, proboscis and the maxillary palps combined with the proboscis. Also, mosquitoes treated with sodium orthovanadate, a classical PTP inhibitor, show reduced blood-feeding activity and higher head tyrosine phosphorylation levels. These results suggest that pTyr-mediated signalling pathways may play a role in the initial days following the emergence of the adult mosquito from the pupal stage.

Willy, Jablonka; Raquel, Senna; Thaisa, Nahu; Guilherme, Ventura; Lidiane, Menezes; Mário Alberto C, Silva-Neto.

331

Total antioxidant level is correlated with intra-ocular pressure in patients with primary angle closure glaucoma  

Science.gov (United States)

Background To evaluate total antioxidant status (TAS) in the plasma of primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) patients and to compare it to that of the control group. Additionally, we aim to investigate the association of various PACG clinical indices with TAS level. Methods Plasma samples were obtained from 139 PACG patients and 149 glaucoma-free controls of matching age, sex, and ethnicity. TAS in all samples was determined by spectrophotometric and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. We studied the possible association of the TAS level with various clinical indices relevant to PACG. Results The mean (±SD) total antioxidant (TAS) value was almost similar in patients 1 (±0.22) compared to controls 0.97 (±0.43); p?=?0.345. Among cases, mean TAS concentration showed a statistically significant lower pattern among subjects with glaucoma onset at the age of ? 50 years (p?=?0.037) and female subjects (p?=?0.014) as well as having a family history of glaucoma (p?=?0.010). Interestingly, a statistically significant inverse correlation was detected between TAS concentration and intra ocular pressure (IOP), (R?=?-0.14, p?=?0.037). Conclusions The inverse correlation of TAS level with IOP, highlights TAS potential role as a predictive-marker for PACG-severity.

2014-01-01

332

Rasch analysis of the Iowa Level of Assistance Scale in patients with total hip and knee arthroplasty.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to carry out a psychometric analysis, using both Classical Test Theory and Rasch analysis (RA) methods, of the Iowa Level of Assistance Scale (ILAS) administered in patients with recent total hip arthroplasty (THA) or total knee arthroplasty, to examine its metric properties and provide insights for a refined version. A total of 203 patients who had undergone THA or total knee arthroplasty were assessed using the ILAS for assistance needed during functional activities (ILAS-funct) and need for assistive devices (ILAS-dev) before discharge from the orthopedic ward. The responses were psychometrically analyzed using the Classical Test Theory and RA. Cronbach's ? was adequate only for group comparisons (ILAS-funct, 0.82; ILAS-dev, 0.79). The two domains (ILAS-funct and ILAS-dev) showed a good correlation. According to RA rating scale diagnostics, ILAS-funct showed two disordered response category thresholds: of the seven different response levels of 'assistance', only five were appreciably discernible. All five ILAS-funct items fitted the model and did not show either local dependence or differential item functioning across age groups or sex. ILAS-dev presented two unused response categories, which precluded Rasch calibration and subsequent analyses. ILAS-funct showed sound psychometric properties, but the rating system of ILAS-funct could be simplified, at least collapsing the response categories 5 (failed) and 6 (not tested). In ILAS-dev, the presence of unused response categories calls for a reconsideration of its scaling options and methods. PMID:24406302

Benedetti, Maria Grazia; Franchignoni, Franco; Morri, Mattia; Franchini, Natalia; Natali, Emanuela; Giordano, Andrea

2014-06-01

333

Antibiotic resistance and R-factors in the fecal coliform flora of urban and rural dogs.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The incidence of antibiotic-resistant fecal coliforms in the rectal flora of 106 healthy dogs in the Galway area was investigated. As far as could be determined, none of the dogs had received antimicrobial drugs. Half of the dogs sampled were from homes within the city boundaries, whereas the remainder were from farms within a 40-mile (24.8-km) radius of the city. Of the dogs sampled, 47 had a highly susceptible fecal coliform flora, with less than 1% of the coliform population resistant to a...

Monaghan, C.; Tierney, U.; Colleran, E.

1981-01-01

334

Treated domestic sewage: kinetics of Escherichia coli and total coliform inactivation by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Hydrogen peroxide has been used for decades in developed countries as an oxidizing agent in the treatment of water, domestic sewage and industrial effluents. This study evaluated the influence of the concentration of H2O2 and pH on the inactivation of Escherichia coli cells and the disinfection of s [...] ewage treated. The results showed that the inactivation rate increased with pH and H2O2. The presence of other contaminants dissolved in the effluent is probably the cause of these differences, because E. coli inactivation in synthetic wastewater was found to be much faster than in the real treated domestic sewage.

Vargas, Gean Delise L. P.; Moreira, Regina F. P. M.; Spricigo, Deisi; José, Humberto J..

335

Treated domestic sewage: kinetics of Escherichia coli and total coliform inactivation by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide has been used for decades in developed countries as an oxidizing agent in the treatment of water, domestic sewage and industrial effluents. This study evaluated the influence of the concentration of H2O2 and pH on the inactivation of Escherichia coli cells and the disinfection of sewage treated. The results showed that the inactivation rate increased with pH and H2O2. The presence of other contaminants dissolved in the effluent is probably the cause of these differences, because E. coli inactivation in synthetic wastewater was found to be much faster than in the real treated domestic sewage.

Gean Delise L. P. Vargas

2013-01-01

336

78 FR 10269 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule  

Science.gov (United States)

...not by using ultraviolet (UV) light. The...membrane filtration equipment that has been...filtration and/or disinfection of surface water...The effects of UV disinfection on distribution...of filtration equipment to UV light is...

