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Sample records for total coliform levels

  1. 40 CFR 142.63 - Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant level for total coliforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant level for total coliforms. 142...Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant level for total coliforms. (a) No variances or exemptions from the maximum contaminant level in § 141.63 of this...

  2. 40 CFR 142.63 - Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant level for total coliforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... maximum contaminant level for total coliforms. 142.63 Section 142.63 Protection of Environment... Available § 142.63 Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant level for total coliforms. (a) No variances or exemptions from the maximum contaminant level in § 141.63 of this chapter are permitted....

  3. Bacteriological (fecal and total coliform) quality of Pakistani coastal water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coliform bacteria group consists of several genera of bacteria belonging to the family enterobacteriaceae. These are harmless bacteria, mostly live in soil, water, and digestive system of animals. Fecal coliform bacteria, which belongs to this group, are present in large numbers in feces and intestinal tract of human beings and other warm-blooded animals which can enter into water bodies from human and animal waste. Swimming in water having high levels of Fecal coliform bacteria increases the chance of developing illness (fever, nausea or stomach cramps) from pathogens entering the body through mouth, nose, ears or cuts in the skin. The objective of the present study was to characterize the bathing quality of Pakistani coastal water with respect to coliform bacteria. Total and Fecal coliform bacteria were determined at seven different locations along Pakistan coast using membrane filtration (MF) technique. 100 ml of water was passed through 0.45 micron (mu) filter paper. These filter papers were put on pads, soaked in Lauryle sulphate broth in petri-dishes and incubated at 44 deg. C for Fecal and 37 deg. for Total coliform for 24 hours. Significantly high population of Fecal and Total coliform bacteria was recorded at Karachi harbour area and Indus delta region. Results indicate that a large amount of domestically originated waste is being discharged into these locations without any pre-treatment (e.g., screening, activated sludge, by using filtration beds etc.) resulting in a poor seawater quality making it unfit for bathing. (author)

  4. Ultrasonic Technology Effectiveness in Total Coliforms Disinfection of Water

    OpenAIRE

    A H Mahvi; M. H. Dehghani; F.Vaezi

    2005-01-01

    The effect of ultrasonic upon the destruction of total coliforms has been studied in this research. Also, the impact of power intensity and ultrasonic frequency on the germicidal effectiveness of sonification has been explored. The results obtained from the work carried out have shown that ultrasonic can be used effectively for water disinfection and increase in percent kill for coliforms may occur with increase in contact time to ultrasonic in the 42 kHz. These results suggest that ultrasoni...

  5. Fecal Coliforms and Total Coliforms Removal in Water Using Radio-Frequency (RF) Plasma System

    OpenAIRE

    Reni Desmiarti; Ariadi Hazmi; Yenni Trianda

    2015-01-01

    A radio-frequency plasma system (RF) was used to investigate the removal of microorganisms from water.Plasma generated by RF radiation can produce active compounds (H•, •OH, H2O2, O3, etc.) that have a highoxidation potential and can kill microorganisms present in water (fecal coliforms and total coliforms). Thefrequency of the plasma system was set to 3.0, 3.3 and 3.7 MHz and applied to river water for 60 minutes. Theresults show that in all runs, the pH of the water produced was in the rang...

  6. The Efficiency of Removal of Total Coliforms, Faecal Coliforms and Coliphages in a Wastewater Treatment Plant in Riyadh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Fattouh

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited water resources in Saudi Arabia necessitate the re-use of treated wastewater for irrigation, industrial and recreational purposes. The large numbers of pathogenic agents present in wastewater requires continuous monitoring of the removal of such agents from water prior to re-use. In a one year study total and faecal coliforms and coliphages were estimated in monthly samples from a wastewater treatment plant in Riyadh to evaluate the removal efficiency of such indicators at various levels of wastewater treatment. The efficiency of removal of total coliform (TC and faecal coliform (FC following aeration and sedimentation processes ranged between (18-34% and (17-38% respectively and for coliphages was (4-19%. Chlorinated effluent had negligible counts of TC and FC with an efficiency of removal of (99.2-100% and (99-100% for TC and FC respectively whereas the efficiency of removal of coliphages ranged between (91-100%. As coliphages have been proposed as possible indicators of enteric viruses our study suggests their use as indicators of faecal pollution with traditional coliform indicators and the implementation of treatment measures more effective in virus removal in re-used wastewater. Electron microscopy of selected phage lysates showed the presence of tailed coliphages belonging to families Myoviridae, Siphoviridae and Podoviridae. Polyvalent coliphages able to infect enteric bacteria other than E. coli were also detected.

  7. Total Coliform Determinations. Training Module 5.205.3.77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with multiple tube and membrane filter techniques for determining total coliform concentration of a water supply. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This module considers proper…

  8. Enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli from source water by the defined substrate technology.

    OpenAIRE

    Edberg, S C; Allen, M.J.; Smith, D B; Kriz, N J

    1990-01-01

    Many water utilities are required to monitor source water for the presence of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, or both. The Colilert system, an application of the defined substrate technology, simultaneously detects the presence of both total coliforms and Escherichia coli directly from a water sample. After incubation, the formula becomes yellow if total coliforms are present and fluorescent at 366 nm if E. coli is in the same sample. No confirmatory tests are required. The Colilert system ...

  9. Absence of association between total heterotrophic and total coliform bacteria from a public water supply.

    OpenAIRE

    Edberg, S; Smith, D. B.

    1989-01-01

    Heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) and total coliforms (TC) are two major microbial indicators that are used to monitor the potability of water. Although the presence of heterotrophs has been hypothesized to predict the presence of TC, there have been few documented reports. Intensive sampling of raw, treated effluent and distribution water from a public water supply serving 400,000 people provided an opportunity to study the relationship between these two indicator groups of bacteria. A total ...

  10. Disinfection of total coli-forms in the effluent from municipal wastewater plant with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beam has introduced to investigate the effect of radiation on the disinfection of coliforms in the effluent from the municipal wastewater treatment plant. Unchlorinated secondary effluent was irradiated at different dose of 0.2 - 1.0 kGy with 1 MeV, 40 kW electron accelerator. It is observed that nearly 100% reduction in E. coli and total coliforms were achieved with a dose of 0.8 kGy. Even with the lower dose of 0.2 kGy, the E. coli and total coliforms were successfully inactivated to the level of the new guideline for discharged effluent that has been effective from 2003 in Korea. Based on the data obtained in the experiments, industrial scale plant was designed with 0.2 kGy for the flow rate of 100,000 m3 effluent per day. The overall cost for plant construction is approximately 4.0?4.5M$, and the operation cost is around 1M$/yr. This is quite reasonable when compared to other advanced oxidation techniques such as Ozonation, UV techniques etc. (author)

  11. Bacteria holding times for fecal coliform by mFC agar method and total coliform and Escherichia coli by Colilert®-18 Quanti-Tray® method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulenbach, Brent T.

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria holding-time experiments of up to 62 h were performed on five surface-water samples from four urban stream sites in the vicinity of Atlanta, GA, USA that had relatively high densities of coliform bacteria (Escherichia coli densities were all well above the US Environmental Protection Agency criterion of 126 colonies (100 ml)???1 for recreational waters). Holding-time experiments were done for fecal coliform using the membrane filtration modified fecal coliform (mFC) agar method and for total coliform and E. coli using the Colilert®-18 Quanti-Tray® method. The precisions of these analytical methods were quantified. Precisions determined for fecal coliform indicated that the upper bound of the ideal range of counts could reasonably be extended upward and would improve precision. For the Colilert®-18 method, analytical precisions were similar to the theoretical precisions for this method. Fecal and total coliform densities did not change significantly with holding times up to about 27 h. Limited information indicated that fecal coliform densities might be stable for holding times of up to 62 h, whereas total coliform densities might not be stable for holding times greater than about 27 h. E. coli densities were stable for holding times of up to 18 h—a shorter period than indicated from a previous studies. These results should be applicable to non-regulatory monitoring sampling designs for similar urban surface-water sample types.

  12. Quantitative determination of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in marine waters with chromogenic and fluorogenic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissler, K; Manafi, M; Amorós, I; Alonso, J L

    2000-02-01

    This study compared the performance of LMX(R) broth (LMX), Chromocult Coliform(R) agar (CC) and Chromocult Coliform agar plus cefsulodin (10 microg ml-1) (CC-CFS), with standard methods multiple tube fermentation (MTF), for the enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli from marine recreational waters. LMX and CC are two media designed to concurrently detect total coliform (TC) bacteria and E. coli by the specific action of beta-galactosidase (total coliforms) and beta-glucuronidase (E. coli). Overall results for the TC test showed that LMX, CC and MTF recovered 2.63, 1.95 and 1.90 times as many TCs as CC-CFS, respectively. Data from the multiple range test showed significant differences (P < 0.05) between TC counts on CC-CFS and LMX. The traditional MTF was less sensitive for E. coli enumeration. However, there was no statistically significant differences between LMX, CC, CC-CFS and the MTF method for E. coli enumeration. Background interference was reduced on CC-CFS and the counts obtained reflected more accurately the number of TCs. Therefore, the contribution of beta-galactosidase positive, non coliform bacteria (Aeromonas spp. and Vibrio spp.) to TC counts should not be neglected. PMID:10735996

  13. KUALITAS MIKROBIOLOGI NASI JINGGO BERDASARKAN ANGKA LEMPENG TOTAL, COLIFORM TOTAL DAN KANDUNGAN ESCHERICHIA COLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Luh Payastiti Yunita

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate quality of food products that do not meet standard quality may lead to food poisoning cases and become a concern in public health sector. Nasi Jinggo is a small amount of cooked rice with little bit fried tempe, shredded spicy chicken, traditional made chili sauce that is packed with banana leaves, and all the cooking process usually done traditionally. Nasi jinggo is sold at night by street vendor with price ranged from Rp. 1.500,- to Rp. 2.000,- per package. The study was a quantitative descriptive study with cross-sectional design that was aimed to identify the microbiology quality of nasi jinggo that were sold in Denpasar Selatan area. From 48 population of nasi jinggo street vendor, 23 vendor was taken as samples. The microbiology quality being assessed was Total Plate Count (TPC, Total Coliform with MPN method and Escherichia coli content with Eosin Methylene Blue Agar as medium. Laboratory analysis showed that only 21,7% sample that met TPC standard with average value of 2,3 x 107 CFU/gram sample, only 8,7% that met Total Coliform standard with average value of 1,4 x 105 MPN/100 gram sample and 52,2% sample that met E. coli content standard with average value is 2,6 x 102 MPN/100 gram sample. It is recommended to the government to do quality check towards nasi jinggo in a regular basis as well as to provide education and assistance to nasi jinggo street vendors in order to improve the microbiology quality of food product and ensure food safety to the consumer.

  14. A new membrane filtration medium for simultaneous detection and enumeration of Escherichia coli and total coliforms.

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, M. A.

    1997-01-01

    Recovery of total coliforms and Escherichia coli on a new membrane filtration (MF) medium was evaluated with 25 water samples from seven states. Testing of the new medium, m-ColiBlue24 broth, was conducted according to a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency protocol. For comparison, this same protocol was used to measure recovery of total coliforms and E. coli with two standard MF media, m-Endo broth and mTEC broth. E. coli recovery on the new medium was also compared to recovery on nutrient ...

  15. Molecular method for detection of total coliforms in drinking water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheux, Andrée F; Boudreau, Dominique K; Bisson, Marc-Antoine; Dion-Dupont, Vanessa; Bouchard, Sébastien; Nkuranga, Martine; Bergeron, Michel G; Rodriguez, Manuel J

    2014-07-01

    This work demonstrates the ability of a bacterial concentration and recovery procedure combined with three different PCR assays targeting the lacZ, wecG, and 16S rRNA genes, respectively, to detect the presence of total coliforms in 100-ml samples of potable water (presence/absence test). PCR assays were first compared to the culture-based Colilert and MI agar methods to determine their ability to detect 147 coliform strains representing 76 species of Enterobacteriaceae encountered in fecal and environmental settings. Results showed that 86 (58.5%) and 109 (74.1%) strains yielded a positive signal with Colilert and MI agar methods, respectively, whereas the lacZ, wecG, and 16S rRNA PCR assays detected 133 (90.5%), 111 (75.5%), and 146 (99.3%) of the 147 total coliform strains tested. These assays were then assessed by testing 122 well water samples collected in the Québec City region of Canada. Results showed that 97 (79.5%) of the samples tested by culture-based methods and 95 (77.9%), 82 (67.2%), and 98 (80.3%) of samples tested using PCR-based methods contained total coliforms, respectively. Consequently, despite the high genetic variability of the total coliform group, this study demonstrated that it is possible to use molecular assays to detect total coliforms in potable water: the 16S rRNA molecular assay was shown to be as efficient as recommended culture-based methods. This assay might be used in combination with an Escherichia coli molecular assay to assess drinking water quality. PMID:24771030

  16. Analysis of The Microbiological Contamination (Total And Fecal Coliforms) In The Bay Of Santa Marta, Colombian Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the purpose of making an analysis of the microbiological level of contamination and the main sources of contamination in the Bay of Santa Marta (BSM), water samples were collected to measure the concentrations of total and fecal coliforms in 11 stations and two levels of depth (1 and 20 m). For the time of greater precipitations were stops values of total and fecal coliforms, in both depth levels; appearing a similar condition for the dry time. Based on a conceptual scale it was obtained that the BSM presents an average degree of contamination for activities of primary contact (swimming and diving), nevertheless, exist several sources of contamination (submarine emissary, river, seaport, among others) that are generating a high impact on this ecosystem. The high values of contamination that are registered in the BSM find associate to the proximity that has this to the urban zones.

  17. ANÁLISIS DE LA CONTAMINACIÓN MICROBIOLÓGICA (COLIFORMES TOTALES Y FECALES) EN LA BAHÍA DE SANTA MARTA, CARIBE COLOMBIANO / Analysis Of The Microbiological Contamination (Total And Fecales Coliforms) In The Bay Of Santa Marta, Colombian Caribbean

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    LINA MARÍA, RAMOS-ORTEGA; LUÍS A, VIDAL; SANDRA, VILARDY; LINA, SAAVEDRA-DÍAZ.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de realizar un análisis del nivel de contaminación microbiológica y de las principales fuentes de contaminación en la Bahía de Santa Marta (BSM), se colectaron muestras de agua para medir las concentraciones de coliformes totales y fecales en 11 estaciones y dos niveles de profundidad (1 [...] y 20 m). Para la época de mayores precipitaciones se encontraron altos valores de coliformes totales y fecales, en los dos niveles de profundidad; presentándose una condición similar para la época seca. Con base a una escala conceptual se obtuvo que la BSM presenta un grado de contaminación medio para actividades de contacto primario (natación y buceo), sin embargo, existen varias fuentes de contaminación (emisario submarino, río, puerto marítimo, entre otras) que están generando un alto impacto sobre este ecosistema. Los altos valores de contaminación que se registran en la BSM se encuentran asociados a la proximidad que tiene esta a las zonas urbanas. Abstract in english With the purpose of making an analysis of the microbiological level of contamination and the main sources of contamination in the Bay of Santa Marta (BSM), water samples were collected to measure the concentrations of total and fecals coliforms in 11 stations and two levels of depth (1 and 20 m). Fo [...] r the time of greater precipitations were stops values of total and fecals coliforms, in both depth levels; appearing a similar condition for the dry time. Based on a conceptual scale it was obtained that the BSM presents an average degree of contamination for activities of primary contact (swimming and diving), nevertheless, exist several sources of contamination (submarine emissary, river, seaport, among others) that are generating a high impact on this ecosystem. The high values of contamination that are registered in the BSM find associate to the proximity that has this to the urban zones.

  18. Molecular Method for Detection of Total Coliforms in Drinking Water Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Maheux, Andrée F.; Boudreau, Dominique K.; Bisson, Marc-Antoine; Dion-Dupont, Vanessa; Bouchard, Sébastien; Nkuranga, Martine; Bergeron, Michel G; Rodriguez, Manuel J

    2014-01-01

    This work demonstrates the ability of a bacterial concentration and recovery procedure combined with three different PCR assays targeting the lacZ, wecG, and 16S rRNA genes, respectively, to detect the presence of total coliforms in 100-ml samples of potable water (presence/absence test). PCR assays were first compared to the culture-based Colilert and MI agar methods to determine their ability to detect 147 coliform strains representing 76 species of Enterobacteriaceae encountered in fecal a...

  19. 75 FR 14607 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    .... Background In the Federal Register of May 29, 2009 (74 FR 25651), FDA issued a final rule amending its... and E. coli; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food... ``Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli--Small Entity Compliance Guide'' for a final rule published...

  20. Evaluation of the Autoanalysis Colilert test for detection and enumeration of total coliforms.

    OpenAIRE

    Covert, T C; Shadix, L C; Rice, E W; Haines, J. R.; Freyberg, R W

    1989-01-01

    The Autoanalysis Colilert (AC) test was compared with the membrane filter (MF), 10-tube multiple-tube fermentation (MTF) technique, and the presence-absence test as described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater for the detection and enumeration of total coliforms in water. The methods were evaluated with 31 samples from seven different sources. Each sample was analyzed by each of the techniques, using replicate 100-ml sample volumes. A total of 582 confirmed tubes ...

  1. Suitability of total coliform ?-D-galactosidase activity and CFU counts in monitoring faecal contamination of environmental water samples

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    VC, Wutor; CA, Togo; BI, Pletschke.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Total coliforms are a group of bacteria found in high numbers in mammalian intestines; hence their presence in water indicates the possible contamination with faecal material. Total and faecal coliform counts were monitored over a period of 18 months using mFC, m-Endo and CM1046 media together with [...] enzymatic assays on 215 environmental water samples obtained from the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. A positive correlation, with an R² value of 0.9393 was observed between faecal and total coliform colony units employing mFc and m-Endo media, and 0.8818 using CM1046 media. Also, a positive correlation was observed between Escherichia coli colony-forming units and ?-d-galactosidase (B-GAL) activity (R²=0.8542). Overall, this study indicated that faecal contamination of environmental water samples could be monitored by measuring total coliform ?-galactosidase activity and total coliform colony-forming units.

  2. Variability in the characterization of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and escherichia coli in recreational water supplies of North Mississippi, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, is a historical organism for the detection of fecal pollution in water supplies. The presence of E. coli indicates a potential contamination of the water supply by other more hazardous human pathogens. In order to accurately determine the presence and degree o...

  3. Detection of false-positives among total and fecal coliform counts by factorial analysis of correspondence.

    OpenAIRE

    Joncas, M; Michaud, S; Carmichael, J P; Lavoie, M C

    1985-01-01

    Application of an analysis of correspondence to the biochemical characteristics of total and fecal coliforms isolated in the Ivory Coast permitted us to separate two small clusters of isolates different from the main clusters, which included isolates from human and animal feces. The isolates grouped in the small clusters were from water samples. An analysis of the biochemical characteristics which permitted the segregation of the "water-specific" isolates from the main clusters indicates that...

  4. Assessing the sources of high fecal coliform levels at an urban tropical beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Mendonça Cavalcante Davino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recreational water quality is commonly assessed by microbial indicators such as fecal coliforms. Maceió is the capital of Alagoas state, located in tropical northeastern Brazil. Its beaches are considered as the most beautiful urban beaches in the country. Jatiúca Beach in Maceió was found to be unsuitable for bathing continuously during the year of 2011. The same level of contamination was not observed in surrounding beaches. The aim of this study was to initiate the search for the sources of these high coliform levels, so that contamination can be eventually mitigated. We performed a retrospective analysis of historical results of fecal coliform concentrations from 2006 to 2012 at five monitoring stations located in the study region. Results showed that Jatiúca Beach consistently presented the worst quality among the studied beaches. A field survey was conducted to identify existing point and non-point sources of pollution in the area. Monitoring in the vicinity of Jatiúca was spatially intensified. Fecal coliform concentrations were categorized according to tide range and tide stage. A storm drain located in northern Jatiúca was identified as the main point source of the contamination. However, fecal coliform concentrations at Jatiúca were high during high tides and spring tides even when this point source was inactive (no rainfall. We hypothesize that high fecal coliform levels in Jatiúca Beach may also be caused by aquifer contamination or, more likely, from tide washing of contaminated sand. Both of these hypotheses will be further investigated.

  5. Assessing the sources of high fecal coliform levels at an urban tropical beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davino, Aline Mendonça Cavalcante; Melo, Milena Bandeira de; Caffaro Filho, Roberto Augusto

    2015-12-01

    Recreational water quality is commonly assessed by microbial indicators such as fecal coliforms. Maceió is the capital of Alagoas state, located in tropical northeastern Brazil. Its beaches are considered as the most beautiful urban beaches in the country. Jatiúca Beach in Maceió was found to be unsuitable for bathing continuously during the year of 2011. The same level of contamination was not observed in surrounding beaches. The aim of this study was to initiate the search for the sources of these high coliform levels, so that contamination can be eventually mitigated. We performed a retrospective analysis of historical results of fecal coliform concentrations from 2006 to 2012 at five monitoring stations located in the study region. Results showed that Jatiúca Beach consistently presented the worst quality among the studied beaches. A field survey was conducted to identify existing point and non-point sources of pollution in the area. Monitoring in the vicinity of Jatiúca was spatially intensified. Fecal coliform concentrations were categorized according to tide range and tide stage. A storm drain located in northern Jatiúca was identified as the main point source of the contamination. However, fecal coliform concentrations at Jatiúca were high during high tides and spring tides even when this point source was inactive (no rainfall). We hypothesize that high fecal coliform levels in Jatiúca Beach may also be caused by aquifer contamination or, more likely, from tide washing of contaminated sand. Both of these hypotheses will be further investigated. PMID:26691459

  6. Total Coliforms and Escherichia coli in Surface and Subsurface Water from a Sugarcane Agroecosystem in Veracruz, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Valente Megchún-García; Cesáreo Landeros-Sánchez; Alejandra Soto-Estrada; María del Refugio Castañeda-Chávez; Juan Pablo Martínez-Dávila; Iouri Nikolskii-Gavrilov; Itzel Galaviz-Villa; Fabiola Lango-Reynoso

    2015-01-01

    Water contamination is a phenomenon of global concern resulting from human activities. Coliform bacteria reduce water quality and negatively affect public health. The pollution of surface and groundwater by coliform bacteria, including Escherichia coli, originate, in general, from point sources of pollution derived from human settlements, such as those located in Module I-1, Irrigation District 035, La Antigua, Veracruz, Mexico. The objective of this study was to assess the level of contamina...

  7. Pengaruh Ketebalan Media dan Rate filtrasi pada Sand Filter dalam Menurunkan Kekeruhan dan Total Coliform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deni Maryani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pada penelitian ini dilakukan proses filtrasi dengan menggunakan sand filter sebagai salah satu metode dalam pengolahan air bersih. Pada sand filter proses penyaringan terjadi pada media filter yang sangat halus, seperti media filter pada unit slow sand filter. Kecepatan penyaringan yang diinginkan pada sand filter ini adalah kecepatan seperti pada unit rapid sand filter. Sehingga sand filter ini adalah penggabungan antara kelebihan yang dimiliki slow sand filter dan rapid sand filter. Variasi pada penelitian ini yaitu: tebal media pasir 80 cm dengan rate filtrasi 5 m3/m2.jam, tebal media pasir 80 cm dengan rate filtrasi 7,5 m3/m2.jam, tebal media pasir 100 cm dengan rate filtrasi 5 m3/m2.jam, tebal media pasir 100 cm dengan rate filtrasi 7,5 m3/m2.jam, tebal media pasir 120 cm dengan rate filtrasi 5 m3/m2.jam dan tebal media pasir 120 cm dengan rate filtrasi 7,5 m3/m2.jam. Pada penelitian ini digunakan air baku yaitu air Kali Surabaya dengan nilai rata-rata total coliform 90.000 per 100 ml sampel dan nilai rata-rata kekeruhan 87,4 NTU. Dihasilkan bahwa penyisihan total coliform pada variasi tebal media 120 cm dan rate filtrasi 5 m3/m2/jam dengan nilai efisiensi sebesar 99% dan kekeruhan paling baik terjadi pada variasi panjang variasi tebal media 100 cm dan rate filtrasi 5 m3/m2/jam dengan nilai efisiensi sebesar 98,27%.

  8. Avaliação do padrão coliformes a 45ºC e comparação da eficiência das técnicas dos tubos múltiplos e Petrifilm EC na detecção de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em alimentos Coliforms at 45ºc and comparison of most probable number method and Petrifilm EC for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli of foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Coliformes fecais são definidos como coliformes capazes de fermentar a lactose com produção de gás em 48 h a 45ºC. Escherichia coli, juntamente com algumas cepas de Enterobacter e Klebsiella, podem apresentar essas características. Entretanto, apenas a presença de Escherichia coli em alimentos indica contaminação fecal por ser encontrada em grande quantidade no trato gastrointestinal do homem e animais de sangue quente, não sendo isolada normalmente em outros nichos. A denominação clássica de coliformes fecais foi alterada para coliformes a 45ºC, na Resolução nº 12 da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a presença de E. coli entre os coliformes a 45ºC e comparar a eficiência das técnicas dos tubos múltiplos e Petrifilm EC na detecção de coliformes totais e E. coli em queijo Minas, lingüiça frescal, hortaliças e fubá. Petrifilm EC mostrou-se mais sensível na detecção de E. coli em relação ao método de tubos múltiplos, o qual apresentou resultados falso-negativos ou contagens subestimadas de E. coli, principalmente para amostras de alimentos de origem animal. Petrifilm EC foi o mais eficiente e prático, sendo um método alternativo adequado para a enumeração de coliformes totais e E. coli em alimentos.Fecal coliforms are defined as coliforms that ferment lactose with gas production within 48 hours at 45ºC. Escherichia coli and some strains of Enterobacter and Klebsiella show these same characteristics. However, only the presence of E. coli can indicate fecal contamination of foods, because it is abundantly found in the intestinal tract of all warm-blooded animals, including the humans, and it is not usually found in others niches. The classic denomination of fecal coliforms was changed to coliforms at 45ºC in the Resolution nº 12/2001 of the National Surveillance Agency of Brazil. The objectives of this study were to analyse the presence of E. coli among the coliforms at 45ºC and to compare the methods of Most Probable Number Method (MPN and Petrifilm EC in their efficiency to detect E. coli in Minas cheese, sausage, fresh vegetables and corn flower samples. Petrifilm EC was more accurate method than MNP method, which presented false negative results or underestimation of E. coli. In conclusion, Petrifilm EC was an efficient and practical method to detect E. coli. Therefore, it may be alternatively used for enumeration of total coliforms and E. coli in foods.

  9. Avaliação do padrão coliformes a 45ºC e comparação da eficiência das técnicas dos tubos múltiplos e Petrifilm EC na detecção de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em alimentos / Coliforms at 45ºc and comparison of most probable number method and Petrifilm EC for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli of foods

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.P., Silva; D.R., Cavalli; T.C.R.M., Oliveira.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Coliformes fecais são definidos como coliformes capazes de fermentar a lactose com produção de gás em 48 h a 45ºC. Escherichia coli, juntamente com algumas cepas de Enterobacter e Klebsiella, podem apresentar essas características. Entretanto, apenas a presença de Escherichia coli em alimentos indic [...] a contaminação fecal por ser encontrada em grande quantidade no trato gastrointestinal do homem e animais de sangue quente, não sendo isolada normalmente em outros nichos. A denominação clássica de coliformes fecais foi alterada para coliformes a 45ºC, na Resolução nº 12 da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a presença de E. coli entre os coliformes a 45ºC e comparar a eficiência das técnicas dos tubos múltiplos e Petrifilm EC na detecção de coliformes totais e E. coli em queijo Minas, lingüiça frescal, hortaliças e fubá. Petrifilm EC mostrou-se mais sensível na detecção de E. coli em relação ao método de tubos múltiplos, o qual apresentou resultados falso-negativos ou contagens subestimadas de E. coli, principalmente para amostras de alimentos de origem animal. Petrifilm EC foi o mais eficiente e prático, sendo um método alternativo adequado para a enumeração de coliformes totais e E. coli em alimentos. Abstract in english Fecal coliforms are defined as coliforms that ferment lactose with gas production within 48 hours at 45ºC. Escherichia coli and some strains of Enterobacter and Klebsiella show these same characteristics. However, only the presence of E. coli can indicate fecal contamination of foods, because it is [...] abundantly found in the intestinal tract of all warm-blooded animals, including the humans, and it is not usually found in others niches. The classic denomination of fecal coliforms was changed to coliforms at 45ºC in the Resolution nº 12/2001 of the National Surveillance Agency of Brazil. The objectives of this study were to analyse the presence of E. coli among the coliforms at 45ºC and to compare the methods of Most Probable Number Method (MPN) and Petrifilm EC in their efficiency to detect E. coli in Minas cheese, sausage, fresh vegetables and corn flower samples. Petrifilm EC was more accurate method than MNP method, which presented false negative results or underestimation of E. coli. In conclusion, Petrifilm EC was an efficient and practical method to detect E. coli. Therefore, it may be alternatively used for enumeration of total coliforms and E. coli in foods.

  10. Determinación de microorganismos indicadores de calidad sanitaria. Coliformes totales, coliformes fecales y aerobios mesófilos en agua potable envasada y distribuida en San Diego, estado Carabobo, Venezuela. / Determination of sanitary quality index microorganisms. Total coliforms, fecal coliforms and aerobic mesophiles in drinking water bottle and distributed in San Diego, Carabobo state, Venezuela.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J, Silva; L, Ramírez; A, Alfieri; G, Rivas; M, Sánchez.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de agua potable envasada contaminada con microorganismos patógenos puede ocasionar enfermedades de origen entérico. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar y comparar, mediante dos métodos de análisis, la presencia de microorganismos indicadores de calidad sanitaria, tales como colifor [...] mes totales, coliformes fecales y aerobios mesófilos, en dos marcas comerciales de agua potable, distribuidas en San Diego, estado Carabobo, Venezuela. Para ello se recolectaron 30 muestras de agua potable en presentación de bidones de 20 litros de capacidad, divididas en 15 muestras marca A y 15 marca B. Para la identificación microbiológica se emplearon el método rápido Petrifilm y el método tradicional de siembra en profundidad según las especificaciones del Método Estándar para el Análisis de Aguas Potables y las normas nacionales COVENIN. Los resultados obtenidos no mostraron diferencias significativas para el recuento microbiológico de coliformes totales y de aerobios mesófilos, por el método tradicional de siembra en profundidad y el método rápido de siembra en placas Petrifilm (r = 0,9), para las marcas de agua A y B (p = 0,5). Tres muestras (13%) presentaron recuentos menores de 10 µfc/ml para coliformes totales para la marca de agua A, y siete (47%) para la marca B. Ninguna muestra presentó coliformes fecales. En conclusión, ambos métodos siguen siendo de elección para el análisis de agua potable envasada, y aunque el método de Petrifilm presente ciertas ventajas con respecto al método tradicional de siembra en profundidad, este último sigue siendo el más utilizado en la mayoría de los laboratorios de análisis microbiológicos. Ambas marcas de agua potable presentaron recuentos microbiológicos fuera de especificaciones, según las recomendaciones de las normas respectivas, por lo que su consumo puede representar un riesgo para la salud del consumidor. Abstract in english The consumption of polluted drinking water bottles with pathogen microorganisms, can cause enteric origin illnesses. The aim of this work was to determine and to compare, by two analysis methods, the presence of sanitary quality index microorganisms, such as total coliforms, fecal coliforms and aero [...] bic mesophiles, in two registered trade-marks of drinking water, distributed in San Diego, Carabobo State, Venezuela. Thirty samples of drinking water were gathered in 20 liters capacity drums presentation, divided in 15 samples brand A and 15 samples brand B respectively. For the microbiological identification, we used the Petrifilm quick test and the traditional method of depth seeding, according to the Standard Methods for the Analysis of Waters specifications and the COVENIN national norms. For the microbiological recount of total coliforms and aerobic mesophiles, the results did not show significant differences for the traditional method of depth seeding and the Petrifilm plates quick test seeding (r = 0,9), for the water brands A and B (p= 0,5). Three samples (13%) presented smaller recounts than 10 UFC/ml for total coliforms for water brand A, and seven (47%) for brand B. No sample presented fecal coliforms. In conclusion, both methods keep on being election for the analysis of bottle drinking water bottle, and although Petrifilm test presents certain advantages regarding the traditional method of depth seeding, this last one continues being the more used method of analysis in most of microbiological laboratories. Both registered trade-marks of drinking water presented microorganisms recounts outside of specifications, according to the recommendations of the respective norms, therefore, their consumption can represent a risk for the consumer’s health.

  11. ENUMERATION OF TOTAL COLIFORMS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI ON BROILER CHICKENS BY WHOLE CARCASS RINSING AND AN ALTERNATIVE SCRAPE METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experiment was conducted to compare the whole carcass rinse method (WCR) versus scraping the breast skin or back skin for enumeration of total coliforms and E. coli. In each of two replicate trials, four pre-chill broiler carcasses were collected from two different commercial processing plants. W...

  12. Study on the Total Coliforms Count and Coli Titter in the Waters of Kardzhali Reservoir, Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Y. Todorov

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine TC (total coliforms and coli titter from two sampling stations in the aquatory of Kardzhali Dam Lake and one station in River Arda, in August, 2011. The values of the TC index in the reservoir vary from 1900±674 cfu/100ml in station I, to 1293±194 cfu/100ml in station II, while the TC value of River Arda reaches 1698±134 cfu/100ml. In Reservoir Kardzhali, the smallest volume of water in which Escherichia coli cells were found, varies between 5 and 15 ml, while for the River Arda the value of coli titter is equal to 1. With highest percentage, regarding the presence of microbiological species in the reservoir waters, is the genus Klebsiella (70%, followed by Citrobacter (15%, Enterobacter (10% and Serratia (5%, respectively represented by the species Klebsiella oxytoca, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter cloacae and Serattia marcescens. In the river Arda two genuses were found - Serratia (50% and Salmonella (50%.

  13. Total Coliforms and Turbidity Removal of Water in the Continuous Sand Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Mahvi

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The continuous filter is a kind of sand filter, which will operate without any interruptions for backwashing and also it accepts high-suspended solid levels in feed stream. Fouled sand is continuously removed from the filter bed, washed and recycled back without interruption with filtration process. Various samples of water with certain amounts of turbidity enter through a feed pipe and being distributed to the filter. A central column runs from top to bottom of the filter. The water is led through an outer tube in the column by a set of radial, distributor arms. The polluted water flows up ward through the sand bed. The water emerges; clean, in the top section of the tank, and eventually spills over a weir, and then inters into a discharge pipe. In this research, the continuous sand filter was studied to determine its disinfection efficiency in addition to turbidity removal. The results showed that the filtered water had a high quality and the turbidity reduction was 95.5 %. Inspecting the work of the filter had revealed that the removal rates of coliforms and microbial colonies were 99.67 % and 98.99 % respectively. On the other hand, by the use of direct filtration, turbidity reduction was over 97 %. In direct filtration, drinking water with less than 1 NTU turbidity was provided. This continuous sand filter has the advantage of stable operation and more energy saving as compared to the conventional ones.

  14. Inactivation and injury of total coliform bacteria after primary disinfection of drinking water by TiO2 photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the potential application of TiO2 photocatalysis as primary disinfection system of drinking water was investigated in terms of coliform bacteria inactivation and injury. As model water the effluent of biological denitrification unit for nitrate removal from groundwater, which is characterized by high organic matter and bacteria release, was used. The injury of photocatalysis on coliform bacteria was characterized by means of selective (mEndo) and less selective (mT7) culture media. Different catalyst loadings as well as photolysis and adsorption effects were investigated. Photocatalysis was effective in coliform bacteria inactivation (91-99% after 60 min irradiation time, depending on both catalyst loading and initial density of coliform bacteria detected by mEndo), although no total removal was observed after 60 min irradiation time. The contribution of adsorption mechanism was significant (60-98% after 60 min, depending on catalyst loading) compared to previous investigations probably due to the nature of source water rich in particulate organic matter and biofilm. Photocatalysis process did not result in any irreversible injury (98.8% being the higher injury) under investigated conditions, thus a bacteria regrowth may take place under optimum environment conditions if any final disinfection process (e.g., chlorine or chlorine dioxide) is not used.

  15. ANÁLISIS DE LA CONTAMINACIÓN MICROBIOLÓGICA (COLIFORMES TOTALES Y FECALES EN LA BAHÍA DE SANTA MARTA, CARIBE COLOMBIANO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saavedra Lina

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de realizar un análisis del nivel de contaminación microbiológica y de las principales fuentes de contaminación en la Bahía de Santa Marta (BSM, se colectaron muestras de agua para medir las concentraciones de coliformes totales y fecales en 11 estaciones y dos niveles de profundidad (1 y 20 m. Para la época de mayores precipitaciones se encontraron altos valores de coliformes totales y fecales, en los dos niveles de profundidad; presentándose una condición similar para la época seca. Con base a una escala conceptual se obtuvo que la BSM presenta un grado de contaminación medio para actividades de contacto primario (natación y buceo, sin embargo, existen varias fuentes de contaminación (emisario submarino, río, puerto marítimo, entre otras que están generando un alto impacto sobre este ecosistema. Los altos valores de contaminación que se registran en la BSM se encuentran asociados a la proximidad que tiene esta a las zonas urbanas.

  16. Evaluation of colilert-marine water for detection of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in the marine environment.

    OpenAIRE

    Palmer, C.J.; Tsai, Y L; Lang, A L; Sangermano, L R

    1993-01-01

    A test that allows for early detection of fecally contaminated coastal water would enhance public health protection. Colilert-Marine Water (Colilert-MW; Environetics, Branford, Conn.) is a rapid 24-h test that has recently been developed to detect total coliforms and Escherichia coli in coastal water. We performed a premarketing evaluation of the Colilert-MW product, testing it in parallel with the multiple tube fermentation (MTF) method for 86 coastal water samples in southern California. St...

  17. Assessment of the Water Quality in Buhisan, Bulacao and Lahug Rivers, Cebu, Philippines Using Fecal and Total Coliform as Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eukene Bensig

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the water quality of Buhisan, Bulacao and Lahug rivers in Cebu, Philippines using coliforms as indicators. Monthly sampling started from November 2011 to April 2012 in the upstream, midstream and downstream stations. The multiple tube fermentation technique was used for the analysis of coli forms. High total and fecal coli form counts were observed in the three rivers from February to April, but the difference in values across time was not significant. Fecal coli form counts of Buhisan and Bulacao rivers differed significantly across sampling stations. This was most likely due to the low fecal coli form (FC values in the upstream compared with the midstream and downstream. The generally high FC and TC levels throughout the sampling period confirmed the presence of fecal pollution in the rivers. Organic pollution and the presence of coli forms could be related to the accumulation of waste water due to high impact human activities across the river networks. It is therefore recommended to conduct an inventory and monitor non-point sources of water pollution, establish waste water treatment measures and enforce policies for river protection.

  18. ANÁLISIS DE LA CONTAMINACIÓN MICROBIOLÓGICA (COLIFORMES TOTALES Y FECALES EN LA BAHÍA DE SANTA MARTA, CARIBE COLOMBIANO Analysis Of The Microbiological Contamination (Total And Fecales Coliforms In The Bay Of Santa Marta, Colombian Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LINA MARÍA RAMOS-ORTEGA

    Full Text Available Con el fin de realizar un análisis del nivel de contaminación microbiológica y de las principales fuentes de contaminación en la Bahía de Santa Marta (BSM, se colectaron muestras de agua para medir las concentraciones de coliformes totales y fecales en 11 estaciones y dos niveles de profundidad (1 y 20 m. Para la época de mayores precipitaciones se encontraron altos valores de coliformes totales y fecales, en los dos niveles de profundidad; presentándose una condición similar para la época seca. Con base a una escala conceptual se obtuvo que la BSM presenta un grado de contaminación medio para actividades de contacto primario (natación y buceo, sin embargo, existen varias fuentes de contaminación (emisario submarino, río, puerto marítimo, entre otras que están generando un alto impacto sobre este ecosistema. Los altos valores de contaminación que se registran en la BSM se encuentran asociados a la proximidad que tiene esta a las zonas urbanas.With the purpose of making an analysis of the microbiological level of contamination and the main sources of contamination in the Bay of Santa Marta (BSM, water samples were collected to measure the concentrations of total and fecals coliforms in 11 stations and two levels of depth (1 and 20 m. For the time of greater precipitations were stops values of total and fecals coliforms, in both depth levels; appearing a similar condition for the dry time. Based on a conceptual scale it was obtained that the BSM presents an average degree of contamination for activities of primary contact (swimming and diving, nevertheless, exist several sources of contamination (submarine emissary, river, seaport, among others that are generating a high impact on this ecosystem. The high values of contamination that are registered in the BSM find associate to the proximity that has this to the urban zones.

  19. LISTERIA SPP., COLIFORMES TOTAIS E FECAIS E E.COLI NO LEITE CRU E PASTEURIZADO DE UMA INDÚSTRIA DE LATICÍNIOS, NO ESTADO DA PARAÍBA (BRASIL) LISTERIA SPP., TOTAL COLIFORM, FECAL COLIFORM AND E.COLI ON RAW AND PASTEURIZED MILK ON A DAIRY INDUSTRY, (PARAÍBA, BRAZIL)

    OpenAIRE

    Raïssa Mayer Ramalho CATÃO; Beatriz Susana Ovruski de CEBALLOS

    2001-01-01

    Investigou-se a qualidade microbiológica do leite in natura e na linha de produção (leite recém-pasteurizado e leite ensacado), de uma usina de beneficiamento em Campina Grande-PB. Foi pesquisada a presença de Listeria spp. e sua diversidade de espécies, os níveis de coliformes totais (CT), coliformes fecais (CF) e Escherichia coli. Analisou-se um total de 75 amostras de leite, sendo 45 de leite cru, 15 de leite recém-pasteurizado e 15 de leite ensacado. Os resultados foram reunidos em dois g...

  20. Comparison of membrane filter, multiple-fermentation-tube, and presence-absence techniques for detecting total coliforms in small community water systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobs, N J; Zeigler, W L; Reed, F C; Stukel, T. A.; Rice, E W

    1986-01-01

    Methods for detecting total coliform bacteria in drinking water were compared using 1,483 different drinking water samples from 15 small community water systems in Vermont and New Hampshire. The methods included the membrane filter (MF) technique, a 10-tube fermentation tube (FT) technique, and the presence-absence (P-A) test. Each technique was evaluated using a 100-ml drinking water sample. Of the 1,483 samples tested, 336 (23%) contained coliforms as indicated by either one, two, or all th...

  1. Evaluation of Petrifilm™ EC and HS for total coliforms and Escherichia coli enumeration in water Avaliação do Petrifilm™ EC e HS para enumeração de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em água

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanerli Beloti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Petrifilm™ EC and HS were compared to the MPN method to determine their efficacy to enumerate total coliforms and E. coli in 145 samples of water (76 water in natura, 69 drinking water. For water in natura, Petrifilm™ HS and EC showed good correlation with MPN method. In chlorinated water (Petrifilm™ EC e HS foram comparados ao método do Número Mais Provável (NMP para determinar sua eficiência na enumeração de coliformes totais e E. coli em 145 amostras de água (76 de água in natura e 69 de água de abastecimento. Em água in natura, Petrifilm™ HS e EC mostraram boa correlação com o método de NMP. Em água clorada (< 20 col/100 mL e negativas a concordância foi baixa. Para enumeração de E. coli, Petrifilm™ EC mostrou boa correlação com o método de NMP. Os resultados indicaram que Petrifilm™ EC e HS podem ser usados com segurança para enumeração de coliformes totais e E. coli em água, desde que as contagens esperadas sejam maiores que 20/100 mL.

  2. Evaluation of Petrifilm™ EC and HS for total coliforms and Escherichia coli enumeration in water / Avaliação do Petrifilm™ EC e HS para enumeração de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em água

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanerli, Beloti; Juliana Aparecida de, Souza; Márcia de Aguiar Ferreira, Barros; Luís Augusto, Nero; Marcos Rodrigues de, Mattos; Viviane Vieira, Gusmão; Luciane Bilia de, Moraes.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Petrifilm™ EC e HS foram comparados ao método do Número Mais Provável (NMP) para determinar sua eficiência na enumeração de coliformes totais e E. coli em 145 amostras de água (76 de água in natura e 69 de água de abastecimento). Em água in natura, Petrifilm™ HS e EC mostraram boa correlação com o m [...] étodo de NMP. Em água clorada ( Abstract in english Petrifilm™ EC and HS were compared to the MPN method to determine their efficacy to enumerate total coliforms and E. coli in 145 samples of water (76 water in natura, 69 drinking water). For water in natura, Petrifilm™ HS and EC showed good correlation with MPN method. In chlorinated water ([...] /100 mL and negatives) the agreement was low. For E.coli enumeration, Petrifilm™ EC showed a good correlation with MPN method. The results indicated that Petrifilm™ EC and HS are accurate to enumerate coliforms and E. coli in water when the expected counts are higher than 20/100 mL.

  3. Comparison of the recoveries of Escherichia coli and total coliforms from drinking water by the MI agar method and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-approved membrane filter method.

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner, K P; Rankin, C.C.; Sivaganesan, M.; Scarpino, P V

    1996-01-01

    Drinking water regulations under the Final Coliform Rule require that total coliform-positive drinking water samples be examined for the presence of Escherichia coli or fecal coliforms. The current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-approved membrane filter (MF) method for E. coli requires two media, an MF transfer, and a total incubation time of 28 h. A newly developed MF method, the MI agar method, containing indoxyl-beta-D-glucuronide and 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside for...

  4. Total removal of coliforms and E. coli from domestic sewage by high-rate pond mass culture of Scenedesmus obliquus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastian, S.; Nair, K.V.K.

    1984-01-01

    The single celled alga Scenedesmus obliquus was cultured in biologically treated domestic sewage in small experimental ponds (4.5 metres squared) with a depth of 25 cm. Attention was focused on the removal of total coliforms and E. coli - indicators of water pollution by human faecal contamination - from sewage effluent using a mass culture of microalgae (Scenedesmus obliquus). Batch, continuous and intermittent flow systems were studied. Results of batch culture experiments showed total removal of E. coli within 4 days. In the control ponds, in which Scenedesmus obliquus was not inoculated, and natural growth allowed to take place, E. coli was detected even on the tenth day. The results obtained confirmed reports in the literature which concluded that high pH values (above 9.4) were responsible for E. coli removal; pH values were always higher than 9.4 on the third day, reaching a maximum of 11.1 around the fifth day in batch culture systems. Semi-continuous flow culture systems were operated under three dilution rates: 0.5 day/sup -1/, 0.33 day/sup -1/ and 0.25 day/sup -1/. Results indicated that total removal of E. coli was not achieved even at a dilution rate of 0.25 day /sup -1/, even though pH values above 10.0 were observed. Under intermittently fed systems, two dilution rates, 0.5 day/sup -1/ and 0.25/sup -1/, with respective feeding intervals of 1 and 2 days, were studied. Total removal of E. coli was observed at a dilution rate of 0.25 day/sup -1/. These results have proved that a contact time of 2 days at pH 11.0 is adequate for total removal of E. coli from high-rate algal ponds.

  5. Evaluation of Petrifilm™ EC and HS for total coliforms and Escherichia coli enumeration in water Avaliação do Petrifilm™ EC e HS para enumeração de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em água

    OpenAIRE

    Vanerli Beloti; Juliana Aparecida Souza; Márcia Aguiar Ferreira Barros; Luís Augusto Nero; Marcos Rodrigues de Mattos; Viviane Vieira Gusmão; Luciane Bilia Moraes

    2003-01-01

    Petrifilm™ EC and HS were compared to the MPN method to determine their efficacy to enumerate total coliforms and E. coli in 145 samples of water (76 water in natura, 69 drinking water). For water in natura, Petrifilm™ HS and EC showed good correlation with MPN method. In chlorinated water (< 20 col/100 mL and negatives) the agreement was low. For E.coli enumeration, Petrifilm™ EC showed a good correlation with MPN method. The results indicated that Petrifilm™ EC and HS are accurate to enumer...

  6. Coliform mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Hogan, Joe; Larry Smith, K.

    2003-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria that commonly cause bovine mastitis are classified as environmental pathogens. The point sources of coliform bacteria that cause infections include bedding materials, soil, manure and other organic matter in the environment of cows. Rates of coliform mastitis increase during climatic periods that maximize populations in the environment. The portal of entry into the mammary gland for Gram-negative bacteria is the teat canal. Once in the gland, bacteria must utilize avail...

  7. Avaliação do padrão coliformes a 45ºC e comparação da eficiência das técnicas dos tubos múltiplos e Petrifilm EC na detecção de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em alimentos Coliforms at 45ºc and comparison of most probable number method and Petrifilm EC for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli of foods

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, M. P.; D.R. Cavalli; T.C.R.M. Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    Coliformes fecais são definidos como coliformes capazes de fermentar a lactose com produção de gás em 48 h a 45ºC. Escherichia coli, juntamente com algumas cepas de Enterobacter e Klebsiella, podem apresentar essas características. Entretanto, apenas a presença de Escherichia coli em alimentos indica contaminação fecal por ser encontrada em grande quantidade no trato gastrointestinal do homem e animais de sangue quente, não sendo isolada normalmente em outros nichos. A denominação clássica de...

  8. Identification of strains isolated as total and fecal coliforms and comparison of both groups as indicators of fecal pollution in tropical climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, M C

    1983-06-01

    This study was undertaken to better characterize the groups of total coliforms (TC) and fecal coliforms (FC) and to evaluate both groups as indicators of fecal contamination of drinking well water in a tropical climate (The Ivory Coast, West Africa). Isolated colonies obtained as TC or FC on membrane filters were identified using the API-20E system. From the well water samples, 58 golden-green colonies with a metallic sheen isolated on Endo medium (TC) were identified as Escherichia coli (55%), Enterobacter (26%), Klebsiella (14%), Proteus (3%), and Citrobacter (2%). Among 132 colonies isolated on Endo medium as non-TC (not showing the characteristic golden metallic sheen), 10% were identified as E. coli. The 196 blue colonies isolated on M-FC medium at 44.5 degrees C (FC) were identified as E. coli (66%), Klebsiella (12%), Enterobacter (10%), Citrobacter (5%), Salmonella (3%), Serratia (3%), Proteus (2%), and Yersinia (0.5%). Among 24 nonblue colonies on M-FC medium, none were identified as E. coli. Of the colonies isolated from human feces, E. coli represents 92% of the TC and 89% of the FC. Although these results are limited, they tend to confirm the greater specificity of the fecal coliform technique over that of total coliform for the detection of fecal contamination of untreated well water. From the results presented here and the observations of other workers, it is suggested that the use of FC instead of TC should be considered as the method of choice for determining drinking water pollution of untreated groundwater supplies. PMID:6883225

  9. Coliform bacterial pollution in Rawal lake, Islamabad and its feeding streams / river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total coliform and fecal coliform are indicators of drinking water quality. The presence of fecal coliform in water indicates contamination with fecal materials of man and other animals. This paper documents the population of total coliform colonies as well as fecal coliform contamination in Rawal lake, which is one of major source of drinking water supply to inhabitants of Rawalpindi, and its feeding streams (mainly Kurang River and three perennial streams) flowing in the administrative jurisdiction of the capital city, Islamabad, Pakistan. Coliform bacteria in Rawal lake and feeding streams water was determined by membrane filtration technique. The results indicated that E. Coli population in four streams (input waters) feeding the Rawal Lake ranged from 25 - 57 (mean 36) fecal coliform per 100 mL. The Kurang River, one of the feeding streams, hosted the largest population of fecal coliform (57 fecal coliform per 100 mL). The highest population of fecal coliform (105 fecal coliform per 100 mL) in Rawal Lake surface water was observed at the confluence of Kurang River and the Lake in the vicinity of village 'New Ampler'. While in the Rawal Lake water columns, it ranged from 12 - 65 (mean 25) fecal coliform/ 100mL. The measured levels of fecal coliform bacteria are much higher than the maximum permissible levels for drinking water as recommended by WHO and US-EPA (No fecal coliform in drinking water). It is concluded that the indiscriminate amount of pollution from domestic sewage and poultry industry has seriously affected the biological quality of stream waters and the Rawal Lake waters. (author)

  10. Contagem total de bactérias e enumeração de coliformes em cortes de varejo de carne bovina e em equipamentos de supermercados / Total bacterial counts, enumeration (MPN) of coliform organisms and Escherichia coli on samples of meat retail. Cuts and boning equipamentin supermakets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alcides, Martinelli Filho; Murilo, Graner; Décio, Barbin; Expedito T. F., Silveira.

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho foi determinada a contagem total de bactérias (incubação a 32°C e a 5°C) existentes na superfície de alguns cortes de varejo de carne bovina comercializada por tres supermercados de Piracicaba, SP, bem como da superfície de diversos tipos de equipamento utilizado nas salas de de [...] sossa desses estabelecimentos. Foi determinado também o número mais provável (NMP) de coliformes totais e, para um grupo de amostras de carne, o NMP de Escherichia coli. Para um dos supermercados (o mais antigo e menos adequado sob o aspecto sanitário) foi possível constatar uma diferença significativa entre as contagens totais em cortes recebidos já desossados pelo estabelecimento, a favor destes, e as contagens em cortes preparados na sala de desossa. O equipamento, tanto no estado considerado limpo (após o dia de trabalho) e aquele em uso apresentaram contagens totais excessivas; não houve diferença significativa entre um e outro caso, e, em ambos, a temperatura de incubação 32°C resultou em valores estatisticamente superiores aos obtidos com a incubação a 5°C. As contagens provenientes de análises de superfícies de madeira foram significativamente mais elevadas que as verificadas em superfícies metálicas (serra elétrica, facas, afiadores). A ocorrência de coliformes totais foi geral, tanto na carne como no equipamento, muitas vezes em números elevados. Em amostras de carne, analisadas quanto à presença e ao número de coliformes totais e de Escherichia coli, verificou-se que 96% daquelas positivas para coliformes totais também o eram para esta bactéria. Atras de material em uso foram positivas quanto à ocorrência de coliformes totais. Tal como ocorreu a carne, o número mais possível (NMP) assumiu, em vários casos, elevados valores. Embora não comprovado estatisticamente, os resultados sugerem uma maior ocorrência desse grupo de microrganismos nas superfícies de madeira (mesa e ou cepo). Abstract in english Total bacterial counts (32°C and 5°C) and most probable numbers (MPN) of coliform organisms and E. coli were determined for samples of three retail bovine meat cuts and cutting and boning equipment three supermarkets. In the oldest of these, total counts were higher on meat cuts prepared in the cutt [...] ing room than on meat boned in the packing plant. Total counts were generally high on the equipment (higher for incubation at 32°C), with the wooden surfaces (tables, cutting boards) showing significaitly higher numbers than the metallic ones (eletric saw, knives). No differences could be found between counts on "clean" equipment and counts on equipment being-used. Coliform organisms were generally present; when meat samples were tested for this group of bacteria and for E. coli, it was found that 96% of the samples were positive for both.

  11. Evaluation of the efficiency of the application of uv for microbial inactivation (total coliforms and escherichia coli in a wastewater treatment plant (Sucuri In Cuiabá/MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais dos Santos Borges

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate a UV disinfection system process, in real scale, in Sucuri WWTP, Cuiabá/MT/Brazil, for total coliforms and Escherichia coli. The effluent came from anaerobium treatment (UASB, followed by aerobium treatment (ASBF. The system’s performance was evaluated from July to November, 2008. The experiments followed physical-chemical analysis to evaluate the influence of pH and Total Suspended Solids (TSS parameters in the UV efficiency, beyond total phosphorous, to verify the foam formation observed in UASB reactor and after disinfection. The results for this research suggested deficiencies in inactivation process for coliforms: it was one logarithm unit of removal for each. The pH parameter was in the average of 7,5. About TSS, the system presented 52% of removal efficiency, which is one of the factors that causes the system deficiencies. About the variable total phosphorous, it was observed that there was none removal of the parameter. Although it’s been reported that the limitant effect of the low quality of the sewage in the UV’s performance, in practice, even under unfavorable TSS conditions, the results showed the viability about using this method in real treatment systems. Keywords: UV desinfection; UASB reactor; domestic effluent.

  12. Coliforms in aerosols generated by a municipal solid waste recovery system.

    OpenAIRE

    Lembke, L L; Kniseley, R N

    1980-01-01

    Airborne total and fecal coliform concentrations averaged 2.1 X 10(3) and 9.9 X 10(2)/m3, respectively, inside an operating solid waste recovery system. Installation of dust control equipment reduced these levels by 50%. Frequency of recovery of coliforms also dropped by 15%.

  13. Effect of various oral dose levels of a trimethoprim/sulphadiazine mixture on Bordetella bronchiseptica infection and on the proliferation of trimethoprim-resistant faecal coliforms in pigs.

    OpenAIRE

    Dassanayake, L.; White, G.

    1983-01-01

    When a 1:5 mixture of trimethoprim (TMP) and sulphadiazine was fed to pigs intra-nasally infected with bordetella bronchiseptica, 10 mg/kg/day was shown to be highly effective in suppressing the organism. This dose level had little effect on numbers of TMP-resistant coliforms in faeces, but oral doses of 30 mg/kg/day eventually selected a resistant population. It is suggested that the proliferation of resistant coliforms would be minimized by administration of the lowest oral dose rates of an...

  14. EFFECT OF BROILER AGE, FEED WITHDRAWAL AND TRANSPORTATION ON LEVELS OF COLIFORMS, CAMPYLOBACTER, E. COLI AND SALMONELLA ON CARCASSES BEFORE AND AFTER IMMERSION CHILLING

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of bird age at slaughter, feed withdrawal and transportation on levels of coliforms, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli and Salmonella on carcasses before and after immersion chilling. Broilers were processed at 42, 49 and 56 d-of-age after either a 12 h...

  15. Full-scale studies of factors related to coliform regrowth in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeChevallier, M W; Welch, N J; Smith, D B

    1996-07-01

    An 18-month survey of 31 water systems in North America was conducted to determine the factors that contribute to the occurrence of coliform bacteria in drinking water. The survey included analysis of assimilable organic carbon (AOC), coliforms, disinfectant residuals, and operational parameters. Coliform bacteria were detected in 27.8% of the 2-week sampling periods and were associated with the following factors: filtration, temperature, disinfectant type and disinfectant level, AOC level, corrosion control, and operational characteristics. Four systems in the study that used unfiltered surface water accounted for 26.6% of the total number of bacterial samples collected but 64.3% (1,013 of 1,576) of the positive coliform samples. The occurrence of coliform bacteria was significantly higher when water temperatures were > 15 degrees C. For filtered systems that used free chlorine, 0.97% of 33,196 samples contained coliform bacteria, while 0.51% of 35,159 samples from chloraminated systems contained coliform bacteria. The average density of coliform bacteria was 35 times higher in free-chlorinated systems than in chloraminated water (0.60 CFU/100 ml for free-chlorinated water compared with 0.017 CFU/100 ml for chloraminated water). Systems that maintained dead-end free chlorine levels of corrosion inhibitor and limited the amount of unlined cast iron pipe had fewer coliform bacteria. Several operational characteristics of the treatment process or the distribution system were also associated with increased rates of coliform occurrence. The study concludes that the occurrence of coliform bacteria within a distribution system is dependent upon a complex interaction of chemical, physical, operational, and engineering parameters. No one factor could account for all of the coliform occurrences, and one must consider all of the parameters described above in devising a solution to the regrowth problem. PMID:8779557

  16. Total coliforms, arsenic and cadmium exposure through drinking water in the Western Region of Ghana: application of multivariate statistical technique to groundwater quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affum, Andrews Obeng; Osae, Shiloh Dede; Nyarko, Benjamin Jabez Botwe; Afful, Samuel; Fianko, Joseph Richmond; Akiti, Tetteh Thomas; Adomako, Dickson; Acquaah, Samuel Osafo; Dorleku, Micheal; Antoh, Emmanuel; Barnes, Felix; Affum, Enoch Acheampong

    2015-02-01

    In recent times, surface water resource in the Western Region of Ghana has been found to be inadequate in supply and polluted by various anthropogenic activities. As a result of these problems, the demand for groundwater by the human populations in the peri-urban communities for domestic, municipal and irrigation purposes has increased without prior knowledge of its water quality. Water samples were collected from 14 public hand-dug wells during the rainy season in 2013 and investigated for total coliforms, Escherichia coli, mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and physicochemical parameters. Multivariate statistical analysis of the dataset and a linear stoichiometric plot of major ions were applied to group the water samples and to identify the main factors and sources of contamination. Hierarchal cluster analysis revealed four clusters from the hydrochemical variables (R-mode) and three clusters in the case of water samples (Q-mode) after z score standardization. Principal component analysis after a varimax rotation of the dataset indicated that the four factors extracted explained 93.3 % of the total variance, which highlighted salinity, toxic elements and hardness pollution as the dominant factors affecting groundwater quality. Cation exchange, mineral dissolution and silicate weathering influenced groundwater quality. The ranking order of major ions was Na(+)?>?Ca(2+)?>?K(+)?>?Mg(2+) and Cl(-)?>?SO4 (2-)?>?HCO3 (-). Based on piper plot and the hydrogeology of the study area, sodium chloride (86 %), sodium hydrogen carbonate and sodium carbonate (14 %) water types were identified. Although E. coli were absent in the water samples, 36 % of the wells contained total coliforms (Enterobacter species) which exceeded the WHO guidelines limit of zero colony-forming unit (CFU)/100 mL of drinking water. With the exception of Hg, the concentration of As and Cd in 79 and 43 % of the water samples exceeded the WHO guideline limits of 10 and 3 ?g/L for drinking water, respectively. Reported values in some areas in Nigeria, Malaysia and USA indicated that the maximum concentration of Cd was low and As was high in this study. Health risk assessment of Cd, As and Hg based on average daily dose, hazard quotient and cancer risk was determined. In conclusion, multiple natural processes and anthropogenic activities from non-point sources contributed significantly to groundwater salinization, hardness, toxic element and microbiological contamination of the study area. The outcome of this study can be used as a baseline data to prioritize areas for future sustainable development of public wells. PMID:25600401

  17. Antibiotic resistance of neustonic and planktonic fecal coliform bacteria isolated from two water basins differing in the level of pollution / Resistencia a antibióticos de bacterias coliformes fecales, nesutónicas y planctónicas, aisladas de dos cuerpos de agua con distinto nivel de contaminación

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Piotr, Skórczewski; Zbigniew Jan, Mudryk; Marta, Jankowska; Piotr, Perli& #324; ski; Marta, Zdanowicz.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la resistencia a antibióticos de bacterias coliformes fecales aisladas de la microcapa superficial y la capa subsuperficial de un estanque contaminado y de un lago no contaminado. Los resultados sobre la resistencia a los antimicrobianos indicaron que en el depósito de agua estudiado el n [...] ivel de bacterias coliformes fecales varío con diversos antibióticos probados. Las bacterias entéricas fueron las más resistentes a la ampicilina, clindamycina, novobiocina, penicilina y presentaron mayor sensibilidad a amikacina, gentamicina, neomicina y oxitetraciclina. Las bacterias coliformes fecales habitantes de estanques fueron más resistentes a casi todos los antibióticos probados comparados con las bacterias coliformes del lago. El índice de la resistencia múltiple a antibióticos (MAR, siglas en inglés) mostró que los valores de bacterias coliformes fecales fueron mayores en el estanque que en el lago. Por regla general, las bacterias coliformes fecales aisladas tanto en cuencas hidrográficas, como de agua del subsuelo fueron más resistentes a los antibióticos probados que las de la microcapa superficial del mismo cuerpo de agua en el que habitan. El nivel de resistencia de las bacterias a los antibióticos dependió de la estructura química de los antibióticos. Abstract in english Antibiotic resistance of fecal coliform bacteria isolated from the surface microlayer and the subsurface layer of a polluted pond and a non-polluted lake was studied. On the basis of the conducted studies it was stated that the isolated fecal coliform bacteria from both aquatic basins showed various [...] resistance to tested antibiotics. Enteric bacteria were the most resistant to ampicillin, clindmycin, novobiocin, penicillin and the most sensitive to amikacin, gentamycin, neomycin and oxytetracycline. Fecal coliform bacteria inhabiting the pond showed similar resistance to the majority of tested antibiotics than coliform bacteria isolated from the lake. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index value for fecal coliform bacteria was higher in the pond than the lake. Only in a downtown pond fecal coliform bacteria isolated from the subsurface water were more resistant to tested antibiotics than those inhabiting the surface microlayer. The antibiotic resistance level of the bacteria depended on the chemical structure of antibiotics.

  18. Effect of UV light disinfection on antibiotic-resistant coliforms in wastewater effluents.

    OpenAIRE

    Meckes, M C

    1982-01-01

    Total coliforms and total coliforms resistant to streptomycin, tetracycline, or chloramphenicol were isolated from filtered activated sludge effluents before and after UV light irradiation. Although the UV irradiation effectively disinfected the wastewater effluent, the percentage of the total surviving coliform population resistant to tetracycline or chloramphenicol was significantly higher than the percentage of the total coliform population resistant to those antibiotics before UV irradiat...

  19. Performance of three pilot-scale hybrid constructed wetlands for total coliforms and Escherichia coli removal from primary effluent - a 2-year study in a subtropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, Florentina; Carreón-Álvarez, Alejandra

    2015-06-01

    Three pilot-scale two-stage hybrid constructed wetlands were evaluated in order to compare their efficiency for total coliforms (TCol) and Escherichia coli removal and to analyze their performances in two 1-year periods of experimentation. System I consisted of a horizontal flow (HF) constructed wetland (CW) followed by a stabilization pond. System II was also configured with a HF CW as a first stage which was then followed by a vertical flow (VF) CW as a second stage. System III was configured with a VF CW followed by a HF CW. In the first year of evaluation, the HF-VF system was the most effective for TCol removal (p < 0.05) and achieved a reduction of 2.2 log units. With regard to E. coli removal, the HF-VF and VF-HF systems were the most effective (p < 0.05) with average reductions of 3.2 and 3.8 log units, respectively. In the second year, the most effective were those with a VF component for both TCol and E. coli which underwent average reductions of 2.34-2.44 and 3.44-3.74 log units, respectively. The reduction achieved in E. coli densities, in both years, satisfy the World Health Organization guidelines that require a 3-4 log unit pathogen reduction in wastewater treatment systems. PMID:26042977

  20. Incidence of Coliform in Butter

    OpenAIRE

    Ikram-ul-Haq; Nuzhat Inam; Sikander Ali; Qadeer, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    Microbial examination of 50 samples of both packed and unpacked butter was carried out. The samples were examined for total viable count, mould and yeast count, spore formers and coliform. The microbial load in the unpacked sample of butter was highest i.e., 3.8 x 106/gm - 6.6 x l06/gm. The coliform count was found maximum in unpacked sample and one of the packed sample of butter (Kausar brand) i.e., 39/ml. The unpacked sample of butter contained highest number of aerobic spore formers i.e., ...

  1. Incidence of R factors in coliform, fecal coliform, and Salmonella populations of the Red River in Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, J.B.; MacRae, W. R.; Elliott, G E

    1980-01-01

    Coliforms, fecal coliforms, and Salmonella were isolated from the Red River, Manitoba, Canada, and identified. These organisms were then examined for resistance to 12 antibiotics. Some fecal coliforms were resistant to all 12 antibiotics, and 18% of the Salmonella isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics. A total of 52.9% of the fecal coliforms resistant to three or more antibiotics were able to transfer single or multiple resistance (R) determinants to the Salmonella recipient, and...

  2. R factors in coliform-fecal coliform sewage flora of the prairies and Northwest Territories of Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    BelL, J. B.; MacRae, W. R.; Elliott, G E

    1981-01-01

    Coliform and fecal coliform populations found in the raw sewages and final sewage effluents of the prairie provinces and the Northwest Territories were examined for antibiotic resistance and the possession of R factors. It was determined that 8.91% of the total coliform and 10.80% of the fecal coliform populations carried R factors. The following numbers of combinations of R determinants were found: 39 in the Escherichia coli population, 6 in the Citrobacter population, 20 in the Enterobacter...

  3. National field evaluation of a defined substrate method for the simultaneous enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli from drinking water: comparison with the standard multiple tube fermentation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edberg, S C; Allen, M J; Smith, D B

    1988-06-01

    A defined substrate method was developed to simultaneously enumerate total coliforms and Escherichia coli from drinking waters without the need for confirmatory or completed tests. It is a new method based on technology that uses a hydrolyzable substrate as a specific indicator-nutrient for the target microbes. No equipment other than a 35 degrees C incubator and long-wavelength (366-nm) light is necessary. To perform the test, one only has to add water to the powdered ingredients in a tube or flask. If total coliforms are present in the water sample, the solution will change from its normal colorless state (no target microbes present) to yellow. The specific presence of E. coli will cause the same tube to fluoresce under a longwave (366-nm) UV lamp. The test, called Autoanalysis Colilert (AC), was compared with Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater 10-tube multiple tube fermentation (MTF) in a national evaluation. Five utilities, representing six U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regions, participated. All water samples came from distribution systems. Split samples from a wide variety of water sources were analyzed for the MPN-versus-MPN comparison. A total of 1,086 tubes were positive by MTF, and 1,279 were positive by AC. There was no statistical difference between MTF and AC. Species identifications from positive tubes confirmed the sensitivity of the AC. A national evaluation of the AC test showed that it: (i) was as sensitive as Standard Methods MTF, (ii) specifically enumerated 1 total coliform per 100 ml, in a maximum of 24 h, (iii) simultaneously enumerated 1 E. coli per 100 ml in the same analysis, (iv) was not subject to false-positive or false-negative results by heterotrophic bacteria, (v) did not require confirmatory tests, (vi) grew injured coliforms, (vii) was easy to inoculate, and (viii) was very easy to interpret. PMID:3046490

  4. Remoção de matéria orgânica, coliformes totais e nitrificação no tratamento de esgotos domésticos por filtros de areia Organic matter and total coliform removal and nitrification in the treatment of domestic wastewater by sand filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Luiz Tonetti

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Segundo o IBGE (2000, 73% dos municípios brasileiros possuem menos de 20.000 habitantes, que em sua maior parte vive na zona rural ou em pequenos núcleos urbanos. Quase a totalidade dos esgotos destas cidades é lançada nos corpos hídricos, contribuindo com o agravamento dos problemas de saúde pública e ambiental. Esses danos podem ser minimizados com o emprego de sistemas de tratamento simples, eficientes, sustentáveis e economicamente viáveis. O filtro anaeróbio com recheio de bambu combinado com filtros de areia satisfaria estas exigências, propiciando um efluente adequado para disposição nos cursos d'água ou para reúso, resguardando as fontes de água potável. A aplicação piloto deste método demonstrou que no emprego de baixas cargas de efluente anaeróbio nos filtros de areia havia uma remoção superior a 96% da DBO, adequação na emissão de coliformes totais e uma completa nitrificação. Aumentando-se as cargas, ocorria uma pequena redução da eficiência, no entanto os resultados ainda eram satisfatórios.According to IBGE (2000 73% of the Brazilian cities are considered small communities with population smaller than 20,000 inhabitants. The majority of domestic wastewater of these places is normally disposed in rivers with no treatment. As a consequence, the irregular disposal may cause health and environmental problems. To reduce this risk it is necessary to develop treatment systems that are simple, efficient, sustainable and of low cost. The treatment of wastewater using up flow anaerobic filter combined with sand filters would be able to satisfy these exigencies, producing an effluent that could be disposed in rivers or even be reused, safeguarding the sources of potable water. The system achieved BOD removal of 96% and complete nitrification for the application of low loads. The increase of the applied loads caused a reduction in the efficiency; however the final values were still satisfactory.

