WorldWideScience

Sample records for total coliform levels

  1. 40 CFR 142.63 - Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant level for total coliforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant level for total coliforms. 142...Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant level for total coliforms. (a) No variances or exemptions from the maximum contaminant level in § 141.63 of this...

  2. COMPARISON OF ESCHERICHIA COLI, TOTAL COLIFORM, AND FECAL COLIFORM POPULATIONS AS INDICATORS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT EFFICIENCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherichia coli, total coliform, and fecal coliform data were collected from two wastewater treatment facilities, a subsurface constructed wetlands, and the receiving stream. Results are presented from individual wastewater treatment process streams, final effluent and river sit...

  3. Bacteriological (fecal and total coliform) quality of Pakistani coastal water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coliform bacteria group consists of several genera of bacteria belonging to the family enterobacteriaceae. These are harmless bacteria, mostly live in soil, water, and digestive system of animals. Fecal coliform bacteria, which belongs to this group, are present in large numbers in feces and intestinal tract of human beings and other warm-blooded animals which can enter into water bodies from human and animal waste. Swimming in water having high levels of Fecal coliform bacteria increases the chance of developing illness (fever, nausea or stomach cramps) from pathogens entering the body through mouth, nose, ears or cuts in the skin. The objective of the present study was to characterize the bathing quality of Pakistani coastal water with respect to coliform bacteria. Total and Fecal coliform bacteria were determined at seven different locations along Pakistan coast using membrane filtration (MF) technique. 100 ml of water was passed through 0.45 micron (mu) filter paper. These filter papers were put on pads, soaked in Lauryle sulphate broth in petri-dishes and incubated at 44 deg. C for Fecal and 37 deg. for Total coliform for 24 hours. Significantly high population of Fecal and Total coliform bacteria was recorded at Karachi harbour area and Indus delta region. Results indicate that a large amount of domestically originated waste is being discharged into these locations without any pre-treatment (e.g., screening, activated sludge, by using filtration beds etc.) rd sludge, by using filtration beds etc.) resulting in a poor seawater quality making it unfit for bathing. (author)

  4. A comparison of ten USEPA approved total coliform/E. coli tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstadt, Jeremy; Schauer, James Jay; Standridge, Jon; Kluender, Sharon

    2007-06-01

    Since 2002, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has approved ten enzyme-based total coliform and E. coli detection tests for examination of drinking water. These tests include: Colilert, Colilert-18, Colisure, m-Coli Blue 24, Readycult Coliforms 100, Chromocult, Coliscan, E * Colite, Colitag and MI Agar. The utility of the enzyme based test systems is based on both the ability of the test to detect the target organisms at low levels and the ability of the test system to suppress the growth of non-target organisms that might result in false positive results. Differences in the ability of some of these methods to detect total coliform and E. coli, as well as suppress Aeromonas spp., a common cause of "false positive" results, have been observed. As a result, this study was undertaken to elucidate the strengths and weaknesses of each method. Water samples were collected from three geographically and chemically diverse groundwaters in Wisconsin. One-hundred milliliter aliquots were individually spiked with both low concentrations (one to ten organisms) and high concentrations (fifty to one-hundred) of each of five different total coliform organisms (Serratia, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, E. coli, & Klebsiella). These spiked samples were used to test the capability of ten enzyme-based test systems to both detect and enumerate the spiked organisms. In addition, 100 ml samples were independently spiked with two different strains of Aeromonas spp. at six different levels, to assess the ability of each enzyme-based test to suppress Aeromonas spp. Analysis of the data indicated that wide variability exists among USEPA approved tests to detect and quantify total coliforms, as well as suppress Aeromonas spp. PMID:17674575

  5. Prevelance of total coliforms, faecal coliforms and E. coli in Rawalpindi vegetable markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Alam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional value of vegetables and high prices of meat and meat originated food compel common people to consume plant originated food particularly salad vegetables. Microbial population of vegetable surfaces contains a large number of pathogenic bacteria including members of Enterobactereace like Escherichia coli (E. coli. A survey was conducted in three major markets of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Tomato, lettuce, cabbage and cucumber samples were collected from three shops of each market. Each vegetable was analysed as unwashed and washed for total coliforms, faecal coliforms and E. coli by FAO (Food Quality Manual. About two hundred and fifty E. coli isolates were preserved, serotyped for presence of O157 serotype. Total coliforms, faecal coliforms and E. coli count exceeded the permissible limits in most samples. The highest Total coliforms were associated with cabbage (3.78 log10 cfu/g. Cucumber was the least contaminated by Total coliforms (2.15 log10 cfu/g. E. coli was detected in tomato, lettuce, cucumber and cabbage. Washed samples showed reduced bacterial population. Seventy six isolates of E. coli were biochemically characterized and serotyped for O157 antigen. A majority of strains could not be identified by serotyping. These findings conclude with high potentially pathogenic microbial load on salad vegetables and urge for preventive action on priority basis.

  6. 75 FR 42440 - Total Coliform Rule Revisions-Notice of Public Information Meetings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ...AGENCY [FRL-9177-6] Total Coliform Rule Revisions--Notice of Public...meetings on the proposed Revised Total Coliform Rule (RTCR). The proposed RTCR...proposed revision to the current Total Coliform Rule (TCR) which was...

  7. 75 FR 53267 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule; Extension of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    ...Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY...Regulation, the Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule (RTCR), which was published in...require systems that have an indication of coliform contamination in the distribution...

  8. The Efficiency of Removal of Total Coliforms, Faecal Coliforms and Coliphages in a Wastewater Treatment Plant in Riyadh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. A. Fattouh

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Limited water resources in Saudi Arabia necessitate the re-use of treated wastewater for irrigation, industrial and recreational purposes. The large numbers of pathogenic agents present in wastewater requires continuous monitoring of the removal of such agents from water prior to re-use. In a one year study total and faecal coliforms and coliphages were estimated in monthly samples from a wastewater treatment plant in Riyadh to evaluate the removal efficiency of such indicators at various levels of wastewater treatment. The efficiency of removal of total coliform (TC and faecal coliform (FC following aeration and sedimentation processes ranged between (18-34% and (17-38% respectively and for coliphages was (4-19%. Chlorinated effluent had negligible counts of TC and FC with an efficiency of removal of (99.2-100% and (99-100% for TC and FC respectively whereas the efficiency of removal of coliphages ranged between (91-100%. As coliphages have been proposed as possible indicators of enteric viruses our study suggests their use as indicators of faecal pollution with traditional coliform indicators and the implementation of treatment measures more effective in virus removal in re-used wastewater. Electron microscopy of selected phage lysates showed the presence of tailed coliphages belonging to families Myoviridae, Siphoviridae and Podoviridae. Polyvalent coliphages able to infect enteric bacteria other than E. coli were also detected.

  9. Total Coliform Determinations. Training Module 5.205.3.77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with multiple tube and membrane filter techniques for determining total coliform concentration of a water supply. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This module considers proper…

  10. VALIDITY OF FECAL COLIFORMS, TOTAL COLIFORMS, AND FECAL STREPTOCOCCI AS INDICATORS OF VIRUSES IN CHLORINATED PRIMARY SEWAGE EFFLUENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantities of combined chlorine that usually destroyed more than 99.999% of the indigenous fecal coliforms, total coliforms, and fecal streptococci in primary sewage effluents destroyed only 85 to 99% of the indigenous viruses present. Viruses were recovered from five of eight ch...

  11. Enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli from source water by the defined substrate technology.

    OpenAIRE

    Edberg, S. C.; M.J. Allen; Smith, D B; Kriz, N J

    1990-01-01

    Many water utilities are required to monitor source water for the presence of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, or both. The Colilert system, an application of the defined substrate technology, simultaneously detects the presence of both total coliforms and Escherichia coli directly from a water sample. After incubation, the formula becomes yellow if total coliforms are present and fluorescent at 366 nm if E. coli is in the same sample. No confirmatory tests are required. The Colilert system ...

  12. 33 CFR 159.319 - Fecal coliform and total suspended solids standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fecal coliform and total suspended solids standards...Vessel Operations § 159.319 Fecal coliform and total suspended solids standards...waters of Alaska shall not have a fecal coliform bacterial count of greater than...

  13. Disinfection of total coli-forms in unchlorinated secondary effluent with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the disinfection of total coli-forms in the effluent of secondary sewage treatment plant with radiation, electron beam has introduced. Unchlorinated secondary effluent was irradiated at different dose of 0.2-1.0 kGy with 1 MeV, 40kW electron accelerator. It is observed that nearly 100% reduction in E-Coli. and total coli-forms were achieved with a dose of 0.8kGy. Even with the lower dose of 0.2kGy, the E-Coli. and total coli-forms were successfully inactivated to the level of the new guideline for discharged effluent that has been effective from 2003 in Korea. Besides disinfection of total coli-forms, approximately 50% of removal in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) was also observed at a dose of 0.2kGy. More than 20% removal in suspended solids (SS) and turbidity was also observed at a dose of 1.0kGy. The application of electron beam irradiation appeared to be one of the options to reuse effluent from sewage treatment plant as agricultural or industrial water. (author)

  14. Bactérias coliformes totais e coliformes de origem fecal em águas usadas na dessedentação de animais Total and fecal coliform bacteria in animal drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Souza

    1983-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram colhidas 105 amostras de água sendo 44 de mananciais e de 61 bebedouros, a partir das quais foram realizadas as determinações dos NMP (Número Mais Provável de bactérias coliformes totais e fecais. De acordo com a Portaria GM/0013 de 15 de janeiro de 1976, da Secretaria Especial do Meio Ambiente do Ministério do Interior, os 44 mananciais revelaram-se dentro dos parâmetros estabelecidos. Embora não haja referência com relação a bebedouros, aplicando-se os valores estabelecidos para mananciais, das 61 amostras estudadas, somente 6 (9,8% não poderiam ser usadas para a dessedentação de animais. Das 105 amostras analisadas, verificou-se que as condições sanitárias revelaram-se não satisfatórias em 6 (5,7% amostras de bebedouros quanto a coliformes fecais, sendo 3 (2,8% também com relação a coliformes totais.The objective of the present experiment was to get information on the sanitary quality of water drunk by animals in the Botucatu region, S. Paulo State, Brazil. MPN (More Provable Number counts of coliform and fecal coliform bacteria of 105 water samples were made. Of these samples 44 were taken from fountains and 61 from watering troughs. According to the Brazilian government directive, of the Ministry of the Interior, the 44 fountains were shown to be in accordance with the established parameters. As this government directive does not make reference to watering troughs, applying the same values established for fountains, it was observed that of 61 of the samples examined, only 6 (9.8% proved to be outside the parameters. Of the 105 samples examined, all showed good sanitary conditions, except 6 samples (9.8% of watering troughs in relation to fecal coliforms. Of these 6 samples, 3 showed bad sanitary conditions too, but only regard to total coliforms.

  15. Disinfection of total coli-forms in the effluent from municipal wastewater plant with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron beam has introduced to investigate the effect of radiation on the disinfection of coliforms in the effluent from the municipal wastewater treatment plant. Unchlorinated secondary effluent was irradiated at different dose of 0.2 - 1.0 kGy with 1 MeV, 40 kW electron accelerator. It is observed that nearly 100% reduction in E. coli and total coliforms were achieved with a dose of 0.8 kGy. Even with the lower dose of 0.2 kGy, the E. coli and total coliforms were successfully inactivated to the level of the new guideline for discharged effluent that has been effective from 2003 in Korea. Based on the data obtained in the experiments, industrial scale plant was designed with 0.2 kGy for the flow rate of 100,000 m3 effluent per day. The overall cost for plant construction is approximately 4.0?4.5M$, and the operation cost is around 1M$/yr. This is quite reasonable when compared to other advanced oxidation techniques such as Ozonation, UV techniques etc. (author)

  16. ESCHERICHIA COLI AND TOTAL COLIFORMS IN WATER AND SEDIMENTS AT LAKE MARINAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escherichia coli, a fecal coliform, and total coliforms were monitored between September 1999 to October 2001 in five marinas on Lake Texoma, located on the Oklahoma and Texas border. General trend was that densities of E. coli were lower in the summer season due to the lower ...

  17. COMPARISON OF VERIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR THE MEMBRANE FILTER TOTAL COLIFORM TECHNIQUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verification of membrane filter total coliform colonies from drinking water was increased 87% by testing for the presence of beta-galactosidase and cytochrome oxidase, compared with verification by determination of gas production in lauryl tryptose broth. Over 90% of the coliform...

  18. Bacteria holding times for fecal coliform by mFC agar method and total coliform and Escherichia coli by Colilert®-18 Quanti-Tray® method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulenbach, Brent T.

    2010-01-01

    Bacteria holding-time experiments of up to 62 h were performed on five surface-water samples from four urban stream sites in the vicinity of Atlanta, GA, USA that had relatively high densities of coliform bacteria (Escherichia coli densities were all well above the US Environmental Protection Agency criterion of 126 colonies (100 ml)???1 for recreational waters). Holding-time experiments were done for fecal coliform using the membrane filtration modified fecal coliform (mFC) agar method and for total coliform and E. coli using the Colilert®-18 Quanti-Tray® method. The precisions of these analytical methods were quantified. Precisions determined for fecal coliform indicated that the upper bound of the ideal range of counts could reasonably be extended upward and would improve precision. For the Colilert®-18 method, analytical precisions were similar to the theoretical precisions for this method. Fecal and total coliform densities did not change significantly with holding times up to about 27 h. Limited information indicated that fecal coliform densities might be stable for holding times of up to 62 h, whereas total coliform densities might not be stable for holding times greater than about 27 h. E. coli densities were stable for holding times of up to 18 h—a shorter period than indicated from a previous studies. These results should be applicable to non-regulatory monitoring sampling designs for similar urban surface-water sample types.

  19. Enhancing Fecal Coliform Total Maximum Daily Load Models Through Bacterial Source Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, Kenneth E.; Moyer, Douglas L.

    2004-12-01

    Surface water impairment by fecal coliform bacteria is a water quality issue of national scope and importance. In Virginia, more than 400 stream and river segments are on the Commonwealth's 2002 303(d) list because of fecal coliform impairment. Total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) will be developed for most of these listed streams and rivers. Information regarding the major fecal coliform sources that impair surface water quality would enhance the development of effective watershed models and improve TMDLs. Bacterial source tracking (BST) is a recently developed technology for identifying the sources of fecal coliform bacteria and it may be helpful in generating improved TMDLs. Bacterial source tracking was performed, watershed models were developed, and TMDLs were prepared for three streams (Accotink Creek, Christians Creek, and Blacks Run) on Virginia's 303(d) list of impaired waters. Quality assurance of the BST work suggests that these data adequately describe the bacteria sources that are impairing these streams. Initial comparison of simulated bacterial sources with the observed BST data indicated that the fecal coliform sources were represented inaccurately in the initial model simulation. Revised model simulations (based on BST data) appeared to provide a better representation of the sources of fecal coliform bacteria in these three streams. The coupled approach of incorporating BST data into the fecal coliform transport model appears to reduce model uncertainty and should result in an improved TMDL.

  20. Enhancing fecal coliform total maximum daily load models through bacterial source tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, K.E.; Moyer, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    Surface water impairment by fecal coliform bacteria is a water quality issue of national scope and importance. In Virginia, more than 400 stream and river segments are on the Commonwealth's 2002 303(d) list because of fecal coliform impairment. Total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) will be developed for most of these listed streams and rivers. Information regarding the major fecal coliform sources that impair surface water quality would enhance the development of effective watershed models and improve TMDLs. Bacterial source tracking (BST) is a recently developed technology for identifying the sources of fecal coliform bacteria and it may be helpful in generating improved TMDLs. Bacterial source tracking was performed, watershed models were developed, and TMDLs were prepared for three streams (Accotink Creek, Christians Creek, and Blacks Run) on Virginia's 303(d) list of impaired waters. Quality assurance of the BST work suggests that these data adequately describe the bacteria sources that are impairing these streams. Initial comparison of simulated bacterial sources with the observed BST data indicated that the fecal coliform sources were represented inaccurately in the initial model simulation. Revised model simulations (based on BST data) appeared to provide a better representation of the sources of fecal coliform bacteria in these three streams. The coupled approach of incorporating BST data into the fecal coliform transport model appears to reduce model uncertainty and should result in an improved TMDL.

  1. Total Coliforms and Escherichia coli in Surface and Subsurface Water from a Sugarcane Agroecosystem in Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Valente Megchún-García

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Water contamination is a phenomenon of global concern resulting from human activities. Coliform bacteria reduce water quality and negatively affect public health. The pollution of surface and groundwater by coliform bacteria, including Escherichia coli, originate, in general, from point sources of pollution derived from human settlements, such as those located in Module I-1, Irrigation District 035, La Antigua, Veracruz, Mexico. The objective of this study was to assess the level of contamination of surface and groundwater by coliform bacteria and E. coli, as well as to identify point sources of water contamination by these bacteria in the sugarcane agroecosystem of Irrigation Module I-1, La Antigua. Sampling sites included deep wells, irrigation canals and natural streams near point sources of pollution. The determination of total coliform bacteria and E. coli were made in accordance with Mexican Standard NMX-AA-042-1987. Total coliform results revealed differences between groundwater (198.6 MPN/100 mL and surface water concentrations (52,419.2 MPN/100 mL (p < 0.05, and between irrigation water (76,501.1 MPN/100 mL and concentrations in natural streams (28,337.3 MPN/100 mL. The highest concentration of E. coli was found in groundwater and surface water samples from the municipality of La Antigua. The primary sources of contamination are the discharges from drains and septic tanks. Total coliform values exceeded permissible limits established by NOM-127-SSA1-1994 that regulates the permissible water quality limits for human use and consumption. The presence of E. coli represents a significant public health risk.

  2. Analysis of The Microbiological Contamination (Total And Fecal Coliforms) In The Bay Of Santa Marta, Colombian Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the purpose of making an analysis of the microbiological level of contamination and the main sources of contamination in the Bay of Santa Marta (BSM), water samples were collected to measure the concentrations of total and fecal coliforms in 11 stations and two levels of depth (1 and 20 m). For the time of greater precipitations were stops values of total and fecal coliforms, in both depth levels; appearing a similar condition for the dry time. Based on a conceptual scale it was obtained that the BSM presents an average degree of contamination for activities of primary contact (swimming and diving), nevertheless, exist several sources of contamination (submarine emissary, river, seaport, among others) that are generating a high impact on this ecosystem. The high values of contamination that are registered in the BSM find associate to the proximity that has this to the urban zones.

  3. Use of Readycult[tm] - LMX for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in milk

    OpenAIRE

    Beloti Vanerli; Barros Márcia de Aguiar Ferreira; Nunes Maurício Pinto; Santana Elsa Helena Walter de; Nero Luís Augusto; Souza Juliana Aparecida de

    2002-01-01

    Readycult[tm] - LMX is a rapid method to test for the presence of total coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli in water, giving results in 24h. It is based on reactions of specific microbial enzymes or indicator nutrients of the medium. The goal of this paper was to study the use of Readycult[tm] - LMX to detect total coliform and E. coli in milk. One hundred twenty five samples of pasteurized and raw milk, collected in Londrina, PR, Brazil, were tested simultaneously by the most probable num...

  4. Molecular Method for Detection of Total Coliforms in Drinking Water Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Dominique K.; Bisson, Marc-Antoine; Dion-Dupont, Vanessa; Bouchard, Sébastien; Nkuranga, Martine; Bergeron, Michel G.; Rodriguez, Manuel J.

    2014-01-01

    This work demonstrates the ability of a bacterial concentration and recovery procedure combined with three different PCR assays targeting the lacZ, wecG, and 16S rRNA genes, respectively, to detect the presence of total coliforms in 100-ml samples of potable water (presence/absence test). PCR assays were first compared to the culture-based Colilert and MI agar methods to determine their ability to detect 147 coliform strains representing 76 species of Enterobacteriaceae encountered in fecal and environmental settings. Results showed that 86 (58.5%) and 109 (74.1%) strains yielded a positive signal with Colilert and MI agar methods, respectively, whereas the lacZ, wecG, and 16S rRNA PCR assays detected 133 (90.5%), 111 (75.5%), and 146 (99.3%) of the 147 total coliform strains tested. These assays were then assessed by testing 122 well water samples collected in the Québec City region of Canada. Results showed that 97 (79.5%) of the samples tested by culture-based methods and 95 (77.9%), 82 (67.2%), and 98 (80.3%) of samples tested using PCR-based methods contained total coliforms, respectively. Consequently, despite the high genetic variability of the total coliform group, this study demonstrated that it is possible to use molecular assays to detect total coliforms in potable water: the 16S rRNA molecular assay was shown to be as efficient as recommended culture-based methods. This assay might be used in combination with an Escherichia coli molecular assay to assess drinking water quality. PMID:24771030

  5. ANÁLISIS DE LA CONTAMINACIÓN MICROBIOLÓGICA (COLIFORMES TOTALES Y FECALES) EN LA BAHÍA DE SANTA MARTA, CARIBE COLOMBIANO / Analysis Of The Microbiological Contamination (Total And Fecales Coliforms) In The Bay Of Santa Marta, Colombian Caribbean

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    LINA MARÍA, RAMOS-ORTEGA; LUÍS A, VIDAL; SANDRA, VILARDY; LINA, SAAVEDRA-DÍAZ.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de realizar un análisis del nivel de contaminación microbiológica y de las principales fuentes de contaminación en la Bahía de Santa Marta (BSM), se colectaron muestras de agua para medir las concentraciones de coliformes totales y fecales en 11 estaciones y dos niveles de profundidad (1 [...] y 20 m). Para la época de mayores precipitaciones se encontraron altos valores de coliformes totales y fecales, en los dos niveles de profundidad; presentándose una condición similar para la época seca. Con base a una escala conceptual se obtuvo que la BSM presenta un grado de contaminación medio para actividades de contacto primario (natación y buceo), sin embargo, existen varias fuentes de contaminación (emisario submarino, río, puerto marítimo, entre otras) que están generando un alto impacto sobre este ecosistema. Los altos valores de contaminación que se registran en la BSM se encuentran asociados a la proximidad que tiene esta a las zonas urbanas. Abstract in english With the purpose of making an analysis of the microbiological level of contamination and the main sources of contamination in the Bay of Santa Marta (BSM), water samples were collected to measure the concentrations of total and fecals coliforms in 11 stations and two levels of depth (1 and 20 m). Fo [...] r the time of greater precipitations were stops values of total and fecals coliforms, in both depth levels; appearing a similar condition for the dry time. Based on a conceptual scale it was obtained that the BSM presents an average degree of contamination for activities of primary contact (swimming and diving), nevertheless, exist several sources of contamination (submarine emissary, river, seaport, among others) that are generating a high impact on this ecosystem. The high values of contamination that are registered in the BSM find associate to the proximity that has this to the urban zones.

  6. ANÁLISIS DE LA CONTAMINACIÓN MICROBIOLÓGICA (COLIFORMES TOTALES Y FECALES EN LA BAHÍA DE SANTA MARTA, CARIBE COLOMBIANO Analysis Of The Microbiological Contamination (Total And Fecales Coliforms In The Bay Of Santa Marta, Colombian Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LINA MARÍA RAMOS-ORTEGA

    Full Text Available Con el fin de realizar un análisis del nivel de contaminación microbiológica y de las principales fuentes de contaminación en la Bahía de Santa Marta (BSM, se colectaron muestras de agua para medir las concentraciones de coliformes totales y fecales en 11 estaciones y dos niveles de profundidad (1 y 20 m. Para la época de mayores precipitaciones se encontraron altos valores de coliformes totales y fecales, en los dos niveles de profundidad; presentándose una condición similar para la época seca. Con base a una escala conceptual se obtuvo que la BSM presenta un grado de contaminación medio para actividades de contacto primario (natación y buceo, sin embargo, existen varias fuentes de contaminación (emisario submarino, río, puerto marítimo, entre otras que están generando un alto impacto sobre este ecosistema. Los altos valores de contaminación que se registran en la BSM se encuentran asociados a la proximidad que tiene esta a las zonas urbanas.With the purpose of making an analysis of the microbiological level of contamination and the main sources of contamination in the Bay of Santa Marta (BSM, water samples were collected to measure the concentrations of total and fecals coliforms in 11 stations and two levels of depth (1 and 20 m. For the time of greater precipitations were stops values of total and fecals coliforms, in both depth levels; appearing a similar condition for the dry time. Based on a conceptual scale it was obtained that the BSM presents an average degree of contamination for activities of primary contact (swimming and diving, nevertheless, exist several sources of contamination (submarine emissary, river, seaport, among others that are generating a high impact on this ecosystem. The high values of contamination that are registered in the BSM find associate to the proximity that has this to the urban zones.

  7. Application of a good manufacturing practices checklist and enumeration of total coliform in swine feed mills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora da Cruz Payao Pellegrini

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study in four swine feed mills aimed to evaluate the correlation between the score of the inspection checklist defined in the Normative Instruction 4 (IN 4/ Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply, and the enumeration of total coliforms throughout the manufacturing process. The most of non-conformities was found in the physical structure of the feed mills. Feed mill B showed the lowest number of unconformities while units A and D had the largest number of nonconformities. In 38.53% (489/1269 of the samples the presence of total coliform was detected, however no significant difference in the bacterial counts was observed between sampling sites and feed mills. The logistic regression pointed higher odds ratio (OR for total coliforms isolation at dosing (OR = 9.51, 95% CI: 4.43 to 20.41, grinding (OR = 7.10, 95% CI = 3.27 to 15.40 and residues (OR = 6.21, 95% CI: 3.88 to 9.95 In spite of having the second score in the checklist inspection, feed mill C presented the highest odds for total coliforms isolation (OR= 2,43, IC 95%: 1,68-3,53. The data indicate no association between the score of checklist and the presence of hygienic indicators in feed mills.

  8. Influence of inter-annual variations in climatic factors on fecal coliform levels in Mississippi Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigbu, P; Gordon, S; Strange, T

    2004-12-01

    Information on the effects of inter-annual variations in climatic factors on fecal coliform levels in coastal waters is scarce. We used 11 years (1990-2001) of rainfall, water temperature, Pearl River stage and salinity data to assess the effects of the 1991-1992 and 1997-1998 El Nino events on fecal coliform levels in Mississippi Sound. El Nino-Southern Oscillation had major effects on Pearl River stage and water quality in the Sound. The geometric mean fecal coliform number differed among years (P = 0.0001), being highest during 1991-1992 El Nino years (14.22 MPN per 100 ml) and lowest during 1999-2000 La Nina years (<1.8 MPN per 100 ml). Mean salinity varied among years (P = 0.0001) from 9 ppt (1991-1992) to 21 ppt (1999-2000). Mean water temperature was lowest in 1997-1998 (14.5 degrees C) and highest in 1998-2000 (19.4 degrees C). Pearl River stage differed among years (P = 0.0001), ranging from 1.96 m (1999-2000) to 3.57 m (1997-1998). Inverse relationships were observed between fecal coliform levels and salinity (r(2) = 0.74; P = 0.001) and water temperature (r(2) = 0.69; P=0.001), whereas positive relationships were obtained with total rainfall (r(2) = 0.52; P = 0.013) and Pearl River stage (r(2) = 0.90; P = 0.0001). These relationships are useful for evaluating the potential effects of climate change on water quality and classification of shellfish growing waters in order to protect humans from consuming contaminated shellfish in shallow river-influenced estuaries. PMID:15556209

  9. Rapid detection of total and fecal coliforms in water by enzymatic hydrolysis of 4-methylumbelliferone-beta-D-galactoside.

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, J. D.; Fiksdal, L.

    1988-01-01

    Three fluorogenic methylumbelliferone (MU) substrates were evaluated for rapid detection of total and fecal coliform bacteria (TC and FC) in drinking water. 4-MU-beta-D-galactoside, MU-heptanoate, and MU-glucuronide were used to determine enzyme activity as a surrogate measure of coliform concentration. Coliforms occurring in river water and in potable water artificially contaminated with raw sewage were tested. The initial rate of hydrolysis (delta F) of MU-beta-D-galactoside showed promise ...

  10. Suitability of total coliform ?-D-galactosidase activity and CFU counts in monitoring faecal contamination of environmental water samples

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    VC, Wutor; CA, Togo; BI, Pletschke.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Total coliforms are a group of bacteria found in high numbers in mammalian intestines; hence their presence in water indicates the possible contamination with faecal material. Total and faecal coliform counts were monitored over a period of 18 months using mFC, m-Endo and CM1046 media together with [...] enzymatic assays on 215 environmental water samples obtained from the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. A positive correlation, with an R² value of 0.9393 was observed between faecal and total coliform colony units employing mFc and m-Endo media, and 0.8818 using CM1046 media. Also, a positive correlation was observed between Escherichia coli colony-forming units and ?-d-galactosidase (B-GAL) activity (R²=0.8542). Overall, this study indicated that faecal contamination of environmental water samples could be monitored by measuring total coliform ?-galactosidase activity and total coliform colony-forming units.

  11. Predicting Fecal Coliform Bacteria Levels in the Charles River, Massachusetts, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleria, Anna; Vogel, Richard M.

    2005-10-01

    In Massachusetts, the Charles River Watershed Association conducts a regular water quality monitoring and public notification program in the Charles River Basin during the recreational season to inform users of the river? health. This program has relied on laboratory analyses of river samples for fecal coliform bacteria levels, however, results are not available until at least 24 hours after sampling. To avoid the need for laboratory analyses, ordinary least squares (OLS) and logistic regression models were developed to predict fecal coliform bacteria concentrations and the probabilities of exceeding the Massachusetts secondary contact recreation standard for bacteria based on meteorological conditions and streamflow. The OLS models resulted in adjusted R2s ranging from 50 to 60 percent. An uncertainty analysis reveals that of the total variability of fecal coliform bacteria concentrations, 45 percent is explained by the OLS regression model, 15 percent is explained by both measurement and space sampling error, and 40 percent is explained by time sampling error. Higher accuracy in future bacteria forecasting models would likely result from reductions in laboratory measurement errors and improved sampling designs.

  12. Use of Readycult? - LMX for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in milk Uso do Readycult? para enumeração de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em leite

    OpenAIRE

    Vanerli Beloti,; Márcia Aguiar Ferreira Barros; Maurício Pinto Nunes; Elsa Helena Walter Santana; Luís Augusto Nero; Juliana Aparecida de Souza

    2002-01-01

    Readycult? - LMX is a rapid method to test for the presence of total coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli in water, giving results in 24h. It is based on reactions of specific microbial enzymes or indicator nutrients of the medium. The goal of this paper was to study the use of Readycult? - LMX to detect total coliform and E. coli in milk. One hundred twenty five samples of pasteurized and raw milk, collected in Londrina, PR, Brazil, were tested simultaneously by the most probable...

  13. New Medium for the Simultaneous Detection of Total Coliforms and Escherichia coli in Water

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner, K. P.; Rankin, C. C.; Roybal, Y. R.; Stelma, G. N.; Scarpino, P. V.; Dufour, A. P.

    1993-01-01

    A new membrane filter agar medium (MI agar) containing a chromogen, indoxyl-beta-D-glucuronide, and a fluorogen, 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside, was developed to simultaneously detect and enumerate Escherichia coli and total coliforms (TC) in water samples on the basis of their enzyme activities. TC produced beta-galactosidase, which cleaved 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside to form 4-methylumbelliferone, a compound that fluoresced under longwave UV light (366 nm), ...

  14. Detection of false-positives among total and fecal coliform counts by factorial analysis of correspondence.

    OpenAIRE

    Joncas, M; Michaud, S.; Carmichael, J P; Lavoie, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    Application of an analysis of correspondence to the biochemical characteristics of total and fecal coliforms isolated in the Ivory Coast permitted us to separate two small clusters of isolates different from the main clusters, which included isolates from human and animal feces. The isolates grouped in the small clusters were from water samples. An analysis of the biochemical characteristics which permitted the segregation of the "water-specific" isolates from the main clusters indicates that...

  15. Use of Readycult? - LMX for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in milk / Uso do Readycult? para enumeração de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em leite

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanerli, Beloti; Márcia de Aguiar Ferreira, Barros; Maurício Pinto, Nunes; Elsa Helena Walter de, Santana; Luís Augusto, Nero; Juliana Aparecida de, Souza.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O Readycult? - LMX é um método rápido, que permite resultados em 24h para detecção de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli. Indicado para detecção destes microrganismos em água, baseia-se em reações de enzimas específicas dos coliformes com nutrientes-indicadores do meio. O objetivo deste trabalho f [...] oi estudar sua utilização para enumeração de coliformes e E. coli em leite. 125 amostras de leite cru e pasteurizado coletadas na cidade de Londrina, PR, Brasil, foram submetidas à determinação do Número Mais Provável (NMP) de coliformes totais e E. coli pela técnica de tubos múltiplos, utilizando-se simultaneamente o Caldo Lactosado Bile Verde Brilhante (CLBVB) e o Readycult? - LMX. A análise estatística indicou uma correlação entre os resultados obtidos pelos dois métodos de 0,8224 para coliformes totais e de 0,8603 para E. coli. Observou-se que o Readycult? - LMX e o CLBVB deram resultados semelhantes, mas o Readycult? - LMX foi mais fácil de ser utilizado. Além disso, os resultados foram mais rapidamente obtidos (24h). Abstract in english Readycult? - LMX is a rapid method to test for the presence of total coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli in water, giving results in 24h. It is based on reactions of specific microbial enzymes or indicator nutrients of the medium. The goal of this paper was to study the use of Readycult? - LMX to [...] detect total coliform and E. coli in milk. One hundred twenty five samples of pasteurized and raw milk, collected in Londrina, PR, Brazil, were tested simultaneously by the most probable number (MPN) method using Brilliant Green Bile Lactose Broth (2%) (BRILA) and Readycult? - LMX. The Readycult? - LMX test was evaluated for sensitivity, simplicity, and speed of results. There was a significant correlation between the results obtained by the two methods for total coliforms (r: 0.8224) and for E. coli (r: 0.8603). The two methods yielded similar results, but Readycult? - LMX was easier to use. In addition, results were available as early as 24h.

  16. Use of Readycult[tm] - LMX for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beloti Vanerli

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Readycult[tm] - LMX is a rapid method to test for the presence of total coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli in water, giving results in 24h. It is based on reactions of specific microbial enzymes or indicator nutrients of the medium. The goal of this paper was to study the use of Readycult[tm] - LMX to detect total coliform and E. coli in milk. One hundred twenty five samples of pasteurized and raw milk, collected in Londrina, PR, Brazil, were tested simultaneously by the most probable number (MPN method using Brilliant Green Bile Lactose Broth (2% (BRILA and Readycult[tm] - LMX. The Readycult[tm] - LMX test was evaluated for sensitivity, simplicity, and speed of results. There was a significant correlation between the results obtained by the two methods for total coliforms (r: 0.8224 and for E. coli (r: 0.8603. The two methods yielded similar results, but Readycult[tm] - LMX was easier to use. In addition, results were available as early as 24h.

  17. Variability in the characterization of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and escherichia coli in recreational water supplies of North Mississippi, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, is a historical organism for the detection of fecal pollution in water supplies. The presence of E. coli indicates a potential contamination of the water supply by other more hazardous human pathogens. In order to accurately determine the presence and degree o...

  18. Distribution of total and fecal coliform organisms from septic effluent in selected coastal plain soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reneau, R B; Pettry, D E; Shanholtz, M I; Graham, S A; Weston, C W

    1977-01-01

    Distribution of total and fecal coliform bacteria in three Atlantic coastal plain soils in Virginia were monitored in situ over a 3-year period. The soils studied were Varina, Goldsboro, and Beltsville sandy loams. These and similar soils are found extensively along the populous Atlantic seaboard of the United States. They are considered only marginally suitable for septic tank installation because the restricting soil layers result in the subsequent development of seasonal perched water tables. To determine both horizontal and vertical movement of indicator organisms, samples were collected from piezometers placed at selected distances and depths from the drainfields in the direction of the ground water flow. Large reductions in total and fecal coliform bacteria were noted in the perched ground waters above the restricting layers as distance from the drainfield increased. These restricting soil layers appear to be effective barriers to the vertical movement of indicator organisms. The reduction in the density of the coliform bacteria above the restricting soil layers can probably be attributed to dilution, filtration, and dieoff as the bacteria move through the natural soil systems. PMID:325589

  19. Bactérias coliformes totais e coliformes de origem fecal em águas usadas na dessedentação de animais Total and fecal coliform bacteria in animal drinking water

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Carlos de Souza; Sebastião Timo Iaria; Gil Vianna Paim; Carlos Alberto de Magalhães Lopes

    1983-01-01

    Foram colhidas 105 amostras de água sendo 44 de mananciais e de 61 bebedouros, a partir das quais foram realizadas as determinações dos NMP (Número Mais Provável) de bactérias coliformes totais e fecais. De acordo com a Portaria GM/0013 de 15 de janeiro de 1976, da Secretaria Especial do Meio Ambiente do Ministério do Interior, os 44 mananciais revelaram-se dentro dos parâmetros estabelecidos. Embora não haja referência com relação a bebedouros, aplicando-se os valores estabelecidos para mana...

  20. Analytical limits of four beta-glucuronidase and beta-galactosidase-based commercial culture methods used to detect Escherichia coli and total coliforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheux, Andrée F; Huppé, Vicky; Boissinot, Maurice; Picard, François J; Bissonnette, Luc; Bernier, Jean-Luc T; Bergeron, Michel G

    2008-12-01

    Colilert (Colilert), Readycult Coliforms 100 (Readycult), Chromocult Coliform agar ES (Chromocult), and MI agar (MI) are beta-galactosidase and beta-glucuronidase-based commercial culture methods used to assess water quality. Their analytical performance, in terms of their respective ability to detect different strains of Escherichia coli and total coliforms, had never been systematically compared with pure cultures. Here, their ability to detect beta-glucuronidase production from E. coli isolates was evaluated by using 74 E. coli strains of different geographic origins and serotypes encountered in fecal and environmental settings. Their ability to detect beta-galactosidase production was studied by testing the 74 E. coli strains as well as 33 reference and environmental non-E. coli total coliform strains. Chromocult, MI, Readycult, and Colilert detected beta-glucuronidase production from respectively 79.9, 79.9, 81.1, and 51.4% of the 74 E. coli strains tested. These 4 methods detected beta-galactosidase production from respectively 85.1, 73.8, 84.1, and 84.1% of the total coliform strains tested. The results of the present study suggest that Colilert is the weakest method tested to detect beta-glucuronidase production and MI the weakest to detect beta-galactosidase production. Furthermore, the high level of false-negative results for E. coli recognition obtained by all four methods suggests that they may not be appropriate for identification of presumptive E. coli strains. PMID:18760312

  1. Disinfection of total coli-forms in the effluent from municipal wastewater plant with electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Average annual rainfall in Korea is around 1,270mm and is about 30% more than that of the world (973mm), but it varies too much with season and area to control for withdrawal. By considering the high population density (3rd in the world), the annual rainfall per capita is decreased to only 1/11 (3,000 ton/yr/man) of the world average. And even worse, 2/3 of those rainfalls are concentrated in 2 or 3 months in summer and hence only 24% of rainfall could be accessible for human uses. Demand for fresh water in our country increases gradually with industrialization and urbanization, but the supply has limitations in its increasing. To observe the applicability of electron beam treatment for disinfection of the effluent from municipal sewage treatment plant, the effectiveness of electron beam irradiation in the disinfection of wastewater and the improvement of the water quality were measured by determining the changes in organic matter as indicated by the measurement of BOD, COD and TOC. The experiments were conducted with 1MeV, 40kW electron accelerator at EBTECH. Co. Ltd., in Korea. The absorbed doses for all of the experiments were in the region of 0.2kGy - 1.0kGy. The effluent used for this research was from the Daejeon sewage treatment plant, and the effluent is taken after the activated sludge treatment - just prior to discharge. Estimates of E-Coil. and total coli-forms of bacteria were determined by the membrane filter procedures EPA Method. After irradiation, the edures EPA Method. After irradiation, the change of characteristics in effluent was measured as BOD and COD, EPA method. The bench scale electron beam irradiation system used in this research is shown. It is observed that nearly 100% of E-Coli. and total coli-forms were inactivated with a dose of 0.8kGy. Even with the lower dose of 0.2kGy, the E-Coli. and total coli-forms were successfully inactivated to the level of the guideline for effluent discharge. Besides disinfection of total coli-forms, approximately 50% of removal in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) was pronounced at a dose of 0.2kGy. More than 20% removal in suspended solids (SS) and turbidity was also observed at a dose of 1.0kGy. Based on the data obtained in the laboratory experiments, the suitable doses are determined as around 0.2 kGy for the flow rate of 100,000m3 effluent per day. Therefore, accelerator with the power of 400kW is applied for economies and compactness of the plant. Cost for high power accelerator is around 2.0?2.5M$ and building, piping, other equipment and construction works could be estimated 1.0?1.5M$. Even by considering the additional cost for tax, insurance and documentation as 0.5M$, the overall cost for plant construction is approximately 4.0?4.5M$. Expected construction period includes 11 months in civil and installation works and 3 months for trial operation. To estimate the operation cost, the electricity consumption is estimated for accelerator with 500kW (80% efficiency) and other equipment in additional 300kW to the total of 800kW. Based on the year round operation (8400hr/yr), it costs 336,000$/yr when the cost of electricity (kWh) was assumed to be 0.05$. The labor cost is calculated 3-shift with one additional operator and is approximately 100,000$/yr. Thus, the actual operation cost for 100,000m3/day plants is 436,000$/yr and if we consider the interest and depreciation of investment, the cost comes up to around 1M$/yr. It is approximately 0.12$/m3 for construction and 0.03$/m3/yr for operation of above re-use plant, and is inexpensive compared to other advanced oxidation techniques such as Ozonation, UV techniques etc

  2. Variability in the characterization of total coliforms, fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli in recreational water supplies of north Mississippi, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiello, M; Mikell, A T; Moore, M T; Cooper, C M

    2014-08-01

    The fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, is a historical organism for the detection of fecal pollution in water supplies. The presence of E. coli indicates a potential contamination of the water supply by other more hazardous human pathogens. In order to accurately determine the presence and degree of fecal contamination, it is important that standard methods approved by the US Environmental Protection Agency are designed to determine the presence of E. coli in a water supply, and distinguish E. coli from other coliform bacteria (e.g. Citrobacter, Klebsiella and Enterobacter). These genera of bacteria are present not only in fecal matter, but also in soil and runoff water and are not good indicators of fecal contamination. There is also ambiguity in determining a positive result for fecal coliforms on M-FC filters by a blue colony. When all variations of blue, including light blue or glossy blue, were examined, confirmation methods agreed with the positive M-FC result less often than when colonies that the technician would merely call "blue", with no descriptors, were examined. Approximately 48 % of M-FC positive colonies were found to be E. coli with 4 methylumbelliferyl-?-D-glucuronide (MUG), and only 23 % of samples producing a positive result on M-FC media were found to be E. coli using API-20E test strips and current API-20E profiles. The majority of other M-FC blue colonies were found to be Klebsiella or were unidentifiable with current API-20E profiles. Two positive M-FC colonies were found to be Kluyvera with API-20E, both of which cleaved MUG and produced fluorescence under UV light, a characteristic used to differentiate E. coli from other fecal coliforms. PMID:24952738

  3. Endotoxin, Coliform, and Dust Levels in Various Types of Rodent Bedding

    OpenAIRE

    Whiteside, Tanya E.; Thigpen, Julius E.; Kissling, Grace E.; Grant, Mary G.; Forsythe, Diane B.

    2010-01-01

    Endotoxins in grain dust, household dust, and animal bedding may induce respiratory symptoms in rodents and humans. We assayed the endotoxin, coliform, and dust levels in 20 types of rodent bedding. Endotoxin concentrations were measured by using a commercial test kit, coliform counts were determined by using conventional microbiologic procedures, and dust content was evaluated by using a rotating–tapping shaker. Paper bedding types contained significantly less endotoxin than did other bedd...

  4. Comparative study of methods for the enumeration of total and fecal coliforms in the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, G P

    1978-12-01

    Violet red bile agar and Coli-Count Sampler (Millipore Corp.) procedures were shown to be acceptable alternatives to the standard most-probable-number method for monitoring relative coliform levels in oysters. PMID:367271

  5. Characterization of E. coli and total coliform organisms isolated from Wisconsin Waters and Reassessment of their public health significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Standridge, J.; Barman, M.; Sonzogni, W.C. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1996-11-01

    In 1989 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency promulgated Revised National Primary Drinking Water Regulations pursuant to the federal Safe Drinking Water Act. For Wisconsin, the law drastically increased the number of water systems required to test for microbiological contaminants. The law also introduced the requirement that laboratories not only look for the {open_quotes}total coliform{close_quotes} group of bacteria, but also the subgroup of fecal coliforms or E. coli are found and thus dictates public notification or {open_quotes}boil water orders.{close_quotes} The number of microbiological contamination events detected and the frequency of {open_quotes}boil{close_quotes} orders has increased drastically because of the Act. Concurrent with this increased visibility of microbiological contamination events has come a growing suspicion that we, as public health officials, may be unnecessarily alarming the public when, in fact, there is no real public health threat. This suspicion if fueled by recent reports documenting a number of situations in wells and distribution systems where coliform organisms were growing and multiplying in biofilms yielding positive tests, but where no fecal contamination had actually occurred. The fact that the profile of coliform species found in drinking water is very different from the coliform profile of feces, also leads one to question the significance of total coliform presence in potable water.

  6. Effects of repeated-low level sodium chlorate administration on ruminal and fecal coliforms in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzola, Claudio; Copado, Ramon; Epps, Sharon V R P; Rodriguez-Almeida, Felipe; Ruiz-Barrera, Oscar; Rodriguez-Muela, Carlos; Corral-Luna, Agustin; Castillo-Castillo, Yamicela; Diaz-Plascencia, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral sodium chlorate administration on reducing total coliform populations in ewes. A 30% sodium chlorate product or a sodium chloride placebo was administered to twelve lactating Dorper X Blackbelly or Pelibuey crossbred ewes averaging 65 kg body weight. The ewes were adapted to diet and management. Ewes were randomly assigned (4/treatment) to one of three treatments which were administered twice daily by oral gavage for five consecutive days: a control (TC) consisting of 3 g sodium chloride/animal/d, a T3 treatment consisting of 1.8 g of sodium chlorate/animal/d, and a T9 treatment consisting of 5.4 g sodium chlorate/animal/d; the latter was intended to approximate a lowest known effective dose. Ruminal samples collected by stomach tube and freshly voided fecal samples were collected daily beginning 3 days before treatment initiation and for 6 days thereafter. Contents were cultured quantitatively to enumerate total coliforms. There were no significant differences in total coliform numbers (log10 cfu/g) in the feces between treatments (P = 0.832). There were differences (P coliform counts (log10 cfu/mL) between treatments (4.1, 4.3 and 5.0 log10/mL contents in TC, T3 and T9 Treatments, respectively) which tended to increase from the beginning of treatment until the 5th day of treatment (P coliform populations in the rumen contents in all treatments, there was an increase over the days. The opposite trend occurred in the feces, due mainly to differences among rumen contents and feces in ewes administered the T9 treatment (P = 0.06). These results suggest that the low chlorate doses used here were suboptimal for the control of coliforms in the gastrointestinal tract of ewes. PMID:25310812

  7. Avaliação do padrão coliformes a 45ºC e comparação da eficiência das técnicas dos tubos múltiplos e Petrifilm EC na detecção de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em alimentos / Coliforms at 45ºc and comparison of most probable number method and Petrifilm EC for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli of foods

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.P., Silva; D.R., Cavalli; T.C.R.M., Oliveira.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Coliformes fecais são definidos como coliformes capazes de fermentar a lactose com produção de gás em 48 h a 45ºC. Escherichia coli, juntamente com algumas cepas de Enterobacter e Klebsiella, podem apresentar essas características. Entretanto, apenas a presença de Escherichia coli em alimentos indic [...] a contaminação fecal por ser encontrada em grande quantidade no trato gastrointestinal do homem e animais de sangue quente, não sendo isolada normalmente em outros nichos. A denominação clássica de coliformes fecais foi alterada para coliformes a 45ºC, na Resolução nº 12 da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a presença de E. coli entre os coliformes a 45ºC e comparar a eficiência das técnicas dos tubos múltiplos e Petrifilm EC na detecção de coliformes totais e E. coli em queijo Minas, lingüiça frescal, hortaliças e fubá. Petrifilm EC mostrou-se mais sensível na detecção de E. coli em relação ao método de tubos múltiplos, o qual apresentou resultados falso-negativos ou contagens subestimadas de E. coli, principalmente para amostras de alimentos de origem animal. Petrifilm EC foi o mais eficiente e prático, sendo um método alternativo adequado para a enumeração de coliformes totais e E. coli em alimentos. Abstract in english Fecal coliforms are defined as coliforms that ferment lactose with gas production within 48 hours at 45ºC. Escherichia coli and some strains of Enterobacter and Klebsiella show these same characteristics. However, only the presence of E. coli can indicate fecal contamination of foods, because it is [...] abundantly found in the intestinal tract of all warm-blooded animals, including the humans, and it is not usually found in others niches. The classic denomination of fecal coliforms was changed to coliforms at 45ºC in the Resolution nº 12/2001 of the National Surveillance Agency of Brazil. The objectives of this study were to analyse the presence of E. coli among the coliforms at 45ºC and to compare the methods of Most Probable Number Method (MPN) and Petrifilm EC in their efficiency to detect E. coli in Minas cheese, sausage, fresh vegetables and corn flower samples. Petrifilm EC was more accurate method than MNP method, which presented false negative results or underestimation of E. coli. In conclusion, Petrifilm EC was an efficient and practical method to detect E. coli. Therefore, it may be alternatively used for enumeration of total coliforms and E. coli in foods.

  8. Avaliação do padrão coliformes a 45ºC e comparação da eficiência das técnicas dos tubos múltiplos e Petrifilm EC na detecção de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em alimentos Coliforms at 45ºc and comparison of most probable number method and Petrifilm EC for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli of foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Silva

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Coliformes fecais são definidos como coliformes capazes de fermentar a lactose com produção de gás em 48 h a 45ºC. Escherichia coli, juntamente com algumas cepas de Enterobacter e Klebsiella, podem apresentar essas características. Entretanto, apenas a presença de Escherichia coli em alimentos indica contaminação fecal por ser encontrada em grande quantidade no trato gastrointestinal do homem e animais de sangue quente, não sendo isolada normalmente em outros nichos. A denominação clássica de coliformes fecais foi alterada para coliformes a 45ºC, na Resolução nº 12 da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a presença de E. coli entre os coliformes a 45ºC e comparar a eficiência das técnicas dos tubos múltiplos e Petrifilm EC na detecção de coliformes totais e E. coli em queijo Minas, lingüiça frescal, hortaliças e fubá. Petrifilm EC mostrou-se mais sensível na detecção de E. coli em relação ao método de tubos múltiplos, o qual apresentou resultados falso-negativos ou contagens subestimadas de E. coli, principalmente para amostras de alimentos de origem animal. Petrifilm EC foi o mais eficiente e prático, sendo um método alternativo adequado para a enumeração de coliformes totais e E. coli em alimentos.Fecal coliforms are defined as coliforms that ferment lactose with gas production within 48 hours at 45ºC. Escherichia coli and some strains of Enterobacter and Klebsiella show these same characteristics. However, only the presence of E. coli can indicate fecal contamination of foods, because it is abundantly found in the intestinal tract of all warm-blooded animals, including the humans, and it is not usually found in others niches. The classic denomination of fecal coliforms was changed to coliforms at 45ºC in the Resolution nº 12/2001 of the National Surveillance Agency of Brazil. The objectives of this study were to analyse the presence of E. coli among the coliforms at 45ºC and to compare the methods of Most Probable Number Method (MPN and Petrifilm EC in their efficiency to detect E. coli in Minas cheese, sausage, fresh vegetables and corn flower samples. Petrifilm EC was more accurate method than MNP method, which presented false negative results or underestimation of E. coli. In conclusion, Petrifilm EC was an efficient and practical method to detect E. coli. Therefore, it may be alternatively used for enumeration of total coliforms and E. coli in foods.

  9. Pengaruh Ketebalan Media dan Rate filtrasi pada Sand Filter dalam Menurunkan Kekeruhan dan Total Coliform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deni Maryani

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Pada penelitian ini dilakukan proses filtrasi dengan menggunakan sand filter sebagai salah satu metode dalam pengolahan air bersih. Pada sand filter proses penyaringan terjadi pada media filter yang sangat halus, seperti media filter pada unit slow sand filter. Kecepatan penyaringan yang diinginkan pada sand filter ini adalah kecepatan seperti pada unit rapid sand filter. Sehingga sand filter ini adalah penggabungan antara kelebihan yang dimiliki slow sand filter dan rapid sand filter. Variasi pada penelitian ini yaitu: tebal media pasir 80 cm dengan rate filtrasi 5 m3/m2.jam, tebal media pasir 80 cm dengan rate filtrasi 7,5 m3/m2.jam, tebal media pasir 100 cm dengan rate filtrasi 5 m3/m2.jam, tebal media pasir 100 cm dengan rate filtrasi 7,5 m3/m2.jam, tebal media pasir 120 cm dengan rate filtrasi 5 m3/m2.jam dan tebal media pasir 120 cm dengan rate filtrasi 7,5 m3/m2.jam. Pada penelitian ini digunakan air baku yaitu air Kali Surabaya dengan nilai rata-rata total coliform 90.000 per 100 ml sampel dan nilai rata-rata kekeruhan 87,4 NTU. Dihasilkan bahwa penyisihan total coliform pada variasi tebal media 120 cm dan rate filtrasi 5 m3/m2/jam dengan nilai efisiensi sebesar 99% dan kekeruhan paling baik terjadi pada variasi panjang variasi tebal media 100 cm dan rate filtrasi 5 m3/m2/jam dengan nilai efisiensi sebesar 98,27%.

