WorldWideScience
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40 CFR 142.63 - Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant level for total coliforms.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant level for total coliforms...Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant level for total coliforms...variances or exemptions from the maximum contaminant level in § 141.63 of...

2010-07-01

2

40 CFR 142.63 - Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant level for total coliforms.  

Science.gov (United States)

...the maximum contaminant level for total coliforms. 142.63 Section 142.63 Protection...the maximum contaminant level for total coliforms. (a) No variances or exemptions...of this section relating to the total coliform MCL of § 141.63(a) of this...

2010-07-01

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A comparison of ten USEPA approved total coliform/E. coli tests.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since 2002, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has approved ten enzyme-based total coliform and E. coli detection tests for examination of drinking water. These tests include: Colilert, Colilert-18, Colisure, m-Coli Blue 24, Readycult Coliforms 100, Chromocult, Coliscan, E * Colite, Colitag and MI Agar. The utility of the enzyme based test systems is based on both the ability of the test to detect the target organisms at low levels and the ability of the test system to suppress the growth of non-target organisms that might result in false positive results. Differences in the ability of some of these methods to detect total coliform and E. coli, as well as suppress Aeromonas spp., a common cause of "false positive" results, have been observed. As a result, this study was undertaken to elucidate the strengths and weaknesses of each method. Water samples were collected from three geographically and chemically diverse groundwaters in Wisconsin. One-hundred milliliter aliquots were individually spiked with both low concentrations (one to ten organisms) and high concentrations (fifty to one-hundred) of each of five different total coliform organisms (Serratia, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, E. coli, & Klebsiella). These spiked samples were used to test the capability of ten enzyme-based test systems to both detect and enumerate the spiked organisms. In addition, 100 ml samples were independently spiked with two different strains of Aeromonas spp. at six different levels, to assess the ability of each enzyme-based test to suppress Aeromonas spp. Analysis of the data indicated that wide variability exists among USEPA approved tests to detect and quantify total coliforms, as well as suppress Aeromonas spp. PMID:17674575

Olstadt, Jeremy; Schauer, James Jay; Standridge, Jon; Kluender, Sharon

2007-06-01

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75 FR 49930 - Stakeholder Meeting Regarding Re-Evaluation of Currently Approved Total Coliform Analytical Methods  

Science.gov (United States)

...Re-Evaluation of Currently Approved Total Coliform Analytical Methods AGENCY: Environmental...re-evaluation of currently approved Total Coliform Rule (TCR) analytical methods. At...study, such as developing a reference coliform/non-coliform library for use in...

2010-08-16

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Prevelance of total coliforms, faecal coliforms and E. coli in Rawalpindi vegetable markets  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nutritional value of vegetables and high prices of meat and meat originated food compel common people to consume plant originated food particularly salad vegetables. Microbial population of vegetable surfaces contains a large number of pathogenic bacteria including members of Enterobactereace like Escherichia coli (E. coli. A survey was conducted in three major markets of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Tomato, lettuce, cabbage and cucumber samples were collected from three shops of each market. Each vegetable was analysed as unwashed and washed for total coliforms, faecal coliforms and E. coli by FAO (Food Quality Manual. About two hundred and fifty E. coli isolates were preserved, serotyped for presence of O157 serotype. Total coliforms, faecal coliforms and E. coli count exceeded the permissible limits in most samples. The highest Total coliforms were associated with cabbage (3.78 log10 cfu/g. Cucumber was the least contaminated by Total coliforms (2.15 log10 cfu/g. E. coli was detected in tomato, lettuce, cucumber and cabbage. Washed samples showed reduced bacterial population. Seventy six isolates of E. coli were biochemically characterized and serotyped for O157 antigen. A majority of strains could not be identified by serotyping. These findings conclude with high potentially pathogenic microbial load on salad vegetables and urge for preventive action on priority basis.

Sadia Alam

2013-12-01

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75 FR 14607 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli  

Science.gov (United States)

...Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug...Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli--Small Entity Compliance Guide...coliform organisms are Escherichia coli (E. coli), an indicator of fecal...

2010-03-26

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75 FR 53267 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule; Extension of...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY...Regulation, the Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule (RTCR), which was published in...require systems that have an indication of coliform contamination in the distribution...

2010-08-31

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Ultrasonic Technology Effectiveness in Total Coliforms Disinfection of Water  

OpenAIRE

The effect of ultrasonic upon the destruction of total coliforms has been studied in this research. Also, the impact of power intensity and ultrasonic frequency on the germicidal effectiveness of sonification has been explored. The results obtained from the work carried out have shown that ultrasonic can be used effectively for water disinfection and increase in percent kill for coliforms may occur with increase in contact time to ultrasonic in the 42 kHz. These results suggest that ultrasoni...

Mahvi, A. H.; Dehghani, M. H.; Vaezi, F.

2005-01-01

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The Efficiency of Removal of Total Coliforms, Faecal Coliforms and Coliphages in a Wastewater Treatment Plant in Riyadh  

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Full Text Available Limited water resources in Saudi Arabia necessitate the re-use of treated wastewater for irrigation, industrial and recreational purposes. The large numbers of pathogenic agents present in wastewater requires continuous monitoring of the removal of such agents from water prior to re-use. In a one year study total and faecal coliforms and coliphages were estimated in monthly samples from a wastewater treatment plant in Riyadh to evaluate the removal efficiency of such indicators at various levels of wastewater treatment. The efficiency of removal of total coliform (TC and faecal coliform (FC following aeration and sedimentation processes ranged between (18-34% and (17-38% respectively and for coliphages was (4-19%. Chlorinated effluent had negligible counts of TC and FC with an efficiency of removal of (99.2-100% and (99-100% for TC and FC respectively whereas the efficiency of removal of coliphages ranged between (91-100%. As coliphages have been proposed as possible indicators of enteric viruses our study suggests their use as indicators of faecal pollution with traditional coliform indicators and the implementation of treatment measures more effective in virus removal in re-used wastewater. Electron microscopy of selected phage lysates showed the presence of tailed coliphages belonging to families Myoviridae, Siphoviridae and Podoviridae. Polyvalent coliphages able to infect enteric bacteria other than E. coli were also detected.

F. A. Fattouh

2002-01-01

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Total Coliform Determinations. Training Module 5.205.3.77.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with multiple tube and membrane filter techniques for determining total coliform concentration of a water supply. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This module considers proper…

Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

11

75 FR 40925 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule  

Science.gov (United States)

...Parts 141 and 142 National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform...RIN 2040-AD94 National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform...g., Public Notification and Ground Water Rules). These proposed revisions...

2010-07-14

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Pengujian Total Coliform dan Faecal Coliform pada Air Baku PT TIRTA Sumut di Laboratorium PDAM TIRTANADI  

OpenAIRE

Raw water is water that is in the form of whole, unprocessed or not having treatment. The water that will be through the stages of the process water treatment companies or institutions, to be circulated in the community. Coliform bacteria and faecal coliform is an indicator of the biological contamination (microbiological parameters) are contaminated with organic and feces. Coliform bacteria are gram-negative bacilli bacteria and not sporulating. Faecal Coliform is normal flora in the human d...

Dikky Tri Pratana H.

2013-01-01

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Enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli from source water by the defined substrate technology.  

OpenAIRE

Many water utilities are required to monitor source water for the presence of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, or both. The Colilert system, an application of the defined substrate technology, simultaneously detects the presence of both total coliforms and Escherichia coli directly from a water sample. After incubation, the formula becomes yellow if total coliforms are present and fluorescent at 366 nm if E. coli is in the same sample. No confirmatory tests are required. The Colilert system ...

Edberg, S. C.; Allen, M. J.; Smith, D. B.; Kriz, N. J.

1990-01-01

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33 CFR 159.319 - Fecal coliform and total suspended solids standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fecal coliform and total suspended solids standards...Vessel Operations § 159.319 Fecal coliform and total suspended solids standards...waters of Alaska shall not have a fecal coliform bacterial count of greater than...

2010-07-01

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Enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli from source water by the defined substrate technology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many water utilities are required to monitor source water for the presence of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, or both. The Colilert system, an application of the defined substrate technology, simultaneously detects the presence of both total coliforms and Escherichia coli directly from a water sample. After incubation, the formula becomes yellow if total coliforms are present and fluorescent at 366 nm if E. coli is in the same sample. No confirmatory tests are required. The Colilert system was previously assessed with distribution water in a national evaluation in both most-probably-number and presence-absence formats and found to produce data equivalent to those obtained by using Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (Standard Methods). The Colilert system was now compared with Standard Methods multiple-tube fermentation (MTF) for the enumeration of total coliforms and E. coli from surface water. All MTF tubes were confirmed according to Standard Methods, and subcultures were made to identify isolates to the species level. The Colilert system was found equally sensitive to MTF testing by regression, t test, chi-square, and likelihood fraction analyses. Specificity of the Colilert system was shown by the isolation of a species of total coliform or E. coli after the appropriate color change. The Colilert test can be used for source water samples when enumeration is required, and the benefits previously described for distribution water testing--sensitivity, specificity, less labor, lower cost, faster results, no noncoliform heterotroph interference--are applicable to this type of water analysis. PMID:2407184

Edberg, S C; Allen, M J; Smith, D B; Kriz, N J

1990-02-01

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Disinfection of total coli-forms in unchlorinated secondary effluent with electron beam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate the disinfection of total coli-forms in the effluent of secondary sewage treatment plant with radiation, electron beam has introduced. Unchlorinated secondary effluent was irradiated at different dose of 0.2-1.0 kGy with 1 MeV, 40kW electron accelerator. It is observed that nearly 100% reduction in E-Coli. and total coli-forms were achieved with a dose of 0.8kGy. Even with the lower dose of 0.2kGy, the E-Coli. and total coli-forms were successfully inactivated to the level of the new guideline for discharged effluent that has been effective from 2003 in Korea. Besides disinfection of total coli-forms, approximately 50% of removal in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) was also observed at a dose of 0.2kGy. More than 20% removal in suspended solids (SS) and turbidity was also observed at a dose of 1.0kGy. The application of electron beam irradiation appeared to be one of the options to reuse effluent from sewage treatment plant as agricultural or industrial water. (author)

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Bactérias coliformes totais e coliformes de origem fecal em águas usadas na dessedentação de animais Total and fecal coliform bacteria in animal drinking water  

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Full Text Available Foram colhidas 105 amostras de água sendo 44 de mananciais e de 61 bebedouros, a partir das quais foram realizadas as determinações dos NMP (Número Mais Provável de bactérias coliformes totais e fecais. De acordo com a Portaria GM/0013 de 15 de janeiro de 1976, da Secretaria Especial do Meio Ambiente do Ministério do Interior, os 44 mananciais revelaram-se dentro dos parâmetros estabelecidos. Embora não haja referência com relação a bebedouros, aplicando-se os valores estabelecidos para mananciais, das 61 amostras estudadas, somente 6 (9,8% não poderiam ser usadas para a dessedentação de animais. Das 105 amostras analisadas, verificou-se que as condições sanitárias revelaram-se não satisfatórias em 6 (5,7% amostras de bebedouros quanto a coliformes fecais, sendo 3 (2,8% também com relação a coliformes totais.The objective of the present experiment was to get information on the sanitary quality of water drunk by animals in the Botucatu region, S. Paulo State, Brazil. MPN (More Provable Number counts of coliform and fecal coliform bacteria of 105 water samples were made. Of these samples 44 were taken from fountains and 61 from watering troughs. According to the Brazilian government directive, of the Ministry of the Interior, the 44 fountains were shown to be in accordance with the established parameters. As this government directive does not make reference to watering troughs, applying the same values established for fountains, it was observed that of 61 of the samples examined, only 6 (9.8% proved to be outside the parameters. Of the 105 samples examined, all showed good sanitary conditions, except 6 samples (9.8% of watering troughs in relation to fecal coliforms. Of these 6 samples, 3 showed bad sanitary conditions too, but only regard to total coliforms.

Luiz Carlos Souza

1983-04-01

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78 FR 10269 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule  

Science.gov (United States)

...Parts 141 and 142 National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform...RIN 2040-AD94 National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform...g., Public Notification and Ground Water Rules). These revisions are in...

2013-02-13

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Evaluation of the Autoanalysis Colilert test for detection and enumeration of total coliforms.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Autoanalysis Colilert (AC) test was compared with the membrane filter (MF), 10-tube multiple-tube fermentation (MTF) technique, and the presence-absence test as described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater for the detection and enumeration of total coliforms in water. The methods were evaluated with 31 samples from seven different sources. Each sample was analyzed by each of the techniques, using replicate 100-ml sample volumes. A total of 582 confirmed tubes were positive by the MTF test, and 533 tubes were positive by the AC test. Statistical analysis of the most-probable-number comparability data showed a statistically significant difference in the number of positive tubes, with the MTF test resulting in more positive tubes. There were no statistically significant differences in precision between the two methods. All the methods were comparable in detection of total coliforms. Levels of heterotrophic bacteria generally encountered in drinking water did not interfere with detection or enumeration of coliforms by the AC test. PMID:2513773

Covert, T C; Shadix, L C; Rice, E W; Haines, J R; Freyberg, R W

1989-10-01

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Disinfection of total coli-forms in the effluent from municipal wastewater plant with electron beam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electron beam has introduced to investigate the effect of radiation on the disinfection of coliforms in the effluent from the municipal wastewater treatment plant. Unchlorinated secondary effluent was irradiated at different dose of 0.2 - 1.0 kGy with 1 MeV, 40 kW electron accelerator. It is observed that nearly 100% reduction in E. coli and total coliforms were achieved with a dose of 0.8 kGy. Even with the lower dose of 0.2 kGy, the E. coli and total coliforms were successfully inactivated to the level of the new guideline for discharged effluent that has been effective from 2003 in Korea. Based on the data obtained in the experiments, industrial scale plant was designed with 0.2 kGy for the flow rate of 100,000 m3 effluent per day. The overall cost for plant construction is approximately 4.0?4.5M$, and the operation cost is around 1M$/yr. This is quite reasonable when compared to other advanced oxidation techniques such as Ozonation, UV techniques etc. (author)

21

Evaluation of total and thermotolerant coliforms on lettuce self service restaurants in Sinop-MT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. is the leafy vegetable most consumed in the world and present high content of pro vitamin A in green leaves; it’s rich in calcium and iron and presents reasonable amounts of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and C. When eaten raw in salads they can to transmit pathogens if are inadequately cleaned. This study aimed to evaluate the microbiological quality of lettuce served in self-service restaurants in the city of Sinop – MT, concerning the total and thermotolerant coliforms. The laboratory analysis used was the Most Probable Number method (MPN. All samples were positive for total coliforms, reaching values above 1100 MPN/g, and when analyzed to confirm the presence of coliforms tolerant, all samples were negative. These results allowed observing that the values found for tolerant coliforms are within the standards established by legislation, but the total coliform count indicates poor hygiene lettuce served and consumed

P. C. Perondi

2013-11-01

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COMPARISON OF VERIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR THE MEMBRANE FILTER TOTAL COLIFORM TECHNIQUE  

Science.gov (United States)

Verification of membrane filter total coliform colonies from drinking water was increased 87% by testing for the presence of beta-galactosidase and cytochrome oxidase, compared with verification by determination of gas production in lauryl tryptose broth. Over 90% of the coliform...

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Substrate supporting disc method for confirmed detection of total coliforms and E. coli in all foods: collaborative study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ColiComplete substrate supporting disc (SSD) method for simultaneous confirmed total coliform count and Escherichia coli determination in all foods was compared with AOAC most probable number (MPN) methods, 966.23 and 966.24. Twenty-nine laboratories participated in this collaborative study in which 6 food types were analyzed. Four food types, raw ground beef, pork sausage, raw liquid milk, and nut meats, were naturally contaminated with coliform bacteria. Two foods, dry egg and fresh frozen vegetables, were seeded with coliforms. Three food types, ground beef, raw liquid milk, and pork sausage, were naturally contaminated with E. coli. Although pork sausage was naturally contaminated, the level was very low (SSD method and the appropriate AOAC MPN method. Results were then analyzed for repeatability, reproducibility, and mean log MPN statistical equivalence. Results were statistically equivalent for all total coliform levels in all food types except frozen vegetable and raw nut meat uninoculated control samples and 1 lot of pork sausage where the SSD method produced statistically significant greater numbers. For the E. coli determinations, results were statistically equivalent across all samples and all levels for each food type. The SSD method has been adopted first action by AOAC International for confirmed detection of total coliforms and E. coli in all foods. PMID:8241828

Feldsine, P T; Falbo-Nelson, M T; Hustead, D L

1993-01-01

24

Total coliform detection in drinking water: comparison of membrane filtration with Colilert and Coliquik.  

OpenAIRE

The Colilert (CL) and Coliquik (CQ) systems were compared in a presence-absence format against the Standard Methods membrane filtration (MF) technique to determine whether differences existed in total coliform detection. Approximately 750 water samples were collected from distribution systems, covered and uncovered storage reservoirs, well sites, and the influent to drinking water treatment plants. Samples were analyzed for total coliforms and heterotrophic bacteria with MF, CL, and CQ. The a...

Olson, B. H.; Clark, D. L.; Milner, B. B.; Stewart, M. H.; Wolfe, R. L.

1991-01-01

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Bacteria holding times for fecal coliform by mFC agar method and total coliform and Escherichia coli by Colilert-18 Quanti-Tray method.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacteria holding-time experiments of up to 62 h were performed on five surface-water samples from four urban stream sites in the vicinity of Atlanta, GA, USA that had relatively high densities of coliform bacteria (Escherichia coli densities were all well above the US Environmental Protection Agency criterion of 126 colonies (100 ml)(-1) for recreational waters). Holding-time experiments were done for fecal coliform using the membrane filtration modified fecal coliform (mFC) agar method and for total coliform and E. coli using the Colilert-18 Quanti-Tray method. The precisions of these analytical methods were quantified. Precisions determined for fecal coliform indicated that the upper bound of the ideal range of counts could reasonably be extended upward and would improve precision. For the Colilert-18 method, analytical precisions were similar to the theoretical precisions for this method. Fecal and total coliform densities did not change significantly with holding times up to about 27 h. Limited information indicated that fecal coliform densities might be stable for holding times of up to 62 h, whereas total coliform densities might not be stable for holding times greater than about 27 h. E. coli densities were stable for holding times of up to 18 h--a shorter period than indicated from a previous studies. These results should be applicable to non-regulatory monitoring sampling designs for similar urban surface-water sample types. PMID:19165613

Aulenbach, Brent T

2010-02-01

26

Bacteria holding times for fecal coliform by mFC agar method and total coliform and Escherichia coli by Colilert??-18 Quanti-Tray ?? method  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacteria holding-time experiments of up to 62 h were performed on five surface-water samples from four urban stream sites in the vicinity of Atlanta, GA, USA that had relatively high densities of coliform bacteria (Escherichia coli densities were all well above the US Environmental Protection Agency criterion of 126 colonies (100 ml)???-???1 for recreational waters). Holding-time experiments were done for fecal coliform using the membrane filtration modified fecal coliform (mFC) agar method and for total coliform and E. coli using the Colilert??-18 Quanti-Tray ?? method. The precisions of these analytical methods were quantified. Precisions determined for fecal coliform indicated that the upper bound of the ideal range of counts could reasonably be extended upward and would improve precision. For the Colilert??-18 method, analytical precisions were similar to the theoretical precisions for this method. Fecal and total coliform densities did not change significantly with holding times up to about 27 h. Limited information indicated that fecal coliform densities might be stable for holding times of up to 62 h, whereas total coliform densities might not be stable for holding times greater than about 27 h. E. coli densities were stable for holding times of up to 18 h-a shorter period than indicated from a previous studies. These results should be applicable to non-regulatory monitoring sampling designs for similar urban surface-water sample types. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Aulenbach, B.T.

2010-01-01

27

Enhancing Fecal Coliform Total Maximum Daily Load Models Through Bacterial Source Tracking  

Science.gov (United States)

Surface water impairment by fecal coliform bacteria is a water quality issue of national scope and importance. In Virginia, more than 400 stream and river segments are on the Commonwealth's 2002 303(d) list because of fecal coliform impairment. Total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) will be developed for most of these listed streams and rivers. Information regarding the major fecal coliform sources that impair surface water quality would enhance the development of effective watershed models and improve TMDLs. Bacterial source tracking (BST) is a recently developed technology for identifying the sources of fecal coliform bacteria and it may be helpful in generating improved TMDLs. Bacterial source tracking was performed, watershed models were developed, and TMDLs were prepared for three streams (Accotink Creek, Christians Creek, and Blacks Run) on Virginia's 303(d) list of impaired waters. Quality assurance of the BST work suggests that these data adequately describe the bacteria sources that are impairing these streams. Initial comparison of simulated bacterial sources with the observed BST data indicated that the fecal coliform sources were represented inaccurately in the initial model simulation. Revised model simulations (based on BST data) appeared to provide a better representation of the sources of fecal coliform bacteria in these three streams. The coupled approach of incorporating BST data into the fecal coliform transport model appears to reduce model uncertainty and should result in an improved TMDL.

Hyer, Kenneth E.; Moyer, Douglas L.

2004-12-01

28

Removal of total coliforms, thermotolerant coliforms, and helminth eggs in Swine production wastewater treated in anaerobic and aerobic reactors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present work evaluated the performance of two treatment systems in reducing indicators of biological contamination in swine production wastewater. System I consisted of two upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors, with 510 and 209?L in volume, being serially arranged. System II consisted of a UASB reactor, anaerobic filter, trickling filter, and decanter, being also organized in series, with volumes of 300, 190, 250, and 150?L, respectively. Hydraulic retention times (HRT) applied in the first UASB reactors were 40, 30, 20, and 11?h in systems I and II. The average removal efficiencies of total and thermotolerant coliforms in system I were 92.92% to 99.50% and 94.29% to 99.56%, respectively, and increased in system II to 99.45% to 99.91% and 99.52% to 99.93%, respectively. Average removal rates of helminth eggs in system I were 96.44% to 99.11%, reaching 100% as in system II. In reactor sludge, the counts of total and thermotolerant coliforms ranged between 10(5) and 10(9)?MPN (100?mL)(-1), while helminth eggs ranged from 0.86 to 9.27?eggs?g(-1)?TS. PMID:24812560

Zacarias Sylvestre, Silvia Helena; Lux Hoppe, Estevam Guilherme; de Oliveira, Roberto Alves

2014-01-01

29

Analysis of The Microbiological Contamination (Total And Fecal Coliforms) In The Bay Of Santa Marta, Colombian Caribbean  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the purpose of making an analysis of the microbiological level of contamination and the main sources of contamination in the Bay of Santa Marta (BSM), water samples were collected to measure the concentrations of total and fecal coliforms in 11 stations and two levels of depth (1 and 20 m). For the time of greater precipitations were stops values of total and fecal coliforms, in both depth levels; appearing a similar condition for the dry time. Based on a conceptual scale it was obtained that the BSM presents an average degree of contamination for activities of primary contact (swimming and diving), nevertheless, exist several sources of contamination (submarine emissary, river, seaport, among others) that are generating a high impact on this ecosystem. The high values of contamination that are registered in the BSM find associate to the proximity that has this to the urban zones.

30

Total coliform detection in drinking water: comparison of membrane filtration with Colilert and Coliquik.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Colilert (CL) and Coliquik (CQ) systems were compared in a presence-absence format against the Standard Methods membrane filtration (MF) technique to determine whether differences existed in total coliform detection. Approximately 750 water samples were collected from distribution systems, covered and uncovered storage reservoirs, well sites, and the influent to drinking water treatment plants. Samples were analyzed for total coliforms and heterotrophic bacteria with MF, CL, and CQ. The agreements between CL and MF and between CQ and MF were both greater than 94.8%, which indicates that both may be acceptable methods for total coliform detection. Disagreement between the CL and CQ methods was primarily due to false-negative results. Furthermore, laboratory and field inoculation methods were compared for CL, more than 98% agreement was obtained. This finding indicates that sampling and immediate field inoculation may be an alternative to the traditional laboratory inoculation. PMID:1854206

Olson, B H; Clark, D L; Milner, B B; Stewart, M H; Wolfe, R L

1991-05-01

31

A new membrane filtration medium for simultaneous detection and enumeration of Escherichia coli and total coliforms.  

OpenAIRE

Recovery of total coliforms and Escherichia coli on a new membrane filtration (MF) medium was evaluated with 25 water samples from seven states. Testing of the new medium, m-ColiBlue24 broth, was conducted according to a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency protocol. For comparison, this same protocol was used to measure recovery of total coliforms and E. coli with two standard MF media, m-Endo broth and mTEC broth. E. coli recovery on the new medium was also compared to recovery on nutrient ...

Grant, M. A.

1997-01-01

32

Molecular method for detection of total coliforms in drinking water samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work demonstrates the ability of a bacterial concentration and recovery procedure combined with three different PCR assays targeting the lacZ, wecG, and 16S rRNA genes, respectively, to detect the presence of total coliforms in 100-ml samples of potable water (presence/absence test). PCR assays were first compared to the culture-based Colilert and MI agar methods to determine their ability to detect 147 coliform strains representing 76 species of Enterobacteriaceae encountered in fecal and environmental settings. Results showed that 86 (58.5%) and 109 (74.1%) strains yielded a positive signal with Colilert and MI agar methods, respectively, whereas the lacZ, wecG, and 16S rRNA PCR assays detected 133 (90.5%), 111 (75.5%), and 146 (99.3%) of the 147 total coliform strains tested. These assays were then assessed by testing 122 well water samples collected in the Québec City region of Canada. Results showed that 97 (79.5%) of the samples tested by culture-based methods and 95 (77.9%), 82 (67.2%), and 98 (80.3%) of samples tested using PCR-based methods contained total coliforms, respectively. Consequently, despite the high genetic variability of the total coliform group, this study demonstrated that it is possible to use molecular assays to detect total coliforms in potable water: the 16S rRNA molecular assay was shown to be as efficient as recommended culture-based methods. This assay might be used in combination with an Escherichia coli molecular assay to assess drinking water quality. PMID:24771030

Maheux, Andrée F; Boudreau, Dominique K; Bisson, Marc-Antoine; Dion-Dupont, Vanessa; Bouchard, Sébastien; Nkuranga, Martine; Bergeron, Michel G; Rodriguez, Manuel J

2014-07-01

33

ANÁLISIS DE LA CONTAMINACIÓN MICROBIOLÓGICA (COLIFORMES TOTALES Y FECALES EN LA BAHÍA DE SANTA MARTA, CARIBE COLOMBIANO Analysis Of The Microbiological Contamination (Total And Fecales Coliforms In The Bay Of Santa Marta, Colombian Caribbean  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Con el fin de realizar un análisis del nivel de contaminación microbiológica y de las principales fuentes de contaminación en la Bahía de Santa Marta (BSM, se colectaron muestras de agua para medir las concentraciones de coliformes totales y fecales en 11 estaciones y dos niveles de profundidad (1 y 20 m. Para la época de mayores precipitaciones se encontraron altos valores de coliformes totales y fecales, en los dos niveles de profundidad; presentándose una condición similar para la época seca. Con base a una escala conceptual se obtuvo que la BSM presenta un grado de contaminación medio para actividades de contacto primario (natación y buceo, sin embargo, existen varias fuentes de contaminación (emisario submarino, río, puerto marítimo, entre otras que están generando un alto impacto sobre este ecosistema. Los altos valores de contaminación que se registran en la BSM se encuentran asociados a la proximidad que tiene esta a las zonas urbanas.With the purpose of making an analysis of the microbiological level of contamination and the main sources of contamination in the Bay of Santa Marta (BSM, water samples were collected to measure the concentrations of total and fecals coliforms in 11 stations and two levels of depth (1 and 20 m. For the time of greater precipitations were stops values of total and fecals coliforms, in both depth levels; appearing a similar condition for the dry time. Based on a conceptual scale it was obtained that the BSM presents an average degree of contamination for activities of primary contact (swimming and diving, nevertheless, exist several sources of contamination (submarine emissary, river, seaport, among others that are generating a high impact on this ecosystem. The high values of contamination that are registered in the BSM find associate to the proximity that has this to the urban zones.

LINA MARÍA RAMOS-ORTEGA

34

ANÁLISIS DE LA CONTAMINACIÓN MICROBIOLÓGICA (COLIFORMES TOTALES Y FECALES) EN LA BAHÍA DE SANTA MARTA, CARIBE COLOMBIANO / Analysis Of The Microbiological Contamination (Total And Fecales Coliforms) In The Bay Of Santa Marta, Colombian Caribbean  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el fin de realizar un análisis del nivel de contaminación microbiológica y de las principales fuentes de contaminación en la Bahía de Santa Marta (BSM), se colectaron muestras de agua para medir las concentraciones de coliformes totales y fecales en 11 estaciones y dos niveles de profundidad (1 [...] y 20 m). Para la época de mayores precipitaciones se encontraron altos valores de coliformes totales y fecales, en los dos niveles de profundidad; presentándose una condición similar para la época seca. Con base a una escala conceptual se obtuvo que la BSM presenta un grado de contaminación medio para actividades de contacto primario (natación y buceo), sin embargo, existen varias fuentes de contaminación (emisario submarino, río, puerto marítimo, entre otras) que están generando un alto impacto sobre este ecosistema. Los altos valores de contaminación que se registran en la BSM se encuentran asociados a la proximidad que tiene esta a las zonas urbanas. Abstract in english With the purpose of making an analysis of the microbiological level of contamination and the main sources of contamination in the Bay of Santa Marta (BSM), water samples were collected to measure the concentrations of total and fecals coliforms in 11 stations and two levels of depth (1 and 20 m). Fo [...] r the time of greater precipitations were stops values of total and fecals coliforms, in both depth levels; appearing a similar condition for the dry time. Based on a conceptual scale it was obtained that the BSM presents an average degree of contamination for activities of primary contact (swimming and diving), nevertheless, exist several sources of contamination (submarine emissary, river, seaport, among others) that are generating a high impact on this ecosystem. The high values of contamination that are registered in the BSM find associate to the proximity that has this to the urban zones.

LINA MARÍA, RAMOS-ORTEGA; LUÍS A, VIDAL; SANDRA, VILARDY; LINA, SAAVEDRA-DÍAZ.

2008-12-01

35

Influence of inter-annual variations in climatic factors on fecal coliform levels in Mississippi Sound.  

Science.gov (United States)

Information on the effects of inter-annual variations in climatic factors on fecal coliform levels in coastal waters is scarce. We used 11 years (1990-2001) of rainfall, water temperature, Pearl River stage and salinity data to assess the effects of the 1991-1992 and 1997-1998 El Nino events on fecal coliform levels in Mississippi Sound. El Nino-Southern Oscillation had major effects on Pearl River stage and water quality in the Sound. The geometric mean fecal coliform number differed among years (P = 0.0001), being highest during 1991-1992 El Nino years (14.22 MPN per 100 ml) and lowest during 1999-2000 La Nina years (<1.8 MPN per 100 ml). Mean salinity varied among years (P = 0.0001) from 9 ppt (1991-1992) to 21 ppt (1999-2000). Mean water temperature was lowest in 1997-1998 (14.5 degrees C) and highest in 1998-2000 (19.4 degrees C). Pearl River stage differed among years (P = 0.0001), ranging from 1.96 m (1999-2000) to 3.57 m (1997-1998). Inverse relationships were observed between fecal coliform levels and salinity (r(2) = 0.74; P = 0.001) and water temperature (r(2) = 0.69; P=0.001), whereas positive relationships were obtained with total rainfall (r(2) = 0.52; P = 0.013) and Pearl River stage (r(2) = 0.90; P = 0.0001). These relationships are useful for evaluating the potential effects of climate change on water quality and classification of shellfish growing waters in order to protect humans from consuming contaminated shellfish in shallow river-influenced estuaries. PMID:15556209

Chigbu, P; Gordon, S; Strange, T

2004-12-01

36

Evaluation of the Autoanalysis Colilert test for detection and enumeration of total coliforms.  

OpenAIRE

The Autoanalysis Colilert (AC) test was compared with the membrane filter (MF), 10-tube multiple-tube fermentation (MTF) technique, and the presence-absence test as described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater for the detection and enumeration of total coliforms in water. The methods were evaluated with 31 samples from seven different sources. Each sample was analyzed by each of the techniques, using replicate 100-ml sample volumes. A total of 582 confirmed tubes ...

Covert, T. C.; Shadix, L. C.; Rice, E. W.; Haines, J. R.; Freyberg, R. W.

1989-01-01

37

New medium for the simultaneous detection of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in water.  

OpenAIRE

A new membrane filter agar medium (MI agar) containing a chromogen, indoxyl-beta-D-glucuronide, and a fluorogen, 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside, was developed to simultaneously detect and enumerate Escherichia coli and total coliforms (TC) in water samples on the basis of their enzyme activities. TC produced beta-galactosidase, which cleaved 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside to form 4-methylumbelliferone, a compound that fluoresced under longwave UV light (366 nm), ...

Brenner, K. P.; Rankin, C. C.; Roybal, Y. R.; Stelma, G. N.; Scarpino, P. V.; Dufour, A. P.

1993-01-01

38

Detection of false-positives among total and fecal coliform counts by factorial analysis of correspondence.  

OpenAIRE

Application of an analysis of correspondence to the biochemical characteristics of total and fecal coliforms isolated in the Ivory Coast permitted us to separate two small clusters of isolates different from the main clusters, which included isolates from human and animal feces. The isolates grouped in the small clusters were from water samples. An analysis of the biochemical characteristics which permitted the segregation of the "water-specific" isolates from the main clusters indicates that...

Joncas, M.; Michaud, S.; Carmichael, J. P.; Lavoie, M. C.

1985-01-01

39

Use of Readycult[tm] - LMX for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Readycult[tm] - LMX is a rapid method to test for the presence of total coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli in water, giving results in 24h. It is based on reactions of specific microbial enzymes or indicator nutrients of the medium. The goal of this paper was to study the use of Readycult[tm] - LMX to detect total coliform and E. coli in milk. One hundred twenty five samples of pasteurized and raw milk, collected in Londrina, PR, Brazil, were tested simultaneously by the most probable number (MPN method using Brilliant Green Bile Lactose Broth (2% (BRILA and Readycult[tm] - LMX. The Readycult[tm] - LMX test was evaluated for sensitivity, simplicity, and speed of results. There was a significant correlation between the results obtained by the two methods for total coliforms (r: 0.8224 and for E. coli (r: 0.8603. The two methods yielded similar results, but Readycult[tm] - LMX was easier to use. In addition, results were available as early as 24h.

Beloti Vanerli

2002-01-01

40

Analytical limits of four beta-glucuronidase and beta-galactosidase-based commercial culture methods used to detect Escherichia coli and total coliforms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Colilert (Colilert), Readycult Coliforms 100 (Readycult), Chromocult Coliform agar ES (Chromocult), and MI agar (MI) are beta-galactosidase and beta-glucuronidase-based commercial culture methods used to assess water quality. Their analytical performance, in terms of their respective ability to detect different strains of Escherichia coli and total coliforms, had never been systematically compared with pure cultures. Here, their ability to detect beta-glucuronidase production from E. coli isolates was evaluated by using 74 E. coli strains of different geographic origins and serotypes encountered in fecal and environmental settings. Their ability to detect beta-galactosidase production was studied by testing the 74 E. coli strains as well as 33 reference and environmental non-E. coli total coliform strains. Chromocult, MI, Readycult, and Colilert detected beta-glucuronidase production from respectively 79.9, 79.9, 81.1, and 51.4% of the 74 E. coli strains tested. These 4 methods detected beta-galactosidase production from respectively 85.1, 73.8, 84.1, and 84.1% of the total coliform strains tested. The results of the present study suggest that Colilert is the weakest method tested to detect beta-glucuronidase production and MI the weakest to detect beta-galactosidase production. Furthermore, the high level of false-negative results for E. coli recognition obtained by all four methods suggests that they may not be appropriate for identification of presumptive E. coli strains. PMID:18760312

Maheux, Andrée F; Huppé, Vicky; Boissinot, Maurice; Picard, François J; Bissonnette, Luc; Bernier, Jean-Luc T; Bergeron, Michel G

2008-12-01

41

Variability in the characterization of total coliforms, fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli in recreational water supplies of north Mississippi, USA.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, is a historical organism for the detection of fecal pollution in water supplies. The presence of E. coli indicates a potential contamination of the water supply by other more hazardous human pathogens. In order to accurately determine the presence and degree of fecal contamination, it is important that standard methods approved by the US Environmental Protection Agency are designed to determine the presence of E. coli in a water supply, and distinguish E. coli from other coliform bacteria (e.g. Citrobacter, Klebsiella and Enterobacter). These genera of bacteria are present not only in fecal matter, but also in soil and runoff water and are not good indicators of fecal contamination. There is also ambiguity in determining a positive result for fecal coliforms on M-FC filters by a blue colony. When all variations of blue, including light blue or glossy blue, were examined, confirmation methods agreed with the positive M-FC result less often than when colonies that the technician would merely call "blue", with no descriptors, were examined. Approximately 48 % of M-FC positive colonies were found to be E. coli with 4 methylumbelliferyl-?-D-glucuronide (MUG), and only 23 % of samples producing a positive result on M-FC media were found to be E. coli using API-20E test strips and current API-20E profiles. The majority of other M-FC blue colonies were found to be Klebsiella or were unidentifiable with current API-20E profiles. Two positive M-FC colonies were found to be Kluyvera with API-20E, both of which cleaved MUG and produced fluorescence under UV light, a characteristic used to differentiate E. coli from other fecal coliforms. PMID:24952738

Fiello, M; Mikell, A T; Moore, M T; Cooper, C M

2014-08-01

42

Enumeration of total coliforms and E. coli in foods by the SimPlate coliform and E. coli color indicator method and conventional culture methods: collaborative study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relative effectiveness of the SimPlate Coliform and E. coli Color Indicator (CEc-CI) method was compared to the AOAC 3-tube Most Probable Number (MPN) methods for enumerating and confirming coliforms and Escherichia coli in foods (966.23 and 966.24). In this study, test portions were prepared and analyzed according to the conditions stated in both the AOAC methods and SimPlate directions for use. Six food types were artificially contaminated with coliform bacteria and E. coli: frozen burritos, frozen broccoli, fluid pasteurized milk, whole almond nut meats, cheese, and powdered cake mix. Method comparisons were conducted. Overall, the SimPlate method demonstrated SimPlate CEc-CI method were not different from those of the reference methods and in certain cases, were statistically better than those of the AOAC 3-tube MPN methods. These results indicate that the SimPlate CEc-CI method and the reference culture methods are comparable for enumeration of both total coliforms and E. coli in foods. PMID:16385981

Feldsine, Philip T; Lienau, Andrew H; Roa, Nerie H; Green, Shannon T

2005-01-01

43

Avaliação do padrão coliformes a 45ºC e comparação da eficiência das técnicas dos tubos múltiplos e Petrifilm EC na detecção de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em alimentos / Coliforms at 45ºc and comparison of most probable number method and Petrifilm EC for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli of foods  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Coliformes fecais são definidos como coliformes capazes de fermentar a lactose com produção de gás em 48 h a 45ºC. Escherichia coli, juntamente com algumas cepas de Enterobacter e Klebsiella, podem apresentar essas características. Entretanto, apenas a presença de Escherichia coli em alimentos indic [...] a contaminação fecal por ser encontrada em grande quantidade no trato gastrointestinal do homem e animais de sangue quente, não sendo isolada normalmente em outros nichos. A denominação clássica de coliformes fecais foi alterada para coliformes a 45ºC, na Resolução nº 12 da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a presença de E. coli entre os coliformes a 45ºC e comparar a eficiência das técnicas dos tubos múltiplos e Petrifilm EC na detecção de coliformes totais e E. coli em queijo Minas, lingüiça frescal, hortaliças e fubá. Petrifilm EC mostrou-se mais sensível na detecção de E. coli em relação ao método de tubos múltiplos, o qual apresentou resultados falso-negativos ou contagens subestimadas de E. coli, principalmente para amostras de alimentos de origem animal. Petrifilm EC foi o mais eficiente e prático, sendo um método alternativo adequado para a enumeração de coliformes totais e E. coli em alimentos. Abstract in english Fecal coliforms are defined as coliforms that ferment lactose with gas production within 48 hours at 45ºC. Escherichia coli and some strains of Enterobacter and Klebsiella show these same characteristics. However, only the presence of E. coli can indicate fecal contamination of foods, because it is [...] abundantly found in the intestinal tract of all warm-blooded animals, including the humans, and it is not usually found in others niches. The classic denomination of fecal coliforms was changed to coliforms at 45ºC in the Resolution nº 12/2001 of the National Surveillance Agency of Brazil. The objectives of this study were to analyse the presence of E. coli among the coliforms at 45ºC and to compare the methods of Most Probable Number Method (MPN) and Petrifilm EC in their efficiency to detect E. coli in Minas cheese, sausage, fresh vegetables and corn flower samples. Petrifilm EC was more accurate method than MNP method, which presented false negative results or underestimation of E. coli. In conclusion, Petrifilm EC was an efficient and practical method to detect E. coli. Therefore, it may be alternatively used for enumeration of total coliforms and E. coli in foods.

M.P., Silva; D.R., Cavalli; T.C.R.M., Oliveira.

2006-06-01

44

Avaliação do padrão coliformes a 45ºC e comparação da eficiência das técnicas dos tubos múltiplos e Petrifilm EC na detecção de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em alimentos Coliforms at 45ºc and comparison of most probable number method and Petrifilm EC for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli of foods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Coliformes fecais são definidos como coliformes capazes de fermentar a lactose com produção de gás em 48 h a 45ºC. Escherichia coli, juntamente com algumas cepas de Enterobacter e Klebsiella, podem apresentar essas características. Entretanto, apenas a presença de Escherichia coli em alimentos indica contaminação fecal por ser encontrada em grande quantidade no trato gastrointestinal do homem e animais de sangue quente, não sendo isolada normalmente em outros nichos. A denominação clássica de coliformes fecais foi alterada para coliformes a 45ºC, na Resolução nº 12 da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a presença de E. coli entre os coliformes a 45ºC e comparar a eficiência das técnicas dos tubos múltiplos e Petrifilm EC na detecção de coliformes totais e E. coli em queijo Minas, lingüiça frescal, hortaliças e fubá. Petrifilm EC mostrou-se mais sensível na detecção de E. coli em relação ao método de tubos múltiplos, o qual apresentou resultados falso-negativos ou contagens subestimadas de E. coli, principalmente para amostras de alimentos de origem animal. Petrifilm EC foi o mais eficiente e prático, sendo um método alternativo adequado para a enumeração de coliformes totais e E. coli em alimentos.Fecal coliforms are defined as coliforms that ferment lactose with gas production within 48 hours at 45ºC. Escherichia coli and some strains of Enterobacter and Klebsiella show these same characteristics. However, only the presence of E. coli can indicate fecal contamination of foods, because it is abundantly found in the intestinal tract of all warm-blooded animals, including the humans, and it is not usually found in others niches. The classic denomination of fecal coliforms was changed to coliforms at 45ºC in the Resolution nº 12/2001 of the National Surveillance Agency of Brazil. The objectives of this study were to analyse the presence of E. coli among the coliforms at 45ºC and to compare the methods of Most Probable Number Method (MPN and Petrifilm EC in their efficiency to detect E. coli in Minas cheese, sausage, fresh vegetables and corn flower samples. Petrifilm EC was more accurate method than MNP method, which presented false negative results or underestimation of E. coli. In conclusion, Petrifilm EC was an efficient and practical method to detect E. coli. Therefore, it may be alternatively used for enumeration of total coliforms and E. coli in foods.

M.P. Silva

2006-06-01

45

Enumeration of total bacteria and coliforms in milk by dry rehydratable film methods: collaborative study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eleven laboratories participated in a collaborative study to compare the dry rehydratable film (Petrifilm SM and Petrifilm VRB) methods, respectively, to the standard plate count (SPC) and violet red bile agar (VRBA) standard methods for estimation of total bacteria and coliform counts in raw and homogenized pasteurized milk. Each laboratory analyzed 16 samples (8 different samples in blind duplicate) for total count by both the SPC and Petrifilm SM methods. A second set of 16 samples was analyzed by the VRBA and Petrifilm VRB methods. The repeatability standard deviations (the square root of the between-replicates variance) of the SPC, Petrifilm SM, VRBA, and Petrifilm VRB methods were 0.05104, 0.0444, 0.14606, and 0.13806, respectively; the reproducibility standard deviations were 0.7197, 0.06380, 0.15326, and 0.13806, respectively. The difference between the mean log10 SPC and the mean log10 Petrifilm SM results was 0.027. For the VRBA and Petrifilm VRB methods, the mean log10 difference was 0.013. These results generally indicate the suitability of the dry rehydratable film methods as alternatives to the SPC and VRBA methods for milk samples. The methods have been adopted official first action. PMID:3522537

Ginn, R E; Packard, V S; Fox, T L

1986-01-01

46

Inactivation and injury of total coliform bacteria after primary disinfection of drinking water by TiO2 photocatalysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study the potential application of TiO2 photocatalysis as primary disinfection system of drinking water was investigated in terms of coliform bacteria inactivation and injury. As model water the effluent of biological denitrification unit for nitrate removal from groundwater, which is characterized by high organic matter and bacteria release, was used. The injury of photocatalysis on coliform bacteria was characterized by means of selective (mEndo) and less selective (mT7) culture media. Different catalyst loadings as well as photolysis and adsorption effects were investigated. Photocatalysis was effective in coliform bacteria inactivation (91-99% after 60 min irradiation time, depending on both catalyst loading and initial density of coliform bacteria detected by mEndo), although no total removal was observed after 60 min irradiation time. The contribution of adsorption mechanism was significant (60-98% after 60 min, depending on catalyst loading) compared to previous investigations probably due to the nature of source water rich in particulate organic matter and biofilm. Photocatalysis process did not result in any irreversible injury (98.8% being the higher injury) under investigated conditions, thus a bacteria regrowth may take place under optimum environment conditions if any final disinfection process (e.g., chlorine or chlorine dioxide) is not used.

47

ANÁLISIS DE LA CONTAMINACIÓN MICROBIOLÓGICA (COLIFORMES TOTALES Y FECALES EN LA BAHÍA DE SANTA MARTA, CARIBE COLOMBIANO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Con el fin de realizar un análisis del nivel de contaminación microbiológica y de las principales fuentes de contaminación en la Bahía de Santa Marta (BSM, se colectaron muestras de agua para medir las concentraciones de coliformes totales y fecales en 11 estaciones y dos niveles de profundidad (1 y 20 m. Para la época de mayores precipitaciones se encontraron altos valores de coliformes totales y fecales, en los dos niveles de profundidad; presentándose una condición similar para la época seca. Con base a una escala conceptual se obtuvo que la BSM presenta un grado de contaminación medio para actividades de contacto primario (natación y buceo, sin embargo, existen varias fuentes de contaminación (emisario submarino, río, puerto marítimo, entre otras que están generando un alto impacto sobre este ecosistema. Los altos valores de contaminación que se registran en la BSM se encuentran asociados a la proximidad que tiene esta a las zonas urbanas.

Saavedra Lina

2008-12-01

48

Evaluation of colilert-marine water for detection of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in the marine environment.  

OpenAIRE

A test that allows for early detection of fecally contaminated coastal water would enhance public health protection. Colilert-Marine Water (Colilert-MW; Environetics, Branford, Conn.) is a rapid 24-h test that has recently been developed to detect total coliforms and Escherichia coli in coastal water. We performed a premarketing evaluation of the Colilert-MW product, testing it in parallel with the multiple tube fermentation (MTF) method for 86 coastal water samples in southern California. St...

Palmer, C. J.; Tsai, Y. L.; Lang, A. L.; Sangermano, L. R.

1993-01-01

49

Evaluation of colilert-marine water for detection of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in the marine environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

A test that allows for early detection of fecally contaminated coastal water would enhance public health protection. Colilert-Marine Water (Colilert-MW; Environetics, Branford, Conn.) is a rapid 24-h test that has recently been developed to detect total coliforms and Escherichia coli in coastal water. We performed a premarketing evaluation of the Colilert-MW product, testing it in parallel with the multiple tube fermentation (MTF) method for 86 coastal water samples in southern California. Statistical analysis was performed by using paired t tests and linear regression. Bacterial isolates were evaluated by biochemical and genetic analysis. The results of this study showed a strong correlation between the traditional MTF and the Colilert-MW method for detection of total coliforms (r = 0.95) and E. coli (r = 0.89) in ocean water samples. Paired t-test results indicated that the Colilert-MW and MTF were equivalent in detecting E. coli and that the Colilert-MW may be more sensitive in the detection of total coliforms. We conclude that Colilert-MW would be a useful tool with which to monitor coastal beach water. PMID:8481005

Palmer, C J; Tsai, Y L; Lang, A L; Sangermano, L R

1993-03-01

50

National field evaluation of a defined substrate method for the simultaneous detection of total coliforms and Escherichia coli from drinking water: comparison with presence-absence techniques.  

OpenAIRE

A defined substrate method was applied to drinking water to simultaneously enumerate total coliforms and total Escherichia coli directly from samples. After incubation at 35 degrees C for 24 h, the development of yellow in an initially colorless solution was specific for total coliforms; fluorescence at 366 nm in the same tube(s) or vessel demonstrated the presence of E. coli. No confirmatory or completed steps were necessary. Known as autoanalysis colilert (AC), this method was constituted a...

Edberg, S. C.; Allen, M. J.; Smith, D. B.

1989-01-01

51

40 CFR 141.21 - Coliform sampling.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coliform sampling. 141.21 Section 141...Analytical Requirements § 141.21 Coliform sampling. (a) Routine monitoring...Public water systems must collect total coliform samples at sites which are...

2010-07-01

52

40 CFR 141.803 - Coliform sampling.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coliform sampling. 141.803 Section 141...Aircraft Drinking Water Rule § 141.803 Coliform sampling. (a) Analytical methodology...standard sample volume required for total coliform analysis, regardless of analytical...

2010-07-01

53

Assessment of the characteristic of nutrients, total metals, and fecal coliform in Sibu Laut River, Sarawak, Malaysia  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentrations of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), total metals, and fecal coliform (FC) coupling with chlorophyll-a (chl-a), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and other general environmental parameters were evaluated at the sub-surface and near-bottom water columns of 13 stations in the Sibu Laut River during low and high slack waters. The results indicated that inorganic nitrogen (mainly nitrate) was the primary form of nitrogen whereas organic phosphorus was the major form of phosphorus. The abundance of total heavy metals in Sibu Laut River and its tributaries was in the order of Pb < Cu < Zn < Cd. Fecal coliform concentration was relatively low along Sibu Laut River. The shrimp farm effluents contributed a substantial amount of chl-a, BOD5, nutrients, and FC to the receiving creek except for total metals. Nevertheless, the influence was merely noticeable in the intake creek and amended rapidly along Selang Sibu River and brought minimal effects on the Sibu Laut River. Besides, the domestic sewage effluents from villages nearby also contributed a substantial amount of pollutants.

Soo, Chen-Lin; Ling, Teck-Yee; Lee, Nyanti; Apun, Kasing

2014-06-01

54

Comparison of the recoveries of Escherichia coli and total coliforms from drinking water by the MI agar method and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-approved membrane filter method.  

OpenAIRE

Drinking water regulations under the Final Coliform Rule require that total coliform-positive drinking water samples be examined for the presence of Escherichia coli or fecal coliforms. The current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-approved membrane filter (MF) method for E. coli requires two media, an MF transfer, and a total incubation time of 28 h. A newly developed MF method, the MI agar method, containing indoxyl-beta-D-glucuronide and 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside for...

Brenner, K. P.; Rankin, C. C.; Sivaganesan, M.; Scarpino, P. V.

1996-01-01

55

LISTERIA SPP., COLIFORMES TOTAIS E FECAIS E E.COLI NO LEITE CRU E PASTEURIZADO DE UMA INDÚSTRIA DE LATICÍNIOS, NO ESTADO DA PARAÍBA (BRASIL) / LISTERIA SPP., TOTAL COLIFORM, FECAL COLIFORM AND E.COLI ON RAW AND PASTEURIZED MILK ON A DAIRY INDUSTRY, (PARAÍBA, BRAZIL)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Investigou-se a qualidade microbiológica do leite in natura e na linha de produção (leite recém-pasteurizado e leite ensacado), de uma usina de beneficiamento em Campina Grande-PB. Foi pesquisada a presença de Listeria spp. e sua diversidade de espécies, os níveis de coliformes totais (CT), coliform [...] es fecais (CF) e Escherichia coli. Analisou-se um total de 75 amostras de leite, sendo 45 de leite cru, 15 de leite recém-pasteurizado e 15 de leite ensacado. Os resultados foram reunidos em dois grupos segundo o período de monitoramento: antes e após mudanças no processo de higienização da usina. Foi evidenciada elevada contaminação nas amostras de leite cru nas duas épocas. Na primeira (março-abril/1998), todas as amostras de leite beneficiado estiveram fora dos padrões da legislação vigente para CT e CF; na segunda (maio-agosto/1998), houve acentuada redução dos níveis destas bactérias indicadoras, porém as melhorias na higienização não foram suficientes para solucionar este problema, visto que 11,1% das amostras recém-pasteurizadas estavam fora dos padrões para CT e 33,3% para CF. Das amostras ensacadas, 22,2% estavam fora dos padrões para CT e 44,4% para CF. Comparando-se os resultados de CT, CF, e E.coli nas amostras de leite recém-pasteurizado e não ensacado com as amostras de leite ensacado, foi verificado que as amostras após serem pasteurizadas e ensacadas apresentaram valores de CT e CF levemente mais elevados, sugerindo contaminação durante o processo de ensacamento ou falhas na armazenagem. Observou-se que 33 (73,3%) das amostras de leite cru e 9 (30%) das de leite pasteurizado estavam contaminadas com Listeria spp., sendo identificadas L. monocytogenes em 17 (51,5%) amostras de leite cru e em 9 (100%) de leite beneficiado (4 recém-pasteurizadas e 5 ensacadas). Em relação à diversidade de espécies, nas amostras de leite cru foram encontradas: L. monocytogenes (66,6%), L. innocua (25,3%), L. ivanovii (3,9%), L. welshimeri (2,5%) e L. grayi (1,5%). Nas amostras de leite pasteurizado isolaram-se: L. monocyogenes e L. innocua. O conjunto dos resultados evidenciou deficiências higiênico-sanitárias no leite in natura e ao longo do processo de produção, resultando em porcentagens elevadas de amostras que ultrapassaram os valores padrões de CT e CF além de apresentarem-se contaminadas por Listeria spp., com predominância de L. monocytogenes, sugerindo a existência de uma relação direta entre os altos índices de coliformes e a presença de Listeria spp. Abstract in english The microbiological quality of raw and pasteurized milk was studied along its line production in a dairy factory in Paraíba State, Brazil. Listeria monocytogenes was frequent found in raw milk and the levels of total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC) and Escherichia coli, were high in the same sa [...] mples. The results of 75 milk studied samples (45 raw milk, 15 recently pasteurized and 15 sacked), were distributed in two clusters, according its collected period (before and after changes in factory's hygienic process). Both raw samples groups showed high contamination. In the first period (March-April/1998), all the pasteurized milk were out of total and fecal coliforms standards. During the second period (May-August/1998), there was a significant reduction of coliforms levels, however the progress in hygienic conditions were not enough for eliminate the contamination: 11.1% of recent pasteurized milk samples and 22.2% of sacked milk samples were out of TC and also 33.3% and 44.4% recent pasteurized and sacked milk samples. Sacked milk presented more TC and FC than recent pasteurized milk, suggesting contamination after pasteurization or failure at storage. Listeria spp. was found in 33 raw milk samples (73.3%) and in 9 (30%) of pasteurized milk samples. L. monocytogenes was isolated in 17 (51.5%) raw milk samples and in 9 (100%) pasteurized milk samples (4 recent-pasteurized and 5 sacked). The Listeria spp. di

Raïssa Mayer Ramalho, CATÃO; Beatriz Susana Ovruski de, CEBALLOS.