  5. Evaluation of the lactose Tergitol-7, m-Endo LES, Colilert 18, Readycult Coliforms 100, Water-Check-100, 3M Petrifilm EC and DryCult Coliform test methods for detection of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörman, Ari; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2006-10-01

    In this study we compared the reference membrane filtration (MF) lactose Tergitol-7 (LTTC) method ISO 9308-1:2000 with the MF m-Endo LES method SFS 3016:2001, the defined substrate chromogenic/fluorogenic Colilert 18, Readycult Coliforms and Water Check methods, and ready-made culture media, 3M Petrifilm EC and DryCult Coli methods for the detection of coliforms and Escherichia coli in various water samples. When the results of E. coli detection were compared between test methods, the highest agreement (both tests negative or positive) with the LTTC method was calculated for the m-Endo LES method (83.6%), followed by Colilert 18 (82.7%), Water-Check (81.8%) and Readycult (78.4%), whereas Petrifilm EC (70.6%) and DryCult Coli (68.9%) showed the weakest agreement. The m-Endo LES method was the only method showing no statistical difference in E. coli counts compared with the LTTC method, whereas the Colilert 18 and Readycult methods gave significantly higher counts for E. coli than the LTTC method. In general, those tests based on the analysis of a 1-ml sample (Petrifilm EC and DryCult Coli) showed weak sensitivity (39.5-52.5%) but high specificity (90.9-78.8%). PMID:16916531

  6. Comparison of methods of enumerating coliforms after UV disinfection.

    OpenAIRE

    Qualls, R G; Chang, J. C.; Ossoff, S F; Johnson, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    In view of the differences that have been found between the most-probable-number and membrane filtration methods for the recovery of coliforms from chlorinated samples, the survival of total and fecal coliforms in UV-irradiated effluent samples, as tested by the most-probable-number and standard single-step membrane filtration methods, was compared. There were no significant differences in the survival of total and fecal coliforms, as tested by the two methods. In a separate set of experiment...

  7. National Field Evaluation of a Defined Substrate Method for the Simultaneous Enumeration of Total Coliforms and Escherichia coli from Drinking Water: Comparison with the Standard Multiple Tube Fermentation Method

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    A defined substrate method was developed to simultaneously enumerate total coliforms and Escherichia coli from drinking waters without the need for confirmatory or completed tests. It is a new method based on technology that uses a hydrolyzable substrate as a specific indicator-nutrient for the target microbes. No equipment other than a 35 degrees C incubator and long-wavelength (366-nm) light is necessary. To perform the test, one only has to add water to the powdered ingredients in a tube o...

  8. Enumeration of Escherichia coli and coliforms in surface water by multiple tube fermentation and membrane filter methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, G M; Sammarco, M L; Ripabelli, G; Fanelli, I

    2000-01-01

    The current investigation was carried out in order to compare directly the multiple tube fermentation method (MTF), using standard procedures (lactose broth, LB) and the Colilert reagent, with the membrane filter method (MF) using Les Endo agar (LEA), m-faecal coliform agar (mFCA) and chromogenic coliform agar (CCA), for recovery of coliforms and Escherichia coli in 80 surface water samples. Total coliforms were isolated from 100% of samples by all methodologies. Faecal coliforms/E. coli were detected in 100% of samples by MTF methods, but only in 75.5% by MF-mFCA and in 86.2% by MF-CCA. Even if MTF-LB counts were consistently higher, the Colilert reagent accurately determined total coliforms and E. coli levels within 24 h with no additional confirmatory tests. Therefore, it could be a powerful tool for rapidly assessing possible faecal contamination and a suitable alternative to the traditional MTF and MF techniques utilized for coliform detection. PMID:11092193

  9. Contamination of Coliforms in Different Paper Currency Notes of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    M. Jakir Hosen; Dilara Islam Sarif; M. Masuder Rahman; Md. Abul Kalam Azad

    2006-01-01

    To determine the degree of contamination of taka notes, samples of the notes circulating in different local markets and people of different professions in Khulna region of Bangladesh were collected. Coliforms, the indicator organisms in taka notes were determined by multiple tube method and identified with differential media and data were analyzed. About 80±5% of old two-taka notes were contaminated with total coliforms and 16±4% of notes were found contaminated with fecal coliforms. But comp...

  10. Nutrient and Coliform Loading (NCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of available fecal coliform bacteria, fecal streptococci bacteria, and nutrient loading data. Loading for contaminants other than fecal coliform...

  11. Nutrient and Coliform Loading (NCL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of available fecal coliform bacteria, fecal streptococci bacteria, and nutrient loading data. Loading for contaminants other than fecal coliform...

  12. Arsenic presence and coliforms in drinking water of the Tecuala municipality, Nayarit, Mexico; Presencia de arsenico y coliformes en agua potable del municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora B, D.; Gonzalez A, C. A.; Medina D, I. M.; Robledo M, M. L.; Rojas G, A. E. [Universidad Autonoma de Nayarit, Secretaria de Investigacion y Posgrado, Ciudad de la Cultura Amado Nervo, 63155 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); Sanchez P, L. C.; Del Razo, L. M., E-mail: aerg81@gmail.com [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Departamento de Toxicologia, Av. IPN No. 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    Total arsenic concentrations (t As) and the presence of total and fecal coliforms in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, Mexico, were determined. The presence of t As was analyzed by means of hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Total and fecal coliforms were determined through the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. According to the results, the mean concentration of t As in Tecuala wa 15.82 {mu}g/L, in Atotonilco 19.88 {mu}g/L, in Pajaritos 21.49 {mu}g/L, in Quimichis 17.80 {mu}g/L, and in Playas de Novillero 19.79 {mu}g/L. The t As concentrations in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, are within the limit set by the Mexican official standards (25 {mu}g/L); still, they are over the limit established by the World Health Organization (10 {mu}g/L). The concentration of coliforms in water from wells 1 and 3 was 180 MPN/100 ml and 43 MPN/100 ml for well water 2. The presence of total and fecal coliforms, suggest the infiltration of sewage which could increase the levels of dissolved arsenic. The results of this study will serve as an antecedent of the water quality in Tecuala, Nayarit. (Author)

  13. Contamination of Coliforms in Different Paper Currency Notes of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jakir Hosen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the degree of contamination of taka notes, samples of the notes circulating in different local markets and people of different professions in Khulna region of Bangladesh were collected. Coliforms, the indicator organisms in taka notes were determined by multiple tube method and identified with differential media and data were analyzed. About 80±5% of old two-taka notes were contaminated with total coliforms and 16±4% of notes were found contaminated with fecal coliforms. But comparatively newer two-taka notes showed that 43±3% were contaminated with total coliforms and 5±2% were with fecal coliforms, suggesting the notion that more handled taka notes were contaminated more intensely even by fecal coliforms. Ten taka notes also represented the same pattern of results as two-taka notes, indicating that taka notes may carry enteric pathogens. This study also revealed that porsaline paper notes were easily vulnerable to coliforms contamination whereas polymer paper notes were almost free from coliforms suggesting that polymer paper notes are safer to use than porsaline paper notes.

  14. Isolation of Fecal Coliform Bacteria from the Diamondback Terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin centrata)

    OpenAIRE

    Harwood, Valerie J.; Butler, Joseph; Parrish, Danny; Wagner, Victoria

    1999-01-01

    Total and fecal coliform bacteria were isolated from the cloaca and feces of the estuarine diamondback terrapin. The majority of samples contained fecal coliforms. Escherichia coli was the predominant fecal coliform species isolated, and members of the genus Salmonella were isolated from 2 of 39 terrapins. Fecal coliform numbers are used to regulate shellfish harvests, and diamondback terrapins inhabit the brackish-water habitats where oyster beds are found; therefore, these findings have imp...

  15. Injured coliforms in drinking water.

    OpenAIRE

    McFeters, G. A.; Kippin, J S; LeChevallier, M. W.

    1986-01-01

    Coliforms were enumerated by using m-Endo agar LES and m-T7 agar in 102 routine samples of drinking water from three New England community water systems to investigate the occurrence and significance of injured coliforms. Samples included water collected immediately after conventional treatment, during the backwash cycle, at various points in the distribution system, and 1 week after the break and subsequent repair of a distribution main. Injured coliforms in these samples averaged greater th...

  16. Arsenic presence and coliforms in drinking water of the Tecuala municipality, Nayarit, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total arsenic concentrations (t As) and the presence of total and fecal coliforms in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, Mexico, were determined. The presence of t As was analyzed by means of hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Total and fecal coliforms were determined through the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. According to the results, the mean concentration of t As in Tecuala wa 15.82 ?g/L, in Atotonilco 19.88 ?g/L, in Pajaritos 21.49 ?g/L, in Quimichis 17.80 ?g/L, and in Playas de Novillero 19.79 ?g/L. The t As concentrations in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, are within the limit set by the Mexican official standards (25 ?g/L); still, they are over the limit established by the World Health Organization (10 ?g/L). The concentration of coliforms in water from wells 1 and 3 was 180 MPN/100 ml and 43 MPN/100 ml for well water 2. The presence of total and fecal coliforms, suggest the infiltration of sewage which could increase the levels of dissolved arsenic. The results of this study will serve as an antecedent of the water quality in Tecuala, Nayarit. (Author)

  17. Effects of UV light disinfection on antibiotic-resistant coliforms in wastewater effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total coliforms and total coliforms resistant to streptomycin, tetracycline, or chloramphenicol were isolated from filtered activated sludge effluents before and after UV light irradiation. Although the UV irradiation effectively disinfected the wastewater effluent, the percentage of the total surviving coliform population resistant to tetracycline or chloramphenicol was significantly higher than the percentage of the total coliform population resistant to those antibiotics before UV irradiation. This finding was attributed to the mechanism of R-factor mediated resistance to tetracycline. No significant difference was noted for the percentage of the surviving total coliform population resistant to streptomycin before or after UV irradiation. Multiple drug resistant to patterns of 300 total coliform isolates revealed that 82% were resistant to two or more antibiotics. Furthermore, 46% of these isolates were capable of transferring antibiotic resistance to a sensitive strain of Escherichia coli

  18. Evaluation of m-T7 agar as a fecal coliform medium.

    OpenAIRE

    LeChevallier, M. W.; Jakanoski, P E; Camper, A.K.; McFeters, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    m-T7 agar, designed to improve recoveries of injured total coliforms, was evaluated for its effectiveness as a fecal coliform medium. The time and temperature of preincubation were found to be crucial to the optimal recovery of fetal coliforms. Isolation rates for fecal coliforms on m-T7 agar from sewage effluents were the highest when plates were preincubated at 37 degrees C for 8 h before transfer to 44.5 degrees C for 12 h. The medium was found to produce consistently higher fecal coliform...

  19. Differential susceptibility of aeromonads and coliforms to cefsulodin.

    OpenAIRE

    Alonso, J. L.; Amoros, I; Alonso, M. A.

    1996-01-01

    Cefsulodin was evaluated as a potential selective agent for aeromonads. Resistance of Aeromonas and coliform isolates was determined by using a standard disk diffusion technique. A total of 119 Aeromonas and 78 coliform strains were isolated. For 102 of 130 [corrected] Aeromonas isolates (environmental and reference strains), the MIC of cefsulodin was < 8 micrograms/ml. Results of MIC tests by the agar dilution method showed that a concentration of cefsulodin of 10 micrograms/ml or less inhib...

  20. FECAL COLIFORM INCREASE AFTER CENTRIFUGATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) recently published a report titled Examination of Reactivation and Regrowth of Fecal Coliforms in Anaerobically Digested Sludges. Seven full-scale publicly owned treatment facilities were sampled several times to determine if bacte...

  1. Relationship between total homocysteine, total cholesterol and creatinine levels in overt hypothyroid patients

    OpenAIRE

    Bamashmoos, Saleh A; Al-Nuzaily, Mohammed AK; Al-Meeri, Ali M; Ali, Faisal HH

    2013-01-01

    Hypothyroidism is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease, which can not be fully explained by the atherogenic lipid profile, particularly total cholesterol and LDL-C, and other pathogenic factors may be involved. Plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and accelerated atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the serum total homocysteine (tHcy) levels and its relation to total cholesterol, creatinine and t...

  2. Detection of coliform organisms in drinking water by radiometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiometric method has been used for detection of coliform bacteria in water. The method is based on measuring the released metabolic /Sup 14/CO/sub 2/from 14 C-lactose in growth media containing coliform organisms incubated at 37 deg. C. under continues shaking. This rapid and sensitive radiometric method permits the detection of even single coliform organisms within 6 hours in incubation. Using this automated method, a total of 102 samples (in duplicate) collected from different areas in and around Rawalpindi and Islamabad were assessed for coliform bacteria. Of these 102 samples, 50 were tap water samples, 40 from wells and 6 each were from Rawal and Simly dams. About 47% and 67% tap water samples, while 62% and 74% well water samples were found unsatisfactory from around Islamabad and Rawalpindi areas respectively, about 83% and 66% water samples from Rawal dam and Simly dam respectively were found to be unsatisfactory. (author)

  3. LA ALMEJA DE AGUA DULCE DIPLODON CHILENSIS (BIVALVIA:HYRIIDAE) POTENCIAL BIOFILTRO PARA DISMINUIR LOS NIVELES DE COLIFORMES EN POZOS: EXPERIMENTO DE LABORATORIO / THE FRESHWATER MUSSEL DIPLODON CHILENSIS (BIVALVIA:HYRIIDAE) POTENTIAL BIOFILTER TO DIMINISHCOLIFORM LEVELS OF WATER WELLS: LABORATORY EXPERIMENT

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gladys, Lara; Angel, Contreras; Francisco, Encina.

    Full Text Available Estudios realizados en comunidades rurales de la IX Región, donde habitan familias que se abastecen con agua de pozo, se han detectado índices de coliformes fecales de hasta 5400 NMP en 100 ml, especialmente en pozos de baja profundidad. Considerando la capacidad de bombeo y de filtración de la alme [...] ja de agua dulce Diplodon chilensis, se realizó esta investigación tendiente a evaluar en el laboratorio la capacidad de las almejas para disminuir los niveles de coliformes en aguas de pozo así como de digerir la carga bacteriológica. Los resultados de los experimentos llevaron a concluir que densidades de 15 y 25 ejemplares en 30 litros de agua fueron capaces de disminuir la turbidez del agua y el número más probable de coliformes en un período de 6 horas siendo además capaces de digerirlas Abstract in english Previous studies carried out in rural communities in the IX Region, Chile, have detected up to 5.400 fecal coliforms by 100 ml in drinking water from wells mainly in shallow wells. Considering the pumping and water filtration capacity of the freshwater mussel Diplodon chilensis, a laboratory experim [...] ent was carried out to evaluate the capacity of the mussels to decrease coliform levels and to digest them. The experimental results showed that 15 to 25 specimens in 30 litres of water were able to diminish the water turbidity and the coliforms load in a 6 hour-period being able also to digest them

  4. Coliform and Metal Contamination in Lago de Colina, a Recreational Water Body in Chihuahua State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Rubio-Arias

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lago de Colina (Colina Lake is located about 180 km south of the city of Chihuahua (Mexico, and during the Semana Santa (Holy Week vacation period its recreational use is high. The objective of this study was to quantify coliform and heavy metal levels in this water body before and after the Holy Week vacation period in 2010. Twenty sampling points were randomly selected and two water samples were collected at each point near the surface (0.30 m and at 1 m depth. After the Holy Week vacation the same twenty points were sampled at the same depths. Therefore, a total 80 water samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliforms and levels of the following metals: Al, As, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si and Zn. It was hypothesized that domestic tourism contaminated this water body, and as a consequence, could have a negative impact on visitor health. An analysis of variance (ANOVA study was performed for each element and its interactions considering a factorial design where factor A was sample date and factor B was sample depth. Fecal coliforms were only detected at eight sampling points in the first week, but after Holy Week, both fecal and total coliforms were detected at most sampling points. The concentrations of Al, B, Na, Ni and Se were only statistically different for factor A. The levels of Cr, Cu, K and Mg was different for both date and depth, but the dual factor interaction was not significant. The amount of Ca and Zn was statistically different due to date, depth and their interaction. No significant differences were found for any factor or the interaction for the elements As, Fe and Mn. Because of the consistent results, it is concluded that local tourism is contaminating the recreational area of Colina Lake, Chihuahua, Mexico.

  5. Dry rehydratable film method for rapid enumeration of coliforms in foods (3M Petrifilm Rapid Coliform Count plate): collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinneberg, Karen M; Lindberg, Kathryn G

    2002-01-01

    A rehydratable dry-film plating method for coliforms in foods, the 3M Petrifilm Rapid Coliform Count plate method, was compared with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual method for nondairy foods and the American Public Health Association's Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products (SMEDP) method for dairy foods. Six food types, vanilla ice cream, cheddar cheese, fresh refrigerated uncooked pasta, wheat flour, prepared frozen macaroni and cheese, and frozen hash browns, were analyzed for coliforms by 11 collaborating laboratories. For each food product tested, the collaborators received 8 blind samples consisting of a control sample and 3 levels of inoculated sample, each in duplicate. The mean log counts for the methods were comparable. The repeatability and reproducibility variances of the Petrifilm Rapid Coliform Count method at 14 and 24 h were not significantly different from those of the standard methods. PMID:11878620

  6. Estimación de la Incertidumbre en los Ensayos Microbiológicos de Coliformes Totales y Fecales en Aguas Y Aguas Residuales Mediante la Técnica de Tubos Múltiples de Fermentación.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Robert Pullés

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En la microbiología ambiental es de vital importancia contar con un control de la calidad, dentro del cual, debe considerarse el método de ensayo para garantizar una óptima calidad de los datos resultantes. El cálculo de la incertidumbre está siendo abordado por la comunidad de laboratorios y se espera que en un futuro se disponga de directrices más claras en este campo. La incertidumbre, como un atributo cuantificable, es un concepto relativamente nuevo en la historia de las mediciones, a pesar de que los conceptos de error y análisis de error han sido parte de la práctica de la ciencia de la medición por largo tiempo. De manera general se acepta que cuando todas las componentes, conocidas o supuestas, del error han sido evaluadas y se han aplicado las correcciones, aún persiste una incertidumbre acerca de la confiabilidad del resultado expresado, esto es, persiste una duda acerca de qué tan bien representa el resultado de la medida, al valor de la cantidad que está siendo medida. Actualmente existe en nuestro país la problemática derivada de la falta de la información fundamental acerca de los procedimientos para la estimación de la incertidumbre. En este trabajo se realiza una estimación de la incertidumbre en los ensayos microbiológicos de coliformes totales y fecales en aguas y aguas residuales mediante la técnica de Tubos Múltiples de Fermentación, siguiendo las recomendaciones que aparecen en documentos normalizativos nacionales e internacionales. Se ofrecen los resultados alcanzados en la cuantificación de este importante parámetro. Los componentes de la incertidumbre se organizaron en tablas, lo que permite realizar de una forma rápida una apreciación global.

  7. Full-scale studies of factors related to coliform regrowth in drinking water.

    OpenAIRE

    LeChevallier, M. W.; Welch, N J; Smith, D B

    1996-01-01

    An 18-month survey of 31 water systems in North America was conducted to determine the factors that contribute to the occurrence of coliform bacteria in drinking water. The survey included analysis of assimilable organic carbon (AOC), coliforms, disinfectant residuals, and operational parameters. Coliform bacteria were detected in 27.8% of the 2-week sampling periods and were associated with the following factors: filtration, temperature, disinfectant type and disinfectant level, AOC level, c...

  8. Relationship among fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. in shellfish.

    OpenAIRE

    Hood, M.A.; Ness, G E; Blake, N J

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. was examined in freshly harvested and stored shellfish. In 16 of 40 freshly collected oyster samples, fecal coliform levels were above the recommended wholesale level suggested by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program (less than or equal to 230/100 g), and Salmonella spp. were present in three of these samples. Salmonella spp. were not, however, present in any sample containing less than 230 fecal coliforms per 100...

  9. Presencia de arsénico y coliformes en agua potable del municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit, México / Presence of arsenic and coliforms in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniel, MORA-BUENO; Luz del Carmen, SÁNCHEZ-PEÑA; Luz María, DEL RAZO; Cyndia Azucena, GONZÁLEZ-ARIAS; Irma Martha, MEDINA-DÍAZ; María de Lourdes, ROBLEDO-MARENCO; Aurora Elizabeth, ROJAS-GARCÍA.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron las concentraciones de arsénico total (AsT) y la presencia de coliformes totales y fecales en agua potable del municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit, México. La determinación de AsT se realizó por espectrofotometría de fluorescencia atómica, por generación de hidruros; la detección de colifo [...] rmes totales y fecales se realizó con la técnica del número más probable (NMP). De acuerdo a los resultados obtenidos, la concentración media de AsT en la cabecera municipal de Tecuala fue de 15.82 µg/L, en el ejido de Atotonilco de 19.88 µg/L, en Pajaritos de 21.49 µg/L, en Quimichis de 17.80 µg/L y en Playas de Novillero de 19.79 µg/L. Aunque las concentraciones de AsT en el agua potable del municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit, se encuentran dentro del límite establecido por las Normas Oficiales Mexicanas (25 µg/L), rebasan el límite establecido por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, que establece un máximo de 10 µg/L. La concentración de coliformes en el agua procedente de los pozos 1 y 3 fue de 180 NMP/100 mL y de 43 NMP/100 mL para el agua del pozo 2. La presencia de coliformes totales y fecales, sugiere la infiltración de aguas negras lo que podría incrementar los niveles de arsénico disuelto. Los resultados de este estudio servirán como antecedente sanitario de la calidad del agua de los pozos que abastecen el municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit. Abstract in english Total arsenic concentrations (tAs) and the presence of total and fecal coliforms in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, Mexico, were determined. The presence of tAs was analyzed by means of hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Total and fecal coliforms were determined through the M [...] ost Probable Number (MPN) method. According to the results, the mean concentration of tAs in Tecuala was 15.82 µg/L, in Atotonilco 19.88 µg/L, in Pajaritos 21.49 µg/L, in Quimichis 17.80 µg/L, and in Playas de Novillero 19.79 µg/L. The tAs concentrations in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, are within the limit set by the Mexican official standards (25 µg/L); still, they are over the limit established by the World Health Organization (10 µg/L). The concentration of coliforms in water from wells 1 and 3 was 180 MPN/100 mL and 43 MPN/100 mL for well water 2. The presence of total and fecal coliforms, suggest the infiltration of sewage which could increase the levels of dissolved arsenic. The results of this study will serve as an antecedent of the water quality in Tecuala, Nayarit.

  10. Coliform Contamination of Peri-urban Grown Vegetables and Potential Public Health Risks: Evidence from Kumasi, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abass, Kabila; Ganle, John Kuumuori; Adaborna, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Peri-urban vegetable farming in Ghana is an important livelihood activity for an increasing number of people. However, increasing quality and public health concerns have been raised, partly because freshwater availability for irrigation purposes is a major constraint. This paper investigated on-farm vegetable contamination and potential health risks using samples of lettuce, spring onions and cabbage randomly selected from 18 vegetable farms in peri-urban Kumasi, Ghana. Vegetable samples were tested for total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. bacteria contamination using the Most Probable Number method. Results show high contamination levels of total and fecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli bacteria in all 18 vegetable samples. The mean total coliform/100 ml concentration for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were 9.15 × 10(9), 4.7 × 10(7) and 8.3 × 10(7) respectively. The mean fecal coliform concentration for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were also 1.5 × 10(8), 4.15 × 10(7) and 2.15 × 10(7) respectively, while the mean Escherichia coli bacteria contamination for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were 1.4 × 10(8), 2.2 × 10(7) and 3.2 × 10(7) respectively. The level of total coliform, fecal coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria contamination in all the vegetable samples however declined as the distance between the main water source (Wiwi River) and farms increases. Nonetheless, all contamination levels were well above acceptable standards, and could therefore pose serious public health risks to consumers. Increased education and supervision of farmers, as well as public health and food hygiene education of consumers, are critical to reducing on-farm vegetable contamination and the health risks associated with consumption of such vegetables. PMID:26512013

  11. Evaluation of the Petrifilm rapid coliform count plate method for coliform enumeration from surimi-based imitation crab slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, K S; Kim, C N; Namgoong, K

    2000-01-01

    The 3M Petrifilm rapid coliform count (RCC) plate method was compared with two conventional methods, namely violet red bile agar (VRBA) and desoxycholate lactose agar (DLA), for enumerating coliforms. The VRBA plating method is a reference method in the Bacteriological Analytical Manual and the DLA plating method is the method recommended by the Food Sanitation Law of Korea for enumeration of coliforms. Serratia sp., a coliform that was isolated from frozen surimi, was incubated in surimi-based imitation crab (SBIC) slurries and enumerated on the Petrifilm RCC, VRBA, and DLA plates. Results from the Petrifilm RCC plate were not significantly different from results from VRBA or DLA plates at P < 0.05 level. The correlation coefficient for Petrifilm RCC plates versus the VRBA method and for Petrifilm RCC plates versus the DLA method were 0.994 and 0.996, respectively. With the Petrifilm RCC plate method, we were able to estimate presumptive coliforms (except Serratia sp.) after 14 h and to enumerate confirmed coliforms (including Serratia sp.) after 24 h. PMID:10643782

  12. Automated electrochemical selection of coliforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R. E.; Dill, W. P.; Jeffers, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Computer-controlled sensor system monitors and quantifies coliform organisms in waste water samples through molecular hydrogen detection techniques. System includes cleanup procedures, external sterilization of each sensor interface with working fluid as well as incubation cell interiors. Sensor system may also be operated manually.

  13. Distribution of coliform bacteria in waste water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dau Lal Bohra

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Biological activity of water can be apparently judged by the colonization of bacteria (microbes. In order to find out the extent of pollution and the relationship between inorganic matters and microbiota, a quantitative and qualitative analysis of bacteria in various types of sewage waters, namely sewage water by the residential colonies (group I, industrial waste water (group II, sewage treatment hub (group III, unorganized collected waste water (group IV and old residential waste collection center (group V, of Bikaner city (Rajasthan, India was carried out from February, 2010 to May, 2010. Water samples were taken from surface only owing to low depth and investigated for various abiotic factors (viz. transparency, pH, carbonate, bicarbonate, total alkalinity, total hardness, salinity, chloride, calcium, magnesium, sulphate, nitrate, silica, and inorganic phosphorous and biotic factors (viz. number and diversity of bacteria. The domestic sewage water causes major water borne diseases basing upon Total Bacterial Count (TBC and coliform Count (CC. The coliform count in the present study ranged from 2.5 to 5.12 MPN/mL. Comparision of microbial population in sewage water from all different Groups was done and the higher values of TBC and CC were recorded only in Sewage treatement hub (Group III.

  14. Assessment of the climate change impacts on fecal coliform contamination in a tidal estuarine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Cheng; Chan, Wen-Ting

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is one of the key factors affecting the future microbiological water quality in rivers and tidal estuaries. A coupled 3D hydrodynamic and fecal coliform transport model was developed and applied to the Danshuei River estuarine system for predicting the influences of climate change on microbiological water quality. The hydrodynamic and fecal coliform model was validated using observational salinity and fecal coliform distributions. According to the analyses of the statistical error, predictions of the salinity and the fecal coliform concentration from the model simulation quantitatively agreed with the observed data. The validated model was then applied to predict the fecal coliform contamination as a result of climate change, including the change of freshwater discharge and the sea level rise. We found that the reduction of freshwater discharge under climate change scenarios resulted in an increase in the fecal coliform concentration. The sea level rise would decrease fecal coliform distributions because both the water level and the water volume increased. A reduction in freshwater discharge has a negative impact on the fecal coliform concentration, whereas a rising sea level has a positive influence on the fecal coliform contamination. An appropriate strategy for the effective microbiological management in tidal estuaries is required to reveal the persistent trends of climate in the future. PMID:26545372

  15. Fecal coliforms, caffeine and carbamazepine in stormwater collection systems in a large urban area.

    OpenAIRE

    Sauvé, Sébastien; Aboulfadl, Khadija; Dorner, Sarah; Payment, Pierre; Deschamps, Guy; Prévost, Michèle

    2012-01-01

    Water samples from streams, brooks and storm sewer outfall pipes that collect storm waters across the Island of Montréal were analyzed for caffeine, carbamazepine and fecal coliforms. All samples contained various concentrations of these tracers, indicating a widespread sanitary contamination in urban environments. Fecal coliforms and caffeine levels ranged over several orders of magnitude with a modest correlation between caffeine and fecal coliforms (R(2) value of 0.558). An arbitrary thres...

  16. THERMOTOLERANT NON-FECAL SOURCE 'KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE': VALIDITY OF THE FECAL COLIFORM TEST IN RECREATIONAL WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin pulp and paper mill processing plants were evaluated for fecal coliform and total Klebsiella (i.e., thermotolerant and thermointolerant) bacterial concentrations. Using the standard fecal coliform test, up to 90 per cent of non-fecal source thermo-tolerant K. pneumoniae...

  17. Formación de biopelículas y susceptibilidad antimicrobiana entre coliformes aislados en agua potable embotellada en Carabobo, Venezuela / Biofilms formation and antimicrobial susceptibility among coliforms isolated in bottled drinking water in Carabobo, Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tomás, Rojas; Alejandra, Montoya; Alejandra, Moreno; Ritneybi, Mujica; Ysvette, Vásquez.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterias indicadoras de contaminación tales como bacterias heterótrofas, coliformes totales y termotolerantes fueron enumeradas en agua potable embotellada usando métodos estándar y filtración a través de membrana. El desarrollo de biopelículas y la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana (método de Kirby-B [...] auer) fueron evaluados sobre sesenta aislados de coliformes seleccionados de forma aleatoria. De 50 muestras, en un elevado porcentaje (94), se observó niveles de bacterias heterotróficas por encima de 100 UFC/mL de agua, 38 % presentó al menos una UFC/100 mL de coliformes totales o termotolerantes, mientras que, 30 % y 28 %, presentaron más de diez UFC/100 mL para ambos indicadores, respectivamente. Las especies de coliformes identificadas en mayor proporción fueron, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli y Klebsiella oxytoca. Usando un ensayo in vitro para detectar la formación de biopelículas se determinó que entre un 75,8 y 79,2 % de los coliformes totales y termotolerantes, respectivamente, fueron descritos como moderados o fuertes formadores de biopelículas. No se observaron diferencias significativas (P>0,05) con respecto a la capacidad de formación de biopelículas entre los dos grupos. La mayoría de los aislados resultaron susceptibles frente a los antimicrobianos evaluados, únicamente dos especies presentaron fenotipos de resistencia no naturales. Perfiles de multiresistencia, típicos de especies asociadas con actividades clínicas o veterinarias, fueron identificados en un aislado de Enterobacter cloacae (betalactamasas tipo AmpC derreprimida) y un aislado de Escherichia coli fue resistente a ampicilina. Este estudio sugiere que el agua potable en botellones plásticos que se expende en algunas áreas urbanas de Carabobo, Venezuela, puede representar un riesgo para la salud. Abstract in english Pollution indicator bacteria such as heterotrophic bacteria, total and thermotolerant coliforms were quantified in bottled drinking water using standard method and membrane filter procedure. Biofilm formation and antimicrobial susceptibility (Kirby-Bauer method) were tested on sixty randomly selecte [...] d coliform strains. Among 50 water samples, a large percentage (94) were found with heterotrophic bacteria levels above 100 CFU/mL, 46 % showed at least one CFU/100 mL of thermotolerant or total coliformes whereas 28 % and 30 % showed more than ten CFU/100 mL for both indicators. Coliform species found in higher proportion were, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella oxytoca. Using an "in vitro" assay for biofilms formation it was determined that between 75.8 y 79.2 % of total and thermotolerant coliforms, respectively, were found to be moderate or strong biofilm formers. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between both groups regarding the capacity for biofilm formation. Most of the isolates were susceptible against the antibiotics tested and only two species showed unnatural resistance phenotypes. Multiresistance profiles, typical of strains associated with human clinical or veterinary activities were identified in one Enterobacter cloacae isolated (derepressed AmpC beta-lactamases) and one Escherichia coli strain was ampicilin resistant. This study suggests that the water sold in some plastic bottles in some urban areas near by Carabobo, Venezuela, may be a risk to health.

  18. LA ALMEJA DE AGUA DULCE DIPLODON CHILENSIS (BIVALVIA:HYRIIDAE POTENCIAL BIOFILTRO PARA DISMINUIR LOS NIVELES DE COLIFORMES EN POZOS: EXPERIMENTO DE LABORATORIO THE FRESHWATER MUSSEL DIPLODON CHILENSIS (BIVALVIA:HYRIIDAE POTENTIAL BIOFILTER TO DIMINISHCOLIFORM LEVELS OF WATER WELLS: LABORATORY EXPERIMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Lara

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudios realizados en comunidades rurales de la IX Región, donde habitan familias que se abastecen con agua de pozo, se han detectado índices de coliformes fecales de hasta 5400 NMP en 100 ml, especialmente en pozos de baja profundidad. Considerando la capacidad de bombeo y de filtración de la almeja de agua dulce Diplodon chilensis, se realizó esta investigación tendiente a evaluar en el laboratorio la capacidad de las almejas para disminuir los niveles de coliformes en aguas de pozo así como de digerir la carga bacteriológica. Los resultados de los experimentos llevaron a concluir que densidades de 15 y 25 ejemplares en 30 litros de agua fueron capaces de disminuir la turbidez del agua y el número más probable de coliformes en un período de 6 horas siendo además capaces de digerirlasPrevious studies carried out in rural communities in the IX Region, Chile, have detected up to 5.400 fecal coliforms by 100 ml in drinking water from wells mainly in shallow wells. Considering the pumping and water filtration capacity of the freshwater mussel Diplodon chilensis, a laboratory experiment was carried out to evaluate the capacity of the mussels to decrease coliform levels and to digest them. The experimental results showed that 15 to 25 specimens in 30 litres of water were able to diminish the water turbidity and the coliforms load in a 6 hour-period being able also to digest them

  19. Total and free thyroid hormone levels in chronic renal failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta H

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available The levels of serum total thyroxine (TT4, triiodothyronine (TT3, free T3, (FT3 free T4 (FT4 and thyrotropin (TSH were measured in 127 clinically euthyroid patients with varying grades of chronic renal failure (CRF; and 97 healthy individuals. They were grouped as: Group I containing 93 patients on conservative management; Group II containing 34 patients on regular dialysis therapy; and Group III (normals. Group I patients showed significant decrease in TT3, TT4 and FT3 levels (p less than 0.001 as compared to Group III, whereas FT4 and TSH values in group I were not significantly altered. TT3, TT4 and FT3 levels reduced as the severity of renal damage increased. Variations in TT3, TT4, FT3, FT4 and TSH levels in Group II patients were similar to those in Group I, except for a decrease in TSH levels (p less than 0.05 as compared to normals. Several thyroid function tests are abnormal in CRF patients, however, finding of normal FT4 and TSH levels would indicate functional euthyroid status.

  20. Exposures influencing total IgA level in colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munblit, D; Sheth, S; Abrol, P; Treneva, M; Peroni, D G; Chow, L-Y; Boner, A L; Pampura, A; Warner, J O; Boyle, R J

    2016-02-01

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a predominant immunoglobulin present in human breast milk and is known to play an important role in infant gut immunity maturation. Breast milk composition varies between populations, but the environmental and maternal factors responsible for these variations are still unclear. We examined the relationship between different exposures and levels of IgA in colostrum. The objective of this study was to examine whether exposures analysed influence levels of IgA in colostrum. The present study used 294 colostrum samples from the MecMilk International cohort, collected from women residing in London, Moscow and Verona. Samples were analysed in automated Abbott Architect Analyser. We found an inverse correlation between time postpartum and colostrum total IgA level (r=-0.49, Pcolostrum collection time (Pcolostrum drops rapidly after birth and future studies should always consider this factor in analysis. IgA concentration varied significantly between countries, with the highest level detected in Moscow and lowest in Verona. Mode of delivery effect should be confirmed on larger cohorts. Further work is needed to determine ways to correct for IgA decline over time in colostrum, and to find the cause of variations in IgA levels between the countries. PMID:26387688

  1. "ASSOCIATION BETWEEN TOTAL SERUM BILIRUBIN LEVEL AND MANIFESTATIONS OF KERNICTERUS "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Ashrafi M. Sedaghat

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Kernicterus (bilirubin induced encephalopathy is an uncommon disorder with tragic consequences, especially when it affects healthy term and near-term neonates. Appointment of cut off value of total serum bilirubin level that have a safe margin for early prompt treatment, as a result, prevention of kernicterus. In our study, all of icteric neonates that admitted in our center in 1 year were enrolled. From 305 neonates, 25 cases have kernicterus manifestations. These 25 neonates have not any conditions that mimic kernicterus manifestations (such as birth trauma, intra cranial hemorrhage, asphyxia. We divided neonates to 2major groups: neonates 8 days-old. Also these cases were divided to high-risk and low-risk neonates. In this study, 220 neonates (72.1% were ? 7days and 85 neonates (27.9% were > 8 days-old. Also 109 neonates (35.7% were or with risk factors and 196 neonates (64.3% were or without risk factors. Risk factors were prematurity, acidosis, hemolysis, duration of hyperbilirubinemia, sepsis and respiratory distress. Cutoff value of bilirubin level for neonates ? 7 days was 25.15 mg/dl and for neonates > 8 days was 22.25 mg/dl that no statistically significant difference was found. Cut off value of bilirubin level for high-risk neonates was 22.35 mg/dl and for low-risk neonates was 27.95 mg/dl that statistically significant difference was found. The lower limit of bilirubin in neonates with kernicterus was 16.5 mg/dl and the upper limit was 44 mg/dl. The high-risk neonates need prompt treatment of hyperbilirubinemia at lower levels of total bilirubin compared with low-risk neonates.

  2. Coliform species recovered from untreated surface water and drinking water by the membrane filter, standard, and modified most-probable-number techniques.

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, T. M.; LeChevallier, M. W.; Waarvick, C E; Seidler, R J

    1981-01-01

    The species of total coliform bacteria isolated from drinking water and untreated surface water by the membrane filter (MF), the standard most-probable-number (S-MPN), and modified most-probable-number (M-MPN) techniques were compared. Each coliform detection technique selected for a different profile of coliform species from both types of water samples. The MF technique indicated that Citrobacter freundii was the most common coliform species in water samples. However, the fermentation tube t...

  3. Total and toxic arsenic levels in north sea fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gieter, M; Leermakers, M; Van Ryssen, R; Noyen, J; Goeyens, L; Baeyens, W

    2002-11-01

    Levels of arsenic contamination in muscle and liver tissue of 25 sea fish and 4 shellfish species from the North Sea were determined. Analyses were done by both ICP-MS and HG-AFS to distinguish between nontoxic and toxic fractions of As. Highest total As concentrations were found in lemon sole, dogfish, ray, and witch. Average total As concentrations in these fish species were higher than 20 mg kg(-1) WW. The same species as well as the other flatfishes contained the highest amounts of toxic As (> 0.1 mg kg(-1) WW). Toxic fractions (AsTox/AsT%) above 2% were found in the following six species: seabass, ling, john dory, pouting, dab, and brill. No preferential concentration in the liver compared to the muscle was observed. In a worst-case scenario (when fish has been dried or smoked and the toxic As level is high; for example 0.5 mg kg(-1) WW), the As content of North Sea marine food may reach harmful levels. A normalization reflecting the toxic potential of sea fish was made. Shark and ray and most flatfish species have positive (high) normalized AsTox values.By ANOVA testing we compared the individual AsT concentrations of samples of the same species (intraspecies variability). Significant differences for some fish species were observed; significantly higher AsT concentrations were found in dogfish from the French coast versus the western North Sea and in common sole from the Bay of the Seine, in the north of France, versus the western North Sea. PMID:12399911

  4. Asellus aquaticus as a potential carrier of Escherichia coli and other coliform bacteria into drinking water distribution systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Arvin, Erik; Nissen, E.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    guideline values in non-disinfected systems by intrusion of A. aquaticus was low. Only in scenarios with narrow pipes and low flows, did total coliforms exceed guideline values, implying that the probability of detection by routine monitoring is also low. The study may expand the knowledge base for....... coli and 6 total coliforms A. aquaticus-1. During exposure to high concn. of coliforms, concn. reached 350 coliforms A. aquaticus-1. A. aquaticus associated E. coli were only detected as long as E. coli were present in the water and sediment. The calculated probability of exceeding drinking water...

  5. SORCE Level 3 Total Solar Irradiance Daily Average V016

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) data set SOR3TSID contains the total solar irradiance (a.k.a solar constant) data collected by the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM)...

  6. SORCE Level 3 Total Solar Irradiance Daily Means V017

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) data set SOR3TSID contains the total solar irradiance (a.k.a solar constant) data collected by the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM)...

  7. Determination of total mercury in nuts at ultratrace level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Direct analysis of Hg in nuts has been improved by a previous fat removal. • Comparison of cold vapour atomic fluorescence and direct analysis of Hg in nuts. • Mercury content in tree nuts was determined. - Abstract: Total mercury, at ?g kg?1 level, was determined in different types of nuts (cashew nut, Brazil nuts, almond, pistachio, peanut, walnut) using a direct mercury analyser after previous sample defatting and by cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry. There is not enough sensitivity in the second approach to determine Hg in previously digested samples due to the strong matrix effect. Mercury levels in 25 edible nut samples from Brazil and Spain were found in the range from 0.6 to 2.7 ?g kg?1 by using the pyrolysis of sample after the extraction of the nut fat. The accuracy of the proposed method was confirmed by analysing certified reference materials of Coal Fly Ash-NIST SRM 1633b, Fucus-IAEA 140 and three unpolished Rice Flour NIES-10. The observed results were in good agreement with the certified values. The recoveries of different amounts of mercury added to nut samples ranged from 94 to 101%. RSD values corresponding to three measurements varied between 2.0 and 14% and the limit of detection and quantification of the method were 0.08 and 0.3 ?g kg?1, respectively

  8. Determination of total mercury in nuts at ultratrace level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Maria José da, E-mail: maryquimica@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Química – Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Rue Dom Manoel de Medeiros s/n. Dois irmãos, 52171-900 Recife, PE (Brazil); Paim, Ana Paula S. [Departamento de Química Fundamental – Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Cidade Universitária, 50740-550 Recife, PE (Brazil); Pimentel, Maria Fernanda [Departamento de Engenharia Química – Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Cervera, M. Luisa; Guardia, Miguel de la [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Research Building, University of Valencia, 50th Dr. Moliner Street, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Direct analysis of Hg in nuts has been improved by a previous fat removal. • Comparison of cold vapour atomic fluorescence and direct analysis of Hg in nuts. • Mercury content in tree nuts was determined. - Abstract: Total mercury, at ?g kg{sup ?1} level, was determined in different types of nuts (cashew nut, Brazil nuts, almond, pistachio, peanut, walnut) using a direct mercury analyser after previous sample defatting and by cold vapour atomic fluorescence spectrometry. There is not enough sensitivity in the second approach to determine Hg in previously digested samples due to the strong matrix effect. Mercury levels in 25 edible nut samples from Brazil and Spain were found in the range from 0.6 to 2.7 ?g kg{sup ?1} by using the pyrolysis of sample after the extraction of the nut fat. The accuracy of the proposed method was confirmed by analysing certified reference materials of Coal Fly Ash-NIST SRM 1633b, Fucus-IAEA 140 and three unpolished Rice Flour NIES-10. The observed results were in good agreement with the certified values. The recoveries of different amounts of mercury added to nut samples ranged from 94 to 101%. RSD values corresponding to three measurements varied between 2.0 and 14% and the limit of detection and quantification of the method were 0.08 and 0.3 ?g kg{sup ?1}, respectively.

  9. Comparison of the hydrophobic-grid membrane filter procedure and standard methods for coliform analysis of water.

    OpenAIRE

    McDaniels, A E; Bordner, R H; Menkedick, J R; Weber, C I

    1987-01-01

    The hydrophobic-grid membrane filter (HGMF) has been proposed as an alternate method to the standard membrane filter (MF) procedure for the detection and enumeration of coliforms from water. Eight samples of nonchlorinated wastewater effluents were analyzed by the HGMF, standard MF, and tube fermentation most-probable-number methods for fecal coliforms, and eight samples each of polluted surface and dosed drinking waters were analyzed by the same methods for total coliforms. The drinking wate...

  10. 40 CFR 142.60 - Variances from the maximum contaminant level for total trihalomethanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... false Variances from the maximum contaminant level for total trihalomethanes. ...142.60 Variances from the maximum contaminant level for total trihalomethanes. ...achieving compliance with the maximum contaminant level for total...

  11. Microtechnique for isolating fecal coliforms from soil.

    OpenAIRE

    Hartel, P G; Hagedorn, C. (Claudia)

    1983-01-01

    A most-probable-number microtitration technique for isolating fecal coliforms from soil was developed. A correlation coefficient of 0.86, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.76 less than zeta less than 0.92, was obtained when this technique was compared with the standard elevated-temperature fecal coliform most-probable-number procedure.

  12. TCTE Level 3 Total Solar Irradiance Daily Means V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) Calibration Transfer Experiment (TCTE) data set TCTE3TSID contains daily averaged total solar irradiance (a.k.a solar constant)...

  13. Review of Risk Status of Groundwater Supply Wells by Tracing the Source of Coliform Contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Somaratne

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Coliform source tracking was undertaken on 48 water sources of which 42 are potable in 26 water supply systems spread across South Australia. The water sources in the study vary from unprotected springs in creek beds to deep confined aquifers. The frequency analysis of historical coliform detections indicate that aquifer types, depth to water and casing depth are important considerations; whilst maintaining well integrity and the presence of low permeable clay layers above the production zone are the dominant parameters for minimizing coliform contamination of water supply wells. However, in karst and fractured rock aquifers, pathways for coliform transport exist, as evidenced in the >200 MPN/100 mL level of coliform detection. Data indicate that there is no compelling evidence to support the contention that the wells identified as low risk are contaminated through geological strata and clay barriers. However, data strongly supports the suggestion that coliform detection from sample taps and wellheads stem from the surrounding groundwater and soil-plant sources as a result of failed well integrity, or potentially from coliform bacteria that can persist within biofilms formed on well casings, screens, pump columns and pumps. Coliform sub-typing results show that most coliform bacteria detected in town water supply wells are associated with the soil-water-plant system and are ubiquitous in the environment: Citrobacter spp. (65%, Enterobacter spp. (63%, Pantoea spp. (17%, Serratia spp. (19%, Klebsiella spp. (34%, and Pseudomonas spp. (10%. Overall, 70% of wells harbor detectable thermotolerant coliforms (TTC with potentially 36% of species of animal origin, including Escherichia coli species found in 12% of wells.

  14. Asellus aquaticus as a potential carrier of Escherichia coli and other coliform bacteria into drinking water distribution systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Arvin, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Individuals of the water louse, Asellus aquaticus, enter drinking water distribution systems in temperate parts of the world, where they establish breeding populations. Populations of A. aquaticus in surface water from 2 ponds were analysed for associated faecal indicator bacteria and the risk of A. aquaticus transporting bacteria into distribution systems was assessed. Concn. of ?2 Escherichia coli and 5 total coliforms ml-1 were measured in the water and 200 E. coli and >240 total coliforms ml-1 in the sediments of the investigated ponds. Concn. of A. aquaticus associated bacteria never exceeded 3 E. coli and 6 total coliforms A. aquaticus-1. During exposure to high concn. of coliforms, concn. reached 350 coliforms A. aquaticus-1. A. aquaticus associated E. coli were only detected as long as E. coli were present in the water and sediment. The calculated probability of exceeding drinking water guideline values in non-disinfected systems by intrusion of A. aquaticus was low. Only in scenarios with narrow pipes and low flows, did total coliforms exceed guideline values, implying that the probability of detection by routine monitoring is also low. The study may expand the knowledge base for evaluating incidents with the presence of coliform indicators in drinking water by showing that intruding A. aquaticus are not important carriers of E. coli or other coliform bacteria even when emerging from faecally contaminated waters.

  15. RAPID MONITORING OF INDICATOR COLIFORMS IN DRINKING WATER BY AN ENZYMATIC ASSAY

    OpenAIRE

    M. Nikaeen ? A. Pejhan ? M. Jalali

    2009-01-01

    Coliform group has been extensively used as an indicator of drinking water quality and historically led to the public health protection concept. Multiple tube fermentation technique has been currently used for assessment of the microbial quality of drinking water. This method, however, has limitations. Enzymatic assay constitute an alternative approach for detecting indicator bacteria, namely total coliforms and E.coli in various aquatic environments. This study compared the performance of LM...

  16. FECAL COLIFORM INCREASE AFTER CENTRIFUGATION: EPA PERSPECTIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) recently published a report titled Examination of Reactivation and Regrowth of Fecal Coliforms in Anaerobically Digested Sludges. Seven full-scale publicly owned treatment facilities were sampled several times to determine if bacte...

  17. Comparison of serum leptin, glucose, total cholesterol and total protein levels in fertile and repeat breeder cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saime Guzel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we measured serum glucose, leptin, total cholesterol and total protein concentrations in repeat breeder cows and compared them with fertile cows. For this aim, 20 repeat breeder cows and 20 fertile cows were used as material. Repeat breeder cows were found to have lower levels of leptin and glucose as compared with fertile ones. No significant differences in total cholesterol and total protein levels were observed between the two groups. No significant correlation of leptin with glucose, total cholesterol and total protein was observed in fertile and repeat breeder cows. Low concentrations of glucose and leptin can have some effects on reproductive problems as repeat breeder and help to understand potential mechanisms impairing fertility in repeat breeder cows.

  18. Comparison of serum leptin, glucose, total cholesterol and total protein levels in fertile and repeat breeder cows

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Saime, Guzel; Meltem, Tanriverdi.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we measured serum glucose, leptin, total cholesterol and total protein concentrations in repeat breeder cows and compared them with fertile cows. For this aim, 20 repeat breeder cows and 20 fertile cows were used as material. Repeat breeder cows were found to have lower levels o [...] f leptin and glucose as compared with fertile ones. No significant differences in total cholesterol and total protein levels were observed between the two groups. No significant correlation of leptin with glucose, total cholesterol and total protein was observed in fertile and repeat breeder cows. Low concentrations of glucose and leptin can have some effects on reproductive problems as repeat breeder and help to understand potential mechanisms impairing fertility in repeat breeder cows.

  19. Occurrence of Coliform and Escherichia coli Contamination and Absence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on Romaine Lettuce from Retail Stores in the Upper Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Josephine D; Zietlow, Mark S; Miller, Kevin M; Ellingson, Jay L E

    2015-09-01

    A total of 720 whole, romaine lettuce heads were purchased from retail locations in the Upper Midwest and assessed for coliform and Escherichia coli contamination and for the presence of E. coli O157:H7. During a 16-month period (August 2010 through December 2011), coliform and E. coli counts were enumerated on Petrifilm, and the presence of E. coli O157:H7 and the virulence gene eae was evaluated by real-time PCR (qPCR). Over half (400 of 720) of the lettuce samples were processed with an immunomagnetic separation step before the qPCR assay. All retail lettuce samples were negative for E. coli O157:H7 when tested with the R.A.P.I.D. LT qPCR targeting a region of the O-antigen, and only two (0.28%) were positive for the eae gene when tested with LightCycler qPCR. On Petrifilm, coliform counts of most lettuce samples (96.4%) were between lettuce samples (98.2%) were lettuce heads. These results contribute to the limited recorded data and understanding of microbial contamination of whole romaine lettuce heads purchased from retail locations, specifically revealing the absence of E. coli O157:H7 and low levels of contamination with coliforms and other E. coli strains. PMID:26319727

  20. The Impact of Rainfall on Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Bayou Dorcheat (North Louisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Fecal coliform bacteria are the most common pollutant in rivers and streams. In Louisiana, it has been reported that 37% of surveyed river miles, 31% of lakes, and 23% of estuarine water had some level of contamination. The objective of this research was to assess the effect of surface runoff amounts and rainfall amount parameters on fecal coliform bacterial densities in Bayou Dorcheat in Louisiana. Bayou Dorcheat has been designated by the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality as a waterway that has uses such as primary contact recreation, secondary contact recreation, propagation of fish and wildlife, agriculture and as being an outstanding natural resource water. Samples from Bayou Dorcheat were collected monthly and analyzed for the presence of fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms isolated from these samples were identified to the species level. The analysis of the bacterial levels was performed following standard test protocols as described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Information regarding the rainfall amounts and surface runoff amounts for the selected years was retrieved from the Louisiana Office of State Climatology. It was found that a significant increase in the fecal coliform numbers may be associated with average rainfall amounts. Possible sources of elevated coliform counts could include sewage discharges from municipal treatment plants and septic tanks, storm water overflows, and runoff from pastures and range lands. It can be concluded that nonpoint source pollution that is carried by surface runoff has a significant effect on bacterial levels in water resources.

  1. The impact of rainfall on fecal coliform bacteria in Bayou Dorcheat (North Louisiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Dagne D; Owens, William E; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2006-03-01

    Fecal coliform bacteria are the most common pollutant in rivers and streams. In Louisiana, it has been reported that 37% of surveyed river miles, 31% of lakes, and 23% of estuarine water had some level of contamination. The objective of this research was to assess the effect of surface runoff amounts and rainfall amount parameters on fecal coliform bacterial densities in Bayou Dorcheat in Louisiana. Bayou Dorcheat has been designated by the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality as a waterway that has uses such as primary contact recreation, secondary contact recreation, propagation of fish and wildlife, agriculture and as being an outstanding natural resource water. Samples from Bayou Dorcheat were collected monthly and analyzed for the presence of fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms isolated from these samples were identified to the species level. The analysis of the bacterial levels was performed following standard test protocols as described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Information regarding the rainfall amounts and surface runoff amounts for the selected years was retrieved from the Louisiana Office of State Climatology. It was found that a significant increase in the fecal coliform numbers may be associated with average rainfall amounts. Possible sources of elevated coliform counts could include sewage discharges from municipal treatment plants and septic tanks, storm water overflows, and runoff from pastures and range lands. It can be concluded that nonpoint source pollution that is carried by surface runoff has a significant effect on bacterial levels in water resources. PMID:16823083

  2. The Impact of Rainfall on Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Bayou Dorcheat (North Louisiana)

    OpenAIRE

    Paul B. Tchounwou; William E. Owens; Hill, Dagne D.

    2006-01-01

    Fecal coliform bacteria are the most common pollutant in rivers and streams. In Louisiana, it has been reported that 37% of surveyed river miles, 31% of lakes, and 23% of estuarine water had some level of contamination. The objective of this research was to assess the effect of surface runoff amounts and rainfall amount parameters on fecal coliform bacterial densities in Bayou Dorcheat in Louisiana. Bayou Dorcheat has been designated by the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality as a w...

  3. Comparison of four membrane filter methods for fecal coliform enumeration in tropical waters.

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago-Mercado, J; Hazen, T C

    1987-01-01

    Four membrane filter methods for the enumeration of fecal coliforms were compared for accuracy, specificity, and recovery. Water samples were taken several times from 13 marine, 1 estuarine, and 4 freshwater sites around Puerto Rico, from pristine waters and waters receiving treated and untreated sewage and effluent from a tuna cannery and a rum distillery. Differences of 1 to 3 orders of magnitude in the levels of fecal coliforms were observed in some samples by different recovery techniques...

  4. 50 CFR 600.516 - Total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...false Total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF). 600.516 Section 600...MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.516 Total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF). (a) The TALFF,...

  5. Contamination of water wells in Khoms city with pathogenic coliform bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    240 Samples from 60 water wells in and around the area of city of Khoms city (in northwestern Libya) were analyzed over four successive seasons for count of faecal Coliform bacteria, of which antibiotic resistance was later assessed. Standard methods were used for analysis of faecla coliform bacteria. Water wells contained varying levels of faecal coliform bacteria ranging from a Most Probable Number of 0 to 1.8 x 103 cfu/100 ml, with zero isolates at autumn and winter seasons, while wells dug at private farms had the highest percentage of contamination, reaching 56.6% of wells in autumn, and also had the highest number of faecal coliform isolates, 1,8x103 cfu/100 ml, in spring and summer seasons, strains of isolated Escherichia coli were most sensitive to chloramphenicol, and most resistant to tetracycline. (author)

  6. Níveis periféricos de testosterona total em touros Guzerá / Peripheral levels of total testosterone in Guzerat bulls

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliano Cesar, Dias; Venício José de, Andrade; Lucas Luz, Emerick; Jorge André Matias, Martins; Vicente Ribeiro do, Vale Filho.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados 24 touros da raça Guzerá, de 24 a 34 meses de idade, com o objetivo de estudar o perfil da concentração sérica de testosterona e sua variação relativa à idade, peso corporal e características andrológicas. A concentração média de testosterona foi de 1,36 ng/mL, com influência do horá [...] rio de coleta nos níveis circulantes. A equação de regressão da concentração sérica de testosterona em função do peso corporal dos animais apresentou efeito linear, sugerindo que, para cada quilograma a mais no peso corporal, ocorre acréscimo de 0,0082 ng/mL nas concentrações de testosterona. A regressão da concentração sérica de testosterona e a circunferência escrotal (CE) também apresentou efeito linear indicando que, para cada centímetro a mais na CE nos touros Guzerá, ocorreu aumento de 0,2319 ng/mL na concentração de testosterona. A regressão da concentração espermática do sêmen em função da concentração sérica de testosterona apresentou efeito linear, os resultados mostram que, para cada 0,1 ng/mL a mais na concentração de testosterona circulante, ocorreu aumento de 9,29 x 10(6) espermatozoides/mL de sêmen. Os resultados indicam que os níveis circulantes de testosterona podem auxiliar na identificação e seleção de touros Guzerá, com maior potencial reprodutivo. Abstract in english Twenty-four Guzerat bulls were evaluated from 24 to 34 months of age, aiming to determinate the bulls serum testosterone concentration profile and their variation according to age, body weight and andrologic traits. The average of testosterone concentration was 1.36 ng/mL, with effect of time at har [...] vest on circulating levels. The regression equation of testosterone according to body weight showed linear effect, suggesting that for each kilogram added to the body weight, an increase of 0.0082 ng/mL on serum testosterone concentrations occurs; and the regression of testosterone according to scrotal circumference (SC) also showed a linear effect. The results show that for each centimeter added to SC in Guzerat bulls, an increase of 0.2319 ng/mL on testosterone concentrations occurs. The regression of sperm concentration according to serum testosterone showed a linear effect, the results show that for each 0.1 ng/mL added to serum testosterone concentration, an increase of 9.29x10(6) spermatozoa/mL of semen occurs. The results indicate that circulating levels of testosterone may help on identification and selection of Guzerat bulls with major reproductive potential.

  7. Coliform Bacteria: The Effect of Sediments on Decay Rates and on Required Detention Times in Stormwater BMPs

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle C. Usner; Cristiane Q. Surbeck; Alison R. Kinnaman

    2012-01-01

    Fecal indicator bacteria, such as total coliforms and E. coli, are a challenge to control in urban and rural stormwater runoff. To assess the challenges of improving bacterial water quality standards in surface waters, microcosm experiments were conducted to assess how decay rates of total coliforms and E. coli are affected by sediments and associated organic matter. Samples were collected at a lake embayment to create laboratory microcosms consisting of different combinations of unsterilized...

  8. Polyunsaturated fatty acids influence differential biosynthesis of oxylipids and other lipid mediators during bovine coliform mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavangira, Vengai; Gandy, Jeffery C; Zhang, Chen; Ryman, Valerie E; Daniel Jones, A; Sordillo, Lorraine M

    2015-09-01

    Coliform mastitis is a severe and sometimes fatal disease characterized by an unregulated inflammatory response. The initiation, progression, and resolution of inflammatory responses are regulated, in part, by potent oxylipid metabolites derived from polyunsaturated fatty acids. The purpose of this study was to characterize the biosynthesis and diversity of oxylipid metabolites during acute bovine coliform mastitis. Eleven cows diagnosed with naturally occurring acute systemic coliform mastitis and 13 healthy control cows, matched for lactation number and days in milk, were selected for comparison of oxylipid and free fatty acid concentrations in both milk and plasma. Oxylipids and free fatty acids were quantified using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. All polyunsaturated fatty acids quantified in milk were elevated during coliform mastitis with linoleic acid being the most abundant. Oxylipids synthesized through the lipoxygenase and cytochrome P450 pathways accounted for the majority of the oxylipid biosynthesis. This study demonstrated a complex and diverse oxylipid network, most pronounced at the level of the mammary gland. Substrate availability, biosynthetic pathways, and degree of metabolism influence the biosynthesis of oxylipids during bovine coliform mastitis. Further studies are required to identify targets for novel interventions that modulate oxylipid biosynthesis during coliform mastitis to optimize inflammation. PMID:26162796

  9. Determinação de coliformes na água e no tecido mole das ostras extraídas em Cananéia, São Paulo, Brasil / Determination of coliforms in the water and soft tissue of oysters extracted in Cananéia, São Paulo, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sonia Assami, Doi; Ana Julia Fernandes Cardoso de, Oliveira; Edson, Barbieri.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou avaliar a qualidade microbiológica da água de várias localidades em que são produzidas ostras Crassostrea sp. no estuário de Cananéia, tanto como nos bivalves, por meio dos valores de coliformes baseados na Técnica dos Tubos Múltiplos. Foram realizadas coletas de água em dez lo [...] calidades durante os anos de 2005 a 2011. A análise da água apresentou média geométrica de coliformes termotolerantes de 24,67 NMP 100 mL-1 e, nos tecidos das ostras, de 15,53 NMP g-1. Verificou-se uma diferença significativa entre as localidades analisadas quanto à densidade de coliformes totais e termotolerantes na água. Analisaram-se as variações das contagens bacterianas em relação à sazonalidade, verificando-se que o outono apresentou a maior média de coliformes nas ostras, sendo os maiores dados coletados em abril. Houve correlação positiva entre coliformes na água e na ostra. Abstract in english This study sought to evaluate the microbiological quality of water from the various locations where specimens of the oysters Crassostrea sp. were harvested in Cananéia estuary, as well as of the bivalve itself, through values of coliforms based on the Multiple Tube Technique. During the period from [...] 2005 to 2011, samples of water were collected at ten points. The water analysis presented a geometric mean of thermotolerant coliforms of 24.67 MPN 100 mL-1 and, in the soft tissues of the oysters, of 15.53 MPN g-1. There was a significant difference between the locations analyzed as to the density of total and thermotolerant coliforms in water. After analysis of the variations of bacterial counting with regard to seasonal mean, autumn presented the highest mean numbers of coliforms in oysters, and most data were collected in April. There was a positive correlation between the coliforms found in water and those in the oyster.

  10. Total serum IgE levels and atopic status in patients with sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Takeshi; Konno, Satoshi; Shigemura, Masahiko; Matsuno, Kazuhiko; Shimizu, Chikara; Shigehara, Katsunori; Shijubo, Noriharu; Hizawa, Nobuyuki; Yamaguchi, Etsuro; Nishimura, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    To date, two studies have reported lower total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and lower prevalence of atopy in patients with sarcoidosis compared with healthy subjects. However, those reports did not consider age or gender differences between cases and controls. In addition, the association between total serum IgE levels and clinical manifestations of sarcoidosis has not been clarified. This study assessed total serum IgE levels and prevalence of atopy in patients with sarcoidosis after taking age and sex differences into account and evaluated associations between total serum IgE levels and clinical manifestations of sarcoidosis. Total serum IgE levels and prevalence of atopy on initial visits were compared between 189 patients with sarcoidosis and 378 age- and sex-matched controls. Associations between total serum IgE levels and involvement of each affected organ were evaluated. Changes in total serum IgE levels during the clinical course of sarcoidosis were also evaluated. Total serum IgE levels were significantly lower in patients with sarcoidosis than in controls, independent of atopic status (atopic subjects, p = 0.025; nonatopic subjects, p IgE levels did not differ according to the involvement of different organs. Total serum IgE levels decreased further, albeit only slightly, after disease remission (p sarcoidosis may be attributable to several underlying genetic or environmental factors that result in lower total serum IgE levels. PMID:22370533

  11. Removal of fecal coliforms in stabilization lagoons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment of residual waters by means of stabilization lagoons, it has been a method very used due to their low costs of operation and maintenance, as well as to their efficiency in the removal of organic matter and of microorganisms pathogens. The pathogens removal, measure in terms of fecal coliforms, CF, is one of the objectives of the design and of the control of the operation of plants of treatment of residual waters. In this article summary the main results of the experimental evaluation of the removal of fecal coliforms, In a treatment system for stabilization lagoons. In 1987 the plant of treatment of Chia 1 the main components of the treatment system are an entrance structure, composed by a mitigation tank, to which he receives a 24 diameter pipe with a slope of 0.98% that transports the residual water of a sector of the Chia municipality. The average concentration of fecal coliforms is not affected notably by the hour of sampling. The value of the coliforms concentration in the tributary is of 1.0*106 NMP/100 mL, the concentration in the final tributary is bigger than the one demanded for the watering water without restrictions 3.4*104 NMP/100 mL. The removal average in the system is acceptable during the sampling period, keeping in mind that this compound for two lagoons in series, under anaerobic conditions

  12. Coliforms and Escherichia coli in waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study shows the evaluation of a defined substrate method, Colilert 18/Quanty Tray, for the simultaneous detection of Coliforms bacteria and Escherichia coli in water. The results obtained indicate that this method represents a valid alternative to the traditional methods considering sensitivity, specificity, repeatability but also rapidity and simplicity of use

  13. Interaction of fecal coliforms with soil aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land-applied manures may contain various contaminants that cause water pollution and concomitant health problems. Some of these pollutants are bacteria, and fecal coliforms (FC) have been widely used as an indicator of bacterial contamination. Experiments on bacteria attachment to soil are tradition...

  14. THAWING PROCEDURES FOR HOSPITAL-MADE ENTERAL FEEDINGS: SURVIVAL OF COLIFORM AND MESOPHILIC AEROBIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KATHIA ROSSI ROLIM LOPES

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: This study had the purpose to observe the effect of thawing procedures on survival of coliform and mesophilic aerobic bacteria in hospital-made enteral feedings. The samples are represented by three different lots. The tests were realized in three moments: immediately after the sample preparation and after freezing during 1 or 2 months. The thawing procedures were denominated convencional and alternative. The first, used by hospital, utilizes water bath at 50ºC, considering the time spent from the total thawing to its distribution in the infirmaries. The second was the fast thawing made by microwaving. The results showed that the reduction of the mesophiles and coliform was related to the time the samples were frozen. The results obtained indicate an advantage of the alternative method, which presented lower total and fecal coliform counts than the conventional one. KEYWORDS: Enteral feedings; thawing; food microbiology.

  15. Control of coliform bacteria detected from diarrhea associated patients by extracts of Moringa oleifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M M; Rahman, M M; Akhter, S; Jamal, M A H M; Pandeya, D R; Haque, M A; Alam, M F; Rahman, A

    2010-03-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the total population of coliform bacteria in the samples collected from diarrhea associated patients from the local area of Bangladesh and to examine the antibacterial efficacy of leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) against the isolated coliform bacteria. The coliform bacteria detected in these samples by some microbial-biochemical tests such as Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella sp., Enterobacter sp., Klebsiella pneumoniae and Serratia marcescens. The total isolation rate of coliform bacterial species was ranged from 38.01-3.51%. At the concentration of 300 ig/disc, the organic extracts of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Moringa oleifera leaf exhibited a remarkable antibacterial effect against all the tested bacterial pathogens. The zones of inhibition against all the tested bacterial pathogens were found in the range of 8.0 to 23.2 mm, along with their respective minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 62.5-1000 ig/mL. The results obtained in this study suggest that the extracts from Moringa oleifera leaf can be a source of natural antimicrobials with potential applications in pharmaceutical industry to control coliform bacteria. PMID:20677603

  16. Phenotypic and phylogenetic identification of coliform bacteria obtained from 12 USEPA approved coliform methods

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ya

    2015-06-26

    The current definition of coliform bacteria is method-dependent, and when different culture-based methods are used, discrepancies in results can occur and affect the accuracy in identifying true coliforms. This study used an alternative approach to identify true coliforms by combing the phenotypic traits of the coliform isolates and the phylogenetic affiliation of 16S rRNA gene sequences together with the use of lacZ and uidA genes. A collection of 1404 isolates from 12 US Environmental Protection Agency approved coliform-testing methods were characterized based on their phylogenetic affiliations and responses to their original isolation medium and Lauryl Tryptose broth, m-Endo and MI agar media. Isolates were phylogenetically classified into 32 true coliform or targeted Enterobacteriaceae (TE) groups, and 14 non-coliform or non-targeted Enterbacteriaceae (NTE) groups. It was statistically shown that detecting true-positive (TP) events is more challenging than detecting true-negative (TN) events. Furthermore, most false-negative (FN) events were associated with four TE groups (i.e., Serratia group I, Providencia, Proteus, and Morganella), and most false-positive (FP) events with two NTE groups, Aeromonas and Plesiomonas. In Escherichia coli testing, 18 out of 145 E. coli isolates identified by those enzymatic methods were validated as FNs. The reasons behind the FP and FN reactions could be explained through the analysis of the lacZ and uidA gene. Overall, combining the analyses of 16S rRNA, lacZ and uidA genes with the growth responses of TE and NTE on culture-based media is an effective way to evaluate the performance of coliform detection methods.

  17. Identification and characterization of psychrotolerant coliform bacteria isolated from pasteurized fluid milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, S N; Martin, N H; Trm?i?, A; Wiedmann, M; Boor, K J

    2016-01-01

    The presence of coliform bacteria in pasteurized fluid milk typically indicates that product contamination occurred downstream of the pasteurizer, but it may also indicate pasteurization failure. Although coliform detection is frequently used as a hygiene indicator for dairy products, our understanding of the taxonomic and phenotypic coliform diversity associated with dairy products is surprisingly limited. Therefore, using Petrifilm Coliform Count plates (3M, St. Paul, MN), we isolated coliforms from high-temperature, short-time (HTST)-pasteurized fluid milk samples from 21 fluid milk processing plants in the northeast United States. Based on source information and initial characterization using partial 16S rDNA sequencing, 240 nonredundant isolates were obtained. The majority of these isolates were identified as belonging to the genera Enterobacter (42% of isolates), Hafnia (13%), Citrobacter (12%), Serratia (10%), and Raoultella (9%); additional isolates were classified into the genera Buttiauxella, Cedecea, Kluyvera, Leclercia, Pantoea, and Rahnella. A subset of 104 representative isolates was subsequently characterized phenotypically. Cold growth analysis in skim milk broth showed that all isolates displayed at least a 2-log increase over 10 d at 6°C; the majority of isolates (n=74) displayed more than a 5-log increase. In total, 43% of the representative isolates displayed lipolysis when incubated on spirit blue agar at 6°C for 14 d, whereas 71% of isolates displayed proteolysis when incubated on skim milk agar at 6°C for 14 d. Our data indicate that a considerable diversity of coliforms is found in HTST-pasteurized fluid milk and that a considerable proportion of these coliforms have phenotypic characteristics that will allow them to cause fluid milk spoilage. PMID:26547640

  18. The Interaction between Heterotrophic Bacteria and Coliform, Fecal Coliform, Fecal Streptococci Bacteria in the Water Supply Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Nazak AMANIDAZ; Ali ZAFARZADEH; Mahvi, Amir hossein

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the interaction between heterotrophic bacteria and coliform, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci bacteria in water supply networks.Methods: This study was conducted during 2013 on water supply distribution network in Aq Qala City, Golestan Province, Northern Iran and standard methods were applied for microbiological analysis. The surface method was applied to test the heterotrophic bacteria and MPN method was used for coliform, fecal coliform and fecal stre...