  10. Determinación de microorganismos indicadores de calidad sanitaria. Coliformes totales, coliformes fecales y aerobios mesófilos en agua potable envasada y distribuida en San Diego, estado Carabobo, Venezuela. / Determination of sanitary quality index microorganisms. Total coliforms, fecal coliforms and aerobic mesophiles in drinking water bottle and distributed in San Diego, Carabobo state, Venezuela.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J, Silva; L, Ramírez; A, Alfieri; G, Rivas; M, Sánchez.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El consumo de agua potable envasada contaminada con microorganismos patógenos puede ocasionar enfermedades de origen entérico. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar y comparar, mediante dos métodos de análisis, la presencia de microorganismos indicadores de calidad sanitaria, tales como colifor [...] mes totales, coliformes fecales y aerobios mesófilos, en dos marcas comerciales de agua potable, distribuidas en San Diego, estado Carabobo, Venezuela. Para ello se recolectaron 30 muestras de agua potable en presentación de bidones de 20 litros de capacidad, divididas en 15 muestras marca A y 15 marca B. Para la identificación microbiológica se emplearon el método rápido Petrifilm y el método tradicional de siembra en profundidad según las especificaciones del Método Estándar para el Análisis de Aguas Potables y las normas nacionales COVENIN. Los resultados obtenidos no mostraron diferencias significativas para el recuento microbiológico de coliformes totales y de aerobios mesófilos, por el método tradicional de siembra en profundidad y el método rápido de siembra en placas Petrifilm (r = 0,9), para las marcas de agua A y B (p = 0,5). Tres muestras (13%) presentaron recuentos menores de 10 µfc/ml para coliformes totales para la marca de agua A, y siete (47%) para la marca B. Ninguna muestra presentó coliformes fecales. En conclusión, ambos métodos siguen siendo de elección para el análisis de agua potable envasada, y aunque el método de Petrifilm presente ciertas ventajas con respecto al método tradicional de siembra en profundidad, este último sigue siendo el más utilizado en la mayoría de los laboratorios de análisis microbiológicos. Ambas marcas de agua potable presentaron recuentos microbiológicos fuera de especificaciones, según las recomendaciones de las normas respectivas, por lo que su consumo puede representar un riesgo para la salud del consumidor. Abstract in english The consumption of polluted drinking water bottles with pathogen microorganisms, can cause enteric origin illnesses. The aim of this work was to determine and to compare, by two analysis methods, the presence of sanitary quality index microorganisms, such as total coliforms, fecal coliforms and aero [...] bic mesophiles, in two registered trade-marks of drinking water, distributed in San Diego, Carabobo State, Venezuela. Thirty samples of drinking water were gathered in 20 liters capacity drums presentation, divided in 15 samples brand A and 15 samples brand B respectively. For the microbiological identification, we used the Petrifilm quick test and the traditional method of depth seeding, according to the Standard Methods for the Analysis of Waters specifications and the COVENIN national norms. For the microbiological recount of total coliforms and aerobic mesophiles, the results did not show significant differences for the traditional method of depth seeding and the Petrifilm plates quick test seeding (r = 0,9), for the water brands A and B (p= 0,5). Three samples (13%) presented smaller recounts than 10 UFC/ml for total coliforms for water brand A, and seven (47%) for brand B. No sample presented fecal coliforms. In conclusion, both methods keep on being election for the analysis of bottle drinking water bottle, and although Petrifilm test presents certain advantages regarding the traditional method of depth seeding, this last one continues being the more used method of analysis in most of microbiological laboratories. Both registered trade-marks of drinking water presented microorganisms recounts outside of specifications, according to the recommendations of the respective norms, therefore, their consumption can represent a risk for the consumer’s health.

  11. ENUMERATION OF TOTAL COLIFORMS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI ON BROILER CHICKENS BY WHOLE CARCASS RINSING AND AN ALTERNATIVE SCRAPE METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experiment was conducted to compare the whole carcass rinse method (WCR) versus scraping the breast skin or back skin for enumeration of total coliforms and E. coli. In each of two replicate trials, four pre-chill broiler carcasses were collected from two different commercial processing plants. W...

  12. 75 FR 18205 - Total Coliform Rule Revisions-Notice of Stakeholder Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ...Coliform Rule Revisions--Notice of Stakeholder Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection...of the Committee is that EPA conduct stakeholder outreach as the Agency develops the...Collection Partnership; opportunities for stakeholders to provide feedback on assessment...

  13. 75 FR 14607 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ...whether any of the coliform organisms are E. coli. FDA also amended the adulteration provision of the bottled water standard to reflect the possibility of adulteration caused by the presence of filth. Under the amended regulations,...

  14. Determination of Escherichia coli Contamination with Chromocult Coliform Agar Showed a High Level of Discrimination Efficiency for Differing Fecal Pollution Levels in Tropical Waters of Kampala, Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Byamukama, Dennis; Kansiime, Frank; Mach, Robert L.; Farnleitner, Andreas H.

    2000-01-01

    Escherichia coli, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and sulfite-reducing anaerobic spore formers from different polluted sites in a tropical environment were determined in order to test for their indication ability for fecal contamination. Quantification of E. coli contamination with Chromocult coliform agar proved to be efficient and feasible for determining fecal pollutions in the investigated area within 24 h. The other microbial parameters showed a lower ability to differentiate sites and...

  15. Inactivation and injury of total coliform bacteria after primary disinfection of drinking water by TiO2 photocatalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the potential application of TiO2 photocatalysis as primary disinfection system of drinking water was investigated in terms of coliform bacteria inactivation and injury. As model water the effluent of biological denitrification unit for nitrate removal from groundwater, which is characterized by high organic matter and bacteria release, was used. The injury of photocatalysis on coliform bacteria was characterized by means of selective (mEndo) and less selective (mT7) culture media. Different catalyst loadings as well as photolysis and adsorption effects were investigated. Photocatalysis was effective in coliform bacteria inactivation (91-99% after 60 min irradiation time, depending on both catalyst loading and initial density of coliform bacteria detected by mEndo), although no total removal was observed after 60 min irradiation time. The contribution of adsorption mechanism was significant (60-98% after 60 min, depending on catalyst loading) compared to previous investigations probably due to the nature of source water rich in particulate organic matter and biofilm. Photocatalysis process did not result in any irreversible injury (98.8% being the higher injury) under investigated conditions, thus a bacteria regrowth may take place under optimum environment conditions if any final disinfection process (e.g., chlorine or chlorine dioxide) is not used.

  16. 40 CFR 141.803 - Coliform sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coliform sampling. 141.803 Section 141...Aircraft Drinking Water Rule § 141.803 Coliform sampling. (a) Analytical methodology...standard sample volume required for total coliform analysis, regardless of analytical...

  17. COMPARISON OF THE RECOVERIES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AND TOTAL COLIFORMS FROM DRINKING WATER BY THE MI AGAR METHOD AND THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY-APPROVED MEMBRANE FILTER METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water regulations under the Final Coliform Rule require that total coliform-positive drinking water samples be examined for the presence of Escherichia coli or fecal coliforms. The current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-approved membrane filter (MF) method for E. c...

  18. Assessment of the characteristic of nutrients, total metals, and fecal coliform in Sibu Laut River, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Chen-Lin; Ling, Teck-Yee; Lee, Nyanti; Apun, Kasing

    2014-06-01

    The concentrations of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), total metals, and fecal coliform (FC) coupling with chlorophyll-a (chl-a), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and other general environmental parameters were evaluated at the sub-surface and near-bottom water columns of 13 stations in the Sibu Laut River during low and high slack waters. The results indicated that inorganic nitrogen (mainly nitrate) was the primary form of nitrogen whereas organic phosphorus was the major form of phosphorus. The abundance of total heavy metals in Sibu Laut River and its tributaries was in the order of Pb intake creek and amended rapidly along Selang Sibu River and brought minimal effects on the Sibu Laut River. Besides, the domestic sewage effluents from villages nearby also contributed a substantial amount of pollutants.

  19. Comparison of the recoveries of Escherichia coli and total coliforms from drinking water by the MI agar method and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-approved membrane filter method.

    OpenAIRE

    Brenner, K P; Rankin, C.C.; Sivaganesan, M.; Scarpino, P. V.

    1996-01-01

    Drinking water regulations under the Final Coliform Rule require that total coliform-positive drinking water samples be examined for the presence of Escherichia coli or fecal coliforms. The current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-approved membrane filter (MF) method for E. coli requires two media, an MF transfer, and a total incubation time of 28 h. A newly developed MF method, the MI agar method, containing indoxyl-beta-D-glucuronide and 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside for...

  20. Coliformes totales, fecales y algunas enterobacterias, Sthaphylococcus sp. y hongos en ensaladas para perro calientes expendidas en la ciudad de Maracay, Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laura, Acevedo; Clever, Mendoza; Rafael, Oyón.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Las comidas rápidas que se expenden en las calles, poseen fuerte potencialidad para la transmisión de enfermedades gastrointestinales debido a que son alimentos extensamente manipulados. De estos alimentos los vegetales representan un sustrato adecuado para la proliferación de gérmenes patógenos. Se [...] determinó la presencia de Coliformes totales, Coliformes fecales, otras Enterobacterias y Staphylococcus sp. y Hongos en las muestras de ensaladas crudas para perros calientes expendidas en el centro de la ciudad de Maracay, Venezuela. Se empleó la técnica del Número Más Probable para cuantificar los Coliformes y Staphylococcus sp. Posteriormente se identificaron parcialmente las cepas de Coliformes y de Staphylococcus sp aisladas. También se cuantificó la presencia de Hongos en dichas ensaladas. Se les determinó el pH y la acidez y su relación con el crecimiento microbiano. El resultado para Coliformes totales fue 1,44 x 10(5) NMP/g; Coliformes fecales 4,57 x 10(4) NMP/g; no se detectó E. coli en las muestras analizadas, sin embargo de 87 cepas aisladas se determinó la presencia de Citrobacter freunndi Variedad I (45,09% de las cepas aisladas), Citrobacter freundii Variedad II (21,57%), Enterobacter aerogenes Variedad I (17,65%) y Enterobacter aerogenes Variedad II (15,69%); Staphylococcus sp. 3,93 x 10(6) NMP/g. Las 52 cepas de presuntos Staphylococcus sp. resultaron coagulasa negativa; Hongos 4,5 x 10(4) UFC/g, Penicillium sp., Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp. fueron identificadas parcialmente. Las ensaladas crudas presentaban un pH y una acidez de 5,92 y 0,78 ml NaOH respectivamente Abstract in english Total and fecal coliforms, some enterobacteria, Staphylococcus sp. and moulds in salads for hot dogs sold in Maracay city, Venezuela. Fast food sold on the streets are good vehicule to transmit gastrointestind diseases to consumers because they are highly manipulated. The vegetables are a good media [...] for pathogens growth. Raw vegetables salads for hotdog sold in Maracay city were studied. Total and fecal Coliforms and Staphylococcus sp. were cuantified by the Most Probable Number Technique. Coliforms and Staphylococcus isolated were partially identified. Also the mould population was cuantified and identified. Microbial growth was correlated with pH and acidity measurements. MPN/g of Total Coliforms was 1,44 x 10(5) and 4,57 x 10(4) for fecal Coliforms. E. coli was no detected. 87 isolated from the Coliforms were partilly identified as Citrobacter freundii variety I (45,09% of the isolated), C. freundii variety II (21,57%), Enterobacter aerogenes variety I ( 17,65%) and E. aerogenes variety II (15,69%); Staphylococcus sp. 3,93 x 10(6) MPN/g and all of its isolated (52) were coagulase negative. The mould population was 4,5 x 10(4) ufc/g, Penicillium sp., Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp. were partially identified. The salads presented a pH of 5,92 and an acidity of 0,78 ml of NaOH

  1. LISTERIA SPP., COLIFORMES TOTAIS E FECAIS E E.COLI NO LEITE CRU E PASTEURIZADO DE UMA INDÚSTRIA DE LATICÍNIOS, NO ESTADO DA PARAÍBA (BRASIL) / LISTERIA SPP., TOTAL COLIFORM, FECAL COLIFORM AND E.COLI ON RAW AND PASTEURIZED MILK ON A DAIRY INDUSTRY, (PARAÍBA, BRAZIL)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raïssa Mayer Ramalho, CATÃO; Beatriz Susana Ovruski de, CEBALLOS.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se a qualidade microbiológica do leite in natura e na linha de produção (leite recém-pasteurizado e leite ensacado), de uma usina de beneficiamento em Campina Grande-PB. Foi pesquisada a presença de Listeria spp. e sua diversidade de espécies, os níveis de coliformes totais (CT), coliform [...] es fecais (CF) e Escherichia coli. Analisou-se um total de 75 amostras de leite, sendo 45 de leite cru, 15 de leite recém-pasteurizado e 15 de leite ensacado. Os resultados foram reunidos em dois grupos segundo o período de monitoramento: antes e após mudanças no processo de higienização da usina. Foi evidenciada elevada contaminação nas amostras de leite cru nas duas épocas. Na primeira (março-abril/1998), todas as amostras de leite beneficiado estiveram fora dos padrões da legislação vigente para CT e CF; na segunda (maio-agosto/1998), houve acentuada redução dos níveis destas bactérias indicadoras, porém as melhorias na higienização não foram suficientes para solucionar este problema, visto que 11,1% das amostras recém-pasteurizadas estavam fora dos padrões para CT e 33,3% para CF. Das amostras ensacadas, 22,2% estavam fora dos padrões para CT e 44,4% para CF. Comparando-se os resultados de CT, CF, e E.coli nas amostras de leite recém-pasteurizado e não ensacado com as amostras de leite ensacado, foi verificado que as amostras após serem pasteurizadas e ensacadas apresentaram valores de CT e CF levemente mais elevados, sugerindo contaminação durante o processo de ensacamento ou falhas na armazenagem. Observou-se que 33 (73,3%) das amostras de leite cru e 9 (30%) das de leite pasteurizado estavam contaminadas com Listeria spp., sendo identificadas L. monocytogenes em 17 (51,5%) amostras de leite cru e em 9 (100%) de leite beneficiado (4 recém-pasteurizadas e 5 ensacadas). Em relação à diversidade de espécies, nas amostras de leite cru foram encontradas: L. monocytogenes (66,6%), L. innocua (25,3%), L. ivanovii (3,9%), L. welshimeri (2,5%) e L. grayi (1,5%). Nas amostras de leite pasteurizado isolaram-se: L. monocyogenes e L. innocua. O conjunto dos resultados evidenciou deficiências higiênico-sanitárias no leite in natura e ao longo do processo de produção, resultando em porcentagens elevadas de amostras que ultrapassaram os valores padrões de CT e CF além de apresentarem-se contaminadas por Listeria spp., com predominância de L. monocytogenes, sugerindo a existência de uma relação direta entre os altos índices de coliformes e a presença de Listeria spp. Abstract in english The microbiological quality of raw and pasteurized milk was studied along its line production in a dairy factory in Paraíba State, Brazil. Listeria monocytogenes was frequent found in raw milk and the levels of total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC) and Escherichia coli, were high in the same sa [...] mples. The results of 75 milk studied samples (45 raw milk, 15 recently pasteurized and 15 sacked), were distributed in two clusters, according its collected period (before and after changes in factory's hygienic process). Both raw samples groups showed high contamination. In the first period (March-April/1998), all the pasteurized milk were out of total and fecal coliforms standards. During the second period (May-August/1998), there was a significant reduction of coliforms levels, however the progress in hygienic conditions were not enough for eliminate the contamination: 11.1% of recent pasteurized milk samples and 22.2% of sacked milk samples were out of TC and also 33.3% and 44.4% recent pasteurized and sacked milk samples. Sacked milk presented more TC and FC than recent pasteurized milk, suggesting contamination after pasteurization or failure at storage. Listeria spp. was found in 33 raw milk samples (73.3%) and in 9 (30%) of pasteurized milk samples. L. monocytogenes was isolated in 17 (51.5%) raw milk samples and in 9 (100%) pasteurized milk samples (4 recent-pasteurized and 5 sacked). The Listeria spp. diversity was: L. monocytogenes (66.6%), L. innocua (25.3%), L

  2. COMPARISON OF MEMBRANE FILTER, MULTIPLE-FERMENTATION-TUBE, AND PRESENCE-ABSENCE TECHNIQUES FOR DETECTING TOTAL COLIFORMS IN SMALL COMMUNITY WATER SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods for detecting total coliform bacteria in drinking water were compared using 1483 different drinking water samples from 15 small community water systems in Vermont and New Hampshire. The methods included the membrane filter (MF) technique, a ten tube fermentation tube tech...

  3. Total Coliforms and Turbidity Removal of Water in the Continuous Sand Filter

    OpenAIRE

    Ah, Mahvi; Sheikhi, R.; Naddafi, K.

    2003-01-01

    The continuous filter is a kind of sand filter, which will operate without any interruptions for backwashing and also it accepts high-suspended solid levels in feed stream. Fouled sand is continuously removed from the filter bed, washed and recycled back without interruption with filtration process. Various samples of water with certain amounts of turbidity enter through a feed pipe and being distributed to the filter. A central column runs from top to bottom of the filter. The water is led t...

  4. Coliform bacterial pollution in Rawal lake, Islamabad and its feeding streams / river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total coliform and fecal coliform are indicators of drinking water quality. The presence of fecal coliform in water indicates contamination with fecal materials of man and other animals. This paper documents the population of total coliform colonies as well as fecal coliform contamination in Rawal lake, which is one of major source of drinking water supply to inhabitants of Rawalpindi, and its feeding streams (mainly Kurang River and three perennial streams) flowing in the administrative jurisdiction of the capital city, Islamabad, Pakistan. Coliform bacteria in Rawal lake and feeding streams water was determined by membrane filtration technique. The results indicated that E. Coli population in four streams (input waters) feeding the Rawal Lake ranged from 25 - 57 (mean 36) fecal coliform per 100 mL. The Kurang River, one of the feeding streams, hosted the largest population of fecal coliform (57 fecal coliform per 100 mL). The highest population of fecal coliform (105 fecal coliform per 100 mL) in Rawal Lake surface water was observed at the confluence of Kurang River and the Lake in the vicinity of village 'New Ampler'. While in the Rawal Lake water columns, it ranged from 12 - 65 (mean 25) fecal coliform/ 100mL. The measured levels of fecal coliform bacteria are much higher than the maximum permissible levels for drinking water as recommended by WHO and US-EPA (No fecal coliform in drinking water). It is concluded that the indiscriminate amount of pollution from doindiscriminate amount of pollution from domestic sewage and poultry industry has seriously affected the biological quality of stream waters and the Rawal Lake waters. (author)

  5. Use of the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN and bacterial source tracking for development of the fecal coliform total maximum daily load (TMDL) for Blacks Run, Rockingham County, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Douglas L.; Hyer, Kenneth E.

    2003-01-01

    Impairment of surface waters by fecal coliform bacteria is a water-quality issue of national scope and importance. Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires that each State identify surface waters that do not meet applicable water-quality standards. In Virginia, more than 175 stream segments are on the 1998 Section 303(d) list of impaired waters because of violations of the water-quality standard for fecal coliform bacteria. A total maximum daily load (TMDL) will need to be developed by 2006 for each of these impaired streams and rivers by the Virginia Departments of Environmental Quality and Conservation and Recreation. A TMDL is a quantitative representation of the maximum load of a given water-quality constituent, from all point and nonpoint sources, that a stream can assimilate without violating the designated water-quality standard. Blacks Run, in Rockingham County, Virginia, is one of the stream segments listed by the State of Virginia as impaired by fecal coliform bacteria. Watershed modeling and bacterial source tracking were used to develop the technical components of the fecal coliform bacteria TMDL for Accotink Creek. The Hydrological Simulation Program?FORTRAN (HSPF) was used to simulate streamflow, fecal coliform concentrations, and source-specific fecal coliform loading in Blacks Run. Ribotyping, a bacterial source tracking technique, was used to identify the dominant sources of fecal coliform bacteria in the Blacks Run watershed. Ribotyping also was used to determine the relative contributions of specific sources to the observed fecal coliform load in Blacks Run. Data from the ribotyping analysis were incorporated into the calibration of the fecal coliform model. Study results provide information regarding the calibration of the streamflow and fecal coliform bacteria models and also identify the reductions in fecal coliform loads required to meet the TMDL for Blacks Run. The calibrated streamflow model simulated observed streamflow characteristics with respect to total annual runoff, seasonal runoff, average daily streamflow, and hourly stormflow. The calibrated fecal coliform model simulated the patterns and range of observed fecal coliform bacteria concentrations. Observed fecal coliform bacteria concentrations during low-flow periods ranged from 40 to 7,000 colonies per 100 milliliters, and peak concentrations during storm-flow periods ranged from 33,000 to 260,000 colonies per 100 milliliters. Simulated source-specific contributions of fecal coliform bacteria to instream load were matched to the observed contributions from the dominant sources, which were cats, cattle, deer, dogs, ducks, geese, horses, humans, muskrats, poultry, raccoons, and sheep. According to model results, a 95-percent reduction in the current fecal coliform load delivered from the watershed to Blacks Run would result in compliance with the designated water-quality goals and associated TMDL.

  6. Use of the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN and Bacterial Source Tracking for Development of the fecal coliform Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for Accotink Creek, Fairfax County, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Douglas L.; Hyer, Kenneth E.

    2003-01-01

    Impairment of surface waters by fecal coliform bacteria is a water-quality issue of national scope and importance. Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires that each State identify surface waters that do not meet applicable water-quality standards. In Virginia, more than 175 stream segments are on the 1998 Section 303(d) list of impaired waters because of violations of the water-quality standard for fecal coliform bacteria. A total maximum daily load (TMDL) will need to be developed by 2006 for each of these impaired streams and rivers by the Virginia Departments of Environmental Quality and Conservation and Recreation. A TMDL is a quantitative representation of the maximum load of a given water-quality constituent, from all point and nonpoint sources, that a stream can assimilate without violating the designated water-quality standard. Accotink Creek, in Fairfax County, Virginia, is one of the stream segments listed by the State of Virginia as impaired by fecal coliform bacteria. Watershed modeling and bacterial source tracking were used to develop the technical components of the fecal coliform bacteria TMDL for Accotink Creek. The Hydrological Simulation Program?FORTRAN (HSPF) was used to simulate streamflow, fecal coliform concentrations, and source-specific fecal coliform loading in Accotink Creek. Ribotyping, a bacterial source tracking technique, was used to identify the dominant sources of fecal coliform bacteria in the Accotink Creek watershed. Ribotyping also was used to determine the relative contributions of specific sources to the observed fecal coliform load in Accotink Creek. Data from the ribotyping analysis were incorporated into the calibration of the fecal coliform model. Study results provide information regarding the calibration of the streamflow and fecal coliform bacteria models and also identify the reductions in fecal coliform loads required to meet the TMDL for Accotink Creek. The calibrated streamflow model simulated observed streamflow characteristics with respect to total annual runoff, seasonal runoff, average daily streamflow, and hourly stormflow. The calibrated fecal coliform model simulated the patterns and range of observed fecal coliform bacteria concentrations. Observed fecal coliform bacteria concentrations during low-flow periods ranged from 25 to 800 colonies per 100 milliliters, and peak concentrations during storm-flow periods ranged from 19,000 to 340,000 colonies per 100 milliliters. Simulated source-specific contributions of fecal coliform bacteria to instream load were matched to the observed contributions from the dominant sources, which were cats, deer, dogs, ducks, geese, humans, muskrats, and raccoons. According to model results, an 89-percent reduction in the current fecal coliform load delivered from the watershed to Accotink Creek would result in compliance with the designated water-quality goals and associated TMDL.

  7. Avaliação do padrão coliformes a 45ºC e comparação da eficiência das técnicas dos tubos múltiplos e Petrifilm EC na detecção de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em alimentos Coliforms at 45ºc and comparison of most probable number method and Petrifilm EC for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli of foods

    OpenAIRE

    M.P. Silva; D.R. Cavalli; T.C.R.M. Oliveira

    2006-01-01

    Coliformes fecais são definidos como coliformes capazes de fermentar a lactose com produção de gás em 48 h a 45ºC. Escherichia coli, juntamente com algumas cepas de Enterobacter e Klebsiella, podem apresentar essas características. Entretanto, apenas a presença de Escherichia coli em alimentos indica contaminação fecal por ser encontrada em grande quantidade no trato gastrointestinal do homem e animais de sangue quente, não sendo isolada normalmente em outros nichos. A denominação clássica de...

  8. Contagem total de bactérias e enumeração de coliformes em cortes de varejo de carne bovina e em equipamentos de supermercados / Total bacterial counts, enumeration (MPN) of coliform organisms and Escherichia coli on samples of meat retail. Cuts and boning equipamentin supermakets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alcides, Martinelli Filho; Murilo, Graner; Décio, Barbin; Expedito T. F., Silveira.

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho foi determinada a contagem total de bactérias (incubação a 32°C e a 5°C) existentes na superfície de alguns cortes de varejo de carne bovina comercializada por tres supermercados de Piracicaba, SP, bem como da superfície de diversos tipos de equipamento utilizado nas salas de de [...] sossa desses estabelecimentos. Foi determinado também o número mais provável (NMP) de coliformes totais e, para um grupo de amostras de carne, o NMP de Escherichia coli. Para um dos supermercados (o mais antigo e menos adequado sob o aspecto sanitário) foi possível constatar uma diferença significativa entre as contagens totais em cortes recebidos já desossados pelo estabelecimento, a favor destes, e as contagens em cortes preparados na sala de desossa. O equipamento, tanto no estado considerado limpo (após o dia de trabalho) e aquele em uso apresentaram contagens totais excessivas; não houve diferença significativa entre um e outro caso, e, em ambos, a temperatura de incubação 32°C resultou em valores estatisticamente superiores aos obtidos com a incubação a 5°C. As contagens provenientes de análises de superfícies de madeira foram significativamente mais elevadas que as verificadas em superfícies metálicas (serra elétrica, facas, afiadores). A ocorrência de coliformes totais foi geral, tanto na carne como no equipamento, muitas vezes em números elevados. Em amostras de carne, analisadas quanto à presença e ao número de coliformes totais e de Escherichia coli, verificou-se que 96% daquelas positivas para coliformes totais também o eram para esta bactéria. Atras de material em uso foram positivas quanto à ocorrência de coliformes totais. Tal como ocorreu a carne, o número mais possível (NMP) assumiu, em vários casos, elevados valores. Embora não comprovado estatisticamente, os resultados sugerem uma maior ocorrência desse grupo de microrganismos nas superfícies de madeira (mesa e ou cepo). Abstract in english Total bacterial counts (32°C and 5°C) and most probable numbers (MPN) of coliform organisms and E. coli were determined for samples of three retail bovine meat cuts and cutting and boning equipment three supermarkets. In the oldest of these, total counts were higher on meat cuts prepared in the cutt [...] ing room than on meat boned in the packing plant. Total counts were generally high on the equipment (higher for incubation at 32°C), with the wooden surfaces (tables, cutting boards) showing significaitly higher numbers than the metallic ones (eletric saw, knives). No differences could be found between counts on "clean" equipment and counts on equipment being-used. Coliform organisms were generally present; when meat samples were tested for this group of bacteria and for E. coli, it was found that 96% of the samples were positive for both.

  9. Qualidade higiênica de leite caprino por contagem de coliformes e estafilococos / Goat's milk quality by coliform's and staphylococci counting

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carina Philomena Tebisch, Gottardi; Renata Fernandes, Muricy; Marisa, Cardoso; Verônica, Schmidt.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os padrões higiênicos do leite de mistura caprino produzido por oito propriedades associadas a uma cooperativa na região do Vale do Taquari - RS. Foram realizadas duas visitas às propriedades durante o período de maior produção leiteira. As propriedades foram a [...] valiadas quanto às instalações, ao manejo de ordenha e ao armazenamento do leite.Foram coletadas amostras de leite e água em cada visita. As amostras de água apresentaram contagem de coliformes dentro dos limites propostos pela legislação vigente, já as de leite apresentaram contagens de coliformes totais que variaram de zero a 1,4 x 10(6)UFC mL-1. Em apenas duas propriedades foram encontrados coliformes fecais. Não foram identificados estafilococos coagulase-positiva nas amostras. Não foi evidenciada relação significativa entre os sistemas de resfriamento e ordenha empregados na propriedade e a presença de coliformes no leite. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to evaluate the current hygiene-sanitary quality of milk produced by eight dairy goat farms located in Vale do Taquari region, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. On each farm, two samplings were performed during the highest milk yield period. At each sampling, bulk milk and [...] water samples were taken, and farms were checked for their facilities, milking management and milk storage. Water samples were subjected to fecal coliform enumeration, while milk samples were tested for total and fecal colifoms as well as for coagulase-positive staphylococci. Water samples presented fecal coliform levels according to the national legislation. In milk samples total coliform counts up to 1.4 x 10(6)CFU mL-1 were found. Coagulase-positive staphylococci were not isolated and fecal coliforms were detected in two farms. No correlation was observed between the number of total coliforms and milking management and milk storage.

  10. Coliforms in aerosols generated by a municipal solid waste recovery system.

    OpenAIRE

    Lembke, L L; Kniseley, R N

    1980-01-01

    Airborne total and fecal coliform concentrations averaged 2.1 X 10(3) and 9.9 X 10(2)/m3, respectively, inside an operating solid waste recovery system. Installation of dust control equipment reduced these levels by 50%. Frequency of recovery of coliforms also dropped by 15%.

  11. Evaluation of the efficiency of the application of uv for microbial inactivation (total coliforms and escherichia coli in a wastewater treatment plant (Sucuri In Cuiabá/MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thais dos Santos Borges

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate a UV disinfection system process, in real scale, in Sucuri WWTP, Cuiabá/MT/Brazil, for total coliforms and Escherichia coli. The effluent came from anaerobium treatment (UASB, followed by aerobium treatment (ASBF. The system’s performance was evaluated from July to November, 2008. The experiments followed physical-chemical analysis to evaluate the influence of pH and Total Suspended Solids (TSS parameters in the UV efficiency, beyond total phosphorous, to verify the foam formation observed in UASB reactor and after disinfection. The results for this research suggested deficiencies in inactivation process for coliforms: it was one logarithm unit of removal for each. The pH parameter was in the average of 7,5. About TSS, the system presented 52% of removal efficiency, which is one of the factors that causes the system deficiencies. About the variable total phosphorous, it was observed that there was none removal of the parameter. Although it’s been reported that the limitant effect of the low quality of the sewage in the UV’s performance, in practice, even under unfavorable TSS conditions, the results showed the viability about using this method in real treatment systems. Keywords: UV desinfection; UASB reactor; domestic effluent.

  12. Use of the Hydrological Simulation Program-FORTRAN and bacterial source tracking for development of the fecal coliform total maximum daily load (TMDL) for Christians Creek, Augusta County, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Douglas L.; Hyer, Kenneth E.

    2003-01-01

    Impairment of surface waters by fecal coliform bacteria is a water-quality issue of national scope and importance. Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act requires that each State identify surface waters that do not meet applicable water-quality standards. In Virginia, more than 175 stream segments are on the 1998 Section 303(d) list of impaired waters because of violations of the water-quality standard for fecal coliform bacteria. A total maximum daily load (TMDL) will need to be developed by 2006 for each of these impaired streams and rivers by the Virginia Departments of Environmental Quality and Conservation and Recreation. A TMDL is a quantitative representation of the maximum load of a given water-quality constituent, from all point and nonpoint sources, that a stream can assimilate without violating the designated water-quality standard. Christians Creek, in Augusta County, Virginia, is one of the stream segments listed by the State of Virginia as impaired by fecal coliform bacteria. Watershed modeling and bacterial source tracking were used to develop the technical components of the fecal coliform bacteria TMDL for Christians Creek. The Hydrological Simulation Program?FORTRAN (HSPF) was used to simulate streamflow, fecal coliform concentrations, and source-specific fecal coliform loading in Christians Creek. Ribotyping, a bacterial source tracking technique, was used to identify the dominant sources of fecal coliform bacteria in the Christians Creek watershed. Ribotyping also was used to determine the relative contributions of specific sources to the observed fecal coliform load in Christians Creek. Data from the ribotyping analysis were incorporated into the calibration of the fecal coliform model. Study results provide information regarding the calibration of the streamflow and fecal coliform bacteria models and also identify the reductions in fecal coliform loads required to meet the TMDL for Christians Creek. The calibrated streamflow model simulated observed streamflow characteristics with respect to total annual runoff, seasonal runoff, average daily streamflow, and hourly stormflow. The calibrated fecal coliform model simulated the patterns and range of observed fecal coliform bacteria concentrations. Observed fecal coliform bacteria concentrations during low-flow periods ranged from 40 to 2,000 colonies per 100 milliliters, and peak concentrations during stormflow periods ranged from 23,000 to 730,000 colonies per 100 milliliters. Additionally, fecal coliform bacteria concentrations were generally higher upstream and lower downstream. Simulated source-specific contributions of fecal coliform bacteria to instream load were matched to the observed contributions from the dominant sources, which were beaver, cats, cattle, deer, dogs, ducks, geese, horses, humans, muskrats, poultry, raccoons, and sheep. According to model results, a 96-percent reduction in the current fecal coliform load delivered from the watershed to Christians Creek would result in compliance with the designated water-quality goals and associated TMDL.

  13. Modeling Fecal Coliform Contamination in the Rio Grande

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laware, Paul; Rifai, Hanadi S.

    2006-04-01

    This study examines sources of fecal coliform in Segment 2302 of the Rio Grande, located south of the International Falcon Reservoir in southern Texas. The watershed is unique because the contributing drainage areas lie in Texas and Mexico. Additionally, the watershed is mostly rural, with populated communities known as "colonias." The colonias lack sewered systems and discharge sanitary water directly to the ground surface, thus posing an increased health hazard from coliform bacteria. Monitoring data confirm that Segment 2302 is not safe for contact recreation due to elevated fecal coliform levels. The goal of the study was to simulate the observed exceedences in Segment 2302 and evaluate potential strategies for their elimination. Fecal coliform contributions from ranching and colonia discharges were modeled using the Hydrologic Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF). Model results indicated that the regulatory 30-day geometric mean fecal coliform concentration of 200 colony forming units (cfu) per 100 milliliters is exceeded approximately three times per year for a total of 30 days. Ongoing initiatives to improve wastewater facilities will reduce this to approximately once per year for 14 days. Best management practices will be necessary to reduce cattle access to streams and eliminate all exceedences. The developed model was limited by the relatively sparse flow and fecal coliform data.

  14. 40 CFR 141.21 - Coliform sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...is available from the Hach Company, 100 Dayton Avenue, Ames...the total coliform-positive culture by one of the following...a total coliform-positive culture to EC medium supplemented with...hours incubation, incubate the culture for an additional four...

  15. Presencia de entamoeba histolytica, ascaris lumbricoides y coliformes totales en ensaladas para perrocalientes, expendidas en el centro de la ciudad de Maracay, Mayo-Junio de 2002. / Entamoeba histolytica, ascaris lumbricoides and total coliforms in salads for hotdog sold in Maracay city’s downtown

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Z, Cartaya; C, Mendoza; R, Oyón.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Muchas enfermedades de transmisión alimentaria, cuya etiología incluye bacterias, virus, hongos, parásitos, productos químicos y toxinas, se registran actualmente. En el estado Aragua, Venezuela, las parasitosis son un problema de Salud Pública, siendo la más importante la amebiasis producida por En [...] tamoeba histolytica. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la presencia de parásitos intestinales (Entamoeba histolytica y Ascaris lumbricoides) y coliformes totales en ensaladas para perrocalientes expendidas en el centro de la ciudad de Maracay, estado Aragua. Se realizaron análisis físico-químicos (pH, acidez) y microbiológicos. Se obtuvo una media de pH de 5,41 y para la acidez de 0,47 ml de NaOH 0,1 N. El 20% de las muestras estaban contaminadas con parásitos intestinales, en las cuales el 19,51% presentaron quistes de protozoarios, el 0,39% huevos de helmintos y una media de medias de 2,05 x 10(6) NMP/g. de coliformes totales. No existió diferencia significativa entre las muestras analizadas para los parámetros estudiados. Existió correlación lineal entre el pH y los quistes de Entamoeba histolytica. Abstract in english Many illnesses of food transmission reported at the moment have it etiological agent in bacterias, virus, moulds, parasites, chemical products and toxins. In Aragua state, Venezuela the parasitosis is a problem of Public Health, being the most important the Amibiasis by Entamoeba histolytica. The ob [...] jective of the investigation was to determine the presence of intestinal parasites (Entamoeba histolytica and Ascaris lumbricoides) and total coliforms in salads for hot dogs expended in downtown of Maracay, Aragua. and microbiological and physical-chemical analysis (pH, Acidity) carried out. A mean of pH of 5,41 was obtained and an acidity of 0,47 ml of NaOH 0,1 N. 20% of the samples were polluted with intestinal parasites, where 19,51% presented cysts of protozoa, 0,39% helminthic eggs and a mean of mean of 2,05 x 10(6) NMP/g of total coliforms. Significant difference didn’t exist among the samples analyzed for the studied parameters. Lineal correlation existed between the pH and the cysts of Entamoeba histolytica.

  16. Effect of UV light disinfection on antibiotic-resistant coliforms in wastewater effluents.

    OpenAIRE

    Meckes, M. C.

    1982-01-01

    Total coliforms and total coliforms resistant to streptomycin, tetracycline, or chloramphenicol were isolated from filtered activated sludge effluents before and after UV light irradiation. Although the UV irradiation effectively disinfected the wastewater effluent, the percentage of the total surviving coliform population resistant to tetracycline or chloramphenicol was significantly higher than the percentage of the total coliform population resistant to those antibiotics before UV irradiat...

  17. Antibiotic resistance of neustonic and planktonic fecal coliform bacteria isolated from two water basins differing in the level of pollution / Resistencia a antibióticos de bacterias coliformes fecales, nesutónicas y planctónicas, aisladas de dos cuerpos de agua con distinto nivel de contaminación

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Piotr, Skórczewski; Zbigniew Jan, Mudryk; Marta, Jankowska; Piotr, Perli& #324; ski; Marta, Zdanowicz.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la resistencia a antibióticos de bacterias coliformes fecales aisladas de la microcapa superficial y la capa subsuperficial de un estanque contaminado y de un lago no contaminado. Los resultados sobre la resistencia a los antimicrobianos indicaron que en el depósito de agua estudiado el n [...] ivel de bacterias coliformes fecales varío con diversos antibióticos probados. Las bacterias entéricas fueron las más resistentes a la ampicilina, clindamycina, novobiocina, penicilina y presentaron mayor sensibilidad a amikacina, gentamicina, neomicina y oxitetraciclina. Las bacterias coliformes fecales habitantes de estanques fueron más resistentes a casi todos los antibióticos probados comparados con las bacterias coliformes del lago. El índice de la resistencia múltiple a antibióticos (MAR, siglas en inglés) mostró que los valores de bacterias coliformes fecales fueron mayores en el estanque que en el lago. Por regla general, las bacterias coliformes fecales aisladas tanto en cuencas hidrográficas, como de agua del subsuelo fueron más resistentes a los antibióticos probados que las de la microcapa superficial del mismo cuerpo de agua en el que habitan. El nivel de resistencia de las bacterias a los antibióticos dependió de la estructura química de los antibióticos. Abstract in english Antibiotic resistance of fecal coliform bacteria isolated from the surface microlayer and the subsurface layer of a polluted pond and a non-polluted lake was studied. On the basis of the conducted studies it was stated that the isolated fecal coliform bacteria from both aquatic basins showed various [...] resistance to tested antibiotics. Enteric bacteria were the most resistant to ampicillin, clindmycin, novobiocin, penicillin and the most sensitive to amikacin, gentamycin, neomycin and oxytetracycline. Fecal coliform bacteria inhabiting the pond showed similar resistance to the majority of tested antibiotics than coliform bacteria isolated from the lake. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index value for fecal coliform bacteria was higher in the pond than the lake. Only in a downtown pond fecal coliform bacteria isolated from the subsurface water were more resistant to tested antibiotics than those inhabiting the surface microlayer. The antibiotic resistance level of the bacteria depended on the chemical structure of antibiotics.

  18. Total coliforms, arsenic and cadmium exposure through drinking water in the Western Region of Ghana: application of multivariate statistical technique to groundwater quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affum, Andrews Obeng; Osae, Shiloh Dede; Nyarko, Benjamin Jabez Botwe; Afful, Samuel; Fianko, Joseph Richmond; Akiti, Tetteh Thomas; Adomako, Dickson; Acquaah, Samuel Osafo; Dorleku, Micheal; Antoh, Emmanuel; Barnes, Felix; Affum, Enoch Acheampong

    2015-02-01

    In recent times, surface water resource in the Western Region of Ghana has been found to be inadequate in supply and polluted by various anthropogenic activities. As a result of these problems, the demand for groundwater by the human populations in the peri-urban communities for domestic, municipal and irrigation purposes has increased without prior knowledge of its water quality. Water samples were collected from 14 public hand-dug wells during the rainy season in 2013 and investigated for total coliforms, Escherichia coli, mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and physicochemical parameters. Multivariate statistical analysis of the dataset and a linear stoichiometric plot of major ions were applied to group the water samples and to identify the main factors and sources of contamination. Hierarchal cluster analysis revealed four clusters from the hydrochemical variables (R-mode) and three clusters in the case of water samples (Q-mode) after z score standardization. Principal component analysis after a varimax rotation of the dataset indicated that the four factors extracted explained 93.3 % of the total variance, which highlighted salinity, toxic elements and hardness pollution as the dominant factors affecting groundwater quality. Cation exchange, mineral dissolution and silicate weathering influenced groundwater quality. The ranking order of major ions was Na(+)?>?Ca(2+)?>?K(+)?>?Mg(2+) and Cl(-)?>?SO4 (2-)?>?HCO3 (-). Based on piper plot and the hydrogeology of the study area, sodium chloride (86 %), sodium hydrogen carbonate and sodium carbonate (14 %) water types were identified. Although E. coli were absent in the water samples, 36 % of the wells contained total coliforms (Enterobacter species) which exceeded the WHO guidelines limit of zero colony-forming unit (CFU)/100 mL of drinking water. With the exception of Hg, the concentration of As and Cd in 79 and 43 % of the water samples exceeded the WHO guideline limits of 10 and 3 ?g/L for drinking water, respectively. Reported values in some areas in Nigeria, Malaysia and USA indicated that the maximum concentration of Cd was low and As was high in this study. Health risk assessment of Cd, As and Hg based on average daily dose, hazard quotient and cancer risk was determined. In conclusion, multiple natural processes and anthropogenic activities from non-point sources contributed significantly to groundwater salinization, hardness, toxic element and microbiological contamination of the study area. The outcome of this study can be used as a baseline data to prioritize areas for future sustainable development of public wells. PMID:25600401

  19. Performance of three pilot-scale hybrid constructed wetlands for total coliforms and Escherichia coli removal from primary effluent - a 2-year study in a subtropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurita, Florentina; Carreón-Álvarez, Alejandra

    2015-06-01

    Three pilot-scale two-stage hybrid constructed wetlands were evaluated in order to compare their efficiency for total coliforms (TCol) and Escherichia coli removal and to analyze their performances in two 1-year periods of experimentation. System I consisted of a horizontal flow (HF) constructed wetland (CW) followed by a stabilization pond. System II was also configured with a HF CW as a first stage which was then followed by a vertical flow (VF) CW as a second stage. System III was configured with a VF CW followed by a HF CW. In the first year of evaluation, the HF-VF system was the most effective for TCol removal (p < 0.05) and achieved a reduction of 2.2 log units. With regard to E. coli removal, the HF-VF and VF-HF systems were the most effective (p < 0.05) with average reductions of 3.2 and 3.8 log units, respectively. In the second year, the most effective were those with a VF component for both TCol and E. coli which underwent average reductions of 2.34-2.44 and 3.44-3.74 log units, respectively. The reduction achieved in E. coli densities, in both years, satisfy the World Health Organization guidelines that require a 3-4 log unit pathogen reduction in wastewater treatment systems. PMID:26042977

  20. Incidence of R factors in coliform, fecal coliform, and Salmonella populations of the Red River in Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    BelL, J. B.; MacRae, W. R.; Elliott, G E

    1980-01-01

    Coliforms, fecal coliforms, and Salmonella were isolated from the Red River, Manitoba, Canada, and identified. These organisms were then examined for resistance to 12 antibiotics. Some fecal coliforms were resistant to all 12 antibiotics, and 18% of the Salmonella isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics. A total of 52.9% of the fecal coliforms resistant to three or more antibiotics were able to transfer single or multiple resistance (R) determinants to the Salmonella recipient, and...

  1. R factors in coliform-fecal coliform sewage flora of the prairies and Northwest Territories of Canada.

    OpenAIRE

    BelL, J. B.; MacRae, W. R.; Elliott, G E

    1981-01-01

    Coliform and fecal coliform populations found in the raw sewages and final sewage effluents of the prairie provinces and the Northwest Territories were examined for antibiotic resistance and the possession of R factors. It was determined that 8.91% of the total coliform and 10.80% of the fecal coliform populations carried R factors. The following numbers of combinations of R determinants were found: 39 in the Escherichia coli population, 6 in the Citrobacter population, 20 in the Enterobacter...

  2. Comparison of low- and medium-pressure ultraviolet lamps: Photoreactivation of Escherichia coli and total coliforms in secondary effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Meiting; Hu, Hongying; Bolton, James R; El-Din, Mohamed Gamal

    2009-02-01

    It has been reported that Medium-Pressure (MP) ultraviolet (UV) lamps have an advantage over low-pressure (LP) lamps for water disinfection in terms of the photoreactivation of pure cultured bacteria. However, few studies have investigated the behavior of microorganisms in wastewater. Hence, in this study, the degree of photoreactivation, after UV exposure using both LP and MP lamps, in municipal wastewater samples was examined under a variety of conditions. Pure cultured Escherichia coli was also used to provide a comparison with previous studies. E. coli was found to undergo photoreactivation after both LP and MP exposure. The Colony Forming Ability (CFA) ratios were 0.60 and 0.32, and the percentage of photoreactivation was 50% and 20%, respectively, for LP and MP lamps with a germicidal UV dose of 5 mJ/cm2. However, the advantage of the MP lamp was diminished for larger UV doses, since no photoreactivation was detected when the UV dose was 15 mJ/cm2 for either LP or MP lamps. The microorganisms present in wastewater showed similar results to those of E. coli, however, no significant difference was found between the use of either a LP or a MP lamp. Also, when a UV dose of 40 mJ/cm2 was applied, the percentage photoreactivation was less than 1%, no matter which type of lamp was used. From this work, it is concluded that the selection of the type of UV lamp for wastewater treatment plants, as regards photoreactivation of total coliforms, is not critical as long as the applied germicidal UV dose is greater than 40 mJ/cm2. PMID:19081599

  3. Estimación de la Incertidumbre en los Ensayos Microbiológicos de Coliformes Totales y Fecales en Aguas Y Aguas Residuales Mediante la Técnica de Tubos Múltiples de Fermentación.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlen Robert Pull\\u00E9s

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En la microbiología ambiental es de vital importancia contar con un control de la calidad, dentro del cual, debe considerarse el método de ensayo para garantizar una óptima calidad de los datos resultantes. El cálculo de la incertidumbre está siendo abordado por la comunidad de laboratorios y se espera que en un futuro se disponga de directrices más claras en este campo. La incertidumbre, como un atributo cuantificable, es un concepto relativamente nuevo en la historia de las mediciones, a pesar de que los conceptos de error y análisis de error han sido parte de la práctica de la ciencia de la medición por largo tiempo. De manera general se acepta que cuando todas las componentes, conocidas o supuestas, del error han sido evaluadas y se han aplicado las correcciones, aún persiste una incertidumbre acerca de la confiabilidad del resultado expresado, esto es, persiste una duda acerca de qué tan bien representa el resultado de la medida, al valor de la cantidad que está siendo medida. Actualmente existe en nuestro país la problemática derivada de la falta de la información fundamental acerca de los procedimientos para la estimación de la incertidumbre. En este trabajo se realiza una estimación de la incertidumbre en los ensayos microbiológicos de coliformes totales y fecales en aguas y aguas residuales mediante la técnica de Tubos Múltiples de Fermentación, siguiendo las recomendaciones que aparecen en documentos normalizativos nacionales e internacionales. Se ofrecen los resultados alcanzados en la cuantificación de este importante parámetro. Los componentes de la incertidumbre se organizaron en tablas, lo que permite realizar de una forma rápida una apreciación global.

  4. Remoção de matéria orgânica, coliformes totais e nitrificação no tratamento de esgotos domésticos por filtros de areia Organic matter and total coliform removal and nitrification in the treatment of domestic wastewater by sand filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Luiz Tonetti

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Segundo o IBGE (2000, 73% dos municípios brasileiros possuem menos de 20.000 habitantes, que em sua maior parte vive na zona rural ou em pequenos núcleos urbanos. Quase a totalidade dos esgotos destas cidades é lançada nos corpos hídricos, contribuindo com o agravamento dos problemas de saúde pública e ambiental. Esses danos podem ser minimizados com o emprego de sistemas de tratamento simples, eficientes, sustentáveis e economicamente viáveis. O filtro anaeróbio com recheio de bambu combinado com filtros de areia satisfaria estas exigências, propiciando um efluente adequado para disposição nos cursos d'água ou para reúso, resguardando as fontes de água potável. A aplicação piloto deste método demonstrou que no emprego de baixas cargas de efluente anaeróbio nos filtros de areia havia uma remoção superior a 96% da DBO, adequação na emissão de coliformes totais e uma completa nitrificação. Aumentando-se as cargas, ocorria uma pequena redução da eficiência, no entanto os resultados ainda eram satisfatórios.According to IBGE (2000 73% of the Brazilian cities are considered small communities with population smaller than 20,000 inhabitants. The majority of domestic wastewater of these places is normally disposed in rivers with no treatment. As a consequence, the irregular disposal may cause health and environmental problems. To reduce this risk it is necessary to develop treatment systems that are simple, efficient, sustainable and of low cost. The treatment of wastewater using up flow anaerobic filter combined with sand filters would be able to satisfy these exigencies, producing an effluent that could be disposed in rivers or even be reused, safeguarding the sources of potable water. The system achieved BOD removal of 96% and complete nitrification for the application of low loads. The increase of the applied loads caused a reduction in the efficiency; however the final values were still satisfactory.

  5. Remoção de matéria orgânica, coliformes totais e nitrificação no tratamento de esgotos domésticos por filtros de areia / Organic matter and total coliform removal and nitrification in the treatment of domestic wastewater by sand filter

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriano Luiz, Tonetti; Bruno, Coraucci Filho; Ronaldo, Stefanutti; Roberto Feijó de, Figueiredo; Camilla Cristina Okano, São Pedro.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Segundo o IBGE (2000), 73% dos municípios brasileiros possuem menos de 20.000 habitantes, que em sua maior parte vive na zona rural ou em pequenos núcleos urbanos. Quase a totalidade dos esgotos destas cidades é lançada nos corpos hídricos, contribuindo com o agravamento dos problemas de saúde públi [...] ca e ambiental. Esses danos podem ser minimizados com o emprego de sistemas de tratamento simples, eficientes, sustentáveis e economicamente viáveis. O filtro anaeróbio com recheio de bambu combinado com filtros de areia satisfaria estas exigências, propiciando um efluente adequado para disposição nos cursos d'água ou para reúso, resguardando as fontes de água potável. A aplicação piloto deste método demonstrou que no emprego de baixas cargas de efluente anaeróbio nos filtros de areia havia uma remoção superior a 96% da DBO, adequação na emissão de coliformes totais e uma completa nitrificação. Aumentando-se as cargas, ocorria uma pequena redução da eficiência, no entanto os resultados ainda eram satisfatórios. Abstract in english According to IBGE (2000) 73% of the Brazilian cities are considered small communities with population smaller than 20,000 inhabitants. The majority of domestic wastewater of these places is normally disposed in rivers with no treatment. As a consequence, the irregular disposal may cause health and e [...] nvironmental problems. To reduce this risk it is necessary to develop treatment systems that are simple, efficient, sustainable and of low cost. The treatment of wastewater using up flow anaerobic filter combined with sand filters would be able to satisfy these exigencies, producing an effluent that could be disposed in rivers or even be reused, safeguarding the sources of potable water. The system achieved BOD removal of 96% and complete nitrification for the application of low loads. The increase of the applied loads caused a reduction in the efficiency; however the final values were still satisfactory.

  6. Comparison of methods of enumerating coliforms after UV disinfection.

    OpenAIRE

    Qualls, R G; Chang, J C; Ossoff, S F; Johnson, J. D.

    1984-01-01

    In view of the differences that have been found between the most-probable-number and membrane filtration methods for the recovery of coliforms from chlorinated samples, the survival of total and fecal coliforms in UV-irradiated effluent samples, as tested by the most-probable-number and standard single-step membrane filtration methods, was compared. There were no significant differences in the survival of total and fecal coliforms, as tested by the two methods. In a separate set of experiment...

  7. Automated Coliform Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, K.; Nibley, D.; Jeffers, E.; Brooks, R.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrogen evolved by coliform bacteria transferred to separate measurement cell. Electroanalytic cell mounted in insulated temperature-control bath cycled between culturing temperature and sterilizing temperature. Flow of materials into and out of cell controlled by electrically operated valves.

  8. Evaluation of the lactose Tergitol-7, m-Endo LES, Colilert 18, Readycult Coliforms 100, Water-Check-100, 3M Petrifilm EC and DryCult Coliform test methods for detection of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörman, Ari; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2006-10-01

    In this study we compared the reference membrane filtration (MF) lactose Tergitol-7 (LTTC) method ISO 9308-1:2000 with the MF m-Endo LES method SFS 3016:2001, the defined substrate chromogenic/fluorogenic Colilert 18, Readycult Coliforms and Water Check methods, and ready-made culture media, 3M Petrifilm EC and DryCult Coli methods for the detection of coliforms and Escherichia coli in various water samples. When the results of E. coli detection were compared between test methods, the highest agreement (both tests negative or positive) with the LTTC method was calculated for the m-Endo LES method (83.6%), followed by Colilert 18 (82.7%), Water-Check (81.8%) and Readycult (78.4%), whereas Petrifilm EC (70.6%) and DryCult Coli (68.9%) showed the weakest agreement. The m-Endo LES method was the only method showing no statistical difference in E. coli counts compared with the LTTC method, whereas the Colilert 18 and Readycult methods gave significantly higher counts for E. coli than the LTTC method. In general, those tests based on the analysis of a 1-ml sample (Petrifilm EC and DryCult Coli) showed weak sensitivity (39.5-52.5%) but high specificity (90.9-78.8%). PMID:16916531

  9. Contamination of Coliforms in Different Paper Currency Notes of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    M. Jakir Hosen; Dilara Islam Sarif; M. Masuder Rahman; Md. Abul Kalam Azad

    2006-01-01

    To determine the degree of contamination of taka notes, samples of the notes circulating in different local markets and people of different professions in Khulna region of Bangladesh were collected. Coliforms, the indicator organisms in taka notes were determined by multiple tube method and identified with differential media and data were analyzed. About 80±5% of old two-taka notes were contaminated with total coliforms and 16±4% of notes were found contaminated with fecal coliforms. But comp...

  10. Arsenic presence and coliforms in drinking water of the Tecuala municipality, Nayarit, Mexico; Presencia de arsenico y coliformes en agua potable del municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora B, D.; Gonzalez A, C. A.; Medina D, I. M.; Robledo M, M. L.; Rojas G, A. E. [Universidad Autonoma de Nayarit, Secretaria de Investigacion y Posgrado, Ciudad de la Cultura Amado Nervo, 63155 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); Sanchez P, L. C.; Del Razo, L. M., E-mail: aerg81@gmail.com [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Departamento de Toxicologia, Av. IPN No. 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    Total arsenic concentrations (t As) and the presence of total and fecal coliforms in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, Mexico, were determined. The presence of t As was analyzed by means of hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Total and fecal coliforms were determined through the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. According to the results, the mean concentration of t As in Tecuala wa 15.82 {mu}g/L, in Atotonilco 19.88 {mu}g/L, in Pajaritos 21.49 {mu}g/L, in Quimichis 17.80 {mu}g/L, and in Playas de Novillero 19.79 {mu}g/L. The t As concentrations in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, are within the limit set by the Mexican official standards (25 {mu}g/L); still, they are over the limit established by the World Health Organization (10 {mu}g/L). The concentration of coliforms in water from wells 1 and 3 was 180 MPN/100 ml and 43 MPN/100 ml for well water 2. The presence of total and fecal coliforms, suggest the infiltration of sewage which could increase the levels of dissolved arsenic. The results of this study will serve as an antecedent of the water quality in Tecuala, Nayarit. (Author)

  11. Nutrient and Coliform Loading (NCL)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a database of available fecal coliform bacteria, fecal streptococci bacteria, and nutrient loading data. Loading for contaminants other than fecal coliform...