2013-02-13

337

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EFFICIENCY LEVEL OF WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT AND RETURN ON TOTAL ASSETS IN ISE (ISTANBUL STOCK EXCHANGE)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In our study we aimed to determine the relationship between efficiency level of firms being traded in ISE in working capital management and their return on total assets. We tried to explain the relationship between different indicators relating to efficiency in working capital management and t...

En, Mehmet; Oruc?, Eda

2009-01-01

338

Salivary Lipid Peroxidation and Total Sialic Acid Levels in Smokers and Smokeless Tobacco Users as Mara? Powder  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mara? powder (MP), a different type of smokeless tobacco (ST) and prepared from a tobacco of species Nicotiana rustica Linn, is widely used in Turkey. We aimed to investigate the effects of MP on salivary total sialic acid (TSA) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and to compare these parameters in smokers and MP users (MPUs). The salivary TSA and MDA concentrations were significantly higher in the smokers and MPU than those of control subjects and also in MPU than that of smokers. We have also...

Kurtul, Naciye; Go?kp?nar, Engin

2012-01-01

339

Evaluation of the levels of total volatile bases and trimethyleamine formed in fish stored at low temperature  

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Full Text Available The levels of total volatile bases (TVB and trimethylamine (TMA formed in three species of saline water fish stored at – 4°C were investigated as indices of spoilage. The data showed that the concentration of TVB (mg/100g sample in Tilapia spp. ranged from 19.40 – 61.00; Mugil cephalus 10.30 – 41.10 and Carassius auratus 12.50 – 66.7 during the maximum storage period of 20 days, while TMA levels (mg/100g sample over the same storage period and conditions ranged from Tilapia spp., Mugil Cephalus and Carassious auratus. The data showed that the concentration of TVB and TMA increased with increasing storage time. These data may be used in formulating appropriate food safety limits for consumption of refrigerated fresh fish products in Nigeria.

M. Horsfall Jnr

2006-06-01

340

The organic contamination level based on the total soil mass is not a proper index of the soil contamination intensity  

Science.gov (United States)

Concentrations of organic contaminants in common productive soils based on the total soil mass give a misleading account of actual contamination effects. This is attributed to the fact that productive soils are essentially water-saturated, with the result that the soil uptake of organic compounds occurs principally by partition into the soil organic matter (SOM). This report illustrates that the soil contamination intensity of a compound is governed by the concentration in the SOM (Com) rather than by the concentration in whole soil (Cs). Supporting data consist of the measured levels and toxicities of many pesticides in soils of widely differing SOM contents and the related levels in in-situ crops that defy explanation by the Cs values. This SOM-based index is timely needed for evaluating the contamination effects of food crops grown in different soils and for establishing a dependable priority ranking for intended remediation of numerous contamination sites.

Hung, H. -W.; Daniel, Sheng, G.; Lin, T. -F.; Su, Y.; Chiou, C. T.

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Serum total homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) levels in acute myocardial infarction and their response to treatment with vitamins serum total homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) levels in acute myocardial infarction and their response to treatment with vitamins  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the relationship of serum total homocysteine (tHcy) and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels with systemic hypertension, Diabetes mellitus and smoking as risk factors in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and changes in the former levels with vitamins supplementation. Study Design: An interventional study. Place and Duration of Study: Medical College for Women and Hospital (MCW and H), Dhaka, Bangladesh, from July 2008 to December 2009. Methodology: Consecutive AMI patients were recruited from the Coronary Care Unit (CCU) at MCW and H, Dhaka. Blood samples were collected at inclusion (Patient-I0). They were given conventional treatments and prescribed vitamins (vitamins B6=25 mg, B12=2 mg and folic acid=2.5 mg) daily for 2 months. After follow-up, blood samples were taken again (Patient-II0). A group of 25 normal subjects were also included as controls. Serum tHcy and Lp(a) were measured by kinetic method and nephelometric method respectively. Results: Serum tHcy (macor mol/L) and Lp(a) (mg/dl) levels were elevated in Patient-I that reduced in Patient-II after vitamins supplementation, but not to the normal control level. tHcy of Patient-I0 was 25.1 +- 4.7 macro mol/L, of Patient-II0 was 20.1 +- 4.5 mu mol/L and of controls 12.1 +- 3.3, p 0.1). However, in a significant proportion of patients tHcy and Lp(a) levels were reduced to control levels (tHcy: p < 0.001, Lp(a): p < 0.01). Conclusion: These results indicated that tHcy and Lp(a) levels were possibly atherogenic risk factors independent of conventional risk factors. Since both tHcy and Lp(a) levels responded in a similar fashion, a common point of the metabolic and pathogenetic pathways of tHcy and Lp(a) may be influenced by the vitamins supplementation. (author)

2011-05-01

342

Increase in levels of total free fatty acids in rat brain regions following 3-nitropropionic acid administration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acute exposure to a neurotoxin, 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA), in rats results in an increase in total free fatty acid (FFA) concentration in selective brain regions. We investigated the effect of 3-NPA administration on the cerebral concentrations of FFA used as a marker of oxidative stress. Rats (n = 3/group) were dosed subcutaneously (s.c.) either with a vehicle (phosphate buffer) or 3-NPA in phosphate buffer at 30 mg/kg body weight. Animals were sacrificed after 1, 2, 3, and 6 h of injection. Brains were then dissected into frontal cortex (FC), caudate nucleus (CN), and hippocampus (HIP). The concentration of total FFA increased from 130 to 300% within 1-2 h after 3-NPA injection in all brain regions when compared with the baseline level obtained from the control rats and taken as 100%. In CN, FFA returned to the baseline level within 3 h of treatment. However, in FC and HIP the concentration of FFA remained significantly elevated above the baseline until 6 h. The released FFA provide a substrate for free radicals formation. The results of this study suggest a role of oxidative stress in the mechanism of 3-NPA toxicity. PMID:9272695