  19. Total coliform rule: Implementation manual (including Appendix D). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to EPA regions and the States on implementation of the rule. More specifically, the document addresses violation determination, FRDS reporting, and State Primacy Revision Application. The first section presents time lines showing deadlines for submission of Primacy Revision applications. The second section addresses violation determination and associated reporting requirements. The third section covers State Special Primacy Requirements. This section breaks the requirements down into three categories of relative importance. States may find this categorization useful in preparing their applications for primacy, because the EPA regions may utilize the categories in evaluating the applications

  20. Comparación de técnicas para la extracción de bacterias coliformes del sedimento del lago de Xochimilco, México / Comparison of techniques for coliform bacteria extraction from sediment of Xochimilco Lake, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos L, Fernández-Rendón; Guadalupe, Barrera-Escorcia.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La necesidad de separar a las bacterias del sedimento para lograr un conteo adecuado ha llevado a probar la eficiencia de distintas técnicas. En este trabajo se comparan técnicas tradicionales: agitación manual, homogenización, ultrasonicación y adición de surfactante. Además, se propone la posibili [...] dad de usar un conjunto de enzimas (pancreatina) y un antibiótico (ampicilina) para la extracción de coliformes del sedimento. Las muestras se obtuvieron del lago de Xochimilco, Ciudad de México. Después de aplicar cada técnica de separación de bacterias se determinó el número más probable de coliformes. La mayoría de las técnicas probadas generaron números similares a la técnica tomada como control (agitación manual). Únicamente se observó una mayor concentración de coliformes totales con el uso de la ampicilina (Mann-Whitney, z = 2,09; p = 0,03). Es posible proponer el uso de la ampicilina como técnica para la extracción de coliformes totales, sin embargo, es necesario considerar la sensibilidad de las bacterias al antibiótico. Abstract in english The need to separate bacteria from sediment in order to appropriately count them has led to test the efficacy of different techniques. In this research, traditional techniques such as manual shaking, homogenization, ultrasonication, and surfactant are compared. Moreover, the possibility of using a s [...] et of enzymes (pancreatine) and an antibiotic (ampicillin) for sediment coliform extraction is proposed. Samples were obtained from Xochimilco Lake in Mexico City. The most probable number of coliform bacteria was determined after applying the appropriate separation procedure. Most of the techniques tested led to numbers similar to those of the control (manual shaking). Only with the use of ampicillin, a greater total coliform concentration was observed (Mann-Whitney, z = 2.09; p = 0.03). It is possible to propose the use of ampicillin as a technique for total coliform extraction; however, it is necessary to consider sensitivity of bacteria to the antibiotic.

  1. Elimination of coliforms and Salmonella spp. in sheep meat by gamma irradiation treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Salles Vasconcelos Henriques; Fábio da Costa Henry; João Batista Barbosa; Silvania Alves Ladeira; Silvia de Menezes de Faria Pereira; Isabela Maria da Silva Antonio; Gina Nunes Teixeira; Meire Lelis Leal Martins; Helio de Carvalho Vital; Dália dos Prazeres Rodrigues; Eliane Moura Falavina dos Reis

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the bacteriological effects of the treatment of sheep meat contaminated with total coliforms, coliforms at 45 °C and Salmonella spp. by using irradiation at doses of 3 kGy and 5 kGy. Thirty sheep meat samples were collected from animals located in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, and then grouped in three lots including 10 samples: non-irradiated (control); irradiated with 3 kGy; and irradiated with 5 kGy. Exposure to gamma radiation in a 137Cs source-driven irradi...

  2. Comparación de los métodos PetrifilmTM coliformes y Número Más Probable (NMP) para la determinación de coliformes fecales en muestras de queso blanco / Comparison study between the coliform PetrifilmTM and the Most Probable Number methods for the assessment of fecal coliforms in white cheese

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Miriam C, Ortiz L; Manuela, Ríos de S.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Los coliformes fecales son un grupo importante de microorganismos indicadores de inocuidad en alimentos, constituido principalmente por Escherichia coli, el cual es considerado como indicador de contaminación reciente de origen fecal, por ello la importancia de investigar su presencia y determinar r [...] ápidamente el nivel poblacional en alimentos. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo comparar el método tradicional Número Más Probable (NMP) para la determinación de coliformes fecales, según Norma Venezolana Covenin Nº 1104-96 con el método de placas rehidratables PetrifilmTM 3M coliformes incubadas en baño de agua circulante (PBA) a 45 ± 0,2°C por 24 ± 2 horas y en estufa con aire circulante 44 ± 1°C por 24 ± 2 horas (PES) de acuerdo con lo recomendado por la Asociación Francesa de Normalización (AFNOR) y la Corporación 3M. Se analizaron un total de 42 muestras de queso blanco aplicando ambas metodologías, dispensando simultáneamente diluciones seriadas de las muestras. Para el análisis estadístico se realizó una correlación de muestras relacionadas (SPS versión 7,5), obteniéndose los siguientes resultados r = 0,952 entre NMP y PES y r = 0,944 entre NMP y PBA; lo que indica una buena correlación positiva entre ambas metodologías en sus diferentes modalidades para la determinación de coliformes fecales en muestras de queso blanco. Se concluye que las placas PetrifilmTM coliformes incubadas a la temperatura óptima de crecimiento de dichos microorganismos es un método alternativo, rápido y confiable para la determinación del nivel de coliformes fecales en queso blanco. Abstract in english Fecal coliform belong to an important group of sanitary quality indicator microorganisms in food, mainly constituted for Escherichia coli, considerated as indicators of recent fecal contamination, that is why it is very important to investigate their presence and to detect their population in food r [...] apidly. The objetive of this study was to compare the Most Probable Number (NPM) method for fecal coliform determination, according to Venezuelan standard COVENIN Nº 1104-96, with the coliform PetrifilmTM 3M TM plates, incubated in circulating thermostatically - controlled water bath (PBA) at 45 ± 0,2 ° C for 24 ± 2 hours and in a circulating air incubator at 44 ± 1° C for 24 ± 2 hours (PES), according to the recommendation of Association Francoise of Normalization, Paris (AFNOR) and 3M TM corporation. Forty-two white cheese samples were analyzed using both methods mentioned above. They were dispensed at the same time with decimal dilutions of the samples. Data generated were subjected to correlation of related samples (SPS 7.5 version) and the correlation coefficients (r) were obtained; r = 0.952 NMP and PES; r = 0.944 NMP and PBA. It is interesting to observe a good correlation between the methodologies in their different forms for fecal coliform determination in white cheese. Coliform PetrifilmTM plates incubated at the optimal temperature of coliform fecal culture represent a rapid alternative and reliable method for the assessment of fecal coliform population in white cheese.

  3. Comparación de los métodos PetrifilmTM coliformes y Número Más Probable (NMP para la determinación de coliformes fecales en muestras de queso blanco Comparison study between the coliform PetrifilmTM and the Most Probable Number methods for the assessment of fecal coliforms in white cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam C Ortiz L

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Los coliformes fecales son un grupo importante de microorganismos indicadores de inocuidad en alimentos, constituido principalmente por Escherichia coli, el cual es considerado como indicador de contaminación reciente de origen fecal, por ello la importancia de investigar su presencia y determinar rápidamente el nivel poblacional en alimentos. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo comparar el método tradicional Número Más Probable (NMP para la determinación de coliformes fecales, según Norma Venezolana Covenin Nº 1104-96 con el método de placas rehidratables PetrifilmTM 3M coliformes incubadas en baño de agua circulante (PBA a 45 ± 0,2°C por 24 ± 2 horas y en estufa con aire circulante 44 ± 1°C por 24 ± 2 horas (PES de acuerdo con lo recomendado por la Asociación Francesa de Normalización (AFNOR y la Corporación 3M. Se analizaron un total de 42 muestras de queso blanco aplicando ambas metodologías, dispensando simultáneamente diluciones seriadas de las muestras. Para el análisis estadístico se realizó una correlación de muestras relacionadas (SPS versión 7,5, obteniéndose los siguientes resultados r = 0,952 entre NMP y PES y r = 0,944 entre NMP y PBA; lo que indica una buena correlación positiva entre ambas metodologías en sus diferentes modalidades para la determinación de coliformes fecales en muestras de queso blanco. Se concluye que las placas PetrifilmTM coliformes incubadas a la temperatura óptima de crecimiento de dichos microorganismos es un método alternativo, rápido y confiable para la determinación del nivel de coliformes fecales en queso blanco.Fecal coliform belong to an important group of sanitary quality indicator microorganisms in food, mainly constituted for Escherichia coli, considerated as indicators of recent fecal contamination, that is why it is very important to investigate their presence and to detect their population in food rapidly. The objetive of this study was to compare the Most Probable Number (NPM method for fecal coliform determination, according to Venezuelan standard COVENIN Nº 1104-96, with the coliform PetrifilmTM 3M TM plates, incubated in circulating thermostatically - controlled water bath (PBA at 45 ± 0,2 ° C for 24 ± 2 hours and in a circulating air incubator at 44 ± 1° C for 24 ± 2 hours (PES, according to the recommendation of Association Francoise of Normalization, Paris (AFNOR and 3M TM corporation. Forty-two white cheese samples were analyzed using both methods mentioned above. They were dispensed at the same time with decimal dilutions of the samples. Data generated were subjected to correlation of related samples (SPS 7.5 version and the correlation coefficients (r were obtained; r = 0.952 NMP and PES; r = 0.944 NMP and PBA. It is interesting to observe a good correlation between the methodologies in their different forms for fecal coliform determination in white cheese. Coliform PetrifilmTM plates incubated at the optimal temperature of coliform fecal culture represent a rapid alternative and reliable method for the assessment of fecal coliform population in white cheese.

  4. Total and antigen-specific Ige levels in umbilical cord blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sybilski AJ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study was conducted to learn whether the perinatal and environmental factors could influence the total and antigen-specific IgE levels in umbilical cord blood. Retrospective data were obtained from 173 mother-infant pairs. Total and specific (for children's food, wheat/grass and house dust mite-HDM cord blood IgE levels were determined using the immunoassay test. The total cord blood IgE was between 0.0-23.08 IU/ml (mean 0.55 ± 2.07 IU/ml; median 0.16 IU/ml. Total IgE levels were significantly higher in boys compared with girls (OR = 2.2; P = 0.007, and in newborns with complicated pregnancy (OR = 2.7; P = 0.003. A greater number of siblings correlated with increases in the total cord blood IgE (P

  5. Comparison of the SimPlate coliform and Escherichia coli test with Petrifilm, three-tube MPN, and VRBA + MUG methods for enumerating coliforms and E. coli in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, D E; Irving, R L; Naqui, A

    1998-04-01

    SimPlate for coliforms and Escherichia coli (CEc) is a new method for the detection and quantification of coliforms and E. coli in food. Internal validation of the method was carried out at IDEXX Laboratories (Westbrook, ME) with 180 food samples representing a variety of different food matrices and compared against three-tube MPN (most probable number), VRBA (violet red bile agar) + MUG, and Petrifilm (E. coli count) methods. SimPlate CEc was highly correlated with each of these methods for the quantification of coliform bacteria (r > or = 0.90). An insignificant number of food samples were found to contain E. coli; therefore, no meaningful correlation data could be generated. Four hundred forty-four additional food samples were tested at five collaborating laboratories for the presence of coliforms E. coli using SimPlate CEc and either VRBA + MUG or Petrifilm (E. coli count). Regression analysis of data from SimPlate for CEc versus Petrifilm E. coli count plates generated correlation coefficients (r) of at least 0.89 for total coliforms and at least 0.90 for generic E. coli. Correlation coefficients between SimPlate for CEc and VRBA + MUG data were at least 0.90 for coliforms and at least 0.86 for E. coli. SimPlate for CEc demonstrated better recovery of E. coli than Petrifilm when high populations of bacteria were present. E. coli was not detected in 20 or 50 (40%) raw milk samples tested by the Petrifilm method due to the presence of interfering coliform and noncoliform bacteria. It is concluded that SimPlate for CEc is a suitable alternative for determining numbers of coliform bacteria and E. coli in food. PMID:9709208

  6. Association of serum total bilirubin levels with diastolic dysfunction in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Huan, Zheng; Ye, Li; Nanzi, Xie.

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is one of the main characteristics of heart failure patients with a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. As bilirubin is regarded as an important endogenous antioxidant molecule, serum total bilirubin levels were compared between heart fail [...] ure patients with a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction and normal controls in this study. We recruited 327 heart failure patients with a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction and 200 healthy controls. Patients were divided into 4 subgroups by their comprehensive echocardiographic manifestations, 1-mild, 2-moderate, 3-severe (reversible restrictive), 4-severe (fixed restrictive). Total bilirubin levels were compared using stepwise multiple regressions adjusted for selected factors. RESULTS: After adjusting for gender, age, smoking, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and triglyceride, serum total bilirubin levels were significantly lower in the heart failure group compared with the control group (P

  7. Antagonistic effect of Lactobacillus strains against gas-producing coliforms isolated from colicky infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oggero Roberto

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infantile colic is a common disturb within the first 3 months of life, nevertheless the pathogenesis is incompletely understood and treatment remains an open issue. Intestinal gas production is thought to be one of the causes of abdominal discomfort in infants suffering from colic. However, data about the role of the amount of gas produced by infants' colonic microbiota and the correlation with the onset of colic symptoms are scanty. The benefit of supplementation with lactobacilli been recently reported but the mechanisms by which they exert their effects have not yet been fully defined. This study was performed to evaluate the interaction between Lactobacillus spp. strains and gas-forming coliforms isolated from stools of colicky infants. Results Strains of coliforms were isolated from stools of 45 colicky and 42 control breastfed infants in McConkey Agar and identified using PCR with species-specific primers, and the BBL™ Enterotube™ II system for Enterobacteriaceae. Gas-forming capability of coliforms was assessed in liquid cultures containing lactose as sole carbon source. The average count of total coliforms in colicky infants was significantly higher than controls: 5.98 (2.00-8.76 log10 vs 3.90 (2.50-7.10 CFU/g of faeces (p = 0.015. The following strains were identified: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae and Enterococcus faecalis. Then, 27 Lactobacillus strains were tested for their antagonistic effect against coliforms both by halo-forming method and in liquid co-cultures. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.delbrueckii DSM 20074 and L. plantarum MB 456 were able to inhibit all coliforms strains (halo-forming method, also in liquid co-cultures, thus demonstrating an antagonistic activity. Conclusions This study shows that two out of 27 strains of Lactobacillus examined possess an antimicrobial effect against six species of gas-forming coliforms isolated from colicky infants. Our findings may stimulate new researches to identify which Lactobacillus strains can improve colicky symptoms by acting on coliforms gut colonization.

  8. Serum total bilirubin levels and coronary heart disease - Causal association or epiphenomenon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunutsor, Setor K

    2015-12-01

    Observational epidemiological evidence supports a linear inverse and independent association between serum total bilirubin levels and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, but whether this association is causal remains to be ascertained. A Mendelian randomization approach was employed to test whether serum total bilirubin is causally linked to CHD. The genetic variant rs6742078 - well known to specifically modify levels of serum total bilirubin and accounting for up to 20% of the variance in circulating serum total bilirubin levels - was used as an instrumental variable. In pooled analysis of estimates reported from published genome-wide association studies, every copy of the T allele of rs6742078 was associated with 0.42 standard deviation (SD) higher levels of serum total bilirubin (95% confidence interval, 0.40 to 0.43). Based on combined data from the Coronary Artery Disease Genome wide Replication and Meta-analyses and the Coronary Artery Disease (C4D) Genetics Consortium involving a total of 36,763 CHD cases and 76,997 controls, the odds ratio for CHD per copy of the T allele was 1.01 (95% confidence interval, 0.99 to 1.04). The odds ratio of CHD for a 1 SD genetically elevated serum total bilirubin level was 1.03 (95% confidence interval, 0.98 to 1.09). The current findings casts doubt on a strong causal association of serum total bilirubin levels with CHD. The inverse associations demonstrated in observational studies may be driven by biases such as unmeasured confounding and/or reverse causation. However, further research in large-scale consortia is needed. PMID:26408227

  9. A comparison of total antioxidant levels in breast-fed and formula-fed infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Alp?nar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We aimed to evaluate the effect of breast milk and formula on the total antioxidant capacity of the plasma. Material and Method: The oxidative stress index was calculated by measuring plasma total antioxidant level and total oxidant level in 35 infants between the ages of 3 and 6 months. The study approved by the ethics committe (14.10.2009-10/7.Results: No significant differences were observed between the two groups in respect of age, gender, plasma total antioxidant status and total oxidant status. Plasma total antioxidant levels were higher in the breast-fed group than the formula-fed group (p=0.004. Plasma total antioxidant status was lower in the breast-fed group compared to the formula-fed infants (p=0.019. The oxidative stress index values of the breast-fed group were lower than formula-fed infants (p=0.006. Conclusions: Breast milk provides better antioxidant defence than does formula in infants before six months of age. (Turk Arch Ped 2012; 47: 95-8

  10. Optimization of Steam Pressure Levels in a Total Site Using a Thermoeconomic Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Shamsi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to develop a thermoeconomic-based approach for optimization of steam levels in a steam production and distribution system by use of the specific exergy costing (SPECO method for determining optimum steam levels to minimize the cost caused by exergy destruction. In the field of total site optimization, incremental cost of the utility system caused by exergy destruction has been selected as an objective function and the result is compared with the case that energy minimization has been selected as the prime objective. The steam levels are optimized considering steam demand at each level, output power generated by turbines, boiler duty, fuel and cold utility requirements as well as capital cost of equipments. The analysis showed that thermoeconomic (exergoeconomic approach in optimization not only can change the optimum structure of steam levels but also may reduce the total cost of utility system up to 8%.

  11. Total serum IgE levels are associated with ambient ozone concentration in asthmatic adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Rage, Estelle; Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Nadif, Rachel; Oryszczyn, Marie-Pierre; Siroux, Valérie; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Kauffmann, Francine; Künzli, Nino

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Effects of air pollution exposure on IgE-mediated response in asthmatics are poorly investigated. The aim was to examine the relationship between air pollution concentrations and total IgE levels in adult asthmatics. METHODS: The present study relates to the 369 asthmatic adults from the French Epidemiological study on Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA), with availability of data on both total serum IgE measurements and air pollution concentrations. Geo-statistical models w...

  12. The measurement of total serum IgE levels in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A direct solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the measurement of total serum IgE in the rat has been developed. The assay is very sensitive with a lower limit of detection of 5 ng/ml. The intra and interassay reproducibility proves to be very acceptable and the specificity is demonstrated by looking at the interference by other immunoglobulins. Preliminary results on total serum IgE levels are given

  13. Immunoglobulin patterns in keratoconus with particular reference to total and specific IgE levels.

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, E G; Lewis, C J

    1982-01-01

    A selection of sufferers from keratoconus and random controls were assessed in order to substantiate claims that there existed a significant incidence of patients with both keratoconus and a raised serum level of immunoglobulin E. The results appeared to confirm a high incidence of raised total serum IgE levels in patients with keratoconus and also indicated that the additional measurement of serum specific IgE was more sensitive than total IgE. In fact 59% of the patients with keratoconus in...

  14. Serum levels of cobalt and chromium in a complex modular total hip arthroplasty system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, I; Bonomo, A; Crawford, R; Psychoyios, V; Delves, T; Murray, D; McLardy-Smith, P

    2002-10-01

    There is concern that modularity in a total hip arthroplasty system increases serum cobalt and chromium ion levels. This study measures the serum cobalt and chromium levels in patients with an Oxford Universal Hip (Corin, Cirencester, United Kingdom), which has a modular sliding mechanism; patients with a similarly manufactured hip with no sliding mechanism; and a control group. Loosening was excluded clinically and radiologically. Arthroplasty patients had statistically higher levels of serum cobalt and chromium than controls, but there was no significant difference in levels between the implanted groups. PMID:12375249

  15. 33 CFR 159.123 - Coliform test: Type I devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.123 Coliform test... milliliters when tested in accordance with 40 CFR part 136. (b) The 40 samples must be taken from the device... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coliform test: Type I...

  16. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.126 Coliform test... when tested in accordance with 40 CFR part 136. (b) The 40 samples must be taken from the device as... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coliform test: Type II...

  17. Escherichia coli and fecal coliforms in freshwater and estuarine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been known for some time that substantial populations of fecal coliforms and E. coli are harbored in freshwater bottom sediments, bank soils, and beach sands. However, the relative importance of sediments as bacterial habitats and as a source of water-borne fecal coliforms and E. coli has not...

  18. Effect of elevated total CoA levels on metabolic pathways in cultured hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livers from fasted rats have 30% higher total CoA levels than fed rats. To determine whether this increase of total CoA influences metabolism, the rates of gluconeogenesis, fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis were measured in hepatocytes with cyanamide (CYM) or pantothenate (PA) deficient medium used to vary total CoA levels independently of hormonal status. Primary cultures of rat hepatocytes were incubated 14 hrs with Bt2 cAMP, dexamethasone + theophylline in PA deficient medium or with CYM (500 ?M) + PA, rinsed and preincubated 0.5 hr to remove the CYM. Hepatocytes treated with CYM had total CoA levels 10-24% higher than PA deficient cells and lower rates of glucose production from lactate + pyruvate (L/P) or from alanine (0.23 +/- 0.05 and 0.089 +/- 0.02 ?m/mg protein, respectively in CYM treated cells compared to 0.33 +/- 0.06 and 0.130 +/- 0.006 in PA deficient cells). This decrease was not due to CYM per se, as the direct addition of CYM stimulated glucose production from L/P. CYM treated cells with 15-40% higher total CoA and 30% higher fatty acyl-CoA levels had the same rates of [14C]-palmitate oxidation as PA deficient cells. However, rates of ketogenesis were lower in CYM treated cells (163 +/- 11 nm/mg compared to 217 +/- 14 nm/mg protein). These results suggest that physiological alterations of hepatic total CoA levels are not necessary for fasting rates of gluconeogenesis, fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis

  19. Common variants in the calcium-sensing receptor gene are associated with total serum calcium levels

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Serum calcium levels are tightly regulated. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in population-based studies participating in the CHARGE Consortium to uncover common genetic variations associated with total serum calcium levels. GWAS of serum calcium concentrations was performed in 20 611 individuals of European ancestry for ~2.5 million genotyped and imputed single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The SNP with the lowest P-value was rs17251221 (P = 2.4 * 10-22, minor allele fr...

  20. Determinations of total residue, total oxide and density of high-level liquid waste (HLLW) by gravimetric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravimetric method for determination of total residue, total oxide and density of HLLW is developed. An aliquot of the original HLLW solution is piped on to the small quartz disc and put into the mini muffle furnace carefully. It is first heated to below 100 degree C (for 1.5 hours to remove the free water, and then heated to 180 degree C for 2 hours to remove the crystal water in a furnace. The total residue is weighed at room temperature. The precision is better than 3% for the determination of total residue and total oxide. An aliquot of the original HLLW solution is piped into the weighing bottle and weighed. The precision is better than 1%

  1. Reference ranges and determinants of total hCG levels during pregnancy: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korevaar, Tim I M; Steegers, Eric A P; de Rijke, Yolanda B; Schalekamp-Timmermans, Sarah; Visser, W Edward; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Tiemeier, Henning; Visser, Theo J; Medici, Marco; Peeters, Robin P

    2015-09-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a pregnancy hormone secreted by the placental synctiotrophoblast cell layer that has been linked to fetal growth and various placental, uterine and fetal functions. In order to investigate the effects of hCG on clinical endpoints, knowledge on reference range (RR) methodology and determinants of gestational hCG levels is crucial. Moreover, a better understanding of gestational hCG physiology can improve current screening programs and future clinical management. Serum total hCG levels were determined in 8195 women participating in the Generation R Study. Gestational age specific RRs using 'ultrasound derived gestational age' (US RRs) were calculated and compared with 'last menstrual period derived gestational age' (LMP RRs) and a model-based RR. We also investigated which pregnancy characteristics were associated with hCG levels. Compared to the US RRs, the LMP RRs were lower, most notably for the median and lower limit levels. No considerable differences were found between RRs calculated in the general population or in uncomplicated pregnancies only. Maternal smoking, BMI, parity, ethnicity, fetal gender, placental weight and hyperemesis gravidarum symptoms were associated with total hCG. We provide gestational RRs for total hCG and show that total hCG values and RR cut-offs during pregnancy vary depending on pregnancy dating methodology. This is likely due to the influence of hCG on embryonic growth, suggesting that ultrasound based pregnancy dating might be less reliable in women with high/low hCG levels. Furthermore, we identify different pregnancy characteristics that influence total hCG levels considerably and should therefore be accounted for in clinical studies. PMID:25963653

  2. 40 CFR 142.60 - Variances from the maximum contaminant level for total trihalomethanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Variances from the maximum contaminant....60 Variances from the maximum contaminant level for total trihalomethanes. (a) The Administrator..., treatment techiques or other means generally available for achieving compliance with the maximum...

  3. Hypogonadism and subnormal total testosterone levels in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the frequency of testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The Gbagada General Hospital, Gbagada Lagos, Nigeria, from December 2009 to May 2010. Methodology: A total of 203 men with type 2 DM aged 30-86 years were evaluated for TDS by a combination of positive ADAM (androgen deficiency in the ageing male) scores and subnormal total testosterone levels. Mild testosterone deficiency referred to total testosterone (TT) levels of 8-12 nmol/L with symptoms of hypogonadism and severe testosterone deficiency referred to TT levels < 8 nmol/L with or without hypogonadal symptoms. Results: Mild and severe TDS were present in 18.3% and 17% respectively of the study subjects. Commonly occurring clinical parameters of the TDS were erectile dysfunction and loss of libido, which were documented in 63% and 60% respectively in the study subjects. The majority of clinical features of the TDS were comparable in men with and without the TDS. Conclusion: About a third of men with type 2 DM had the TDS. The majority of the symptoms of hypogonadism are largely non-specific and their occurrence is comparable in men with and without low testosterone levels; thus, underscoring the need to have testosterone levels determined in men presenting with such symptoms. (author)

  4. The effects of oral and intramuscular administration and dose escalation of enrofloxacin on the selection of quinolone resistance among Salmonella and coliforms in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiuff, C.; Lykkesfeldt, J.; Svendsen, O.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2003-01-01

    resistant and total number of coliforms and Salmonella in faeces of the pigs. High frequencies of fluoroquinolone resistance developed rapidly among the coliform flora independent of route of administration, dose or time of initiation of the treatment. Selection for resistance among the artificially...... introduced Salmonella was reduced by using the intramuscular route and by escalating the dose 3 or 6 times the recommended dose of 2.5 mg/kg bwt, which also resulted in shortening of the period, in which the pigs were shedding Salmonella. The resistance among the coliform flora persisted for at least 2 weeks...

  5. Assessment of total mercury levels in Clarias gariepinus from the Sagua la Grande River, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De La Rosa, D; Lima, L; Olivares-Rieumont, S; Graham, D W; Enriquez, I; Diaz, O; Bastías, J M; Muñoz, O

    2009-01-01

    Total mercury levels (Thg) were quantified in Clarias gariepinus captured from the Sagua la Grande River (Cuba) in the vicinity of an active chlor-alkali plant, and relationships among place of capture; fish size, weight, and sex; and THg levels were assessed. THg levels ranged from 67 to 375 ng/g ww in collected fish, never exceeding the Cuban recommended maximum limit for fish consumption of 500 ng/g ww. No significant correlation was observed between mercury levels and fish allometric characteristics (p < 0.05); however, levels were significantly higher in fish captured below the chlor-alkali facility, suggesting a connection between mercury bioaccumulation and plant discharges. PMID:18841320

  6. PRESENCIA DE ARSÉNICO Y COLIFORMES EN AGUA POTABLE DEL MUNICIPIO DE TECUALA, NAYARIT, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel MORA-BUENO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron las concentraciones de arsénico total (AsT y la presencia de coliformes totales y fecales en agua potable del municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit, México. La determinación de AsT se realizó por espectrofotometría de fluorescencia atómica, por generación de hidruros; la detección de coliformes totales y fecales se realizó con la técnica del número más probable (NMP. De acuerdo a los resultados obtenidos, la concentración media de AsT en la cabecera municipal de Tecuala fue de 15.82 Mg/L, en el ejido de Atotonilco de 19.88 Mg/L, en Pajaritos de 21.49 Mg/L, en Quimichis de 17.80 Mg/L y en Playas de Novillero de 19.79 Mg/L. Aunque las concentraciones de AsT en el agua potable del municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit, se encuentran dentro del límite establecido por las Normas Oficiales Mexicanas (25 Mg/L, rebasan el límite establecido por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, que establece un máximo de 10 Mg/L. La concentración de coliformes en el agua procedente de los pozos 1 y 3 fue de 180 NMP/100 mL y de 43 NMP/100 mL para el agua del pozo 2. La presencia de coliformes totales y fecales, sugiere la infiltración de aguas negras lo que podría incrementar los niveles de arsénico disuelto. Los resultados de este estudio servirán como antecedente sanitario de la calidad del agua de los pozos que abastecen el municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit.

  7. Levels of total mercury in predatory fish sold in Canada in 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Dabeka, R.W.; McKenzie, A. D.; Forsyth, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    Total mercury was analysed in 188 samples of predatory fish purchased at the retail level in Canada in 2005. The average concentrations (ng g?1, range) were: sea bass 329 (38–1367), red snapper 148 (36–431), orange roughy 543 (279–974), fresh water trout 55 (20–430), grouper 360 (8–1060), black cod 284 (71–651), Arctic char 37 (28–54), king fish 440 (42–923), tilefish 601 (79–1164) and marlin 854 (125–2346). The Canadian standard for maximum total mercury allowed in the edible portions of fis...

  8. Fluoxetine Decreased Serum Total Cholesterol and Triglyceride Levels in a Hypercholesterolemic Patient with Postpartum Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Khalili

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report the case of a 28-year old hypercholesterolemic female with postpartum depression, whose triglyceride (TG and total cholesterol (TC levels decreased while being treated with fluoxetine. Method: A 28-year old female, with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder with postpartum onset based on DSM-IV criteria, was hospitalized at a mental health hospital. Her past history included another episode of depression 4 months after giving birth to her second child, which was 12 years prior to her recent episode. Her serum total cholestrol and triglyceride levels were measured prior to the initiation of medication. Then fluoxetine was initiated at a daily dose of 20 mg and had been increased to 40 mg per day at the time of discharge. The lipid profile measurements was repeated at week 4 and 8 following treatment. Results: Total cholesterol level was reduced from 242 mg/dL at baseline to 224 mg/dL at week 4 and to 202 mg/dL at week 8; triglyceride level was decreased from 516 mg/dL to 448 mg/dL at week 4 and to 404 mg/dL at week 8. Conclusions: Fluoxetine may be an appropriate treatment for hyperlipidemic women with postpartum depression..

  9. Measuring total health inequality: adding individual variation to group-level differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gakidou Emmanuela

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have revealed large variations in average health status across social, economic, and other groups. No study exists on the distribution of the risk of ill-health across individuals, either within groups or across all people in a society, and as such a crucial piece of total health inequality has been overlooked. Some of the reason for this neglect has been that the risk of death, which forms the basis for most measures, is impossible to observe directly and difficult to estimate. Methods We develop a measure of total health inequality – encompassing all inequalities among people in a society, including variation between and within groups – by adapting a beta-binomial regression model. We apply it to children under age two in 50 low- and middle-income countries. Our method has been adopted by the World Health Organization and is being implemented in surveys around the world; preliminary estimates have appeared in the World Health Report (2000. Results Countries with similar average child mortality differ considerably in total health inequality. Liberia and Mozambique have the largest inequalities in child survival, while Colombia, the Philippines and Kazakhstan have the lowest levels among the countries measured. Conclusions Total health inequality estimates should be routinely reported alongside average levels of health in populations and groups, as they reveal important policy-related information not otherwise knowable. This approach enables meaningful comparisons of inequality across countries and future analyses of the determinants of inequality.

  10. Research of total levels on DNA methylation in plant based on HPLC analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang Chen; Siyuan Tao; Xiaohua Bi; Xin Xu; Lanlan Wang; Xuemei Li

    2013-01-01

    HPLC analysis is important for determination of total level on DNA methylation in plants. It can be used to help characterise epigenetic changes during growth, development and stress. HPLC methods have been optimised for mammalian and microbial DNA, but not for plants. This article examines several important factors in the HPLC analysis of plant DNA methylation including extraction and purification of DNA and HPLC conditions choice by using leaves of rice seedling. The experimental results s...

  11. Higher total cholesterol level is associated with suicidal ideation in first-episode schizophrenia females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiak, B?a?ej; Kiejna, Andrzej; Frydecka, Dorota

    2015-03-30

    There are inconsistent reports showing that the relationship between total cholesterol (TC) level and suicidality might be gender-specific. We compared 30 first-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients reporting suicidal ideation based on the Operational Criteria for Psychotic Illness (OPCRIT) checklist with 70 FES patients, who have never experienced suicidal ideation. After controlling for potential confounders, higher TC was associated with suicidal ideation only in FES females. Future studies should disentangle biological underpinnings of this gender-specific association. PMID:25618471

  12. Total Quantum Zeno effect and Intelligent States for a two level system in a squeezed bath

    CERN Document Server

    Mundarain, D; Stephany, J

    2006-01-01

    In this work we show that by frequent measurements of adequately chosen observables, a complete suppression of the decay in an exponentially decaying two level system interacting with a squeezed bath is obtained. The observables for which the effect is observed depend on the the squeezing parameters of the bath. The initial states which display Total Zeno Effect are intelligent states of two conjugate observables associated to the electromagnetic fluctuations of the bath.

  13. Total oxidative stress, paraoxonase and arylesterase levels at patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Feyza; Vural Ozec, Ayse; Aydin, Huseyin; Topalkara, Aysen; Dursun, Ayhan; Toker, Mustafa Ilker; Erdogan, Haydar; Arici, Mustafa Kemal

    2015-01-01

    AIM To investigate the oxidative stress status of the aqueous humor and serum of patients with pseudoexfoliation (PEX) syndrome and pseudoexfoliative glaucoma (PEG) and to measure paraoxonase (PON) and arylesterase (ARE) levels. METHODS A total of 78 patients were enrolled in the study, with 26 patients in each separate group. The patients were divided into three groups: the first group entailed PEX syndrome patients, while the second group consisted of patients with PEG and the third group involved patients with no additional systemic diseases, other than the diagnosis of cataract as control. Total oxidative stress (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), PON, and ARE levels in aqueous humor and serum were measured. RESULTS TAC, PON and arylesterase levels in aqueous humor and serum of the PEX syndrome and PEG patients were significantly decreased compared with control group (Phumor did not differ significantly between the PEX syndrome and PEG groups CONCLUSION These findings are potentially of significance and add to the growing body of evidence for oxidative stress in PEX syndrome and PEG. Decreased antioxidant defense and increased oxidative stress system may play an important role in the pathogenesis of PEX syndrome and PEG. PMID:26558214

  14. Discrimination Efficacy of Fecal Pollution Detection in Different Aquatic Habitats of a High-Altitude Tropical Country, Using Presumptive Coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens Spores

    OpenAIRE

    Byamukama, Denis; Mach, Robert L; Kansiime, Frank; Manafi, Mohamad; Farnleitner, Andreas H

    2005-01-01

    The performance of rapid and practicable techniques that presumptively identify total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC), Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens spores (CP) by testing them on a pollution gradient in differing aquatic habitats in a high-altitude tropical country was evaluated during a 12-month period. Site selection was based on high and low anthropogenic influence criteria of paired sites including six spring, six stream, and four lakeshore sites spread over central ...

  15. Annoyance from Road Traffic, Trains, Airplanes and from Total Environmental Noise Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragettli, Martina S; Goudreau, Sophie; Plante, Céline; Perron, Stéphane; Fournier, Michel; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of studies assessing the exposure-response relationship between transportation noise and annoyance in North America. Our aims were to investigate the prevalence of noise annoyance induced by road traffic, trains and airplanes in relation to distance to transportation noise sources, and to total environmental noise levels in Montreal, Canada; annoyance was assessed as noise-induced disturbance. A telephone-based survey among 4336 persons aged >18 years was conducted. Exposure to total environmental noise (A-weighted outdoor noise levels-LAeq24h and day-evening-night equivalent noise levels-Lden) for each study participant was determined using a statistical noise model (land use regression-LUR) that is based on actual outdoor noise measurements. The proportion of the population annoyed by road traffic, airplane and train noise was 20.1%, 13.0% and 6.1%, respectively. As the distance to major roads, railways and the Montreal International Airport increased, the percentage of people disturbed and highly disturbed due to the corresponding traffic noise significantly decreased. When applying the statistical noise model we found a relationship between noise levels and disturbance from road traffic and total environmental noise, with Prevalence Proportion Ratios (PPR) for highly disturbed people of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.07-1.13) and 1.04 (1.02-1.06) per 1 dB(A) Lden, respectively. Our study provides the first comprehensive information on the relationship between transportation noise levels and disturbance in a Canadian city. LUR models are still in development and further studies on transportation noise induced annoyance are consequently needed, especially for sources other than road traffic. PMID:26729143

  16. Annoyance from Road Traffic, Trains, Airplanes and from Total Environmental Noise Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragettli, Martina S.; Goudreau, Sophie; Plante, Céline; Perron, Stéphane; Fournier, Michel; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of studies assessing the exposure-response relationship between transportation noise and annoyance in North America. Our aims were to investigate the prevalence of noise annoyance induced by road traffic, trains and airplanes in relation to distance to transportation noise sources, and to total environmental noise levels in Montreal, Canada; annoyance was assessed as noise-induced disturbance. A telephone-based survey among 4336 persons aged >18 years was conducted. Exposure to total environmental noise (A-weighted outdoor noise levels—LAeq24h and day-evening-night equivalent noise levels—Lden) for each study participant was determined using a statistical noise model (land use regression—LUR) that is based on actual outdoor noise measurements. The proportion of the population annoyed by road traffic, airplane and train noise was 20.1%, 13.0% and 6.1%, respectively. As the distance to major roads, railways and the Montreal International Airport increased, the percentage of people disturbed and highly disturbed due to the corresponding traffic noise significantly decreased. When applying the statistical noise model we found a relationship between noise levels and disturbance from road traffic and total environmental noise, with Prevalence Proportion Ratios (PPR) for highly disturbed people of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.07–1.13) and 1.04 (1.02–1.06) per 1 dB(A) Lden, respectively. Our study provides the first comprehensive information on the relationship between transportation noise levels and disturbance in a Canadian city. LUR models are still in development and further studies on transportation noise induced annoyance are consequently needed, especially for sources other than road traffic. PMID:26729143

  17. Total Testosterone Levels and the Effect of Sildenafil on Type 2 Diabetics with Erectile Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel Najib Fadhil Hadeed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Hypotestosteronemia has been reported in approximately half of type 2 diabetic men in general. This study aims to assess serum total testosterone levels in type 2 diabetics with erectile dysfunction and to correlate the degree of improvement between sildenafil citrate and testosterone levels. Methods: A cross sectional and prospective comparative interventional study was conducted at the Diabetic Clinic of Assalam Teaching Hospital in Mosul, during the period from January 1, 2009 through to December 31, 2011. The study enrolled 120 type 2 diabetic males with erectile dysfunction who were analyzed with regard to age, duration of diabetes, duration and severity of erectile dysfunction, serum total testosteron levels and the degree of response to sildenafil citrate in terms of testosterone levels. The data were statistically analyzed using the independent two-sample Student t test, ?2 test and Pearson correlation test. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Thirty six percent of type 2 diabetic males with erectile dysfunction were found to have low serum testosterone levels. The hypotestosteronemic and normotestosteronemic subgroups were not significantly different in terms of mean age, duration of diabetes, reduction of libido, and reduction in erectile function. The rate and the degree of improvement of erection by sildenafil in the normo-and-hypotestosteronemic respondents were not significantly different, but the degree of improvement by sildenafil was significantly correlated to testosterone levels among the hypotestosteronemic group. Conclusion: Hypotestosteronemia was found in 36% of type 2 diabetic males with erectile dysfunction. The degree of improvement of erectile dysfunction by sildenafil was directly proportional to the serum testosterone levels among the hypotestosteronemic group. Therapeutic supplement with testosterone preparation in the hypotestosteronemic diabetics with erectile dysfunction may improve their response to sildenafil.

  18. The occurrence of coliform bacteria in the cave waters of Slovak Karst, Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seman, Milan; Gaálová, Barbora; Cíchová, Marianna; Prokšová, Miloslava; Haviarová, Dagmar; F?aková, Renáta

    2015-05-01

    The diversity and abundance of coliform bacteria (taxonomically enterobacterias), an important quality water indicator, were determined for four representative caves in Slovak Karst: Domica Cave, Gombasecká Cave, Milada Cave and Krásnohorská Cave. Three hundred and fifty-two enterobacterial isolates were successfully identified by biochemical testing (commercial ENTEROtest 24) and selected isolates confirmed by molecular techniques (PCR, 16S rDNA sequence analysis). A total of 39 enterobacterial species were isolated from cave waters, with predominance of Escherichia coli, Serratia spp. and Enterobacter spp. PCR amplification of lacZ gene is not specific enough to provide a reliable detection of coliform bacteria isolated from the environment. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA confirmed that all of the selected isolates belong to the family Enterobacteriaceae. In general, physical and chemical parameters of cave waters in Slovak Karst corresponded to national drinking water quality standards. PMID:25417094

  19. Analytical methods for the recovery of coliforms in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three selective media currently used for coliforms enumeration from water samples, accomplished by using a membrane filtration technique, were evaluated and compared. Natural water samples and artificially contaminated laboratory samples were analysed

  20. A follow up on the distribution of coliform bacteria along the Jordanian coastline of the gulf of Aq aba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of the occurrence of enteric indicator organisms (e. g. total and fecal coliform) and enteric pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella sp.) was undertaken at ten sites, along the northern coast of the Gulf of Aq aba (Jordan)m during the period October 1994 to September 1995. Both total coliforms and Escherichia coli counts were within the accepted international standards for marine bathing water. the mean value per 100 ml seawater ranged between 18 to 70(n=12 months) for total coliforms, 1 to 27 (n=8 mon thus) for Escherichia coli and 1 to 9 (n = 8 months) for Salmonella species. The analysis of va rance for total coliforms revealed a highly significant temporal variations (P<0.001), but no significant spatial differences were found .Whereas, Salmonella sp. counts showed significant spatial variations (P<0.001), with the Border site being significantly different from the other sites except the Palace site. These results suggest that the hygienic water quality at the Jordanian side of the Gulf of Aq aba, is good all over the year although the sewage discharge from Ei lat might cause a health hazard as to be the major source of enteric pathogenic bacteria. (authors). 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  1. Dai Nippon Printing Co., Ltd Medi·Ca CC for Enumeration of Coliform Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Fumihiko; Shimizu, Mai; Suzuki, Takeo; Hamada, Chie; Iwase, Tatsuhiko; Okochi, Norihiko; Yamazaki, Mamoru; Kyotani, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    A ready-made dry medium method for coliform count, the Medi·Ca CC method, was compared to the Violet Red Bile Agar method (Bacteriological Analytical Manual, Chapter 4, Enumeration of Escherichia coli and the Coliform Bacteria, Section G) for nine raw foods from four food categories: raw ground pork, raw lamb, raw ground chicken, raw tuna fillet, raw salmon fillet, raw shrimp, fresh peeled banana, fresh cut pineapple, and fresh cut apple. The 95% confidence interval for the mean difference between the two methods at each contamination level for seven matrixes from all four categories fell within the range of -0.50 to 0.50, and no statistical difference was observed at all three contamination levels for four matrixes from three categories. These results demonstrated that the Medi·Ca CC method is a reasonable alternative to the reference method for raw meat, raw poultry, raw fish, and fresh fruits. PMID:25857880

  2. The impact of different demand allocation rules on total stock levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wanke

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript compares two different rules for allocating demands to serving facilities and their impact on total stock levels: the one proposed by Tyagi & Das (1998 and the cross filling practice. The EOQ and the ROP methods are used for setting cycle and safety stocks. Its is demonstrated that the minimization of the consolidated inventory levels within these rules leads to different allocation policies, frequently adopted by companies: one single facility sharing, dedicated facilities and full decentralization. Sensitivity analyses are conducted to identify the most relevant variables accountable for the differences in total stock levels among these three policies. Results suggest different benefit opportunities that may favor one policy to the detriment of the others. A framework synthesizing the findings is presented, so as to help in decision making. Potential impacts in terms of service levels and distribution costs are also evaluated qualitatively.Esse artigo compara duas diferentes regras para alocação da demanda às instalações de serviço e seus impactos nos níveis totais de estoque: a regra proposta por Tyagi & Das (1998 e a prática de transferência entre instalações. Os métodos do lote econômico de compras e do ponto de pedido são usados para determinação dos níveis de estoque de ciclo e de segurança. É demonstrado que a minimização dos níveis agregados de estoque nessas regras leva a diferentes políticas de alocação freqüentemente adotadas pelas empresas: compartilhamento de uma única instalação de serviço, instalações de serviço dedicadas e descentralização total do atendimento. Análises de sensibilidade são conduzidas para identificar as variáveis mais relevantes, responsáveis pela diferença nos níveis totais de estoque entre essas três políticas. Os resultados sugerem diferentes oportunidades que podem favorecer uma dada política em detrimento das outras. Um quadro conceitual sintetizando os achados é apresentado, de modo a auxiliar na tomada de decisão. Os impactos potenciais em termos de níveis de serviço e dos custos de distribuição também são avaliados em termos qualitativos.

  3. The impact of different demand allocation rules on total stock levels

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Peter, Wanke.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo compara duas diferentes regras para alocação da demanda às instalações de serviço e seus impactos nos níveis totais de estoque: a regra proposta por Tyagi & Das (1998) e a prática de transferência entre instalações. Os métodos do lote econômico de compras e do ponto de pedido são usados [...] para determinação dos níveis de estoque de ciclo e de segurança. É demonstrado que a minimização dos níveis agregados de estoque nessas regras leva a diferentes políticas de alocação freqüentemente adotadas pelas empresas: compartilhamento de uma única instalação de serviço, instalações de serviço dedicadas e descentralização total do atendimento. Análises de sensibilidade são conduzidas para identificar as variáveis mais relevantes, responsáveis pela diferença nos níveis totais de estoque entre essas três políticas. Os resultados sugerem diferentes oportunidades que podem favorecer uma dada política em detrimento das outras. Um quadro conceitual sintetizando os achados é apresentado, de modo a auxiliar na tomada de decisão. Os impactos potenciais em termos de níveis de serviço e dos custos de distribuição também são avaliados em termos qualitativos. Abstract in english This manuscript compares two different rules for allocating demands to serving facilities and their impact on total stock levels: the one proposed by Tyagi & Das (1998) and the cross filling practice. The EOQ and the ROP methods are used for setting cycle and safety stocks. Its is demonstrated that [...] the minimization of the consolidated inventory levels within these rules leads to different allocation policies, frequently adopted by companies: one single facility sharing, dedicated facilities and full decentralization. Sensitivity analyses are conducted to identify the most relevant variables accountable for the differences in total stock levels among these three policies. Results suggest different benefit opportunities that may favor one policy to the detriment of the others. A framework synthesizing the findings is presented, so as to help in decision making. Potential impacts in terms of service levels and distribution costs are also evaluated qualitatively.

  4. Seminal plasma total antioxidant capacity and vitamin- C levels in asthenozoospermia: a case- control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bidmeshkipour

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Defective sperm function is now recognized as one of the most important causes of male infertility. Seminal plasma possesses a rich source of different enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as vitamin C (ascorbic acid that protect spermatozoa against oxidative stress as one of the mediators of infertility causing sperm dysfunction and low sperm quality. The aim of this study was investigation of seminal total antioxidant capacity and determination of vitamin C effects on sperm motility. "n"nMethods: We designed a case-control study with a total subject of 62 males. Sperm parameters were analyzed according to World Health Organization guidelines (WHO, 1999. Total antioxidant capacity and vitamin C level of seminal plasma were measured in the 32 normozoospermic as the control group and 32 asthenospermic men as the case group using FRAP (Ferric Reducing of Antioxidants Powers and RP-HPLC (Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography methods, respectively. "n"nResults: Our results indicated that total antioxidant capacity levels in the seminal plasma of asthenospermic men were significantly lower than healthy men (p=0.002. In addition, we found a positive correlation between reduced total antioxidant capacity levels and low sperm motility. Vitamin C levels of seminal plasma in asthenospermic men were statistically lower than control men (p=0.01."n"nConclusions: It is suggested that asthenospermia could be related to an antioxidant deficiency or it's reduction.

  5. Serum immunoglobulin levels in humans exposed to therapeutic total-body gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reduced serum immunoglobulin (IgA, IgG, IgM) levels developed in the majority of 27 patients with hematologic disorders after treatment with 100 to 350 R total-body gamma-ray exposures at a dose rate of either 1.5 R/min to 1.5 R/hr. A reduction in IgA of 20 percent or more was found in 66 percent of the cases, while 56 percent showed an IgM decrease, and 49 percent an IgG decrease of 20 percent. The severity of immunoglobulin depression was influenced by the total radiation dose and the patient's primary disease. The occurrence of IgG and IgM depression was greater when the radiation was given at 1.5 R/hr than when the dose rate was 1.5 R/min. Substantial but incomplete recovery toward preirradiation immunoglobulin levels was found for most patients by 7 wk after total-body irradiation (TBI). (U.S.)

  6. Low-level waste disposal performance assessments - Total source-term analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1995-12-31

    Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities is regulated by DOE. DOE Order 5820.2A establishes policies, guidelines, and minimum requirements for managing radioactive waste. Requirements for disposal of low-level waste emplaced after September 1988 include providing reasonable assurance of meeting stated performance objectives by completing a radiological performance assessment. Recently, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board issued Recommendation 94-2, {open_quotes}Conformance with Safety Standards at Department of Energy Low-Level Nuclear Waste and Disposal Sites.{close_quotes} One of the elements of the recommendation is that low-level waste performance assessments do not include the entire source term because low-level waste emplaced prior to September 1988, as well as other DOE sources of radioactivity in the ground, are excluded. DOE has developed and issued guidance for preliminary assessments of the impact of including the total source term in performance assessments. This paper will present issues resulting from the inclusion of all DOE sources of radioactivity in performance assessments of low-level waste disposal facilities.

  7. Resistência antimicrobiana de coliformes isolados de leite humano ordenhado

    OpenAIRE

    Novak Franz Reis; Almeida João Aprígio Guerra de; Asensi Marise Dutra; Moraes Bianca Aguiar de; Rodrigues Dália dos Prazeres

    2001-01-01

    A veiculação de microrganismos potencialmente patogênicos, resistentes aos antibióticos, por meio de leite humano ordenhado, pode ser um fator de risco potencial. Este estudo teve como objetivo contribuir para um melhor conhecimento dos coliformes isolados de leite humano ordenhado (LHO) e de seu perfil de resistência a antimicrobianos. Seguiu-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, utilizando 837 amostras de LHO, nas quais 71 (8,48%) estavam contaminadas com coliformes totais, cuja cont...

  8. Antibiotic resistance among different species of fecal coliforms isolated from water samples.

    OpenAIRE

    Niemi, M.; Sibakov, M; Niemela, S

    1983-01-01

    The distribution of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, sulfonamides, tetracycline, and streptomycin among fecal coliforms in sewage, surface waters, and sea water was investigated. The incidence of resistant strains among isolates varied significantly among the water samples, without obvious connection with the water source or the level of pollution. The average frequency of multiple resistance was not always high in the same samples in which the overall resistance was high. The speci...

  9. [Levels of Ochratoxin A and total Aflatoxins in Panamanian exportation coffee by an ELISA Method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Heriberto; Vega, Aracelly; Reyes, Stephany; De Léon, Javier; Bonilla, Alexis

    2014-03-01

    A study about processing conditions of exportation coffee in 15 benefits located in Chiriqui, western region of Panama, was conducted. In addition, 21 samples of processed coffee (green beans), from the benefits, were analyzed. The samples were microbiologically tested in order to quantify total aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2) and Ochratoxin A (OTA), using the immunoaffinity ELISA method. A detection limit of 0.017 ng/mL, was determined for Ochratoxin A, which is equivalent to a concentration of 0.829 µg/kg, and a detection limit of 0.027 ng/mL, for total aflatoxins, which is equivalent to a concentration of 1.350 µg/kg. It was found that four (19%) out of the 21 samples were positive to the presence of Ochratoxin A and three (14%) to the presence of total aflatoxins. Samples showed levels of Ochratoxin A in the range 4.90 - 37.73 µg/kg; only three of them exceeded the maximum limit allowed by the European Union, for the concentration of Ochratoxin, which is of 5.0 µg/kg. Total aflatoxins were found in the range 1.51 - 1.93 µg/kg, below 10 µg/kg which is the maximum limit allowed for coffee by the European Union. The results indicate that the processing of coffee produced in Panama successfully meets international standards for postharvest handling, which leads to a low incidence ofmycotoxins and very low levels ofmycotoxin-producing fungi. PMID:25796716

  10. Annoyance from Road Traffic, Trains, Airplanes and from Total Environmental Noise Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina S. Ragettli

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of studies assessing the exposure-response relationship between transportation noise and annoyance in North America. Our aims were to investigate the prevalence of noise annoyance induced by road traffic, trains and airplanes in relation to distance to transportation noise sources, and to total environmental noise levels in Montreal, Canada; annoyance was assessed as noise-induced disturbance. A telephone-based survey among 4336 persons aged >18 years was conducted. Exposure to total environmental noise (A-weighted outdoor noise levels—LAeq24h and day-evening-night equivalent noise levels—Lden for each study participant was determined using a statistical noise model (land use regression—LUR that is based on actual outdoor noise measurements. The proportion of the population annoyed by road traffic, airplane and train noise was 20.1%, 13.0% and 6.1%, respectively. As the distance to major roads, railways and the Montreal International Airport increased, the percentage of people disturbed and highly disturbed due to the corresponding traffic noise significantly decreased. When applying the statistical noise model we found a relationship between noise levels and disturbance from road traffic and total environmental noise, with Prevalence Proportion Ratios (PPR for highly disturbed people of 1.10 (95% CI: 1.07–1.13 and 1.04 (1.02–1.06 per 1 dB(A Lden, respectively. Our study provides the first comprehensive information on the relationship between transportation noise levels and disturbance in a Canadian city. LUR models are still in development and further studies on transportation noise induced annoyance are consequently needed, especially for sources other than road traffic.

  11. Relation between chronic periodontal disease and plasmatic levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Ana Cristina Posch; Quirino, Maria Rozeli de Souza; Nascimento, Luiz Fernando Costa

    2005-01-01

    Many people in the world are affected by hyperlipidemia, which is a known risk factor for atherosclerotic disease. On the other hand, periodontitis, a prevalent oral disease, has been connected to several systemic health changes, including an altered lipid metabolism. Transient and recurrent bacteremias, which may be caused by periodontal infection, induce an intense local and systemic inflammatory response, leading to changes in the whole body. The aim of the present study was to verify the relationship between severe and moderate periodontal disease and blood lipid levels. Sixty individuals seen at the clinics of the University of Taubaté, São Paulo, over 20 years old, were divided into two groups, with and without periodontitis, and paired according to sex and age. Their levels of total cholesterol, tryglicerides and fractions were determined. Variables related to high cholesterol levels, including age, sex and body mass index, were evaluated. The values recommended by the Brazilian Society of Cardiology were considered to classify lipidemia. The results showed that mean levels of cholesterol (192.1 mg/dl +/- 40.9) and triglycerides (153.5 mg/dl +/- 105.6) in individuals with periodontitis were higher than, but not statistically different from, those of individuals without periodontitis (186.1 mg/dl +/- 35.4 and 117.5 mg/dl +/- 68, respectively). Therefore, this study has demonstrated that there is no significant relationship between periodontal disease, regardless of its intensity, and blood lipid levels in the studied population. PMID:16491257

  12. Millennial total sea-level commitments projected with the Earth system model of intermediate complexity LOVECLIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sea-level is expected to rise for a long time to come, even after stabilization of human-induced climatic warming. Here we use simulations with the Earth system model of intermediate complexity LOVECLIM to project sea-level changes over the third millennium forced with atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations that stabilize by either 2000 or 2100 AD. The model includes 3D thermomechanical models of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets coupled to an atmosphere and an ocean model, a global glacier melt algorithm to account for the response of mountain glaciers and ice caps, and a procedure for assessing oceanic thermal expansion from oceanic heat uptake. Four climate change scenarios are considered to determine sea-level commitments. These assume a 21st century increase in greenhouse gases according to SRES scenarios B1, A1B and A2 with a stabilization of the atmospheric composition after the year 2100. One additional scenario assumes 1000 years of constant atmospheric composition from the year 2000 onwards. For our preferred model version, we find an already committed total sea-level rise of 1.1 m by 3000 AD. In experiments with greenhouse gas concentration stabilization at 2100 AD, the total sea-level rise ranges between 2.1 m (B1), 4.1 m (A1B) and 6.8 m (A2). In all scenarios, more than half of this amount arises from the Greenland ice sheet, thermal expansion is the second largest contributor, and the contribution of glaciers and ice caps is small as it is limited by the available ice volume of maximally 25 cm of sea-level equivalent. Additionally, we analysed the sensitivity of the sea-level contributions from an ensemble of nine different model versions that cover a large range of climate sensitivity realized by model parameter variations of the atmosphere–ocean model. Selected temperature indices are found to be good predictors for sea-level contributions from the different components of land ice and oceanic thermal expansion after 1000 years. (letter)

  13. Lipid level and total fatty acid composition for selected developmental stages of Entomophthora egressa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunphy, G B; Keough, K M; Nolan, R A

    1981-07-01

    The major fatty acids (greater than 10%) of Entomophthora egressa were C16:0 and C18:1 . Minor fatty acids, which varied with the stage of fungal development, included C11:0, C12:0, C13:0, C14:0, C15:0, C16;1, C17:0, C18:0, C18:2, C18:3 C:201, C20:2, C20:3, C20:4, C20:5 and two unidentified unsaturated fatty acids. Differences were observed between the total fatty acid levels of C12:0, C14:0, C17:0, C18:0, and C20:5 and the degree of unsaturation of the fatty acids of 37-h protoplasts grown in modified Grace's medium and a simplified growth medium (SGM). The levels of C12:0, C14:0, C18:1, C20:4, and C20:5 decreased and the levels of C18:0 and C20:2 increased with the formation of spherical hyphal body (shb)initials. With the production of mature shb increased levels of C12:0, C14:0, C15:0, C18:1, C20:4, and C20:5 were detected. During the germination of the shb the levels of C14:0, C16:1, C18;1, and C20:4 increased, whereas C15:0 and C20:5 levels declined. The fatty acid levels, except for C12:0, C13:0, and C20:2, remained constant during the mycelial stage. The degree of fatty acid unsaturation decreased during early stages of development (protoplasts through shb initials). In SGM the degree of fatty acid unsaturation was lowest during the shb initial stage and highest during the shb stage. The total lipid level increased during shb maturation and declined during shb germination. PMID:7197576

  14. Sampling and Pooling Methods for Capturing Herd Level Antibiotic Resistance in Swine Feces using qPCR and CFU Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Gunilla VeslemØy; Mellerup, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article was to define the sampling level and method combination that captures antibiotic resistance at pig herd level utilizing qPCR antibiotic resistance gene quantification and culture-based quantification of antibiotic resistant coliform indicator bacteria. Fourteen qPCR assays for commonly detected antibiotic resistance genes were developed, and used to quantify antibiotic resistance genes in total DNA from swine fecal samples that were obtained using different sampling and pooling methods. In parallel, the number of antibiotic resistant coliform indicator bacteria was determined in the same swine fecal samples. The results showed that the qPCR assays were capable of detecting differences in antibiotic resistance levels in individual animals that the coliform bacteria colony forming units (CFU) could not. Also, the qPCR assays more accurately quantified antibiotic resistance genes when comparing individual sampling and pooling methods. qPCR on pooled samples was found to be a good representative for the general resistance level in a pig herd compared to the coliform CFU counts. It had significantly reduced relative standard deviations compared to coliform CFU counts in the same samples, and therefore differences in antibiotic resistance levels between samples were more readily detected. To our knowledge, this is the first study to describe sampling and pooling methods for qPCR quantification of antibiotic resistance genes in total DNA extracted from swine feces.

  15. Serum Metal Ion Levels Following Total Hip Arthroplasty With Modular Dual Mobility Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsen Ko, Laura J; Pollag, Kimberley E; Yoo, Joanne Y; Sharkey, Peter F

    2016-01-01

    Dual mobility acetabular components can reduce the incidence of total hip arthroplasty (THA) instability. Modular dual mobility (MDM) components facilitate acetabular component implantation. However, corrosion can occur at modular junctions. Serum cobalt and chromium levels and Oxford scores were obtained at minimum two year follow-up for 100 consecutive patients who had THA with MDM components. Average Oxford score was 43 (range 13-48). Average serum cobalt and chromium values were 0.7 mcg/L (range, 0.0 to 7.0) and 0.6 mcg/L (range, 0.1 to 2.7), respectively. MARS MRI was performed for four patients with pain and elevated serum cobalt levels. Two of these studies were consistent with adverse local tissue reaction. We recommend use of MDM implants in only patients at high risk for dislocation following THA. PMID:26318084

  16. Effect of Mentha Piperita L. Powder on the Overall Acceptability, Coliforms, and Molds and Yeasts Counts of Borujerd Domestic Cheese

    OpenAIRE

    FADAE? NOGHAN?, Vajiheh; SAMET?, Sadrieh

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. In this study, the antimicrobial effects of plant powder Mentha Piperita L. in at the levels of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 % on preventing the growth of mold, yeast and coliforms, as well as the, overall acceptability, pH and acidity of Borujerd domestic cheese samples during the cold storage were studied. The findings showed that with increasing the percentage of Mentha Piperita L. powder in cheese samples, the number of coliforms and mold and yeast, titratable acidity and overall acceptabil...

  17. Investigação teórica do processo de redução de coliformes em leitos cultivados Theoretical investigation of coliform reduction in constructed wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariângela Amendola

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo mostra a continuidade da pesquisa sugerida por Amendola et al. (2003, para o caso em que se quer buscar maior precisão na investigação teórica do processo de redução de poluentes, em função do meio suporte usado em sistemas de leitos cultivados. Esta investigação se dá via modelagem matemática e simulação numérica do processo descrito por uma equação diferencial parcial de difusão-advecção, que envolve constantes que caracterizam o meio suporte (Moreno-Grau, 1996 e deve ser associada a condições iniciais e de contorno, estabelecidas de acordo com um procedimento experimental previamente realizado. Para resolução da equação implementa-se um algoritmo baseado no esquema implícito do método de diferenças finitas que, executado no MATLAB 6.1, gera valores da concentração dos poluentes que dependem dos valores das referidas constantes. Os resultados obtidos da simulação são comparados com valores de referência para a determinação do valor do coeficiente de dispersão longitudinal que, por sua vez, gera o menor resíduo para cada tipo de meio suporte do leito cultivado. Os resultados obtidos levam à conclusão de que o leito cultivado com brita e pneu picado é mais eficiente que aquele só com brita na remoção de coliformes fecais e totais.This paper shows the continuity of the research, as suggested by Amendola et al. (2003, when looking for better accuracy in the theoretical investigation of the pollutant reduction as a function of the support bed used in constructed wetland. This investigation is performed through the mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of the process, which is described by an advection-diffusion differential equation. This equation depends on certain constants which characterize the support bed (Moreno-Grau, 1996, and must be associated to the initial and boundary conditions established according to the experimental procedure. To solve the equation an algorithm based on the implicit scheme of the finite difference method was implemented which, when ran with MATLAB 6.1, generated values for the pollutant concentration which depend on the mentioned constants. The results obtained with the simulation were compared with the reference values to determine the longitudinal dispersion coefficient value which leads to the least residual value for each kind of support bed. The obtained results lead to the conclusion that the constructed wetland with crushed stone and chopped tires is better than the one with crushed stone alone to reduce fecal and total coliforms.

  18. Investigação teórica do processo de redução de coliformes em leitos cultivados / Theoretical investigation of coliform reduction in constructed wetland

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariângela, Amendola; Anderson L., Souza.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo mostra a continuidade da pesquisa sugerida por Amendola et al. (2003), para o caso em que se quer buscar maior precisão na investigação teórica do processo de redução de poluentes, em função do meio suporte usado em sistemas de leitos cultivados. Esta investigação se dá via modelagem mat [...] emática e simulação numérica do processo descrito por uma equação diferencial parcial de difusão-advecção, que envolve constantes que caracterizam o meio suporte (Moreno-Grau, 1996) e deve ser associada a condições iniciais e de contorno, estabelecidas de acordo com um procedimento experimental previamente realizado. Para resolução da equação implementa-se um algoritmo baseado no esquema implícito do método de diferenças finitas que, executado no MATLAB 6.1, gera valores da concentração dos poluentes que dependem dos valores das referidas constantes. Os resultados obtidos da simulação são comparados com valores de referência para a determinação do valor do coeficiente de dispersão longitudinal que, por sua vez, gera o menor resíduo para cada tipo de meio suporte do leito cultivado. Os resultados obtidos levam à conclusão de que o leito cultivado com brita e pneu picado é mais eficiente que aquele só com brita na remoção de coliformes fecais e totais. Abstract in english This paper shows the continuity of the research, as suggested by Amendola et al. (2003), when looking for better accuracy in the theoretical investigation of the pollutant reduction as a function of the support bed used in constructed wetland. This investigation is performed through the mathematical [...] modeling and numerical simulation of the process, which is described by an advection-diffusion differential equation. This equation depends on certain constants which characterize the support bed (Moreno-Grau, 1996), and must be associated to the initial and boundary conditions established according to the experimental procedure. To solve the equation an algorithm based on the implicit scheme of the finite difference method was implemented which, when ran with MATLAB 6.1, generated values for the pollutant concentration which depend on the mentioned constants. The results obtained with the simulation were compared with the reference values to determine the longitudinal dispersion coefficient value which leads to the least residual value for each kind of support bed. The obtained results lead to the conclusion that the constructed wetland with crushed stone and chopped tires is better than the one with crushed stone alone to reduce fecal and total coliforms.

  19. Elimination of coliforms and Salmonella spp. in sheep meat by gamma irradiation treatment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Salles Vasconcelos, Henriques; Fábio da Costa, Henry; João Batista, Barbosa; Silvania Alves, Ladeira; Silvia Menezes de Faria, Pereira; Isabela Maria da Silva, Antonio; Gina Nunes, Teixeira; Meire Lelis Leal, Martins; Helio de Carvalho, Vital; Dália dos Prazeres, Rodrigues; Eliane Moura Falavina dos, Reis.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the bacteriological effects of the treatment of sheep meat contaminated with total coliforms, coliforms at 45 °C and Salmonella spp. by using irradiation at doses of 3 kGy and 5 kGy. Thirty sheep meat samples were collected from animals located in Rio de Janeiro State, [...] Brazil, and then grouped in three lots including 10 samples: non-irradiated (control); irradiated with 3 kGy; and irradiated with 5 kGy. Exposure to gamma radiation in a 137Cs source-driven irradiating facility was perfomed at the Nuclear Defense Section of the Brazilian Army Technological Center (CTEx) in Rio de Janeiro. The samples were kept under freezing temperature (-18 °C) until the analyses, which occurred in two and four months after irradiation. The results were interpreted by comparison with the standards of the current legislation and demonstrated that non-irradiated samples were outside the parameters established by law for all groups of bacteria studied. Gamma irradiation was effective in inactivating those microorganisms at both doses tested and the optimal dose was achieved at 3 kGy. The results have shown not only the need for sanitary conditions improvements in slaughter and processing of sheep meat but also the irradiation effectiveness to eliminate coliform bacteria and Salmonella spp.

  20. Enumeration of heterotrophs, fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli in water: comparison of 3M Petrifilm plates with standard plating procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraft, H; Watterworth, L A

    2005-03-01

    A total of 177 naturally contaminated water samples were analyzed by membrane filtration according to the Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater published by the American Public Health Association. Filters were incubated in parallel on mHPC-agar and 3M Petrifilm Aerobic Count Plates (Petrifilm AC plates) for heterotrophic counts. Fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli were enumerated on mFC-agar and 3M Petrifilm E. coli/Coliform Count Plates (Petrifilm EC plates). Typical colonies on each media type were confirmed following standard procedures. Heterotrophic counts were between 10(3) and 10(4) CFU/mL and the average log10 counts obtained on Petrifilm AC plates were about two-fold lower than on mHPC-agar. Counts for fecal coliforms and E. coli were between 10(2) and 10(3) CFU/mL. Average log10 counts for confirmed fecal coliforms obtained on Petrifilm EC plates were slightly lower than on mFC agar with a correlation coefficient of 0.949. The average log10 counts for confirmed E. coli on Petrifilm EC plates and on mFC agar were statistically not different (P=0.126) with a correlation coefficient of 0.879. Specificity of Petrifilm EC plates and mFC agar was evaluated by comparing typical colony counts with confirmed counts. On mFC agar, counts for typical colonies were by 2 log10 CFU higher than the actual confirmed counts. In contrast, on Petrifilm EC plates typical colony counts were almost identical to confirmed colony counts for both fecal coliforms and E. coli. This comparison illustrates the high specificity of Petrifilm EC plates for enumeration of both fecal coliforms and E. coli in water. PMID:15649535

  1. Evaluación de tres métodos para la inactivación de coliformes y Escherichia coli presentes en agua residual doméstica, empleada para riego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sánchez- Garibello

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of three methods for the inactivation of coliforms and Escherichia coli present in domestic wastewaters used inirrigation. Objective. To evaluate three treatments (facultative stabilization ponds, heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO2 and chemicaldisinfection with sodium hypochlorite for the inactivation of coliforms and Escherichia coli present in domestic wastewaters used inagricultural irrigation. Materials and methods. Wastewater was characterized by physical, chemical and microbiological analyses and wasthen exposed to a facultative pond treatment (FPT, post-photocatalytic treatment (PTFTiO2/UV and post-chemical treatment (PTQNaClOto assess the disinfecting capacity of each method in the inactivation of total coliforms and E. coli. Three new samples of wastewater wereprocessed and used in irrigation tests on a laboratory-scale basis for 30 days, using Lactuca sativa cultivar. Batavia as a model plant andevaluating the initial and final concentrations of the two groups. Results. PTFTiO2/UV was significantly higher than FPT and PTQNaClO(p<0.0001, obtaining 100% of inactivation of coliforms and E. coli after 30 minutes of irradiation at a reactor scale. Regarding the irrigationtests with L. sativa, we showed that using water treated by PTFTiO2/UV there is no contamination with E. coli and coliforms after 30 days.On the contrary, plants irrigated with water treated by FPT and PTQNaClO showed an increase in the two populations originating a contamination problem in the vegetable by the end of the laboratory experiments. Conclusion. The heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO2was an effective method in the reduction of coliforms and E. coli present in domestic wastewater.

  2. KUALITAS MIKROBIOLOGI NASI JINGGO BERDASARKAN ANGKA LEMPENG TOTAL, COLIFORM TOTAL DAN KANDUNGAN ESCHERICHIA COLI

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Luh Payastiti Yunita; Ni Made Utami Dwipayanti

    2010-01-01

    Inadequate quality of food products that do not meet standard quality may lead to food poisoning cases and become a concern in public health sector. Nasi Jinggo is a small amount of cooked rice with little bit fried tempe, shredded spicy chicken, traditional made chili sauce that is packed with banana leaves, and all the cooking process usually done traditionally. Nasi jinggo is sold at night by street vendor with price ranged from Rp. 1.500,- to Rp. 2.000,- per package. The study was a quant...

  3. Removal of Total Coliforms, Thermotolerant Coliforms, and Helminth Eggs in Swine Production Wastewater Treated in Anaerobic and Aerobic Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Helena Zacarias Sylvestre; Estevam Guilherme Lux Hoppe; Roberto Alves de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    The present work evaluated the performance of two treatment systems in reducing indicators of biological contamination in swine production wastewater. System I consisted of two upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors, with 510 and 209?L in volume, being serially arranged. System II consisted of a UASB reactor, anaerobic filter, trickling filter, and decanter, being also organized in series, with volumes of 300, 190, 250, and 150?L, respectively. Hydraulic retention times (HRT) applied...