  12. EVALUATION OF M-T7 AGAR AS A FECAL COLIFORM MEDIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The m-T/7 agar, designed to improve recoveries of injured total coliforms, was evaluated for its effectiveness as a fecal coliform medium. The time and temperature of preincubation were found to be crucial to the optimal recovery of fetal coliforms. Isolation rates for fecal coli...

  13. Isolation of Fecal Coliform Bacteria from the Diamondback Terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin centrata)

    OpenAIRE

    Harwood, Valerie J.; Butler, Joseph; Parrish, Danny; Wagner, Victoria

    1999-01-01

    Total and fecal coliform bacteria were isolated from the cloaca and feces of the estuarine diamondback terrapin. The majority of samples contained fecal coliforms. Escherichia coli was the predominant fecal coliform species isolated, and members of the genus Salmonella were isolated from 2 of 39 terrapins. Fecal coliform numbers are used to regulate shellfish harvests, and diamondback terrapins inhabit the brackish-water habitats where oyster beds are found; therefore, these findings have imp...

  14. Contamination of Coliforms in Different Paper Currency Notes of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jakir Hosen

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the degree of contamination of taka notes, samples of the notes circulating in different local markets and people of different professions in Khulna region of Bangladesh were collected. Coliforms, the indicator organisms in taka notes were determined by multiple tube method and identified with differential media and data were analyzed. About 80±5% of old two-taka notes were contaminated with total coliforms and 16±4% of notes were found contaminated with fecal coliforms. But comparatively newer two-taka notes showed that 43±3% were contaminated with total coliforms and 5±2% were with fecal coliforms, suggesting the notion that more handled taka notes were contaminated more intensely even by fecal coliforms. Ten taka notes also represented the same pattern of results as two-taka notes, indicating that taka notes may carry enteric pathogens. This study also revealed that porsaline paper notes were easily vulnerable to coliforms contamination whereas polymer paper notes were almost free from coliforms suggesting that polymer paper notes are safer to use than porsaline paper notes.

  15. Arsenic presence and coliforms in drinking water of the Tecuala municipality, Nayarit, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total arsenic concentrations (t As) and the presence of total and fecal coliforms in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, Mexico, were determined. The presence of t As was analyzed by means of hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Total and fecal coliforms were determined through the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. According to the results, the mean concentration of t As in Tecuala wa 15.82 ?g/L, in Atotonilco 19.88 ?g/L, in Pajaritos 21.49 ?g/L, in Quimichis 17.80 ?g/L, and in Playas de Novillero 19.79 ?g/L. The t As concentrations in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, are within the limit set by the Mexican official standards (25 ?g/L); still, they are over the limit established by the World Health Organization (10 ?g/L). The concentration of coliforms in water from wells 1 and 3 was 180 MPN/100 ml and 43 MPN/100 ml for well water 2. The presence of total and fecal coliforms, suggest the infiltration of sewage which could increase the levels of dissolved arsenic. The results of this study will serve as an antecedent of the water quality in Tecuala, Nayarit. (Author)

  16. Fecal Coliforms in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen C. Nold

    2002-01-01

    In this interrupted case study, students explore the environmental consequences of Antarctic research as they design experiments to assess the impact of disposing untreated sewage from a research station into the ocean. Students review experimental methods to measure coliform bacteria, examine data, and decide what actions, if any, should be taken. The can be used in either a non-majors course in science literacy or a general microbiology class studying bacterial detection methods. For non-majors, the instructor would emphasize the mechanics of data collection and analysis and may touch on the environmental implications of finding fecal coliforms in Antarctic waters. For microbiology students, the instructor would highlight the bacteriology and pair the case with a lab.

  17. Frequency of transferable multiple antibiotic resistance amongst coliform bacteria isolated from a treated sewage effluent in Antofagasta, Chile

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan, Silva; Gabriela, Castillo; Lorena, Callejas; Héctor, López; Janet, Olmos.

    2006-10-15

    Full Text Available Antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria from raw and treated water from activated sludge of a sewage treatment plant were isolated on eosin methylene blue agar (EMB) plates in the separate presence of ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and streptomycin. Antibiotic resistant coliforms obtained [...] from inflow and effluent waters were studied to determine influences of treatment on the species composition, resistance patterns and transferable resistance in these bacteria. The bacterial counts obtained showed a high proportion of antibiotic resistant coliforms in the treated effluent. The resistant coliform species were eliminated at different rates by the treatment. Escherichia coli decreased, whereas the proportion of Klebsiella sp increased. The percentage of multiple-resistant isolates increased at the end of the treatment process. The high frequency of resistance was to ampicillin, followed by tetracycline and sulpha-trimethoprim. Moderate incidence of resistance was to streptomycin, chloramphenicol and cephradine. The lowest rate of resistance was to kanamicin and nalidixic acid. Mating experiments of multiple-resistant coliforms with an E. coli K-12 donor confirmed the capability of transferring its resistance. The results of this study suggested that wastewater treatment could reduce the total number of enteric bacteria in sewage, but may increase the proportion of antibiotic resistant coliforms in effluent water. Environmental release and agricultural use of treated sewage effluent containing bacteria having elevated antibiotic resistance levels presents a potential public health risk, as well as the risk of transferring the antibiotic resistance to bacterial populations in the environment.

  18. GULF OF MEXICO PROGRAM/BAY OF ST. LOUIS WATER QUALITY STUDY -- DEVELOPMENT OF TOTAL MAXIMUM DAILY LOAD FOR FECAL COLIFORM BACTERIA (TMDL) IN HANCOCK, HARRISON AND PEARL RIVER COUNTIES, MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this project is to determine the various sources of fecal coliforms to determine the loading contributed by the various sources; and to determine the numbers of fecal coliforms that can be assimilated by the waters of the Bay without exceeding the standards for wat...

  19. Relationship among fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. in shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, M A; Ness, G E; Blake, N J

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. was examined in freshly harvested and stored shellfish. In 16 of 40 freshly collected oyster samples, fecal coliform levels were above the recommended wholesale level suggested by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program (less than or equal to 230/100 g), and Salmonella spp. were present in three of these samples. Salmonella spp. were not, however, present in any sample containing less than 230 fecal coliforms per 100 g. Analysis of the data suggests that low fecal coliform levels in both fresh and stored oysters are good indicators of the absence of Salmonella spp., but that high levels of fecal coliforms are somewhat limited in predicting the presence of Salmonella spp. E. coli levels correlated very strongly with fecal coliform levels in both fresh and stored oysters and clams, suggesting that there is no advantage in replacing fecal coliforms with E. coli as an indicator of shellfish quality. PMID:6337547

  20. Effects of UV light disinfection on antibiotic-resistant coliforms in wastewater effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total coliforms and total coliforms resistant to streptomycin, tetracycline, or chloramphenicol were isolated from filtered activated sludge effluents before and after UV light irradiation. Although the UV irradiation effectively disinfected the wastewater effluent, the percentage of the total surviving coliform population resistant to tetracycline or chloramphenicol was significantly higher than the percentage of the total coliform population resistant to those antibiotics before UV irradiation. This finding was attributed to the mechanism of R-factor mediated resistance to tetracycline. No significant difference was noted for the percentage of the surviving total coliform population resistant to streptomycin before or after UV irradiation. Multiple drug resistant to patterns of 300 total coliform isolates revealed that 82% were resistant to two or more antibiotics. Furthermore, 46% of these isolates were capable of transferring antibiotic resistance to a sensitive strain of Escherichia coli

  1. Evaluation of m-T7 agar as a fecal coliform medium.

    OpenAIRE

    LeChevallier, M. W.; Jakanoski, P E; Camper, A K; McFeters, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    m-T7 agar, designed to improve recoveries of injured total coliforms, was evaluated for its effectiveness as a fecal coliform medium. The time and temperature of preincubation were found to be crucial to the optimal recovery of fetal coliforms. Isolation rates for fecal coliforms on m-T7 agar from sewage effluents were the highest when plates were preincubated at 37 degrees C for 8 h before transfer to 44.5 degrees C for 12 h. The medium was found to produce consistently higher fecal coliform...

  2. INTERLABORATORY EVALUATION OF MI AGAR AND THE US ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY-APPROVED MEMBRANE FILTER METHOD FOR THE RECOVERY OF TOTAL COLIFORMS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI FROM DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new membrane filter (MF) medium, MI agar, recently validated for use in recovering chlorine-damaged total coloiforms (TC) and Escherichia coli from drinking water, was compared to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-approved MF method(mEndo agar and nutrient agar suppl...

  3. Detection of coliform organisms in drinking water by radiometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiometric method has been used for detection of coliform bacteria in water. The method is based on measuring the released metabolic /Sup 14/CO/sub 2/from 14 C-lactose in growth media containing coliform organisms incubated at 37 deg. C. under continues shaking. This rapid and sensitive radiometric method permits the detection of even single coliform organisms within 6 hours in incubation. Using this automated method, a total of 102 samples (in duplicate) collected from different areas in and around Rawalpindi and Islamabad were assessed for coliform bacteria. Of these 102 samples, 50 were tap water samples, 40 from wells and 6 each were from Rawal and Simly dams. About 47% and 67% tap water samples, while 62% and 74% well water samples were found unsatisfactory from around Islamabad and Rawalpindi areas respectively, about 83% and 66% water samples from Rawal dam and Simly dam respectively were found to be unsatisfactory. (author)

  4. FECAL COLIFORM INCREASE AFTER CENTRIFUGATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) recently published a report titled Examination of Reactivation and Regrowth of Fecal Coliforms in Anaerobically Digested Sludges. Seven full-scale publicly owned treatment facilities were sampled several times to determine if bacte...

  5. LA ALMEJA DE AGUA DULCE DIPLODON CHILENSIS (BIVALVIA:HYRIIDAE) POTENCIAL BIOFILTRO PARA DISMINUIR LOS NIVELES DE COLIFORMES EN POZOS: EXPERIMENTO DE LABORATORIO / THE FRESHWATER MUSSEL DIPLODON CHILENSIS (BIVALVIA:HYRIIDAE) POTENTIAL BIOFILTER TO DIMINISHCOLIFORM LEVELS OF WATER WELLS: LABORATORY EXPERIMENT

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gladys, Lara; Angel, Contreras; Francisco, Encina.

    Full Text Available Estudios realizados en comunidades rurales de la IX Región, donde habitan familias que se abastecen con agua de pozo, se han detectado índices de coliformes fecales de hasta 5400 NMP en 100 ml, especialmente en pozos de baja profundidad. Considerando la capacidad de bombeo y de filtración de la alme [...] ja de agua dulce Diplodon chilensis, se realizó esta investigación tendiente a evaluar en el laboratorio la capacidad de las almejas para disminuir los niveles de coliformes en aguas de pozo así como de digerir la carga bacteriológica. Los resultados de los experimentos llevaron a concluir que densidades de 15 y 25 ejemplares en 30 litros de agua fueron capaces de disminuir la turbidez del agua y el número más probable de coliformes en un período de 6 horas siendo además capaces de digerirlas Abstract in english Previous studies carried out in rural communities in the IX Region, Chile, have detected up to 5.400 fecal coliforms by 100 ml in drinking water from wells mainly in shallow wells. Considering the pumping and water filtration capacity of the freshwater mussel Diplodon chilensis, a laboratory experim [...] ent was carried out to evaluate the capacity of the mussels to decrease coliform levels and to digest them. The experimental results showed that 15 to 25 specimens in 30 litres of water were able to diminish the water turbidity and the coliforms load in a 6 hour-period being able also to digest them

  6. Coliform density in oyster culture waters and its relationship with environmental factors / Densidade de coliformes em águas de cultivo de ostras e sua relação com fatores ambientais

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciene, Mignani; Edison, Barbieri; Helcio Luis de Almeida, Marques; Ana Julia Fernandes Cardoso de, Oliveira.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as densidades de coliformes totais e termotolerantes, em água de cultivo de ostra de Cananeia, SP, e correlacionar estas densidades com variáveis ambientais e as variações das marés. Foram coletadas amostras de água superficial em duas condições de maré (sizígia [...] e quadratura) de três áreas do Município de Cananéia (Mandira, Itapitangui e Cooperostra). As três áreas estudadas apresentaram boas condições para cultivo, quanto à densidade de coliformes. Diferenças significativas foram registradas entre as condições de marés quanto à concentração total de coliformes; no entanto, o mesmo procedimento não se aplicou para coliformes termotolerantes. Nenhuma correlação foi observada entre a temperatura da água, o pH e as concentrações de coliformes total e termotolerantes. As densidades de coliformes correlacionaram-se positivamente com a pluviosidade e negativamente com a salinidade. O número de coliformes foi significativamente diferente nas marés de sizígia e de quadratura. O simples diagnóstico das condições ambientais é insuficiente para avaliar a qualidade da água de cultivo de ostras. Um programa de monitoramento contínuo de áreas cultivadas é necessário tanto para avaliar o potencial dessas águas, como para garantir o consumo seguro de frutos do mar, além de constituir-se como instrumento importante para a compreensão das relações entre a contaminação por coliformes e as variáveis ambientais envolvidas. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the total and thermotolerant coliform densities in the oyster culture water of Cananeia, SP, Brazil, correlating these densities with environmental variables and tidal variations. Superficial water samples were collected in two tide conditions (spring and n [...] eap) from three areas of Cananéia municipality (Mandira, Itapitangui and Cooperostra). The three studied areas showed good conditions for the culture regarding coliform densities. The two tidal conditions differed significantly as to total coliform concentration; however, the same procedure was not performed for thermotolerant coliforms. No correlation was observed between water temperature, pH, and concentrations of total and thermotolerant coliforms. Coliform density was positively correlated with rainfall and negatively correlated with salinity. Spring and neap tides differed significantly as to coliform number. Simple diagnosis of environmental conditions of the crop fields is insufficient to assess water quality of shellfish cultivation. A continuous monitoring program of planted areas is necessary both for the assessment of water quality potential for marine culture and for ensuring safe consumption of seafood, besides constituting an important tool to understand the relationships between contamination and the involved environmental variables.

  7. Coliform and Metal Contamination in Lago de Colina, a Recreational Water Body in Chihuahua State, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Rubio-Arias

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lago de Colina (Colina Lake is located about 180 km south of the city of Chihuahua (Mexico, and during the Semana Santa (Holy Week vacation period its recreational use is high. The objective of this study was to quantify coliform and heavy metal levels in this water body before and after the Holy Week vacation period in 2010. Twenty sampling points were randomly selected and two water samples were collected at each point near the surface (0.30 m and at 1 m depth. After the Holy Week vacation the same twenty points were sampled at the same depths. Therefore, a total 80 water samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliforms and levels of the following metals: Al, As, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si and Zn. It was hypothesized that domestic tourism contaminated this water body, and as a consequence, could have a negative impact on visitor health. An analysis of variance (ANOVA study was performed for each element and its interactions considering a factorial design where factor A was sample date and factor B was sample depth. Fecal coliforms were only detected at eight sampling points in the first week, but after Holy Week, both fecal and total coliforms were detected at most sampling points. The concentrations of Al, B, Na, Ni and Se were only statistically different for factor A. The levels of Cr, Cu, K and Mg was different for both date and depth, but the dual factor interaction was not significant. The amount of Ca and Zn was statistically different due to date, depth and their interaction. No significant differences were found for any factor or the interaction for the elements As, Fe and Mn. Because of the consistent results, it is concluded that local tourism is contaminating the recreational area of Colina Lake, Chihuahua, Mexico.

  8. Relationship among fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. in shellfish.

    OpenAIRE

    Hood, M.A.; Ness, G E; Blake, N J

    1983-01-01

    The relationship of fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. was examined in freshly harvested and stored shellfish. In 16 of 40 freshly collected oyster samples, fecal coliform levels were above the recommended wholesale level suggested by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program (less than or equal to 230/100 g), and Salmonella spp. were present in three of these samples. Salmonella spp. were not, however, present in any sample containing less than 230 fecal coliforms per 100...

  9. Full-scale studies of factors related to coliform regrowth in drinking water.

    OpenAIRE

    LeChevallier, M. W.; Welch, N J; Smith, d b

    1996-01-01

    An 18-month survey of 31 water systems in North America was conducted to determine the factors that contribute to the occurrence of coliform bacteria in drinking water. The survey included analysis of assimilable organic carbon (AOC), coliforms, disinfectant residuals, and operational parameters. Coliform bacteria were detected in 27.8% of the 2-week sampling periods and were associated with the following factors: filtration, temperature, disinfectant type and disinfectant level, AOC level, c...

  10. Presencia de arsénico y coliformes en agua potable del municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit, México / Presence of arsenic and coliforms in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniel, MORA-BUENO; Luz del Carmen, SÁNCHEZ-PEÑA; Luz María, DEL RAZO; Cyndia Azucena, GONZÁLEZ-ARIAS; Irma Martha, MEDINA-DÍAZ; María de Lourdes, ROBLEDO-MARENCO; Aurora Elizabeth, ROJAS-GARCÍA.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Se determinaron las concentraciones de arsénico total (AsT) y la presencia de coliformes totales y fecales en agua potable del municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit, México. La determinación de AsT se realizó por espectrofotometría de fluorescencia atómica, por generación de hidruros; la detección de colifo [...] rmes totales y fecales se realizó con la técnica del número más probable (NMP). De acuerdo a los resultados obtenidos, la concentración media de AsT en la cabecera municipal de Tecuala fue de 15.82 µg/L, en el ejido de Atotonilco de 19.88 µg/L, en Pajaritos de 21.49 µg/L, en Quimichis de 17.80 µg/L y en Playas de Novillero de 19.79 µg/L. Aunque las concentraciones de AsT en el agua potable del municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit, se encuentran dentro del límite establecido por las Normas Oficiales Mexicanas (25 µg/L), rebasan el límite establecido por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, que establece un máximo de 10 µg/L. La concentración de coliformes en el agua procedente de los pozos 1 y 3 fue de 180 NMP/100 mL y de 43 NMP/100 mL para el agua del pozo 2. La presencia de coliformes totales y fecales, sugiere la infiltración de aguas negras lo que podría incrementar los niveles de arsénico disuelto. Los resultados de este estudio servirán como antecedente sanitario de la calidad del agua de los pozos que abastecen el municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit. Abstract in english Total arsenic concentrations (tAs) and the presence of total and fecal coliforms in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, Mexico, were determined. The presence of tAs was analyzed by means of hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Total and fecal coliforms were determined through the M [...] ost Probable Number (MPN) method. According to the results, the mean concentration of tAs in Tecuala was 15.82 µg/L, in Atotonilco 19.88 µg/L, in Pajaritos 21.49 µg/L, in Quimichis 17.80 µg/L, and in Playas de Novillero 19.79 µg/L. The tAs concentrations in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, are within the limit set by the Mexican official standards (25 µg/L); still, they are over the limit established by the World Health Organization (10 µg/L). The concentration of coliforms in water from wells 1 and 3 was 180 MPN/100 mL and 43 MPN/100 mL for well water 2. The presence of total and fecal coliforms, suggest the infiltration of sewage which could increase the levels of dissolved arsenic. The results of this study will serve as an antecedent of the water quality in Tecuala, Nayarit.

  11. Isolation of fecal coliform bacteria from the diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin centrata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, V J; Butler, J; Parrish, D; Wagner, V

    1999-02-01

    Total and fecal coliform bacteria were isolated from the cloaca and feces of the estuarine diamondback terrapin. The majority of samples contained fecal coliforms. Escherichia coli was the predominant fecal coliform species isolated, and members of the genus Salmonella were isolated from 2 of 39 terrapins. Fecal coliform numbers are used to regulate shellfish harvests, and diamondback terrapins inhabit the brackish-water habitats where oyster beds are found; therefore, these findings have implications for the efficacy of current regulatory parameters in shellfishing waters. PMID:9925633

  12. Method for detecting coliform organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, K.; Nibley, D. A.; Jeffers, E. L.; Brooks, R. L. (inventors)

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for determining the concentration of coliform bacteria in a sample. The sample containing the coliform bacteria is cultured in a liquid growth medium. The cultured bacteria produce hydrogen and the hydrogen is vented to a second cell containing a buffer solution in which the hydrogen dissolves. By measuring the potential change in the buffer solution caused by the hydrogen, as a function of time, the initial concentration of bacteria in the sample is determined. Alternatively, the potential change in the buffer solution can be compared with the potential change in the liquid growth medium to verify that the potential change in the liquid growth medium is produced primarily by the hydrogen gas produced by the coliform bacteria.

  13. Distribution of coliform bacteria in waste water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan Kumar Bahura

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological activity of water can be apparently judged by the colonization of bacteria (microbes. In order to find out the extent of pollution and the relationship between inorganic matters and microbiota, a quantitative and qualitative analysis of bacteria in various types of sewage waters, namely sewage water by the residential colonies (group I, industrial waste water (group II, sewage treatment hub (group III, unorganized collected waste water (group IV and old residential waste collection center (group V, of Bikaner city (Rajasthan, India was carried out from February, 2010 to May, 2010. Water samples were taken from surface only owing to low depth and investigated for various abiotic factors (viz. transparency, pH, carbonate, bicarbonate, total alkalinity, total hardness, salinity, chloride, calcium, magnesium, sulphate, nitrate, silica, and inorganic phosphorous and biotic factors (viz. number and diversity of bacteria. The domestic sewage water causes major water borne diseases basing upon Total Bacterial Count (TBC and coliform Count (CC. The coliform count in the present study ranged from 2.5 to 5.12 MPN/mL. Comparision of microbial population in sewage water from all different Groups was done and the higher values of TBC and CC were recorded only in Sewage treatement hub (Group III.

  14. THERMOTOLERANT NON-FECAL SOURCE 'KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE': VALIDITY OF THE FECAL COLIFORM TEST IN RECREATIONAL WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin pulp and paper mill processing plants were evaluated for fecal coliform and total Klebsiella (i.e., thermotolerant and thermointolerant) bacterial concentrations. Using the standard fecal coliform test, up to 90 per cent of non-fecal source thermo-tolerant K. pneumoniae...

  15. Formación de biopelículas y susceptibilidad antimicrobiana entre coliformes aislados en agua potable embotellada en Carabobo, Venezuela / Biofilms formation and antimicrobial susceptibility among coliforms isolated in bottled drinking water in Carabobo, Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tomás, Rojas; Alejandra, Montoya; Alejandra, Moreno; Ritneybi, Mujica; Ysvette, Vásquez.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacterias indicadoras de contaminación tales como bacterias heterótrofas, coliformes totales y termotolerantes fueron enumeradas en agua potable embotellada usando métodos estándar y filtración a través de membrana. El desarrollo de biopelículas y la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana (método de Kirby-B [...] auer) fueron evaluados sobre sesenta aislados de coliformes seleccionados de forma aleatoria. De 50 muestras, en un elevado porcentaje (94), se observó niveles de bacterias heterotróficas por encima de 100 UFC/mL de agua, 38 % presentó al menos una UFC/100 mL de coliformes totales o termotolerantes, mientras que, 30 % y 28 %, presentaron más de diez UFC/100 mL para ambos indicadores, respectivamente. Las especies de coliformes identificadas en mayor proporción fueron, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli y Klebsiella oxytoca. Usando un ensayo in vitro para detectar la formación de biopelículas se determinó que entre un 75,8 y 79,2 % de los coliformes totales y termotolerantes, respectivamente, fueron descritos como moderados o fuertes formadores de biopelículas. No se observaron diferencias significativas (P>0,05) con respecto a la capacidad de formación de biopelículas entre los dos grupos. La mayoría de los aislados resultaron susceptibles frente a los antimicrobianos evaluados, únicamente dos especies presentaron fenotipos de resistencia no naturales. Perfiles de multiresistencia, típicos de especies asociadas con actividades clínicas o veterinarias, fueron identificados en un aislado de Enterobacter cloacae (betalactamasas tipo AmpC derreprimida) y un aislado de Escherichia coli fue resistente a ampicilina. Este estudio sugiere que el agua potable en botellones plásticos que se expende en algunas áreas urbanas de Carabobo, Venezuela, puede representar un riesgo para la salud. Abstract in english Pollution indicator bacteria such as heterotrophic bacteria, total and thermotolerant coliforms were quantified in bottled drinking water using standard method and membrane filter procedure. Biofilm formation and antimicrobial susceptibility (Kirby-Bauer method) were tested on sixty randomly selecte [...] d coliform strains. Among 50 water samples, a large percentage (94) were found with heterotrophic bacteria levels above 100 CFU/mL, 46 % showed at least one CFU/100 mL of thermotolerant or total coliformes whereas 28 % and 30 % showed more than ten CFU/100 mL for both indicators. Coliform species found in higher proportion were, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella oxytoca. Using an "in vitro" assay for biofilms formation it was determined that between 75.8 y 79.2 % of total and thermotolerant coliforms, respectively, were found to be moderate or strong biofilm formers. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between both groups regarding the capacity for biofilm formation. Most of the isolates were susceptible against the antibiotics tested and only two species showed unnatural resistance phenotypes. Multiresistance profiles, typical of strains associated with human clinical or veterinary activities were identified in one Enterobacter cloacae isolated (derepressed AmpC beta-lactamases) and one Escherichia coli strain was ampicilin resistant. This study suggests that the water sold in some plastic bottles in some urban areas near by Carabobo, Venezuela, may be a risk to health.

  16. Background levels of total mercury concentrations in blood and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Y; Yoshinaga, Y; Arai, F; Kishimoto, T

    1994-03-01

    We investigated the background levels of total mercury in blood and urine samples from Japanese subjects without occupational exposure to mercury vapor. Blood and urine specimens were decomposed in sealed Teflon containers, and total mercury concentration was measured by reductive vaporization-gold amalgam capture-atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean total mercury concentration in the blood of 56 women aged 34-65 was 18.2 +/- 9.9 ng/ml (range 3.9-56.8 ng/ml). The mean total mercury concentration in the urine of 130 men aged 22-39 was 2.33 +/- 1.50 micrograms/l (range 0.27-10.26 micrograms/l). The mean total mercury concentration in urine adjusted by specific gravity was 2.19 +/- 1.15 micrograms/l (range 0.68-7.68 micrograms/l), and that adjusted by creatinine was 1.51 +/- 0.68 micrograms/g creatinine (range 0.39-4.21 micrograms/g creatinine). These concentrations did not differ greatly from those reported from Europe and Japan. In expressing the total mercury concentration in urine, the creatinine-adjusted range between the minimum and maximum values was smaller than the range adjusted by specific gravity. PMID:8007438

  17. Comparison of the hydrophobic-grid membrane filter procedure and standard methods for coliform analysis of water.

    OpenAIRE

    McDaniels, A E; Bordner, R H; Menkedick, J R; Weber, C I

    1987-01-01

    The hydrophobic-grid membrane filter (HGMF) has been proposed as an alternate method to the standard membrane filter (MF) procedure for the detection and enumeration of coliforms from water. Eight samples of nonchlorinated wastewater effluents were analyzed by the HGMF, standard MF, and tube fermentation most-probable-number methods for fecal coliforms, and eight samples each of polluted surface and dosed drinking waters were analyzed by the same methods for total coliforms. The drinking wate...

  18. Coliform Bacteria: The Effect of Sediments on Decay Rates and on Required Detention Times in Stormwater BMPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle C. Usner

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Fecal indicator bacteria, such as total coliforms and E. coli, are a challenge to control in urban and rural stormwater runoff. To assess the challenges of improving bacterial water quality standards in surface waters, microcosm experiments were conducted to assess how decay rates of total coliforms and E. coli are affected by sediments and associated organic matter. Samples were collected at a lake embayment to create laboratory microcosms consisting of different combinations of unsterilized and sterilized water and sediment. Calculated first-order decay rate constants ranged from 0.021 to 0.047 h-1 for total coliforms and 0.017 and 0.037 h-1 for E. coli, depending on how each microcosm was prepared. It is evident that sediment in contact with the water column decreases bacteria decay rate, showing that care should be taken when designing stormwater treatment measures. In addition, high organic carbon content in the sediment temporarily increased bacteria concentrations in the water column. The results demonstrate that stormwater treatment measures, such as extended detention basins and constructed wetlands, must hold water for several days to allow for reduction of bacterial concentrations to acceptable levels. In addition, to troubleshoot detention basins and constructed wetlands for causes of high effluent bacterial concentrations, analyses of sediment, organic carbon, and water column depth should be conducted.

  19. Response of coliform populations in streambed sediment and water column to changes in nutrient concentrations in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, D R; Pachepsky, Y A; Kiefer, L A; Blaustein, R A; McCarty, G W; Dao, T H

    2014-08-01

    As sediments increasingly become recognized as reservoirs of indicator and pathogen microorganisms, an understanding of the persistence of indicator organisms becomes important for assessment and predictions of microbial water quality. The objective of this work was to observe the response of water column and sediment coliform populations to the change in nutrient concentrations in the water column. Survival experiments were conducted in flow-through chambers containing sandy sediments. Bovine feces were collected fresh and introduced into sediment. Sixteen days later, the same fecal material was autoclaved and diluted to provide three levels - 1×, 0.5×, and 0.1× of nutrient concentrations - spike in water column. Total coliforms, Escherichia coli, and total aerobic heterotrophic bacterial concentrations were monitored in water and sediment. Bacteria responded to the nutrient spike with initial growth both in the water column and in sediment. The response of bacterial concentrations in water column was nonlinear, with no significant changes at 0.1 and .5× spikes, but a substantial change at 1× spike. Bacteria in sediment responded to the spikes at all added nutrient levels. Coliform inactivation rates both in sediment and in water after the initial growth occurred, were not significantly different from the inactivation rates before spike. These results indicate that introduction of nutrients into the water column results in nonlinear response of E. coli concentrations both in water and in sediments, followed by the inactivation with the same rate as before introduction of nutrients. PMID:24839925

  20. Total and free thyroid hormone levels in chronic renal failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehta H

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available The levels of serum total thyroxine (TT4, triiodothyronine (TT3, free T3, (FT3 free T4 (FT4 and thyrotropin (TSH were measured in 127 clinically euthyroid patients with varying grades of chronic renal failure (CRF; and 97 healthy individuals. They were grouped as: Group I containing 93 patients on conservative management; Group II containing 34 patients on regular dialysis therapy; and Group III (normals. Group I patients showed significant decrease in TT3, TT4 and FT3 levels (p less than 0.001 as compared to Group III, whereas FT4 and TSH values in group I were not significantly altered. TT3, TT4 and FT3 levels reduced as the severity of renal damage increased. Variations in TT3, TT4, FT3, FT4 and TSH levels in Group II patients were similar to those in Group I, except for a decrease in TSH levels (p less than 0.05 as compared to normals. Several thyroid function tests are abnormal in CRF patients, however, finding of normal FT4 and TSH levels would indicate functional euthyroid status.

  1. 33 CFR 159.127 - Safety coliform count: Recirculating devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety coliform count: Recirculating devices. 159...and Testing § 159.127 Safety coliform count: Recirculating devices. ...recirculating device must have less than 240 fecal coliform bacteria per 100 milliliters....

  2. Microtechnique for isolating fecal coliforms from soil.

    OpenAIRE

    Hartel, P. G.; Hagedorn , C

    1983-01-01

    A most-probable-number microtitration technique for isolating fecal coliforms from soil was developed. A correlation coefficient of 0.86, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.76 less than zeta less than 0.92, was obtained when this technique was compared with the standard elevated-temperature fecal coliform most-probable-number procedure.

  3. COMPLIANCE CONCERNS WITH THE NEW COLIFORM REGULATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The search for the presence or absence of coliforms in the water supply has made the recognition of a biofilm more obvious than ever before. orting out the true coliform biofilm issue from the presence of hidden contamination is of utmost importance. Careful characterization of i...

  4. Asellus aquaticus as a potential carrier of Escherichia coli and other coliform bacteria into drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Sarah C B; Arvin, Erik; Nissen, Erling; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2013-03-01

    Individuals of the water louse, Asellus aquaticus, enter drinking water distribution systems in temperate parts of the world, where they establish breeding populations. We analysed populations of surface water A. aquaticus from two ponds for associated faecal indicator bacteria and assessed the risk of A. aquaticus transporting bacteria into distribution systems. Concentrations of up to two E. coli and five total coliforms·mL-1 were measured in the water and 200 E. coli and >240 total coliforms·mL-1 in the sediments of the investigated ponds. Concentrations of A. aquaticus associated bacteria never exceeded three E. coli and six total coliforms·A. aquaticus-1. During exposure to high concentrations of coliforms, concentrations reached 350 coliforms·A. aquaticus-1. A. aquaticus associated E. coli were only detected as long as E. coli were present in the water and sediment. The calculated probability of exceeding drinking water guideline values in non-disinfected systems by intrusion of A. aquaticus was low. Only in scenarios with narrow pipes and low flows, did total coliforms exceed guideline values, implying that the probability of detection by routine monitoring is also low. The study expands the knowledge base for evaluating incidents with presence of coliform indicators in drinking water by showing that intruding A. aquaticus were not important carriers of E. coli or other coliform bacteria even when emerging from faecally contaminated waters. PMID:23455399

  5. Asellus aquaticus as a Potential Carrier of Escherichia coli and Other Coliform Bacteria into Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Jørgen Albrechtsen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Individuals of the water louse, Asellus aquaticus, enter drinking water distribution systems in temperate parts of the world, where they establish breeding populations. We analysed populations of surface water A. aquaticus from two ponds for associated faecal indicator bacteria and assessed the risk of A. aquaticus transporting bacteria into distribution systems. Concentrations of up to two E. coli and five total coliforms·mL?1 were measured in the water and 200 E. coli and >240 total coliforms·mL?1 in the sediments of the investigated ponds. Concentrations of A. aquaticus associated bacteria never exceeded three E. coli and six total coliforms·A. aquaticus?1. During exposure to high concentrations of coliforms, concentrations reached 350 coliforms·A. aquaticus?1. A. aquaticus associated E. coli were only detected as long as E. coli were present in the water and sediment. The calculated probability of exceeding drinking water guideline values in non-disinfected systems by intrusion of A. aquaticus was low. Only in scenarios with narrow pipes and low flows, did total coliforms exceed guideline values, implying that the probability of detection by routine monitoring is also low. The study expands the knowledge base for evaluating incidents with presence of coliform indicators in drinking water by showing that intruding A. aquaticus were not important carriers of E. coli or other coliform bacteria even when emerging from faecally contaminated waters.

  6. Asellus aquaticus as a potential carrier of Escherichia coli and other coliform bacteria into drinking water distribution systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Arvin, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Individuals of the water louse, Asellus aquaticus, enter drinking water distribution systems in temperate parts of the world, where they establish breeding populations. Populations of A. aquaticus in surface water from 2 ponds were analysed for associated faecal indicator bacteria and the risk of A. aquaticus transporting bacteria into distribution systems was assessed. Concn. of ?2 Escherichia coli and 5 total coliforms ml-1 were measured in the water and 200 E. coli and >240 total coliforms ml-1 in the sediments of the investigated ponds. Concn. of A. aquaticus associated bacteria never exceeded 3 E. coli and 6 total coliforms A. aquaticus-1. During exposure to high concn. of coliforms, concn. reached 350 coliforms A. aquaticus-1. A. aquaticus associated E. coli were only detected as long as E. coli were present in the water and sediment. The calculated probability of exceeding drinking water guideline values in non-disinfected systems by intrusion of A. aquaticus was low. Only in scenarios with narrow pipes and low flows, did total coliforms exceed guideline values, implying that the probability of detection by routine monitoring is also low. The study may expand the knowledge base for evaluating incidents with the presence of coliform indicators in drinking water by showing that intruding A. aquaticus are not important carriers of E. coli or other coliform bacteria even when emerging from faecally contaminated waters.

  7. 40 CFR 142.60 - Variances from the maximum contaminant level for total trihalomethanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... false Variances from the maximum contaminant level for total trihalomethanes. ...142.60 Variances from the maximum contaminant level for total trihalomethanes. ...achieving compliance with the maximum contaminant level for total...

  8. SORCE Level 3 Total Solar Irradiance Daily Average V016

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) data set SOR3TSID contains the total solar irradiance (a.k.a solar constant) data collected by the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM)...

  9. RAPID MONITORING OF INDICATOR COLIFORMS IN DRINKING WATER BY AN ENZYMATIC ASSAY

    OpenAIRE

    M. Nikaeen ? A. Pejhan ? M. Jalali

    2009-01-01

    Coliform group has been extensively used as an indicator of drinking water quality and historically led to the public health protection concept. Multiple tube fermentation technique has been currently used for assessment of the microbial quality of drinking water. This method, however, has limitations. Enzymatic assay constitute an alternative approach for detecting indicator bacteria, namely total coliforms and E.coli in various aquatic environments. This study compared the performance of LM...

  10. Description and field test of an in situ coliform monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grana, D. C.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype in situ system for monitoring the levels of fecal coliforms in shallow water bodies was developed and evaluated. This system was based on the known relationship between the concentration of the coliform bacteria and the amount of hydrogen they produce during growth in a complex organic media. The prototype system consists of a sampler platform, which sits on the bottom; a surface buoy, which transmits sampler-generated data; and a shore station, which receives, displays the data, and controls the sampler. The concept of remote monitoring of fecal coliform concentrations by utilizing a system based on the electrochemical method was verified during the evaluation of the prototype.

  11. Why have total cholesterol levels declined in most developed countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford Earl S

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our paper addresses three major public health issues: cholesterol, statins and policies to prevent cardiovascular disease. Discussion Total cholesterol levels in whole populations have fallen substantially in the USA, UK and most other developed countries. This has greatly contributed to decreases in cardiovascular disease deaths. The evidence identifying diet as the major contributor to these historical falls in cholesterol is powerful and consistent. Large falls occurred before statins were introduced. Additional substantial falls occurred before statins were widely used. Now, up to 14% adults in Western populations currently receive statins for primary prevention. Furthermore, because diet is now only slowly improving, the statin contribution currently appears proportionately larger. Summary In conclusion, diet change explains most of the historical falls in cholesterol. Until very recently, the contribution from statins has been surprisingly modest. Furthermore, many middle income countries may have neither the resources nor the infrastructure for mass statin therapy. Further substantial falls in cholesterol are therefore unlikely to be obtained simply by increased use of statins or dietary advice to individuals if unsupported by the wider environment. This further emphasises the need for more effective structural policies. Regulatory and fiscal interventions could easily eradicate industrial transfats, halve the intake of dietary saturated fat, and subsidise healthier fats.

  12. The Impact of Rainfall on Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Bayou Dorcheat (North Louisiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Fecal coliform bacteria are the most common pollutant in rivers and streams. In Louisiana, it has been reported that 37% of surveyed river miles, 31% of lakes, and 23% of estuarine water had some level of contamination. The objective of this research was to assess the effect of surface runoff amounts and rainfall amount parameters on fecal coliform bacterial densities in Bayou Dorcheat in Louisiana. Bayou Dorcheat has been designated by the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality as a waterway that has uses such as primary contact recreation, secondary contact recreation, propagation of fish and wildlife, agriculture and as being an outstanding natural resource water. Samples from Bayou Dorcheat were collected monthly and analyzed for the presence of fecal coliforms. Fecal coliforms isolated from these samples were identified to the species level. The analysis of the bacterial levels was performed following standard test protocols as described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. Information regarding the rainfall amounts and surface runoff amounts for the selected years was retrieved from the Louisiana Office of State Climatology. It was found that a significant increase in the fecal coliform numbers may be associated with average rainfall amounts. Possible sources of elevated coliform counts could include sewage discharges from municipal treatment plants and septic tanks, storm water overflows, and runoff from pastures and range lands. It can be concluded that nonpoint source pollution that is carried by surface runoff has a significant effect on bacterial levels in water resources.

  13. FECAL COLIFORM INCREASE AFTER CENTRIFUGATION: EPA PERSPECTIVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) recently published a report titled Examination of Reactivation and Regrowth of Fecal Coliforms in Anaerobically Digested Sludges. Seven full-scale publicly owned treatment facilities were sampled several times to determine if bacte...

  14. ANALYZING BIOSOLIDS FOR FECAL COLIFORM AND SALMONELLAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current federal regulations required monitoring for fecal coliforms or Salmonella in biosolids destined for land application. Standard protocols designed to quantify these organisms in water or wastewater were identified and specified in these regulations. However, proto...

  15. Comparison of four membrane filter methods for fecal coliform enumeration in tropical waters.

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago-Mercado, J; Hazen, T C

    1987-01-01

    Four membrane filter methods for the enumeration of fecal coliforms were compared for accuracy, specificity, and recovery. Water samples were taken several times from 13 marine, 1 estuarine, and 4 freshwater sites around Puerto Rico, from pristine waters and waters receiving treated and untreated sewage and effluent from a tuna cannery and a rum distillery. Differences of 1 to 3 orders of magnitude in the levels of fecal coliforms were observed in some samples by different recovery techniques...

  16. The Impact of Rainfall on Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Bayou Dorcheat (North Louisiana)

    OpenAIRE

    Paul B. Tchounwou; Owens, William E.; Hill, Dagne D.

    2006-01-01

    Fecal coliform bacteria are the most common pollutant in rivers and streams. In Louisiana, it has been reported that 37% of surveyed river miles, 31% of lakes, and 23% of estuarine water had some level of contamination. The objective of this research was to assess the effect of surface runoff amounts and rainfall amount parameters on fecal coliform bacterial densities in Bayou Dorcheat in Louisiana. Bayou Dorcheat has been designated by the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality as a w...

  17. An Environmental Health Assessment: Fecal Coliform Contamination in San Francisco Waterbodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devillier, K. N.; Devine, M.; Negrete, R.; Rawley, A. L.; Neiss, J.

    2007-12-01

    Fecal coliform is a group of bacteria that exists in the digestive system and excrement of warm-blooded animals. It enters aquatic environments through fecal contamination of water. In the urban environment, contamination can occur not only by direct input from warm-blooded animals but also from storm water run-off and municipal sewer overflow. Fecal coliform itself does not cause disease but it is an indicator of the presence of pathogens that exist in the wastes of humans and animals that are a hazard to human health. We examined 12 locations in San Francisco for fecal coliform and recorded the types of human contact with water at each location. We found low levels of coliform in areas open to the San Francisco Bay and Pacific Ocean and high levels of coliform in inland lakes and ponds. Using Environmental Protection Agency guidelines for fecal coliform concentrations, we found all sites at acceptable levels for the recreational and human activities we observed.

  18. Fecal coliform bacteria disappearance rates in a north-central Gulf of Mexico estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigbu, P.; Gordon, S.; Strange, T. R.

    2005-10-01

    Fecal coliform levels in surface waters often peak after a major rain event. Thereafter, they decrease or disappear from water with time and can concentrate in sediments at high densities. Their dynamics in coastal waters is a function of bacterial loading from inflowing streams and rivers, mass transport, and losses due to death and sedimentation. We used water quality data collected from Mississippi Sound before, during and after 12 rainfall events to assess the effects of rainfall on fecal coliform levels, estimate fecal coliform disappearance rates, and evaluate the influence of season on fecal coliform loss rates. Fecal coliforms typically peaked within 48 h after a rain event, and then decreased precipitously, whereas the Pearl River (a major inflow into the western Mississippi Sound) stage often peaked within 96 h. Fecal coliform disappearance rates per day varied from -0.214 to -0.743 (mean = -0.428). Loss rates were higher in November/December (-0.64 ± 0.06SE) than in January (-0.45 ± 0.03SE) or February/March (-0.35 ± 0.03SE), perhaps due to seasonal differences in water temperature and/or intensities of solar radiation. It took an average of 6 days (range: 0.3-12.9 days) for the geometric mean FC levels to fall to 14 MPN per 100 ml. These data are useful for managing shellfish harvesting areas in Mississippi Sound and other river-influenced estuaries.

  19. Contamination of water wells in Khoms city with pathogenic coliform bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    240 Samples from 60 water wells in and around the area of city of Khoms city (in northwestern Libya) were analyzed over four successive seasons for count of faecal Coliform bacteria, of which antibiotic resistance was later assessed. Standard methods were used for analysis of faecla coliform bacteria. Water wells contained varying levels of faecal coliform bacteria ranging from a Most Probable Number of 0 to 1.8 x 103 cfu/100 ml, with zero isolates at autumn and winter seasons, while wells dug at private farms had the highest percentage of contamination, reaching 56.6% of wells in autumn, and also had the highest number of faecal coliform isolates, 1,8x103 cfu/100 ml, in spring and summer seasons, strains of isolated Escherichia coli were most sensitive to chloramphenicol, and most resistant to tetracycline. (author)

  20. Coliform contamination of a coastal embayment: Sources and transport pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskel, P.K.; Howes, B.L.; Heufelder, G.R.

    1996-01-01

    Fecal bacterial contamination of nearshore waters has direct economic impacts to coastal communities through the loss of shellfisheries and restrictions of recreational uses. We conducted seasonal measurements of fecal coliform (FC) sources and transport pathways contributing to FC contamination of Buttermilk Bay, a shallow embayment adjacent to Buzzards Bay, MA. Typical of most coastal embayments, there were no direct sewage discharges (i.e., outfalls), and fecal bacteria from human, domestic animal, and wildlife pools entered open waters primarily through direct deposition or after transport through surface waters or groundwaters. Direct fecal coliform inputs to bay waters occurred primarily in winter (December-March) from waterfowl, ~33 x 1012 FC yr-1 or ~67% of the total annual loading. Effects of waterfowl inputs on bay FC densities were mitigated by their seasonality, wide distribution across the bay surface, and the apparent limited dispersal from fecal pellets. On-site disposal of sewage by septic systems was the single largest FC source in the watershed-embayment system, 460 x 1012 FC yr-1, but due to attenuation during subsurface transport only a minute fraction, coliform source. Both laboratory and field experiments suggest significant elution of bacteria from wrack, ~3 x 1012 FC yr-1 on a bay-wide basis (6% of annual input), primarily by periodic tidal flooding and possibly by major rain events. Release of coliforms during resuspension of subtidal sediments was estimated to be a minor source in this system (<1.5 x 1012 FC yr-1 or < 3% of annual input), primarily associated with large storm events in the fall and winter. Based upon the relative source strengths and the spatial and temporal patterns of FC input to Buttermilk Bay, it appears that management practices in similar settings should account for migratory waterfowl, but remediation efforts should focus on the redirection of stormwater runoff through the groundwater transport pathway.

  1. Comparison of serum leptin, glucose, total cholesterol and total protein levels in fertile and repeat breeder cows

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Saime, Guzel; Meltem, Tanriverdi.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we measured serum glucose, leptin, total cholesterol and total protein concentrations in repeat breeder cows and compared them with fertile cows. For this aim, 20 repeat breeder cows and 20 fertile cows were used as material. Repeat breeder cows were found to have lower levels o [...] f leptin and glucose as compared with fertile ones. No significant differences in total cholesterol and total protein levels were observed between the two groups. No significant correlation of leptin with glucose, total cholesterol and total protein was observed in fertile and repeat breeder cows. Low concentrations of glucose and leptin can have some effects on reproductive problems as repeat breeder and help to understand potential mechanisms impairing fertility in repeat breeder cows.

  2. Determinação de coliformes na água e no tecido mole das ostras extraídas em Cananéia, São Paulo, Brasil / Determination of coliforms in the water and soft tissue of oysters extracted in Cananéia, São Paulo, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sonia Assami, Doi; Ana Julia Fernandes Cardoso de, Oliveira; Edson, Barbieri.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou avaliar a qualidade microbiológica da água de várias localidades em que são produzidas ostras Crassostrea sp. no estuário de Cananéia, tanto como nos bivalves, por meio dos valores de coliformes baseados na Técnica dos Tubos Múltiplos. Foram realizadas coletas de água em dez lo [...] calidades durante os anos de 2005 a 2011. A análise da água apresentou média geométrica de coliformes termotolerantes de 24,67 NMP 100 mL-1 e, nos tecidos das ostras, de 15,53 NMP g-1. Verificou-se uma diferença significativa entre as localidades analisadas quanto à densidade de coliformes totais e termotolerantes na água. Analisaram-se as variações das contagens bacterianas em relação à sazonalidade, verificando-se que o outono apresentou a maior média de coliformes nas ostras, sendo os maiores dados coletados em abril. Houve correlação positiva entre coliformes na água e na ostra. Abstract in english This study sought to evaluate the microbiological quality of water from the various locations where specimens of the oysters Crassostrea sp. were harvested in Cananéia estuary, as well as of the bivalve itself, through values of coliforms based on the Multiple Tube Technique. During the period from [...] 2005 to 2011, samples of water were collected at ten points. The water analysis presented a geometric mean of thermotolerant coliforms of 24.67 MPN 100 mL-1 and, in the soft tissues of the oysters, of 15.53 MPN g-1. There was a significant difference between the locations analyzed as to the density of total and thermotolerant coliforms in water. After analysis of the variations of bacterial counting with regard to seasonal mean, autumn presented the highest mean numbers of coliforms in oysters, and most data were collected in April. There was a positive correlation between the coliforms found in water and those in the oyster.

  3. 50 CFR 600.516 - Total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...false Total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF). 600.516 Section 600...MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.516 Total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF). (a) The TALFF,...

  4. THAWING PROCEDURES FOR HOSPITAL-MADE ENTERAL FEEDINGS: SURVIVAL OF COLIFORM AND MESOPHILIC AEROBIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KATHIA ROSSI ROLIM LOPES

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    ABSTRACT: This study had the purpose to observe the effect of thawing procedures on survival of coliform and mesophilic aerobic bacteria in hospital-made enteral feedings. The samples are represented by three different lots. The tests were realized in three moments: immediately after the sample preparation and after freezing during 1 or 2 months. The thawing procedures were denominated convencional and alternative. The first, used by hospital, utilizes water bath at 50ºC, considering the time spent from the total thawing to its distribution in the infirmaries. The second was the fast thawing made by microwaving. The results showed that the reduction of the mesophiles and coliform was related to the time the samples were frozen. The results obtained indicate an advantage of the alternative method, which presented lower total and fecal coliform counts than the conventional one. KEYWORDS: Enteral feedings; thawing; food microbiology.

  5. Comparación de técnicas para la extracción de bacterias coliformes del sedimento del lago de Xochimilco, México / Comparison of techniques for coliform bacteria extraction from sediment of Xochimilco Lake, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos L, Fernández-Rendón; Guadalupe, Barrera-Escorcia.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La necesidad de separar a las bacterias del sedimento para lograr un conteo adecuado ha llevado a probar la eficiencia de distintas técnicas. En este trabajo se comparan técnicas tradicionales: agitación manual, homogenización, ultrasonicación y adición de surfactante. Además, se propone la posibili [...] dad de usar un conjunto de enzimas (pancreatina) y un antibiótico (ampicilina) para la extracción de coliformes del sedimento. Las muestras se obtuvieron del lago de Xochimilco, Ciudad de México. Después de aplicar cada técnica de separación de bacterias se determinó el número más probable de coliformes. La mayoría de las técnicas probadas generaron números similares a la técnica tomada como control (agitación manual). Únicamente se observó una mayor concentración de coliformes totales con el uso de la ampicilina (Mann-Whitney, z = 2,09; p = 0,03). Es posible proponer el uso de la ampicilina como técnica para la extracción de coliformes totales, sin embargo, es necesario considerar la sensibilidad de las bacterias al antibiótico. Abstract in english The need to separate bacteria from sediment in order to appropriately count them has led to test the efficacy of different techniques. In this research, traditional techniques such as manual shaking, homogenization, ultrasonication, and surfactant are compared. Moreover, the possibility of using a s [...] et of enzymes (pancreatine) and an antibiotic (ampicillin) for sediment coliform extraction is proposed. Samples were obtained from Xochimilco Lake in Mexico City. The most probable number of coliform bacteria was determined after applying the appropriate separation procedure. Most of the techniques tested led to numbers similar to those of the control (manual shaking). Only with the use of ampicillin, a greater total coliform concentration was observed (Mann-Whitney, z = 2.09; p = 0.03). It is possible to propose the use of ampicillin as a technique for total coliform extraction; however, it is necessary to consider sensitivity of bacteria to the antibiotic.

  6. Removal of fecal coliforms in stabilization lagoons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment of residual waters by means of stabilization lagoons, it has been a method very used due to their low costs of operation and maintenance, as well as to their efficiency in the removal of organic matter and of microorganisms pathogens. The pathogens removal, measure in terms of fecal coliforms, CF, is one of the objectives of the design and of the control of the operation of plants of treatment of residual waters. In this article summary the main results of the experimental evaluation of the removal of fecal coliforms, In a treatment system for stabilization lagoons. In 1987 the plant of treatment of Chia 1 the main components of the treatment system are an entrance structure, composed by a mitigation tank, to which he receives a 24 diameter pipe with a slope of 0.98% that transports the residual water of a sector of the Chia municipality. The average concentration of fecal coliforms is not affected notably by the hour of sampling. The value of the coliforms concentration in the tributary is of 1.0*106 NMP/100 mL, the concentration in the final tributary is bigger than the one demanded for the watering water without restrictions 3.4*104 NMP/100 mL. The removal average in the system is acceptable during the sampling period, keeping in mind that this compound for two lagoons in series, under anaerobic conditions

  7. Interaction of fecal coliforms with soil aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land-applied manures may contain various contaminants that cause water pollution and concomitant health problems. Some of these pollutants are bacteria, and fecal coliforms (FC) have been widely used as an indicator of bacterial contamination. Experiments on bacteria attachment to soil are tradition...

  8. 40 CFR 141.802 - Coliform sampling plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coliform sampling plan. 141.802 Section...Drinking Water Rule § 141.802 Coliform sampling plan. (a) Each air...under this subpart must develop a coliform sampling plan covering each...

  9. 33 CFR 159.123 - Coliform test: Type I devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coliform test: Type I devices. 159.123...Construction, and Testing § 159.123 Coliform test: Type I devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples...

  10. 33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coliform test: Type II devices. 159.126...Construction, and Testing § 159.126 Coliform test: Type II devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples...

  11. Phenotypic and phylogenetic identification of coliform bacteria obtained from 12 USEPA approved coliform methods

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ya

    2015-06-26

    The current definition of coliform bacteria is method-dependent, and when different culture-based methods are used, discrepancies in results can occur and affect the accuracy in identifying true coliforms. This study used an alternative approach to identify true coliforms by combing the phenotypic traits of the coliform isolates and the phylogenetic affiliation of 16S rRNA gene sequences together with the use of lacZ and uidA genes. A collection of 1404 isolates from 12 US Environmental Protection Agency approved coliform-testing methods were characterized based on their phylogenetic affiliations and responses to their original isolation medium and Lauryl Tryptose broth, m-Endo and MI agar media. Isolates were phylogenetically classified into 32 true coliform or targeted Enterobacteriaceae (TE) groups, and 14 non-coliform or non-targeted Enterbacteriaceae (NTE) groups. It was statistically shown that detecting true-positive (TP) events is more challenging than detecting true-negative (TN) events. Furthermore, most false-negative (FN) events were associated with four TE groups (i.e., Serratia group I, Providencia, Proteus, and Morganella), and most false-positive (FP) events with two NTE groups, Aeromonas and Plesiomonas. In Escherichia coli testing, 18 out of 145 E. coli isolates identified by those enzymatic methods were validated as FNs. The reasons behind the FP and FN reactions could be explained through the analysis of the lacZ and uidA gene. Overall, combining the analyses of 16S rRNA, lacZ and uidA genes with the growth responses of TE and NTE on culture-based media is an effective way to evaluate the performance of coliform detection methods.