Binienda, Z; Kim, C S

1997-07-25

343

STUDIES ON BLOOD GLUCOSE, TOTAL PROTEINS, UREA AND CHOLESTEROL LEVELS IN CYCLIC, NON-CYCLIC AND ENDOMETRITIC CROSSBRED COWS  

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Full Text Available Seventy-five crossbred cows kept at the Livestock Experimental Station, Qadirabad, District Sahiwal were divided into three equal groups i.e. cyclic, non cyclic and endometritic. Blood samples were collected from all the experimental animals, serum was separated and stored at –20?C until assayed for glucose (g/dl, total protein (g/dl, urea (mg/dl and cholesterol (mg/dl. The results revealed significantly (P<0.05 higher values of glucose (58.08 ? 2.59 and cholesterol (290.72 ? 15.95 in endometritic cows as compared to cyclic (50.72 ? 1.12, 199.12 ? 9.38 and non-cyclic cows (50.56 ? 1.12, 202.96 ? 14.84. Total protein level differed significantly (P<0.05 among cows of all the three groups, being highest in endometritic (19.16 ? 1.00, followed by non cyclic (15.23 ? 0.89 and lowest in cyclic (9.19 ? 0.45 cows. However, serum level of urea did not differ in cyclic (30.88 ? 2.42, non cyclic (33.80 ? 3.43 and endometritic (37.12 ? 3.45 animals, although highest value was recorded in endometritic animals.

Ijaz Ahmad, L.A. Lodhi, Z.I. Qureshi and M. Younis1

2004-04-01

344

Total and inorganic arsenic levels in some marine organisms from Izmir Bay (Eastern Aegean Sea): A risk assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The arsenic compounds in marine biota were evaluated from Izmir Bay (Eastern Aegean) and found that inorganic arsenic occurred as a minor fraction. No information is available on the annual variations of arsenic in important edible biota species from Izmir Bay. Fish and mussel samples were taken from different regions of Izmir Bay between 2009 and 2011 (n=854 individual specimens). The average percentages of inorganic arsenic to total arsenic for all biota samples were 3.43±3.38% with a range of 0.11-11.8%. The importance of speciation analysis for arsenic is supported by our work, because arsenic is ubiquitous in the ecosystem, and flexible toxicity of arsenic is based on chemical form. The average total As levels in Mullus barbatus were 6times higher than Diplodus annularis and Mytilus galloprovincialis. This study also revealed that spatial variation influenced the arsenic levels in the fish samples and the highest concentrations of arsenic were found in Gediz site. Our study showed that estimated daily intakes of arsenic via consumption of flesh fish and shell fish were below the BMDL0.5 values established by FAO/WHO. PMID:25048921

Kucuksezgin, Filiz; Gonul, Lutfi Tolga; Tasel, Didem

2014-10-01

345

Correlation of salivary and serum IgG, IgA levels with total protein in oral submucous fibrosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a disabling, potentially malignant condition of the oral cavity. The aetiology of OSMF is multifactorial but remains obscure. Although arecanut is considered to be the most important causative agent, responses observed in individuals using arecanut vary in relation to quantity and duration. It is considered that an immunological process is responsible for the pathogenesis of disease. We correlated salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA), salivary immunoglobulin G (IgG) and serum immunoglobulin A (IgA), serum immunoglobulin G (IgG), levels by turbidometric immunoassay. We estimated the levels of total serum protein (TSP) and haemoglobin (Hb) to determine the role of nutritional deficiency. The study population comprised 30 cases of OSMF and 10 controls. Five milliliters of blood and 2 ml of saliva were collected. Quantitative analysis of serum and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hb were estimated by Biuret and cyanmethaemoglobin methods, respectively. All patients showed significant (P < 0.01) increase in serum and salivary IgG, IgA levels as compared to controls. TSP patients showed significant (P < 0.01) decrease as compared to controls. Results of Hb in patients were not significant. The estimation of immunoglobulin levels is important to support the concept of autoimmune basis. Estimation of TSP and Hb suggests that nutrition has a definite role in OSMF. PMID:21467820

Patidar, Kalpana A; Parwani, Rajkumar N; Wanjari, Sangeeta Panjab

2011-03-01

346

Pharmacologic reductions of total tau levels; implications for the role of microtubule dynamics in regulating tau expression  

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Full Text Available Abstract The microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT is a pathological component of several neurodegenerative diseases and clinical dementias. Here, we have investigated the effects of a series of commercially available FDA-approved compounds and natural products on total tau protein levels using a cell-based approach that allows for the rapid and efficient measurement of changes in protein expression. Results The compounds that reduced tau largely fell within 3 functional categories with the largest percentage being microtubule regulators. Several of these candidates were validated in both a human neuroglioma and a human neuroblastoma cell line. While these drugs lead to a rapid reduction in tau protein levels, a selective decrease in MAPT mRNA expression was also observed. Conclusion These findings suggest that the identified compounds that reduce tau levels may act either through direct effects on the MAPT promoter itself or by altering a feedback transcriptional mechanism regulating MAPT transcription. This is particularly interesting in light of recent evidence suggesting that MAPT 5' UTR mutations in late-onset PD and PSP cases alter the expression of tau mRNA. In fact, one of the compounds we identified, rotenone, has been used extensively to model PD in rodents. These observations may provide key insights into the mechanism of tau turnover within the neuron while also providing the first evidence that selectively reducing tau protein levels may be possible using compounds that are FDA-approved for other uses.