  4. Prevelance of total coliforms, faecal coliforms and E. coli in Rawalpindi vegetable markets

    OpenAIRE

    Sadia Alam; Samina Khalil; Najma Ayub; Abida Bibi; Beena Saeed; Salma Khalid; Sumaira Siddiq

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional value of vegetables and high prices of meat and meat originated food compel common people to consume plant originated food particularly salad vegetables. Microbial population of vegetable surfaces contains a large number of pathogenic bacteria including members of Enterobactereace like Escherichia coli (E. coli). A survey was conducted in three major markets of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Tomato, lettuce, cabbage and cucumber samples were collected from three shops of each market. ...

  5. Effects of oral orbifloxacin on fecal coliforms in healthy cats: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Kazuki; Sasaki, Atsushi; Shimizu, Takae

    2016-02-01

    The study objective was to determine the effect of oral orbifloxacin (ORB) on antimicrobial susceptibility and composition of fecal coliforms in cats. Nine cats were randomized to two groups administered a daily oral dose of 2.5 and 5.0 mg ORB/kg for 7 days and a control group (three cats per group). Coliforms were isolated from stool samples and were tested for susceptibilities to ORB and 5 other drugs. ORB concentration in feces was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The coliforms were undetectable after 2 days of ORB administration, and their number increased in most cats after termination of the administration. Furthermore, only isolates of Escherichia coli were detected in all cats before administration, and those of Citrobacter freundii were detected after termination of the administration. E. coli isolates exhibited high ORB susceptibility [Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), ?0.125 µg/ml] or relatively low susceptibility (MIC, 1-2 µg/ml) with a single gyrA mutation. C. freundii isolates largely exhibited intermediate ORB susceptibility (MIC, 4 µg/ml), in addition to resistance to ampicillin and cefazolin, and harbored qnrB, but not a gyrA mutation. HPLC revealed that the peaks of mean concentration were 61.3 and 141.0 µg/g in groups receiving 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg, respectively. Our findings suggest that oral ORB may alter the total counts and composition of fecal coliform, but is unlikely to yield highly fluoroquinolone-resistant mutants of E. coli and C. freundii in cats, possibly because of the high drug concentration in feces. PMID:26311787

  6. Leveling Process of Total Electron Content (TEC Using Malaysian Global Positioning System (GPS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Norsuzila

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The signals from the satellites of the Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS travel through the earth's ionosphere on their way to GPS receivers. However, ionospheric delay is one of the main sources of error in GPS. The magnitude of the ionospheric delay is influenced by the Total Electron Content (TEC along the radio wave path from a GPS satellite to the ground receiver. This study investigates the TEC using GPS data collected from Wisma Tanah, Kuala Lumpur, KTPK (3° 10' 15.44"N, 101° 43' 03.35"E station and processed and analyzed under quiet geomagnetic day at the equatorial region on 8 November 2005. This research assesses the errors translated from the code-delay to the carrier-phase ionospheric observable by the so-called leveling process, which was applied to reduce multipath from the data. It was found that the leveled carrier-phase ionosphere observable was affected by a systematic error, produced by code-delay multipath through the leveling procedure. The effects, however, do not cancel after averaging all the data. Dual frequency carrier-phase and code-delay GPS observations are combined to obtain ionospheric observable related to the slant TEC (TECs along the satellite-receiver line of sight (los. This results in the absolute differential delay and the remaining noise was discarded. These are the first results obtained using TEC-GPS technique for TEC measurement in Malaysia.

  7. SORCE Level 3 Total Solar Irradiance 6-Hour Average V016

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) data set SOR3TSI6 contains the total solar irradiance (a.k.a solar constant) data collected by the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM)...

  8. SORCE Level 3 Total Solar Irradiance 6-Hour Means V017

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) data set SOR3TSI6 contains the total solar irradiance (a.k.a solar constant) data collected by the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM)...

  9. Total and Parity-Projected Level Densities of Iron-Region Nuclei by the Shell Model Monte Carlo Method

    OpenAIRE

    Nakada, H.; Alhassid, Y.

    1998-01-01

    Total and parity-projected level densities of iron-region nuclei are calculated microscopically by using Monte Carlo methods for the nuclear shell model in the complete $(pf+0g_{9/2})$-shell. The calculated total level density is found to be in good agreement with the experimental level density. The Monte Carlo calculations offer a significant improvement over the thermal Hartree-Fock approximation. Contrary to the Fermi gas model, it is found that the level density has a si...

  10. Analysis of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD Level of Distribution Network Using DVR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Kalara

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The modern sensitive, Non-linear and sophisticated load affects the power quality. Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR provides the fast, flexible and efficient solution to improve the power quality for such distribution network [8]. The active power, reactive power, variation of voltage, flicker, harmonics, and electrical behavior of switching operations are the major source of affecting power quality. The intent of this paper is to demonstrate the improvements obtained with DVR in power system network using MATLAB/SIMULINK. In this paper, an overview of the DVR, its functions, configurations, components, control strategies are reviewed. The Simulation results are presented to illustrate the performance of DVR in Total Harmonic Distortion (THD. The results showed clearly the performance of using DVR in improving THD level.

  11. Coliformes em água de abastecimento de lojas fast-food da Região Metropolitana de Recife (PE, Brasil) / Coliforms in the water supply of fast-food chains in the Metropolitan Region of Recife, in the state of Pernambuco (Brazil)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Anunciada Leal, Porto; Amanda de Morais, Oliveira; Ana Elizabeth Cavalcante, Fai; Tânia Lúcia Montenegro, Stamford.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A garantia do fornecimento de água potável nos serviços de alimentação é uma questão relevante para a saúde pública. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade microbiológica da água destinada ao abastecimento de uma rede de lojas fast-food da cidade de Recife (PE) e Região Metropolitana [...] e comparar os resultados aos padrões estabelecidos pela Portaria nº 518/2004 do Ministério da Saúde. Mensalmente, foi analisada uma amostra proveniente de uma das torneiras da área de manipulação das oito lojas investigadas, perfazendo 96 amostras ao longo de um ano, todas coletadas em duplicata. As análises seguiram a metodologia estabelecida na American Public Health Association (APHA) para realização do ensaio presuntivo utilizando o Teste Presença-Ausência, considerando-se o padrão de potabilidade determinado na legislação pertinente. Os resultados revelaram que 11,46% de todas as amostras apresentaram água contaminada por coliformes totais e 1,04% contaminação por coliformes termotolerantes. Conclui-se, portanto, que a qualidade da água disponível nos estabelecimentos produtores de alimentos estudados encontra-se em estado de alerta, uma vez que o percentual significativo das amostras analisadas mostrava-se impróprio para o consumo humano de acordo com a legislação vigente, a qual preconiza ausência de coliformes totais e termotolerantes. Abstract in english A guaranteed supply of clean drinking water in food outlets is a relevant subject for public health. The scope of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of 96 water samples of a network of fast-food stores in the city of Recife (state of Pernambuco, Brazil) and Metropolitan Area and to [...] compare the results to the standards established by Brazilian Health Ministry decree nº 518/2004. Every month, a double sample from one of the faucets in the food preparation area of the eight stores investigated was analyzed, totaling 96 samples over one year. The analyses followed the established methodology of American Public Health Association (APHA), in order to conduct the Presence-Absence Test, considering the potability standard in pertinent legislation. Results revealed that 11.46% and 1.04% of samples contained water contaminated with total coliforms and thermotolerant coliforms, respectively. The quality of the water in the food establishments studied is thus a health hazard since a significant percentage of samples analyzed were inappropriate for human consumption in accordance with current legislation, which stipulates the absence of total coliforms and thermotolerant coliforms.

  12. Coliformes em água de abastecimento de lojas fast-food da Região Metropolitana de Recife (PE, Brasil Coliforms in the water supply of fast-food chains in the Metropolitan Region of Recife, in the state of Pernambuco (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Anunciada Leal Porto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A garantia do fornecimento de água potável nos serviços de alimentação é uma questão relevante para a saúde pública. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade microbiológica da água destinada ao abastecimento de uma rede de lojas fast-food da cidade de Recife (PE e Região Metropolitana e comparar os resultados aos padrões estabelecidos pela Portaria nº 518/2004 do Ministério da Saúde. Mensalmente, foi analisada uma amostra proveniente de uma das torneiras da área de manipulação das oito lojas investigadas, perfazendo 96 amostras ao longo de um ano, todas coletadas em duplicata. As análises seguiram a metodologia estabelecida na American Public Health Association (APHA para realização do ensaio presuntivo utilizando o Teste Presença-Ausência, considerando-se o padrão de potabilidade determinado na legislação pertinente. Os resultados revelaram que 11,46% de todas as amostras apresentaram água contaminada por coliformes totais e 1,04% contaminação por coliformes termotolerantes. Conclui-se, portanto, que a qualidade da água disponível nos estabelecimentos produtores de alimentos estudados encontra-se em estado de alerta, uma vez que o percentual significativo das amostras analisadas mostrava-se impróprio para o consumo humano de acordo com a legislação vigente, a qual preconiza ausência de coliformes totais e termotolerantes.A guaranteed supply of clean drinking water in food outlets is a relevant subject for public health. The scope of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of 96 water samples of a network of fast-food stores in the city of Recife (state of Pernambuco, Brazil and Metropolitan Area and to compare the results to the standards established by Brazilian Health Ministry decree nº 518/2004. Every month, a double sample from one of the faucets in the food preparation area of the eight stores investigated was analyzed, totaling 96 samples over one year. The analyses followed the established methodology of American Public Health Association (APHA, in order to conduct the Presence-Absence Test, considering the potability standard in pertinent legislation. Results revealed that 11.46% and 1.04% of samples contained water contaminated with total coliforms and thermotolerant coliforms, respectively. The quality of the water in the food establishments studied is thus a health hazard since a significant percentage of samples analyzed were inappropriate for human consumption in accordance with current legislation, which stipulates the absence of total coliforms and thermotolerant coliforms.

  13. Economical Appraisal of Total Aflatoxin Level in the Poultry Feeds by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-bounce attenuated total reflectance (SB-ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been used for the quantitative determination of total aflatoxins in the broiler poultry feed. An FTIR calibration spanning the range 1-70 micro g/L aflatoxin standards in (70:30, v/v) methanol-water solvent system based on partial least square (PLS) model, developed by relating mid IR region between 3755-950 cm/ sub -1/. The excellent coefficient of various (using 0.998) was achieved with 1.49 relative mean square error of calibration (RMSEC). Aflatoxins from each of eight poultry feeds was extracted and the determined by the widely used commercially available Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) procedure and the SB-ATR/FTIR method. The SB-ATR/FTIR aflatoxins predictions were related to those determined by the ELISA method by linear regression, producing an R value of 0.989 and a SD of +- 2.80 micro g/L. The result of the study clearly indicated that FT-IR spectroscopy due to its rapidity and simplicity along with data manipulation by advance computer software could be effectively used for routine determination of aflatoxins present in the poultry feeds at very low level. (author)

  14. Macadamia nut consumption lowers plasma total and LDL cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Manohar L; Blake, Robert J; Wills, Ron B H

    2003-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the cholesterol-lowering potential of macadamia nuts. Seventeen hypercholesterolemic men (mean age 54 y) were given macadamia nuts (40-90 g/d), equivalent to 15% energy intake, for 4 wk. Plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and homocysteine concentrations and the fatty acid composition of plasma lipids were determined before and after treatment. Plasma MUFA 16:1(n-7), 18:1(n-7) and 20:1(n-9) were elevated after intervention with macadamia nuts. Plasma (n-6) and (n-3) PUFA concentrations were unaffected by macadamia nut consumption. Plasma total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations decreased by 3.0 and 5.3%, respectively, and HDL cholesterol levels increased by 7.9% in hypercholesterolemic men after macadamia nut consumption. Plasma triglyceride and homocysteine concentrations were not affected by treatment. Macadamia nut consumption was associated with a significant increase in the relative intake of MUFA and a reduced relative intake of saturated fatty acids and PUFA. This study demonstrates that macadamia nut consumption as part of a healthy diet favorably modifies the plasma lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic men despite their diet being high in fat. PMID:12672919

  15. Coliform bacteria as in indicator of sewerage water mixing with drinking water sources in Rawalpindi city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coliform group of bacteria are consider to be one of the prominent indicators of surface/groundwater pollution as their presence in drinking water sources shows that water has been in contact with soil, plants, septic tanks or sewerage lines/drains. As a part of surface/groundwater pollution studies in various areas of Rawalpindi city coliform bacteria have been determined in the available drinking sources to evaluate their possible connection with the nearby septic tanks and sewerage lines/drains. Selective water samples were tapped from 72 domestic dug wells, and 98 municipal corporation tube-wells and associated water supply lines in some poorly drained areas of Rawalpindi. These samples were analyzed using membrane filter technique. In general, the sampled areas have indicated poor water quality w.r.t. coliform activity. 52% samples of the collected samples have indicated presence of Ecoli. Of these, 73% samples mostly collected from the poorly drained areas have shown significant counts of Ecoli. These water are rendered unfit for drinking purposes. Thirteen water samples collected indicated toxic levels of Ecoli in the municipal water supply caused due to a known leakage in the main domestic water supply line. The presence of coliform in the tube-well water supply taps are thus attributed to ruptures in the underground water supply lines. Present study reveals that general sanitary condition and water quality in the city are poor and that there is an urgent need of improvement in the water treatment and distribution systems by the concern quaters. (Orig./A.B.)

  16. Analytical method of total {beta} activity in high level radioactive solution. Possibility of application of GM counter method to total {beta} analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiba, Masanori [Joyo Industry Co. Ltd., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Funakoshi, Tomomasa; Suganuma, Takashi; Tanaka, Yasumasa

    1997-11-01

    Analytical design of RETE set up a GM counter method as an analytical method of total {beta} activity in the high level radioactive solution. To confirm the fundamental properties of GM counter, RI test was carried out by use of {sup 90}Sr as pure {beta} source and {sup 137}Cs as {beta} and {gamma} source. Hot test of the light water reactor reprocessing liquid waste indicated that this method could be used as the analytical method of total {beta} in the high level radioactive solution. Important results were explained as following: the detection efficiency of GM counter at {gamma} ray 0.06 to 0.66 MeV was 0.25% or below. Its effect on the total {beta} ray measurement was negligible. The internal conversion electron radiated from {sup 137}Cs ({sup 137m}Ba) gave positive effect on the total counter and the effect on the nuclide components in the light water reactor reprocessing liquid waste was about 3.5%. The total beta activity in the light water reactor reprocessing liquid waste was determined by this method, and the values obtained were 7.4 x 10{sup 9} and 8.3 x 10{sup 9} Bq/ml which agreed with the values by ORIGEN-2 etc. Reproducibility of the total {beta} activity, analytical value by high dilute solution-GM counter direct method was in the range of 1.8% (RSD) that was enough to a process analytical method. (S.Y.)

  17. Asellus aquaticus as a Potential Carrier of Escherichia coli and Other Coliform Bacteria into Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Hans-Jørgen Albrechtsen; Erik Arvin; Erling Nissen; Christensen, Sarah C. B.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals of the water louse, Asellus aquaticus, enter drinking water distribution systems in temperate parts of the world, where they establish breeding populations. We analysed populations of surface water A. aquaticus from two ponds for associated faecal indicator bacteria and assessed the risk of A. aquaticus transporting bacteria into distribution systems. Concentrations of up to two E. coli and five total coliforms·mL?1 were measured in the water and 200 E. coli and >240 total colifor...

  18. Inactivation of particle-associated coliforms by chlorine and monochloramine.

    OpenAIRE

    Berman, D.; Rice, E W; Hoff, J. C.

    1988-01-01

    Sieves and nylon screens were used to separate primary sewage effluent solids into particle fractions of less than 7- or greater than 7-micron size. The efficiency of separation was determined by using a particle counter. Indigenous coliforms associated with the particle fractions were tested for their resistance to chlorine and monochloramine. Coliforms associated with the less than 7-microns fraction were inactivated more rapidly by 0.5 mg of chlorine per liter at 5 degrees C and pH 7 than ...

  19. Occurrence of coliforms in water samples of the Perequê and Penedo Rivers in Paraná, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ilma Hiroko, Higuti; Ivone Rodrigues, Macena; Setuko, Masunari; Mario de Oliveira, Branco Filho; Marita Maciel Moreira, Blaskowiski; Aguinaldo José do, Nascimento.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Os rios Perequê e Penedo têm suas fontes na planície de Praia Leste e fluem para o mar entre os municípios de Pontal do Sul e Ponta do Poço. Ambos pertencem à sub-bacia da Baía de Paranaguá e são partes da bacia hidrográfica do Oceano Atlântico (Estado do Paraná). Foram selecionados quatro sítios ao [...] longo do Rio Perequê (Estações 1-4) e um no Rio Penedo (Estação 5) para monitorar a poluição de água em um período de 12 meses. Durante o período de dezembro de 1995 e novembro de 1996, foram coletadas de cada local, 3 amostras de 100 ml água em frascos esterilizados e transportadas para o laboratório em caixas com gelo. Foram analisadas a ocorrência de coliformes totais (TC) e fecais (FC), temperatura e pH. A contaminação de coliformes foi menor nos sítios 1 e 5 do que em outros locais, provavelmente por causa da menor influência de áreas urbanizadas. A água na estação 4 estava fortemente contaminada por causa de sua proximidade a um canal de esgoto. Este estudo demonstrou que a água dos rios Pequerê e Penedo, "habitats" para várias espécies de camarões de água doce, estão contaminados com coliformes totais e fecais, e esta ocorrência não está relacionada com a temperatura ou pH. Abstract in english The Perequê and Penedo rivers flow through the plains of Praia de Leste and fall into the sea between the municipalities of Pontal do Sul and Ponta do Poço. Both of these rivers belong to the sub-basin of Paranaguá Bay, and are constituent parts of the hydrographic basin of the Atlantic Ocean (State [...] of Paraná). Four sites along the Perequê River (Stations 1-4) and one along the Penedo River (Station 5) were monitorated for water pollution over a 12-month period. During the period of December 1995 to November 1996, three water samples were collected from each site, placed in sterilized bottles and transported to the laboratory in ice-boxes. They were analyzed for the occurrence of total and fecal coliforms, temperature and pH. Fecal pollution was detected throughout the period of study. Coliform contamination was smaller in Station 1 and 5 than in any other sites, probably due to lesser influence from urbanized areas. Water at Station 4 was strongly contaminated due to its close proximity to a sewage canal. This study demonstrated that the Pequerê and Penedo rivers, freshwater shrimps habitats, were heavily contaminated with fecal indicator bacteria, and this occurrence was not related with temperature or pH.

  20. TCTE Level 3 Total Solar Irradiance 6-Hour Means V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) Calibration Transfer Experiment (TCTE) data set TCTE3TSI6 contains 6-hour averaged total solar irradiance (a.k.a solar constant)...

  1. Coliform risk assessment through use of the clam Anomalocardia brasiliana as animal sentinel for shellfish harvesting areas in Brazil's northeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Filho, José Vitor; Interaminense, Juliana A; Batista, Jacqueline E; Vaz, Renata V; Ventura, Roberta F; Oliveira, Isabella B; Soares, Roberta B; Peixoto, Sílvio M

    2015-08-01

    Outbreaks of food-borne diseases related to consumption of contaminated shellfish have been reported in many countries, but not in Brazil, possibly due to deficient reporting. Here we investigated the suitability of the clam Anomalocardia brasiliana as an animal sentinel for coliform monitoring in shellfish harvesting areas of Brazil's northeast. Samples of shellfish meats (40 clams per sample; n?=?8 per collection) were collected at random from April 2009 through March 2010 in the bay area of Mangue Seco (state of Pernambuco). The numbers of thermotolerant coliforms were analyzed through the most probable number technique, and these contamination levels were tentatively correlated with the precipitation recorded on the day of sampling or 24 to 48 h beforehand. A. brasiliana shellfish meats from local retail shops (250 g per sample/ n?=?3 per market) sold frozen were also investigated from August 2010 through June 2011. We found that the highest coliform contamination levels were correlated with recent rainfall events, limited to 24 h before sampling. However, irrespective of the rainfall level, the mean contamination above the Brazilian legal threshold of coliforms during rainy periods, and therefore were not proper for human consumption. We conclude that A. brasiliana can be successfully used to monitor the contamination levels of coliforms in shellfish harvesting areas in Brazil's northeast coast. PMID:26243967

  2. Viral and bacterial contamination in a sedimentary aquifer in Uruguay: evaluation of coliforms as regional indicators of viral contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamazo, Pablo; Colina, Rodney; Victoria, Matias; Alvareda, Elena; Burutatran, Luciana; Ramos, Julian; Olivera, María; Soler, Joan

    2015-04-01

    In many areas of Uruguay groundwater is the only source of water for human consumption and for industrial-agricultural economic activities. Traditionally considered as a safe source, groundwater is commonly used without any treatment. The Uruguayan law requires bacteriological (fecal) analysis for most water uses, but virological analyses are not mentioned in the legislation. In the Salto district, where groundwater is used for human consumption and for agricultural activities, bacterial contamination has been detected in several wells but no viruses analysis have been performed. The Republic University (UDELAR), with the support of the National Agency for Research and Innovation (ANII), is studying the incidence of virus and fecal bacteria in groundwater on an intensive agriculture area of the Salto district. An initial screening campaign of 44 wells was performed in which, besides total and fecal coliforms, rotavirus and adenovirus were detected. A subgroup of the screening wells (15) where selected for bimonthly sampling during a year. In accordance with literature results, single well data analysis shows that coliform and viral contamination can be considered as independent variables. However, when spatial data is integrated, coliform and viral contamination show linear correlation. In this work we present the survey results, we analyse the temporal incidence of variables like precipitation, temperature and chemical composition in well contamination and we discuss the value of coliforms as global indicator of viral contamination for the Salto aquifer.

  3. Pretreatment of Nitric Acid with Hydrogen Peroxide Reduces Total Procedural Os Blank to Femtogram Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gang; Zimmerman, Aaron; Stein, Holly; Hannah, Judith

    2015-07-21

    Determining and correcting for background contributions of Re and Os from chemical reagents is critical for accurate and precise Re-Os dating of materials with parts per billion to parts per trillion Re and Os concentrations. Here we investigate reducing Os content in nitric acid, as it is the main contributor to the Os blank. Pretreating high-purity nitric acid with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) significantly reduces nitric acid's Os contribution to femtogram levels, greatly reducing Os blank corrections. The improvement in background Os allows analysis of samples with extremely low Os concentrations (into the low ppt level). We present experimental data identifying key factors in reducing Os blank, including nitric acid to hydrogen peroxide volume ratios, wet versus dry glassware, and dark versus lighted reaction environments. These variables affect the reaction time between the two reagents, which in turn correlates inversely with the final Os content. The volume ratio of H2O2/HNO3 is shown to be the fundamental control on reaction time and final Os content, yielding a well-defined exponential relationship; minor variations in reaction time result from wet/dry glassware and light/dark reaction environment. At a H2O2/HNO3 volume ratio of ?0.24, the total procedural Os blank is reduced from 6.5 pg (no H2O2) to 0.043 pg. The (187)Os/(188)Os of the Os blank ranges from 0.18 to 0.36, consistent with the Os blank compositions obtained by the AIRIE Program and other Re-Os laboratories worldwide, and is uncorrelated with any experimental variables. In contrast to Os, pretreatment with hydrogen peroxide did not improve the Re blank of nitric acid; Re background reduction requires conventional methods such as sub-boiling distillation. PMID:26108480

  4. THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN G6PD DEFICIENCY AND TOTAL SERUM BILIRUBIN LEVEL IN ICTERIC NEONATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Behjati-Ardakani

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available "nGlucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is the most important disease of the hexose monophosphate pathway. Deficiency of this enzym can lead to hemolysis of red blood cells. Our aim was to study the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in relation to neonatal jaundice. We studied 456 clinically icteric neonates Laboratory investigations included determination of direct and indirect serum bilirubin concentrations, blood group typing, direct coomb's test, hemoglobin, blood smear, reticulocyte count and G6PD level. We divided these neonates to 3 groups based on total serum bilirubin level (TSB: TSB< 20 mg%, TSB=20-25 mg%, and TSB>25 mg%. In only 35 (7.6% of cases G6PD deficiency was diagnosed. All of these babies were male. From 456 icteric neonates, 213 cases belong to group 1 (TSB<20 mg%, 158 cases belong to group 2 (TSB=20-25 mg% and 85 cases belong to group 3 (TSB>25 mg%. 16 neonates from 213 neonates of group 1, 6 neonates from 158 neonates of group 2 and 13 neonates from 85 neonates of group 3 had G6PD deficiency. There was statistically significant difference of prevalence of G6PD deficiency between group 2 and 3 ( 15.3% vs 3.8%( P = 0.001. Between groups 1 vs 2 and 1 vs 3 no statistically significant difference was found. Early detection of this enzymopathy regardless of sex and close surveillance of the affected newborns may be important in reducing the risk of severe hyperbilirubinemia. This emphasizes the necessity of neonatal screening on cord blood samples for G6PD deficiency.

  5. Discrimination efficacy of fecal pollution detection in different aquatic habitats of a high-altitude tropical country, using presumptive coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byamukama, Denis; Mach, Robert L; Kansiime, Frank; Manafi, Mohamad; Farnleitner, Andreas H

    2005-01-01

    The performance of rapid and practicable techniques that presumptively identify total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC), Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens spores (CP) by testing them on a pollution gradient in differing aquatic habitats in a high-altitude tropical country was evaluated during a 12-month period. Site selection was based on high and low anthropogenic influence criteria of paired sites including six spring, six stream, and four lakeshore sites spread over central and eastern parts of Uganda. Unlike the chemophysical water quality, which was water source type dependent (i.e., spring, lake, or stream), fecal indicators were associated with the anthropogenic influence status of the respective sites. A total of 79% of the total variability, including all the determined four bacteriological and five chemophysical parameters, could be assigned to either a pollution, a habitat, or a metabolic activity component by principal-component analysis. Bacteriological indicators revealed significant correlations to the pollution component, reflecting that anthropogenic contamination gradients were followed. Discrimination sensitivity analysis revealed high ability of E. coli to differentiate between high and low levels of anthropogenic influence. CP also showed a reasonable level of discrimination, although FC and TC were found to have worse discrimination efficacy. Nonpoint influence by soil erosion could not be detected during the study period by correlation analysis, although a theoretical contamination potential existed, as investigated soils in the immediate surroundings often contained relevant concentrations of fecal indicators. The outcome of this study indicates that rapid techniques for presumptive E. coli and CP determination may be reliable for fecal pollution monitoring in high-altitude tropical developing countries such as those of Eastern Africa. PMID:15640171

  6. Total relative sea level rise at several coastal areas and island sites since the mid-20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazenave, A. A.; Palanisamy, H.; Peng, D.; Becker, M.; Meyssignac, B.

    2012-12-01

    When addressing the issue of coastal impacts of recent past and future sea level rise, what really does matter is the total relative sea level rise, i.e., the sum of the global mean rise plus the regional variability plus the local vertical land motion. Here we present results of the total sea level rise suffered by a number of continental coastlines and island sites since 1950. These are based on the use of an ensemble of 2-D past sea level reconstructions, long tide gauge records and GPS data where available. Our investigation concerns islands of the western and central tropical Pacific, the Carribean region and Indian Ocean, as well as continental coasts of south China, India and eastern Africa. We find that at some of the studied sites, the total relative sea level rise since 1950 has been significantly larger than the global mean rise (of 1.8 mm/yr over 1950-2010). This is the case of the Tuvalu and Tahiti islands in the tropical Pacific. At Tuvalu for example, where the rate of rise reached 5 mm/yr, the total relative sea level elevation amounts 30 cm since 1950. On the other hand, in the Carribean region (in particular the Lesser Antilles) the total sea level rise does not differ from the global mean rise. This is unlike the continental coastline of south China (south China Sea), a shallow shelf area, where the rate of total sea level rise is found about 40% higher than the global mean rise. In the Indian ocean we also report a rather wide range of total sea level rates depending on the region considered. The main factor causing the observed variations in total sea level rates is the low frequency regional variability that superimposes to the uniform global mean rise. As a result, at some sites the amplification can be quite significant, making these sites potentially more vulnerable to negative impacts of sea level rise.

  7. Method used to estimate screening-level Total Failure Probability for human error events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document briefly describes the method used to estimate a screening value for the Total Failure Probability (FT) of human error events that are identified in the fault trees which describe potential liquid UF6 release accidents at two US Gaseous Diffusion Plants. A discussion is provided of the assumptions, limitations, and overall logic of the FT assignment method, and a description is presented of how the method is employed. The description herein presents the screening technique used to quantify human errors in the accident analysis portion of the Gaseous Diffusion Plant Safety Analysis Report Upgrade Program. Specifically, the basic events analyzed here are given in the fault trees for one facility at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) and one at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). These plants are primarily chemical processing facilities that deal with a slightly radioactive process gas, low-enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF6). A Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) was not accomplished while drawing the fault trees; the accomplishment of an HRA would be determined by the overall study results. The method described herein provides a framework within which a conservative estimate of human error probability can be made at the screening level for use in the event trees and fault trees

  8. Measurement of Deformations by MEMS Arrays, Verified at Sub-millimetre Level Using Robotic Total Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Beran

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of sub-millimetre-level deformations of structures in the presence of ambienttemperature changes can be challenging. This paper describes the measurement of astructure moving due to temperature changes, using two ShapeAccelArray (SAAinstruments, and verified by a geodetic monitoring system. SAA is a geotechnicalinstrument often used for monitoring of displacements in soil. SAA uses micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS sensors to measure tilt in the gravity field. The geodeticmonitoring system, which uses ALERT software, senses the displacements of targetsrelative to control points, using a robotic total station (RTS. The test setup consists of acentral four-metre free-standing steel tube with other steel tubes welded to most of itslength. The central tube is anchored in a concrete foundation. This composite “pole” isequipped with two SAAs as well as three geodetic prisms mounted on the top, in the middle,and in the foundation. The geodetic system uses multiple control targets mounted inconcrete foundations of nearby buildings, and at the base of the pole. Long-termobservations using two SAAs indicate that the pole is subject to deformations due to cyclicalambient temperature variations causing the pole to move by a few millimetres each day. Ina multiple-day experiment, it was possible to track this movement using SAA as well as theRTS system. This paper presents data comparing the measurements of the two instrumentsand provides a good example of the detection of two-dimensional movements of seeminglyrigid objects due to temperature changes.

  9. Sampling and Pooling Methods for Capturing Herd Level Antibiotic Resistance in Swine Feces using qPCR and CFU Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Gunilla Veslemøy; Mellerup, Anders; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Ståhl, Marie; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Angen, Øystein

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article was to define the sampling level and method combination that captures antibiotic resistance at pig herd level utilizing qPCR antibiotic resistance gene quantification and culture-based quantification of antibiotic resistant coliform indicator bacteria. Fourteen qPCR assays...... for commonly detected antibiotic resistance genes were developed, and used to quantify antibiotic resistance genes in total DNA from swine fecal samples that were obtained using different sampling and pooling methods. In parallel, the number of antibiotic resistant coliform indicator bacteria was...... determined in the same swine fecal samples. The results showed that the qPCR assays were capable of detecting differences in antibiotic resistance levels in individual animals that the coliform bacteria colony forming units (CFU) could not. Also, the qPCR assays more accurately quantified antibiotic...

  10. Death Kinetics of E. coli O157:H7, E. coli and Natural Contaminant Coliforms in Minced Beef During Irradiation Treatment and Storage

    OpenAIRE

    HALKMAN, Hilal Beyhan DO?AN

    2004-01-01

    The death kinetics of Escherichia coli O157:H7, E. coli type 1 and total coliforms after irradiation treatment in minced beef were evaluated to analyze the effect of increasing irradiation doses. Irradiation doses ranging from 0.0 kGy to 1.5 kGy were evaluated for reducing numbers of E. coli during frozen storage conditions at –18 oC for 30 days. D10 values of E. coli O157:H7, E. coli type 1, and total coliforms were 0.245 kGy, 0.552 kGy and 0.293 kGy, respectively. An irradiation ...

  11. BACTEREMIA NOT DETECTED DURING EXPERIMENTAL COLIFORM MASTITIS INFECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bacteremia, caused by diverse species, was associated with about one third of acute coliform mastitis cases occurring in a field study report. However, blood is typically a very hostile environment for bacteria. Using blood from normal cows we demonstrate that when 2000 CFU of Escherichia coli o...

  12. ROLE OF NEUTROPHILS IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF BOVINE COLIFORM MASTITIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Around parturition dairy cows are at increased risk for intramammary coliform infections. A high proportion of these infections may develop disease characterized by inflammatory signs and sepsis during the first 60-70 days of lactation. The clinical picture is reputed as toxic mastitis. There is a r...

  13. 33 CFR 159.127 - Safety coliform count: Recirculating devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...: Recirculating devices. 159.127 Section 159.127 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.127 Safety coliform count: Recirculating devices. Thirty-eight of forty samples of flush fluid from...

  14. Fecal Coliform Determinations. Training Module 5.115.3.77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with multiple tube and membrane filter techniques for determining fecal coliform concentrations in a wastewater sample. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This module considers proper…

  15. Thyrocalcitonin: its importance on the regulation of the plasmatic levels in total thyroidectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of thyrocalcitonin ou calcium and blood phosphorus is studied. Twelve patients with adenocarcinoma of the thyroid, previously submited to total thyroidectomy and complementary radioiodine theraphy, are studied

  16. Investigating Storm-Induced Total Water Levels on Complex Barred Beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, N.; Ruggiero, P.; Walstra, D.

    2013-12-01

    Water levels in coastal environments are not static, but rather vary from a range of factors including mean sea level, tides, storm surge, and wave runup. Cumulatively these superimposed factors determine the total water level (TWL), the extent of which has major implications for coastal erosion and inundation during periods of high energy. Storm-induced, super-elevated water levels pose a threat to low lying coastal regions, as clearly demonstrated by recent events such as Hurricanes Sandy and Katrina. For this reason, the ability to accurately predict the TWL is crucial for both emergency managers and coastal planners. While some components of TWL are well understood (e.g., tides) there is still significant uncertainty in predicting runup, a process that can be a major contributor to instantaneous TWLs. Traditionally, empirical relationships derived from observational field data have been used to estimate runup, including wave setup and both incident and infragravity swash (Stockdon et al., 2006). While these formulations have shown skill in predicting the runup extent on natural beaches, these equations consider only the most basic contributing factors - namely the mean foreshore beach slope, the offshore wave height, and offshore wave period. Not included in these empirical estimates is the role of nearshore morphology on TWLs. However, it has long been recognized that nearshore sandbars act as natural barriers to coastal erosion during storm events by dissipating wave energy far from the beach face. Nonetheless, the influence of nearshore morphology on inner surf zone processes, including wave runup, is poorly understood. Recent pioneering studies (eg., Soldini et al., 2013 and Stephens et al., 2011) have explored the role of simple nearshore features (single Gaussian bars) on swash processes. Many locations in the world, however, are characterized by more complex morphologies such as multiple barred systems. Further, in many such places, including Columbia River Littoral Cell (USA), Duck, NC (USA), Hasaki (Japan), and the Netherlands, a net offshore bar migration (NOM) cycle has been observed whereby bars migrate seaward across the surf zone and decay offshore on interannual cycles. Depending on the stage of the cycle, the number and configuration of the bars may differ widely. For example in the Columbia River Littoral Cell there are typically 2 to 4 nearshore bars. In 1999, the outermost bar crest was located in a water depth of 6.5 m (relative to MLLW) while in 2009 it was located only in 3 m of water. Such large differences in nearshore morphology clearly influence wave breaking patterns and have the potential for influencing the corresponding wave runup as well. Here we apply a numerical, short-wave averaged yet long-wave resolving, non-linear hydrodynamic model (XBeach) to investigate the role that real world (non-synthetic), complex morphologies exert on TWLs. Model simulations under moderate to extreme wave forcing conditions are being used to develop relationships between offshore wave conditions, bar configuration, and runup extent. Additionally, we are exploring how, under the same wave conditions, a particular location may be more vulnerable to flooding simply based on the stage of the NOM cycle. Comparisons with the Stockdon et al. (2006) runup equation will be made to assess traditional empirical approaches relative to model predictions.

  17. Efeito da oxigenação por agitação manual da água na eficiência de inativação de coliformes termotolerantes utilizando luz solar para desinfecção em batelada / Effect of oxygenation by manual agitation of water on inactivation efficiency of thermotolerant coliforms using solar light batch disinfection

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Márcio Pessoa, Botto; Francisco Suetônio Bastos, Mota; Beatriz Susana Ovruski de, Ceballos.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o efeito da agitação manual de amostras de água submetidas à desinfecção solar na eficiência de inativação de coliformes termotolerantes. Garrafas com agitação prévia e sem agitação foram expostas à radiação solar no horário das 9h às 15h (seis horas no total) e analisados o teor de oxi [...] gênio dissolvido (OD) e concentração de coliformes termotolerantes de hora em hora. A desinfecção com luz solar mostrou-se capaz de melhorar a qualidade sanitária da água, reduzindo a concentração de coliformes termotolerantes em até quatro unidades logarítmicas (de 1,03 x 10(6) até 2,6 x 10¹NMP/100 mL). Com a agitação manual, houve oxigenação considerável nas amostras de água (máxima concentração de OD de 6,61 mg/L nas amostras de águas agitadas e de 5,56 mg/L nas amostras sem agitação), porém o aumento de OD na água não teve efeito significativo sobre a inativação dos coliformes termotolerantes (p>0,05). Abstract in english This study aimed at evaluating the manual agitation effect on inactivation efficiency of thermotolerant coliforms of water bottles submitted to solar disinfection. Agitated bottles and non-agitated bottles were exposed to sunlight from 9:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. Dissolved oxygen (DO) and thermotolerant [...] coliforms concentrations were analyzed hourly. The solar disinfection improved the water quality, reducing thermotolerant coliforms concentration by 4 logs (from 1.0 x 10(6) to 2.6 x 10¹MPN/100 mL). With the manual agitation, there was considerable oxygenation in the water samples (maximum of 6.61 mg/L in samples with manual agitation and of 5.56 mg/L for those without agitation), but the increase in DO had no significant effect on the inactivation of thermotolerant coliforms (p>0.05).

  18. Water quality and sources of fecal coliform bacteria in the Meduxnekeag River, Houlton, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Charles W.; Huntington, Thomas G.; Stoeckel, Donald M.; Caldwell, James M.; O'Donnell, Cara

    2014-01-01

    In response to bacterial contamination in the Meduxnekeag River and the desire to manage the watershed to reduce contaminant sources, the Houlton Band of Maliseet Indians (HBMI) and the U.S. Geological Survey began a cooperative effort to establish a baseline of water-quality data that can be used in future studies and to indicate potential sources of nutrient and bacterial contamination. This study was conducted during the summer of 2005 in the Meduxnekeag River Basin near Houlton, Maine. Continuously recorded specific conductance can be a good indicator for water quality. Specific conductance increased downstream from the town of Houlton, between runoff events, and decreased sharply following major runoff events. Collections of discrete samples during the summer of 2005 indicated seasonal positive concentration-discharge relations for total phosphorus and total nitrogen; these results indicate that storm runoff may mobilize and transport these nutrients from the terrestrial environment to the river. Data collected by the HBMI on fecal coliform bacteria indicated that bacterial contamination enters the Meduxnekeag River from multiple paths including tributaries and surface drains (ditches) in developed areas in Houlton, Maine. The Houlton wastewater treatment discharge was not an important source of bacterial contamination. Bacteroidales-based tests for general fecal contamination (Bac32 marker) were predominantly positive in samples that had excessive fecal contamination as indicated by Enterococci density greater than 104 colony-forming units per 100 millilters. Of the 22 samples tested for Bacteroidales-based markers of human-associated fecal contamination (HF134 and HF183), 8 were positive. Of the 22 samples tested for Bacteroidales-based markers of ruminant-associated fecal contamination (CF128 and CF193), 7 were positive. Human fecal contamination was detected consistently at two sites (surface drains in urban areas in the town of Houlton) and occasionally detected at one site (Moose Brook) but was not detected at other sites. Fecal contamination (as indicated by fecal coliform density) apparently is localized under normal flow conditions with the highest levels restricted to drains in urban areas and to a lesser extent B Stream, Pearce Brook, and Big Brook, all tributaries to the main stem of the Meduxnekeag River. Coliphage were enumerated as an alternate indicator of fecal contamination with the intent of typing the virus into host-associated classes (human or ruminant), as was done for Enterococci; however, insufficient coliphage were isolated to provide more than preliminary indications. In spite of low coliphage enumeration, the preliminary results strengthen the conclusion that the Enterococci data correctly indicated the samples that contained human and ruminant fecal contamination. The finding that contamination was in many of the tributaries following storms in mid-July indicates that storm runoff likely carries fecal contaminants to more locations than runoff under lower flow conditions.

  19. Temporal Changes in Total Serum Immunoglobulin E Levels in East German Children and the Effect of Potential Predictors

    OpenAIRE

    Flohrs, Katrin; Brüske, Irene; Thiering, Elisabeth; Rzehak, Peter; Wichmann, Heinz-Erich; Heinrich, Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Background: Elevated total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels are a prominent feature of allergic and parasitic diseases. An epidemiologic study was conducted in East German children to describe trends in the development of total serum IgE levels and analyze the impact of potential determinants. Methods: The study consisted of three cross-sectional surveys in 1992-1993, 1995-1996 and 1998-1999 and was conducted in three areas of the former German Democratic Republic. In total, 8,051 question...

  20. Total Quality Management in the Classroom: Applications to University-Level Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Frank

    1995-01-01

    Describes a Total Quality Management-based system of instruction that is used in a variety of undergraduate mathematics courses. The courses that incorporate this approach include mathematics appreciation, introductory calculus, and advanced applied linear algebra. (DDR)

  1. A comparison between faecal sterols and coliform counts in the investigation of sewage contamination in sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Lima da Costa

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In September 2002, nine sediment samples (0-2 cm were collected from Botafogo Cove (southwestern part of Guanabara Bay in order to compare the use of chemical (coprostanol and biological markers (E. coli and total coliforms in identifying faecal contamination. The values found (organic carbon - 6.0 to 64.8 mg g-1; coprostanol - 1.4 to 105 µg g-1; E. coli - Em setembro de 2002, foram coletadas nove amostras de sedimento superficial (0-2 cm na Enseada de Botafogo (sudoeste da Baía de Guanabara/RJ, a fim de comparar o uso de marcadores químicos (coprostanol e biológicos (E. coli e coliformes totais na identificação da contaminação fecal da região. Os resultados obtidos (carbono orgânico - 6,0 to 64,8 mg g-1; coprostanol - 1,4 to 105 µg g-1; E. coli - < 30 to 2400 NMP/10g e coliformes totais - 40 to 9300 NMP/10g foram iguais ou maiores aos observados em outras áreas contaminadas da Baía de Guanabara. Nas estações próximas à linha de costa, as concentrações de coprostanol e as contagens das bactérias confirmaram que o esgoto doméstico se acumulou no sedimento da enseada. As concentrações de coprostanol se mantiveram altas nas estações distantes das fontes de contaminação, porém o material fecal representou uma menor fração do carbono orgânico. Nessas mesmas estações, redução na contagem de colimetria foi proporcionalmente mais alta, provavelmente pela baixa sobrevivência das bactérias devido ao efeito de luz, salinidade e temperatura. durante o transporte e deposição das partículas de esgoto. Portanto, baseando-se nos resultados obtidos, o coprostanol foi um indicador mais adequado da contaminação fecal nos sedimentos da Enseada de Botafogo.

  2. Human apoB contributes to increased serum total apo(a level in LPA transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teivainen Päivi A

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Lp(a lipoprotein (Lp(a consists of the polymorphic glycoprotein apolipoprotein(a (apo(a, which is attached by a disulfide bond to apolipoprotein B (apoB. Apo(a, which has high homology with plasminogen, is present only in primates and hedgehogs. However, transgenic mice and rabbits with high serum apo(a levels exist. Liver is the main site for apo(a synthesis, but the site of removal is uncertain. To examine differences between transgenic mice expressing the LPA gene and mice capable of forming Lp(a particles, LPA-YAC transgenic mice and hAPOB transgenic mice were crossed and their offspring examined. Results Comparison of LPA-YAC with LPA-YAC/hAPOB transgenic mice showed that LPA-YAC/hAPOB transgenic mice have higher serum total apo(a and total cholesterol level than mice lacking the hAPOB gene. However, hepatic apo(a mRNA level was higher in LPA-YAC transgenic mice than in LPA-YAC/hAPOB transgenic mice. Feeding of a high-cholesterol/high-fat diet to male LPA-YAC transgenic mice with or without the hAPOB gene resulted in reduced serum total apo(a and hepatic apo(a mRNA level. Conclusion In conclusion, the higher serum total apo(a level in LPA-YAC/hAPOB transgenic mice than in LPA-YAC transgenic mice is not caused by increased apo(a synthesis. Lower hepatic apo(a mRNA level in LPA-YAC/hAPOB than in LPA-YAC transgenic mice may suggest that the increase in total apo(a level is a result of apo(a accumulation in serum. Furthermore, observed higher serum total cholesterol level in LPA-YAC/hAPOB transgenic mice than either in wild type or LPA-YAC transgenic mice may further suggest that human APOB transgenicity is a factor that contributes to increased serum total apo(a and cholesterol levels. Our results on reduced serum total apo(a and hepatic apo(a mRNA levels in HCHF fed male LPA-YAC transgenic mice confirm earlier findings in females, and show that there are no sex difference in mechanisms for lowering apo(a level in response to HCHF feeding.

  3. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on levels of serum autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus and in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on serum levels of autoantibodies, and of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and pneumococcal polysaccharide in patients with lupus nephritis were compared with those previously observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Baseline levels of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid and tetanus toxoid decreased significantly after TLI in patients with lupus and RA, but antibody levels to pneumococcal polysaccharide remained unchanged. After TLI, the levels of antinuclear and anti-DNA antibodies were reduced significantly in lupus, but levels of rheumatoid factor, antinuclear, and antigranulocyte antibodies all tended to increase in RA

  4. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on levels of serum autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus and in rheumatoid arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanay, A.; Schiffman, G.; Strober, S.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on serum levels of autoantibodies, and of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and pneumococcal polysaccharide in patients with lupus nephritis were compared with those previously observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Baseline levels of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid and tetanus toxoid decreased significantly after TLI in patients with lupus and RA, but antibody levels to pneumococcal polysaccharide remained unchanged. After TLI, the levels of antinuclear and anti-DNA antibodies were reduced significantly in lupus, but levels of rheumatoid factor, antinuclear, and antigranulocyte antibodies all tended to increase in RA.

  5. Membrane filtration media for the enumeration of coliform organisms and Escherichia coli in water: comparison of Tergitol 7 and lauryl sulphate with Teepol 610.

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    In a multi-laboratory trial with the membrane filtration technique, three surfactants--Teepol 610 (T610), Tergitol 7 (T7) and sodium lauryl sulphate (LS)--were compared in media for the enumeration of coliform organisms and Escherichia coli in water. A total of 179 samples of water (87 raw and 92 marginally chlorinated) were examined for colony counts of coliform organisms, and 185 water samples (94 raw and 91 marginally chlorinated) for E. coli. Slight differences in the confirmed colony cou...

  6. Teste alternativo para detecção de coliformes em leite humano ordenhado

    OpenAIRE

    Novak Franz R.; Almeida João Aprígio Guerra de

    2002-01-01

    Objetivo: comparar um método alternativo com o teste do número mais provável (NMP) para detecção de coliformes totais em leite humano ordenhado. Métodos: 343 amostras de leite humano ordenhado, obtidas a partir de frascos oriundos de coleta domiciliar, recebidas pelo Banco de Leite Humano do Instituto Fernandes Figueira - IFF, por doadoras previamente orientadas, foram encaminhadas ao laboratório de controle de alimentos do IFF e empregadas na comparação de dois métodos: 1 - técnica do número...

  7. Survival of fecal coliforms in dry-composting toilets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlinger, T; Graham, J; Corella-Barud, V; Avitia, R

    2001-09-01

    The dry-composting toilet, which uses neither water nor sewage infrastructure, is a practical solution in areas with inadequate sewage disposal and where water is limited. These systems are becoming increasingly popular and are promoted to sanitize human excreta and to recycle them into fertilizer for nonedible plants, yet there are few data on the safety of this technology. This study analyzed fecal coliform reduction in approximately 90 prefabricated, dry-composting toilets (Sistema Integral de Reciclamiento de Desechos Orgánicos [SIRDOs]) that were installed on the U.S.-Mexico border in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. The purpose of this study was to determine fecal coliform reduction over time and the most probable method of this reduction. Biosolid waste samples were collected and analyzed at approximately 3 and 6 months and were classified based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards. Results showed that class A compost (high grade) was present in only 35.8% of SIRDOs after 6 months. The primary mechanism for fecal coliform reduction was found to be desiccation rather than biodegradation. There was a significant correlation (P = 0.008) between classification rating and percent moisture categories of the biosolid samples: drier samples had a greater proportion of class A samples. Solar exposure was critical for maximal class A biosolid end products (P = 0.001). This study only addressed fecal coliforms as an indicator organism, and further research is necessary to determine the safety of composting toilets with respect to other pathogenic microorganisms, some of which are more resistant to desiccation. PMID:11526002

  8. Survival of Fecal Coliforms in Dry-Composting Toilets

    OpenAIRE

    Redlinger, Thomas; Graham, Jay; Corella-Barud, Verónica; Avitia, Raquel

    2001-01-01

    The dry-composting toilet, which uses neither water nor sewage infrastructure, is a practical solution in areas with inadequate sewage disposal and where water is limited. These systems are becoming increasingly popular and are promoted to sanitize human excreta and to recycle them into fertilizer for nonedible plants, yet there are few data on the safety of this technology. This study analyzed fecal coliform reduction in approximately 90 prefabricated, dry-composting toilets (Sistema Integra...

  9. Coliforms Everywhere! Using Microbiology to Teach the Scientific Method†

    OpenAIRE

    Cindy R. Cisar; De Banzie, John S.

    2010-01-01

    The scientific method is a fundamental concept in science. In this exercise the scientific method is taught as a hands-on investigative laboratory experience. Students generate a hypothesis concerning the environmental distribution of coliforms, design and execute an experimental test of that hypothesis, and analyze the resulting data. The exercise is safe and straightforward. It is appropriate for use in undergraduate laboratory courses for science majors and secondary school students...

  10. Effect of dietary poly unsaturated fatty acids on total brain lipid concentration and anxiety levels of electron beam irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The whole brain irradiation causes injury to the nervous system at various levels. Omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids are very much essential for the growth and development of nervous system. Dietary supplementation of these nutrients will promote the development of injured neuronal cells. Therefore this study was undertaken to establish the role of Omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids on total brain lipid concentration, lipid peroxidation and anxiety levels in the irradiated mice. The effect of Electron Beam Radiation (EBR) on total brain lipid concentration, lipid peroxidation and anxiety level were investigated in male Swiss albino mice. The study groups were subjected to a sub-lethal dose of EBR and also the flax seed extract and fish oil were given orally to the irradiated mice. Irradiated groups show significant elevation in anxiety levels when compared to control group, indicating the acute radiation effects on the central nervous system. But the oral supplementation of dietary PUFA source decrees the anxiety level in the irradiated group. The analysis of lipid peroxidation showed a significant level of changes when compared between control and radiation groups. Dietary PUFA supplementation showed a significant level of decrease in the lipid peroxidation in the irradiated groups. The observation of total lipids in brain shows decrease in concentration in the irradiated groups, the differences in the variables follow the similar patterns as of that the MDA levels. This study suggests that the dietary intake of PUFAs may help in prevention and recovery of the oxidative stress caused by radiation. (author)

  11. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EFFICIENCY LEVEL OF WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT AND RETURN ON TOTAL ASSETS IN ISE (ISTANBUL STOCK EXCHANGE)

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet DEN; Eda ORUC

    2009-01-01

    In our study we aimed to determine the relationship between efficiency level of firms being traded in ISE in working capital management and their return on total assets. We tried to explain the relationship between different indicators relating to efficiency in working capital management and their return on total assets through two models. According to the results in terms of both all the firms involved in the study and sectors there is a significance negative relationship between cash conver...

  12. Total Factor Productivity of Korean Manufacturing Industries : Comparison of Competing Models with Firm-Level Data

    OpenAIRE

    Lööf, Hans; Oh, Donghyun; Heshmati, Almas

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the parametric estimation of the rates of technical change and total factor productivity (TFP) growth of 7,462 Korean manufacturing firms for the period 1987 to 2007. Two alternative formulations of technical change measured by the time trend and the general index approaches are estimated with panel data models assuming flexible functional forms. Several extensions of each approach are also considered and their benefits and limitations are discussed. In addition to making ...

  13. Serum level modifications of female sex hormones after radiocastration with different total doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We determined serum level of estradiol, FSH and LH over a period of six to eight weeks after ovarian irradiation for castration with different doses (2x2.5 Gy/3x2.5 Gy/4x2.5 Gy) in 15 patients with metastatic breast cancer as compared to changes after ovarectomy in five patients. The time course of the changing estradiol-, FSH and LH-serum levels sigificantly depends on the ovarian dose. After radiological castration with a dose of 4x2.5 Gy = 10 Gy in four days the estrogen levels decrease within two to three weeks, and the FSH- and LH-levels increase after three to four weeks into the postmenopausal range. Therefore, the time course is not very different from changes after ovarectomy. (orig.)

  14. Pollution studies of Kabul river and its tributes for the assessment of organic strength and fecal coliform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty eight samples of water from Kabul River and its tributaries starting from Warsak Reservoir to the confluence point of Kabul and Indus Rivers covering a stretch of about 90 km and the waste water being discharged by different drains into the river were collected systematically and analysed for total organic strength as Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and degradable organics as Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) using standard methods. River water samples from different locations were also analysed bacteriologically for Fecal coliforms. All the waste water samples and river water in a few locations were found to be high in COD, BOD and Fecal coliform rendering it unfit for irrigation and human consumption. The results also suggest that the Board Mills and from different tanneries are the main sources of organic pollution in the Kabul River. Reduction in fish crop in Kabul River could be referred to the increased organic pollution. (author)

  15. Total matrix metalloproteinase-8 serum levels in patients labouring preterm and patients with threatened preterm delivery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Lauda?ski

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Preterm labour and prematurity are still a main cause of perinatal morbidity nowadays. The aim of our study was to assess the role of MMP-8 as a predictive marker of preterm delivery. Four groups of patients were involved to the study: I - pregnant women at 24-34 weeks of gestation with any symptoms of threatened preterm labour; II - threatened preterm labour patients between 24-34 weeks of gestation; III - preterm vaginal delivery patients; IV - healthy term vaginal delivery patients. Serum concentration of total MMP-8 was measured using two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. There were no significant differences in the median concentrations of total MMP-8 between physiological pregnancy and threatened preterm labour patients with existing uterine contractility. No significant differences of total MMP-8 were either found between healthy term and preterm labouring patients. The studies on a larger population are needed to reject the hypothesis that preterm labour is connected with increased MMP-8 plasma concentrations of women in preterm labour and threatened preterm delivery.

  16. Total Quality Management in Classroom at University Level in Islamabad City

    OpenAIRE

    Tanvir Kayani

    2012-01-01

    The progress of a country inter-depends on the quality of education provided to its citizens. Higher level Education is the most important stage in education system of any country. This stage provides educated graduates and skilled workers that immediatelyenters into the practical field and takes over the responsibilities. That is why to increase the quality of education at this stage is the foremost mission of all the countries. By defining the term, quality is the level of satisfaction for ...

  17. Total IgE plasma levels vary according to gender and age in Brazilian patients with allergic rhinitis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thaís Amarante Peres de Paula, Couto; Nelson, Falsarella; Cinara de Cássia Brandão de, Mattos; Luiz Carlos de, Mattos.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Allergic rhinitis is a disease that affects the upper airways and causes inflammation of the nasal mucosa and it is mediated by IgE antibodies produced after sensitization to environmental allergens. Previous reports have indicated that this disease affects males more often than females. [...] The objective of this study was to verify whether total IgE plasma levels vary between genders in patients suffering from allergic rhinitis. METHODS: A total of 171 adult patients suffering from allergic rhinitis (55 males and 116 females) were enrolled. Total IgE plasma levels were determined using commercial kits, with 140 IU/mL considered as a reference value. The mean total IgE plasma levels were compared according to gender and age. RESULTS: The mean age of the overall patient group with allergic rhinitis was 38.4±19.0 years and a significant difference in age was observed between genders (males: 32.2±17.8 years; females: 41.4±18.9 years; p?=?0.0027). Additionally, the mean total IgE plasma levels were higher in males (413.0±143.0 IU/mL) than in females (147.9±98.0 IU/mL) (p

  18. Coliform bacteria removal from sewage in constructed wetlands planted with Mentha aquatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelar, Fabiana F; de Matos, Antonio T; de Matos, Mateus P; Borges, Alisson C

    2014-08-01

    The present study evaluated the performance of the species Mentha aquatica in constructed wetlands of horizontal subsurface flow (CW-HSSF) with regard to the removal of coliforms bacteria in an effluent from the primary treatment of sewage as well as to obtain adjustment parameters of the bacterial decay kinetic model along the length of the CW-HSSF. Therefore, four CW-HSSFs measuring 24.0 m x 1.0 m x 0.35 m were built and filled with number 0 gravel as the support medium to a height of 0.20m. Two of the CW-HSSFs were planted with the species M. aquatica, while the other two remained uncultivated. Cultivation of M. aquatica in CW-HSSF resulted in total coliforms (TC) and Escherichia coli (EC) removals from 0.9 to 1.3 log units greater than those obtained in the uncultivated experimental plots, for the hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 4.5 and 6.0 days. For HRT ranged from 1.5 to 6.0 days, the highest removal efficiencies in counts of TC and EC were obtained when using longer HRT. The mathematical models evaluated showed good fit to average counts of TC and EC highlighting the modified first-order kinetic model with the inclusion of the power parameter in the HRT variable. PMID:24956804

  19. Total mercury levels in muscle tissue of swordfish (Xiphias gladius) and bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) from the Mediterranean Sea (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storelli, M M; Marcotrigiano, G O

    2001-07-01

    This study was carried out to determine the current levels of total mercury in the muscle tissue of swordfish (Xiphias gladius) and bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) caught in the Mediterranean Sea with the purpose of ascertaining whether the concentrations exceeded the maximum level fixed by the European Commission Decision. In addition, specimens of each species were divided into different ranges of weight to investigate the influence of size on mercury accumulation in order to provide data upon which commercial fishing strategies and marketing of swordfish and bluefin tuna may be based. Higher mean levels of total mercury were found in bluefin tuna (1.02 microg g(-1) wet wt) than in swordfish (0.49 microg g(-1) wet wt). In 4.3% of swordfish and in 44.3% of bluefin tuna analyzed, total mercury concentrations exceeded the maximum level fixed by the European Commission Decision (Hg = 1 microg g(-1) wet wt). Besides, for bluefin tuna the total mercury level variability observed, due to size, suggests that there should be greater regulatory control by the authorities. PMID:11456192

  20. Trichromatic ?-Pulse for Ultrafast Total Inversion of a Four-Level Ladder System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Serrat

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a numerical solution for complete population inversion in a four-level ladder system obtained by using a full ?-pulse illumination scheme with resonant ultrashort phase-locked Gaussian laser pulses. We find that a set of pulse areas such as ?3? , ?2? , and ?3? completely inverts the four-level system considering identical effective dipole coupling coefficients. The solution is consistent provided the involved electric fields are not too strong and it is amply accurate also in the case of diverse transition dipole moments. We study the effect of detuning and chirp of the laser pulses on the complete population inversion using the level structure of atomic sodium interacting with ps and fs pulses as an example. Our result opens the door for multiple applications such as efficient ultrashort pulse lasing in the UV or the engineering of quantum states for quantum computing.

  1. Leveling Process of Total Electron Content (TEC) Using Malaysian Global Positioning System (GPS) Data

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Norsuzila; Abdullah, M.; Ismail, M

    2008-01-01

    The signals from the satellites of the Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS) travel through the earth's ionosphere on their way to GPS receivers. However, ionospheric delay is one of the main sources of error in GPS. The magnitude of the ionospheric delay is influenced by the Total Electron Content (TEC) along the radio wave path from a GPS satellite to the ground receiver. This study investigates the TEC using GPS data collected from Wisma Tanah, Kuala Lumpur, KTPK (3° 10' 15.44"N, 101° 43...

  2. Plasma levels of unconjugated estetrol and estriol and of total estriol in normal human pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualandi, L; Modelli, L; Maurizio, G; Filicori, M; Bolelli, G

    1979-06-01

    The course of normal pregnancy in 54 patients was monitored by weekly assays of Unconjugated Estriol (E3U), Total Estriol (E3T) and Unconjugated Estetrol (E4U). These subjects were divided into two groups: one of those patients who delivered a fetus with a weight above the 50th percentile and the other of those who delivered a fetus with a weight below the 50th percentile. No significant difference was found between these two groups and it is not therefore possible to have information regarding the weight of the fetus, starting from the weekly values of these hormones. Analogous variations of the three hormones were found as pregnancy progresses. However, the rate of increase for E4U was higher than for E3T and E3U. PMID:545977

  3. Determination of Total Serum Protein Levels Fed by Hot Smoked Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Diets in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levent Izci

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects on total serum protein levels of rats fed by hot smoked Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss were investigated. Four diets containing fresh and hot smoked rainbow trout flesh and vitamin were prepared and commercial pellet food purchased. Four groups of female Wistar rats were fed with the diets for 28 days. Total serum protein and detection of protein bands using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-Page were evaluated. The total serum protein level of rat fed by hot smoked rainbow trout flesh+vitamin diet were increased significantly according to the other groups (p<0.017, p<0.002. Eight protein bands were visualised on rat gels. The molecular weights of protein bands detected were 166, 112, 90, 63, 47, 45, 36 and 14 kDa, respectively.

  4. Total copper, manganese, and zinc levels in a Cecil soil during ten years of poultry litter application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavy metals in poultry litter (PL) can cause environmental problems despite the cost-effectiveness of PL as source of plant nutrients. We compared total Cu, Mn, and Zn levels in a Cecil soil near Watkinsville, GA, in a 5-yr of cotton and 5-yr of corn study under conventional tillage (CT) and no-til...

  5. Comparative seric TGF(β1, β2) levels and platelets count response in total body irradiated baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total body irradiation associated or not with r-hIL-6 treatment a relation between TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 blood levels and platelets count. During radio-induced thrombocytopenia, by decreasing its ability to inhibit proliferation of stem cells and megakaryocytopoiesis, the TGF-β falling induced a favorable condition for hematopoietic recovery. (author)

  6. Measurement of Deformations by MEMS Arrays, Verified at Sub-millimetre Level Using Robotic Total Stations

    OpenAIRE

    Tomas Beran; Lee Danisch; Adam Chrzanowski; Maciej Bazanowski

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of sub-millimetre-level deformations of structures in the presence of ambienttemperature changes can be challenging. This paper describes the measurement of astructure moving due to temperature changes, using two ShapeAccelArray (SAA)instruments, and verified by a geodetic monitoring system. SAA is a geotechnicalinstrument often used for monitoring of displacements in soil. SAA uses micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) sensors to measure tilt in the gravity field. The geodeticmo...

  7. Evaluación de la tasa de aclaración de la almeja dulceacuícola Anodontites tortolis en un medio con coliformes Escherichia coli Clearance rate of faecal coliforms by netropical freshwater clam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan René Mallama Leyton

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En condiciones de laboratorio se evaluón acute; la eficiencia de la almeja de agua dulce (Anodontites tortolis) para disminuir la carga de coliformes fecales (Escherichia coli) determinada mediante filtración en membrana por 8 horas. El experimento se diseñó con dos tratamientos (densidades de seis (T1) y ocho almejas (T2) más un control) con tres replicaciones. Se encontraron diferencias significativas (PUnder laboratory conditions the efficiency of the freshwater clam Anodontites tortolis to diminish the quantity of faecal coliforms, determined by the membrane filtration method during eight hours was evaluated. The experiment was design with two treatments (two densities of six (T1) and eight clams (T2) and a control) and three replications. Statistical significant differences (P<0.05) according to the Kruskal-Wallis test for the clearance rates were found. The highest levels of remotion of E. coli belonged to the treatment in which there was the highest number of individuals. The clearance rate of the clams varied between 0.47 and 3.80 l.h-1.ind-1 which is reported in the literature. Removal levels showing A. tortolis suggest that this clam can be used as a biological resource for the treatment of the tertiary waters contaminated with faecal coliform bacteria.

  8. Activity levels and functional outcomes of young patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Tennison L; Szubski, Caleb R; Nowacki, Amy S; Klika, Alison K; Iannotti, Joseph P; Barsoum, Wael K

    2014-11-01

    The activity demands of young patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty (THA) have not been clearly defined. University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) activity score, Hip disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS), Short Form-12 version 2 (SF-12v2), and Functional Comorbidity Index (FCI) questionnaires were administered to 70 young patients who had undergone THA (young THA group; ie, ?30 years old), 158 general patients who had undergone THA (general THA group; ie, ?31 years old), and 106 young, comorbidity-matched patients who had not undergone arthroplasty and had no significant hip disease (nonarthroplasty group). Mean postoperative UCLA activity scores were similar among groups (young THA group, 6.5; general THA group, 6.4; nonarthroplasty group, 6.6) before and after adjustment for comorbidity, sex, and race (P=.62 and P=.47, respectively). Adjusted analyses also found a negative association between postoperative activity and increases in comorbidity and female sex (Pexpectations of postoperative activity (7.7) than those in the general THA group (7.1; P=.02). Postoperative HOOS results showed greater hip symptoms (P=.003) and poorer hip-related quality of life (Pexpectations, greater hip-related quality of life, and better mental health scores in the general THA group may indicate a need for better management of expectations in young patients undergoing THA, including a discussion of realistic gains in activity and potential comorbidity-related restrictions. PMID:25361375

  9. Total suspended dust and heavy metal levels emitted from a workplace compared with nearby residential houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Wahab, Sabah A.; Yaghi, Basma

    Total suspended particulate matter (TSP) were collected from the workplace in Sohar Industrial Estate (SIE) in Oman. The samples were taken from 19 different industrial activities that represent major sources of particulate matter in the SIE. The collected samples were analyzed for 9 heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd, V and Mo) by using the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry analysis (ICP-OES). Furthermore, the indoor TSP and heavy metal concentrations were measured inside 12 houses within Sohar residential area to determine the contributions of various industrial activities on nearby residential houses. The results indicated that the mean concentrations of heavy metals in the TSP were too low to yield any known environmental health effects. In general, the results showed that the concentrations of heavy metals in the workplaces of SIE and its nearby houses were low compared to the guideline values. In addition, the values were low in comparison with other known sites around the world. Moreover, significant contribution from industrial sources at SIE was evidenced at nearby houses.

  10. Comparative study of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) methods for high-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanford tank waste is a complex, nonhomogeneous sludge, slurry, or salt-cake mixture requiring robust methods for analytical characterization. While numerous total organic carbon (TOC) methods are described in the literature, no single TOC method has been found to be ideal for this caustic, high-salt, sometime high-fluoride matrix. Three TOC methods have been in use at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and one complementary method is in place at Westinghouse Hanford Company. All have been found to have strengths and weaknesses when applied to the Hanford tank waste problem. These TOC methods include silver-catalyzed hot persulfate wet oxidation in batch-mode with coulometry detection, two methods for high-temperature furnace oxidation with coulometry detection, and UV-catalyzed persulfate oxidation with nondispersive infrared detection. To provide comparative data on these four methods, a recovery study of carbon compounds, which are relevant to Hanford tank waste, has been performed. One major conclusion is that it is most useful to have multiple methods available for the analysis of this waste material. The comparative study is discussed, operational experience in TOC analysis from these laboratories is described, and strengths and weaknesses in the methods are summarized

  11. Response of atmospheric ground level temperatures to changes in the total solar irradiance

    CERN Document Server

    Erlykin, Anatoly

    2015-01-01

    The attribution of part of global warming to changes in the total solar irradiance (TSI) is an important topic which is not, yet, fully understood. Here, we examine the TSI induced temperature (T) changes on a variety of time scales, from one day to centuries and beyond, using a variety of assumptions. Also considered is the latitude variation of the T-TSI correlations, where it appears that over most of the globe there is a small increase in the sensitivity of temperature to TSI in time. It is found that the mean global sensitivity (alpha)measured in K(Wm-2)-1 varies from about 0.003 for 1 day, via 0.05 for 11-years to about 0.2 for decades to centuries. We conclude that mean global temperature changes related to TSI are not significant from 1975 onwards. Before 1975, when anthropogenic gases were less important, many of the temperature changes can be attributed to TSI variations. Over much longer periods of time, from Kyear to Myear, the TSI changes are more efficient still, the sensitivity alpha increasing...

  12. Does corticosteroid treatment cause prolonged recovery and increased total bilirubin level in severe ADAMTS-13-deficient TTP patient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayiner, Zeynel Abidin; Acik, Didar Yanardag; Yilmaz, Mehmet; Subari, Salih; Mete, Ayse Ozlem; Dai, M Sinan

    2015-10-01

    A 41-year-old female patient complaining of fatigue, headache, mild confusion, and rush on her lower extremities was admitted to our emergency department. Laboratory tests revealed that he had anemia, thrombocytopenia, and increased levels of indirect bilirubin and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) in blood tests. Direct and indirect Coombs tests were negative, and fragmented erythrocytes were observed in peripheral blood smears. The patient was diagnosed with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP). The best supportive care was provided. Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) and 1 mg/kg methylprednisolone treatments were administered. On the 10th day of treatment, LDH level and fragmented red blood cells in peripheral blood smear were decreased, but his direct and indirect bilirubin levels increased despite the fact that he was treated with 1 mg/kg methylprednisolone and TPE. The patient had severe ADAMTS-13 deficiency. After discontinued steroids treatment, his bilirubin level normalized within 4 days. On the 4th day after bilirubin level normalized, vincristine treatment was administered. TPE was also continued. There was no consensus about the optimal schedule for discontinuing plasmapheresis therapy, and also we observed total bilirubin level improvement with discontinued corticosteroid treatment. In this case, corticosteroid treatment was linked with the increase of total bilirubin level in severe ADAMTS-13-deficient TTP patient. PMID:25576335

  13. Total Mercury and Methylmercury Levels in Fish from the Department Madre de Díos, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutleb A.C.

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available Very little is known about environmental contamination in most otter species. In the range of the Giant Otter, Pteronura brasiliensis, gold miners discharge a great deal of methylmercury into the environment, and this is known to biomagnify in the food chain. Assays for methylmercury were carried out on fish collected in the Madre de Dios department of Peru, from near gold mining areas, and also from more than 100km away; additional fish were obtained from fish markets. Results show that significant contamination occurs in fish bigger than the normal prey size of the otters, but at present, there are low levels in prey species - this should be monitored closely in future.