  12. Níveis periféricos de testosterona total em touros Guzerá / Peripheral levels of total testosterone in Guzerat bulls

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliano Cesar, Dias; Venício José de, Andrade; Lucas Luz, Emerick; Jorge André Matias, Martins; Vicente Ribeiro do, Vale Filho.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados 24 touros da raça Guzerá, de 24 a 34 meses de idade, com o objetivo de estudar o perfil da concentração sérica de testosterona e sua variação relativa à idade, peso corporal e características andrológicas. A concentração média de testosterona foi de 1,36 ng/mL, com influência do horá [...] rio de coleta nos níveis circulantes. A equação de regressão da concentração sérica de testosterona em função do peso corporal dos animais apresentou efeito linear, sugerindo que, para cada quilograma a mais no peso corporal, ocorre acréscimo de 0,0082 ng/mL nas concentrações de testosterona. A regressão da concentração sérica de testosterona e a circunferência escrotal (CE) também apresentou efeito linear indicando que, para cada centímetro a mais na CE nos touros Guzerá, ocorreu aumento de 0,2319 ng/mL na concentração de testosterona. A regressão da concentração espermática do sêmen em função da concentração sérica de testosterona apresentou efeito linear, os resultados mostram que, para cada 0,1 ng/mL a mais na concentração de testosterona circulante, ocorreu aumento de 9,29 x 10(6) espermatozoides/mL de sêmen. Os resultados indicam que os níveis circulantes de testosterona podem auxiliar na identificação e seleção de touros Guzerá, com maior potencial reprodutivo. Abstract in english Twenty-four Guzerat bulls were evaluated from 24 to 34 months of age, aiming to determinate the bulls serum testosterone concentration profile and their variation according to age, body weight and andrologic traits. The average of testosterone concentration was 1.36 ng/mL, with effect of time at har [...] vest on circulating levels. The regression equation of testosterone according to body weight showed linear effect, suggesting that for each kilogram added to the body weight, an increase of 0.0082 ng/mL on serum testosterone concentrations occurs; and the regression of testosterone according to scrotal circumference (SC) also showed a linear effect. The results show that for each centimeter added to SC in Guzerat bulls, an increase of 0.2319 ng/mL on testosterone concentrations occurs. The regression of sperm concentration according to serum testosterone showed a linear effect, the results show that for each 0.1 ng/mL added to serum testosterone concentration, an increase of 9.29x10(6) spermatozoa/mL of semen occurs. The results indicate that circulating levels of testosterone may help on identification and selection of Guzerat bulls with major reproductive potential.

  13. Elimination of coliforms and Salmonella spp. in sheep meat by gamma irradiation treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Henriques, Luciana Salles Vasconcelos; Da Costa Henry, Fa?bio; Barbosa, Joa?o Batista; Ladeira, Silvania Alves; Faria Pereira, Silvia Menezes; Da Silva Antonio, Isabela Maria; Teixeira, Gina Nunes; Martins, Meire Lelis Leal; Carvalho Vital, Helio; Dos Prazeres Rodrigues, Da?lia; Dos Reis, Eliane Moura Falavina

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the bacteriological effects of the treatment of sheep meat contaminated with total coliforms, coliforms at 45 °C and Salmonella spp. by using irradiation at doses of 3 kGy and 5 kGy. Thirty sheep meat samples were collected from animals located in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, and then grouped in three lots including 10 samples: non-irradiated (control); irradiated with 3 kGy; and irradiated with 5 kGy. Exposure to gamma radiation in a 137Cs source-driven irrad...

  14. Comparación de los métodos PetrifilmTM coliformes y Número Más Probable (NMP para la determinación de coliformes fecales en muestras de queso blanco Comparison study between the coliform PetrifilmTM and the Most Probable Number methods for the assessment of fecal coliforms in white cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam C Ortiz L

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Los coliformes fecales son un grupo importante de microorganismos indicadores de inocuidad en alimentos, constituido principalmente por Escherichia coli, el cual es considerado como indicador de contaminación reciente de origen fecal, por ello la importancia de investigar su presencia y determinar rápidamente el nivel poblacional en alimentos. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo comparar el método tradicional Número Más Probable (NMP para la determinación de coliformes fecales, según Norma Venezolana Covenin Nº 1104-96 con el método de placas rehidratables PetrifilmTM 3M coliformes incubadas en baño de agua circulante (PBA a 45 ± 0,2°C por 24 ± 2 horas y en estufa con aire circulante 44 ± 1°C por 24 ± 2 horas (PES de acuerdo con lo recomendado por la Asociación Francesa de Normalización (AFNOR y la Corporación 3M. Se analizaron un total de 42 muestras de queso blanco aplicando ambas metodologías, dispensando simultáneamente diluciones seriadas de las muestras. Para el análisis estadístico se realizó una correlación de muestras relacionadas (SPS versión 7,5, obteniéndose los siguientes resultados r = 0,952 entre NMP y PES y r = 0,944 entre NMP y PBA; lo que indica una buena correlación positiva entre ambas metodologías en sus diferentes modalidades para la determinación de coliformes fecales en muestras de queso blanco. Se concluye que las placas PetrifilmTM coliformes incubadas a la temperatura óptima de crecimiento de dichos microorganismos es un método alternativo, rápido y confiable para la determinación del nivel de coliformes fecales en queso blanco.Fecal coliform belong to an important group of sanitary quality indicator microorganisms in food, mainly constituted for Escherichia coli, considerated as indicators of recent fecal contamination, that is why it is very important to investigate their presence and to detect their population in food rapidly. The objetive of this study was to compare the Most Probable Number (NPM method for fecal coliform determination, according to Venezuelan standard COVENIN Nº 1104-96, with the coliform PetrifilmTM 3M TM plates, incubated in circulating thermostatically - controlled water bath (PBA at 45 ± 0,2 ° C for 24 ± 2 hours and in a circulating air incubator at 44 ± 1° C for 24 ± 2 hours (PES, according to the recommendation of Association Francoise of Normalization, Paris (AFNOR and 3M TM corporation. Forty-two white cheese samples were analyzed using both methods mentioned above. They were dispensed at the same time with decimal dilutions of the samples. Data generated were subjected to correlation of related samples (SPS 7.5 version and the correlation coefficients (r were obtained; r = 0.952 NMP and PES; r = 0.944 NMP and PBA. It is interesting to observe a good correlation between the methodologies in their different forms for fecal coliform determination in white cheese. Coliform PetrifilmTM plates incubated at the optimal temperature of coliform fecal culture represent a rapid alternative and reliable method for the assessment of fecal coliform population in white cheese.

  15. Patterns and sources of fecal coliform bacteria in three streams in Virginia, 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, Kenneth E.; Moyer, Douglas L.

    2003-01-01

    Surface-water impairment by fecal coliform bacteria is a water-quality issue of national scope and importance. In Virginia, more than 175 stream segments are on the Commonwealth's 1998 303(d) list of impaired waters because of elevated concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria. These fecal coliform-impaired stream segments require the development of total maximum daily load (TMDL) and associated implementation plans, but accurate information on the sources contributing these bacteria usually is lacking. The development of defendable fecal coliform TMDLs and management plans can benefit from reliable information on the bacteria sources that are responsible for the impairment. Bacterial source tracking (BST) recently has emerged as a powerful tool for identifying the sources of fecal coliform bacteria that impair surface waters. In a demonstration of BST technology, three watersheds on Virginia's 1998 303(d) list with diverse land-use practices (and potentially diverse bacteria sources) were studied. Accotink Creek is dominated by urban land uses, Christians Creek by agricultural land uses, and Blacks Run is affected by both urban and agricultural land uses. During the 20-month field study (March 1999?October 2000), water samples were collected from each stream during a range of flow conditions and seasons. For each sample, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, turbidity, flow, and water temperature were measured. Fecal coliform concentrations of each water sample were determined using the membrane filtration technique. Next, Escherichia coli (E. coli) were isolated from the fecal coliform bacteria and their sources were identified using ribotyping (a method of 'genetic fingerprinting'). Study results provide enhanced understanding of the concentrations and sources of fecal coliform bacteria in these three watersheds. Continuum sampling (sampling along the length of the streams) indicated that elevated concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria (maximum observed concentration of 290,000 colonies/100 milliliters (col/100mL) could occur along the entire length of each stream, and that the samples collected at the downstream monitoring station of each stream were generally representative of the entire upstream reach. Seasonal patterns were observed in the base-flow fecal coliform concentrations of all streams; concentrations were typically highest in the summer and lowest in the winter. Fecal coliform concentrations were lowest during periods of base flow (typically 200?2,000 col/100mL) and increased by 3?4 orders of magnitude during storm events (as high as 700,000 col/100mL). Multiple linear regression models were developed to predict fecal coliform concentrations as a function of streamflow and other water-quality parameters. The source tracking technique provided identification of bacteria contributions from diverse sources that included (but were not limited to) humans, cattle, poultry, horses, dogs, cats, geese, ducks, raccoons, and deer. Seasonal patterns were observed in the contributions of cattle and poultry sources. There were relations between the identified sources of fecal coliform bacteria and the land-use practices within each watershed. There were only minor differences in the distribution of bacteria sources between low-flow periods and high-flow periods. A coupled approach that utilized both a large available source library and a smaller, location-specific source library provided the most success in identifying the unknown E. coli isolates. BST data should provide valuable support and guidance for producing more defendable and scientifically rigorous watershed models. Incorporation of these bacteria-source data into watershed management strategies also should result in the selection of more efficient source-reduction scenarios for improving water quality.

  16. Comparación de los métodos PetrifilmTM coliformes y Número Más Probable (NMP) para la determinación de coliformes fecales en muestras de queso blanco / Comparison study between the coliform PetrifilmTM and the Most Probable Number methods for the assessment of fecal coliforms in white cheese

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Miriam C, Ortiz L; Manuela, Ríos de S.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Los coliformes fecales son un grupo importante de microorganismos indicadores de inocuidad en alimentos, constituido principalmente por Escherichia coli, el cual es considerado como indicador de contaminación reciente de origen fecal, por ello la importancia de investigar su presencia y determinar r [...] ápidamente el nivel poblacional en alimentos. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo comparar el método tradicional Número Más Probable (NMP) para la determinación de coliformes fecales, según Norma Venezolana Covenin Nº 1104-96 con el método de placas rehidratables PetrifilmTM 3M coliformes incubadas en baño de agua circulante (PBA) a 45 ± 0,2°C por 24 ± 2 horas y en estufa con aire circulante 44 ± 1°C por 24 ± 2 horas (PES) de acuerdo con lo recomendado por la Asociación Francesa de Normalización (AFNOR) y la Corporación 3M. Se analizaron un total de 42 muestras de queso blanco aplicando ambas metodologías, dispensando simultáneamente diluciones seriadas de las muestras. Para el análisis estadístico se realizó una correlación de muestras relacionadas (SPS versión 7,5), obteniéndose los siguientes resultados r = 0,952 entre NMP y PES y r = 0,944 entre NMP y PBA; lo que indica una buena correlación positiva entre ambas metodologías en sus diferentes modalidades para la determinación de coliformes fecales en muestras de queso blanco. Se concluye que las placas PetrifilmTM coliformes incubadas a la temperatura óptima de crecimiento de dichos microorganismos es un método alternativo, rápido y confiable para la determinación del nivel de coliformes fecales en queso blanco. Abstract in english Fecal coliform belong to an important group of sanitary quality indicator microorganisms in food, mainly constituted for Escherichia coli, considerated as indicators of recent fecal contamination, that is why it is very important to investigate their presence and to detect their population in food r [...] apidly. The objetive of this study was to compare the Most Probable Number (NPM) method for fecal coliform determination, according to Venezuelan standard COVENIN Nº 1104-96, with the coliform PetrifilmTM 3M TM plates, incubated in circulating thermostatically - controlled water bath (PBA) at 45 ± 0,2 ° C for 24 ± 2 hours and in a circulating air incubator at 44 ± 1° C for 24 ± 2 hours (PES), according to the recommendation of Association Francoise of Normalization, Paris (AFNOR) and 3M TM corporation. Forty-two white cheese samples were analyzed using both methods mentioned above. They were dispensed at the same time with decimal dilutions of the samples. Data generated were subjected to correlation of related samples (SPS 7.5 version) and the correlation coefficients (r) were obtained; r = 0.952 NMP and PES; r = 0.944 NMP and PBA. It is interesting to observe a good correlation between the methodologies in their different forms for fecal coliform determination in white cheese. Coliform PetrifilmTM plates incubated at the optimal temperature of coliform fecal culture represent a rapid alternative and reliable method for the assessment of fecal coliform population in white cheese.

  17. Total coliform rule: Implementation manual (including Appendix D). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to EPA regions and the States on implementation of the rule. More specifically, the document addresses violation determination, FRDS reporting, and State Primacy Revision Application. The first section presents time lines showing deadlines for submission of Primacy Revision applications. The second section addresses violation determination and associated reporting requirements. The third section covers State Special Primacy Requirements. This section breaks the requirements down into three categories of relative importance. States may find this categorization useful in preparing their applications for primacy, because the EPA regions may utilize the categories in evaluating the applications

  18. Transit effects on fecal Escherichia coli O157 prevalence and coliform concentrations in feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aperce, C C; Alvarado, C A; Miller, K A; Van Bibber-Krueger, C L; Drouillard, J S

    2014-02-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate the effects of transportation and lairage on fecal shedding of Escherichia coli O157 (E. coli O157), total Escherichia coli, and total coliforms in feedlot cattle, and the relationships between E. coli O157 prevalence and total E. coli population. The study was a randomized complete block design with a split-plot including 2 treatments: a nontransported group, which remained in its pen at all times, and a transported group, which was transported for 1 h in a trailer and subsequently unloaded in a different pen. The experiment was repeated on 3 different days (blocking factor) with 20 steers/d (10 steers/treatment, 60 total). Fecal samples were taken pretransport (h 0) and after 4 and 28 h, lairage from freshly voided fecal pats were taken from each animal. One gram of feces was transferred to a PBS tube, serially diluted, and plated onto Petrifilm for enumeration of total coliforms. Another sample (1 g) was added to gram-negative broth containing cefixime, cefsulodin, and vancomycin, and subjected to immunomagnetic separation. Resulting beads were plated onto MacConkey agar with sorbitol, cefixime, and tellurite. Nonsorbitol fermenting colonies were selected and tested for indole production and O157 antigen agglutination. Results were confirmed using an API 20E kit. Prevalence of E. coli O157 was transient across blocks. E. coli O157 prevalence revealed no treatment × sampling time interaction (P = 0.179) or sampling time effect (P = 0.937), but a tendency for a treatment effect (P = 0.092). Numbers of E. coli and other coliforms did not change across blocks. No effect of treatment (P > 0.7) was observed on total E. coli concentrations or total coliforms. However, tendencies for treatment × sampling time interactions were observed on both populations (P coliforms (P = 0.004). Prevalence of E. coli O157 was not correlated with the concentration of total E. coli (P = 0.954). Results suggest that shedding of E. coli O157 and coliforms can vary within a period of 29 h. Greater statistical power and pathogen quantification, as well as hide sampling and stress-related measurements, are needed to be able to conclude on the effects of transport stress on E. coli O157 prevalence and the changes undergone in pathogen shedding patterns after transportation. PMID:24352970

  19. Coliform accumulation in Amphibalanus amphitrite (Darwin, 1854 (Cirripedia and its use as an organic pollution bioindicator in the estuarine area of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil Acumulação de coliformes em Amphibalanus amphitrite (Darwin, 1854 (Cirripedia e seu uso como bioindicador de poluição orgânica na área estuarina do Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CMR Farrapeira

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Samples of water and barnacles Amphibalanus amphitrite were collected from Recife, Brazil, to assess if it accumulates total (TC and thermotolerant coliforms (TTC related with sewage pollution. The Most Probable Number (MPN values and the standard procedures for examination of shellfish were used. Comparatively with the water samples, the highest coliform values came from the barnacles, with TC values ranging from 2.4 × 10(6 MPN.g-1, and TTC ranging from > 2.4 × 10³ to 2.9 × 10(5 MPN.g-1. Barnacles accumulate the TC Ewingella americana, and the TTC Escherichia coli, Enterobacter gergoviae, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Enterobacter sakazakii. The results provided an indication of the level of organic contamination at the sampling locations and that this species could be a good organic pollution bioindicator.Amostras de água e cirrípedes Amphibalanus amphitrite foram coletados em Recife, Brasil, para avaliar se estes acumulam coliformes totais (CT e termo-tolerantes (TTC relacionados à poluição por esgoto doméstico. Foram utilizados os valores de Números Mais Prováveis (NMP e os procedimentos padrões para exame de bivalves. Comparativamente às amostras de água, os valores mais altos de coliformes foram dos cirrípedes, com valores de TC variando de 2,4 × 10(6 NMP.g-1, e TTC variando de > 2,4 × 10³ a 2,9 × 10(5 NMP.g-1. Os cirrípedes acumularam TC Ewingella americana e TTC Escherichia coli, Enterobacter gergoviae, Enterobacter aerogenes e Enterobacter sakazakii. Os resultados proveram uma indicação de que há contaminação orgânica nas localidades de amostras e que esta espécie pode ser um bioindicador bom de poluição orgânica.

  20. Coliform accumulation in Amphibalanus amphitrite (Darwin, 1854) (Cirripedia) and its use as an organic pollution bioindicator in the estuarine area of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil / Acumulação de coliformes em Amphibalanus amphitrite (Darwin, 1854) (Cirripedia) e seu uso como bioindicador de poluição orgânica na área estuarina do Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    CMR, Farrapeira; ES, Mendes; J., Dourado; J, Guimarães.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Amostras de água e cirrípedes Amphibalanus amphitrite foram coletados em Recife, Brasil, para avaliar se estes acumulam coliformes totais (CT) e termo-tolerantes (TTC) relacionados à poluição por esgoto doméstico. Foram utilizados os valores de Números Mais Prováveis (NMP) e os procedimentos padrões [...] para exame de bivalves. Comparativamente às amostras de água, os valores mais altos de coliformes foram dos cirrípedes, com valores de TC variando de 2,4 × 10(6) NMP.g-1, e TTC variando de > 2,4 × 10³ a 2,9 × 10(5) NMP.g-1. Os cirrípedes acumularam TC Ewingella americana e TTC Escherichia coli, Enterobacter gergoviae, Enterobacter aerogenes e Enterobacter sakazakii. Os resultados proveram uma indicação de que há contaminação orgânica nas localidades de amostras e que esta espécie pode ser um bioindicador bom de poluição orgânica. Abstract in english Samples of water and barnacles Amphibalanus amphitrite were collected from Recife, Brazil, to assess if it accumulates total (TC) and thermotolerant coliforms (TTC) related with sewage pollution. The Most Probable Number (MPN) values and the standard procedures for examination of shellfish were used [...] . Comparatively with the water samples, the highest coliform values came from the barnacles, with TC values ranging from 2.4 × 10(6) MPN.g-1, and TTC ranging from > 2.4 × 10³ to 2.9 × 10(5) MPN.g-1. Barnacles accumulate the TC Ewingella americana, and the TTC Escherichia coli, Enterobacter gergoviae, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Enterobacter sakazakii. The results provided an indication of the level of organic contamination at the sampling locations and that this species could be a good organic pollution bioindicator.

  1. Determinação do nível de contaminação por coliformes totais no queijo Minas comercializado na região metropolitana de Salvador - Bahia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. N. Martinez

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: O leite e os seus produtos lácteos têm sido usados como alimento para o homem desde os primórdios da civilização. A limpeza e a sanitização na indústria de alimentos são operações primordiais no controle higiênico-sanitário dos alimentos e visam evitar a contaminação dos mesmos. Assim como, em fase final da produção, por exemplo, durante o envase onde as embalagens utilizadas para os queijos frescos tem como principais funções evitar grandes perdas de umidade e a contaminação microbiológica. Foram realizadas seis coisas, perfazendo 24 (75% amostras de queijo minas-frescal analisadas de sete diferentes marcas, sendo oito (33,33% representando a marca B, cinco (20,83%. a marca C, quatro (16,66% a marca D, três (12,50% a marca E, dois (8,33% a marca F, uma (4,16% a marca G e uma (4,16% a marca H, enquanto foram analisadas seis (25% amostras de queijo minas-padrão, em três diferentes marcas perfazendo três (50% amostras da marca A1, duas (33,33% da marca A2 e uma (16,66% da marca A3, realizadas diluições e semeadas, em triplicatas, em tubos de ensaio contendo caldo lactose-bile-verde brilhante e tubos de Durham (37C /24-48 h. Das seis amostras de quejo minas padrão analisadas 100% delas estavam com nível baixo de coliformes totais (NMP, menos de 30 bac/g, já das 24 amostras de queijo minas frescal das sete diferentes marcas pesquisadas 18 (75% apresentaram-se, em média, com níveis de coliformes totais (NMP significativos, igual ou acima de 102. Foram encontrados exemplares de queijo minas em condições impróprias para o consumo, já que o número de coliformes totais foram significativos e comuns, sendo estes indicadores de qualidade do produto, podendo então, vir a provocar problemas de saúde pública, sendo um risco à saúde humana PALAVRAS CHAVE: Queijo, qualidade, coliformes totais SUMMARY: Milk and derivatives have been used as food since the origin of te civilization. Cleanness and sanitation in food industry are primordial action in te hygienic and sanitary control of te foods and prevent your contamination. just as, in final stage of production, for example, in tine bottle, which packing used for fresh cheese may be principals functions to prevent large loss of humidity and microbiological contamination. Six collect were accomplished, an total of 24 (75% samples of â??minas- frescalâ? cheese were analyzed of seven differents marks, eight (33.33% of the mark B, five (20.83% of the mark C (16.66% of the mark D, three (12.50% of the mark E, two (8.33% of the mark F, one (4.16% of the mark G, and one (4.16% of te mark H, while were accomplished and analyzed six (25% samples of â??minas-padrãoâ? cheese, of three differents marks and total of three (50% samples of te mark A1, two (33.33% of the mark A2 and one (16.66% of the mark A3, dissolved and seeding, in third copy, in trail tubs whit brilliant-green bile broth 2%. and tubs of Durham (37C/ 24-48h. Or six samples of â??minas-padrãoâ? cheese analyzed 100% were with level low of coliforms totals (NMP, <30 bac/g in 24 samples of â??minas frescalâ? cheese of the seven differents marks studied 18 (75% showed, on the average, with numbers of coliforms totals (NMP significant, >102 . â??Minasâ? cheese examples were found in incorrect conditions for the consume, because the number of coliforms totals were significant and common and serving as product quality indicators, causing troubles of public health, a risk for the human health. KEYWORDS: Cheese, quality, coliforms totais

  2. Changing of Total Protein and Plasma Cholinesterase Levels Depending on Age in Human

    OpenAIRE

    Nuray Unat; C?neyt Aki

    2005-01-01

    In this study, differences of acetylcholinesterase and total protein levels which plays very important role in nervous system and some of the related diseases like Alzhemier, Down sendrome, Parkinson in the different age groups in human were investigated. Cholinesterase and total protein levels of 200 healthy people`s blood plasma that are between 7-60 years old were investigated by using spectrophotometric techniques. There was no corelation between plasma cholinesterase activity and age gro...

  3. Effects of dietary supplementation of synbiotics and phytobiotics on performance, caecal coliform population and some oxidant/antioxidant parameters of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdo?an, Z; Erdo?an, S; Aslanta?, Ö; Çelik, S

    2010-10-01

    The current study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of synbiotics and phytobiotics on performance, small intestine weight, pH and caecal coliform counts of broilers. The influences of synbiotics and phytobiotics on oxidant/antioxidant status in the blood of broilers were also assessed. A total of 200 broiler chicks were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments, either fed a basal diet or the same diet supplemented with 1 g/kg synbiotic, 1 g/kg phytobiotic or 1 g/kg synbiotic plus 1 g/kg phytobiotic. The diet supplemented with both synbiotic and phytobiotic had no effect on body weight, body weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency of broilers at the end of the study (p > 0.05). Neither small intestine weight nor pH was affected by any of the treatments. Supplementation of both synbiotic and phytobiotic to diet decreased the caecal coliform count (p synbiotics and phytobiotics in combination significantly increased plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (p ? 0.05), whereasphytobiotic addition alone showed only a slight increase. Similarly, elevated nitric oxide (NO) level was recorded in the synbiotic- and phytobiotic-fed group and in the phytobiotic-fed group (p ? 0.001). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities did not differ between the groups. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of synbiotic and phytobiotic improved the gut health by decreasing the caecal total coliform count, but growth performance was not affected by the supplementations. Further investigations are needed to determine the effects of phytobiotics on oxidative/antioxidative metabolism as regards their compositional analysis. PMID:20487099

  4. Association of serum total bilirubin levels with diastolic dysfunction in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Huan, Zheng; Ye, Li; Nanzi, Xie.

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is one of the main characteristics of heart failure patients with a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. As bilirubin is regarded as an important endogenous antioxidant molecule, serum total bilirubin levels were compared between heart fail [...] ure patients with a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction and normal controls in this study. We recruited 327 heart failure patients with a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction and 200 healthy controls. Patients were divided into 4 subgroups by their comprehensive echocardiographic manifestations, 1-mild, 2-moderate, 3-severe (reversible restrictive), 4-severe (fixed restrictive). Total bilirubin levels were compared using stepwise multiple regressions adjusted for selected factors. RESULTS: After adjusting for gender, age, smoking, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and triglyceride, serum total bilirubin levels were significantly lower in the heart failure group compared with the control group (P

  5. Escherichia coli and fecal coliforms in freshwater and estuarine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been known for some time that substantial populations of fecal coliforms and E. coli are harbored in freshwater bottom sediments, bank soils, and beach sands. However, the relative importance of sediments as bacterial habitats and as a source of water-borne fecal coliforms and E. coli has not...

  6. CORRELATION OF COLIFORM GROWTH RESPONSE WITH OTHER WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variety of water types collected from different geographical areas at different stages of water treatment were anlayzed for their ability to support the growth of coliform bacteria. Based on this coliform bioassay, the nutrient status of the water did not correlate with any of...

  7. COMPOSITE SAMPLINGS FOR DETECTION OF COLIFORM BACTERIA IN WATER SUPPLY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low densities of coliform bacteria introduced into distribution systems may survive in protected habitats. hese organisms may interfere with and cause confusion in the use of the coliforms as indicators of sewage contamination of drinking water. ethods of increasing the probabili...

  8. COMPOSITE SAMPLING FOR DETECTION OF COLIFORM BACTERIA IN WATER SUPPLY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low densities of coliform bacteria introduced into distribution systems may survive in protected habitats. These organisms may interfere with and cause confusion in the use of the coliforms as indicators of sewage contamination of drinking water. Methods of increasing the probabi...

  9. A comparison of total antioxidant levels in breast-fed and formula-fed infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Alp?nar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We aimed to evaluate the effect of breast milk and formula on the total antioxidant capacity of the plasma. Material and Method: The oxidative stress index was calculated by measuring plasma total antioxidant level and total oxidant level in 35 infants between the ages of 3 and 6 months. The study approved by the ethics committe (14.10.2009-10/7.Results: No significant differences were observed between the two groups in respect of age, gender, plasma total antioxidant status and total oxidant status. Plasma total antioxidant levels were higher in the breast-fed group than the formula-fed group (p=0.004. Plasma total antioxidant status was lower in the breast-fed group compared to the formula-fed infants (p=0.019. The oxidative stress index values of the breast-fed group were lower than formula-fed infants (p=0.006. Conclusions: Breast milk provides better antioxidant defence than does formula in infants before six months of age. (Turk Arch Ped 2012; 47: 95-8

  10. Differential effects of olanzapine and clozapine on plasma levels of adipocytokines and total ghrelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mong-Liang; Wang, Tsu-Nai; Lin, Tsang-Yaw; Shao, Wen-Chuan; Chang, Sheng-Huang; Chou, Jen-Yu; Ho, Yi-Feng; Liao, Yin-To; Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung

    2015-04-01

    Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) have been associated with an increased liability for weight gain and metabolic side effects. Among SGAs, clozapine and olanzapine had great liability to induce weight gain and metabolic adverse reactions. Leptin, adiponectin, and total ghrelin play important roles in energy homeostasis and are suggested to be biomarkers of metabolic disturbances. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the differential effects of antipsychotics (olanzapine and clozapine) on the levels of adipocytokines (leptin and adiponectin) and total ghrelin. Three hundred and thirty-three patients with schizophrenia under clozapine or olanzapine monotherapy were recruited. Control participants were recruited from a healthy community population based on a health investigation (N=119). Fasting blood samples for glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, leptin, adiponectin, and total ghrelin were analyzed. There were significant differences in the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose between these three groups. Post hoc comparisons showed that the olanzapine group had the highest levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. The levels of leptin, adiponectin, and total ghrelin were also significantly different between the three groups after controlling age and body mass index (BMI). Post hoc comparisons showed that the olanzapine group had the lowest levels of adiponectin and total ghrelin. The present study found that the uses of olanzapine and clozapine were associated with changes in adipocytokines and total ghrelin, even after adjusting potential confounding factors. Olanzapine had greater influences on adiponectin and total ghrelin than clozapine. The changes in adipocytokines and total ghrelin were a direct effect of antipsychotics on hormonal pathways of energy homeostasis, rather than the result of weight gain. PMID:25496829

  11. Discrimination Efficacy of Fecal Pollution Detection in Different Aquatic Habitats of a High-Altitude Tropical Country, Using Presumptive Coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens Spores

    OpenAIRE

    Byamukama, Denis; Mach, Robert L; Kansiime, Frank; Manafi, Mohamad; Farnleitner, Andreas H.

    2005-01-01

    The performance of rapid and practicable techniques that presumptively identify total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC), Escherichia coli, and Clostridium perfringens spores (CP) by testing them on a pollution gradient in differing aquatic habitats in a high-altitude tropical country was evaluated during a 12-month period. Site selection was based on high and low anthropogenic influence criteria of paired sites including six spring, six stream, and four lakeshore sites spread over central ...

  12. Two-level incremental checkpoint recovery scheme for reducing system total overheads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huixian; Pang, Liaojun; Wang, Zhangquan

    2014-01-01

    Long-running applications are often subject to failures. Once failures occur, it will lead to unacceptable system overheads. The checkpoint technology is used to reduce the losses in the event of a failure. For the two-level checkpoint recovery scheme used in the long-running tasks, it is unavoidable for the system to periodically transfer huge memory context to a remote stable storage. Therefore, the overheads of setting checkpoints and the re-computing time become a critical issue which directly impacts the system total overheads. Motivated by these concerns, this paper presents a new model by introducing i-checkpoints into the existing two-level checkpoint recovery scheme to deal with the more probable failures with the smaller cost and the faster speed. The proposed scheme is independent of the specific failure distribution type and can be applied to different failure distribution types. We respectively make analyses between the two-level incremental and two-level checkpoint recovery schemes with the Weibull distribution and exponential distribution, both of which fit with the actual failure distribution best. The comparison results show that the total overheads of setting checkpoints, the total re-computing time and the system total overheads in the two-level incremental checkpoint recovery scheme are all significantly smaller than those in the two-level checkpoint recovery scheme. At last, limitations of our study are discussed, and at the same time, open questions and possible future work are given. PMID:25111048

  13. Sampling and Pooling Methods for Capturing Herd Level Antibiotic Resistance in Swine Feces using qPCR and CFU Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellerup, Anders; Ståhl, Marie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article was to define the sampling level and method combination that captures antibiotic resistance at pig herd level utilizing qPCR antibiotic resistance gene quantification and culture-based quantification of antibiotic resistant coliform indicator bacteria. Fourteen qPCR assays for commonly detected antibiotic resistance genes were developed, and used to quantify antibiotic resistance genes in total DNA from swine fecal samples that were obtained using different sampling and pooling methods. In parallel, the number of antibiotic resistant coliform indicator bacteria was determined in the same swine fecal samples. The results showed that the qPCR assays were capable of detecting differences in antibiotic resistance levels in individual animals that the coliform bacteria colony forming units (CFU) could not. Also, the qPCR assays more accurately quantified antibiotic resistance genes when comparing individual sampling and pooling methods. qPCR on pooled samples was found to be a good representative for the general resistance level in a pig herd compared to the coliform CFU counts. It had significantly reduced relative standard deviations compared to coliform CFU counts in the same samples, and therefore differences in antibiotic resistance levels between samples were more readily detected. To our knowledge, this is the first study to describe sampling and pooling methods for qPCR quantification of antibiotic resistance genes in total DNA extracted from swine feces. PMID:26114765

  14. Sampling and Pooling Methods for Capturing Herd Level Antibiotic Resistance in Swine Feces using qPCR and CFU Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Gunilla Veslemøy; Mellerup, Anders; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Ståhl, Marie; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Angen, Øystein

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article was to define the sampling level and method combination that captures antibiotic resistance at pig herd level utilizing qPCR antibiotic resistance gene quantification and culture-based quantification of antibiotic resistant coliform indicator bacteria. Fourteen qPCR assays for commonly detected antibiotic resistance genes were developed, and used to quantify antibiotic resistance genes in total DNA from swine fecal samples that were obtained using different sampling and pooling methods. In parallel, the number of antibiotic resistant coliform indicator bacteria was determined in the same swine fecal samples. The results showed that the qPCR assays were capable of detecting differences in antibiotic resistance levels in individual animals that the coliform bacteria colony forming units (CFU) could not. Also, the qPCR assays more accurately quantified antibiotic resistance genes when comparing individual sampling and pooling methods. qPCR on pooled samples was found to be a good representative for the general resistance level in a pig herd compared to the coliform CFU counts. It had significantly reduced relative standard deviations compared to coliform CFU counts in the same samples, and therefore differences in antibiotic resistance levels between samples were more readily detected. To our knowledge, this is the first study to describe sampling and pooling methods for qPCR quantification of antibiotic resistance genes in total DNA extracted from swine feces. PMID:26114765

  15. Procedures to Evaluate the Magnitudes and Effects of Total Water Levels at USACE Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, H.; White, K.

    2014-12-01

    USACE is mainstreaming climate preparedness and resilience with a focus on priority areas; we engage in external collaboration to improve our understanding of climate change impacts and vulnerabilities so that we can develop new policy and guidance to support adaptation implementation based on the best available and actionable science. Beginning in 2009, the US Corps of Engineers has taken steps to provide guidance on evaluating and adapting to sea level change. Close collaboration with national and international experts is an essential component in our process of developing practical, nationally consistent, and cost-effective measures to reduce potential vulnerabilities resulting from global changes. The next stage of USACE evaluation is to provide guidance on procedures to evaluate the magnitudes and effects of total water levels at USACE projects. The guidance will outline project specific analysis and assessment of total water level with respect to four primary mission areas: flood damage risk reduction, navigation, coastal storm damage risk reduction, and ecosystems. Federal agency and international sources of information and approaches will be outlined and provided. The various components of total water levels as well as temporal, geomorphic and regional variability will be assessed. A range of analysis level and methods will be outlined ranging from basic water level descriptive statistics to more complex analysis of hydrodynamic processes. The end product will be field level guidance that addresses wide ranges of project stability and performance and the relevant variability and uncertainty which may impact project cost and performance.

  16. A follow up on the distribution of coliform bacteria along the Jordanian coastline of the gulf of Aq aba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of the occurrence of enteric indicator organisms (e. g. total and fecal coliform) and enteric pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella sp.) was undertaken at ten sites, along the northern coast of the Gulf of Aq aba (Jordan)m during the period October 1994 to September 1995. Both total coliforms and Escherichia coli counts were within the accepted international standards for marine bathing water. the mean value per 100 ml seawater ranged between 18 to 70(n=12 months) for total coliforms, 1 to 27 (n=8 mon thus) for Escherichia coli and 1 to 9 (n = 8 months) for Salmonella species. The analysis of va rance for total coliforms revealed a highly significant temporal variations (P<0.001), but no significant spatial differences were found .Whereas, Salmonella sp. counts showed significant spatial variations (P<0.001), with the Border site being significantly different from the other sites except the Palace site. These results suggest that the hygienic water quality at the Jordanian side of the Gulf of Aq aba, is good all over the year although the sewage discharge from Ei lat might cause a health hazard as to be the major source of enteric pathogenic bacteria. (authors). 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  17. The Relationship Between Depressive Status and Total Cholesterol Levels in a Bomb Plant Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Boyunaga; Levent Kenar; Hatice Keles; Mahir Gulec; Omer Oguzturk

    2010-01-01

    Aim: There is significant amount of evidence linking low cholesterol levels to aggressive behaviors, depression and suicide. Material and Methods: The objective of this study was to determine whether a correlation exists between serum total cholesterol levels and depressive state in 77 male workers labouring in a bomb plant and in 80 male office personnel. Depressive statuses of the subjects were determined by using Beck Depression Rating Scale and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. Results: ...

  18. Total Testosterone Levels and the Effect of Sildenafil on Type 2 Diabetics with Erectile Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Nabeel Najib Fadhil Hadeed; Imad Abdul-Jabar Thanoon; Samir Burhanaldin Al-Mukhtar

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Hypotestosteronemia has been reported in approximately half of type 2 diabetic men in general. This study aims to assess serum total testosterone levels in type 2 diabetics with erectile dysfunction and to correlate the degree of improvement between sildenafil citrate and testosterone levels. Methods: A cross sectional and prospective comparative interventional study was conducted at the Diabetic Clinic of Assalam Teaching Hospital in Mosul, during the period from January 1, 2...

  19. A comparison between faecal sterols and coliform counts in the investigation of sewage contamination in sediments

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renata Lima da, Costa; Renato S., Carreira.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Em setembro de 2002, foram coletadas nove amostras de sedimento superficial (0-2 cm) na Enseada de Botafogo (sudoeste da Baía de Guanabara/RJ), a fim de comparar o uso de marcadores químicos (coprostanol) e biológicos (E. coli e coliformes totais) na identificação da contaminação fecal da região. Os [...] resultados obtidos (carbono orgânico - 6,0 to 64,8 mg g-1; coprostanol - 1,4 to 105 µg g-1; E. coli - Abstract in english In September 2002, nine sediment samples (0-2 cm) were collected from Botafogo Cove (southwestern part of Guanabara Bay) in order to compare the use of chemical (coprostanol) and biological markers (E. coli and total coliforms) in identifying faecal contamination. The values found (organic carbon - [...] 6.0 to 64.8 mg g-1; coprostanol - 1.4 to 105 µg g-1; E. coli -

  20. The occurrence of coliform bacteria in the cave waters of Slovak Karst, Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seman, Milan; Gaálová, Barbora; Cíchová, Marianna; Prokšová, Miloslava; Haviarová, Dagmar; F?aková, Renáta

    2015-05-01

    The diversity and abundance of coliform bacteria (taxonomically enterobacterias), an important quality water indicator, were determined for four representative caves in Slovak Karst: Domica Cave, Gombasecká Cave, Milada Cave and Krásnohorská Cave. Three hundred and fifty-two enterobacterial isolates were successfully identified by biochemical testing (commercial ENTEROtest 24) and selected isolates confirmed by molecular techniques (PCR, 16S rDNA sequence analysis). A total of 39 enterobacterial species were isolated from cave waters, with predominance of Escherichia coli, Serratia spp. and Enterobacter spp. PCR amplification of lacZ gene is not specific enough to provide a reliable detection of coliform bacteria isolated from the environment. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA confirmed that all of the selected isolates belong to the family Enterobacteriaceae. In general, physical and chemical parameters of cave waters in Slovak Karst corresponded to national drinking water quality standards. PMID:25417094

  1. Dai Nippon Printing Co., Ltd Medi·Ca CC for Enumeration of Coliform Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Fumihiko; Shimizu, Mai; Suzuki, Takeo; Hamada, Chie; Iwase, Tatsuhiko; Okochi, Norihiko; Yamazaki, Mamoru; Kyotani, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    A ready-made dry medium method for coliform count, the Medi·Ca CC method, was compared to the Violet Red Bile Agar method (Bacteriological Analytical Manual, Chapter 4, Enumeration of Escherichia coli and the Coliform Bacteria, Section G) for nine raw foods from four food categories: raw ground pork, raw lamb, raw ground chicken, raw tuna fillet, raw salmon fillet, raw shrimp, fresh peeled banana, fresh cut pineapple, and fresh cut apple. The 95% confidence interval for the mean difference between the two methods at each contamination level for seven matrixes from all four categories fell within the range of -0.50 to 0.50, and no statistical difference was observed at all three contamination levels for four matrixes from three categories. These results demonstrated that the Medi·Ca CC method is a reasonable alternative to the reference method for raw meat, raw poultry, raw fish, and fresh fruits. PMID:25857880

  2. Hypogonadism and subnormal total testosterone levels in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the frequency of testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The Gbagada General Hospital, Gbagada Lagos, Nigeria, from December 2009 to May 2010. Methodology: A total of 203 men with type 2 DM aged 30-86 years were evaluated for TDS by a combination of positive ADAM (androgen deficiency in the ageing male) scores and subnormal total testosterone levels. Mild testosterone deficiency referred to total testosterone (TT) levels of 8-12 nmol/L with symptoms of hypogonadism and severe testosterone deficiency referred to TT levels < 8 nmol/L with or without hypogonadal symptoms. Results: Mild and severe TDS were present in 18.3% and 17% respectively of the study subjects. Commonly occurring clinical parameters of the TDS were erectile dysfunction and loss of libido, which were documented in 63% and 60% respectively in the study subjects. The majority of clinical features of the TDS were comparable in men with and without the TDS. Conclusion: About a third of men with type 2 DM had the TDS. The majority of the symptoms of hypogonadism are largely non-specific and their occurrence is comparable in men with and without low testosterone levels; thus, underscoring the need to have testosterone levels determined in men presenting with such symptoms. (author)

  3. Comparison of Fecal Coliform Agar and Violet Red Bile Lactose Agar for Fecal Coliform Enumeration in Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Leclercq, A.; Wanegue, C.; Baylac, P.

    2002-01-01

    A 24-h direct plating method for fecal coliform enumeration with a resuscitation step (preincubation for 2 h at 37 ± 1°C and transfer to 44 ± 1°C for 22 h) using fecal coliform agar (FCA) was compared with the 24-h standardized violet red bile lactose agar (VRBL) method. FCA and VRBL have equivalent specificities and sensitivities, except for lactose-positive non-fecal coliforms such as Hafnia alvei, which could form typical colonies on FCA and VRBL. Recovery of cold-stressed Escherichia coli...

  4. Antibiotic resistance among different species of fecal coliforms isolated from water samples.

    OpenAIRE

    Niemi, M.; Sibakov, M; Niemela, S

    1983-01-01

    The distribution of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, sulfonamides, tetracycline, and streptomycin among fecal coliforms in sewage, surface waters, and sea water was investigated. The incidence of resistant strains among isolates varied significantly among the water samples, without obvious connection with the water source or the level of pollution. The average frequency of multiple resistance was not always high in the same samples in which the overall resistance was high. The speci...

  5. Method of Detecting Coliform Bacteria from Reflected Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of detecting coliform bacteria in water from reflected light, and also includes devices for the measurement, calculation and transmission of data relating to that method.

  6. Fecal coliforms on environmental surfaces in two day care centers.

    OpenAIRE

    Weniger, B G; Ruttenber, A J; Goodman, R A; Juranek, D D; Wahlquist, S P; Smith, J D

    1983-01-01

    A survey of environmental surfaces in two Atlanta area day care centers was conducted to determine the prevalence of fecal coliform bacteria, considered a marker for the presence of fecal contamination which might contain pathogenic parasites, bacteria, or viruses. Fecal coliforms were found in 17 (4.3%) of 398 representative samples of building surfaces, furniture, and other objects. These surfaces may be involved in the chain of transmission of enteric diseases among children. Therefore, di...

  7. Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism and total serum cholesterol level in Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazzaz J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Apolipoprotein E (APOE is known as a major regulator of blood lipid levels in humans. A number of APOE gene allelic variants have been reported including E2, E3 and E4. Recent studies suggested a role for APOE in obesity and increased Body Mass Index (BMI and plasma lipid levels in obese children. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the association between APOE genetic variants and the BMI and lipid profile in an Iranian cohort. Setting and Design: Samples were obtained from subjects who participated in a study based on the WHO-designed MONICA (multinational monitoring of trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease study for coronary artery disease risk assessment in Zone 17 of Tehran. The study was approved by the local ethical committee. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects included in this study. Materials and Methods: Subjects (n=320 were recruited. The level of triglyceride (TG and total serum cholesterol was tested for all subjects in this study. Genotyping for APOE was carried using polymerase chain reaction-Restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLPtechnique. Statistical Analysis: Levels of significance were determined using contingency tables by either Chi-square or Fisher exact analysis using the STATA (v8 software. The analysis of regression and significance of differences for level of cholesterol and TG was established by one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett post hoc multiple comparison tests using SPSS software Version 11.5. Results: The frequency of allele E2 was significantly higher in patients with total serum cholesterol level <200 mg/dl (P 0.01 OR 2.1 95% CI 1.1-4.2. Conclusion: The association found in this study between allele E2 and lower total cholesterol level had been reported in previous studies. We have also observed that the frequency of genotype E2/E3 and E2/E4 was significantly higher in patients with normal total serum cholesterol level compared to patients with abnormal cholesterol (P=0.003 OR 2.4 95% CI; 1.3-4.6. Our data needs to be repeated in a larger population with more information for serum LDL and HDL levels and their subgroups.

  8. The Seasonality of Fecal Coliform Bacteria Pollution and its Influence on Closures of Shellfish Harvesting Areas in Mississippi Sound

    OpenAIRE

    Paul B. Tchounwou; Scott Gordon; Paulinus Chigbu

    2005-01-01

    Runoff from agricultural lands and farm animal feedlots is one of the major sources of fecal coliforms in surface waters, and fecal coliform (FC) bacteria concentrations tend to vary with season because of seasonal variations in climatic factors. However, El Niño -Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events may affect the extent and patterns of seasonality in FC levels in coastal waters. Water quality monitoring data for shellfish management collected during El Niño (1990, 1992, 1997), and La Ni...

  9. Evaluación de tres métodos para la inactivación de coliformes y Escherichia coli presentes en agua residual doméstica, empleada para riego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Sánchez- Garibello

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of three methods for the inactivation of coliforms and Escherichia coli present in domestic wastewaters used inirrigation. Objective. To evaluate three treatments (facultative stabilization ponds, heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO2 and chemicaldisinfection with sodium hypochlorite for the inactivation of coliforms and Escherichia coli present in domestic wastewaters used inagricultural irrigation. Materials and methods. Wastewater was characterized by physical, chemical and microbiological analyses and wasthen exposed to a facultative pond treatment (FPT, post-photocatalytic treatment (PTFTiO2/UV and post-chemical treatment (PTQNaClOto assess the disinfecting capacity of each method in the inactivation of total coliforms and E. coli. Three new samples of wastewater wereprocessed and used in irrigation tests on a laboratory-scale basis for 30 days, using Lactuca sativa cultivar. Batavia as a model plant andevaluating the initial and final concentrations of the two groups. Results. PTFTiO2/UV was significantly higher than FPT and PTQNaClO(p<0.0001, obtaining 100% of inactivation of coliforms and E. coli after 30 minutes of irradiation at a reactor scale. Regarding the irrigationtests with L. sativa, we showed that using water treated by PTFTiO2/UV there is no contamination with E. coli and coliforms after 30 days.On the contrary, plants irrigated with water treated by FPT and PTQNaClO showed an increase in the two populations originating a contamination problem in the vegetable by the end of the laboratory experiments. Conclusion. The heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO2was an effective method in the reduction of coliforms and E. coli present in domestic wastewater.

  10. Research of total levels on DNA methylation in plant based on HPLC analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang Chen; Siyuan Tao; Xiaohua Bi; Xin Xu; Lanlan Wang; Xuemei Li

    2013-01-01

    HPLC analysis is important for determination of total level on DNA methylation in plants. It can be used to help characterise epigenetic changes during growth, development and stress. HPLC methods have been optimised for mammalian and microbial DNA, but not for plants. This article examines several important factors in the HPLC analysis of plant DNA methylation including extraction and purification of DNA and HPLC conditions choice by using leaves of rice seedling. The experimental results s...

  11. A study of trends in dissolved oxygen and fecal coliform bacteria at NASQAN stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard A.; Alexander, Richard B.

    1982-01-01

    Most stations in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Stream Quality Accounting Network show no significant trend in either dissolved oxygen concentration or fecal coliform bacteria population for the period October 1974. through October 1981. Of the stations which do show trends, however, most show improved water quality: thirty-one of a total of 276 stations show rising dissolved oxygen concentrations, while only 17 show decreasing concentrations. Decreases in fecal coliform populations have occurred at 21 stations while increases have occurred at only 12 stations. Approximately half of the stations showing improving trends in dissolved oxygen and fecal coliform bacteria are in the Missouri-Mississippi-Ohio River system. Decreases in dissolved oxygen have occurred at scattered locations in the Western and South-Central States. Rising bacterial populations occur most frequently in the Eastern and Central States Trends in dissolved oxygen concentration resulting from temperature changes occurring during the study period can be separated from trends caused by chemical or biological processes by analyzing computed values of dissolved oxygen deficit. About half of the observed trends in dissolved oxygen appear to be the result of changes in water temperature.

  12. Elimination of coliforms and Salmonella spp. in sheep meat by gamma irradiation treatment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciana Salles Vasconcelos, Henriques; Fábio da Costa, Henry; João Batista, Barbosa; Silvania Alves, Ladeira; Silvia Menezes de Faria, Pereira; Isabela Maria da Silva, Antonio; Gina Nunes, Teixeira; Meire Lelis Leal, Martins; Helio de Carvalho, Vital; Dália dos Prazeres, Rodrigues; Eliane Moura Falavina dos, Reis.

    1147-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the bacteriological effects of the treatment of sheep meat contaminated with total coliforms, coliforms at 45 °C and Salmonella spp. by using irradiation at doses of 3 kGy and 5 kGy. Thirty sheep meat samples were collected from animals located in Rio de Janeiro State, [...] Brazil, and then grouped in three lots including 10 samples: non-irradiated (control); irradiated with 3 kGy; and irradiated with 5 kGy. Exposure to gamma radiation in a 137Cs source-driven irradiating facility was perfomed at the Nuclear Defense Section of the Brazilian Army Technological Center (CTEx) in Rio de Janeiro. The samples were kept under freezing temperature (-18 °C) until the analyses, which occurred in two and four months after irradiation. The results were interpreted by comparison with the standards of the current legislation and demonstrated that non-irradiated samples were outside the parameters established by law for all groups of bacteria studied. Gamma irradiation was effective in inactivating those microorganisms at both doses tested and the optimal dose was achieved at 3 kGy. The results have shown not only the need for sanitary conditions improvements in slaughter and processing of sheep meat but also the irradiation effectiveness to eliminate coliform bacteria and Salmonella spp.

  13. Elimination of coliforms and Salmonella spp. in sheep meat by gamma irradiation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques, Luciana Salles Vasconcelos; da Costa Henry, Fábio; Barbosa, João Batista; Ladeira, Silvania Alves; de Faria Pereira, Silvia Menezes; da Silva Antonio, Isabela Maria; Teixeira, Gina Nunes; Martins, Meire Lelis Leal; de Carvalho Vital, Helio; dos Prazeres Rodrigues, Dália; dos Reis, Eliane Moura Falavina

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the bacteriological effects of the treatment of sheep meat contaminated with total coliforms, coliforms at 45 °C and Salmonella spp. by using irradiation at doses of 3 kGy and 5 kGy. Thirty sheep meat samples were collected from animals located in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, and then grouped in three lots including 10 samples: non-irradiated (control); irradiated with 3 kGy; and irradiated with 5 kGy. Exposure to gamma radiation in a (137)Cs source-driven irradiating facility was performed at the Nuclear Defense Section of the Brazilian Army Technological Center (CTEx) in Rio de Janeiro. The samples were kept under freezing temperature (-18 °C) until the analyses, which occurred in two and four months after irradiation. The results were interpreted by comparison with the standards of the current legislation and demonstrated that non-irradiated samples were outside the parameters established by law for all groups of bacteria studied. Gamma irradiation was effective in inactivating those microorganisms at both doses tested and the optimal dose was achieved at 3 kGy. The results have shown not only the need for sanitary conditions improvements in slaughter and processing of sheep meat but also the irradiation effectiveness to eliminate coliform bacteria and Salmonella spp. PMID:24688504

  14. Investigação teórica do processo de redução de coliformes em leitos cultivados / Theoretical investigation of coliform reduction in constructed wetland

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mariângela, Amendola; Anderson L., Souza.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo mostra a continuidade da pesquisa sugerida por Amendola et al. (2003), para o caso em que se quer buscar maior precisão na investigação teórica do processo de redução de poluentes, em função do meio suporte usado em sistemas de leitos cultivados. Esta investigação se dá via modelagem mat [...] emática e simulação numérica do processo descrito por uma equação diferencial parcial de difusão-advecção, que envolve constantes que caracterizam o meio suporte (Moreno-Grau, 1996) e deve ser associada a condições iniciais e de contorno, estabelecidas de acordo com um procedimento experimental previamente realizado. Para resolução da equação implementa-se um algoritmo baseado no esquema implícito do método de diferenças finitas que, executado no MATLAB 6.1, gera valores da concentração dos poluentes que dependem dos valores das referidas constantes. Os resultados obtidos da simulação são comparados com valores de referência para a determinação do valor do coeficiente de dispersão longitudinal que, por sua vez, gera o menor resíduo para cada tipo de meio suporte do leito cultivado. Os resultados obtidos levam à conclusão de que o leito cultivado com brita e pneu picado é mais eficiente que aquele só com brita na remoção de coliformes fecais e totais. Abstract in english This paper shows the continuity of the research, as suggested by Amendola et al. (2003), when looking for better accuracy in the theoretical investigation of the pollutant reduction as a function of the support bed used in constructed wetland. This investigation is performed through the mathematical [...] modeling and numerical simulation of the process, which is described by an advection-diffusion differential equation. This equation depends on certain constants which characterize the support bed (Moreno-Grau, 1996), and must be associated to the initial and boundary conditions established according to the experimental procedure. To solve the equation an algorithm based on the implicit scheme of the finite difference method was implemented which, when ran with MATLAB 6.1, generated values for the pollutant concentration which depend on the mentioned constants. The results obtained with the simulation were compared with the reference values to determine the longitudinal dispersion coefficient value which leads to the least residual value for each kind of support bed. The obtained results lead to the conclusion that the constructed wetland with crushed stone and chopped tires is better than the one with crushed stone alone to reduce fecal and total coliforms.