2001-12-01

56

Comparison of membrane filter, multiple-fermentation-tube, and presence-absence techniques for detecting total coliforms in small community water systems.  

OpenAIRE

Methods for detecting total coliform bacteria in drinking water were compared using 1,483 different drinking water samples from 15 small community water systems in Vermont and New Hampshire. The methods included the membrane filter (MF) technique, a 10-tube fermentation tube (FT) technique, and the presence-absence (P-A) test. Each technique was evaluated using a 100-ml drinking water sample. Of the 1,483 samples tested, 336 (23%) contained coliforms as indicated by either one, two, or all th...

Jacobs, N. J.; Zeigler, W. L.; Reed, F. C.; Stukel, T. A.; Rice, E. W.

1986-01-01

57

COMPARISON OF MEMBRANE FILTER, MULTIPLE-FERMENTATION-TUBE, AND PRESENCE-ABSENCE TECHNIQUES FOR DETECTING TOTAL COLIFORMS IN SMALL COMMUNITY WATER SYSTEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

Methods for detecting total coliform bacteria in drinking water were compared using 1483 different drinking water samples from 15 small community water systems in Vermont and New Hampshire. The methods included the membrane filter (MF) technique, a ten tube fermentation tube tech...

58

Evaluation of the efficiency of the application of uv for microbial inactivation (total coliforms and escherichia coli) in a wastewater treatment plant (Sucuri) In Cuiabá/MT  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this research was to evaluate a UV disinfection system process, in real scale, in Sucuri WWTP, Cuiabá/MT/Brazil, for total coliforms and Escherichia coli. The effluent came from anaerobium treatment (UASB), followed by aerobium treatment (ASBF). The system’s performance was evaluated from July to November, 2008. The experiments followed physical-chemical analysis to evaluate the influence of pH and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) parameters in the UV efficiency, beyond total phosph...

Thais dos Santos Borges; Thaisa de Souza Contar

2009-01-01

59

Evaluation of total and thermotolerant coliforms on lettuce self service restaurants in Sinop-MT  

OpenAIRE

Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is the leafy vegetable most consumed in the world and present high content of pro vitamin A in green leaves; it’s rich in calcium and iron and presents reasonable amounts of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and C. When eaten raw in salads they can to transmit pathogens if are inadequately cleaned. This study aimed to evaluate the microbiological quality of lettuce served in self-service restaurants in the city of Sinop – MT, concerning the total and thermotoler...

Perondi, P. C.; Souza, A. S.; Barreto, E. S.

2013-01-01

60

National field evaluation of a defined substrate method for the simultaneous detection of total coliforms and Escherichia coli from drinking water: comparison with presence-absence techniques.  

Science.gov (United States)

A defined substrate method was applied to drinking water to simultaneously enumerate total coliforms and total Escherichia coli directly from samples. After incubation at 35 degrees C for 24 h, the development of yellow in an initially colorless solution was specific for total coliforms; fluorescence at 366 nm in the same tube(s) or vessel demonstrated the presence of E. coli. No confirmatory or completed steps were necessary. Known as autoanalysis colilert (AC), this method was constituted as a presence-absence test and compared with the methods described in Standard Methods (SM) in the P-A format. Seven water utilities representing a wide geological and hydrological spectrum participated in the evaluation. A total of 702 split drinking water samples were analyzed. Of these, 358 were negative in both tests (SM- and AC-); 302 were positive (SM+ and AC+); and 42 were mixed (SM+ and AC-, 20; AC+ and SM-, 22). The overall agreement rate was 94%. Comparison of the SM and AC results by nonparametric statistics demonstrated no differences. Heterotrophic plate count bacteria exerted no discernible effect on the AC test. By subculture, each time the AC test was yellow, a total coliform was present; when the test was fluorescent, E. coli was isolated. PMID:2658802

Edberg, S C; Allen, M J; Smith, D B

1989-04-01

61

Coliform bacterial pollution in Rawal lake, Islamabad and its feeding streams / river  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total coliform and fecal coliform are indicators of drinking water quality. The presence of fecal coliform in water indicates contamination with fecal materials of man and other animals. This paper documents the population of total coliform colonies as well as fecal coliform contamination in Rawal lake, which is one of major source of drinking water supply to inhabitants of Rawalpindi, and its feeding streams (mainly Kurang River and three perennial streams) flowing in the administrative jurisdiction of the capital city, Islamabad, Pakistan. Coliform bacteria in Rawal lake and feeding streams water was determined by membrane filtration technique. The results indicated that E. Coli population in four streams (input waters) feeding the Rawal Lake ranged from 25 - 57 (mean 36) fecal coliform per 100 mL. The Kurang River, one of the feeding streams, hosted the largest population of fecal coliform (57 fecal coliform per 100 mL). The highest population of fecal coliform (105 fecal coliform per 100 mL) in Rawal Lake surface water was observed at the confluence of Kurang River and the Lake in the vicinity of village 'New Ampler'. While in the Rawal Lake water columns, it ranged from 12 - 65 (mean 25) fecal coliform/ 100mL. The measured levels of fecal coliform bacteria are much higher than the maximum permissible levels for drinking water as recommended by WHO and US-EPA (No fecal coliform in drinking water). It is concluded that the indiscriminate amount of pollution from doindiscriminate amount of pollution from domestic sewage and poultry industry has seriously affected the biological quality of stream waters and the Rawal Lake waters. (author)

62

Use of the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN and Bacterial Source Tracking for Development of the fecal coliform Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for Accotink Creek, Fairfax County, Virginia  

Science.gov (United States)

Impairment of surface waters by fecal coliform bacteria is a water-quality issue of national scope and importance. Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires that each State identify surface waters that do not meet applicable water-quality standards. In Virginia, more than 175 stream segments are on the 1998 Section 303(d) list of impaired waters because of violations of the water-quality standard for fecal coliform bacteria. A total maximum daily load (TMDL) will need to be developed by 2006 for each of these impaired streams and rivers by the Virginia Departments of Environmental Quality and Conservation and Recreation. A TMDL is a quantitative representation of the maximum load of a given water-quality constituent, from all point and nonpoint sources, that a stream can assimilate without violating the designated water-quality standard. Accotink Creek, in Fairfax County, Virginia, is one of the stream segments listed by the State of Virginia as impaired by fecal coliform bacteria. Watershed modeling and bacterial source tracking were used to develop the technical components of the fecal coliform bacteria TMDL for Accotink Creek. The Hydrological Simulation Program?FORTRAN (HSPF) was used to simulate streamflow, fecal coliform concentrations, and source-specific fecal coliform loading in Accotink Creek. Ribotyping, a bacterial source tracking technique, was used to identify the dominant sources of fecal coliform bacteria in the Accotink Creek watershed. Ribotyping also was used to determine the relative contributions of specific sources to the observed fecal coliform load in Accotink Creek. Data from the ribotyping analysis were incorporated into the calibration of the fecal coliform model. Study results provide information regarding the calibration of the streamflow and fecal coliform bacteria models and also identify the reductions in fecal coliform loads required to meet the TMDL for Accotink Creek. The calibrated streamflow model simulated observed streamflow characteristics with respect to total annual runoff, seasonal runoff, average daily streamflow, and hourly stormflow. The calibrated fecal coliform model simulated the patterns and range of observed fecal coliform bacteria concentrations. Observed fecal coliform bacteria concentrations during low-flow periods ranged from 25 to 800 colonies per 100 milliliters, and peak concentrations during storm-flow periods ranged from 19,000 to 340,000 colonies per 100 milliliters. Simulated source-specific contributions of fecal coliform bacteria to instream load were matched to the observed contributions from the dominant sources, which were cats, deer, dogs, ducks, geese, humans, muskrats, and raccoons. According to model results, an 89-percent reduction in the current fecal coliform load delivered from the watershed to Accotink Creek would result in compliance with the designated water-quality goals and associated TMDL.

Moyer, Douglas L.; Hyer, Kenneth E.

2003-01-01

63

ENHANCED RECOVERY OF COLIFORMS BY ANAEROBIC INCUBATION  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 529 well and distribution potable water samples were analyzed for total coliforms by the most probable number (MPN) and membrane filter (MF) techniques. Standard plate count (SPC) bacteria and MF non-coliform bacteria were also enumerated. Frequency of coliform detecti...

64

Coliforms in aerosols generated by a municipal solid waste recovery system.  

OpenAIRE

Airborne total and fecal coliform concentrations averaged 2.1 X 10(3) and 9.9 X 10(2)/m3, respectively, inside an operating solid waste recovery system. Installation of dust control equipment reduced these levels by 50%. Frequency of recovery of coliforms also dropped by 15%.

Lembke, L. L.; Kniseley, R. N.

1980-01-01

65

Evaluation of the efficiency of the application of uv for microbial inactivation (total coliforms and escherichia coli in a wastewater treatment plant (Sucuri In Cuiabá/MT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate a UV disinfection system process, in real scale, in Sucuri WWTP, Cuiabá/MT/Brazil, for total coliforms and Escherichia coli. The effluent came from anaerobium treatment (UASB, followed by aerobium treatment (ASBF. The system’s performance was evaluated from July to November, 2008. The experiments followed physical-chemical analysis to evaluate the influence of pH and Total Suspended Solids (TSS parameters in the UV efficiency, beyond total phosphorous, to verify the foam formation observed in UASB reactor and after disinfection. The results for this research suggested deficiencies in inactivation process for coliforms: it was one logarithm unit of removal for each. The pH parameter was in the average of 7,5. About TSS, the system presented 52% of removal efficiency, which is one of the factors that causes the system deficiencies. About the variable total phosphorous, it was observed that there was none removal of the parameter. Although it’s been reported that the limitant effect of the low quality of the sewage in the UV’s performance, in practice, even under unfavorable TSS conditions, the results showed the viability about using this method in real treatment systems. Keywords: UV desinfection; UASB reactor; domestic effluent.

Thais dos Santos Borges

2009-12-01

66

Comparison of membrane filtration and Autoanalysis Colilert presence-absence techniques for analysis of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in drinking water samples.  

OpenAIRE

Over a 4-month period, 950 samples of treated drinking water were analyzed for total coliforms (TC) and Escherichia coli by both membrane filtration (MF) and Autoanalysis Colilert presence-absence (AC) techniques. The two tests agreed 97% of the time on the basis of presumptive TC results and 98.5% of the time on the basis of verified TC results. Samples which produced disagreement between the two tests were most often TC positive by MF and TC negative by AC. E. coli was recovered four times:...

Lewis, C. M.; Mak, J. L.

1989-01-01

67

Effect of various oral dose levels of a trimethoprim/sulphadiazine mixture on Bordetella bronchiseptica infection and on the proliferation of trimethoprim-resistant faecal coliforms in pigs.  

OpenAIRE

When a 1:5 mixture of trimethoprim (TMP) and sulphadiazine was fed to pigs intra-nasally infected with bordetella bronchiseptica, 10 mg/kg/day was shown to be highly effective in suppressing the organism. This dose level had little effect on numbers of TMP-resistant coliforms in faeces, but oral doses of 30 mg/kg/day eventually selected a resistant population. It is suggested that the proliferation of resistant coliforms would be minimized by administration of the lowest oral dose rates of an...

Dassanayake, L.; White, G.

1983-01-01

68

Comparison of commercially available kits with standard methods for the detection of coliforms and Escherichia coli in foods.  

OpenAIRE

Three commercially available kits that were supplemented with substrates for enzyme reactions were evaluated to determine their abilities to detect coliforms and fecal coliforms in foods. Japanese and U.S. Food and Drug Administration standard methods, as well as two agar plate methods, were compared with the three commercial kits. A total of 50 food samples from various retailers were examined. The levels of detection of coliforms were high with the commercial kits (78 to 98%) compared with ...

Venkateswaran, K.; Murakoshi, A.; Satake, M.

1996-01-01

69

Examination of market foods for coliform organisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food specimens (490) in nine categories were examined for total aerobic plate count and numbers and types of coliform organisms, including the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EEC). The total counts were compared with various suggested standards, and a limit of 100,000/g appeared to be a realistic goal, except for certain food types with a high level of natural flora. Plate counts in VRB were compared to counts obtained by isolation by enrichment in LST Broth, and the latter method produced a higher percentage of isolations. The presence of E. coli was determined by use of EC Medium incubated at 44.5 +/- 0.1 C. Only 40.4% of the positive EC tubes, however, contained E. coli. It appeared that a limit of 10 coliform organisms per g as a suggested standard could be met with several types of foods. Isolation of EEC was obtained only three times, or in 0.6% of the specimens. PMID:4865024

Hall, H E; Brown, D F; Lewis, K H

1967-09-01

70

Comparison of membrane filtration and Autoanalysis Colilert presence-absence techniques for analysis of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in drinking water samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

Over a 4-month period, 950 samples of treated drinking water were analyzed for total coliforms (TC) and Escherichia coli by both membrane filtration (MF) and Autoanalysis Colilert presence-absence (AC) techniques. The two tests agreed 97% of the time on the basis of presumptive TC results and 98.5% of the time on the basis of verified TC results. Samples which produced disagreement between the two tests were most often TC positive by MF and TC negative by AC. E. coli was recovered four times: twice by MF only, and twice by AC only but without the diagnostic fluorescence reaction. In two samples, E. coli could not be isolated from fluorescence-positive AC tests. On the basis of these results, the AC test was implemented as the routine analytical procedure for TC but not for E. coli. PMID:2694959

Lewis, C M; Mak, J L

1989-12-01

71

Effect of UV light disinfection on antibiotic-resistant coliforms in wastewater effluents.  

OpenAIRE

Total coliforms and total coliforms resistant to streptomycin, tetracycline, or chloramphenicol were isolated from filtered activated sludge effluents before and after UV light irradiation. Although the UV irradiation effectively disinfected the wastewater effluent, the percentage of the total surviving coliform population resistant to tetracycline or chloramphenicol was significantly higher than the percentage of the total coliform population resistant to those antibiotics before UV irradiat...

Meckes, M. C.

1982-01-01

72

Antibiotic resistance of neustonic and planktonic fecal coliform bacteria isolated from two water basins differing in the level of pollution / Resistencia a antibióticos de bacterias coliformes fecales, nesutónicas y planctónicas, aisladas de dos cuerpos de agua con distinto nivel de contaminación  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: English Abstract in spanish Se estudió la resistencia a antibióticos de bacterias coliformes fecales aisladas de la microcapa superficial y la capa subsuperficial de un estanque contaminado y de un lago no contaminado. Los resultados sobre la resistencia a los antimicrobianos indicaron que en el depósito de agua estudiado el n [...] ivel de bacterias coliformes fecales varío con diversos antibióticos probados. Las bacterias entéricas fueron las más resistentes a la ampicilina, clindamycina, novobiocina, penicilina y presentaron mayor sensibilidad a amikacina, gentamicina, neomicina y oxitetraciclina. Las bacterias coliformes fecales habitantes de estanques fueron más resistentes a casi todos los antibióticos probados comparados con las bacterias coliformes del lago. El índice de la resistencia múltiple a antibióticos (MAR, siglas en inglés) mostró que los valores de bacterias coliformes fecales fueron mayores en el estanque que en el lago. Por regla general, las bacterias coliformes fecales aisladas tanto en cuencas hidrográficas, como de agua del subsuelo fueron más resistentes a los antibióticos probados que las de la microcapa superficial del mismo cuerpo de agua en el que habitan. El nivel de resistencia de las bacterias a los antibióticos dependió de la estructura química de los antibióticos. Abstract in english Antibiotic resistance of fecal coliform bacteria isolated from the surface microlayer and the subsurface layer of a polluted pond and a non-polluted lake was studied. On the basis of the conducted studies it was stated that the isolated fecal coliform bacteria from both aquatic basins showed various [...] resistance to tested antibiotics. Enteric bacteria were the most resistant to ampicillin, clindmycin, novobiocin, penicillin and the most sensitive to amikacin, gentamycin, neomycin and oxytetracycline. Fecal coliform bacteria inhabiting the pond showed similar resistance to the majority of tested antibiotics than coliform bacteria isolated from the lake. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index value for fecal coliform bacteria was higher in the pond than the lake. Only in a downtown pond fecal coliform bacteria isolated from the subsurface water were more resistant to tested antibiotics than those inhabiting the surface microlayer. The antibiotic resistance level of the bacteria depended on the chemical structure of antibiotics.

Piotr, Skórczewski; Zbigniew Jan, Mudryk; Marta, Jankowska; Piotr, Perli& #324; ski; Marta, Zdanowicz.

2013-12-01

73

Total coliforms, arsenic and cadmium exposure through drinking water in the Western Region of Ghana: application of multivariate statistical technique to groundwater quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent times, surface water resource in the Western Region of Ghana has been found to be inadequate in supply and polluted by various anthropogenic activities. As a result of these problems, the demand for groundwater by the human populations in the peri-urban communities for domestic, municipal and irrigation purposes has increased without prior knowledge of its water quality. Water samples were collected from 14 public hand-dug wells during the rainy season in 2013 and investigated for total coliforms, Escherichia coli, mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and physicochemical parameters. Multivariate statistical analysis of the dataset and a linear stoichiometric plot of major ions were applied to group the water samples and to identify the main factors and sources of contamination. Hierarchal cluster analysis revealed four clusters from the hydrochemical variables (R-mode) and three clusters in the case of water samples (Q-mode) after z score standardization. Principal component analysis after a varimax rotation of the dataset indicated that the four factors extracted explained 93.3 % of the total variance, which highlighted salinity, toxic elements and hardness pollution as the dominant factors affecting groundwater quality. Cation exchange, mineral dissolution and silicate weathering influenced groundwater quality. The ranking order of major ions was Na(+)?>?Ca(2+)?>?K(+)?>?Mg(2+) and Cl(-)?>?SO4 (2-)?>?HCO3 (-). Based on piper plot and the hydrogeology of the study area, sodium chloride (86 %), sodium hydrogen carbonate and sodium carbonate (14 %) water types were identified. Although E. coli were absent in the water samples, 36 % of the wells contained total coliforms (Enterobacter species) which exceeded the WHO guidelines limit of zero colony-forming unit (CFU)/100 mL of drinking water. With the exception of Hg, the concentration of As and Cd in 79 and 43 % of the water samples exceeded the WHO guideline limits of 10 and 3 ?g/L for drinking water, respectively. Reported values in some areas in Nigeria, Malaysia and USA indicated that the maximum concentration of Cd was low and As was high in this study. Health risk assessment of Cd, As and Hg based on average daily dose, hazard quotient and cancer risk was determined. In conclusion, multiple natural processes and anthropogenic activities from non-point sources contributed significantly to groundwater salinization, hardness, toxic element and microbiological contamination of the study area. The outcome of this study can be used as a baseline data to prioritize areas for future sustainable development of public wells. PMID:25600401

Affum, Andrews Obeng; Osae, Shiloh Dede; Nyarko, Benjamin Jabez Botwe; Afful, Samuel; Fianko, Joseph Richmond; Akiti, Tetteh Thomas; Adomako, Dickson; Acquaah, Samuel Osafo; Dorleku, Micheal; Antoh, Emmanuel; Barnes, Felix; Affum, Enoch Acheampong

2015-02-01

74

The Effects of Fumigation of Hatching Eggs in Nest box on Total Bacteria, Coliforms and E. coli Counts on Egg shell surface with Hatching Results  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effect of Alphagen Standart Prill (ASP which was used in pellet form by mixing with litter in nest box on microorganism counts of egg shell surface and hatching results. In the experiment, hatching eggs of broiler parent stocks Cobb-500 from 40-43 week old were used. The total bacteria, coliform bacteria and E.Coli counts were significantly different between experimental groups ( 0 (control, 5 g, and 8 ASP/nest box (P0.05. The hatchability of total eggs was 88.54 % in 8 g ASP/nest box treatment which was higher than those of control ( % 87.80 and 5 g ASP/nest box groups (% 86.79 without statistical significance (P>0.05. According to the results, embryonic mortality at early (0-7. day, middle (8-18. day and late (19-21. day period of incubation was not changed by treatments (P>0.05. However, the rate of early, middle and late mortalities was 3.62, 3.50 and 3.57 % for 5 g ASP treatment, 0.02, 0.10 and 0.9 % for 8 g ASP treatment and 2.63, 2.27 and 3.01 % in control, respectively.

Lale Ataseven

2004-01-01

75

Incidence of R factors in coliform, fecal coliform, and Salmonella populations of the Red River in Canada.  

OpenAIRE

Coliforms, fecal coliforms, and Salmonella were isolated from the Red River, Manitoba, Canada, and identified. These organisms were then examined for resistance to 12 antibiotics. Some fecal coliforms were resistant to all 12 antibiotics, and 18% of the Salmonella isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics. A total of 52.9% of the fecal coliforms resistant to three or more antibiotics were able to transfer single or multiple resistance (R) determinants to the Salmonella recipient, and...

Bell, J. B.; Macrae, W. R.; Elliott, G. E.

1980-01-01

76

Estimación de la Incertidumbre en los Ensayos Microbiológicos de Coliformes Totales y Fecales en Aguas Y Aguas Residuales Mediante la Técnica de Tubos Múltiples de Fermentación.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available En la microbiología ambiental es de vital importancia contar con un control de la calidad, dentro del cual, debe considerarse el método de ensayo para garantizar una óptima calidad de los datos resultantes. El cálculo de la incertidumbre está siendo abordado por la comunidad de laboratorios y se espera que en un futuro se disponga de directrices más claras en este campo. La incertidumbre, como un atributo cuantificable, es un concepto relativamente nuevo en la historia de las mediciones, a pesar de que los conceptos de error y análisis de error han sido parte de la práctica de la ciencia de la medición por largo tiempo. De manera general se acepta que cuando todas las componentes, conocidas o supuestas, del error han sido evaluadas y se han aplicado las correcciones, aún persiste una incertidumbre acerca de la confiabilidad del resultado expresado, esto es, persiste una duda acerca de qué tan bien representa el resultado de la medida, al valor de la cantidad que está siendo medida. Actualmente existe en nuestro país la problemática derivada de la falta de la información fundamental acerca de los procedimientos para la estimación de la incertidumbre. En este trabajo se realiza una estimación de la incertidumbre en los ensayos microbiológicos de coliformes totales y fecales en aguas y aguas residuales mediante la técnica de Tubos Múltiples de Fermentación, siguiendo las recomendaciones que aparecen en documentos normalizativos nacionales e internacionales. Se ofrecen los resultados alcanzados en la cuantificación de este importante parámetro. Los componentes de la incertidumbre se organizaron en tablas, lo que permite realizar de una forma rápida una apreciación global.

Marlen Robert Pull\\u00E9s

2005-01-01

77

National field evaluation of a defined substrate method for the simultaneous enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli from drinking water: comparison with the standard multiple tube fermentation method.  

Science.gov (United States)

A defined substrate method was developed to simultaneously enumerate total coliforms and Escherichia coli from drinking waters without the need for confirmatory or completed tests. It is a new method based on technology that uses a hydrolyzable substrate as a specific indicator-nutrient for the target microbes. No equipment other than a 35 degrees C incubator and long-wavelength (366-nm) light is necessary. To perform the test, one only has to add water to the powdered ingredients in a tube or flask. If total coliforms are present in the water sample, the solution will change from its normal colorless state (no target microbes present) to yellow. The specific presence of E. coli will cause the same tube to fluoresce under a longwave (366-nm) UV lamp. The test, called Autoanalysis Colilert (AC), was compared with Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater 10-tube multiple tube fermentation (MTF) in a national evaluation. Five utilities, representing six U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regions, participated. All water samples came from distribution systems. Split samples from a wide variety of water sources were analyzed for the MPN-versus-MPN comparison. A total of 1,086 tubes were positive by MTF, and 1,279 were positive by AC. There was no statistical difference between MTF and AC. Species identifications from positive tubes confirmed the sensitivity of the AC. A national evaluation of the AC test showed that it: (i) was as sensitive as Standard Methods MTF, (ii) specifically enumerated 1 total coliform per 100 ml, in a maximum of 24 h, (iii) simultaneously enumerated 1 E. coli per 100 ml in the same analysis, (iv) was not subject to false-positive or false-negative results by heterotrophic bacteria, (v) did not require confirmatory tests, (vi) grew injured coliforms, (vii) was easy to inoculate, and (viii) was very easy to interpret. PMID:3046490

Edberg, S C; Allen, M J; Smith, D B

1988-06-01

78

Comparison of methods of enumerating coliforms after UV disinfection.  

OpenAIRE

In view of the differences that have been found between the most-probable-number and membrane filtration methods for the recovery of coliforms from chlorinated samples, the survival of total and fecal coliforms in UV-irradiated effluent samples, as tested by the most-probable-number and standard single-step membrane filtration methods, was compared. There were no significant differences in the survival of total and fecal coliforms, as tested by the two methods. In a separate set of experiment...

Qualls, R. G.; Chang, J. C.; Ossoff, S. F.; Johnson, J. D.

1984-01-01

79

Incidence of Coliform in Butter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Microbial examination of 50 samples of both packed and unpacked butter was carried out. The samples were examined for total viable count, mould and yeast count, spore formers and coliform. The microbial load in the unpacked sample of butter was highest i.e., 3.8 x 106/gm - 6.6 x l06/gm. The coliform count was found maximum in unpacked sample and one of the packed sample of butter (Kausar brand i.e., 39/ml. The unpacked sample of butter contained highest number of aerobic spore formers i.e., 280/gm. The anaerobic spore-formers were found absent in 20 samples of butter and the rest contained in the range of 0-170/gm. The yeast cultures were found only in the sample of Lyallpur and Kausar butter. The mould count of these samples ranged from 0-280/gm.

Ikram-ul-Haq

2001-01-01

80

Enumeration of Escherichia coli and coliforms in surface water by multiple tube fermentation and membrane filter methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current investigation was carried out in order to compare directly the multiple tube fermentation method (MTF), using standard procedures (lactose broth, LB) and the Colilert reagent, with the membrane filter method (MF) using Les Endo agar (LEA), m-faecal coliform agar (mFCA) and chromogenic coliform agar (CCA), for recovery of coliforms and Escherichia coli in 80 surface water samples. Total coliforms were isolated from 100% of samples by all methodologies. Faecal coliforms/E. coli were detected in 100% of samples by MTF methods, but only in 75.5% by MF-mFCA and in 86.2% by MF-CCA. Even if MTF-LB counts were consistently higher, the Colilert reagent accurately determined total coliforms and E. coli levels within 24 h with no additional confirmatory tests. Therefore, it could be a powerful tool for rapidly assessing possible faecal contamination and a suitable alternative to the traditional MTF and MF techniques utilized for coliform detection. PMID:11092193

Grasso, G M; Sammarco, M L; Ripabelli, G; Fanelli, I

2000-01-01

81

Evaluation of the lactose Tergitol-7, m-Endo LES, Colilert 18, Readycult Coliforms 100, Water-Check-100, 3M Petrifilm EC and DryCult Coliform test methods for detection of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in water samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study we compared the reference membrane filtration (MF) lactose Tergitol-7 (LTTC) method ISO 9308-1:2000 with the MF m-Endo LES method SFS 3016:2001, the defined substrate chromogenic/fluorogenic Colilert 18, Readycult Coliforms and Water Check methods, and ready-made culture media, 3M Petrifilm EC and DryCult Coli methods for the detection of coliforms and Escherichia coli in various water samples. When the results of E. coli detection were compared between test methods, the highest agreement (both tests negative or positive) with the LTTC method was calculated for the m-Endo LES method (83.6%), followed by Colilert 18 (82.7%), Water-Check (81.8%) and Readycult (78.4%), whereas Petrifilm EC (70.6%) and DryCult Coli (68.9%) showed the weakest agreement. The m-Endo LES method was the only method showing no statistical difference in E. coli counts compared with the LTTC method, whereas the Colilert 18 and Readycult methods gave significantly higher counts for E. coli than the LTTC method. In general, those tests based on the analysis of a 1-ml sample (Petrifilm EC and DryCult Coli) showed weak sensitivity (39.5-52.5%) but high specificity (90.9-78.8%). PMID:16916531

Hörman, Ari; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

2006-10-01

82

National field evaluation of a defined substrate method for the simultaneous enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli from drinking water: comparison with the standard multiple tube fermentation method.  

OpenAIRE

A defined substrate method was developed to simultaneously enumerate total coliforms and Escherichia coli from drinking waters without the need for confirmatory or completed tests. It is a new method based on technology that uses a hydrolyzable substrate as a specific indicator-nutrient for the target microbes. No equipment other than a 35 degrees C incubator and long-wavelength (366-nm) light is necessary. To perform the test, one only has to add water to the powdered ingredients in a tube o...

1988-01-01

83

Contamination of Coliforms in Different Paper Currency Notes of Bangladesh  

OpenAIRE

To determine the degree of contamination of taka notes, samples of the notes circulating in different local markets and people of different professions in Khulna region of Bangladesh were collected. Coliforms, the indicator organisms in taka notes were determined by multiple tube method and identified with differential media and data were analyzed. About 80±5% of old two-taka notes were contaminated with total coliforms and 16±4% of notes were found contaminated with fecal coliforms. But co...

Jakir Hosen, M.; Dilara Islam Sarif; Masuder Rahman, M.; Md. Abul Kalam Azad

2006-01-01

84

Evaluation of Commercial Colilert18-Quantitray® Method by ISO Techniques for Enumeration and Quantification of Total Coliforms and Escherichia coli in Drinking-Water of Buraidah, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present investigation, the Colilert18-QuantiTray® test is compared with ISO 9308-2:1999 Multiple-Tube Fermentation (MTF and 9308-1:2000 Membrane Filtration (MF methods for the detection of coliforms and E. coli in Buraidah drinking water. Regarding sensitivity and specificity of test methods using MTF as reference, the MF method showed a weak sensitivity, while the Colilert18® test showed the highest one. On the other hand, MF method exhibited a higher specificity compared with Colilert18® test. A moderately strong relationship among test methods of coliforms log transformed counts obtained with MF (cfu/100 mL and Coliert18®/Quanti-Tray (MPN/100 mL tests compared to MPN-MTF method was demonstrated. Regression analysis revealed the presence of strong linear correlations (p<0.01 between the three test methods and standard plate count of detecting the concentration of serially diluted E. coli LMG 2092 with high regression coefficients with MF and Colilert18® and lower value for MTF. The Colilert18® had E. coli detection down to 5 MPN/100 mL (? 0.05/1 mL. Results showed that Coliert18®/Quanti-Tray method is comparable with ISO methods further, the former method has more advantages such as higher sensitivity, maximum detection limit ability and time and labor saving.

A. Al-Turki

2009-01-01

85

Arsenic presence and coliforms in drinking water of the Tecuala municipality, Nayarit, Mexico; Presencia de arsenico y coliformes en agua potable del municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit, Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Total arsenic concentrations (t As) and the presence of total and fecal coliforms in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, Mexico, were determined. The presence of t As was analyzed by means of hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Total and fecal coliforms were determined through the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. According to the results, the mean concentration of t As in Tecuala wa 15.82 {mu}g/L, in Atotonilco 19.88 {mu}g/L, in Pajaritos 21.49 {mu}g/L, in Quimichis 17.80 {mu}g/L, and in Playas de Novillero 19.79 {mu}g/L. The t As concentrations in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, are within the limit set by the Mexican official standards (25 {mu}g/L); still, they are over the limit established by the World Health Organization (10 {mu}g/L). The concentration of coliforms in water from wells 1 and 3 was 180 MPN/100 ml and 43 MPN/100 ml for well water 2. The presence of total and fecal coliforms, suggest the infiltration of sewage which could increase the levels of dissolved arsenic. The results of this study will serve as an antecedent of the water quality in Tecuala, Nayarit. (Author)

Mora B, D.; Gonzalez A, C. A.; Medina D, I. M.; Robledo M, M. L.; Rojas G, A. E. [Universidad Autonoma de Nayarit, Secretaria de Investigacion y Posgrado, Ciudad de la Cultura Amado Nervo, 63155 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); Sanchez P, L. C.; Del Razo, L. M., E-mail: aerg81@gmail.com [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Departamento de Toxicologia, Av. IPN No. 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

2012-07-01

86

40 CFR 141.21 - Coliform sampling.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Edberg et al.), Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Volume 55, pp. 1003-1008, April 1989. (Note: The Autoanalysis Colilert System is an MMO-MUG test). If the MMO-MUG test is total coliform-positive after a 24-hour incubation, test...

2010-07-01

87

EVALUATION OF M-T7 AGAR AS A FECAL COLIFORM MEDIUM  

Science.gov (United States)

The m-T/7 agar, designed to improve recoveries of injured total coliforms, was evaluated for its effectiveness as a fecal coliform medium. The time and temperature of preincubation were found to be crucial to the optimal recovery of fetal coliforms. Isolation rates for fecal coli...

88

Fecal Coliforms in Antarctica  

Science.gov (United States)

In this interrupted case study, students explore the environmental consequences of Antarctic research as they design experiments to assess the impact of disposing untreated sewage from a research station into the ocean. Students review experimental methods to measure coliform bacteria, examine data, and decide what actions, if any, should be taken. The can be used in either a non-majors course in science literacy or a general microbiology class studying bacterial detection methods. For non-majors, the instructor would emphasize the mechanics of data collection and analysis and may touch on the environmental implications of finding fecal coliforms in Antarctic waters. For microbiology students, the instructor would highlight the bacteriology and pair the case with a lab.

Nold, Stephen C.

2002-01-01

89

Contamination of Coliforms in Different Paper Currency Notes of Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To determine the degree of contamination of taka notes, samples of the notes circulating in different local markets and people of different professions in Khulna region of Bangladesh were collected. Coliforms, the indicator organisms in taka notes were determined by multiple tube method and identified with differential media and data were analyzed. About 80±5% of old two-taka notes were contaminated with total coliforms and 16±4% of notes were found contaminated with fecal coliforms. But comparatively newer two-taka notes showed that 43±3% were contaminated with total coliforms and 5±2% were with fecal coliforms, suggesting the notion that more handled taka notes were contaminated more intensely even by fecal coliforms. Ten taka notes also represented the same pattern of results as two-taka notes, indicating that taka notes may carry enteric pathogens. This study also revealed that porsaline paper notes were easily vulnerable to coliforms contamination whereas polymer paper notes were almost free from coliforms suggesting that polymer paper notes are safer to use than porsaline paper notes.

M. Jakir Hosen

2006-01-01

90

Arsenic presence and coliforms in drinking water of the Tecuala municipality, Nayarit, Mexico  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total arsenic concentrations (t As) and the presence of total and fecal coliforms in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, Mexico, were determined. The presence of t As was analyzed by means of hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Total and fecal coliforms were determined through the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. According to the results, the mean concentration of t As in Tecuala wa 15.82 ?g/L, in Atotonilco 19.88 ?g/L, in Pajaritos 21.49 ?g/L, in Quimichis 17.80 ?g/L, and in Playas de Novillero 19.79 ?g/L. The t As concentrations in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, are within the limit set by the Mexican official standards (25 ?g/L); still, they are over the limit established by the World Health Organization (10 ?g/L). The concentration of coliforms in water from wells 1 and 3 was 180 MPN/100 ml and 43 MPN/100 ml for well water 2. The presence of total and fecal coliforms, suggest the infiltration of sewage which could increase the levels of dissolved arsenic. The results of this study will serve as an antecedent of the water quality in Tecuala, Nayarit. (Author)

91

Identification of Total and Fecal Coliforms and Heterotrophic to Microbiological Method and E.coli O157:H7 to Immunological, and Real Time PCR Methods in IsfahanWater Treatment Plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "n "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives:Total and Fecal coliforms (TC and FC, heterotrophic plate count (HPC, were counted by microbiological method and E.coli O157:H7 were detected through immunological and Real time PCRmethods inwater intake and all of units of Isfahanwater treatment plant (IWTP."nMaterials and Methods: The microbial profile including TC, FC, and HPC, were monitored and turbidity and total organic carbon were analyzed in 8 locations of water intake, and unit operation and processes of IWTP, including, inlet, sedimentation, ozonation, and filtration and finished water. Immunological method through anti-serum kits and molecular method of RT-PCR were used to detect E.coli O157:H7 in the 8 locations and also the sludge of the sedimentation basin and filters backwash water of IWTP."nResults: Survival of E.coli O157:H7 in sludge sample of sedimentation basin was indicated by formation of agglutination particles in immunological method and through indicator probes in the RT-PCR method. However, E.coli O157:H7 was not detected in water samples of other units of IWTP. The removal percent of TC, FC, and HPC were: 59.5, 49, and 54.8 % in sedimentation basin; 66, 45.8, and 57 % in ozonation;: 98.8, 98, and 78.8 in the filtration; and 96, 100, 91% in disinfection, respectively."nConclusion: This study approved the existence of the pathogenic coliform, E.coli O157:H7 in the"nsludge of sedimentation basin. Absent of E.coli O157:H7 in the finished water indicates that the existing units of IWTP could eliminate these pathogenic bacteria, before reaching the final units of the plant, including the filters and disinfection.

A Nouhi

2010-10-01

92

Injured coliforms in drinking water.  

OpenAIRE

Coliforms were enumerated by using m-Endo agar LES and m-T7 agar in 102 routine samples of drinking water from three New England community water systems to investigate the occurrence and significance of injured coliforms. Samples included water collected immediately after conventional treatment, during the backwash cycle, at various points in the distribution system, and 1 week after the break and subsequent repair of a distribution main. Injured coliforms in these samples averaged greater th...

Mcfeters, G. A.; Kippin, J. S.; Lechevallier, M. W.

1986-01-01

93

Effects of UV light disinfection on antibiotic-resistant coliforms in wastewater effluents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total coliforms and total coliforms resistant to streptomycin, tetracycline, or chloramphenicol were isolated from filtered activated sludge effluents before and after UV light irradiation. Although the UV irradiation effectively disinfected the wastewater effluent, the percentage of the total surviving coliform population resistant to tetracycline or chloramphenicol was significantly higher than the percentage of the total coliform population resistant to those antibiotics before UV irradiation. This finding was attributed to the mechanism of R-factor mediated resistance to tetracycline. No significant difference was noted for the percentage of the surviving total coliform population resistant to streptomycin before or after UV irradiation. Multiple drug resistant to patterns of 300 total coliform isolates revealed that 82% were resistant to two or more antibiotics. Furthermore, 46% of these isolates were capable of transferring antibiotic resistance to a sensitive strain of Escherichia coli

94

Evaluation of m-T7 agar as a fecal coliform medium.  

OpenAIRE

m-T7 agar, designed to improve recoveries of injured total coliforms, was evaluated for its effectiveness as a fecal coliform medium. The time and temperature of preincubation were found to be crucial to the optimal recovery of fetal coliforms. Isolation rates for fecal coliforms on m-T7 agar from sewage effluents were the highest when plates were preincubated at 37 degrees C for 8 h before transfer to 44.5 degrees C for 12 h. The medium was found to produce consistently higher fecal coliform...

Lechevallier, M. W.; Jakanoski, P. E.; Camper, A. K.; Mcfeters, G. A.

1984-01-01

95

INTERLABORATORY EVALUATION OF MI AGAR AND THE US ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY-APPROVED MEMBRANE FILTER METHOD FOR THE RECOVERY OF TOTAL COLIFORMS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI FROM DRINKING WATER  

Science.gov (United States)

A new membrane filter (MF) medium, MI agar, recently validated for use in recovering chlorine-damaged total coloiforms (TC) and Escherichia coli from drinking water, was compared to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-approved MF method(mEndo agar and nutrient agar suppl...

96

Differential susceptibility of aeromonads and coliforms to cefsulodin.  

OpenAIRE

Cefsulodin was evaluated as a potential selective agent for aeromonads. Resistance of Aeromonas and coliform isolates was determined by using a standard disk diffusion technique. A total of 119 Aeromonas and 78 coliform strains were isolated. For 102 of 130 [corrected] Aeromonas isolates (environmental and reference strains), the MIC of cefsulodin was < 8 micrograms/ml. Results of MIC tests by the agar dilution method showed that a concentration of cefsulodin of 10 micrograms/ml or less inhib...

Alonso, J. L.; Amoros, I.; Alonso, M. A.

1996-01-01

97

The presence-absence coliform test for monitoring drinking water quality.  

OpenAIRE

The concern for improved monitoring of the sanitary quality of drinking water has prompted interest in alternative methods for the detection of total coliform bacteria. A simplified qualitative presence-absence test has been proposed as an alternate procedure for detecting coliform bacteria in potable water. In this paper data from four comparative studies were analyzed to compare the recovery of total coliform bacteria from drinking water using the presence-absence test, the multiple ferment...

Rice, E. W.; Geldreich, E. E.; Read, E. J.

1989-01-01

98

Detection of coliform organisms in drinking water by radiometric method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiometric method has been used for detection of coliform bacteria in water. The method is based on measuring the released metabolic /Sup 14/CO/sub 2/from 14 C-lactose in growth media containing coliform organisms incubated at 37 deg. C. under continues shaking. This rapid and sensitive radiometric method permits the detection of even single coliform organisms within 6 hours in incubation. Using this automated method, a total of 102 samples (in duplicate) collected from different areas in and around Rawalpindi and Islamabad were assessed for coliform bacteria. Of these 102 samples, 50 were tap water samples, 40 from wells and 6 each were from Rawal and Simly dams. About 47% and 67% tap water samples, while 62% and 74% well water samples were found unsatisfactory from around Islamabad and Rawalpindi areas respectively, about 83% and 66% water samples from Rawal dam and Simly dam respectively were found to be unsatisfactory. (author)

99

LA ALMEJA DE AGUA DULCE DIPLODON CHILENSIS (BIVALVIA:HYRIIDAE) POTENCIAL BIOFILTRO PARA DISMINUIR LOS NIVELES DE COLIFORMES EN POZOS: EXPERIMENTO DE LABORATORIO / THE FRESHWATER MUSSEL DIPLODON CHILENSIS (BIVALVIA:HYRIIDAE) POTENTIAL BIOFILTER TO DIMINISHCOLIFORM LEVELS OF WATER WELLS: LABORATORY EXPERIMENT  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Estudios realizados en comunidades rurales de la IX Región, donde habitan familias que se abastecen con agua de pozo, se han detectado índices de coliformes fecales de hasta 5400 NMP en 100 ml, especialmente en pozos de baja profundidad. Considerando la capacidad de bombeo y de filtración de la alme [...] ja de agua dulce Diplodon chilensis, se realizó esta investigación tendiente a evaluar en el laboratorio la capacidad de las almejas para disminuir los niveles de coliformes en aguas de pozo así como de digerir la carga bacteriológica. Los resultados de los experimentos llevaron a concluir que densidades de 15 y 25 ejemplares en 30 litros de agua fueron capaces de disminuir la turbidez del agua y el número más probable de coliformes en un período de 6 horas siendo además capaces de digerirlas Abstract in english Previous studies carried out in rural communities in the IX Region, Chile, have detected up to 5.400 fecal coliforms by 100 ml in drinking water from wells mainly in shallow wells. Considering the pumping and water filtration capacity of the freshwater mussel Diplodon chilensis, a laboratory experim [...] ent was carried out to evaluate the capacity of the mussels to decrease coliform levels and to digest them. The experimental results showed that 15 to 25 specimens in 30 litres of water were able to diminish the water turbidity and the coliforms load in a 6 hour-period being able also to digest them

Gladys, Lara; Angel, Contreras; Francisco, Encina.

100

Coliform and Metal Contamination in Lago de Colina, a Recreational Water Body in Chihuahua State, Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lago de Colina (Colina Lake is located about 180 km south of the city of Chihuahua (Mexico, and during the Semana Santa (Holy Week vacation period its recreational use is high. The objective of this study was to quantify coliform and heavy metal levels in this water body before and after the Holy Week vacation period in 2010. Twenty sampling points were randomly selected and two water samples were collected at each point near the surface (0.30 m and at 1 m depth. After the Holy Week vacation the same twenty points were sampled at the same depths. Therefore, a total 80 water samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliforms and levels of the following metals: Al, As, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si and Zn. It was hypothesized that domestic tourism contaminated this water body, and as a consequence, could have a negative impact on visitor health. An analysis of variance (ANOVA study was performed for each element and its interactions considering a factorial design where factor A was sample date and factor B was sample depth. Fecal coliforms were only detected at eight sampling points in the first week, but after Holy Week, both fecal and total coliforms were detected at most sampling points. The concentrations of Al, B, Na, Ni and Se were only statistically different for factor A. The levels of Cr, Cu, K and Mg was different for both date and depth, but the dual factor interaction was not significant. The amount of Ca and Zn was statistically different due to date, depth and their interaction. No significant differences were found for any factor or the interaction for the elements As, Fe and Mn. Because of the consistent results, it is concluded that local tourism is contaminating the recreational area of Colina Lake, Chihuahua, Mexico.

Hector Rubio-Arias

2011-06-01

101

Coliform density in oyster culture waters and its relationship with environmental factors / Densidade de coliformes em águas de cultivo de ostras e sua relação com fatores ambientais  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as densidades de coliformes totais e termotolerantes, em água de cultivo de ostra de Cananeia, SP, e correlacionar estas densidades com variáveis ambientais e as variações das marés. Foram coletadas amostras de água superficial em duas condições de maré (sizígia [...] e quadratura) de três áreas do Município de Cananéia (Mandira, Itapitangui e Cooperostra). As três áreas estudadas apresentaram boas condições para cultivo, quanto à densidade de coliformes. Diferenças significativas foram registradas entre as condições de marés quanto à concentração total de coliformes; no entanto, o mesmo procedimento não se aplicou para coliformes termotolerantes. Nenhuma correlação foi observada entre a temperatura da água, o pH e as concentrações de coliformes total e termotolerantes. As densidades de coliformes correlacionaram-se positivamente com a pluviosidade e negativamente com a salinidade. O número de coliformes foi significativamente diferente nas marés de sizígia e de quadratura. O simples diagnóstico das condições ambientais é insuficiente para avaliar a qualidade da água de cultivo de ostras. Um programa de monitoramento contínuo de áreas cultivadas é necessário tanto para avaliar o potencial dessas águas, como para garantir o consumo seguro de frutos do mar, além de constituir-se como instrumento importante para a compreensão das relações entre a contaminação por coliformes e as variáveis ambientais envolvidas. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the total and thermotolerant coliform densities in the oyster culture water of Cananeia, SP, Brazil, correlating these densities with environmental variables and tidal variations. Superficial water samples were collected in two tide conditions (spring and n [...] eap) from three areas of Cananéia municipality (Mandira, Itapitangui and Cooperostra). The three studied areas showed good conditions for the culture regarding coliform densities. The two tidal conditions differed significantly as to total coliform concentration; however, the same procedure was not performed for thermotolerant coliforms. No correlation was observed between water temperature, pH, and concentrations of total and thermotolerant coliforms. Coliform density was positively correlated with rainfall and negatively correlated with salinity. Spring and neap tides differed significantly as to coliform number. Simple diagnosis of environmental conditions of the crop fields is insufficient to assess water quality of shellfish cultivation. A continuous monitoring program of planted areas is necessary both for the assessment of water quality potential for marine culture and for ensuring safe consumption of seafood, besides constituting an important tool to understand the relationships between contamination and the involved environmental variables.

Luciene, Mignani; Edison, Barbieri; Helcio Luis de Almeida, Marques; Ana Julia Fernandes Cardoso de, Oliveira.

2013-08-01

102

Full-scale studies of factors related to coliform regrowth in drinking water.  

OpenAIRE

An 18-month survey of 31 water systems in North America was conducted to determine the factors that contribute to the occurrence of coliform bacteria in drinking water. The survey included analysis of assimilable organic carbon (AOC), coliforms, disinfectant residuals, and operational parameters. Coliform bacteria were detected in 27.8% of the 2-week sampling periods and were associated with the following factors: filtration, temperature, disinfectant type and disinfectant level, AOC level, c...

Lechevallier, M. W.; Welch, N. J.; Smith, D. B.

1996-01-01

103

Relationship among fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. in shellfish.  

OpenAIRE

The relationship of fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. was examined in freshly harvested and stored shellfish. In 16 of 40 freshly collected oyster samples, fecal coliform levels were above the recommended wholesale level suggested by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program (less than or equal to 230/100 g), and Salmonella spp. were present in three of these samples. Salmonella spp. were not, however, present in any sample containing less than 230 fecal coliforms per 100...

Hood, M. A.; Ness, G. E.; Blake, N. J.

1983-01-01

104

Dry rehydratable film method for rapid enumeration of coliforms in foods (3M Petrifilm Rapid Coliform Count plate): collaborative study.  

Science.gov (United States)

A rehydratable dry-film plating method for coliforms in foods, the 3M Petrifilm Rapid Coliform Count plate method, was compared with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual method for nondairy foods and the American Public Health Association's Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products (SMEDP) method for dairy foods. Six food types, vanilla ice cream, cheddar cheese, fresh refrigerated uncooked pasta, wheat flour, prepared frozen macaroni and cheese, and frozen hash browns, were analyzed for coliforms by 11 collaborating laboratories. For each food product tested, the collaborators received 8 blind samples consisting of a control sample and 3 levels of inoculated sample, each in duplicate. The mean log counts for the methods were comparable. The repeatability and reproducibility variances of the Petrifilm Rapid Coliform Count method at 14 and 24 h were not significantly different from those of the standard methods. PMID:11878620

Kinneberg, Karen M; Lindberg, Kathryn G

2002-01-01

105

Serum total glutathione-s-transferase levels in oral cancer  

OpenAIRE

We conducted a study wherein serum total glutathione-s-transferase levels were measured in patients (n = 27) with various stages of biopsy proven oral cancer (squamous cell carcinoma) and age and sex matched healthy human volunteers (n=10). In all patients with oral cancer, serum total glutathione-s-transferase was measured before the onset of treatment. There was a significant increase in serum total glutathione-s-transferse levels in patients with stage IV oral cancer as compared to stage I...

Prabhu Krishnananda; Bhat Gopalakrishna

2007-01-01

106

Presencia de arsénico y coliformes en agua potable del municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit, México / Presence of arsenic and coliforms in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se determinaron las concentraciones de arsénico total (AsT) y la presencia de coliformes totales y fecales en agua potable del municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit, México. La determinación de AsT se realizó por espectrofotometría de fluorescencia atómica, por generación de hidruros; la detección de colifo [...] rmes totales y fecales se realizó con la técnica del número más probable (NMP). De acuerdo a los resultados obtenidos, la concentración media de AsT en la cabecera municipal de Tecuala fue de 15.82 µg/L, en el ejido de Atotonilco de 19.88 µg/L, en Pajaritos de 21.49 µg/L, en Quimichis de 17.80 µg/L y en Playas de Novillero de 19.79 µg/L. Aunque las concentraciones de AsT en el agua potable del municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit, se encuentran dentro del límite establecido por las Normas Oficiales Mexicanas (25 µg/L), rebasan el límite establecido por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, que establece un máximo de 10 µg/L. La concentración de coliformes en el agua procedente de los pozos 1 y 3 fue de 180 NMP/100 mL y de 43 NMP/100 mL para el agua del pozo 2. La presencia de coliformes totales y fecales, sugiere la infiltración de aguas negras lo que podría incrementar los niveles de arsénico disuelto. Los resultados de este estudio servirán como antecedente sanitario de la calidad del agua de los pozos que abastecen el municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit. Abstract in english Total arsenic concentrations (tAs) and the presence of total and fecal coliforms in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, Mexico, were determined. The presence of tAs was analyzed by means of hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Total and fecal coliforms were determined through the M [...] ost Probable Number (MPN) method. According to the results, the mean concentration of tAs in Tecuala was 15.82 µg/L, in Atotonilco 19.88 µg/L, in Pajaritos 21.49 µg/L, in Quimichis 17.80 µg/L, and in Playas de Novillero 19.79 µg/L. The tAs concentrations in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, are within the limit set by the Mexican official standards (25 µg/L); still, they are over the limit established by the World Health Organization (10 µg/L). The concentration of coliforms in water from wells 1 and 3 was 180 MPN/100 mL and 43 MPN/100 mL for well water 2. The presence of total and fecal coliforms, suggest the infiltration of sewage which could increase the levels of dissolved arsenic. The results of this study will serve as an antecedent of the water quality in Tecuala, Nayarit.

Daniel, MORA-BUENO; Luz del Carmen, SÁNCHEZ-PEÑA; Luz María, DEL RAZO; Cyndia Azucena, GONZÁLEZ-ARIAS; Irma Martha, MEDINA-DÍAZ; María de Lourdes, ROBLEDO-MARENCO; Aurora Elizabeth, ROJAS-GARCÍA.