Dickey Chad A

2006-07-01

347

The Effect of Eccentric Exercise on Total Anti-Oxidant Capacity, Reduced Glutathione and Malondialdehyde Levels in Active Women  

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Full Text Available Background: Although exercise can increase free radicals by generating oxidative stress, it also can decrease them by increasing the antioxidant enzymes in the body as well. The purpose of this study is to investigate the eccentric activity on some oxidative and anti-oxidative factors pertaining to blood plasma of PE women immediately after the exercise. Materials and Methods: Sixteen female students have been volunteered in this study randomly divided into two groups including eccentric training group and control group. The blood samples were drawn from the subjects one hour before and immediately after the exercise to measure the reduced Glutathione (GSH, Malondialdehyde (MDA and total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC levels. The data were analyzed by SPSS-13 software using the one-way analysis of variance, one-way ANOVA test, (to determine the differences between groups at the confidence level of 90% (p<0.05. Results: The results has shown that the TAC, MDA, GSH levels after the eccentric exercise increased significantly compared to pre-exercise (p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.033. The GSH and MDA levels also after the eccentric exercise were significantly higher than the pre-exercise compared to control group. Conclusion: It seems that sever eccentric exercise is an important stimulus making significant changes in body’s anti-oxidative system and has the ability to improve the anti-oxidant capacities too.

Sekineh Norouziyan

2014-06-01

348

OCORRÊNCIA DE COLIFORMES FECAIS E Escherichia coli EM ALFACE COMERCIALIZADA EM GOIÂNIA-GO OCCURRENCE OF FECAL COLIFORMS AND E. coli ON LETTUCE MARKETED IN GOIÂNIA-GOIÁS  

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Full Text Available

Exames bacteriológicos foram realizados em 51 amostras de alface procedentes de sete setores de Goiânia - GO e expostas à venda ao consumidor. Destas, 48 (91,1% revelaram a presença de coliformes fecais e 15 (22,9% de Escherichia coli. No conjunto das amostras, 11 (22,9% apresentaram-se fora dos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação, no que se refere à presença de coliformes fecais.

Fifty samples of fresh lettuce from seven different sources of production and marketing places in Goiânia, Goiás, were submitted to bacteriological analyses. Fecal coliforms were found in 91.1% of the samples and E. coli was detected in 29.4%. An average of 22.9% of the samples did not comply with the standard allowed by the Brazilian legislation.

Henriqueta Merçon Vieira Rolim

2007-09-01

349

Spirulina platensis effects on the levels of total cholesterol, HDL and triacylglycerols in rabbits fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A microalga Spirulina é cultivada e comercializada no mundo devido a suas características nutricionais (elevada concentração de proteínas, em torno de 65%, vitaminas e sais minerais) e ao seu potencial terapêutico no tratamento de inúmeras doenças, inclusive a hipercolesterolemia. Neste trabalho foi [...] avaliada a inibição da hipercolesterolemia induzida em coelhos por uma dieta adicionada de colesterol (350 mg.d-1), pela suplementação de 0,5 g.dia-1 de biomassa de Spirulina platensis, sendo avaliados os níveis de colesterol total, triglicerídeos e HDL nos tempos de 0 d, 30 d e 60 d de tratamento. Os resultados indicaram que a adição de Spirulina platensis na dieta ocasionou decréscimo nos níveis de colesterol total de 1054±101 mg.dL-1 para 516±163 mg.dL-1 (p Abstract in english In this work, hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits by feeding them a high cholesterol diet (CD, 350 mg/d) and the effects of supplementing this diet with 0.5 g/d Spirulina platensis was evaluated by measuring the levels of serum total-cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TAG) and high-density [...] lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol) at the start of the experiment and after 30 d and 60 d. It was found that the levels of serum cholesterol decreased from 1,054±101 mg.dL-1 in the rabbits fed a CD without S. platensis to 516±163 mg.dL-1 to those fed with a high cholesterol diet supplemented with S. platensis (significant at p

Luciane Maria, Colla; Ana Luiza, Muccillo-Baisch; Jorge Alberto Vieira, Costa.

350

The Effect of Laetiporus sp. (Bull. ex Fr. Bond. et Sing. (Polyporaceae Extract on Total Blood Cholesterol Level  

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Full Text Available A study on the effect of a local medicinal mushroom, Laetiporus sp. (Polyporaceae extract on total blood cholesterol level has been conducted using Wistar rats with high cholesterol feed and prophylthiouracil (PTU as hypercholesterolemia inducing agent. The study was aimed to evaluate the inhibition and reduction effect of the dried (hot water extract of grain grown mycelia on hypercholesterolemia of the rat model. The rats were randomly classified into tested group and control group, each group consists of six rats. After a preliminary study, two doses level of the extract, i.e., 55 and 110 mg kg-1 b.wt. were tested, respectively. Commercial lovastatin tablet at a dose of 1.8 mg kg-1 b.wt. was also incorporated in the test as reference medicine. Total blood cholesterol level was observed once a week over 4 weeks. The trial was also conducted on human by involving 19 volunteers. They were asked to consume one Laetiporus sp. capsule per day after meal before going to bed over 30 days. The fungal extract at dose 55 mg kg-1 b.wt. could inhibit the blood cholesterol level by an average of 11.0% and dose 110 mg kg-1 b.wt. could inhibit by an average of 19.0% compared to commercial lovastatin at dose 1.8 mg kg-1 b.wt. which could inhibit at an average of 14.6% over 4 weeks. On the other hand, dose 110 mg kg-1 b.wt. could reduce blood cholesterol level by an average of 11.4%, compared to commercial lovastatin tablet which could reduce by an average of 5.5% over 4 weeks. In addition, blood cholesterol level was found to be reduced in 14 out of 19 (73.6% of human volunteers while 5 out of 19 (26.4% were increased. It is concluded that the mycelial extract of Laetiporus sp. is potential to be used as an anti hypercholesterolemia agent.