  15. Investigação teórica do processo de redução de coliformes em leitos cultivados Theoretical investigation of coliform reduction in constructed wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariângela Amendola

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo mostra a continuidade da pesquisa sugerida por Amendola et al. (2003, para o caso em que se quer buscar maior precisão na investigação teórica do processo de redução de poluentes, em função do meio suporte usado em sistemas de leitos cultivados. Esta investigação se dá via modelagem matemática e simulação numérica do processo descrito por uma equação diferencial parcial de difusão-advecção, que envolve constantes que caracterizam o meio suporte (Moreno-Grau, 1996 e deve ser associada a condições iniciais e de contorno, estabelecidas de acordo com um procedimento experimental previamente realizado. Para resolução da equação implementa-se um algoritmo baseado no esquema implícito do método de diferenças finitas que, executado no MATLAB 6.1, gera valores da concentração dos poluentes que dependem dos valores das referidas constantes. Os resultados obtidos da simulação são comparados com valores de referência para a determinação do valor do coeficiente de dispersão longitudinal que, por sua vez, gera o menor resíduo para cada tipo de meio suporte do leito cultivado. Os resultados obtidos levam à conclusão de que o leito cultivado com brita e pneu picado é mais eficiente que aquele só com brita na remoção de coliformes fecais e totais.This paper shows the continuity of the research, as suggested by Amendola et al. (2003, when looking for better accuracy in the theoretical investigation of the pollutant reduction as a function of the support bed used in constructed wetland. This investigation is performed through the mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of the process, which is described by an advection-diffusion differential equation. This equation depends on certain constants which characterize the support bed (Moreno-Grau, 1996, and must be associated to the initial and boundary conditions established according to the experimental procedure. To solve the equation an algorithm based on the implicit scheme of the finite difference method was implemented which, when ran with MATLAB 6.1, generated values for the pollutant concentration which depend on the mentioned constants. The results obtained with the simulation were compared with the reference values to determine the longitudinal dispersion coefficient value which leads to the least residual value for each kind of support bed. The obtained results lead to the conclusion that the constructed wetland with crushed stone and chopped tires is better than the one with crushed stone alone to reduce fecal and total coliforms.

  16. Coliformes em água de abastecimento de lojas fast-food da Região Metropolitana de Recife (PE, Brasil Coliforms in the water supply of fast-food chains in the Metropolitan Region of Recife, in the state of Pernambuco (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Anunciada Leal Porto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A garantia do fornecimento de água potável nos serviços de alimentação é uma questão relevante para a saúde pública. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade microbiológica da água destinada ao abastecimento de uma rede de lojas fast-food da cidade de Recife (PE e Região Metropolitana e comparar os resultados aos padrões estabelecidos pela Portaria nº 518/2004 do Ministério da Saúde. Mensalmente, foi analisada uma amostra proveniente de uma das torneiras da área de manipulação das oito lojas investigadas, perfazendo 96 amostras ao longo de um ano, todas coletadas em duplicata. As análises seguiram a metodologia estabelecida na American Public Health Association (APHA para realização do ensaio presuntivo utilizando o Teste Presença-Ausência, considerando-se o padrão de potabilidade determinado na legislação pertinente. Os resultados revelaram que 11,46% de todas as amostras apresentaram água contaminada por coliformes totais e 1,04% contaminação por coliformes termotolerantes. Conclui-se, portanto, que a qualidade da água disponível nos estabelecimentos produtores de alimentos estudados encontra-se em estado de alerta, uma vez que o percentual significativo das amostras analisadas mostrava-se impróprio para o consumo humano de acordo com a legislação vigente, a qual preconiza ausência de coliformes totais e termotolerantes.A guaranteed supply of clean drinking water in food outlets is a relevant subject for public health. The scope of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of 96 water samples of a network of fast-food stores in the city of Recife (state of Pernambuco, Brazil and Metropolitan Area and to compare the results to the standards established by Brazilian Health Ministry decree nº 518/2004. Every month, a double sample from one of the faucets in the food preparation area of the eight stores investigated was analyzed, totaling 96 samples over one year. The analyses followed the established methodology of American Public Health Association (APHA, in order to conduct the Presence-Absence Test, considering the potability standard in pertinent legislation. Results revealed that 11.46% and 1.04% of samples contained water contaminated with total coliforms and thermotolerant coliforms, respectively. The quality of the water in the food establishments studied is thus a health hazard since a significant percentage of samples analyzed were inappropriate for human consumption in accordance with current legislation, which stipulates the absence of total coliforms and thermotolerant coliforms.

  17. Increased acetyl and total histone levels in post-mortem Alzheimer's disease brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Pritika J; Lill, Claire; Faull, Richard; Curtis, Maurice A; Dragunow, Mike

    2015-02-01

    Histone acetylation is an epigenetic modification that plays a critical role in chromatin remodelling and transcriptional regulation. There is increasing evidence that epigenetic modifications may become compromised in aging and increase susceptibility to the development of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Immunohistochemical labelling of free-floating sections from the inferior temporal gyrus (Alzheimer's disease, n=14; control, n=17) and paraffin-embedded tissue microarrays containing tissue from the middle temporal gyrus (Alzheimer's disease, n=29; control, n=28) demonstrated that acetyl histone H3 and acetyl histone H4 levels, as well as total histone H3 and total histone H4 protein levels, were significantly increased in post-mortem Alzheimer's disease brain tissue compared to age- and sex-matched neurologically normal control brain tissue. Changes in acetyl histone levels were proportional to changes in total histone levels. The increase in acetyl histone H3 and H4 was observed in Neuronal N immunopositive pyramidal neurons in Alzheimer's disease brain. Using immunolabelling, histone markers correlated significantly with the level of glial fibrillary acidic protein and HLA-DP, -DQ and -DR immunopositive cells and with the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (hyperphosphorylated tau load and ?-amyloid plaques). Given that histone acetylation changes were correlated with changes in total histone protein, it was important to evaluate if protein degradation pathways may be compromised in Alzheimer's disease. Consequently, significant positive correlations were also found between ubiquitin load and histone modifications. The relationship between histone acetylation and ubiquitin levels was further investigated in an in vitro model of SK-N-SH cells treated with the proteasome inhibitor Mg132 and the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid. In this model, compromised protein degradation caused by Mg132 lead to elevated histone labelling. In addition, valproic acid worked synergistically with Mg132 in elevating ubiquitin load and causing cell death. These findings highlight important pathological relationships linking a compromise in protein turnover with the histone changes observed in Alzheimer's disease post-mortem human brain. PMID:25484284

  18. Determination of total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel ferrocyanide compounds (Na2-xCsxNiFe (CN)6) were produced in a scavenging process to remove 137Cs from Hanford Site single-shell tank waste supernates. Methods for determining total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes are needed for the evaluation of potential exothermic reactions between cyanide and oxidizers such as nitrate and for safe storage, processing, and management of the wastes in compliance with regulatory requirements. Hanford Site laboratory experience in determining cyanide in high-level wastes is summarized. Modifications were made to standard cyanide methods to permit improved handling of high-level waste samples and to eliminate interferences found in Hanford Site waste matrices. Interferences and associated procedure modifications caused by high nitrates/nitrite concentrations, insoluble nickel ferrocyanides, and organic complexants are described

  19. The impact of different demand allocation rules on total stock levels

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Peter, Wanke.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Esse artigo compara duas diferentes regras para alocação da demanda às instalações de serviço e seus impactos nos níveis totais de estoque: a regra proposta por Tyagi & Das (1998) e a prática de transferência entre instalações. Os métodos do lote econômico de compras e do ponto de pedido são usados [...] para determinação dos níveis de estoque de ciclo e de segurança. É demonstrado que a minimização dos níveis agregados de estoque nessas regras leva a diferentes políticas de alocação freqüentemente adotadas pelas empresas: compartilhamento de uma única instalação de serviço, instalações de serviço dedicadas e descentralização total do atendimento. Análises de sensibilidade são conduzidas para identificar as variáveis mais relevantes, responsáveis pela diferença nos níveis totais de estoque entre essas três políticas. Os resultados sugerem diferentes oportunidades que podem favorecer uma dada política em detrimento das outras. Um quadro conceitual sintetizando os achados é apresentado, de modo a auxiliar na tomada de decisão. Os impactos potenciais em termos de níveis de serviço e dos custos de distribuição também são avaliados em termos qualitativos. Abstract in english This manuscript compares two different rules for allocating demands to serving facilities and their impact on total stock levels: the one proposed by Tyagi & Das (1998) and the cross filling practice. The EOQ and the ROP methods are used for setting cycle and safety stocks. Its is demonstrated that [...] the minimization of the consolidated inventory levels within these rules leads to different allocation policies, frequently adopted by companies: one single facility sharing, dedicated facilities and full decentralization. Sensitivity analyses are conducted to identify the most relevant variables accountable for the differences in total stock levels among these three policies. Results suggest different benefit opportunities that may favor one policy to the detriment of the others. A framework synthesizing the findings is presented, so as to help in decision making. Potential impacts in terms of service levels and distribution costs are also evaluated qualitatively.

  20. Seminal plasma total antioxidant capacity and vitamin- C levels in asthenozoospermia: a case- control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bidmeshkipour

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Defective sperm function is now recognized as one of the most important causes of male infertility. Seminal plasma possesses a rich source of different enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as vitamin C (ascorbic acid that protect spermatozoa against oxidative stress as one of the mediators of infertility causing sperm dysfunction and low sperm quality. The aim of this study was investigation of seminal total antioxidant capacity and determination of vitamin C effects on sperm motility. "n"nMethods: We designed a case-control study with a total subject of 62 males. Sperm parameters were analyzed according to World Health Organization guidelines (WHO, 1999. Total antioxidant capacity and vitamin C level of seminal plasma were measured in the 32 normozoospermic as the control group and 32 asthenospermic men as the case group using FRAP (Ferric Reducing of Antioxidants Powers and RP-HPLC (Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography methods, respectively. "n"nResults: Our results indicated that total antioxidant capacity levels in the seminal plasma of asthenospermic men were significantly lower than healthy men (p=0.002. In addition, we found a positive correlation between reduced total antioxidant capacity levels and low sperm motility. Vitamin C levels of seminal plasma in asthenospermic men were statistically lower than control men (p=0.01."n"nConclusions: It is suggested that asthenospermia could be related to an antioxidant deficiency or it's reduction.

  1. Low-level waste disposal performance assessments - Total source-term analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1995-12-31

    Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities is regulated by DOE. DOE Order 5820.2A establishes policies, guidelines, and minimum requirements for managing radioactive waste. Requirements for disposal of low-level waste emplaced after September 1988 include providing reasonable assurance of meeting stated performance objectives by completing a radiological performance assessment. Recently, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board issued Recommendation 94-2, {open_quotes}Conformance with Safety Standards at Department of Energy Low-Level Nuclear Waste and Disposal Sites.{close_quotes} One of the elements of the recommendation is that low-level waste performance assessments do not include the entire source term because low-level waste emplaced prior to September 1988, as well as other DOE sources of radioactivity in the ground, are excluded. DOE has developed and issued guidance for preliminary assessments of the impact of including the total source term in performance assessments. This paper will present issues resulting from the inclusion of all DOE sources of radioactivity in performance assessments of low-level waste disposal facilities.

  2. Comparison of Single-Level and Multiple-Level Outcomes of Total Disc Arthroplasty: 24-Month Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter-Lang, Karsten; Gössel, Lutz; Dreßler, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Background Low back pain is one of the most prevalent problems in industrialized countries, affecting as many as 80% of all adults at some time in their lives. Among the significant contributors to low back pain is degenerative disc disease (DDD). Although fusion has been well accepted for treatment of DDD, high rates of complications and stress to adjacent segments remain a concern. Lumbar total disc replacement (TDR) was developed with a goal of preserving motion and avoiding various fusion-related complications, but the relative merits of single vs. multiple level arthroplasty remain unclear. Methods This is a multi-center, single arm, prospective post-market registry of the M6-L, consisting of consecutive patients presenting with lumbar DDD who agreed to participate. This paper reports on those patients who have completed at least 24 months of followup to date. Clinical outcome measures include the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and back and leg Visual Analogue Scales (VAS). Radiographic analysis of disc angle and range of motion (ROM) was also performed. Results Results for 83 patients comprising 121 implants in two cohorts (49 single level (SL), 34 multiple levels (ML)) are reported. Both cohorts experienced significant improvement at 24 months including significant decreases in ODI and VAS. Relative to SL procedures, ML procedures demonstrated either comparable results, or results that trended favorably towards the ML procedures. Index and global ROM at 24 months were not significantly different between the two cohorts, while the disc angles were larger in the SL cohort regardless of index level. Conclusions This is the first study to report clinical and radiographic outcomes of TDR with the M6-L in SL vs ML procedures with two years of followup. The results suggest initial device safety and effectiveness when used for the treatment of lumbar degenerative disc disease at one or more levels.

  3. The role of bacterial pathogens in coliform mastitis in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Nicole; Bardehle, Danilo; Lehmann, Jörg; Gerjets, Imke; Looft, Holger; Preissler, Regine

    2013-01-01

    Even in modern piglet production, mastitis and lactation failure in sows represent a considerable health problem post partum, affecting in its consequences both the sow and her piglets. Known as a multifactorial syndrome, Mastitis-Metritis-Agalactia (MMA) has been topic of several studies investigating possible influencing factors at farm and sow level in the recent past. However, there is a lack of current investigations on the causative pathogens, especially with advanced laboratory methods and with an adequate control group of healthy animals. Therefore, 1026 milk samples from coliform mastitis (CM)-affected, and 972 samples from healthy sows on six farms were examined bacteriologically in this study. The spectrum of isolated bacteria did not differ significantly between diseased and healthy animals for most species, with Escherichia coli as predominant species with 70.4% positive samples from diseased, and 78.0% positive samples from healthy animals. Furthermore, other Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcaceae, Streptococcaceae and Enterococcaceae were isolated both from CM-affected and non-affected animals.The similar bacteria distribution underlines the multifactorial pathogenesis of CM: Only with further adverse--endogen or exogen--factors being present, ubiquitous bacteria from the sow's environment can contribute to the development of clinical signs of infection. PMID:23540195

  4. Coliform bacteria as in indicator of sewerage water mixing with drinking water sources in Rawalpindi city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coliform group of bacteria are consider to be one of the prominent indicators of surface/groundwater pollution as their presence in drinking water sources shows that water has been in contact with soil, plants, septic tanks or sewerage lines/drains. As a part of surface/groundwater pollution studies in various areas of Rawalpindi city coliform bacteria have been determined in the available drinking sources to evaluate their possible connection with the nearby septic tanks and sewerage lines/drains. Selective water samples were tapped from 72 domestic dug wells, and 98 municipal corporation tube-wells and associated water supply lines in some poorly drained areas of Rawalpindi. These samples were analyzed using membrane filter technique. In general, the sampled areas have indicated poor water quality w.r.t. coliform activity. 52% samples of the collected samples have indicated presence of Ecoli. Of these, 73% samples mostly collected from the poorly drained areas have shown significant counts of Ecoli. These water are rendered unfit for drinking purposes. Thirteen water samples collected indicated toxic levels of Ecoli in the municipal water supply caused due to a known leakage in the main domestic water supply line. The presence of coliform in the tube-well water supply taps are thus attributed to ruptures in the underground water supply lines. Present study reveals that general sanitary condition and water quality in the city are poor and that there is an urgent need of improvement in the water treatment and distribution systems by the concern quaters. (Orig./A.B.)

  5. Viral and bacterial contamination in a sedimentary aquifer in Uruguay: evaluation of coliforms as regional indicators of viral contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamazo, Pablo; Colina, Rodney; Victoria, Matias; Alvareda, Elena; Burutatran, Luciana; Ramos, Julian; Olivera, María; Soler, Joan

    2015-04-01

    In many areas of Uruguay groundwater is the only source of water for human consumption and for industrial-agricultural economic activities. Traditionally considered as a safe source, groundwater is commonly used without any treatment. The Uruguayan law requires bacteriological (fecal) analysis for most water uses, but virological analyses are not mentioned in the legislation. In the Salto district, where groundwater is used for human consumption and for agricultural activities, bacterial contamination has been detected in several wells but no viruses analysis have been performed. The Republic University (UDELAR), with the support of the National Agency for Research and Innovation (ANII), is studying the incidence of virus and fecal bacteria in groundwater on an intensive agriculture area of the Salto district. An initial screening campaign of 44 wells was performed in which, besides total and fecal coliforms, rotavirus and adenovirus were detected. A subgroup of the screening wells (15) where selected for bimonthly sampling during a year. In accordance with literature results, single well data analysis shows that coliform and viral contamination can be considered as independent variables. However, when spatial data is integrated, coliform and viral contamination show linear correlation. In this work we present the survey results, we analyse the temporal incidence of variables like precipitation, temperature and chemical composition in well contamination and we discuss the value of coliforms as global indicator of viral contamination for the Salto aquifer.

  6. Nitric Oxide Levels and Total Antioxidant Capacity in The Seminal Plasma of Infertile Smoking Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefniapasha, Yousefreza; Jorsaraei, Gholamali; Gholinezhadchari, Maryam; Mahjoub, Soleiman; Hajiahmadi, Mahmoud; Farsi, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Cigarette is a rich source of oxidants and reactive nitrogen species. Nitric oxide (NO) in high concentration has deleterious effects on human sperm function. Antioxidant defense system in seminal plasma protects spermatozoa from the attack of reactive oxygen metabolites. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between cigarette smoking with the NO levels and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of the seminal plasma in infertile smoker men and to compare severity of oxidative stress (OS) in them with fertile and infertile non-smoking men. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, a total of 95 male participants attended the Infertility Clinic of the Fatehmeh-zahra Hospital in Babol, Mazandaran Province, Iran, between 2010 and 2011. They were divided into three groups: I. fertile non-smokers (F.ns; n=32), II. infertile non-smokers (IF.ns; n=30) and III. infertile smokers (IF.s; n=33) according to semen analysis World Health Organization guidelines (WHO, 2001) and smoking data. TAC concentration and NO levels of seminal plasma were measured using the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) method and the Griess reagent, respectively. Results: Standard sperm parameters were significantly higher in the fertile group than those in the infertile groups, but these differences between the IF.ns and IF.s were not statistically significant. The mean TAC in the seminal plasma was higher in the F.ns>IF.ns>IF.s, respectively, but these differences were not statistically significant among three groups (p= 0.096). In contrast, the mean NO level in the seminal plasma was lower in the F.nslevels associated with smoking might exceed the capacity of antioxidant defense system, leading to increased oxidative damage of seminal plasma and decreased fertility in men. PMID:25870842

  7. Nitric Oxide Levels and Total Antioxidant Capacity in The Seminal Plasma of Infertile Smoking Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousefreza Yousefniapasha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cigarette is a rich source of oxidants and reactive nitrogen species. Nitric oxide (NO in high concentration has deleterious effects on human sperm function. Antioxidant defense system in seminal plasma protects spermatozoa from the attack of reactive oxygen metabolites. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between cigarette smoking with the NO levels and the total antioxidant capacity (TAC of the seminal plasma in infertile smoker men and to compare severity of oxidative stress (OS in them with fertile and infertile non-smoking men. Materials and Methods: In this cross sectional study, a total of 95 male participants attended the Infertility Clinic of the Fatehmeh-zahra Hospital in Babol, Mazandaran Province, Iran, between 2010 and 2011. They were divided into three groups: I. fertile non-smokers (F.ns; n=32, II. infertile non-smokers (IF.ns; n=30 and III. infertile smokers (IF.s; n=33 according to semen analysis World Health Organization guidelines (WHO, 2001 and smoking data. TAC concentration and NO levels of seminal plasma were measured using the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP method and the Griess reagent, respectively. Results: Standard sperm parameters were significantly higher in the fertile group than those in the infertile groups, but these differences between the IF.ns and IF.s were not statistically significant. The mean TAC in the seminal plasma was higher in the F.ns>IF.ns>IF.s, respectively, but these differences were not statistically significant among three groups (p= 0.096. In contrast, the mean NO level in the seminal plasma was lower in the F.nslevels associated with smoking might exceed the capacity of antioxidant defense system, leading to increased oxidative damage of seminal plasma and decreased fertility in men.

  8. Occurrence of coliforms in water samples of the Perequê and Penedo Rivers in Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilma Hiroko Higuti

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available The Perequê and Penedo rivers flow through the plains of Praia de Leste and fall into the sea between the municipalities of Pontal do Sul and Ponta do Poço. Both of these rivers belong to the sub-basin of Paranaguá Bay, and are constituent parts of the hydrographic basin of the Atlantic Ocean (State of Paraná. Four sites along the Perequê River (Stations 1-4 and one along the Penedo River (Station 5 were monitorated for water pollution over a 12-month period. During the period of December 1995 to November 1996, three water samples were collected from each site, placed in sterilized bottles and transported to the laboratory in ice-boxes. They were analyzed for the occurrence of total and fecal coliforms, temperature and pH. Fecal pollution was detected throughout the period of study. Coliform contamination was smaller in Station 1 and 5 than in any other sites, probably due to lesser influence from urbanized areas. Water at Station 4 was strongly contaminated due to its close proximity to a sewage canal. This study demonstrated that the Pequerê and Penedo rivers, freshwater shrimps habitats, were heavily contaminated with fecal indicator bacteria, and this occurrence was not related with temperature or pH.Os rios Perequê e Penedo têm suas fontes na planície de Praia Leste e fluem para o mar entre os municípios de Pontal do Sul e Ponta do Poço. Ambos pertencem à sub-bacia da Baía de Paranaguá e são partes da bacia hidrográfica do Oceano Atlântico (Estado do Paraná. Foram selecionados quatro sítios ao longo do Rio Perequê (Estações 1-4 e um no Rio Penedo (Estação 5 para monitorar a poluição de água em um período de 12 meses. Durante o período de dezembro de 1995 e novembro de 1996, foram coletadas de cada local, 3 amostras de 100 ml água em frascos esterilizados e transportadas para o laboratório em caixas com gelo. Foram analisadas a ocorrência de coliformes totais (TC e fecais (FC, temperatura e pH. A contaminação de coliformes foi menor nos sítios 1 e 5 do que em outros locais, provavelmente por causa da menor influência de áreas urbanizadas. A água na estação 4 estava fortemente contaminada por causa de sua proximidade a um canal de esgoto. Este estudo demonstrou que a água dos rios Pequerê e Penedo, "habitats" para várias espécies de camarões de água doce, estão contaminados com coliformes totais e fecais, e esta ocorrência não está relacionada com a temperatura ou pH.

  9. Occurrence of coliforms in water samples of the Perequê and Penedo Rivers in Paraná, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ilma Hiroko, Higuti; Ivone Rodrigues, Macena; Setuko, Masunari; Mario de Oliveira, Branco Filho; Marita Maciel Moreira, Blaskowiski; Aguinaldo José do, Nascimento.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Os rios Perequê e Penedo têm suas fontes na planície de Praia Leste e fluem para o mar entre os municípios de Pontal do Sul e Ponta do Poço. Ambos pertencem à sub-bacia da Baía de Paranaguá e são partes da bacia hidrográfica do Oceano Atlântico (Estado do Paraná). Foram selecionados quatro sítios ao [...] longo do Rio Perequê (Estações 1-4) e um no Rio Penedo (Estação 5) para monitorar a poluição de água em um período de 12 meses. Durante o período de dezembro de 1995 e novembro de 1996, foram coletadas de cada local, 3 amostras de 100 ml água em frascos esterilizados e transportadas para o laboratório em caixas com gelo. Foram analisadas a ocorrência de coliformes totais (TC) e fecais (FC), temperatura e pH. A contaminação de coliformes foi menor nos sítios 1 e 5 do que em outros locais, provavelmente por causa da menor influência de áreas urbanizadas. A água na estação 4 estava fortemente contaminada por causa de sua proximidade a um canal de esgoto. Este estudo demonstrou que a água dos rios Pequerê e Penedo, "habitats" para várias espécies de camarões de água doce, estão contaminados com coliformes totais e fecais, e esta ocorrência não está relacionada com a temperatura ou pH. Abstract in english The Perequê and Penedo rivers flow through the plains of Praia de Leste and fall into the sea between the municipalities of Pontal do Sul and Ponta do Poço. Both of these rivers belong to the sub-basin of Paranaguá Bay, and are constituent parts of the hydrographic basin of the Atlantic Ocean (State [...] of Paraná). Four sites along the Perequê River (Stations 1-4) and one along the Penedo River (Station 5) were monitorated for water pollution over a 12-month period. During the period of December 1995 to November 1996, three water samples were collected from each site, placed in sterilized bottles and transported to the laboratory in ice-boxes. They were analyzed for the occurrence of total and fecal coliforms, temperature and pH. Fecal pollution was detected throughout the period of study. Coliform contamination was smaller in Station 1 and 5 than in any other sites, probably due to lesser influence from urbanized areas. Water at Station 4 was strongly contaminated due to its close proximity to a sewage canal. This study demonstrated that the Pequerê and Penedo rivers, freshwater shrimps habitats, were heavily contaminated with fecal indicator bacteria, and this occurrence was not related with temperature or pH.

  10. Total metal levels in crayfish Astacus leptodactylus (Eschscholtz, 1823), and surface sediments in Lake Terkos, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurun, Aysegül; Balkis, Nuray; Erkan, Melike; Balkis, Hüsamettin; Aksu, Abdullah; Er?an, Mahmut Selim

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the total metal accumulation (aluminium, copper, manganese, lead, cadmium and iron) in different organs and eggs of Astacus leptodactylus (Eschscholtz, 1823) and sediments total metal contents (aluminium, copper, manganese, lead, cadmium, iron, zinc, chromium, nickel) in Lake Terkos. Water and sediment samples were collected from two stations at two different depths (1 and 2 m) of Lake Terkos in May 2008. Crayfish samples were collected by trammel net at the same region. Primary hydrographic conditions, such as temperature (13.6-19.4 degrees C), salinity (0.27-0.34 per thousand), dissolved oxygen (7.04-12.30 mg l(-1)) and pH (7.42-8.51), were recorded for each sampling point. Moreover, the total organic carbon (1.65-5.44%) and the total calcium carbonate contents (19.44-41.16%) of sediment samples were determined. According to the Turkish Food Codex (J Zool 26:283-288, 2002), the maximum allowable Pb and Cd levels in crayfish are 0.5 mg/kg wet weight. Accordingly, the Pb and Cd levels determined in A. leptodactylus samples are below this limit. However, when compared with the acceptable metal limits defined by WHO, Australian National Health and Medical Research Council and Ministry of Agriculture in United Kingdom (UK), it is clear that the Cu level is at the limit and the Cd results exceed the limit. When the metal contents in sediment samples from Lake Terkos are examined, it is seen that the Al, Fe, Mn, Ni and Cu contents are lower while Zn, Cr, Cd and Pb contents are higher than the crustal average values. The high values draw attention to the land-based domestic and industrial inputs. Lake Terkos sediments have high enrichment factors (EF) of Zn, Cr, Cd and Pb metals which corroborate this result. The low EFs of Fe, Ni and Cu are due to the natural (terrigeneous) inputs. Additionally, there is no Al, Fe, Ni and Cu metal enrichment in these lake sediments because of the low contamination factor (CF) values. However, it is moderately contaminated by Zn, Cr and Pb, and heavily contaminated by Cd. PMID:19847663

  11. Industry-level total-factor energy efficiency in developed countries: A Japan-centered analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • This study compares Japan with other developed countries for energy efficiency at the industry level. • We compute the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) for industries in 14 developed countries in 1995–2005. • Energy conservation can be further optimized in Japan’s industry sector. • Japan experienced a slight decrease in the weighted TFEE from 0.986 in 1995 to 0.927 in 2005. • Japan should adapt energy conservation technologies from the primary benchmark countries: Germany, UK, and USA. - Abstract: Japan’s energy security is more vulnerable today than it was before the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in March 2011. To alleviate its energy vulnerability, Japan has no choice but to improve energy efficiency. To aid in this improvement, this study compares Japan’s energy efficiency at the industry level with that of other developed countries. We compute the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) of industries in 14 developed countries for 1995–2005 using data envelopment analysis. We use four inputs: labor, capital stock, energy, and non-energy intermediate inputs. Value added is the only relevant output. Results indicate that Japan can further optimize energy conservation because it experienced only a marginal decrease in the weighted TFEE, from 0.986 in 1995 to 0.927 in 2005. To improve inefficient industries, Japan should adapt energy conservation technologies from benchmark countries such as Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States

  12. Prevelance of total coliforms, faecal coliforms and E. coli in Rawalpindi vegetable markets

    OpenAIRE

    Sadia Alam; Samina Khalil; Najma Ayub; Abida Bibi; Beena Saeed; Salma Khalid; Sumaira Siddiq

    2013-01-01

    Nutritional value of vegetables and high prices of meat and meat originated food compel common people to consume plant originated food particularly salad vegetables. Microbial population of vegetable surfaces contains a large number of pathogenic bacteria including members of Enterobactereace like Escherichia coli (E. coli). A survey was conducted in three major markets of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Tomato, lettuce, cabbage and cucumber samples were collected from three shops of each market. ...

  13. Transrectal ultrasound in detecting prostate cancer compared with serum total prostate-specific antigen levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We carried out a retrospective study to review the efficiency of grey-scale transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) in detecting prostate cancer compared with the data in recent published work, including alternative imaging methods of the prostate gland. Our study group consisted of 830 patients who underwent TRUS-guided biopsy of the prostate between May 2000 and June 2004. The relation between abnormal TRUS findings and serum total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) levels was evaluated in patients with prostate cancer who were divided into three different groups according to serum tPSA levels. Group I included patients with tPSA levels of 4-9.9 ng/mL, group II included tPSA levels of 10-19.9 ng/mL and group III included patients with tPSA levels of 20 ng/mL or more. In general, TRUS detected 185 (64%) of 291 cancers with a specificity of 89%, a PPV of 76% and an accuracy of 80%. TRUS findings enabled the correct identification of 22 (56%) of the 39 cancers in group I, 28 (30%) of the 93 cancers in group II and 135 (85%) of the 159 cancers in group III. In conclusion, TRUS alone has a limited potential to identify prostate cancer, especially in patients with tPSA levels lower than 20 ng/mL. Therefore, increased numbers of systematically placed biopsy cores must be taken or alternative imaging methods are required to direct TRUS-guided biopsy for improving prostate cancer detection.

  14. Fecal-coliform bacteria in extended-aeration plant sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, M.; Kester, G.; Arant, S.

    1998-07-01

    The concentration of fecal-coliform bacteria in sludge from extended-aeration plants was analyzed for compliance with new state and federal land application requirements. This study was initiated to determine if additional digestion would be necessary for plants to meet the new pathogen standards of less than 2 million CFU per gm of solids. Sludge was found to contain less than 2 million fecal coliform bacteria/gm of sludge as a result of a combination or aerobic digestion and/or long term storage.

  15. SORCE Level 3 Total Solar Irradiance 6-Hour Average V016

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) data set SOR3TSI6 contains the total solar irradiance (a.k.a solar constant) data collected by the Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM)...

  16. Research of total levels on DNA methylation in plant based on HPLC analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Chen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available HPLC analysis is important for determination of total level on DNA methylation in plants. It can be used to help characterise epigenetic changes during growth, development and stress. HPLC methods have been optimised for mammalian and microbial DNA, but not for plants. This article examines several important factors in the HPLC analysis of plant DNA methylation including extraction and purification of DNA and HPLC conditions choice by using leaves of rice seedling. The experimental results showed that RNA of nucleic acid was removed by using RNase A. This study also identified critical components of HPLC analysis. With the optimized method of HPLC conditions, the better result was achieved in the chromatogram of cytosine and 5-methylcytosine in genomic DNA acid hydrolysis. The study would offer a comprehensive guide for the stringent analysis of DNA methylation in plants.

  17. Economical Appraisal of Total Aflatoxin Level in the Poultry Feeds by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-bounce attenuated total reflectance (SB-ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been used for the quantitative determination of total aflatoxins in the broiler poultry feed. An FTIR calibration spanning the range 1-70 micro g/L aflatoxin standards in (70:30, v/v) methanol-water solvent system based on partial least square (PLS) model, developed by relating mid IR region between 3755-950 cm/ sub -1/. The excellent coefficient of various (using 0.998) was achieved with 1.49 relative mean square error of calibration (RMSEC). Aflatoxins from each of eight poultry feeds was extracted and the determined by the widely used commercially available Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) procedure and the SB-ATR/FTIR method. The SB-ATR/FTIR aflatoxins predictions were related to those determined by the ELISA method by linear regression, producing an R value of 0.989 and a SD of +- 2.80 micro g/L. The result of the study clearly indicated that FT-IR spectroscopy due to its rapidity and simplicity along with data manipulation by advance computer software could be effectively used for routine determination of aflatoxins present in the poultry feeds at very low level. (author)

  18. STANDARDIZATION AND VALIDATION OF METHODS FOR ENUMERATION OF FECAL COLIFORM AND SALMONELLA IN BIOSOLIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current federal regulations required monitoring for fecal coliforms or Salmonella in biosolids destined for land application. Methods used for analysis of fecal coliforms and Salmonella were reviewed and a standard protocol was developed. The protocols were then...

  19. Phenotypic characteristics of coliform and noncoliform bacteria from a public water supply compared with regional and national clinical species.

    OpenAIRE

    1986-01-01

    During the summer and fall of 1984, elevated total coliform counts were observed in the distribution system of a public water supply serving 350,000 people in south central Connecticut. As part of an investigation of possible health risks associated with the presence of bacteria in the water supply, bacterial isolates from the distribution system were compared with bacterial isolates of the same species obtained from a large regional teaching hospital and from a national compendium of clinica...

  20. Rainfall-Induced Release of Fecal Coliforms and Other Manure Constituents: Comparison and Modeling?

    OpenAIRE

    Guber, A. K.; Shelton, D. R.; Pachepsky, Y.A.; Sadeghi, A. M.; Sikora, L. J.

    2006-01-01

    Modeling release of fecal coliforms is an important component of fate and transport simulations related to environmental water quality. Manure constituents other than fecal coliforms may serve as natural tracers of fecal contamination provided that their release from manure to runoff is similar to the fecal coliform release. The objectives of this work were to compare release of fecal coliforms (FC), chloride (Cl?), organic carbon (OC), and water-soluble phosphorus (P) from dissolving manure ...

  1. Water quality and sources of fecal coliform bacteria in the Meduxnekeag River, Houlton, Maine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culbertson, Charles W.; Huntington, Thomas G.; Stoeckel, Donald M.; Caldwell, James M.; O'Donnell, Cara

    2014-01-01

    In response to bacterial contamination in the Meduxnekeag River and the desire to manage the watershed to reduce contaminant sources, the Houlton Band of Maliseet Indians (HBMI) and the U.S. Geological Survey began a cooperative effort to establish a baseline of water-quality data that can be used in future studies and to indicate potential sources of nutrient and bacterial contamination. This study was conducted during the summer of 2005 in the Meduxnekeag River Basin near Houlton, Maine. Continuously recorded specific conductance can be a good indicator for water quality. Specific conductance increased downstream from the town of Houlton, between runoff events, and decreased sharply following major runoff events. Collections of discrete samples during the summer of 2005 indicated seasonal positive concentration-discharge relations for total phosphorus and total nitrogen; these results indicate that storm runoff may mobilize and transport these nutrients from the terrestrial environment to the river. Data collected by the HBMI on fecal coliform bacteria indicated that bacterial contamination enters the Meduxnekeag River from multiple paths including tributaries and surface drains (ditches) in developed areas in Houlton, Maine. The Houlton wastewater treatment discharge was not an important source of bacterial contamination. Bacteroidales-based tests for general fecal contamination (Bac32 marker) were predominantly positive in samples that had excessive fecal contamination as indicated by Enterococci density greater than 104 colony-forming units per 100 millilters. Of the 22 samples tested for Bacteroidales-based markers of human-associated fecal contamination (HF134 and HF183), 8 were positive. Of the 22 samples tested for Bacteroidales-based markers of ruminant-associated fecal contamination (CF128 and CF193), 7 were positive. Human fecal contamination was detected consistently at two sites (surface drains in urban areas in the town of Houlton) and occasionally detected at one site (Moose Brook) but was not detected at other sites. Fecal contamination (as indicated by fecal coliform density) apparently is localized under normal flow conditions with the highest levels restricted to drains in urban areas and to a lesser extent B Stream, Pearce Brook, and Big Brook, all tributaries to the main stem of the Meduxnekeag River. Coliphage were enumerated as an alternate indicator of fecal contamination with the intent of typing the virus into host-associated classes (human or ruminant), as was done for Enterococci; however, insufficient coliphage were isolated to provide more than preliminary indications. In spite of low coliphage enumeration, the preliminary results strengthen the conclusion that the Enterococci data correctly indicated the samples that contained human and ruminant fecal contamination. The finding that contamination was in many of the tributaries following storms in mid-July indicates that storm runoff likely carries fecal contaminants to more locations than runoff under lower flow conditions.

  2. Fecal Coliform Determinations. Training Module 5.115.3.77.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

    This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with multiple tube and membrane filter techniques for determining fecal coliform concentrations in a wastewater sample. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This module considers proper…

  3. ROLE OF NEUTROPHILS IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF BOVINE COLIFORM MASTITIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Around parturition dairy cows are at increased risk for intramammary coliform infections. A high proportion of these infections may develop disease characterized by inflammatory signs and sepsis during the first 60-70 days of lactation. The clinical picture is reputed as toxic mastitis. There is a r...

  4. BIOASSAY PROCEDURES FOR PREDICTING COLIFORM BACTERIAL GROWTH IN DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water quality degradation due to the growth of microorganisms is an area of concern for many water utilities. o date, the procedures developed or determining the amount of biodegradable material present in potable water have utilized heterotrophic non-coliform bacteria as bioassa...

  5. COLIFORM NON-COMPLIANCE NIGHTMARES IN WATER SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coliform occurrences in distribution systems have created a great concern for both utilities and water authorities because of the implied public health implications and failure to meet Federal regulations. Many of the known cases involve systems in the east and midwest. The commo...

  6. Neutron total cross section of sulfur: Single level to multilevel to optical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a further analysis of the high resolution total cross section of sulfur for 25--1100 keV neutrons that previously were measured by Halperin, Johnson, Winters, and Macklin and evaluated by single-level analysis. The usual procedure in reporting the results of high resolution neutron cross sections has been to present the data and resonance parameters with corresponding neutron strength functions resulting from some type of R-matrix analysis. Often the important nonresonant phase shifts are not reported. In this paper, making use of both strength functions and phase shifts, we extend the analysis to include an average nuclear potential (a spherical optical model). An optical model analysis not only facilitates comparison with a broad spectrum of other nucleon-nucleus experiments, but also may provide an incentive for microstructure calculations. Six average empirical functions, two each for s/sub 1/2/, p/sub 1/2/, and p/sub 3/2/ partial waves, are derived from the R-matrix analysis. From these we deduce optical model parameters, the real and imaginary well depths for s- and p-wave neutrons, and the spin-orbit well depth for p waves. The resulting real well is deeper for p waves than for s waves and for averages over partial waves at higher energies. The depth of the imaginary wells are about half those deduced at higher energies. An interesting feature of the analysis is that the multilevel curve including interference effects is produced from single-levelence effects is produced from single-level parameters including the phase shifts

  7. Modulation of cystathionine beta-synthase level regulates total serum homocysteine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liqun; Jhee, Kwang-Hwan; Hua, Xiang; DiBello, Patricia M; Jacobsen, Donald W; Kruger, Warren D

    2004-05-28

    Elevated total plasma homocysteine is an independent risk factor in the development of vascular disease in humans. Cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) is an enzyme that condenses homocysteine with serine to form cystathionine. In this article, we describe the effects of modulating CBS activity using a transgenic mouse that contains the human CBS cDNA under control of the zinc-inducible metallothionein promoter (Tg-CBS). In the presence of zinc, Tg-CBS mice have a 2- to 4-fold increase in liver and kidney CBS activity compared with nontransgenic littermates. Transgenic mice on standard mouse chow had a 45% decrease in their serum homocysteine (12.1 to 7.2 micromol/L; P<0.0001) when zinc was added to drinking water, although zinc had minimal effect on their nontransgenic siblings (13.2 micromol/L versus 13.0 micromol/L; P=NS). Tg-CBS mice maintained on a high-methionine, low-folate diet also had significantly lower serum homocysteine compared with control animals (179 micromol/L versus 242 micromol/L; P<0.02). CBS overexpression also significantly lowered serum cysteinylglycine (3.6 versus 2.8 micromol/L; P<0.003) levels and reduced the levels of many amino acids in the liver. We also found that expression of Tg-CBS rescued the severe hyperhomocysteinemia and neonatal lethality of Cbs deletion animals. Our results show that elevating CBS activity is an effective method to lower plasma homocysteine levels. In addition, the creation of an inducible mouse system to modulate plasma homocysteine will also be useful in the study of homocysteine-related vascular disease. PMID:15105297

  8. Coliform and Metal Contamination in Lago de Colina, a Recreational Water Body in Chihuahua State, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Hector Rubio-Arias; Rey, Nora I.; Quintana, Rey M.; G. Virginia Nevarez; Oskar Palacios

    2011-01-01

    Lago de Colina (Colina Lake) is located about 180 km south of the city of Chihuahua (Mexico), and during the Semana Santa (Holy Week) vacation period its recreational use is high. The objective of this study was to quantify coliform and heavy metal levels in this water body before and after the Holy Week vacation period in 2010. Twenty sampling points were randomly selected and two water samples were collected at each point near the surface (0.30 m) and at 1 m depth. After the Holy Week vacat...

  9. Nível de testosterona total em mulheres pós-menopausa com olho seco / Total testosterone level in postmenopausal women with dry eye

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Cecília Barros, Duarte; Natércia Trindade, Pinto; Hamilton, Moreira; Ana Tereza Ramos, Moreira; Daniel, Wasilewski.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o nível sérico de testosterona total entre mulheres pós-menopausa divididas em 3 grupos: controle, olho seco leve a moderado e olho seco intenso. MÉTODOS: No ambulatório de climatério foram selecionadas 29 mulheres pós-menopausa que não faziam reposição hormonal há pelo menos 8 se [...] manas. Critérios de exclusão: alterações palpebrais mecânicas, pterígio, obstrução de vias lacrimais, inflamação intra-ocular e uso de lente de contato. As mulheres selecionadas foram submetidas à dosagem de testosterona total, aplicação do questionário OSDI (Ocular Surface Disease Index) e exame oftalmológico para detecção de olho seco. As mulheres foram divididas em 3 grupos conforme o resultado do escore OSDI e do exame oftalmológico. RESULTADOS: Cinco pacientes foram classificadas como ausência de olho seco, 15 com olho seco leve a moderado e 4 com olho seco intenso. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre a média dos valores das idades (p=0,3915); nível de instrução (p=0,9333); doenças associadas (p=0,2551); tipo de medicação utilizada (p=0,2844) e nível sérico de testosterona total entre os grupos (p=0,1275). CONCLUSÃO: Não encontramos diferença estatisticamente significativa entre o nível de testosterona total entre mulheres pós-menopausa com olho seco. Novos estudos clínicos com maior amostra são necessários para melhor esclarecer a relação dos níveis séricos dos androgênios nos portadores de olho seco. Abstract in english PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare total testosterone blood level among three groups of postmenopausal women: control, mild to moderate dry eye and severe dry eye. METHODS: Twenty-nine postmenopausal women were selected. The exclusion criteria were: hormone replacement therapy in the [...] last 8 weeks, mechanical palpebral abnormalities, pterygium, lacrimal obstructions, intraocular inflammation or contact lens use. A blood sample was collected for total testosterone level determination, and the patients were submitted to an ophthalmologic examination (emphasizing on dry eye detection) and answered the OSDI (Ocular Surface Disease Index) questionnaire. Five patients were excluded. Postmenopausal women were divided into three groups according to OSDI score and the ophthalmic examination. RESULTS: Five patients were classified in the no dry eye group (control), fifteen in the mild to moderate dry eye group and four in the severe dry eye group. There were no statistically significant differences regarding mean age (p=0.3915); instruction level (p=0.9333); number of comorbidities (p=0.2551); medication taken (p=0.2844) and total testosterone level among those groups (p=0.1275). CONCLUSION: Further research with a greater bigger sample is necessary to establish the relation of androgen levels in dry eye patients.

  10. [Prevalence of Cyclospora sp., Cryptosporidium sp, microsporidia and fecal coliform determination in fresh fruit and vegetables consumed in Costa Rica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Melvin; Carazo, Melissa; Arias, Maria Laura; Chaves, Carolina; Monge, Rafael; Chinchilla, Misael

    2004-12-01

    The presence of Cyclospora sp., Cryptosporidium sp. and microsporidia and the levels of fecal coliforms were determined in lettuce, parsley, cilantro, strawberries and blackberries acquired in local agricultural markets of the Central Valley of Costa Rica, in order to establish the possible transmission risk of these microorganisms and other pathogens from the consumption of these raw products. During the second semester of 2001 and the first of 2002, 50 different samples of each product, 25 taken in the dry season and 25 in the rainy season and coming from five different local agricultural markets were evaluated. The fecal coliforms count was done according to the technique recommended by Vanderzant & Splittstoesser. The parasite determination was done using Zielh Nielsen and Weber staining techniques from a sediment obtained through the rinse of the mentioned products, using sterile peptonated water 0.1% and centrifuging at 900 G for 15 min. One hundred per cent of vegetable samples had fecal coliforms and the greatest prevalence was obtained during the rainy season. Although all vegetables presented fecal coliforms in high concentrations, lettuce and cilantro presented statistical difference between rainy and dry season, being greater during the rainy season. Fecal coliforms were not detected in strawberries and blackberries probablydue to its low pH. All products evaluated presented, at least once, Cryptosporidium sp., Cyclospora sp. and microsporidia, showing the risk they represent to Public Health. Cryptosporidium was present in all products but strawberries. Microsporidia was present in all products except blackberries and Cyclospora was only isolated from lettuce during the dry season. These results show the importance of introducing in the country Good Agricultural Practices, especially due to the resistance of Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora to disinfecting agents. PMID:15969268

  11. Controlled disposal of domestic effluent sewage in the ground to reduce fecal coliforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Fortes Neto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The indiscriminate launching in water bodies of domestic sewage without treatment, or even treated, but without appropriate disinfection, contributes with significant amount of organisms of the called "coliform group” that can carry specific illnesses agents propagated through the water. The application of effluent in the ground, instead of direct disposal in water courses, in addition to being an alternative way for the disposal of residues and biological control of pollutants, constitutes an adequate way of nutrients supply to the soil and plants. So, this work had as objective the evaluation of the reduction of fecal coliforms, after controlled applications of 60 days treated effluent in cultivated soil, by analyzing the increase of fluorescent rhizobacterias Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus spp. present in the rhizospheres of different crops. The experiment was developed in field conditions in the Experimental Farm of Department of Agrarian Sciences of the University of Taubaté, municipality of Taubaté, SP. The Experimental design consisted of random blocks, with five treatments including annual crops (Oats, Barley, Triticale - a cross between wheat and rye, Black Beans and non-cultivated soil as witness - blank reference and four repetitions, totalizing 20 ground plots with area of 2 m x 1 m with 50 cm space among plots on a Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latossol. Results from the microbial analyses of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil indicated that the rhizosphere of oats had denser rhizobacterias than the other crops. However, the greatest efficiency was found in the reduction of thermo-tolerant coliforms for both black beans and non-cultivated soil.

  12. THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN G6PD DEFICIENCY AND TOTAL SERUM BILIRUBIN LEVEL IN ICTERIC NEONATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Behjati-Ardakani

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available "nGlucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is the most important disease of the hexose monophosphate pathway. Deficiency of this enzym can lead to hemolysis of red blood cells. Our aim was to study the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in relation to neonatal jaundice. We studied 456 clinically icteric neonates Laboratory investigations included determination of direct and indirect serum bilirubin concentrations, blood group typing, direct coomb's test, hemoglobin, blood smear, reticulocyte count and G6PD level. We divided these neonates to 3 groups based on total serum bilirubin level (TSB: TSB< 20 mg%, TSB=20-25 mg%, and TSB>25 mg%. In only 35 (7.6% of cases G6PD deficiency was diagnosed. All of these babies were male. From 456 icteric neonates, 213 cases belong to group 1 (TSB<20 mg%, 158 cases belong to group 2 (TSB=20-25 mg% and 85 cases belong to group 3 (TSB>25 mg%. 16 neonates from 213 neonates of group 1, 6 neonates from 158 neonates of group 2 and 13 neonates from 85 neonates of group 3 had G6PD deficiency. There was statistically significant difference of prevalence of G6PD deficiency between group 2 and 3 ( 15.3% vs 3.8%( P = 0.001. Between groups 1 vs 2 and 1 vs 3 no statistically significant difference was found. Early detection of this enzymopathy regardless of sex and close surveillance of the affected newborns may be important in reducing the risk of severe hyperbilirubinemia. This emphasizes the necessity of neonatal screening on cord blood samples for G6PD deficiency.

  13. Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Level-3 Data Products User's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeters, Richard D.; Bhartia, P. K.; Krueger, Arlin J.; Herman, Jay R.; Wellemeyer, Charles G.; Seftor, Colin J.; Byerly, William; Celarier, Edward A.

    2000-01-01

    Data from the TOMS series of instruments span the time period from November 1978, through the present with about a one and a-half year gap from January 1994 through July 1996. A set of four parameters derived from the TOMS measurements have been archived in the form of daily global maps or Level-3 data products. These products are total column ozone, effective surface reflectivity, aerosol index, and erythermal ultraviolet estimated at the Earth surface. A common fixed grid of I degree latitude by 1.25 degree longitude cells over the entire globe is provided daily for each parameter. These data are archived at the Goddard Space Flight Center Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAQ in Hierarchical Data Format (HDF). They are also available in a character format through the TOMS web site at http://toms.gsfc.nasa.gov. The derivations of the parameters, the mapping algorithm, and the data formats are described. The trend uncertainty for individual TOMS instruments is about 1% decade, but additional uncertainty exists in the combined data record due to uncertainty in the relative calibrations of the various TOMS.

  14. Measurement of Deformations by MEMS Arrays, Verified at Sub-millimetre Level Using Robotic Total Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Beran

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of sub-millimetre-level deformations of structures in the presence of ambienttemperature changes can be challenging. This paper describes the measurement of astructure moving due to temperature changes, using two ShapeAccelArray (SAAinstruments, and verified by a geodetic monitoring system. SAA is a geotechnicalinstrument often used for monitoring of displacements in soil. SAA uses micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS sensors to measure tilt in the gravity field. The geodeticmonitoring system, which uses ALERT software, senses the displacements of targetsrelative to control points, using a robotic total station (RTS. The test setup consists of acentral four-metre free-standing steel tube with other steel tubes welded to most of itslength. The central tube is anchored in a concrete foundation. This composite “pole” isequipped with two SAAs as well as three geodetic prisms mounted on the top, in the middle,and in the foundation. The geodetic system uses multiple control targets mounted inconcrete foundations of nearby buildings, and at the base of the pole. Long-termobservations using two SAAs indicate that the pole is subject to deformations due to cyclicalambient temperature variations causing the pole to move by a few millimetres each day. Ina multiple-day experiment, it was possible to track this movement using SAA as well as theRTS system. This paper presents data comparing the measurements of the two instrumentsand provides a good example of the detection of two-dimensional movements of seeminglyrigid objects due to temperature changes.

  15. Pollution studies of Kabul river and its tributes for the assessment of organic strength and fecal coliform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty eight samples of water from Kabul River and its tributaries starting from Warsak Reservoir to the confluence point of Kabul and Indus Rivers covering a stretch of about 90 km and the waste water being discharged by different drains into the river were collected systematically and analysed for total organic strength as Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and degradable organics as Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) using standard methods. River water samples from different locations were also analysed bacteriologically for Fecal coliforms. All the waste water samples and river water in a few locations were found to be high in COD, BOD and Fecal coliform rendering it unfit for irrigation and human consumption. The results also suggest that the Board Mills and from different tanneries are the main sources of organic pollution in the Kabul River. Reduction in fish crop in Kabul River could be referred to the increased organic pollution. (author)

  16. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EFFICIENCY LEVEL OF WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT AND RETURN ON TOTAL ASSETS IN ISE (ISTANBUL STOCK EXCHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet DEN

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In our study we aimed to determine the relationship between efficiency level of firms being traded in ISE in working capital management and their return on total assets. We tried to explain the relationship between different indicators relating to efficiency in working capital management and their return on total assets through two models. According to the results in terms of both all the firms involved in the study and sectors there is a significance negative relationship between cash conversion cycle, net working capital level, current ratio, accounts receivable period, inventory period and return on total assets.

  17. Thyrocalcitonin: its importance on the regulation of the plasmatic levels in total thyroidectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of thyrocalcitonin ou calcium and blood phosphorus is studied. Twelve patients with adenocarcinoma of the thyroid, previously submited to total thyroidectomy and complementary radioiodine theraphy, are studied

  18. Total serum magnesium level in icteric neonates before and after phototherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosravi N

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Deposition of bilirubin in neurons causes permanent neuronal injury. Bilirubin exhibits an affinity for the phospholipids of plasma membrane like N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors. Magnesium is an NMDA antagonist and it acts against the neurotoxic effects of bilirubin. We compared pre- and post-phototherapy serum magnesium level of neonates with hyperbilirubinemia to find the best time of discharge and evaluate new management techniques such as magnesium supplementation."n "nMethods: In this semi-experimental study, we evaluated neonates admitted in Ali Asghar Children's Hospital in Tehran, Iran with signs of icter from 2009 to 2010. The inclusion criteria included age less than four weeks, no history of magnesium sulfate administration in the mother and absence of sepsis."n "nResults: From 106 patients with icter, 50.9% were male and 49.1% were female neonates. Their mean gestational age was 37.34?1.286 (33-41 weeks and the mean birth weight was 3172.12?436.936 (2022-4300 grams. The frequency of underlying causes of hyperbillirubinemia included: ABO mismatch 9.34%, Rh incompatibility 4.7%, breastfeeding 16% and breast milk 44.3%. There was a significant difference (P?0.001 between serum magnesium levels before (2.24mg/dl and after phototherapy (2.12mg/dl. There were no significant differences between serum magnesium values in the two sexes (male=2.28, female=2.19, among different gestational age groups (<34 wks=2.35, 35-37 wks=2.27, >38 wks=2.17, between different birth weight groups (1500-2500 g=2.4 and >2500 g=2.23 or severity of hyperbilirubinemia (mild=2.23, moderate=2.21 and severe=2.29."n "nConclusion: Phototherapy decreases the total magnesium concentration and magnesium administration will prevent bilirubin neurotoxicity in icteric neonates.

  19. Faecal coliforms, faecal enterococci, Salmonella Typhi and Acanthamoeba spp. UV inactivation in three different biological effluents

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    NA, Beltrán; BE, Jiménez.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Efficiency of UV-light to inactivate microbial indicators, Salmonella Typhi and Acanthamoeba spp. was studied in three different biological secondary effluents. Even though effluents differed in terms of their total suspended solids content, transmittance and particle size distribution, the UV-light [...] dose required to fulfil WHO agricultural water reuse criteria was the same (30 mW-s/cm²), because the particle content with sizes >40 |xm was similar and very small. Using this dosage, 3 log of Salmonella Typhi and faecal enterococci were also inactivated. To avoid faecal coliform and Salmonella Typhi photoreactivation, the UV dose had to be doubled and in the process 2.5 log of Acanthamoeba spp. were also inactivated. This is interesting because its presence in wastewater, pathogenicity and resistance to conventional disinfection processes has been reported in the literature. Additionally, it was found that the faecal coliforms' inactivation rate constant was the lowest one of all the bacteria studied (Salmonella Typhi and faecal enterococci), suggesting the limitation of this indicator when several kinds of pathogens are present, as is the case in developing countries.