2012-05-01

107

Resistência antimicrobiana de coliformes isolados de leite humano ordenhado Antimicrobial resistance of coliform isolates from expressed human milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A veiculação de microrganismos potencialmente patogênicos, resistentes aos antibióticos, por meio de leite humano ordenhado, pode ser um fator de risco potencial. Este estudo teve como objetivo contribuir para um melhor conhecimento dos coliformes isolados de leite humano ordenhado (LHO e de seu perfil de resistência a antimicrobianos. Seguiu-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, utilizando 837 amostras de LHO, nas quais 71 (8,48% estavam contaminadas com coliformes totais, cuja contagem em nenhuma das amostras ultrapassava 1,0x10³NMP/ml. A maioria dos microrganismos isolados (91,6% pertencia a apenas duas espécies, Enterobacter cloacae e Klebsiella pneumoniae. As 71 cepas de coliformes apresentavam resistência a pelo menos um dos antimicrobianos testados. Conclui-se que o LHO coletado e armazenado sob condições higiênico-sanitárias insatisfatórias, pode apresentar coliformes, que desgastam os fatores de proteção, reduzem o valor nutricional e a qualidade do produto.The dispersion of potentially pathogenic, antibiotic-resistant microorganisms via expressed human milk can be considered a risk factor. The aim of this study was to contribute to a better understanding of coliform isolates from expressed human milk and their antimicrobial resistance profiles. The sampling scheme followed a totally randomized design, using 837 samples of expressed human milk. Of these, 71 (8.48% were identified as contaminated with total coliforms, although in none of the samples did the population exceed 1.0x10³ MPN/ml. Most of the microorganisms isolated (91.6% belonged to only two species, Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae, which when subjected to antibiograms, revealed that several strains showed prior resistance to some of the antimicrobials tested. Coliforms may grow in expressed human milk if it is improperly stored, depleting protection factors and reducing the milk's nutritional value.

Franz Reis Novak

2001-06-01

108

40 CFR 141.21 - Coliform sampling.  

Science.gov (United States)

...using Chromocult ® Coliform Agar. 14 Colitag ® Test. 15 The procedures...adellenbusch@emscience.com. 15 Colitag ® product for the determination of the...coliforms and E. coli is described in “Colitag ® Product as a Test for Detection...

2010-07-01

109

40 CFR 141.803 - Coliform sampling.  

Science.gov (United States)

... 2010-07-01 false Coliform sampling. 141.803 Section 141.803...Water Rule § 141.803 Coliform sampling. (a) Analytical methodology. Air carriers must follow the sampling and analysis requirements under...

2010-07-01

110

Automated electrochemical selection of coliforms  

Science.gov (United States)

Computer-controlled sensor system monitors and quantifies coliform organisms in waste water samples through molecular hydrogen detection techniques. System includes cleanup procedures, external sterilization of each sensor interface with working fluid as well as incubation cell interiors. Sensor system may also be operated manually.

Taylor, R. E.; Dill, W. P.; Jeffers, E. L.

1978-01-01

111

Coliforms and Helminth Eggs Removals by Coagulation-Flocculation Treatment Based on Natural Polymers  

OpenAIRE

Wastewater from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (Mexico) was treated by a coagulation-flocculation using natural gums. The residual water was characterized in terms of organic load, and biological contaminants, i.e. total Coliforms (TC), fecal Coliforms (FC) and helminth eggs (HE). The sample has values of 2....

Evelyn Zamudio-Pérez; Neftalí Rojas-Valencia; Isaac Chairez; Luis Gilberto Torres

2013-01-01

112

Evaluation of Commercial Colilert18-Quantitray® Method by ISO Techniques for Enumeration and Quantification of Total Coliforms and Escherichia coli in Drinking-Water of Buraidah, Saudi Arabia  

OpenAIRE

In the present investigation, the Colilert18-QuantiTray® test is compared with ISO 9308-2:1999 Multiple-Tube Fermentation (MTF) and 9308-1:2000 Membrane Filtration (MF) methods for the detection of coliforms and E. coli in Buraidah drinking water. Regarding sensitivity and specificity of test methods using MTF as reference, the MF method showed a weak sensitivity, while the Colilert18® test showed the highest one. On the other hand, MF method exhibited a higher ...

Al-turki, A.; El-ziney, M. G.

2009-01-01

113

Effect of noncoliforms on coliform detection in potable groundwater: improved recovery with an anaerobic membrane filter technique.  

OpenAIRE

A total of 529 well and distribution potable water samples were analyzed for total coliforms by the most-probable-number and membrane filter (MF) techniques. Standard plate count bacteria and MF noncoliform bacteria were also enumerated. Frequency of coliform detection, turbidity in most-probable-number tubes, and extensive overgrowth by noncoliforms on MF filters were directly proportional to standard plate counts. Recovery of coliforms was greatest by the MF method at low (less than 100 CFU...

Franzblau, S. G.; Hinnebusch, B. J.; Kelley, L. M.; Sinclair, N. A.

1984-01-01

114

EVIDENCE FOR THE ROLE OF COPPER IN THE INJURY PROCESS OF COLIFORM BACTERIA IN DRINKING WATER  

Science.gov (United States)

Low levels of copper in chlorine-free distribution water caused injury of coliform populations. Monitoring of 44 drinking water samples indicated that 64% of the coliform population was injured. Physical and chemical parameters were measured, including three heavy metals (Cu, Cd,...

115

Comparison of the hydrophobic-grid membrane filter procedure and standard methods for coliform analysis of water.  

OpenAIRE

The hydrophobic-grid membrane filter (HGMF) has been proposed as an alternate method to the standard membrane filter (MF) procedure for the detection and enumeration of coliforms from water. Eight samples of nonchlorinated wastewater effluents were analyzed by the HGMF, standard MF, and tube fermentation most-probable-number methods for fecal coliforms, and eight samples each of polluted surface and dosed drinking waters were analyzed by the same methods for total coliforms. The drinking wate...

Mcdaniels, A. E.; Bordner, R. H.; Menkedick, J. R.; Weber, C. I.

1987-01-01

116

Chlorine injury and the comparative performance of Colisure (TM), ColiLert (TM) and ColiQuik (TM) for the enumeration of coliform bacteria and E.coli in drinking water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several factors have stimulated interest in recently developed substrate specific media for the detection of coliform bacteria in water. This study compared the performance of Colisure (TM) (Millipore), ColiLert (TM) (Environetics) and ColiQuick (TM) (Hach) with accepted membrane filtration and MPN methodologies for the enumeration of total coliforms and E. coli in chlorinated water. The performance of all three media was compared, in MPN configuration, with LTB/MPN (confirmed) using a variety of drinking and source water samples, both with and without chlorination. The Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test yielded statistical correlations between results obtained with each of the three new enzyme detection media and accepted reference methods for the detection of low numbers of total coliforms. Another series of tests compared the performance of Colisure with accepted methods (LTB/MPN confirmed with BGLB and EC-MUG) in the detection of total coliforms and E. coli in sewage-spiked samples simulating contaminated drinking water, using an USEPA/AWWA test protocol. The results demonstrated that Colisure detected these indicator bacteria with greater sensitivity than the accepted methods and that this difference increased between 24 and 28 hours of incubation. The results of this study collectively support the validity of the new enzyme detection method for the detection of low levels of coliform bacteria and E. coli in source water and contaminated drinking water. PMID:11537608

McFeters, G A; Pyle, B H; Gillis, S J; Acomb, C J; Ferrazza, D

1993-01-01

117

Coliform Bacteria: The Effect of Sediments on Decay Rates and on Required Detention Times in Stormwater BMPs  

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Full Text Available Fecal indicator bacteria, such as total coliforms and E. coli, are a challenge to control in urban and rural stormwater runoff. To assess the challenges of improving bacterial water quality standards in surface waters, microcosm experiments were conducted to assess how decay rates of total coliforms and E. coli are affected by sediments and associated organic matter. Samples were collected at a lake embayment to create laboratory microcosms consisting of different combinations of unsterilized and sterilized water and sediment. Calculated first-order decay rate constants ranged from 0.021 to 0.047 h-1 for total coliforms and 0.017 and 0.037 h-1 for E. coli, depending on how each microcosm was prepared. It is evident that sediment in contact with the water column decreases bacteria decay rate, showing that care should be taken when designing stormwater treatment measures. In addition, high organic carbon content in the sediment temporarily increased bacteria concentrations in the water column. The results demonstrate that stormwater treatment measures, such as extended detention basins and constructed wetlands, must hold water for several days to allow for reduction of bacterial concentrations to acceptable levels. In addition, to troubleshoot detention basins and constructed wetlands for causes of high effluent bacterial concentrations, analyses of sediment, organic carbon, and water column depth should be conducted.

Danielle C. Usner

2012-08-01

118

Response of coliform populations in streambed sediment and water column to changes in nutrient concentrations in water.  

Science.gov (United States)

As sediments increasingly become recognized as reservoirs of indicator and pathogen microorganisms, an understanding of the persistence of indicator organisms becomes important for assessment and predictions of microbial water quality. The objective of this work was to observe the response of water column and sediment coliform populations to the change in nutrient concentrations in the water column. Survival experiments were conducted in flow-through chambers containing sandy sediments. Bovine feces were collected fresh and introduced into sediment. Sixteen days later, the same fecal material was autoclaved and diluted to provide three levels - 1×, 0.5×, and 0.1× of nutrient concentrations - spike in water column. Total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and total aerobic heterotrophic bacterial concentrations were monitored in water and sediment. Bacteria responded to the nutrient spike with initial growth both in the water column and in sediment. The response of bacterial concentrations in water column was nonlinear, with no significant changes at 0.1 and .5× spikes, but a substantial change at 1× spike. Bacteria in sediment responded to the spikes at all added nutrient levels. Coliform inactivation rates both in sediment and in water after the initial growth occurred, were not significantly different from the inactivation rates before spike. These results indicate that introduction of nutrients into the water column results in nonlinear response of E. coli concentrations both in water and in sediments, followed by the inactivation with the same rate as before introduction of nutrients. PMID:24839925

Shelton, D R; Pachepsky, Y A; Kiefer, L A; Blaustein, R A; McCarty, G W; Dao, T H

2014-08-01

119

Comparison of commercially available kits with standard methods for the detection of coliforms and Escherichia coli in foods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three commercially available kits that were supplemented with substrates for enzyme reactions were evaluated to determine their abilities to detect coliforms and fecal coliforms in foods. Japanese and U.S. Food and Drug Administration standard methods, as well as two agar plate methods, were compared with the three commercial kits. A total of 50 food samples from various retailers were examined. The levels of detection of coliforms were high with the commercial kits (78 to 98%) compared with the levels of detection with the standard methods (80 to 83%) and the agar plate methods (56 to 83%). Among the kits tested, the Colilert kit had highest level of recovery of coliforms (98%), and the level of recovery of Escherichia coli as determined by beta-glucuronidase activity with the Colilert kit (83%) was comparable to the level of recovery obtained by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration method (87%). Isolation of E. coli on the basis of the beta-glucuronidase enzyme reaction was found to be good. Levine's eosine methylene blue agar, which has been widely used in various laboratories to isolate E. coli was compared with 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG)-supplemented agar for isolation of E. coli. Only 47% of the E. coli was detected when eosine methylene blue agar was used; however, when violet red bile (VRB)-MUG agar was used, the E. coli detection rate was twice as high. Of the 200 E. coli strains isolated, only 2 were found to be MUG negative, and the gene responsible for beta-glucuronidase activity (uidA gene) was detected by the PCR method in these 2 strains. Of the 90 false-positive strains isolated that exhibited various E. coli characteristic features, only 2 non-E.coli strains hydrolyzed MUG and produced fluorescent substrate in VRB-MUG agar. However, the PCR did not amplify uidA gene products in these VRB-MUG fluorescence-positive strains. PMID:8779561

Venkateswaran, K; Murakoshi, A; Satake, M

1996-07-01

120

Total and free thyroid hormone levels in chronic renal failure.  

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Full Text Available The levels of serum total thyroxine (TT4, triiodothyronine (TT3, free T3, (FT3 free T4 (FT4 and thyrotropin (TSH were measured in 127 clinically euthyroid patients with varying grades of chronic renal failure (CRF; and 97 healthy individuals. They were grouped as: Group I containing 93 patients on conservative management; Group II containing 34 patients on regular dialysis therapy; and Group III (normals. Group I patients showed significant decrease in TT3, TT4 and FT3 levels (p less than 0.001 as compared to Group III, whereas FT4 and TSH values in group I were not significantly altered. TT3, TT4 and FT3 levels reduced as the severity of renal damage increased. Variations in TT3, TT4, FT3, FT4 and TSH levels in Group II patients were similar to those in Group I, except for a decrease in TSH levels (p less than 0.05 as compared to normals. Several thyroid function tests are abnormal in CRF patients, however, finding of normal FT4 and TSH levels would indicate functional euthyroid status.

Mehta H

1991-04-01

121

33 CFR 159.127 - Safety coliform count: Recirculating devices.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety coliform count: Recirculating devices. 159...and Testing § 159.127 Safety coliform count: Recirculating devices. ...recirculating device must have less than 240 fecal coliform bacteria per 100 milliliters....

2010-07-01

122

COMPLIANCE CONCERNS WITH THE NEW COLIFORM REGULATIONS  

Science.gov (United States)

The search for the presence or absence of coliforms in the water supply has made the recognition of a biofilm more obvious than ever before. orting out the true coliform biofilm issue from the presence of hidden contamination is of utmost importance. Careful characterization of i...

123

Microtechnique for isolating fecal coliforms from soil.  

OpenAIRE

A most-probable-number microtitration technique for isolating fecal coliforms from soil was developed. A correlation coefficient of 0.86, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.76 less than zeta less than 0.92, was obtained when this technique was compared with the standard elevated-temperature fecal coliform most-probable-number procedure.

Hartel, P. G.; Hagedorn, C.

1983-01-01

124

"ASSOCIATION BETWEEN TOTAL SERUM BILIRUBIN LEVEL AND MANIFESTATIONS OF KERNICTERUS "  

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Full Text Available Kernicterus (bilirubin induced encephalopathy is an uncommon disorder with tragic consequences, especially when it affects healthy term and near-term neonates. Appointment of cut off value of total serum bilirubin level that have a safe margin for early prompt treatment, as a result, prevention of kernicterus. In our study, all of icteric neonates that admitted in our center in 1 year were enrolled. From 305 neonates, 25 cases have kernicterus manifestations. These 25 neonates have not any conditions that mimic kernicterus manifestations (such as birth trauma, intra cranial hemorrhage, asphyxia. We divided neonates to 2major groups: neonates 8 days-old. Also these cases were divided to high-risk and low-risk neonates. In this study, 220 neonates (72.1% were ? 7days and 85 neonates (27.9% were > 8 days-old. Also 109 neonates (35.7% were or with risk factors and 196 neonates (64.3% were or without risk factors. Risk factors were prematurity, acidosis, hemolysis, duration of hyperbilirubinemia, sepsis and respiratory distress. Cutoff value of bilirubin level for neonates ? 7 days was 25.15 mg/dl and for neonates > 8 days was 22.25 mg/dl that no statistically significant difference was found. Cut off value of bilirubin level for high-risk neonates was 22.35 mg/dl and for low-risk neonates was 27.95 mg/dl that statistically significant difference was found. The lower limit of bilirubin in neonates with kernicterus was 16.5 mg/dl and the upper limit was 44 mg/dl. The high-risk neonates need prompt treatment of hyperbilirubinemia at lower levels of total bilirubin compared with low-risk neonates.

M. R. Ashrafi M. Sedaghat

2006-11-01

125

Asellus aquaticus as a potential carrier of Escherichia coli and other coliform bacteria into drinking water distribution systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Individuals of the water louse, Asellus aquaticus, enter drinking water distribution systems in temperate parts of the world, where they establish breeding populations. Populations of A. aquaticus in surface water from 2 ponds were analysed for associated faecal indicator bacteria and the risk of A. aquaticus transporting bacteria into distribution systems was assessed. Concn. of ?2 Escherichia coli and 5 total coliforms ml-1 were measured in the water and 200 E. coli and >240 total coliforms ml-1 in the sediments of the investigated ponds. Concn. of A. aquaticus associated bacteria never exceeded 3 E. coli and 6 total coliforms A. aquaticus-1. During exposure to high concn. of coliforms, concn. reached 350 coliforms A. aquaticus-1. A. aquaticus associated E. coli were only detected as long as E. coli were present in the water and sediment. The calculated probability of exceeding drinking water guideline values in non-disinfected systems by intrusion of A. aquaticus was low. Only in scenarios with narrow pipes and low flows, did total coliforms exceed guideline values, implying that the probability of detection by routine monitoring is also low. The study may expand the knowledge base for evaluating incidents with the presence of coliform indicators in drinking water by showing that intruding A. aquaticus are not important carriers of E. coli or other coliform bacteria even when emerging from faecally contaminated waters.

Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Arvin, Erik

2013-01-01

126

CALCIUM LEVEL, A PREDICTIVE FACTOR OF HYPOCALCEMIA FOLLOWING TOTAL THYROIDECTOMY  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this research was made necessary by the progressive increase in costs for medical assistance, together with a decrease in the number of available hospital beds and therefore raising the necessity for a shorter stay in hospital and safe hospital discharge. Methods: This research is based on a study group of 206 patients, who had recently undergone total thyroidectomy surgery due to different pathologies (functional or non functional goiter, Basedow disease, differentiated carcinoma, medullar carcinoma. In order to discharge the patients safely within 24 hours after surgery, not well accepted by all the patients – the serum calcium level was postoperatively measured at regular intervals, after 6, 12 and 18 hours. We used the variance analysis of the 3 samples, utilizing the p-value to verify the possibility of reducing the necessary number of blood samples to two when calculating the risk factor of hypocalcemia. Conclusion: We can consider the evaluation of the calcium level at 6 and 18 hours, sufficient to establish a calcium trend. All the patients who had registered a positive or doubt trend of calcium levels can be discharged the day after surgery, with minimum risk of subsequent hypocalcemia. The cases that registered a negative trend of calcium levels during the recovery, can not be considered as certain indicator of late hypocalcemia and therefore it is necessary to measure the PTH level, which gives highly predictive values both in scientific literature and also in our research: in 93,5% of the cases, a correlation between the PTH levels and an eventual development of hypocalcemia was noted.

Ancu?a Leahu

2009-05-01

127

RAPID MONITORING OF INDICATOR COLIFORMS IN DRINKING WATER BY AN ENZYMATIC ASSAY  

OpenAIRE

Coliform group has been extensively used as an indicator of drinking water quality and historically led to the public health protection concept. Multiple tube fermentation technique has been currently used for assessment of the microbial quality of drinking water. This method, however, has limitations. Enzymatic assay constitute an alternative approach for detecting indicator bacteria, namely total coliforms and E.coli in various aquatic environments. This study compared the performance of LM...

Jalali, M. Nikaeen ?. A. Pejhan ?. M.

2009-01-01

128

40 CFR 142.60 - Variances from the maximum contaminant level for total trihalomethanes.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Variances from the maximum contaminant level for total trihalomethanes...60 Variances from the maximum contaminant level for total trihalomethanes...achieving compliance with the maximum contaminant level for total...

2010-07-01

129

Comparison of media for enumeration of coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli in non-disinfected water.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work alternative media for detection and enumeration of E. coli and coliform bacteria were compared to the reference method ISO 9308-1 (LTTC) using non-disinfected water samples with background flora. The alternative media included LES Endo agar medium (LES Endo), Colilert-18 with 51-well Quanti-tray (Colilert), Chromocult Coliform agar (CC), Harlequin E. coli/Coliform medium (HECM) and Chromogenic Escherichia coli/Coliform medium (CECM). A total of 110 samples of groundwater, bathing water and spiked water was used. Our results revealed that confirmation of coliform bacteria counts is necessary, not only on lactose-based LTTC and LES Endo media, but also on the chromogenic agar media tested, due to the growth of oxidase positive colonies. LTTC and CC media also allowed the growth of some morphologically typical coliform colonies containing gram-positive bacteria. The recovery of coliform bacteria was lower on LES Endo than on LTTC. In most cases Colilert, CC, HECM and CECM gave higher coliform counts than LTTC. The use of the LTTC medium led to higher E. coli counts than obtained with any of the alternative mediums. There are three explanations for this: (1) high sensitivity of LTTC, (2) false positives on LTTC or (3) false negatives especially with Colilert, but also with chromogenic agar media. Although LTTC was found to be a very sensitive medium, the high degree of background growth of non-disinfected waters disturbed substantially the use of it. In conclusion, our results suggest that Colilert, CC and CECM are potential alternative media for detection of coliform bacteria and E. coli from non-disinfected water. PMID:17150268

Pitkänen, Tarja; Paakkari, Piia; Miettinen, Ilkka T; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi; Paulin, Lars; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

2007-03-01

130

Enumeration of coliform bacteria in wastewater solids using defined substrate technology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Commercially available defined substrate technology for the enumeration of coliform bacteria was investigated for its applicability to waste activated sludge (WAS) solids. The defined substrate, Colilert, in conjunction with the QuantiTray enumeration system, was compared with multiple-tube fermentation (MTF). Multiple-tube fermentation analyses (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [U.S. EPA]-accepted methods for the enumeration of coliforms in wastewater solids) were conducted on settled wastewater solids using lauryl tryptose broth as the presumptive phase and brilliant-green lactose bile broth for the confirmed phase of total coliform enumeration. Both EC medium for fecal coliform identification and EC-4-methyl-umbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG) media for Escherichia coli for the MTF completed phase were also conducted on the WAS. Samples analyzed included raw WAS and WAS that had been pasteurized at 70 degrees C for 15 and 30 minutes, respectively. Twenty replicates of each sample were measured to demonstrate statistical equivalence of the total coliform numbers for all three WAS samples (raw, 15-minute pasteurization, and 30-minute pasteurization). Results show that both systems provided statistically equal total coliform most probable numbers (MPNs) for all samples tested. As expected, fecal coliform numbers identified by the MTF technique were statistically higher than E. coli enumerated by Colilert-QuantiTray. However, the E. coli MPN generated by the MTF method was found to be statistically equal to the Colilert-QuantiTray numbers. Because of its ease of use and reduced time to obtain the analysis, the Colilert-QuantiTray system can be useful in enumerating coliforms in WAS. However, more data are required to definitively show equivalence of the commercially available defined substrate technology to the U.S.-EPA accepted protocol. It is hoped that the results of this study will help form a database for the acceptance of the Colilert-QuantiTray system for WAS bacterial analyses. PMID:12540092

Kramer, T A; Liu, J

2002-01-01

131

Determination of total mercury in nuts at ultratrace level.  

Science.gov (United States)

Total mercury, at ?g kg(-1) level, was determined in different types of nuts (cashew nut, Brazil nuts, almond, pistachio, peanut, walnut) using a direct mercury analyser after previous sample defatting and by cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry. There is not enough sensitivity in the second approach to determine Hg in previously digested samples due to the strong matrix effect. Mercury levels in 25 edible nut samples from Brazil and Spain were found in the range from 0.6 to 2.7?g kg(-1) by using the pyrolysis of sample after the extraction of the nut fat. The accuracy of the proposed method was confirmed by analysing certified reference materials of Coal Fly Ash-NIST SRM 1633b, Fucus-IAEA 140 and three unpolished Rice Flour NIES-10. The observed results were in good agreement with the certified values. The recoveries of different amounts of mercury added to nut samples ranged from 94 to 101%. RSD values corresponding to three measurements varied between 2.0 and 14% and the limit of detection and quantification of the method were 0.08 and 0.3?g kg(-1), respectively. PMID:25064238

da Silva, Maria José; Paim, Ana Paula S; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Cervera, M Luisa; de la Guardia, Miguel

2014-08-01

132

The Impact of Rainfall on Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Bayou Dorcheat (North Louisiana  

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Full Text Available Fecal coliform bacteria are the most common pollutant in rivers and streams. In Louisiana, it has been reported that 37% of surveyed river miles, 31% of lakes, and 23% of estuarine water had some level of contamination. The objective of this research was to assess the effect of surface runoff amounts and rainfall amount parameters on fecal coliform bacterial densities in Bayou Dorcheat in Louisiana. Bayou Dorcheat has been designated by the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality as a waterway that has uses such as primary contact recreation, secondary contact recreation, propagation of fish and wildlife, agriculture and as being an outstanding natural resource water. Samples from Bayou Dorcheat were collected monthly and analyzed for the presence of fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms isolated from these samples were identified to the species level. The analysis of the bacterial levels was performed following standard test protocols as described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Information regarding the rainfall amounts and surface runoff amounts for the selected years was retrieved from the Louisiana Office of State Climatology. It was found that a significant increase in the fecal coliform numbers may be associated with average rainfall amounts. Possible sources of elevated coliform counts could include sewage discharges from municipal treatment plants and septic tanks, storm water overflows, and runoff from pastures and range lands. It can be concluded that nonpoint source pollution that is carried by surface runoff has a significant effect on bacterial levels in water resources.

Paul B. Tchounwou

2006-03-01

133

ANALYZING BIOSOLIDS FOR FECAL COLIFORM AND SALMONELLAE  

Science.gov (United States)

Current federal regulations required monitoring for fecal coliforms or Salmonella in biosolids destined for land application. Standard protocols designed to quantify these organisms in water or wastewater were identified and specified in these regulations. However, proto...

134

Fecal coliform bacteria disappearance rates in a north-central Gulf of Mexico estuary  

Science.gov (United States)

Fecal coliform levels in surface waters often peak after a major rain event. Thereafter, they decrease or disappear from water with time and can concentrate in sediments at high densities. Their dynamics in coastal waters is a function of bacterial loading from inflowing streams and rivers, mass transport, and losses due to death and sedimentation. We used water quality data collected from Mississippi Sound before, during and after 12 rainfall events to assess the effects of rainfall on fecal coliform levels, estimate fecal coliform disappearance rates, and evaluate the influence of season on fecal coliform loss rates. Fecal coliforms typically peaked within 48 h after a rain event, and then decreased precipitously, whereas the Pearl River (a major inflow into the western Mississippi Sound) stage often peaked within 96 h. Fecal coliform disappearance rates per day varied from -0.214 to -0.743 (mean = -0.428). Loss rates were higher in November/December (-0.64 ± 0.06SE) than in January (-0.45 ± 0.03SE) or February/March (-0.35 ± 0.03SE), perhaps due to seasonal differences in water temperature and/or intensities of solar radiation. It took an average of 6 days (range: 0.3-12.9 days) for the geometric mean FC levels to fall to 14 MPN per 100 ml. These data are useful for managing shellfish harvesting areas in Mississippi Sound and other river-influenced estuaries.

Chigbu, P.; Gordon, S.; Strange, T. R.

2005-10-01

135

Contamination of water wells in Khoms city with pathogenic coliform bacteria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

240 Samples from 60 water wells in and around the area of city of Khoms city (in northwestern Libya) were analyzed over four successive seasons for count of faecal Coliform bacteria, of which antibiotic resistance was later assessed. Standard methods were used for analysis of faecla coliform bacteria. Water wells contained varying levels of faecal coliform bacteria ranging from a Most Probable Number of 0 to 1.8 x 103 cfu/100 ml, with zero isolates at autumn and winter seasons, while wells dug at private farms had the highest percentage of contamination, reaching 56.6% of wells in autumn, and also had the highest number of faecal coliform isolates, 1,8x103 cfu/100 ml, in spring and summer seasons, strains of isolated Escherichia coli were most sensitive to chloramphenicol, and most resistant to tetracycline. (author)

136

Serum total proteins and serum total cholesterol levels in Gaolao Cattle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The healthy female Gaolao cattle were selected and divided in three groups of ten animals each with reference to age. The blood samples were processed for clear serum collection and estimation of serum total proteins, albumin, globulin, albumin and globulin ratio and serum total cholesterol. It is reported that female calves had low total proteins, albumin and globulin than the adult cows. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(4.000: 115-116

P. M. Kapale

2008-08-01

137

Nutrient-Induced Growth of Coliform and HPC Bacteria in Drinking-Water Pipes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We conducted a study on a model drinking water distribution system to evaluate the impact of nutrient in the form of sodium acetate on the growth and survival of coliform and heterotrophic plate count (HPC bacteria for a maximum of 21 days residence time of water in pipes. Our results show that, besides the nutrient added and the absence of any additional source of contamination and additional supply of nutrient, there was significant growth of the above mentioned bacteria in the pipes and bottles for a couple of days, after which the bacterial population began to decrease. The results indicate that the bacteria used the nutrient to grow and multiply until the nutrient was totally consumed and became depleted in the bulk water phase, after which the bacterial population reached a near stationary level and subsequently declined. This suggests the death of some of the bacteria and their dead cells were used by other bacteria for growth and survival. Using a detection limit of 3.3 CFU/100 mL for the coliforms, the study shows that after sometime, no bacteria were found in the water phase of the pipe, however, the biofilm in the pipes still harbored some of the bacteria. The results have revealed that the bacteria also have the tendency to move from the water phase to the biofilm since the latter provides a more suitable environment for bacteria to thrive on and grow, thus prolonging their survival in the system.

Samuel Boakye Dampare

2012-06-01

138

Evaluation of the Sanita-kun coliforms, a dehydrated medium sheet for coliform detection. Performance-Tested Method 100402.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Sanita-kun Coliforms consists of a transparent cover film, an adhesive sheet, a layer of nonwoven fabric, and a water-soluble compound film, including a culture medium formula for the detection of coliforms. The medium sheet was validated with 26 food types belonging to 9 food categories (meat, poultry, fish and seafood, fruits and vegetable, dairy, chocolate or bakery, animal feeds, pasta, and miscellaneous) using violet red bile (VRB) agar method in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual as a reference according to the AOAC guideline. The medium sheet showed 100% inclusivity and exclusivity. Ruggedness study suggested allowances in the incubation temperature and time as 33-35 degrees C and 24 +/- 4 h, respectively. The performance of 3 different lots of the medium sheets was equivalent and suggested no change of the performance at least for 3 years. In the comparative recovery study, many samples (84.6%), which were inoculated with a coliform strain, showed no significant difference between the 2 methods. The linear correlation coefficient (r2) to the VRB agar was calculated as 0.94. In the repeatability study, the average relative standard deviation of total foods was 0.10 in the medium sheet. In the independent study, the medium sheet detected significantly more colonies than VRB plates in the frozen raw milk sample, while there was no significant difference between the 2 methods in raw ground beef sample. Comparative recovery study on foods, inoculated and then frozen, showed the medium sheet detected injured cells with better recovery than VRB agar. The analysts in the independent study wrote that the medium sheet was easy to use and read overall. The Sanita-kun sheet provides an alternative method to coliform count agar. PMID:16640288

Morita, Hiroshi; Ushiyama, Masashi; Aoyama, Shigeyuki; Iwasaki, Mihoko

2006-01-01

139

Coliform Bacteria: The Effect of Sediments on Decay Rates and on Required Detention Times in Stormwater BMPs  

OpenAIRE

Fecal indicator bacteria, such as total coliforms and E. coli, are a challenge to control in urban and rural stormwater runoff. To assess the challenges of improving bacterial water quality standards in surface waters, microcosm experiments were conducted to assess how decay rates of total coliforms and E. coli are affected by sediments and associated organic matter. Samples were collected at a lake embayment to create laboratory microcosms consisting of different combinations o...

Usner, Danielle C.; Surbeck, Cristiane Q.; Kinnaman, Alison R.

2012-01-01

140

Comparison of serum leptin, glucose, total cholesterol and total protein levels in fertile and repeat breeder cows  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In the present study we measured serum glucose, leptin, total cholesterol and total protein concentrations in repeat breeder cows and compared them with fertile cows. For this aim, 20 repeat breeder cows and 20 fertile cows were used as material. Repeat breeder cows were found to have lower levels o [...] f leptin and glucose as compared with fertile ones. No significant differences in total cholesterol and total protein levels were observed between the two groups. No significant correlation of leptin with glucose, total cholesterol and total protein was observed in fertile and repeat breeder cows. Low concentrations of glucose and leptin can have some effects on reproductive problems as repeat breeder and help to understand potential mechanisms impairing fertility in repeat breeder cows.

Saime, Guzel; Meltem, Tanriverdi.

2014-12-01

141

Teste alternativo para detecção de coliformes em leite humano ordenhado Alternative test for detection of coliforms bacteria in manually expressed human milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo: comparar um método alternativo com o teste do número mais provável (NMP para detecção de coliformes totais em leite humano ordenhado. Métodos: 343 amostras de leite humano ordenhado, obtidas a partir de frascos oriundos de coleta domiciliar, recebidas pelo Banco de Leite Humano do Instituto Fernandes Figueira - IFF, por doadoras previamente orientadas, foram encaminhadas ao laboratório de controle de alimentos do IFF e empregadas na comparação de dois métodos: 1 - técnica do número mais provável, conforme descrito no Standard methods for the examination of dairy products; 2 - método alternativo proposto. Resultados: os microorganismos do grupo coliformes foram detectados em 31,2% das amostras analisadas, com populações variando de 3,0 x 100 a 1,1 x 104 coliformes totais N.M.P/ml. A comparação do teste clássico com o alternativo revelou resultados semelhantes quanto à recuperação de microorganismos coliformes em amostras de leite humano ordenhado. O método alternativo detectou a presença de coliformes totais em todas as amostras contaminadas e em quatro amostras não contaminadas, segundo o teste de NMP. Conclusão: o teste alternativo permite constatar a presença ou ausência de coliformes, tornando-se útil no controle de qualidade dos frascos de leite humano ordenhado pasteurizados, manipulados nos bancos de leite humano. Portanto, o teste de NMP pode ser substituído pelo teste alternativo, que poderá ser empregado como rotina nos bancos de leite humano, já que seu custo equivale a 1/7 do tradicional.Objective: To compare an alternative method to the most probable number (MPN test for the detection of total coliform present in manually expressed human milk. Methods: 343 samples of manually expressed human milk from flasks donated to the Human Milk Bank of Instituto Fernandes Figueira - IFF were sent to the Laboratory of Food Control of IFF. The samples were used for comparing both methods, i.e., the most probable number (MPN method, as described in the "Standard methods for the examination of dairy products", and the alternative method. Results: Coliforms were detected in 31.2% of the samples analyzed, with populations ranging from 3.0 x 100 to 1.1 x 104 total coliform MPN/mL. The comparison between classical and alternative methods showed similar results regarding the presence of coliform microorganisms in expressed human milk samples. The alternative method detected the presence of total coliform in all contaminated and in four noncontaminated samples according to the MNP method. Conclusions: The alternative test allows the detection of the presence or absence of coliforms and it is useful for the quality control of pasteurized flasks containing manually expressed human milk manipulated at human milk banks. Therefore, we conclude that the alternative test can be used in the routine of human milk banks as a substitute for the MNP method, since its cost is equivalent to 1/7 of the cost of the traditional method.

Franz R. Novak

2002-01-01

142

Teste alternativo para detecção de coliformes em leite humano ordenhado / Alternative test for detection of coliforms bacteria in manually expressed human milk  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivo: comparar um método alternativo com o teste do número mais provável (NMP) para detecção de coliformes totais em leite humano ordenhado. Métodos: 343 amostras de leite humano ordenhado, obtidas a partir de frascos oriundos de coleta domiciliar, recebidas pelo Banco de Leite Humano do Institu [...] to Fernandes Figueira - IFF, por doadoras previamente orientadas, foram encaminhadas ao laboratório de controle de alimentos do IFF e empregadas na comparação de dois métodos: 1 - técnica do número mais provável, conforme descrito no Standard methods for the examination of dairy products; 2 - método alternativo proposto. Resultados: os microorganismos do grupo coliformes foram detectados em 31,2% das amostras analisadas, com populações variando de 3,0 x 100 a 1,1 x 104 coliformes totais N.M.P/ml. A comparação do teste clássico com o alternativo revelou resultados semelhantes quanto à recuperação de microorganismos coliformes em amostras de leite humano ordenhado. O método alternativo detectou a presença de coliformes totais em todas as amostras contaminadas e em quatro amostras não contaminadas, segundo o teste de NMP. Conclusão: o teste alternativo permite constatar a presença ou ausência de coliformes, tornando-se útil no controle de qualidade dos frascos de leite humano ordenhado pasteurizados, manipulados nos bancos de leite humano. Portanto, o teste de NMP pode ser substituído pelo teste alternativo, que poderá ser empregado como rotina nos bancos de leite humano, já que seu custo equivale a 1/7 do tradicional. Abstract in english Objective: To compare an alternative method to the most probable number (MPN) test for the detection of total coliform present in manually expressed human milk. Methods: 343 samples of manually expressed human milk from flasks donated to the Human Milk Bank of Instituto Fernandes Figueira - IFF were [...] sent to the Laboratory of Food Control of IFF. The samples were used for comparing both methods, i.e., the most probable number (MPN) method, as described in the "Standard methods for the examination of dairy products", and the alternative method. Results: Coliforms were detected in 31.2% of the samples analyzed, with populations ranging from 3.0 x 100 to 1.1 x 104 total coliform MPN/mL. The comparison between classical and alternative methods showed similar results regarding the presence of coliform microorganisms in expressed human milk samples. The alternative method detected the presence of total coliform in all contaminated and in four noncontaminated samples according to the MNP method. Conclusions: The alternative test allows the detection of the presence or absence of coliforms and it is useful for the quality control of pasteurized flasks containing manually expressed human milk manipulated at human milk banks. Therefore, we conclude that the alternative test can be used in the routine of human milk banks as a substitute for the MNP method, since its cost is equivalent to 1/7 of the cost of the traditional method.

Franz R., Novak; João Aprígio Guerra de, Almeida.

143

Coliforms and Escherichia coli in waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study shows the evaluation of a defined substrate method, Colilert 18/Quanty Tray, for the simultaneous detection of Coliforms bacteria and Escherichia coli in water. The results obtained indicate that this method represents a valid alternative to the traditional methods considering sensitivity, specificity, repeatability but also rapidity and simplicity of use

144

Removal of fecal coliforms in stabilization lagoons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The treatment of residual waters by means of stabilization lagoons, it has been a method very used due to their low costs of operation and maintenance, as well as to their efficiency in the removal of organic matter and of microorganisms pathogens. The pathogens removal, measure in terms of fecal coliforms, CF, is one of the objectives of the design and of the control of the operation of plants of treatment of residual waters. In this article summary the main results of the experimental evaluation of the removal of fecal coliforms, In a treatment system for stabilization lagoons. In 1987 the plant of treatment of Chia 1 the main components of the treatment system are an entrance structure, composed by a mitigation tank, to which he receives a 24 diameter pipe with a slope of 0.98% that transports the residual water of a sector of the Chia municipality. The average concentration of fecal coliforms is not affected notably by the hour of sampling. The value of the coliforms concentration in the tributary is of 1.0*106 NMP/100 mL, the concentration in the final tributary is bigger than the one demanded for the watering water without restrictions 3.4*104 NMP/100 mL. The removal average in the system is acceptable during the sampling period, keeping in mind that this compound for two lagoons in series, under anaerobic conditions

145

40 CFR 141.21 - Coliform sampling.  

Science.gov (United States)

...colonies for verification), swab the entire membrane filter surface with a sterile cotton swab and transfer the inoculum to EC medium (do not leave the cotton swab in the EC medium), or inoculate...indicates a positive fecal coliform test. The preparation of EC...

2010-07-01

146

40 CFR 141.21 - Coliform sampling.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Coliform Test 5,7 9221D. ONPG-MUG Test 8 9223. Colisure Test. 9 E...rather than autoclaved. 8 The ONPG-MUG Test is also known as the Autoanalysis Collect...4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG) (final concentration), as...

2010-07-01

147

Comparación de técnicas para la extracción de bacterias coliformes del sedimento del lago de Xochimilco, México / Comparison of techniques for coliform bacteria extraction from sediment of Xochimilco Lake, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La necesidad de separar a las bacterias del sedimento para lograr un conteo adecuado ha llevado a probar la eficiencia de distintas técnicas. En este trabajo se comparan técnicas tradicionales: agitación manual, homogenización, ultrasonicación y adición de surfactante. Además, se propone la posibili [...] dad de usar un conjunto de enzimas (pancreatina) y un antibiótico (ampicilina) para la extracción de coliformes del sedimento. Las muestras se obtuvieron del lago de Xochimilco, Ciudad de México. Después de aplicar cada técnica de separación de bacterias se determinó el número más probable de coliformes. La mayoría de las técnicas probadas generaron números similares a la técnica tomada como control (agitación manual). Únicamente se observó una mayor concentración de coliformes totales con el uso de la ampicilina (Mann-Whitney, z = 2,09; p = 0,03). Es posible proponer el uso de la ampicilina como técnica para la extracción de coliformes totales, sin embargo, es necesario considerar la sensibilidad de las bacterias al antibiótico. Abstract in english The need to separate bacteria from sediment in order to appropriately count them has led to test the efficacy of different techniques. In this research, traditional techniques such as manual shaking, homogenization, ultrasonication, and surfactant are compared. Moreover, the possibility of using a s [...] et of enzymes (pancreatine) and an antibiotic (ampicillin) for sediment coliform extraction is proposed. Samples were obtained from Xochimilco Lake in Mexico City. The most probable number of coliform bacteria was determined after applying the appropriate separation procedure. Most of the techniques tested led to numbers similar to those of the control (manual shaking). Only with the use of ampicillin, a greater total coliform concentration was observed (Mann-Whitney, z = 2.09; p = 0.03). It is possible to propose the use of ampicillin as a technique for total coliform extraction; however, it is necessary to consider sensitivity of bacteria to the antibiotic.

Carlos L, Fernández-Rendón; Guadalupe, Barrera-Escorcia.

2013-09-01

148

33 CFR 159.123 - Coliform test: Type I devices.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coliform test: Type I devices. 159.123...Construction, and Testing § 159.123 Coliform test: Type I devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples...

2010-07-01

149

40 CFR 141.802 - Coliform sampling plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coliform sampling plan. 141.802 Section...Drinking Water Rule § 141.802 Coliform sampling plan. (a) Each air...under this subpart must develop a coliform sampling plan covering each...

2010-07-01

150

33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coliform test: Type II devices. 159.126...Construction, and Testing § 159.126 Coliform test: Type II devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples...

2010-07-01

151

Occurrence of heterotrophic and coliform bacteria in liquid hand soaps from bulk refillable dispensers in public facilities.  

Science.gov (United States)

The goal of the study discussed in this article was to determine the occurrence of heterotrophic and coliform bacteria in liquid soap from bulk refillable dispensers, obtained from restrooms in a variety of public facilities. A total of 541 samples was collected from five U.S. cities. Liquid soap from dispensers in public areas was found to contain heterotrophic and coliform bacterial numbers averaging more than 106 CFU/mL in 24.8% of the dispensers. PMID:21413559

Chattman, Marisa; Gerba, Sheri L; Maxwell, Charles P

2011-03-01

152

Comparación de los métodos PetrifilmTM coliformes y Número Más Probable (NMP) para la determinación de coliformes fecales en muestras de queso blanco / Comparison study between the coliform PetrifilmTM and the Most Probable Number methods for the assessment of fecal coliforms in white cheese  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los coliformes fecales son un grupo importante de microorganismos indicadores de inocuidad en alimentos, constituido principalmente por Escherichia coli, el cual es considerado como indicador de contaminación reciente de origen fecal, por ello la importancia de investigar su presencia y determinar r [...] ápidamente el nivel poblacional en alimentos. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo comparar el método tradicional Número Más Probable (NMP) para la determinación de coliformes fecales, según Norma Venezolana Covenin Nº 1104-96 con el método de placas rehidratables PetrifilmTM 3M coliformes incubadas en baño de agua circulante (PBA) a 45 ± 0,2°C por 24 ± 2 horas y en estufa con aire circulante 44 ± 1°C por 24 ± 2 horas (PES) de acuerdo con lo recomendado por la Asociación Francesa de Normalización (AFNOR) y la Corporación 3M. Se analizaron un total de 42 muestras de queso blanco aplicando ambas metodologías, dispensando simultáneamente diluciones seriadas de las muestras. Para el análisis estadístico se realizó una correlación de muestras relacionadas (SPS versión 7,5), obteniéndose los siguientes resultados r = 0,952 entre NMP y PES y r = 0,944 entre NMP y PBA; lo que indica una buena correlación positiva entre ambas metodologías en sus diferentes modalidades para la determinación de coliformes fecales en muestras de queso blanco. Se concluye que las placas PetrifilmTM coliformes incubadas a la temperatura óptima de crecimiento de dichos microorganismos es un método alternativo, rápido y confiable para la determinación del nivel de coliformes fecales en queso blanco. Abstract in english Fecal coliform belong to an important group of sanitary quality indicator microorganisms in food, mainly constituted for Escherichia coli, considerated as indicators of recent fecal contamination, that is why it is very important to investigate their presence and to detect their population in food r [...] apidly. The objetive of this study was to compare the Most Probable Number (NPM) method for fecal coliform determination, according to Venezuelan standard COVENIN Nº 1104-96, with the coliform PetrifilmTM 3M TM plates, incubated in circulating thermostatically - controlled water bath (PBA) at 45 ± 0,2 ° C for 24 ± 2 hours and in a circulating air incubator at 44 ± 1° C for 24 ± 2 hours (PES), according to the recommendation of Association Francoise of Normalization, Paris (AFNOR) and 3M TM corporation. Forty-two white cheese samples were analyzed using both methods mentioned above. They were dispensed at the same time with decimal dilutions of the samples. Data generated were subjected to correlation of related samples (SPS 7.5 version) and the correlation coefficients (r) were obtained; r = 0.952 NMP and PES; r = 0.944 NMP and PBA. It is interesting to observe a good correlation between the methodologies in their different forms for fecal coliform determination in white cheese. Coliform PetrifilmTM plates incubated at the optimal temperature of coliform fecal culture represent a rapid alternative and reliable method for the assessment of fecal coliform population in white cheese.

Miriam C, Ortiz L; Manuela, Ríos de S.

2006-12-01

153

Comparación de los métodos PetrifilmTM coliformes y Número Más Probable (NMP para la determinación de coliformes fecales en muestras de queso blanco Comparison study between the coliform PetrifilmTM and the Most Probable Number methods for the assessment of fecal coliforms in white cheese  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los coliformes fecales son un grupo importante de microorganismos indicadores de inocuidad en alimentos, constituido principalmente por Escherichia coli, el cual es considerado como indicador de contaminación reciente de origen fecal, por ello la importancia de investigar su presencia y determinar rápidamente el nivel poblacional en alimentos. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo comparar el método tradicional Número Más Probable (NMP para la determinación de coliformes fecales, según Norma Venezolana Covenin Nº 1104-96 con el método de placas rehidratables PetrifilmTM 3M coliformes incubadas en baño de agua circulante (PBA a 45 ± 0,2°C por 24 ± 2 horas y en estufa con aire circulante 44 ± 1°C por 24 ± 2 horas (PES de acuerdo con lo recomendado por la Asociación Francesa de Normalización (AFNOR y la Corporación 3M. Se analizaron un total de 42 muestras de queso blanco aplicando ambas metodologías, dispensando simultáneamente diluciones seriadas de las muestras. Para el análisis estadístico se realizó una correlación de muestras relacionadas (SPS versión 7,5, obteniéndose los siguientes resultados r = 0,952 entre NMP y PES y r = 0,944 entre NMP y PBA; lo que indica una buena correlación positiva entre ambas metodologías en sus diferentes modalidades para la determinación de coliformes fecales en muestras de queso blanco. Se concluye que las placas PetrifilmTM coliformes incubadas a la temperatura óptima de crecimiento de dichos microorganismos es un método alternativo, rápido y confiable para la determinación del nivel de coliformes fecales en queso blanco.Fecal coliform belong to an important group of sanitary quality indicator microorganisms in food, mainly constituted for Escherichia coli, considerated as indicators of recent fecal contamination, that is why it is very important to investigate their presence and to detect their population in food rapidly. The objetive of this study was to compare the Most Probable Number (NPM method for fecal coliform determination, according to Venezuelan standard COVENIN Nº 1104-96, with the coliform PetrifilmTM 3M TM plates, incubated in circulating thermostatically - controlled water bath (PBA at 45 ± 0,2 ° C for 24 ± 2 hours and in a circulating air incubator at 44 ± 1° C for 24 ± 2 hours (PES, according to the recommendation of Association Francoise of Normalization, Paris (AFNOR and 3M TM corporation. Forty-two white cheese samples were analyzed using both methods mentioned above. They were dispensed at the same time with decimal dilutions of the samples. Data generated were subjected to correlation of related samples (SPS 7.5 version and the correlation coefficients (r were obtained; r = 0.952 NMP and PES; r = 0.944 NMP and PBA. It is interesting to observe a good correlation between the methodologies in their different forms for fecal coliform determination in white cheese. Coliform PetrifilmTM plates incubated at the optimal temperature of coliform fecal culture represent a rapid alternative and reliable method for the assessment of fecal coliform population in white cheese.

Miriam C Ortiz L

2006-12-01

154

OXYTETRACYCLINE-RESISTANT COLIFORMS IN COMMERCIAL POULTRY PRODUCTS.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of oxytetracycline-resistant bacteria was investigated with commercially frozen chicken thighs and drumsticks. Bacterial flora were surveyed by means of total and coliform counts with Tryptone Glucose Extract Agar and Desoxycholate Agar, respectively. After counting, the Desoxycholate Agar plates were replicated on the same medium containing 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm of oxytetracycline. Resistant colonies were found on all samples that were replicated. Of 2613 colonies isolated on Desoxycholate Agar, 47.8% grew in the presence of 25 ppm of oxytetracycline. From 50 to 100 ppm, the number of resistant isolates remained essentially the same, near 34%. Of 812 colonies of antibiotic-resistant bacteria identified with dulcitol-lactose-iron-agar, 82.5% were paracolons, 13.7% were pseudomonads, and 3.8% were Escherichia or Aerobacter. Bacteria resistant to oxytetracycline were shown to be present on commercially processed chicken. The origin of the resistance to oxytetracycline was not established; however, since the antibiotic was not used during processing, it appeared that these antibiotic-resistant bacteria arose in the intestines of the chickens as a result of feed which contained antibiotic. This is supported by a comparison with the antibiotic resistance of coliforms from chickens raised on feed both with and without oxytetracycline, for the percentages of resistant colonies are similar in both commercial chicken and chicken raised on feed containing the antibiotic. PMID:14075046

COREY, R R; BYRNES, J M

1963-11-01

155

The Seasonality of Fecal Coliform Bacteria Pollution and its Influence on Closures of Shellfish Harvesting Areas in Mississippi Sound  

OpenAIRE

Runoff from agricultural lands and farm animal feedlots is one of the major sources of fecal coliforms in surface waters, and fecal coliform (FC) bacteria concentrations tend to vary with season because of seasonal variations in climatic factors. However, El Niño -Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events may affect the extent and patterns of seasonality in FC levels in coastal waters. Water quality monitoring data for shellfish management collected during El Niño (1990, 1992, 1997), a...

Tchounwou, Paul B.; Scott Gordon; Paulinus Chigbu

2005-01-01

156

Total coliform rule: Implementation manual (including Appendix D). Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to EPA regions and the States on implementation of the rule. More specifically, the document addresses violation determination, FRDS reporting, and State Primacy Revision Application. The first section presents time lines showing deadlines for submission of Primacy Revision applications. The second section addresses violation determination and associated reporting requirements. The third section covers State Special Primacy Requirements. This section breaks the requirements down into three categories of relative importance. States may find this categorization useful in preparing their applications for primacy, because the EPA regions may utilize the categories in evaluating the applications

157

Comparison of the SimPlate coliform and Escherichia coli test with Petrifilm, three-tube MPN, and VRBA + MUG methods for enumerating coliforms and E. coli in food.  

Science.gov (United States)

SimPlate for coliforms and Escherichia coli (CEc) is a new method for the detection and quantification of coliforms and E. coli in food. Internal validation of the method was carried out at IDEXX Laboratories (Westbrook, ME) with 180 food samples representing a variety of different food matrices and compared against three-tube MPN (most probable number), VRBA (violet red bile agar) + MUG, and Petrifilm (E. coli count) methods. SimPlate CEc was highly correlated with each of these methods for the quantification of coliform bacteria (r > or = 0.90). An insignificant number of food samples were found to contain E. coli; therefore, no meaningful correlation data could be generated. Four hundred forty-four additional food samples were tested at five collaborating laboratories for the presence of coliforms E. coli using SimPlate CEc and either VRBA + MUG or Petrifilm (E. coli count). Regression analysis of data from SimPlate for CEc versus Petrifilm E. coli count plates generated correlation coefficients (r) of at least 0.89 for total coliforms and at least 0.90 for generic E. coli. Correlation coefficients between SimPlate for CEc and VRBA + MUG data were at least 0.90 for coliforms and at least 0.86 for E. coli. SimPlate for CEc demonstrated better recovery of E. coli than Petrifilm when high populations of bacteria were present. E. coli was not detected in 20 or 50 (40%) raw milk samples tested by the Petrifilm method due to the presence of interfering coliform and noncoliform bacteria. It is concluded that SimPlate for CEc is a suitable alternative for determining numbers of coliform bacteria and E. coli in food. PMID:9709208

Townsend, D E; Irving, R L; Naqui, A

1998-04-01

158

The Relationship Between Depressive Status and Total Cholesterol Levels in a Bomb Plant Workers  

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Full Text Available Aim: There is significant amount of evidence linking low cholesterol levels to aggressive behaviors, depression and suicide. Material and Methods: The objective of this study was to determine whether a correlation exists between serum total cholesterol levels and depressive state in 77 male workers labouring in a bomb plant and in 80 male office personnel. Depressive statuses of the subjects were determined by using Beck Depression Rating Scale and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. Results: Depression scores were significantly higher and total cholesterol levels were significantly lower in bomb factory workers than that of office staff. In both types of workers, cholesterol levels were negatively correlated with depression scores according to both Beck and Zung scales. Total cholesterol levels of bomb factory workers with moderate and severe depression symptoms were significantly lower when compared with normal and mild depression. Conclusions: These data indicate that low serum total cholesterol level is associated with increased risk of depressive state.

Hakan Boyunaga

2010-01-01

159

Molecular identification of coliform bacteria from colicky breastfed infants  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: To determine the presence of intestinal coliform bacteria in colicky vs healthy infants. STUDY DESIGN: We isolated coliform strains from faeces and performed quantitative bacterial cultures in 41 colicky and 39 healthy breastfed infants, identified using PCR with species-specific primers, strain-specific Automated Ribotyping and the API-50E kit for Enterobacteriaceae to identify the most frequent strains. RESULTS: Coliform strains were more abundant in colicky infants (medi...