Afifah Bambang Sutjiatmo

2010-01-01

351

Avaliação de ensaios analíticos para detecção de coliformes fecais em queijo Minas Evaluation of analytical methods for detecting of fecal coliforms in Minas cheese  

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Full Text Available Foram submetidas à pesquisa de coliformes fecais, utilizando-se a técnica do número mais provável (NMP/g, 168 amostras de variedades de queijo Minas (20 frescal, 48 canastra e 100 padronizado coletadas em Belo Horizonte. Para a comparação de diferentes ensaios em temperatura elevada, utilizou-se o caldo EC isoladamente, e caldos EC e triptofano em paralelo. Visando à pesquisa de indol foi realizado ensaio para confirmação de produção de beta-D-glucuronidase e indol em caldo fluorocult lauril sulfato. Os resultados demonstraram não haver diferença estatística significativa entre as três metodologias utilizadas para a pesquisa de coliformes fecais, considerando os índices de aceitação definidos pelos padrões legais de inspeção de queijo Minas. A facilidade de execução do ensaio da beta-D-glucuronidase em caldo fluorocult lauril sulfato, associada à confiabilidade dos resultados e demanda de tempo (redução de 96 para até 48h, permitem sugeri-lo como método de escolha para enumeração de coliformes em queijo Minas.There were submitted to fecal coliforms enumeration, according to the most probable number (MPN/g method, 168 samples of "Minas" cheese varieties (20 white, 48 "canastra" and 199 standardized, collected in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. In order to comparing different assays under high temperature, there was used EC broth isolated, and EC broth and tryptophane broth in parallel. With the aim of indol search, it was carried out an assay for beta-D-glucuronidase in indol production in fluorocult lauryl sulphate broth. The results did not show significant statistical difference among the three approaches used for fecal coliforms research, considering the acceptance indexes established by legal standards for "Minas" cheese inspection. The feasibility for beta-D-glucuronidase assay in fluorocult lauryl sulphate broth, coupled with results’ confidence and time required (reduction from 96 to up to 48h, suggest it as a preference method for fecal coliforms enumeration in "Minas" cheese.

M.L. Pereira

1999-10-01

352

Avaliação de ensaios analíticos para detecção de coliformes fecais em queijo Minas / Evaluation of analytical methods for detecting of fecal coliforms in Minas cheese  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram submetidas à pesquisa de coliformes fecais, utilizando-se a técnica do número mais provável (NMP/g), 168 amostras de variedades de queijo Minas (20 frescal, 48 canastra e 100 padronizado) coletadas em Belo Horizonte. Para a comparação de diferentes ensaios em temperatura elevada, utilizou-se o [...] caldo EC isoladamente, e caldos EC e triptofano em paralelo. Visando à pesquisa de indol foi realizado ensaio para confirmação de produção de beta-D-glucuronidase e indol em caldo fluorocult lauril sulfato. Os resultados demonstraram não haver diferença estatística significativa entre as três metodologias utilizadas para a pesquisa de coliformes fecais, considerando os índices de aceitação definidos pelos padrões legais de inspeção de queijo Minas. A facilidade de execução do ensaio da beta-D-glucuronidase em caldo fluorocult lauril sulfato, associada à confiabilidade dos resultados e demanda de tempo (redução de 96 para até 48h), permitem sugeri-lo como método de escolha para enumeração de coliformes em queijo Minas. Abstract in english There were submitted to fecal coliforms enumeration, according to the most probable number (MPN/g) method, 168 samples of "Minas" cheese varieties (20 white, 48 "canastra" and 199 standardized), collected in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. In order to comparing different assays under high temperature, there [...] was used EC broth isolated, and EC broth and tryptophane broth in parallel. With the aim of indol search, it was carried out an assay for beta-D-glucuronidase in indol production in fluorocult lauryl sulphate broth. The results did not show significant statistical difference among the three approaches used for fecal coliforms research, considering the acceptance indexes established by legal standards for "Minas" cheese inspection. The feasibility for beta-D-glucuronidase assay in fluorocult lauryl sulphate broth, coupled with results’ confidence and time required (reduction from 96 to up to 48h), suggest it as a preference method for fecal coliforms enumeration in "Minas" cheese.

M.L., Pereira; M.C.A., Gastelois; E.M.A.F., Bastos; W.T., Caiaffa; E.S.C., Faleiro.

353

Comparison of three different media for the detection of E. coli and coliforms in water.  

Science.gov (United States)

The European Drinking Water Directive defines reference methods for the enumeration of microbiological parameters in drinking water. The method to be used for Escherichia coli and coliforms is the membrane filtration technique on Lactose TTC agar with Tergitol 7. Many technical drawbacks of the procedure, as well as its limitations regarding the recent taxonomy of coliforms, make it necessary to evaluate alternative methods. Two alternative assays, a chromogenic media (m-ColiBlu24) and a defined substrate technology-DST test (Colilert 18/Quanty Tray) were compared with the ISO standard with attention to the phenotypic characteristic of the isolates. Results showed that the ISO method failed to detect an important percentage of coliforms and E. coli while m-ColiBlu24 and Colilert 18 provided results in a shorter time allowing the simultaneous detection of E. coli and coliforms with no further confirmation steps. PMID:17037145

Bernasconi, C; Volponi, G; Bonadonna, L

2006-01-01

354

Selective detection and enumeration of fecal coliforms in water by potentiometric measurement of lipoic acid reduction.  