  14. [Temporal and spatial variations of coliforms and Escherichia coli in fluvial recreational waters (Salado River, Santa Fe, Argentina). Relationship with the quality standards].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiliani, F; Lajmanovich, R; Acosta, M A; Bonetto, S

    1999-01-01

    There are no standards accepted by all the countries to fix top concentrations of microbiological indicators in recreational waters. Even now there is still a considerable discussion either in USA as in Europe. The universal application of a bacteriological quality criterion is hard due to several environmental factors that affect the relation between the indicator, the exposition and the health risks. Our purpose was to present a case study as an example of the influence of the climatic conditions in the application of the most known standards (Environmental Protection Agency of USA, Council of European Communities, World Organization of Health, and others from Canada, South Africa and Hong Kong). The pluvial rainfall increased the number of E. coli, thermotolerant coliforms (C Te), and total coliforms (CT) 6-10 fold, in comparison to the number registered during the steady-state conditions of the system. However, not all the standards included that factor. In Summer, hourly, daily and weekly variations were proved, therefore the standards that suggest fortnightly sampling frequencies would not be convenient in that system. Although the main source of variation was time, spatial variability was also detected. The percentage of E. coli among the C Te was very variable, but the average resulted low (26%) compared to the levels in temperate regions of other countries (> 90%). According to the directives proposed by the Commission of European Communities, the parameter has been changed (C Te for E. coli), but the standard has remained (2000/100 ml). Thus, the directive would be more permissive. PMID:10509393

  15. Assessment of serum selenium levels in 2-month-old sucking calves using total reflection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of selenium status of livestock is an important aspect of production medicine as evidence for the influence of low Se levels on disease resistance in ruminants is reviewed with emphasis on susceptibility to various pathologies (such as infections, exudative diathesis, pneumonia, pancreatic degeneration). Additional evidence suggests that Se deficiency may cause muscular dystrophy in calves, while, severe deficiency has been associated with cardiomyopathy and even death. Serum Se content is a good indicator of the short term Se status and reflects the recent dietary intake of the element. Since serum Se content is a good indicator of the short term status of the element and reflects the its recent dietary intake, the present work is aimed to determine Se concentration in serum from a group of 2 months old sucking calves suspected to be severely deficient. We used the TX 2000 X-ray spectrometer manufactured by Ital Structures. The energy resolution (FWHM) of the Si(Li) detector was 137 eV for Mn K?. Among nuclear techniques the TXRF method is the best suitable for trace element analysis in liquid or dissolved samples and can deal much easier with elemental investigation. Physical basis of used analytical method, experimental set up and the sample preparation procedure are described. The concentration data obtained are presented and discussed. (author)

  16. Assessment of serum selenium levels in 2-month-old sucking calves using Total Reflection Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of selenium status of livestock is an important aspect of production medicine as evidence for the influence of low Se levels on disease resistance in ruminants is reviewed with emphasis on susceptibility to various pathologies (such as infections, exudative diathesis, pneumonia, pancreatic degeneration). Additional evidence suggests that Se deficiency may cause muscular dystrophy in calves, while, severe deficiency has been associated with cardiomyopathy and even death. Serum Se content is a good indicator of the short term Se status and reflects the recent dietary intake of the element. Since Serum Se content is a good indicator of the short term status of the element and reflects the its recent dietary intake, the present work is aimed to determine Se concentration in serum from a group of 2 month old sucking calves suspected to be severely deficient. We used the TX 2000 X-ray spectrometer manufactured by Ital Structures. The energy resolution (FWHM) of the Si(Li) detector was 137 eV for Mn Kα. Among nuclear techniques the TXRF method is the best suitable for trace element analysis in liquid or dissolved samples and can deal much easier with elemental investigation. Physical basis of used analytical method, experimental set up and the sample preparation procedure are described. The concentration data obtained are presented and discussed

  17. Higher levels of total pepsin and bile acids in the saliva as a possible risk factor for early laryngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastroesophageal reflux is suspected to be an etiological factor in laryngeal and pharyngeal cancer. The aim of this study was to establish, using a non-invasive method, whether laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) appears more often in patients with early laryngeal cancer than in a control group. We compared the pH, the level of bile acids, the total pepsin and the pepsin enzymatic activity in saliva in a group of 30 patients with T1 laryngeal carcinoma and a group of 34 healthy volunteers. The groups differed significantly in terms of levels of total pepsin and bile acids in the saliva sample. Higher levels of total pepsin and bile acids were detected in the group of cancer patients. No significant impact of other known factors influencing laryngeal mucosa (e.g. smoking, alcohol consumption, and the presence of irritating substances in the workplace) on the results of saliva analysis was found. A higher level of typical components of LPR in the saliva of patients with early laryngeal cancer than in the controls suggests the possibility that LPR, especially biliary reflux, has a role in the development of laryngeal carcinoma

  18. Coliforms Everywhere! Using Microbiology to Teach the Scientific Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy R. Cisar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The scientific method is a fundamental concept in science. In this exercise the scientific method is taught as a hands-on investigative laboratory experience. Students generate a hypothesis concerning the environmental distribution of coliforms, design and execute an experimental test of that hypothesis, and analyze the resulting data. The exercise is safe and straightforward. It is appropriate for use in undergraduate laboratory courses for science majors and secondary school students and undergraduate non-majors with the appropriate mathematical backgrounds. Students learn both the process by which science progresses, as well as more advanced concepts in microbiology and statistics.

  19. Microplate fecal coliform method to monitor stream water pollution.

    OpenAIRE

    Maul, A; Block, J. C.

    1983-01-01

    A study has been carried out on the Moselle River by means of a microtechnique based on the most-probable-number method for fecal coliform enumeration. This microtechnique, in which each serial dilution of a sample is inoculated into all 96 wells of a microplate, was compared with the standard membrane filter method. It showed a marked overestimation of about 14% due, probably, to the lack of absolute specificity of the method. The high precision of the microtechnique (13%, in terms of the co...

  20. Assessment of the efficiency of ColiSure™ for coliforms Escherichia coli enumeration in pasteurizad milk / Avaliação do desempenho do ColiSure™ na enumeração de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em leite pasteurizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Helena Walter de Santana

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In the dairy industry the coliforms detection can he used as indicative of hygiene production of the raw milk and the contamination after-pasteurization. The traditional methods for the enumeration of the total and faecal coliforms are laborious and needs an incubation time of 96 hours. Rapid methods for detection of these microorganisms have been developed and among them the ColsSuroit is a rapid method that gives results in 24 hours and involves defined substrates for simultaneous determination of total conforms and E. coli in water based in specific enzymatic reactions of these microorganisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate its utilization in milk. Ninety-five samples of pasteurized milk were collected from the markets in Londrina city, Parana and analyzed by the Most Probable Number (NMP enumeration using the Brilliant Green Bile Lactose Broth (BGBL and ColiSure™. There was a correlation of 0.80 betwee-n the mediums when the incubation time was 43 hours for total conforms. The low down occurrence of E. coffin the analyzed samples made impossible to comparate the performance of methods for this microorganism. Compfementary analysis showed a greater sensibility and especifity of the ColiSure™ in comparation with the BGBL. The CofiSure™ can be indicated as a substitute for the traditional method, with the advantage to be faster and easier.Na indústria láctea a detecção de microrganismos do grupo coliformes é utilizada como indicativo da higiene na produção do leite e de contaminação pós-pasteurizaçüo. Os métodos tradicionais para a enumeração de coliformes totais e fecais são trabalhosos, com tempo de incubação longo, de até 96 horas. Métodos rápidos para a detecção destes microrganismos têm sido desenvolvidos na área de microbiologia de alimentos. O ColiSure™ é um método rápido, que fornece resultados simultaneamente para a presença ou a ausência de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em água em 24 horas, baseando-se em reações enzimáticas específicas destes microrganismos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar sua utilização para enumeração destes microrganismos em leite. Foram colhidas 95 amostras do loite pasteurizado no comércio de Londrina, Paraná, para a enumeração do Número Mais Provável (NMP, comparando o meio ColiSure™ com o Caldo Lactosado Bile Verde Brilhante (CLBVB. A análise estatística indicou uma correlação de 0,80 entre os dois meios quando o período de incubação foi de 48 horas para coliformes totais. Devido ú baixa ocorrência de E.coli nas amostras analisadas não foi possível comparar o desempenho dos métodos para enumeração desses microrganismos. Realizou-se então, um experimento para avaliar a sensibilidade do CotiSuro™ na detecção de E. coli. Contra provas realizadas demonstraram maior sensibilidade e especificidade do ColiSure™ quando comparado com o CLBVB, para detecção de coliformes totais, podendo substituir o método padrão, com a vantagem de apresentar maior praticidade e rapidez na obtenção dos resultados.

  1. Potential mechanism of action of J5 vaccine in protection against severe bovine coliform mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Dosogne, Hilde; Vangroenweghe, Frédéric; Burvenich, Christian

    2002-01-01

    Coliform mastitis is one of the most difficult diseases to treat in the modern dairy industry. Curative therapy with antibiotics remains only moderately effective and depends on the stage at which the disease is treated. The most successful strategies for combating coliform mastitis appear to be prevention by hygienic management or prophylactic immuniz aion. The severity of clinical symptoms of coliform mastitis has been shown to be reduced by immunization with the Escherichia coli J5 vaccine...

  2. Modification of delayed-incubation procedure for detection of fecal coliforms in water.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, M.; Hickey, P J

    1983-01-01

    Three holding media, including the vitamin-free Casitone holding medium (m-VFC) recommended by Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater for use with the delayed-incubation membrane filter procedure, were compared for their ability to maintain viability of fecal coliforms. Each medium was tested according to the procedure described in the above reference with 60 to 80 pure cultures of fecal coliforms and a variety of natural water samples containing fecal coliforms. Fecal c...

  3. Isolation of fecal coliforms from pristine sites in a tropical rain forest.

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera, S C; Hazen, T. C.; Toranzos, G A

    1988-01-01

    Samples collected from water accumulated in leaf axilae of bromeliads (epiphytic flora) in a tropical rain forest were found to harbor fecal coliforms. Random identification of fecal coliform-positive isolates demonstrated the presence of Escherichia coli. This bacterium was also isolated from bromeliad leaf surfaces. These data indicate that E. coli may be part of the phyllosphere microflora and not simply a transient bacterium of this habitat. The isolation of fecal coliforms from these sit...

  4. Adenovirus, enterovirus and thermotolerant coliforms in recreational waters from Lake Guaíba beaches, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, C P; Simonetti, A B; Staggemeier, R; Rigotto, C; Heinzelmann, L S; Spilki, F R

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, molecular detection of human adenoviruses (HAdV) and enteroviruses (EV) was performed in surface water samples collected from beaches Ipanema and Lami, located on the shores of Lake Guaíba, city of Porto Alegre, RS, southern Brazil. Furthermore, water safety was evaluated by counting thermotolerant coliforms (TC), following local government regulations. A total of 36 samples were collected monthly from six different sites along the beaches. Viral genomes were found in 30 (83.3%) samples. The higher detection rate was observed for HAdV (77.8%), followed by EV (22.2%). Although low concentrations of TC have been found, the occurrence of viral genomes in water samples was frequent and may pose a potential risk of infection for people bathing in these beaches. PMID:26608773

  5. Mutation in APOA1 predicts increased risk of ischaemic heart disease and total mortality without low HDL cholesterol levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, C L; Frikke-Schmidt, R; Nordestgaard, B G; Kateifides, A K; Kardassis, D; Nielsen, Lars Bo; Andersen, C B; Køber, L; Johnsen, A H; Grande, P; Zannis, V I; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A

    2011-01-01

    effects of mutations in adenovirus-transfected mice. RESULTS: We identified a new mutation, A164S (1 : 500 in the general population), which predicted hazard ratios for IHD, MI and total mortality of 3.2 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6-6.5], 5.5 (95% CI: 2.6-11.7) and 2.5 (95% CI: 1......OBJECTIVES: To determine whether mutations in APOA1 affect levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and to predict risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and total mortality in the general population. BACKGROUND: Epidemiologically, risk of IHD is inversely related to HDL cholesterol...... levels. Mutations in apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, the major protein constituent of HDL, might be associated with low HDL cholesterol and predispose to IHD and early death. DESIGN: We resequenced APOA1 in 190 individuals and examined the effect of mutations on HDL cholesterol, risk of IHD, myocardial...

  6. Simultaneous determination of elements in trace levels for liquid samples by total-reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis method for simultaneous determination of elements in trace levels (ng/g) for liquid samples with low quantity of matrix was developed by Total-Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) Technique. The work was performed using a total reflection system equipped with a Mo-Tube type D and Ge plane-detector; a PCA-II Nucleus multichannel card acquired the spectrums. The method was performed with two reference certificate materials with the elements of the interest in the rank of 10 to 600 ng/g. From the results we can observe that, the limits of detection for the determinate element are down to the lower 20 ng/g-level, the methods high precision, accuracy and sensitivity

  7. Effects of lysine levels of diets formulated based on total or digestible amino acids on broiler carcass composition

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J, Nasr; F, Kheiri.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate carcass yield and chemical composition of thigh and breast muscles of broilers fed three different lysine requirement levels: high lysine (+10% NRC), standard (NRC) and low lysine (-10% NRC) and two ways of expressing amino acids in feedstuffs (total or digestible [...] amino acids). The results of this study showed that diet formulation based on digestible amino acids significantly influenced breast yield and abdominal fat deposition. The study showed that increasing lysine level (+10% NRC) of diet significantly increased both carcass and breast percentage and also carcass, breast and thigh weight. The interaction between digestible amino acids and lysine requirement levels affected carcass and breast percentage. Feeding broilers high lysine diets (+10% NRC) significantly increased lysine content in breast and thigh. The response to formulation based on digestible amino acids was maximized when broilers received the high lysine level diet.

  8. Physical activity level, leisure activities and related quality of life 1 year after lumbar decompression or total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolving, Nanna; Obling, Kirstine Høj; Christensen, Finn B; Fonager, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Lumbar decompression surgery (LDS) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) are frequently performed in the elderly population, but very little is known about their subsequent physical capacity and participation in leisure activities. Despite similar demographics and comorbidities, it is...... questionable whether LDS patients achieve equally high levels of physical capacity and quality of life postoperatively as do THA patients. The aim was to compare the physical activity level, participation in leisure activities and related quality of life 1 year after an LDS and THA procedure. METHODS: Data...... from 95 THA patients and 83 LDS patients were gathered from questionnaires on self-reported physical activity level, leisure activities and quality of life. RESULTS: LDS and THA patients reported equally moderate levels of physical activity. The median score was 42.3 METs/day (IQR 37.9; 47.7) for the...

  9. Total testosterone levels are often more than three times elevated in patients with androgen-secreting tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Lambaa Altinok, Magda; Petersen, Kresten Rubeck; Ravn, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    surgery. Terminal hair growth on lip and chin gradually increases after menopause, which complicates distinction from normal physiological variation. Precise testosterone assays have just recently become available in the daily clinic. We present three women diagnosed with testosterone-producing tumours....... Gold standard techniques were used to measure testosterone levels. All tumours originated from the ovaries. Based on the present cases and the existing literature, we suggest that androgen-producing tumours should be suspected in patients with rapid progression of hyperandrogen symptoms, particularly...... when total testosterone levels are above three times the upper reference limit....

  10. An assessment of the total ozone mapping spectrometer for measuring ozone levels in a solid rocket plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syage, Jack A.; Ross, Marty N.

    The question whether the total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) is capable of measuring ozone levels in a solid rocket motor plume is examined. Simulated measurements were computed for a chemical kinetics and dispersion model of a Titan IV plume. The principal disadvantage of TOMS for measuring local plume ozone levels is that the detection field-of-view is typically much larger than the column area for ozone loss. A secondary problem is attenuation of backscattered light by plume species and particles that can distort the ozone measurement.

  11. Association between Plasma PFOA and PFOS Levels and Total Cholesterol in a Middle-Aged Danish Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kirsten T; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; McLaughlin, Joseph K; Lipworth, Loren; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Sørensen, Mette

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are used in a variety of consumer products and have been detected worldwide in human blood. Recent studies mainly of highly exposed populations have indicated that PFOA and PFOS may affect serum cholesterol levels, but the magnitude of...... the effect may be inconsistent across exposure levels. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between plasma PFOA and PFOS and total cholesterol in a general, middle-aged Danish population. The study population comprised 753 individuals (663 men and 90 women...

  12. COLIFORMES TERMOTOLERANTES EN AGUAS DE LAS POBLACIONES COSTERAS Y PALAFÍTICAS DE LA CIÉNAGA GRANDE DE SANTA MARTA, COLOMBIA / Fecals Coliforms in Waters of Coastal and Palafiticos Populations of Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    SILVIA, NARVÁEZ; MARTHA, GÓMEZ; JORGE, ACOSTA.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta es el sistema lagunar costero más grande e importante de Colombia y el más extenso del Caribe. En su territorio se alojan siete poblaciones carentes de un sistema de saneamiento básico adecuado, que vierten sus desechos sin ningún tipo de tratamiento directamente a l [...] a ciénaga. Teniendo en cuenta la importancia ambiental de este cuerpo de agua y con el objeto de conocer su calidad sanitaria se determinaron las concentraciones de Coliformes termotolerantes en aguas adyacentes de dos poblaciones costeras (Tasajera e isla del Rosario) y tres palafiticas (Buenavista, Nueva Venecia y Trojas de Cataca) durante el periodo 2004-2007. Adicionalmente, se realizaron mediciones de pH, temperatura, salinidad y oxígeno disuelto en cada sitio de muestreo. Las mayores concentraciones de Coliformes se encontraron en el palafito Trojas de Cataca, en la época seca mayor de cada año (7.800-9.000 NMP/ 100 mL) y los menores niveles en la estación Buenavista (2-1.100 NMP/100mL). El patrón de comportamiento de las densidades de Coliformes en las poblaciones costeras fue similar en el tiempo y no se observó ninguna relación directa entre las variables fisicoquímicas y el grupo Coliformes. Dado lo observado, se considera importante vigilar la calidad del agua en el estuario, teniendo en cuenta que constituye una fuente potencial de riesgo para el desarrollo de las actividades económicas de la zona y para la salud de los pobladores. Abstract in english The coastal lagoon system most important and biggest of Colombia and the largest in the Caribbean is the Cienaga Grande of Santa Marta. In their territory, seven populations lacking of an appropriate sanitation system, that pour their waste directly without any treatment to the cienaga. Keeping in m [...] ind the importance of this body of water and in order to know their sanitary quality the concentrations of thermotolerant coliforms were determined in two coastal (Tasajera and Isla del Rosario) and three palafitics populations (Buenavista, Nueva Venecia and Trojas de Cataca) during the period 2004-2007. Additionally, pH, temperature, salinity and oxygen measurements were carried out in each station. The highest coliforms concentrations were found in Trojas de Cataca, in the dry season more each year (7,800-9,000 MPN/100ml) and the lowest level in Buenavista station (2-1,100 MPN/100mL). The behavior pattern of Coliform densities in coastal populations was similar in the time and there was no direct relationship between physicochemical variables and Coliform group. It is important take care and watch over the estuary quality, taking into account that constitutes a potential risk source for economic activities development of the area and for the residents health.

  13. Bivariate variance-component analysis, with application to systolic blood pressure and total cholesterol levels in the Framingham Heart Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sheffield Leslie J; Cui Jisheng S

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Background The correlations between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and total cholesterol levels (CHOL) might result from genetic or environmental factors that determine variation in the phenotypes and are shared by family members. Based on 330 nuclear families in the Framingham Heart Study, we used a multivariate normal model, implemented in the software FISHER, to estimate genetic and shared environmental components of variation and genetic and shared environmental correlation betwee...

  14. In vitro monitoring of total choline levels in a bioartificial pancreas: (1)H NMR spectroscopic studies of the effects of oxygen level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, R C; Papas, K K; Sambanis, A; Constantinidis, I

    2000-09-01

    This investigation implements specifically designed solvent-suppressed adiabatic pulses whose properties make possible the long-term monitoring of (1)H NMR detectable metabolites from alginate/poly-l-lysine/alginate (APA)-encapsulated betaTC3 cells. Our encapsulated preparations were maintained in a perfusion bioreactor for periods exceeding 30 days. During this prolonged cultivation period, the cells were exposed to repetitive hypoxic episodes of 4 and 24 h. The ratio of the total choline signal (3.20 ppm) to the reference signal (observed at 0.94 ppm assigned to isoleucine, leucine, and valine) decreased by 8-10% for the 4-h and by 20-32% for the 24-h episodes and returned to its prehypoxic level upon reoxygenation. The decrease in the mean value of total choline to reference signal ratio for three 4-h and two 24-h episodes in two different cultures was highly significant (Preference ratio. From spectra of extracts at 400 MHz, it was determined that 63.6% of the total choline signal is due to intracellular phosphorylcholine. Therefore, it is inferred that the observed changes in total choline signal are linked to an oxygen level dependence of the intracellular phosphorylcholine. Several possible mechanisms in which oxygen may influence phosphorylcholine metabolism are suggested. In addition, the implications of these findings to the development of a noninvasive monitoring method for tissue-engineered constructs composed of encapsulated cells are discussed. PMID:10968957

  15. In Vitro Monitoring of Total Choline Levels in a Bioartificial Pancreas: 1H NMR Spectroscopic Studies of the Effects of Oxygen Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Robert C.; Papas, Klearchos K.; Sambanis, Athanassios; Constantinidis, Ioannis

    2000-09-01

    This investigation implements specifically designed solvent-suppressed adiabatic pulses whose properties make possible the long-term monitoring of 1H NMR detectable metabolites from alginate/poly-l-lysine/alginate (APA)-encapsulated ?TC3 cells. Our encapsulated preparations were maintained in a perfusion bioreactor for periods exceeding 30 days. During this prolonged cultivation period, the cells were exposed to repetitive hypoxic episodes of 4 and 24 h. The ratio of the total choline signal (3.20 ppm) to the reference signal (observed at 0.94 ppm assigned to isoleucine, leucine, and valine) decreased by 8-10% for the 4-h and by 20-32% for the 24-h episodes and returned to its prehypoxic level upon reoxygenation. The decrease in the mean value of total choline to reference signal ratio for three 4-h and two 24-h episodes in two different cultures was highly significant (P reference ratio. From spectra of extracts at 400 MHz, it was determined that 63.6% of the total choline signal is due to intracellular phosphorylcholine. Therefore, it is inferred that the observed changes in total choline signal are linked to an oxygen level dependence of the intracellular phosphorylcholine. Several possible mechanisms in which oxygen may influence phosphorylcholine metabolism are suggested. In addition, the implications of these findings to the development of a noninvasive monitoring method for tissue-engineered constructs composed of encapsulated cells are discussed.

  16. Remoción mediante vermicomposteo de los coliformes fecales presentes en lodos biológicos / Vermicomposting of biological sludge for coliforms reduction

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carmen Verónica, Droppelmann; Carolina Pía, Gaete; Paulina, Miranda.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se buscó establecer el efecto de la densidad inicial de lombrices en la remoción de patógenos, mediante vermicomposteo de lodo, usando como indicador el número más probable de coliformes fecales (NMPCF). El lodo utilizado se generó en una planta de aireación extendida, se trabajó con [...] 4 densidades: alta con 0,2 kg lombrices/kg lodo, media con 0,1 kg lombrices/ kg lodo, baja con 0,05 kg lombrices/kg lodo y un blanco sin la adición de lombrices al lodo. Al segundo día de experimentación con la densidad media se logró una mayor remoción, estadísticamente significativa, del NMPCF que la obtenida con la densidad alta. El mismo día, todas las densidades lograron la clasificación de lodo clase B según United States Enviroment Protection Agency. Entre el día 13 y el 20 las muestras con densidades alta, baja y media lograron la clasificación clase A, no así el blanco. Al día 20 tanto la densidad media como la alta lograron el 100% de remoción de los coliformes fecales. Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of stoking density on the pathogens reduction, through the sludge vermicomposting, using the most probable number of fecal coliforms as indicator. The sludge used was generated at an extended aeration system; the stoking density was investig [...] ated at 0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 kg-worms/kg-sludge plus a control without worms. At the second day of experimentation the 0.1 kg/kg density achieved a significantly higher removal than the 0.2 kg/kg density. In the same day, all the stoking densities achieved the United States Environment Agency class B sludge standards. Between the 13 and 20 day all the stoking densities, with the exception of the control, achieved the USEPA class A standards. On day 20 the removal in the two biggest stoking densities was 100%.

  17. Total estradiol levels in migrant and British-born British Pakistani women: investigating early life influences on ovarian function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Tessa M; Unwin, Nigel; Fischbacher, Colin; Chamley, Jagdip K

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that women who grow up in energetically stressed environments have later menarche and lower total estradiol levels during their reproductive years than do women who grow up in less energetically stressed environments. We assessed total estradiol in a serum sample taken 9-11 days after the start of the menstrual cycle in 26 women who grew up in Pakistan and migrated to the UK as adults, in 28 British-born British Pakistani women, and in 25 British-born women of European origin. Women who grew up in Pakistan reported a later menarche than women who grew up in the UK. However, we found no significant differences between the groups in total estradiol level. Thus our findings do not support the hypothesis that estradiol levels are partially determined during early life. However, having considered our findings in relation to those of other studies, we conclude that new methodological approaches are needed to provide a more definitive test of the hypothesis. PMID:19107904

  18. Distribution of sewage pollution around a maritime Antarctic research station indicated by faecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens and faecal sterol markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes the distribution of sewage pollution markers (faecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens and faecal sterols) in seawater and marine sediments around Rothera Research Station, Antarctic Peninsula. Untreated sewage waste has been released from this site since 1975, creating the potential for long-term contamination of the benthic environment. Faecal coliform concentrations in seawater reached background levels within 300 m of the outfall. In sediment cores, both C. perfringens and faecal coliform concentrations declined with distance from the outfall, though C. perfringens persisted at greater depths in the sediment. High concentrations of 5?(H)-cholestan-3?-ol (coprostanol) relative to the corresponding 5?-epimer (cholestanol), indicative of sewage pollution, were only found in sediments within 200 m of the sewage outfall. This study has shown that sewage contamination is limited to the immediate vicinity of the sewage outfall. Nevertheless, a sewage treatment plant was installed in February 2003 to reduce this contamination further. - Sewage contamination of seawater and marine sediments near Rothera Research Station (Antarctic Peninsula) was limited to the immediate vicinity of the outfall

  19. Total Level of Serum Homocysteine in Males and Females with Coronary Heart Disease of Different Age Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal I. Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Elevated plasma total homocysteine concentration is a risk factor of cardiovascular disease. Total homocysteine level is a strong predictor of mortality in-patient with an angiographically confirmed Coronary Heart Disease (CHD, so we want to know at what age in males and females elevated homocysteine will be significantly elevated and this will help for better management and prognosis by decreasing the level of homocysteine. Approach: Plasma level of homocysteine was determined in male and female patients below and above 50 years old, who have coronary heart disease with diabetes or without diabetes. Fifty two coronary heart diseases with type 2 diabetic patients and a matched number of healthy subjects as a control and another 52 coronary heart disease patients without diabetes were included in this study. Plasma homocysteine was determined by Enzymatic Immuno Sorbant Assay (ELISA. Results: Plasma homocysteine level in coronary heart disease diabetic male and female patients who are -1, respectively, while it is 28.12±9.5 and 29.44±4.3 umol L-1 in male and female patients >50 years old, respectively. Plasma homocysteine level in coronary heart disease nondiabetic male and female patients who are -1, respectively, while it is 26.9±1.1 and 27.56±6.8 umol L-1 in male and female patients >50 years old, respectively. Conclusion: It is concluded that plasma level of homocysteine is significantly elevated in diabetic coronary heart disease female patients above 50 years old and significantly elevated in nondiabetic coronary heart disease males and female patients, thus nondiabetic coronary heart disease male and female patients and diabetic coronary female patients are at high risk of vascular diseases. It is recommended that these patients may take supplementation of folate and vitamin B12 to reduce the level of homocysteine.

  20. Two-level total disc replacement with Mobi-C® over 3-years / Artroplastía total de disco con Mobi-C® después de tres años / Artroplastia total de disco com Mobi-C® depois de três anos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Reginald, Davis; Pierce Dalton, Nunley; Kee, Kim; Michael, Hisey; Hyun, Bae; Gregory, Hoffman; Steven, Gaede.

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a segurança e a eficácia da artroplastia total de disco (ATD) em dois níveis, usando o disco cervical artificial Mobi-C® aos 36 meses de acompanhamento. Métodos: Realizou-se estudo clínico prospectivo, randomizado, controlado e multicêntrico de disco cervical artificial (Mobi-C® re [...] gido pelas regulamentações de Investigational Device Exemptions (IDE, isenção do dispositivo em investigação) e da Food & Drug Administration (FDA) dos Estados Unidos. Um total de 339 pacientes com doença degenerativa de disco foi inscrito para receber tratamento com ATD em dois níveis ou discectomia cervical anterior e fusão em dois níveis (DCAF) que constituíram o grupo controle. Os 234 pacientes tratados com ATD e os 105 tratados com DCAF tiveram acompanhamento em pontos do tempo regulares durante três anos após a cirurgia. Resultados: Aos 36 meses, ambos os grupos apresentaram melhora das medidas de desfecho clínico e perfil de segurança comparável. Os escores NDI, SF-12 e PCS, a satisfação dos pacientes e o êxito geral indicaram melhora com maior significância estatística desde o início do estudo no grupo ATD, em comparação com o grupo DCAF. Os pacientes do grupo ATD tiveram percentuais menores de cirurgia subsequente e taxas inferiores de degeneração do segmento adjacente. Em média, os pacientes do grupo ATD mantiveram a amplitude de movimento segmentar nos 36 meses, sem falhas do dispositivo. Conclusão: Os resultados aos três anos corroboram que a ATD é uma alternativa segura, eficaz e estatisticamente superior à DCAF no tratamento de doenças degenerativas de disco em dois níveis cervicais contíguos. Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Evaluar la seguridad y la eficacia de la artroplastía total de disco (ATD) en dos niveles, usando el disco cervical artificial Mobi-C® a los 36 meses de acompañamiento. Métodos: Se realizó estudio clínico prospectivo, aleatorio, controlado y multicéntrico de disco cervical artificial (Mobi [...] -C®) regido por las reglamentaciones de Investigational Device Exemptions (IDE, exención del dispositivo en investigación) y de la Food & Drug Administration (FDA) de los Estados Unidos. Un total de 339 pacientes con enfermedad degenerativa de disco fue inscripto para recibir tratamiento con ATD en dos niveles o discectomía cervical anterior y fusión en dos niveles (DCAF) que constituyeron el grupo control. Los 234 pacientes tratados con ATD y los 105 tratados con DCAF tuvieron acompañamiento en puntos de tiempo regulares durante tres años después de la cirugía. Resultados: A los 36 meses, ambos grupos presentaron mejora de las medidas de resultado clínico y perfil de seguridad comparable. Los registros NDI, SF-12 y PCS, la satisfacción de los pacientes y el éxito general indicaron mejora con mayor significado estadístico desde el inicio del estudio en el grupo ATD, en comparación con el grupo DCAF. Los pacientes del grupo ATD tuvieron porcentuales menores de cirugía subsiguiente y tasas inferiores de degeneración del segmento adyacente. Como promedio, los pacientes del grupo ATD mantuvieron la amplitud de movimiento segmentar en los 36 meses, sin fallas del dispositivo. Conclusión: Los resultados a los tres años corroboran que la ATD es una alternativa segura, eficaz y estadísticamente superior a DCAF en el tratamiento de enfermedades degenerativas de disco en dos niveles cervicales contiguos. Abstract in english Objective: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of two-level total disc replacement (TDR) using a Mobi-C® Cervical Artificial Disc at the 36 month follow-up. Methods: a Prospective, randomized, controlled, multicenter clinical trial of an artificial cervical disc (Mobi-C® Cervical Artificial Dis [...] c) was conducted under the Investigational Device Exemptions (IDE) and the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) regulations. A total of 339 patients with degenerative disc disease were enrolled to receive either two-level treatment with TDR, or a two-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion

  1. Application of annular centrifugal contactors in the hot test of the improved total partitioning process for high level liquid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An improved total partitioning process for high level liquid waste was developed. • Genuine high level liquid waste was used in the hot test. • 72-Stage 10-mm-dia annular centrifugal contactors were used in the hot test. • The decontamination factors of actinides, Sr and Cs were very high. • The stripping efficiencies of actinides, Sr and Cs were very high. - Abstract: High level liquid waste (HLLW) produced from the reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel still contains moderate amounts of uranium, transuranium (TRU) actinides, 90Sr, 137Cs, etc., and thus constitutes a permanent hazard to the environment. The partitioning and transmutation (P and T) strategy has increasingly attracted interest for the safe treatment and disposal of HLLW, in which the partitioning of HLLW is one of the critical technical issues. An improved total partitioning process, including a TRPO (tri-alkylphosphine oxide) process for the removal of actinides, a CESE (crown ether strontium extraction) process for the removal of Sr, and a CECE (calixcrown ether cesium extraction) process for the removal of Cs, has been developed to treat Chinese HLLW. A 160-hour hot test of the improved total partitioning process was carried out using 72-stage 10-mm-dia annular centrifugal contactors (ACCs) and genuine HLLW. The hot test results showed that the average DFs of total ? activity, Sr and Cs were 3.57 × 103, 2.25 × 104 and 1.68 × 104 after the hot test reached equilibrium, respectively. During the hot test, 72-stage 10-mm-dia ACCs worked stable, continuously with no stage failing or interruption of the operation

  2. Application of annular centrifugal contactors in the hot test of the improved total partitioning process for high level liquid waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Wuhua, E-mail: dwh203@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Chen, Jing; Wang, Jianchen; Wang, Shuwei; Feng, Xiaogui; Wang, Xinghai; Li, Shaowei; Xu, Chao

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • An improved total partitioning process for high level liquid waste was developed. • Genuine high level liquid waste was used in the hot test. • 72-Stage 10-mm-dia annular centrifugal contactors were used in the hot test. • The decontamination factors of actinides, Sr and Cs were very high. • The stripping efficiencies of actinides, Sr and Cs were very high. - Abstract: High level liquid waste (HLLW) produced from the reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel still contains moderate amounts of uranium, transuranium (TRU) actinides, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, etc., and thus constitutes a permanent hazard to the environment. The partitioning and transmutation (P and T) strategy has increasingly attracted interest for the safe treatment and disposal of HLLW, in which the partitioning of HLLW is one of the critical technical issues. An improved total partitioning process, including a TRPO (tri-alkylphosphine oxide) process for the removal of actinides, a CESE (crown ether strontium extraction) process for the removal of Sr, and a CECE (calixcrown ether cesium extraction) process for the removal of Cs, has been developed to treat Chinese HLLW. A 160-hour hot test of the improved total partitioning process was carried out using 72-stage 10-mm-dia annular centrifugal contactors (ACCs) and genuine HLLW. The hot test results showed that the average DFs of total ? activity, Sr and Cs were 3.57 × 10{sup 3}, 2.25 × 10{sup 4} and 1.68 × 10{sup 4} after the hot test reached equilibrium, respectively. During the hot test, 72-stage 10-mm-dia ACCs worked stable, continuously with no stage failing or interruption of the operation.

  3. Manageable risk factors associated with bacterial and coliform counts in unpasteurized bulk milk in Flemish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepers, S; Zrimšek, P; Passchyn, P; De Vliegher, S

    2014-01-01

    Associations between herd management practices and both bacterial counts (BC) and coliform counts (CC) from 254 and 242 dairy herds in Flanders (Belgium), respectively, were studied. Data were analyzed using multivariable, multilevel linear regression analysis, allowing variance components analyses. Both BC and CC fluctuated throughout the year, although the milk quality parameters followed an opposite pattern. Bacterial count values decreased with each increase of the cleaning frequency of the cubicles (once per week, once per day, twice per day, or more than twice per day) between January and March. Herds with a conventional milking parlor had substantially lower BC than herds where the cows were milked using an automatic milking system. Lower BC were observed when the milking parlor was equipped with an automatic cluster removal system, when premilking teat disinfection was applied, when the dry cows were supplemented with a mix of minerals and vitamins, and when the teats were prepared either first wet and dried or via an automatic milking system. Milking cows with a high-pipeline milking parlor setup or with an automatic milking system was associated with substantially higher CC values. Herds where prepartum heifers were often treated with antimicrobials before calving had a lower CC than farms where heifers were either not or only rarely treated. Most variation in BC and CC resided at the herd level rather than at the observation level, indicating that management is important in the control of both BC and CC. Still, only a small proportion of the total variance was explained by factors capturing information related to the milking, herd health, and dry cow management, which suggests that the bacteriological milk quality and, in particular, CC is primarily driven by other factors than the ones included in this study. PMID:24704236

  4. Simulation of Streamflow and Water Quality to Determine Fecal Coliform and Nitrate Concentrations and Loads in the Mad River Basin, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutter, David C.; Puskas, Barry M.; Jagucki, Martha L.

    2006-01-01

    The Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) was used to simulate the concentrations and loads of fecal coliform and nitrate for streams in the Mad River Basin in west-central Ohio during the period 1999 through 2003. The Mad River Basin was divided into subbasins that were defined either by the 14-digit Hydrologic Unit (HU) boundaries or by streamflow-gaging-station locations used in the model. Model calibration and simulation processes required the formation of nine meteorologic zones to input meteorologic time-series data and water-quality data. Sources of fecal coliform and nitrate from wastewater-treatment discharges and combined sewer overflow discharges (CSOs) within the City of Springfield were point sources simulated in the model. Failing septic systems and cattle with direct access to streams were nonpoint sources included in the study but treated in the model as point sources. Other nonpoint sources were addressed by adjusting interflow and ground-water concentrations in the subsurface and maximum storage capacities and accumulation rates of the simulated constituents on the land surface for each meteorologic zone. Simulation results from the calibrated model show that several HUs exceeded the water-quality standard of 1,000 colony-forming units per 100 mL for fecal coliform based on the maximum 30-day geometric mean. Most HUs with high fecal coliform counts were within or downstream from the City of Springfield. No water-quality standard has been set for instream nitrate concentrations; however, the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (Ohio EPA) considered a concentration of 5 mg/L or greater to be of concern. Simulation results indicate that several HUs in the agricultural areas of the basin exceeded this level. The calibrated model was modified to create scenarios that simulated loads of fecal coliform and nitrate that were either reduced or eliminated from selected sources. The revised models included the elimination of failing septic systems, elimination of direct access of cattle to streams, decrease in fecal coliform loads from the CSOs and selected wastewater-treatment facilities, and decrease in nitrate loads from land surfaces. The fecal coliform source-reduction model decreased the fecal coliform concentrations below a target concentration of 1,000 colonies per 100 milliliters for all HU outlets and decreased the load at the mouth of the Mad River by 73 percent. The nitrate source-reduction model decreased some HU mean concentrations to 5 milligrams per liter or less and decreased the load at the mouth of the Mad River by 52 percent. Other reduction scenarios may be run by Ohio EPA with the intent of identifying a management strategy that will attain a target concentration for the Mad River Basin.

  5. No effect of oral L-tryptophan or alpha-lactalbumin on total tryptophan levels in breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowlati, Yekta; Ravindran, Arun V; Maheux, Maxim; Steiner, Meir; Stewart, Donna E; Meyer, Jeffrey H

    2015-06-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is the most common complication of childbearing with a 13% prevalence rate. Sleep disturbances are also common, particularly during early postpartum. In theory, l-tryptophan could improve sleep and reduce depressed mood in early postpartum; however, the first step in clinical development of tryptophan for use in postpartum is to measure the effect of oral l-tryptophan on its concentrations in breast milk, which is presently unknown. The aims were to investigate the effect of oral l-tryptophan and alpha-lactalbumin, a protein with high tryptophan concentration, on total and free tryptophan levels in breast milk and plasma, and to compare free tryptophan levels in breast milk with those in common infant formulas. Thirty healthy breastfeeding women were randomly allocated to receive 2g or 4g of l-tryptophan, or, 20g or 40g of alpha-lactalbumin or no supplement. Free tryptophan levels were also measured in 12 different infant formulas. Total tryptophan in breast milk was unaffected by oral administration of l-tryptophan or alpha-lactalbumin (repeated measures of ANOVA (rANOVA), group effect: p=0.93). Both l-tryptophan and alpha-lactalbumin were associated with greater free tryptophan levels in breast milk (rANOVA, group effect: pformulas. In contrast to most sleep inducing medications, l-tryptophan does not affect its total concentration in breast milk. These results support further investigation of dietary l-tryptophan and alpha-lactalbumin as part of a dietary supplementation approach to address sleep disturbances in postpartum and reduce risk of PPD. PMID:25823693

  6. The relationship between serum ACE activity and total IgE levels in patients with bronchial asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutluoglu, B; Inan, A; Cer?ek, A

    1998-01-01

    Pulmonary endothelium takes part in the metabolization of some products such as prostaglandins, norepinefrine, serotonin, bradikinin and angiotensin I. Angiotensin I is the substrate for Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE). It is known that greatest production site of ACE is the pulmonary endothelium. A lot of studies have been done for determining the levels of ACE in various lung diseases. It has been observed that serum ACE activity is increased in granulomatous diseases such as sarcoidosis and berylliosis. In patients with bronchial carcinoma, serum ACE activity is found to be decreased. There are some papers about the significant changes in serum ACE activities in asthmatic patients. We determined the activity of ACE and total IgE levels at the serum of 40 asthmatic patients and 20 healthy subjects. Among 40 patients 20 of them were mild asthmatic and they developed symptoms only during the attacks. The remainder 20 patients were chronic asthmatics and all the time they had the symptoms of dyspnea, wheezing and coughing. Serum ACE activity was found 25.5 +/- 11.77 U in the control group, 22.8 +/- 8.04 U in mild asthmatic group and 16.6 +/- 6.13 U in chronic asthmatic group. When compared with control group serum ACE levels found to be significantly decreased in chronic asthmatic group. Also a weak but significant correlation was found between serum total IgE levels and ACE activity in the chronic asthmatic group. These findings suggest that there is a relation between ACE and Total IgE production. PMID:10386131

  7. Chelation therapy with desferrioxamine does not normalize ferritin level but attenuates oxidative damage and improves total antioxidant level in Malaysian Chinese beta-thalassaemia major patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, U R; Tan, J A M A

    2011-01-01

    Beta-thalassaemia major causes severe anaemia and patients with it may be transfusion-dependent for life. Regular blood transfusions cause iron-overload that leads to oxidative damage which can hasten mortality. The objective of this research was to study the oxidant-antioxidant indices in beta-thalassaemia major patients at the University of Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC) who were on desferrioxamine-chelation or without chelation therapy. Blood was collected from 39 Chinese patients and 20 controls. Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cell lysates (PBMC) were extracted and biochemical tests to evaluate oxidative stress were performed. Oxidative stress was evident in these patients as advanced oxidized protein products (AOPP) and lipid hydroperoxides were elevated, whereas glutathione peroxidase activity and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were reduced. The catalase activity in the patients' PBMC was elevated, possibly as a compensatory mechanism for the reduced glutathione peroxidase activity in both red blood cells and PBMC. The lower FRAP and higher AOPP levels in the non-chelated patients compared with the chelated patients were indicative of a lower oxidative stress level in the chelated patients. The ferritin levels in the chelated and non-chelated patients were high and the mean levels of liver enzyme activities in the majority of patients were elevated regardless of chelation therapy. In conclusion, this study indicates that desferrioxamine chelation therapy does not normalize ferritin level but attenuates oxidative damage and improves total antioxidant level in Malaysian Chinese beta-thalassaemia major patients. PMID:21809703

  8. La sensibilidad del grupo coliforme como indicador de la presencia de enterobacterias patógenas en cuatro cuerpos acuáticos de México / The coliform group sensitivity as indicator of the enteropathogenic bacteria presence in four water bodies from Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guadalupe, Barrera-Escorcia; Carlos Leopoldo, Fernández-Rendón; Irma, Wong-Chang; Patricia, Ramírez Romero.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available La contaminación microbiológica en los cuerpos acuáticos se caracteriza a través de la detección de organismos indicadores como las bacterias coliformes totales (CT) y fecales (CF). El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la sensibilidad de estos indicadores para predecir la presencia de enteroba [...] cterias patógenas en cuatro cuerpos acuáticos mexicanos. Dos con mayor influencia humana: lago de Pátzcuaro, Mich. y ecosistema lacustre de Xochimilco, D. F y dos con menor: la laguna de Metztitlán, Hgo. y el lago Zirahuén, Mich. Se cuantificaron coliformes totales y coliformes fecales en agua y sedimento por la técnica del Número Más Probable y se aislaron bacterias entéricas del agua mediante el uso de medios de cultivo selectivos. Se evaluaron: el índice de sensibilidad, el riesgo atribuible y la presenciaausencia de indicadores y patógenos. Pátzcuaro y Xochimilco mostraron alta contaminación bacteriana. El sedimento presentó mayor concentración de CT y CF que el agua. Los CF mostraron ser indicadores más confiables para predecir la presencia de Salmonella y Shigella, con una sensibilidad para cada género de 60 y 75% y un riesgo atribuible del 58 y 67%. Los CF mostraron una relación presencia-ausencia con un porcentaje de casos verdaderos del 82 a 88%. En contraste, los CT mostraron un riesgo atribuible bajo (inferior a 27%) y un alto porcentaje de falsos positivos (65%), lo que impidió considerarlo como un buen indicador. Es conveniente evaluar la presencia de indicadores y patógenos simultáneamente para determinar el riesgo sanitario al caracterizar la calidad microbiológica en ecosistemas acuáticos. Abstract in english Microbiological pollution in water bodies is characterized through the detection of indicator organisms like total coliform (TC) and fecal coliform (FC) bacteria. The objective of the present paper was to determine the sensibility of these indicators of the presence of pathogenic enterobacteria in f [...] our Mexican aquatic systems. Two with major anthropogenic influence: Patzcuaro Lake and Xochimilco Lake ecosystem; and two with less: Metztitlan Lagoon and Zirahuen Lake. TC and FC were quantified with the Most Probable Number technique in water and sediment and enteric bacteria were isolated in water using selective culture media. The sensibility index, the risk attributable, and the presenceabsence of indicators and pathogens were evaluated. Patzcuaro and Xochimilco showed high bacterial pollution. The sediment presented higher concentrations of total and fecal coliforms than water. FC were the most reliable indicators to predict the presence of Salmonella and Shigella, with a sensitivity of 60 and 75%, an attributable risk of 58 and 67% for each genus. FC showed a presence-absence relationship with a percentage of true cases of 82 to 88%. In contrast, TC showed a low attributable risk, inferior to 27% and a high percentage of false positives (65%), which impede to consider it a good indicator. It is convenient to evaluate the presence of indicators and pathogens simultaneously to determine the sanitary risk when characterizing microbial water quality in aquatic ecosystems.

  9. Pentraxin-3 Levels in Beta Thalassemia Major and Minor Patients and Its Relationship With Antioxidant Capacity and Total Oxidant Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik Balci, Yasemin; Nuray, Esin; Polat, Aziz; Enli, Yaşar; Ozgurler, Funda; Akin, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Thalassemia major (TM) results in hemolytic anemia, an increase in intestinal iron absorption, and occurrence of iron loading due to erythrocyte transfusion; the disease is characterized by oxidative damage in major organs. Oxidative stress leads to vascular endothelial damage and forms the basis for serious cardiovascular diseases. Pentraxin-3 (PTX-3) is one of the markers of vascular endothelial damage that increases in response to the oxidative stress, which can be used as an early diagnostic marker for inflammation. This study's purpose is to define the relation between PTX-3 and the vascular endothelial damage that increases with oxidative stress in thalassemia patients. Our study included 35 TM patients, 30 β-thalassemia minor patients, and 30 healthy children. As a result of our study, in TM patients, a positive relation was detected between the PTX-3 levels and the total oxidative stress, triglyceride, and very low-density lipoprotein values, whereas a negative relation was detected with the total antioxidant capacity and high-density lipoprotein values. This result shows that as oxidant stress increases, PTX-3 levels also increase; very low-density lipoprotein and triglyceride contribute to the endothelial damage occurring with oxidative stress. As a result, it was concluded that vascular endothelial damage in thalassemia patients can be evaluated through the serum PTX-3 level. PMID:26599985

  10. Total digestible nutrient levels in supplements for finishing steers in the rainy season: nutritional characteristics and microbial efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Fabiano Werner Koscheck

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of total digestible nutrient (TDN levels in supplements on rumen pH, ruminal ammonia nitrogen concentration, intake and digestibility, nitrogen balance and microbial efficiency in beef cattle grazing on Marandu grass during the rainy season. The supplements comprised a mineral mixture, ground corn grain, soybean hulls, roasted soybeans and urea:ammonium sulfate. The mineral mix (MM and supplements were supplied at 800, 1,600 and 2,400 g/animal/day, contained 500, 1,000 and 1,500 g of TDN, respectively, and were termed S500, S1000 and S1500. Supplemental crude protein (CP was fixed at 300g animal/day for all supplementing strategies. Four crossbred rumen-fistulated steers, with an average weight of 512kg, were utilized. The animals were distributed in a 4×4 Latin square in four paddocks of 0.25 ha. The rumen nitrogen concentration was increased by 63% after four hours of supplementation. Supplements with increased TDN levels did not alter the total dry matter and forage intakes, although the TDN levels linearly increased the non-fibrous carbohydrates intake. Additionally, most supplements did not alter the digestibility of the diet nutrients.The nitrogen balance was similar in all treatments. However, supplements with the highest TDN levels linearly improved the microbial efficiency of finishing beef cattle that were pasture-grazed during the rainy season. Supplements with in creasing TDN levels improve the microbial efficiency during the rainy season.

  11. Total digestible nutrient levels in supplements for finishing steers in the rainy season: nutritional characteristics and microbial efficiency

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jefferson Fabiano Werner, Koscheck; Joanis Tilemahos, Zervoudakis; Luciana Keiko, Hatamoto Zervoudakis; Luciano da Silva, Cabral; André Alves de, Oliveira; João Marcos Beltrame, Benatti; Daniel Marino Guedes de, Carvalho; Renata Pereira da, Silva.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of total digestible nutrient (TDN) levels in supplements on rumen pH, ruminal ammonia nitrogen concentration, intake and digestibility, nitrogen balance and microbial efficiency in beef cattle grazing on Marandu grass during the rainy season. T [...] he supplements comprised a mineral mixture, ground corn grain, soybean hulls, roasted soybeans and urea:ammonium sulfate. The mineral mix (MM) and supplements were supplied at 800, 1,600 and 2,400 g/animal/day, contained 500, 1,000 and 1,500 g of TDN, respectively, and were termed S500, S1000 and S1500. Supplemental crude protein (CP) was fixed at 300g animal/day for all supplementing strategies. Four crossbred rumen-fistulated steers, with an average weight of 512kg, were utilized. The animals were distributed in a 4×4 Latin square in four paddocks of 0.25 ha. The rumen nitrogen concentration was increased by 63% after four hours of supplementation. Supplements with increased TDN levels did not alter the total dry matter and forage intakes, although the TDN levels linearly increased the non-fibrous carbohydrates intake. Additionally, most supplements did not alter the digestibility of the diet nutrients.The nitrogen balance was similar in all treatments. However, supplements with the highest TDN levels linearly improved the microbial efficiency of finishing beef cattle that were pasture-grazed during the rainy season. Supplements with in creasing TDN levels improve the microbial efficiency during the rainy season.

  12. Tratamento de esgotos sanitários em sistemas reatores UASB/wetlands construídas de fluxo horizontal: eficiência e estabilidade de remoção de matéria orgânica, sólidos, nutrientes e coliformes / Domestic wastewater treatment in UASB-horizontal flow constructed wetlands systems: organic matter, solids, nutrients and coliforms removal

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Lúcia, Calijuri; Rafael Kopschitz Xavier, Bastos; Tiago de Brito, Magalhães; Bruna Cesca, Capelete; Edgard Henrique Oliveira, Dias.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresentou os resultados de um estudo realizado durante 19 meses sobre o comportamento de wetlands construídas na remoção de matéria orgânica, sólidos, nutrientes e coliformes, em unidades em escala piloto de fluxo horizontal, subsuperficial e superficial, com tempo de detenção hidrául [...] ica entre 1,3 a 5,3 dias, operando como pós-tratamento de efluentes de reatores UASB (esgotos sanitários). A remoção de matéria orgânica e de sólidos mostrou-se elevada e estável, com eficiências médias de 70, 80 e 60% para SST, DBO5 e DQO, respectivamente. A remoção de nutrientes, após início promissor, mostrou-se instável e aparentemente influenciada pela temperatura. O sistema de tratamento revelou elevado potencial de remoção de coliformes, embora com variações relativamente amplas ao longo do período de operação: ? 2 log10 de remoção de coliformes totais e 2-4 log10 de remoção de Escherichia coli. Abstract in english This work presented the results of a 19-month study on the performance of constructed wetlands in terms of organic matter, solids, nutrients and coliforms removal in pilot scale unities with horizontal, subsurface and surface flow, with hydraulic retention time from 1.3 to 5.3 days, as post-treatmen [...] t of UASB effluents (domestic wastewater). Organic matter and solids were effectively and consistently removed, with average values of 70, 80 and 60% for TSS, BOD5 and COD, respectively. Nutrients removal, after a promising start up, became unstable and apparently influenced by temperature. The treatment system has also shown high potential to remove coliforms, although with relatively wide variations over the study period: ? 2 log10 reduction of total coliforms and 2-4 log10 reduction of Escherichia coli.

  13. Tratamento de esgotos sanitários em sistemas reatores UASB/wetlands construídas de fluxo horizontal: eficiência e estabilidade de remoção de matéria orgânica, sólidos, nutrientes e coliformes Domestic wastewater treatment in UASB-horizontal flow constructed wetlands systems: organic matter, solids, nutrients and coliforms removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Calijuri

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresentou os resultados de um estudo realizado durante 19 meses sobre o comportamento de wetlands construídas na remoção de matéria orgânica, sólidos, nutrientes e coliformes, em unidades em escala piloto de fluxo horizontal, subsuperficial e superficial, com tempo de detenção hidráulica entre 1,3 a 5,3 dias, operando como pós-tratamento de efluentes de reatores UASB (esgotos sanitários. A remoção de matéria orgânica e de sólidos mostrou-se elevada e estável, com eficiências médias de 70, 80 e 60% para SST, DBO5 e DQO, respectivamente. A remoção de nutrientes, após início promissor, mostrou-se instável e aparentemente influenciada pela temperatura. O sistema de tratamento revelou elevado potencial de remoção de coliformes, embora com variações relativamente amplas ao longo do período de operação: ? 2 log10 de remoção de coliformes totais e 2-4 log10 de remoção de Escherichia coli.This work presented the results of a 19-month study on the performance of constructed wetlands in terms of organic matter, solids, nutrients and coliforms removal in pilot scale unities with horizontal, subsurface and surface flow, with hydraulic retention time from 1.3 to 5.3 days, as post-treatment of UASB effluents (domestic wastewater. Organic matter and solids were effectively and consistently removed, with average values of 70, 80 and 60% for TSS, BOD5 and COD, respectively. Nutrients removal, after a promising start up, became unstable and apparently influenced by temperature. The treatment system has also shown high potential to remove coliforms, although with relatively wide variations over the study period: ? 2 log10 reduction of total coliforms and 2-4 log10 reduction of Escherichia coli.

  14. Evaluation of Colilert-18 for Detection of Coliforms and Eschericha coli in Subtropical Freshwater

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Kuo-Kuang; Chao, Chen-Ching; Chao, Wei-Liang

    2004-01-01

    The accuracy of Colilert-18 as a test for coliforms and Escherichia coli in subtropical freshwater was evaluated by using API 20E strips and fatty acid methyl ester analysis. The false-positive and -negative rates of detection were 7.4 and 3.5%, respectively, for E. coli and 9.6 and 6.3%, respectively, for coliforms.

  15. Anaerobic incubation of membrane filter cultures for improved detection of fecal coliforms from recreational waters.

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, J. D.; Tunnicliff, B; Brickler, S K; Kramer, R E; N. A. Sinclair

    1984-01-01

    Anaerobic incubation of membrane filter cultures significantly enhanced detection of fecal coliforms in surface-water samples from recreational beaches. In contrast to standard aerobic incubation, anaerobic incubation suppressed overgrowth of masking, noncoliform bacteria but did not increase the frequency of fecal coliform recovery.

  16. Determinação do nível de contaminação por coliformes totais no queijo Minas comercializado na região metropolitana de Salvador - Bahia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. N. Martinez

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O leite e os seus produtos lácteos têm sido usados como alimento para o homem desde os primórdios da civilização. A limpeza e a sanitização na indústria de alimentos são operações primordiais no controle higiênico-sanitário dos alimentos e visam evitar a contaminação dos mesmos. Assim como, em fase final da produção, por exemplo, durante o envase onde as embalagens utilizadas para os queijos frescos tem como principais funções evitar grandes perdas de umidade e a contaminação microbiológica. Foram realizadas seis coisas, perfazendo 24 (75% amostras de queijo minas-frescal analisadas de sete diferentes marcas, sendo oito (33,33% representando a marca B, cinco (20,83%. a marca C, quatro (16,66% a marca D, três (12,50% a marca E, dois (8,33% a marca F, uma (4,16% a marca G e uma (4,16% a marca H, enquanto foram analisadas seis (25% amostras de queijo minas-padrão, em três diferentes marcas perfazendo três (50% amostras da marca A1, duas (33,33% da marca A2 e uma (16,66% da marca A3, realizadas diluições e semeadas, em triplicatas, em tubos de ensaio contendo caldo lactose-bile-verde brilhante e tubos de Durham (37C /24-48 h. Das seis amostras de quejo minas padrão analisadas 100% delas estavam com nível baixo de coliformes totais (NMP, menos de 30 bac/g, já das 24 amostras de queijo minas frescal das sete diferentes marcas pesquisadas 18 (75% apresentaram-se, em média, com níveis de coliformes totais (NMP significativos, igual ou acima de 102. Foram encontrados exemplares de queijo minas em condições impróprias para o consumo, já que o número de coliformes totais foram significativos e comuns, sendo estes indicadores de qualidade do produto, podendo então, vir a provocar problemas de saúde pública, sendo um risco à saúde humana PALAVRAS CHAVE: Queijo, qualidade, coliformes totais SUMMARY: Milk and derivatives have been used as food since the origin of te civilization. Cleanness and sanitation in food industry are primordial action in te hygienic and sanitary control of te foods and prevent your contamination. just as, in final stage of production, for example, in tine bottle, which packing used for fresh cheese may be principals functions to prevent large loss of humidity and microbiological contamination. Six collect were accomplished, an total of 24 (75% samples of “minas- frescal” cheese were analyzed of seven differents marks, eight (33.33% of the mark B, five (20.83% of the mark C (16.66% of the mark D, three (12.50% of the mark E, two (8.33% of the mark F, one (4.16% of the mark G, and one (4.16% of te mark H, while were accomplished and analyzed six (25% samples of “minas-padrão” cheese, of three differents marks and total of three (50% samples of te mark A1, two (33.33% of the mark A2 and one (16.66% of the mark A3, dissolved and seeding, in third copy, in trail tubs whit brilliant-green bile broth 2%. and tubs of Durham (37C/ 24-48h. Or six samples of “minas-padrão” cheese analyzed 100% were with level low of coliforms totals (NMP, <30 bac/g in 24 samples of “minas frescal” cheese of the seven differents marks studied 18 (75% showed, on the average, with numbers of coliforms totals (NMP significant, >102 . “Minas” cheese examples were found in incorrect conditions for the consume, because the number of coliforms totals were significant and common and serving as product quality indicators, causing troubles of public health, a risk for the human health. KEYWORDS: Cheese, quality, coliforms totais

  17. Evaluation of the levels of total volatile bases and trimethyleamine formed in fish stored at low temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Horsfall Jnr

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The levels of total volatile bases (TVB and trimethylamine (TMA formed in three species of saline water fish stored at – 4°C were investigated as indices of spoilage. The data showed that the concentration of TVB (mg/100g sample in Tilapia spp. ranged from 19.40 – 61.00; Mugil cephalus 10.30 – 41.10 and Carassius auratus 12.50 – 66.7 during the maximum storage period of 20 days, while TMA levels (mg/100g sample over the same storage period and conditions ranged from Tilapia spp., Mugil Cephalus and Carassious auratus. The data showed that the concentration of TVB and TMA increased with increasing storage time. These data may be used in formulating appropriate food safety limits for consumption of refrigerated fresh fish products in Nigeria.

  18. Are plant-based diets efficacious in lowering total serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Kathrine M

    2014-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the U.S. and around the globe. A large body of literature accumulated over the past several decades has shown the benefit of lowering serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels to reduce cardiovascular risk. National guidelines suggest therapeutic lifestyle changes, beginning with diet, as a first step toward lowering TC and LDL-C. It has been suggested a plant-based, low fat diet can substantially reduce TC and LDL- C and thereby reduce risk of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this review is to examine the state of the science regarding the efficacy of plant-based diets in reducing serum TC and LDL-C levels. While results of the research review indicate some benefit, strong evidence supporting the efficacy of plant-based diet in reducing atherogenic lipids is lacking. PMID:24944170

  19. Total testosterone levels are often more than three times elevated in patients with androgen-secreting tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Altinok, Magda L

    2015-01-01

    Hirsutism is present in up to 25% reproductive aged women and is most often caused by polycystic ovary syndrome. Less than 5% of patients with hirsutism are diagnosed with rare endocrine diseases including ovarian or adrenal androgen-producing tumours, but these tumours may be malignant and need surgery. Terminal hair growth on lip and chin gradually increases after menopause, which complicates distinction from normal physiological variation. Precise testosterone assays have just recently become available in the daily clinic. We present three women diagnosed with testosterone-producing tumours. Gold standard techniques were used to measure testosterone levels. All tumours originated from the ovaries. Based on the present cases and the existing literature, we suggest that androgen-producing tumours should be suspected in patients with rapid progression of hyperandrogen symptoms, particularly when total testosterone levels are above three times the upper reference limit.

  20. Prevalencia de Cyclospora sp., Cryptosporidium sp., microsporidos y determinación de coliformes fecales en frutas y vegetales frescos de consumo crudo en Costa Rica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Melvin, Calvo; Melissa, Carazo; María Laura, Arias; Carolina, Chaves; Rafael, Monge; Misael, Chinchilla.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de Cyclospora sp., Cryptosporidium sp., microsporidios y los niveles de coliformes fecales fueron determinados en lechuga, apio, cilantro, fresas y moras adquiridas en ferias del Agricultor del Valle Central de Costa Rica, con el fin de establecer el riesgo de transmisión de estos micro [...] organismos y otros patógenos a partir del consumo de productos crudos. Durante el Segundo semestre del 2001 y primero del 2002, 50 muestras de cada producto fueron evaluadas, 25 durante la estación seca y 25 durante la estación lluviosa y provenientes de cinco diferentes ferias del Agricultor. El recuento de coliformes fecales fue realizado de acuerdo a la técnica recomendada por Vanderzant & Splittstoesser. La determinación de parásitos fue hecha utilizando las tinciones de Ziehl Nielsen y Weber a partir de un sedimento obtenido por el lavado de los productos mencionados, usando agua peptonada estéril 0,1% y centrifugando a 900 G por 15 min. 100% de las muestras de vegetales presentaron coliformes fecales, y la mayor prevalencia fue obtenida durante la estación lluviosa. A pesar de que todos los vegetales presentaron coliformes fecales en altas concentraciones, la lechuga y cilantro presentaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre la estación lluviosa y la seca, siendo mayor durante la estación lluviosa. No se detectó coliformes fecales en fresas y moras probablemente debido a su bajo pH. Todos los productos evaluados presentaron, aunque sea una vez, Cyclospora sp., Cryptosporidium sp. y microsporidios, demostrando el riesgo que representan para la Salud Pública. Cryptosporidium sp. estuvo presente en todos los productos excepto fresas. Los microsporidios fueron aislados de todos los productos excepto moras y Cyclospora sp. únicamente fue aislado de lechuga durante la estación seca. Los resultados demuestran la importancia de introducir en el país las Buenas Prácticas Agrícolas, especialmente debido a la resistencia de Cyclospora sp. y Cryptosporidium sp. a agentes desinfectantes. Abstract in english Prevalence of Cyclospora sp., Cryptosporidium sp, microsporidia and fecal coliform determination in fresh fruit and vegetables consumed in Costa Rica. The presence of Cyclospora sp., Cryptosporidium sp. and microsporidia and the levels of fecal coliforms were determined in lettuce, parsley, cilantro [...] , strawberries and blackberries acquired in local agricultural markets of the Central Valley of Costa Rica, in order to establish the possible transmission risk of these microorganisms and other pathogens from the consumption of these raw products. During the second semester of 2001 and the first of 2002, 50 different samples of each product, 25 taken in the dry season and 25 in the rainy season and coming from five different local agricultural markets were evaluated. The fecal coliforms count was done according to the technique recommended by Vanderzant & Splittstoesser. The parasite determination was done using Zielh Nielsen and Weber staining techniques from a sediment obtained through the rinse of the mentioned products, using sterile peptonated water 0,1% and centrifuging at 900 G for 15 min. One hundred per cent of vegetable samples had fecal coliforms and the greatest prevalence was obtained during the rainy season. Although all vegetables presented fecal coliforms in high concentrations, lettuce and cilantro presented statistical difference between rainy and dry season, being greater during the rainy season. Fecal coliforms were not detected in strawberries and blackberries probablydue to its low pH. All products evaluated presented, at least once, Cryptosporidium sp., Cyclospora sp. and microsporidia, showing the risk they represent to Public Health. Cryptosporidium was present in all products but strawberries. Microsporidia was present in all products except blackberries and Cyclospora was only isolated from lettuce during the dry season. These results show the importance of introducing in the country Good Agricultural Practices, especially due to the resistanc

  1. Application of annular centrifugal contactors in the hot test of the improved total partitioning process for high level liquid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wuhua; Chen, Jing; Wang, Jianchen; Wang, Shuwei; Feng, Xiaogui; Wang, Xinghai; Li, Shaowei; Xu, Chao

    2014-08-15

    High level liquid waste (HLLW) produced from the reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel still contains moderate amounts of uranium, transuranium (TRU) actinides, (90)Sr, (137)Cs, etc., and thus constitutes a permanent hazard to the environment. The partitioning and transmutation (P&T) strategy has increasingly attracted interest for the safe treatment and disposal of HLLW, in which the partitioning of HLLW is one of the critical technical issues. An improved total partitioning process, including a TRPO (tri-alkylphosphine oxide) process for the removal of actinides, a CESE (crown ether strontium extraction) process for the removal of Sr, and a CECE (calixcrown ether cesium extraction) process for the removal of Cs, has been developed to treat Chinese HLLW. A 160-hour hot test of the improved total partitioning process was carried out using 72-stage 10-mm-dia annular centrifugal contactors (ACCs) and genuine HLLW. The hot test results showed that the average DFs of total ? activity, Sr and Cs were 3.57 × 10(3), 2.25 × 10(4) and 1.68 × 10(4) after the hot test reached equilibrium, respectively. During the hot test, 72-stage 10-mm-dia ACCs worked stable, continuously with no stage failing or interruption of the operation. PMID:25016455

  2. Serum total homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) levels in acute myocardial infarction and their response to treatment with vitamins serum total homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) levels in acute myocardial infarction and their response to treatment with vitamins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the relationship of serum total homocysteine (tHcy) and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels with systemic hypertension, Diabetes mellitus and smoking as risk factors in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and changes in the former levels with vitamins supplementation. Study Design: An interventional study. Place and Duration of Study: Medical College for Women and Hospital (MCW and H), Dhaka, Bangladesh, from July 2008 to December 2009. Methodology: Consecutive AMI patients were recruited from the Coronary Care Unit (CCU) at MCW and H, Dhaka. Blood samples were collected at inclusion (Patient-I0). They were given conventional treatments and prescribed vitamins (vitamins B6=25 mg, B12=2 mg and folic acid=2.5 mg) daily for 2 months. After follow-up, blood samples were taken again (Patient-II0). A group of 25 normal subjects were also included as controls. Serum tHcy and Lp(a) were measured by kinetic method and nephelometric method respectively. Results: Serum tHcy (macor mol/L) and Lp(a) (mg/dl) levels were elevated in Patient-I that reduced in Patient-II after vitamins supplementation, but not to the normal control level. tHcy of Patient-I0 was 25.1 +- 4.7 macro mol/L, of Patient-II0 was 20.1 +- 4.5 mu mol/L and of controls 12.1 +- 3.3, p 0.1). However, in a significant proportion of patients tHcy and Lp(a) levels were reduced to control levels (tHcy: p < 0.001, Lp(a): p < 0.01). Conclusion: These results indicated that tHcy and Lp(a) levels were possibly atherogenic risk factors independent of conventional risk factors. Since both tHcy and Lp(a) levels responded in a similar fashion, a common point of the metabolic and pathogenetic pathways of tHcy and Lp(a) may be influenced by the vitamins supplementation. (author)

  3. STUDIES ON BLOOD GLUCOSE, TOTAL PROTEINS, UREA AND CHOLESTEROL LEVELS IN CYCLIC, NON-CYCLIC AND ENDOMETRITIC CROSSBRED COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijaz Ahmad, L.A. Lodhi, Z.I. Qureshi and M. Younis1

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Seventy-five crossbred cows kept at the Livestock Experimental Station, Qadirabad, District Sahiwal were divided into three equal groups i.e. cyclic, non cyclic and endometritic. Blood samples were collected from all the experimental animals, serum was separated and stored at –20C until assayed for glucose (g/dl, total protein (g/dl, urea (mg/dl and cholesterol (mg/dl. The results revealed significantly (P<0.05 higher values of glucose (58.08  2.59 and cholesterol (290.72  15.95 in endometritic cows as compared to cyclic (50.72  1.12, 199.12  9.38 and non-cyclic cows (50.56  1.12, 202.96  14.84. Total protein level differed significantly (P<0.05 among cows of all the three groups, being highest in endometritic (19.16  1.00, followed by non cyclic (15.23  0.89 and lowest in cyclic (9.19  0.45 cows. However, serum level of urea did not differ in cyclic (30.88  2.42, non cyclic (33.80  3.43 and endometritic (37.12  3.45 animals, although highest value was recorded in endometritic animals.