Palumeri, Elisabetta; Calabrese, Roberto; Tarasco, Valentina

2009-01-01

160

Total sialic acid, total protein and total sugar levels in serum and saliva of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients: A case control study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Detection of cancer at an early stage is of utmost importance to decrease the morbidity and mortality of the disease. Apart from the conventional biopsy, non-invasive methods like analysis of serum and saliva may provide cost-effective approach for screening a large population. Tumor markers are a major part of secondary prevention and thus, the detection of malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate total sialic acid (TSA), total protein and total sugar (TS) in serum and saliva of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and controls to assess their role as a diagnostic marker. Materials and Methods: Unstimulated whole saliva and sera were collected from 40 squamous cell carcinoma patients and 20 controls. Serum and salivary TSA, total protein and TS estimation was carried out. This was correlated with clinical stages and histopathological grades of OSCC. The data obtained was analyzed statistically using Chi-square test, ANOVA and Student's t-test with SPSS statistical software. Results: A highly significant rise in the salivary sialic acid, serum sialic acid and serum protein was noted in OSCC subjects compared to controls. Salivary protein, serum and salivary sugar did not show any significance. Furthermore, serum and salivary sialic acid levels were found to be significantly increased with increasing level of histopathological grading. Conclusion: The present study showed a significant increase in serum sialic acid, salivary sialic acid and serum protein from control to OSCC and suggests that these markers may be reliable in diagnosis and predicting prognosis. PMID:24019802

Dhakar, Nidhi; Astekar, Madhusudan; Jain, Mahesh; Saawarn, Swati; Saawarn, Nisheeth

2013-01-01

161

Coliform accumulation in Amphibalanus amphitrite (Darwin, 1854) (Cirripedia) and its use as an organic pollution bioindicator in the estuarine area of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil / Acumulação de coliformes em Amphibalanus amphitrite (Darwin, 1854) (Cirripedia) e seu uso como bioindicador de poluição orgânica na área estuarina do Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Amostras de água e cirrípedes Amphibalanus amphitrite foram coletados em Recife, Brasil, para avaliar se estes acumulam coliformes totais (CT) e termo-tolerantes (TTC) relacionados à poluição por esgoto doméstico. Foram utilizados os valores de Números Mais Prováveis (NMP) e os procedimentos padrões [...] para exame de bivalves. Comparativamente às amostras de água, os valores mais altos de coliformes foram dos cirrípedes, com valores de TC variando de 2,4 × 10(6) NMP.g-1, e TTC variando de > 2,4 × 10³ a 2,9 × 10(5) NMP.g-1. Os cirrípedes acumularam TC Ewingella americana e TTC Escherichia coli, Enterobacter gergoviae, Enterobacter aerogenes e Enterobacter sakazakii. Os resultados proveram uma indicação de que há contaminação orgânica nas localidades de amostras e que esta espécie pode ser um bioindicador bom de poluição orgânica. Abstract in english Samples of water and barnacles Amphibalanus amphitrite were collected from Recife, Brazil, to assess if it accumulates total (TC) and thermotolerant coliforms (TTC) related with sewage pollution. The Most Probable Number (MPN) values and the standard procedures for examination of shellfish were used [...] . Comparatively with the water samples, the highest coliform values came from the barnacles, with TC values ranging from 2.4 × 10(6) MPN.g-1, and TTC ranging from > 2.4 × 10³ to 2.9 × 10(5) MPN.g-1. Barnacles accumulate the TC Ewingella americana, and the TTC Escherichia coli, Enterobacter gergoviae, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Enterobacter sakazakii. The results provided an indication of the level of organic contamination at the sampling locations and that this species could be a good organic pollution bioindicator.

CMR, Farrapeira; ES, Mendes; J., Dourado; J, Guimarães.

2010-05-01

162

Coliform accumulation in Amphibalanus amphitrite (Darwin, 1854 (Cirripedia and its use as an organic pollution bioindicator in the estuarine area of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil Acumulação de coliformes em Amphibalanus amphitrite (Darwin, 1854 (Cirripedia e seu uso como bioindicador de poluição orgânica na área estuarina do Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Samples of water and barnacles Amphibalanus amphitrite were collected from Recife, Brazil, to assess if it accumulates total (TC and thermotolerant coliforms (TTC related with sewage pollution. The Most Probable Number (MPN values and the standard procedures for examination of shellfish were used. Comparatively with the water samples, the highest coliform values came from the barnacles, with TC values ranging from 2.4 × 10(6 MPN.g-1, and TTC ranging from > 2.4 × 10³ to 2.9 × 10(5 MPN.g-1. Barnacles accumulate the TC Ewingella americana, and the TTC Escherichia coli, Enterobacter gergoviae, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Enterobacter sakazakii. The results provided an indication of the level of organic contamination at the sampling locations and that this species could be a good organic pollution bioindicator.Amostras de água e cirrípedes Amphibalanus amphitrite foram coletados em Recife, Brasil, para avaliar se estes acumulam coliformes totais (CT e termo-tolerantes (TTC relacionados à poluição por esgoto doméstico. Foram utilizados os valores de Números Mais Prováveis (NMP e os procedimentos padrões para exame de bivalves. Comparativamente às amostras de água, os valores mais altos de coliformes foram dos cirrípedes, com valores de TC variando de 2,4 × 10(6 NMP.g-1, e TTC variando de > 2,4 × 10³ a 2,9 × 10(5 NMP.g-1. Os cirrípedes acumularam TC Ewingella americana e TTC Escherichia coli, Enterobacter gergoviae, Enterobacter aerogenes e Enterobacter sakazakii. Os resultados proveram uma indicação de que há contaminação orgânica nas localidades de amostras e que esta espécie pode ser um bioindicador bom de poluição orgânica.

CMR Farrapeira

2010-05-01

163

EFFECT OF NONCOLIFORMS ON COLIFORM DETECTION IN POTABLE GROUNDWATER: IMPROVED RECOVERY WITH AN ANAEROBIC MEMBRANE FILTER TECHNIQUE  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 529 well and distribution potable water samples were analyzed for total coliforms by the most-probable-number and membrane filter (MF) techniques. Standard plate count bacteria and MF noncoliform bacteria were also enumerated. This anaerobic modification of the standar...

164

Total and antigen-specific Ige levels in umbilical cord blood  

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Full Text Available Abstract The present study was conducted to learn whether the perinatal and environmental factors could influence the total and antigen-specific IgE levels in umbilical cord blood. Retrospective data were obtained from 173 mother-infant pairs. Total and specific (for children's food, wheat/grass and house dust mite-HDM cord blood IgE levels were determined using the immunoassay test. The total cord blood IgE was between 0.0-23.08 IU/ml (mean 0.55 ± 2.07 IU/ml; median 0.16 IU/ml. Total IgE levels were significantly higher in boys compared with girls (OR = 2.2; P = 0.007, and in newborns with complicated pregnancy (OR = 2.7; P = 0.003. A greater number of siblings correlated with increases in the total cord blood IgE (P

Sybilski AJ

2009-12-01

165

Fluctuation of Corrected Serum Calcium Levels Following Partial and Total Thyroidectomy  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: To identify any fluctuation of corrected serum calcium levels and to determine the presence of sub-clinical hypocalcaemia following partial and total thyroidectomy with preservation of at least two parathyroid glands. Design: A prospective study. Setting: Tertiary Head & Neck referral unit. Patients: Eighty five patients undergoing partial or total thyroidectomy with or without laryngectomy from April ...

Vikas Malik; Watson, Glen J.; Phua, Chu Q.; Prad Murthy

2011-01-01

166

CORRELATION OF COLIFORM GROWTH RESPONSE WITH OTHER WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS  

Science.gov (United States)

A variety of water types collected from different geographical areas at different stages of water treatment were anlayzed for their ability to support the growth of coliform bacteria. Based on this coliform bioassay, the nutrient status of the water did not correlate with any of...

167

Association of serum total bilirubin levels with diastolic dysfunction in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is one of the main characteristics of heart failure patients with a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. As bilirubin is regarded as an important endogenous antioxidant molecule, serum total bilirubin levels were compared between heart fail [...] ure patients with a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction and normal controls in this study. We recruited 327 heart failure patients with a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction and 200 healthy controls. Patients were divided into 4 subgroups by their comprehensive echocardiographic manifestations, 1-mild, 2-moderate, 3-severe (reversible restrictive), 4-severe (fixed restrictive). Total bilirubin levels were compared using stepwise multiple regressions adjusted for selected factors. RESULTS: After adjusting for gender, age, smoking, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and triglyceride, serum total bilirubin levels were significantly lower in the heart failure group compared with the control group (P

Huan, Zheng; Ye, Li; Nanzi, Xie.

168

Evaluación de la tasa de aclaración de la almeja dulceacuícola Anodontites tortolis en un medio con coliformes Escherichia coli Clearance rate of faecal coliforms by netropical freshwater clam  

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Full Text Available En condiciones de laboratorio se evaluón acute; la eficiencia de la almeja de agua dulce (Anodontites tortolis) para disminuir la carga de coliformes fecales (Escherichia coli) determinada mediante filtración en membrana por 8 horas. El experimento se diseñó con dos tratamientos (densidades de seis (T1) y ocho almejas (T2) más un control) con tres replicaciones. Se encontraron diferencias significativas (PUnder laboratory conditions the efficiency of the freshwater clam Anodontites tortolis to diminish the quantity of faecal coliforms, determined by the membrane filtration method during eight hours was evaluated. The experiment was design with two treatments (two densities of six (T1) and eight clams (T2) and a control) and three replications. Statistical significant differences (P<0.05) according to the Kruskal-Wallis test for the clearance rates were found. The highest levels of remotion of E. coli belonged to the treatment in which there was the highest number of individuals. The clearance rate of the clams varied between 0.47 and 3.80 l.h-1.ind-1 which is reported in the literature. Removal levels showing A. tortolis suggest that this clam can be used as a biological resource for the treatment of the tertiary waters contaminated with faecal coliform bacteria.

Juan René Mallama Leyton

2011-01-01

169

Relationship between urinary cGMP excretion and serum total cholesterol levels in a general population.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hypercholesterolemia impairs endothelial function. However, the critical level of serum total cholesterol at which endothelial dysfunction occurs is unknown at present. We investigated cross-sectionally the correlation between urinary excretion of cyclic guanosine 3',5' monophosphate (cGMP), a second messenger of nitric oxide (NO) and serum total cholesterol concentrations in a general population sample of Japanese men and women. The samples comprised 1541 subjects (788 men and 753 women) aged 40-79 years, who participated in cardiovascular risk surveys between 1997 and 2002 and underwent a 24h urine collection. Urinary excretion of cGMP was measured using a (125)I-labeled cGMP radioimmunoassay and was adjusted for urinary creatinine excretion (nmol/mmol creatinine). The mean urinary cGMP excretion correlated linearly and inversely with serum total cholesterol level: mean cGMP excretion adjusted for age, sex and cardiovascular risk factors was 61.7, 53.6, 50.8, 49.2, 47.3 and 46.4 nmol/mmol for total cholesterol levels or =6.21 mmol/L, respectively (p=0.007). This relation was more evident among individuals with end-organ damage, among subjects with higher C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and among postmenopausal women. Our data suggest a reduction of NO bioactivity with higher serum total cholesterol levels, even within clinically normal cholesterol levels. PMID:15777557

Cui, Renzhe; Iso, Hiroyasu; Pi, Jingbo; Kumagai, Yoshito; Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Tanigawa, Takeshi; Shimamoto, Takashi

2005-04-01

170

Coliform inhibition by bacteriocin-like substances in drinking water distribution systems.  

OpenAIRE

Bacterial isolates from an unchlorinated potable groundwater system and a chlorinated surface water system were screened by an agar overlay method for the ability to produce bacteriocin-like substances (BLS) inhibitory to the growth of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., and Enterobacter aerogenes. The production of coliform-specific BLS by noncoliform bacteria varied with the site and date of isolation as well as the genus of the producer strain. A total of 448 bacterial isolates were screened...

Means, E. G.; Olson, B. H.

1981-01-01

171

Growth performance, digestibility and faecal coliform bacteria in weaned piglets fed a cereal-based diet including either chicory (Cichorium intybus L) or ribwort (Plantago lanceolata L) forage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-five weaned 35-day-old piglets were used in a 35-day growth experiment to evaluate the effect of inclusion of chicory and ribwort forage in a cereal-based diet on growth performance, feed intake, digestibility and shedding of faecal coliform bacteria. A total of seven experimental diets were formulated, a cereal-based basal diet (B), and six diets with inclusion of 40, 80 and 160 g/kg chicory (C40, C80 and C160) or ribwort (R40, R80 and R160). Piglets had ad libitum access to feed and water throughout the experiment. Three and five weeks post-weaning faeces samples for determination of digestibility were collected once a day for five subsequent days. Additional faeces samples for determination of coliform counts were collected at days 1, 16 and 35 post-weaning. Piglets fed diet R160 had the lowest average daily feed intake (DFI) and daily weight gain (DWG), and differed (P diets B, R40 and R80. There were no differences in DFI and DWG between the chicory diets and diet B. Inclusion of chicory or ribwort had a minor negative impact on the coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) of dry matter, organic matter and crude protein, whereas inclusion of both chicory and ribwort resulted in higher CTTAD of non-starch polysaccharides and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). The CTTAD of arabinose were higher for diets C160 and R160 than for diet B (P diets C40, C80, C160, R80 and R160 than for diet B (P weaning. The coliform counts decreased with increasing age (P weaned piglets, but the low palatability of ribwort limits the inclusion level. PMID:22439952

Ivarsson, E; Frankow-Lindberg, B E; Andersson, H K; Lindberg, J E

2011-02-01

172

Changing of Total Protein and Plasma Cholinesterase Levels Depending on Age in Human  

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Full Text Available In this study, differences of acetylcholinesterase and total protein levels which plays very important role in nervous system and some of the related diseases like Alzhemier, Down sendrome, Parkinson in the different age groups in human were investigated. Cholinesterase and total protein levels of 200 healthy people`s blood plasma that are between 7-60 years old were investigated by using spectrophotometric techniques. There was no corelation between plasma cholinesterase activity and age groups. Total ?protein levels that are 7-12 years old group shows differences than the other groups. Disfunction of food uptake and situation of social cultural cause decreasing the total blood protein in 7-12 years old groups. Meanwhile, this difference in total protein for this group is not enough to predict for some of the disease which to become fact in future. There was no any study on differences of blood plasma acetylcholinesterase and total protein levels in the different age groups in human for Turkey. Because of this specifity this study has original quality and necessary for investigators which study in this area.

Nuray Unat

2005-01-01

173

Discrimination Efficacy of Fecal Pollution Detection in Different Aquatic Habitats of a High-Altitude Tropical Country, Using Presumptive Coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens Spores  

OpenAIRE

The performance of rapid and practicable techniques that presumptively identify total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC), Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens spores (CP) by testing them on a pollution gradient in differing aquatic habitats in a high-altitude tropical country was evaluated during a 12-month period. Site selection was based on high and low anthropogenic influence criteria of paired sites including six spring, six stream, and four lakeshore sites spread over central ...

Byamukama, Denis; Mach, Robert L.; Kansiime, Frank; Manafi, Mohamad; Farnleitner, Andreas H.

2005-01-01

174

Molecular identification of coliform bacteria isolated from drinking water reservoirs with traditional methods and the Colilert-18 system.  

Science.gov (United States)

The accuracy of a traditional method (lactose utilization with acid and gas production) for the detection of coliform bacteria and E. coli was tested in comparison with method ISO 9308-1 (based on acid formation from lactose) and the Colilert-18 system (detection of beta-galactosidase). A total of 345 isolates were identified after isolation from water samples using API 20E strips. The Colilert-18 led to the highest number of positive findings (95% of the isolates were assigned to coliforms), whereas the ISO-9308-1 method resulted only in 29% coliform findings. With the traditional method only 15% were rated positive. Most of the isolates were identified by the API 20E system as Enterobacter spp. (species of the Enterobacter cloacae complex), Serratia spp., Citrobacter spp.and Klebsiella spp.; but species identification remained vague in several cases. A more detailed identification of 126 pure cultures by using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and analysis of the hsp60 gene resulted in the identification of Enterobacter nimipressuralis, E. amnigenus, E. asburiae, E. hormaechei, and Serratia fonticola as predominat coliforms. These species are beta-galactosidase positive, but show acid formation from lactose often after a prolonged incubation time. They are often not of fecal origin and may interfere with the ability to accurately detect coliforms of fecal origin. PMID:17870668

Kämpfer, Peter; Nienhüser, Anita; Packroff, Gabriele; Wernicke, Frank; Mehling, Arnd; Nixdorf, Katja; Fiedler, Stefanie; Kolauch, Claudia; Esser, Michael

2008-07-01

175

Total and lipid bound sialic acid levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome  

OpenAIRE

Objective: To evaluate serum total and lipid bound sialic acid (TSA&LBSA) levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Material and Methods: Forty women with PCOS and 35 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Serum TSA, LBSA, follicle stimulating hormone, lutenizing hormone, estradiol, thyroid stimulating hormone, prolactin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, free testosterone, total testosterone, 17-OH progesterone, sex hormone binding globulin, cortisol, tot...

Osman Ça?layan; Nevin Sa?söz; Volkan Noyan; Aykan Yücel; Ali Özcan

2012-01-01

176

Comparison between Colifast® Milk and the standard method for the detection of coliforms in pasteurised milk  

OpenAIRE

Colifast® Milk is a rapid screening test for the detection of total coliforms in milk based upon the measurement of change in fluorescence during an incubation period, due to the targeted $\\beta$-D-galactosidase activity on 4-methyl-umbelliferone-$\\beta$-D-galactoside contained in a selective growth medium. In this work, 800 samples of homogenised pasteurised milk, with different fat content (1.5 and 3.5%) and contaminated with various concentrations of coliforms (from 0.03 to $>$ 10000 CFU...

Foschino, Roberto; Colombo, Stefano; Crepaldi, Valeria; Baldi, Lucia

2003-01-01

177

Normal levels of total body sodium and chlorine by neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In vivo neutron activation analysis was used to measure total body sodium and chlorine in 18 male and 18 female normal adults. Corrections for body size were developed. Normalisation factors were derived which enable the prediction of the normal levels of sodium and chlorine in a subject. The coefficient of variation of normalised sodium was 5.9% in men and 6.9% in women, and of normalised chlorine 9.3% in men and 5.5% in women. In the range examined (40-70 years) no significant age dependence was observed for either element. Total body sodium was correlated with total body chlorine and total body calcium. Sodium excess, defined as the amount of body sodium in excess of that associated with chlorine, also correlated well with total body calcium. In females there was a mean annual loss of sodium excess of 1.2% after the menopause, similar to the loss of calcium. (author)

178

[A new method for the detection of coliforms and Escherichia coli in water intended for human consumption.].  

Science.gov (United States)

The ISO reference method, defined by the European Drinking Water Directive for the enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in water intended for human consumption, has various limitations, especially related to discrepancies observed with the new taxonomic classification of the coliform group. A study was therefore performed to compare the above reference method with another rapid method, the DST/Colilert, and to evaluate the phenotypical characteristics of isolated microrganisms. The ISO reference method failed to detect a significant proportion of coliforms and E. coli in water and furthermore, it enumerated microrganisms belonging to other groups. The DST/Colilert method was found instead to be a suitable alternative method for the detection of bacterial indicators. PMID:17206239

Bonadonna, Lucia; Cataldo, Claudia; Chiaretti, Gianluca; Coccia, Annamaria; Semproni, Maurizio

2005-01-01

179

A follow up on the distribution of coliform bacteria along the Jordanian coastline of the gulf of Aq aba  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey of the occurrence of enteric indicator organisms (e. g. total and fecal coliform) and enteric pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella sp.) was undertaken at ten sites, along the northern coast of the Gulf of Aq aba (Jordan)m during the period October 1994 to September 1995. Both total coliforms and Escherichia coli counts were within the accepted international standards for marine bathing water. the mean value per 100 ml seawater ranged between 18 to 70(n=12 months) for total coliforms, 1 to 27 (n=8 mon thus) for Escherichia coli and 1 to 9 (n = 8 months) for Salmonella species. The analysis of va rance for total coliforms revealed a highly significant temporal variations (P<0.001), but no significant spatial differences were found .Whereas, Salmonella sp. counts showed significant spatial variations (P<0.001), with the Border site being significantly different from the other sites except the Palace site. These results suggest that the hygienic water quality at the Jordanian side of the Gulf of Aq aba, is good all over the year although the sewage discharge from Ei lat might cause a health hazard as to be the major source of enteric pathogenic bacteria. (authors). 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

180

The association of total sialic acid and malondialdehyde levels with metabolic and anthropometric variables in obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Serum sialic acid levels are abnormally high in pathological states that exhibit tissue destruction, tissue proliferation or inflammation. We measured total serum sialic acid levels in 139 women and 125 men. Subjects were divided into quartiles according to their body mass index (BMI): Q1 (18-24.9 kg/m(2)), Q2 (25-29.9 kg/m(2)), Q3 (30-39.9 kg/m(2)) and Q4 (> 40 kg/m(2)). The patients in Q1 constituted the control group. Serum sialic acid levels of subjects in Q2, Q3 and Q4 were significantly higher than those in Q1. Higher BMI quartiles also were associated with higher levels of serum glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, malondialdehyde levels, waist circumference, blood pressure and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance in both women and men. Lower BMI quartiles were associated with higher levels of serum HDL-cholesterol levels in both women and men. We found positive associations among serum sialic acid levels, BMI and oxidative stress. Serum sialic acid also is related to some conventional cardiovascular risk factors including elevated lipid profile, increased blood pressure, increased serum glucose and insulin levels, and insulin resistance in obese people. PMID:25151992

Yerlikaya, Fh; Toker, A; Çiçekler, H; Ar?ba?, A

2015-01-01

181

Total prion protein levels in the cerebrospinal fluid are reduced in patients with various neurological disorders  

OpenAIRE

We performed a study on levels of the total prion protein (PrP) in humans affected by different neurological diseases and assessed the influence of several factors such as age, gender, and disease severity on the cerebrospinal fluid PrP levels. PrP-ELISA technique was used to analyze cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. 293 CSF samples of patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob-disease (CJD), Alzheimer's disease, dementia with Lewy-bodies, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, cerebral ischemia, gen...

Meyne, F.; Gloeckner, S. F.; Ciesielczyk, B.; Heinemann, U.; Krasnianski, A.; Meissner, B.; Zerr, I.

2009-01-01

182

Antibiotic resistance among different species of fecal coliforms isolated from water samples.  

OpenAIRE

The distribution of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, sulfonamides, tetracycline, and streptomycin among fecal coliforms in sewage, surface waters, and sea water was investigated. The incidence of resistant strains among isolates varied significantly among the water samples, without obvious connection with the water source or the level of pollution. The average frequency of multiple resistance was not always high in the same samples in which the overall resistance was high. The speci...

Niemi, M.; Sibakov, M.; Niemela, S.

1983-01-01

183

Total variation based edge enhancement for level set segmentation and asymmetry analysis in breast thermograms.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this work, an attempt has been made to perform asymmetry analysis in breast thermograms using non-linear total variation diffusion filter and reaction diffusion based level set method. Breast images used in this study are obtained from online database of the project PROENG. Initially the images are subjected to total variation (TV) diffusion filter to generate the edge map. Reaction diffusion based level set method is employed to segment the breast tissues using TV edge map as stopping boundary function. Asymmetry analysis is performed on the segmented breast tissues using wavelet based structural texture features. The results show that nonlinear total variation based reaction diffusion level set method could efficiently segment the breast tissues. This method yields high correlation between the segmented output and the ground truth than the conventional level set. Structural texture features extracted from the wavelet coefficients are found to be significant in demarcating normal and abnormal tissues. Hence, it appears that the asymmetry analysis on segmented breast tissues extracted using total variation edge map can be used efficiently to identify the pathological conditions of breast thermograms. PMID:25571470

Prabha, S; Anandh, K R; Sujatha, C M; Ramakrishnan, S

2014-08-01

184

Fecal coliform analyses. Method evaluation for stressed organisms  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

No significant difference was found between two tests for fecal coliform densities using water samples from the treated sanitary waste outfalls at the Savannah River Plant, a nuclear materials production site located near Aiken, SC. These two methods of concern were the most probable number index (MPN) and the membrane filtration procedure (MF). The MPN method is the accepted method for determining fecal coliform densities in chlorinated effluents, but requires more than the MF procedure. Per Microbiological Methods for Monitoring the Environment (1978) by EPA, any decision to use the MF test for stressed organisms requires parallel testing with the MPN test. The MPN index is the number of fecal coliform bacteria that, more probably than any other number, would give the results shown by laboratory examination. It is not an actual count of coliform bacteria. The MF procedure is a direct plating method and the colonies are directly counted.

Smith, L B; Winston, H G

1986-01-01

185

Resistência antimicrobiana de coliformes isolados de leite humano ordenhado  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A veiculação de microrganismos potencialmente patogênicos, resistentes aos antibióticos, por meio de leite humano ordenhado, pode ser um fator de risco potencial. Este estudo teve como objetivo contribuir para um melhor conhecimento dos coliformes isolados de leite humano ordenhado (LHO e de seu perfil de resistência a antimicrobianos. Seguiu-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, utilizando 837 amostras de LHO, nas quais 71 (8,48% estavam contaminadas com coliformes totais, cuja contagem em nenhuma das amostras ultrapassava 1,0x10³NMP/ml. A maioria dos microrganismos isolados (91,6% pertencia a apenas duas espécies, Enterobacter cloacae e Klebsiella pneumoniae. As 71 cepas de coliformes apresentavam resistência a pelo menos um dos antimicrobianos testados. Conclui-se que o LHO coletado e armazenado sob condições higiênico-sanitárias insatisfatórias, pode apresentar coliformes, que desgastam os fatores de proteção, reduzem o valor nutricional e a qualidade do produto.

Novak Franz Reis

2001-01-01

186

Analytical methods for the recovery of coliforms in water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three selective media currently used for coliforms enumeration from water samples, accomplished by using a membrane filtration technique, were evaluated and compared. Natural water samples and artificially contaminated laboratory samples were analysed

187

The Comparison of Total Fumonisin and Total Aflatoxin Levels in Biscuit and Cookie Samples in Babol City, Northern Iran  

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Full Text Available Background: Fumonisins and aflatoxins are mycotoxins that are produced by Fusarium and Aspergillus genus respectively. Due to the toxicity of aflatoxin and fumonisin and its effects on human and animals’ health, the purpose of this study was analysis of total fumonisin and total aflatoxin contamination in biscuit and cookie samples in Babol City, Northern Iran.Methods: Thirty biscuit (n=15 and cookie (n=15 samples were randomly collected at supermarkets in Babol City in winter 2011. Competitive ELISA was conducted for total fumonisin and total aflatoxin separately.Results: Out of 30 biscuit and cookie samples, 28 (93.4% samples were contaminated with 4ppm of total fumonisin. From 30 samples, 26 (86.7% were contaminated with <4ppb of total aflatoxin and 4 (13.3% were positive in total aflatoxin with ?4ppb and highest contamination rate was found 7.9 ppb in biscuit samples. Contamination rate of samples by total aflatoxin was higher than total fumonisin.Conclusion: Since biscuits and cookies are extensively used among all ages of humans, consumption of contaminated food causes different diseases in human. Therefore, determination, management, and prevention of mycotoxins according to the climatic conditions should be considered.

Issa Gholamour Azizi

2013-04-01

188

Resistência antimicrobiana de coliformes isolados de leite humano ordenhado  

OpenAIRE

A veiculação de microrganismos potencialmente patogênicos, resistentes aos antibióticos, por meio de leite humano ordenhado, pode ser um fator de risco potencial. Este estudo teve como objetivo contribuir para um melhor conhecimento dos coliformes isolados de leite humano ordenhado (LHO) e de seu perfil de resistência a antimicrobianos. Seguiu-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, utilizando 837 amostras de LHO, nas quais 71 (8,48%) estavam contaminadas com coliformes totais, cuja...

Novak Franz Reis; Almeida João Aprígio Guerra de; Asensi Marise Dutra; Moraes Bianca Aguiar de; Rodrigues Dália dos Prazeres

2001-01-01

189

Frequency distribution of coliforms in water distribution systems.  

OpenAIRE

Nine small water distribution systems were sampled intensively to determine the patterns of dispersion of coliforms. The frequency distributions of confirmed coliform counts were compatible with either the negative-binomial or the lognormal distribution. They were not compatible with either the Poisson or Poisson-plus-added zeroes distribution. The implications of the use of the lognormal distributional model were further evaluated because of its previous use in water quality studies. The geo...

Christian, R. R.; Pipes, W. O.

1983-01-01

190

Transition levels of defects in ZnO: total energy and Janak's theorem methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transition levels of defects are commonly calculated using either methods based on total energies of defects in relevant charge states or energy band single particle eigenvalues. The former method requires calculation of total energies of charged, perfect bulk supercells, as well as charged defect supercells, to obtain defect formation energies for various charge states. The latter method depends on Janak's theorem to obtain differences in defect formation energies for various charge states. Transition levels of V(Zn), V(O), and V(ZnO) vacancy defects in ZnO are calculated using both methods. The mean absolute deviation in transition level calculated using either method is 0.3 eV. Relative computational costs and accuracies of the methods are discussed. PMID:22894373

Chakrabarty, Aurab; Patterson, Charles H

2012-08-01

191

Immunoglobulin levels in dogs after total-body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of total-body irradiation (TBI) and autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation on serum immunoglobulin subclasses was determined in a dog model. Only IgG1 levels decreased after low-dose (+/- 4.5 Gy) TBI, but levels of all immunoglobulin classes fell after high-dose TBI (8.5 GyX1 or 2X6.0 Gy). After autologous bone marrow transplantation IgM levels were the first and IgE levels were the last to return to normal. After successful allogeneic bone marrow transplantation prolonged low IgM and IgE levels were found but IgA levels increased rapidly to over 150% of pretreatment values. A comparison of dogs with or without clinical signs or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), revealed no differences in IgM levels. Dogs with GVHD had higher IgA but lower IgE levels. Dogs that rejected their allogeneic bone marrow cells showed significant early rises in IgE and IgA levels in comparison with dogs with GVHD. These results differ from the observations made on Ig levels in human bone marrow transplant patients. No significant differences in phytohemagglutinin stimulation tests were found between dogs with or without GVHD or dogs receiving an autologous transplant for the first four months after TBI and transplantation. An early primary or secondary involvement of humoral immunity in GVHD and graft rejection in dogs is postulated

192

Coliform accumulation in Amphibalanus amphitrite (Darwin, 1854) (Cirripedia) and its use as an organic pollution bioindicator in the estuarine area of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil Acumulação de coliformes em Amphibalanus amphitrite (Darwin, 1854) (Cirripedia) e seu uso como bioindicador de poluição orgânica na área estuarina do Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil  

OpenAIRE

Samples of water and barnacles Amphibalanus amphitrite were collected from Recife, Brazil, to assess if it accumulates total (TC) and thermotolerant coliforms (TTC) related with sewage pollution. The Most Probable Number (MPN) values and the standard procedures for examination of shellfish were used. Comparatively with the water samples, the highest coliform values came from the barnacles, with TC values ranging from 2.4 × 10(6) MPN.g-1, and TTC ranging from > 2.4 ...

Cmr, Farrapeira; Es, Mendes; Dourado, J.; Guimara?es, J.

2010-01-01

193

Efeito da oxigenação por agitação manual da água na eficiência de inativação de coliformes termotolerantes utilizando luz solar para desinfecção em batelada Effect of oxygenation by manual agitation of water on inactivation efficiency of thermotolerant coliforms using solar light batch disinfection  

OpenAIRE

Foi avaliado o efeito da agitação manual de amostras de água submetidas à desinfecção solar na eficiência de inativação de coliformes termotolerantes. Garrafas com agitação prévia e sem agitação foram expostas à radiação solar no horário das 9h às 15h (seis horas no total) e analisados o teor de oxigênio dissolvido (OD) e concentração de coliformes termotolerantes de hora em hora. A desinfecção com luz solar mostrou-se capaz de melhorar a qualidade sanitária da água,...

Márcio Pessoa Botto; Francisco Suetônio Bastos Mota; Beatriz Susana Ovruski Ceballos

2009-01-01

194

Tear ascorbic acid levels and the total antioxidant status in contact lens wearers: A pilot study  

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Full Text Available Aims: The tear ascorbate owing to its high concentration, functions as an effective antioxidant against the oxidative damage of cornea. Contact lens wearers (CLW are prone to oxidative stress due to the lens-induced hypoxic conditions. A pilot study was done to compare the tear ascorbic acid level and the total antioxidant capacity give as in normal and CLW. Materials and Methods: In this study 21 CLW (Mean age 23 ± 3 years ; M-2, F-19, who were daily wear users, with duration of wear not more than four years, along with age-matched 28 controls (Mean age 28 ± 3 ; M-15, F-13 were recruited in the study for collection of reflex tears using Schirmer?s strip. Ascorbic acid in tears was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, total antioxidant capacity (TAC and total protein assay by spectrophotometric analysis. Results: CLW showed no significant change in the tear ascorbic acid levels (0.4 ± 0.26 mM compared to the control subjects (0.61 ± 0.59 mM. The amount of ascorbic acid in tears did not correlate with the TAC or the total protein of the tears. The mean TAC in CLW was 0.69 ± 0.16 mM, with a total protein of 1.35 ± 0.46?mg/ml while in controls it was 0.7 ± 0.18 mM and 1.21 ± 0.47 mg/ml respectively . Conclusions: Soft contact lens wear did not show any significant change in tear ascorbic acid, TAC and total protein levels compared to controls.

Venkata Sai

2009-01-01

195

Serum total and lipid-bound sialic acid levels following acute myocardial infarction.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although serum total sialic acid has been shown to be a cardiovascular risk factor, with elevated levels associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and also with cerebrovascular disease, the reason for the elevation in serum sialic acid content remains obscure. It has been shown that an increased output of serum proteins by the liver due to some type of acute phase reaction may be one of the possible sources of an increased serum sialic acid concentration in patients with myocardial infarction. An increase in the activity of sialidase, which cleaves the terminal sialic acid residues from oligosaccharides, glycoproteins and gangliosides, may also play an important role in the elevation of serum total sialic acid in myocardial infarction. Elevated serum total sialic acid in the blood might result either from the shedding or secreting of sialic acid from the cell membrane surface, or releasing of cellular sialic acid from the cell into the bloodstream due to cell damage after myocardial infarction. The purpose of the present study is to investigate serum total and lipid-bound sialic acid and the enzymes serum lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase in patients with acute myocardial infarction, at 24 h post-infarction (day 1), 48 h post-infarction (day 2) and 72 h post-infarction (day 3). A possible role of cell damage in the elevation of serum total and lipid-bound sialic acid levels in these patients was also evaluated. In this study, 40 patients with myocardial infarction ranging in age from 42 to 68 years, and 26 healthy volunteers ranging in age from 45 to 71 years were included. Serum total sialic acid determination was carried out by the thiobarbituric acid method of Warren and lipid-bound sialic acfd by the method of Katopodis. Our data shows that a) there is a gradual increase in the levels of serum total sialic acid and lipid-bound sialic acid during the first three days after the acute myocardial infarction and b) the elevation in serum total sialic acid levels correlates with the elevation in lactate dehydrogenase activity only on day 1 following infarction. Therefore, either the shedding or secreting of sialic acid from the cell or cell membrane surface may be partly responsible for an increased serum sialic acid concentration especially on day 1 following myocardial infarction. PMID:11205689

Gökmen, S S; Kiliçli, G; Ozçelik, F; Gülen, S

2000-12-01

196

Evaluación de tres métodos para la inactivación de coliformes y Escherichia coli presentes en agua residual doméstica, empleada para riego  

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Full Text Available Evaluation of three methods for the inactivation of coliforms and Escherichia coli present in domestic wastewaters used inirrigation. Objective. To evaluate three treatments (facultative stabilization ponds, heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO2 and chemicaldisinfection with sodium hypochlorite for the inactivation of coliforms and Escherichia coli present in domestic wastewaters used inagricultural irrigation. Materials and methods. Wastewater was characterized by physical, chemical and microbiological analyses and wasthen exposed to a facultative pond treatment (FPT, post-photocatalytic treatment (PTFTiO2/UV and post-chemical treatment (PTQNaClOto assess the disinfecting capacity of each method in the inactivation of total coliforms and E. coli. Three new samples of wastewater wereprocessed and used in irrigation tests on a laboratory-scale basis for 30 days, using Lactuca sativa cultivar. Batavia as a model plant andevaluating the initial and final concentrations of the two groups. Results. PTFTiO2/UV was significantly higher than FPT and PTQNaClO(p<0.0001, obtaining 100% of inactivation of coliforms and E. coli after 30 minutes of irradiation at a reactor scale. Regarding the irrigationtests with L. sativa, we showed that using water treated by PTFTiO2/UV there is no contamination with E. coli and coliforms after 30 days.On the contrary, plants irrigated with water treated by FPT and PTQNaClO showed an increase in the two populations originating a contamination problem in the vegetable by the end of the laboratory experiments. Conclusion. The heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO2was an effective method in the reduction of coliforms and E. coli present in domestic wastewater.

Andrea Sánchez- Garibello

2010-08-01

197

Resistência antimicrobiana de coliformes isolados de leite humano ordenhado Antimicrobial resistance of coliform isolates from expressed human milk  

OpenAIRE

A veiculação de microrganismos potencialmente patogênicos, resistentes aos antibióticos, por meio de leite humano ordenhado, pode ser um fator de risco potencial. Este estudo teve como objetivo contribuir para um melhor conhecimento dos coliformes isolados de leite humano ordenhado (LHO) e de seu perfil de resistência a antimicrobianos. Seguiu-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, utilizando 837 amostras de LHO, nas quais 71 (8,48%) estavam contaminadas com coliformes totais, cuja...

Franz Reis Novak; João Aprígio Guerra de Almeida; Marise Dutra Asensi; Bianca Aguiar de Moraes; Dália dos Prazeres Rodrigues

2001-01-01

198

Elimination of coliforms and Salmonella spp. in sheep meat by gamma irradiation treatment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english This study aimed at evaluating the bacteriological effects of the treatment of sheep meat contaminated with total coliforms, coliforms at 45 °C and Salmonella spp. by using irradiation at doses of 3 kGy and 5 kGy. Thirty sheep meat samples were collected from animals located in Rio de Janeiro State, [...] Brazil, and then grouped in three lots including 10 samples: non-irradiated (control); irradiated with 3 kGy; and irradiated with 5 kGy. Exposure to gamma radiation in a 137Cs source-driven irradiating facility was perfomed at the Nuclear Defense Section of the Brazilian Army Technological Center (CTEx) in Rio de Janeiro. The samples were kept under freezing temperature (-18 °C) until the analyses, which occurred in two and four months after irradiation. The results were interpreted by comparison with the standards of the current legislation and demonstrated that non-irradiated samples were outside the parameters established by law for all groups of bacteria studied. Gamma irradiation was effective in inactivating those microorganisms at both doses tested and the optimal dose was achieved at 3 kGy. The results have shown not only the need for sanitary conditions improvements in slaughter and processing of sheep meat but also the irradiation effectiveness to eliminate coliform bacteria and Salmonella spp.

Luciana Salles Vasconcelos, Henriques; Fábio da Costa, Henry; João Batista, Barbosa; Silvania Alves, Ladeira; Silvia Menezes de Faria, Pereira; Isabela Maria da Silva, Antonio; Gina Nunes, Teixeira; Meire Lelis Leal, Martins; Helio de Carvalho, Vital; Dália dos Prazeres, Rodrigues; Eliane Moura Falavina dos, Reis.

1147-11-01

199

A study of trends in dissolved oxygen and fecal coliform bacteria at NASQAN stations  

Science.gov (United States)

Most stations in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Stream Quality Accounting Network show no significant trend in either dissolved oxygen concentration or fecal coliform bacteria population for the period October 1974. through October 1981. Of the stations which do show trends, however, most show improved water quality: thirty-one of a total of 276 stations show rising dissolved oxygen concentrations, while only 17 show decreasing concentrations. Decreases in fecal coliform populations have occurred at 21 stations while increases have occurred at only 12 stations. Approximately half of the stations showing improving trends in dissolved oxygen and fecal coliform bacteria are in the Missouri-Mississippi-Ohio River system. Decreases in dissolved oxygen have occurred at scattered locations in the Western and South-Central States. Rising bacterial populations occur most frequently in the Eastern and Central States Trends in dissolved oxygen concentration resulting from temperature changes occurring during the study period can be separated from trends caused by chemical or biological processes by analyzing computed values of dissolved oxygen deficit. About half of the observed trends in dissolved oxygen appear to be the result of changes in water temperature.

Smith, Richard A.; Alexander, Richard B.

1982-01-01

200

Investigação teórica do processo de redução de coliformes em leitos cultivados / Theoretical investigation of coliform reduction in constructed wetland  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo mostra a continuidade da pesquisa sugerida por Amendola et al. (2003), para o caso em que se quer buscar maior precisão na investigação teórica do processo de redução de poluentes, em função do meio suporte usado em sistemas de leitos cultivados. Esta investigação se dá via modelagem mat [...] emática e simulação numérica do processo descrito por uma equação diferencial parcial de difusão-advecção, que envolve constantes que caracterizam o meio suporte (Moreno-Grau, 1996) e deve ser associada a condições iniciais e de contorno, estabelecidas de acordo com um procedimento experimental previamente realizado. Para resolução da equação implementa-se um algoritmo baseado no esquema implícito do método de diferenças finitas que, executado no MATLAB 6.1, gera valores da concentração dos poluentes que dependem dos valores das referidas constantes. Os resultados obtidos da simulação são comparados com valores de referência para a determinação do valor do coeficiente de dispersão longitudinal que, por sua vez, gera o menor resíduo para cada tipo de meio suporte do leito cultivado. Os resultados obtidos levam à conclusão de que o leito cultivado com brita e pneu picado é mais eficiente que aquele só com brita na remoção de coliformes fecais e totais. Abstract in english This paper shows the continuity of the research, as suggested by Amendola et al. (2003), when looking for better accuracy in the theoretical investigation of the pollutant reduction as a function of the support bed used in constructed wetland. This investigation is performed through the mathematical [...] modeling and numerical simulation of the process, which is described by an advection-diffusion differential equation. This equation depends on certain constants which characterize the support bed (Moreno-Grau, 1996), and must be associated to the initial and boundary conditions established according to the experimental procedure. To solve the equation an algorithm based on the implicit scheme of the finite difference method was implemented which, when ran with MATLAB 6.1, generated values for the pollutant concentration which depend on the mentioned constants. The results obtained with the simulation were compared with the reference values to determine the longitudinal dispersion coefficient value which leads to the least residual value for each kind of support bed. The obtained results lead to the conclusion that the constructed wetland with crushed stone and chopped tires is better than the one with crushed stone alone to reduce fecal and total coliforms.

Mariângela, Amendola; Anderson L., Souza.

2007-12-01

201

Investigação teórica do processo de redução de coliformes em leitos cultivados Theoretical investigation of coliform reduction in constructed wetland  

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Full Text Available Este artigo mostra a continuidade da pesquisa sugerida por Amendola et al. (2003, para o caso em que se quer buscar maior precisão na investigação teórica do processo de redução de poluentes, em função do meio suporte usado em sistemas de leitos cultivados. Esta investigação se dá via modelagem matemática e simulação numérica do processo descrito por uma equação diferencial parcial de difusão-advecção, que envolve constantes que caracterizam o meio suporte (Moreno-Grau, 1996 e deve ser associada a condições iniciais e de contorno, estabelecidas de acordo com um procedimento experimental previamente realizado. Para resolução da equação implementa-se um algoritmo baseado no esquema implícito do método de diferenças finitas que, executado no MATLAB 6.1, gera valores da concentração dos poluentes que dependem dos valores das referidas constantes. Os resultados obtidos da simulação são comparados com valores de referência para a determinação do valor do coeficiente de dispersão longitudinal que, por sua vez, gera o menor resíduo para cada tipo de meio suporte do leito cultivado. Os resultados obtidos levam à conclusão de que o leito cultivado com brita e pneu picado é mais eficiente que aquele só com brita na remoção de coliformes fecais e totais.This paper shows the continuity of the research, as suggested by Amendola et al. (2003, when looking for better accuracy in the theoretical investigation of the pollutant reduction as a function of the support bed used in constructed wetland. This investigation is performed through the mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of the process, which is described by an advection-diffusion differential equation. This equation depends on certain constants which characterize the support bed (Moreno-Grau, 1996, and must be associated to the initial and boundary conditions established according to the experimental procedure. To solve the equation an algorithm based on the implicit scheme of the finite difference method was implemented which, when ran with MATLAB 6.1, generated values for the pollutant concentration which depend on the mentioned constants. The results obtained with the simulation were compared with the reference values to determine the longitudinal dispersion coefficient value which leads to the least residual value for each kind of support bed. The obtained results lead to the conclusion that the constructed wetland with crushed stone and chopped tires is better than the one with crushed stone alone to reduce fecal and total coliforms.

Mariângela Amendola

2007-12-01

202

Estimation of Levels of Salivary Mucin, Amylase and Total Protein in Gingivitis and Chronic Periodontitis Patients  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Periodontal diseases are a group of inflammatory conditions resulting from interaction between a pathogenic bacterial biofilm and susceptible host’s inflammatory response eventually leading to the destruction of periodontal structures and subsequent tooth loss. Hence, investigation of salivary proteins in individuals with periodontal diseases may be useful to enhance the knowledge of their roles in these diseases. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted at A.B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Mangalore. The study comprised of 90 patients of age between 25-60 years who were clinically examined and divided into three groups of 30 each: namely clinically healthy, gingivitis and chronic periodontitis. These were classified according to the values of gingival index score, clinical attachment loss and probing pocket depth. Unstimulated saliva was collected and salivary mucin, amylase and total protein levels were determined. Statistical analysis: Results obtained were tabulated and statistically analyzed using ANOVA test and Karl pearson’s correlation test. Results: The results of the study showed an increased concentration of salivary mucin, amylase and total protein in gingivitis patients and increased levels of amylase and total protein in saliva of chronic periodontitis patients compared to healthy individuals which were statistically significant. A decrease in mucin concentration was observed in the periodontitis group compared to gingivitis group. A positive correlation was present between salivary mucin, amylase and total protein levels in the three groups. Conclusion: Salivary mucin, amylase and total protein may serve as an important biochemical parameter of inflammation of the periodontium. Also, it can be hypothesized that various enzyme inhibitors might be useful as a part of host modulation therapy in the treatment of periodontal diseases. PMID:25478449

Bhandary, Rahul; Thomas, Biju; Kumari, Suchetha

2014-01-01

203

Carotene Hydroxylase Activity Determines the Levels of Both ?-Carotene and Total Carotenoids in Orange Carrots.  

Science.gov (United States)

The typically intense carotenoid accumulation in cultivated orange-rooted carrots (Daucus carota) is determined by a high protein abundance of the rate-limiting enzyme for carotenoid biosynthesis, phytoene synthase (PSY), as compared with white-rooted cultivars. However, in contrast to other carotenoid accumulating systems, orange carrots are characterized by unusually high levels of ?-carotene in addition to ?-carotene. We found similarly increased ?-carotene levels in leaves of orange carrots compared with white-rooted cultivars. This has also been observed in the Arabidopsis thaliana lut5 mutant carrying a defective carotene hydroxylase CYP97A3 gene. In fact, overexpression of CYP97A3 in orange carrots restored leaf carotenoid patterns almost to those found in white-rooted cultivars and strongly reduced ?-carotene levels in the roots. Unexpectedly, this was accompanied by a 30 to 50% reduction in total root carotenoids and correlated with reduced PSY protein levels while PSY expression was unchanged. This suggests a negative feedback emerging from carotenoid metabolites determining PSY protein levels and, thus, total carotenoid flux. Furthermore, we identified a deficient CYP97A3 allele containing a frame-shift insertion in orange carrots. Association mapping analysis using a large carrot population revealed a significant association of this polymorphism with both ?-carotene content and the ?-/?-carotene ratio and explained a large proportion of the observed variation in carrots. PMID:24858934

Arango, Jacobo; Jourdan, Matthieu; Geoffriau, Emmanuel; Beyer, Peter; Welsch, Ralf

2014-05-23

204

Estimation of Ionized Calcium and Corrected Total Calcium Concentration Based on Serum Albumin Level  

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Full Text Available Ionized calcium is the physiologically active fraction of serum calcium and therefore its evaluation is an important clinical parameter both in mammals and birds. In the present study, concentration of total calcium (tCa, ionized calcium (iCa based on the serum albumin level and on the total protein content, and corrected total calcium (ctCa based on the serum albumin level were evaluated, and the correlation between these biochemical parameters was investigated in broiler chickens. The average serum iCa was 4.91±0.49g/dL representing 51.76±0.53% from the ctCa. The correlation coefficient between tCa and albumin (r = 0.8608 was greater than that between tCa and total protein (r = 0.7997. Our study illustrated that iCa and ctCa concentrations calculated from tCa and albumin are better indicators of calcium homeostasis than tCa concentrations alone.

Rodica C?pri??

2013-05-01

205

Tear ascorbic acid levels and the total antioxidant status in contact lens wearers: A pilot study  

OpenAIRE

Aims: The tear ascorbate owing to its high concentration, functions as an effective antioxidant against the oxidative damage of cornea. Contact lens wearers (CLW) are prone to oxidative stress due to the lens-induced hypoxic conditions. A pilot study was done to compare the tear ascorbic acid level and the total antioxidant capacity give as in normal and CLW. Materials and Methods: In this study 21 CLW (Mean age 23 ± 3 years ; M-2, F-19), who were dail...

Venkata Sai; Narayanasamy Angayarkanni; Srinivasan Vidhya; Iyer Geetha; Sivaramakrishnan Ramakrishnan; Subramanian Madhumathi; Mahadevan Rajeshwari

2009-01-01

206

Coliformes em água de abastecimento de lojas fast-food da Região Metropolitana de Recife (PE, Brasil Coliforms in the water supply of fast-food chains in the Metropolitan Region of Recife, in the state of Pernambuco (Brazil  

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Full Text Available A garantia do fornecimento de água potável nos serviços de alimentação é uma questão relevante para a saúde pública. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade microbiológica da água destinada ao abastecimento de uma rede de lojas fast-food da cidade de Recife (PE e Região Metropolitana e comparar os resultados aos padrões estabelecidos pela Portaria nº 518/2004 do Ministério da Saúde. Mensalmente, foi analisada uma amostra proveniente de uma das torneiras da área de manipulação das oito lojas investigadas, perfazendo 96 amostras ao longo de um ano, todas coletadas em duplicata. As análises seguiram a metodologia estabelecida na American Public Health Association (APHA para realização do ensaio presuntivo utilizando o Teste Presença-Ausência, considerando-se o padrão de potabilidade determinado na legislação pertinente. Os resultados revelaram que 11,46% de todas as amostras apresentaram água contaminada por coliformes totais e 1,04% contaminação por coliformes termotolerantes. Conclui-se, portanto, que a qualidade da água disponível nos estabelecimentos produtores de alimentos estudados encontra-se em estado de alerta, uma vez que o percentual significativo das amostras analisadas mostrava-se impróprio para o consumo humano de acordo com a legislação vigente, a qual preconiza ausência de coliformes totais e termotolerantes.A guaranteed supply of clean drinking water in food outlets is a relevant subject for public health. The scope of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of 96 water samples of a network of fast-food stores in the city of Recife (state of Pernambuco, Brazil and Metropolitan Area and to compare the results to the standards established by Brazilian Health Ministry decree nº 518/2004. Every month, a double sample from one of the faucets in the food preparation area of the eight stores investigated was analyzed, totaling 96 samples over one year. The analyses followed the established methodology of American Public Health Association (APHA, in order to conduct the Presence-Absence Test, considering the potability standard in pertinent legislation. Results revealed that 11.46% and 1.04% of samples contained water contaminated with total coliforms and thermotolerant coliforms, respectively. The quality of the water in the food establishments studied is thus a health hazard since a significant percentage of samples analyzed were inappropriate for human consumption in accordance with current legislation, which stipulates the absence of total coliforms and thermotolerant coliforms.

Maria Anunciada Leal Porto

2011-05-01

207

473?Evaluating Total Serum IgE Levels in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B and C  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Liver disease has been considered a prominent cause of IgE elevation. Significant differences may be observed depending on the cause of liver damage. For viral hepatitis, increased IgE concentrations have been observed during acute hepatitis A and B. Chronic hepatitis B carriers may also have high IgE levels. But no data on serum IgE levels in chronic hepatitis C and hepatitis B patients have been reported. The aim of the study was to evaluate serum IgE levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C and hepatitis B and to corelate with atopic patients. Methods Serum IgE levels were determined in 568 adult patients with chronic hepatitis B, in 47 patients with chronic hepatitis C, and 311 patients with atopic diseases. Results The averages of serum IgE levels were 103,9 IU/mL in chronic hepatitis C, 95,1 IU/mL in hepatits B patients, and 126,6 IU/mL in atopic patients. There was no statistically significant difference between hepatits B and hepatits C patients. Total serum IgE levels were lower in patients with either chronic hepatitis C or hepatitis B than the atopic group. Conclusions According to the results presented, chronic hepatitis C and hepatitis B are not prominent causes of increased serum IgE values. Further studies are needed to clarify the differences and significance of IgE levels between hepatitis and atopic patients.

Köse, Sükran; Senger, Süheyla Serin; Yalcin, Arzu Didem; Cavdar, Gülsün; Atalay, Sabri; Ersan, Gürsel

2012-01-01

208

Asellus aquaticus as a Potential Carrier of Escherichia coli and Other Coliform Bacteria into Drinking Water Distribution Systems  

OpenAIRE

Individuals of the water louse, Asellus aquaticus, enter drinking water distribution systems in temperate parts of the world, where they establish breeding populations. We analysed populations of surface water A. aquaticus from two ponds for associated faecal indicator bacteria and assessed the risk of A. aquaticus transporting bacteria into distribution systems. Concentrations of up to two E. coli and five total coliforms·mL?1 were measured in the water and 200 E. coli and >240 total coli...

Hans-Jørgen Albrechtsen; Erik Arvin; Erling Nissen; Christensen, Sarah C. B.