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Water samples of various origins were inoculated into a specific coliform-selective lactose broth provided with lipoic (thioctic) acid, and the time evolution of the redox potential of the cultures was monitored during incubation at 41 degrees C by use of gold versus reference electrodes. Positive potential-time responses, i.e., 100-mV potential shifts recorded within 20 h of inoculation, were related to the initial number of fecal coliforms in the broth determined by control enumeration tech...

1985-01-01

355

Influence of sewage treatment and urbanization on selection of multiple resistance in fecal coliform populations.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The fecal coliform populations found in the raw sewages and final sewage effluents of mechanical treatment plants, a long-term retention lagoon, shorter-term retention lagoons, a remote northern Canada river, and a heavily urbanized prairie river were examined for antibiotic resistance and the possession of R factors. It was determined that there was a decrease in the percentage of multiresistant fecal coliform populations in the mechanical sewage treatment plants and shorter-term retention l...

Bell, J. B.; Elliott, G. E.; Smith, D. W.

1983-01-01

356

Comparison of Coliforms and Coliphages as Tools for Assessment of Viral Contamination in River Water  

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The aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of pathogenic viruses in the Moselle River and to compare the usefulness of thermotolerant coliforms and somatic coliphages as tools for river water quality assessment in terms of viral contamination. Thermotolerant coliforms and somatic coliphages were enumerated by standardized methods in 170 samples of river water drawn from five sampling sites along the Moselle River (eastern France). BGM cell culture and integrated cell culture-reverse tr...

Skraber, S.; Gassilloud, B.; Gantzer, C.

2004-01-01

357

Thermotolerant Coliforms Are Not a Good Surrogate for Campylobacter spp. in Environmental Water ?  

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This study aimed to assess the importance of quantitatively detecting Campylobacter spp. in environmental surface water. The prevalence and the quantity of Campylobacter spp., thermotolerant coliforms, and Escherichia coli in 2,471 samples collected weekly, over a 2-year period, from 13 rivers and 12 streams in the Eastern Townships, Québec, Canada, were determined. Overall, 1,071 (43%), 1,481 (60%), and 1,463 (59%) samples were positive for Campylobacter spp., thermotolerant coliforms, and ...

St-pierre, Karen; Le?vesque, Simon; Frost, Eric; Carrier, Nathalie; Arbeit, Robert D.; Michaud, Sophie

2009-01-01

358

Serum levels of insulin like growth factor-l and total protein in newborn calves offered different amounts of colostrums  

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Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to determine the concentrations of insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I and total protein in blood serum from calves consuming different amounts of colostrum during the first 32 h of postnatal life, as well as at 7 days old. The experiment involved two groups of calves. The first group was offered the standard amount of colostrum while the second group received half the recommended amount. At birth serum concentration of IGF-I was in the range from 5 to 13 nmol/L. Compared to the initial level there was a marked decrease of mean IGF-I concentration in both groups of calves at 2 h after the first intake of colostrum. Thereafter, the level gradually increased until 20 h of age, more markedly in the group which received the full ration of colostrum. The highest mean IGF-I concentrations were recorded at 20 h in both groups (11.81 nmol/L for group one and 8.96 nmol/L for group two, and were significantly higher than values recorded 2h after the first intake of colostrum. Two hours after the third intake of colostrum, serum concentration of IGF-I dropped in both groups, compared with the value recorded at 20 h. During the time period from 4hto32h after birth, the calves that received the standard amount of colostrum had a significantly higher mean concentration of serum IGF-I than the calves which received an insufficient amount. Calves were born with serum concentrations of total proteins, which were lower than those found for adult animals. Serum protein concentrations in the calves that consumed normal amounts of colostrum increased more rapidly than in the calves that received insufficient amounts of colostrum. Presumably, total protein concentrations increased as a consequence of colostral immunoglobulin absorption. Thus our results indicate that the amounts of colostrum received during the first 32 h of postnatal life had strong effects on the serum concentrations of IGF-I and total proteins. The differences in IGF-I concentrations between the two groups of calves may have been a consequence of greater colostral IGF-I absorption and/or the result of greater absorption of other colostral components, which stimulate endogenous synthesis of this bioactive substance in the tissues of neonatal calves.

Kirovski Danijela

2002-01-01

359

Polymorphisms in IL10 are associated with total Immunoglobulin E levels and Schistosoma mansoni infection intensity in a Brazilian population.  

Science.gov (United States)

Interleukin (IL)-10 is a regulatory cytokine of the helper T cell type 2 (TH2) pathway, which underlies both the host defense to helminthic infection and atopic diseases, including asthma. Although IL10 promoter polymorphisms are associated with increased atopy risk, IL10 variation has not been thoroughly explored in schistosomiasis-endemic populations. Three atopy-related IL10 promoter polymorphisms (rs1800896, rs1800871 and rs1800872), complemented by six tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), were genotyped in 812 individuals in 318 nuclear families from a schistosomiasis-endemic area in Brazil. Associations between markers and total serum Immunoglobulin E (tIgE) levels, indicating non-specific activation of the TH2 pathway, and Schistosoma mansoni fecal egg counts, indicating burden of infection reflecting effectiveness of schistosomiasis host immunity, were performed using family-based transmission disequilibrium tests for quantitative traits (QTDTs). Alleles A, T and A at the three promoter SNPs rs1800896, rs1800871 and rs1800872 were associated with high tIgE levels in the same direction as in atopy populations (P=0.0008, 0.026 and 0.045), but not with egg counts. IL10 promoter polymorphisms appear to influence non-specific tIgE levels, but not schistosomiasis-specific immunity. The tagging SNP rs3024495 was associated with high S. mansoni egg counts (P=0.005), suggesting a novel locus in IL10 may influence clinically relevant burden of infection. PMID:20927126