  4. Physical activity level, leisure activities and related quality of life 1 year after lumbar decompression or total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolving, Nanna; Obling, Kirstine HØj

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Lumbar decompression surgery (LDS) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) are frequently performed in the elderly population, but very little is known about their subsequent physical capacity and participation in leisure activities. Despite similar demographics and comorbidities, it is questionable whether LDS patients achieve equally high levels of physical capacity and quality of life postoperatively as do THA patients. The aim was to compare the physical activity level, participation in leisure activities and related quality of life 1 year after an LDS and THA procedure. METHODS: Data from 95 THA patients and 83 LDS patients were gathered from questionnaires on self-reported physical activity level, leisure activities and quality of life. RESULTS: LDS and THA patients reported equally moderate levels of physical activity. The median score was 42.3 METs/day (IQR 37.9; 47.7) for the LDS group and 41.0 METs/day (IQR 38.5; 48.5) for the THA group (p = 0.79). Weekly time consumption for leisure activities inthe LDS group was a median of 420 min/week (IQR 210; 660) compared to a median of 480 min/week (IQR 240; 870) in the THA group (p = 0.16). Regarding quality of life, LDS patients reported significantly worse Euroqol Five Dimensions scores with a median value of 0.740 (IQR 0.68; 0.82) compared to THA patients' median of 0.824 (IQR 0.72; 1.0), p 

  5. Spirulina platensis effects on the levels of total cholesterol, HDL and triacylglycerols in rabbits fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciane Maria, Colla; Ana Luiza, Muccillo-Baisch; Jorge Alberto Vieira, Costa.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A microalga Spirulina é cultivada e comercializada no mundo devido a suas características nutricionais (elevada concentração de proteínas, em torno de 65%, vitaminas e sais minerais) e ao seu potencial terapêutico no tratamento de inúmeras doenças, inclusive a hipercolesterolemia. Neste trabalho foi [...] avaliada a inibição da hipercolesterolemia induzida em coelhos por uma dieta adicionada de colesterol (350 mg.d-1), pela suplementação de 0,5 g.dia-1 de biomassa de Spirulina platensis, sendo avaliados os níveis de colesterol total, triglicerídeos e HDL nos tempos de 0 d, 30 d e 60 d de tratamento. Os resultados indicaram que a adição de Spirulina platensis na dieta ocasionou decréscimo nos níveis de colesterol total de 1054±101 mg.dL-1 para 516±163 mg.dL-1 (p Abstract in english In this work, hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits by feeding them a high cholesterol diet (CD, 350 mg/d) and the effects of supplementing this diet with 0.5 g/d Spirulina platensis was evaluated by measuring the levels of serum total-cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TAG) and high-density [...] lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol) at the start of the experiment and after 30 d and 60 d. It was found that the levels of serum cholesterol decreased from 1,054±101 mg.dL-1 in the rabbits fed a CD without S. platensis to 516±163 mg.dL-1 to those fed with a high cholesterol diet supplemented with S. platensis (significant at p

  6. Extreme total solar irradiance due to cloud enhancement at sea level of the NE Atlantic coast of Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraterrestrial total solar irradiance, usually called Solar Constant, is attenuated by the atmosphere in different proportions, depending mainly on solar zenith angle and altitude of the measurement point. In this work, it is presented very high and extreme horizontal plane measurements of global solar irradiance that in some days overpassed the Solar Constant corrected by the actual Sun-Earth distance (CSC). They were obtained at sea level of the intertropical Atlantic coast, in the city of Recife, Brazil, in the period February 2008-January 2009. Extreme total solar irradiance values larger than CSC were measured during 3.4% of the days of the total registered period. This percentage increases to 7.4% for global solar irradiance within 95.1-100% of the CSC and to 15.3% within 90.1-95% of the CSC. The largest extreme total solar irradiance value, 1477 ± 30 W/m2, was registered the 28th of March 2008 at 11:34 local time (UT - 3h). It overpassed by 7.9% the CSC value for this day (1369.4 W/m2) and by 42.3% the estimated value of the clear sky Iqbal C radiation model (1037.7 W/m2). The observation of extreme values should be taken into account in the study of solar radiation effects related to materials exposed to the outside, UV index and biological effects, among others. Also, the detailed knowledge of this interesting effect may contribute significantly to clarify physical aspects about the interaction of global solar radiation with the ecosystem and climate change. (author)

  7. RECUENTO DE COLIFORMES Y Escherichia coli EN CANALES BOVINAS SOMETIDAS A TRATAMIENTOS FÍSICOS Y QUÍMICOS / RECOUNT OF COLIFORMS AND Escherichia coli IN CATTLE CARCASSES UNDER PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL TREATMENTS / CONTAGEM DE COLIFORMES E Escherichia coli EM CARCAÇAS DE BOVINOS SOB TRATAMENTOS FÍSICOS E QUÍMICOS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    EDUARDO JAVID, CORPAS-IGUARÁN; JUAN SEBASTIÁN, ARCILA-HENAO.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a contagem de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em carcaças de bovinos submetidos a tratamentos diferentes, os quais incluíam combinações dos métodos de lavagem, desinfecção e vaporização, utilizando um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado dum fator com 3 repetições. A [...] amostragem foi feita por esfregaço de superfície em três áreas diferentes da amostra (costa, peito e anca), que foram posteriormente analisadas pelo método de contagem em placa. Ao aplicar seqüencialmente os métodos de remoção microbiana foi observada uma redução progressiva na contagem de coliformes totais e E. coli, e na variabilidade dos dados, principalmente nos tratamentos C, D e E. O teste de contrastes múltiplos de Friedman, mostrou a ausência de diferenças estatísticas entre as contagens dos tratamentos C e E na amostra 2, indicando a ineficácia da vaporização como um adjuvante da acidificação para diminuir a contagem dos microrganismos de estudo. Os testes de comparação em amostras independentes mostraram resultados idênticos aos do teste de Friedman, salvo para a enumeração de E. coli entre os tratamentos D e E, sugerindo que a vaporização tem efeito significativo para reforçar a diminuição do número de microrganismos nas carcaças. Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el recuento de coliformes totales y Escherichia coli en canales bovinas sometidas a diferentes tratamientos que incluyeron combinaciones de los métodos de lavado, desinfección y vaporización, utilizando el diseño completamente aleatorizado de un factor con 3 repeticiones. El muestreo se re [...] alizó mediante frotis de superficie en tres áreas diferentes de la muestra (espalda, pecho y anca), que fueron posteriormente analizadas mediante el método de recuento en placa. Al aplicar secuencialmente los métodos de remoción microbiana se apreció la disminución progresiva en el recuento de coliformes totales y E. coli, y en la variabilidad de los datos, principalmente en los tratamientos C, D y E. La prueba de contrastes múltiples de Friedman mostró la inexistencia de diferencias estadísticas entre los recuentos de los tratamientos C y E en la muestra 2, indicando la ineficacia de la vaporización como coadyuvante de la acidificación para disminuir el recuento de los microorganismos de estudio. Las pruebas de comparación en muestras independientes mostraron resultados idénticos a la prueba de Friedman, excepto para el recuento de E. coli entre los tratamientos D y E, sugiriendo que la vaporización tiene efecto significativo para potenciar la disminución del recuento del microorganismo en las canales. Abstract in english We evaluated the recount of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in cattle carcasses submitted to different treatments which included combinations of the methods of washing, disinfecting and vaporizing, using the completely randomized design of a factor with 3 replications. Sampling was carried out [...] by swab surface in three different areas of the simple. (back, chest and rump), which were subsequently analyzed by the plate count method. When applying sequentially microbial removal methods, was observed the progressive decrease in total coliform counts and E. coli, and variability of the data, mainly in treatments C, D y E. Multiple contrasts proof of Friedman revealed the no statistical differences between counts of the treatments C and E in the sample 2, indicating the inefficacy of vaporization as coadjuvant of the acidification to decrease counting of the microorganisms of study. Comparison tests on independent samples showed identical results to the Friedman test, except for counting of E. coli between treatments D y E, suggesting that vaporization has significant effect to enhance the diminution of count of microorganisms on carcasses.

  8. The Effect of Laetiporus sp. (Bull. ex Fr. Bond. et Sing. (Polyporaceae Extract on Total Blood Cholesterol Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afifah Bambang Sutjiatmo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the effect of a local medicinal mushroom, Laetiporus sp. (Polyporaceae extract on total blood cholesterol level has been conducted using Wistar rats with high cholesterol feed and prophylthiouracil (PTU as hypercholesterolemia inducing agent. The study was aimed to evaluate the inhibition and reduction effect of the dried (hot water extract of grain grown mycelia on hypercholesterolemia of the rat model. The rats were randomly classified into tested group and control group, each group consists of six rats. After a preliminary study, two doses level of the extract, i.e., 55 and 110 mg kg-1 b.wt. were tested, respectively. Commercial lovastatin tablet at a dose of 1.8 mg kg-1 b.wt. was also incorporated in the test as reference medicine. Total blood cholesterol level was observed once a week over 4 weeks. The trial was also conducted on human by involving 19 volunteers. They were asked to consume one Laetiporus sp. capsule per day after meal before going to bed over 30 days. The fungal extract at dose 55 mg kg-1 b.wt. could inhibit the blood cholesterol level by an average of 11.0% and dose 110 mg kg-1 b.wt. could inhibit by an average of 19.0% compared to commercial lovastatin at dose 1.8 mg kg-1 b.wt. which could inhibit at an average of 14.6% over 4 weeks. On the other hand, dose 110 mg kg-1 b.wt. could reduce blood cholesterol level by an average of 11.4%, compared to commercial lovastatin tablet which could reduce by an average of 5.5% over 4 weeks. In addition, blood cholesterol level was found to be reduced in 14 out of 19 (73.6% of human volunteers while 5 out of 19 (26.4% were increased. It is concluded that the mycelial extract of Laetiporus sp. is potential to be used as an anti hypercholesterolemia agent.

  9. 75 FR 40925 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ...EPA made different assumptions...between the two types of assessments...for Public Water Systems...positive source water sample are...that perform different types of corrective...use of two different types of Tier 2...as boiling water before...

  10. 78 FR 10269 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ...system size and type beginning in...requirements for different categories of systems. b. Ground water NCWSs serving...For ground water systems, EPA...positive source water sample are accounted...that perform different types of...

  11. 75 FR 14607 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ...HFA-305), Food and Drug Administration, 5630...Applied Nutrition, Food and Drug Administration, 5100...HFS-317), Food and Drug Administration, 5100...rule amending its bottled water regulations to require...adulteration caused by the presence of filth. Under the...

  12. 75 FR 40925 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... parasitic protozoa could possibly enter the system, the reduction of these pathways in general should lead... accumulate enteric viruses and parasitic protozoa (Skraber et al. 2005; Helmi et al. 2008). Waterborne... Environmental Technology Verification FR Federal Register GW Ground Water GWR Ground Water Rule GWS Ground...

  13. 78 FR 10269 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ..., including bacteria, viruses and parasitic protozoa could possibly enter the system, the reduction of these... distribution systems may harbor waterborne bacterial pathogens and accumulate enteric viruses and parasitic protozoa (Skraber et al. 2005; Helmi et al. 2008). Waterborne pathogens in biofilms may have entered...

  14. Total Intravenous Versus Inhalation Anesthesia in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Cholecystectomies. Effects on Two Proinflammatory Cytokines Serum Levels: Il-32 and TNF-Alfa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadade Adina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been reported that as compared with total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA, inhalation anesthesia is increasing the postoperative level of proinflammatory interleukins.

  15. Detección de Salmonella y coliformes fecales en agua de uso agrícola para la producción de melón "Cantaloupe" / Detection of Salmonella and fecal coliforms in water for agricultural use destined to melon"Cantaloupe"

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carmela, Hernández-Domínguez; Ana María, Hernández-Anguiano; Cristóbal, Cháidez-Quiroz; Gilberto, Rendón-Sánchez; Trevor, Suslow.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available El agua que se utiliza en la producción de cultivos hortofrutícolas representa una fuente potencial de microorganismos que ocasionan enfermedades de transmisión alimentaria. Con el objetivo de evaluar la calidad sanitaria de diferentes fuentes de agua empleadas en la producción de melón Cantaloupe ( [...] Cucumis melo L. [grupo reticulatus] cv. Ovación y Caminos), en Zirándaro de los Chávez, Guerrero, se analizaron 71 muestras de agua provenientes de dos unidades de campo (23) y de una unidad de empaque (48) mediante métodos bacteriológicos convencionales para la detección deSalmonella spp, y por el método de filtración en membrana y el crecimiento en medios selectivos, para la detección de coliformes fecales, como indicadores de contaminación fecal. Del total de muestras de agua analizadas sólo tres muestras de campo resultaron positivas a la presencia de Salmonella spp. y nueve muestras, siete de campo y dos de la unidad de empaque, resultaron positivas a coliformes fecales. Salmonella spp. y coliformes fecales se detectaron principalmente en muestras de agua no clorada a 29 °C y 7.5 de pH, en promedio. En pruebas de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR), dos de cuatro cepas presuntivas de Salmonella ssp. dieron amplificaciones positivas con los iniciadores Sal-3 y Sal-4, y invA-1 e invA-2; de las otras dos, sólo dieron amplificación positiva con Sal-3 y Sal-4. Aparentemente se tiene más de una raza o serovar de Salmonella en la región. Estos resultados sugieren que algunas de las fuentes de agua empleadas en la producción de melón Cantaloupe en Zirándaro de los Chávez, Guerrero, no cumplen con la normatividad sanitaria por lo que estas fuentes deben establecerse como puntos prerequisitos de control para evitar la contaminación de melones frescos con patógenos de humanos. Abstract in english Water used in the production of horticultural crops represents a potential source of microorganisms that cause food-transmitted diseases. In order to evaluate the sanitary quality of different agricultural water sources used in the production of Cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melo L. [group reticulatus] [...] cv. Ovacion and Caminos), in Zirandaro Chavez, Guerrero, 71 water samples were analyzed from two field units (23) and one packaging house unit (48) through traditional bacteriological methods, to detect Salmonella spp, and the filtering membrane method and growth selective media, to detect fecal coliforms, as fecal contamination indicators. Of the total analyzed water samples only three field samples were positive to Salmonella spp. and nine samples, seven coming from the field and two from the packaging house, were positive to fecal coliforms. Salmonella spp. and fecal coliforms were detected mainly in non-chlorinated water samples at 29 °C and pH of 7.5, on average. Two out of four presumptive Salmonella spp. isolates were confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers Sal-3 and Sal-4, and invA-1 and invA-2; the other two were only confirmed with Sal-3 y Sal-4. Apparently more than one race or serovar of Salmonella spp. are present in this region. Results suggest that some water sources used in the Cantaloupe melon production in Zirandaro Chavez, Guerrero, do not meet sanitary standards therefore these sources should be considered as critical control points to prevent fresh melon contamination with human pathogens.

  16. Phenotypic and Phylogenetic Identification of Coliform Bacteria Obtained Using 12 Coliform Methods Approved by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ya; Hong, Pei-Ying; LeChevallier, Mark W; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2015-09-01

    The current definition of coliform bacteria is method dependent, and when different culture-based methods are used, discrepancies in results can occur and affect the accuracy of identification of true coliforms. This study used an alternative approach to the identification of true coliforms by combining the phenotypic traits of the coliform isolates and the phylogenetic affiliation of 16S rRNA gene sequences with the use of lacZ and uidA genes. A collection of 1,404 isolates detected by 12 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-approved coliform-testing methods were characterized based on their phylogenetic affiliations and responses to their original isolation media and lauryl tryptose broth, m-Endo, and MI agar media. Isolates were phylogenetically classified into 32 true-coliform, or targeted Enterobacteriaceae (TE), groups and 14 noncoliform, or nontargeted Enterobacteriaceae (NTE), groups. It was shown statistically that detecting true-positive (TP) events is more challenging than detecting true-negative (TN) events. Furthermore, most false-negative (FN) events were associated with four TE groups (i.e., Serratia group I and the Providencia, Proteus, and Morganella groups) and most false-positive (FP) events with two NTE groups, the Aeromonas and Plesiomonas groups. In Escherichia coli testing, 18 out of 145 E. coli isolates identified by enzymatic methods were validated as FN. The reasons behind the FP and FN reactions could be explained through analysis of the lacZ and uidA genes. Overall, combining the analyses of the 16S rRNA, lacZ, and uidA genes with the growth responses of TE and NTE on culture-based media is an effective way to evaluate the performance of coliform detection methods. PMID:26116679

  17. Assessment of serum selenium levels in 2-month-old sucking calves using total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buoso, M. C.; Ceccato, D.; Moschini, G.; Bernardini, D.; Testoni, S.; Torboli, A.; Valdes, M.

    2001-11-01

    The assessment of selenium status of livestock plays an important role in the production of medicine since low serum Se levels influence disease resistance in ruminants. It has been proved that Se deficiency may cause muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy and even death. Serum level has been widely used to evaluate the Se short-term status in animals since there is a good association between serum Se level and the dietary intake of the element over a wide range. The purpose of this work was to determine the Se serum concentration in a population of 78 sucking 2-month-old calves, in order to corroborate a clinical diagnosis of severe deficiency status. The samples were analyzed by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) at the ITAL STRUCTURES Research Laboratory. The results obtained from the serum samples presented Se concentrations varying from 10 to 66 ng/ml. The comparison between the obtained values and the expected serum selenium values (60-80 ng/ml), confirmed a mild to severe deficiency status in the investigated population.

  18. Evaluación de tres métodos para la inactivación de coliformes y Escherichia coli presentes en agua residual doméstica, empleada para riego / Evaluation of three methods for the inactivation of coliforms and Escherichia coli present in domestic wastewaters used in irrigation / Avaliação de três métodos para a inativação de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli presentes em águas residuais domésticas utilizadas para a irrigação

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Naydú, Rojas-Higuera; Andrea, Sánchez-Garibello; Adriana, Matiz-Villamil; Juan Carlos, Salcedo-Reyes; Ana Karina, Carrascal-Camacho; Aura M, Pedroza-Rodríguez.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Avaliar três tratamentos (lagoas, fotocatálise com TiO2 e desinfecção química) para inativação de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli presentes em águas residuais domésticas utilizadas na irrigação dos cultivos. Materiais e métodos. O efluente foi caracterizado por analises físicos, quími [...] cos e microbiológicos. Posteriormente foi submetido a tratamento de lagoas facultativas (TLF), pós-tratamento fotocatalítico (PTF TiO2/UV) e pós-tratamento químico (PTQ NaClO). Avaliando a capacidade desinfetante de cada um para inativar coliformes totais e E. coli. Posteriormente, foram processados três novos lotes de águas residuais para testar a irrigação em escala de laboratório por 30 dias, utilizando-se como modelo plantas de Lactuca sativa variedade Batavia e avaliando a concentração inicial e final dos dois grupos. Resultados. O PTFTiO2/UV foi significativamente maior a TLFLF e PTQ NaClO (p Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Evaluar tres tratamientos (lagunaje, fotocatálisis con TiO2 y desinfección química) para la inactivación de coliformes totales y Escherichia coli presentes en agua residual doméstica empleada para riego agrícola. Materiales y métodos. El agua residual fue caracterizada por medio de análisi [...] s físicos, químicos y microbiológicos. Posteriormente fue sometida a un tratamiento de lagunaje facultativo (TLF), pos tratamiento fotocatalítico (PTFTiO2/UV) y pos tratamiento químico (PTQ NaClO). Valorando la capacidad desinfectante de cada uno de ellos para inactivar coliformes totales y E. coli. A continuación se procesaron tres nuevos lotes de agua residual y se utilizaron para realizar pruebas de riego a escala de laboratorio por 30 días, empleando como modelo plantas de Lactuca sativa variedad Batavia y evaluando la concentración inicial y final de los dos grupos. Resultados. El PTFTiO2/UV fue significativamente superior que TLFLF y el PTQ NaClO (p Abstract in english Objective. To evaluate three treatments (facultative stabilization ponds, heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO2 and chemical disinfection with sodium hypochlorite) for the inactivation of coliforms and Escherichia coli presen in domestic wastewaters used in agricultural irrigation. Materials and me [...] thods. Wastewater was characterized by physical, chemical and microbiological analyses and was then exposed to a facultative pond treatment (FPT), post-photocatalytic treatment (PTFTiO2/UV) and post-chemical treatment (PTQNaClO) to assess the disinfecting capacity of each method in the inactivation of total coliforms and E. coli. Three new samples of wastewater were processed and used in irrigation tests on a laboratory-scale basis for 30 days, using Lactuca sativa cultivar. Batavia as a model plant and evaluating the initial and final concentrations of the two groups. Results. PTFTiO2/UV was significantly higher than FPT and PTQNaClO (p

  19. WATER FROM DIFFERENT SOURCES USED FOR THE IRRIGATION OF VEGETABLES TO BE MARKETED: RESEARCH ON Cryptosporidiumspp., Giardiaspp., AND COLIFORMS IN PARANA, BRAZIL

    OpenAIRE

    Rogerio TIYO; Carla Zangari de SOUZA; NISHI, Letícia; Camila Fernanda BRUSTOLIN; RATTI, Bianca Altrão; Ana Lucia FALAVIGNA GUILHERME

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of this work was to compare, from a parasitological ( Cryptosporidiumspp. and Giardia duodenalis), bacteriological (total and thermotolerants coliforms) and physicochemical perspective, water sources used for drinking and irrigation of vegetables intended to be sold for human consumption. From January 2010 to May 2011, samples of different water sources from vegetable producing properties were collected; 100 liters for parasitological analysis, 200 mL for bacteriological analy...

  20. Levels of polybrominated diphenyl-ethers and polybrominated dioxins in fish, total diet study food groups, and Japanese meals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashizuka, Y.; Nakagawa, R.; Hori, T.; Tobiishi, K.; Iida, T. [Fukuoka Inst. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Dazaifu (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Since they were found in mother's milk and blood in several studies, the polybrominated diphenyl-ethers (PBDEs) and other polybrominated flame-retardants (BFRs) that are used in plastics, electrical appliances, and textiles have been recognized as ubiquitous pollutants. BFRs are precursors of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins/ polybrominated dibenzofurans (PBDD/Fs). Recently, 2,3,7,8-TBDD/Fs and PBDEs have been detected in adipose tissue and blood in Japanese people. Food is naturally suspected. However, there is very few information on food contamination with those brominated compounds in Japan. Therefore, we measured the levels of PBDEs and PBDD/Fs in various fish samples, meal samples, and total diet study (TDS) food groups and estimated Japanese people's dietary intake of PBDD/Fs and PBDEs.

  1. How much locomotive activity is needed for an active physical activity level: analysis of total step counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohkawara Kazunori

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity level (PAL. The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of locomotive activity to PAL using total step counts measured in a calorimeter study. Methods PAL, calculated as total energy expenditure divided by basal metabolic rate, was evaluated in 11 adult men using three different conditions for 24-hour human calorimeter measurements: a low-activity day (L-day targeted at a low active level of PAL (1.45, and a high-frequency moderate activity day (M-day or a high-frequency vigorous activity day (V-day targeted at an active level of PAL (1.75. These subjects were permitted only light activities except prescribed activities. In a separate group of 41 adults, free-living PAL was evaluated using doubly-labeled water (DLW. In both experiments, step counts per day were also measured using an accelerometer. Results In the human calorimeter study, PAL and step counts were 1.42 ± 0.10 and 8,973 ± 543 steps/d (L-day, 1.82 ± 0.14 and 29,588 ± 1,126 steps/d (M-day, and 1.74 ± 0.15 and 23,755 ± 1,038 steps/d (V-day, respectively. In the DLW study, PAL and step counts were 1.73 ± 0.15 and 10,022 ± 2,605 steps/d, and there was no significant relationship between PAL and daily step counts. Conclusions These results indicate that an enormous number of steps are needed for an active level of PAL if individuals extend physical activity-induced energy expenditure by only locomotive activity. Therefore, non-locomotive activity such as household activity should also play a significant role in increasing PAL under free-living conditions.

  2. Single dose testosterone increases total cholesterol levels and induces the expression of HMG CoA Reductase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gårevik Nina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol is mainly synthesised in liver and the rate-limiting step is the reduction of 3-hydroxy-3methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA to mevalonate, a reaction catalysed by HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR. There is a comprehensive body of evidence documenting that anabolic-androgenic steroids are associated with deleterious alterations of lipid profile. In this study we investigated whether a single dose of testosterone enanthate affects the cholesterol biosynthesis and the expression of HMGCR. Methods 39 healthy male volunteers were given 500 mg testosterone enanthate as single intramuscular dose of Testoviron®--Depot. The total cholesterol levels prior to and two days after testosterone administration were analysed. Protein expression of HMGCR in whole blood was investigated by Western blotting. In order to study whether testosterone regulates the mRNA expression of HMGCR, in vitro studies were performed in a human liver cell-line (HepG2. Results The total cholesterol level was significantly increased 15% two days after the testosterone injection (p = 0.007. This is the first time a perturbation in the lipoprotein profile is observed after only a single dose of testosterone. Moreover, the HMGCR mRNA and protein expression was induced by testosterone in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Conclusion Here we provide a molecular explanation how anabolic androgenic steroids may impact on the cholesterol homeostasis, i.e. via an increase of the HMGCR expression. Increasing knowledge and understanding of AAS induced side-effects is important in order to find measures for treatment and care of these abusers.

  3. Inverse association between serum total bilirubin levels and diabetic peripheral neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Sook; Lee, Sung Won; Mo, Eun Young; Moon, Sung Dae; Han, Je Ho

    2015-11-01

    Several studies have suggested that bilirubin, a potent innate antioxidant, plays a protective role against cardiovascular and microvascular disease. This study investigated the association between serum concentrations of total bilirubin (TB) and the presence of diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) in Korean diabetic patients. This cross-sectional study involved 1207 patients aged more than 30 years with type 2 diabetes. DPN was assessed according to clinical symptoms and physical examinations using Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument examination score, 10-g monofilament sensation, and current perception threshold. The subjects were stratified into gender-specific tertiles based on TB values, and the relationship between the TB values and DPN was analyzed. Compared with patients within the lowest TB tertile, those with higher TB levels consisted of patients with shorter duration of diabetes, lower HbA1c, better renal function, and less autonomic neuropathy, retinopathy, and albuminuria. Serum TB levels were inversely associated with DPN. In multivariate analysis for the development of DPN after adjusting for potential confounding factors including retinopathy, albuminuria, and autonomic neuropathy, the TB levels were inversely associated with the presence of DPN, both as a continuous variable [odds ratio (OR) per log standard deviation (SD) 0.79; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.65-0.97; P = 0.022] and when categorized in tertiles (the highest vs. the lowest tertile; OR 0.63; 95 % CI 0.40-0.99; P = 0.046). Low serum bilirubin levels are significantly associated with DPN, independently of classic risk factors and other microvascular complications. Further investigation is necessary to determine whether serum bilirubin has a prognostic significance on DPN. PMID:25846483

  4. Evaluation of the petrifilm plate method for the enumeration of aerobic microorganisms and coliforms in retailed meat samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y H; Seo, K S; Ahn, J S; Yoo, H S; Kim, S P

    2001-11-01

    This study was designed to compare the effectiveness and applicability of the Petrifilm plate method with the Association of Official Analytical Chemists' (AOAC) standard aerobic count method and violet red bile agar method for meat products. The comparison was carried out using 303 meat samples collected from various retailers: 110 pork samples, 87 chicken samples, and 107 beef samples. In the comparison of the correlation coefficient (R) between the conventional method and the Petrifilm plate method by a linear regression analysis, the correlation coefficient in total microorganisms was 0.99, 0.95, and 0.94 in pork, beef, and chicken samples, respectively. The correlation coefficient in coliform count was 0.83, 0.96, and 0.81 in pork, beef, and chicken samples, respectively. Based on the high correlation in the total microorganism count, it might be possible to replace the conventional methods with the Petrifilm plate method. For coliform counts, the Petrifilm plate method also showed a generally high correlation coefficient, except for pork samples, which are more subject to contamination. The Petrifilm plate method was simpler and less time-consuming in sample preparation and, in procedures, faster than the conventional method. These results suggested that the 3M Petrifilm plate method could replace the conventional methods in the analysis of microorganism contamination measurement in meat products. PMID:11726171

  5. Influence of thymol and a urease inhibitor on coliform bacteria, odor, urea, and methane from a swine production manure pit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varel, Vincent H; Wells, James E

    2007-01-01

    Pathogens, ammonia, odor, and greenhouse gas emissions are serious environmental concerns associated with swine production. This study was conducted in two manure pits (33,000 L each) to determine the influence of 1.5 or 3.0 g thymol L(-1) and 80 mg L(-1) urease inhibitor amendments on urea accumulation, coliform bacteria, odor, and methane emission. Each experiment lasted 18 or 19 d, during which time 30 to 36 250-mL samples (six per day) were withdrawn from underneath each pit and analyzed for urea, thymol, volatile fatty acids, coliform bacteria, and Campylobacter. At the end of each experiment, six 50-g samples from each pit were placed in serum bottles, and gas volume and composition were determined periodically for 28 d. Compared with the control pit, volatile fatty acids production was reduced 64 and 100% for the thymol amendments of 1.5 and 3.0 g L(-1), respectively. Viable coliform cells were reduced 4.68 and 5.88 log10 colony-forming units kg(-1) of slurry for the 1.5 and 3.0 g thymol L(-1), respectively, and Escherichia coli were reduced 4.67 and 5.01 log10 colony-forming units kg(-1) of slurry, respectively. Campylobacter was not detected in the pits treated with thymol, in contrast to 63% of the samples being positive for the untreated pit. Urea accumulated in the treated pits from Day 3 to 6. Total gas production from serum bottles was reduced 65 and 76% for thymol amendments of 1.5 and 3.0 g L(-1), respectively, and methane was reduced 78 and 93%, respectively. These results suggest that thymol markedly reduces pathogens, odor, and greenhouse gas emissions from a swine production facility. The urease inhibitor produced a temporary response in conserving urea. PMID:17412912

  6. Spirulina platensis effects on the levels of total cholesterol, HDL and triacylglycerols in rabbits fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Maria Colla

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits by feeding them a high cholesterol diet (CD, 350 mg/d and the effects of supplementing this diet with 0.5 g/d Spirulina platensis was evaluated by measuring the levels of serum total-cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerols (TAG and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol at the start of the experiment and after 30 d and 60 d. It was found that the levels of serum cholesterol decreased from 1,054±101 mg.dL-1 in the rabbits fed a CD without S. platensis to 516±163 mg.dL-1 to those fed with a high cholesterol diet supplemented with S. platensis (significant at p A microalga Spirulina é cultivada e comercializada no mundo devido a suas características nutricionais (elevada concentração de proteínas, em torno de 65%, vitaminas e sais minerais e ao seu potencial terapêutico no tratamento de inúmeras doenças, inclusive a hipercolesterolemia. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a inibição da hipercolesterolemia induzida em coelhos por uma dieta adicionada de colesterol (350 mg.d-1, pela suplementação de 0,5 g.dia-1 de biomassa de Spirulina platensis, sendo avaliados os níveis de colesterol total, triglicerídeos e HDL nos tempos de 0 d, 30 d e 60 d de tratamento. Os resultados indicaram que a adição de Spirulina platensis na dieta ocasionou decréscimo nos níveis de colesterol total de 1054±101 mg.dL-1 para 516±163 mg.dL-1 (p<0,0001, para os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica em comparação com os que receberam a dieta adicionada de Spirulina platensis. A adição de Spirulina a dieta colesterolêmica não ocasionou decréscimo significativo nos níveis de triglicerídios dos coelhos. Os valores de HDL aumentaram de 73±31 mg.dL-1 para 91,0±15,7 mg.dL-1, comparando-se os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica e os alimentados com a dieta adicionada de Spirulina, estatisticamente diferentes a um nível de significância maior que 0,1533.

  7. The organic contamination level based on the total soil mass is not a proper index of the soil contamination intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of organic contaminants in common productive soils based on the total soil mass give a misleading account of actual contamination effects. This is attributed to the fact that productive soils are essentially water-saturated, with the result that the soil uptake of organic compounds occurs principally by partition into the soil organic matter (SOM). This report illustrates that the soil contamination intensity of a compound is governed by the concentration in the SOM (Com) rather than by the concentration in whole soil (Cs). Supporting data consist of the measured levels and toxicities of many pesticides in soils of widely differing SOM contents and the related levels in in-situ crops that defy explanation by the Cs values. This SOM-based index is timely needed for evaluating the contamination effects of food crops grown in different soils and for establishing a dependable priority ranking for intended remediation of numerous contamination sites. - The concentration of an organic compound in soil based on the entire soil mass is not a proper measure of its contamination intensity.

  8. Estimation of total and bioaccessible levels of iodine in edible seaweeds of Japan by epithermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edible seaweeds play important roles as daily source of minerals and dietary fibers for Japanese population groups. It is therefore of interest to estimate the intake of minerals and dietary fibers from seaweeds. Although the levels of iodine can be measured by ICP-MS in liquid samples such as urine and water, it is rather difficult to do the same in seaweeds due to polysaccharides in them. In this study, the following eight edible seaweeds were collected from local shores or purchased from stores. Sea mustard is the most popular edible seaweed in Japan; it starts growing quickly in January until it reaches a height of about 2 m in March. Sea mustards in different growing stages were collected, cut into several longitudinal pieces, freeze dried, and pulverized. Dietary fiber was separated from dried powder by in vitro enzymolysis using α-Amylase, protease, and amyloglucosidase. Portions of dried powder and dietary fiber were irradiated for 1-5 min at the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 Reactor (DUSR) in Canada or the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) in Japan. After appropriate cooling time, the 442.9-keV gamma-ray of 128I was used to assay iodine by epithermal instrumental neutron activation analysis (EINAA). Total and bioaccesible iodine levels in eight edible seaweeds are shown

  9. Removal of N, P, BOD5, and coliform in pilot-scale constructed wetland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Guang; Kelley, Tim; Freeman, Mike; Callahan, Mike

    2002-01-01

    Pilot-scale surface-flow (SF), subsurface-flow (SSF), and floating aquatic plant (FAP) constructed wetland system designs were installed and evaluated to determine the effectiveness of constructed wetlands to treat tertiary effluent wastewater in a Midwestern U.S. climate (central Illinois). Average ammonia-nitrogen (N) concentrations decreased approximately 50% in the SSF system design, suggesting that this design had the highest nitrification rate. Nitrate-N concentrations decreased by over 60% in the FAP system design, possibly due to dissimilatory reduction or plant uptake. Total phosphorus (P) concentration reductions of 25 to 40% were observed in all three system designs. Five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and dissolved oxygen (DO) results suggested that biodegradation was highest in the SSF system design and lowest in the FAP system design. Greater than 90% concentration reductions of total coliform and E. coli recovered were also observed following treatment in all three system designs. The FAP system design appeared to yield the highest concentration reduction efficiency for E. coli, possibly due to increased sunlight and related bacteriocidal ultraviolet light exposure. Ongoing experiments will test regularly for a variety of vegetative, water quality, and biological conditions for longer time periods in order to gain a better understanding of the pilot constructed wetland system design kinetics. PMID:12655806

  10. Total diet study on pesticide residues in France: levels in food as consumed and chronic dietary risk to consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nougadère, Alexandre; Sirot, Véronique; Kadar, Ali; Fastier, Antony; Truchot, Eric; Vergnet, Claude; Hommet, Frédéric; Baylé, Joëlle; Gros, Philippe; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2012-09-15

    Chronic dietary exposure to pesticide residues was assessed for the French population using a total diet study (TDS) to take into account realistic levels in foods as consumed at home (table-ready). Three hundred and twenty-five pesticides and their transformation products, grouped into 283 pesticides according to their residue definition, were sought in 1235 composite samples corresponding to 194 individual food items that cover 90% of the adult and child diet. To make up the composite samples, about 19,000 food products were bought during different seasons from 2007 to 2009 in 36 French cities and prepared according to the food preparation practices recorded in the individual and national consumption survey (INCA2). The results showed that 37% of the samples contained one or more residues. Seventy-three pesticides were detected and 55 quantified at levels ranging from 0.003 to 8.7mg/kg. The most frequently detected pesticides, identified as monitoring priorities in 2006, were the post-harvest insecticides pirimiphos-methyl and chlorpyrifos-methyl-particularly in wheat-based products-together with chlorpyrifos, iprodione, carbendazim and imazalil, mainly in fruit and fruit juices. Dietary intakes were estimated for each subject of INCA2 survey, under two contamination scenarios to handle left-censored data: lower-bound scenario (LB) where undetected results were set to zero, and upper-bound (UB) scenario where undetected results were set to the detection limit. For 90% of the pesticides, exposure levels were below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) under the two scenarios. Under the LB scenario, which tends to underestimate exposure levels, only dimethoate intakes exceeded the ADI for high level consumers of cherry (0.6% of children and 0.4% of adults). This pesticide, authorised in Europe, and its metabolite were detected in both cherries and endives. Under the UB scenario, that overestimates exposure, a chronic risk could not be excluded for nine other pesticides (dithiocarbamates, ethoprophos, carbofuran, diazinon, methamidophos, disulfoton, dieldrin, endrin and heptachlor). For these pesticides, more sensitive analyses of the main food contributors are needed in order to refine exposure assessment. PMID:22595191

  11. LISTERIA SPP., COLIFORMES TOTAIS E FECAIS E E.COLI NO LEITE CRU E PASTEURIZADO DE UMA INDÚSTRIA DE LATICÍNIOS, NO ESTADO DA PARAÍBA (BRASIL)

    OpenAIRE

    Raïssa Mayer Ramalho CATÃO; Beatriz Susana Ovruski de CEBALLOS

    2001-01-01

    Investigou-se a qualidade microbiológica do leite in natura e na linha de produção (leite recém-pasteurizado e leite ensacado), de uma usina de beneficiamento em Campina Grande-PB. Foi pesquisada a presença de Listeria spp. e sua diversidade de espécies, os níveis de coliformes totais (CT), coliformes fecais (CF) e Escherichia coli. Analisou-se um total de 75 amostras de leite, sendo 45 de leite cru, 15 de leite recém-pasteurizado e 15 de leite ensacado. Os resultados foram reunidos em dois g...

  12. Area-level socioeconomic context, total mortality and cause-specific mortality in Spain: Heterogeneous findings depending on the level of geographic aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regidor, Enrique; Vallejo, Fernando; Reques, Laura; Cea, Lucía; Miqueleiz, Estrella; Barrio, Gregorio

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the association between area-level socioeconomic context and mortality in Spain, using two different geographic aggregations. Nation-wide prospective study covering all persons living in Spain in 2001. Mortality was analysed in Spanish citizens by province of residence and in citizens of Madrid by neighbourhood of residence. Provinces and neighbourhoods were grouped into quartiles according to two socioeconomic indicators: percentage of the population with university education and unemployment rate. The measure of association was the rate ratio for total mortality and cause-specific mortality, by each socioeconomic indicator in two age groups, 25-64 years (adult population) and 65 years and over (elderly population). After adjustment for all individual socioeconomic variables, the rate ratio for total mortality among residents in the provinces with the worst versus best socioeconomic context was 0.92 (95% CI 0.88-0.97) when the indicator was percentage of university population and 0.89 (0.85-0.93) when it was unemployment rate in the adult population, and 1.05 (1.00-1.11) and 1.08 (1.03-1.13), respectively, in the elderly population. No significant differences in mortality were observed between adults residing in neighbourhoods with the worst versus best socioeconomic context, but in the elderly population the mortality rate ratios for the two socioeconomic indicators were 1.04 (1.01-1.07) and 1.06 (1.03-1.09), respectively. Residents in provinces with the worst socioeconomic context had the lowest mortality from cancer and external causes and the highest mortality from cardiovascular diseases, while residents in neighbourhoods with the worst socioeconomic context had the highest mortality from respiratory and digestive diseases. Further research should find out the reasons for the lower total mortality in adult population residing in the Spanish provinces with the most adverse socioeconomic context and the reasons for excess mortality from digestive diseases and respiratory diseases among residents in neighbourhoods with the worst socioeconomic context. PMID:26277775

  13. Segmentation and Analysis of Corpus Callosum in Alzheimer MR Images using Total Variation Based Diffusion Filter and Level Set Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandh, K R; Sujatha, C M; Ramakrishnan, S

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer?s Disease (AD) is a common form of dementia that affects gray and white matter structures of brain. Manifestation of AD leads to cognitive deficits such as memory impairment problems, ability to think and difficulties in performing day to day activities. Although the etiology of this disease is unclear, imaging biomarkers are highly useful in the early diagnosis of AD. Magnetic resonance imaging is an indispensible non-invasive imaging modality that reflects both the geometry and pathology of the brain. Corpus Callosum (CC) is the largest white matter structure as well as the main inter-hemispheric fiber connection that undergoes regional alterations due to AD. Therefore, segmentation and feature extraction are predominantly essential to characterize the CC atrophy. In this work, an attempt has been made to segment CC using edge based level set method. Prior to segmentation, the images are pre-processed using Total Variation (TV) based diffusion filtering to enhance the edge information. Shape based geometric features are extracted from the segmented CC images to analyze the CC atrophy. Results show that the edge based level set method is able to segment CC in both the normal and AD images. TV based diffusion filtering has performed uniform region specific smoothing thereby preserving the texture and small scale details of the image. Consequently, the edge map of CC in both the normal and AD are apparently sharp and distinct with continuous boundaries. This facilitates the final contour to correctly segment CC from the nearby structures. The extracted geometric features such as area, perimeter and minor axis are found to have the percentage difference of 5.97%, 22.22% and 9.52% respectively in the demarcation of AD subjects. As callosal atrophy is significant in the diagnosis of AD, this study seems to be clinically useful. PMID:25996739

  14. Effect of dark chocolate on plasma epicatechin levels, DNA resistance to oxidative stress and total antioxidant activity in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadafranca, A; Martinez Conesa, C; Sirini, S; Testolin, G

    2010-04-01

    Dark chocolate (DC) may be cardioprotective by antioxidant properties of flavonoids. We investigated the effect of DC (860 mg polyphenols, of which 58 mg epicatechin) compared with white chocolate (WC; 5 mg polyphenols, undetectable epicatechin) on plasma epicatechin levels, mononuclear blood cells (MNBC) DNA damage and plasma total antioxidant activity (TAA). Twenty healthy subjects followed a balanced diet (55 % of energy from carbohydrates, 30 % from fat and 1 g protein/kg body weight) for 4 weeks. Since the 14th day until the 27th day, they introduced daily 45 g of either WC (n 10) or DC (n 10). Whole experimental period was standardised in antioxidant intake. Blood samples were collected at T(0), after 2 weeks (T(14)), 2 h and 22 h after the first chocolate intake (T(14+2 h) and T(14+22 h)), and at 27th day, before chocolate intake (T(27)), 2 h and 22 h after (T(27+2 h) and T(27+22 h)). Samples, except for T(14+2 h) and T(27+2 h), were fasting collected. Detectable epicatechin levels were observed exclusively 2 h after DC intake (T(14+2 h) = 0.362 (se 0.052) micromol/l and T(27+2 h) = 0.369 (se 0.041) micromol/l); at the same times corresponded lower MNBC DNA damages (T(14+2 h) = - 19.4 (se 3.4) % v. T(14), P < 0.05; T(27+2 h) = - 24 (se 7.4) % v. T(27), P < 0.05; T(14+2 h) v. T(27+2 h), P = 0.7). Both effects were no longer evident after 22 h. No effect was observed on TAA. WC did not affect any variable. DC may transiently improve DNA resistance to oxidative stress, probably for flavonoid kinetics. PMID:19889244

  15. Correlation between plasma total nitric oxide levels and cerebral vasospasm and clinical outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage in Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruthi Shimoga Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Cerebral vasospasm remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH. Reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide has been associated with the development of cerebral vasospasm after aSAH. Such data is not available in Indian population. Aims: The objective of the study was to measure the plasma total nitric oxide (nitrite and nitrate-NOx level in aSAH patients and healthy controls treated at a tertiary hospital in India and to investigate a possible association between plasma total nitric oxide level and cerebral vasospasm and clinical outcome following treatment in patients with aSAH. Settings and Design: A case-control study of aSAH patients was conducted. Plasma total NOx levels were estimated in aSAH patients with and without vasospasm and compared the results with NOx levels in healthy individuals. Materials and Methods: aSAH in patients was diagnosed on the basis of clinical and neuro-imaging findings. Plasma total NOx levels in different subject groups were determined by Griess assay. Results: Plasma total NOx level was found to be significantly decreased in patients with aSAH when compared to controls. Plasma total NOx level in the poor-grade SAH group was lower than that in the good-grade SAH group. Plasma total NOx level further reduced in patients with angiographic (P < 0.05 and clinical vasospasm. Conclusions: Reduced plasma NOx level is seen in aSAH patients as compared to normal individuals. In aSAH patients reduced levels are associated with increased incidence of cerebral vasospasm and poor outcome. Plasma total NOx level could be used as a candidate biomarker for predicting vasospasm and outcome for this pathology.

  16. Serum Levels Of Free And Total Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF)-1 And IGF Binding Protein-3 In Normal And Growth Hormone Deficient Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) reflect the endogenous GH secretion in healthy children, which makes them good diagnostic markers for screening growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in short children, although some controversy still exists. Only a minor fraction of the total IGF-1 circulates in its free form, which is believed to be the biologically active form. Serum levels of free IGF-1, total IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured in 144 healthy children (72 boys and 72 girls, aged from 0 to 16 years) and in 12 pre-pubertal GH deficient (GHD) children to study the correlation between the age and free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels. In healthy subjects (both sexes), serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were low in infancy, increasing during puberty and declining thereafter. Free IGF-1 in serum occupied about 0.97-1.45 % of the total IGF-1 values, and the ratios of free IGF-1 to total IGF-1 were significantly increased in the pubertal age groups than in the pre-pubertal age groups. Serum levels of free IGF-1 showed significant positive correlation with those of total IGF-I and IGFBP-3. Serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in patients with GHD were decreased significantly with increasing the degree of hypopituitarism. These observations suggest that the increase in serum free IGF-1 level during puberty was caused by a dramatic increase in total IGF-1 rather than IGFBP-3. Also, high levels of these hormones may play an important role in pubertal growth spurt and may become a useful tool for diagnosing GHD and predicting growth response to long term GH therapy

  17. Serum levels of free and total insulin-link growth factor (IGF)-1 and (IGF) binding protein-3 in normal and growth hormone deficient children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor- 1 (IGF-1) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) reflect endogenous GH secretion in healthy children, which makes them good diagnostic markers for screening GH deficiency (GHD) in short children, although some controversy still exists. Only a minor fraction of the total IGF-1 circulates in its free form, which is believed to be the biologically active form. Serum levels of free IGF-1, total IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured in 144 healthy children (72 boys and 72 girls, aged from 0 to 16 years) and in 12 prepubertal GH. deficient (GHD) children to study correlation between the age and free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels. In healthy subjects (both sexes), serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were low in infancy, increasing during puberty and declining thereafter. Free IGF-1 in serum occupied about 0.97. 1.45 % of the total IGF-1 values, and the ratios of free IGF-1 to total IGF-1 were significantly increased in the pubertal age groups than in the prepubertal age groups. Serum levels of free IGF-1 showed significant positive correlation with those of total IGF-I and IGFBP-3. Serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in patients with GHD decreased significantly with increasing degree of hypopituitarism. These observations suggest that the increase in serum free IGF-1 level during puberty was caused by a dramatic increase in total IGF-1 rather than IGFBP-3. Also, high levels of these hormones may play an important role in pubertal growth spurt and may become a useful tool for diagnosing GHD and predicting growth response to long term GH therapy

  18. Selective detection and enumeration of fecal coliforms in water by potentiometric measurement of lipoic acid reduction.

    OpenAIRE

    Jouenne, T; Junter, G A; Charriere, G

    1985-01-01

    Water samples of various origins were inoculated into a specific coliform-selective lactose broth provided with lipoic (thioctic) acid, and the time evolution of the redox potential of the cultures was monitored during incubation at 41 degrees C by use of gold versus reference electrodes. Positive potential-time responses, i.e., 100-mV potential shifts recorded within 20 h of inoculation, were related to the initial number of fecal coliforms in the broth determined by control enumeration tech...

  19. Influence of sewage treatment and urbanization on selection of multiple resistance in fecal coliform populations.

    OpenAIRE

    BelL, J. B.; Elliott, G E; Smith, D. W.

    1983-01-01

    The fecal coliform populations found in the raw sewages and final sewage effluents of mechanical treatment plants, a long-term retention lagoon, shorter-term retention lagoons, a remote northern Canada river, and a heavily urbanized prairie river were examined for antibiotic resistance and the possession of R factors. It was determined that there was a decrease in the percentage of multiresistant fecal coliform populations in the mechanical sewage treatment plants and shorter-term retention l...

  20. Thermotolerant Coliforms Are Not a Good Surrogate for Campylobacter spp. in Environmental Water ?

    OpenAIRE

    St-Pierre, Karen; Lévesque, Simon; Frost, Eric; Carrier, Nathalie; Arbeit, Robert D; Michaud, Sophie

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the importance of quantitatively detecting Campylobacter spp. in environmental surface water. The prevalence and the quantity of Campylobacter spp., thermotolerant coliforms, and Escherichia coli in 2,471 samples collected weekly, over a 2-year period, from 13 rivers and 12 streams in the Eastern Townships, Québec, Canada, were determined. Overall, 1,071 (43%), 1,481 (60%), and 1,463 (59%) samples were positive for Campylobacter spp., thermotolerant coliforms, and E...

  1. Comparison of Coliforms and Coliphages as Tools for Assessment of Viral Contamination in River Water

    OpenAIRE

    Skraber, S.; Gassilloud, B.; Gantzer, C.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of pathogenic viruses in the Moselle River and to compare the usefulness of thermotolerant coliforms and somatic coliphages as tools for river water quality assessment in terms of viral contamination. Thermotolerant coliforms and somatic coliphages were enumerated by standardized methods in 170 samples of river water drawn from five sampling sites along the Moselle River (eastern France). BGM cell culture and integrated cell culture-reverse tr...

  2. Analytical notes - Electrochemical method for early detection and monitoring of coliforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, J. R.; Boykin, E. H.

    1976-01-01

    An electrochemical method for detecting bacteria, based on a linear relationship between inoculum size and the time of hydrogen evolution, was tested for the early detection and monitoring of coliforms in naturally contaminated estuarine and fresh water samples. Standard methods for coliform analysis were performed on each sample, and membrane filtration counts were used to construct dose-response curves; relationships and results are discussed herein.

  3. Diets formulated on total or digestible amino acid basis with different energy levels and physical form on broiler performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Maiorka

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of two different systems of expressing amino acid requirements (total - TAA or digestible - DAA, two energy levels (2,900 or 3,200 kcal of ME/kg and two physical forms (mash or pellet on the performance of male broilers from 21 to 42 d of age. Diets formulated on DAA basis improved feed conversion (p<0.001 and the conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001. Birds fed 3,200 kcal ME/kg presented better feed conversion (p<0.001, higher abdominal fat deposition (p<0.001 and worse conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001 as compared to birds fed 2,900 kcal ME/kg. Birds fed pelleted feed had higher feed intake (p<0.001, higher weight gain (p<0.001, better feed conversion (p<0.001, better conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001 and higher abdominal fat deposition (p<0.001. The results obtained in the present study suggest that feed formulation based on DAA is required when diets contain protein sources which amino acid digestibility is unreliable. Besides, pelleted feed improves performance parameters of broilers.

  4. [A combined chromogenic-fluorogenic medium for the simultaneous detection of coliform groups and E. coli in water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manafi, M; Kneifel, W

    1989-12-01

    A comparison was made with different chromogenic and fluorogenic substrates, 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG), 4-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucuronide (PNPG), 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (MUGA), 2-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG), 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside (X-GAL), for the rapid and simultaneous enumeration of total coliforms and E. coli in water samples, based on 2 commercially available culture-media. The combination of the chromogenic compound X-GAL (for detecting coliforms) and of the fluorogenic compound MUG (for detecting E. coli) incorporated either into ECD agar or into lauryl sulfate broth proved to be most useful. The optimum concentration of the X-GAL/MUG supplement was (50 micrograms/ml/70 micrograms/ml) for the solid medium (EMX agar) and (60 micrograms/ml/70 micrograms/ml) for the fluid medium (LMX broth). As a result of the examination of 244 Enterobacteriaceae strains isolated from water samples and clinical material, it was shown that the use of EMX agar (LMX broth) had several advantages over conventional methods. A routine method for the analysis of water samples was proposed involving the EMX agar and the LMX broth. PMID:2697207

  5. Fecal coliform management using a coupled hydrodynamics and water quality model for the river Ravi in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Fecal Coliform (FC) management framework is developed incorporating segmentation of river reaches, hydrodynamic and water quality models and FC management under critical winter low flow conditions for a highly polluted River Ravi. FC die-off rate in the river is determined from a field survey of a selected river reach. The travel time calculated with the help of a hydrodynamic model is 0.25 days in the selected reach. FC die-off rate (Kb) was found to be 1.2 day/sup -1/ at 20 degree C. Model calibration with monitoring data set reveals reasonable agreement of the simulation results with the measured field values under low flow conditions. Presently, the river is receiving raw wastewater and the simulation results shows very high fecal coliform levels up to 100 X 10/sup 6/ MPN/100mL in the river water. These levels are much higher than the required recreation and irrigation standards. Simulations are carried out to assess water quality for the future fecal pollution loads in year 2025 and the results reveal that up to 6 log reduction in FC is required at the wastewater out falls, whereas, 5 log reduction would be sufficient for surface drains to meet desired FC standards under low flow conditions. (author)

  6. Assessing levels of pathogenic contamination in a heavily impacted river used as a drinking-water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorner, Sarah; Huck, Peter; Slawson, Robin; Gaulin, Terri; Anderson, William

    This paper describes initial results from a research program that aims to gain greater understanding of sources of pathogens and the environmental factors that influence their survival and transport in watersheds. An additional goal is to enhance the ability to predict potential levels of pathogenic microorganisms arriving at drinking-water treatment plant intakes. The objectives will be supported by an intensive monitoring program examining the temporal and spatial variability of pathogens in a test watershed (the Grand River Watershed, Ontario). As many as 500,000 people potentially receive at least part of their drinking water from the Grand River. The watershed has significant urban and agricultural use. Sampling for total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Campylobacter spp. began in July 2002. Although presumptive tests were occasionally positive, no Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Campylobacter spp. were confirmed to be present in water samples taken. Escherichia coli O157:H7 was, however, detected in a tributary of the Grand River during an initial investigation. Preliminary results did not show any statistically significant differences between coliform concentrations upstream and downstream of wastewater treatment plants. Data suggest that nonpoint sources may have a greater effect on routine stream coliform concentrations. PMID:15371219

  7. Identifikasi Bakteri Coliform pada Air Kobokan di Rumah Makan Kelurahan Andalas Kecamatan Padang Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervan Arditya Kusuma

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Air kobokan merupakan media untuk cuci tangan yang banyak digunakan di rumah makan di  Kota Padang. Diare adalah penyakit yang ditularkan melalui air yang terkontaminasi oleh bakteri. Angka perkiraan kasus diare di Padang Timur merupakan yang tertinggi di Kota Padang. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui kualitas mikrobiologi air kobokan di rumah makan di Kelurahan Andalas Kecamatan Padang Timur. Sebanyak 21 sampel yang diambil dan dibagi sesuai dengan sumber airnya yaitu 12 sumber air PDAM dan 9 sumber air sumur bor. Penelitian ini dibagi dalam dua tahap, tahap pertama:  pengambilan sampel dan observasi faktor yang mempengaruhi kontaminasi. Kedua: uji bakteriologi dengan metode Most Propable Number (MPN yang meliputi uji penduga, uji konfirmasi dan uji lengkap.Seluruh sampel air kobokan mengandung bakteri coliform. Sebagian besar sampel tidak memenuhi syaratmikrobiologis sesuai dengan PERMENKES no 46 tahun 1990 dan hanya satu sampel yang berasal dari air PDAM memenuhi syarat mikrobiologis. Sampel yang berasal dari PDAM didapatkan 4 yang mengandung E.coli dan dari sumber sumur bor didapatkan 3 sampel mengandung E.coli dan lainnya mengandung bakteri lain seperti Klebsiella, Enterobacter dan Pseudomonas. Hal ini dipengaruhi oleh banyak faktor seperti kebersihan wadah, lokasi rumah makan dan lokasi sumur bor.Kata kunci: air kobokan, most propable number (MPN. Abstract Water is the common use for hand washing in restaurant in Padang city. The research was conducted at restaurant in Andalas, East Padang. Diarrhea is a disease transmitted through water contaminated by bacteria.Morbidity of diarrhea in East Padang is the highest in Padang. The objective of this study was to identify microbiological quality of water for cleaning hand at Restaurant in Andalas sub-district, East Padang district. Total 21 sampels were taken and divided according to the water source is 12 by PDAM and 9 from dug well. This research implemented in two steps: taking the water for cleaning hand sample and also observing factor affecting contamination of the water for cleaning hand, then bacteriologi inspection using Most Propable Number (MPN methods to presumptive test, confirmation test and complementary test. All of them sampel containing coliform bacteria. Almost of the sample unqualified according PERMENKES no 46 tahun 1990 and just only one sample from PDAM sourcequalified with microbiological requirement. Four sample from PDAM source contain E.coli bacteria and three sample from dug well contain E.coli bacteria too and the others contain another bacteria like Klebsiella, Enterobacter and Pseudomonas. It can be cause many factor like hygiene of container, restaurant location and dug well location.Keywords: water for cleaning hand, most propable number (MPN

  8. Survey of total and inorganic arsenic content in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) from Norwegian fiords: Revelation of unusual high levels of inorganic arsenic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Julshamn, Kåre

    2008-01-01

    The present study reports the findings of unusual high levels of inorganic arsenic in samples of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). A total of 175 pooled samples of blue mussels from various locations along the Norwegian coastline were analyzed for their content of total arsenic and inorganic arsenic. Total arsenic was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) following microwave-assisted acidic digestion of the samples. Inorganic arsenic was determined using an anion-...

  9. Microbiological Quality of Ready-to-Eat Vegetables Collected in Mexico City: Occurrence of Aerobic-Mesophilic Bacteria, Fecal Coliforms, and Potentially Pathogenic Nontuberculous Mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerna-Cortes, Jorge Francisco; Leon-Montes, Nancy; Cortes-Cueto, Ana Laura; Salas-Rangel, Laura P; Helguera-Repetto, Addy Cecilia; Lopez-Hernandez, Daniel; Rivera-Gutierrez, Sandra; Fernandez-Rendon, Elizabeth; Gonzalez-y-Merchand, Jorge Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the microbiological quality and the occurrence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in a variety of salads and sprouts from supermarkets and street vendors in Mexico City. Aerobic-mesophilic bacteria (AMB) were present in 100% of RTE-salads samples; 59% of samples were outside guidelines range (>5.17 log10 CFU per g). Although fecal coliforms (FC) were present in 32% of samples, only 8% of them exceeded the permissible limit (100?MPN/g). Regarding the 100 RTE-sprouts, all samples were also positive for AMB and total coliforms (TC) and 69% for FC. Seven NTM species were recovered from 7 salad samples; they included three M. fortuitum, two M. chelonae, one M. mucogenicum, and one M. sp. Twelve RTE-sprouts samples harbored NTM, which were identified as M. porcinum (five), M. abscessus (two), M. gordonae (two), M. mucogenicum (two), and M. avium complex (one). Most RTE-salads and RTE-sprouts had unsatisfactory microbiological quality and some harbored NTM associated with illness. No correlation between the presence of coliforms and NTM was found. Overall, these results suggest that RTE-salads and RTE-sprouts might function as vehicles for NTM transmission in humans; hence, proper handling and treatment before consumption of such products might be recommendable. PMID:25918721

  10. Serum testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin and total calcium levels predict the calcaneal speed of sound in men

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kok-Yong, Chin; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman; Isa Naina, Mohamed; Wan Zurinah Wan, Ngah.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Variations in sex hormones and the calcium balance can influence bone health in men. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between the calcaneal speed of sound and biochemical determinants of bone mass, such as sex hormones, parathyroid hormones and serum calcium. METHODS: [...] Data from 549 subjects from the Malaysian Aging Male Study, which included Malay and Chinese men aged 20 years and older residing in the Klang Valley, were used for analysis. The subjects' calcaneal speed of sound was measured, and their blood was collected for biochemical analysis. Two sets of multiple regression models were generated for the total/bioavailable testosterone and estradiol to avoid multicollinearity. RESULTS: The multiple regression results revealed that bioavailable testosterone and serum total calcium were significant predictors of the calcaneal speed of sound in the adjusted model. After adjustment for ethnicity and body mass index, only bioavailable testosterone remained significant; the total serum calcium was marginally insignificant. In a separate model, the total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin were significant predictors, whereas the total serum calcium was marginally insignificant. After adjustment for ethnicity and body mass index (BMI), the significance persisted for total testosterone and SHBG. After further adjustment for age, none of the serum biochemical determinants was a significant predictor of the calcaneal speed of sound. CONCLUSION: There is a significant age-dependent relationship between the calcaneal speed of sound and total testosterone, bioavailable testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in Chinese and Malay men in Malaysia. The relationship between total serum calcium and calcaneal speed of sound is ethnicity-dependent.

  11. Occurrence of coliforms in water samples of the Perequê and Penedo Rivers in Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilma Hiroko Higuti

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The Perequê and Penedo rivers flow through the plains of Praia de Leste and fall into the sea between the municipalities of Pontal do Sul and Ponta do Poço. Both of these rivers belong to the sub-basin of Paranaguá Bay, and are constituent parts of the hydrographic basin of the Atlantic Ocean (State of Paraná. Four sites along the Perequê River (Stations 1-4 and one along the Penedo River (Station 5 were monitorated for water pollution over a 12-month period. During the period of December 1995 to November 1996, three water samples were collected from each site, placed in sterilized bottles and transported to the laboratory in ice-boxes. They were analyzed for the occurrence of total and fecal coliforms, temperature and pH. Fecal pollution was detected throughout the period of study. Coliform contamination was smaller in Station 1 and 5 than in any other sites, probably due to lesser influence from urbanized areas. Water at Station 4 was strongly contaminated due to its close proximity to a sewage canal. This study demonstrated that the Pequerê and Penedo rivers, freshwater shrimps habitats, were heavily contaminated with fecal indicator bacteria, and this occurrence was not related with temperature or pH.Os rios Perequê e Penedo têm suas fontes na planície de Praia Leste e fluem para o mar entre os municípios de Pontal do Sul e Ponta do Poço. Ambos pertencem à sub-bacia da Baía de Paranaguá e são partes da bacia hidrográfica do Oceano Atlântico (Estado do Paraná. Foram selecionados quatro sítios ao longo do Rio Perequê (Estações 1-4 e um no Rio Penedo (Estação 5 para monitorar a poluição de água em um período de 12 meses. Durante o período de dezembro de 1995 e novembro de 1996, foram coletadas de cada local, 3 amostras de 100 ml água em frascos esterilizados e transportadas para o laboratório em caixas com gelo. Foram analisadas a ocorrência de coliformes totais (TC e fecais (FC, temperatura e pH. A contaminação de coliformes foi menor nos sítios 1 e 5 do que em outros locais, provavelmente por causa da menor influência de áreas urbanizadas. A água na estação 4 estava fortemente contaminada por causa de sua proximidade a um canal de esgoto. Este estudo demonstrou que a água dos rios Pequerê e Penedo, "habitats" para várias espécies de camarões de água doce, estão contaminados com coliformes totais e fecais, e esta ocorrência não está relacionada com a temperatura ou pH.

  12. Combined Effect of heat stress and radiation exposure on levels of testosterone lactate dehydrogenase, total lipids and cholesterol in blood plasma and testicular tissue of male albino rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyperthermia and radiotherapy are used as relatively successful modalities in the treatment of some diseases. This work aims to gain a better understanding about the testicular physiological changes caused by a combined stress of heat and gamma radiation. Rats were divided into four groups : 1.Control, 2.Irradiated at a dose level 6 Gy, 3.Exposed to heat tress for one, 3, 5 and 7 days and group 4 exposed to heat tress as group 3 followed by irradiation directly at the end of heat treatment. Plasma levels of testosterone, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total lipids and total cholesterol, as well as, testicular content of total lipids and total cholesterol were detected. Results showed that irradiation (6 Gy) induced significant decreases (P<0.001) in plasma testosterone level, whereas, it elevated significantly the plasma levels of LDH activity and total cholesterol. The heat stress caused significant declines in plasma testosterone , LDH (after 1, 3 and 5 days) and total lipids, but not testicular content of total lipids. Conversely, it increased the rectal temperature and both, plasma and testicular tissue content of total cholesterol levels. The whole-body gamma irradiation direcrly post heat stress intervals boosted the heat stress effect on all the examined parameters. Hence it could be concluded that exposure to whole-body gamma irradiation in high ambient temperatures diminished the testicular function by decreasing the sexual hormone testosterone although its precursor cholesterol increased in both plasma and testicular tissue. This combined treatment seemed to block the mechanism of testosterone formation in testicular tissue, and in turn, decresed its levels in plasma. Further investigations are needed to study such combined effect of heat stress andirradiation on the testicular potency and the testicular function

  13. Failure of the most-probable-number technique to detect coliforms in drinking water and raw water supplies.

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, T. M.; Waarvick, C E; Seidler, R J; LeChevallier, M. W.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure was developed to detect false-negative reactions (interference) in the standard most-probable-number (S-MPN) technique for coliform enumeration of untreated surface water and potable water supplies. This modified MPN (M-MPN) procedure allowed a quantitative assessment of the interference with coliform detection in untreated surface water and potable water supplies. Coliform interference was found to occur in the presumptive, confirmed, and completed tests of the S-MPN technique. W...

  14. Effect of growth conditions and substratum composition on the persistence of coliforms in mixed-population biofilms.

    OpenAIRE

    Camper, A.K.; Jones, W. L.; Hayes, J T

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory reactors operated under oligotrophic conditions were used to evaluate the importance of initial growth rate and substratum composition on the long-term persistence of coliforms in mixed-population biofilms. The inoculum growth rate had a dramatic effect on the ability of coliforms to remain on surfaces. The most slowly grown coliforms (mu = 0.05/h) survived at the highest cell concentration. Antibody staining revealed that Klebsiella pneumoniae existed primarily as discrete microco...

  15. Enrichment of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) with functional selenium originating from garlic: effect of enrichment period and depuration on total selenium level and sensory properties

    OpenAIRE

    Schram, E.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.; Heul, J.W., van der; Luten, J B

    2010-01-01

    We wanted to optimize the procedure for the selenium enrichment of farmed African catfish, using garlic as dietary selenium source. In the first experiment we established the relation between the length of the selenium enrichment period and the resulting total selenium level in the fillet of the fish. It was found that at a dietary level of 11.7 mg kg?1 Se, a total selenium level in the fillet of 0.7 mg kg?1 was reached in a relatively short enrichment period of 10 days before harvest. In the...

  16. The Relationship Between Serum Levels of Total IgE, IL-18, IL-12, IFN- ? and Disease Severity in Children With Atopic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies about the role of cytokines on the immunopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD are generally based on in vitro observations and this role has not been completely clarified yet. Serum levels of total IgE, IL-18, IL-12, IFN- ? and the relationship between these parameters and disease severity, determined using the SCORAD index, in a group of atopic patients were investigated in this study. Serum levels of total IgE were measured by the nephelometric method and serum levels of IL-18, IL-12/p40 and IFN- ? were measured by ELISA method. Serum levels of total IgE and IL-18 were found significantly higher in study group than in controls ( p<.001 . There was no statistically significant difference between patients and controls in respect of serum levels of IL-12/p40 ( p=.227 . A statistically significant relationship between SCORAD values and serum levels of total IgE ( p<.001 , IL-18 ( p<.001 , and IL-12/p40 ( p<.001 was determined. These results show that serum levels of IL-18 can be a sensitive parameter that importantly correlates with clinical severity of AD, can play a role in the immunopathogenesis of AD, and furthermore may be used in the diagnosis and follow-up of the disease in addition to other parameters.

  17. Pré-resfriamento na redução de coliformes em carcaças de frango de corte / Immersion chilling in fecal coliforms count reduction on broiler carcasses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanessa Silva, Simas; Felipe Faccini dos, Santos; Raquel, Gouvêa; Maria Helena Cosendey de, Aquino; Dayse Lima da Costa, Abreu; Elmiro Rosendo do, Nascimento; Virginia Léo de Almeida, Pereira.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar a análise individual (plano de duas classes) e a análise por lotes (plano de três classes), priorizado pelo plano amostragem oficial da ANVISA, na influência do pré-resfriamento de carcaças de frangos de corte na redução da contaminação por coliformes termotole [...] rantes. Foram analisadas 240 carcaças de frangos de corte, sendo coletadas 120 amostras antes e 120 após a etapa de pré-resfriamento, para quantificação de coliformes termotolerantes pela técnica de contagem em placas. As médias das contagens obtidas das carcaças coletadas antes e após o pré-resfriamento foram diferentes, com uma redução média de 0,99log10 UFC g-1 de coliformes termotolerantes. Na interpretação dos resultados obtidos antes do pré-resfriamento pela análise individual, 16,7% (20/120) das carcaças foram classificadas como inaceitáveis, enquanto, pela análise por lotes, foram 37,5% (45/120). Houve associação entre a aceitabilidade dos lotes e a passagem pelo chiller com um valor de Odds Ratio de 35,48. Ficou demonstrada a importância da utilização do plano de análise por lotes e da etapa de pré-resfriamento no processo de produção, sendo decisivos para a aceitação dos lotes de carcaças de aves para comercialização pelos parâmetros vigentes na legislação nacional. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to assess the influence of immersion chilling on broiler carcasses contamination by fecal coliforms counting in a poultry slaughterhouse under Federal Sanitary Inspection by individual and three class plan interpretation of the results. Two hundred and forty broiler c [...] arcasses, being collected 120 before and 120 after passage thought chillers, were analyzed for coliform counting by plate count technique. The averages of the counts obtained from all carcasses collected before and after immersion chilling were different, with an average reduction of 0.99log10 CFU g-1 of fecal coliforms. Regarding individual results (two class plan) before chilling, 16.7% (20/120) of the carcasses were classified as unacceptable, against 37.5% (45/120) regarding lots results (three class plan). There was a strong association between the acceptability of lots and immersion chilling with an Odds Ratio value of 35.48. It was demonstrated the importance of the official sampling plan and immersion chilling in the production process, being decisive for the acceptance of the chicken carcass lots by the national legislation standards.

  18. Determinação do volume saturante de solução desinfetante em piso de chão batido de granja avícola em função da carga microbiana (coliformes e composição do solo Determination of saturant volume of disinfectant solution in floor soil ground of poultry farms in function of microbian load (coliforms and composition of the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Pilotto

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O piso de chão batido é utilizado na maioria das granjas avícolas brasileiras devido ao baixo custo em relação à construção de pisos concretados. A presença de matéria orgânica na superfície do solo dificulta sua desinfecção, devido à redução da ação antimicrobiana dos desinfetantes, sendo que os testes realizados in vitro para verificar a eficácia dos desinfetantes não contemplam as condições adversas encontradas em granjas avícolas. Assim, o presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a contaminação por coliformes totais e fecais através do número mais provável (NMP no piso de chão batido de uma granja avícola e definir o volume de solução desinfetante necessário para saturar uma determinada área conforme a composição físico-hídrica do solo. Foi detectada a presença de coliformes totais e fecais na profundidade de 0,5cm, com população média de 1100NMP g-1 e 460NMP g-1, respectivamente. O volume de solução desinfetante adequado para saturar 1m² a uma profundidade de 1cm em um piso de chão batido composto por solo argiloso, com baixa porosidade e boa compactação, foi de um litro.The floor soil ground is used in most of the Brazilian poultry farms due to the high cost of the construction of concreted floors. The presence of organic matter on the surface of the soil hinders its disinfection, due to the reduction of the antimicrobial action of disinfectants and the tests accomplished in vitro to verify the effectiveness of the disinfectants do not contemplate the adverse conditions found at poultry farms. Thus, the present work intended to determinate the volume of disinfectant solution required to be used on m² floor and the counting of total and fecal coliforms in floor soil ground. Presence of total and faecal coliforms was detected in the depth of 0.5cm with 1100NMP g-1 e 460NMP g-1, respective. The volume of disinfectant solution defined to saturate 1m² to 1cm of depth was of one liter.

  19. Nível sérico de IgE total em alergia respiratória: estudo em pacientes com alto risco de infecção por helmintos Total IgE level in respiratory allergy: study of patients at high risk for helminthic infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Décio Medeiros

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Eosinofilia e elevação de IgE sérica são expressões de atopia, contudo há fatores intervenientes como, por exemplo, as parasitoses intestinais. Esta pesquisa verifica a relação entre IgE sérica total, eosinófilos e IgE específica anti-áscaris em indivíduos portadores de asma e/ou rinite alérgica. MÉTODOS: Estudo do tipo transversal em adolescentes portadores de asma e/ou rinite alérgica que foram examinados quanto ao nível sérico de IgE total, de IgE anti-áscaris e de contagem dos eosinófilos sangüíneos. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 101 pacientes com idade entre 12 e 21 anos. A mediana da IgE foi 660 UI/mL (P25-75 243,5-1500, e a dos eosinófilos foi 510 células/mm³ (P25-75 284-811. A IgE anti-áscaris foi positiva em 73% (74/101 da amostra, mas houve apenas 33,7% (34/101 de positividade ao parasitológico de fezes. Os coeficientes de correlação encontrados foram: 0,34 (p = 0,001 entre IgE total e eosinófilos, 0,52 (p OBJECTIVE: Eosinophilia and increased serum IgE levels are indicators of atopy; however, other factors can also play a key role, such as intestinal parasitic infections. This study assesses the relationship between total serum IgE, eosinophil count, and anti-Ascaris IgE in individuals with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in adolescents with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis. The patients had their total serum IgE, anti-Ascaris IgE and eosinophil count measured. RESULTS: A total of 101 patients aged 12 to 21 years were assessed. Median IgE level was 660 IU/mL (P25-75 243.5-1500, and the eosinophil count corresponded to 510 cells/mm³ (P25-75 284-811. Anti-Ascaris IgE was positive in 73% (74/101 of the individuals, but parasitological stool examination yielded positive results in only 33.7% (34/101. The correlation coefficients were the following: 0.34 (p = 0.001 between total IgE level and eosinophil count, 0.52 (p < 0.001 between total IgE level and anti-Ascaris IgE, and 0.26 (p = 0.01 between eosinophil count and anti-Ascaris IgE. The final multiple linear regression model pointed out that anti-Ascaris IgE contributed to a total serum IgE level with a coefficient of determination (adjusted R² of 0.25 (F = 12.35; p < 0.001. This effect occurred regardless of eosinophil count and of the presence of intestinal helminthic infection. CONCLUSION: In patients with respiratory allergy and increased total serum IgE levels living in areas where there is a high risk for helminthic infections, the quantification of anti-Ascaris IgE can be more useful and more insightful than the parasitological stool examination.