2013-01-01

209

Simulating extreme total water levels using a time-dependent, extreme value approach  

Science.gov (United States)

flood hazard zones and the design of coastal defenses are often devised using the maximum recorded water level or a "design" event such as the 100 year return level, usually projected from observed extremes. Despite technological advances driving more consistent instrumental records of waves and water levels, the observational record may be short, punctuated with intermittent gaps, and vary in quality. These issues in the record often preclude accurate and robust estimates of extreme return level events. Here we present a total water level full simulation model (TWL-FSM) that simulates the various components of TWLs (waves, tides, and nontidal residuals) in a Monte Carlo sense, taking into account conditional dependencies that exist between the various components. Extreme events are modeled using nonstationary extreme value distributions that include seasonality and climate variability. The resulting synthetic TWLs allow for empirical extraction of return level events and the ability to more robustly estimate and assess present-day flood and erosion hazards. The approach is demonstrated along a northern Oregon, USA littoral cell but is applicable to beaches anywhere wave and water level records or hindcasts are available. Simulations result in extreme 100 year TWL return levels as much as 90 cm higher than those extrapolated from the "observational" record. At the Oregon site, this would result in 30% more coastal flooding than the "observational" 100 year TWL return level projections. More robust estimates of extreme TWLs and tighter confidence bounds on return level events can aid coastal engineers, managers, and emergency planners in evaluating exposure to hazards.

Serafin, Katherine A.; Ruggiero, Peter

2014-09-01

210

Coliform bacteria as in indicator of sewerage water mixing with drinking water sources in Rawalpindi city  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The coliform group of bacteria are consider to be one of the prominent indicators of surface/groundwater pollution as their presence in drinking water sources shows that water has been in contact with soil, plants, septic tanks or sewerage lines/drains. As a part of surface/groundwater pollution studies in various areas of Rawalpindi city coliform bacteria have been determined in the available drinking sources to evaluate their possible connection with the nearby septic tanks and sewerage lines/drains. Selective water samples were tapped from 72 domestic dug wells, and 98 municipal corporation tube-wells and associated water supply lines in some poorly drained areas of Rawalpindi. These samples were analyzed using membrane filter technique. In general, the sampled areas have indicated poor water quality w.r.t. coliform activity. 52% samples of the collected samples have indicated presence of Ecoli. Of these, 73% samples mostly collected from the poorly drained areas have shown significant counts of Ecoli. These water are rendered unfit for drinking purposes. Thirteen water samples collected indicated toxic levels of Ecoli in the municipal water supply caused due to a known leakage in the main domestic water supply line. The presence of coliform in the tube-well water supply taps are thus attributed to ruptures in the underground water supply lines. Present study reveals that general sanitary condition and water quality in the city are poor and that there is an urgent need of improvement in the water treatment and distribution systems by the concern quaters. (Orig./A.B.)

211

Determination of total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nickel ferrocyanide compounds (Na2-xCsxNiFe (CN)6) were produced in a scavenging process to remove 137Cs from Hanford Site single-shell tank waste supernates. Methods for determining total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes are needed for the evaluation of potential exothermic reactions between cyanide and oxidizers such as nitrate and for safe storage, processing, and management of the wastes in compliance with regulatory requirements. Hanford Site laboratory experience in determining cyanide in high-level wastes is summarized. Modifications were made to standard cyanide methods to permit improved handling of high-level waste samples and to eliminate interferences found in Hanford Site waste matrices. Interferences and associated procedure modifications caused by high nitrates/nitrite concentrations, insoluble nickel ferrocyanides, and organic complexants are described

212

Comparison Of Serum Calcium, Phosphorus And Total Protein Levels, In Pregnancy With Or Without Hypertensive Disorders  

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Full Text Available Background: Pre-eclampsia is characterized by hypertension development and proteinuria during pregnancy. Hypertension disorder is a leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and death in worldwide. Although the pathophysiology of hypertension during pregnancy is unclear, but there is consensus that early diagnosis and aggressive treatment is warranted to prevent complicated to both fetus and mother. The changes of serum trace elements during pregnancy are paramount important to predict and good understanding the situation of patients. The aim of this study was about this issue. Materials and Methods: In a case-control study we investigated the possible differences in the level of serum calcium, phosphorus and total protein in 55 healthy pregnant and 52 pregnant with hypertensive disease at 32-40 weeks of gestational age during the recent two years in Loghman hospital of Tehran. Some information such as age, blood group, parity number and blood pressure was taken from patients by a questionnaire. Results: The case population consisted of 22 sever preeclampsia, 15 mild preeclampsia, 8 eclampsia, and 7 chronic hypertensive. The mean serum calcium concentration (mg/dl was 9.18?0.74 in control group, 8.81?0.9 in mild preeclampsia, 7.85?0.38 in sever preeclampsia, 7.83? 0.47 in eclampsia, 8.91? 0.3 in chronic blood pressure. The mean serum phosphorus (mg/dl level observed, 4.27 in sever preeclampsia, 3.74 in eclampsia, 3.59 in mild eclampsia, 4.09 in chronic blood pressure, and 3.43 in control pregnant women. The mean serum total protein concentration level in sever preeclampsia and eclampsia was 5.46 and 5.04 mg/dl respectively. Conclusion: In conclusion, sever preeclampsia and eclampsia are associated with decreased level of calcium, total protein, and increased concentration of phosphorus.

Rashid Pooraei M

2005-06-01

213

Low-level waste disposal performance assessments - Total source-term analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities is regulated by DOE. DOE Order 5820.2A establishes policies, guidelines, and minimum requirements for managing radioactive waste. Requirements for disposal of low-level waste emplaced after September 1988 include providing reasonable assurance of meeting stated performance objectives by completing a radiological performance assessment. Recently, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board issued Recommendation 94-2, {open_quotes}Conformance with Safety Standards at Department of Energy Low-Level Nuclear Waste and Disposal Sites.{close_quotes} One of the elements of the recommendation is that low-level waste performance assessments do not include the entire source term because low-level waste emplaced prior to September 1988, as well as other DOE sources of radioactivity in the ground, are excluded. DOE has developed and issued guidance for preliminary assessments of the impact of including the total source term in performance assessments. This paper will present issues resulting from the inclusion of all DOE sources of radioactivity in performance assessments of low-level waste disposal facilities.

Wilhite, E.L.

1995-12-31

214

Seminal plasma total antioxidant capacity and vitamin- C levels in asthenozoospermia: a case- control study  

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Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Defective sperm function is now recognized as one of the most important causes of male infertility. Seminal plasma possesses a rich source of different enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as vitamin C (ascorbic acid that protect spermatozoa against oxidative stress as one of the mediators of infertility causing sperm dysfunction and low sperm quality. The aim of this study was investigation of seminal total antioxidant capacity and determination of vitamin C effects on sperm motility. "n"nMethods: We designed a case-control study with a total subject of 62 males. Sperm parameters were analyzed according to World Health Organization guidelines (WHO, 1999. Total antioxidant capacity and vitamin C level of seminal plasma were measured in the 32 normozoospermic as the control group and 32 asthenospermic men as the case group using FRAP (Ferric Reducing of Antioxidants Powers and RP-HPLC (Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography methods, respectively. "n"nResults: Our results indicated that total antioxidant capacity levels in the seminal plasma of asthenospermic men were significantly lower than healthy men (p=0.002. In addition, we found a positive correlation between reduced total antioxidant capacity levels and low sperm motility. Vitamin C levels of seminal plasma in asthenospermic men were statistically lower than control men (p=0.01."n"nConclusions: It is suggested that asthenospermia could be related to an antioxidant deficiency or it's reduction.

Ali Bidmeshkipour

2010-03-01

215

Discrimination efficacy of fecal pollution detection in different aquatic habitats of a high-altitude tropical country, using presumptive coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens spores.  

Science.gov (United States)

The performance of rapid and practicable techniques that presumptively identify total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC), Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens spores (CP) by testing them on a pollution gradient in differing aquatic habitats in a high-altitude tropical country was evaluated during a 12-month period. Site selection was based on high and low anthropogenic influence criteria of paired sites including six spring, six stream, and four lakeshore sites spread over central and eastern parts of Uganda. Unlike the chemophysical water quality, which was water source type dependent (i.e., spring, lake, or stream), fecal indicators were associated with the anthropogenic influence status of the respective sites. A total of 79% of the total variability, including all the determined four bacteriological and five chemophysical parameters, could be assigned to either a pollution, a habitat, or a metabolic activity component by principal-component analysis. Bacteriological indicators revealed significant correlations to the pollution component, reflecting that anthropogenic contamination gradients were followed. Discrimination sensitivity analysis revealed high ability of E. coli to differentiate between high and low levels of anthropogenic influence. CP also showed a reasonable level of discrimination, although FC and TC were found to have worse discrimination efficacy. Nonpoint influence by soil erosion could not be detected during the study period by correlation analysis, although a theoretical contamination potential existed, as investigated soils in the immediate surroundings often contained relevant concentrations of fecal indicators. The outcome of this study indicates that rapid techniques for presumptive E. coli and CP determination may be reliable for fecal pollution monitoring in high-altitude tropical developing countries such as those of Eastern Africa. PMID:15640171

Byamukama, Denis; Mach, Robert L; Kansiime, Frank; Manafi, Mohamad; Farnleitner, Andreas H

2005-01-01

216

Increased total serum random cortisol levels predict mortality in critically ill trauma patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dysfunction in the hypothalamopituitary adrenal axis is thought to exist; however, there continues to be controversy about what level of serum cortisol corresponds to adrenal insufficiency. Few studies have focused on the significance of serum random cortisol in the critically ill trauma patient. Trauma patients with total serum random cortisol levels drawn in the intensive care unit within the first seven days of hospitalization were retrospectively reviewed. The primary outcome measured was in-hospital mortality. Two hundred forty-two patients were analyzed. Nonsurvivors had significantly higher mean cortisol levels than survivors (28.7 ± 15.80 ?g/dL vs 22.9 ± 12.35 ?g/dL, P = 0.01). Patients with cortisol 30 ?g/dL or greater were more likely to die with odds ratio of 2.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5 to 5). The odds ratio increased to 4.0 and 3.8 (95% CI, 1.4 to 11.4 and 1.3 to 10.9) when cortisol was drawn on hospital Day 2 and Days 3 through 7, respectively. Among nonsurvivors, patients with an injury severity score less than 25 had significantly higher cortisol levels than patients with an Injury Severity Score 25 or higher (35.3 ± 19.21 ?g/dL vs 25.7 ± 13.21 ?g/dL, P = 0.009). Patients with massive transfusion, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, or solid organ injury did not have significantly different cortisol levels. The covariate-adjusted area under the receiver operating characteristic curve indicated that cortisol level has a 77 per cent accuracy in differentiating survivors from nonsurvivors. Higher cortisol levels were predictive of mortality in critically ill trauma patients. Whether serum cortisol level is a marker that can be modified remains an area of interest for future study. PMID:25347501

Pandya, Urmil; Polite, Nathan; Wood, Teresa; Lieber, Michael

2014-11-01

217

Occurrence of coliforms in water samples of the Perequê and Penedo Rivers in Paraná, Brazil  

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Full Text Available The Perequê and Penedo rivers flow through the plains of Praia de Leste and fall into the sea between the municipalities of Pontal do Sul and Ponta do Poço. Both of these rivers belong to the sub-basin of Paranaguá Bay, and are constituent parts of the hydrographic basin of the Atlantic Ocean (State of Paraná. Four sites along the Perequê River (Stations 1-4 and one along the Penedo River (Station 5 were monitorated for water pollution over a 12-month period. During the period of December 1995 to November 1996, three water samples were collected from each site, placed in sterilized bottles and transported to the laboratory in ice-boxes. They were analyzed for the occurrence of total and fecal coliforms, temperature and pH. Fecal pollution was detected throughout the period of study. Coliform contamination was smaller in Station 1 and 5 than in any other sites, probably due to lesser influence from urbanized areas. Water at Station 4 was strongly contaminated due to its close proximity to a sewage canal. This study demonstrated that the Pequerê and Penedo rivers, freshwater shrimps habitats, were heavily contaminated with fecal indicator bacteria, and this occurrence was not related with temperature or pH.Os rios Perequê e Penedo têm suas fontes na planície de Praia Leste e fluem para o mar entre os municípios de Pontal do Sul e Ponta do Poço. Ambos pertencem à sub-bacia da Baía de Paranaguá e são partes da bacia hidrográfica do Oceano Atlântico (Estado do Paraná. Foram selecionados quatro sítios ao longo do Rio Perequê (Estações 1-4 e um no Rio Penedo (Estação 5 para monitorar a poluição de água em um período de 12 meses. Durante o período de dezembro de 1995 e novembro de 1996, foram coletadas de cada local, 3 amostras de 100 ml água em frascos esterilizados e transportadas para o laboratório em caixas com gelo. Foram analisadas a ocorrência de coliformes totais (TC e fecais (FC, temperatura e pH. A contaminação de coliformes foi menor nos sítios 1 e 5 do que em outros locais, provavelmente por causa da menor influência de áreas urbanizadas. A água na estação 4 estava fortemente contaminada por causa de sua proximidade a um canal de esgoto. Este estudo demonstrou que a água dos rios Pequerê e Penedo, "habitats" para várias espécies de camarões de água doce, estão contaminados com coliformes totais e fecais, e esta ocorrência não está relacionada com a temperatura ou pH.

Ilma Hiroko Higuti

1998-08-01

218

Occurrence of coliforms in water samples of the Perequê and Penedo Rivers in Paraná, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os rios Perequê e Penedo têm suas fontes na planície de Praia Leste e fluem para o mar entre os municípios de Pontal do Sul e Ponta do Poço. Ambos pertencem à sub-bacia da Baía de Paranaguá e são partes da bacia hidrográfica do Oceano Atlântico (Estado do Paraná). Foram selecionados quatro sítios ao [...] longo do Rio Perequê (Estações 1-4) e um no Rio Penedo (Estação 5) para monitorar a poluição de água em um período de 12 meses. Durante o período de dezembro de 1995 e novembro de 1996, foram coletadas de cada local, 3 amostras de 100 ml água em frascos esterilizados e transportadas para o laboratório em caixas com gelo. Foram analisadas a ocorrência de coliformes totais (TC) e fecais (FC), temperatura e pH. A contaminação de coliformes foi menor nos sítios 1 e 5 do que em outros locais, provavelmente por causa da menor influência de áreas urbanizadas. A água na estação 4 estava fortemente contaminada por causa de sua proximidade a um canal de esgoto. Este estudo demonstrou que a água dos rios Pequerê e Penedo, "habitats" para várias espécies de camarões de água doce, estão contaminados com coliformes totais e fecais, e esta ocorrência não está relacionada com a temperatura ou pH. Abstract in english The Perequê and Penedo rivers flow through the plains of Praia de Leste and fall into the sea between the municipalities of Pontal do Sul and Ponta do Poço. Both of these rivers belong to the sub-basin of Paranaguá Bay, and are constituent parts of the hydrographic basin of the Atlantic Ocean (State [...] of Paraná). Four sites along the Perequê River (Stations 1-4) and one along the Penedo River (Station 5) were monitorated for water pollution over a 12-month period. During the period of December 1995 to November 1996, three water samples were collected from each site, placed in sterilized bottles and transported to the laboratory in ice-boxes. They were analyzed for the occurrence of total and fecal coliforms, temperature and pH. Fecal pollution was detected throughout the period of study. Coliform contamination was smaller in Station 1 and 5 than in any other sites, probably due to lesser influence from urbanized areas. Water at Station 4 was strongly contaminated due to its close proximity to a sewage canal. This study demonstrated that the Pequerê and Penedo rivers, freshwater shrimps habitats, were heavily contaminated with fecal indicator bacteria, and this occurrence was not related with temperature or pH.

Ilma Hiroko, Higuti; Ivone Rodrigues, Macena; Setuko, Masunari; Mario de Oliveira, Branco Filho; Marita Maciel Moreira, Blaskowiski; Aguinaldo José do, Nascimento.

1998-08-01

219

Prevelance of total coliforms, faecal coliforms and E. coli in Rawalpindi vegetable markets  

OpenAIRE

Nutritional value of vegetables and high prices of meat and meat originated food compel common people to consume plant originated food particularly salad vegetables. Microbial population of vegetable surfaces contains a large number of pathogenic bacteria including members of Enterobactereace like Escherichia coli (E. coli). A survey was conducted in three major markets of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Tomato, lettuce, cabbage and cucumber samples were collec...

Sadia Alam; Samina Khalil; Najma Ayub; Abida Bibi; Beena Saeed; Salma Khalid; Sumaira Siddiq

2013-01-01

220

Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of whey protein hydrolysates generated at different total solids levels  

OpenAIRE

Whey protein hydrolysates were generated at different total solids (TS) levels (50–300 g/l) using the commercially available proteolytic preparation DebitraseTM HYW20, while enzyme to substrate ratio, pH and temperature were maintained constant. Hydrolysis proceeded at a faster rate at lower TS reaching a degree of hydrolysis (DH) of 16.6% at 300 g TS/l, compared with a DH of 22.7% at 50 g TS/l after 6 h hydrolysis. The slower breakdown of intact whey proteins at high TS was ...

Spellman, David; O Cuinn, Gerard; Fitzgerald, Richard J.

2005-01-01

221

Pengujian Bakteri Coliform Pada Air Sumur Di Medan Johor  

OpenAIRE

Water is an essential material in life. Water is a major means to increase public health. The spread of water-borne desease can be. Water pollution canbe caused by the entry of human and animal feces. It can also be caused by the return of waste water in to the well directly or through leaks and openings where the soil. Coliform is a group of bacteria used as an indicator of pollution and dirt are not good conditions for water. The purpose of testing is to test Coliform bacteria on one of wel...

Harahap, Lola Alia Yolanda

2013-01-01

222

Assessment of Total Protein, Albumin, Creatinine and Aspartate Transaminase level in Toxemia of Pregnancy  

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Full Text Available Preeclampsia is majorly a clinical disorder of pregnancy (occurring after 20 weeks of gestation in previously normotensive women with unknown pathophysiology and associated organ dysfunctions. This study determined the biochemical changes associated with preeclampsia in the serum and urine. Blood pressure, serum total protein, albumin, creatinine and aspartate transaminase level and urinary protein were assessed (using standard methods in 105 primigravidae. There was no significant difference (p>0.05 in booking systolic and diastolic blood pressure but significant differences (p<0.05 existed between systolic and diastolic blood pressure of preeclamptic patients and controls. Also, 9 (10.1% out of 89 that completed the study had preeclampsia, 3 (3.4% had pregnancy induced hypertension only while 77 (86.5% remained normotensive. Serum total protein (50.11±3.33, albumin (22.67±1.22 and globulin (27.44±3.78 levels were found to be significantly low (p< 0.05 in preeclampsia as compared to the control (69.33±1.5, 37.78±2.59 and 31.56±3.25, respectively while serum Aspartate Transaminase (27.11±4.73 and creatinine (90.44±1.74 levels were found to be significantly higher (p<0.05 in preeclampsia than controls (8.56±3.17 and 62.67±1.58, respectively. The outcome of the pregnancy shows that two patients had abortion, one had preterm delivery and one had intrapartum eclampsia. Conclusively, results of hematologic and biochemical parameters should be considered for the timing delivery of women with pre-eclampsia as indicated by high levels of AST, blood pressure greater than or equal to 140/90 mmHg and proteinuria of ?300 mg/24 h.

T.A. Banjo

2013-01-01

223

Homocystein Level and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

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Full Text Available Background and Objective: Oxidant-antioxidant imbalance plays a key role in pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. This study aimed to evaluate homocystiene and total antioxidant capacity in COPD patients, compared to smoker and non-smoker healthy people. Material and Methods: We measured total antioxidant capacity with Cayman Kit, uric acid with Pars Azmoon kit? homocysteine with ELISA Kit and inflammatory cells (leukocytes in 29 COPD patients, 29 smokers and 29 non-smokers. Results: Uric acid was significantly higher in COPD patients compared to healthy smokers and healthy non-smokers (p<0.05. Total antioxidant capacity was significantly lower in COPD patients compared to healthy, non smokers (p=0. 003. In COPD patients, homocysteine and leukocytes levels were significantly higher than those in healthy smokers (P<0.05 and healthy non- smokers (p<0.001. Conclusion: According to high inflammatory cells and low antioxidant capacity in COPD, early administration of appropriate medication is recommended to reduce systemic and topical inflammation. Reduction in the exposure to oxidizing compounds can slow the process of degradation and damage to lungs. Keywords: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease; Homocysteine; Oxidative Stress

Shirakdehi, MS. (MSc

2014-06-01

224

Total plasma level of antioxidant and immune system function in radiology and nuclear medicine staff  

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Full Text Available Background: Despite major diagnostic and industrial progresses in the technology and use of Ionizing radiations, they have been found to be harmful to the health of the radiology and nuclear medicine staffs. Since Ionizing radiations have the potential to produce free radicals, therefore, it is likely that the total plasma level of anti-oxidant in medical and nuclear medicine staffs could be reduced.Methods: In this case-control study the relationship of total anti oxidant level of plasma and the function of immune cells such as lymphocyte proliferating response using MTT method, Neutrophil chemotaxi, Intensity of respiratory burst (NBT and evaluation of IL-2 and IL-4 (ELISA were investigated. 101 samples were collected for this study and they were assigned as two groups: 61 samples cases from radiology and nuclear medicine staffs of Tehran University Of Medical Science hospitals (Shariaty, Imam Khomeyni, Ghalb-e-Tehran were assigned as the exposed group, whereas, 40 samples from Pediatric, Orthopedic, Infirmary and Emergencies wards were assigned as control group. Using heparinized syringes, 8 to 10 ml of blood samples were collected from each person with age between 25 to 50, averaging 36.4±7.2, and several assays including Anii Oxidant Capacity of Total Plasma (FRAP Method, T cell proliferative response to PHA mitogen (MTT Method, Chemotaxi of neutrophils and Magnitude of respiratory burst were carried out on these samples. The results were analyzed using spirman correlation analysis.Results: The results showed that exposure to ionizing radiation chronically with low dosed had no effect on chemotaxis of neutorophils and intensity of respiratory burst, but could have effect on lymphocyte function specially in cytokines secretion like IL-2 which are essential in the immune responses.Conclusion: This study indicates that long term low dose ionizing radiation may have effect in some parts of the immune function."n 

Kalamzadeh A

2007-10-01

225

Efeito da oxigenação por agitação manual da água na eficiência de inativação de coliformes termotolerantes utilizando luz solar para desinfecção em batelada / Effect of oxygenation by manual agitation of water on inactivation efficiency of thermotolerant coliforms using solar light batch disinfection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foi avaliado o efeito da agitação manual de amostras de água submetidas à desinfecção solar na eficiência de inativação de coliformes termotolerantes. Garrafas com agitação prévia e sem agitação foram expostas à radiação solar no horário das 9h às 15h (seis horas no total) e analisados o teor de oxi [...] gênio dissolvido (OD) e concentração de coliformes termotolerantes de hora em hora. A desinfecção com luz solar mostrou-se capaz de melhorar a qualidade sanitária da água, reduzindo a concentração de coliformes termotolerantes em até quatro unidades logarítmicas (de 1,03 x 10(6) até 2,6 x 10¹NMP/100 mL). Com a agitação manual, houve oxigenação considerável nas amostras de água (máxima concentração de OD de 6,61 mg/L nas amostras de águas agitadas e de 5,56 mg/L nas amostras sem agitação), porém o aumento de OD na água não teve efeito significativo sobre a inativação dos coliformes termotolerantes (p>0,05). Abstract in english This study aimed at evaluating the manual agitation effect on inactivation efficiency of thermotolerant coliforms of water bottles submitted to solar disinfection. Agitated bottles and non-agitated bottles were exposed to sunlight from 9:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. Dissolved oxygen (DO) and thermotolerant [...] coliforms concentrations were analyzed hourly. The solar disinfection improved the water quality, reducing thermotolerant coliforms concentration by 4 logs (from 1.0 x 10(6) to 2.6 x 10¹MPN/100 mL). With the manual agitation, there was considerable oxygenation in the water samples (maximum of 6.61 mg/L in samples with manual agitation and of 5.56 mg/L for those without agitation), but the increase in DO had no significant effect on the inactivation of thermotolerant coliforms (p>0.05).

Márcio Pessoa, Botto; Francisco Suetônio Bastos, Mota; Beatriz Susana Ovruski de, Ceballos.

2009-09-01

226

Efeito da oxigenação por agitação manual da água na eficiência de inativação de coliformes termotolerantes utilizando luz solar para desinfecção em batelada Effect of oxygenation by manual agitation of water on inactivation efficiency of thermotolerant coliforms using solar light batch disinfection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foi avaliado o efeito da agitação manual de amostras de água submetidas à desinfecção solar na eficiência de inativação de coliformes termotolerantes. Garrafas com agitação prévia e sem agitação foram expostas à radiação solar no horário das 9h às 15h (seis horas no total e analisados o teor de oxigênio dissolvido (OD e concentração de coliformes termotolerantes de hora em hora. A desinfecção com luz solar mostrou-se capaz de melhorar a qualidade sanitária da água, reduzindo a concentração de coliformes termotolerantes em até quatro unidades logarítmicas (de 1,03 x 10(6 até 2,6 x 10¹NMP/100 mL. Com a agitação manual, houve oxigenação considerável nas amostras de água (máxima concentração de OD de 6,61 mg/L nas amostras de águas agitadas e de 5,56 mg/L nas amostras sem agitação, porém o aumento de OD na água não teve efeito significativo sobre a inativação dos coliformes termotolerantes (p>0,05.This study aimed at evaluating the manual agitation effect on inactivation efficiency of thermotolerant coliforms of water bottles submitted to solar disinfection. Agitated bottles and non-agitated bottles were exposed to sunlight from 9:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. Dissolved oxygen (DO and thermotolerant coliforms concentrations were analyzed hourly. The solar disinfection improved the water quality, reducing thermotolerant coliforms concentration by 4 logs (from 1.0 x 10(6 to 2.6 x 10¹MPN/100 mL. With the manual agitation, there was considerable oxygenation in the water samples (maximum of 6.61 mg/L in samples with manual agitation and of 5.56 mg/L for those without agitation, but the increase in DO had no significant effect on the inactivation of thermotolerant coliforms (p>0.05.

Márcio Pessoa Botto

2009-09-01

227

Evaluation of an optical microbiological method for rapidly estimating populations of aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and Escherichia coli from ground pork.  

Science.gov (United States)

The BioSys optical methods for estimating populations of aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and Escherichia coli from ground pork were evaluated. Ground pork samples were analyzed immediately, after temperature abuse at 25 degrees C for various periods of time, or after temperature abuse and dilution by mixing with pork that was prepared by grinding whole muscles that had the outer portion excised using a sterile scalpel. Each ground pork sample was tested using standard methods such as aerobic plate counts (APC), violet red bile (VRB) agar plate counts (coliforms), and three-tube most probable numbers (MPN--E. coli). Each sample was tested using the BioSys for total viable counts (TVC) by placing 2 ml of ground pork homogenate (25 g into 225 ml of sterile 1% buffered peptone water) into 8 ml of nutrient medium containing brom-cresol purple in a test vial and monitoring at 35 degrees C. Coliforms were enumerated by placing 5 ml of ground pork homogenate into 5 ml of coliform medium (CM) in a test vial and monitoring at 35 degrees C. E. coli were enumerated by placing 5 ml of ground pork homogenate into 5 ml of double-strength CM with 2% dextrose in a test vial and monitoring at 42 degrees C. The correlation coefficients for the regression lines comparing APC to BioSys TVC detection times (DT), VRB to BioSys coliform DT, and MPN to BioSys E. coli DT were -0.95, -0.94, and -0.93, and the line equations were logl0 CFU/ml = 8.94 - 0.40(DT), log10 CFU/ml = 8.77 - 0.43(DT), and log10 CFU/ml = 8.96 - 0.81(DT), respectively. These methods may allow pork producers to monitor equipment surfaces and products in less than 16 h and obtain microbiological results prior to shipment. PMID:11347998

Russell, S M

2001-05-01

228

Fecal Coliform Determinations. Training Module 5.115.3.77.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with multiple tube and membrane filter techniques for determining fecal coliform concentrations in a wastewater sample. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This module considers proper…

Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

229

COLIFORM NON-COMPLIANCE NIGHTMARES IN WATER SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

Coliform occurrences in distribution systems have created a great concern for both utilities and water authorities because of the implied public health implications and failure to meet Federal regulations. Many of the known cases involve systems in the east and midwest. The commo...

230

Analysis of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD Level of Distribution Network Using DVR  

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Full Text Available The modern sensitive, Non-linear and sophisticated load affects the power quality. Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR provides the fast, flexible and efficient solution to improve the power quality for such distribution network [8]. The active power, reactive power, variation of voltage, flicker, harmonics, and electrical behavior of switching operations are the major source of affecting power quality. The intent of this paper is to demonstrate the improvements obtained with DVR in power system network using MATLAB/SIMULINK. In this paper, an overview of the DVR, its functions, configurations, components, control strategies are reviewed. The Simulation results are presented to illustrate the performance of DVR in Total Harmonic Distortion (THD. The results showed clearly the performance of using DVR in improving THD level.

Himanshu Kalara

2014-08-01

231

Analytical method of total {beta} activity in high level radioactive solution. Possibility of application of GM counter method to total {beta} analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Analytical design of RETE set up a GM counter method as an analytical method of total {beta} activity in the high level radioactive solution. To confirm the fundamental properties of GM counter, RI test was carried out by use of {sup 90}Sr as pure {beta} source and {sup 137}Cs as {beta} and {gamma} source. Hot test of the light water reactor reprocessing liquid waste indicated that this method could be used as the analytical method of total {beta} in the high level radioactive solution. Important results were explained as following: the detection efficiency of GM counter at {gamma} ray 0.06 to 0.66 MeV was 0.25% or below. Its effect on the total {beta} ray measurement was negligible. The internal conversion electron radiated from {sup 137}Cs ({sup 137m}Ba) gave positive effect on the total counter and the effect on the nuclide components in the light water reactor reprocessing liquid waste was about 3.5%. The total beta activity in the light water reactor reprocessing liquid waste was determined by this method, and the values obtained were 7.4 x 10{sup 9} and 8.3 x 10{sup 9} Bq/ml which agreed with the values by ORIGEN-2 etc. Reproducibility of the total {beta} activity, analytical value by high dilute solution-GM counter direct method was in the range of 1.8% (RSD) that was enough to a process analytical method. (S.Y.)

Shiba, Masanori [Joyo Industry Co. Ltd., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Funakoshi, Tomomasa; Suganuma, Takashi; Tanaka, Yasumasa

1997-11-01

232

Macadamia nut consumption lowers plasma total and LDL cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic men.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to assess the cholesterol-lowering potential of macadamia nuts. Seventeen hypercholesterolemic men (mean age 54 y) were given macadamia nuts (40-90 g/d), equivalent to 15% energy intake, for 4 wk. Plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and homocysteine concentrations and the fatty acid composition of plasma lipids were determined before and after treatment. Plasma MUFA 16:1(n-7), 18:1(n-7) and 20:1(n-9) were elevated after intervention with macadamia nuts. Plasma (n-6) and (n-3) PUFA concentrations were unaffected by macadamia nut consumption. Plasma total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations decreased by 3.0 and 5.3%, respectively, and HDL cholesterol levels increased by 7.9% in hypercholesterolemic men after macadamia nut consumption. Plasma triglyceride and homocysteine concentrations were not affected by treatment. Macadamia nut consumption was associated with a significant increase in the relative intake of MUFA and a reduced relative intake of saturated fatty acids and PUFA. This study demonstrates that macadamia nut consumption as part of a healthy diet favorably modifies the plasma lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic men despite their diet being high in fat. PMID:12672919

Garg, Manohar L; Blake, Robert J; Wills, Ron B H

2003-04-01

233

Economical Appraisal of Total Aflatoxin Level in the Poultry Feeds by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Single-bounce attenuated total reflectance (SB-ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been used for the quantitative determination of total aflatoxins in the broiler poultry feed. An FTIR calibration spanning the range 1-70 micro g/L aflatoxin standards in (70:30, v/v) methanol-water solvent system based on partial least square (PLS) model, developed by relating mid IR region between 3755-950 cm/ sub -1/. The excellent coefficient of various (using 0.998) was achieved with 1.49 relative mean square error of calibration (RMSEC). Aflatoxins from each of eight poultry feeds was extracted and the determined by the widely used commercially available Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) procedure and the SB-ATR/FTIR method. The SB-ATR/FTIR aflatoxins predictions were related to those determined by the ELISA method by linear regression, producing an R value of 0.989 and a SD of +- 2.80 micro g/L. The result of the study clearly indicated that FT-IR spectroscopy due to its rapidity and simplicity along with data manipulation by advance computer software could be effectively used for routine determination of aflatoxins present in the poultry feeds at very low level. (author)

234

40 CFR 141.803 - Coliform sampling.  

Science.gov (United States)

...be taken from a lavatory and one from a galley; each sample must be analyzed for total...one other lavatory tap, and one other galley tap. If fewer than three taps exist...Over-the-Counter Human Use” in the galleys and lavatories; and other feasible...

2010-07-01

235

Temperature-independent pectin gel method for coliform determination in dairy products: collaborative study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ten laboratories participated in a collaborative study to compare a pectin-based violet red bile (VRB) method with the VRB agar-based standard method for estimation of coliform bacterial counts in 7 different dairy food groups: cream, cheddar cheese, cottage cheese, homogenized milk, raw milk, sour cream, and yogurt. Each laboratory analyzed 8 samples of each food group as sample pairs prepared at high, medium, and low inoculum levels, and an uninoculated control pair. Overall mean log counts were higher for the pectin gel method in 18 of 21 cases (7 samples at 3 inoculum levels); 12 results were significantly higher (P less than 0.01) than those for the VRB agar method. Of the 3 higher VRB agar method means, 2 were not significant at P less than 0.10, and one was of borderline significance (0.05 less than P less than 0.06). Repeatability variation (sr) favored the pectin gel method in 14 of 21 cases; 7 were highly significant differences (P less than 0.01). None of the 7 results favoring the VRB agar method was statistically significant. Reproducibility variation (sR) favored the pectin gel method in 14 of 21 results. These data indicate that the pectin gel method gives higher recovery of coliforms with better precision than does the VRB agar method, and strongly support the suitability of the pectin gel method as an alternative to the agar-based VRB method for coliform counts in dairy products. The pectin gel method has been adopted official first action. PMID:2708281

Roth, J N; Bontrager, G L

1989-01-01

236

Predictive value of serum ionized but not total magnesium levels in head injuries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite a wealth of recent literature and research on traumatic brain injury, very little has been applicable to diagnosing and treating this syndrome at a tissue level. Part of this problem is the inability to assess rapidly and early in the syndrome the degree or progression of brain injury at a tissue level using simple biochemical analytes. With this in mind, we designed a study in 66 human subjects, who presented with acute blunt head trauma, to determine whether free, ionized serum magnesium (IMg2+) and/or free, ionized serum calcium (ICa2+) levels correlated with the severity of head trauma (HT) and whether any predictive reliable patterns emerge. By using a new ion-selective electrode (ISE) for IMg2+, we have been able to determine IMg2+ and ICa2+ within minutes after sampling in the serum of patients early (1-8 h) after HT. These studies reveal that acute HT is associated with graded deficits (up to 62%, mean = 25%) in serum IMg2+, but not in total serum Mg, which are related to severity of injury based on CT scans and other diagnostic parameters. The greater the degree of injury, the greater the ICa2+/IMg2+ ratio. These ionic findings are compatible with the idea that early ischaemia after head trauma may be important in determining neurological outcome. Our findings provide the first evidence for divalent cation changes in blood after traumatic brain injury, which could be of both diagnostic and prognostic value in patients with traumatic brain injury. PMID:8903837

Memon, Z I; Altura, B T; Benjamin, J L; Cracco, R Q; Altura, B M

1995-12-01

237

Nível de testosterona total em mulheres pós-menopausa com olho seco / Total testosterone level in postmenopausal women with dry eye  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Comparar o nível sérico de testosterona total entre mulheres pós-menopausa divididas em 3 grupos: controle, olho seco leve a moderado e olho seco intenso. MÉTODOS: No ambulatório de climatério foram selecionadas 29 mulheres pós-menopausa que não faziam reposição hormonal há pelo menos 8 se [...] manas. Critérios de exclusão: alterações palpebrais mecânicas, pterígio, obstrução de vias lacrimais, inflamação intra-ocular e uso de lente de contato. As mulheres selecionadas foram submetidas à dosagem de testosterona total, aplicação do questionário OSDI (Ocular Surface Disease Index) e exame oftalmológico para detecção de olho seco. As mulheres foram divididas em 3 grupos conforme o resultado do escore OSDI e do exame oftalmológico. RESULTADOS: Cinco pacientes foram classificadas como ausência de olho seco, 15 com olho seco leve a moderado e 4 com olho seco intenso. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre a média dos valores das idades (p=0,3915); nível de instrução (p=0,9333); doenças associadas (p=0,2551); tipo de medicação utilizada (p=0,2844) e nível sérico de testosterona total entre os grupos (p=0,1275). CONCLUSÃO: Não encontramos diferença estatisticamente significativa entre o nível de testosterona total entre mulheres pós-menopausa com olho seco. Novos estudos clínicos com maior amostra são necessários para melhor esclarecer a relação dos níveis séricos dos androgênios nos portadores de olho seco. Abstract in english PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare total testosterone blood level among three groups of postmenopausal women: control, mild to moderate dry eye and severe dry eye. METHODS: Twenty-nine postmenopausal women were selected. The exclusion criteria were: hormone replacement therapy in the [...] last 8 weeks, mechanical palpebral abnormalities, pterygium, lacrimal obstructions, intraocular inflammation or contact lens use. A blood sample was collected for total testosterone level determination, and the patients were submitted to an ophthalmologic examination (emphasizing on dry eye detection) and answered the OSDI (Ocular Surface Disease Index) questionnaire. Five patients were excluded. Postmenopausal women were divided into three groups according to OSDI score and the ophthalmic examination. RESULTS: Five patients were classified in the no dry eye group (control), fifteen in the mild to moderate dry eye group and four in the severe dry eye group. There were no statistically significant differences regarding mean age (p=0.3915); instruction level (p=0.9333); number of comorbidities (p=0.2551); medication taken (p=0.2844) and total testosterone level among those groups (p=0.1275). CONCLUSION: Further research with a greater bigger sample is necessary to establish the relation of androgen levels in dry eye patients.

Maria Cecília Barros, Duarte; Natércia Trindade, Pinto; Hamilton, Moreira; Ana Tereza Ramos, Moreira; Daniel, Wasilewski.

2007-06-01

238

THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN G6PD DEFICIENCY AND TOTAL SERUM BILIRUBIN LEVEL IN ICTERIC NEONATES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nGlucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is the most important disease of the hexose monophosphate pathway. Deficiency of this enzym can lead to hemolysis of red blood cells. Our aim was to study the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in relation to neonatal jaundice. We studied 456 clinically icteric neonates Laboratory investigations included determination of direct and indirect serum bilirubin concentrations, blood group typing, direct coomb's test, hemoglobin, blood smear, reticulocyte count and G6PD level. We divided these neonates to 3 groups based on total serum bilirubin level (TSB: TSB< 20 mg%, TSB=20-25 mg%, and TSB>25 mg%. In only 35 (7.6% of cases G6PD deficiency was diagnosed. All of these babies were male. From 456 icteric neonates, 213 cases belong to group 1 (TSB<20 mg%, 158 cases belong to group 2 (TSB=20-25 mg% and 85 cases belong to group 3 (TSB>25 mg%. 16 neonates from 213 neonates of group 1, 6 neonates from 158 neonates of group 2 and 13 neonates from 85 neonates of group 3 had G6PD deficiency. There was statistically significant difference of prevalence of G6PD deficiency between group 2 and 3 ( 15.3% vs 3.8%( P = 0.001. Between groups 1 vs 2 and 1 vs 3 no statistically significant difference was found. Early detection of this enzymopathy regardless of sex and close surveillance of the affected newborns may be important in reducing the risk of severe hyperbilirubinemia. This emphasizes the necessity of neonatal screening on cord blood samples for G6PD deficiency.

S. Behjati-Ardakani

2007-07-01

239

Modeling the transport and distribution of fecal coliform in a tidal estuary.  

Science.gov (United States)

A laterally averaged two-dimensional fecal coliform transport model incorporated into hydrodynamic and salt modules was developed to simulate the fate and transport of fecal coliform in the tidal Danshui River estuary of northern Taiwan. We validated the developed model with measured data, including longitudinal velocity, salinity, and fecal coliform concentration, collected in 2000. The simulated results of current, salinity, and fecal coliform concentration quantitatively agreed well with the measured data. The model sensitivity analysis indicated that the mortality rate plays an important role in the distribution of fecal coliform concentrations along the tidal Danshui River estuary to Tahan Stream. The validated model was applied to investigate the effects of different freshwater discharges at upstream boundaries on the distributions of fecal coliform. The results revealed that low freshwater discharge resulted in a higher fecal coliform concentration at upstream reaches but had little influence on the downstream of the estuary. PMID:22652036

Liu, Wen-Cheng; Huang, Wei-Cher

2012-08-01

240

Survey of PAC Performance for Removal of Turbidity, COD, Coliform Bacteria, Heterotrophic Bacteria from Water of Karoon River  

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Full Text Available Backgrounds and Objectives: Selection of proper coagulants for turbidity removal and determination of effective methods to reduce coagulants dose and related costs in water treatment plants is of critical importance. The present study investigates the effect of returned sludge on improving the performance of poly-aluminum chloride (PAC in turbidity, coliform bacteria, heterotrophic bacteria removal from drinking water during rapid mixing phase. Materials and Methods: In order to determine the optimal returned sludge volume injected during rapid mixing with PAC for turbidity, total coliform and hetrophic bacteria, experiments were conducted based on variables such as injected silt volume (from 0 - 125 ml, and varying turbidities from 58 - 112 NTU. At the end of each JAR experiments, remaining turbidity , microbial parameters of samples were measured . Coagulant efficiency in turbidity removal and microbial parameters were determined by Covariance, Duncan analyses and graphs were drawn by MS Excel . The results statistically showed significant among variables (P<0.05. Results: The results showed that the maximum turbidity removal efficiency of 98.92 at 30 ppm was 10 ml while the maximum turbidity removal efficiency of 98.31 at 10 ppm was 4 ml. The maximum total coliform removal efficiency  of 95.68 obtained for 10 ppm in 10 cc injected sludge volume.Conclusion: This study shows that addition of returned sludge to flash mixing can reduce the turbidity of samples.

N Alavi Bakhtiarvand

2011-10-01

241

Mineral nutrient imbalance, total antioxidants level and DNA damage in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) exposed to heavy metals  

OpenAIRE

The present study aimed to analyze the biological effects induced by bioaccumulation of metals in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Effects of mineral nutrient imbalance, total antioxidants level and DNA damage induced by accumulation of heavy metals, were investigated in bean seedlings treated with two selected metal concentrations for 7 days. Metal content is analyzed by inductively coupled plasma – atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), for total antioxidants level assessment the Fe...

Gjorgieva, Darinka; Kadifkova Panovska, Tatjana; Ruskovska, Tatjana; Bac?eva, Katerina; Stafilov, Trajc?e

2013-01-01

242

Harmonic focus in total thyroidectomy plus level III-IV and VI dissection: a prospective randomized study  

OpenAIRE

Abstract The aim of this study was to compare operating time, postoperative outcomes, and surgical complications of total thyroidectomy plus level III-IV and VI dissection between the no-tie technique using the Harmonic Focus and classic suture ligation for hemostasis. Fifty-four patients underwent total thyroidectomy plus level III-IV and VI dissection by classic suture ligation and 51 patients by the Harmonic Focus. There was obvious distinction as to the operating time between th...

He Qingqing; Zhuang Dayong; Zheng Luming; Zhou Peng; Chai Jixin; Lv Zhen

2011-01-01

243

Remoção de coliformes do esgoto por meio de espécies vegetais  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de substratos e de espécies vegetais, nativas ou naturalizadas da região de Goiânia-GO, na remoção de coliformes do esgoto, num sistema de tratamento do tipo zona de raízes com fluxo subsuperficial descendente, precedido de decantação. O experimento foi conduzido no campus Samambaia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, em Goiânia. Após passar por uma caixa de decantação, o esgoto primário foi aplicado, diariamente, em módulos de tratamento contendo as espécies vegetais taboa (Typha angustifolia L., lírio-do-brejo (Hedychium coronarium J. König, conta-de-lágrima (Coix lacryma-jobi L. e capim Angola (Urochloa mutica (Forssk. T. Q. Nguyen, cultivadas em substratos com areia e/ou casca de coco. Foram construídos dezesseis módulos de tratamento, distantes dois metros uns dos outros, agrupados quatro a quatro, num delineamento experimental de parcelas subdivididas, sendo as parcelas representadas pelos substratos e as subparcelas pelas espécies vegetais. As repetições foram constituídas pelas amostragens do esgoto, que ocorreram quinzenalmente. As amostras do esgoto bruto, primário e secundário foram submetidas a análises laboratoriais e os resultados foram utilizados no cálculo de eficiência na remoção/redução dos coliformes do esgoto. Os valores de eficiência foram submetidos ao teste de Tukey-Kramer. O sistema de tratamento do tipo zona de raízes mostrou-se bastante eficiente na remoção de coliformes, atingindo níveis próximos à totalidade. As espécies vegetais comportaram-se de maneira semelhante na remoção dos coliformes fecais e o substrato com casca de coco mostrou-se menos eficiente que os substratos com areia.

Rogério de Araújo Almeida

2005-12-01

244

Molecular and Bacteriological Examination of Milk from Different Milch Animals with Special Reference to Coliforms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present study, 20 samples of raw milk of cow, buffalo and goat and pasteurized milk were collected from the local market and were analyzed for microbial count and IMViC tests to determine the coliform load in the sample. Further, the presence of E. coli was confirmed by using PCR. Majority of the milk samples of different origin were found to be contaminated by the coliform group of bacteria. Nine samples were found to be positive for E. coli by PCR analysis. Pasteurized milk samples did not showed presence of E. coli by PCR, but they showed considerable count of bacterial growth by total plate count method. The results indicated that analyzed milk could contribute a potential risk for public health in the cases that it was consumed or used in the production of dairy products without being pasteurized or being subjected to a sufficient heat process. Moreover, PCR is less labor intensive and more rapid for bacterial identification.

T.S. Parekh

2008-01-01

245

Faecal coliforms, faecal enterococci, Salmonella Typhi and Acanthamoeba spp. UV inactivation in three different biological effluents  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Efficiency of UV-light to inactivate microbial indicators, Salmonella Typhi and Acanthamoeba spp. was studied in three different biological secondary effluents. Even though effluents differed in terms of their total suspended solids content, transmittance and particle size distribution, the UV-light [...] dose required to fulfil WHO agricultural water reuse criteria was the same (30 mW-s/cm²), because the particle content with sizes >40 |xm was similar and very small. Using this dosage, 3 log of Salmonella Typhi and faecal enterococci were also inactivated. To avoid faecal coliform and Salmonella Typhi photoreactivation, the UV dose had to be doubled and in the process 2.5 log of Acanthamoeba spp. were also inactivated. This is interesting because its presence in wastewater, pathogenicity and resistance to conventional disinfection processes has been reported in the literature. Additionally, it was found that the faecal coliforms' inactivation rate constant was the lowest one of all the bacteria studied (Salmonella Typhi and faecal enterococci), suggesting the limitation of this indicator when several kinds of pathogens are present, as is the case in developing countries.

NA, Beltrán; BE, Jiménez.

2008-02-01

246

Coliform bacteria removal from sewage in constructed wetlands planted with Mentha aquatica.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study evaluated the performance of the species Mentha aquatica in constructed wetlands of horizontal subsurface flow (CW-HSSF) with regard to the removal of coliforms bacteria in an effluent from the primary treatment of sewage as well as to obtain adjustment parameters of the bacterial decay kinetic model along the length of the CW-HSSF. Therefore, four CW-HSSFs measuring 24.0 m x 1.0 m x 0.35 m were built and filled with number 0 gravel as the support medium to a height of 0.20m. Two of the CW-HSSFs were planted with the species M. aquatica, while the other two remained uncultivated. Cultivation of M. aquatica in CW-HSSF resulted in total coliforms (TC) and Escherichia coli (EC) removals from 0.9 to 1.3 log units greater than those obtained in the uncultivated experimental plots, for the hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 4.5 and 6.0 days. For HRT ranged from 1.5 to 6.0 days, the highest removal efficiencies in counts of TC and EC were obtained when using longer HRT. The mathematical models evaluated showed good fit to average counts of TC and EC highlighting the modified first-order kinetic model with the inclusion of the power parameter in the HRT variable. PMID:24956804

Avelar, Fabiana F; de Matos, Antonio T; de Matos, Mateus P; Borges, Alisson C

2014-08-01

247

Temporal Changes in Total Serum Immunoglobulin E Levels in East German Children and the Effect of Potential Predictors  

OpenAIRE

Background: Elevated total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels are a prominent feature of allergic and parasitic diseases. An epidemiologic study was conducted in East German children to describe trends in the development of total serum IgE levels and analyze the impact of potential determinants. Methods: The study consisted of three cross-sectional surveys in 1992-1993, 1995-1996 and 1998-1999 and was conducted in three areas of the former German Democratic Republic. In total, 8,051 question...

Flohrs, Katrin; Bru?ske, Irene; Thiering, Elisabeth; Rzehak, Peter; Wichmann, Heinz-erich; Heinrich, Joachim

2012-01-01

248

Thyrocalcitonin: its importance on the regulation of the plasmatic levels in total thyroidectomy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of thyrocalcitonin ou calcium and blood phosphorus is studied. Twelve patients with adenocarcinoma of the thyroid, previously submited to total thyroidectomy and complementary radioiodine theraphy, are studied

249

Association between Plasma PFOA and PFOS Levels and Total Cholesterol in a Middle-Aged Danish Population  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are used in a variety of consumer products and have been detected worldwide in human blood. Recent studies mainly of highly exposed populations have indicated that PFOA and PFOS may affect serum cholesterol levels, but the magnitude of the effect may be inconsistent across exposure levels. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between plasma PFOA and PFOS and total cholesterol in a general, middle-aged Danish population. The study population comprised 753 individuals (663 men and 90 women), 50-65 years of age, nested within a Danish cohort of 57,053 participants. Blood samples were taken from all cohort members at enrolment (1993-1997) and stored in a biobank at -150°C. Plasma levels of PFOA and PFOS and serum levels of total cholesterol were measured. The associations between plasma PFOA and PFOS levels and total cholesterol levels were analysed by generalized linear models, both crude and adjusted for potential confounders. We observed statistically significant positive associations between both perfluorinated compounds and total cholesterol, e.g. a 4.4 [95% CI ?=? 1.1-7.8] higher concentration of total cholesterol (mg/dL) per interquartile range of PFOA plasma level. Sex and prevalent diabetes appeared to modify the association between PFOA and PFOS, respectively, and cholesterol. In conclusion, this study indicated positive associations between plasma PFOA and PFOS levels and total cholesterol in a middle-aged Danish population, although whether the observed pattern of results reflects a causal association is unclear.

Eriksen, Kirsten T; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

2013-01-01

250

Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on levels of serum autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus and in rheumatoid arthritis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on serum levels of autoantibodies, and of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and pneumococcal polysaccharide in patients with lupus nephritis were compared with those previously observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Baseline levels of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid and tetanus toxoid decreased significantly after TLI in patients with lupus and RA, but antibody levels to pneumococcal polysaccharide remained unchanged. After TLI, the levels of antinuclear and anti-DNA antibodies were reduced significantly in lupus, but levels of rheumatoid factor, antinuclear, and antigranulocyte antibodies all tended to increase in RA.

Tanay, A.; Schiffman, G.; Strober, S.

1986-01-01

251

Human apoB contributes to increased serum total apo(a level in LPA transgenic mice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The Lp(a lipoprotein (Lp(a consists of the polymorphic glycoprotein apolipoprotein(a (apo(a, which is attached by a disulfide bond to apolipoprotein B (apoB. Apo(a, which has high homology with plasminogen, is present only in primates and hedgehogs. However, transgenic mice and rabbits with high serum apo(a levels exist. Liver is the main site for apo(a synthesis, but the site of removal is uncertain. To examine differences between transgenic mice expressing the LPA gene and mice capable of forming Lp(a particles, LPA-YAC transgenic mice and hAPOB transgenic mice were crossed and their offspring examined. Results Comparison of LPA-YAC with LPA-YAC/hAPOB transgenic mice showed that LPA-YAC/hAPOB transgenic mice have higher serum total apo(a and total cholesterol level than mice lacking the hAPOB gene. However, hepatic apo(a mRNA level was higher in LPA-YAC transgenic mice than in LPA-YAC/hAPOB transgenic mice. Feeding of a high-cholesterol/high-fat diet to male LPA-YAC transgenic mice with or without the hAPOB gene resulted in reduced serum total apo(a and hepatic apo(a mRNA level. Conclusion In conclusion, the higher serum total apo(a level in LPA-YAC/hAPOB transgenic mice than in LPA-YAC transgenic mice is not caused by increased apo(a synthesis. Lower hepatic apo(a mRNA level in LPA-YAC/hAPOB than in LPA-YAC transgenic mice may suggest that the increase in total apo(a level is a result of apo(a accumulation in serum. Furthermore, observed higher serum total cholesterol level in LPA-YAC/hAPOB transgenic mice than either in wild type or LPA-YAC transgenic mice may further suggest that human APOB transgenicity is a factor that contributes to increased serum total apo(a and cholesterol levels. Our results on reduced serum total apo(a and hepatic apo(a mRNA levels in HCHF fed male LPA-YAC transgenic mice confirm earlier findings in females, and show that there are no sex difference in mechanisms for lowering apo(a level in response to HCHF feeding.

Teivainen Päivi A

2004-05-01

252

Control of Effective Productive Capacity with a Level of Total Production Inventory in a Business Fluctuation Period  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper analyzes a relation between level of total production inventory and effective production capacity in a production process, and proposes a method of controlling effective production capacity in a business fluctuations period. They are based on the property: “effective production capacity = capacity of production facilities - total changeover loss", where changeover loss is a decreasing function of level of total production inventory. Although the effective production capacity can be controlled by an increase or decrease of production facilities, its cost is too expensive. It must be done only in the case that an increase or decrease in demand is confirmed. Therefore, the effective production capacity must be controlled by the level of total inventory. In a business recovery or recession period, two kinds of production time have to be controlled. The first the production-time control for the increase or decrease in demand, and the second is that for an increase or decrease in the level of total inventory. Even if an increasing or decreasing rate in demand is constant, the value of the total control time decreases at first and then increases exponentially. This is the reason why inventory control is difficult in a business fluctuations period.