  20. Survival of fecal coliforms in dry-composting toilets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redlinger, T; Graham, J; Corella-Barud, V; Avitia, R

    2001-09-01

    The dry-composting toilet, which uses neither water nor sewage infrastructure, is a practical solution in areas with inadequate sewage disposal and where water is limited. These systems are becoming increasingly popular and are promoted to sanitize human excreta and to recycle them into fertilizer for nonedible plants, yet there are few data on the safety of this technology. This study analyzed fecal coliform reduction in approximately 90 prefabricated, dry-composting toilets (Sistema Integral de Reciclamiento de Desechos Orgánicos [SIRDOs]) that were installed on the U.S.-Mexico border in Ciudad Juárez, Chihuahua, Mexico. The purpose of this study was to determine fecal coliform reduction over time and the most probable method of this reduction. Biosolid waste samples were collected and analyzed at approximately 3 and 6 months and were classified based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards. Results showed that class A compost (high grade) was present in only 35.8% of SIRDOs after 6 months. The primary mechanism for fecal coliform reduction was found to be desiccation rather than biodegradation. There was a significant correlation (P = 0.008) between classification rating and percent moisture categories of the biosolid samples: drier samples had a greater proportion of class A samples. Solar exposure was critical for maximal class A biosolid end products (P = 0.001). This study only addressed fecal coliforms as an indicator organism, and further research is necessary to determine the safety of composting toilets with respect to other pathogenic microorganisms, some of which are more resistant to desiccation. PMID:11526002

  1. Survival of Fecal Coliforms in Dry-Composting Toilets

    OpenAIRE

    Redlinger, Thomas; Graham, Jay; Corella-Barud, Verónica; Avitia, Raquel

    2001-01-01

    The dry-composting toilet, which uses neither water nor sewage infrastructure, is a practical solution in areas with inadequate sewage disposal and where water is limited. These systems are becoming increasingly popular and are promoted to sanitize human excreta and to recycle them into fertilizer for nonedible plants, yet there are few data on the safety of this technology. This study analyzed fecal coliform reduction in approximately 90 prefabricated, dry-composting toilets (Sistema Integra...

  2. Comparison of four membrane filter methods for fecal coliform enumeration.

    OpenAIRE

    Pagel, J E; Qureshi, A. A.; D.M. Young; Vlassoff, L T

    1982-01-01

    Four membrane filter methods fecal coliform enumeration were evaluated and compared in six laboratories based on determination of accuracy, specificity, upper counting limit, and recovery comparability. Recovery accuracy with pure cultures ranged from 89 to 100% for m-FC, mTEC (a procedure developed for thermotolerant Escherichia coli), and m-FC2 methods (the latter incorporating a 2-h, 35 degrees C resuscitation period), but was less than 60% for the MacConkey membrane broth method. These fi...

  3. Coliforms Everywhere! Using Microbiology to Teach the Scientific Method†

    OpenAIRE

    Cisar, Cindy R.; Banzie, John S.

    2010-01-01

    The scientific method is a fundamental concept in science. In this exercise the scientific method is taught as a hands-on investigative laboratory experience. Students generate a hypothesis concerning the environmental distribution of coliforms, design and execute an experimental test of that hypothesis, and analyze the resulting data. The exercise is safe and straightforward. It is appropriate for use in undergraduate laboratory courses for science majors and secondary school students...

  4. Antibiotic resistance patterns of coliform bacteria isolated from food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, L; Olsson, B; Franklin, A

    1980-01-01

    308 strains of coliform bacteria isolated from food of various origin were identified and their resistance patterns were studied. The strains belonged to 10 different species and Escherichia coli was the most common. Coliforms isolated from samples incubated at 44 degrees C were more often identified as E. coli than coliforms isolated from samples incubated at 37 degrees C. Klebsiella and Enterobacter spp. taken together were, on the contrary, mor often isolated at 37 degrees C than at 44 degrees C. E. coli was most frequently isolated from raw meat and egg products. Klebsiella dn Enterobacter spp. more often in other types of products. 54% of the strains were resistant to at least one of the 9 antibiotics tested. Resistance to nitrofurantoin and sulphaisodimidine was most frequent (30 and 25% respectively). No strain resistant to streptomycin, neomycin or trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole was registered. 40% of the resistant strains were multiresistant. The lowest number of resistant strains was recorded from custards and desserts and from raw meat products (42 and 46% respectively) and the highest from ice-cream (89%). Multiresistant strains were recorded most frequently from pasteurized milk products, custards and desserts. None of the 66 multiresistant strains tested could transfer the resistance to E. coli in vitro. The results do not indicate that food of animal origin in Sweden represents a source for bacteria with transferable resistance determinants. PMID:7006063

  5. Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on levels of serum autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus and in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on serum levels of autoantibodies, and of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and pneumococcal polysaccharide in patients with lupus nephritis were compared with those previously observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Baseline levels of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid and tetanus toxoid decreased significantly after TLI in patients with lupus and RA, but antibody levels to pneumococcal polysaccharide remained unchanged. After TLI, the levels of antinuclear and anti-DNA antibodies were reduced significantly in lupus, but levels of rheumatoid factor, antinuclear, and antigranulocyte antibodies all tended to increase in RA

  6. Salmonelas e coliformes fecais em águas de bebida para animais Salmonellas and fecal conforms in animal drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos de Souza

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available De um total de 402 propriedades rurais do Município de Botucatu, SP (Brasil com atividades de exploração pecuária, foram sorteadas 60 (15% pelo processo de amostragem probabilística simples. Nestas 60 propriedades localizaram-se 113 bebedouros que eram os mais utilizados pelos animais para sua dessedentação. Foram colhidas amostras de água desses bebedouros visando a pesquisa de bactérias do gênero Salmonella, a determinação do Número Mais Provável (NMP de bactérias coliformes fecais e a verificação do pH e da temperatura. Obteve-se isolamento positivo para salmonelas nas amostras de água de 15 (13,27% bebedouros correspondentes a 12 (20% das 60 propriedades visitadas, identificando-se os seguintes sorotipos: S. dublin, S. newport, S. madelia, S. IV 43:g, z57: -, S. saphra, S. glostrup, S. IV ochsenzool, S. I 9, 12:i: - e dois novos sorotipos S. IV 41:z52: - e S. IV 50:d:-. Das 113 amostras de água analisadas, 14 (12,39% apresentaram-se com NMP/100 mL de coliformes fecais acima de 4.000. Não foi constatada associação entre o isolamento positivo de salmonelas e NMP/100 mL de coliformes fecais acima de 4.000. O isolamento de salmonelas e NMP/100 mL de coliformes fecais acima de 4.000 deu-se em temperaturas superiores a 18°C e em pH entre 6,0 e 7,0.Sixty small farms of Botucatu County, S.Paulo, Brazil, given over to cattle breeding were studied. These farms account for 15% of the total of 402 farms that exist in the county. The sample was drawn by simple probabilistic technique. There were found to be one hundred and thirteen drinking places located on the farms. Samples of water were taken from these drinking places and examined for bacteria of the genus Salmonella, for the determination of Most Probable Number (MNP of fecal coliform bacteria as well as determination of the water's pH. Water temperature was measured before collection. Samples from 15 drinking places (13.3% were positive for Salmonella. The drinking places belonged to 12 of the sixty farms studied (20%. The following serotypes were identifie d: S. dublin, S. newport, S. madelia, S. IV 43:g,z57:-, S. saphra, S. glostrup, S. IV ochsenzool; S. I9,12:i:-and two new serotypes S. IV 41:z52:- and S. IV 50:d:-. Of the 113 samples studied 14 (12,4% presented MPN/100ml of fecal coliforms above 4,000. There was no relationship between MPN/100ml of fecal coliforms above 4,000 and positivity for Salmonella. Highest positivity both for Salmonella and MPN/100mL of fecal coliforms over 4,000 occurred at temperatures above 18°C. As regards pH, in both situations the highest positivity occurred between 6.0 and 7.0.

  7. Qualidade higiênica de leite caprino por contagem de coliformes e estafilococos Goat's milk quality by coliform's and staphylococci counting

    OpenAIRE

    Carina Philomena Tebisch Gottardi; Renata Fernandes Muricy; Marisa Cardoso; Verônica Schmidt

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar os padrões higiênicos do leite de mistura caprino produzido por oito propriedades associadas a uma cooperativa na região do Vale do Taquari - RS. Foram realizadas duas visitas às propriedades durante o período de maior produção leiteira. As propriedades foram avaliadas quanto às instalações, ao manejo de ordenha e ao armazenamento do leite.Foram coletadas amostras de leite e água em cada visita. As amostras de água apresentaram contagem de coliformes den...

  8. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EFFICIENCY LEVEL OF WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT AND RETURN ON TOTAL ASSETS IN ISE (ISTANBUL STOCK EXCHANGE)

    OpenAIRE

    Den, Mehmet; Oruc, Eda

    2009-01-01

    In our study we aimed to determine the relationship between efficiency level of firms being traded in ISE in working capital management and their return on total assets. We tried to explain the relationship between different indicators relating to efficiency in working capital management and their return on total assets through two models. According to the results in terms of both all the firms involved in the study and sectors there is a significance negative relationship between cash conver...

  9. Effect of dietary poly unsaturated fatty acids on total brain lipid concentration and anxiety levels of electron beam irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The whole brain irradiation causes injury to the nervous system at various levels. Omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids are very much essential for the growth and development of nervous system. Dietary supplementation of these nutrients will promote the development of injured neuronal cells. Therefore this study was undertaken to establish the role of Omega-3 poly unsaturated fatty acids on total brain lipid concentration, lipid peroxidation and anxiety levels in the irradiated mice. The effect of Electron Beam Radiation (EBR) on total brain lipid concentration, lipid peroxidation and anxiety level were investigated in male Swiss albino mice. The study groups were subjected to a sub-lethal dose of EBR and also the flax seed extract and fish oil were given orally to the irradiated mice. Irradiated groups show significant elevation in anxiety levels when compared to control group, indicating the acute radiation effects on the central nervous system. But the oral supplementation of dietary PUFA source decrees the anxiety level in the irradiated group. The analysis of lipid peroxidation showed a significant level of changes when compared between control and radiation groups. Dietary PUFA supplementation showed a significant level of decrease in the lipid peroxidation in the irradiated groups. The observation of total lipids in brain shows decrease in concentration in the irradiated groups, the differences in the variables follow the similar patterns as of that the MDA levels. This study suggests that the dietary intake of PUFAs may help in prevention and recovery of the oxidative stress caused by radiation. (author)

  10. Total IgE plasma levels vary according to gender and age in Brazilian patients with allergic rhinitis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thaís Amarante Peres de Paula, Couto; Nelson, Falsarella; Cinara de Cássia Brandão de, Mattos; Luiz Carlos de, Mattos.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Allergic rhinitis is a disease that affects the upper airways and causes inflammation of the nasal mucosa and it is mediated by IgE antibodies produced after sensitization to environmental allergens. Previous reports have indicated that this disease affects males more often than females. [...] The objective of this study was to verify whether total IgE plasma levels vary between genders in patients suffering from allergic rhinitis. METHODS: A total of 171 adult patients suffering from allergic rhinitis (55 males and 116 females) were enrolled. Total IgE plasma levels were determined using commercial kits, with 140 IU/mL considered as a reference value. The mean total IgE plasma levels were compared according to gender and age. RESULTS: The mean age of the overall patient group with allergic rhinitis was 38.4±19.0 years and a significant difference in age was observed between genders (males: 32.2±17.8 years; females: 41.4±18.9 years; p?=?0.0027). Additionally, the mean total IgE plasma levels were higher in males (413.0±143.0 IU/mL) than in females (147.9±98.0 IU/mL) (p

  11. Níveis de fósforo total em dietas para alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo / Dietary total phosphorus levels for Nile tilapia fingerlings

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Felipe Barbosa, Ribeiro; Eduardo Arruda Teixeira, Lanna; Marcos Antonio Delmondes, Bomfim; Juarez Lopes, Donzele; Anderson Saraiva de, Freitas; Maíra Paula de, Sousa; Moisés, Quadros.

    1588-15-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando-se determinar a exigência de fósforo em dietas para alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus), foram utilizados 432 alevinos com peso inicial de 0,60 ± 0,02 g, mantidos em 36 aquários de 150 L. Foi utilizado delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos (0,55; 0,7 [...] 3; 0,94; 1,14; 1,37 e 1,59% de fósforo total), seis repetições e 12 peixes por unidade experimental. Os peixes foram alimentados com rações contendo 32% de PB e 3.000 kcal ED/kg, durante 40 dias. Verificou-se efeito quadrático dos níveis de fósforo na dieta sobre a conversão alimentar e a taxa de eficiência protéica, sendo estimados os melhores resultados com 1,10% de fósforo total. Houve efeito linear dos níveis de fósforo na dieta sobre a taxa de eficiência de retenção de P e a taxa de eficiência de P. Para as demais variáveis, não houve efeito dos níveis de fósforo da dieta. A exigência de P em dietas para alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo é de 1,10%. Abstract in english Four hundred and thirty-two Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fingerlings averaging initial weight of 0.60 ± 0.02 g were allotted to thirty-six 150 L-aquaria to determine total phosphorus requirement. The experiment was analyzed as a completely randomized design, with six treatments (0.55, 0.73, [...] 0.94, 1.14, 1.37, and 1.59% of total phosphorus), six replicates and 12 fishes per experimental unit. The fishes were fed diets with 32% of CP and 3,000 kcal of DE/kg, during 40 days. Quadratic effect was observed for feed/gain ratio and protein efficiency rate and the best results were estimated with 1.10% of total phosphorus, for both variables. Linear effect of the dietary phosphorus levels on P retention efficiency rate and P efficiency rate was noticed. No treatment effect on the other variables was observed. The dietary total phosphorus requirement for Nile tilapia corresponds to 1.10%.

  12. Níveis de fósforo total em dietas para alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo Dietary total phosphorus levels for Nile tilapia fingerlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Barbosa Ribeiro

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando-se determinar a exigência de fósforo em dietas para alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, foram utilizados 432 alevinos com peso inicial de 0,60 ± 0,02 g, mantidos em 36 aquários de 150 L. Foi utilizado delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos (0,55; 0,73; 0,94; 1,14; 1,37 e 1,59% de fósforo total, seis repetições e 12 peixes por unidade experimental. Os peixes foram alimentados com rações contendo 32% de PB e 3.000 kcal ED/kg, durante 40 dias. Verificou-se efeito quadrático dos níveis de fósforo na dieta sobre a conversão alimentar e a taxa de eficiência protéica, sendo estimados os melhores resultados com 1,10% de fósforo total. Houve efeito linear dos níveis de fósforo na dieta sobre a taxa de eficiência de retenção de P e a taxa de eficiência de P. Para as demais variáveis, não houve efeito dos níveis de fósforo da dieta. A exigência de P em dietas para alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo é de 1,10%.Four hundred and thirty-two Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings averaging initial weight of 0.60 ± 0.02 g were allotted to thirty-six 150 L-aquaria to determine total phosphorus requirement. The experiment was analyzed as a completely randomized design, with six treatments (0.55, 0.73, 0.94, 1.14, 1.37, and 1.59% of total phosphorus, six replicates and 12 fishes per experimental unit. The fishes were fed diets with 32% of CP and 3,000 kcal of DE/kg, during 40 days. Quadratic effect was observed for feed/gain ratio and protein efficiency rate and the best results were estimated with 1.10% of total phosphorus, for both variables. Linear effect of the dietary phosphorus levels on P retention efficiency rate and P efficiency rate was noticed. No treatment effect on the other variables was observed. The dietary total phosphorus requirement for Nile tilapia corresponds to 1.10%.

  13. Effects of sugar feeding on lipid, glycogen, and total sugar levels of a female parasitoid, Bracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gu?ndu?z, Eylem Akman; Gu?lel, Adem; Is?itan, O?zgu?r Varer; Boz, Ali; Cesur, O?zlem

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the lipid, glycogen, and total sugar levels in completely starved (no water or sugar provided), honey-fed, sucrose-fed, or sugar-starved (only water provided) females of the parasitoid Bracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). We also quantified the lipid, glycogen, and total sugar levels in newly emerged unfed (day 0) female (n = 30) wasps. The mean amounts of reserves obtained from these females were regarded as a standard for the initial amount o...

  14. Radioiodine total body scan versus serum thyroglobulin levels in follow-up of patients with thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two groups of patients were studied to compare the efficacy of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels to 131I total body scans in the follow-up of patients with thyroid cancer. All of the group of 30 patients without recurrence had undetectable Tg levels on and off thyroid hormone replacement, and all had negative total body scan results although eight patients showed uptake in remnant thyroid tissue. In the second group of 37 patients with documented recurrent or metastatic disease, 34 (92%) had positive serum Tg levels, although the levels in five of these patients were undetectable while on thyroid replacement, and 31 (84%) had positive total body scan results. The false negative results of the two tests were not overlapping, and of those with positive Tg levels, 29 showed a significant increase once thyroid hormone therapy had been withdrawn. We conclude that although the percentages of positive Tg levels and body scan results in patients with recurrent disease are similar, both tests are required to minimize the number of patients with undiagnosed metastases. Second, thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression has a definite although unpredictable effect on serum Tg levels in patients with thyroid cancer, and thyroid hormone should be withdrawn prior to measurement of serum Tg to minimize the number of false negative results

  15. Estimation of Salivary and Serum Total Sialic Acid Levels in Periodontal Health and Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Rathod, Surekha R; Khan, Farooque; Kolte, Abhay P; Gupta, Madhur

    2014-01-01

    Background: Chronic gingivitis and periodontitis are inflammatory diseases. An important function of host sialic acid is to regulate innate immunity. The aim of the study was to assess the concentration of Total sialic acid (TSA) in saliva and serum and also to find out their association if any, in periodontal health and disease.

  16. Alterations in zinc binding capacity, free zinc levels and total serum zinc in a porcine model of sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeger, Janine; Simon, Tim-Philipp; Doemming, Sabine; Thiele, Christoph; Marx, Gernot; Schuerholz, Tobias; Haase, Hajo

    2015-08-01

    Zinc is crucial for immune function. In addition, the redistribution of zinc and other nutrients due to infection is an integral part of the host immune response to limit availability to pathogens. However, the major zinc binding protein albumin is down regulated during the acute phase response, implicating a decrease in zinc binding capacity. A prospective animal study with eight female German landrace pigs was conducted to investigate alterations in zinc binding capacity, total serum zinc and free zinc levels in the initial phase of sepsis. Sepsis was induced by instillation of autologous feces via midline laparotomy. Total serum zinc declined significantly after 1 h (10.89 ± 0.42 µM vs. 7.67 ± 0.41 µM, p < 0.001), total serum copper and iron reached a significant reduction at 4 h. Urinary excretion of zinc declined in line with total serum zinc. In comparison to total serum zinc, free zinc levels declined to a lesser, though significant, extent. Zinc binding capacity of serum decreased over time, whereby free zinc levels after addition of zinc correlated negatively with total serum protein and albumin levels. In addition IL-6 and TNF-? concentrations were measured and increased significantly 2 h after induction of sepsis. Hence, total serum zinc was the first marker of inflammation in our experiment, and might therefore be a promising biomarker for the early diagnosis of sepsis. Furthermore the observation of a substantially different serum free zinc homeostasis during sepsis provides valuable information for a potential therapeutic zinc supplementation, which has to take buffering capacity by serum proteins into account. PMID:25940830

  17. Testing Total Ammonia Levels in the Sacramento- San Joaquin Valley Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaser, C.; Harris, A.; Miller, K.

    2014-12-01

    Northern California's Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta is surrounded by many agricultural fields, making is susceptible to increased ammonia levels from nutrient rich fertilizer runoff. Last year we noticed a large bloom of Water Hyacinth, an invasive species from South America, throughout many channels of the delta which led us to believe that there was an abundance of ammonia in the water. We hypothesized this with the prior knowledge that Water Hyacinth feeds on ammonia and thrives in places with high levels of ammonia in the water. Because there are no current regulation standards for ammonia levels in the Delta, we decided to test eight points around the delta to see whether or not the ammonia levels exceed regulatory standards of nearby waters. After determining the ammonia levels of each of our eight samples, we compared the data that we collected to the maximum levels of ammonia allowed in the Central San Francisco Bay, which is 0.16 ppm. We discovered that each point that we tested in the delta had ammonia levels much lower than 0.16 ppm. With these results we concluded that unusually high levels of ammonia is not a concern in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta.

  18. Association of HLA class II Alleles with Childhood Asthma and Total IgE Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Nicknam

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a complex and multifactorial disorder. Several studies have reported association between different HLA- DQB1 and HLA- DRB1 alleles and allergic asthma. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of HLA-class II alleles and haplotypes, with total serum IgE and the results of the skin prick test in Iranian children with allergic asthma. A total of 112 patients with allergic asthma symptoms (75 males and 37 females were selected randomly from the pediatric hospital. In some patients total serum IgE and prick test were determined. Data of this study shows that HLA-DRB1*12 significantly increased in asthmatic patients (4.5% vs. 0%, P-value=0.04. HLA-DQB1*0603 and 0604 alleles were significantly higher in asthmatics than those in normal controls (10% vs. 0%, P-value= 0.0001; and 9.3% vs. 3.7%, P-value= 0.04, respectively. The statistical significance was relinquished after p value correction for all alleles except for HLA-DQB1*0602 (Pc=0.03 and HLA-DQB1*0603 (Pc=0.0015. Conversely, HLA-DQB1*0501 and 0602 were decreased in asthmatics compared to normal controls (7.5% vs. 13.5%, P-value= 0.05; and 4% vs. 12.5%, P-value= 0.002, respectively. The mean of total IgE in patients was 483 IU, and it was significantly high about 1140 IU in asthmatic patients with positive skin prick test to house dust. The most frequent alleles in asthmatic patients with the total IgE>200 IU/mL were HLA-DRB1*11and 1401, HLA-DQA1*0505, HLA-DQB1*0301 and in patients with total IgE<200 IU/mL were HLA-DRB1*0301, 07 and 1301, HLADQA1*0201 and 0301, HLA-DQB1*0201."nThese data suggests that HLA-DRB1, DQA1 & DQB1 alleles and haplotypes might be implicated in susceptibility to allergy and asthma and serum IgE production. As asthma and atopy are multifactorial disorders, probably HLA genes are involved in the regulation of immune specific responses to common allergen.

  19. Influence of periodontal treatment on plasma levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and its components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parichehr Behfarnia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Periodontitis, a prevalent oral disease, has been associated with several systemic conditions, including lipid metabolism disturbances. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of periodontal treatment on decreasing plasma lipids levels. Materials and Methods: In this case/control study sera were collected from 25 adult periodontitis patients and 25 healthy control subjects referring to the Faculty of Dentistry in Isfahan. Plaque indexes, pocket depths, bleeding on probing (BOP, attachment loss (AL and serum lipid levels (cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL were recorded in both groups. Periodontal treatment was carried out only for the test group patients. Six weeks after periodontal treatment, serum lipid levels were measured again in both groups and the results were compared with the initial values (?=0.05. Results: The serum levels of triglyceride, cholesterol, HDL, LDL in the test group before treatment were 156/96,184/64, 49/20, 116/68 mg/dL, respectively, with 121/36, 157/56, 47/85, 114/36, respectively, after treatment. The decreases in triglyceride and cholesterol serum levels were significant but decreases in HDL and LDL levels were not significant. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that there is a significant relationship between periodontal treatment and a decrease in serum lipid levels. The possible mechanism is the relationship between bacterial endotoxins and induction of proinflammatory cytokines, resulting in changes in the metabolism of lipids, which gives rise to hyperlipidemia. Key words: Cholesterol, Chronic periodontitis, Triglyceride.

  20. Modification of delayed-incubation procedure for detection of fecal coliforms in water.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, M; Hickey, P J

    1983-01-01

    Three holding media, including the vitamin-free Casitone holding medium (m-VFC) recommended by Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater for use with the delayed-incubation membrane filter procedure, were compared for their ability to maintain viability of fecal coliforms. Each medium was tested according to the procedure described in the above reference with 60 to 80 pure cultures of fecal coliforms and a variety of natural water samples containing fecal coliforms. Fecal c...

  1. The Diversity of Coliphages and Coliforms in Horse Feces Reveals a Complex Pattern of Ecological Interactions?

    OpenAIRE

    Golomidova, Alla; Kulikov, Eugene; Isaeva, Alina; Manykin, Anatoly; Letarov, Andrey

    2007-01-01

    The diversity of coliphages and indigenous coliform strains (ICSs) simultaneously present in horse feces was investigated by culture-based and molecular methods. The richness of coliforms (as estimated by the Chao1 method) is about 1,000 individual ICSs distinguishable by genomic fingerprinting present in a single sample of feces. This unexpectedly high value indicates that some factor limits the competition of coliform bacteria in the horse gut microbial system. In contrast, the diversity of...

  2. Isolation of fecal coliforms from pristine sites in a tropical rain forest.

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera, S. C.; Hazen, T. C.; Toranzos, G. A.

    1988-01-01

    Samples collected from water accumulated in leaf axilae of bromeliads (epiphytic flora) in a tropical rain forest were found to harbor fecal coliforms. Random identification of fecal coliform-positive isolates demonstrated the presence of Escherichia coli. This bacterium was also isolated from bromeliad leaf surfaces. These data indicate that E. coli may be part of the phyllosphere microflora and not simply a transient bacterium of this habitat. The isolation of fecal coliforms from these sit...

  3. COLIFORMES TERMOTOLERANTES EN AGUAS DE LAS POBLACIONES COSTERAS Y PALAFÍTICAS DE LA CIÉNAGA GRANDE DE SANTA MARTA, COLOMBIA / Fecals Coliforms in Waters of Coastal and Palafiticos Populations of Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    SILVIA, NARVÁEZ; MARTHA, GÓMEZ; JORGE, ACOSTA.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta es el sistema lagunar costero más grande e importante de Colombia y el más extenso del Caribe. En su territorio se alojan siete poblaciones carentes de un sistema de saneamiento básico adecuado, que vierten sus desechos sin ningún tipo de tratamiento directamente a l [...] a ciénaga. Teniendo en cuenta la importancia ambiental de este cuerpo de agua y con el objeto de conocer su calidad sanitaria se determinaron las concentraciones de Coliformes termotolerantes en aguas adyacentes de dos poblaciones costeras (Tasajera e isla del Rosario) y tres palafiticas (Buenavista, Nueva Venecia y Trojas de Cataca) durante el periodo 2004-2007. Adicionalmente, se realizaron mediciones de pH, temperatura, salinidad y oxígeno disuelto en cada sitio de muestreo. Las mayores concentraciones de Coliformes se encontraron en el palafito Trojas de Cataca, en la época seca mayor de cada año (7.800-9.000 NMP/ 100 mL) y los menores niveles en la estación Buenavista (2-1.100 NMP/100mL). El patrón de comportamiento de las densidades de Coliformes en las poblaciones costeras fue similar en el tiempo y no se observó ninguna relación directa entre las variables fisicoquímicas y el grupo Coliformes. Dado lo observado, se considera importante vigilar la calidad del agua en el estuario, teniendo en cuenta que constituye una fuente potencial de riesgo para el desarrollo de las actividades económicas de la zona y para la salud de los pobladores. Abstract in english The coastal lagoon system most important and biggest of Colombia and the largest in the Caribbean is the Cienaga Grande of Santa Marta. In their territory, seven populations lacking of an appropriate sanitation system, that pour their waste directly without any treatment to the cienaga. Keeping in m [...] ind the importance of this body of water and in order to know their sanitary quality the concentrations of thermotolerant coliforms were determined in two coastal (Tasajera and Isla del Rosario) and three palafitics populations (Buenavista, Nueva Venecia and Trojas de Cataca) during the period 2004-2007. Additionally, pH, temperature, salinity and oxygen measurements were carried out in each station. The highest coliforms concentrations were found in Trojas de Cataca, in the dry season more each year (7,800-9,000 MPN/100ml) and the lowest level in Buenavista station (2-1,100 MPN/100mL). The behavior pattern of Coliform densities in coastal populations was similar in the time and there was no direct relationship between physicochemical variables and Coliform group. It is important take care and watch over the estuary quality, taking into account that constitutes a potential risk source for economic activities development of the area and for the residents health.

  4. Distribution of sewage pollution around a maritime Antarctic research station indicated by faecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens and faecal sterol markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study describes the distribution of sewage pollution markers (faecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens and faecal sterols) in seawater and marine sediments around Rothera Research Station, Antarctic Peninsula. Untreated sewage waste has been released from this site since 1975, creating the potential for long-term contamination of the benthic environment. Faecal coliform concentrations in seawater reached background levels within 300 m of the outfall. In sediment cores, both C. perfringens and faecal coliform concentrations declined with distance from the outfall, though C. perfringens persisted at greater depths in the sediment. High concentrations of 5?(H)-cholestan-3?-ol (coprostanol) relative to the corresponding 5?-epimer (cholestanol), indicative of sewage pollution, were only found in sediments within 200 m of the sewage outfall. This study has shown that sewage contamination is limited to the immediate vicinity of the sewage outfall. Nevertheless, a sewage treatment plant was installed in February 2003 to reduce this contamination further. - Sewage contamination of seawater and marine sediments near Rothera Research Station (Antarctic Peninsula) was limited to the immediate vicinity of the outfall

  5. Estimation and comparative study of serum total sialic acid levels as tumor markers in oral cancer and precancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshi Manjiri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tumor markers are a major part of the secondary prevention and thus the detection of malignancies. Neoplasms often have an increased concentration of sialic acid on the tumor cell surface and are shed or secreted by some of these cells which increase the concentration in blood. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 90 subjects equally divided into three groups viz, healthy individuals, oral cancer and precancer. The estimation of serum total sialic acid level was done according to Plucinsky et al by resorcinol reagent method. The statistical analysis was carried out by using SPSS 10.0 software. Results: The mean serum total sialic acid (TSA level in oral precancer and oral cancer group was statistically significant (P<0.05. In oral cancer group when stage I and stage II were compared with stage III and stage IV, it was statistically significant (P<0.05. Histopathologically, oral cancer and precancer did not show statistically significant values (P>0.05. The present study also suggested that no correlation exists between habit of tobacco chewing / betel nut chewing / smoking or alcohol consumption with that of serum total sialic acid levels. Conclusion: Serum total sialic acid levels can be used as an adjunctive diagnostic marker in head and neck cancer.

  6. Metal ion levels in maternal and placental blood after metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Clifford C; Hsu, Andrew R; Della Valle, Craig J; Skipor, Anastasia K; Campbell, Patricia; Amstutz, Harlan C; Jiranek, William A; Onyike, Aham; Pombar, Xavier F; Jacobs, Joshua J

    2014-12-01

    There is concern regarding elevated metal ion levels in the blood during pregnancy and the potential fetal effects in women with metal-on-metal (MOM) implants. We obtained maternal and umbilical cord blood samples from 3 patients with a MOM hip arthroplasty and 7 control subjects without any metallic implants. Serum metal ion levels including chromium, cobalt, titanium, and nickel were tested using high-resolution sector-field inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Mothers with MOM-bearing implants had significantly elevated levels of serum cobalt and chromium compared with control-group mothers, and umbilical cord blood from mothers with MOM implants also had significantly higher serum metal ion levels compared with control-group mothers. The results of this study show that circulating serum levels of metal ion degradation products from MOM bearings cross the placenta and expose the fetus to metal ions. However, the placenta exerts a modulatory effect on cord blood, resulting in decreased levels compared with maternal samples (approximately 15% of maternal chromium and 50% of maternal cobalt). Physicians and women of child-bearing age should be aware of this potential effect when considering the use of MOM-bearing implants. PMID:25490017

  7. Method and automated apparatus for detecting coliform organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, W. P.; Taylor, R. E.; Jeffers, E. L. (inventors)

    1980-01-01

    Method and automated apparatus are disclosed for determining the time of detection of metabolically produced hydrogen by coliform bacteria cultured in an electroanalytical cell from the time the cell is inoculated with the bacteria. The detection time data provides bacteria concentration values. The apparatus is sequenced and controlled by a digital computer to discharge a spent sample, clean and sterilize the culture cell, provide a bacteria nutrient into the cell, control the temperature of the nutrient, inoculate the nutrient with a bacteria sample, measures the electrical potential difference produced by the cell, and measures the time of detection from inoculation.

  8. Simulation of Streamflow and Water Quality to Determine Fecal Coliform and Nitrate Concentrations and Loads in the Mad River Basin, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reutter, David C.; Puskas, Barry M.; Jagucki, Martha L.

    2006-01-01

    The Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) was used to simulate the concentrations and loads of fecal coliform and nitrate for streams in the Mad River Basin in west-central Ohio during the period 1999 through 2003. The Mad River Basin was divided into subbasins that were defined either by the 14-digit Hydrologic Unit (HU) boundaries or by streamflow-gaging-station locations used in the model. Model calibration and simulation processes required the formation of nine meteorologic zones to input meteorologic time-series data and water-quality data. Sources of fecal coliform and nitrate from wastewater-treatment discharges and combined sewer overflow discharges (CSOs) within the City of Springfield were point sources simulated in the model. Failing septic systems and cattle with direct access to streams were nonpoint sources included in the study but treated in the model as point sources. Other nonpoint sources were addressed by adjusting interflow and ground-water concentrations in the subsurface and maximum storage capacities and accumulation rates of the simulated constituents on the land surface for each meteorologic zone. Simulation results from the calibrated model show that several HUs exceeded the water-quality standard of 1,000 colony-forming units per 100 mL for fecal coliform based on the maximum 30-day geometric mean. Most HUs with high fecal coliform counts were within or downstream from the City of Springfield. No water-quality standard has been set for instream nitrate concentrations; however, the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (Ohio EPA) considered a concentration of 5 mg/L or greater to be of concern. Simulation results indicate that several HUs in the agricultural areas of the basin exceeded this level. The calibrated model was modified to create scenarios that simulated loads of fecal coliform and nitrate that were either reduced or eliminated from selected sources. The revised models included the elimination of failing septic systems, elimination of direct access of cattle to streams, decrease in fecal coliform loads from the CSOs and selected wastewater-treatment facilities, and decrease in nitrate loads from land surfaces. The fecal coliform source-reduction model decreased the fecal coliform concentrations below a target concentration of 1,000 colonies per 100 milliliters for all HU outlets and decreased the load at the mouth of the Mad River by 73 percent. The nitrate source-reduction model decreased some HU mean concentrations to 5 milligrams per liter or less and decreased the load at the mouth of the Mad River by 52 percent. Other reduction scenarios may be run by Ohio EPA with the intent of identifying a management strategy that will attain a target concentration for the Mad River Basin.

  9. Response of atmospheric ground level temperatures to changes in the total solar irradiance

    OpenAIRE

    Erlykin, Anatoly; Wolfendale, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    The attribution of part of global warming to changes in the total solar irradiance (TSI) is an important topic which is not, yet, fully understood. Here, we examine the TSI induced temperature (T) changes on a variety of time scales, from one day to centuries and beyond, using a variety of assumptions. Also considered is the latitude variation of the T-TSI correlations, where it appears that over most of the globe there is a small increase in the sensitivity of temperature t...

  10. Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism and total serum cholesterol level in Iranian population

    OpenAIRE

    Bazzaz J; Nazari M; Nazem H; Amiri P; Fakhrzadeh H; Heshmat R.; Abbaszadeh S; Amoli M

    2010-01-01

    Background: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is known as a major regulator of blood lipid levels in humans. A number of APOE gene allelic variants have been reported including E2, E3 and E4. Recent studies suggested a role for APOE in obesity and increased Body Mass Index (BMI) and plasma lipid levels in obese children. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the association between APOE genetic variants and the BMI and lipid profile in an Iranian cohort. Setting and Design: Samples were obtained fr...

  11. Remoción mediante vermicomposteo de los coliformes fecales presentes en lodos biológicos / Vermicomposting of biological sludge for coliforms reduction

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carmen Verónica, Droppelmann; Carolina Pía, Gaete; Paulina, Miranda.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se buscó establecer el efecto de la densidad inicial de lombrices en la remoción de patógenos, mediante vermicomposteo de lodo, usando como indicador el número más probable de coliformes fecales (NMPCF). El lodo utilizado se generó en una planta de aireación extendida, se trabajó con [...] 4 densidades: alta con 0,2 kg lombrices/kg lodo, media con 0,1 kg lombrices/ kg lodo, baja con 0,05 kg lombrices/kg lodo y un blanco sin la adición de lombrices al lodo. Al segundo día de experimentación con la densidad media se logró una mayor remoción, estadísticamente significativa, del NMPCF que la obtenida con la densidad alta. El mismo día, todas las densidades lograron la clasificación de lodo clase B según United States Enviroment Protection Agency. Entre el día 13 y el 20 las muestras con densidades alta, baja y media lograron la clasificación clase A, no así el blanco. Al día 20 tanto la densidad media como la alta lograron el 100% de remoción de los coliformes fecales. Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of stoking density on the pathogens reduction, through the sludge vermicomposting, using the most probable number of fecal coliforms as indicator. The sludge used was generated at an extended aeration system; the stoking density was investig [...] ated at 0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 kg-worms/kg-sludge plus a control without worms. At the second day of experimentation the 0.1 kg/kg density achieved a significantly higher removal than the 0.2 kg/kg density. In the same day, all the stoking densities achieved the United States Environment Agency class B sludge standards. Between the 13 and 20 day all the stoking densities, with the exception of the control, achieved the USEPA class A standards. On day 20 the removal in the two biggest stoking densities was 100%.

  12. Tratamento de esgotos sanitários em sistemas reatores UASB/wetlands construídas de fluxo horizontal: eficiência e estabilidade de remoção de matéria orgânica, sólidos, nutrientes e coliformes Domestic wastewater treatment in UASB-horizontal flow constructed wetlands systems: organic matter, solids, nutrients and coliforms removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Lúcia Calijuri

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresentou os resultados de um estudo realizado durante 19 meses sobre o comportamento de wetlands construídas na remoção de matéria orgânica, sólidos, nutrientes e coliformes, em unidades em escala piloto de fluxo horizontal, subsuperficial e superficial, com tempo de detenção hidráulica entre 1,3 a 5,3 dias, operando como pós-tratamento de efluentes de reatores UASB (esgotos sanitários. A remoção de matéria orgânica e de sólidos mostrou-se elevada e estável, com eficiências médias de 70, 80 e 60% para SST, DBO5 e DQO, respectivamente. A remoção de nutrientes, após início promissor, mostrou-se instável e aparentemente influenciada pela temperatura. O sistema de tratamento revelou elevado potencial de remoção de coliformes, embora com variações relativamente amplas ao longo do período de operação: ? 2 log10 de remoção de coliformes totais e 2-4 log10 de remoção de Escherichia coli.This work presented the results of a 19-month study on the performance of constructed wetlands in terms of organic matter, solids, nutrients and coliforms removal in pilot scale unities with horizontal, subsurface and surface flow, with hydraulic retention time from 1.3 to 5.3 days, as post-treatment of UASB effluents (domestic wastewater. Organic matter and solids were effectively and consistently removed, with average values of 70, 80 and 60% for TSS, BOD5 and COD, respectively. Nutrients removal, after a promising start up, became unstable and apparently influenced by temperature. The treatment system has also shown high potential to remove coliforms, although with relatively wide variations over the study period: ? 2 log10 reduction of total coliforms and 2-4 log10 reduction of Escherichia coli.

  13. Tratamento de esgotos sanitários em sistemas reatores UASB/wetlands construídas de fluxo horizontal: eficiência e estabilidade de remoção de matéria orgânica, sólidos, nutrientes e coliformes / Domestic wastewater treatment in UASB-horizontal flow constructed wetlands systems: organic matter, solids, nutrients and coliforms removal

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Lúcia, Calijuri; Rafael Kopschitz Xavier, Bastos; Tiago de Brito, Magalhães; Bruna Cesca, Capelete; Edgard Henrique Oliveira, Dias.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresentou os resultados de um estudo realizado durante 19 meses sobre o comportamento de wetlands construídas na remoção de matéria orgânica, sólidos, nutrientes e coliformes, em unidades em escala piloto de fluxo horizontal, subsuperficial e superficial, com tempo de detenção hidrául [...] ica entre 1,3 a 5,3 dias, operando como pós-tratamento de efluentes de reatores UASB (esgotos sanitários). A remoção de matéria orgânica e de sólidos mostrou-se elevada e estável, com eficiências médias de 70, 80 e 60% para SST, DBO5 e DQO, respectivamente. A remoção de nutrientes, após início promissor, mostrou-se instável e aparentemente influenciada pela temperatura. O sistema de tratamento revelou elevado potencial de remoção de coliformes, embora com variações relativamente amplas ao longo do período de operação: ? 2 log10 de remoção de coliformes totais e 2-4 log10 de remoção de Escherichia coli. Abstract in english This work presented the results of a 19-month study on the performance of constructed wetlands in terms of organic matter, solids, nutrients and coliforms removal in pilot scale unities with horizontal, subsurface and surface flow, with hydraulic retention time from 1.3 to 5.3 days, as post-treatmen [...] t of UASB effluents (domestic wastewater). Organic matter and solids were effectively and consistently removed, with average values of 70, 80 and 60% for TSS, BOD5 and COD, respectively. Nutrients removal, after a promising start up, became unstable and apparently influenced by temperature. The treatment system has also shown high potential to remove coliforms, although with relatively wide variations over the study period: ? 2 log10 reduction of total coliforms and 2-4 log10 reduction of Escherichia coli.

  14. La sensibilidad del grupo coliforme como indicador de la presencia de enterobacterias patógenas en cuatro cuerpos acuáticos de México / The coliform group sensitivity as indicator of the enteropathogenic bacteria presence in four water bodies from Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guadalupe, Barrera-Escorcia; Carlos Leopoldo, Fernández-Rendón; Irma, Wong-Chang; Patricia, Ramírez Romero.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available La contaminación microbiológica en los cuerpos acuáticos se caracteriza a través de la detección de organismos indicadores como las bacterias coliformes totales (CT) y fecales (CF). El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la sensibilidad de estos indicadores para predecir la presencia de enteroba [...] cterias patógenas en cuatro cuerpos acuáticos mexicanos. Dos con mayor influencia humana: lago de Pátzcuaro, Mich. y ecosistema lacustre de Xochimilco, D. F y dos con menor: la laguna de Metztitlán, Hgo. y el lago Zirahuén, Mich. Se cuantificaron coliformes totales y coliformes fecales en agua y sedimento por la técnica del Número Más Probable y se aislaron bacterias entéricas del agua mediante el uso de medios de cultivo selectivos. Se evaluaron: el índice de sensibilidad, el riesgo atribuible y la presenciaausencia de indicadores y patógenos. Pátzcuaro y Xochimilco mostraron alta contaminación bacteriana. El sedimento presentó mayor concentración de CT y CF que el agua. Los CF mostraron ser indicadores más confiables para predecir la presencia de Salmonella y Shigella, con una sensibilidad para cada género de 60 y 75% y un riesgo atribuible del 58 y 67%. Los CF mostraron una relación presencia-ausencia con un porcentaje de casos verdaderos del 82 a 88%. En contraste, los CT mostraron un riesgo atribuible bajo (inferior a 27%) y un alto porcentaje de falsos positivos (65%), lo que impidió considerarlo como un buen indicador. Es conveniente evaluar la presencia de indicadores y patógenos simultáneamente para determinar el riesgo sanitario al caracterizar la calidad microbiológica en ecosistemas acuáticos. Abstract in english Microbiological pollution in water bodies is characterized through the detection of indicator organisms like total coliform (TC) and fecal coliform (FC) bacteria. The objective of the present paper was to determine the sensibility of these indicators of the presence of pathogenic enterobacteria in f [...] our Mexican aquatic systems. Two with major anthropogenic influence: Patzcuaro Lake and Xochimilco Lake ecosystem; and two with less: Metztitlan Lagoon and Zirahuen Lake. TC and FC were quantified with the Most Probable Number technique in water and sediment and enteric bacteria were isolated in water using selective culture media. The sensibility index, the risk attributable, and the presenceabsence of indicators and pathogens were evaluated. Patzcuaro and Xochimilco showed high bacterial pollution. The sediment presented higher concentrations of total and fecal coliforms than water. FC were the most reliable indicators to predict the presence of Salmonella and Shigella, with a sensitivity of 60 and 75%, an attributable risk of 58 and 67% for each genus. FC showed a presence-absence relationship with a percentage of true cases of 82 to 88%. In contrast, TC showed a low attributable risk, inferior to 27% and a high percentage of false positives (65%), which impede to consider it a good indicator. It is convenient to evaluate the presence of indicators and pathogens simultaneously to determine the sanitary risk when characterizing microbial water quality in aquatic ecosystems.

  15. Survey of drug and phage resistance and colicin and hemolysin production among coliforms isolated in the Ivory Coast.

    OpenAIRE

    Trudel, L; Arriaga-Alba, M; Lavoie, M. C.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of 178 strains isolated as total and fecal coliforms in the Ivory Coast revealed that (i) hemolytic activity was scarce (0.6%) among this bacterial population; (ii) the most prevalent colicins detected were, in decreasing order, E, I, A, and G; (iii) the frequency of coliphage and drug resistance was similar to that observed in other countries, except for those of drug-resistant strains in animal feces, which were lower than in countries where animals are antibiotic fed; and (iv) one...

  16. Higher levels of total pepsin and bile acids in the saliva as a possible risk factor for early laryngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastroesophageal reflux is suspected to be an etiological factor in laryngeal and pharyngeal cancer. The aim of this study was to establish, using a non-invasive method, whether laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) appears more often in patients with early laryngeal cancer than in a control group. We compared the pH, the level of bile acids, the total pepsin and the pepsin enzymatic activity in saliva in a group of 30 patients with T1 laryngeal carcinoma and a group of 34 healthy volunteers. The groups differed significantly in terms of levels of total pepsin and bile acids in the saliva sample. Higher levels of total pepsin and bile acids were detected in the group of cancer patients. No significant impact of other known factors influencing laryngeal mucosa (e.g. smoking, alcohol consumption, and the presence of irritating substances in the workplace) on the results of saliva analysis was found. A higher level of typical components of LPR in the saliva of patients with early laryngeal cancer than in the controls suggests the possibility that LPR, especially biliary reflux, has a role in the development of laryngeal carcinoma

  17. Two-Level Incremental Checkpoint Recovery Scheme for Reducing System Total Overheads

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Huixian; Pang, Liaojun; Wang, Zhangquan

    2014-01-01

    Long-running applications are often subject to failures. Once failures occur, it will lead to unacceptable system overheads. The checkpoint technology is used to reduce the losses in the event of a failure. For the two-level checkpoint recovery scheme used in the long-running tasks, it is unavoidable for the system to periodically transfer huge memory context to a remote stable storage. Therefore, the overheads of setting checkpoints and the re-computing time become a critical issue which dir...

  18. Comparative study of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) methods for high-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanford tank waste is a complex, nonhomogeneous sludge, slurry, or salt-cake mixture requiring robust methods for analytical characterization. While numerous total organic carbon (TOC) methods are described in the literature, no single TOC method has been found to be ideal for this caustic, high-salt, sometime high-fluoride matrix. Three TOC methods have been in use at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, and one complementary method is in place at Westinghouse Hanford Company. All have been found to have strengths and weaknesses when applied to the Hanford tank waste problem. These TOC methods include silver-catalyzed hot persulfate wet oxidation in batch-mode with coulometry detection, two methods for high-temperature furnace oxidation with coulometry detection, and UV-catalyzed persulfate oxidation with nondispersive infrared detection. To provide comparative data on these four methods, a recovery study of carbon compounds, which are relevant to Hanford tank waste, has been performed. One major conclusion is that it is most useful to have multiple methods available for the analysis of this waste material. The comparative study is discussed, operational experience in TOC analysis from these laboratories is described, and strengths and weaknesses in the methods are summarized

  19. Response of atmospheric ground level temperatures to changes in the total solar irradiance

    CERN Document Server

    Erlykin, Anatoly

    2015-01-01

    The attribution of part of global warming to changes in the total solar irradiance (TSI) is an important topic which is not, yet, fully understood. Here, we examine the TSI induced temperature (T) changes on a variety of time scales, from one day to centuries and beyond, using a variety of assumptions. Also considered is the latitude variation of the T-TSI correlations, where it appears that over most of the globe there is a small increase in the sensitivity of temperature to TSI in time. It is found that the mean global sensitivity (alpha)measured in K(Wm-2)-1 varies from about 0.003 for 1 day, via 0.05 for 11-years to about 0.2 for decades to centuries. We conclude that mean global temperature changes related to TSI are not significant from 1975 onwards. Before 1975, when anthropogenic gases were less important, many of the temperature changes can be attributed to TSI variations. Over much longer periods of time, from Kyear to Myear, the TSI changes are more efficient still, the sensitivity alpha increasing...

  20. Prevalencia de Cyclospora sp., Cryptosporidium sp., microsporidos y determinación de coliformes fecales en frutas y vegetales frescos de consumo crudo en Costa Rica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Melvin, Calvo; Melissa, Carazo; María Laura, Arias; Carolina, Chaves; Rafael, Monge; Misael, Chinchilla.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available La presencia de Cyclospora sp., Cryptosporidium sp., microsporidios y los niveles de coliformes fecales fueron determinados en lechuga, apio, cilantro, fresas y moras adquiridas en ferias del Agricultor del Valle Central de Costa Rica, con el fin de establecer el riesgo de transmisión de estos micro [...] organismos y otros patógenos a partir del consumo de productos crudos. Durante el Segundo semestre del 2001 y primero del 2002, 50 muestras de cada producto fueron evaluadas, 25 durante la estación seca y 25 durante la estación lluviosa y provenientes de cinco diferentes ferias del Agricultor. El recuento de coliformes fecales fue realizado de acuerdo a la técnica recomendada por Vanderzant & Splittstoesser. La determinación de parásitos fue hecha utilizando las tinciones de Ziehl Nielsen y Weber a partir de un sedimento obtenido por el lavado de los productos mencionados, usando agua peptonada estéril 0,1% y centrifugando a 900 G por 15 min. 100% de las muestras de vegetales presentaron coliformes fecales, y la mayor prevalencia fue obtenida durante la estación lluviosa. A pesar de que todos los vegetales presentaron coliformes fecales en altas concentraciones, la lechuga y cilantro presentaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre la estación lluviosa y la seca, siendo mayor durante la estación lluviosa. No se detectó coliformes fecales en fresas y moras probablemente debido a su bajo pH. Todos los productos evaluados presentaron, aunque sea una vez, Cyclospora sp., Cryptosporidium sp. y microsporidios, demostrando el riesgo que representan para la Salud Pública. Cryptosporidium sp. estuvo presente en todos los productos excepto fresas. Los microsporidios fueron aislados de todos los productos excepto moras y Cyclospora sp. únicamente fue aislado de lechuga durante la estación seca. Los resultados demuestran la importancia de introducir en el país las Buenas Prácticas Agrícolas, especialmente debido a la resistencia de Cyclospora sp. y Cryptosporidium sp. a agentes desinfectantes. Abstract in english Prevalence of Cyclospora sp., Cryptosporidium sp, microsporidia and fecal coliform determination in fresh fruit and vegetables consumed in Costa Rica. The presence of Cyclospora sp., Cryptosporidium sp. and microsporidia and the levels of fecal coliforms were determined in lettuce, parsley, cilantro [...] , strawberries and blackberries acquired in local agricultural markets of the Central Valley of Costa Rica, in order to establish the possible transmission risk of these microorganisms and other pathogens from the consumption of these raw products. During the second semester of 2001 and the first of 2002, 50 different samples of each product, 25 taken in the dry season and 25 in the rainy season and coming from five different local agricultural markets were evaluated. The fecal coliforms count was done according to the technique recommended by Vanderzant & Splittstoesser. The parasite determination was done using Zielh Nielsen and Weber staining techniques from a sediment obtained through the rinse of the mentioned products, using sterile peptonated water 0,1% and centrifuging at 900 G for 15 min. One hundred per cent of vegetable samples had fecal coliforms and the greatest prevalence was obtained during the rainy season. Although all vegetables presented fecal coliforms in high concentrations, lettuce and cilantro presented statistical difference between rainy and dry season, being greater during the rainy season. Fecal coliforms were not detected in strawberries and blackberries probablydue to its low pH. All products evaluated presented, at least once, Cryptosporidium sp., Cyclospora sp. and microsporidia, showing the risk they represent to Public Health. Cryptosporidium was present in all products but strawberries. Microsporidia was present in all products except blackberries and Cyclospora was only isolated from lettuce during the dry season. These results show the importance of introducing in the country Good Agricultural Practices, especially due to the resistanc

  1. Total Mercury and Methylmercury Levels in Fish from the Department Madre de Díos, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutleb A.C.

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available Very little is known about environmental contamination in most otter species. In the range of the Giant Otter, Pteronura brasiliensis, gold miners discharge a great deal of methylmercury into the environment, and this is known to biomagnify in the food chain. Assays for methylmercury were carried out on fish collected in the Madre de Dios department of Peru, from near gold mining areas, and also from more than 100km away; additional fish were obtained from fish markets. Results show that significant contamination occurs in fish bigger than the normal prey size of the otters, but at present, there are low levels in prey species - this should be monitored closely in future.

  2. Effects of lysine levels of diets formulated based on total or digestible amino acids on broiler carcass composition

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J, Nasr; F, Kheiri.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate carcass yield and chemical composition of thigh and breast muscles of broilers fed three different lysine requirement levels: high lysine (+10% NRC), standard (NRC) and low lysine (-10% NRC) and two ways of expressing amino acids in feedstuffs (total or digestible [...] amino acids). The results of this study showed that diet formulation based on digestible amino acids significantly influenced breast yield and abdominal fat deposition. The study showed that increasing lysine level (+10% NRC) of diet significantly increased both carcass and breast percentage and also carcass, breast and thigh weight. The interaction between digestible amino acids and lysine requirement levels affected carcass and breast percentage. Feeding broilers high lysine diets (+10% NRC) significantly increased lysine content in breast and thigh. The response to formulation based on digestible amino acids was maximized when broilers received the high lysine level diet.

  3. Effects of lysine levels of diets formulated based on total or digestible amino acids on broiler carcass composition

    OpenAIRE

    Nasr, J.; Kheiri, F.

    2012-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate carcass yield and chemical composition of thigh and breast muscles of broilers fed three different lysine requirement levels: high lysine (+10% NRC), standard (NRC) and low lysine (-10% NRC) and two ways of expressing amino acids in feedstuffs (total or digestible amino acids). The results of this study showed that diet formulation based on digestible amino acids significantly influenced breast yield and abdominal fat deposition. The study showed that incre...

  4. High independence level in functional activities reduces hospital stay after total hip arthroplasty regardless of pain intensity.

    OpenAIRE

    Nazan Tugay; Inci Akarcali; Defne Kaya; Tugay, Baki U.; Bulent Atilla; Tokgozoglu, Ahmet M.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between independence level in functional activities and pain, and length of hospital stay in the early postoperative period in patients with total hip arthroplasty (THA). METHODS The study was performed over 26 end stage hip arthritis patients who were hospitalized in the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Hacettepe University Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, between January 2000 and July 2003 for THA and opera...

  5. Automatic control of the NMB level in general anaesthesia with a switching total system mass control strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Mmr; Mendonca, Tf; Rocha, P.; Rabico, R.

    2013-01-01

    © 2013, Springer Science+Business Media New York. This paper presents a model based switching control strategy to drive the neuromuscular blockade (NMB) level of patients undergoing general anesthesia to a predefined reference. A single-input single-output Wiener system with only two parameters is used to model the effect of two different muscle relaxants, atracurium and rocuronium, and a switching controller is designed based on a bank of total system mass control laws. Each of such laws is...