Grant, A V; Araujo, M I; Ponte, E V; Oliveira, R R; Cruz, A A; Barnes, K C; Beaty, T H

2011-01-01

360

Enhancement of microbiological safety levels of aseptically admixed total parenteral nutrition solutions through low-dose gamma irradiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was undertaken to determine the effect of low-dose gamma irradiation on aseptically admixed total parenteral nutrition (TPN) solutions to which large inocula of three test bacterial species were added. Microbiological safety levels were quantified in terms of sterility assurance levels (SALs), indicating the probability of contamination occurring expressed as 10-n. The radiation sensitivity (D10 values) of test bacteria in TPN solutions inoculated with a series of bacteria recognized as common contaminants of these products, was determined. Attainable SALs of TPN solutions containing test bacteria were subsequently calculated from the D10 values. Results showed that a minimum absorbed radiation dose as low as 1.5 kGy improved the SAL of aseptically prepared TPN solutions from a probability value of 10(-3) to a value of less than 10(-8) for the microorganisms investigated. At an absorbed dose as high as 8.3 kGy, no measurable changes in amino acid, electrolyte, glucose and lipid components of the solutions were detected. These findings have important implications for the enhancement of microbiological safety levels of aseptically prepared intravenous fluids in general. PMID:7989404

Koornhof, H J; Isaäcson, M; Saunders, J; van Wyk, C J; Kotzé, A F; Rosekilly, I C; du Plessis, T A

1994-08-01

 
 
 
 
361

Analysis of concentration levels of particulate matter (PM10, total suspended particulates and black smoke in the city of Zrenjanin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air quality monitoring on the territory of AP Vojvodina was initiated in mid 90s. During the last decade of the 20th century the development of the air quality monitoring in Serbia didn’t keep up with the pace of the other countries in the region due to political isolation and severe economic crisis. Monitoring of the particular pollutants was conducted unsystematically and sporadically. Data presented in this paper were obtained on the territory of the city of Zrenjanin, which represents typical agglomeration in the region in regard to its geographical location, population, level of industry development and the presence of natural gas as energy product in the remote and domestic heating system of residential objects. Available data on the concentration levels of PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 ?m, TSP (total suspended particulates and BS (black smoke during the period of 2005-2007 (three cold and three warm seasons have been used in this work in order to carry out analysis and comparison of the daily concentration levels of PM10, TSP and BS and their seasonal variation.

Vuji? Bogdana B.

2010-01-01

362

Lake level change and total water discharge in East Africa Rift Valley from satellite-based observations  

Science.gov (United States)

The measurement of total basin water discharge is important for understanding the hydrological and climatologic issues related to the water and energy cycles. Climatic extreme events are normal climatic occurrences in Africa. For example, extensive droughts are regular features in the last few decades in parts of East Africa, which suffers from a lack of in situ observations as well as a lack of regional hydrological models. In this study, multi-disciplinary different types of space-borne observations and global hydrological models are used to study total water discharge in the Great Rift Valley of East Africa (i.e. Lakes Victoria, Tanganyika, and Malawi) from January 2003 to December 2012. The data include the following: (1) total water storage (TWS) variations from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), (2) the lake level variations from Satellite Alimetric data, (3) rainfall from Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) products, (4) soil moisture from WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM), and (5) water fluxes from Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). Results show that a significant decline in the average lake level is found for all of the three lakes between 2003 and 2006. GRACE TWS variations of the whole basin area show the same pattern of variation as the average lake level variations estimated from Altimetric data. The TWS in the basin area of Lakes Victoria and Malawi is governed by the surface water stored in each lake itself, while for Lake Tanganyika, it is governed by both surface water and the soil moisture content in the basin area. Furthermore, the effect of rainfall on TWS is also studied. A phase lag of ~ 2 months is found between TRMM rainfall and GRACE TWS (generally, rainfall precedes the GRACE TWS) for the three lakes. In addition, the regional evapotranspiration ET is estimated from the water balance equation using GRACE land-water solutions, rainfall data from TRMM and runoff values obtained as a fraction of rainfall. It is found that the computed ET represents approximately 90% of the rainfall over the study region.

Hassan, Ayman A.; Jin, Shuanggen

2014-06-01

363

Tryptophan-enriched cereal intake improves nocturnal sleep, melatonin, serotonin, and total antioxidant capacity levels and mood in elderly humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melatonin and serotonin rhythms, which exhibit a close association with the endogenous circadian component of sleep, are attenuated with increasing age. This decrease seems to be linked to sleep alterations in the elderly. Chrononutrition is a field of chronobiology that establishes the principle of consuming foodstuffs at times of the day when they are more useful for health, improving, therefore, biorhythms and physical performance. Our aim was to analyze whether the consumption of cereals enriched with tryptophan, the precursor of both serotonin and melatonin, may help in the reconsolidation of the sleep/wake cycle and counteract depression and anxiety in 35 middle-aged/elderly (aged 55-75 year) volunteers in a simple blind assay. Data were collected for 3 weeks according to the following schedule: The control week participants consumed standard cereals (22.5 mg tryptophan in 30 g cereals per dose) at breakfast and dinner; for the treatment week, cereals enriched with a higher dose of tryptophan (60 mg tryptophan in 30 g cereals per dose) were eaten at both breakfast and dinner; the posttreatment week volunteers consumed their usual diet. Each participant wore a wrist actimeter that logged activity during the whole experiment. Urine was collected to analyze melatonin and serotonin urinary metabolites and to measure total antioxidant capacity. The consumption of cereals containing the higher dose in tryptophan increased sleep efficiency, actual sleep time, immobile time, and decreased total nocturnal activity, sleep fragmentation index, and sleep latency. Urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels, and urinary total antioxidant capacity also increased respectively after tryptophan-enriched cereal ingestion as well as improving anxiety and depression symptoms. Cereals enriched with tryptophan may be useful as a chrononutrition tool for alterations in the sleep/wake cycle due to age. PMID:22622709