  20. Circulating Levels of High Molecular Weight (HMW) Adiponectin and Total Adiponectin in Relation to Fat Distribution, Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Asian Indians

    OpenAIRE

    Indulekha, K.; Surendar, J.; R M Anjana; K. Gokulakrishnan; Balasubramanyam, M.; Aravindhan, V.; Mohan, V.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To look at the association of total and high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin with markers of fat distribution, oxidative stress and inflammation in Asian Indians.Methods: A total of 120 subjects were chosen randomly from Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiological Study. Fasting HMW adiponectin levels, TNF-alpha and oxidized LDL were measured using ELISA. High sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP) was measured by a high sensitive nephelometric assay. Lipid peroxidation was measured by Tbars ...

  1. [Changes in the levels of total and protein-bound hydroxyproline in the serum and urine of patients with cancer of the larynx after radiotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, J; Klatka, J; Klonowski, S

    1991-01-01

    The serum concentration of total and protein-bound hydroxyproline as well as urinary hydroxyproline excretion were measured in 52 laryngeal cancer patients before, during and after irradiation. The modified colorimetric method described by Prockop and Udenfriend was used. After irradiation the increased total hydroxyproline concentration and excretion were observed, whereas no changes in serum protein-bound hydroxyproline were stated. Any correlation between the results of therapy and serum/urinary hydroxyproline levels were observed. PMID:2052365

  2. Effects of Low-intensity Pulsed Ultrasound and Cryotherapy on Recovery of Joint Function and C-reactive Protein Levels in Patients after Total Knee Replacement Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Jeong Il; Kim, Yong-Nam; Choi, Hyun

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] We investigated the effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and cryotherapy on joint function recovery and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels of patients with total knee replacement. [Subjects] Forty-six patients with total knee replacement were recruited and allocated to either low-intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy (n=15), cryotherapy (n=15), or a combination of both (n=16). Therapy was administered once a day, 5 times a week for 3 weeks. To determine functional joint recovery and...

  3. COD, TSS, nutrients and coliforms removals in UASB reactors in two stages treating swine wastewater / Remoções de DQO, sólidos, nutrientes e coliformes em reatores UASB em dois estágios tratando água residuárias de suinocultura

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roseane Del& #39; Arco, Ramires; Roberto Alves de, Oliveira.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o desempenho de dois reatores anaeróbios de fluxo ascendente com manta de lodo (UASB) em escala-piloto (908 e 188 L), instalados em série (R1 e R2), para o tratamento de águas residuárias de suinocultura com concentrações médias de SST em torno de 5 e 13 g L-1. Os TDH foram de 36 e 18 h [...] com COV de 5,5 a 34,4 g DQO (L d)-1 no R1 e TDH de 7,5 e 3,7 h com COV de 5,1 a 45,2 g DQO (L d)-1 no R2. As eficiências médias de remoção de DQO variaram de 55 a 85% no R1 e de 43 a 57% no R2, resultando valores de 82 a 93% nos reatores UASB em dois estágios. As concentrações de metano no biogás foram de 69 a 74%, com produções de 0,05 a 0,27 L CH4 (g DQOremovida)-1 no R1 e de 0,10 a 0,12 L CH4 (g DQOremovida)-1 no R2. Os valores médios de eficiência de remoção de Ptotal foram de 61 a 75%; de NK de 39 a 69%; de Norg. de 82 a 93%, e de Fe, Zn, Cu e Mn de 20 a 94%. As concentrações de N-am. não foram reduzidas, indicando a necessidade de pós-tratamento para disposição do efluente em corpos d'água. Houve redução de coliformes totais de 99,8123 a 99,9989%, e de coliformes termotolerantes de 99,9725 a 99,9999%. As condições impostas aos reatores UASB em dois estágios propiciaram reduções acentuadas da carga poluidora orgânica e inorgânica das águas residuárias de suinocultura, com conversão de até 77% da DQO removida em metano. Abstract in english The performance of two upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors was evaluated in pilot scale (908 and 188 L), installed in series (R1 and R2), fed with swine wastewater with TSS around 5 and 13 g L-1. The UASB reactors were submitted to HDT of 36 and 18 h with VOL of 5.5 to 34.4 g COD (L d)-1 [...] in the R1 and HDT of 7.5 e 3.7 h with VOL from 5.1 to 45.2 g COD (L d)-1 in the R2. The average removal efficiencies of COD ranged from 55 to 85% in the R1 and from 43 to 57% in the R2, resulting in values from 82 to 93% in the UASB reactors in two stage. Methane concentrations in the biogas were 69 to 74% with specific production from 0.05 to 0.27 L CH4 (g removedCOD)-1 in the R1 and of 0.10 to 0.12 L CH4 (g removedCOD)-1 in the R2. The average removal efficiencies were 61 to 75% for totalP, 39 to 69% for KN, 82 to 93% for orgN and 20 to 94% for Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn. The amN concentration were not reduced indicating the need to post-treatment for effluent disposal into water bodies. There were reductions of total coliforms from 99.8123 to 99.9989% and of thermotolerant coliforms from 99.9725 to 99.9999%. The conditions imposed to the UASB reactors in two stage provided high conversions of removedCOD into methane (up to 77%) and reductions of organic an inorganic pollution loads from swine wastewater.

  4. Testable uniqueness conditions for empirical assessment of undersampling levels in total variation-regularized X-ray CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jakob Sauer; Kruschel, C.; Lorenz, D. A.

    2015-01-01

    We study recoverability in fan-beam computed tomography (CT) with sparsity and total variation priors: how many underdetermined linear measurements suffice for recovering images of given sparsity? Results from compressed sensing (CS) establish such conditions for example for random measurements, but not for CT. Recoverability is typically tested by checking whether a computed solution recovers the original. This approach cannot guarantee solution uniqueness and the recoverability decision theref...

  5. Significant correlations of dermal total carotenoids and dermal lycopene with their respective plasma levels in healthy adults

    OpenAIRE

    Scarmo, Stephanie; Cartmel, Brenda; Lin, HaiQun; Leffell, David J; Welch, Erin; Bhosale, Prakash; Bernstein, Paul S.; Mayne, Susan T.

    2010-01-01

    Carotenoids in skin have been known to play a role in photoprotection against UV radiation. We performed dermal biopsies of healthy humans (N=27) and collected blood samples for pair-wise correlation analyses of total and individual carotenoid content by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The hydrocarbon carotenoids (lycopene and beta-carotene) made up the majority of carotenoids in both skin and plasma, and skin was somewhat enriched in these carotenoids relative to plasma. Beta-...

  6. Isolamento e identificação de coliformes no queijo Minas comercializado na região metropolitana de Salvador - Bahia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. N. Martinez

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A estreita relação entre o consumo de leite e seus derivados e a melhoria da qualidade de vida é sistematicamente defendida por pesquisadores de todo mundo. O queijo é um importante derivado do leite, apreciado tanto pelo seu valor nutritivo como pelo seu sabor, que atende aos mais exigentes paladares. No entanto, as condições de processamento, armazenamento e comercialização podem comprometer suas características organolépticas, bem como torná-lo impróprio para o consumo, em virtude da contaminação por microrganismos responsáveis por toxinfecções alimentares. Foram realizadas seis coletas, perfazendo 24 ( 75% amostras de queijo Minas frescal analisadas de sete diferentes marcas, sendo oito (33,33 % representando a marca B, cinco (20,83 % a marca C, quatro (16,66 % a marca D, três (12,50 % a marca E, dois (8,33 % a marca F, uma (4,16 % a marca G e uma (4,16 % a marca H, enquanto foram coletadas e analisadas seis (25 % amostras de queijo Minas padrão, em três diferentes marcas perfazendo três (50 % amostras da marca A1, duas (33,33 da marca A2 e uma (16,66% da marca A3. De acordo com os resultados da análise de variância houve efeito significativo o que demonstra a baixa qualidade do queijo Minas frescal comercializado na região metropolitana de Salvador. PALAVRAS CHAVES: Queijo, qualidade, coliformes SUMMARY: The proximal relation between the milk and derivatives consume and advance of the live quality is defended by experts in worldwide. Cheese is na important derivative of the milk, appreciated for nutritive value and for your flavour, which attend at many palates exigent. However, conditions of manufactures, storage and commercialization can compromise your characteristics, caused for microorganisms responsible for contamination and toxin-infection alimentary. Six collect were accomplished, and total of 24 (75% samples of â?? Minas frescalâ? cheese analyzed of seven differents marks, eight (33,33% of the mark B, five (20,83% of the mark C, four (16,66% of the mark D, three (12,50% of the mark E, two (8.33% of the mark F, one (4,16% of the mark G and one (4,16% of the mark H, While were acomplished and analyzed six (25% samples of â?? Minas padrãoâ? cheese, of three differents marks and total three (50% samples of the mark A1, two (33,33% of the mark A2 and one (16,66% of the mark A3. According results of the analysis there were significant effects a which showed a low quality of â??Minas frescalâ? cheese commercialized in metropolitan area of Salvador /BA. KEYWORDS: Cheese,quality, coliformes

  7. Evaluation of some natural products on sugar beet contamined with coliform bacteria group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogéria Maria Alves de Almeida

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The sugar beet crop has great importance because its ability on sugar production that can be extracted and crystallized. The use of wastewater in the irrigation has increased because this water has some nutrients sources. However the use of wastewater may cause some health problems due to the presence of coliform bacteria group. In this trial, the objective was to contribute for the sugar beet decontamination. Some products as lemon juice, NaClO and ascetic acid were used by sugar beet immersion during a little time. In conclusion, the lemon juice showed best results by reducing coliform bacteria group.

  8. Evaluation of a rapid method for the quantitative estimation of coliforms in meat by impedimetric procedures.

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, S. B.; Selby, M J

    1980-01-01

    A 24-h instrumental procedure is described for the quantitative estimation of coliforms in ground meat. The method is simple and rapid, and it requires but a single sample dilution and four replicates. The data are recorded automatically and can be used to estimate coliforms in the range of 100 to 10,000 organisms per g. The procedure is an impedance detection time (IDT) method using a new medium, tested against 131 stock cultures, that markedly enhances the impedance response of gram-negativ...

  9. Effects of low voltage electrolysis and freezing on coliform content of contaminated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sewage sample was mixed with drinking water and subjected to low voltage (15V) electrolysis in the presence of 1% NaCl. The prepared sample was also kept in freezer with and without the presence of sodium chloride for 4-hours. Among these treatments the electrolysis proved to kill the coliforms, while the freezing reduced the bacterial content. Antibiotics sensitivity patterns revealed that certain of the coliform strains survived the freezing and thawing shocks. Nature of such surviving bacteria and need to study chemical parameters of electrolyzed water are discussed. (author)

  10. Avaliação da presença de coliformes, bolores e leveduras em amostras de mel orgânico de abelhas africanizadas das ilhas do alto rio Paraná Presence of coliforms, molds and yeasts in organic honey samples of Africanized honeybees from Paraná River islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloi Machado Alves

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido para caracterizar a microbiota do mel produzido nas ilhas Floresta e Laranjeira do alto rio Paraná, na região de Porto Brasílio, Paraná (PR. O mel foi coletado diretamente das melgueiras das colônias avaliadas, em três apiários distribuídos nas ilhas Floresta e Laranjeira. O período de coleta das amostras de mel foi de novembro de 2005 a fevereiro de 2006, perfazendo o total de 24 amostras de mel orgânico produzido por abelhas Apis mellifera africanizadas. Seguindo o método das normas internacionais da Compendium of Methods for the Microbiology Examination of Foods, os parâmetros analisados foram: presença de coliformes a 35°C e 45°C e quantificação de bolores e leveduras. Verificou-se que todas as amostras apresentaram-se em conformidade com o Regulamento Técnico MERCOSUL de Identidade e Qualidade do Mel (MERCOSUL/GMC/RES no 15/94. As amostras analisadas indicaram excelente qualidade microbiológica para o mel orgânico.This research was carried out to characterize the microbial flora of the organic honey produced in Paraná River islands. The honey was directly collected in the evaluated colonies, in three apiaries distributed at Floresta and Laranjeira Islands. The collection period was from November 2005 to February 2006. It was evaluated 24 organic honey samples produced by Africanized honeybees. Following the international standard Compendium method for the Microbiology Examination of Foods, the analyzed parameters used were: presence of coliforms at 35°C and 45°C, and molds and yeasts quantification. All samples were in conformity with the MERCOSUL Technical Regulation Identity and Quality for Honey (MERCOSUL/GMC/RES no. 15/94. The analyzed samples indicated excellent microbiologic honey quality.

  11. Effects of dietary crude protein levels on development, antioxidant status, and total midgut protease activity of honey bee (Apis mellifera ligustica)

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chengcheng; Xu, Baohua; Wang, Yuxi; Feng, Qianqian; Yang, Weiren

    2012-01-01

    The effects of different levels of dietary crude protein on the development, antioxidant enzymatic activity, and total midgut protease activity of honey bees were investigated in the study. A total of 30 colonies of bees with sister queens were used in the test. Dietary treatments were pure rape pollen (Control) and pollen substitutes (PS) with crude protein (CP) levels at 15%, 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35% (designated as PS15, PS20, PS25, PS30, and PS35), respectively. We compared the effects of th...

  12. Characteristic level total petroleum hydrocarbons is soil, sediment and surface water of an oil impacted area in the niger delta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil, bottom sediments and surface water were collected at several points in Abalagada-Aboh area in the Niger delta, Nigeria, that had previously received spilled crude oil. The samples were analyzed for total petroleum hydrocarbon contents. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations varied significantly among various environmental matrices. The concentrations ranged widely between 2.80-785.6 mg/kg, 2.84-804.74 mg/kg, 0.30-865.64 mg/kg and 0.03-22.99 mg/kg for surface water, sediments, topsoil and subsoil, respectively. The samples showed elevated concentrations of hydrocarbon when compared to the control site. (author)

  13. Detection of coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli by multiplex polymerase chain reaction: comparison with defined substrate and plating methods for water quality monitoring.

    OpenAIRE

    Bej, A.K.; McCarty, S C; Atlas, R. M.

    1991-01-01

    Multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and gene probe detection of target lacZ and uidA genes were used to detect total coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli, respectively, for determining water quality. In tests of environmental water samples, the lacZ PCR method gave results statistically equivalent to those of the plate count and defined substrate methods accepted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for water quality monitoring and the uidA PCR method was more sensitive than 4-...

  14. Influencing factors in the occurrence of injured coliforms in the drinking water distribution system in the city of La Plata, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Córdoba, Alejandra; Del Coco, V.; Minvielle, Marta Cecilia; Basualdo Farjat, Juan Ángel

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influencing factors in the occurrence of coliforms in the drinking water in La Plata (Argentina) from June 1999 to June 2001. A total of 180 samples were collected from Rio de La Plata (102 samples) and Puelche Aquifer (78 samples); 45 samples were collected for each of the four seasons. The membrane filter procedure was used for isolating bacteria, and each sample was tested for chlorine and pH. The highest percentage of samples positive for co...

  15. Association of MTHFR C677T with total homocysteine plasma levels and susceptibility to Parkinson's disease: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Zhu, Rui-Xia; He, Zhi-Yi; Liu, Xu; Liu, He-Nan

    2015-06-01

    The C677T single-nucleotide polymorphism in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) may elevate homocysteine (Hcy) levels and increase the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD); however, results are conflicting. Our aim was to resolve contradictions in the literature and to determine whether MTHFR C677T has a significant role in regulating Hcy levels and/or is a significant risk factor for PD. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, China Biological Medicine Database and Google Scholar were searched until May 2014. Strict selection and exclusion criteria were determined, and odds ratios (ORs)/weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of associations. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA 12.0. Fifteen studies that together assessed 2690 PD cases and 8465 controls were included. Meta-analysis showed that no significant difference in the distribution of MTHFR C677T between PD cases and controls was found. While stratifying for ethnicity, significant association was revealed in Europeans (T vs. C, OR = 1.17, 95 % CIs 1.04-1.31) but not in Asians. Significant association between the T allele and increased Hcy levels was found in PD cases and controls; Hcy levels were higher in PD cases and controls carrying the MTHFR T677 allele than in non-carriers (TT vs. CC, PD WMD = 6.50, 95 % CIs 6.20-6.80; controls WMD = 4.52, 95 % CIs 4.24-4.80). Other within-group comparisons showed similar results. This meta-analysis suggests that MTHFR C667T may confer PD susceptibility in Europeans. The T allele may be an independent risk factor for elevated Hcy levels in PD patients. PMID:25564416

  16. Interaction of ambient conditions and fecal coliform bacteria in southern Lake Michigan beach waters: Monitoring program implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith Becker; Gerovac, Paul J.

    1999-01-01

    Excessive fecal coliform bacteria in public swimming waters can potentially threaten visitor health. Fecal coliform bacteria (1984-1989) and Escherichia coli (1990-1995) density were monitored weekly at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore beaches for 12 summers, and park officials closed swimming areas when fecal coliform density exceeded the state water quality criteria (400 CFU fecal coliforms/ 100 ml; 235 CFU E. coli/100 ml water). Due to a 24-hour incubation in the fecal coliform and E. coli assays, beaches were closed the day after collection of high fecal coliform. Our analysis suggests that it is not possible to predict one day's fecal coliform count based on the previous day's results in waters taken from southern Lake Michigan beaches. Dispersal and deposition of bacteria were not uniform among sites or across time apparently due to interactions among environmental variables including rainfall, wind direction, water temperature, and bacteria source. Rainfall combined with northwest winds increased bacteria concentrations. Escherichia coli followed a seasonal trend with similar fluctuations in density among beaches. We suggest that the current beach monitoring protocol is inadequate for predicting fecal coliform density at the time of beach closure, and, subsequently, its use for ensuring visitor safety remains questionable.

  17. Antioxidant activities of cold-nature Tibetan herbs are signifcantly greater than hot-nature ones and are associated with their levels of total phenolic components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yan-Fang; Li, Ji-Yu; Zheng, Li-Fang; Li, Hong-Yu

    2015-08-01

    Tibetan medicinal plants have been used for more than 2 000 years. In order to find their differences in antioxidant activity, total phenolics and total flavonoids between "hot-nature" and "cold-nature" herbs, we investigated the antioxidant activities of 40 Tibetan herbs from Qinghai plateau, with 20 herbs in cold-nature and 20 herbs in hot-nature. Antioxidant capacities were evaluated by the following methods: scavenging ABTS•(+) (2, 2'azinobis-(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), scavenging O2•(-), and Ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). The effects on inhibition of mitochondrion lipid peroxidation were determined by measuring the formation of TBARS (Thiobarbituric acid reactive substrates). Total phenolics and flavonoids were estimated by Folin-Ciocalteu and NaNO2-Al(NO3)3-NaOH colorimetric methods. Interestingly, the cold-nature herbs displayed higher antioxidant activities than the hot-nature ones, corresponding to nearly three-fold higher total phenolic contents in the cold-nature herbs. Moreover, the antioxidant activities correlated linearly with the levels of total phenolics for both cold-nature and hot-nature herbs, but only with the levels of total flavonoids for the hot-nature herbs. The results suggested that the phenolic compounds, but not the flavonoids, play the major role in antioxidant capacities of the cold-nature herbs. These findings could shed new lights on the study the theory of Tibetan medicine. PMID:26253494

  18. Contribution of thermolabile methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase variant to total plasma homocysteine levels in healthy men and women. Inter99 (2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Thomsen, Troels F; Fenger, Mogens; Jørgensen, Henrik L; Jørgensen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    normal ranges of tHcy in the general population. We investigated the simultaneous effect of sex, age, and MTHFR(C677T) genotype on the distribution of tHcy in a cross-sectional study design. THcy concentrations and MTHFR(C677T) genotype were determined in a population-based sample of 2,788 Danish men and......Elevation in plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is believed to be causally related to cardiovascular disease. Like age and sex, the thermolabile variant of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR(C677T)) is an important nonmodifiable determinant of tHcy, which may be considered when describing...... MTHFR genotype. Our results indicate that the effect of age is modified by MTHFR genotype....

  19. Evaluation of the level of skill required of operators of a computer-assisted radiologic total lung capacity measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research was conducted to obtain information regarding the feasibility of using non-medical personnel to obtain measurements of radiologic total lung capacity (TLC). Operators from each of four groups (general undergraduates, nursing students, medical students, radiologists) differing in the amount of medical training and/or experience reading x-rays, performed each of two tasks. The first task was the measurement of radiologic TLC for a set of twenty x-rays. The second task consisted of tracing the outline of the anatomical structures that must be identified in the execution of the radiologic TLC measurement task. Data from the radiologic TLC measurement task were used to identify possible group differences in the reliability and validity of the measures. The reliability analyses were performed within the framework of Generalizability Theory. While the results are not conclusive, due to small sizes, the analyses suggest that group differences in reliability of the measures, if they exist, are small

  20. Testable uniqueness conditions for empirical assessment of undersampling levels in total variation-regularized X-ray CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, Jakob Sauer; Kruschel, C.

    2015-01-01

    We study recoverability in fan-beam computed tomography (CT) with sparsity and total variation priors: how many underdetermined linear measurements suffice for recovering images of given sparsity? Results from compressed sensing (CS) establish such conditions for example for random measurements, but not for CT. Recoverability is typically tested by checking whether a computed solution recovers the original. This approach cannot guarantee solution uniqueness and the recoverability decision therefore depends on the optimization algorithm. We propose new computational methods to test recoverability by verifying solution uniqueness conditions. Using both reconstruction and uniqueness testing, we empirically study the number of CT measurements sufficient for recovery on new classes of sparse test images. We demonstrate an average-case relation between sparsity and sufficient sampling and observe a sharp phase transition as known from CS, but never established for CT. In addition to assessing recoverability more reliably, we show that uniqueness tests are often the faster option.

  1. Effect of isoflavone-enriched soybean flour, zinc (Zn and vitamin E in the ration on testosterone level and total permatogenic cell in seminiferous tubules of rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astuti

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment are to evaluate the effects of isoflavoneen-enriched soybean flour, zinc (Zn and vitamin E on testosterone level of male rats and total spermatogenic cells in the seminiferous tubules of rat testes as animal model. Diet was given as isonitrogen and isocaloric with 15% of dietary protein. Thirty male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into six groups and treated with isoflavoneen-riched soybean flour, Zn and vitamin E in different combination. Isoflavoneen-riched soybean flour (3mg/day was given by oral administration, whereas Zn and vitamin E were mixed wih the basic diet. The treatment was done for 2 month. Results indicated that complete treatment of isoflavoneen-riched soybean flour, Zn and vitamin E on male rats increased testosteron level and total spermatogenic cells in comparison with single treatment and the other combination. The best results showed in the group that given isoflavoneen-enriched soybean flour with diet containing both Zn and vitamin E i.e; testosteron level 3.49 ± 0.31 ng/ml; while the number of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, early spermatids, late spermatids, and total spermatogenic cells were 37.56 ± 4.48, 67 ± 4.72, 287.11 ± 31.75, 227.22 ± 29.78, and 618.89 ± 47.38, respectively. It was concluded that synergic interaction between isoflavoneen-enriched soybean flour, Zn and vitamin E increased testosteron level and total spermatogenic cells of rat testes.

  2. Measuring Partial Pressure of Ammonia in Arterial or Venous Blood VS total Ammonia Levels in Hepatic Encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Asif Mehmood; Tariq Waseem; Malik Asif Humayun; Farina Zia Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To find out the correlation between clinical grade of hepaticencephalopathy and different serum ammonia levels, namely,serum arterial ammonia, serum venous ammonia, partial pressureof ammonia in arterial plasma and partial pressure of ammonia invenous plasma.METHODS: After informed consent from patients or their relatives,100 patients in hepatic encephalopathy due to advanced liver disease,were examined for their clinical grade of hepatic encephalopathywithin 24 hours of admission. Fasti...

  3. Total system performance predictions (TSPA-1995) for the potential high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management and operating contractor for the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has been recently completed a new performance assessment of the ability of the repository to isolate and contain nuclear waste for long time periods (up to 1,000,000 years). Sensitivity analyses determine the most important physical parameters and processes, using the most current information and models

  4. Survey of total and inorganic arsenic content in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) from Norwegian fiords: Revelation of unusual high levels of inorganic arsenic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Jens JØrgen; Julshamn, Kåre

    2008-01-01

    The present study reports the findings of unusual high levels of inorganic arsenic in samples of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). A total of 175 pooled samples of blue mussels from various locations along the Norwegian coastline were analyzed for their content of total arsenic and inorganic arsenic. Total arsenic was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) following microwave-assisted acidic digestion of the samples. Inorganic arsenic was determined using an anion-exchange HPLC-ICPMS method following microwave-assisted alkaline solubilization of the samples. For the majority of the samples (78%) the concentration of total arsenic was below 3 mg kg(-1) wet weight (ww) and inorganic arsenic constituted

  5. Survey of total and inorganic arsenic content in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) from Norwegian fiords: Revelation of unusual high levels of inorganic arsenic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Julshamn, Kåre

    2008-01-01

    The present study reports the findings of unusual high levels of inorganic arsenic in samples of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). A total of 175 pooled samples of blue mussels from various locations along the Norwegian coastline were analyzed for their content of total arsenic and inorganic...... arsenic. Total arsenic was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) following microwave-assisted acidic digestion of the samples. Inorganic arsenic was determined using an anion-exchange HPLC-ICPMS method following microwave-assisted alkaline solubilization of the samples. For...... the majority of the samples (78%) the concentration of total arsenic was below 3 mg kg(-1) wet weight (ww) and inorganic arsenic constituted...

  6. A study of lipid- and water-soluble arsenic species in liver of Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua) containing high levels of total arsenic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sele, Veronika; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Julshamn, Kale; Skov, Kasper; Amlund, Heidi

    2015-01-01

    In the present study liver samples (n = 26) of Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua), ranging in total arsenic concentrations from 2.1 to 240 mg/kg liver wet weight (ww), were analysed for their content of total arsenic and arsenic species in the lipid-soluble and water-soluble fractions. The arsenic...... concentrations in the lipid fractions ranged from 1.8 to 16.4 mg As/kg oil of liver, and a linear correlation (r(2) = 0.80, p <0.001) was observed between the total arsenic concentrations in liver and the total arsenic concentrations in the respective lipid fractions of the same livers. The relative proportion...... of arsenolipids was considerably lower in liver samples with high total arsenic levels (33-240 mg/kg ww), which contained from 3 to 7% of the total arsenic in the lipid-soluble fraction. In contrast liver samples with low arsenic concentrations (2.1-33 mg/kg ww) contained up to 50% of the total...

  7. PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA-FECAL COLIFORM RELATIONSHIPS IN ESTUARINE AND FRESH RECREATIONAL WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study has shown that Pseudomonas aeruginosa cannot be used as the basis of water standards for the prevention of enteric disease during the recreational use of surface waters. However, P. aeruginosa determinations, when used in conjunction with the assay of fecal coliforms o...

  8. Distribution and retention of faecal coliforms in the Nakivubo wetland in Kampala, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansiime, F; van Bruggen, J J

    2001-01-01

    Nakivubo wetland, which has been receiving wastewater from the capital of Uganda for more than 40 years is a tropical wetland dominated by Cyperus papyrus and Miscanthidium violaceum. Field, pilot and laboratory studies were carried out to assess the distribution of faecal coliforms and factors responsible for their retention in different compartments of the two macrophytes in the wetland. There were higher coliform numbers in the free water column below the mat of zones dominated by Miscanthidium (11.1 +/- 0.6 x 10(5) MPN/100 ml) compared to those dominated by papyrus (8.9 +/- 3.1 x 10(4) MPN/100 ml). The thick (1.3 m) and compact mat of Miscanthidium restricts vertical transport of wastewater into the mat, resulting in flow-through of wastewater under the mat. The papyrus mat is loose, open and thin (0.5 m) and allows easy vertical penetration of wastewater into the mat. The unrestricted interaction between the wastewater in the water column and that in the mat of papyrus in addition to plant debris and detritus continuously sedimenting out of the mat to the wetland bottom are responsible for the retention of coliforms in the papyrus dominated zones. Attachment, sedimentation and natural die-off were found to be important mechanisms responsible for the retention of coliforms in the Nakivubo wetland. PMID:11804095

  9. COMPARING THREE SAMPLING DESIGNS FOR MONITORING COLIFORMS IN SMALL COMMUNITY WATER SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three sampling designs: weekly, monthly and spatial cluster are compared as to their effectiveness in detecting coliform contamination in small community drinking water systems. Water samples were collected over a one-year period from fifteen drinking water systems in rural commu...

  10. Method of Detecting Coliform Bacteria and Escherichia Coli Bacteria from Reflected Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Robert (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of detecting coliform bacteria in water from reflected light and a method of detecting Eschericha Coli bacteria in water from reflected light, and also includes devices for the measurement, calculation and transmission of data relating to that method.

  11. Effect of Manure on Fecal Coliform Attachment to Soil and Soil Particles of Different Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been recognized that bacteria transport in runoff can be different for free cells, cells attached to soil particles, and cells attached to manure particles. Objectives of this work were to compare attachment of fecal coliforms (FC) to different soils and soil fractions, and to assess effect o...

  12. Comparison of Selected Methods for the Enumeration of Fecal Coliforms and Escherichia coli in Shellfish

    OpenAIRE

    Grabow, W. O. K.; de Villiers, J. C.; Schildhauer, C. I.

    1992-01-01

    In a comparison of five selected methods for the enumeration of fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli in naturally contaminated and sewage-seeded mussels (Choromytilus spp.) and oysters (Ostrea spp.), a spread-plate procedure with mFC agar without rosolic acid and preincubation proved the method of choice for routine quality assessment.

  13. RUNOFF TRANSPORT OF MANURE-BORNE FECAL COLIFORMS AND CHLORIDE: FIELD PLOT EXPERIMENT AND MODELING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal coliform (FC) and chloride (Cl) transport from dissolving manure applied on hillslopes was studied in the field plot scale and simulated. Two-by-six meters runoff plots were set in triplicate on vegetated and bare 20% slopes with sandy loam and clay loam soils in the ARS BARC. Fresh bovine man...

  14. Detection of fecal coliforms in water by using [14C]mannitol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interest in rapid bacterial detection methods for sanitary indicator bacteria in water prompted a study of the use of [U-14C]mannitol to detect fecal coliforms (FC). A simple method which used m-FC broth, membrane filtration, and two-temperature incubation (35 degrees C for 2 h followed by 44.5 degrees C for 2.5 h) was developed. [U-14C]mannitol was added to the medium, and the temperature was raised to 44.5 degrees C after 2 h at 35 degrees C. 14CO2 was collected as Ba14CO3 and assayed by liquid scintillation spectroscopy. Correlations were examined between FC cell numbers at the start of incubation (standard 24-h FC test) and Ba14CO3 counts per minute after 4.5 h. Results indicated that FC numbers ranging from 1 x 10(1) to 2.1 x 10(5) cells could be detected in 4.5 h. Within-sample reproducibility at all cell concentrations was good, but sample-to-sample reproducibility was variable. Comparisons between m-FC broth and m-FC broth modified by substituting D-mannitol for lactose indicated that the standard m-FC broth was the better test medium. Results from experiments in which dimethyl sulfoxide was used to increase permeability of FC to [U-14C]mannitol indicated no increase in 14CO2 production due to dimethyl sulfoxide. Detection of FC by this method may be useful for rapid estimation of FC levels in freshwater recreational areas, for estimating the quality of potable source water, and potentially for emergency testing of potable water, suspected of contamination due to distribution line breaks or cross-connections

  15. Biomonitoring of Lead, Cadmium, Total Mercury, and Methylmercury Levels in Maternal Blood and in Umbilical Cord Blood at Birth in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Mi Kim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With rising concerns of heavy metal exposure in pregnancy and early childhood, this study was conducted to assess the relationship between the lead, cadmium, mercury, and methylmercury blood levels in pregnancy and neonatal period. The study population included 104 mothers and their children pairs who completed both baseline maternal blood sampling at the second trimester and umbilical cord blood sampling at birth. The geometric mean maternal blood levels of lead, cadmium, total mercury, and methylmercury at the second trimester were 1.02 ± 1.39 µg/dL, 0.61 ± 1.51 µg/L, 2.97 ± 1.45 µg/L, and 2.39 ± 1.45 µg/L, respectively, and in the newborns, these levels at birth were 0.71 ± 1.42 µg/dL, 0.01 ± 5.31 µg/L, 4.44 ± 1.49 µg/L, and 3.67 ± 1.51 µg/L, respectively. The mean ratios of lead, cadmium, total mercury, and methylmercury levels in the newborns to those in the mothers were 0.72, 0.04, 1.76, and 1.81, respectively. The levels of most heavy metals in pregnant women and infants were higher in this study than in studies from industrialized western countries. The placenta appears to protect fetuses from cadmium; however, total mercury and methylmercury were able to cross the placenta and accumulate in fetuses.

  16. Biomonitoring of Lead, Cadmium, Total Mercury, and Methylmercury Levels in Maternal Blood and in Umbilical Cord Blood at Birth in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu-Mi; Chung, Jin-Young; An, Hyun Sook; Park, Sung Yong; Kim, Byoung-Gwon; Bae, Jong Woon; Han, Myoungseok; Cho, Yeon Jean; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2015-01-01

    With rising concerns of heavy metal exposure in pregnancy and early childhood, this study was conducted to assess the relationship between the lead, cadmium, mercury, and methylmercury blood levels in pregnancy and neonatal period. The study population included 104 mothers and their children pairs who completed both baseline maternal blood sampling at the second trimester and umbilical cord blood sampling at birth. The geometric mean maternal blood levels of lead, cadmium, total mercury, and methylmercury at the second trimester were 1.02 ± 1.39 µg/dL, 0.61 ± 1.51 µg/L, 2.97 ± 1.45 µg/L, and 2.39 ± 1.45 µg/L, respectively, and in the newborns, these levels at birth were 0.71 ± 1.42 µg/dL, 0.01 ± 5.31 µg/L, 4.44 ± 1.49 µg/L, and 3.67 ± 1.51 µg/L, respectively. The mean ratios of lead, cadmium, total mercury, and methylmercury levels in the newborns to those in the mothers were 0.72, 0.04, 1.76, and 1.81, respectively. The levels of most heavy metals in pregnant women and infants were higher in this study than in studies from industrialized western countries. The placenta appears to protect fetuses from cadmium; however, total mercury and methylmercury were able to cross the placenta and accumulate in fetuses. PMID:26516876

  17. Plasma ceruloplasmin and total copper levels in burned children receiving parenteral copper: Effect of dose and burn severity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, J.; Chowanski, Z.; Leffell, M.; Stoker, T.; Lydon, M.; Harmatz, P. (Shriners Burns Inst., Boston, MA (United States) Univ. of Massachusetts, Amherst (United States))

    1991-03-15

    The response to injury includes an acute-phase stimulation of plasma ceruloplasmin (CP). Patients recovering from nonburn trauma respond to copper (Cu) supplementation by increasing CP. However, plasma CP has been observed to decrease following moderate to severe burn injury, despite adequate enteral provision of Cu. The authors delivered intravenous Cu via TPN to 10 burned children daily at LOW dose or at HIGH dose during the first 3 weeks of recovery. Plasma CP and total Cu (tot Cu) were measured and nonceruloplasmin' Cu (nonCP-Cu) was calculated assuming 3 ug Cu/mg CP. All patients had low CP (range 6-25 mg/dl, normal = 27-37 mg/dl). The HIGH dose raised both CP and tot Cu without increasing non CP-Cu without increasing nonCp-Cu. CP explained 32% of the tot Cu variance while dose and CP explained 84%. Tot Cu was negatively correlated with % BSA burned. They also observed that this relationship does not hold for burns exceeding 95% BSA. These results are consistent with observations for enteral Cu in burns. They show that CP is responsive to dose in burns and suggest at least 20ug/kg as an appropriate daily Cu dose in TPN for burns.

  18. Influence of anthropogenic activities on microbial and nutrient levels along the Mara River tributaries, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Nyambane Anyona

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: A number of factors have a negative impact on natural surface water resources across the world. Although sources of surface water pollution are numerous, anthropogenic activities have been singled out as among the most important and of great concern. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of anthropogenic activities on nutrients and microbial levels along the Amala and Nyangores tributaries of the Mara River in Kenya. Materials and Methods: Four sampling sites along each tributary were specifically selected from which water samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients by use of spectrophotometric techniques, and coliform bacterial presence by a multiple tube fermentation technique. Results: Higher levels of total phosphorus were recorded along the Nyangores than the Amala tributary (P= 0.02. Significant differences in phosphorus levels were recorded between different sites along the Nyangores tributary (P=<0.001 and also along the Amala tributary (P= 0.0036. However, total nitrogen levels varied only within sites along the Nyangores tributary (P<0.0001 but not along the Amala tributary. Similarly, Escherichia coli and total coliform levels varied significantly within Nyangores tributary sites. Sites with frequent and direct human and livestock contact had higher microbial and nutrient levels, indicative of a localized pollution effect. Conclusion: The findings imply that the health of local communities who depend on this water for domestic use might be compromised. As such, regular monitoring, strict enforcement of environmental protection laws, public education and proper sewage disposal is recommended.

  19. A new spectrophotometric method for the determination of total and ferric iron in rain water at the ppb level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, K.S.; Shukla, A.; Goswami, A.; Chandavanshi, S.K. [School of Studies in Chemistry, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur (India); Hoffmann, P. [Materials and Geo Science, Chemical Analytics, Technical Univ. Darmstadt (Germany)

    2001-03-01

    A new, simple, selective and sensitive spectrophotometric procedure for the on-site quantification of iron at nano-gram levels in atmospheric precipitations, i.e. rain as sample source is described. It is based on the color reaction of Fe{sup 3+} with SCN{sup -} ions in the presence of a cationic surfactant, i.e. cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), in strong HCl solution, and subsequent extraction of the complex with N-octylacetamide into toluene or chloroform. The apparent molar absorptivity of the complex is 2.60 x 10{sup 5}L mol {sup -1}cm {sup -1} at {lambda}{sub max} = 480 nm at an enrichment factor (EF) of 10. The detection limit (causing higher absorbance than the sum of the blank absorbance (0.009) and 3 SD) is 5 ng mL {sup -1} Fe. Ions commonly associated with iron did not interfere in the present method. The effect of analytical variables, i.e. amount and type of the reagents, acidity, solvent, temperature, dilution, etc., in the determination of iron are discussed. The validity of the present method is checked with GF-AAS. The method has been applied to the determination of iron at the ppb level in rain water samples. (orig.)

  20. Use of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation in increased levels of total polyphenol extracts of bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gustavo H.F.; Silva, Edvane B.; Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Amorin, Elba L.C.; Peixoto, Tadeu J.S.; Yara, Ricardo; Lima, Claudia S.A., E-mail: santosghf@hotmail.com, E-mail: edvborges@yahoo.com, E-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com, E-mail: claudia.salima@gmail.com, E-mail: ricardo.yara@gmail.com, E-mail: tadeu1903@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: elba@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) is well known as sources of phenolic compounds. Known as mastic pepper, red pepper tree is a plant native to midsize coast of Brazil. Some of its structures have proven antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal and healing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference in the phenol contents of crude extracts that were measured after irradiating the barks of S. terebinthifolius using gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co. The crude extract were divided into a control group and eight experimental groups, which were separated based on the doses of gamma radiation to which they were exposed: 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, 15.0, 20.0 and 50.0 kGy (Assays were performed in triplicate). The results allow observe that gamma radiation promoted in extracts of bark of S. terebinthifolius, many percents increase (p> 0.05) of total polyphenol content between 2.5 kGy (41.93%) and 50.0 kGy (44.52%) compared to 0 kGy (30.07%), with the same gradual to 10.0 kGy, and reaching peak maximum at 10.0 kGy (68.44%). However, the study puts the process of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co as an alternative significant increase in the percentage of some natural substances of plant material, and subsequently contribute to the augmentation of various therapeutic applications to which they are assigned. (author)

  1. Correlation of transcutaneous bilirubinometry (TcB) and total serum bilirubin (TsB) levels after phototherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juster-Reicher, Ada; Flidel-Rimon, Orna; Rozin, Ilya; Shinwell, Eric S

    2014-09-30

    Abstract Aim: To investigate the correlation between transcutaneous bilirubinometry (TcB) and total serum bilirubin (TsB) in jaundiced infants before and after, but not during phototherapy. Methods: This study prospectively investigated the correlation between TcB and TsB in term and near term infants before and after phototherapy. Results: Overall 673 pairs of measurements (TcB and TsB) were performed on 371 infants of ?35 weeks gestation and with birth weight above 2000?g. Of these 337 sets were from 200 infants who had not been treated with phototherapy (Group 1) and 336 measurements from 171 infants taken between 1?h and 5?d after phototherapy (Group 2). The correlation coefficient between TcB and TsB in the whole cohort was r?=?0.72. The correlation was low during the first 8?h after phototherapy (r?=?0.56), but thereafter the correlation returned to the range of 0.65-0.8. Using the Sobel test, no significant difference was found between the correlation coefficients at the different time periods, with the possible exception of the difference between 1 and 8?h and 9 and 16?h which was of borderline significance with a p value of 0.06. Conclusion: This study demonstrates good correlation between TcB and TsB by 8?h after phototherapy. This adds validity to community-based screening programs employing TcB measurements plotted on TsB nomograms. Such programs may contribute to prevention of tragic cases of bilirubin-induced neurologic damage. PMID:25234102

  2. Use of 60Co gamma radiation in increased levels of total polyphenol extracts of bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) is well known as sources of phenolic compounds. Known as mastic pepper, red pepper tree is a plant native to midsize coast of Brazil. Some of its structures have proven antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal and healing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference in the phenol contents of crude extracts that were measured after irradiating the barks of S. terebinthifolius using gamma radiation from 60Co. The crude extract were divided into a control group and eight experimental groups, which were separated based on the doses of gamma radiation to which they were exposed: 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, 15.0, 20.0 and 50.0 kGy (Assays were performed in triplicate). The results allow observe that gamma radiation promoted in extracts of bark of S. terebinthifolius, many percents increase (p> 0.05) of total polyphenol content between 2.5 kGy (41.93%) and 50.0 kGy (44.52%) compared to 0 kGy (30.07%), with the same gradual to 10.0 kGy, and reaching peak maximum at 10.0 kGy (68.44%). However, the study puts the process of gamma radiation from 60Co as an alternative significant increase in the percentage of some natural substances of plant material, and subsequently contribute to the augmentation of various therapeutic applications to which they are assigned. (author)

  3. Preliminary total-system analysis of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslinger, P.W.; Doremus, L.A.; Engel, D.W.; Miley, T.B.; Murphy, M.T.; Nichols, W.E.; White, M.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Langford, D.W.; Ouderkirk, S.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The placement of high-level radioactive wastes in mined repositories deep underground is considered a disposal method that would effectively isolate these wastes from the environment for long periods of time. This report describes modeling performed at PNL for Yucca Mountain between May and November 1991 addressing the performance of the entire repository system related to regulatory criteria established by the EPA in 40 CFR Part 191. The geologic stratigraphy and material properties used in this study were chosen in cooperation with performance assessment modelers at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Sandia modeled a similar problem using different computer codes and a different modeling philosophy. Pacific Northwest Laboratory performed a few model runs with very complex models, and SNL performed many runs with much simpler (abstracted) models.

  4. Preliminary total-system analysis of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The placement of high-level radioactive wastes in minded repositories deep underground is considered a disposal method that would effectively isolate these wastes from the environment for long periods of time. This report describes modeling performed at PNL for Yucca Mountain between May and November 1991 addressing the performance of the entire repository system related to regulatory criteria established by the EPA in 40 CFR Part 191. The geologic stratigraphy and material properties used in this study were chosen in cooperation with performance assessment modelers at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Sandia modeled a similar problem using different computer codes and a different modeling philosophy. Pacific Northwest Laboratory performed a few model runs with very complex models, and SNL performed many runs with much simpler (abstracted) models

  5. FcepsilonRIalpha gene (FCER1A) promoter polymorphisms and total serum IgE levels in Japanese atopic dermatitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Y; Potaczek, D P; Kanada, S; Takagi, A; Shimokawa, N; Ito, T; Mitsuishi, K; Okubo, Y; Tajima, M; Hobo, A; Ng, W; Tsuboi, R; Ikeda, S; Ogawa, H; Okumura, K; Nishiyama, C

    2010-04-01

    Two promoter polymorphisms of the high-affinity IgE receptor alpha-subunit (FcepsilonRIalpha) gene (FCER1A), -66T>C (rs2251746) and -315C>T (rs2427827), were analysed in Japanese atopic dermatitis subjects. Patients with the -315CT/TT genotype tended to have higher total serum IgE levels, while the proportion of -315CT/TT genotype or the -315T allele was significantly higher in those with highly elevated total serum IgE concentrations. PMID:20141544

  6. The correlation between total lesion glycolysis and serum SCC level in different stages of cervical cancer using PET-FDG imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The concept of whole body 'functional' tumor mass was developed in evaluating biochemical characteristics of tumor by using positron emission tomography (PET) and [F-18] fludeoxyglucose (FDG) (Larson SM, et al. Clin Positron Imaging 1999;2:159-171). The evaluation of cancer total lesion glycolysis was useful in monitoring cancer treatment response. A lesion detection system based on image segmentation method of region growing in FDG whole body PET imaging was developed for calculating the total lesion glycolysis. This method will automatically compute the lesion volume and the total standard uptake value (SUV) number in each detected lesion by a user-entered SUV threshold. After excluding the physiological uptake region, the summation of SUV values from all lesion volumes will be added up to represent the total tumor (including lymph node and distant metastasis) glycolysis. With the concept of tumor burden, total tumor glycolysis was first tested to correlate with the serum SCC level and clinical FIGO staging in cervical cancer patients. Methods: The software was written in MATLAB. Given SUV images, each lesion volume is detected by using a 3D region-growing segmentation method, in terms of some SUV thresholds, and starting from a given location (seed). The seeds are selected by using the mouse, and by simply viewing the whole body images slice-by-slice. The threshold is a user-entered value in the SUV software. After the lesion detection, the SUV software will display the detected lesion volumes, and show the SUV value in each lesion volume, as well as the total SUV values of all detected lesion volumes. In this study, the FDG whole body PET imaging of 84 different FIGO stage cervical cancer patients were used for the total tumor glycolysis measurement. The total tumor glycolysis was correlated with the serum SCC level and clinical FIGO staging in these patients. Results: The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient=0.221 for SUV and SCC with p=0.043. This indicates statistical positive significance. The median ( min, max) for each stage group are listed as follow: Stage II: 3410 (198, 19197); Stage III: 3716 (640, 25123); and Stage IV: 12998 (263, 59114). The comparisons between stages in SUV are evaluated using the Mann-Whitney test. The results of the Mann-Whitney test showed significant different between Stage II and Stage IV ( p<0.001), and between Stage III and Stage IV (p=0.016). However, there was no significant difference between Stage II and Stage III (p=0.382). The correlation between total tumor glycolysis and serum SCC level was poor in poor differentiated cancer patients due to very low SCC expression with very aggressive tumor growth and glucose consumption. Conclusions: The evaluation of total tumor glycolysis in cervical caner patients by this program was demonstrated feasible. There was statistical positive significance correlation between total tumor glycosis and serum SCC level. The calculation of total tumor glycolysis is probably especially useful in poor differentiated cancer patients for the treatment response due to low serum SCC level in these patients. (authors)

  7. Glutathione levels in and total antioxidant capacity of Candida sp. cells exposed to oxidative stress caused by hydrogen peroxide / Níveis de glutationa e capacidade antioxidante total em células de Candida sp. expostas a estresse oxidativo causado por peróxido de hidrogênio

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maxwel Adriano, Abegg; Paulo Vinícius Gil, Alabarse; Ártur Krumberg, Schüller; Mara Silveira, Benfato.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A capacidade de suportar o estresse oxidativo imposto por fagócitos parece ser crítica para que espécies de Candida causem candidíase invasiva. MÉTODOS: Para melhor caracterizar a resposta ao estresse oxidativo (REO) de oito Candida sp. clinicamente relevantes, um componente vital do bal [...] anço redox intracelular, a glutationa, foi mensurada pelo método de reconversão DTNB-GSSG redutase e a capacidade antioxidante total (CAT) foi mensurada por um método modificado baseado na descoloração do ABTS*+. Ambos os métodos foram utilizados em extratos celulares das espécies de Candida tratadas ou não com peróxido de hidrogênio (0,5mM). RESULTADOS: O estresse oxidativo induzido pelo peróxido de hidrogênio claramente reduziu os níveis intracelulares de glutationa. Esta diminuição foi mais intensa em C. albicans e os níveis de glutationa em células não tratadas foram também maiores nesta espécie. A capacidade antioxidante total demonstrou variação intraespecífica na capacidade antioxidante. CONCLUSÕES: Os níveis de glutationa não se correlacionaram com a capacidade antioxidante total mensurada, apesar desta ser a defesa antioxidante intracelular não-enzimática mais importante. Os resultados indicam que a medição isolada da CAT não fornece um quadro claro da habilidade de certa espécie de Candida responder ao estresse oxidativo. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The capacity to overcome the oxidative stress imposed by phagocytes seems to be critical for Candida species to cause invasive candidiasis. METHODS: To better characterize the oxidative stress response (OSR) of 8 clinically relevant Candida sp., glutathione, a vital component of the in [...] tracellular redox balance, was measured using the 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB)-glutathione disulfide (GSSG) reductase reconversion method; the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was measured using a modified method based on the decolorization of the 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic) acid radical cation (ABTS*+). Both methods were used with cellular Candida sp. extracts treated or not with hydrogen peroxide (0.5 mM). RESULTS: Oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide clearly reduced intracellular glutathione levels. This depletion was stronger in Candida albicans and the levels of glutathione in untreated cells were also higher in this species. The TAC demonstrated intra-specific variation. CONCLUSIONS: Glutathione levels did not correlate with the measured TAC values, despite this being the most important non-enzymatic intracellular antioxidant molecule. The results indicate that the isolated measurement of TAC does not give a clear picture of the ability of a given Candida sp. to respond to oxidative stress.

  8. Concentração plasmática de colesterol total e lipoproteína de alta densidade em novilhas mestiças doadoras de embriões tratadas com somatotropina bovina recombinante Total plasma cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein levels in crossbred heifer embryo donors treated with bovine recombinant somatotropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á.M. Borges

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi o de estudar as concentrações plasmáticas de colesterol total e lipoproteína de alta densidade (HDL em novilhas mestiças tratadas com somatotropina bovina recombinante (rbST. Coletas de sangue foram feitas durante dois ciclos estrais, normal e superovulado, em 26 fêmeas distribuídas em dois tratamentos: T1 = aplicação de 500mg de rbST no terceiro dia do ciclo estral utilizado para a superovulação e T2 = controle. Análises dos metabólitos sangüíneos foram feitas utilizando-se o método enzimático, cujas concentrações médias plasmáticas de colesterol total e de HDL durante o ciclo estral normal não foram diferentes (P>0,05 entre os dois tratamentos: 87,9 e 25,8mg/dl e 85,9 e 26,7mg/dl para T1 e T2, respectivamente. O ciclo estral utilizado para a superovulação foi dividido em três períodos: P1 = do estro à inseminação artificial (0 ao15º dia, P2 = da inseminação artificial até a coleta de embriões (15º ao 21º dia e P3 = da coleta até o final do período experimental (21º ao 27º dia. As concentrações plasmáticas de colesterol total e HDL no P1 não diferiram entre os tratamentos (P>0,05. Em P2 e P3 houve diferença nas concentrações de HDL e colesterol total entre os dois tratamentos: 29,0 e 88,5mg/dl (T1 e 27,1 e 81,8mg/dl (T2 no P2; e 30,4 e 88,0mg/dl (T1 e 26,6 e 80,5mg/dl (T2 no P3, respectivamente (PThe objective of the experiment was to study the total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL levels in crossbred heifers treated with bovine recombinant somatotropina (rbST. Blood samples were collected for two estrous cycles, normal and superovulated, from 26 animals randomly distributed into two treatments: T1 - injected with 500mg rbST on day 3 of estrous cycle and T2 - control. The lipidic metabolite levels were determined by an enzymatic method, and plasma levels of total cholesterol and HDL in normal estrous cycle did not differ (P>0.05 between treatments: 87.9 and 25.8mg/dl for T1 and 85.9 and 26.7mg/dl for T2, respectively. The superovulated estrous cycle was divided into three periods: P1 - from estrus to artificial insemination (AI (0 to 15th day, P2 - from AI to embryo collection (15th to 21st day and P3 - from collection to the end of the experiment (21st to 27th day. The rbST treatment did not affect the HDL and cholesterol levels in the P1 (P>0.05, but did so in P2 and P3: 29.0 and 88.5mg/dl (T1 and 27.1 and 81.8mg/dl (T2 during P2; 30.4 and 88.0mg/dl (T1 and 26.6 and 80.5mg/dl (T2 during P3, respectively (P<0.01.

  9. COLIFORMES TERMOTOLERANTES EN AGUAS DE LAS POBLACIONES COSTERAS Y PALAFÍTICAS DE LA CIÉNAGA GRANDE DE SANTA MARTA, COLOMBIA Fecals Coliforms in Waters of Coastal and Palafiticos Populations of Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVIA NARVÁEZ

    Full Text Available La Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta es el sistema lagunar costero más grande e importante de Colombia y el más extenso del Caribe. En su territorio se alojan siete poblaciones carentes de un sistema de saneamiento básico adecuado, que vierten sus desechos sin ningún tipo de tratamiento directamente a la ciénaga. Teniendo en cuenta la importancia ambiental de este cuerpo de agua y con el objeto de conocer su calidad sanitaria se determinaron las concentraciones de Coliformes termotolerantes en aguas adyacentes de dos poblaciones costeras (Tasajera e isla del Rosario y tres palafiticas (Buenavista, Nueva Venecia y Trojas de Cataca durante el periodo 2004-2007. Adicionalmente, se realizaron mediciones de pH, temperatura, salinidad y oxígeno disuelto en cada sitio de muestreo. Las mayores concentraciones de Coliformes se encontraron en el palafito Trojas de Cataca, en la época seca mayor de cada año (7.800-9.000 NMP/ 100 mL y los menores niveles en la estación Buenavista (2-1.100 NMP/100mL. El patrón de comportamiento de las densidades de Coliformes en las poblaciones costeras fue similar en el tiempo y no se observó ninguna relación directa entre las variables fisicoquímicas y el grupo Coliformes. Dado lo observado, se considera importante vigilar la calidad del agua en el estuario, teniendo en cuenta que constituye una fuente potencial de riesgo para el desarrollo de las actividades económicas de la zona y para la salud de los pobladores.The coastal lagoon system most important and biggest of Colombia and the largest in the Caribbean is the Cienaga Grande of Santa Marta. In their territory, seven populations lacking of an appropriate sanitation system, that pour their waste directly without any treatment to the cienaga. Keeping in mind the importance of this body of water and in order to know their sanitary quality the concentrations of thermotolerant coliforms were determined in two coastal (Tasajera and Isla del Rosario and three palafitics populations (Buenavista, Nueva Venecia and Trojas de Cataca during the period 2004-2007. Additionally, pH, temperature, salinity and oxygen measurements were carried out in each station. The highest coliforms concentrations were found in Trojas de Cataca, in the dry season more each year (7,800-9,000 MPN/100ml and the lowest level in Buenavista station (2-1,100 MPN/100mL. The behavior pattern of Coliform densities in coastal populations was similar in the time and there was no direct relationship between physicochemical variables and Coliform group. It is important take care and watch over the estuary quality, taking into account that constitutes a potential risk source for economic activities development of the area and for the residents health.

  10. Significance analysis of the leachate level in a solid waste landfill in a coastal zone using total water balance and slope stability alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Ja-Kong; Do, Nam-Young [Korea Advanced Institute of Science & Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    The K site near Seoul began landfilling in 1992. The landfilled wastes include municipal solid waste (66.4%), construction residues (20.4%), water and wastewater sludges (trace levels), and hazardous waste (trace levels). The water content of the municipal solid waste is very high (47.3%); as a result, the leachate level (average E.L.) of the landfill, the design value of which is 7.0 m, was measured at 10.3 m in January 1995 and is increasing. The increase of leachate level in the landfill site causes a problem with slope stability. The leachate level at each disposal stage divided by the intermediate cover layer was calculated with the HELP (Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance) model and calibrated with the data measured from February 1993 to June 1995. Also, the hydraulic conductivities of the waste layer and the intermediate cover layer in each stage were calibrated continuously with HELP model analysis. To verify these results, the total water balance in the landfill site was calculated using the infiltration rate calculated from HELP modeling. The leachate level was E.L. 10.0 m, which was close to the measured leachate level. To estimate the change of the leachate level in the future, the total water balances with different leachate discharge rates of 3,000, 3,500, and 5,000 m{sup 3}/day were analyzed. When the leachate discharge rate was 5,000 ton/day and the initial water content was decreased below 25%, the average leachate level was 10.8 m. This result satisfies the safety factor requirements (=1.3) for landfill slope stability. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine among women free from occupational exposure and their relations to renal tubular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the relations among total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine, together with potential effects of methylmercury intake on renal tubular function, we determined their levels, and urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase activity (NAG) and α1-microglobulin (AMG) in 59 women free from occupational exposures, and estimated daily mercury intakes from fish and other seafood using a food frequency questionnaire. Mercury levels (mean+/-SD) in the women were 1.51+/-0.91μg/g in hair, 0.59+/-0.32μg/g in toenail, and 0.86+/-0.66μg/g creatinine in urine; and, there were positive correlations among them (P<0.001). The daily mercury intake of 9.15+/-7.84μg/day was significantly correlated with total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine (r=0.551, 0.537, and 0.604, P<0.001). Among the women, the NAG and AMG were positively correlated with both the daily mercury intake and mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine (P<0.01); and, these relations were almost similar when using multiple regression analysis to adjust for possible confounders such as urinary cadmium (0.47+/-0.28μg/g creatinine) and smoking status. In conclusion, mercury resulting from fish consumption can explain total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine to some degree (about 30%), partly through the degradation into the inorganic form, and it may confound the renal tubular effect of other nephrotoxic agents. Also, the following equation may be applicable to the population neither with dental amalgam fillings nor with occupational exposures: [hair mercury (μg/g)]=2.44x[toenail mercury (μg/g)

  12. Estimation of the plasmasphere electron density and O+/H+ transition level from Irkutsk incoherent scatter data and GPS total electron content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpynev, Boris; Khabituev, Denis

    2012-07-01

    Experimental data obtained on Irkutsk Incoherent Scatter Radar (ISR) and GPS Total Electron Content (TEC) were used for estimation of the O+/H+ transition level and electron density distribution in the upper topside ionosphere and in the plasmasphere. As model description we use modified Chapman function where O+/H+ transition level is used as parameters. On the base of this model we considered the typical dynamics of O+/H+ transition level in different seasons and different geophysical conditions. This level is very sensitive to parameters of neutral wind and to conditions in geomagnetic field tube. The plasmasphere can contribute as much as 50% to GPS TEC, and the input from plasmasphere can produce the major influence on GPS TEC variations.

  13. Usefulness of determination of serum levels of total bile acids (TBA) and other five markers of liver fibrosis for diagnosis of chronic liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the value of combined determination of serum levels of TBA, PC-III, IV-C, HA, CG and LN in diagnosis of chronic hepatic diseases. Methods: Serum TBA levels were measured with totally automatic enzymatic method and the other five markers with RIA in 118 patients with various types of hepatic diseases as well as in 31 controls. Results: Serum levels of TBA and the other markers were significantly higher in the patients than those in the controls (p<0.01). Among the various types of diseases, values of the tested markers increased along with the increase of the severity of the disease process. Conclusion: Combined measurements of serum levels of TBA and other five markers were of important value for the diagnosis, treatment and outcome prediction of hepatic fibrosis

  14. Effect of varying levels of formaldehyde treatment of mustard oil cake on rumen fermentation, digestibility in wheat straw based total mixed diets in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahima

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the current study was to protect the protein in mustard cake by different levels of formaldehyde treatment with a view to optimize the level of formaldehyde. Materials and Methods: Different levels of formaldehyde treatment (0, 1, 1.5 and 2% of crude protein containing concentrate and roughages diet in 40:60 ratio were tested for their effect on nutrients digestibility, in vitro ammonia release, in vitro gas production and change in protein fractions. Non-significant (p?0.05 effect on pH, microbial biomass, partitioning factor, total gas production (TGP, TGP per g dry matter and TGP per g digestible dry matter (ml/g was observed in almost all the treatments. Results: Total volatile fatty acids at 2% formaldehyde treatment level of mustard cake was lower (p<0.05 as compared to other groups, while in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vitro organic matter digestibility were reported to be low in 1% formaldehyde treated group. Conclusion: On a holistic view, it could be considered that formaldehyde treatment at 1.5% level was optimal for protection of mustard oil cake protein.

  15. Total petroleum content and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels in soil and groundwater at the site of a fuel service station in Accra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of Total Petroleum Content (TPC) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) in soil and groundwater at the site of a fuel service station indicated leakage of petroleum products from the underground storage tanks buried 3.6km below the surface. The leakage resulted in contamination of areas within a 60 m radius. In the TPC profiles, distinct peak corresponding to diesel oil occurred between 5 and 17 mins; while a hump characteristic of mineral oil occurred between 17 and 25 mins. In the PAH profiles, 18 compounds were identified and quantified by means of gas chromatography. The TPC levels ranged between 0.918 - 21.9 ?g/L for ground water and 44.1 - 894 mg/kg for soil. The levels of PAHs were low and HM-PAHs were not detected. The total PAH levels varied between 20.93 - 51.85 ?g/L for groundwater and 2.07 - 6.5 ng/kg ww for soil. The levels of LM-PAHs were above the International standard of 200 ng/L, while BaP levels were 710 ng/L (indicative of carcinogenic effects). Naphthalene was found to be abundant in the groundwater. (au)

  16. Total, unbound plasma and salivary phenytoin levels in critically ill patients Níveis totais, livres em plasma, e salivares de fenitoína em doentes graves

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    M. Ibarra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability of salivary phenytoin (PHT concentrations and predicted free PHT levels by Sheiner-Tozer equation in order to substitute measured free PHT concentrations in critically ill patients. METHODOLOGY: Twenty-four neurocritically ill adult patients receiving intravenous PHT were included in the study. Analyses of total, free plasma and saliva PHT concentrations were performed by fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Plasma albumin levels were also determined. RESULTS: Free PHT concentrations as well as salivary levels better correlate to clinical effect than total drug concentrations. Linear regression analysis showed a strong correlation between estimated free PHT concentrations by Sheiner-Tozer and measured free PHT levels (r=0.835; pOBJETIVO: Avaliar a confiabilidade de concentrações salivares de fenitoina (PHT e níveis livres de PHT pronosticado por equação de Sheiner-Tozer, o efeito da substituição das concentrações medidas livres de PHT em doentes graves. MÉTODO: Vinte e quatro doentes adultos que recebem PHT intravenoso forem incluídos no estudo. Análises de PHT total, livre em plasma e saliva foram realizadas por uma técnica de imune fluorescência polarizassem. Os níveis de albumina em plasma foram também determinados. RESULTADOS: Concentrações livres de PHT em plasma e saliva correlacionam melhor ao efeito clínico que concentrações de fármaco total. Análise de regressão lineal mostrou uma correlação forte entre concentrações livres de PHT estimadas por Sheiner-Tozer e os níveis livres de PHT medidos (r=0.835; p<0.001, e entre concentrações em saliva de PHT e concentrações livres medidas de PHT (r=0.964; p<0.001. A equação de Sheiner-Tozer poderia ser inadequada na presença de fármacos competidores da ligação às proteínas. CONCLUSÕES: Saliva pode servir como substituto do plasma para ser utilizado no controle de concentração livre de PHT em plasma nesta população.

  17. EFICIENCIAS COMPARATIVAS DE INACTIVACIÓN DE BACTERIAS COLIFORMES EN EFLUENTES MUNICIPALES POR FOTÓLISIS (UV Y POR FOTOCATÁLISIS (UV/TiO2/SiO2. CASO: DEPURADORA DE AGUAS DE SALAMANCA, ESPAÑA

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    J.C. Pantoja-Espinoza

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Photolysis (UV-C radiation and heterogeneous photocatalysis (UV-C/TiO2/SiO2 were used to inactivate E. coli and total coliform bacteria in biologically treated municipal wastewater. A 50 L sample was used with a recirculation rate of 1000 L/h through a UV photo reactor for 150 min reaction time, at a constant temperature. Samples were taken at different time intervals from each experimental run, then the colony forming units were counted, and the inactivation kinetic reaction was determined in a 2x2 factorial design with co-variable and replicates. The inactivation rate constants for coliform bacteria obtained in both processes, photolysis and photocatalysis, showed total E. coli and total coliform bacteria inactivation in short reaction times. ANOVA (p < 0.05 showed a significant effect for the Advanced Oxidation Process, bacteria and the co-variable (initial colony forming units. Comparison of the bacteria inactivation constant rates in short treatment times, obtained by t-Student test, demonstrated that photolysis and heterogeneous photocatalysis showed a significant difference (p < 0.05, allowing both techniques to fulfill the Spanish regulations for E. coli.

  18. Presence Of Multi Drug Resistant Coliform Bacteria Isolated From Biofilm Of Sachet And Borehole Waters Sold In Abakaliki Metropolis Ebonyi State Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okafor Collins Onyebuchi Okeke

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study investigated the presence of multi drug resistant coliform bacteria from biofilm of sachet and borehole waters sold in Abakaliki metropolis in Ebonyi State Nigeria. Five hundred 500 samples of water comprising 250 each from selected brand of sachet water retailers and borehole water dispensers from seven locations were sampled for the detection of coliform bacteria from biofilm and to determine their antimicrobial susceptibility using commercially prepared antibiotic discs. Results revealed a high faecal contamination level in sachet waters as Gospel 36 72 Aqua Rapha 30 60 and Bejoy 18 36 were the highest among the sachet water brands examined with Nene and Rock Tama sachet water brands having the lowest contamination level of 612 and 1326 respectively. Borehole samples results revealed that Aboffia had 27 76.93 samples contaminated with faecal bacteria while Azugwu 11 28.5 Azuiyiokwu 18 50 Azuiyiudene 2980 Kpirikpiri 24 66.63 PrescoNtezi 1646.15 and Udensi 22 61.54. Escherichia coli Enterobacter spp and Klebsiella spp were the major contaminants of both sachet and borehole water samples. The bacteria isolates from biofilm of sachet and borehole waters were susceptible to only three of the antibiotics used namely nitrofurantoin amoxycilin and ampicillin. The bacteria were completely resistant to ciprofloxacin tetracycline norbactinnorfloxacin ofloxacin cefuroxime and gentamicin. This showed that they exhibit multi-drug resistance pattern which is a common feature of medically important biofilm bacteria. We therefore report the presence of multi-drug resistant coliform bacteria from biofilm of sachet and borehole waters sold in Abakaliki metropolis Ebonyi State Nigeria.

  19. Spatial variability in levels of benzene, formaldehyde, and total benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes in New York City: a land-use regression study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheirbek Iyad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hazardous air pollutant exposures are common in urban areas contributing to increased risk of cancer and other adverse health outcomes. While recent analyses indicate that New York City residents experience significantly higher cancer risks attributable to hazardous air pollutant exposures than the United States as a whole, limited data exist to assess intra-urban variability in air toxics exposures. Methods To assess intra-urban spatial variability in exposures to common hazardous air pollutants, street-level air sampling for volatile organic compounds and aldehydes was conducted at 70 sites throughout New York City during the spring of 2011. Land-use regression models were developed using a subset of 59 sites and validated against the remaining 11 sites to describe the relationship between concentrations of benzene, total BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes and formaldehyde to indicators of local sources, adjusting for temporal variation. Results Total BTEX levels exhibited the most spatial variability, followed by benzene and formaldehyde (coefficient of variation of temporally adjusted measurements of 0.57, 0.35, 0.22, respectively. Total roadway length within 100?m, traffic signal density within 400?m of monitoring sites, and an indicator of temporal variation explained 65% of the total variability in benzene while 70% of the total variability in BTEX was accounted for by traffic signal density within 450?m, density of permitted solvent-use industries within 500?m, and an indicator of temporal variation. Measures of temporal variation, traffic signal density within 400?m, road length within 100?m, and interior building area within 100?m (indicator of heating fuel combustion predicted 83% of the total variability of formaldehyde. The models built with the modeling subset were found to predict concentrations well, predicting 62% to 68% of monitored values at validation sites. Conclusions Traffic and point source emissions cause substantial variation in street-level exposures to common toxic volatile organic compounds in New York City. Land-use regression models were successfully developed for benzene, formaldehyde, and total BTEX using spatial indicators of on-road vehicle emissions and emissions from stationary sources. These estimates will improve the understanding of health effects of individual pollutants in complex urban pollutant mixtures and inform local air quality improvement efforts that reduce disparities in exposure.

  20. Níveis de proteína bruta em dietas para bovinos de corte: consumo e digestibilidades total e parcial dos nutrientes Crude protein levels in diets of beef cattle: intake and apparent total tract, intestinal, and ruminal digestibilities of nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Andréa Borges Cavalcante

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os consumos e as digestibilidades total e parcial dos nutrientes em novilhos Holandês x Zebu recebendo dietas contendo quatro níveis de proteína bruta (10,5; 12; 13,5 e 15% de PB na matéria seca, constituídas de 65% de feno de capim-tifton 85 e 35% de concentrado. Foram utilizados quatro animais castrados, fistulados no rúmen e abomaso, com peso vivo médio inicial de 487,3 kg, distribuídos em um quadrado latino 4 x 4. Cada período experimental teve duração de 20 dias - 10 para adaptação às dietas, seis para coletas de amostras de fezes e digestas de abomaso, um para a coleta de líquido ruminal, um para a coleta total de urina, em 24 horas, e dois para a coleta de conteúdo ruminal. Para determinação da excreção fecal, utilizou-se o óxido crômico como indicador. Os consumos de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT não foram influenciados pelos níveis de proteína bruta (PB das dietas, mas os consumos de PB aumentaram e os de extrato etéreo (EE e carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF reduziram com o incremento de PB das dietas. As digestibilidades aparentes totais da MS, MO e PB aumentaram linearmente com a concentração protéica das dietas. As digestibilidades aparentes ruminal e intestinal dos nutrientes não foram afetadas pelos níveis de PB das dietas, com exceção à digestibilidade intestinal da PB, que aumentou 2,77 unidades para cada percentual de PB acrescentado à dieta.The objective of this trial was to study the effects of different dietary levels of crude protein (CP on intake and apparent total tract, intestinal, and ruminal digestibilities of nutrients in Holstein x Zebu steers. The diets contained [dry matter (DM basis]: 10.5, 12, 13.5, or 15% of CP and a forage (Tifton 85:concentrate ratio of 65:35. Four castrated animals averaging 487.3 kg of body weight at the beginning of the trial and fitted with both abomasum and rumen cannulas were randomly assigned to a 4 x 4 Latin square. Each experimental period lasted 20 days with 10 days for diet adaptation and 10 days for sample collection (feces, abomasum digesta, ruminal content, and urine. Chromium oxide was used as the external marker for determination of fecal excretion. Increasing dietary levels of CP did not change significantly the intakes of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and total digestible nutrients (TDN. However, intake of CP increased while that of ether extract (EE and non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC decreased with the increment of dietary CP. Apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, OM, and CP all increased linearly by increasing the dietary CP from 10.5 to 15%. Except for intestinal digestibility of CP that increased 2.77 percentage units for each 1% increment in the diet CP, the different dietary CP levels did not affect intestinal and ruminal digestibilities of all remaining nutrients in the current trial.