Ishitani, Shigeki; Mitsumori, Sadamichi

253

Clinical and Radiological Mid-Term Outcomes of Lumbar Single-Level Total Disc Replacement.  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT: Study Design. Prospective single-center case cohort study.Objective. Evaluation of clinical and radiographic outcomes of a consecutive 122-patient cohort with discogenic back pain, at 2 - to 10-year follow-up periods, treated by a single surgeon, with CHARITÉ® Artificial Disc (DePuy Spine, Raynham, MA, USA).Summary of Background Data. Minimum two-year clinical and radiographic Level 1 data for the first lumbar artificial disc, the CHARITÉ® Artificial Disc, has recently been published, demonstrating sustained clinical benefit of the device for the treatment of degenerative disc disease (DDD).Methods. Patients were assessed preoperatively using clinical outcome measures, including Visual Analogue Score (VAS) back and leg, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Short Form - 36 (SF-36), and Roland-Morris Questionnaires (RMDQ), and further assessed postoperatively, 3-months, 6-months, 12-months, and yearly thereafter.Results. Average follow-up was 44.9±23.3 months (n = 122). The median age at surgery was 43.0±9.0 years. Preoperative diagnosis included DDD in 118 (96.7%) and internal disc disruption (IDD) in 4 (3.3%). Surgery was performed at L5-S1 in 96 (77.9%) patients and at L4-5 in 27 (22.1%). Statistically significant clinical improvements from baseline were observed on VAS (back and leg), ODI, SF-36 PCS, SF-36 MCS, and RMDQ from 3 months onwards. Back VAS scores decreased from 78.2±21.3 preoperatively to 21.9±27.8 by final follow-up. ODI scores decreased from 51.1±17.3 to 16.2±17.9 at last follow-up. The RMDQ scores also decreased, from 16.7±4.7 to 4.2±5.8. SF-36 PCS and MCS increased from 25.7±11.0 to 46.4±10.3 for PCS and from 35.5±17.4 to 51.6±10.8 for MCS. Patient satisfaction surveys indicated that 90.56% patients rated their satisfaction with the surgery as "excellent" or "good" at 2 years. Range of motion averaged 8.6°±3.5° (median: 8.0°) at the last follow-up time point.Conclusions. Outcomes verify the clinical efficacy of total disc replacement (TDR) for treatment of discogenic back pain with or without radiculopathy. The outcomes instruments demonstrated statistically significant improvements from 3 months onwards. PMID:21912307

Scott-Young, Matthew N; Lee, Matthew J; Nielsen, David E A; Magno, Carly L; Kimlin, Kristy R; Mitchell, Evan O

2011-09-01

254

Allergic diseases, drug adverse reactions and total immunoglobulin E levels in lupus erythematosus patients.  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: The association of allergic diseases, drug adverse reactions and elevated total immunoglobulin E (IgE) concentration in systemic lupus erythematosus patients remains controversial. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of those features in active and inactive systemic lupus erythematosus patients, and in the control group as well. METHODS: Total IgE concentration was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study ...

Zbigniew Samochocki; Ewa Robak; Anna Sysa-Jedrzejowska; Anna Wozniacka; Malgorzata Zak-Prelich

2003-01-01

255

Rapid detection of coliforms in drinking water of Arak city using multiplex PCR method in comparison with the standard method of culture (Most Probably Number)  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To analyse molecular detection of coliforms and shorten the time of PCR. Methods Rapid detection of coliforms by amplification of lacZ and uidA genes in a multiplex PCR reaction was designed and performed in comparison with most probably number (MPN) method for 16 artificial and 101 field samples. The molecular method was also conducted on isolated coliforms from positive MPN samples; standard sample for verification of microbial method certificated reference material; isolated strains from certificated reference material and standard bacteria. The PCR and electrophoresis parameters were changed for reducing the operation time. Results Results of PCR for lacZ and uidA genes were similar in all of standard, operational and artificial samples and showed the 876 bp and 147 bp bands of lacZ and uidA genes by multiplex PCR. PCR results were confirmed by MPN culture method by sensitivity 86% (95% CI: 0.71-0.93). Also the total execution time, with a successful change of factors, was reduced to less than two and a half hour. Conclusions Multiplex PCR method with shortened operation time was used for the simultaneous detection of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in distribution system of Arak city. It's recommended to be used at least as an initial screening test, and then the positive samples could be randomly tested by MPN. PMID:25182727

Fatemeh, Dehghan; Reza, Zolfaghari Mohammad; Mohammad, Arjomandzadegan; Salomeh, Kalantari; Reza, Ahmari Gholam; Hossein, Sarmadian; Maryam, Sadrnia; Azam, Ahmadi; Mana, Shojapoor; Negin, Najarian; Reza, Kasravi Alii; Saeed, Falahat

2014-01-01

256

Total Thiols and MDA Levels in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction Before and After Reperfusion Therapy  

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Full Text Available Background: Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemic and reperfusion injury. In the current work we have measured malondialdehyde (MDA, total thiols, total CK, CK-MB and AST in ECG proven acute myocardial infarction (AMI patients immediately after admission and 24 hours after administration of thrombolytic agent streptokinase, and in healthy controls. Methods: Blood samples from 44 AMI patients and 25 age and sex matched healthy controls were obtained and analyzed for MDA, total thiols using spectrophotometric methods and cardiac enzymes CK, CK-MB and AST using automated analyzer. Results: We have found significant increase in MDA, CPK, CK-MB, AST (p< 0.001 and significant decrease in total thiols (p<0.001 in AMI patients after thrombolytic therapy compared to values at admission, and healthy controls. MDA correlated negatively with total thiols (r = - 0.333, p<0.05 and positively with CK-MB (r = 0.491, p<0.01 in AMI patients after thrombolytic therapy. Conclusions: Reperfusion following thrombolytic therapy increases reactive oxygen species with concomitant decrease in antioxidant total thiols

Suresh Babu

2010-10-01

257

Effect of dietary poly unsaturated fatty acids on total brain lipid concentration and anxiety levels of electron beam irradiated mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The whole brain irradiation causes injury to the nervous system at various levels. Omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids are very much essential for the growth and development of nervous system. Dietary supplementation of these nutrients will promote the development of injured neuronal cells. Therefore this study was undertaken to establish the role of Omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids on total brain lipid concentration, lipid peroxidation and anxiety levels in the irradiated mice. The effect of Electron Beam Radiation (EBR) on total brain lipid concentration, lipid peroxidation and anxiety level were investigated in male Swiss albino mice. The study groups were subjected to a sub-lethal dose of EBR and also the flax seed extract and fish oil were given orally to the irradiated mice. Irradiated groups show significant elevation in anxiety levels when compared to control group, indicating the acute radiation effects on the central nervous system. But the oral supplementation of dietary PUFA source decrees the anxiety level in the irradiated group. The analysis of lipid peroxidation showed a significant level of changes when compared between control and radiation groups. Dietary PUFA supplementation showed a significant level of decrease in the lipid peroxidation in the irradiated groups. The observation of total lipids in brain shows decrease in concentration in the irradiated groups, the differences in the variables follow the similar patterns as of that the MDA levels. This study suggests that the dietary intake of PUFAs may help in prevention and recovery of the oxidative stress caused by radiation. (author)

258

Total serum IgE level influences oral food challenge tests for IgE-mediated food allergies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Probability curves predicting oral food challenge test (OFC) results based on specific IgE levels are widely used to prevent serious allergic reactions. Although several confounding factors are known to affect probability curves, the main factors that affect OFC outcomes are currently unclear. We hypothesized that an increased total IgE level would reduce allergic reactivity. Medical records of 337 and 266 patients who underwent OFCs for 3.5 g boiled hen's egg white and 3.1 ml raw cow's milk, respectively, were examined retrospectively. We subdivided the patients into three groups based on total IgE levels and age by percentile (75th percentiles), and logistic regression analyses were performed on each group. Patients with higher total IgE levels were significantly less responsive. In addition, age did not significantly affect the OFC results. Therefore, total IgE levels should be taken into account when predicting OFC results based on food-specific IgE levels. PMID:25495854

Horimukai, K; Hayashi, K; Tsumura, Y; Nomura, I; Narita, M; Ohya, Y; Saito, H; Matsumoto, K

2015-03-01

259

Total IgE plasma levels vary according to gender and age in Brazilian patients with allergic rhinitis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Allergic rhinitis is a disease that affects the upper airways and causes inflammation of the nasal mucosa and it is mediated by IgE antibodies produced after sensitization to environmental allergens. Previous reports have indicated that this disease affects males more often than females. [...] The objective of this study was to verify whether total IgE plasma levels vary between genders in patients suffering from allergic rhinitis. METHODS: A total of 171 adult patients suffering from allergic rhinitis (55 males and 116 females) were enrolled. Total IgE plasma levels were determined using commercial kits, with 140 IU/mL considered as a reference value. The mean total IgE plasma levels were compared according to gender and age. RESULTS: The mean age of the overall patient group with allergic rhinitis was 38.4±19.0 years and a significant difference in age was observed between genders (males: 32.2±17.8 years; females: 41.4±18.9 years; p?=?0.0027). Additionally, the mean total IgE plasma levels were higher in males (413.0±143.0 IU/mL) than in females (147.9±98.0 IU/mL) (p

Thaís Amarante Peres de Paula, Couto; Nelson, Falsarella; Cinara de Cássia Brandão de, Mattos; Luiz Carlos de, Mattos.

2014-11-01

260

Growth kinetics of coliform bacteria under conditions relevant to drinking water distribution systems.  

OpenAIRE

The growth of environmental and clinical coliform bacteria under conditions typical of drinking water distribution systems was examined. Four coliforms (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Enterobacter cloacae) were isolated from an operating drinking water system for study; an enterotoxigenic E. coli strain and clinical isolates of K. pneumoniae and E. coli were also used. All but one of the coliforms tested were capable of growth in unsupplemented mineral sa...

Camper, A. K.; Mcfeters, G. A.; Characklis, W. G.; Jones, W. L.

1991-01-01

261

Antibiotic Resistance of Enterococci and Coliform Bacteria in Dairy Products from Commercial Farms  

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Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of enterococci and coliform bacteria isolated from sheep and cows cheese from commercial farms. Susceptibilities of isolated enterococci and coliform bacteria were tested using the disk diffusion method. The bacteria were tested on antibiotics enrofloxacin, sulphonamides, tetracycline and streptomycin. All isolates of Enterococcus strains were resistant of all used antibiotics. The similar results were detected of coliform bacteria on tested antibiotics.

Ivana Nováková

2010-05-01

262

Modification of delayed-incubation procedure for detection of fecal coliforms in water.  

OpenAIRE

Three holding media, including the vitamin-free Casitone holding medium (m-VFC) recommended by Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater for use with the delayed-incubation membrane filter procedure, were compared for their ability to maintain viability of fecal coliforms. Each medium was tested according to the procedure described in the above reference with 60 to 80 pure cultures of fecal coliforms and a variety of natural water samples containing fecal coliforms. Fecal c...

Chen, M.; Hickey, P. J.

1983-01-01

263

Isolation of fecal coliforms from pristine sites in a tropical rain forest.  

OpenAIRE

Samples collected from water accumulated in leaf axilae of bromeliads (epiphytic flora) in a tropical rain forest were found to harbor fecal coliforms. Random identification of fecal coliform-positive isolates demonstrated the presence of Escherichia coli. This bacterium was also isolated from bromeliad leaf surfaces. These data indicate that E. coli may be part of the phyllosphere microflora and not simply a transient bacterium of this habitat. The isolation of fecal coliforms from these sit...

Rivera, S. C.; Hazen, T. C.; Toranzos, G. A.

1988-01-01

264

COLIFORMES TERMOTOLERANTES EN AGUAS DE LAS POBLACIONES COSTERAS Y PALAFÍTICAS DE LA CIÉNAGA GRANDE DE SANTA MARTA, COLOMBIA Fecals Coliforms in Waters of Coastal and Palafiticos Populations of Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombia  

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Full Text Available La Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta es el sistema lagunar costero más grande e importante de Colombia y el más extenso del Caribe. En su territorio se alojan siete poblaciones carentes de un sistema de saneamiento básico adecuado, que vierten sus desechos sin ningún tipo de tratamiento directamente a la ciénaga. Teniendo en cuenta la importancia ambiental de este cuerpo de agua y con el objeto de conocer su calidad sanitaria se determinaron las concentraciones de Coliformes termotolerantes en aguas adyacentes de dos poblaciones costeras (Tasajera e isla del Rosario y tres palafiticas (Buenavista, Nueva Venecia y Trojas de Cataca durante el periodo 2004-2007. Adicionalmente, se realizaron mediciones de pH, temperatura, salinidad y oxígeno disuelto en cada sitio de muestreo. Las mayores concentraciones de Coliformes se encontraron en el palafito Trojas de Cataca, en la época seca mayor de cada año (7.800-9.000 NMP/ 100 mL y los menores niveles en la estación Buenavista (2-1.100 NMP/100mL. El patrón de comportamiento de las densidades de Coliformes en las poblaciones costeras fue similar en el tiempo y no se observó ninguna relación directa entre las variables fisicoquímicas y el grupo Coliformes. Dado lo observado, se considera importante vigilar la calidad del agua en el estuario, teniendo en cuenta que constituye una fuente potencial de riesgo para el desarrollo de las actividades económicas de la zona y para la salud de los pobladores.The coastal lagoon system most important and biggest of Colombia and the largest in the Caribbean is the Cienaga Grande of Santa Marta. In their territory, seven populations lacking of an appropriate sanitation system, that pour their waste directly without any treatment to the cienaga. Keeping in mind the importance of this body of water and in order to know their sanitary quality the concentrations of thermotolerant coliforms were determined in two coastal (Tasajera and Isla del Rosario and three palafitics populations (Buenavista, Nueva Venecia and Trojas de Cataca during the period 2004-2007. Additionally, pH, temperature, salinity and oxygen measurements were carried out in each station. The highest coliforms concentrations were found in Trojas de Cataca, in the dry season more each year (7,800-9,000 MPN/100ml and the lowest level in Buenavista station (2-1,100 MPN/100mL. The behavior pattern of Coliform densities in coastal populations was similar in the time and there was no direct relationship between physicochemical variables and Coliform group. It is important take care and watch over the estuary quality, taking into account that constitutes a potential risk source for economic activities development of the area and for the residents health.

SILVIA NARVÁEZ

265

UREA LEVEL IN COWS’ MILK FED ON TOTAL MIXED RATION (TMR) AND TRADITIONAL SYSTEM IN SUMMER AND WINTER SEASON  

OpenAIRE

In the research urea content in milk and frequency of the occurrence of samples with different urea level in milk of cows fed on total mixed ration (TMR) and traditional system in summer and winter season were analyzed. Analysis covered 14272 of milk samples. On account of urea level they were divided on three groups: to 140, 141-250 and above 250 mg of urea in 1 liter of milk. It was found that average urea content in milk of cows fed on total mixed rations (TMR) amounted to 196 mg.l-1. Milk...

Janus?, Ewa

2009-01-01

266

Radioiodine total body scan versus serum thyroglobulin levels in follow-up of patients with thyroid cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two groups of patients were studied to compare the efficacy of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels to 131I total body scans in the follow-up of patients with thyroid cancer. All of the group of 30 patients without recurrence had undetectable Tg levels on and off thyroid hormone replacement, and all had negative total body scan results although eight patients showed uptake in remnant thyroid tissue. In the second group of 37 patients with documented recurrent or metastatic disease, 34 (92%) had positive serum Tg levels, although the levels in five of these patients were undetectable while on thyroid replacement, and 31 (84%) had positive total body scan results. The false negative results of the two tests were not overlapping, and of those with positive Tg levels, 29 showed a significant increase once thyroid hormone therapy had been withdrawn. We conclude that although the percentages of positive Tg levels and body scan results in patients with recurrent disease are similar, both tests are required to minimize the number of patients with undiagnosed metastases. Second, thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression has a definite although unpredictable effect on serum Tg levels in patients with thyroid cancer, and thyroid hormone should be withdrawn prior to measurement of serum Tg to minimize the number of false negative results

267

Distribution of sewage pollution around a maritime Antarctic research station indicated by faecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens and faecal sterol markers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study describes the distribution of sewage pollution markers (faecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens and faecal sterols) in seawater and marine sediments around Rothera Research Station, Antarctic Peninsula. Untreated sewage waste has been released from this site since 1975, creating the potential for long-term contamination of the benthic environment. Faecal coliform concentrations in seawater reached background levels within 300 m of the outfall. In sediment cores, both C. perfringens and faecal coliform concentrations declined with distance from the outfall, though C. perfringens persisted at greater depths in the sediment. High concentrations of 5?(H)-cholestan-3?-ol (coprostanol) relative to the corresponding 5?-epimer (cholestanol), indicative of sewage pollution, were only found in sediments within 200 m of the sewage outfall. This study has shown that sewage contamination is limited to the immediate vicinity of the sewage outfall. Nevertheless, a sewage treatment plant was installed in February 2003 to reduce this contamination further. - Sewage contamination of seawater and marine sediments near Rothera Research Station (Antarctic Peninsula) was limited to the immediate vicinity of the outfall

268

Coliforms Everywhere! Using Microbiology to Teach the Scientific Method  

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Full Text Available The scientific method is a fundamental concept in science. In this exercise the scientific method is taught as a hands-on investigative laboratory experience. Students generate a hypothesis concerning the environmental distribution of coliforms, design and execute an experimental test of that hypothesis, and analyze the resulting data. The exercise is safe and straightforward. It is appropriate for use in undergraduate laboratory courses for science majors and secondary school students and undergraduate non-majors with the appropriate mathematical backgrounds. Students learn both the process by which science progresses, as well as more advanced concepts in microbiology and statistics.

Cindy R. Cisar

2010-11-01

269

Integrating Total Physical Response Strategy in a Level I Spanish Class.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reports on an experiment in which one group of high school students was taught using Total Physical Response (TPR) for 20 minutes a day and a control group was taught by the usual manner. Results showed students in the TPR group scored better on standard unit tests and expressed greater satisfaction with their teacher and course. (EKN)

Wolfe, David E.; Jones, Gwendolyn

1982-01-01

270

[Diagnostic value of total plasma levels of bile acids and ammonia in liver diseases in sheep].  

Science.gov (United States)

For the estimation of the diagnostic value of plasma concentrations of total bile acids and ammonia in liver disease healthy controls (n = 23) as well as animals sick with different diseases were examined. The reference values for total bile acids and ammonia in the plasma of sheep range from 18-166 mumol/l and 15-64 mumol/l, respectively. While animals with chronic copper poisoning (n = 18), vitamin E/selenium deficiency (n = 15) and with diseases not affecting the liver (n = 8) did not show significant differences in concentrations of total bile acids and ammonia from those of the healthy controls, this could be proven for animals with severe hepatopathy or hepatoencephalopathy. Furthermore, some of the latter group showed increased ammonia concentrations in the liquor cerebrospinalis and multifocal vacuolation of the central nervous system. The determination of total bile acids and ammonia in the diagnosis of liver disease in sheep would also be useful. The hepatoencephalic syndrome should therefore be considered as possible differential diagnosis in animals showing neurological signs. PMID:9626745

Henze, P; Humann, E; Röhrig, P; Bickhardt, K

1998-02-01

271

The effect of feeding fermented kombucha tea on HLD, LDL and total cholesterol levels in the duck bloods  

OpenAIRE

Kombucha have high content of glucoronic acid, a substance that could neutralized cholesterol deposit, changed to another compound that more soluble in water. The experiment concerns the effects of supplementary fermented kombucha tea on HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol levels in the duck bloods. It was carried out at the Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Universitas Padjadjaran. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of giving different level...

Adriani L.; Mayasari N.; Angga; Kartasudjana R.

2011-01-01

272

Serum Total and Lipid Bound Sialic Acid Levels in Patients With Benign and Nonmelanom Malignant Skin Tumors  

OpenAIRE

It has been reported that sialic acid containing oligosaccharides play an important rolein the adhesion between cancer cells and endothelial cells and metastatic potential of tumorcells is proportional to cell surface sialylation. In the present study, we investigatedwhether there is a change in serum total and lipid bound sialic acid levels of patientswith benign and non-melanom malignant skin tumors and, evaluated whether the measurementof sialic acid levels may be useful clinically in dist...

Beyhan Çak?r; Cemal Ayg?t; 1Bendigar Sunar; Selma Süer Gökmen,; Cemal Kazezo?lu,

2007-01-01

273

Effect of oral ondansetron on total cholecystokinin plasma levels following CCK-4 panic challenge procedure in healthy men.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into whether ondansetron treatment induces changes in total cholecystokinin (CCKT) plasma levels before and after administration of the cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK-4) panic challenge procedure in healthy men. METHODS: Thirty-eight volunteers received a 50-microgram bolus of CCK-4 60 minutes after a single oral dose (acute treatment) and multiple oral doses (chronic treatment) of ondansetron or placebo. RESULTS: Results showed no difference in CCKT plasma level...

De?po?t, M.; Merani, S.; Bradwejn, J.; Mukherjee, J.; Caille?, J.; Gutkowska, J.; Caille?, G.

1998-01-01

274

Prognostic significance of pretreatment serum levels of albumin, LDH and total bilirubin in patients with non-metastatic breast cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Liver function tests (LFTs) have been reported as independent predictors of non-liver disease-related morbidity and mortality in general population and cancer patients. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between pretreatment serum LFTs and overall survival (OS) in non-metastatic Caucasian breast cancer patients. Seven LFTs, including albumin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total bilirubin and total protein, were measured in pretreatment serum from 2425 female Caucasian patients with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed non-metastatic invasive breast cancer. Multivariate Cox model was used to estimate hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association of individual LFTs with 5-year OS while adjusting for age, smoking status, pathological characteristics and treatment regimen. We found that serum albumin, LDH and total bilirubin were significantly associated with 5-year OS in multivariate Cox analyses. Patients with higher albumin level exhibited 45% reduced risk of death (HR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.40-0.75) compared with those with lower albumin level. Patients with higher total bilirubin level had a nearly 40% reduction in the risk of death (HR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.45-0.85) and patients with higher LDH levels had a 1.42-fold increased risk of death (HR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.08-1.88). Furthermore, cumulative analysis showed a significant dose-response trend of significantly increasing risk of death with increasing number of unfavorable LFT levels. Our result highlighted the potential of using pretreatment serum levels of albumin, LDH and total bilirubin as prognostic factors for OS in patients with non-metastatic breast cancer. PMID:25524924

Liu, Xiaoan; Meng, Qing H; Ye, Yuanqing; Hildebrandt, Michelle A T; Gu, Jian; Wu, Xifeng

2015-02-01

275

Association of HLA class II Alleles with Childhood Asthma and Total IgE Levels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Asthma is a complex and multifactorial disorder. Several studies have reported association between different HLA- DQB1 and HLA- DRB1 alleles and allergic asthma. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of HLA-class II alleles and haplotypes, with total serum IgE and the results of the skin prick test in Iranian children with allergic asthma. A total of 112 patients with allergic asthma symptoms (75 males and 37 females were selected randomly from the pediatric hospital. In some patients total serum IgE and prick test were determined. Data of this study shows that HLA-DRB1*12 significantly increased in asthmatic patients (4.5% vs. 0%, P-value=0.04. HLA-DQB1*0603 and 0604 alleles were significantly higher in asthmatics than those in normal controls (10% vs. 0%, P-value= 0.0001; and 9.3% vs. 3.7%, P-value= 0.04, respectively. The statistical significance was relinquished after p value correction for all alleles except for HLA-DQB1*0602 (Pc=0.03 and HLA-DQB1*0603 (Pc=0.0015. Conversely, HLA-DQB1*0501 and 0602 were decreased in asthmatics compared to normal controls (7.5% vs. 13.5%, P-value= 0.05; and 4% vs. 12.5%, P-value= 0.002, respectively. The mean of total IgE in patients was 483 IU, and it was significantly high about 1140 IU in asthmatic patients with positive skin prick test to house dust. The most frequent alleles in asthmatic patients with the total IgE>200 IU/mL were HLA-DRB1*11and 1401, HLA-DQA1*0505, HLA-DQB1*0301 and in patients with total IgE<200 IU/mL were HLA-DRB1*0301, 07 and 1301, HLADQA1*0201 and 0301, HLA-DQB1*0201."nThese data suggests that HLA-DRB1, DQA1 & DQB1 alleles and haplotypes might be implicated in susceptibility to allergy and asthma and serum IgE production. As asthma and atopy are multifactorial disorders, probably HLA genes are involved in the regulation of immune specific responses to common allergen.

Mohammad Hossein Nicknam

2008-12-01

276

Mineral nutrient imbalance, total antioxidants level and DNA damage in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) exposed to heavy metals.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study aimed to analyze the biological effects induced by bioaccumulation of metals in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Effects of mineral nutrient imbalance, total antioxidants level and DNA damage induced by accumulation of heavy metals, were investigated in bean seedlings treated with two selected metal concentrations for 7 days. Metal content is analyzed by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), for total antioxidants level assessment the Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay is used and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was applied for investigation of DNA damages. The increasing metal concentration in the treatment medium changed synchronously metal content in samples, and decreased total antioxidant activity in all samples with exception only for samples treated with Ni and Cd. The obtained "DNA fingerprints" demonstrated that the increasing metal concentrations induced changes in RAPD profiles (disappearance and/or appearance of bands in comparison with untreated control samples). The highest number of missing bands was observed in samples treated with zinc (total 4 bands) and nickel (total 4 bands) at both concentrations. These results suggested that mineral nutrient imbalance is involved in changes of antioxidant levels and DNA damages of the seedlings, which may help to understand the mechanism of metal toxicity in plants. PMID:24431518

Gjorgieva, Darinka; Kadifkova Panovska, Tatjana; Ruskovska, Tatjana; Ba?eva, Katerina; Stafilov, Traj?e

2013-10-01

277

Serum level modifications of female sex hormones after radiocastration with different total doses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We determined serum level of estradiol, FSH and LH over a period of six to eight weeks after ovarian irradiation for castration with different doses (2x2.5 Gy/3x2.5 Gy/4x2.5 Gy) in 15 patients with metastatic breast cancer as compared to changes after ovarectomy in five patients. The time course of the changing estradiol-, FSH and LH-serum levels sigificantly depends on the ovarian dose. After radiological castration with a dose of 4x2.5 Gy = 10 Gy in four days the estrogen levels decrease within two to three weeks, and the FSH- and LH-levels increase after three to four weeks into the postmenopausal range. Therefore, the time course is not very different from changes after ovarectomy. (orig.)

278

Total Quality Management in Classroom at University Level in Islamabad City  

OpenAIRE

The progress of a country inter-depends on the quality of education provided to its citizens. Higher level Education is the most important stage in education system of any country. This stage provides educated graduates and skilled workers that immediatelyenters into the practical field and takes over the responsibilities. That is why to increase the quality of education at this stage is the foremost mission of all the countries. By defining the term, quality is the level of satisfaction for ...

Tanvir Kayani

2012-01-01

279

Metal Ion Levels in Maternal and Placental Blood After Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasty.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is concern regarding elevated metal ion levels in the blood during pregnancy and the potential fetal effects in women with metal-on-metal (MOM) implants. We obtained maternal and umbilical cord blood samples from 3 patients with a MOM hip arthroplasty and 7 control subjects without any metallic implants. Serum metal ion levels including chromium, cobalt, titanium, and nickel were tested using high-resolution sector-field inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Mothers with MOM-bearing implants had significantly elevated levels of serum cobalt and chromium compared with control-group mothers, and umbilical cord blood from mothers with MOM implants also had significantly higher serum metal ion levels compared with control-group mothers. The results of this study show that circulating serum levels of metal ion degradation products from MOM bearings cross the placenta and expose the fetus to metal ions. However, the placenta exerts a modulatory effect on cord blood, resulting in decreased levels compared with maternal samples (approximately 15% of maternal chromium and 50% of maternal cobalt). Physicians and women of child-bearing age should be aware of this potential effect when considering the use of MOM-bearing implants. PMID:25490017

Novak, Clifford C; Hsu, Andrew R; Della Valle, Craig J; Skipor, Anastasia K; Campbell, Patricia; Amstutz, Harlan C; Jiranek, William A; Onyike, Aham; Pombar, Xavier F; Jacobs, Joshua J

2014-12-01

280

Polymorphisms in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene influence plasma total homocysteine levels.  

OpenAIRE

Elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is a risk factor for various disorders. We investigated whether functional polymorphisms in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) influence tHcy, since COMT activity produces S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), a homocysteine precursor. We hypothesized that high activity COMT variants would be associated with high tHcy, since they presumably result in increased formation of SAH. We genotyped 780 community-dwelling elderly individuals for functional COMT (Val(...

Tunbridge, Em; Harrison, Pj; Warden, Dr; Johnston, C.; Refsum, H.; Smith, Ad

2008-01-01

281

Total copper, manganese, and zinc levels in a Cecil soil during ten years of poultry litter application  

Science.gov (United States)

Heavy metals in poultry litter (PL) can cause environmental problems despite the cost-effectiveness of PL as source of plant nutrients. We compared total Cu, Mn, and Zn levels in a Cecil soil near Watkinsville, GA, in a 5-yr of cotton and 5-yr of corn study under conventional tillage (CT) and no-til...

282

Estimation and comparative study of serum total sialic acid levels as tumor markers in oral cancer and precancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Tumor markers are a major part of the secondary prevention and thus the detection of malignancies. Neoplasms often have an increased concentration of sialic acid on the tumor cell surface and are shed or secreted by some of these cells which increase the concentration in blood. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 90 subjects equally divided into three groups viz, healthy individuals, oral cancer and precancer. The estimation of serum total sialic acid level was done according to Plucinsky et al by resorcinol reagent method. The statistical analysis was carried out by using SPSS 10.0 software. Results: The mean serum total sialic acid (TSA level in oral precancer and oral cancer group was statistically significant (P<0.05. In oral cancer group when stage I and stage II were compared with stage III and stage IV, it was statistically significant (P<0.05. Histopathologically, oral cancer and precancer did not show statistically significant values (P>0.05. The present study also suggested that no correlation exists between habit of tobacco chewing / betel nut chewing / smoking or alcohol consumption with that of serum total sialic acid levels. Conclusion: Serum total sialic acid levels can be used as an adjunctive diagnostic marker in head and neck cancer.

Joshi Manjiri

2010-01-01

283

Total estradiol, rather than testosterone levels, predicts osteoporosis in aging men / Estradiol prediz melhor osteoporose que testosterona total em homens idosos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Estudar e estabelecer pontos de corte dos hormônios sexuais para risco de osteoporose em homens após os 50 anos de idade. MÉTODOS: Estudo caso-controle de 216 homens > 50 anos, 110 com osteoporose e 106 com densidade óssea normal. Foram dosados: estradiol (E2), globulina ligadora de hormôn [...] ios sexuais (SHBG), testosterona total (TT) e albumina. Foram calculadas: testosterona livre (TLC) e testosterona biodisponível (TB) pela fórmula de Vermeulen. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença na TT entre os grupos. Os riscos relativos de osteoporose foram de 1,89 para E2 55 nmol/L (p = 0,019); 2,5 para TLC 55 nmol/L, TLC Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To study and establish sex hormone cutoff levels for osteoporosis risk in men over 50 years old. METHODS: Case-control study of 216 men > 50 years, 110 with osteoporosis (O) and 106 with normal bone density (C). We measured estradiol (E2), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), total testos [...] terone (TT) and albumin. Free testosterone (FT) and bioavailable testosterone (BT) were calculated through Vermeulen's formula. RESULTS: There was no difference in TT between groups. Relative risks of osteoporosis were 1.89 for E2 55 nmol/L (p = 0.019); 2.5 for FT 55 nmol/L, FT

Ruth, Clapauch; Tatiana Martins, Mattos; Patrícia, Silva; Lizanka Paola, Marinheiro; Salo, Buksman; Yolanda, Schrank.

1020-10-01

284

Total estradiol, rather than testosterone levels, predicts osteoporosis in aging men Estradiol prediz melhor osteoporose que testosterona total em homens idosos  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study and establish sex hormone cutoff levels for osteoporosis risk in men over 50 years old. METHODS: Case-control study of 216 men > 50 years, 110 with osteoporosis (O and 106 with normal bone density (C. We measured estradiol (E2, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG, total testosterone (TT and albumin. Free testosterone (FT and bioavailable testosterone (BT were calculated through Vermeulen's formula. RESULTS: There was no difference in TT between groups. Relative risks of osteoporosis were 1.89 for E2 55 nmol/L (p = 0.019; 2.5 for FT 55 nmol/L, FT OBJETIVO: Estudar e estabelecer pontos de corte dos hormônios sexuais para risco de osteoporose em homens após os 50 anos de idade. MÉTODOS: Estudo caso-controle de 216 homens > 50 anos, 110 com osteoporose e 106 com densidade óssea normal. Foram dosados: estradiol (E2, globulina ligadora de hormônios sexuais (SHBG, testosterona total (TT e albumina. Foram calculadas: testosterona livre (TLC e testosterona biodisponível (TB pela fórmula de Vermeulen. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença na TT entre os grupos. Os riscos relativos de osteoporose foram de 1,89 para E2 55 nmol/L (p = 0,019; 2,5 para TLC 55 nmol/L, TLC < 7 ng/dL e TB < 180 ng/dL podem representar indicações adicionais para pesquisa de osteoporose em homens acima de 50 anos.

Ruth Clapauch

2009-11-01

285

Investigation of Coliform Removal from Drinking Water by Electrolysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The practice of eliminating pathogenic microorganisms in water dates back to ancient times. The most common methods for water disinfection are using chemicals, Ozonation, Ultra Violet ray, Membrane Processes and etc. There has been considerable interest in disinfection of water by using electrochemical methods in recent years. The main purpose of this study is to conduct experimental investigation of water disinfection by using the electrolysis method. Inactivation and killing Coliform in polluted waters was investigated by different voltage, electrodes (Al, St and Cu and distance between electrodes.Materials & Methods: The polluted water was prepared by adding a colony of coliform growth on EMB in raw water. Experiments were done similarly via the same electrolyzes time, electrodes distance and voltage intensity for all types of combinations of electrodes respectively. Results: The experimental results show that the removal efficiency depends on the voltage and electrodes material. From the experiments carried out at 10 V. and at current intensity of 135 mA, it was found that five-minute period was sufficient for disinfecting water using Stainless Steel electrodes.Conclusion: Due to the results, the electrochemical methods can be proposed as a promising cleaning and purifying method for water disinfection.

A. Rahmani

2008-07-01

286

Tratamento de esgotos sanitários em sistemas reatores UASB/wetlands construídas de fluxo horizontal: eficiência e estabilidade de remoção de matéria orgânica, sólidos, nutrientes e coliformes / Domestic wastewater treatment in UASB-horizontal flow constructed wetlands systems: organic matter, solids, nutrients and coliforms removal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho apresentou os resultados de um estudo realizado durante 19 meses sobre o comportamento de wetlands construídas na remoção de matéria orgânica, sólidos, nutrientes e coliformes, em unidades em escala piloto de fluxo horizontal, subsuperficial e superficial, com tempo de detenção hidrául [...] ica entre 1,3 a 5,3 dias, operando como pós-tratamento de efluentes de reatores UASB (esgotos sanitários). A remoção de matéria orgânica e de sólidos mostrou-se elevada e estável, com eficiências médias de 70, 80 e 60% para SST, DBO5 e DQO, respectivamente. A remoção de nutrientes, após início promissor, mostrou-se instável e aparentemente influenciada pela temperatura. O sistema de tratamento revelou elevado potencial de remoção de coliformes, embora com variações relativamente amplas ao longo do período de operação: ? 2 log10 de remoção de coliformes totais e 2-4 log10 de remoção de Escherichia coli. Abstract in english This work presented the results of a 19-month study on the performance of constructed wetlands in terms of organic matter, solids, nutrients and coliforms removal in pilot scale unities with horizontal, subsurface and surface flow, with hydraulic retention time from 1.3 to 5.3 days, as post-treatmen [...] t of UASB effluents (domestic wastewater). Organic matter and solids were effectively and consistently removed, with average values of 70, 80 and 60% for TSS, BOD5 and COD, respectively. Nutrients removal, after a promising start up, became unstable and apparently influenced by temperature. The treatment system has also shown high potential to remove coliforms, although with relatively wide variations over the study period: ? 2 log10 reduction of total coliforms and 2-4 log10 reduction of Escherichia coli.

Maria Lúcia, Calijuri; Rafael Kopschitz Xavier, Bastos; Tiago de Brito, Magalhães; Bruna Cesca, Capelete; Edgard Henrique Oliveira, Dias.

2009-09-01

287

Tratamento de esgotos sanitários em sistemas reatores UASB/wetlands construídas de fluxo horizontal: eficiência e estabilidade de remoção de matéria orgânica, sólidos, nutrientes e coliformes Domestic wastewater treatment in UASB-horizontal flow constructed wetlands systems: organic matter, solids, nutrients and coliforms removal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho apresentou os resultados de um estudo realizado durante 19 meses sobre o comportamento de wetlands construídas na remoção de matéria orgânica, sólidos, nutrientes e coliformes, em unidades em escala piloto de fluxo horizontal, subsuperficial e superficial, com tempo de detenção hidráulica entre 1,3 a 5,3 dias, operando como pós-tratamento de efluentes de reatores UASB (esgotos sanitários. A remoção de matéria orgânica e de sólidos mostrou-se elevada e estável, com eficiências médias de 70, 80 e 60% para SST, DBO5 e DQO, respectivamente. A remoção de nutrientes, após início promissor, mostrou-se instável e aparentemente influenciada pela temperatura. O sistema de tratamento revelou elevado potencial de remoção de coliformes, embora com variações relativamente amplas ao longo do período de operação: ? 2 log10 de remoção de coliformes totais e 2-4 log10 de remoção de Escherichia coli.This work presented the results of a 19-month study on the performance of constructed wetlands in terms of organic matter, solids, nutrients and coliforms removal in pilot scale unities with horizontal, subsurface and surface flow, with hydraulic retention time from 1.3 to 5.3 days, as post-treatment of UASB effluents (domestic wastewater. Organic matter and solids were effectively and consistently removed, with average values of 70, 80 and 60% for TSS, BOD5 and COD, respectively. Nutrients removal, after a promising start up, became unstable and apparently influenced by temperature. The treatment system has also shown high potential to remove coliforms, although with relatively wide variations over the study period: ? 2 log10 reduction of total coliforms and 2-4 log10 reduction of Escherichia coli.

Maria Lúcia Calijuri

2009-09-01

288

La sensibilidad del grupo coliforme como indicador de la presencia de enterobacterias patógenas en cuatro cuerpos acuáticos de México / The coliform group sensitivity as indicator of the enteropathogenic bacteria presence in four water bodies from Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La contaminación microbiológica en los cuerpos acuáticos se caracteriza a través de la detección de organismos indicadores como las bacterias coliformes totales (CT) y fecales (CF). El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la sensibilidad de estos indicadores para predecir la presencia de enteroba [...] cterias patógenas en cuatro cuerpos acuáticos mexicanos. Dos con mayor influencia humana: lago de Pátzcuaro, Mich. y ecosistema lacustre de Xochimilco, D. F y dos con menor: la laguna de Metztitlán, Hgo. y el lago Zirahuén, Mich. Se cuantificaron coliformes totales y coliformes fecales en agua y sedimento por la técnica del Número Más Probable y se aislaron bacterias entéricas del agua mediante el uso de medios de cultivo selectivos. Se evaluaron: el índice de sensibilidad, el riesgo atribuible y la presenciaausencia de indicadores y patógenos. Pátzcuaro y Xochimilco mostraron alta contaminación bacteriana. El sedimento presentó mayor concentración de CT y CF que el agua. Los CF mostraron ser indicadores más confiables para predecir la presencia de Salmonella y Shigella, con una sensibilidad para cada género de 60 y 75% y un riesgo atribuible del 58 y 67%. Los CF mostraron una relación presencia-ausencia con un porcentaje de casos verdaderos del 82 a 88%. En contraste, los CT mostraron un riesgo atribuible bajo (inferior a 27%) y un alto porcentaje de falsos positivos (65%), lo que impidió considerarlo como un buen indicador. Es conveniente evaluar la presencia de indicadores y patógenos simultáneamente para determinar el riesgo sanitario al caracterizar la calidad microbiológica en ecosistemas acuáticos. Abstract in english Microbiological pollution in water bodies is characterized through the detection of indicator organisms like total coliform (TC) and fecal coliform (FC) bacteria. The objective of the present paper was to determine the sensibility of these indicators of the presence of pathogenic enterobacteria in f [...] our Mexican aquatic systems. Two with major anthropogenic influence: Patzcuaro Lake and Xochimilco Lake ecosystem; and two with less: Metztitlan Lagoon and Zirahuen Lake. TC and FC were quantified with the Most Probable Number technique in water and sediment and enteric bacteria were isolated in water using selective culture media. The sensibility index, the risk attributable, and the presenceabsence of indicators and pathogens were evaluated. Patzcuaro and Xochimilco showed high bacterial pollution. The sediment presented higher concentrations of total and fecal coliforms than water. FC were the most reliable indicators to predict the presence of Salmonella and Shigella, with a sensitivity of 60 and 75%, an attributable risk of 58 and 67% for each genus. FC showed a presence-absence relationship with a percentage of true cases of 82 to 88%. In contrast, TC showed a low attributable risk, inferior to 27% and a high percentage of false positives (65%), which impede to consider it a good indicator. It is convenient to evaluate the presence of indicators and pathogens simultaneously to determine the sanitary risk when characterizing microbial water quality in aquatic ecosystems.

Guadalupe, Barrera-Escorcia; Carlos Leopoldo, Fernández-Rendón; Irma, Wong-Chang; Patricia, Ramírez Romero.

2013-04-01

289

Plasma tryptophan and total neutral amino acid levels in men: influence of hyperinsulinemia and age.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because of the well-recognized age-related changes in peripheral tissue sensitivity to insulin and the demonstrated impact of insulin on blood amino acid profiles in young individuals, we evaluated the influence of insulin level and age on the concentrations of tryptophan and its ratio to the sum of the large neutral amino acids (LNAA). The ratio of the plasma concentrations of tryptophan and the LNAA (leucine, isoleucine, valine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine), may be an important determinant of the rate at which tissues synthesize neurotransmitters, such as catecholamines and serotonin. Each of five healthy young (21 to 34 yr) and five healthy old subjects (67 to 85 yr) received, on separate occasions, euglycemic insulin infusions at rates of 6, 10, 30, and 400 mU X m-2 X min-1. Basal plasma tryptophan concentrations and LNAA levels were similar in young and old. Both tryptophan and LNAA levels decreased in an insulin dose-dependent manner (P less than .02). The dose-response effect of insulin on tryptophan levels in the elderly was less than in the young (P less than .03), while the response of the LNAA was similar in both age groups. The ratio of tryptophan to LNAA was less in the old when compared to the young (P less than .03) but increased in the two age groups in an insulin-dose-dependent fashion (P less than .02). Maximal plasma tryptophan decrements were 39% and 32%, and maximal LNAA declines were 58% and 61% in young and old, respectively, during the 400 mU X m-2 X min-1 studies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3600282

Fukagawa, N K; Minaker, K L; Rowe, J W; Young, V R

1987-07-01

290

Total serum cholesterol levels and suicide attempts in child and adolescent psychiatric inpatients  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Associations between cholesterol and suicidal behavior in adolescent patients have not been explored in depth. In this study, 66 patients consecutively admitted to a psychiatric inpatient unit following attempted suicide were compared with a control group of 54 patients with no history of suicide attempts. The age range of the sample was from 8 to 18 years old. Cholesterol levels were significantly lower in attempted suicide patients than in controls (p < 0.02), support...

Plana, Teresa; Gracia, R.; Me?ndez, I.; Pintor, L.; Lazaro, L.; Castro-fornieles, J.

2010-01-01

291

Total serum magnesium level in icteric neonates before and after phototherapy  

OpenAIRE

"nBackground: Deposition of bilirubin in neurons causes permanent neuronal injury. Bilirubin exhibits an affinity for the phospholipids of plasma membrane like N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Magnesium is an NMDA antagonist and it acts against the neurotoxic effects of bilirubin. We compared pre- and post-phototherapy serum magnesium level of neonates with hyperbilirubinemia to find the best time of discharge and evaluate new management techniques such as magnesium supplementation...

Khosravi N; Aminian A; Taghipour R

2011-01-01

292

OCORRÊNCIA DE COLIFORMES FECAIS E Escherichia coli EM ALFACE COMERCIALIZADA EM GOIÂNIA-GO OCCURRENCE OF FECAL COLIFORMS AND E. coli ON LETTUCE MARKETED IN GOIÂNIA-GOIÁS  

OpenAIRE

Exames bacteriológicos foram realizados em 51 amostras de alface procedentes de sete setores de Goiânia - GO e expostas à venda ao consumidor. Destas, 48 (91,1%) revelaram a presença de coliformes fecais e 15 (22,9%) de Escherichia coli. No conjunto das amostras, 11 (22,9%) apresentaram-se fora dos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação, no que se refere à presença de coliformes fecais.

301

Effects of lysine levels of diets formulated based on total or digestible amino acids on broiler carcass composition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate carcass yield and chemical composition of thigh and breast muscles of broilers fed three different lysine requirement levels: high lysine (+10% NRC, standard (NRC and low lysine (-10% NRC and two ways of expressing amino acids in feedstuffs (total or digestible amino acids. The results of this study showed that diet formulation based on digestible amino acids significantly influenced breast yield and abdominal fat deposition. The study showed that increasing lysine level (+10% NRC of diet significantly increased both carcass and breast percentage and also carcass, breast and thigh weight. The interaction between digestible amino acids and lysine requirement levels affected carcass and breast percentage. Feeding broilers high lysine diets (+10% NRC significantly increased lysine content in breast and thigh. The response to formulation based on digestible amino acids was maximized when broilers received the high lysine level diet.

J Nasr

2012-12-01

302

Effects of lysine levels of diets formulated based on total or digestible amino acids on broiler carcass composition  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The study was conducted to evaluate carcass yield and chemical composition of thigh and breast muscles of broilers fed three different lysine requirement levels: high lysine (+10% NRC), standard (NRC) and low lysine (-10% NRC) and two ways of expressing amino acids in feedstuffs (total or digestible [...] amino acids). The results of this study showed that diet formulation based on digestible amino acids significantly influenced breast yield and abdominal fat deposition. The study showed that increasing lysine level (+10% NRC) of diet significantly increased both carcass and breast percentage and also carcass, breast and thigh weight. The interaction between digestible amino acids and lysine requirement levels affected carcass and breast percentage. Feeding broilers high lysine diets (+10% NRC) significantly increased lysine content in breast and thigh. The response to formulation based on digestible amino acids was maximized when broilers received the high lysine level diet.

J, Nasr; F, Kheiri.

2012-12-01

303

Spirulina platensis effects on the levels of total cholesterol, HDL and triacylglycerols in rabbits fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet  

OpenAIRE

In this work, hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits by feeding them a high cholesterol diet (CD, 350 mg/d) and the effects of supplementing this diet with 0.5 g/d Spirulina platensis was evaluated by measuring the levels of serum total-cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TAG) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol) at the start of the experiment and after 30 d and 60 d. It was found that the levels of serum cholesterol decreased from 1,054±101 mg.dL-1 in the rabbits fed a CD wit...

Luciane Maria Colla; Ana Luiza Muccillo-Baisch; Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa

2008-01-01

304

Effects of lysine levels of diets formulated based on total or digestible amino acids on broiler carcass composition  

OpenAIRE

The study was conducted to evaluate carcass yield and chemical composition of thigh and breast muscles of broilers fed three different lysine requirement levels: high lysine (+10% NRC), standard (NRC) and low lysine (-10% NRC) and two ways of expressing amino acids in feedstuffs (total or digestible amino acids). The results of this study showed that diet formulation based on digestible amino acids significantly influenced breast yield and abdominal fat deposition. The study showed that incre...

Nasr, J.; Kheiri, F.

2012-01-01

305

Diets formulated on total or digestible amino acid basis with different energy levels and physical form on broiler performance  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We studied the effects of two different systems of expressing amino acid requirements (total - TAA or digestible - DAA), two energy levels (2,900 or 3,200 kcal of ME/kg) and two physical forms (mash or pellet) on the performance of male broilers from 21 to 42 d of age. Diets formulated on DAA basis [...] improved feed conversion (p

A, Maiorka; F, Dahlke; AM, Penz; AM, Kessler.

2005-03-01

306

Fluctuations in total antioxidant capacity, catalase activity, and hydrogen peroxide levels of follicular fluid during bovine folliculogenesis  

OpenAIRE

Follicular fluid is an important environment for oocyte development, yet current knowledge regarding its in vivo oxidant and antioxidant levels remains limited. Examining follicular fluid oxidants and antioxidants will improve understanding of their changes in vivo and contribute to optimization of in vitro maturation conditions. The aim of our study was to consider select markers, namely catalase (CAT) enzyme activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in follicu...

Gupta, Sajal; Choi, Audrey; Yu, Hope Y.; Czerniak, Suzanne M.; Holick, Emily A.; Paolella, Louis J.; Agarwal, Ashok; Combelles, Catherine M. H.

2011-01-01

307

Assessment of serum selenium levels in 2-month-old sucking calves using Total Reflection Technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The assessment of selenium status of livestock is an important aspect of production medicine as evidence for the influence of low Se levels on disease resistance in ruminants is reviewed with emphasis on susceptibility to various pathologies (such as infections, exudative diathesis, pneumonia, pancreatic degeneration). Additional evidence suggests that Se deficiency may cause muscular dystrophy in calves, while, severe deficiency has been associated with cardiomyopathy and even death. Serum Se content is a good indicator of the short term Se status and reflects the recent dietary intake of the element. Since Serum Se content is a good indicator of the short term status of the element and reflects the its recent dietary intake, the present work is aimed to determine Se concentration in serum from a group of 2 month old sucking calves suspected to be severely deficient. We used the TX 2000 X-ray spectrometer manufactured by Ital Structures. The energy resolution (FWHM) of the Si(Li) detector was 137 eV for Mn K?. Among nuclear techniques the TXRF method is the best suitable for trace element analysis in liquid or dissolved samples and can deal much easier with elemental investigation. Physical basis of used analytical method, experimental set up and the sample preparation procedure are described. The concentration data obtained are presented and discussed

308

Assessment of serum selenium levels in 2-month-old sucking calves using total reflection technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The assessment of selenium status of livestock is an important aspect of production medicine as evidence for the influence of low Se levels on disease resistance in ruminants is reviewed with emphasis on susceptibility to various pathologies (such as infections, exudative diathesis, pneumonia, pancreatic degeneration). Additional evidence suggests that Se deficiency may cause muscular dystrophy in calves, while, severe deficiency has been associated with cardiomyopathy and even death. Serum Se content is a good indicator of the short term Se status and reflects the recent dietary intake of the element. Since serum Se content is a good indicator of the short term status of the element and reflects the its recent dietary intake, the present work is aimed to determine Se concentration in serum from a group of 2 months old sucking calves suspected to be severely deficient. We used the TX 2000 X-ray spectrometer manufactured by Ital Structures. The energy resolution (FWHM) of the Si(Li) detector was 137 eV for Mn K?. Among nuclear techniques the TXRF method is the best suitable for trace element analysis in liquid or dissolved samples and can deal much easier with elemental investigation. Physical basis of used analytical method, experimental set up and the sample preparation procedure are described. The concentration data obtained are presented and discussed. (author)

309

Total Level of Serum Homocysteine in Males and Females with Coronary Heart Disease of Different Age Groups  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Elevated plasma total homocysteine concentration is a risk factor of cardiovascular disease. Total homocysteine level is a strong predictor of mortality in-patient with an angiographically confirmed Coronary Heart Disease (CHD, so we want to know at what age in males and females elevated homocysteine will be significantly elevated and this will help for better management and prognosis by decreasing the level of homocysteine. Approach: Plasma level of homocysteine was determined in male and female patients below and above 50 years old, who have coronary heart disease with diabetes or without diabetes. Fifty two coronary heart diseases with type 2 diabetic patients and a matched number of healthy subjects as a control and another 52 coronary heart disease patients without diabetes were included in this study. Plasma homocysteine was determined by Enzymatic Immuno Sorbant Assay (ELISA. Results: Plasma homocysteine level in coronary heart disease diabetic male and female patients who are -1, respectively, while it is 28.12±9.5 and 29.44±4.3 umol L-1 in male and female patients >50 years old, respectively. Plasma homocysteine level in coronary heart disease nondiabetic male and female patients who are -1, respectively, while it is 26.9±1.1 and 27.56±6.8 umol L-1 in male and female patients >50 years old, respectively. Conclusion: It is concluded that plasma level of homocysteine is significantly elevated in diabetic coronary heart disease female patients above 50 years old and significantly elevated in nondiabetic coronary heart disease males and female patients, thus nondiabetic coronary heart disease male and female patients and diabetic coronary female patients are at high risk of vascular diseases. It is recommended that these patients may take supplementation of folate and vitamin B12 to reduce the level of homocysteine.