Bravo, R; Matito, S; Cubero, J; Paredes, S D; Franco, L; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, A B; Barriga, C

2013-08-01

364

Levels of polybrominated diphenyl-ethers and polybrominated dioxins in fish, total diet study food groups, and Japanese meals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since they were found in mother's milk and blood in several studies, the polybrominated diphenyl-ethers (PBDEs) and other polybrominated flame-retardants (BFRs) that are used in plastics, electrical appliances, and textiles have been recognized as ubiquitous pollutants. BFRs are precursors of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/ polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs). Recently, 2,3,7,8-TBDD/Fs and PBDEs have been detected in adipose tissue and blood in Japanese people. Food is naturally suspected. However, there is very few information on food contamination with those brominated compounds in Japan. Therefore, we measured the levels of PBDEs and PBDD/Fs in various fish samples, meal samples, and total diet study (TDS) food groups and estimated Japanese people's dietary intake of PBDD/Fs and PBDEs.

Ashizuka, Y.; Nakagawa, R.; Hori, T.; Tobiishi, K.; Iida, T. [Fukuoka Inst. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Dazaifu (Japan)

2004-09-15

365

Tribromo-chlorophosphonazo used for photospectrometric determination of total rare earth in high-level liquid waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Procedure determining the concentrations of total rare earth and their determination with a new reagent, tribromochlorophosphonazo (CPA-tB), that is 7-[1-(2, 4, 6-tribromo-phenyl) azo]-2-[1-(2-phosphono-4-chloro-phenyl) azo]-chromotropic acid, in high-level liquid waste and some characters of CPA-tB are studied. CPA-tB and its complexes of rare earth elements are stable in the glycol-H2O system. Adding glycol shifts the absorption spectrum to left and increases the molar extinction coefficient. The molar extinction coefficients are respectively 7.16 x 104 (Y), 11.9 x 104 (La), 11.7 x 104 (Ce, Pr), 11.9 x 104 (Nd), 11.6 x 104 (Sm, Eu), 11.4 x 104 (Gd) and 11.4 x 104 (RE) in the glycol-H2C2O4-H3PO4-H2O system at 643 nm. Th interferes severely the determination of total rare earth, and other elements, U(42- (-(-(3-(<150 mg) do not interfere it

1992-11-01

366

Single dose testosterone increases total cholesterol levels and induces the expression of HMG CoA Reductase  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol is mainly synthesised in liver and the rate-limiting step is the reduction of 3-hydroxy-3methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA to mevalonate, a reaction catalysed by HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR. There is a comprehensive body of evidence documenting that anabolic-androgenic steroids are associated with deleterious alterations of lipid profile. In this study we investigated whether a single dose of testosterone enanthate affects the cholesterol biosynthesis and the expression of HMGCR. Methods 39 healthy male volunteers were given 500 mg testosterone enanthate as single intramuscular dose of Testoviron®--Depot. The total cholesterol levels prior to and two days after testosterone administration were analysed. Protein expression of HMGCR in whole blood was investigated by Western blotting. In order to study whether testosterone regulates the mRNA expression of HMGCR, in vitro studies were performed in a human liver cell-line (HepG2. Results The total cholesterol level was significantly increased 15% two days after the testosterone injection (p = 0.007. This is the first time a perturbation in the lipoprotein profile is observed after only a single dose of testosterone. Moreover, the HMGCR mRNA and protein expression was induced by testosterone in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Conclusion Here we provide a molecular explanation how anabolic androgenic steroids may impact on the cholesterol homeostasis, i.e. via an increase of the HMGCR expression. Increasing knowledge and understanding of AAS induced side-effects is important in order to find measures for treatment and care of these abusers.

Gårevik Nina

2012-03-01

367

Physical activity level, leisure activities and related quality of life 1 year after lumbar decompression or total hip arthroplasty  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

PURPOSE: Lumbar decompression surgery (LDS) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) are frequently performed in the elderly population, but very little is known about their subsequent physical capacity and participation in leisure activities. Despite similar demographics and comorbidities, it is questionable whether LDS patients achieve equally high levels of physical capacity and quality of life postoperatively as do THA patients. The aim was to compare the physical activity level, participation in leisure activities and related quality of life 1 year after an LDS and THA procedure. METHODS: Data from 95 THA patients and 83 LDS patients were gathered from questionnaires on self-reported physical activity level, leisure activities and quality of life. RESULTS: LDS and THA patients reported equally moderate levels of physical activity. The median score was 42.3 METs/day (IQR 37.9; 47.7) for the LDS group and 41.0 METs/day (IQR 38.5; 48.5) for the THA group (p = 0.79). Weekly time consumption for leisure activities inthe LDS group was a median of 420 min/week (IQR 210; 660) compared to a median of 480 min/week (IQR 240; 870) in the THA group (