  1. Rendimiento masticatorio y nivel de satisfacción de pacientes tratados con prótesis totales en la Universidad Mayor / Masticatory performance and satisfaction level in patients treated with complete dentures

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniela, von Kretschmann San Martin; Alejandro, Torres Varela; Marcial, Sierra Fuentes; Julieta, del Pozo Bassi; Rodrigo, Quiroga Aravena; Rodrigo, Quiroga del Pozo.

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio para medir y comparar el rendimiento masticatorio empleando el Test de Manly en 2 grupos de 18 individuos cada uno. El primer grupo estaba conformado por pacientes desdentados totales tratados en la Universidad Mayor en el año 2012 con prótesis totales removibles, y el segundo [...] grupo, por pacientes con dentadura natural completa. Además, al grupo de pacientes rehabilitados con prótesis totales se le aplicó la encuesta GOHAI para conocer el nivel de satisfacción con el uso de sus prótesis. Los resultados muestran que el rendimiento masticatorio es muy superior en los individuos dentados naturales con respecto a los portadores de prótesis totales, y esta diferencia es estadísticamente significativa. Los pacientes portadores de prótesis totales señalan un bajo nivel de satisfacción con el uso de sus dentaduras completas, en especial durante la función masticatoria. Abstract in english This study was conducted in order to measure and compare the masticatory performance using the Manly Test in 2 groups of 18 people. The first group was formed by edentulous patients treated in the Universidad Mayor of Santiago, Chile, in 2012 with removable dentures, and the second group consisted o [...] f patients with complete natural dentition. In addition, the GOHAI questionnaire was also applied to determinate the level of satisfaction of the group of patients rehabilitated with complete dentures. The results showed that masticatory performance is much higher in individuals with complete natural dentition than in patients rehabilitated with complete dentures, with the difference being statistically significant. Patients with dentures indicated a low level of satisfaction with the use of their complete dentures, especially during masticatory function.

  2. Evaluation of Serumal Levels of AST, ALT, Total Bilirubin, Glucose, Urea and Creatinin in Mice after Administration of Tc-99m MIBI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Amouoghli Tabrizi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Tc-99m MIBI methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI is a lipophilic cationic agent which is widely used for myocardial perfusion imaging and also for the detection of various tumors. In present study, for evaluation of serum level of AST, ALT, Total bilirubin, FBC, Urea and Creatinin, 25 mice, respectively were selected and they were divided in 5 groups. 0.3 mC/kg of drug was injected to 4 groups via tail vein. In the control group, before beginning of the investigation bleeding was done. Twenty four hours after injection from the 2nd group, 48 h later from the 3rd group, one week later from the 4th group and two weeks later from the 5th group bleeding was done respectively and the levels of Glucose, Urea, creatinin, ALT, AST and T-bilirubin, respectively were measured using spectophotometr (Biowave S2100 made in England and diagnostic kits (made in bio-chemistry company, Iran. In Comparison to control group, results had significant differences in serum level of Urea, Creatinin and total bilirubin after 24 and 48 h of administration(p<0.05. Also there were insignificant differences in serum ALT and AST level and Glucose after 24 h of administration in all groups (p<0.05. Results shows that more care is needed for administration of drug in diabetic, renal and hepatic patients.

  3. Total mercury and methylmercury levels in pregnant women, nursing women and preschool children resident in fishing villages in the eighth region of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of this project is to perform a descriptive study about the levels of total mercury (Hg-T) and of methylmercury (Me-Hg) in scalp hair specimens of a selected human population of high risk in the Eighth Region of Chile, the group studied included pregnant women (PW), nursing women (NW) and preschool children residing in fishing villages distributed within the coastal zone of this region, the diets of the test group included fish and shellfish as main food components. The degree of Hg contamination of this population was compared to a control population (''core programme''). The methylmercury-to-total mercury ratio (Me-Hg/Hg-T) levels in scalp hair enabled interpretation of the results with respect to the degree of contamination by Hg, and the dietary habits of the sample donors of each fishing village under study. Furthermore, Se levels in scalp hair of the populations with relatively high Hg content were to be investigated for possible correlation with Me-Hg levels (''supplementary programme''). 5 refs, 2 figs, 9 tabs

  4. Comparison of the Effects of Three Extract Sorts of Soybean DETAM 1 on the Total Cholesterol Level in Balb-C Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meilinah Hidayat

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypercholesterolemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Pharmacological treatment of  hypercholesterolemia are known to have side effects, hence the need for an alternative medicine, like herbal medicine, such as soybean as an example. Research objective is to compare the effects of ethanol extract, protein extract, and ethyl acetate fraction of soybean tempeh Detam-1 on the total serum cholesterol level of male mice. METHODS: This study was a laboratory experimental study with Completely Randomized Design (CRD method. Twenty five balb-C strain male mice were allocated into five groups, namely: the negative-control (aquabidest, the positive-control (simvastatin, ethanol extract, protein extract and ethyl acetate fraction of the soybean tempeh Detam-1 and all were fed with high cholesterol containing food for 31 days. Starting on the 18th day all groups were treated for 14 days. The observed parameter was the total serum cholesterol level. The data of the study results were analyzed with ANOVA, followed by Tukey HSD test. RESULTS: There were significant differences between treatment groups and the negative-control (p=0.004. The reduction of the total cholesterol level of soy ethanol extract was 35.11±15%, the ethyl acetate fraction of soybean tempeh 26.48±17%, and soy protein extract was 15.33±33.1%, and no significant difference was noted in the positive-control group (simvastatin. CONCLUSIONS: The ethanol extract of soybean seed, protein extract of soybean seed, and ethyl acetate fraction of soybean tempeh Detam-1 have the same effect as do simvastin, and ethanol extract of soybean seed is the most effective substance for lowering total serum cholesterol in Balb-C male mice. KEYWORDS: hypericholesterolemia, ethanol extract, protein extract and ethyl acetate fraction, soybean Detam-1.

  5. Colimetria de água marinha em áreas de cultivo e extrativismo de mexilhões no município de Niterói, RJ / Coliform enumeration in mussel-growing waters from Niteroi city, RJ-Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.A., Pinheiro Jr.; L.A.T., Oliveira; R.M., Franco; J.C.A.P., Carvalho.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Analisaram-se amostras de água do mar de cinco pontos da Baía de Guanabara quanto ao número mais provável (NMP) de coliformes totais e de Escherichia coli usando-se o método fluorogênico, e verificaram-se o pH, a salinidade e a temperatura dos locais de colheita. As contagens de E. coli nas amostras [...] das estações Icaraí, Boa Viagem e Santa Cruz foram, em média, acima do previsto na legislação, enquanto que nas estações Piratininga e Rio Branco, 92,9% e 100% das amostras tiveram contagens de E. coli menor que 3/100ml. Observou-se relação positiva entre coliformes totais e E. coli, enquanto que a correlação entre colimetria, pH, salinidade e temperatura da água não foi significativa. Temperatura e pH mostraram pouca variação entre as estações, sendo as médias de salinidade, coliformes totais e E. coli semelhantes em Icaraí, Boa Viagem e Santa Cruz. Piratininga e Rio Branco apresentaram médias diferentes destas e semelhantes entre si. Os resultados em Icaraí, Boa Viagem e Santa Cruz indicam provável impropriedade para o cultivo e/ou extrativismo de mexilhões destinados ao consumo, enquanto que os de Piratininga e Rio Branco indicam provável propriedade para a instalação de cultivo de mexilhões ou mesmo para depuração natural de mexilhões cultivados em águas contaminadas. Abstract in english Water samples from five different sites on Guanabara Bay (Icaraí, Boa Viagem, Santa Cruz, Piratininga, and Rio Branco) were analyzed for estimated numbers of coliform and Escherichiacoli. Water pH, salt concentration, and temperature were measuredin the sampling place. E.coli countings for samples c [...] ollected in Icaraí, Boa Viagem, and Santa Cruz were usually higher than the values legallyaccepted by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture. In Piratininga and Rio Branco, respectively, 92.3% and 100% of the sampleshad countings of lessthan 3 E.coli/100ml. A significant correlation was found between total coliforms and E. coli countings. The average water temperature and pH were equal in the investigated sites. By contrast, water salinity, total coliforms, and E. coli counts were statistically equal in Icaraí, Boa Viagem, and Santa Cruz, but different when compared to samples collected in Piratininga and Rio Branco. Nevertheless, samples collected in Piratininga and Rio Branco were statistically similar in these two sites. Results indicate that water from Icaraí, Boa Viagem, and Santa Cruz are unsuitable for cultivating and/or harvesting bivalves for human consumption.

  6. Colimetria de água marinha em áreas de cultivo e extrativismo de mexilhões no município de Niterói, RJ Coliform enumeration in mussel-growing waters from Niteroi city, RJ-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Pinheiro Jr.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Analisaram-se amostras de água do mar de cinco pontos da Baía de Guanabara quanto ao número mais provável (NMP de coliformes totais e de Escherichia coli usando-se o método fluorogênico, e verificaram-se o pH, a salinidade e a temperatura dos locais de colheita. As contagens de E. coli nas amostras das estações Icaraí, Boa Viagem e Santa Cruz foram, em média, acima do previsto na legislação, enquanto que nas estações Piratininga e Rio Branco, 92,9% e 100% das amostras tiveram contagens de E. coli menor que 3/100ml. Observou-se relação positiva entre coliformes totais e E. coli, enquanto que a correlação entre colimetria, pH, salinidade e temperatura da água não foi significativa. Temperatura e pH mostraram pouca variação entre as estações, sendo as médias de salinidade, coliformes totais e E. coli semelhantes em Icaraí, Boa Viagem e Santa Cruz. Piratininga e Rio Branco apresentaram médias diferentes destas e semelhantes entre si. Os resultados em Icaraí, Boa Viagem e Santa Cruz indicam provável impropriedade para o cultivo e/ou extrativismo de mexilhões destinados ao consumo, enquanto que os de Piratininga e Rio Branco indicam provável propriedade para a instalação de cultivo de mexilhões ou mesmo para depuração natural de mexilhões cultivados em águas contaminadas.Water samples from five different sites on Guanabara Bay (Icaraí, Boa Viagem, Santa Cruz, Piratininga, and Rio Branco were analyzed for estimated numbers of coliform and Escherichiacoli. Water pH, salt concentration, and temperature were measuredin the sampling place. E.coli countings for samples collected in Icaraí, Boa Viagem, and Santa Cruz were usually higher than the values legallyaccepted by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture. In Piratininga and Rio Branco, respectively, 92.3% and 100% of the sampleshad countings of lessthan 3 E.coli/100ml. A significant correlation was found between total coliforms and E. coli countings. The average water temperature and pH were equal in the investigated sites. By contrast, water salinity, total coliforms, and E. coli counts were statistically equal in Icaraí, Boa Viagem, and Santa Cruz, but different when compared to samples collected in Piratininga and Rio Branco. Nevertheless, samples collected in Piratininga and Rio Branco were statistically similar in these two sites. Results indicate that water from Icaraí, Boa Viagem, and Santa Cruz are unsuitable for cultivating and/or harvesting bivalves for human consumption.

  7. Raised levels of metal ions in the blood in patients who have undergone uncemented metal-on-polyethylene Trident-Accolade total hip replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, P; Bancroft, G; Burton, A; Collier, S; Shaylor, P; Sinha, A

    2014-01-01

    The issues surrounding raised levels of metal ions in the blood following large head metal-on-metal total hip replacement (THR), such as cobalt and chromium, have been well documented. Despite the national popularity of uncemented metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) THR using a large-diameter femoral head, few papers have reported the levels of metal ions in the blood following this combination. Following an isolated failure of a 44 mm Trident-Accolade uncemented THR associated with severe wear between the femoral head and the trunnion in the presence of markedly elevated levels of cobalt ions in the blood, we investigated the relationship between modular femoral head diameter and the levels of cobalt and chromium ions in the blood following this THR. A total of 69 patients received an uncemented Trident-Accolade MoP THR in 2009. Of these, 43 patients (23 men and 20 women, mean age 67.0 years) were recruited and had levels of cobalt and chromium ions in the blood measured between May and June 2012. The patients were then divided into three groups according to the diameter of the femoral head used: 12 patients in the 28 mm group (controls), 18 patients in the 36 mm group and 13 patients in the 40 mm group. A total of four patients had identical bilateral prostheses in situ at phlebotomy: one each in the 28 mm and 36 mm groups and two in the 40 mm group. There was a significant increase in the mean levels of cobalt ions in the blood in those with a 36 mm diameter femoral head compared with those with a 28 mm diameter head (p = 0.013). The levels of cobalt ions in the blood were raised in those with a 40 mm diameter head but there was no statistically significant difference between this group and the control group (p = 0.152). The levels of chromium ions in the blood were normal in all patients. The clinical significance of this finding is unclear, but we have stopped using femoral heads with a diameter of ? 36 mm, and await further larger studies to clarify whether, for instance, this issue particularly affects this combination of components. PMID:24395309

  8. Total levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 in plasma yield high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity in patients with colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Mads N; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Stephens, Ross W; Jensen, Vibeke; Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Sørensen, Steen; Overgaard, Jens; Lilja, Hans; Harris, Adrian; Murphy, Gillian; Brünner, Nils

    2002-01-01

    % specificity, and patients with right-sided CC with a sensitivity of 72% at 98% specificity. Combining carcinoembryonic antigen and TIMP-1 measurements increased the sensitivities obtained from TIMP-1 measurements alone. CONCLUSIONS: TIMP-1 was significantly elevated in plasma from CC and RC patients...... levels between healthy donors and IBD or breast cancer patients, whereas patients with CC or RC had significantly elevated TIMP-1 levels. Total TIMP-1 levels identified patients with CC with a sensitivity of 63% at 98% specificity, patients with early CC (Dukes' A+B) with a sensitivity of 56% at 98......, including those with early-stage disease. Sensitivity and specificity were both sufficiently high to consider TIMP-1 as a marker for the early identification of CC patients, in particular, those with right-sided CC....

  9. Influence of pH and Oxidant Ozone to Amount of Bacterium Coliform at Hospital Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influence of pH and oxidant ozone to amount of bacterium coliform at hospital waste have been done. As sample is liquid waste Public Hospital of town (RSUD) Yogyakarta. Sample waste processed by 3 kinds of treatment, that is first certain ozone waste during, that is waste given by the third and just chalk of waste given by the certain and ozonization chalk during. From third the treatment, in the reality third treatment which can give the maximal result, that is waste given the chalk until pH waste 8.5 and ozonization during 40 minute give the following result : bacterium coliform from 810.000 MPN become 0 MPN ( cell / 100 mL). This result have fulfilled the conditions as according to decision of Governor of DIY no. 65 year 1999 for the waste of faction II, that is waste used for the irrigation of fishery and agriculture. (author)

  10. Relation between chronic periodontal disease and plasmatic levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and fractions / Relação entre doença periodontal crônica e os níveis plasmáticos de triglicérides, colesterol total e frações

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Cristina Posch, Machado; Maria Rozeli de Souza, Quirino; Luiz Fernando Costa, Nascimento.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A doença periodontal crônica, bastante prevalente na população adulta, tem sido relacionada com diversas alterações sistêmicas, entre elas as dislipidemias, que são fatores de risco conhecidos para a aterosclerose. Bacteremias transitórias e recorrentes, que podem ser causadas pela infecção periodon [...] tal, levam a uma intensa resposta inflamatória local e sistêmica, promovendo modificações ao longo do corpo. A proposta do presente estudo foi verificar se a presença da doença periodontal, de moderada a severa, está relacionada com a elevação dos lipídios séricos. Participaram do estudo sessenta indivíduos, acima de vinte anos, divididos em grupo teste, com doença periodontal, e grupo controle, sem doença periodontal, pareados quanto ao gênero e à idade, provenientes da Clínica Odontológica da Universidade de Taubaté/SP, nos quais foram determinados os níveis de colesterol total, de frações e de triglicérides. Foram avaliadas também variáveis como idade, gênero e índice de massa corpórea. Para classificação da lipidemia, foram considerados os valores recomendados pela Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia. As médias dos valores do colesterol total (192,1 mg/dl ± 40,9) e dos triglicérides (153,5 mg/dl ± 105,6), no grupo teste, foram superiores às do grupo controle, 186,1 mg/dl ± 35,4 e 117,5 mg/dl ± 68, respectivamente, porém sem significância estatística. Concluiu-se, assim, que, na população estudada e com a metodologia empregada, a doença periodontal, independentemente da intensidade, não mostrou relação estatisticamente significante com a lipidemia. Abstract in english Many people in the world are affected by hyperlipidemia, which is a known risk factor for atherosclerotic disease. On the other hand, periodontitis, a prevalent oral disease, has been connected to several systemic health changes, including an altered lipid metabolism. Transient and recurrent bactere [...] mias, which may be caused by periodontal infection, induce an intense local and systemic inflammatory response, leading to changes in the whole body. The aim of the present study was to verify the relationship between severe and moderate periodontal disease and blood lipid levels. Sixty individuals seen at the clinics of the University of Taubaté, São Paulo, over 20 years old, were divided into two groups, with and without periodontitis, and paired according to sex and age. Their levels of total cholesterol, tryglicerides and fractions were determined. Variables related to high cholesterol levels, including age, sex and body mass index, were evaluated. The values recommended by the Brazilian Society of Cardiology were considered to classify lipidemia. The results showed that mean levels of cholesterol (192.1 mg/dl ± 40.9) and triglycerides (153.5 mg/dl ± 105.6) in individuals with periodontitis were higher than, but not statistically different from, those of individuals without periodontitis (186.1 mg/dl ± 35.4 and 117.5 mg/dl ± 68, respectively). Therefore, this study has demonstrated that there is no significant relationship between periodontal disease, regardless of its intensity, and blood lipid levels in the studied population.

  11. Relation between chronic periodontal disease and plasmatic levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and fractions Relação entre doença periodontal crônica e os níveis plasmáticos de triglicérides, colesterol total e frações

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Posch Machado

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Many people in the world are affected by hyperlipidemia, which is a known risk factor for atherosclerotic disease. On the other hand, periodontitis, a prevalent oral disease, has been connected to several systemic health changes, including an altered lipid metabolism. Transient and recurrent bacteremias, which may be caused by periodontal infection, induce an intense local and systemic inflammatory response, leading to changes in the whole body. The aim of the present study was to verify the relationship between severe and moderate periodontal disease and blood lipid levels. Sixty individuals seen at the clinics of the University of Taubaté, São Paulo, over 20 years old, were divided into two groups, with and without periodontitis, and paired according to sex and age. Their levels of total cholesterol, tryglicerides and fractions were determined. Variables related to high cholesterol levels, including age, sex and body mass index, were evaluated. The values recommended by the Brazilian Society of Cardiology were considered to classify lipidemia. The results showed that mean levels of cholesterol (192.1 mg/dl ± 40.9 and triglycerides (153.5 mg/dl ± 105.6 in individuals with periodontitis were higher than, but not statistically different from, those of individuals without periodontitis (186.1 mg/dl ± 35.4 and 117.5 mg/dl ± 68, respectively. Therefore, this study has demonstrated that there is no significant relationship between periodontal disease, regardless of its intensity, and blood lipid levels in the studied population.A doença periodontal crônica, bastante prevalente na população adulta, tem sido relacionada com diversas alterações sistêmicas, entre elas as dislipidemias, que são fatores de risco conhecidos para a aterosclerose. Bacteremias transitórias e recorrentes, que podem ser causadas pela infecção periodontal, levam a uma intensa resposta inflamatória local e sistêmica, promovendo modificações ao longo do corpo. A proposta do presente estudo foi verificar se a presença da doença periodontal, de moderada a severa, está relacionada com a elevação dos lipídios séricos. Participaram do estudo sessenta indivíduos, acima de vinte anos, divididos em grupo teste, com doença periodontal, e grupo controle, sem doença periodontal, pareados quanto ao gênero e à idade, provenientes da Clínica Odontológica da Universidade de Taubaté/SP, nos quais foram determinados os níveis de colesterol total, de frações e de triglicérides. Foram avaliadas também variáveis como idade, gênero e índice de massa corpórea. Para classificação da lipidemia, foram considerados os valores recomendados pela Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia. As médias dos valores do colesterol total (192,1 mg/dl ± 40,9 e dos triglicérides (153,5 mg/dl ± 105,6, no grupo teste, foram superiores às do grupo controle, 186,1 mg/dl ± 35,4 e 117,5 mg/dl ± 68, respectivamente, porém sem significância estatística. Concluiu-se, assim, que, na população estudada e com a metodologia empregada, a doença periodontal, independentemente da intensidade, não mostrou relação estatisticamente significante com a lipidemia.

  12. Determination of the Best Level of Dietary Energy with Two Diet Formulation Methods Based on Total and Digestible Amino Acid on Broiler Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marziyeh Ghafari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effects of different levels of energy and methods of formulation of Amino Acid (AA requirements of diets, this experiment was conducted using 392 broiler chicks. The experiment was carried out using a complete randomize block design with 7 levels of energy 3175, 3075, 2975, 2875, 2775, 2675 and 2575 kcal kg-1 for grower diet and 3225, 3125, 3025, 2925, 2825, 2725 and 2625 kcal kg-1 for finisher diet and two methods of formulation of diets AA requirements (total and digestible as a factorial arrangement. Results showed that by increasing level of energy feed intake, body weight and FCR were promoted in grower diet (p<0.05. Effect of decreasing level of energy up to 2725 and 2825 kcal kg-1 was not significant on body weight and FCR in finisher diet, respectively. Formulating of diet based on total or digestible AA affected feed intake and FCR in finisher diet (p<0.05. Interaction effect of independent factors affected on body weight in grower diet (p<0.05. Decreasing level of energy increased gastrointestinal tract percentage weight (p<0.05. Formulation of diet based on digestible AA decreased gastrointestinal tract percentage weight (p<0.05. Abdominal fat decreased significantly as ME content of diets decreased. Results showed that it`s possible to reduce the level of energy up to 3175 kcal kg-1 in grower and 2725 kcal kg-1 in finisher diet for giving the best and economical performance response. Formulation of diet based on digestible AA in finisher diet resulted in promotion of performance.

  13. Racial differences in the association of CD14 polymorphisms with serum total IgE levels and allergen skin test reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang ZY

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ZongYao Wang,1 John S Sundy,1 Catherine M Foss,1 Huiman X Barnhart,2 Scott M Palmer,1 Sallie D Allgood,3 Evan Trudeau,1 Katie M Alexander,3 Marc C Levesque31Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, 2Duke Clinical Research Institute, 3Division of Rheumatology and Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USABackground: The CD14 C-159T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP has been investigated widely as a candidate genetic locus in patients with allergic disease. There are conflicting results for the association of the CD14 C-159T SNP with total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE levels and atopy. There are limited data regarding the association of the CD14 C-159T SNP in subjects of African ancestry. The aim of the study was to determine whether the C-159T SNP and other CD14 SNPs (C1188G, C1341T were associated with total serum IgE levels and with allergy skin test results in nonatopic and atopic subjects; as well as in Caucasian and African American subjects.Methods: A total of 291 participants, 18–40 years old, were screened to determine whether they were atopic and/or asthmatic. Analyses were performed to determine the association between CD14 C-159T, C1188G, or C1341T genotypes with serum IgE levels and with the number of positive skin tests among Caucasian or African American subjects.Results: We found no significant association of serum total IgE level with CD14 C-159T, C1188G, or C1341T genotypes within nonatopic or atopic subjects. Subjects with CD14-159 T alleles had significantly more positive allergen skin tests than subjects without CD14-159 T alleles (P = 0.0388. There was a significant association between the CD14 1188 G allele, but not the CD14 1341 T allele, with the number of positive skin-test results in Caucasians, but not in African Americans.Conclusion: These results support a possible association between CD14 polymorphisms and atopy. CD14-159 T or CD14 1188 G alleles were associated with atopic disease. For subjects with CD14 1188 G alleles, the association with atopic disease was stronger in Caucasians compared to African Americans.Keywords: total serum immunoglobulin E, IgE, skin prick test, SPT, CD14-159T, single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP, lipopolysaccharide, LPS, endotoxin

  14. Seasonal distribution and contamination levels of total PHCs, PAHs and heavy metals in coastal waters of the Alang-Sosiya ship scrapping yard, Gulf of Cambay, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa Reddy, M; Basha, Shaik; Joshi, H V; Ramachandraiah, G

    2005-12-01

    Alang-Sosiya situated on the Gulf of Cambay is one of the largest ship breaking yard in the world. The seasonal distribution and contamination levels of dissolved and/or dispersed total petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs), total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals in seawater during high tide are investigated. The concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals are higher in the winter than in the monsoon and summer. The concentrations of total PHCs and PAHs are about three times higher in the winter and two times in the monsoon or summer at Along-Sosiya and about twice in all seasons at two stations one on either side 5 km away from it as compared to the reference station at Mahuva, 60 km away towards the south. Further, the levels of PHCs are correlated with salinity and compared with those of other regions. The concentration of all metals is the highest in the winter season followed by the monsoon and summer. We carried out the quantitative analysis of the possible relationships among 13 variables such as Al, Fe, Pb, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, Co, pH, NO3-, NO2 and PO4(3-). PMID:15992858

  15. Prevention of clinical coliform mastitis in dairy cows by a mutant Escherichia coli vaccine.

    OpenAIRE

    González, R N; J.S. Cullor; Jasper, D E; Farver, T B; Bushnell, R B; Oliver, M.N.

    1989-01-01

    A prospective cohort study was undertaken in two commercial California dairies. The treatment group, 246 cows, received three doses of a whole cell bacterin of J5 Escherichia coli (mutant of E. coli O111:B4) plus Freund's incomplete adjuvant vaccine (two in the dry period and one after calving) while 240 unvaccinated cows served as controls. Thirty-five cases of clinical coliform mastitis were diagnosed, six in vaccinated cows and 29 in unvaccinated cows. Bacteria isolated from the clinical c...

  16. The Establish of the Coliforms/cm2 on the Area of Cattle Carcass Air Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Dorin Tibulca; Claudiu Dan Salagean; Mirela Jimborean

    2014-01-01

    Coliforms present in 1 cm2 of carcass surface shows the degree of contamination during slaughtering as well as the hygienic condition of the air, the slaughtering hall, the equipment getting in contact with the carcasses, of the utensils, operators’ work equipment, of the operators’ hygiene. The indicator is determined by inoculating microorganisms from the carcasses surface in nutritional and selective environments, followed by their placing under heat control and counting of the microorgani...

  17. The Establish of the Coliforms/cm2 on the Area of Cattle Carcass Air Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Tibulca

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Coliforms present in 1 cm2 of carcass surface shows the degree of contamination during slaughtering as well as the hygienic condition of the air, the slaughtering hall, the equipment getting in contact with the carcasses, of the utensils, operators’ work equipment, of the operators’ hygiene. The indicator is determined by inoculating microorganisms from the carcasses surface in nutritional and selective environments, followed by their placing under heat control and counting of the microorganisms.

  18. High milk neutrophil chemiluminescence limits the severity of bovine coliform mastitis

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrzad, Jalil; Duchateau, Luc; Burvenich, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) function changes during mastitis. To investigate the contribution of milk PMN to the severity of Escherichia coli (E. coli) mastitis, chemiluminescence ( CL) of blood and milk PMN and their efficiency to destroy coliform bacteria in the mammary gland were examined following the induction of E. coli mastitis in early lactating cows. To better assess and define the degree of mastitis severity, cows were classified as moderate and severe responders according to...

  19. Comparison of thermotolerant coliforms and Escherichia coli densities in freshwater bodies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elayse M., Hachich; Marisa, Di Bari; Ana Paula G., Christ; Cláudia C., Lamparelli; Solange S., Ramos; Maria Inês Z., Sato.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fecal bacterial indicator analyses have been widely used for monitoring the water quality. This study was designed to determine the ratio between the density of Escherichia coli and other Thermotolerant Coliforms (TtC) bacteria from freshwater samples collected for a two-year period of monitoring. T [...] tC were enumerated by membrane filtration on mFC agar. E. coli enumeration was done by two methods: TtC colonies identified in mFC were inoculated in EC-MUG or water samples were filtered and inoculated in modified mTEC agar media, and both methods were compared for quantitative recovery of E. coli. The results pointed out a mean percentage of E. coli among other thermotolerant coliforms (E. coli/TtC ratio) of 84.3% in mFC media. Taking these results into account, a mandatory standard of 1000 thermotolerant coliforms would correspond to 800 E. coli and the adoption of these E. coli based standards will represent a major improvement for the monitoring of freshwater quality.

  20. Avaliação de ensaios analíticos para detecção de coliformes fecais em queijo Minas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira M.L.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram submetidas à pesquisa de coliformes fecais, utilizando-se a técnica do número mais provável (NMP/g, 168 amostras de variedades de queijo Minas (20 frescal, 48 canastra e 100 padronizado coletadas em Belo Horizonte. Para a comparação de diferentes ensaios em temperatura elevada, utilizou-se o caldo EC isoladamente, e caldos EC e triptofano em paralelo. Visando à pesquisa de indol foi realizado ensaio para confirmação de produção de beta-D-glucuronidase e indol em caldo fluorocult lauril sulfato. Os resultados demonstraram não haver diferença estatística significativa entre as três metodologias utilizadas para a pesquisa de coliformes fecais, considerando os índices de aceitação definidos pelos padrões legais de inspeção de queijo Minas. A facilidade de execução do ensaio da beta-D-glucuronidase em caldo fluorocult lauril sulfato, associada à confiabilidade dos resultados e demanda de tempo (redução de 96 para até 48h, permitem sugeri-lo como método de escolha para enumeração de coliformes em queijo Minas.

  1. Escherichia coli and fecal-coliform bacteria as indicators of recreational water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, D.S.; Myers, D.N.; Metzker, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommended that Escherichia coli (E. coli) be used in place of fecal-coliform bacteria in State recreational water-quality standards as an indicator of fecal contamination. This announcement followed an epidemiological study in which E. coli concentration was shown to be a better predictor of swimming-associated gastrointestinal illness than fecal-coliform concentration. Water-resource managers from Ohio have decided to collect information specific to their waters and decide whether to use E. coli or fecal-coliform bacteria as the basis for State recreational water-quality standards. If one indicator is a better predictor of recreational water quality than the other and if the relation between the two indicators is variable, then the indicator providing the most accurate measure of recreational water quality should be used in water-quality standards. Water-quality studies of the variability of concentrations of E. coli to fecal-coliform bacteria have shown that (1) concentrations of the two indicators are positively correlated, (2) E. coli to fecal-coliform ratios differ considerably from site to site, and (3) the E. coli criteria recommended by USEPA may be more difficult to meet than current (1992) fecal-coliform standards. In this study, a statistical analysis was done on concentrations of E. coli and fecal-coliform bacteria in water samples collected by two government agencies in Ohio-- the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission (ORSANCO). Data were organized initially into five data sets for statistical analysis: (1) Cuyahoga River, (2) Olentangy River, (3) Scioto River, (4) Ohio River at Anderson Ferry, and (5) Ohio River at Cincinnati Water Works and Tanners Creek. The USGS collected the data in sets 1, 2, and 3, whereas ORSANCO collected the data in sets 4 and 5. The relation of E. coli to fecal-coliform concentration was investigated by use of linear-regression analysis and analysis of covariance. Log-transformed E. coli and fecal-coliform concentrations were highly correlated in all data sets (r-values ranged from 0.929 to 0.984). Linear regression analysis on USGS and ORSANCO data sets showed that concentration of E. coli could be predicted from fecal-coliform concentration (coefficients of determination (R2) ranged from 0.863 to 0.970). Results of analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) indicated that the predictive equations among the three USGS data sets and two ORSANCO data sets were not significantly different and that the data could be pooled into two large data sets, one for USGS data and one for ORSANCO data. However, results of ANCOVA indicated that USGS and ORSANCO data could not be pooled into one large data set. Predictions of E. coli concentrations calculated for USGS And ORSANCO regression relations, based on fecal-coliform concentrations set to equal Ohio water-quality standards, further showed the differences in E. coli to fecal-coliform relations among data sets. For USGS data, a predicted geometric mean of 176 col/100 mL (number of colonies per 100 milliliters) was greater than the current geometric-mean E. coli standard for bathing water of 126 col/100mL. In contrast, for ORSANCO data, the predicted geometric mean of 101 col/100 mL was less than the current E. coli standard. The risk of illness associated with predicted E. coli concentrations for USGS and ORSANCO data was evaluated by use of the USEPA regression equation that predicts swimming-related gastroenteritis rates from E. coli concentrations.1 The predicted geometric-mean E. coli concentrations for bathing water of 176 col/100 mL for USGS data and 101 col/100 mL for ORSANCO data would allow 9.4 and 7.1 gastrointestinal illnesses per 1,000 swimmers, respectively. This prediction compares well with the illness rate of 8 individuals per 1,000 swimmers estimated by the USEPA for an E. coli concentration of 126 col/100 mL. Therefore, the

  2. Monitoring and spatial distribution of heterotrophic bacteria and fecal coliforms in the Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutterbach Márcia T. S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of heterothrophic bacteria and fecal coliforms was monitored at four sampling stations located near the shore of the Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon, in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Water samples were collected, monthly from October 1994 through September 1998. The highest heterothrophic count (6.5x10 7 CFU/100mL was recorded at stations 2 and 4 during August 1998 and the lowest (10 ³ CFU/100 mL at station 3 during February 1995. With respect to fecal coliforms, the highest and lowest counts were 1.6x10 5 coliforms/100mL at station 3 during March 1997 and <1 coliform/100mL at all the stations during February 1995 and September 1997 as well as station 3 during February 1998. The data indicated a percentage increase of the microorganisms surveyed over time at all the sampling stations studied.

  3. Antibiotic resistance of fecal coliforms after long-term withdrawal of therapeutic and subtherapeutic antibiotic use in a swine herd.

    OpenAIRE

    Langlois, B. E.; Cromwell, G L; Stahly, T S; Dawson, K. A.; Hays, V W

    1983-01-01

    Tetracycline resistance of fecal coliforms isolated from swine decreased from 82 to 42%, a decrease of less than 50%, after the use of all forms of antimicrobial agents were discontinued in the herd for 126 months.

  4. Niveles de carbono orgánico total en el Suelo de Conservación del Distrito Federal, centro de México / Levels of total organic carbon in The Suelo de Conservación of the Distrito Federal, Central Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gilberto, Vela Correa; Jorge, López Blanco; María de Lourdes, Rodríguez Gamiño.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El Suelo de Conservación (SC) del Distrito Federal es un reservorio de carbono, por lo que es importante contar con datos sobre su capacidad de almacenamiento bajo diferentes tipos de cobertura vegetal. En este trabajo se estimó el contenido de carbono orgánico total en suelos (COS) de áreas con cob [...] ertura de bosque, uso agrícola y en áreas reforestadas. Se delimitaron unidades geomorfogenéticas que sirvieron de base para el muestreo de suelos. En total se estudiaron 50 sitios con muestras de suelo tomadas a una profundidad de 0-30 cm con diferente cobertura vegetal. Se determinó la cantidad de carbono orgánico total en el suelo por hectáreas (COS) a partir de una ecuación que considera la densidad aparente, porosidad y superficie. El mayor contenido de COS se presentó en los suelos de sitios reforestados con Abies religiosa, Pinus spp., y Pinus-Cupressus. Los suelos agrícolas contienen menos de la mitad de COS que los suelos forestales. Los contenidos más altos de COS se localizan en la Sierra de las Cruces y Sierra de Guadalupe, así como en los suelos de los volcanes Pelado, Cuautzin y Tláloc. Las delegaciones cuyos suelos tienen mayor contenido de COS son Cuajimalpa y Magdalena Contreras. Es necesario evaluar, desde una perspectiva económico-ambiental, los servicios ecosistémicos que ofrece el SC, en este caso como almacén de carbono en el suelo, a fin de que los estímulos económicos sean atractivos para los poseedores de la tierra. Abstract in english The Suelo de Conservación (SC) of the Distrito Federal (Central Mexico) is a reservoir of carbon, so it is important to have storage-capacity data under different types of vegetation. In this paper we estimated the total organic carbon content in soils (TOCS) of land cover areas of forest, forested [...] areas and agricultural use. Geomorphogenetic units were delineated that were the basis for soil sampling. In total 50 sites were considered with soil samples taken at a 0-30 cm depth with different land cover. We determined the total amount of organic carbon in soil (TOCS) from an equation considering the bulk density, porosity and surface area. The highest content of TOCS is presented in the soils of sites reforested with Abies religiosa, Pinus spp. and Pinus-Cupressus. The agricultural soils contain less than a half of COS in relation the forest soils. Higher levels of TOCS content are located in the Las Cruces and Guadalupe Ranges, as well as the volcanic soils of the Pelado, Tláloc and Cuautzin volcanoes. Local administrative units whose soils have the highest concentration of TOCS are Cuajimalpa and Magdalena Contreras. It is necessary to assess, from an economic-environmental approach the ecosystem services provided by the SC, in this case as a soil carbon storage, so that economic incentives are attractive to the local land-owners.

  5. A study of lipid- and water-soluble arsenic species in liver of Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua) containing high levels of total arsenic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sele, Veronika; Sloth, Jens JØrgen

    2015-01-01

    In the present study liver samples (n = 26) of Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua), ranging in total arsenic concentrations from 2.1 to 240 mg/kg liver wet weight (ww), were analysed for their content of total arsenic and arsenic species in the lipid-soluble and water-soluble fractions. The arsenic concentrations in the lipid fractions ranged from 1.8 to 16.4 mg As/kg oil of liver, and a linear correlation (r(2) = 0.80, p <0.001) was observed between the total arsenic concentrations in liver and the total arsenic concentrations in the respective lipid fractions of the same livers. The relative proportion of arsenolipids was considerably lower in liver samples with high total arsenic levels (33-240 mg/kg ww), which contained from 3 to 7% of the total arsenic in the lipid-soluble fraction. In contrast liver samples with low arsenic concentrations (2.1-33 mg/kg ww) contained up to 50% of the total arsenic as lipid-soluble species. Arsenic speciation analysis of the lipid-soluble fractions of the livers, using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS), revealed the presence of several arsenolipids. Three major arsenic-containing hydrocarbons (C17H39AsO, C19H41AsO and C23H37AsO) and five arsenic-containing fatty acids (C17H35AsO3, C(19)H(39)AO(3), C19H37AsO3, C23H37AsO3 and C24H37AsO3) were identified using HPLC coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS). Arsenobetaine was the major arsenic species in the water-soluble fraction of the livers, while dimethylarsinate, arsenocholine and inorganic arsenic were minor constituents. Inorganic arsenic accounted for less than 0.1% of the total arsenic in the liver samples. (C) 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. The balance of kinetic and total energy simulated by the OSU two-level atmospheric general circulation model for January and July

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.-T.; Gates, W. L.; Kim, J.-W.

    1984-01-01

    A three-year simulation which prescribes seasonally varying solar radiation and sea surface temperature is the basis of the present study of the horizontal structure of the balances of kinetic and total energy simulated by Oregon State University's two-level atmospheric general circulation model. Mechanisms responsible for the local energy changes are identified, and the energy balance requirement's fulfilment is examined. In January, the vertical integral of the total energy shows large amounts of external heating over the North Pacific and Atlantic, together with cooling over most of the land area of the Northern Hemisphere. In July, an overall seasonal reversal is found. Both seasons are also characterized by strong energy flux divergence in the tropics, in association with the poleward transport of heat and momentum.

  7. Fecal Coliform and E. coli Concentrations in Effluent-Dominated Streams of the Upper Santa Cruz Watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Emily C. Sanders; Ann Pitchford; Yongping Yuan

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the water quality of the Upper Santa Cruz Watershed in southern Arizona in terms of fecal coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria concentrations discharged as treated effluent and from nonpoint sources into the Santa Cruz River and surrounding tributaries. The objectives were to (1) assess the water quality in the Upper Santa Cruz Watershed in terms of fecal coliform and E. coli by comparing the available data to the water quality criteria established by Arizona, ...

  8. Survival of Salmonella adelaide and fecal coliforms in coarse sands of the swan costal plain, Western Australia.

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, W F; Mee, B J

    1982-01-01

    The survival of Salmonella adelaide and fecal coliforms in two coarse sands influenced by two sources of septic tank effluent was studied. The experiments were conducted in conditions that reflected the soil environment beneath functioning septic tank systems. Significant differences in survival were found with different effluent sources. In one experiment the survival of S. adelaide was similar to that of fecal coliforms; in the other it was not. The nonuniform, multiphasic nature of surviva...

  9. Temperature range for growth of Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 and selected coliforms in E. coli medium.

    OpenAIRE

    Raghubeer, E V; Matches, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    Escherichia coli serotype O157H:7 and five other fecal and nonfecal coliforms were tested for minimum and maximum temperatures for growth in E. coli medium by using a temperature gradient incubator with a mean temperature increment of 1.67 degrees C (+/- 0.392). The temperature range for growth of E. coli O157:H7 is inconsistent with that of other fecal coliforms, suggesting that this pathogen is excluded with standard enumeration procedures used for foods and water.

  10. Multivariate Logistic Regression for Predicting Total Culturable Virus Presence at the Intake of a Potable-Water Treatment Plant: Novel Application of the Atypical Coliform/Total Coliform Ratio?

    OpenAIRE

    Black, L. E.; Brion, G. M.; S.J. Freitas

    2007-01-01

    Predicting the presence of enteric viruses in surface waters is a complex modeling problem. Multiple water quality parameters that indicate the presence of human fecal material, the load of fecal material, and the amount of time fecal material has been in the environment are needed. This paper presents the results of a multiyear study of raw-water quality at the inlet of a potable-water plant that related 17 physical, chemical, and biological indices to the presence of enteric viruses as indi...

  11. Total mercury and methylmercury levels in pregnant women, nursing women and preschool children resident in fishing villages in the eighth region of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of this project is to perform a descriptive study about the levels of total mercury (Hg-T) and of methylmercury (Me-Hg) in human scalp hair specimens of a selected human population of high risk in the Eighth Region of Chile (composed by pregnant women, nurse women and prescholar children residing in fisheries distributed within the coastal zone of this region), whose diet should include fish and shellfish as main food components, and to evaluate the degree of mercury contamination of this population by comparison with a control population. 6 refs, 2 tabs

  12. Evaluation of Serum Levels of HER2, MMP-9, Nitric Oxide, and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Egyptian Breast Cancer Patients: Correlation with Clinico-Pathological Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Rashad, Yara A.; Elkhodary, Tawfik R.; El-Gayar, Amal M.; Eissa, Laila A.

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is by far the most common cancer in women worldwide and the main cause of cancer-related mortality. Breast cancer accounts for 38% of all malignancies among Egyptian women. The aim of our study was to evaluate the serum levels of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), nitric oxide (NO), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in breast cancer patients and to correlate these markers with clinico-pathological parameters. Serum HER2, MMP-9...

  13. Modification of Death rate and Disturbances induced in the Levels of serum total Lipids and free fatty acids of irradiated rats by ascorbic acid and serotonin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intraperitoneal injection of normal rats with ascorbic acid (10 mg/100 g body weight ) or serotonin (2 mg/100 g body weight) had no harmful effect on the life span. Moreover, the levels of serum total lipids and free fatty acids did not show any significant changes at 3, 7, 10 and 14 days after injection. Administration of ascorbic acid or serotonin to rats at the pre mentioned doses, 15 minutes, before gamma irradiation at 7.5 Gy (single dose ) improved the survival time of rats and the hyperlipemic state recorded after radiation exposure

  14. Essential fatty acids for premenstrual syndrome and their effect on prolactin and total cholesterol levels: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinho Neto João S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of polyunsaturated fatty acids for the treatment of the premenstrual syndrome (PMS using a graded symptom scale and to assess the effect of this treatment on basal plasma levels of prolactin and total cholesterol. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted with 120 women with PMS divided into three groups and treated with 1 or 2 grams of the medication or placebo. Symptoms were recorded over a 6-month period using the Prospective Record of the Impact and Severity of Menstruation (PRISM calendar. Total cholesterol and prolactin levels were measured. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, Pearson's chi-square test, Wilcoxon's nonparametric signed-rank test for paired samples and the Mann-Whitney nonparametric test for independent samples were used in the statistical analysis. Results There were no differences in age, marital status, schooling or ethnicity between the groups. In the group treated with 1 gram of the medication, a significant reduction was found when the median PRISM score recorded in the luteal phase at baseline (99 was compared with the median score recorded in the 3rd month (58 and in the 6th month of evaluation (35. In the 2-gram group, these differences were even more significant (baseline score: 98; 3rd month: 48; 6th month: 28. In the placebo group, there was a significant reduction at the 3rd but not at the 6th month (baseline: 96.5; 3rd month: 63.5; 6th month: 62. The difference between the phases of the menstrual cycle was greater in the 2-gram group compared to the group treated with 1 gram of the medication. There were no statistically significant differences in prolactin or total cholesterol levels between baseline values and those recorded after six months of treatment. Conclusion The difference between the groups using the medication and the placebo group with respect to the improvement in symptomatology appears to indicate the effectiveness of the drug. Improvement in symptoms was higher when the 2-gram dose was used. This medication was not associated with any changes in prolactin or total cholesterol levels in these women.

  15. Failure of the most-probable-number technique to detect coliforms in drinking water and raw water supplies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, T M; Waarvick, C E; Seidler, R J; LeChevallier, M W

    1981-01-01

    A procedure was developed to detect false-negative reactions (interference) in the standard most-probable-number (S-MPN) technique for coliform enumeration of untreated surface water and potable water supplies. This modified MPN (M-MPN) procedure allowed a quantitative assessment of the interference with coliform detection in untreated surface water and potable water supplies. Coliform interference was found to occur in the presumptive, confirmed, and completed tests of the S-MPN technique. When coliforms were present, interference with their detection occurred in over 80% of the samples. The inferior nature of the S-MPN was revealed by the 100% increase in the incidence of completed coliform-positive drinking water samples obtained with the M-MPN technique. The M-MPN procedure was also superior to the standard membrane filter technique. Eight different species of coliforms were recovered from false-negative tests, including Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, and Escherichia coli (in decreasing order of occurrence). The use of standard MPN techniques for monitoring potable water supplies may lead to a false security that the drinking water supply is potable, i.e., free from indicator bacteria. PMID:7013694

  16. Levels of F2-isoprostanes, F4-neuroprostanes, and total nitrate/nitrite in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, H-C; Chen, T-W; Yang, T-C; Wei, H-J; Hsu, J-C; Lin, C-L

    2015-12-01

    Several events occurring during the secondary damage of traumatic brain injury (TBI) can cause oxidative stress. F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs) and F4-neuroprostanes (F4-NPs) are specific lipid peroxidation markers generated from arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, respectively. In this study, we evaluated oxidative stress in patients with moderate and severe TBI. Since sedatives are routinely used to treat TBI patients and propofol has been considered an antioxidant, TBI patients were randomly treated with propofol or midazolam for 72 h postoperation. We postoperatively collected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma from 15 TBI patients for 6-10 d and a single specimen of CSF or plasma from 11 controls. Compared with the controls, the TBI patients exhibited elevated levels of F2-IsoPs and F4-NPs in CSF throughout the postsurgery period regardless of the sedative used. Compared with the group of patients who received midazolam, those who received propofol exhibited markedly augmented levels of plasma F2-IsoPs, which were associated with higher F4-NPs levels and lower total nitrate/nitrite levels in CSF early in the postsurgery period. Furthermore, the higher CSF F2-IsoPs levels correlated with 6-month and 12-month worse outcomes, which were graded according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale. The results demonstrate enhanced oxidative damage in the brain of TBI patients and the association of higher CSF levels of F2-IsoPs with a poor outcome. Moreover, propofol treatment might promote lipid peroxidation in the circulation, despite possibly suppressing nitric oxide or peroxynitrite levels in CSF, because of the increased loading of the lipid components from the propofol infusion. PMID:26271312

  17. The Extract of Crocus sativus and Its Constituent Safranal, Affect Serum Levels of Endothelin and Total Protein in Sensitized Guinea Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Gholamnezhad

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: The effect of the extract of Crocus sativus and its constituent, safranal on inflammatory markers in sensitized guinea pigs was examined.   Materials and Methods: Ovalbumin (OA sensitized guinea pigs were given drinking water alone (group S, or drinking water containing three concentrations of safranal, three concentrations of extract and one concentration of dexamethasone, (n=6, for all groups and serum levels of endotheline-1 (ET-1 and total protein (TP were assessed. Results: Serum levels of ET-1 and TP in group S were significantly higher than control group (P Conclusion: A preventive effect of the extract of C. sativus and its constituent safranal on serum inflammatory markers in sensitized guinea pigs was shown.

  18. Removal of Escherichia coli and Faecal Coliforms from Surface Water and Groundwater by Household Water Treatment Devices/Systems: A Sustainable Solution for Improving Water Quality in Rural Communities of the Southern African Development Community Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyne K. Mwabi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is significant evidence that household water treatment devices/systems (HWTS are capable of dramatically improving microbially contaminated water quality. The purpose of this study was to examine five filters [(biosand filter-standard (BSF-S; biosand filter-zeolite (BSF-Z; bucket filter (BF; ceramic candle filter (CCF; and silver-impregnated porous pot (SIPP] and evaluate their ability to improve the quality of drinking water at the household level. These HWTS were manufactured in the workshop of the Tshwane University of Technology and evaluated for efficiency to remove turbidity, faecal coliforms and Escherichia coli from multiple water source samples, using standard methods. The flow rates ranged from 0.05 L/h to 2.49 L/h for SIPP, 1 L/h to 4 L/h for CCF, 0.81 L/h to 6.84 L/h for BSF-S, 1.74 L/h to 19.2 L/h and 106.5 L/h to 160.5 L/h for BF The turbidity of the raw water samples ranged between 2.17 and 40.4 NTU. The average turbidity obtained after filtration ranged from 0.6 to 8 NTU (BSF-S, 1 to 4 NTU (BSF-Z, 2 to 11 NTU (BF, and from 0.6 to 7 NTU (CCF and 0.7 to 1 NTU for SIPP. The BSF-S, BSF-Z and CCF removed 2 to 4 log10 (99% to 100% of coliform bacteria, while the BF removed 1 to 3 log (90% to 99.9% of these bacteria. The performance of the SIPP in removing turbidity and indicator bacteria (>5 log10, 100% was significantly higher compared to that of the other HWTS (p < 0.05. The findings of this study indicate that the SIPP can be an effective and sustainable HWTS for the Southern African Development Community (SADC rural communities, as it removed the total concentration of bacteria from test water, can be manufactured using locally available materials, and is easy to operate and to maintain.

  19. Removal of Escherichia coli and faecal coliforms from surface water and groundwater by household water treatment devices/systems: a sustainable solution for improving water quality in rural communities of the Southern African development community region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwabi, Jocelyne K; Mamba, Bhekie B; Momba, Maggy N B

    2012-01-01

    There is significant evidence that household water treatment devices/systems (HWTS) are capable of dramatically improving microbially contaminated water quality. The purpose of this study was to examine five filters [(biosand filter-standard (BSF-S); biosand filter-zeolite (BSF-Z); bucket filter (BF); ceramic candle filter (CCF); and silver-impregnated porous pot (SIPP)] and evaluate their ability to improve the quality of drinking water at the household level. These HWTS were manufactured in the workshop of the Tshwane University of Technology and evaluated for efficiency to remove turbidity, faecal coliforms and Escherichia coli from multiple water source samples, using standard methods. The flow rates ranged from 0.05 L/h to 2.49 L/h for SIPP, 1 L/h to 4 L/h for CCF, 0.81 L/h to 6.84 L/h for BSF-S, 1.74 L/h to 19.2 L/h and 106.5 L/h to 160.5 L/h for BF The turbidity of the raw water samples ranged between 2.17 and 40.4 NTU. The average turbidity obtained after filtration ranged from 0.6 to 8 NTU (BSF-S), 1 to 4 NTU (BSF-Z), 2 to 11 NTU (BF), and from 0.6 to 7 NTU (CCF) and 0.7 to 1 NTU for SIPP. The BSF-S, BSF-Z and CCF removed 2 to 4 log(10) (99% to 100%) of coliform bacteria, while the BF removed 1 to 3 log (90% to 99.9%) of these bacteria. The performance of the SIPP in removing turbidity and indicator bacteria (>5 log(10), 100%) was significantly higher compared to that of the other HWTS (p < 0.05). The findings of this study indicate that the SIPP can be an effective and sustainable HWTS for the Southern African Development Community (SADC) rural communities, as it removed the total concentration of bacteria from test water, can be manufactured using locally available materials, and is easy to operate and to maintain. PMID:22470284

  20. Effect of variable power levels on the yield of total aerosol mass and formation of aldehydes in e-cigarette aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, I G; Kistler, K A; Stewart, E W; Paolantonio, A R

    2016-03-01

    The study objective was to determine the effect of variable power applied to the atomizer of refillable tank based e-cigarette (EC) devices. Five different devices were evaluated, each at four power levels. Aerosol yield results are reported for each set of 25 EC puffs, as mass/puff, and normalized for the power applied to the coil, in mass/watt. The range of aerosol produced on a per puff basis ranged from 1.5 to 28 mg, and, normalized for power applied to the coil, ranged from 0.27 to 1.1 mg/watt. Aerosol samples were also analyzed for the production of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein, as DNPH derivatives, at each power level. When reported on mass basis, three of the devices showed an increase in total aldehyde yield with increasing power applied to the coil, while two of the devices showed the opposite trend. The mass of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein produced per gram of total aerosol produced ranged from 0.01 to 7.3 mg/g, 0.006 to 5.8 mg/g, and <0.003 to 0.78 mg/g, respectively. These results were used to estimate daily exposure to formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein from EC aerosols from specific devices, and were compared to estimated exposure from consumption of cigarettes, to occupational and workplace limits, and to previously reported results from other researchers. PMID:26743740

  1. On the road to metallic nanoparticles by rational design: bridging the gap between atomic-level theoretical modeling and reality by total scattering experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasai, Binay; Wilson, A. R.; Wiley, B. J.; Ren, Y.; Petkov, Valeri

    2015-10-01

    The extent to which current theoretical modeling alone can reveal real-world metallic nanoparticles (NPs) at the atomic level was scrutinized and demonstrated to be insufficient and how it can be improved by using a pragmatic approach involving straightforward experiments is shown. In particular, 4 to 6 nm in size silica supported Au100-xPdx (x = 30, 46 and 58) explored for catalytic applications is characterized structurally by total scattering experiments including high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) coupled to atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis. Atomic-level models for the NPs are built by molecular dynamics simulations based on the archetypal for current theoretical modeling Sutton-Chen (SC) method. Models are matched against independent experimental data and are demonstrated to be inaccurate unless their theoretical foundation, i.e. the SC method, is supplemented with basic yet crucial information on the length and strength of metal-to-metal bonds and, when necessary, structural disorder in the actual NPs studied. An atomic PDF-based approach for accessing such information and implementing it in theoretical modeling is put forward. For completeness, the approach is concisely demonstrated on 15 nm in size water-dispersed Au particles explored for bio-medical applications and 16 nm in size hexane-dispersed Fe48Pd52 particles explored for magnetic applications as well. It is argued that when ``tuned up'' against experiments relevant to metals and alloys confined to nanoscale dimensions, such as total scattering coupled to atomic PDF analysis, rather than by mere intuition and/or against data for the respective solids, atomic-level theoretical modeling can provide a sound understanding of the synthesis-structure-property relationships in real-world metallic NPs. Ultimately this can help advance nanoscience and technology a step closer to producing metallic NPs by rational design.The extent to which current theoretical modeling alone can reveal real-world metallic nanoparticles (NPs) at the atomic level was scrutinized and demonstrated to be insufficient and how it can be improved by using a pragmatic approach involving straightforward experiments is shown. In particular, 4 to 6 nm in size silica supported Au100-xPdx (x = 30, 46 and 58) explored for catalytic applications is characterized structurally by total scattering experiments including high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) coupled to atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis. Atomic-level models for the NPs are built by molecular dynamics simulations based on the archetypal for current theoretical modeling Sutton-Chen (SC) method. Models are matched against independent experimental data and are demonstrated to be inaccurate unless their theoretical foundation, i.e. the SC method, is supplemented with basic yet crucial information on the length and strength of metal-to-metal bonds and, when necessary, structural disorder in the actual NPs studied. An atomic PDF-based approach for accessing such information and implementing it in theoretical modeling is put forward. For completeness, the approach is concisely demonstrated on 15 nm in size water-dispersed Au particles explored for bio-medical applications and 16 nm in size hexane-dispersed Fe48Pd52 particles explored for magnetic applications as well. It is argued that when ``tuned up'' against experiments relevant to metals and alloys confined to nanoscale dimensions, such as total scattering coupled to atomic PDF analysis, rather than by mere intuition and/or against data for the respective solids, atomic-level theoretical modeling can provide a sound understanding of the synthesis-structure-property relationships in real-world metallic NPs. Ultimately this can help advance nanoscience and technology a step closer to producing metallic NPs by rational design. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: XRD patterns, TEM and 3D structure modelling methodology. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04678e

  2. Efficacy of ?-mannanase supplementation to corn-soya bean meal-based diets on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood urea nitrogen, faecal coliform and lactic acid bacteria and faecal noxious gas emission in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhaya, Santi Devi; Park, Jae Won; Lee, Jae Hwan; Kim, In Ho

    2016-02-01

    A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of ?-mannanase supplementation to a diet based on corn and soya bean meal (SBM) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), faecal coliforms and lactic acid bacteria, and noxious gas emission in growing pigs. A total of 140 pigs [(Landrace × Yorkshire) × Duroc; average body weight 25 ± 3 kg] were randomly allotted to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with dietary treatments consisting of hulled or dehulled SBM without or with supplementation of 400 U ?-mannanase/kg. During the 6 weeks of experimental feeding, ?-mannanase supplementation had no effect on body weight gain, feed intake and gain:feed (G:F) ratio. Compared with dehulled SBM, feeding hulled SBM caused an increased feed intake of pigs in the entire trial (p = 0.05). The G:F ratio was improved in pigs receiving dehulled SBM (p coliforms and tended to reduce the NH3 concentration after 24 h of fermentation in a closed box containing faecal slurry. Feeding hulled SBM tended to reduce NH3 emission on days 3 and 5 of fermentation. In conclusion, mannanase supplementation had no influence on growth performance and nutrient digestibility but showed a positive effect on reducing coliform population and tended to reduce NH3 emission. Dehulled SBM increased G:F ratio and hulled SBM tended to reduce NH3 emission. PMID:26635142

  3. Polyacrylamide+Al2(SO4)3 and polyacrylamide+CaO remove coliform bacteria and nutrients from swine wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyacrylamide mixture may be able to reduce run-off of enteric bacteria from animal wastes. - Animal wastes are a major contributor of nutrients and enteric microorganisms to surface water and ground water. Polyacrylamide (PAM) mixtures are an effective flocculent, and we hypothesized that they would reduce transport of microorganisms in flowing water. After waste water running at 60.0 l min-1 flowed over PAM+Al2(SO4)3, or PAM+CaO in furrows, total coliform bacteria (TC) and fecal coliform bacteria (FC) were reduced by 30-50% at 1 and 50 m downstream of the treatments compared to the control. In a column study, PAM+Al2(SO4)3, and PAM+CaO applied to sandy, sandy loam, loam, and clay soils reduced NH4+ and ortho-P concentrations in leachate compared to the source waste water and the control. PAM+Al2(SO4)3 and PAM+CaO applied to sandy, sandy loam and loam soils reduced both total and ortho-P, concentrations in leachate compared to the source wastewater and control treatment. In a field study, PAM+Al2(SO4)3, or PAM+CaO treatments did not consistently reduce NH4+, NO3-, ortho-P, and total P concentrations in wastewater flowing over any soil compared to inflow wastewater or the control treatment. With proper application PAM+ Al2(SO4)3 and PAM+CaO may be able to reduce the numbers of enteric bacteria in slowly flowing wastewater running off animal confinement areas, reducing the amount of pollutants entering surface water and groundwater

  4. Pollen types and levels of total phenolic compounds in propolis produced by Apis mellifera L. (Apidae) in an area of the Semiarid Region of Bahia, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    VANESSA R., MATOS; SEVERINO M., ALENCAR; FRANCISCO A.R., SANTOS.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e duas amostras da própolis produzida por Apis mellifera L. em uma região do Semiárido no Estado da Bahia (Agreste de Alagoinhas), Brasil, foram analisadas palinologicamente e quantificadas em relação aos níveis de compostos fenólicos totais. Essas amostras foram processadas utilizando a técni [...] ca da acetólise com as modificações sugeridas para uso de própolis. Foram encontrados 59 tipos pertencentes a 19 famílias e 36 gêneros. A família Fabaceae foi a mais representativa neste estudo com nove tipos de polens, seguida da família Asteraceae com sete tipos. Os tipos Mikania e Mimosa pudica estiveram presentes em todas as amostras analisadas. Os tipos Mimosa pudica e Eucalyptus apresentaram frequência de ocorrência superior a 50% em pelo menos uma amostra. O maior índice de similaridade (c. de 72%) ocorreu entre as amostras ER1 e ER2 pertencentes ao município de Entre Rios. As amostras da cidade de Inhambupe apresentaram os maiores (36,78±1,52 mg/g EqAG) e menores (7,68±2,58 mg/g EqAG) níveis de compostos fenólicos totais. Através do Coeficiente de Correlação de Spearman notou-se que existia uma correlação linear negativa entre os tipos Mimosa pudica (rs= -0,0419) e Eucalyptus (rs = -0,7090) com o perfil dos níveis totais de compostos fenólicos das amostras. Abstract in english Twenty-two propolis samples produced by Apis mellifera L. in an area of the Semiarid region the the State of Bahia (Agreste of Alagoinhas), Brazil, were palynologically analyzed and quantified regarding their levels of total phenolic compounds. These samples were processed using the acetolysis techn [...] ique with the changes suggested for use with propolis. We found 59 pollen types belonging to 19 families and 36 genera. The family Fabaceae was the most representative in this study with nine pollen types, followed by the family Asteraceae with seven types. The types Mikania and Mimosa pudica occurred in all samples analyzed. The types Mimosa pudica and Eucalyptus had frequency of occurrence above 50% in at least one sample. The highest similarity index (c. 72%) occurred between the samples ER1 and ER2, belonging to the municipality of Entre Rios. Samples from the municipality of Inhambupe displayed the highest (36.78±1.52 mg/g EqAG) and lowest (7.68 ± 2.58 mg/g EqAG) levels of total phenolic compounds. Through the Spearman Correlation Coefficient we noticed that there was a negative linear correlation between the types Mimosa pudica (rs = -0.0419) and Eucalyptus (rs = -0.7090) with the profile of the levels of total phenolic compounds of the samples.

  5. Ocorrência de Salmonella e coliformes de origem fecal na canela em pó (Cinnamomum cassia Blume a Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees comercializada em Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Salmonella and fecal coliforms in cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia Blume and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees sold in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Maria de S. Philippi

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Cem amostras de canela em pó de dez marcas diferentes comercializadas na cidade de Florianópolis, SC, foram submetidas à análise microbiológica, pesquisando-se Salmonella e coliformes de origem fecal. Em nenhuma amostra foi detectada Salmonella. Coliformes de origem fecal foram encontrados entre os valores The microbiological quality of a hundred samples of ten differents commercial brands of a ground cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia Blume and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees from supermarkets in the city of Florianópolis, Brazil, was assessed. Salmonella and fecal coliforms were determined. Results were negative for Salmonella Fecal coliforms values ranged from 100 MPN per g. Fecal coliforms were detected in 37% of the cinnamon samples.

  6. Niveles de plaguicidas organoclorados en suero sanguíneo comparados con la concentración de lípidos sanguíneos / Organochlorine pesticide levels in blood serum compared to total blood lipid content

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Stefan M., Waliszewski; Mario, Caba; Sandra, Gómez-Arroyo; Enrique, Meza; Rafael, Villalobos-Pietrini; Carmen, Martínez-Valenzuela; Rafael, Valencia-Quintana.

    Full Text Available Los modelos de bioacumulación de plaguicidas organoclorados se formulan generalmente para predecir su bioconcentración y biomagnificación. Debido a sus propiedades lipofílicas y persistencia, los plaguicidas organoclorados se acumulan en tejidos ricos en grasa, los cuales se estudian como biomarcado [...] r de la contaminación ambiental. En el cuerpo humano, los plaguicidas organoclorados circulan continuamente y sus concentraciones se equilibran entre los compartimientos del cuerpo. El objetivo del estudio fue comparar las concentraciones de plaguicidas organoclorados en el suero sanguíneo con la concentración de lípidos totales del suero. Las concentraciones de plaguicidas organoclorados fueron agrupados en sextiles en forma ascendente de acuerdo con el nivel de lípidos séricos totales. Los resultados presentaron que las medias de las concentraciones de los plaguicidas organoclorados disminuían al aumentar la concentración de lípidos séricos totales. b-HCH mostró disminución de -0.8948 mg/kg, pp'DDE decreció -0.9195 mg/kg, pp'DDT bajó -0.090 mg/kg y S-DDT disminuyó -0.8814 mg/kg de uno al otro sextil. Al realizar el análisis de varianza entre los sextiles, se corroboró una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre las medias de b-HCH, pp'DDE y S-DDT y no significativa entre sextiles de pp'DDT. Abstract in english Organochlorine pesticides bioaccumulation models have generally been formulated to predict the bioconcentration and biomagnification of that compounds. Due to the lipophilic properties and persistence, the organochlorine pesticides accumulate in lipid rich tissues which serve as biomarkers of enviro [...] nmental pollution. In human, organochlorine pesticides continuously circulate and equilibrate among body compartments. The objective of the study was to compare the concentration of or-ganochlorine pesticides in blood serum with levels of total blood lipid content. The obtained organochlorine pesticide concentrations were divided in ascending sextants according to the total lipid content. The results reveal that the mean of all organo-chlorine pesticides decreases as the lipid concentration increases. b-HCH shows a decrease of -0.8948 mg/kg, pp'DDE of -0.9195 mg/kg, pp'DDT of -0.090 mg/kg and S-DDT of -0.8814 mg/kg from one to other sextant. The ANOVA test applied to reveal differences among sextants showed significant differences among means for b-HCH, pp'DDE and S-DDT and not significant differences among pp'DDT sextants.

  7. Overview of total system model used for the 2008 performance assessment for the proposed high-level radioactive waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary is presented for the total system model used to represent physical processes associated with the seven scenario classes (i.e., nominal conditions, early waste package (WP) failure, early drip shield (DS) failure, igneous intrusive events, igneous eruptive events, seismic ground motion events and seismic fault displacement events) considered in the 2008 performance assessment for the proposed repository for high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The total system model estimates dose to an exposed individual resulting from radionuclide movement through the repository system and biosphere. Components of the total system model described in this presentation include models for (i) climate analysis, (ii) land surface infiltration and associated unsaturated zone flow, (iii) multi-scale thermal hydrology and engineered barrier system (EBS) thermal–hydrologic environment, (iv) EBS physical and chemical environment, (v) WP and DS degradation, (vi) drift seepage and drift wall condensation, (vii) waste form degradation and mobilization, (viii) water and radionuclide movement in the EBS and underlying unsaturated and saturated zones, (ix) radionuclide movement in the biosphere and resultant human exposure, and (x) processes specific to early WP and DS failures, intrusive and eruptive igneous events, and seismic ground motion and fault displacement events. - Highlights: • The models indicated below associated with four scenario classes are described: (i) nominal conditions, (ii) early waste package (WP) and/or early drip shield (DS) failure, (iii) igneous events, and (iv) seismic events. • Models for (i) multi-scale thermal hydrology and engineered barrier system (EBS) thermal-hydrologic environment, (ii) EBS physical and chemical environment, (iii) WP and DS degradation, (iv) drift seepage and drift wall condensation, and (vi) waste form degradation and mobilization. • Models for processes specific to (i) early WP and DS failures, (ii) intrusive and eruptive igneous events, and (iii) seismic ground motion and fault displacement events. • Models for (i) climate analysis, and (ii) land surface infiltration and associated unsaturated zone flow

  8. Emission of SO2 and SO42- from copper smelter and its influence on the level of total s in soil and moss in Bor and the surroundings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šerbula Snežana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bor and the surroundings (Eastern Serbia have been known for exploitation and processing of sulphide copper ores for more than 100 years. Emissions of waste gases and particulate matter rich in heavy metals are characteristic for pyrometallurgical production of copper. Long-term measurement results (2005-2008 indicate an increased sulphur dioxide level in the urban-industrial zone of Bor since it is closest to the copper smelter which is a dominant source of air pollution in the studied area. Average annual sulphur dioxide concentrations at four measuring sites in the urban-industrial zone exceeded the maximum allowable value of 50 ?g/m3. However the maximum allowable value of the total atmospheric depositions (200 mg/m2/day on an annual basis exceeded only at two of 15 measuring sites in the urban-industrial and rural zone. The highest annual deposition rate of sulphates from deposition was detected in the urban-industrial zone. Since the maximum permitted value for sulphates is not defined by the Serbian Regulations, the extent of the pollution cannot be discussed. Since the environment can continuously be polluted through the wet and dry deposition, biomonitoring by moss was conducted, which revealed significantly higher concentrations of total sulphur in moss in the urban-industrial zone, compared to the background zone. The obtained results confirm the reliability of moss as a bioindicator of ambient pollution. Higher total S concentration in soil samples was noted at the rural site (Ostrelj located in the close vicinity of two tailing ponds. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46010, br. 33038 i br. 172037

  9. Níveis de mercúrio total em peixes de água doce de pisciculturas paulistas / Mercury levels in freshwater fishes from piscicultures estabilished in São Paulo State

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo A., Morgano; Priscila C., Gomes; Dilza M. B., Mantovani; Adriana A. M., Perrone; Talita F., Santos.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se os níveis de mercúrio total em amostras de peixes de água doce, procedentes de pesqueiros e pisciculturas de 39 regiões do estado de São Paulo. As espécies de peixes estudadas foram: pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus), tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus), piauçu (Leoporinum sp), matrinxã (Brycon [...] cephalus), tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) e carpa (Cyprinus carpis). Foram avaliadas três metodologias de digestão de amostras para a determinação de mercúrio total, variando-se o volume de mistura sulfonítrica utilizada e a concentração do permanganato de potássio, sendo que o uso de 10mL de mistura sulfonítrica e solução de permanganato de potássio a 7% (m/v) na digestão da amostra foi a que forneceu as recuperações mais altas (96%), precisão de 1% e limite de quantificação de 0,3µg/kg. Após a validação do método, foram realizadas as determinações de teor de mercúrio total em 293 amostras de pescado, usando a técnica de espectrometria de emissão com fonte de plasma acoplado em gerador de hidretos. Os níveis médios de mercúrio encontrados variaram entre: tambaqui (0,0003-0,012mg/kg), carpa (0,063mg/kg), matrinxã (0,0003-0,074mg/kg), pacu (0,0003-0,078mg/kg), piauçu (0,0003-0,183mg/kg) e tilápia (0,0003-0,217mg/kg). Os resultados mostraram que nenhuma das amostras procedentes das diferentes regiões e diferentes pesque-pagues, apresentaram níveis de mercúrio total acima do permitido pela legislação brasileira, que é de 0,5mg/kg para pescado não-predador. Abstract in english In this work, the levels of mercury were evaluated in samples of freshwater fish, coming from fishing-grounds and piscicultures of 39 regions of São Paulo State. The species of fish studied were: pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus), tilápia (Oreochromis niloticus), piauçu (Leoporinum sp), matrinxã (Bryco [...] n cephalus), tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) and carpa (Cyprinus carpis). Three digestion methodologies of sample were evaluated for the mercury determination, with variation of the volume of sulphonitric mixture utilized and the potassium permanganate concentration. After the validation method the determinations of mercury level were recorded in 293 samples of fish, using the technique of emissio