Faisal I. Mohammad

2010-01-01

310

Evaluación de tres métodos para la inactivación de coliformes y Escherichia coli presentes en agua residual doméstica, empleada para riego / Evaluation of three methods for the inactivation of coliforms and Escherichia coli present in domestic wastewaters used in irrigation / Avaliação de três métodos para a inativação de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli presentes em águas residuais domésticas utilizadas para a irrigação  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Objetivo. Avaliar três tratamentos (lagoas, fotocatálise com TiO2 e desinfecção química) para inativação de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli presentes em águas residuais domésticas utilizadas na irrigação dos cultivos. Materiais e métodos. O efluente foi caracterizado por analises físicos, quími [...] cos e microbiológicos. Posteriormente foi submetido a tratamento de lagoas facultativas (TLF), pós-tratamento fotocatalítico (PTF TiO2/UV) e pós-tratamento químico (PTQ NaClO). Avaliando a capacidade desinfetante de cada um para inativar coliformes totais e E. coli. Posteriormente, foram processados três novos lotes de águas residuais para testar a irrigação em escala de laboratório por 30 dias, utilizando-se como modelo plantas de Lactuca sativa variedade Batavia e avaliando a concentração inicial e final dos dois grupos. Resultados. O PTFTiO2/UV foi significativamente maior a TLFLF e PTQ NaClO (p Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Evaluar tres tratamientos (lagunaje, fotocatálisis con TiO2 y desinfección química) para la inactivación de coliformes totales y Escherichia coli presentes en agua residual doméstica empleada para riego agrícola. Materiales y métodos. El agua residual fue caracterizada por medio de análisi [...] s físicos, químicos y microbiológicos. Posteriormente fue sometida a un tratamiento de lagunaje facultativo (TLF), pos tratamiento fotocatalítico (PTFTiO2/UV) y pos tratamiento químico (PTQ NaClO). Valorando la capacidad desinfectante de cada uno de ellos para inactivar coliformes totales y E. coli. A continuación se procesaron tres nuevos lotes de agua residual y se utilizaron para realizar pruebas de riego a escala de laboratorio por 30 días, empleando como modelo plantas de Lactuca sativa variedad Batavia y evaluando la concentración inicial y final de los dos grupos. Resultados. El PTFTiO2/UV fue significativamente superior que TLFLF y el PTQ NaClO (p Abstract in english Objective. To evaluate three treatments (facultative stabilization ponds, heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO2 and chemical disinfection with sodium hypochlorite) for the inactivation of coliforms and Escherichia coli presen in domestic wastewaters used in agricultural irrigation. Materials and me [...] thods. Wastewater was characterized by physical, chemical and microbiological analyses and was then exposed to a facultative pond treatment (FPT), post-photocatalytic treatment (PTFTiO2/UV) and post-chemical treatment (PTQNaClO) to assess the disinfecting capacity of each method in the inactivation of total coliforms and E. coli. Three new samples of wastewater were processed and used in irrigation tests on a laboratory-scale basis for 30 days, using Lactuca sativa cultivar. Batavia as a model plant and evaluating the initial and final concentrations of the two groups. Results. PTFTiO2/UV was significantly higher than FPT and PTQNaClO (p

Naydú, Rojas-Higuera; Andrea, Sánchez-Garibello; Adriana, Matiz-Villamil; Juan Carlos, Salcedo-Reyes; Ana Karina, Carrascal-Camacho; Aura M, Pedroza-Rodríguez.

2010-05-01

311

Correlates of cerebrospinal fluid levels of oligomeric- and total-?-synuclein in premotor, motor and dementia stages of Parkinson's disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

High-oligomeric and low-total-?-synuclein cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels have been found in Parkinson's disease (PD), but with inconsistent or limited data, particularly on their clinical and structural correlates in earliest (premotor) or latest (dementia) PD stages. We determined CSF oligomeric- and total-?-synuclein in 77 subjects: 23 with idiopathic REM-sleep behaviour disorder (iRBD, a condition likely to include a remarkable proportion of subjects in the premotor stage of PD) and 41 with PD [21 non-demented (PDND) + 20 demented (PDD)], intended to reflect the premotor-motor-dementia PD continuum, along with 13 healthy controls. The study protocol also included the Unified PD Rating Scale motor-section (UPDRS-III), mini mental state examination (MMSE), neuropsychological cognitive testing, 3T brain MRI for cortical-thickness analyses, CSF ? and CSF A?. CSF oligomeric-?-synuclein was higher in PDND than iRBD and in PDD than iRBD and controls, and correlated with UPDRS-III, MMSE, semantic fluency and visuo-perceptive scores across the proposed premotor-motor-dementia PD continuum (iRBD + PDND + PDD). CSF total-?-synuclein positively correlated with age, CSF A?, and, particularly, CSF ?, tending towards lower levels in PD (but not iRBD) vs. controls only when controlling for CSF ?. Low CSF total-?-synuclein was associated with dysfunction in phonetic-fluency (a frontal-lobe function) in PD and with frontal cortical thinning in iRBD and PDND independently of CSF ?. Conversely, the associations of high (instead of low) CSF total-?-synuclein with posterior-cortical neuropsychological deficits in PD and with posterior cortical thinning in PDD were driven by high CSF ?. These findings suggest that CSF oligomeric- and total-?-synuclein have different clinical, neuropsychological and MRI correlates across the proposed premotor-motor-dementia PD continuum. CSF total-?-synuclein correlations with CSF ? and A? support the hypothesis of an interaction among these proteins in PD, with CSF ? probably influencing the presence of high (instead of low) CSF total-?-synuclein and its correlates mostly in the setting of PD-related dementia. PMID:25380583

Compta, Yaroslau; Valente, Tony; Saura, Josep; Segura, Bàrbara; Iranzo, Alex; Serradell, Mònica; Junqué, Carme; Tolosa, Eduard; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Muñoz, Esteban; Santamaria, Joan; Cámara, Ana; Fernández, Manel; Fortea, Juan; Buongiorno, Mariateresa; Molinuevo, José Luis; Bargalló, Núria; Martí, María José

2014-11-01

312

Coliform and Escherichia coli contamination of desserts served in public restaurants from Guadalajara, Mexico, and Houston, Texas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacterial enteropathogens acquired from contaminated food are the principal causes of travelers' diarrhea (TD). We evaluated desserts obtained from popular restaurants in the tourist city of Guadalajara, Mexico, and Houston, Texas, to determine coliform and Escherichia coli contamination levels and presence of diarrheagenic E. coli known to be important in TD. Contamination for all organisms was seen for desserts served in Guadalajara restaurants. Desserts should be considered as potentially risky foods for development of TD among international visitors to developing regions of the world. PMID:19346385

Vigil, Karen J; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; Chen, Jaclyn J; Palumbo, Kathryn L; Galbadage, Thushara; Brown, Eric L; Yiang, Jing; Koo, Hoonmo; DuPont, Margaret W; Ericsson, Charles; Adachi, Javier A; DuPont, Herbert L

2009-04-01

313

UREA LEVEL IN COWS’ MILK FED ON TOTAL MIXED RATION (TMR AND TRADITIONAL SYSTEM IN SUMMER AND WINTER SEASON  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the research urea content in milk and frequency of the occurrence of samples with different urea level in milk of cows fed on total mixed ration (TMR and traditional system in summer and winter season were analyzed. Analysis covered 14272 of milk samples. On account of urea level they were divided on three groups: to 140, 141-250 and above 250 mg of urea in 1 liter of milk. It was found that average urea content in milk of cows fed on total mixed rations (TMR amounted to 196 mg.l-1. Milk of cows from farm applying traditional feeding system included 184 mg.l-1 of that constituent average. Both these values therefore could have been recognized as optimal. Urea level pointed out to the energy-protein unbalancing of feed rations in 55.6% (TMR and 57.7% (traditional of milk samples. Urea level in milk of cows fed in traditional system was at p?0.01 higher (196 mg.l-1 in summer than in winter season (166 mg.l-1. In winter feeding season the frequency of the occurrence of milk samples indicating the lack of protein in feed rations (to 140 mg of urea in 1 liter was 11.9% higher than in summer season.

Ewa JANU?

2009-08-01

314

Mutation in APOA1 predicts increased risk of ischaemic heart disease and total mortality without low HDL cholesterol levels  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether mutations in APOA1 affect levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and to predict risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and total mortality in the general population. BACKGROUND: Epidemiologically, risk of IHD is inversely related to HDL cholesterol levels. Mutations in apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, the major protein constituent of HDL, might be associated with low HDL cholesterol and predispose to IHD and early death. DESIGN: We resequenced APOA1 in 190 individuals and examined the effect of mutations on HDL cholesterol, risk of IHD, myocardial infarction (MI) and mortality in 10 440 individuals in the prospective Copenhagen City Heart Study followed for 31 years. Results were validated in an independent case-control study (n = 16 035). Additionally, we determined plasma ratios of mutant to wildtype (WT) apoA-I in human heterozygotes and functional effects of mutations in adenovirus-transfected mice. RESULTS: We identified a new mutation, A164S (1 : 500 in the general population), which predicted hazard ratios for IHD, MI and total mortality of 3.2 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6-6.5], 5.5 (95% CI: 2.6-11.7) and 2.5 (95% CI: 1.3-4.8), respectively, in heterozygotes compared with noncarriers. Mean reduction in survival time in heterozygotes was 10 years (P < 0.0001). Results for IHD and MI were confirmed in the case-control study. Furthermore, the ratio of mutant S164 to WT A164 apoA-I in plasma of heterozygotes was reduced. In addition, A164S heterozygotes had normal plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels, including HDL cholesterol and apoA-I, and this finding was confirmed in adenovirus-transfected mice. CONCLUSIONS: A164S is the first mutation in APOA1 to be described that predicts an increased risk of IHD, MI and total mortality without low HDL cholesterol levels.

Haase, C L; Frikke-Schmidt, R

2011-01-01

315

Serum Total and Lipid Bound Sialic Acid Levels in Patients With Benign and Nonmelanom Malignant Skin Tumors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It has been reported that sialic acid containing oligosaccharides play an important rolein the adhesion between cancer cells and endothelial cells and metastatic potential of tumorcells is proportional to cell surface sialylation. In the present study, we investigatedwhether there is a change in serum total and lipid bound sialic acid levels of patientswith benign and non-melanom malignant skin tumors and, evaluated whether the measurementof sialic acid levels may be useful clinically in distinguishing patients with benignskin tumors from those with non-melanom malignant skin tumors. In this study, 27patients with malignant skin tumors (16 men, age 50.78 ± 12.46 years, 39 patients withbenign skin tumors (17 men, age 48.59 ± 16.23 years were included. Serum total andlipid bound sialic acid determination was performed by the thiobarbituric acid methoddescribed by Warren and, the resorsinol method described by Katopodis, respectively.Student’s T test and Z test were used to analyze the results. The mean serum total andlipid bound sialic acid levels were found to be 63.01 ± 11.89 mg/dl and 15.77 ± 2.44mg/dl, respectively in patients with benign skin tumors; and 65.95 ± 7.30 mg/dl and16.70 ± 3.80 mg/dl, respectively in patients with non-melanom malignant skin tumors.Serum total sialic acid and lipid bound sialic acid of patients with benign skin tumorswere not different from those of patients with non-melanom malignant skin tumors. Thepercentage of lipid bound sialic acid was found to be 25.3 in patients with non-melanommalignant skin tumors, 25 in patients with benign skin tumors. There was no significantdifference between the value of lipid bound sialic acid percentage in these groups. Ourfinding that there is no significant difference between serum total and lipid-bound sialicacid levels of patients with non melanom malignant skin tumors which are not able tometastase and patients with benign skin tumors supports the studies reporting that sialicacids play an important role in metastases.

Beyhan Çak?r

2007-05-01

316

Influence of thymol and a urease inhibitor on coliform bacteria, odor, urea, and methane from a swine production manure pit.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pathogens, ammonia, odor, and greenhouse gas emissions are serious environmental concerns associated with swine production. This study was conducted in two manure pits (33,000 L each) to determine the influence of 1.5 or 3.0 g thymol L(-1) and 80 mg L(-1) urease inhibitor amendments on urea accumulation, coliform bacteria, odor, and methane emission. Each experiment lasted 18 or 19 d, during which time 30 to 36 250-mL samples (six per day) were withdrawn from underneath each pit and analyzed for urea, thymol, volatile fatty acids, coliform bacteria, and Campylobacter. At the end of each experiment, six 50-g samples from each pit were placed in serum bottles, and gas volume and composition were determined periodically for 28 d. Compared with the control pit, volatile fatty acids production was reduced 64 and 100% for the thymol amendments of 1.5 and 3.0 g L(-1), respectively. Viable coliform cells were reduced 4.68 and 5.88 log10 colony-forming units kg(-1) of slurry for the 1.5 and 3.0 g thymol L(-1), respectively, and Escherichia coli were reduced 4.67 and 5.01 log10 colony-forming units kg(-1) of slurry, respectively. Campylobacter was not detected in the pits treated with thymol, in contrast to 63% of the samples being positive for the untreated pit. Urea accumulated in the treated pits from Day 3 to 6. Total gas production from serum bottles was reduced 65 and 76% for thymol amendments of 1.5 and 3.0 g L(-1), respectively, and methane was reduced 78 and 93%, respectively. These results suggest that thymol markedly reduces pathogens, odor, and greenhouse gas emissions from a swine production facility. The urease inhibitor produced a temporary response in conserving urea. PMID:17412912

Varel, Vincent H; Wells, James E

2007-01-01

317

A transient increase in total head phosphotyrosine levels is observed upon the emergence of Aedes aegypti from the pupal stage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of protein tyrosine residues constitutes a major biochemical regulatory mechanism for the cell. We report a transient increase in the total tyrosine phosphorylation of the Aedes aegypti head during the first days after emergence from the pupal stage. This correlates with an initial reduction in total head protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP activity. Similarly, phosphotyrosine (pTyr-containing bands are seen in extracts prepared from both male and female heads and are spread among a variety of structures including the antennae, proboscis and the maxillary palps combined with the proboscis. Also, mosquitoes treated with sodium orthovanadate, a classical PTP inhibitor, show reduced blood-feeding activity and higher head tyrosine phosphorylation levels. These results suggest that pTyr-mediated signalling pathways may play a role in the initial days following the emergence of the adult mosquito from the pupal stage.

Willy Jablonka

2011-08-01

318

A transient increase in total head phosphotyrosine levels is observed upon the emergence of Aedes aegypti from the pupal stage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of protein tyrosine residues constitutes a major biochemical regulatory mechanism for the cell. We report a transient increase in the total tyrosine phosphorylation of the Aedes aegypti head during the first days after emergence from the pupal stage. This correl [...] ates with an initial reduction in total head protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity. Similarly, phosphotyrosine (pTyr)-containing bands are seen in extracts prepared from both male and female heads and are spread among a variety of structures including the antennae, proboscis and the maxillary palps combined with the proboscis. Also, mosquitoes treated with sodium orthovanadate, a classical PTP inhibitor, show reduced blood-feeding activity and higher head tyrosine phosphorylation levels. These results suggest that pTyr-mediated signalling pathways may play a role in the initial days following the emergence of the adult mosquito from the pupal stage.

Willy, Jablonka; Raquel, Senna; Thaisa, Nahu; Guilherme, Ventura; Lidiane, Menezes; Mário Alberto C, Silva-Neto.

2011-08-01

319

Two-level total disc replacement with Mobi-C® over 3-years / Artroplastía total de disco con Mobi-C® después de tres años / Artroplastia total de disco com Mobi-C® depois de três anos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivo: Avaliar a segurança e a eficácia da artroplastia total de disco (ATD) em dois níveis, usando o disco cervical artificial Mobi-C® aos 36 meses de acompanhamento. Métodos: Realizou-se estudo clínico prospectivo, randomizado, controlado e multicêntrico de disco cervical artificial (Mobi-C® re [...] gido pelas regulamentações de Investigational Device Exemptions (IDE, isenção do dispositivo em investigação) e da Food & Drug Administration (FDA) dos Estados Unidos. Um total de 339 pacientes com doença degenerativa de disco foi inscrito para receber tratamento com ATD em dois níveis ou discectomia cervical anterior e fusão em dois níveis (DCAF) que constituíram o grupo controle. Os 234 pacientes tratados com ATD e os 105 tratados com DCAF tiveram acompanhamento em pontos do tempo regulares durante três anos após a cirurgia. Resultados: Aos 36 meses, ambos os grupos apresentaram melhora das medidas de desfecho clínico e perfil de segurança comparável. Os escores NDI, SF-12 e PCS, a satisfação dos pacientes e o êxito geral indicaram melhora com maior significância estatística desde o início do estudo no grupo ATD, em comparação com o grupo DCAF. Os pacientes do grupo ATD tiveram percentuais menores de cirurgia subsequente e taxas inferiores de degeneração do segmento adjacente. Em média, os pacientes do grupo ATD mantiveram a amplitude de movimento segmentar nos 36 meses, sem falhas do dispositivo. Conclusão: Os resultados aos três anos corroboram que a ATD é uma alternativa segura, eficaz e estatisticamente superior à DCAF no tratamento de doenças degenerativas de disco em dois níveis cervicais contíguos. Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Evaluar la seguridad y la eficacia de la artroplastía total de disco (ATD) en dos niveles, usando el disco cervical artificial Mobi-C® a los 36 meses de acompañamiento. Métodos: Se realizó estudio clínico prospectivo, aleatorio, controlado y multicéntrico de disco cervical artificial (Mobi [...] -C®) regido por las reglamentaciones de Investigational Device Exemptions (IDE, exención del dispositivo en investigación) y de la Food & Drug Administration (FDA) de los Estados Unidos. Un total de 339 pacientes con enfermedad degenerativa de disco fue inscripto para recibir tratamiento con ATD en dos niveles o discectomía cervical anterior y fusión en dos niveles (DCAF) que constituyeron el grupo control. Los 234 pacientes tratados con ATD y los 105 tratados con DCAF tuvieron acompañamiento en puntos de tiempo regulares durante tres años después de la cirugía. Resultados: A los 36 meses, ambos grupos presentaron mejora de las medidas de resultado clínico y perfil de seguridad comparable. Los registros NDI, SF-12 y PCS, la satisfacción de los pacientes y el éxito general indicaron mejora con mayor significado estadístico desde el inicio del estudio en el grupo ATD, en comparación con el grupo DCAF. Los pacientes del grupo ATD tuvieron porcentuales menores de cirugía subsiguiente y tasas inferiores de degeneración del segmento adyacente. Como promedio, los pacientes del grupo ATD mantuvieron la amplitud de movimiento segmentar en los 36 meses, sin fallas del dispositivo. Conclusión: Los resultados a los tres años corroboran que la ATD es una alternativa segura, eficaz y estadísticamente superior a DCAF en el tratamiento de enfermedades degenerativas de disco en dos niveles cervicales contiguos. Abstract in english Objective: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of two-level total disc replacement (TDR) using a Mobi-C® Cervical Artificial Disc at the 36 month follow-up. Methods: a Prospective, randomized, controlled, multicenter clinical trial of an artificial cervical disc (Mobi-C® Cervical Artificial Dis [...] c) was conducted under the Investigational Device Exemptions (IDE) and the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) regulations. A total of 339 patients with degenerative disc disease were enrolled to receive either two-level treatment with TDR

Reginald, Davis; Pierce Dalton, Nunley; Kee, Kim; Michael, Hisey; Hyun, Bae; Gregory, Hoffman; Steven, Gaede.

320

Total digestible nutrient levels in supplements for finishing steers in the rainy season: nutritional characteristics and microbial efficiency  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of total digestible nutrient (TDN) levels in supplements on rumen pH, ruminal ammonia nitrogen concentration, intake and digestibility, nitrogen balance and microbial efficiency in beef cattle grazing on Marandu grass during the rainy season. T [...] he supplements comprised a mineral mixture, ground corn grain, soybean hulls, roasted soybeans and urea:ammonium sulfate. The mineral mix (MM) and supplements were supplied at 800, 1,600 and 2,400 g/animal/day, contained 500, 1,000 and 1,500 g of TDN, respectively, and were termed S500, S1000 and S1500. Supplemental crude protein (CP) was fixed at 300g animal/day for all supplementing strategies. Four crossbred rumen-fistulated steers, with an average weight of 512kg, were utilized. The animals were distributed in a 4×4 Latin square in four paddocks of 0.25 ha. The rumen nitrogen concentration was increased by 63% after four hours of supplementation. Supplements with increased TDN levels did not alter the total dry matter and forage intakes, although the TDN levels linearly increased the non-fibrous carbohydrates intake. Additionally, most supplements did not alter the digestibility of the diet nutrients.The nitrogen balance was similar in all treatments. However, supplements with the highest TDN levels linearly improved the microbial efficiency of finishing beef cattle that were pasture-grazed during the rainy season. Supplements with in creasing TDN levels improve the microbial efficiency during the rainy season.

Jefferson Fabiano Werner, Koscheck; Joanis Tilemahos, Zervoudakis; Luciana Keiko, Hatamoto Zervoudakis; Luciano da Silva, Cabral; André Alves de, Oliveira; João Marcos Beltrame, Benatti; Daniel Marino Guedes de, Carvalho; Renata Pereira da, Silva.

2013-11-01

321

Seminal plasma levels of 15-F2?-isoprostane, malondialdehyde and total homocysteine in normozoospermic and asthenozoospermic males  

OpenAIRE

It has been proposed that oxidative stress plays an important role in male infertility. The aims of this study were to compare seminal plasma levels of 15-F2t-isoprostane (8-iso-PGF2?), malondialdehyde (MDA), and total (sum of free and bound) homocysteine (tHcy) from normozoospermic vs. asthenozoospermic men, and to examine the relationships between tHcy and lipid peroxidation products. The study was a case-control study with a simple random sampling. The case group was consisted of 15 asthe...

Zarghami, Nosratollah; Khosrowbeygi, Ali

2005-01-01

322

75 FR 42440 - Total Coliform Rule Revisions-Notice of Public Information Meetings  

Science.gov (United States)

...During the public information meetings, EPA will...cost and benefit information of the proposed...rule. Date and Location: The first public information meeting will be...FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: To register...

2010-07-21

323

Treated domestic sewage: kinetics of Escherichia coli and total coliform inactivation by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Hydrogen peroxide has been used for decades in developed countries as an oxidizing agent in the treatment of water, domestic sewage and industrial effluents. This study evaluated the influence of the concentration of H2O2 and pH on the inactivation of Escherichia coli cells and the disinfection of s [...] ewage treated. The results showed that the inactivation rate increased with pH and H2O2. The presence of other contaminants dissolved in the effluent is probably the cause of these differences, because E. coli inactivation in synthetic wastewater was found to be much faster than in the real treated domestic sewage.

Gean Delise L. P., Vargas; Regina F. P. M., Moreira; Deisi, Spricigo; Humberto J., José.

324

75 FR 18205 - Total Coliform Rule Revisions-Notice of Stakeholder Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

...teleconference should register for the meeting by calling Kate Zimmer of RESOLVE at (202) 965-6387or by e-mail to kzimmer...about this meeting and teleconference information, contact Kate Zimmer of RESOLVE at (202) 965-6387 or by e-mail...

2010-04-09

325

Treated domestic sewage: kinetics of Escherichia coli and total coliform inactivation by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide  

OpenAIRE

Hydrogen peroxide has been used for decades in developed countries as an oxidizing agent in the treatment of water, domestic sewage and industrial effluents. This study evaluated the influence of the concentration of H2O2 and pH on the inactivation of Escherichia coli cells and the disinfection of sewage treated. The results showed that the inactivation rate increased with pH and H2O2. The presence of other contaminants dissolved in the effluent is probably the cause of these differences, bec...

Vargas, Gean Delise L. P.; Moreira, Regina F. P. M.; Deisi Spricigo; Jose?, Humberto J.

2013-01-01

326

Treated domestic sewage: kinetics of Escherichia coli and total coliform inactivation by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide has been used for decades in developed countries as an oxidizing agent in the treatment of water, domestic sewage and industrial effluents. This study evaluated the influence of the concentration of H2O2 and pH on the inactivation of Escherichia coli cells and the disinfection of sewage treated. The results showed that the inactivation rate increased with pH and H2O2. The presence of other contaminants dissolved in the effluent is probably the cause of these differences, because E. coli inactivation in synthetic wastewater was found to be much faster than in the real treated domestic sewage.

Gean Delise L. P. Vargas

2013-01-01

327

The organic contamination level based on the total soil mass is not a proper index of the soil contamination intensity  

Science.gov (United States)

Concentrations of organic contaminants in common productive soils based on the total soil mass give a misleading account of actual contamination effects. This is attributed to the fact that productive soils are essentially water-saturated, with the result that the soil uptake of organic compounds occurs principally by partition into the soil organic matter (SOM). This report illustrates that the soil contamination intensity of a compound is governed by the concentration in the SOM (Com) rather than by the concentration in whole soil (Cs). Supporting data consist of the measured levels and toxicities of many pesticides in soils of widely differing SOM contents and the related levels in in-situ crops that defy explanation by the Cs values. This SOM-based index is timely needed for evaluating the contamination effects of food crops grown in different soils and for establishing a dependable priority ranking for intended remediation of numerous contamination sites.

Hung, H.-W.; Daniel, Sheng G.; Lin, T.-F.; Su, Y.; Chiou, C.T.

2009-01-01

328

Total testosterone levels are often more than three times elevated in patients with androgen-secreting tumours.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hirsutism is present in up to 25% reproductive aged women and is most often caused by polycystic ovary syndrome. Less than 5% of patients with hirsutism are diagnosed with rare endocrine diseases including ovarian or adrenal androgen-producing tumours, but these tumours may be malignant and need surgery. Terminal hair growth on lip and chin gradually increases after menopause, which complicates distinction from normal physiological variation. Precise testosterone assays have just recently become available in the daily clinic. We present three women diagnosed with testosterone-producing tumours. Gold standard techniques were used to measure testosterone levels. All tumours originated from the ovaries. Based on the present cases and the existing literature, we suggest that androgen-producing tumours should be suspected in patients with rapid progression of hyperandrogen symptoms, particularly when total testosterone levels are above three times the upper reference limit. PMID:25616651

Glintborg, Dorte; Altinok, Magda L; Petersen, Kresten R; Ravn, Pernille

2015-01-01

329

Correlation of the concentration of the carbon-associated radiation damage levels with the total carbon concentration in silicon  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The dominant carbon-related radiation damage center in silicon was studied in detail by deep level transient spectroscopy. Samples with different carbon and oxygen content were implanted with gradually increasing proton fluence. Two energetically closely spaced levels were revealed and tentative identities were assigned. One at E/sub T/+E/sub V/ = 0.344 eV (?/sub p/ = 1.1 x 10-16 cm2) is assigned as the C+O/sub i/ complex, and that at E/sub T/+E/sub V/ = 0.370 eV (?/sub p/ = 8 x 10-18 cm2) is assigned as the C/sub s/-Si/sub i/-C/sub s/ complex. It was shown that the concentration of these defects is correlated to the total concentration of carbon in the crystal

330

Serum total homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) levels in acute myocardial infarction and their response to treatment with vitamins serum total homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) levels in acute myocardial infarction and their response to treatment with vitamins  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the relationship of serum total homocysteine (tHcy) and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels with systemic hypertension, Diabetes mellitus and smoking as risk factors in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and changes in the former levels with vitamins supplementation. Study Design: An interventional study. Place and Duration of Study: Medical College for Women and Hospital (MCW and H), Dhaka, Bangladesh, from July 2008 to December 2009. Methodology: Consecutive AMI patients were recruited from the Coronary Care Unit (CCU) at MCW and H, Dhaka. Blood samples were collected at inclusion (Patient-I0). They were given conventional treatments and prescribed vitamins (vitamins B6=25 mg, B12=2 mg and folic acid=2.5 mg) daily for 2 months. After follow-up, blood samples were taken again (Patient-II0). A group of 25 normal subjects were also included as controls. Serum tHcy and Lp(a) were measured by kinetic method and nephelometric method respectively. Results: Serum tHcy (macor mol/L) and Lp(a) (mg/dl) levels were elevated in Patient-I that reduced in Patient-II after vitamins supplementation, but not to the normal control level. tHcy of Patient-I0 was 25.1 +- 4.7 macro mol/L, of Patient-II0 was 20.1 +- 4.5 mu mol/L and of controls 12.1 +- 3.3, p 0ent of the traditional risk factors (p > 0.1). However, in a significant proportion of patients tHcy and Lp(a) levels were reduced to control levels (tHcy: p < 0.001, Lp(a): p < 0.01). Conclusion: These results indicated that tHcy and Lp(a) levels were possibly atherogenic risk factors independent of conventional risk factors. Since both tHcy and Lp(a) levels responded in a similar fashion, a common point of the metabolic and pathogenetic pathways of tHcy and Lp(a) may be influenced by the vitamins supplementation. (author)

331

OCORRÊNCIA DE COLIFORMES FECAIS E Escherichia coli EM ALFACE COMERCIALIZADA EM GOIÂNIA-GO OCCURRENCE OF FECAL COLIFORMS AND E. coli ON LETTUCE MARKETED IN GOIÂNIA-GOIÁS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Exames bacteriológicos foram realizados em 51 amostras de alface procedentes de sete setores de Goiânia - GO e expostas à venda ao consumidor. Destas, 48 (91,1% revelaram a presença de coliformes fecais e 15 (22,9% de Escherichia coli. No conjunto das amostras, 11 (22,9% apresentaram-se fora dos padrões estabelecidos pela legislação, no que se refere à presença de coliformes fecais.

Fifty samples of fresh lettuce from seven different sources of production and marketing places in Goiânia, Goiás, were submitted to bacteriological analyses. Fecal coliforms were found in 91.1% of the samples and E. coli was detected in 29.4%. An average of 22.9% of the samples did not comply with the standard allowed by the Brazilian legislation.

Henriqueta Merçon Vieira Rolim

2007-09-01

332

Application of annular centrifugal contactors in the hot test of the improved total partitioning process for high level liquid waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

High level liquid waste (HLLW) produced from the reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel still contains moderate amounts of uranium, transuranium (TRU) actinides, (90)Sr, (137)Cs, etc., and thus constitutes a permanent hazard to the environment. The partitioning and transmutation (P&T) strategy has increasingly attracted interest for the safe treatment and disposal of HLLW, in which the partitioning of HLLW is one of the critical technical issues. An improved total partitioning process, including a TRPO (tri-alkylphosphine oxide) process for the removal of actinides, a CESE (crown ether strontium extraction) process for the removal of Sr, and a CECE (calixcrown ether cesium extraction) process for the removal of Cs, has been developed to treat Chinese HLLW. A 160-hour hot test of the improved total partitioning process was carried out using 72-stage 10-mm-dia annular centrifugal contactors (ACCs) and genuine HLLW. The hot test results showed that the average DFs of total ? activity, Sr and Cs were 3.57 × 10(3), 2.25 × 10(4) and 1.68 × 10(4) after the hot test reached equilibrium, respectively. During the hot test, 72-stage 10-mm-dia ACCs worked stable, continuously with no stage failing or interruption of the operation. PMID:25016455

Duan, Wuhua; Chen, Jing; Wang, Jianchen; Wang, Shuwei; Feng, Xiaogui; Wang, Xinghai; Li, Shaowei; Xu, Chao

2014-08-15

333

Flow injection chemiluminescence determination of the total phenolics levels in plant-derived beverages using soluble manganese(IV).  

Science.gov (United States)

This study established a flow injection (FI) methodology for the determination of the total phenolic content in plant-derived beverages based on soluble manganese(IV) chemiluminescence (CL) detection. It was found that mixing polyphenols with acidic soluble manganese(IV) in the presence of formaldehyde evoked chemiluminescence. Based on this finding, a new FI-CL method was developed for the estimation of the total content of phenolic compounds (expressed as milligrams of gallic acid equivalent per litre of drink) in a variety of wine, tea and fruit juice samples. The proposed method is sensitive with a detection limit of 0.02 ng mL(-1) (gallic acid), offers a wide linear dynamic range (0.5-400 ng mL(-1)) and high sample throughput (247 samples h(-1)). The relative standard deviation for 15 measurements was 3.8% for 2 ng mL(-1) and 0.45% for 10 ng mL(-1) of gallic acid. Analysis of 36 different samples showed that the results obtained by the proposed FI-CL method correlate highly with those obtained by spectrophotometric methods commonly used for the evaluation of the total phenolic/antioxidant level. However, the FI-CL method was found to be far simpler, more rapid and selective, with almost no interference from non-phenolic components of the samples examined. PMID:20457297

Nalewajko-Sieliwoniuk, Edyta; Tarasewicz, Iwona; Koj?o, Anatol

2010-05-23

334

Pharmacologic reductions of total tau levels; implications for the role of microtubule dynamics in regulating tau expression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract The microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT is a pathological component of several neurodegenerative diseases and clinical dementias. Here, we have investigated the effects of a series of commercially available FDA-approved compounds and natural products on total tau protein levels using a cell-based approach that allows for the rapid and efficient measurement of changes in protein expression. Results The compounds that reduced tau largely fell within 3 functional categories with the largest percentage being microtubule regulators. Several of these candidates were validated in both a human neuroglioma and a human neuroblastoma cell line. While these drugs lead to a rapid reduction in tau protein levels, a selective decrease in MAPT mRNA expression was also observed. Conclusion These findings suggest that the identified compounds that reduce tau levels may act either through direct effects on the MAPT promoter itself or by altering a feedback transcriptional mechanism regulating MAPT transcription. This is particularly interesting in light of recent evidence suggesting that MAPT 5' UTR mutations in late-onset PD and PSP cases alter the expression of tau mRNA. In fact, one of the compounds we identified, rotenone, has been used extensively to model PD in rodents. These observations may provide key insights into the mechanism of tau turnover within the neuron while also providing the first evidence that selectively reducing tau protein levels may be possible using compounds that are FDA-approved for other uses.

Dickey Chad A

2006-07-01

335

Physical activity level, leisure activities and related quality of life 1 year after lumbar decompression or total hip arthroplasty  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

PURPOSE: Lumbar decompression surgery (LDS) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) are frequently performed in the elderly population, but very little is known about their subsequent physical capacity and participation in leisure activities. Despite similar demographics and comorbidities, it is questionable whether LDS patients achieve equally high levels of physical capacity and quality of life postoperatively as do THA patients. The aim was to compare the physical activity level, participation in leisure activities and related quality of life 1 year after an LDS and THA procedure. METHODS: Data from 95 THA patients and 83 LDS patients were gathered from questionnaires on self-reported physical activity level, leisure activities and quality of life. RESULTS: LDS and THA patients reported equally moderate levels of physical activity. The median score was 42.3 METs/day (IQR 37.9; 47.7) for the LDS group and 41.0 METs/day (IQR 38.5; 48.5) for the THA group (p = 0.79). Weekly time consumption for leisure activities inthe LDS group was a median of 420 min/week (IQR 210; 660) compared to a median of 480 min/week (IQR 240; 870) in the THA group (p = 0.16). Regarding quality of life, LDS patients reported significantly worse Euroqol Five Dimensions scores with a median value of 0.740 (IQR 0.68; 0.82) compared to THA patients' median of 0.824 (IQR 0.72; 1.0), p 

Rolving, Nanna; Obling, Kirstine HØj

2012-01-01

336

The Effect of Eccentric Exercise on Total Anti-Oxidant Capacity, Reduced Glutathione and Malondialdehyde Levels in Active Women  

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Full Text Available Background: Although exercise can increase free radicals by generating oxidative stress, it also can decrease them by increasing the antioxidant enzymes in the body as well. The purpose of this study is to investigate the eccentric activity on some oxidative and anti-oxidative factors pertaining to blood plasma of PE women immediately after the exercise. Materials and Methods: Sixteen female students have been volunteered in this study randomly divided into two groups including eccentric training group and control group. The blood samples were drawn from the subjects one hour before and immediately after the exercise to measure the reduced Glutathione (GSH, Malondialdehyde (MDA and total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC levels. The data were analyzed by SPSS-13 software using the one-way analysis of variance, one-way ANOVA test, (to determine the differences between groups at the confidence level of 90% (p<0.05. Results: The results has shown that the TAC, MDA, GSH levels after the eccentric exercise increased significantly compared to pre-exercise (p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.033. The GSH and MDA levels also after the eccentric exercise were significantly higher than the pre-exercise compared to control group. Conclusion: It seems that sever eccentric exercise is an important stimulus making significant changes in body’s anti-oxidative system and has the ability to improve the anti-oxidant capacities too.

Sekineh Norouziyan

2014-06-01

337

Total and inorganic arsenic levels in some marine organisms from Izmir Bay (Eastern Aegean Sea): a risk assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The arsenic compounds in marine biota were evaluated from Izmir Bay (Eastern Aegean) and found that inorganic arsenic occurred as a minor fraction. No information is available on the annual variations of arsenic in important edible biota species from Izmir Bay. Fish and mussel samples were taken from different regions of Izmir Bay between 2009 and 2011 (n=854 individual specimens). The average percentages of inorganic arsenic to total arsenic for all biota samples were 3.43±3.38% with a range of 0.11-11.8%. The importance of speciation analysis for arsenic is supported by our work, because arsenic is ubiquitous in the ecosystem, and flexible toxicity of arsenic is based on chemical form. The average total As levels in Mullus barbatus were 6 times higher than Diplodus annularis and Mytilus galloprovincialis. This study also revealed that spatial variation influenced the arsenic levels in the fish samples and the highest concentrations of arsenic were found in Gediz site. Our study showed that estimated daily intakes of arsenic via consumption of flesh fish and shell fish were below the BMDL0.5 values established by FAO/WHO. PMID:25048921

Kucuksezgin, Filiz; Gonul, Lutfi Tolga; Tasel, Didem

2014-10-01

338

Automatic control of the NMB level in general anaesthesia with a switching total system mass control strategy.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a model based switching control strategy to drive the neuromuscular blockade (NMB) level of patients undergoing general anesthesia to a predefined reference. A single-input single-output Wiener system with only two parameters is used to model the effect of two different muscle relaxants, atracurium and rocuronium, and a switching controller is designed based on a bank of total system mass control laws. Each of such laws is tuned for an individual model from a bank chosen to represent the behavior of the whole population. The control law to be applied at each instant corresponds to the model whose NMB response is closer to the patient's response. Moreover a scheme to improve the reference tracking quality based on the analysis of the patient's response, as well as, a comparison between the switching strategy and the Extended Kalman Kilter (EKF) technique are presented. The results are illustrated by means of several simulations, where switching shows to provide good results, both in theory and in practice, with a desirable reference tracking. The reference tracking improvement technique is able to produce a better reference tracking. Also, this technique showed a better performance than the (EKF). Based on these results, the switching control strategy with a bank of total system mass control laws proved to be robust enough to be used as an automatic control system for the NMB level. PMID:23943239

Teixeira, Miguel; Mendonça, Teresa; Rocha, Paula; Rabiço, Rui

2014-12-01

339

Spirulina platensis effects on the levels of total cholesterol, HDL and triacylglycerols in rabbits fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A microalga Spirulina é cultivada e comercializada no mundo devido a suas características nutricionais (elevada concentração de proteínas, em torno de 65%, vitaminas e sais minerais) e ao seu potencial terapêutico no tratamento de inúmeras doenças, inclusive a hipercolesterolemia. Neste trabalho foi [...] avaliada a inibição da hipercolesterolemia induzida em coelhos por uma dieta adicionada de colesterol (350 mg.d-1), pela suplementação de 0,5 g.dia-1 de biomassa de Spirulina platensis, sendo avaliados os níveis de colesterol total, triglicerídeos e HDL nos tempos de 0 d, 30 d e 60 d de tratamento. Os resultados indicaram que a adição de Spirulina platensis na dieta ocasionou decréscimo nos níveis de colesterol total de 1054±101 mg.dL-1 para 516±163 mg.dL-1 (p Abstract in english In this work, hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits by feeding them a high cholesterol diet (CD, 350 mg/d) and the effects of supplementing this diet with 0.5 g/d Spirulina platensis was evaluated by measuring the levels of serum total-cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TAG) and high-density [...] lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol) at the start of the experiment and after 30 d and 60 d. It was found that the levels of serum cholesterol decreased from 1,054±101 mg.dL-1 in the rabbits fed a CD without S. platensis to 516±163 mg.dL-1 to those fed with a high cholesterol diet supplemented with S. platensis (significant at p

Luciane Maria, Colla; Ana Luiza, Muccillo-Baisch; Jorge Alberto Vieira, Costa.

2008-04-01

340

Fecal coliform management using a coupled hydrodynamics and water quality model for the river Ravi in Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Fecal Coliform (FC) management framework is developed incorporating segmentation of river reaches, hydrodynamic and water quality models and FC management under critical winter low flow conditions for a highly polluted River Ravi. FC die-off rate in the river is determined from a field survey of a selected river reach. The travel time calculated with the help of a hydrodynamic model is 0.25 days in the selected reach. FC die-off rate (Kb) was found to be 1.2 day/sup -1/ at 20 degree C. Model calibration with monitoring data set reveals reasonable agreement of the simulation results with the measured field values under low flow conditions. Presently, the river is receiving raw wastewater and the simulation results shows very high fecal coliform levels up to 100 X 10/sup 6/ MPN/100mL in the river water. These levels are much higher than the required recreation and irrigation standards. Simulations are carried out to assess water quality for the future fecal pollution loads in year 2025 and the results reveal that up to 6 log reduction in FC is required at the wastewater out falls, whereas, 5 log reduction would be sufficient for surface drains to meet desired FC standards under low flow conditions. (author)

341

Comparison of three different media for the detection of E. coli and coliforms in water.  

Science.gov (United States)

The European Drinking Water Directive defines reference methods for the enumeration of microbiological parameters in drinking water. The method to be used for Escherichia coli and coliforms is the membrane filtration technique on Lactose TTC agar with Tergitol 7. Many technical drawbacks of the procedure, as well as its limitations regarding the recent taxonomy of coliforms, make it necessary to evaluate alternative methods. Two alternative assays, a chromogenic media (m-ColiBlu24) and a defined substrate technology-DST test (Colilert 18/Quanty Tray) were compared with the ISO standard with attention to the phenotypic characteristic of the isolates. Results showed that the ISO method failed to detect an important percentage of coliforms and E. coli while m-ColiBlu24 and Colilert 18 provided results in a shorter time allowing the simultaneous detection of E. coli and coliforms with no further confirmation steps. PMID:17037145

Bernasconi, C; Volponi, G; Bonadonna, L

2006-01-01

342

Comparación de los métodos PetrifilmTM coliformes y Número Más Probable (NMP) para la determinación de coliformes fecales en muestras de queso blanco Comparison study between the coliform PetrifilmTM and the Most Probable Number methods for the assessment of fecal coliforms in white cheese  

OpenAIRE

Los coliformes fecales son un grupo importante de microorganismos indicadores de inocuidad en alimentos, constituido principalmente por Escherichia coli, el cual es considerado como indicador de contaminación reciente de origen fecal, por ello la importancia de investigar su presencia y determinar rápidamente el nivel poblacional en alimentos. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo comparar el método tradicional Número Más Probable (NMP) para la determinación de coliformes fecales, según Nor...

Miriam C Ortiz L; Manuela Ríos de S.

2006-01-01

343

Thermotolerant Coliforms Are Not a Good Surrogate for Campylobacter spp. in Environmental Water ?  

OpenAIRE

This study aimed to assess the importance of quantitatively detecting Campylobacter spp. in environmental surface water. The prevalence and the quantity of Campylobacter spp., thermotolerant coliforms, and Escherichia coli in 2,471 samples collected weekly, over a 2-year period, from 13 rivers and 12 streams in the Eastern Townships, Québec, Canada, were determined. Overall, 1,071 (43%), 1,481 (60%), and 1,463 (59%) samples were positive for Campylobacter spp., thermotolerant coliforms, and ...

St-pierre, Karen; Le?vesque, Simon; Frost, Eric; Carrier, Nathalie; Arbeit, Robert D.; Michaud, Sophie

2009-01-01

344

Analytical notes - Electrochemical method for early detection and monitoring of coliforms  

Science.gov (United States)

An electrochemical method for detecting bacteria, based on a linear relationship between inoculum size and the time of hydrogen evolution, was tested for the early detection and monitoring of coliforms in naturally contaminated estuarine and fresh water samples. Standard methods for coliform analysis were performed on each sample, and membrane filtration counts were used to construct dose-response curves; relationships and results are discussed herein.

Wilkins, J. R.; Boykin, E. H.

1976-01-01

345

Comparison of Coliforms and Coliphages as Tools for Assessment of Viral Contamination in River Water  

OpenAIRE

The aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of pathogenic viruses in the Moselle River and to compare the usefulness of thermotolerant coliforms and somatic coliphages as tools for river water quality assessment in terms of viral contamination. Thermotolerant coliforms and somatic coliphages were enumerated by standardized methods in 170 samples of river water drawn from five sampling sites along the Moselle River (eastern France). BGM cell culture and integrated cell culture-reverse tr...

Skraber, S.; Gassilloud, B.; Gantzer, C.

2004-01-01

346

Serum levels of insulin like growth factor-l and total protein in newborn calves offered different amounts of colostrums  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to determine the concentrations of insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I and total protein in blood serum from calves consuming different amounts of colostrum during the first 32 h of postnatal life, as well as at 7 days old. The experiment involved two groups of calves. The first group was offered the standard amount of colostrum while the second group received half the recommended amount. At birth serum concentration of IGF-I was in the range from 5 to 13 nmol/L. Compared to the initial level there was a marked decrease of mean IGF-I concentration in both groups of calves at 2 h after the first intake of colostrum. Thereafter, the level gradually increased until 20 h of age, more markedly in the group which received the full ration of colostrum. The highest mean IGF-I concentrations were recorded at 20 h in both groups (11.81 nmol/L for group one and 8.96 nmol/L for group two, and were significantly higher than values recorded 2h after the first intake of colostrum. Two hours after the third intake of colostrum, serum concentration of IGF-I dropped in both groups, compared with the value recorded at 20 h. During the time period from 4hto32h after birth, the calves that received the standard amount of colostrum had a significantly higher mean concentration of serum IGF-I than the calves which received an insufficient amount. Calves were born with serum concentrations of total proteins, which were lower than those found for adult animals. Serum protein concentrations in the calves that consumed normal amounts of colostrum increased more rapidly than in the calves that received insufficient amounts of colostrum. Presumably, total protein concentrations increased as a consequence of colostral immunoglobulin absorption. Thus our results indicate that the amounts of colostrum received during the first 32 h of postnatal life had strong effects on the serum concentrations of IGF-I and total proteins. The differences in IGF-I concentrations between the two groups of calves may have been a consequence of greater colostral IGF-I absorption and/or the result of greater absorption of other colostral components, which stimulate endogenous synthesis of this bioactive substance in the tissues of neonatal calves.

Kirovski Danijela

2002-01-01

347

Lake level change and total water discharge in East Africa Rift Valley from satellite-based observations  

Science.gov (United States)

The measurement of total basin water discharge is important for understanding the hydrological and climatologic issues related to the water and energy cycles. Climatic extreme events are normal climatic occurrences in Africa. For example, extensive droughts are regular features in the last few decades in parts of East Africa, which suffers from a lack of in situ observations as well as a lack of regional hydrological models. In this study, multi-disciplinary different types of space-borne observations and global hydrological models are used to study total water discharge in the Great Rift Valley of East Africa (i.e. Lakes Victoria, Tanganyika, and Malawi) from January 2003 to December 2012. The data include the following: (1) total water storage (TWS) variations from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), (2) the lake level variations from Satellite Alimetric data, (3) rainfall from Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) products, (4) soil moisture from WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM), and (5) water fluxes from Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). Results show that a significant decline in the average lake level is found for all of the three lakes between 2003 and 2006. GRACE TWS variations of the whole basin area show the same pattern of variation as the average lake level variations estimated from Altimetric data. The TWS in the basin area of Lakes Victoria and Malawi is governed by the surface water stored in each lake itself, while for Lake Tanganyika, it is governed by both surface water and the soil moisture content in the basin area. Furthermore, the effect of rainfall on TWS is also studied. A phase lag of ~ 2 months is found between TRMM rainfall and GRACE TWS (generally, rainfall precedes the GRACE TWS) for the three lakes. In addition, the regional evapotranspiration ET is estimated from the water balance equation using GRACE land-water solutions, rainfall data from TRMM and runoff values obtained as a fraction of rainfall. It is found that the computed ET represents approximately 90% of the rainfall over the study region.

Hassan, Ayman A.; Jin, Shuanggen

2014-06-01

348

Levels of polybrominated diphenyl-ethers and polybrominated dioxins in fish, total diet study food groups, and Japanese meals  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Since they were found in mother's milk and blood in several studies, the polybrominated diphenyl-ethers (PBDEs) and other polybrominated flame-retardants (BFRs) that are used in plastics, electrical appliances, and textiles have been recognized as ubiquitous pollutants. BFRs are precursors of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/ polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs). Recently, 2,3,7,8-TBDD/Fs and PBDEs have been detected in adipose tissue and blood in Japanese people. Food is naturally suspected. However, there is very few information on food contamination with those brominated compounds in Japan. Therefore, we measured the levels of PBDEs and PBDD/Fs in various fish samples, meal samples, and total diet study (TDS) food groups and estimated Japanese people's dietary intake of PBDD/Fs and PBDEs.

Ashizuka, Y.; Nakagawa, R.; Hori, T.; Tobiishi, K.; Iida, T. [Fukuoka Inst. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Dazaifu (Japan)

2004-09-15

349

How much locomotive activity is needed for an active physical activity level: analysis of total step counts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity level (PAL. The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of locomotive activity to PAL using total step counts measured in a calorimeter study. Methods PAL, calculated as total energy expenditure divided by basal metabolic rate, was evaluated in 11 adult men using three different conditions for 24-hour human calorimeter measurements: a low-activity day (L-day targeted at a low active level of PAL (1.45, and a high-frequency moderate activity day (M-day or a high-frequency vigorous activity day (V-day targeted at an active level of PAL (1.75. These subjects were permitted only light activities except prescribed activities. In a separate group of 41 adults, free-living PAL was evaluated using doubly-labeled water (DLW. In both experiments, step counts per day were also measured using an accelerometer. Results In the human calorimeter study, PAL and step counts were 1.42 ± 0.10 and 8,973 ± 543 steps/d (L-day, 1.82 ± 0.14 and 29,588 ± 1,126 steps/d (M-day, and 1.74 ± 0.15 and 23,755 ± 1,038 steps/d (V-day, respectively. In the DLW study, PAL and step counts were 1.73 ± 0.15 and 10,022 ± 2,605 steps/d, and there was no significant relationship between PAL and daily step counts. Conclusions These results indicate that an enormous number of steps are needed for an active level of PAL if individuals extend physical activity-induced energy expenditure by only locomotive activity. Therefore, non-locomotive activity such as household activity should also play a significant role in increasing PAL under free-living conditions.

Ohkawara Kazunori

2011-11-01

350

Spirulina platensis effects on the levels of total cholesterol, HDL and triacylglycerols in rabbits fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits by feeding them a high cholesterol diet (CD, 350 mg/d and the effects of supplementing this diet with 0.5 g/d Spirulina platensis was evaluated by measuring the levels of serum total-cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerols (TAG and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol at the start of the experiment and after 30 d and 60 d. It was found that the levels of serum cholesterol decreased from 1,054±101 mg.dL-1 in the rabbits fed a CD without S. platensis to 516±163 mg.dL-1 to those fed with a high cholesterol diet supplemented with S. platensis (significant at p A microalga Spirulina é cultivada e comercializada no mundo devido a suas características nutricionais (elevada concentração de proteínas, em torno de 65%, vitaminas e sais minerais e ao seu potencial terapêutico no tratamento de inúmeras doenças, inclusive a hipercolesterolemia. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a inibição da hipercolesterolemia induzida em coelhos por uma dieta adicionada de colesterol (350 mg.d-1, pela suplementação de 0,5 g.dia-1 de biomassa de Spirulina platensis, sendo avaliados os níveis de colesterol total, triglicerídeos e HDL nos tempos de 0 d, 30 d e 60 d de tratamento. Os resultados indicaram que a adição de Spirulina platensis na dieta ocasionou decréscimo nos níveis de colesterol total de 1054±101 mg.dL-1 para 516±163 mg.dL-1 (p<0,0001, para os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica em comparação com os que receberam a dieta adicionada de Spirulina platensis. A adição de Spirulina a dieta colesterolêmica não ocasionou decréscimo significativo nos níveis de triglicerídios dos coelhos. Os valores de HDL aumentaram de 73±31 mg.dL-1 para 91,0±15,7 mg.dL-1, comparando-se os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica e os alimentados com a dieta adicionada de Spirulina, estatisticamente diferentes a um nível de significância maior que 0,1533.

Luciane Maria Colla

2008-04-01

351

The organic contamination level based on the total soil mass is not a proper index of the soil contamination intensity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concentrations of organic contaminants in common productive soils based on the total soil mass give a misleading account of actual contamination effects. This is attributed to the fact that productive soils are essentially water-saturated, with the result that the soil uptake of organic compounds occurs principally by partition into the soil organic matter (SOM). This report illustrates that the soil contamination intensity of a compound is governed by the concentration in the SOM (Com) rather than by the concentration in whole soil (Cs). Supporting data consist of the measured levels and toxicities of many pesticides in soils of widely differing SOM contents and the related levels in in-situ crops that defy explanation by the Cs values. This SOM-based index is timely needed for evaluating the contamination effects of food crops grown in different soils and for establishing a dependable priority ranking for intended remediation of numerous contamination sites. - The concentration of an organic compound in soil based on the entire soil mass is not a proper measure of its contamination intensity.

352

Serum levels of free and total insulin-link growth factor (IGF)-1 and (IGF) binding protein-3 in normal and growth hormone deficient children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor- 1 (IGF-1) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) reflect endogenous GH secretion in healthy children, which makes them good diagnostic markers for screening GH deficiency (GHD) in short children, although some controversy still exists. Only a minor fraction of the total IGF-1 circulates in its free form, which is believed to be the biologically active form. Serum levels of free IGF-1, total IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured in 144 healthy children (72 boys and 72 girls, aged from 0 to 16 years) and in 12 prepubertal GH. deficient (GHD) children to study correlation between the age and free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels. In healthy subjects (both sexes), serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were low in infancy, increasing during puberty and declining thereafter. Free IGF-1 in serum occupied about 0.97. 1.45 % of the total IGF-1 values, and the ratios of free IGF-1 to total IGF-1 were significantly increased in the pubertal age groups than in the prepubertal age groups. Serum levels of free IGF-1 showed significant positive correlation with those of total IGF-I and IGFBP-3. Serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in patients with GHD decreased significantly with increasing degree of hypopituitarism. These observations suggest that the increase in serum free IGF-1 level during puberty was caused by a dramatic increase in total IGF-1 rather than IGFBP-3. Also, high levels of these hormones may play an important role in pubertal growth spurt and may become a useful tool for diagnosing GHD and predicting growth response to long term GH therapy

353

A rapid and sensitive fluorimetric ?-galactosidase assay for coliform detection using chlorophenol red-?-D-galactopyranoside.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report on a new fluorimetric assay for ?-galactosidase (?-gal) and faecal coliform bacteria that utilizes a long-wavelength dye, chlorophenol red-?-D-galactopyranoside (CPRG), that has been widely used for colorimetric assays. The novel feature of this new assay is the unexpected development of a large fluorescence response from liberated chorophenol red (CPR) upon complexation with poly-L-arginine (pR) in solution. The binding of CPR to pR occurs through the sulphonate group of CPR, causing formation of a charge-transfer complex and up to a 70-fold increase in emission intensity. A major advantage of the assay is the ability to utilize excitation and emission wavelengths in the red end of the spectrum, which avoids common interferences obtained when using UV-absorbing dyes such as 4-methylumbelliferyl-?-D-galactopyranoside. We provide data on the utility of CPRG as a fluorimetric reporter for both ?-gal and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and demonstrate optimized reaction conditions for rapid and sensitive detection of E. coli at a level of 1 colony-forming unit (cfu)/10 mL after 12 h of culture followed by a 1-h assay, which is below the regulatory limit for testing of recreational water. PMID:24972873

Sicard, Clémence; Shek, Norman; White, Dawn; Bowers, Raymond J; Brown, R Stephen; Brennan, John D

2014-09-01

354

Effect of growth conditions and substratum composition on the persistence of coliforms in mixed-population biofilms.  