  6. Total quantum Zeno effect and intelligent states for a two-level system in a squeezed bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we show that, by frequent measurements of adequately chosen observables, a complete suppression of the decay in an exponentially decaying two-level system interacting with a squeezed bath is obtained. The observables for which the effect is observed depend on the squeezing parameters of the bath. The initial states that display total Zeno effect are intelligent states of two conjugate observables associated to the electromagnetic fluctuations of the bath

  7. Spirulina platensis effects on the levels of total cholesterol, HDL and triacylglycerols in rabbits fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet

    OpenAIRE

    Luciane Maria Colla; Ana Luiza Muccillo-Baisch; Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa

    2008-01-01

    In this work, hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits by feeding them a high cholesterol diet (CD, 350 mg/d) and the effects of supplementing this diet with 0.5 g/d Spirulina platensis was evaluated by measuring the levels of serum total-cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TAG) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol) at the start of the experiment and after 30 d and 60 d. It was found that the levels of serum cholesterol decreased from 1,054±101 mg.dL-1 in the rabbits fed a CD with...

  8. Anaerobic incubation of membrane filter cultures for improved detection of fecal coliforms from recreational waters.

    OpenAIRE

    Doyle, J. D.; Tunnicliff, B; Brickler, S K; Kramer, R E; Sinclair, N A

    1984-01-01

    Anaerobic incubation of membrane filter cultures significantly enhanced detection of fecal coliforms in surface-water samples from recreational beaches. In contrast to standard aerobic incubation, anaerobic incubation suppressed overgrowth of masking, noncoliform bacteria but did not increase the frequency of fecal coliform recovery.

  9. Evaluation of tea cups washing water contamination to fecal coliform at traditional tea shops in Sari, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Yousefi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Most traditional tea shop owners use a bowl to wash tea cups in Sari city (North of Iran. There are more than 140 traditional tea shops in the city. Unfortunately most people drinking at these shops as well as health authorities do not pay attention to the health criteria of the shop. The objective of this study was to examin the tea cups washing water of traditional tea shops for contamination to fecal coliform in Sari city.Materials and Methods: Twenty traditional tea shops (16% were randomly selected for this study in different areas of the city. Multistage (3 stages samples were taken from tea set of the shops. All samples were collected from the tea sets of the shops without prior notice. The samples were transferred to the laboratory in cold box as quickly as possible.Results: Forty four samples from a total of 60 (66.6% were positive for total coliforms. Also 32 samples (33.3% were positive for fecal coliforms. Number of bacteria in the samples varied from zero to over 1100 per 100 cc sample. The study showed that in warmer situations the contamination was higher. The results showed that the differences between contamination rates in both groups of internal and external traditional tea shops were insignificant.Conclusion: The results showed that only two samples in multistage sampling were not contaminated and in all other samples at least in one stage of sampling, contamination was detected. The results of this study is an important message for food administration.

  10. RECUENTO DE COLIFORMES Y Escherichia coli EN CANALES BOVINAS SOMETIDAS A TRATAMIENTOS FÍSICOS Y QUÍMICOS / RECOUNT OF COLIFORMS AND Escherichia coli IN CATTLE CARCASSES UNDER PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL TREATMENTS / CONTAGEM DE COLIFORMES E Escherichia coli EM CARCAÇAS DE BOVINOS SOB TRATAMENTOS FÍSICOS E QUÍMICOS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    EDUARDO JAVID, CORPAS-IGUARÁN; JUAN SEBASTIÁN, ARCILA-HENAO.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a contagem de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em carcaças de bovinos submetidos a tratamentos diferentes, os quais incluíam combinações dos métodos de lavagem, desinfecção e vaporização, utilizando um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado dum fator com 3 repetições. A [...] amostragem foi feita por esfregaço de superfície em três áreas diferentes da amostra (costa, peito e anca), que foram posteriormente analisadas pelo método de contagem em placa. Ao aplicar seqüencialmente os métodos de remoção microbiana foi observada uma redução progressiva na contagem de coliformes totais e E. coli, e na variabilidade dos dados, principalmente nos tratamentos C, D e E. O teste de contrastes múltiplos de Friedman, mostrou a ausência de diferenças estatísticas entre as contagens dos tratamentos C e E na amostra 2, indicando a ineficácia da vaporização como um adjuvante da acidificação para diminuir a contagem dos microrganismos de estudo. Os testes de comparação em amostras independentes mostraram resultados idênticos aos do teste de Friedman, salvo para a enumeração de E. coli entre os tratamentos D e E, sugerindo que a vaporização tem efeito significativo para reforçar a diminuição do número de microrganismos nas carcaças. Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el recuento de coliformes totales y Escherichia coli en canales bovinas sometidas a diferentes tratamientos que incluyeron combinaciones de los métodos de lavado, desinfección y vaporización, utilizando el diseño completamente aleatorizado de un factor con 3 repeticiones. El muestreo se re [...] alizó mediante frotis de superficie en tres áreas diferentes de la muestra (espalda, pecho y anca), que fueron posteriormente analizadas mediante el método de recuento en placa. Al aplicar secuencialmente los métodos de remoción microbiana se apreció la disminución progresiva en el recuento de coliformes totales y E. coli, y en la variabilidad de los datos, principalmente en los tratamientos C, D y E. La prueba de contrastes múltiples de Friedman mostró la inexistencia de diferencias estadísticas entre los recuentos de los tratamientos C y E en la muestra 2, indicando la ineficacia de la vaporización como coadyuvante de la acidificación para disminuir el recuento de los microorganismos de estudio. Las pruebas de comparación en muestras independientes mostraron resultados idénticos a la prueba de Friedman, excepto para el recuento de E. coli entre los tratamientos D y E, sugiriendo que la vaporización tiene efecto significativo para potenciar la disminución del recuento del microorganismo en las canales. Abstract in english We evaluated the recount of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in cattle carcasses submitted to different treatments which included combinations of the methods of washing, disinfecting and vaporizing, using the completely randomized design of a factor with 3 replications. Sampling was carried out [...] by swab surface in three different areas of the simple. (back, chest and rump), which were subsequently analyzed by the plate count method. When applying sequentially microbial removal methods, was observed the progressive decrease in total coliform counts and E. coli, and variability of the data, mainly in treatments C, D y E. Multiple contrasts proof of Friedman revealed the no statistical differences between counts of the treatments C and E in the sample 2, indicating the inefficacy of vaporization as coadjuvant of the acidification to decrease counting of the microorganisms of study. Comparison tests on independent samples showed identical results to the Friedman test, except for counting of E. coli between treatments D y E, suggesting that vaporization has significant effect to enhance the diminution of count of microorganisms on carcasses.

  11. Assessment of serum selenium levels in 2-month-old sucking calves using total reflection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of selenium status of livestock is an important aspect of production medicine as evidence for the influence of low Se levels on disease resistance in ruminants is reviewed with emphasis on susceptibility to various pathologies (such as infections, exudative diathesis, pneumonia, pancreatic degeneration). Additional evidence suggests that Se deficiency may cause muscular dystrophy in calves, while, severe deficiency has been associated with cardiomyopathy and even death. Serum Se content is a good indicator of the short term Se status and reflects the recent dietary intake of the element. Since serum Se content is a good indicator of the short term status of the element and reflects the its recent dietary intake, the present work is aimed to determine Se concentration in serum from a group of 2 months old sucking calves suspected to be severely deficient. We used the TX 2000 X-ray spectrometer manufactured by Ital Structures. The energy resolution (FWHM) of the Si(Li) detector was 137 eV for Mn K?. Among nuclear techniques the TXRF method is the best suitable for trace element analysis in liquid or dissolved samples and can deal much easier with elemental investigation. Physical basis of used analytical method, experimental set up and the sample preparation procedure are described. The concentration data obtained are presented and discussed. (author)

  12. High level radioactive waste repository total system performance uncertainty and sensitivity analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A probabilistic performance assessment (PA) is one of the key tools that will be used to assess the acceptability of the proposed repository for high-level radioactive waste (HLW) in Japan. We present tool that demonstrate the impact of this uncertainty on the PA using Monte Carlo sampling approach for the system Performance. PA for Geological repositories are based on conceptual models of physical processes imposed in computer codes and parameters derived from field and laboratory data or from expert elicitation. Because of the variabilities and sparsity of measured data and the underlying uncertainty involved with modeling physical processes for many thousands of years, the results of any PA are uncertain. The code provides information delineating which input parameters most affect the model results and give a better understanding of the parameters that have the most influence on the model results, which can be used to improve the code. We applied this tool to the radionuclide migration through different barriers of the repository and heat transport processes. For carrying out the analysis we need a sampling space not less than 500 to ensure the analysis stability. (author)

  13. Modeling fecal coliform contamination in a tidal Danshuei River estuarine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Cheng; Chan, Wen-Ting; Young, Chih-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional fecal coliform transport model was developed and incorporated into a hydrodynamic model to obtain a better understanding of local microbiological water quality in the tidal Danshuei River estuarine system of northern Taiwan. The model was firstly validated with the salinity and fecal coliform data measured in 2010. The concentration comparison showed quantitatively good agreement between the simulation and measurement results. Further, the model was applied to investigate the effects of upstream freshwater discharge variation and fecal coliform loading reduction on the contamination distributions in the tidal estuarine system. The qualitative and quantitative analyses clearly revealed that low freshwater discharge resulted in higher fecal coliform concentration. The fecal coliform loading reduction considerably decreased the contamination along the Danshuei River-Tahan Stream, the Hsintien Stream, and the Keelung River. PMID:25302451

  14. UREA LEVEL IN COWS’ MILK FED ON TOTAL MIXED RATION (TMR AND TRADITIONAL SYSTEM IN SUMMER AND WINTER SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa JANU?

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available In the research urea content in milk and frequency of the occurrence of samples with different urea level in milk of cows fed on total mixed ration (TMR and traditional system in summer and winter season were analyzed. Analysis covered 14272 of milk samples. On account of urea level they were divided on three groups: to 140, 141-250 and above 250 mg of urea in 1 liter of milk. It was found that average urea content in milk of cows fed on total mixed rations (TMR amounted to 196 mg.l-1. Milk of cows from farm applying traditional feeding system included 184 mg.l-1 of that constituent average. Both these values therefore could have been recognized as optimal. Urea level pointed out to the energy-protein unbalancing of feed rations in 55.6% (TMR and 57.7% (traditional of milk samples. Urea level in milk of cows fed in traditional system was at p?0.01 higher (196 mg.l-1 in summer than in winter season (166 mg.l-1. In winter feeding season the frequency of the occurrence of milk samples indicating the lack of protein in feed rations (to 140 mg of urea in 1 liter was 11.9% higher than in summer season.

  15. Detección de Salmonella y coliformes fecales en agua de uso agrícola para la producción de melón "Cantaloupe" / Detection of Salmonella and fecal coliforms in water for agricultural use destined to melon"Cantaloupe"

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carmela, Hernández-Domínguez; Ana María, Hernández-Anguiano; Cristóbal, Cháidez-Quiroz; Gilberto, Rendón-Sánchez; Trevor, Suslow.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available El agua que se utiliza en la producción de cultivos hortofrutícolas representa una fuente potencial de microorganismos que ocasionan enfermedades de transmisión alimentaria. Con el objetivo de evaluar la calidad sanitaria de diferentes fuentes de agua empleadas en la producción de melón Cantaloupe ( [...] Cucumis melo L. [grupo reticulatus] cv. Ovación y Caminos), en Zirándaro de los Chávez, Guerrero, se analizaron 71 muestras de agua provenientes de dos unidades de campo (23) y de una unidad de empaque (48) mediante métodos bacteriológicos convencionales para la detección deSalmonella spp, y por el método de filtración en membrana y el crecimiento en medios selectivos, para la detección de coliformes fecales, como indicadores de contaminación fecal. Del total de muestras de agua analizadas sólo tres muestras de campo resultaron positivas a la presencia de Salmonella spp. y nueve muestras, siete de campo y dos de la unidad de empaque, resultaron positivas a coliformes fecales. Salmonella spp. y coliformes fecales se detectaron principalmente en muestras de agua no clorada a 29 °C y 7.5 de pH, en promedio. En pruebas de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR), dos de cuatro cepas presuntivas de Salmonella ssp. dieron amplificaciones positivas con los iniciadores Sal-3 y Sal-4, y invA-1 e invA-2; de las otras dos, sólo dieron amplificación positiva con Sal-3 y Sal-4. Aparentemente se tiene más de una raza o serovar de Salmonella en la región. Estos resultados sugieren que algunas de las fuentes de agua empleadas en la producción de melón Cantaloupe en Zirándaro de los Chávez, Guerrero, no cumplen con la normatividad sanitaria por lo que estas fuentes deben establecerse como puntos prerequisitos de control para evitar la contaminación de melones frescos con patógenos de humanos. Abstract in english Water used in the production of horticultural crops represents a potential source of microorganisms that cause food-transmitted diseases. In order to evaluate the sanitary quality of different agricultural water sources used in the production of Cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melo L. [group reticulatus] [...] cv. Ovacion and Caminos), in Zirandaro Chavez, Guerrero, 71 water samples were analyzed from two field units (23) and one packaging house unit (48) through traditional bacteriological methods, to detect Salmonella spp, and the filtering membrane method and growth selective media, to detect fecal coliforms, as fecal contamination indicators. Of the total analyzed water samples only three field samples were positive to Salmonella spp. and nine samples, seven coming from the field and two from the packaging house, were positive to fecal coliforms. Salmonella spp. and fecal coliforms were detected mainly in non-chlorinated water samples at 29 °C and pH of 7.5, on average. Two out of four presumptive Salmonella spp. isolates were confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers Sal-3 and Sal-4, and invA-1 and invA-2; the other two were only confirmed with Sal-3 y Sal-4. Apparently more than one race or serovar of Salmonella spp. are present in this region. Results suggest that some water sources used in the Cantaloupe melon production in Zirandaro Chavez, Guerrero, do not meet sanitary standards therefore these sources should be considered as critical control points to prevent fresh melon contamination with human pathogens.

  16. Two-level total disc replacement with Mobi-C® over 3-years / Artroplastía total de disco con Mobi-C® después de tres años / Artroplastia total de disco com Mobi-C® depois de três anos

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Reginald, Davis; Pierce Dalton, Nunley; Kee, Kim; Michael, Hisey; Hyun, Bae; Gregory, Hoffman; Steven, Gaede.

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar a segurança e a eficácia da artroplastia total de disco (ATD) em dois níveis, usando o disco cervical artificial Mobi-C® aos 36 meses de acompanhamento. Métodos: Realizou-se estudo clínico prospectivo, randomizado, controlado e multicêntrico de disco cervical artificial (Mobi-C® re [...] gido pelas regulamentações de Investigational Device Exemptions (IDE, isenção do dispositivo em investigação) e da Food & Drug Administration (FDA) dos Estados Unidos. Um total de 339 pacientes com doença degenerativa de disco foi inscrito para receber tratamento com ATD em dois níveis ou discectomia cervical anterior e fusão em dois níveis (DCAF) que constituíram o grupo controle. Os 234 pacientes tratados com ATD e os 105 tratados com DCAF tiveram acompanhamento em pontos do tempo regulares durante três anos após a cirurgia. Resultados: Aos 36 meses, ambos os grupos apresentaram melhora das medidas de desfecho clínico e perfil de segurança comparável. Os escores NDI, SF-12 e PCS, a satisfação dos pacientes e o êxito geral indicaram melhora com maior significância estatística desde o início do estudo no grupo ATD, em comparação com o grupo DCAF. Os pacientes do grupo ATD tiveram percentuais menores de cirurgia subsequente e taxas inferiores de degeneração do segmento adjacente. Em média, os pacientes do grupo ATD mantiveram a amplitude de movimento segmentar nos 36 meses, sem falhas do dispositivo. Conclusão: Os resultados aos três anos corroboram que a ATD é uma alternativa segura, eficaz e estatisticamente superior à DCAF no tratamento de doenças degenerativas de disco em dois níveis cervicais contíguos. Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Evaluar la seguridad y la eficacia de la artroplastía total de disco (ATD) en dos niveles, usando el disco cervical artificial Mobi-C® a los 36 meses de acompañamiento. Métodos: Se realizó estudio clínico prospectivo, aleatorio, controlado y multicéntrico de disco cervical artificial (Mobi [...] -C®) regido por las reglamentaciones de Investigational Device Exemptions (IDE, exención del dispositivo en investigación) y de la Food & Drug Administration (FDA) de los Estados Unidos. Un total de 339 pacientes con enfermedad degenerativa de disco fue inscripto para recibir tratamiento con ATD en dos niveles o discectomía cervical anterior y fusión en dos niveles (DCAF) que constituyeron el grupo control. Los 234 pacientes tratados con ATD y los 105 tratados con DCAF tuvieron acompañamiento en puntos de tiempo regulares durante tres años después de la cirugía. Resultados: A los 36 meses, ambos grupos presentaron mejora de las medidas de resultado clínico y perfil de seguridad comparable. Los registros NDI, SF-12 y PCS, la satisfacción de los pacientes y el éxito general indicaron mejora con mayor significado estadístico desde el inicio del estudio en el grupo ATD, en comparación con el grupo DCAF. Los pacientes del grupo ATD tuvieron porcentuales menores de cirugía subsiguiente y tasas inferiores de degeneración del segmento adyacente. Como promedio, los pacientes del grupo ATD mantuvieron la amplitud de movimiento segmentar en los 36 meses, sin fallas del dispositivo. Conclusión: Los resultados a los tres años corroboran que la ATD es una alternativa segura, eficaz y estadísticamente superior a DCAF en el tratamiento de enfermedades degenerativas de disco en dos niveles cervicales contiguos. Abstract in english Objective: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of two-level total disc replacement (TDR) using a Mobi-C® Cervical Artificial Disc at the 36 month follow-up. Methods: a Prospective, randomized, controlled, multicenter clinical trial of an artificial cervical disc (Mobi-C® Cervical Artificial Dis [...] c) was conducted under the Investigational Device Exemptions (IDE) and the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) regulations. A total of 339 patients with degenerative disc disease were enrolled to receive either two-level treatment with TDR, or a two-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion

  17. No effect of oral l-tryptophan or alpha-lactalbumin on total tryptophan levels in breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowlati, Yekta; Ravindran, Arun V; Maheux, Maxim; Steiner, Meir; Stewart, Donna E; Meyer, Jeffrey H

    2015-06-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is the most common complication of childbearing with a 13% prevalence rate. Sleep disturbances are also common, particularly during early postpartum. In theory, l-tryptophan could improve sleep and reduce depressed mood in early postpartum; however, the first step in clinical development of tryptophan for use in postpartum is to measure the effect of oral l-tryptophan on its concentrations in breast milk, which is presently unknown. The aims were to investigate the effect of oral l-tryptophan and alpha-lactalbumin, a protein with high tryptophan concentration, on total and free tryptophan levels in breast milk and plasma, and to compare free tryptophan levels in breast milk with those in common infant formulas. Thirty healthy breastfeeding women were randomly allocated to receive 2g or 4g of l-tryptophan, or, 20g or 40g of alpha-lactalbumin or no supplement. Free tryptophan levels were also measured in 12 different infant formulas. Total tryptophan in breast milk was unaffected by oral administration of l-tryptophan or alpha-lactalbumin (repeated measures of ANOVA (rANOVA), group effect: p=0.93). Both l-tryptophan and alpha-lactalbumin were associated with greater free tryptophan levels in breast milk (rANOVA, group effect: pIn contrast to most sleep inducing medications, l-tryptophan does not affect its total concentration in breast milk. These results support further investigation of dietary l-tryptophan and alpha-lactalbumin as part of a dietary supplementation approach to address sleep disturbances in postpartum and reduce risk of PPD. PMID:25823693

  18. Evaluación de tres métodos para la inactivación de coliformes y Escherichia coli presentes en agua residual doméstica, empleada para riego / Evaluation of three methods for the inactivation of coliforms and Escherichia coli present in domestic wastewaters used in irrigation / Avaliação de três métodos para a inativação de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli presentes em águas residuais domésticas utilizadas para a irrigação

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Naydú, Rojas-Higuera; Andrea, Sánchez-Garibello; Adriana, Matiz-Villamil; Juan Carlos, Salcedo-Reyes; Ana Karina, Carrascal-Camacho; Aura M, Pedroza-Rodríguez.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Avaliar três tratamentos (lagoas, fotocatálise com TiO2 e desinfecção química) para inativação de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli presentes em águas residuais domésticas utilizadas na irrigação dos cultivos. Materiais e métodos. O efluente foi caracterizado por analises físicos, quími [...] cos e microbiológicos. Posteriormente foi submetido a tratamento de lagoas facultativas (TLF), pós-tratamento fotocatalítico (PTF TiO2/UV) e pós-tratamento químico (PTQ NaClO). Avaliando a capacidade desinfetante de cada um para inativar coliformes totais e E. coli. Posteriormente, foram processados três novos lotes de águas residuais para testar a irrigação em escala de laboratório por 30 dias, utilizando-se como modelo plantas de Lactuca sativa variedade Batavia e avaliando a concentração inicial e final dos dois grupos. Resultados. O PTFTiO2/UV foi significativamente maior a TLFLF e PTQ NaClO (p Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Evaluar tres tratamientos (lagunaje, fotocatálisis con TiO2 y desinfección química) para la inactivación de coliformes totales y Escherichia coli presentes en agua residual doméstica empleada para riego agrícola. Materiales y métodos. El agua residual fue caracterizada por medio de análisi [...] s físicos, químicos y microbiológicos. Posteriormente fue sometida a un tratamiento de lagunaje facultativo (TLF), pos tratamiento fotocatalítico (PTFTiO2/UV) y pos tratamiento químico (PTQ NaClO). Valorando la capacidad desinfectante de cada uno de ellos para inactivar coliformes totales y E. coli. A continuación se procesaron tres nuevos lotes de agua residual y se utilizaron para realizar pruebas de riego a escala de laboratorio por 30 días, empleando como modelo plantas de Lactuca sativa variedad Batavia y evaluando la concentración inicial y final de los dos grupos. Resultados. El PTFTiO2/UV fue significativamente superior que TLFLF y el PTQ NaClO (p Abstract in english Objective. To evaluate three treatments (facultative stabilization ponds, heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO2 and chemical disinfection with sodium hypochlorite) for the inactivation of coliforms and Escherichia coli presen in domestic wastewaters used in agricultural irrigation. Materials and me [...] thods. Wastewater was characterized by physical, chemical and microbiological analyses and was then exposed to a facultative pond treatment (FPT), post-photocatalytic treatment (PTFTiO2/UV) and post-chemical treatment (PTQNaClO) to assess the disinfecting capacity of each method in the inactivation of total coliforms and E. coli. Three new samples of wastewater were processed and used in irrigation tests on a laboratory-scale basis for 30 days, using Lactuca sativa cultivar. Batavia as a model plant and evaluating the initial and final concentrations of the two groups. Results. PTFTiO2/UV was significantly higher than FPT and PTQNaClO (p

  19. A transient increase in total head phosphotyrosine levels is observed upon the emergence of Aedes aegypti from the pupal stage

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Willy, Jablonka; Raquel, Senna; Thaisa, Nahu; Guilherme, Ventura; Lidiane, Menezes; Mário Alberto C, Silva-Neto.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of protein tyrosine residues constitutes a major biochemical regulatory mechanism for the cell. We report a transient increase in the total tyrosine phosphorylation of the Aedes aegypti head during the first days after emergence from the pupal stage. This correl [...] ates with an initial reduction in total head protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity. Similarly, phosphotyrosine (pTyr)-containing bands are seen in extracts prepared from both male and female heads and are spread among a variety of structures including the antennae, proboscis and the maxillary palps combined with the proboscis. Also, mosquitoes treated with sodium orthovanadate, a classical PTP inhibitor, show reduced blood-feeding activity and higher head tyrosine phosphorylation levels. These results suggest that pTyr-mediated signalling pathways may play a role in the initial days following the emergence of the adult mosquito from the pupal stage.

  20. Total digestible nutrient levels in supplements for finishing steers in the rainy season: nutritional characteristics and microbial efficiency

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jefferson Fabiano Werner, Koscheck; Joanis Tilemahos, Zervoudakis; Luciana Keiko, Hatamoto Zervoudakis; Luciano da Silva, Cabral; André Alves de, Oliveira; João Marcos Beltrame, Benatti; Daniel Marino Guedes de, Carvalho; Renata Pereira da, Silva.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of total digestible nutrient (TDN) levels in supplements on rumen pH, ruminal ammonia nitrogen concentration, intake and digestibility, nitrogen balance and microbial efficiency in beef cattle grazing on Marandu grass during the rainy season. T [...] he supplements comprised a mineral mixture, ground corn grain, soybean hulls, roasted soybeans and urea:ammonium sulfate. The mineral mix (MM) and supplements were supplied at 800, 1,600 and 2,400 g/animal/day, contained 500, 1,000 and 1,500 g of TDN, respectively, and were termed S500, S1000 and S1500. Supplemental crude protein (CP) was fixed at 300g animal/day for all supplementing strategies. Four crossbred rumen-fistulated steers, with an average weight of 512kg, were utilized. The animals were distributed in a 4×4 Latin square in four paddocks of 0.25 ha. The rumen nitrogen concentration was increased by 63% after four hours of supplementation. Supplements with increased TDN levels did not alter the total dry matter and forage intakes, although the TDN levels linearly increased the non-fibrous carbohydrates intake. Additionally, most supplements did not alter the digestibility of the diet nutrients.The nitrogen balance was similar in all treatments. However, supplements with the highest TDN levels linearly improved the microbial efficiency of finishing beef cattle that were pasture-grazed during the rainy season. Supplements with in creasing TDN levels improve the microbial efficiency during the rainy season.

  1. Occurrence of fecal coliform bacteria in selected streams in Wyoming, 1990-99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melanie L.; Norris, Jodi R.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (WDEQ), is collecting water samples for analysis of fecal coliform bacteria at 18 stream sites as part of a statewide network. Contamination by bacteria of fecal origin in streams where contact recreation is a designated water use is a concern because of potential public-health risk from the presence of enteric pathogens. Fecal coliform concentrations are temporally and spatially variable in Wyoming streams-concentrations ranged from less than 1 to 45,000 colonies per 100 milliliters of water during 1990-99. Fecal coliform concentrations were less than the water-quality criterion of 400 colonies per 100 milliliters in 83 percent of the samples, indicating fecal coliform contamination is not a widespread problem in these Wyoming streams. However, 14 of the 18 monitoring sites had at least one sample in which the fecal coliform concentration exceeded 400 colonies per 100 milliliters at some time during the 10-year period. Fecal coliform concentrations generally are higher during April through September than during October through March. The higher concentrations coincide with the time period when the public-health risk is higher because summer months are when contact recreation use is more likely occurring. Fecal coliform concentrations were positively correlated with discharge and stream temperature and generally were negatively correlated with pH, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen.

  2. Total testosterone levels are often more than three times elevated in patients with androgen-secreting tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Altinok, Magda L

    2015-01-01

    Hirsutism is present in up to 25% reproductive aged women and is most often caused by polycystic ovary syndrome. Less than 5% of patients with hirsutism are diagnosed with rare endocrine diseases including ovarian or adrenal androgen-producing tumours, but these tumours may be malignant and need surgery. Terminal hair growth on lip and chin gradually increases after menopause, which complicates distinction from normal physiological variation. Precise testosterone assays have just recently become available in the daily clinic. We present three women diagnosed with testosterone-producing tumours. Gold standard techniques were used to measure testosterone levels. All tumours originated from the ovaries. Based on the present cases and the existing literature, we suggest that androgen-producing tumours should be suspected in patients with rapid progression of hyperandrogen symptoms, particularly when total testosterone levels are above three times the upper reference limit.

  3. Application of annular centrifugal contactors in the hot test of the improved total partitioning process for high level liquid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Wuhua; Chen, Jing; Wang, Jianchen; Wang, Shuwei; Feng, Xiaogui; Wang, Xinghai; Li, Shaowei; Xu, Chao

    2014-08-15

    High level liquid waste (HLLW) produced from the reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel still contains moderate amounts of uranium, transuranium (TRU) actinides, (90)Sr, (137)Cs, etc., and thus constitutes a permanent hazard to the environment. The partitioning and transmutation (P&T) strategy has increasingly attracted interest for the safe treatment and disposal of HLLW, in which the partitioning of HLLW is one of the critical technical issues. An improved total partitioning process, including a TRPO (tri-alkylphosphine oxide) process for the removal of actinides, a CESE (crown ether strontium extraction) process for the removal of Sr, and a CECE (calixcrown ether cesium extraction) process for the removal of Cs, has been developed to treat Chinese HLLW. A 160-hour hot test of the improved total partitioning process was carried out using 72-stage 10-mm-dia annular centrifugal contactors (ACCs) and genuine HLLW. The hot test results showed that the average DFs of total ? activity, Sr and Cs were 3.57 × 10(3), 2.25 × 10(4) and 1.68 × 10(4) after the hot test reached equilibrium, respectively. During the hot test, 72-stage 10-mm-dia ACCs worked stable, continuously with no stage failing or interruption of the operation. PMID:25016455

  4. Antibiotic resistance and R-factors in the fecal coliform flora of urban and rural dogs.

    OpenAIRE

    Monaghan, C; Tierney, U; Colleran, E.

    1981-01-01

    The incidence of antibiotic-resistant fecal coliforms in the rectal flora of 106 healthy dogs in the Galway area was investigated. As far as could be determined, none of the dogs had received antimicrobial drugs. Half of the dogs sampled were from homes within the city boundaries, whereas the remainder were from farms within a 40-mile (24.8-km) radius of the city. Of the dogs sampled, 47 had a highly susceptible fecal coliform flora, with less than 1% of the coliform population resistant to a...

  5. Concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria in creeks, Anchorage, Alaska, August and September 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorava, Joseph M.; Love, Andra

    1999-01-01

    Water samples were collected from five creeks in undeveloped, semi-developed, and developed areas of Anchorage, Alaska, during August and September 1998 to determine concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria. In undeveloped areas of Ship, Chester, and Campbell Creeks, and the semi-developed area of Rabbit Creek, concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria ranged from less than 1 to 16 colonies per 100 milliliters of water. In the semi-developed area of Little Rabbit Creek, concentrations ranged from 30 to 860 colonies per 100 milliliters of water. In developed areas of the creeks, concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria ranged from 6 to 80 colonies per 100 milliliters of water.

  6. Serum total homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) levels in acute myocardial infarction and their response to treatment with vitamins serum total homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) levels in acute myocardial infarction and their response to treatment with vitamins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To assess the relationship of serum total homocysteine (tHcy) and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels with systemic hypertension, Diabetes mellitus and smoking as risk factors in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and changes in the former levels with vitamins supplementation. Study Design: An interventional study. Place and Duration of Study: Medical College for Women and Hospital (MCW and H), Dhaka, Bangladesh, from July 2008 to December 2009. Methodology: Consecutive AMI patients were recruited from the Coronary Care Unit (CCU) at MCW and H, Dhaka. Blood samples were collected at inclusion (Patient-I0). They were given conventional treatments and prescribed vitamins (vitamins B6=25 mg, B12=2 mg and folic acid=2.5 mg) daily for 2 months. After follow-up, blood samples were taken again (Patient-II0). A group of 25 normal subjects were also included as controls. Serum tHcy and Lp(a) were measured by kinetic method and nephelometric method respectively. Results: Serum tHcy (macor mol/L) and Lp(a) (mg/dl) levels were elevated in Patient-I that reduced in Patient-II after vitamins supplementation, but not to the normal control level. tHcy of Patient-I0 was 25.1 +- 4.7 macro mol/L, of Patient-II0 was 20.1 +- 4.5 mu mol/L and of controls 12.1 +- 3.3, p 0ent of the traditional risk factors (p > 0.1). However, in a significant proportion of patients tHcy and Lp(a) levels were reduced to control levels (tHcy: p < 0.001, Lp(a): p < 0.01). Conclusion: These results indicated that tHcy and Lp(a) levels were possibly atherogenic risk factors independent of conventional risk factors. Since both tHcy and Lp(a) levels responded in a similar fashion, a common point of the metabolic and pathogenetic pathways of tHcy and Lp(a) may be influenced by the vitamins supplementation. (author)

  7. Modeling coliform-bacteria concentrations and pH in the salt-wedge reach of the Duwamish River Estuary, King County, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haushild, W.L.; Prych, Edmund A.

    1976-01-01

    Total- and fecal-coliform bacteria, plus pH, alkalinity, and dissolved inorganic carbon are water-quality parameters that have been added to an existing numerical model of water quality in the salt-wedge reach of the Duwamish River estuary in Washington. The coliform bacteria are modeled using a first-order decay (death) rate, which is a function of the local salinity, temperature, and daily solar radiation. The pH is computed by solving a set of chemical-equilibrium equations for carbonate-bicarbonate buffered aqueous solutions. Concentrations of total- and fecal-coliform bacteria computed by the model for the Duwamish River estuary during June-September 1971 generally agreed with observed concentrations within about 40 and 60 percent, respectively. The computed pH generally agreed with observed pH within about a 0.2 pH unit; however, for one 3-week period the computed pH was about a 0.4 unit lower than the observed pH. (Woodard-USGS)

  8. Spirulina platensis effects on the levels of total cholesterol, HDL and triacylglycerols in rabbits fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luciane Maria, Colla; Ana Luiza, Muccillo-Baisch; Jorge Alberto Vieira, Costa.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A microalga Spirulina é cultivada e comercializada no mundo devido a suas características nutricionais (elevada concentração de proteínas, em torno de 65%, vitaminas e sais minerais) e ao seu potencial terapêutico no tratamento de inúmeras doenças, inclusive a hipercolesterolemia. Neste trabalho foi [...] avaliada a inibição da hipercolesterolemia induzida em coelhos por uma dieta adicionada de colesterol (350 mg.d-1), pela suplementação de 0,5 g.dia-1 de biomassa de Spirulina platensis, sendo avaliados os níveis de colesterol total, triglicerídeos e HDL nos tempos de 0 d, 30 d e 60 d de tratamento. Os resultados indicaram que a adição de Spirulina platensis na dieta ocasionou decréscimo nos níveis de colesterol total de 1054±101 mg.dL-1 para 516±163 mg.dL-1 (p Abstract in english In this work, hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits by feeding them a high cholesterol diet (CD, 350 mg/d) and the effects of supplementing this diet with 0.5 g/d Spirulina platensis was evaluated by measuring the levels of serum total-cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TAG) and high-density [...] lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol) at the start of the experiment and after 30 d and 60 d. It was found that the levels of serum cholesterol decreased from 1,054±101 mg.dL-1 in the rabbits fed a CD without S. platensis to 516±163 mg.dL-1 to those fed with a high cholesterol diet supplemented with S. platensis (significant at p

  9. The Effect of Eccentric Exercise on Total Anti-Oxidant Capacity, Reduced Glutathione and Malondialdehyde Levels in Active Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekineh Norouziyan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although exercise can increase free radicals by generating oxidative stress, it also can decrease them by increasing the antioxidant enzymes in the body as well. The purpose of this study is to investigate the eccentric activity on some oxidative and anti-oxidative factors pertaining to blood plasma of PE women immediately after the exercise. Materials and Methods: Sixteen female students have been volunteered in this study randomly divided into two groups including eccentric training group and control group. The blood samples were drawn from the subjects one hour before and immediately after the exercise to measure the reduced Glutathione (GSH, Malondialdehyde (MDA and total anti-oxidant capacity (TAC levels. The data were analyzed by SPSS-13 software using the one-way analysis of variance, one-way ANOVA test, (to determine the differences between groups at the confidence level of 90% (p<0.05. Results: The results has shown that the TAC, MDA, GSH levels after the eccentric exercise increased significantly compared to pre-exercise (p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.033. The GSH and MDA levels also after the eccentric exercise were significantly higher than the pre-exercise compared to control group. Conclusion: It seems that sever eccentric exercise is an important stimulus making significant changes in body’s anti-oxidative system and has the ability to improve the anti-oxidant capacities too.

  10. Correlation of salivary and serum IgG, IgA levels with total protein in oral submucous fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patidar, Kalpana A; Parwani, Rajkumar N; Wanjari, Sangeeta Panjab

    2011-03-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a disabling, potentially malignant condition of the oral cavity. The aetiology of OSMF is multifactorial but remains obscure. Although arecanut is considered to be the most important causative agent, responses observed in individuals using arecanut vary in relation to quantity and duration. It is considered that an immunological process is responsible for the pathogenesis of disease. We correlated salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA), salivary immunoglobulin G (IgG) and serum immunoglobulin A (IgA), serum immunoglobulin G (IgG), levels by turbidometric immunoassay. We estimated the levels of total serum protein (TSP) and haemoglobin (Hb) to determine the role of nutritional deficiency. The study population comprised 30 cases of OSMF and 10 controls. Five milliliters of blood and 2 ml of saliva were collected. Quantitative analysis of serum and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hb were estimated by Biuret and cyanmethaemoglobin methods, respectively. All patients showed significant (P < 0.01) increase in serum and salivary IgG, IgA levels as compared to controls. TSP patients showed significant (P < 0.01) decrease as compared to controls. Results of Hb in patients were not significant. The estimation of immunoglobulin levels is important to support the concept of autoimmune basis. Estimation of TSP and Hb suggests that nutrition has a definite role in OSMF. PMID:21467820

  11. The Effect of Laetiporus sp. (Bull. ex Fr. Bond. et Sing. (Polyporaceae Extract on Total Blood Cholesterol Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afifah Bambang Sutjiatmo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on the effect of a local medicinal mushroom, Laetiporus sp. (Polyporaceae extract on total blood cholesterol level has been conducted using Wistar rats with high cholesterol feed and prophylthiouracil (PTU as hypercholesterolemia inducing agent. The study was aimed to evaluate the inhibition and reduction effect of the dried (hot water extract of grain grown mycelia on hypercholesterolemia of the rat model. The rats were randomly classified into tested group and control group, each group consists of six rats. After a preliminary study, two doses level of the extract, i.e., 55 and 110 mg kg-1 b.wt. were tested, respectively. Commercial lovastatin tablet at a dose of 1.8 mg kg-1 b.wt. was also incorporated in the test as reference medicine. Total blood cholesterol level was observed once a week over 4 weeks. The trial was also conducted on human by involving 19 volunteers. They were asked to consume one Laetiporus sp. capsule per day after meal before going to bed over 30 days. The fungal extract at dose 55 mg kg-1 b.wt. could inhibit the blood cholesterol level by an average of 11.0% and dose 110 mg kg-1 b.wt. could inhibit by an average of 19.0% compared to commercial lovastatin at dose 1.8 mg kg-1 b.wt. which could inhibit at an average of 14.6% over 4 weeks. On the other hand, dose 110 mg kg-1 b.wt. could reduce blood cholesterol level by an average of 11.4%, compared to commercial lovastatin tablet which could reduce by an average of 5.5% over 4 weeks. In addition, blood cholesterol level was found to be reduced in 14 out of 19 (73.6% of human volunteers while 5 out of 19 (26.4% were increased. It is concluded that the mycelial extract of Laetiporus sp. is potential to be used as an anti hypercholesterolemia agent.

  12. Observation of total VEGF level in hyperglycemic mouse eyes after intravitreal injection of the novel anti-VEGF drug conbercept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Liping; Peng, Hui; Wu, Quan; Zhu, Meidong; Luo, Delun; Ke, Xiao; Yang, Peizeng

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Conbercept (KH902), a novel recombinant, soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor–IgG fusion protein, has been developed as a new drug for ocular neovascularization and macular edema. The present study aims to clarify the changes in conbercept levels, VEGF, and intraocular pressure (IOP) after the intravitreal injection of conbercept into diabetic mouse eyes. Methods Five-week-old C57BL/6 mice were injected with streptozotocin to induce diabetes. Total VEGF and conbercept levels in the eyes were detected using an ELISA kit at ?2 h, 1 h, 1 d, 4 d, 8 d, 16 d, 28 d, and 34 d after intravitreal injection of conbercept into diabetic and control mice. IOP was measured with a noninvasive TonoLab tonometer 7 d after intravitreal conbercept injection. Results The concentration of conbercept in the treated eyes increased immediately after injection and remained at high levels for 4 d (29.77±27.19 ng/ml, 20.28±28.85 ng/ml, and 42.43±36.51 ng/ml for days 1, 2, and 4, respectively). The concentration of conbercept in the untreated fellow eyes increased from day 2 to day 4 after injection with a level of about 1% of that in the injected eyes. Conbercept concentrations in both the treated and fellow eyes decreased from day 7 after intravitreal injection. The concentration of VEGF in the treated eyes increased significantly 1 h after injection when compared with the baseline measured 2 h before injection in both the diabetic and control mice (645.91±86.47 pg/ml versus 296.10±76.11 pg/ml and 860.50±201.47 pg/ml versus 377.69±70.72 pg/ml, respectively). VEGF concentration reached its peak 24 h after injection and then decreased thereafter. At day 7 after intravitreal injection, the difference in IOP between mice that received conbercept and mice that received PBS injections was not significant (p>0.05). Conclusions Conbercept and total VEGF levels in the mouse eyes were elevated after intravitreal injection of conbercept. Increased VEGF levels likely reflect VEGF sequestered by conbercept. These data could be helpful in understanding the metabolism of anti-VEGF drugs in the eye and for determining the protocol of multiple intravitreal injections of conbercept in patients. PMID:25737631

  13. Spectrofluorometric assay for rapid detection of total and fecal coliforms from surface water.

    OpenAIRE

    Park, S. J.; Lee, E. J.; Lee, D. H.; Lee, S. H.; Kim, S. J.

    1995-01-01

    With a spectrofluorometer, the length of the incubation time required in the fluorogenic assay was reduced to 12 h. The threshold emissions for reading the fluorogenic reaction by the spectrofluorometer were 5 and 10 U for lauryl tryptose broth media containing 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactoside and 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide, respectively. These two kinds of threshold units were equivalent to known concentrations of free 4-methylumbelliferone of 2.5 and 6 microM, respective...

  14. 78 FR 10269 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ...and Economic Research Service (ERS...Web site of the American Academy of...Commenters thought that the additional...Sweden. Water Research 41: 3327-3336...Groundwater Supplies. American Water Works Association Research...

  15. Treated domestic sewage: kinetics of Escherichia coli and total coliform inactivation by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gean Delise L. P., Vargas; Regina F. P. M., Moreira; Deisi, Spricigo; Humberto J., José.

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide has been used for decades in developed countries as an oxidizing agent in the treatment of water, domestic sewage and industrial effluents. This study evaluated the influence of the concentration of H2O2 and pH on the inactivation of Escherichia coli cells and the disinfection of s [...] ewage treated. The results showed that the inactivation rate increased with pH and H2O2. The presence of other contaminants dissolved in the effluent is probably the cause of these differences, because E. coli inactivation in synthetic wastewater was found to be much faster than in the real treated domestic sewage.

  16. Treated domestic sewage: kinetics of Escherichia coli and total coliform inactivation by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Vargas, Gean Delise L. P.; Moreira, Regina F. P. M.; Deisi Spricigo; Jose?, Humberto J.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide has been used for decades in developed countries as an oxidizing agent in the treatment of water, domestic sewage and industrial effluents. This study evaluated the influence of the concentration of H2O2 and pH on the inactivation of Escherichia coli cells and the disinfection of sewage treated. The results showed that the inactivation rate increased with pH and H2O2. The presence of other contaminants dissolved in the effluent is probably the cause of these differences, bec...

  17. Treated domestic sewage: kinetics of Escherichia coli and total coliform inactivation by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gean Delise L. P. Vargas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide has been used for decades in developed countries as an oxidizing agent in the treatment of water, domestic sewage and industrial effluents. This study evaluated the influence of the concentration of H2O2 and pH on the inactivation of Escherichia coli cells and the disinfection of sewage treated. The results showed that the inactivation rate increased with pH and H2O2. The presence of other contaminants dissolved in the effluent is probably the cause of these differences, because E. coli inactivation in synthetic wastewater was found to be much faster than in the real treated domestic sewage.

  18. 75 FR 49930 - Stakeholder Meeting Regarding Re-Evaluation of Currently Approved Total Coliform Analytical Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ...PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9190-2] Stakeholder Meeting Regarding Re-Evaluation of...will have a technical dialogue with stakeholders regarding re-evaluation of currently...analytical methods. At these meetings, stakeholders will be given an opportunity to...

  19. Handling may cause increased shedding of Escherichia coli and total coliforms in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many common management practices such as transportation, weaning, handling, and the formation of new groups of animals are stressful to food animals. Stress affects the ability of the immune system to combat infectious disease; however, the effects of stress on the intestinal microbial ecosystem are...

  20. 75 FR 40925 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ...the regulatory alternatives where net social benefits are maximized...understand the rule; Planning and mobilization activities; Revise existing sampling...effect on human health regardless of the social or economic...

  1. Serum levels of insulin like growth factor-l and total protein in newborn calves offered different amounts of colostrums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirovski Danijela

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to determine the concentrations of insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-I and total protein in blood serum from calves consuming different amounts of colostrum during the first 32 h of postnatal life, as well as at 7 days old. The experiment involved two groups of calves. The first group was offered the standard amount of colostrum while the second group received half the recommended amount. At birth serum concentration of IGF-I was in the range from 5 to 13 nmol/L. Compared to the initial level there was a marked decrease of mean IGF-I concentration in both groups of calves at 2 h after the first intake of colostrum. Thereafter, the level gradually increased until 20 h of age, more markedly in the group which received the full ration of colostrum. The highest mean IGF-I concentrations were recorded at 20 h in both groups (11.81 nmol/L for group one and 8.96 nmol/L for group two, and were significantly higher than values recorded 2h after the first intake of colostrum. Two hours after the third intake of colostrum, serum concentration of IGF-I dropped in both groups, compared with the value recorded at 20 h. During the time period from 4hto32h after birth, the calves that received the standard amount of colostrum had a significantly higher mean concentration of serum IGF-I than the calves which received an insufficient amount. Calves were born with serum concentrations of total proteins, which were lower than those found for adult animals. Serum protein concentrations in the calves that consumed normal amounts of colostrum increased more rapidly than in the calves that received insufficient amounts of colostrum. Presumably, total protein concentrations increased as a consequence of colostral immunoglobulin absorption. Thus our results indicate that the amounts of colostrum received during the first 32 h of postnatal life had strong effects on the serum concentrations of IGF-I and total proteins. The differences in IGF-I concentrations between the two groups of calves may have been a consequence of greater colostral IGF-I absorption and/or the result of greater absorption of other colostral components, which stimulate endogenous synthesis of this bioactive substance in the tissues of neonatal calves.

  2. Lake level change and total water discharge in East Africa Rift Valley from satellite-based observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Ayman A.; Jin, Shuanggen

    2014-06-01

    The measurement of total basin water discharge is important for understanding the hydrological and climatologic issues related to the water and energy cycles. Climatic extreme events are normal climatic occurrences in Africa. For example, extensive droughts are regular features in the last few decades in parts of East Africa, which suffers from a lack of in situ observations as well as a lack of regional hydrological models. In this study, multi-disciplinary different types of space-borne observations and global hydrological models are used to study total water discharge in the Great Rift Valley of East Africa (i.e. Lakes Victoria, Tanganyika, and Malawi) from January 2003 to December 2012. The data include the following: (1) total water storage (TWS) variations from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), (2) the lake level variations from Satellite Alimetric data, (3) rainfall from Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) products, (4) soil moisture from WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM), and (5) water fluxes from Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). Results show that a significant decline in the average lake level is found for all of the three lakes between 2003 and 2006. GRACE TWS variations of the whole basin area show the same pattern of variation as the average lake level variations estimated from Altimetric data. The TWS in the basin area of Lakes Victoria and Malawi is governed by the surface water stored in each lake itself, while for Lake Tanganyika, it is governed by both surface water and the soil moisture content in the basin area. Furthermore, the effect of rainfall on TWS is also studied. A phase lag of ~ 2 months is found between TRMM rainfall and GRACE TWS (generally, rainfall precedes the GRACE TWS) for the three lakes. In addition, the regional evapotranspiration ET is estimated from the water balance equation using GRACE land-water solutions, rainfall data from TRMM and runoff values obtained as a fraction of rainfall. It is found that the computed ET represents approximately 90% of the rainfall over the study region.

  3. Power-Performance Trade-Offs in Nanometer-Scale Multi-Level Caches Considering Total Leakage

    CERN Document Server

    Bai, Robert; Kgil, Tae Ho; Sylvester, Dennis; Mudge, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of T_{ox} and Vth on power performance trade-offs for on-chip caches. We start by examining the optimization of the various components of a single level cache and then extend this to two level cache systems. In addition to leakage, our studies also account for the dynamic power expanded as a result of cache misses. Our results show that one can often reduce overall power by increasing the size of the L2 cache if we only allow one pair of Vth/T_{ox} in L2. However, if we allow the memory cells and the peripherals to have their own Vth's and T_{ox}'s, we show that a two-level cache system with smaller L2's will yield less total leakage. We further show that two Vth's and two T_{ox}'s are sufficient to get close to an optimal solution, and that Vth is generally a better design knob than T_{ox} for leakage optimization, thus it is better to restrict the number of T_{ox}'s rather than Vth's if cost is a concern.

  4. Evaluating spatial and temporal variability of fecal coliform bacteria loads at Pelahatchie Watershed in Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacterial contaminations of surface waters are an increasing concern for scientists because pathogenic bacteria can cause adverse effects on human health. This research was performed to investigate spatial and seasonal variability of fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) concentrations from the Pelahatchie ...

  5. Fecal Coliform and Escherichia coli Bacteria in the St. Croix National Scenic Riverway, Summer 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroening, Sharon E.

    1999-01-01

    Fecal coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentrations were determined in the St. Croix National Scenic Riverway to assess whether pathogenic organisms pose a potential problem for recreational use. Samples were collected from May through September 1999 at 22 locations on the St. Croix and Namekagon Rivers. No concentrations exceeded water-quality criteria or standards set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency or the states of Minnesota and Wisconsin. Maximum fecal coliform and E. coli concentrations were measured in the St. Croix River at St. Croix Falls, Wisconsin. Median fecal coliform and E. coli concentrations were greater in the St. Croix River near Woodland Corner, Wisconsin, and at Marine on St. Croix, Minnesota than at other locations sampled.There were no consistent short-term variations in fecal coliform or E. coli concentrations during the summer period or any significant relations between concentrations and stream discharge, based on these results.

  6. Bacterial growth state distinguished by single-cell protein profiling: Does chlorination kill coliforms in municipal effluent?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockabrand, D.; Austin, T.; Kaiser, R.; Blum, P.

    1999-09-01

    Municipal effluent is the largest reservoir of human enteric bacteria. Its public health significance, however, depends upon the physiological status of the wastewater bacterial community. A novel immunofluorescence assay was developed and used to examine the bacterial growth state during wastewater disinfection. Quantitative levels of three highly conserved cytosolic proteins (DnaK, Dps, and Fis) were determined by using enterobacterium-specific antibody fluorochrome-coupled probes. Enterobacterial Fis homologs were abundant in growing cells and nearly undetectable in stationary-phase cells. In contrast, enterobacterial Dps homologs were abundant in stationary-phase cells but virtually undetectable in growing cells. The range of variation in the abundance of both proteins was at least 100-fold as determined by Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis. Enterobacterial DnaK homologs were nearly invariant with growth state, enabling their use as permeabilization controls. The cellular growth states of individual enterobacteria in wastewater samples were determined by measurement of Fis, Dps, and DnaK abundance (protein profiling). Intermediate levels of Fis and Dps were evident and occurred in response to physiological transitions. The results indicate that chlorination failed to kill coliforms but rather elicited nutrient starvation and a reversible nonculturable state. These studies suggest that the current standard procedures for wastewater analysis which rely on detection of culturable cells likely underestimate fecal coliform content.

  7. Fecal coliform management using a coupled hydrodynamics and water quality model for the river Ravi in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Fecal Coliform (FC) management framework is developed incorporating segmentation of river reaches, hydrodynamic and water quality models and FC management under critical winter low flow conditions for a highly polluted River Ravi. FC die-off rate in the river is determined from a field survey of a selected river reach. The travel time calculated with the help of a hydrodynamic model is 0.25 days in the selected reach. FC die-off rate (Kb) was found to be 1.2 day/sup -1/ at 20 degree C. Model calibration with monitoring data set reveals reasonable agreement of the simulation results with the measured field values under low flow conditions. Presently, the river is receiving raw wastewater and the simulation results shows very high fecal coliform levels up to 100 X 10/sup 6/ MPN/100mL in the river water. These levels are much higher than the required recreation and irrigation standards. Simulations are carried out to assess water quality for the future fecal pollution loads in year 2025 and the results reveal that up to 6 log reduction in FC is required at the wastewater out falls, whereas, 5 log reduction would be sufficient for surface drains to meet desired FC standards under low flow conditions. (author)

  8. Determination of the Levels of Indicator Bacteria, Salmonella spp. and Heavy Metals in Sea Snails (Rapana venosa) from the Northern Marmara Sea, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    *(1), Gül?en Altu?; (2), Nihal Güler

    2002-01-01

    Sea snail (Rapana venosa) samples were collected from the northern coast of the Marmara Sea and analyzed to determine bacteriological pollution in the form of Faecal coliform, Esherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. as well as to measure levels of the heavy metals, Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd, As using by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Samples were collected through the June 2000 - November 2001 from the shore and from depths of 10 - 12 meters of the northern Marmara Sea. Within the total of 75 gro...

  9. Tryptophan-enriched cereal intake improves nocturnal sleep, melatonin, serotonin, and total antioxidant capacity levels and mood in elderly humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, R; Matito, S; Cubero, J; Paredes, S D; Franco, L; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, A B; Barriga, C

    2013-08-01

    Melatonin and serotonin rhythms, which exhibit a close association with the endogenous circadian component of sleep, are attenuated with increasing age. This decrease seems to be linked to sleep alterations in the elderly. Chrononutrition is a field of chronobiology that establishes the principle of consuming foodstuffs at times of the day when they are more useful for health, improving, therefore, biorhythms and physical performance. Our aim was to analyze whether the consumption of cereals enriched with tryptophan, the precursor of both serotonin and melatonin, may help in the reconsolidation of the sleep/wake cycle and counteract depression and anxiety in 35 middle-aged/elderly (aged 55-75 year) volunteers in a simple blind assay. Data were collected for 3 weeks according to the following schedule: The control week participants consumed standard cereals (22.5 mg tryptophan in 30 g cereals per dose) at breakfast and dinner; for the treatment week, cereals enriched with a higher dose of tryptophan (60 mg tryptophan in 30 g cereals per dose) were eaten at both breakfast and dinner; the posttreatment week volunteers consumed their usual diet. Each participant wore a wrist actimeter that logged activity during the whole experiment. Urine was collected to analyze melatonin and serotonin urinary metabolites and to measure total antioxidant capacity. The consumption of cereals containing the higher dose in tryptophan increased sleep efficiency, actual sleep time, immobile time, and decreased total nocturnal activity, sleep fragmentation index, and sleep latency. Urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels, and urinary total antioxidant capacity also increased respectively after tryptophan-enriched cereal ingestion as well as improving anxiety and depression symptoms. Cereals enriched with tryptophan may be useful as a chrononutrition tool for alterations in the sleep/wake cycle due to age. PMID:22622709

  10. Influence of sewage treatment and urbanization on selection of multiple resistance in fecal coliform populations.

    OpenAIRE

    BelL, J. B.; Elliott, G E; Smith, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    The fecal coliform populations found in the raw sewages and final sewage effluents of mechanical treatment plants, a long-term retention lagoon, shorter-term retention lagoons, a remote northern Canada river, and a heavily urbanized prairie river were examined for antibiotic resistance and the possession of R factors. It was determined that there was a decrease in the percentage of multiresistant fecal coliform populations in the mechanical sewage treatment plants and shorter-term retention l...