OpenAIRE

Laboratory reactors operated under oligotrophic conditions were used to evaluate the importance of initial growth rate and substratum composition on the long-term persistence of coliforms in mixed-population biofilms. The inoculum growth rate had a dramatic effect on the ability of coliforms to remain on surfaces. The most slowly grown coliforms (mu = 0.05/h) survived at the highest cell concentration. Antibody staining revealed that Klebsiella pneumoniae existed primarily as discrete microco...

Camper, A. K.; Jones, W. L.; Hayes, J. T.

1996-01-01

355

Silencing of beta-carotene hydroxylase increases total carotenoid and beta-carotene levels in potato tubers  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Beta-carotene is the main dietary precursor of vitamin A. Potato tubers contain low levels of carotenoids, composed mainly of the xanthophylls lutein (in the beta-epsilon branch and violaxanthin (in the beta-beta branch. None of these carotenoids have provitamin A activity. We have previously shown that tuber-specific silencing of the first step in the epsilon-beta branch, LCY-e, redirects metabolic flux towards beta-beta carotenoids, increases total carotenoids up to 2.5-fold and beta-carotene up to 14-fold. Results In this work, we silenced the non-heme beta-carotene hydroxylases CHY1 and CHY2 in the tuber. Real Time RT-PCR measurements confirmed the tuber-specific silencing of both genes . CHY silenced tubers showed more dramatic changes in carotenoid content than LCY-e silenced tubers, with beta-carotene increasing up to 38-fold and total carotenoids up to 4.5-fold. These changes were accompanied by a decrease in the immediate product of beta-carotene hydroxylation, zeaxanthin, but not of the downstream xanthophylls, viola- and neoxanthin. Changes in endogenous gene expression were extensive and partially overlapping with those of LCY-e silenced tubers: CrtISO, LCY-b and ZEP were induced in both cases, indicating that they may respond to the balance between individual carotenoid species. Conclusion Together with epsilon-cyclization of lycopene, beta-carotene hydroxylation is another regulatory step in potato tuber carotenogenesis. The data are consistent with a prevalent role of CHY2, which is highly expressed in tubers, in the control of this step. Combination of different engineering strategies holds good promise for the manipulation of tuber carotenoid content.

Pizzichini Daniele

2007-03-01

356

Detection of the coliform bacteria Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. in water by a sensitive and rapid immunomagnetic electrochemiluminescence (ECL) technique  

Science.gov (United States)

Hemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other fecal coliform bacteria, such as species of Salmonella, could pose a serious health threat in contaminated water resources. Traditional bacterial culture methods and ELISA based assays for identification of fecal coliforms are relatively slow and ambiguous. Polymerase chain reaction of extracted DNA from such bacteria and immunomagnetic separation (IMS) methods appear promising for this application. Although PCR can be a definitive identification technique, it is relatively time consuming when compared to IMS. In this work, the IMS technique has been coupled with an electrochemiluminescence (ECL) technology to separate specific bacteria from their media and quantitatively detect the bacteria within one hour. The sensitivity of the IMS-ECL assay for E.coli O157 strain and Salmonella sp. is as low as 10 - 100 cells/mL in water samples. In addition, IMS was accomplished in dense washings of food and environmental samples followed by ECL assay. These results suggest strongly use of the IMS-ECL methodology for rapid and facile screening of various bacterial contaminations in water resources or other environmental samples for the low level presence of pathogenic coliforms.

Yu, H.; Bruno, J.

1995-10-01

357

Genome-Wide Association Study for Levels of Total Serum IgE Identifies HLA-C in a Japanese Population  

Science.gov (United States)

Most of the previously reported loci for total immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels are related to Th2 cell-dependent pathways. We undertook a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genetic loci responsible for IgE regulation. A total of 479,940 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were tested for association with total serum IgE levels in 1180 Japanese adults. Fine-mapping with SNP imputation demonstrated 6 candidate regions: the PYHIN1/IFI16, MHC classes I and II, LEMD2, GRAMD1B, and chr13?60576338 regions. Replication of these candidate loci in each region was assessed in 2 independent Japanese cohorts (n?=?1110 and 1364, respectively). SNP rs3130941 in the HLA-C region was consistently associated with total IgE levels in 3 independent populations, and the meta-analysis yielded genome-wide significance (P?=?1.07×10?10). Using our GWAS results, we also assessed the reproducibility of previously reported gene associations with total IgE levels. Nine of 32 candidate genes identified by a literature search were associated with total IgE levels after correction for multiple testing. Our findings demonstrate that SNPs in the HLA-C region are strongly associated with total serum IgE levels in the Japanese population and that some of the previously reported genetic associations are replicated across ethnic groups. PMID:24324648

Yatagai, Yohei; Sakamoto, Tohru; Masuko, Hironori; Kaneko, Yoshiko; Yamada, Hideyasu; Iijima, Hiroaki; Naito, Takashi; Noguchi, Emiko; Hirota, Tomomitsu; Tamari, Mayumi; Imoto, Yoshimasa; Tokunaga, Takahiro; Fujieda, Shigeharu; Konno, Satoshi; Nishimura, Masaharu; Hizawa, Nobuyuki

2013-01-01

358

Determinação do volume saturante de solução desinfetante em piso de chão batido de granja avícola em função da carga microbiana (coliformes e composição do solo Determination of saturant volume of disinfectant solution in floor soil ground of poultry farms in function of microbian load (coliforms and composition of the soil  

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Full Text Available O piso de chão batido é utilizado na maioria das granjas avícolas brasileiras devido ao baixo custo em relação à construção de pisos concretados. A presença de matéria orgânica na superfície do solo dificulta sua desinfecção, devido à redução da ação antimicrobiana dos desinfetantes, sendo que os testes realizados in vitro para verificar a eficácia dos desinfetantes não contemplam as condições adversas encontradas em granjas avícolas. Assim, o presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a contaminação por coliformes totais e fecais através do número mais provável (NMP no piso de chão batido de uma granja avícola e definir o volume de solução desinfetante necessário para saturar uma determinada área conforme a composição físico-hídrica do solo. Foi detectada a presença de coliformes totais e fecais na profundidade de 0,5cm, com população média de 1100NMP g-1 e 460NMP g-1, respectivamente. O volume de solução desinfetante adequado para saturar 1m² a uma profundidade de 1cm em um piso de chão batido composto por solo argiloso, com baixa porosidade e boa compactação, foi de um litro.The floor soil ground is used in most of the Brazilian poultry farms due to the high cost of the construction of concreted floors. The presence of organic matter on the surface of the soil hinders its disinfection, due to the reduction of the antimicrobial action of disinfectants and the tests accomplished in vitro to verify the effectiveness of the disinfectants do not contemplate the adverse conditions found at poultry farms. Thus, the present work intended to determinate the volume of disinfectant solution required to be used on m² floor and the counting of total and fecal coliforms in floor soil ground. Presence of total and faecal coliforms was detected in the depth of 0.5cm with 1100NMP g-1 e 460NMP g-1, respective. The volume of disinfectant solution defined to saturate 1m² to 1cm of depth was of one liter.

Fernando Pilotto

2006-12-01

359

Effect of different fibrous and nonfiber carbohydrate levels on nutrients digestibility of total mixed ration using in vivo in buffalo  

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Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of different levels of NDF on chewing behavior and their relationship with ruminal acidity, 3 ruminally fistulated buffalo steers (average BW = 389.6 ±7.5 Kg were allotted in a change over design in Agriculture and Natural Resource center of Uremia city of Iran. Two diets with 2 levels of NDF were used as treatments. First and second diets had 52 and 47 % of NDF, respectively. The experiment had two periods and each period’s take 15d for adaptation, 7d for sample collection and determination of nutrient digestibility and for determination of passage rate, 2d for measuring ruminal pH, and 3d for measuring chewing activity. Using Penn Stat Particle Separator (PSPS, distribution, geometric mean, its standard deviation and physically effective factor (pef of diets were determined. Animals fed ad libitum at 09:00a.m and 21:00p.m. The time that spent for eating and rumination were optically recorded in 24h with 5 minutes intervals and total chewing activity calculated from sum of eating and rumination time. There were no significant differences between chemical composition, particles distribution, geometric mean, its standard deviation and physically effective factor (pef of diets, dry matter intake (kg/d and nutrients intake (NDF, ADF, NFC and crude protein and their digestibility, but digestibility ADF, NDF and NFC decreased as content of fiber increased(P1.18 increased (P1.18 increased (P<0.05.

Gh. Manafiazar

2010-02-01

360

Characterization of the genomic responses in early Senegalese sole larvae fed diets with different dietary triacylglycerol and total lipids levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this work was to evaluate the genomic responses of premetamorphic sole larvae (9days post-hatching, dph) fed diets with different lipid and triacylglycerol (TAG) content. For this purpose, two diets with high (rotifers enriched with a fish oil-based emulsion; referred to as HTAG) and low (rotifers enriched with a krill oil-based emulsion; LTAG) levels of total lipids and TAG were evaluated. Lipid class and fatty acid (FA) profiles, histological characterization of intestine, liver and pancreas and expression patterns using RNA-seq were determined. Discriminant analysis results showed that larvae could be clearly differentiated on the basis of their FA profile as a function of the diet supplied until 9dph although no difference in growth was observed. RNA-seq analysis showed that larvae fed HTAG activated coordinately the transcription of apolipoproteins (apob, apoa4, apoc2, apoe, and apobec2) and other related transcripts involved in chylomicron formation, likely to facilitate proper lipid absorption and delivery. In contrast, larvae fed LTAG showed higher mRNA levels of several pancreatic enzymes (try1a, try2, cela1, cela3, cela4, chym1, chym2, amy2a and pnlip) and appetite modulators (agrp1) and some intra- and extracellular lipases. Moreover, KEGG analysis also showed that several transcripts related to lipid metabolism and glycolysis were differentially expressed with a higher abundance in larvae fed LTAG diet. All these data suggest that early larvae were able to establish compensatory mechanisms for energy homeostasis regulating key molecules for FA and TAG biosynthesis, FA uptake and intracellular management of TAG and FA to warrant optimal growth rates. PMID:25463059

Hachero-Cruzado, I; Rodríguez-Rua, A; Román-Padilla, J; Ponce, M; Fernández-Díaz, C; Manchado, M

2014-10-01

361

Mechanisms of microwave irradiation involved in the destruction of fecal coliforms from biosolids.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microwaves have been found to be effective in destructing pathogens in sewage sludge (biosolids) (75th Annual Water Environment Federation Conference, Chicago, September 29-October 2, 2002; Third World Water Congress, International Water Association, Melbourne, Australia, April 7-12, 2002). Mechanisms and roles of microwaves on fecal coliform destruction were investigated using bacterial viability tests, electron transport system (ETS) and beta-galactosidase activity assays, gel electrophoresis, and genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) optical density (OD) measurements with fecal coliforms isolated from biosolids. Bacterial viability tests demonstrated cell membrane damage as microwave irradiation intensity and temperature increased. Above 60+/-3 degrees C, viable cells were rarely found when pure fecal coliforms were irradiated with microwaves. ETS and beta-galactosidase activity assays revealed increased activity for externally heated samples due to fecal coliform growth but decreased activity for microwave-irradiated samples as temperature was increased from 20 degrees C to 57 degrees C, indicating other destruction mechanisms besides heating. Between 57 degrees C and 68 degrees C, microwave irradiation led to a more rapid decrease in activity than external heating by convection. Above 68 degrees C, bacterial activity almost ceased for both pretreatments. DNA bands in gel electrophoresis tests and OD of genomic DNA decreased more rapidly for microwave-irradiated samples than for externally heated samples, implying that microwaves disrupted DNA in fecal coliform cells at lower temperatures than external heating. Microwave irradiation of sludge appears to be a viable and economical method of destructing pathogens and generating environmentally safe sludge. PMID:15016539

Hong, Seung M; Park, Jae K; Lee, Y O

2004-03-01

362

Diets formulated on total or digestible amino acid basis with different energy levels and physical form on broiler performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We studied the effects of two different systems of expressing amino acid requirements (total - TAA or digestible - DAA, two energy levels (2,900 or 3,200 kcal of ME/kg and two physical forms (mash or pellet on the performance of male broilers from 21 to 42 d of age. Diets formulated on DAA basis improved feed conversion (p<0.001 and the conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001. Birds fed 3,200 kcal ME/kg presented better feed conversion (p<0.001, higher abdominal fat deposition (p<0.001 and worse conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001 as compared to birds fed 2,900 kcal ME/kg. Birds fed pelleted feed had higher feed intake (p<0.001, higher weight gain (p<0.001, better feed conversion (p<0.001, better conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001 and higher abdominal fat deposition (p<0.001. The results obtained in the present study suggest that feed formulation based on DAA is required when diets contain protein sources which amino acid digestibility is unreliable. Besides, pelleted feed improves performance parameters of broilers.

A Maiorka

2005-03-01

363

Impact of Routine Unilateral Central Neck Dissection on Preablative and Postablative Stimulated Thyroglobulin Levels after Total Thyroidectomy in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Prophylactic central neck dissection (CND) remains controversial in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Because postsurgical stimulated thyroglobulin (sTg) level is a good surrogate for recurrence, the study aimed to evaluate the impact of prophylactic CND on preablative and postablative sTg levels after total thyroidectomy. METHODS: Of the 185 patients retrospectively analyzed, 82 (44.3%) underwent a total thyroidectomy and prophylactic CND (CND-positive group) while 103 (55.7%) u...

Hung-hin Lang, Brian; Wong, Kai Pun; Wan, Koon Yat; Lo, Chung Yau

2012-01-01

364

Contribution of thermolabile methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase variant to total plasma homocysteine levels in healthy men and women. Inter99 (2)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Elevation in plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is believed to be causally related to cardiovascular disease. Like age and sex, the thermolabile variant of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR(C677T)) is an important nonmodifiable determinant of tHcy, which may be considered when describing normal ranges of tHcy in the general population. We investigated the simultaneous effect of sex, age, and MTHFR(C677T) genotype on the distribution of tHcy in a cross-sectional study design. THcy concentrations and MTHFR(C677T) genotype were determined in a population-based sample of 2,788 Danish men and women aged 30-60 years participating in the Inter99 Study. The prevalences of MTHFR(C677T) genotypes were 48.8% (CC), 42.4% (CT), and 8.8% (TT). The overall median tHcy was 8.1 micromol/l, and the 2.5-97.5 percentiles were 4.8-17.8 micro mol/l. The estimated proportionally higher level of tHcy in men compared to women was 14.3% (P<0.001). A significant interaction term was found between age and MTHFR(C677T) genotype (P<0.001). The estimated changes in tHcy per 5 years of age were 1.5% in CC individuals (P<0.01), 2.1% in CT individuals (P<0.001), and -4.1% in TT individuals (P<0.01). The T allele was associated with elevated tHcy. However, the proportionally higher level of tHcy in TT individuals compared to CT and CC individuals decreased with increasing age. The MTHFR(C677T) polymorphism explained 6% of the phenotypic variation in tHcy. In conclusion, we found that tHcy is associated with sex, age, and MTHFR genotype. Our results indicate that the effect of age is modified by MTHFR genotype.

Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Thomsen, Troels F

2003-01-01

365

Isolamento e identificação de coliformes no queijo Minas comercializado na região metropolitana de Salvador - Bahia.  

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Full Text Available RESUMO: A estreita relação entre o consumo de leite e seus derivados e a melhoria da qualidade de vida é sistematicamente defendida por pesquisadores de todo mundo. O queijo é um importante derivado do leite, apreciado tanto pelo seu valor nutritivo como pelo seu sabor, que atende aos mais exigentes paladares. No entanto, as condições de processamento, armazenamento e comercialização podem comprometer suas características organolépticas, bem como torná-lo impróprio para o consumo, em virtude da contaminação por microrganismos responsáveis por toxinfecções alimentares. Foram realizadas seis coletas, perfazendo 24 ( 75% amostras de queijo Minas frescal analisadas de sete diferentes marcas, sendo oito (33,33 % representando a marca B, cinco (20,83 % a marca C, quatro (16,66 % a marca D, três (12,50 % a marca E, dois (8,33 % a marca F, uma (4,16 % a marca G e uma (4,16 % a marca H, enquanto foram coletadas e analisadas seis (25 % amostras de queijo Minas padrão, em três diferentes marcas perfazendo três (50 % amostras da marca A1, duas (33,33 da marca A2 e uma (16,66% da marca A3. De acordo com os resultados da análise de variância houve efeito significativo o que demonstra a baixa qualidade do queijo Minas frescal comercializado na região metropolitana de Salvador. PALAVRAS CHAVES: Queijo, qualidade, coliformes SUMMARY: The proximal relation between the milk and derivatives consume and advance of the live quality is defended by experts in worldwide. Cheese is na important derivative of the milk, appreciated for nutritive value and for your flavour, which attend at many palates exigent. However, conditions of manufactures, storage and commercialization can compromise your characteristics, caused for microorganisms responsible for contamination and toxin-infection alimentary. Six collect were accomplished, and total of 24 (75% samples of â?? Minas frescalâ? cheese analyzed of seven differents marks, eight (33,33% of the mark B, five (20,83% of the mark C, four (16,66% of the mark D, three (12,50% of the mark E, two (8.33% of the mark F, one (4,16% of the mark G and one (4,16% of the mark H, While were acomplished and analyzed six (25% samples of â?? Minas padrãoâ? cheese, of three differents marks and total three (50% samples of the mark A1, two (33,33% of the mark A2 and one (16,66% of the mark A3. According results of the analysis there were significant effects a which showed a low quality of â??Minas frescalâ? cheese commercialized in metropolitan area of Salvador /BA. KEYWORDS: Cheese,quality, coliformes

T. C. N. Martinez

2005-03-01

366

Detection of coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli by multiplex polymerase chain reaction: comparison with defined substrate and plating methods for water quality monitoring.  

OpenAIRE

Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gene probe detection of target lacZ and uidA genes were used to detect total coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli, respectively, for determining water quality. In tests of environmental water samples, the lacZ PCR method gave results statistically equivalent to those of the plate count and defined substrate methods accepted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for water quality monitoring and the uidA PCR method was more sensitive than 4-...

Bej, A. K.; Mccarty, S. C.; Atlas, R. M.

1991-01-01

367

Influencing factors in the occurrence of injured coliforms in the drinking water distribution system in the city of La Plata, Argentina  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study was to evaluate the influencing factors in the occurrence of coliforms in the drinking water in La Plata (Argentina) from June 1999 to June 2001. A total of 180 samples were collected from Rio de La Plata (102 samples) and Puelche Aquifer (78 samples); 45 samples were collected for each of the four seasons. The membrane filter procedure was used for isolating bacteria, and each sample was tested for chlorine and pH. The highest percentage of samples positive for co...

Co?rdoba, Alejandra; Del Coco, V.; Minvielle, Marta Cecilia; Basualdo Farjat, Juan A?ngel

2010-01-01

368

Effects of low voltage electrolysis and freezing on coliform content of contaminated water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A sewage sample was mixed with drinking water and subjected to low voltage (15V) electrolysis in the presence of 1% NaCl. The prepared sample was also kept in freezer with and without the presence of sodium chloride for 4-hours. Among these treatments the electrolysis proved to kill the coliforms, while the freezing reduced the bacterial content. Antibiotics sensitivity patterns revealed that certain of the coliform strains survived the freezing and thawing shocks. Nature of such surviving bacteria and need to study chemical parameters of electrolyzed water are discussed. (author)

369

Evaluation of a rapid method for the quantitative estimation of coliforms in meat by impedimetric procedures.  

OpenAIRE

A 24-h instrumental procedure is described for the quantitative estimation of coliforms in ground meat. The method is simple and rapid, and it requires but a single sample dilution and four replicates. The data are recorded automatically and can be used to estimate coliforms in the range of 100 to 10,000 organisms per g. The procedure is an impedance detection time (IDT) method using a new medium, tested against 131 stock cultures, that markedly enhances the impedance response of gram-negativ...

Martins, S. B.; Selby, M. J.

1980-01-01

370

Enumeração de coliformes fecais e presença de Salmonella sp. em queijo Minas Enumeration of fecal coliforms and presense of Salmonella sp. in Minas cheese  

OpenAIRE

Foram submetidas à contagem de coliformes fecais e pesquisa de Salmonella sp. 168 amostras de variedades de queijo Minas (20 frescal, 48 canastra e 100 padronizado) coletadas em Belo Horizonte no período de 1995 a 1996. Foram adquiridos queijos com e sem registro no Serviço de Inspeção Federal (SIF) para avaliar a diferença de qualidade microbiológica. Os resultados evidenciaram ausência de Salmonella sp. em todas as amostras de queijo. Entretanto, verificou-se que 90% das amostras de...

Pereira, M. L.; Gastelois, M. C. A.; Bastos, E. M. A. F.; Caiaffa, W. T.; Faleiro, E. S. C.

1999-01-01

371

Evaluación de tres métodos para la inactivación de coliformes y Escherichia coli presentes en agua residual doméstica, empleada para riego  

OpenAIRE

Evaluation of three methods for the inactivation of coliforms and Escherichia coli present in domestic wastewaters used inirrigation. Objective. To evaluate three treatments (facultative stabilization ponds, heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO2 and chemicaldisinfection with sodium hypochlorite) for the inactivation of coliforms and Escherichia coli present in domestic wastewaters used inagricultural irrigation. Materials and methods. Wastewater was characterized by physical, chemical and mi...

Andrea Sánchez- Garibello; Pedroza-rodri?guez, Aura M.; Ana Karina Carrascal-Camacho; Naydú Rojas-Higuera; Juan Carlos Salcedo-Reyes; Adriana Matiz-Villamil

2010-01-01

372

The Relationship Between Serum Levels of Total IgE, IL-18, IL-12, IFN- ? and Disease Severity in Children With Atopic Dermatitis  

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Full Text Available Studies about the role of cytokines on the immunopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD are generally based on in vitro observations and this role has not been completely clarified yet. Serum levels of total IgE, IL-18, IL-12, IFN- ? and the relationship between these parameters and disease severity, determined using the SCORAD index, in a group of atopic patients were investigated in this study. Serum levels of total IgE were measured by the nephelometric method and serum levels of IL-18, IL-12/p40 and IFN- ? were measured by ELISA method. Serum levels of total IgE and IL-18 were found significantly higher in study group than in controls ( p<.001 . There was no statistically significant difference between patients and controls in respect of serum levels of IL-12/p40 ( p=.227 . A statistically significant relationship between SCORAD values and serum levels of total IgE ( p<.001 , IL-18 ( p<.001 , and IL-12/p40 ( p<.001 was determined. These results show that serum levels of IL-18 can be a sensitive parameter that importantly correlates with clinical severity of AD, can play a role in the immunopathogenesis of AD, and furthermore may be used in the diagnosis and follow-up of the disease in addition to other parameters.

2006-01-01

373

Total Antioxidant Status, Vitamins A, C and ?-carotene Levels of Children with P. falciparum Infection in University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH, Calabar  

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Full Text Available By using standard procedures, total antioxidant level, vitamins A, C, and ?-carotene were assessed in 122 malaria infected children. The haemoglobin and parasite density status of the children were also measured. Sixty healthy children were used as controls. It was observed that all parameters measured were significantly lower in malaria infected children when compared with the respective control values. Malaria parasitemia correlated strongly and negatively with total antioxidant and haemoglobin levels (r=0.-432 and 0.-503, P<0.01 respectively but weakly with vitamin A level (r=0.-196, P<0.05. Reductions in the levels of total antioxidant and vitamin A were dependent on the severity of malaria. The more severe the malaria the lower the levels of total antioxidant and vitamin A. Ratios of vitamin A to vitamin C and beta-carotene to vitamin C were similar in both malaria-infected children and controls indicating a constant proportional relationship between vitamin A and beta-carotene to vitamin C. From this study it is observed that there is a general depression in antioxidant levels suggesting that antioxidant intervention may be crucial in the treatment of malaria infection. Furthermore lowered levels of antioxidants especially of vitamin C in malaria infection also suggest lowered immunity of host, which may be responsible for some of the complications of malaria infection.

J.O. Akpotuzor

2007-01-01

374

The influence of adiponectin G276T gene polymorphism on changes in total and high molecular weight adiponectin levels by exercise training  

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Full Text Available Adiponectin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone and regulates the metabolism of lipid and glucose. We examined the influence of adiponectin G276T gene polymorphism on changes in total or high molecular weight adiponectin levels by exercise training. A randomized parallel-design study (n = 53; 40 women and 13 men; age range, 32 - 65 years was conducted. Participants were randomly assigned to the exercise (n = 26 or control (n = 27 group and received exercise training for 70 min 2 times per week for 12 weeks and exercise advice at the baseline, respectively. Blood sample were obtained before and after the intervention. The primary outcomes were changes in total adiponectin and high molecular weight adiponectin levels. At the baseline, the participants with and without 276G allele did not differ with the total and high molecular weight adiponectin levels in the entire study population. No significant difference in the change in the total and high molecular weight adiponectin levels between the subjects with the G276G genotype and 276T allele carriers were found. This study provides evidence that the G276T polymorphism of the adiponectin gene is not associated with the magnitude of the effect of twice-weekly exercise training on the total and high molecular weight adiponectin levels.

Daisuke Ando

2011-12-01

375

Serum testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin and total calcium levels predict the calcaneal speed of sound in men  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: Variations in sex hormones and the calcium balance can influence bone health in men. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between the calcaneal speed of sound and biochemical determinants of bone mass, such as sex hormones, parathyroid hormones and serum calcium. METHODS: [...] Data from 549 subjects from the Malaysian Aging Male Study, which included Malay and Chinese men aged 20 years and older residing in the Klang Valley, were used for analysis. The subjects' calcaneal speed of sound was measured, and their blood was collected for biochemical analysis. Two sets of multiple regression models were generated for the total/bioavailable testosterone and estradiol to avoid multicollinearity. RESULTS: The multiple regression results revealed that bioavailable testosterone and serum total calcium were significant predictors of the calcaneal speed of sound in the adjusted model. After adjustment for ethnicity and body mass index, only bioavailable testosterone remained significant; the total serum calcium was marginally insignificant. In a separate model, the total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin were significant predictors, whereas the total serum calcium was marginally insignificant. After adjustment for ethnicity and body mass index (BMI), the significance persisted for total testosterone and SHBG. After further adjustment for age, none of the serum biochemical determinants was a significant predictor of the calcaneal speed of sound. CONCLUSION: There is a significant age-dependent relationship between the calcaneal speed of sound and total testosterone, bioavailable testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in Chinese and Malay men in Malaysia. The relationship between total serum calcium and calcaneal speed of sound is ethnicity-dependent.

Kok-Yong, Chin; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman; Isa Naina, Mohamed; Wan Zurinah Wan, Ngah.

2012-08-01

376

Detection of fecal coliforms in water by using [14C]mannitol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Interest in rapid bacterial detection methods for sanitary indicator bacteria in water prompted a study of the use of [U-14C]mannitol to detect fecal coliforms (FC). A simple method which used m-FC broth, membrane filtration, and two-temperature incubation (35 degrees C for 2 h followed by 44.5 degrees C for 2.5 h) was developed. [U-14C]mannitol was added to the medium, and the temperature was raised to 44.5 degrees C after 2 h at 35 degrees C. 14CO2 was collected as Ba14CO3 and assayed by liquid scintillation spectroscopy. Correlations were examined between FC cell numbers at the start of incubation (standard 24-h FC test) and Ba14CO3 counts per minute after 4.5 h. Results indicated that FC numbers ranging from 1 x 10(1) to 2.1 x 10(5) cells could be detected in 4.5 h. Within-sample reproducibility at all cell concentrations was good, but sample-to-sample reproducibility was variable. Comparisons between m-FC broth and m-FC broth modified by substituting D-mannitol for lactose indicated that the standard m-FC broth was the better test medium. Results from experiments in which dimethyl sulfoxide was used to increase permeability of FC to [U-14C]mannitol indicated no increase in 14CO2 production due to dimethyl sulfoxide. Detection of FC by this method may be useful for rapid estimation of FC levels in freshwater recreational areas, for estimating the quality of potable source water, and potentially for emergency testing of potable water, suspected of contamination dueable water, suspected of contamination due to distribution line breaks or cross-connections

377

Method of Detecting Coliform Bacteria and Escherichia Coli Bacteria from Reflected Light  

Science.gov (United States)

The present invention relates to a method of detecting coliform bacteria in water from reflected light and a method of detecting Eschericha Coli bacteria in water from reflected light, and also includes devices for the measurement, calculation and transmission of data relating to that method.

Vincent, Robert (Inventor)

2013-01-01

378

Inactivation of indigenous coliform bacteria in unfiltered surface water by ultraviolet light.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the potential for naturally occurring particles to protect indigenous coliform from ultraviolet (UV) disinfection in four surface waters. Tailing in the UV dose-response curve of the bacteria was observed in 3 of the 4 water samples after 1.3-2.6-log of log-linear inactivation, implying particle-related protection. The impact of particles was confirmed by comparing coliform UV inactivation data for parallel filtered (11 microm pore-size nylon filters) and unfiltered surface water. In samples from the Grand River (UVT: 65%/cm; 5.4 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU)) and the Rideau Canal (UVT: 60%/cm; 0.84 NTU), a limit of approximately 2.5 log inactivation was achieved in the unfiltered samples for a UV dose of 20 mJ/cm2 while both the filtered samples exhibited >3.4-log inactivation of indigenous coliform bacteria. The results suggest that particles as small as 11 microm, naturally found in surface water with low turbidity (<3NTU), are able to harbor indigenous coliform bacteria and offer protection from low-pressure UV light. PMID:18316110

Cantwell, Raymond E; Hofmann, Ron

2008-05-01

379

DETECTION OF FECAL COLIFORMS IN WATER USING 14C-MANNITOL  

Science.gov (United States)

Interest in rapid bacterial detection methods for sanitary indicator bacteria in water prompted a study of the use of 14C-mannitol (UL) to detect fecal coliforms (FC). implemethod was developed using m-FC broth, membrane filtration, and two-temperature incubation (35oC for 2 h, f...

380

Concentrations of faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, enterococci and Campylobacter spp. in equine faeces.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract AIMS: To determine the concentration of Campylobacter spp. as well as faecal indicator bacteria; faecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and enterococci in the faeces of healthy adult horses in a sample of properties in the Canterbury region of New Zealand. PMID:25415756

Moriarty, Em; Downing, M; Bellamy, J; Gilpin, Bj

2014-11-21

381

PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA-FECAL COLIFORM RELATIONSHIPS IN ESTUARINE AND FRESH RECREATIONAL WATERS  

Science.gov (United States)

This study has shown that Pseudomonas aeruginosa cannot be used as the basis of water standards for the prevention of enteric disease during the recreational use of surface waters. However, P. aeruginosa determinations, when used in conjunction with the assay of fecal coliforms o...

382

Comparison of Selected Methods for the Enumeration of Fecal Coliforms and Escherichia coli in Shellfish  

OpenAIRE

In a comparison of five selected methods for the enumeration of fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli in naturally contaminated and sewage-seeded mussels (Choromytilus spp.) and oysters (Ostrea spp.), a spread-plate procedure with mFC agar without rosolic acid and preincubation proved the method of choice for routine quality assessment.

Grabow, W. O. K.; Villiers, J. C.; Schildhauer, C. I.

1992-01-01

383

COMPARING THREE SAMPLING DESIGNS FOR MONITORING COLIFORMS IN SMALL COMMUNITY WATER SYSTEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

Three sampling designs: weekly, monthly and spatial cluster are compared as to their effectiveness in detecting coliform contamination in small community drinking water systems. Water samples were collected over a one-year period from fifteen drinking water systems in rural commu...

384

Estado trófico e bioacumulação do fósforo total no cultivo de peixes em tanques-rede na área aquícola do reservatório de Itaipu = Trophic level and bioaccumulation of total phosphorus in cage fish rearing in the aquaculture area at Itaipu reservoir  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A intensa produção de peixes e utilização dos recursos hídricos podecomprometer a qualidade e disponibilidade da água, além de afetar a capacidade de suporte do ambiente, causando eutrofização e, consequentemente, a poluição do mesmo. Realizouse um estudo das variáveis físico-químicas da água e dos teores de fósforo total (P-total no sedimento, rações e peixes cultivados em tanques-rede em uma área aquícola localizada no reservatório da Itaipu, no município de Santa Helena, Estado do Paraná, objetivando monitorar a qualidade da água e determinar o índice de eutrofização total da área de cultivo, além de analisar a bioacumulação de P-total nos peixes e sedimento. As variáveis físicoquímicas da água mantiveram valores normais indicados pelo Conama. A concentração média de P-total na área aquícola foi de 28,41 IET e com transparência por disco de Secchide 2,74 m, enquadrando o ambiente como oligotrófico. Houve correlação de 0,55 (p The intense production of fishes and the use of water resources can compromise the quality and availability of water, in addition to its effects on environmental carrying capacity, causing eutrophication andconsequently water pollution. Therefore, the objective of this study was to monitor the physical-chemical water variables and to measure the total phosphorus (total-P in sediment, feed and fish in cage culture in an aquaculture area situated at the Itaipu reservoirin Santa Helena – Paraná State, observing water quality and determining the total eutrophic level on the aquaculture area, in addition to analyzing total-P bioaccumulation in fish andsediment. The physical-chemical water variables presented normal values as indicated by Conama. The mean concentration of total-P for the aquaculture area was 28.41 IET and Secchi disc transparency of 2.74 m, giving it an oligotrophic classification. There was acorrelation of 0.55 (p < 0.01 between these two variables. The bioaccumulation of total-P in sediments decreased from 0.76 to 0.35 g kg-1 during this period. Mean fish accumulation ranged from 0.30 to 2.82 g kg-1. This activity can be used in the biomanipulation of total-P in similar reservoirs.

Guilherme Wolff Bueno

2008-07-01

385

Total Antioxidant Status, Vitamins A, C and ?-carotene Levels of Children with P. falciparum Infection in University of Calabar Teaching Hospital (UCTH), Calabar  

OpenAIRE

By using standard procedures, total antioxidant level, vitamins A, C, and ?-carotene were assessed in 122 malaria infected children. The haemoglobin and parasite density status of the children were also measured. Sixty healthy children were used as controls. It was observed that all parameters measured were significantly lower in malaria infected children when compared with the respective control values. Malaria parasitemia correlated strongly and negatively with total antioxidant and...

Akpotuzor, J. O.; Udoh, A. E.; Etukudo, M. H.

2007-01-01

386

Alterações nos níveis de colesterol, triglicerídeo e fosfolipídeo total em plasma de Callithrix jacchus (sagüi) reinfectado por Schistosoma mansoni / Alterations in cholesterol, triglyceride and total phospholipid levels in plasma of Callithrix jacchus (sagüi) reinfected by Schistosoma mansoni  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Pouco se conhece a cerca de alterações nos lipídeos plasmáticos devido à reinfecção por Schistosoma mansoni. Neste trabalho, foram avaliadas alterações nos lipídeos plasmáticos decorrentes de uma reinfecção por Schistosoma mansoni no primata não humano Callithrix jacchus (sagüi). Amostras de sangue [...] dos animais, antes e após serem infectados e reinfectados, foram coletadas por punção venosa, anticoaguladas com EDTA (1mg/mL) e centrifugadas a 2.500xg para obtenção do plasma. Os níveis plasmáticos de colesterol total, colesterol éster, fosfolipídeo total e triglicerídeo foram determinados por métodos espectrofotométricos. Os resultados mostraram haver redução significativa nas concentrações de colesterol total, colesterol esterificado, triglicerídeo e fosfolipídeo total em plasma de animais reinfectados por Schistosoma mansoni, em comparação com os mesmos animais antes da infecção e após uma infecção. Este estudo mostra que uma segunda infecção por Schistosoma mansoni causa alterações lipídicas plasmáticas significativamente mais acentuadas que as decorrentes de uma única infecção. Abstract in english Little information is available on the lipid changes caused by Schistosoma mansoni reinfection. In this work it was evaluated alteration in the plasma lipids due to one reinfection by Schistosoma mansoni in the non human primate Callithrix jacchus (sagüi). Blood samples from C. jacchus, prior and af [...] ter 60 days infection and reinfection, were collected by intravenous puncture, anticoagulated with EDTA (1mg/mL) and centrifuged at 2,500xg, in order to obtain the plasma. Total cholesterol, cholesteryl ester, total phospholipid and triglyceride levels were determined by spectrophotometer methods. The results showed that there are significant reduction in cholesterol total, cholesteryl ester, total phospholipid and triglyceride concentrations in plasma of animals reinfected by Schistosoma mansoni, in comparison to the same animals prior and after one infection. This study showed that a second infection of Callithrix jacchus by Schistosoma mansoni causes plasma lipid alterations, which are more significant than after a single infection.

Thadzia Maria de Brito, Ramos; Amanda Soares de, Vasconcelos; Vera Cristina Oliveira de, Carvalho; Vera Lúcia de Menezes, Lima.

2004-02-01

387

Nível sérico de IgE total em alergia respiratória: estudo em pacientes com alto risco de infecção por helmintos Total IgE level in respiratory allergy: study of patients at high risk for helminthic infection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Eosinofilia e elevação de IgE sérica são expressões de atopia, contudo há fatores intervenientes como, por exemplo, as parasitoses intestinais. Esta pesquisa verifica a relação entre IgE sérica total, eosinófilos e IgE específica anti-áscaris em indivíduos portadores de asma e/ou rinite alérgica. MÉTODOS: Estudo do tipo transversal em adolescentes portadores de asma e/ou rinite alérgica que foram examinados quanto ao nível sérico de IgE total, de IgE anti-áscaris e de contagem dos eosinófilos sangüíneos. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 101 pacientes com idade entre 12 e 21 anos. A mediana da IgE foi 660 UI/mL (P25-75 243,5-1500, e a dos eosinófilos foi 510 células/mm³ (P25-75 284-811. A IgE anti-áscaris foi positiva em 73% (74/101 da amostra, mas houve apenas 33,7% (34/101 de positividade ao parasitológico de fezes. Os coeficientes de correlação encontrados foram: 0,34 (p = 0,001 entre IgE total e eosinófilos, 0,52 (p OBJECTIVE: Eosinophilia and increased serum IgE levels are indicators of atopy; however, other factors can also play a key role, such as intestinal parasitic infections. This study assesses the relationship between total serum IgE, eosinophil count, and anti-Ascaris IgE in individuals with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in adolescents with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis. The patients had their total serum IgE, anti-Ascaris IgE and eosinophil count measured. RESULTS: A total of 101 patients aged 12 to 21 years were assessed. Median IgE level was 660 IU/mL (P25-75 243.5-1500, and the eosinophil count corresponded to 510 cells/mm³ (P25-75 284-811. Anti-Ascaris IgE was positive in 73% (74/101 of the individuals, but parasitological stool examination yielded positive results in only 33.7% (34/101. The correlation coefficients were the following: 0.34 (p = 0.001 between total IgE level and eosinophil count, 0.52 (p < 0.001 between total IgE level and anti-Ascaris IgE, and 0.26 (p = 0.01 between eosinophil count and anti-Ascaris IgE. The final multiple linear regression model pointed out that anti-Ascaris IgE contributed to a total serum IgE level with a coefficient of determination (adjusted R² of 0.25 (F = 12.35; p < 0.001. This effect occurred regardless of eosinophil count and of the presence of intestinal helminthic infection. CONCLUSION: In patients with respiratory allergy and increased total serum IgE levels living in areas where there is a high risk for helminthic infections, the quantification of anti-Ascaris IgE can be more useful and more insightful than the parasitological stool examination.

Décio Medeiros

2006-08-01

388

Physical activity is inversely associated with total homocysteine levels, independent of C677T MTHFR genotype and plasma B vitamins  

OpenAIRE

The homocysteine level is considered to be a product of genetic and lifestyle interactions, mainly mutated methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and the intake of folate, vitamin B12 and pyridoxine, and their blood levels. Physical activity has been associated with lower homocysteine levels in some population studies, especially among elderly subjects. To further elucidate the observed association between homocysteine and physical activity, while accounting for the effect of the MTHFR C...

Dankner, Rachel; Chetrit, Angela; Ken Dror, Gie; Sela, Ben-ami

2007-01-01

389

Coliforms, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, and Salmonella in a Counterflow Poultry Scalder with a Dip Tank  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Suspended bacteria were enumerated in scald water and carcass rinse samples from a commercial broiler chicken processing plant with a multiple-tank, counterflow scalder. Coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Campylobacter were enumerated and the Most Probable Number (MPN of salmonellae was determined in water samples from each of three scald tanks, from a dip tank located between defeathering machines, and in rinses of carcasses removed from the processing line immediately after defeathering. Mean coliform concentrations in Tanks 1, 2, and 3 were 4.6, 2.5, and 1.6 log10(cfu/ml, respectively. E. coli concentrations followed the same pattern with means of 4.4, 2.1, and 1.4 in Tanks 1, 2, and 3, respectively, with significant differences (P< 0.05 in the concentrations of both coliforms and E. coli between tanks. Mean Campylobacter concentration in four positive samples from Tank 1 was 4.0 log10 (cfu/ml, but only one water sample from Tank 2 and none from Tank 3 were Campylobacter positive. Coliforms and E. coli were found in dip tank samples in only two instances, with no isolations of Campylobacter or salmonellae. Mean numbers of coliforms, E. coli, and Campylobacter in carcass rinses were 3.1, 2.7, and 3.3 log10(cfu/ml. Salmonellae were isolated from five of six water samples from Tank 1 with a mean MPN of 13.3/100mL, but were isolated from only three of six water samples from Tank 2 and two of six from Tank 3. Salmonellae were isolated from half (18/36 of all carcass rinses. Most bacteria suspended in scald water were found in the first tank, with no Campylobacter or salmonellae found in the dip tank. Counterflow, multiple-tank scalders appear to reduce the opportunity for cross-contamination during scalding.

J.A. Cason

2006-01-01

390

Efeito do período experimental sobre a digestão parcial e total em bovinos alimentados com dois níveis de volumosos Effect of experimental periods on the parcial and total digestion in cattle fed two levels of forage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar os efeitos de dois períodos experimentais e dois níveis de volumosos na dieta sobre a digestibilidade total e parcial da matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, energia bruta (EB e amido. Foram utilizados quatro novilhos da raça Holandês Preto e Branco, com dois anos de idade e 340 kg de peso vivo e canulados no rúmen e duodeno. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o quadrado latino 4 x 4, em que os animais receberam quatro tratamentos, que consistiram de dois níveis de volumosos (30 e 70% e dois períodos experimentais (14 e 21 dias. Houve efeito significativo do nível de volumoso sobre a digestibilidade ruminal de FDA e FDN, a digestibilidade intestinal e total da MS, MO, PB e amido e a digestibilidade total da EB. Não houve efeito do período experimental sobre os coeficientes de digestibilidade dos nutrientes avaliados. Conclui-se que a utilização de período experimental de 14 dias, em experimentos de digestão, é viável, quando se utiliza feno como fonte de volumoso.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of two experimental periods and two forage levels in the diet on the total and parcial apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, acid detergent fiber (ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, gross energy (GE and starch. Four Holstein steers, averaging two years old and 340 kg of body weight, ruminally and duodenally cannulated, were used. The experimental design was a 4 x 4 latin square and the animals received four treatments as following: two forage levels (30 and 70% and two experimental periods (14 and 21 days. There was effect of forage level on intestinal and total digestibility of DM, OM, CP and starch and on total digestibility of GE. There was effect of forage level on ruminal digestibility of ADF and NDF. There was no effect of experimental periods on the digestibility coefficients of the nutrients. It was concluded that 14 days experimental period is practible when hay is used.

Kátia Cylene Guimarães

2001-06-01

391

Efeito do período experimental sobre a digestão parcial e total em bovinos alimentados com dois níveis de volumosos / Effect of experimental periods on the parcial and total digestion in cattle fed two levels of forage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar os efeitos de dois períodos experimentais e dois níveis de volumosos na dieta sobre a digestibilidade total e parcial da matéria seca (MS), matéria orgânica (MO), proteína bruta (PB), fibra em detergente ácido (FDA), fibra em detergente neutro (FDN), energia [...] bruta (EB) e amido. Foram utilizados quatro novilhos da raça Holandês Preto e Branco, com dois anos de idade e 340 kg de peso vivo e canulados no rúmen e duodeno. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o quadrado latino 4 x 4, em que os animais receberam quatro tratamentos, que consistiram de dois níveis de volumosos (30 e 70%) e dois períodos experimentais (14 e 21 dias). Houve efeito significativo do nível de volumoso sobre a digestibilidade ruminal de FDA e FDN, a digestibilidade intestinal e total da MS, MO, PB e amido e a digestibilidade total da EB. Não houve efeito do período experimental sobre os coeficientes de digestibilidade dos nutrientes avaliados. Conclui-se que a utilização de período experimental de 14 dias, em experimentos de digestão, é viável, quando se utiliza feno como fonte de volumoso. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of two experimental periods and two forage levels in the diet on the total and parcial apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), gross energ [...] y (GE) and starch. Four Holstein steers, averaging two years old and 340 kg of body weight, ruminally and duodenally cannulated, were used. The experimental design was a 4 x 4 latin square and the animals received four treatments as following: two forage levels (30 and 70%) and two experimental periods (14 and 21 days). There was effect of forage level on intestinal and total digestibility of DM, OM, CP and starch and on total digestibility of GE. There was effect of forage level on ruminal digestibility of ADF and NDF. There was no effect of experimental periods on the digestibility coefficients of the nutrients. It was concluded that 14 days experimental period is practible when hay is used.

Kátia Cylene, Guimarães; Antonio Ferriani, Branco; Lúcia Maria, Zeoula; Ivanor Nunes do, Prado; Gisele Fernanda, Mouro; Fábio Jose, Maia; Luís Paulo, Rigolon.

2001-06-01

392

Investigation of the 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, total antioxidant and nitric oxide levels of serum in dogs infected with Babesia vogeli.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxidative stress was defined as corruption of balance between oxidant-antioxidant states in favor of oxidants. In this study, it was aimed to determine oxidative stress in naturally infected dogs with Babesia vogeli. The 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), nitric oxide (NO) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels in the sera were analyzed by ELISA. 8-OHdG levels increased in B. vogeli infected dogs compared to control group (P0.05). PMID:24882747

Ciftci, Gulay; Ural, Kerem; Aysul, Nuran; Cenesiz, Sena; Guzel, Murat; Pekmezci, Didem; Sogut, Mehtap Ünlü

2014-08-29

393

Significant correlations of dermal total carotenoids and dermal lycopene with their respective plasma levels in healthy adults  

OpenAIRE

Carotenoids in skin have been known to play a role in photoprotection against UV radiation. We performed dermal biopsies of healthy humans (N=27) and collected blood samples for pair-wise correlation analyses of total and individual carotenoid content by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The hydrocarbon carotenoids (lycopene and beta-carotene) made up the majority of carotenoids in both skin and plasma, and skin was somewhat enriched in these carotenoids relative to plasma. Beta-...

Scarmo, Stephanie; Cartmel, Brenda; Lin, Haiqun; Leffell, David J.; Welch, Erin; Bhosale, Prakash; Bernstein, Paul S.; Mayne, Susan T.

2010-01-01

394

Growth and total-N content of Prosopis juliflora (SW D. C. are stimulated by low NaCl levels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study the early effects of salinity on growth, total N and ion accumulation and partitioning in Prosopis juliflora (common name algaroba were studied with 30-day-old plants grown for 8 days in aerated nutrient solution (NS free of (control or supplied with 25, 50, 75 and 100 mmol.L-1 NaCl. Plants grown in 25 and 50 mmol.L-1 NaCl accumulated a total dry mass (DM and shoot N content greater than the control. However, at 75 and 100 mmol.L-1 NaCl such parameters were diminished. Whole plant transpiration rates were higher with 25 and 50 mmol.L-1 NaCl and lower with 75 and 100 mmol.L-1 NaCl. Salinity did not influence shoot (80% and root (70% water content (WC but reduced the K+ content of shoot while that of root was not affected. Increasing external NaCl concentrations increased K+/Na+ ratios of both plant parts. The data support the hypothesis that increase in transpiration rates and in shoot total N may account for growth stimulation of algaroba under mild salinity.

Viégas Ricardo Almeida

2004-01-01

395

Blood serum and seminal plasma selenium, total antioxidant capacity and coenzyme q10 levels in relation to semen parameters in men with idiopathic infertility.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this case-control study, we aimed to evaluate the serum and seminal plasma levels of Selenium (Se), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ-10) and determine their relationship with sperm concentration, motility, and morphology in men with idiopathic infertility. A total of 59 subjects were enrolled in the study. Forty four patients were diagnosed with idiopathic male infertility and had abnormal sperm parameters, and 15 subjects had normal sperm parameters with proven fertility. Serum Se, semen Se, and semen TAC levels were significantly different in the fertile and infertile groups (pCoQ-10 levels did not differ between fertile and infertile groups. When the levels of the measured parameters were compared in serum and seminal plasma, serum levels of Se were found to be correlated positively with the semen levels in all subjects included into the study (N=59) (r=0.46, pCoQ-10. Correlations among measured serum and semen parameters with sperm parameters demonstrated that both the serum and semen levels of Se were correlated positively with spermatozoa concentration, motility, and morphology. Additionally, seminal plasma levels of TAC correlated positively with all these sperm parameters. On the other hand, seminal plasma levels of CoQ-10 correlated only with sperm morphology but not with concentration or motility. No relationship was observed between serum levels of TAC or serum levels of CoQ-10 and sperm parameters. In conclusion, serum and seminal plasma Se deficiency may be a prominent determinant of abnormal sperm parameters and idiopathic male infertility. Measurement of serum Se levels may help determine nutritional status and antioxidant capacity in infertile patients, which may help distinguish those patients who will benefit from supplementation therapy. PMID:24752972

Eroglu, Mustafa; Sahin, Sadik; Durukan, Birol; Ozakpinar, Ozlem Bingol; Erdinc, Nese; Turkgeldi, Lale; Sofuoglu, Kenan; Karateke, Ates

2014-06-01

396

Survey of total and inorganic arsenic content in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) from Norwegian fiords: Revelation of unusual high levels of inorganic arsenic  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present study reports the findings of unusual high levels of inorganic arsenic in samples of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). A total of 175 pooled samples of blue mussels from various locations along the Norwegian coastline were analyzed for their content of total arsenic and inorganic arsenic. Total arsenic was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) following microwave-assisted acidic digestion of the samples. Inorganic arsenic was determined using an anion-exchange HPLC-ICPMS method following microwave-assisted alkaline solubilization of the samples. For the majority of the samples (78%) the concentration of total arsenic was below 3 mg kg(-1) wet weight (ww) and inorganic arsenic constituted

Sloth, Jens JØrgen; Julshamn, Kåre

2008-01-01

397

Effect of different fibrous and nonfiber carbohydrate levels on nutrients digestibility of total mixed ration using in vivo in buffalo  

OpenAIRE

In order to investigate the effect of different levels of NDF on chewing behavior and their relationship with ruminal acidity, 3 ruminally fistulated buffalo steers (average BW = 389.6 ±7.5 Kg) were allotted in a change over design in Agriculture and Natural Resource center of Uremia city of Iran. Two diets with 2 levels of NDF were used as treatments. First and second diets had 52 and 47 % of NDF, respectively. The experiment had two periods and each period’s take 15d for adapta...

Gh. Manafiazar; Afshar Hamidi, B.; Teimouri Yansari, A.; Pirmohammadi, R.

2010-01-01

398

Total levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 in plasma yield high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in patients with colon cancer  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to measure total levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1) by ELISA in plasma from blood donors, patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and patients with cancer and to correlate the results to patient diagnosis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Total TIMP-1 plasma levels were measured by ELISA in blood samples from two different blood donor populations from IBD patients, and preoperative samples from patients with primary colon cancer (CC), rectal cancer (RC), or breast cancer. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in plasma TIMP-1 levels between healthy donors and IBD or breast cancer patients, whereas patients with CC or RC had significantly elevated TIMP-1 levels. Total TIMP-1 levels identified patients with CC with a sensitivity of 63% at 98% specificity, patients with early CC (Dukes' A+B) with a sensitivity of 56% at 98% specificity, and patients with right-sided CC with a sensitivity of 72% at 98% specificity. Combining carcinoembryonic antigen and TIMP-1 measurements increased the sensitivities obtained from TIMP-1 measurements alone. CONCLUSIONS: TIMP-1 was significantly elevated in plasma from CC and RC patients, including those with early-stage disease. Sensitivity and specificity were both sufficiently high to consider TIMP-1 as a marker for the early identification of CC patients, in particular, those with right-sided CC.

Holten-Andersen, Mads N; Christensen, Ib Jarle

2002-01-01

399

Association of total-mixed-ration chemical composition with milk, fat, and protein yield lactation curves at the individual level  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of the chemical composition of a total mixed ration (TMR) tested quarterly from March 2006 through December 2008 for milk, fat, and protein yield curves for 27 herds in Ragusa, Sicily. Before this study, standard yield curves were generated on data from 241,153 test-day records of 9,809 animals from 42 herds in Ragusa province collected from 1995 to 2008. A random regression sire-maternal grandsire model was used to develop variance compon...

Caccamo, M.; Veerkamp, R. F.; Licitra, G.; Petriglieri, R.; La Terra, F.; Pozzebon, A.; Ferguson, J. D.

2012-01-01

400

Serum levels of insulin like growth factor-l and total protein in newborn calves offered different amounts of colostrums  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this investigation was to determine the concentrations of insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and total protein in blood serum from calves consuming different amounts of colostrum during the first 32 h of postnatal life, as well as at 7 days old. The experiment involved two groups of calves. The first group was offered the standard amount of colostrum while the second group received half the recommended amount. At birth serum concentration of I