  11. Selective detection and enumeration of fecal coliforms in water by potentiometric measurement of lipoic acid reduction.

    OpenAIRE

    Jouenne, T; Junter, G A; Charriere, G

    1985-01-01

    Water samples of various origins were inoculated into a specific coliform-selective lactose broth provided with lipoic (thioctic) acid, and the time evolution of the redox potential of the cultures was monitored during incubation at 41 degrees C by use of gold versus reference electrodes. Positive potential-time responses, i.e., 100-mV potential shifts recorded within 20 h of inoculation, were related to the initial number of fecal coliforms in the broth determined by control enumeration tech...

  12. Comparison of Coliforms and Coliphages as Tools for Assessment of Viral Contamination in River Water

    OpenAIRE

    Skraber, S.; Gassilloud, B.; Gantzer, C.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of pathogenic viruses in the Moselle River and to compare the usefulness of thermotolerant coliforms and somatic coliphages as tools for river water quality assessment in terms of viral contamination. Thermotolerant coliforms and somatic coliphages were enumerated by standardized methods in 170 samples of river water drawn from five sampling sites along the Moselle River (eastern France). BGM cell culture and integrated cell culture-reverse tr...

  13. Thermotolerant Coliforms Are Not a Good Surrogate for Campylobacter spp. in Environmental Water ?

    OpenAIRE

    St-Pierre, Karen; Lévesque, Simon; Frost, Eric; Carrier, Nathalie; Arbeit, Robert D.; Michaud, Sophie

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the importance of quantitatively detecting Campylobacter spp. in environmental surface water. The prevalence and the quantity of Campylobacter spp., thermotolerant coliforms, and Escherichia coli in 2,471 samples collected weekly, over a 2-year period, from 13 rivers and 12 streams in the Eastern Townships, Québec, Canada, were determined. Overall, 1,071 (43%), 1,481 (60%), and 1,463 (59%) samples were positive for Campylobacter spp., thermotolerant coliforms, and E...

  14. Presence and Sources of Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Epilithic Periphyton Communities of Lake Superior?

    OpenAIRE

    Ksoll, Winfried B.; Ishii, Satoshi; Sadowsky, Michael J; Hicks, Randall E.

    2007-01-01

    Epilithic periphyton communities were sampled at three sites on the Minnesota shoreline of Lake Superior from June 2004 to August 2005 to determine if fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli were present throughout the ice-free season. Fecal coliform densities increased up to 4 orders of magnitude in early summer, reached peaks of up to 1.4 × 105 CFU cm?2 by late July, and decreased during autumn. Horizontal, fluorophore-enhanced repetitive-PCR DNA fingerprint analyses indicated that the source ...

  15. Single dose testosterone increases total cholesterol levels and induces the expression of HMG CoA Reductase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gårevik Nina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol is mainly synthesised in liver and the rate-limiting step is the reduction of 3-hydroxy-3methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA to mevalonate, a reaction catalysed by HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR. There is a comprehensive body of evidence documenting that anabolic-androgenic steroids are associated with deleterious alterations of lipid profile. In this study we investigated whether a single dose of testosterone enanthate affects the cholesterol biosynthesis and the expression of HMGCR. Methods 39 healthy male volunteers were given 500 mg testosterone enanthate as single intramuscular dose of Testoviron®--Depot. The total cholesterol levels prior to and two days after testosterone administration were analysed. Protein expression of HMGCR in whole blood was investigated by Western blotting. In order to study whether testosterone regulates the mRNA expression of HMGCR, in vitro studies were performed in a human liver cell-line (HepG2. Results The total cholesterol level was significantly increased 15% two days after the testosterone injection (p = 0.007. This is the first time a perturbation in the lipoprotein profile is observed after only a single dose of testosterone. Moreover, the HMGCR mRNA and protein expression was induced by testosterone in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Conclusion Here we provide a molecular explanation how anabolic androgenic steroids may impact on the cholesterol homeostasis, i.e. via an increase of the HMGCR expression. Increasing knowledge and understanding of AAS induced side-effects is important in order to find measures for treatment and care of these abusers.

  16. How much locomotive activity is needed for an active physical activity level: analysis of total step counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohkawara Kazunori

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity level (PAL. The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of locomotive activity to PAL using total step counts measured in a calorimeter study. Methods PAL, calculated as total energy expenditure divided by basal metabolic rate, was evaluated in 11 adult men using three different conditions for 24-hour human calorimeter measurements: a low-activity day (L-day targeted at a low active level of PAL (1.45, and a high-frequency moderate activity day (M-day or a high-frequency vigorous activity day (V-day targeted at an active level of PAL (1.75. These subjects were permitted only light activities except prescribed activities. In a separate group of 41 adults, free-living PAL was evaluated using doubly-labeled water (DLW. In both experiments, step counts per day were also measured using an accelerometer. Results In the human calorimeter study, PAL and step counts were 1.42 ± 0.10 and 8,973 ± 543 steps/d (L-day, 1.82 ± 0.14 and 29,588 ± 1,126 steps/d (M-day, and 1.74 ± 0.15 and 23,755 ± 1,038 steps/d (V-day, respectively. In the DLW study, PAL and step counts were 1.73 ± 0.15 and 10,022 ± 2,605 steps/d, and there was no significant relationship between PAL and daily step counts. Conclusions These results indicate that an enormous number of steps are needed for an active level of PAL if individuals extend physical activity-induced energy expenditure by only locomotive activity. Therefore, non-locomotive activity such as household activity should also play a significant role in increasing PAL under free-living conditions.

  17. Spirulina platensis effects on the levels of total cholesterol, HDL and triacylglycerols in rabbits fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Maria Colla

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits by feeding them a high cholesterol diet (CD, 350 mg/d and the effects of supplementing this diet with 0.5 g/d Spirulina platensis was evaluated by measuring the levels of serum total-cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerols (TAG and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol at the start of the experiment and after 30 d and 60 d. It was found that the levels of serum cholesterol decreased from 1,054±101 mg.dL-1 in the rabbits fed a CD without S. platensis to 516±163 mg.dL-1 to those fed with a high cholesterol diet supplemented with S. platensis (significant at p A microalga Spirulina é cultivada e comercializada no mundo devido a suas características nutricionais (elevada concentração de proteínas, em torno de 65%, vitaminas e sais minerais e ao seu potencial terapêutico no tratamento de inúmeras doenças, inclusive a hipercolesterolemia. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a inibição da hipercolesterolemia induzida em coelhos por uma dieta adicionada de colesterol (350 mg.d-1, pela suplementação de 0,5 g.dia-1 de biomassa de Spirulina platensis, sendo avaliados os níveis de colesterol total, triglicerídeos e HDL nos tempos de 0 d, 30 d e 60 d de tratamento. Os resultados indicaram que a adição de Spirulina platensis na dieta ocasionou decréscimo nos níveis de colesterol total de 1054±101 mg.dL-1 para 516±163 mg.dL-1 (p<0,0001, para os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica em comparação com os que receberam a dieta adicionada de Spirulina platensis. A adição de Spirulina a dieta colesterolêmica não ocasionou decréscimo significativo nos níveis de triglicerídios dos coelhos. Os valores de HDL aumentaram de 73±31 mg.dL-1 para 91,0±15,7 mg.dL-1, comparando-se os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica e os alimentados com a dieta adicionada de Spirulina, estatisticamente diferentes a um nível de significância maior que 0,1533.

  18. The organic contamination level based on the total soil mass is not a proper index of the soil contamination intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of organic contaminants in common productive soils based on the total soil mass give a misleading account of actual contamination effects. This is attributed to the fact that productive soils are essentially water-saturated, with the result that the soil uptake of organic compounds occurs principally by partition into the soil organic matter (SOM). This report illustrates that the soil contamination intensity of a compound is governed by the concentration in the SOM (Com) rather than by the concentration in whole soil (Cs). Supporting data consist of the measured levels and toxicities of many pesticides in soils of widely differing SOM contents and the related levels in in-situ crops that defy explanation by the Cs values. This SOM-based index is timely needed for evaluating the contamination effects of food crops grown in different soils and for establishing a dependable priority ranking for intended remediation of numerous contamination sites. - The concentration of an organic compound in soil based on the entire soil mass is not a proper measure of its contamination intensity.

  19. Estimation of total and bioaccessible levels of iodine in edible seaweeds of Japan by epithermal neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edible seaweeds play important roles as daily source of minerals and dietary fibers for Japanese population groups. It is therefore of interest to estimate the intake of minerals and dietary fibers from seaweeds. Although the levels of iodine can be measured by ICP-MS in liquid samples such as urine and water, it is rather difficult to do the same in seaweeds due to polysaccharides in them. In this study, the following eight edible seaweeds were collected from local shores or purchased from stores. Sea mustard is the most popular edible seaweed in Japan; it starts growing quickly in January until it reaches a height of about 2 m in March. Sea mustards in different growing stages were collected, cut into several longitudinal pieces, freeze dried, and pulverized. Dietary fiber was separated from dried powder by in vitro enzymolysis using ?-Amylase, protease, and amyloglucosidase. Portions of dried powder and dietary fiber were irradiated for 1-5 min at the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 Reactor (DUSR) in Canada or the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) in Japan. After appropriate cooling time, the 442.9-keV gamma-ray of 128I was used to assay iodine by epithermal instrumental neutron activation analysis (EINAA). Total and bioaccesible iodine levels in eight edible seaweeds are shown

  20. Microbiological Quality of Ready-to-Eat Vegetables Collected in Mexico City: Occurrence of Aerobic-Mesophilic Bacteria, Fecal Coliforms, and Potentially Pathogenic Nontuberculous Mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerna-Cortes, Jorge Francisco; Leon-Montes, Nancy; Cortes-Cueto, Ana Laura; Salas-Rangel, Laura P; Helguera-Repetto, Addy Cecilia; Lopez-Hernandez, Daniel; Rivera-Gutierrez, Sandra; Fernandez-Rendon, Elizabeth; Gonzalez-y-Merchand, Jorge Alberto

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the microbiological quality and the occurrence of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in a variety of salads and sprouts from supermarkets and street vendors in Mexico City. Aerobic-mesophilic bacteria (AMB) were present in 100% of RTE-salads samples; 59% of samples were outside guidelines range (>5.17 log10 CFU per g). Although fecal coliforms (FC) were present in 32% of samples, only 8% of them exceeded the permissible limit (100?MPN/g). Regarding the 100 RTE-sprouts, all samples were also positive for AMB and total coliforms (TC) and 69% for FC. Seven NTM species were recovered from 7 salad samples; they included three M. fortuitum, two M. chelonae, one M. mucogenicum, and one M. sp. Twelve RTE-sprouts samples harbored NTM, which were identified as M. porcinum (five), M. abscessus (two), M. gordonae (two), M. mucogenicum (two), and M. avium complex (one). Most RTE-salads and RTE-sprouts had unsatisfactory microbiological quality and some harbored NTM associated with illness. No correlation between the presence of coliforms and NTM was found. Overall, these results suggest that RTE-salads and RTE-sprouts might function as vehicles for NTM transmission in humans; hence, proper handling and treatment before consumption of such products might be recommendable. PMID:25918721

  1. The effect of dietary garlic supplementation on body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, faecal score, faecal coliform count and feeding cost in crossbred dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudipta; Mehla, Ram K; Sirohi, S K; Roy, Biswajit

    2010-06-01

    Thirty-six crossbred calves (Holstein cross) of 5 days of age were used to study the effect of garlic extract feeding on their performance up to the age of 2 months (pre-ruminant stage). They were randomly allotted into treatment and control groups (18 numbers in each group). Performance was evaluated by measuring average body weight (BW) gain, feed intake (dry matter (DM), total digestible nutrient (TDN) and crude protein (CP)), feed conversion efficiency (FCE; DM, TDN and CP), faecal score, faecal coliform count and feeding cost. Diets were the same for the both groups. In addition, treatment group received garlic extract supplementation at 250 mg/kg BW per day per calf. Body weight measured weekly, feed intake measured twice daily, proximate analysis of feeds and fodders analysed weekly, faecal scores monitored daily and faecal coliform count done weekly. There was significant increase in average body weight gain, feed intake and FCE and significant decrease in severity of scours as measured by faecal score and faecal coliform count in the treatment group compared to the control group (P < 0.01). Feed cost per kilogramme BW gain was significantly lower in the treatment group compared to control group (P < 0.01). The results suggest that garlic extract can be supplemented to the calves for better performance. PMID:20012194

  2. Serum levels of free and total insulin-link growth factor (IGF)-1 and (IGF) binding protein-3 in normal and growth hormone deficient children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor- 1 (IGF-1) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) reflect endogenous GH secretion in healthy children, which makes them good diagnostic markers for screening GH deficiency (GHD) in short children, although some controversy still exists. Only a minor fraction of the total IGF-1 circulates in its free form, which is believed to be the biologically active form. Serum levels of free IGF-1, total IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured in 144 healthy children (72 boys and 72 girls, aged from 0 to 16 years) and in 12 prepubertal GH. deficient (GHD) children to study correlation between the age and free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels. In healthy subjects (both sexes), serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were low in infancy, increasing during puberty and declining thereafter. Free IGF-1 in serum occupied about 0.97. 1.45 % of the total IGF-1 values, and the ratios of free IGF-1 to total IGF-1 were significantly increased in the pubertal age groups than in the prepubertal age groups. Serum levels of free IGF-1 showed significant positive correlation with those of total IGF-I and IGFBP-3. Serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in patients with GHD decreased significantly with increasing degree of hypopituitarism. These observations suggest that the increase in serum free IGF-1 level during puberty was caused by a dramatic increase in total IGF-1 rather than IGFBP-3. Also, high levels of these hormones may play an important role in pubertal growth spurt and may become a useful tool for diagnosing GHD and predicting growth response to long term GH therapy

  3. Surface water quality along the Central John Muir Trail in the Sierra Nevada Mountains: coliforms and algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursem, Carling; Evans, C Scott; Ger, Kemal Ali; Richards, John R; Derlet, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    The John Muir Trail (JMT) in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California is one of the most popular alpine wilderness trails in the United States, where backpackers depend on trailside water sources for more than 335 km (208 miles). This study addressed the risk of acquiring waterborne disease by analyzing prevalence and changes in coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli (E. coli) in lakes and streams adjacent to the central JMT. Chlorophyll-a levels were also measured as an indicator of high elevation eutrophication. Categories of environmental land use which might affect water quality were defined as: Pristine areas rarely traversed by humans; Backpack off-trail areas not traversed by pack or stock animals; and Multiuse areas with backpacker and animal use. We analyzed surface water at 36 different sites three separate times over an eight week period in the summer of 2008. Chlorophyll-a concentration increased significantly in Backpack and Multiuse sites over the summer months, but not in Pristine sites. Similar results were obtained for coliforms, with prevalence also increasing significantly over the summer months in Backpack and Multiuse sites. There was a much higher prevalence of E. coli in Multiuse sites compared to Pristine and Backpack sites. Our study provides evidence pack and stock animals serve as a source of microbial contamination of water along this section of trail. PMID:20039816

  4. Characterization of the genomic responses in early Senegalese sole larvae fed diets with different dietary triacylglycerol and total lipids levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachero-Cruzado, I; Rodríguez-Rua, A; Román-Padilla, J; Ponce, M; Fernández-Díaz, C; Manchado, M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the genomic responses of premetamorphic sole larvae (9 days post-hatching, dph) fed diets with different lipid and triacylglycerol (TAG) content. For this purpose, two diets with high (rotifers enriched with a fish oil-based emulsion; referred to as HTAG) and low (rotifers enriched with a krill oil-based emulsion; LTAG) levels of total lipids and TAG were evaluated. Lipid class and fatty acid (FA) profiles, histological characterization of intestine, liver and pancreas and expression patterns using RNA-seq were determined. Discriminant analysis results showed that larvae could be clearly differentiated on the basis of their FA profile as a function of the diet supplied until 9dph although no difference in growth was observed. RNA-seq analysis showed that larvae fed HTAG activated coordinately the transcription of apolipoproteins (apob, apoa4, apoc2, apoe, and apobec2) and other related transcripts involved in chylomicron formation, likely to facilitate proper lipid absorption and delivery. In contrast, larvae fed LTAG showed higher mRNA levels of several pancreatic enzymes (try1a, try2, cela1, cela3, cela4, chym1, chym2, amy2a and pnlip) and appetite modulators (agrp1) and some intra- and extracellular lipases. Moreover, KEGG analysis also showed that several transcripts related to lipid metabolism and glycolysis were differentially expressed with a higher abundance in larvae fed LTAG diet. All these data suggest that early larvae were able to establish compensatory mechanisms for energy homeostasis regulating key molecules for FA and TAG biosynthesis, FA uptake and intracellular management of TAG and FA to warrant optimal growth rates. PMID:25463059

  5. Determination of Total Serum Protein Levels Fed by Hot Smoked Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Diets in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Levent Izci; Sengul Bilgin; Mustafa Unlusayin; Suleyman Kaleli; Ali Gunlu

    2008-01-01

    The effects on total serum protein levels of rats fed by hot smoked Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were investigated. Four diets containing fresh and hot smoked rainbow trout flesh and vitamin were prepared and commercial pellet food purchased. Four groups of female Wistar rats were fed with the diets for 28 days. Total serum protein and detection of protein bands using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-Page) were evaluated. The total serum protein lev...

  6. Effects of Computer Navigation versus Conventional Total Knee Arthroplasty on Endothelial Damage Marker Levels: A Prospective Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Shu-Jui; Wang, Feng-Sheng; Wang, Ching-Jen; Ko, Jih-Yang; Chen, Sung-Hsiung; Siu, Ka-Kit

    2015-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) inevitably perturbs the femoral medullary canal, which increases blood loss or morbidities associated with marrow embolization postoperatively. Computer navigation TKA reportedly minimizes medullary disturbance to alleviate perioperative blood loss. We performed a prospective comparative study, enrolling 87 patients with osteoarthritic knees from March 2011 to December 2011 in our hospital. The patients were separated into two groups, according to the surgeon they visited. Fifty-four patients underwent computer navigation TKAs and 33 had conventional TKAs. Levels of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and platelet endothelial cellular adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) in sera and hemovac drainage were measured by ELISA before and 24 hours after the surgery. We showed that patients receiving computer navigation TKAs had less blood loss and lower CAMs in serum and hemovac drainage after the operation. Less postoperative elevation of serum ICAM-1 (p=0.022) and PECAM-1 (p=0.003) from the preoperative baseline after the surgery was also noted. This study provides molecular evidence for the differential extent in vascular injury between conventional and navigation TKAs and sheds light on the possible benefits of computer navigation TKAs. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02206321 PMID:25955252

  7. Diets formulated on total or digestible amino acid basis with different energy levels and physical form on broiler performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Maiorka

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of two different systems of expressing amino acid requirements (total - TAA or digestible - DAA, two energy levels (2,900 or 3,200 kcal of ME/kg and two physical forms (mash or pellet on the performance of male broilers from 21 to 42 d of age. Diets formulated on DAA basis improved feed conversion (p<0.001 and the conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001. Birds fed 3,200 kcal ME/kg presented better feed conversion (p<0.001, higher abdominal fat deposition (p<0.001 and worse conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001 as compared to birds fed 2,900 kcal ME/kg. Birds fed pelleted feed had higher feed intake (p<0.001, higher weight gain (p<0.001, better feed conversion (p<0.001, better conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001 and higher abdominal fat deposition (p<0.001. The results obtained in the present study suggest that feed formulation based on DAA is required when diets contain protein sources which amino acid digestibility is unreliable. Besides, pelleted feed improves performance parameters of broilers.

  8. Evaluation of Flow Rate, pH, Buffering Capacity, Calcium, Total Proteins and Total Antioxidant Capacity Levels of Saliva in Caries Free and Caries Active Children: An In Vivo Study

    OpenAIRE

    Preethi, B. P.; Reshma, Dodawad; Anand, Pyati

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the physicochemical properties of saliva such as flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, calcium level, total protein and total antioxidant levels in caries free and caries active children. The present study included one hundred and twenty healthy children who were divided into two groups; group I and group II comprising of age groups 7–10 and 11–14 years, respectively. Both the groups were then sub-divided equally according to...

  9. Contribution of thermolabile methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase variant to total plasma homocysteine levels in healthy men and women. Inter99 (2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Thomsen, Troels F

    2003-01-01

    Elevation in plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is believed to be causally related to cardiovascular disease. Like age and sex, the thermolabile variant of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR(C677T)) is an important nonmodifiable determinant of tHcy, which may be considered when describing normal ranges of tHcy in the general population. We investigated the simultaneous effect of sex, age, and MTHFR(C677T) genotype on the distribution of tHcy in a cross-sectional study design. THcy concentrations and MTHFR(C677T) genotype were determined in a population-based sample of 2,788 Danish men and women aged 30-60 years participating in the Inter99 Study. The prevalences of MTHFR(C677T) genotypes were 48.8% (CC), 42.4% (CT), and 8.8% (TT). The overall median tHcy was 8.1 micromol/l, and the 2.5-97.5 percentiles were 4.8-17.8 micro mol/l. The estimated proportionally higher level of tHcy in men compared to women was 14.3% (P<0.001). A significant interaction term was found between age and MTHFR(C677T) genotype (P<0.001). The estimated changes in tHcy per 5 years of age were 1.5% in CC individuals (P<0.01), 2.1% in CT individuals (P<0.001), and -4.1% in TT individuals (P<0.01). The T allele was associated with elevated tHcy. However, the proportionally higher level of tHcy in TT individuals compared to CT and CC individuals decreased with increasing age. The MTHFR(C677T) polymorphism explained 6% of the phenotypic variation in tHcy. In conclusion, we found that tHcy is associated with sex, age, and MTHFR genotype. Our results indicate that the effect of age is modified by MTHFR genotype.

  10. The Seasonality of Fecal Coliform Bacteria Pollution and its Influence on Closures of Shellfish Harvesting Areas in Mississippi Sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Runoff from agricultural lands and farm animal feedlots is one of the major sources of fecal coliforms in surface waters, and fecal coliform (FC bacteria concentrations tend to vary with season because of seasonal variations in climatic factors. However, El Niño -Southern Oscillation (ENSO events may affect the extent and patterns of seasonality in FC levels in coastal waters. Water quality monitoring data for shellfish management collected during El Niño (1990, 1992, 1997, and La Niña (1999, 2000 years were analyzed to evaluate the extent to which these events influenced Pearl River stage, and bacterial levels, water temperature, and salinity in the western part of Mississippi Sound. Models to predict FC levels in relation to various environmental factors were also developed. In 1990, 1992 and 1997, FC geometric mean counts peaked in late winter (January/February reaching 120 MPN (February 1990, 165 MPN (January 1992, and 86 MPN (January 1997, and then decreased considerably during spring and summer (1.2 – 19 MPN. Thereafter, FC abundance increased slightly in fall and early winter (1.9 – 24 MPN. Fecal coliform abundance during the 2000 La Niña year was much lower (1.0 – 10.3 MPN than in 1992 (1.2 – 165 MPN, and showed no seasonal pattern from January to August, perhaps due to the relative scarcity of rainfall in 2000. In 1995 (ENSO neutral year, peak geometric mean FC count (46 MPN was lower than during El Niño years and occurred in early spring (March. The seasonal and between year variations in FC levels determined the number of days during which the conditionally approved shellfish growing area was opened for harvesting shellfish. For example, from January to April 1997, the area was not opened for shellfish harvesting, whereas in 2000, the number of days during which the area was opened ranged from 6 - 27 (January to April to 24 - 26 (October to December. ENSO events thus influenced the extent and timing of the peak levels of fecal coliforms in Mississippi Sound. Models consisting of one or more of the variables: Pearl River stage, water temperature, and salinity were developed to predict FC concentrations in the Sound. The model parameter(s explained 56 to 91% of the variations in FC counts. Management of shellfish in Mississippi Sound can be improved by utilizing information on the forecasted three to seven years occurrence of ENSO events. In addition, since Pearl River stage was the most important variable predicting FC concentration in the Sound, a study of the levels and sources of FC bacteria in the river, especially the middle and lower sections, is needed for developing a management plan for reducing FC bacteria pollution in the Sound.

  11. Pré-resfriamento na redução de coliformes em carcaças de frango de corte / Immersion chilling in fecal coliforms count reduction on broiler carcasses

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanessa Silva, Simas; Felipe Faccini dos, Santos; Raquel, Gouvêa; Maria Helena Cosendey de, Aquino; Dayse Lima da Costa, Abreu; Elmiro Rosendo do, Nascimento; Virginia Léo de Almeida, Pereira.

    1618-16-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar a análise individual (plano de duas classes) e a análise por lotes (plano de três classes), priorizado pelo plano amostragem oficial da ANVISA, na influência do pré-resfriamento de carcaças de frangos de corte na redução da contaminação por coliformes termotole [...] rantes. Foram analisadas 240 carcaças de frangos de corte, sendo coletadas 120 amostras antes e 120 após a etapa de pré-resfriamento, para quantificação de coliformes termotolerantes pela técnica de contagem em placas. As médias das contagens obtidas das carcaças coletadas antes e após o pré-resfriamento foram diferentes, com uma redução média de 0,99log10 UFC g-1 de coliformes termotolerantes. Na interpretação dos resultados obtidos antes do pré-resfriamento pela análise individual, 16,7% (20/120) das carcaças foram classificadas como inaceitáveis, enquanto, pela análise por lotes, foram 37,5% (45/120). Houve associação entre a aceitabilidade dos lotes e a passagem pelo chiller com um valor de Odds Ratio de 35,48. Ficou demonstrada a importância da utilização do plano de análise por lotes e da etapa de pré-resfriamento no processo de produção, sendo decisivos para a aceitação dos lotes de carcaças de aves para comercialização pelos parâmetros vigentes na legislação nacional. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to assess the influence of immersion chilling on broiler carcasses contamination by fecal coliforms counting in a poultry slaughterhouse under Federal Sanitary Inspection by individual and three class plan interpretation of the results. Two hundred and forty broiler c [...] arcasses, being collected 120 before and 120 after passage thought chillers, were analyzed for coliform counting by plate count technique. The averages of the counts obtained from all carcasses collected before and after immersion chilling were different, with an average reduction of 0.99log10 CFU g-1 of fecal coliforms. Regarding individual results (two class plan) before chilling, 16.7% (20/120) of the carcasses were classified as unacceptable, against 37.5% (45/120) regarding lots results (three class plan). There was a strong association between the acceptability of lots and immersion chilling with an Odds Ratio value of 35.48. It was demonstrated the importance of the official sampling plan and immersion chilling in the production process, being decisive for the acceptance of the chicken carcass lots by the national legislation standards.

  12. COD, TSS, nutrients and coliforms removals in UASB reactors in two stages treating swine wastewater / Remoções de DQO, sólidos, nutrientes e coliformes em reatores UASB em dois estágios tratando água residuárias de suinocultura

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Roseane Del& #39; Arco, Ramires; Roberto Alves de, Oliveira.

    1256-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o desempenho de dois reatores anaeróbios de fluxo ascendente com manta de lodo (UASB) em escala-piloto (908 e 188 L), instalados em série (R1 e R2), para o tratamento de águas residuárias de suinocultura com concentrações médias de SST em torno de 5 e 13 g L-1. Os TDH foram de 36 e 18 h [...] com COV de 5,5 a 34,4 g DQO (L d)-1 no R1 e TDH de 7,5 e 3,7 h com COV de 5,1 a 45,2 g DQO (L d)-1 no R2. As eficiências médias de remoção de DQO variaram de 55 a 85% no R1 e de 43 a 57% no R2, resultando valores de 82 a 93% nos reatores UASB em dois estágios. As concentrações de metano no biogás foram de 69 a 74%, com produções de 0,05 a 0,27 L CH4 (g DQOremovida)-1 no R1 e de 0,10 a 0,12 L CH4 (g DQOremovida)-1 no R2. Os valores médios de eficiência de remoção de Ptotal foram de 61 a 75%; de NK de 39 a 69%; de Norg. de 82 a 93%, e de Fe, Zn, Cu e Mn de 20 a 94%. As concentrações de N-am. não foram reduzidas, indicando a necessidade de pós-tratamento para disposição do efluente em corpos d'água. Houve redução de coliformes totais de 99,8123 a 99,9989%, e de coliformes termotolerantes de 99,9725 a 99,9999%. As condições impostas aos reatores UASB em dois estágios propiciaram reduções acentuadas da carga poluidora orgânica e inorgânica das águas residuárias de suinocultura, com conversão de até 77% da DQO removida em metano. Abstract in english The performance of two upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors was evaluated in pilot scale (908 and 188 L), installed in series (R1 and R2), fed with swine wastewater with TSS around 5 and 13 g L-1. The UASB reactors were submitted to HDT of 36 and 18 h with VOL of 5.5 to 34.4 g COD (L d)-1 [...] in the R1 and HDT of 7.5 e 3.7 h with VOL from 5.1 to 45.2 g COD (L d)-1 in the R2. The average removal efficiencies of COD ranged from 55 to 85% in the R1 and from 43 to 57% in the R2, resulting in values from 82 to 93% in the UASB reactors in two stage. Methane concentrations in the biogas were 69 to 74% with specific production from 0.05 to 0.27 L CH4 (g removedCOD)-1 in the R1 and of 0.10 to 0.12 L CH4 (g removedCOD)-1 in the R2. The average removal efficiencies were 61 to 75% for totalP, 39 to 69% for KN, 82 to 93% for orgN and 20 to 94% for Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn. The amN concentration were not reduced indicating the need to post-treatment for effluent disposal into water bodies. There were reductions of total coliforms from 99.8123 to 99.9989% and of thermotolerant coliforms from 99.9725 to 99.9999%. The conditions imposed to the UASB reactors in two stage provided high conversions of removedCOD into methane (up to 77%) and reductions of organic an inorganic pollution loads from swine wastewater.

  13. Enrichment of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) with functional selenium originating from garlic: effect of enrichment period and depuration on total selenium level and sensory properties

    OpenAIRE

    Schram, E.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.; Heul, J.W., van; Luten, J B

    2010-01-01

    We wanted to optimize the procedure for the selenium enrichment of farmed African catfish, using garlic as dietary selenium source. In the first experiment we established the relation between the length of the selenium enrichment period and the resulting total selenium level in the fillet of the fish. It was found that at a dietary level of 11.7 mg kg?1 Se, a total selenium level in the fillet of 0.7 mg kg?1 was reached in a relatively short enrichment period of 10 days before harvest. In...

  14. Avaliação da presença de coliformes, bolores e leveduras em amostras de mel orgânico de abelhas africanizadas das ilhas do alto rio Paraná / Presence of coliforms, molds and yeasts in organic honey samples of Africanized honeybees from Paraná River islands

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eloi Machado, Alves; Vagner de Alencar Arnaut de, Toledo; Luis Carlos, Marchini; Maria Josiane, Sereia; Augusta Carolina de Camargo Carmello, Moreti; Emi Rainildes, Lorenzetti; Carolina Antunes, Neves; Alethéia Alves, Santos.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido para caracterizar a microbiota do mel produzido nas ilhas Floresta e Laranjeira do alto rio Paraná, na região de Porto Brasílio, Paraná (PR). O mel foi coletado diretamente das melgueiras das colônias avaliadas, em três apiários distribuídos nas ilhas Floresta e [...] Laranjeira. O período de coleta das amostras de mel foi de novembro de 2005 a fevereiro de 2006, perfazendo o total de 24 amostras de mel orgânico produzido por abelhas Apis mellifera africanizadas. Seguindo o método das normas internacionais da Compendium of Methods for the Microbiology Examination of Foods, os parâmetros analisados foram: presença de coliformes a 35°C e 45°C e quantificação de bolores e leveduras. Verificou-se que todas as amostras apresentaram-se em conformidade com o Regulamento Técnico MERCOSUL de Identidade e Qualidade do Mel (MERCOSUL/GMC/RES no 15/94). As amostras analisadas indicaram excelente qualidade microbiológica para o mel orgânico. Abstract in english This research was carried out to characterize the microbial flora of the organic honey produced in Paraná River islands. The honey was directly collected in the evaluated colonies, in three apiaries distributed at Floresta and Laranjeira Islands. The collection period was from November 2005 to Febru [...] ary 2006. It was evaluated 24 organic honey samples produced by Africanized honeybees. Following the international standard Compendium method for the Microbiology Examination of Foods, the analyzed parameters used were: presence of coliforms at 35°C and 45°C, and molds and yeasts quantification. All samples were in conformity with the MERCOSUL Technical Regulation Identity and Quality for Honey (MERCOSUL/GMC/RES no. 15/94. The analyzed samples indicated excellent microbiologic honey quality.

  15. Avaliação da presença de coliformes, bolores e leveduras em amostras de mel orgânico de abelhas africanizadas das ilhas do alto rio Paraná Presence of coliforms, molds and yeasts in organic honey samples of Africanized honeybees from Paraná River islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloi Machado Alves

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido para caracterizar a microbiota do mel produzido nas ilhas Floresta e Laranjeira do alto rio Paraná, na região de Porto Brasílio, Paraná (PR. O mel foi coletado diretamente das melgueiras das colônias avaliadas, em três apiários distribuídos nas ilhas Floresta e Laranjeira. O período de coleta das amostras de mel foi de novembro de 2005 a fevereiro de 2006, perfazendo o total de 24 amostras de mel orgânico produzido por abelhas Apis mellifera africanizadas. Seguindo o método das normas internacionais da Compendium of Methods for the Microbiology Examination of Foods, os parâmetros analisados foram: presença de coliformes a 35°C e 45°C e quantificação de bolores e leveduras. Verificou-se que todas as amostras apresentaram-se em conformidade com o Regulamento Técnico MERCOSUL de Identidade e Qualidade do Mel (MERCOSUL/GMC/RES no 15/94. As amostras analisadas indicaram excelente qualidade microbiológica para o mel orgânico.This research was carried out to characterize the microbial flora of the organic honey produced in Paraná River islands. The honey was directly collected in the evaluated colonies, in three apiaries distributed at Floresta and Laranjeira Islands. The collection period was from November 2005 to February 2006. It was evaluated 24 organic honey samples produced by Africanized honeybees. Following the international standard Compendium method for the Microbiology Examination of Foods, the analyzed parameters used were: presence of coliforms at 35°C and 45°C, and molds and yeasts quantification. All samples were in conformity with the MERCOSUL Technical Regulation Identity and Quality for Honey (MERCOSUL/GMC/RES no. 15/94. The analyzed samples indicated excellent microbiologic honey quality.

  16. Evaluación de la tasa de aclaración de la almeja dulceacuícola Anodontites tortolis en un medio con coliformes Escherichia coli / Clearance rate of faecal coliforms by netropical freshwater clam

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juan René, Mallama Leyton; Angela Inés, Guzmán Alvis.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En condiciones de laboratorio se evaluón acute; la eficiencia de la almeja de agua dulce (Anodontites tortolis) para disminuir la carga de coliformes fecales (Escherichia coli) determinada mediante filtración en membrana por 8 horas. El experimento se diseñó con dos tratamientos (densidades de seis [...] (T1) y ocho almejas (T2) más un control) con tres replicaciones. Se encontraron diferencias significativas (P Abstract in english Under laboratory conditions the efficiency of the freshwater clam Anodontites tortolis to diminish the quantity of faecal coliforms, determined by the membrane filtration method during eight hours was evaluated. The experiment was design with two treatments (two densities of six (T1) and eight clams [...] (T2) and a control) and three replications. Statistical significant differences (P

  17. Effects of Different Levels of Metabolizable Energy and Formulation of Diet Based on Digestible and Total Amino Acid Requirements on Performance of Male Broiler

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaffari, M.; Shivazad, M.; Zaghari, M.; Taherkhani, R.

    2007-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of different levels of energy and method of formulation of Amino Acid (AA) requirements of diets, this experiment was conducted using 294 male broiler chicks. The experiment was carried out using a complete block design with a 7×2 factorial arrangement. Factors were included different level of energy (7 energy levels) and method of formulation of diets AA requirements (total and digestible). Method of formulation of AA requirement had no significant ef...

  18. The Relationship Between Serum Levels of Total IgE, IL-18, IL-12, IFN- ? and Disease Severity in Children With Atopic Dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies about the role of cytokines on the immunopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD are generally based on in vitro observations and this role has not been completely clarified yet. Serum levels of total IgE, IL-18, IL-12, IFN- ? and the relationship between these parameters and disease severity, determined using the SCORAD index, in a group of atopic patients were investigated in this study. Serum levels of total IgE were measured by the nephelometric method and serum levels of IL-18, IL-12/p40 and IFN- ? were measured by ELISA method. Serum levels of total IgE and IL-18 were found significantly higher in study group than in controls ( p<.001 . There was no statistically significant difference between patients and controls in respect of serum levels of IL-12/p40 ( p=.227 . A statistically significant relationship between SCORAD values and serum levels of total IgE ( p<.001 , IL-18 ( p<.001 , and IL-12/p40 ( p<.001 was determined. These results show that serum levels of IL-18 can be a sensitive parameter that importantly correlates with clinical severity of AD, can play a role in the immunopathogenesis of AD, and furthermore may be used in the diagnosis and follow-up of the disease in addition to other parameters.

  19. Detection of coliform bacteria in water by polymerase chain reaction and gene probes.

    OpenAIRE

    Bej, A K; Steffan, R J; DiCesare, J; Haff, L; Atlas, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and gene probe detection of regions of two genes, lacZ and lamB, were tested for their abilities to detect coliform bacteria. Amplification of a segment of the coding region of Escherichia coli lacZ by using a PCR primer annealing temperature of 50 degrees C detected E. coli and other coliform bacteria (including Shigella spp.) but not Salmonella spp. and noncoliform bacteria. Amplification of a region of E. coli lamB by using a primer annealing t...

  20. Factors Associated with the Presence of Coliforms in the Feed and Water of Feedlot Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Sanderson, Michael W.; Sargeant, Jan M.; Renter, David G.; Griffin, D. Dee; Smith, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate coliform counts in feedlot cattle water and feed rations and their associations with management, climate, fecal material, and water Escherichia coli O157 using a cross-sectional study design. Coliform counts were performed on feed samples from 671 pens on 70 feedlots and on water samples from 702 pens on 72 feedlots in four U.S. states collected between May and August 2001. Management and climate factors were obtained by survey and observation. M...

  1. Effects of low voltage electrolysis and freezing on coliform content of contaminated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sewage sample was mixed with drinking water and subjected to low voltage (15V) electrolysis in the presence of 1% NaCl. The prepared sample was also kept in freezer with and without the presence of sodium chloride for 4-hours. Among these treatments the electrolysis proved to kill the coliforms, while the freezing reduced the bacterial content. Antibiotics sensitivity patterns revealed that certain of the coliform strains survived the freezing and thawing shocks. Nature of such surviving bacteria and need to study chemical parameters of electrolyzed water are discussed. (author)

  2. Molecular and Bacteriological Examination of Milk from Different Milch Animals with Special Reference to Coliforms

    OpenAIRE

    T.S. Parekh; R. Subhash

    2008-01-01

    In the present study, 20 samples of raw milk of cow, buffalo and goat and pasteurized milk were collected from the local market and were analyzed for microbial count and IMViC tests to determine the coliform load in the sample. Further, the presence of E. coli was confirmed by using PCR. Majority of the milk samples of different origin were found to be contaminated by the coliform group of bacteria. Nine samples were found to be positive for E. coli by PCR analysis. Pasteurized milk sa...

  3. Serum testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin and total calcium levels predict the calcaneal speed of sound in men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Yong Chin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Variations in sex hormones and the calcium balance can influence bone health in men. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between the calcaneal speed of sound and biochemical determinants of bone mass, such as sex hormones, parathyroid hormones and serum calcium. METHODS: Data from 549 subjects from the Malaysian Aging Male Study, which included Malay and Chinese men aged 20 years and older residing in the Klang Valley, were used for analysis. The subjects' calcaneal speed of sound was measured, and their blood was collected for biochemical analysis. Two sets of multiple regression models were generated for the total/bioavailable testosterone and estradiol to avoid multicollinearity. RESULTS: The multiple regression results revealed that bioavailable testosterone and serum total calcium were significant predictors of the calcaneal speed of sound in the adjusted model. After adjustment for ethnicity and body mass index, only bioavailable testosterone remained significant; the total serum calcium was marginally insignificant. In a separate model, the total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin were significant predictors, whereas the total serum calcium was marginally insignificant. After adjustment for ethnicity and body mass index (BMI, the significance persisted for total testosterone and SHBG. After further adjustment for age, none of the serum biochemical determinants was a significant predictor of the calcaneal speed of sound. CONCLUSION: There is a significant age-dependent relationship between the calcaneal speed of sound and total testosterone, bioavailable testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in Chinese and Malay men in Malaysia. The relationship between total serum calcium and calcaneal speed of sound is ethnicity-dependent.

  4. Serum testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin and total calcium levels predict the calcaneal speed of sound in men

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Kok-Yong, Chin; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman; Isa Naina, Mohamed; Wan Zurinah Wan, Ngah.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Variations in sex hormones and the calcium balance can influence bone health in men. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between the calcaneal speed of sound and biochemical determinants of bone mass, such as sex hormones, parathyroid hormones and serum calcium. METHODS: [...] Data from 549 subjects from the Malaysian Aging Male Study, which included Malay and Chinese men aged 20 years and older residing in the Klang Valley, were used for analysis. The subjects' calcaneal speed of sound was measured, and their blood was collected for biochemical analysis. Two sets of multiple regression models were generated for the total/bioavailable testosterone and estradiol to avoid multicollinearity. RESULTS: The multiple regression results revealed that bioavailable testosterone and serum total calcium were significant predictors of the calcaneal speed of sound in the adjusted model. After adjustment for ethnicity and body mass index, only bioavailable testosterone remained significant; the total serum calcium was marginally insignificant. In a separate model, the total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin were significant predictors, whereas the total serum calcium was marginally insignificant. After adjustment for ethnicity and body mass index (BMI), the significance persisted for total testosterone and SHBG. After further adjustment for age, none of the serum biochemical determinants was a significant predictor of the calcaneal speed of sound. CONCLUSION: There is a significant age-dependent relationship between the calcaneal speed of sound and total testosterone, bioavailable testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in Chinese and Malay men in Malaysia. The relationship between total serum calcium and calcaneal speed of sound is ethnicity-dependent.

  5. The influence of adiponectin G276T gene polymorphism on changes in total and high molecular weight adiponectin levels by exercise training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Ando

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Adiponectin is an adipocyte-secreted hormone and regulates the metabolism of lipid and glucose. We examined the influence of adiponectin G276T gene polymorphism on changes in total or high molecular weight adiponectin levels by exercise training. A randomized parallel-design study (n = 53; 40 women and 13 men; age range, 32 - 65 years was conducted. Participants were randomly assigned to the exercise (n = 26 or control (n = 27 group and received exercise training for 70 min 2 times per week for 12 weeks and exercise advice at the baseline, respectively. Blood sample were obtained before and after the intervention. The primary outcomes were changes in total adiponectin and high molecular weight adiponectin levels. At the baseline, the participants with and without 276G allele did not differ with the total and high molecular weight adiponectin levels in the entire study population. No significant difference in the change in the total and high molecular weight adiponectin levels between the subjects with the G276G genotype and 276T allele carriers were found. This study provides evidence that the G276T polymorphism of the adiponectin gene is not associated with the magnitude of the effect of twice-weekly exercise training on the total and high molecular weight adiponectin levels.

  6. Interaction of ambient conditions and fecal coliform bacteria in southern Lake Michigan beach waters: Monitoring program implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Richard L.; Nevers, Meredith Becker; Gerovac, Paul J.

    1999-01-01

    Excessive fecal coliform bacteria in public swimming waters can potentially threaten visitor health. Fecal coliform bacteria (1984-1989) and Escherichia coli (1990-1995) density were monitored weekly at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore beaches for 12 summers, and park officials closed swimming areas when fecal coliform density exceeded the state water quality criteria (400 CFU fecal coliforms/ 100 ml; 235 CFU E. coli/100 ml water). Due to a 24-hour incubation in the fecal coliform and E. coli assays, beaches were closed the day after collection of high fecal coliform. Our analysis suggests that it is not possible to predict one day's fecal coliform count based on the previous day's results in waters taken from southern Lake Michigan beaches. Dispersal and deposition of bacteria were not uniform among sites or across time apparently due to interactions among environmental variables including rainfall, wind direction, water temperature, and bacteria source. Rainfall combined with northwest winds increased bacteria concentrations. Escherichia coli followed a seasonal trend with similar fluctuations in density among beaches. We suggest that the current beach monitoring protocol is inadequate for predicting fecal coliform density at the time of beach closure, and, subsequently, its use for ensuring visitor safety remains questionable.

  7. Estado trófico e bioacumulação do fósforo total no cultivo de peixes em tanques-rede na área aquícola do reservatório de Itaipu = Trophic level and bioaccumulation of total phosphorus in cage fish rearing in the aquaculture area at Itaipu reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Wolff Bueno

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A intensa produção de peixes e utilização dos recursos hídricos podecomprometer a qualidade e disponibilidade da água, além de afetar a capacidade de suporte do ambiente, causando eutrofização e, consequentemente, a poluição do mesmo. Realizouse um estudo das variáveis físico-químicas da água e dos teores de fósforo total (P-total no sedimento, rações e peixes cultivados em tanques-rede em uma área aquícola localizada no reservatório da Itaipu, no município de Santa Helena, Estado do Paraná, objetivando monitorar a qualidade da água e determinar o índice de eutrofização total da área de cultivo, além de analisar a bioacumulação de P-total nos peixes e sedimento. As variáveis físicoquímicas da água mantiveram valores normais indicados pelo Conama. A concentração média de P-total na área aquícola foi de 28,41 IET e com transparência por disco de Secchide 2,74 m, enquadrando o ambiente como oligotrófico. Houve correlação de 0,55 (p The intense production of fishes and the use of water resources can compromise the quality and availability of water, in addition to its effects on environmental carrying capacity, causing eutrophication andconsequently water pollution. Therefore, the objective of this study was to monitor the physical-chemical water variables and to measure the total phosphorus (total-P in sediment, feed and fish in cage culture in an aquaculture area situated at the Itaipu reservoirin Santa Helena – Paraná State, observing water quality and determining the total eutrophic level on the aquaculture area, in addition to analyzing total-P bioaccumulation in fish andsediment. The physical-chemical water variables presented normal values as indicated by Conama. The mean concentration of total-P for the aquaculture area was 28.41 IET and Secchi disc transparency of 2.74 m, giving it an oligotrophic classification. There was acorrelation of 0.55 (p < 0.01 between these two variables. The bioaccumulation of total-P in sediments decreased from 0.76 to 0.35 g kg-1 during this period. Mean fish accumulation ranged from 0.30 to 2.82 g kg-1. This activity can be used in the biomanipulation of total-P in similar reservoirs.

  8. Alterações nos níveis de colesterol, triglicerídeo e fosfolipídeo total em plasma de Callithrix jacchus (sagüi) reinfectado por Schistosoma mansoni / Alterations in cholesterol, triglyceride and total phospholipid levels in plasma of Callithrix jacchus (sagüi) reinfected by Schistosoma mansoni

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thadzia Maria de Brito, Ramos; Amanda Soares de, Vasconcelos; Vera Cristina Oliveira de, Carvalho; Vera Lúcia de Menezes, Lima.

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Pouco se conhece a cerca de alterações nos lipídeos plasmáticos devido à reinfecção por Schistosoma mansoni. Neste trabalho, foram avaliadas alterações nos lipídeos plasmáticos decorrentes de uma reinfecção por Schistosoma mansoni no primata não humano Callithrix jacchus (sagüi). Amostras de sangue [...] dos animais, antes e após serem infectados e reinfectados, foram coletadas por punção venosa, anticoaguladas com EDTA (1mg/mL) e centrifugadas a 2.500xg para obtenção do plasma. Os níveis plasmáticos de colesterol total, colesterol éster, fosfolipídeo total e triglicerídeo foram determinados por métodos espectrofotométricos. Os resultados mostraram haver redução significativa nas concentrações de colesterol total, colesterol esterificado, triglicerídeo e fosfolipídeo total em plasma de animais reinfectados por Schistosoma mansoni, em comparação com os mesmos animais antes da infecção e após uma infecção. Este estudo mostra que uma segunda infecção por Schistosoma mansoni causa alterações lipídicas plasmáticas significativamente mais acentuadas que as decorrentes de uma única infecção. Abstract in english Little information is available on the lipid changes caused by Schistosoma mansoni reinfection. In this work it was evaluated alteration in the plasma lipids due to one reinfection by Schistosoma mansoni in the non human primate Callithrix jacchus (sagüi). Blood samples from C. jacchus, prior and af [...] ter 60 days infection and reinfection, were collected by intravenous puncture, anticoagulated with EDTA (1mg/mL) and centrifuged at 2,500xg, in order to obtain the plasma. Total cholesterol, cholesteryl ester, total phospholipid and triglyceride levels were determined by spectrophotometer methods. The results showed that there are significant reduction in cholesterol total, cholesteryl ester, total phospholipid and triglyceride concentrations in plasma of animals reinfected by Schistosoma mansoni, in comparison to the same animals prior and after one infection. This study showed that a second infection of Callithrix jacchus by Schistosoma mansoni causes plasma lipid alterations, which are more significant than after a single infection.

  9. Validity and reproducibility of the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) questionnaire for the measurement of the physical activity level in patients after total knee arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Bolszak, Sylvain; Casartelli, Nicola; Impellizzeri, Franco; Maffiuletti, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The need for valid and reproducible questionnaires to routinely assess the physical activity level of patients after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is of particular concern in clinical settings. Aims of this study were to evaluate the validity and reproducibility of the physical activity scale for the elderly (PASE) questionnaire in TKA patients, with a particular view on gender differences. METHODS: A total of 50 elderly patients (25 women and 25 men aged 70?±?6 years) follo...

  10. Nível sérico de IgE total em alergia respiratória: estudo em pacientes com alto risco de infecção por helmintos Total IgE level in respiratory allergy: study of patients at high risk for helminthic infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Décio Medeiros

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Eosinofilia e elevação de IgE sérica são expressões de atopia, contudo há fatores intervenientes como, por exemplo, as parasitoses intestinais. Esta pesquisa verifica a relação entre IgE sérica total, eosinófilos e IgE específica anti-áscaris em indivíduos portadores de asma e/ou rinite alérgica. MÉTODOS: Estudo do tipo transversal em adolescentes portadores de asma e/ou rinite alérgica que foram examinados quanto ao nível sérico de IgE total, de IgE anti-áscaris e de contagem dos eosinófilos sangüíneos. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 101 pacientes com idade entre 12 e 21 anos. A mediana da IgE foi 660 UI/mL (P25-75 243,5-1500, e a dos eosinófilos foi 510 células/mm³ (P25-75 284-811. A IgE anti-áscaris foi positiva em 73% (74/101 da amostra, mas houve apenas 33,7% (34/101 de positividade ao parasitológico de fezes. Os coeficientes de correlação encontrados foram: 0,34 (p = 0,001 entre IgE total e eosinófilos, 0,52 (p OBJECTIVE: Eosinophilia and increased serum IgE levels are indicators of atopy; however, other factors can also play a key role, such as intestinal parasitic infections. This study assesses the relationship between total serum IgE, eosinophil count, and anti-Ascaris IgE in individuals with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in adolescents with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis. The patients had their total serum IgE, anti-Ascaris IgE and eosinophil count measured. RESULTS: A total of 101 patients aged 12 to 21 years were assessed. Median IgE level was 660 IU/mL (P25-75 243.5-1500, and the eosinophil count corresponded to 510 cells/mm³ (P25-75 284-811. Anti-Ascaris IgE was positive in 73% (74/101 of the individuals, but parasitological stool examination yielded positive results in only 33.7% (34/101. The correlation coefficients were the following: 0.34 (p = 0.001 between total IgE level and eosinophil count, 0.52 (p < 0.001 between total IgE level and anti-Ascaris IgE, and 0.26 (p = 0.01 between eosinophil count and anti-Ascaris IgE. The final multiple linear regression model pointed out that anti-Ascaris IgE contributed to a total serum IgE level with a coefficient of determination (adjusted R² of 0.25 (F = 12.35; p < 0.001. This effect occurred regardless of eosinophil count and of the presence of intestinal helminthic infection. CONCLUSION: In patients with respiratory allergy and increased total serum IgE levels living in areas where there is a high risk for helminthic infections, the quantification of anti-Ascaris IgE can be more useful and more insightful than the parasitological stool examination.

  11. Comparison of Membrane Filtration and Multiple-Tube Fermentation by the Colilert and Enterolert Methods for Detection of Waterborne Coliform Bacteria, Escherichia coli, and Enterococci Used in Drinking and Bathing Water Quality Monitoring in Southern Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Eckner, Karl F.

    1998-01-01

    A total of 338 water samples, 261 drinking water samples and 77 bathing water samples, obtained for routine testing were analyzed in duplicate by Swedish standard methods using multiple-tube fermentation or membrane filtration and by the Colilert and/or Enterolert methods. Water samples came from a wide variety of sources in southern Sweden (Skåne). The Colilert method was found to be more sensitive than Swedish standard methods for detecting coliform bacteria and of equal sensitivity for det...

  12. Radiation-hardening-by-design with circuit-level modeling of total ionizing dose effects in modern CMOS technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunov, M. S.; Zebrev, G. I.; Osipenko, P. N.

    2010-02-01

    Physical model of total ionizing dose (TID) effects previously developed and successfully verified by authors was embedded to BSIM3v3 model implemented using Verilog-A language. This tool is fully compatible with standard SPICE simulators and allows taking into account the electrical bias conditions for each transistor during irradiation.

  13. Detection of fecal coliforms in water by using [14C]mannitol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interest in rapid bacterial detection methods for sanitary indicator bacteria in water prompted a study of the use of [U-14C]mannitol to detect fecal coliforms (FC). A simple method which used m-FC broth, membrane filtration, and two-temperature incubation (35 degrees C for 2 h followed by 44.5 degrees C for 2.5 h) was developed. [U-14C]mannitol was added to the medium, and the temperature was raised to 44.5 degrees C after 2 h at 35 degrees C. 14CO2 was collected as Ba14CO3 and assayed by liquid scintillation spectroscopy. Correlations were examined between FC cell numbers at the start of incubation (standard 24-h FC test) and Ba14CO3 counts per minute after 4.5 h. Results indicated that FC numbers ranging from 1 x 10(1) to 2.1 x 10(5) cells could be detected in 4.5 h. Within-sample reproducibility at all cell concentrations was good, but sample-to-sample reproducibility was variable. Comparisons between m-FC broth and m-FC broth modified by substituting D-mannitol for lactose indicated that the standard m-FC broth was the better test medium. Results from experiments in which dimethyl sulfoxide was used to increase permeability of FC to [U-14C]mannitol indicated no increase in 14CO2 production due to dimethyl sulfoxide. Detection of FC by this method may be useful for rapid estimation of FC levels in freshwater recreational areas, for estimating the quality of potable source water, and potentially for emergency testing of potable water, suspected of contamination dueable water, suspected of contamination due to distribution line breaks or cross-connections

  14. Shellac formulations to reduce epiphytic survival of coliform bacteria on citrus fruit postharvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, R G; Hagenmaier, R D

    2001-11-01

    Survival of the coliform bacteria Enterobacter aerogenes and Escherichia coli was monitored in a neutral carboxymethylcellulose formulation and in shellac formulations with various pH and concentrations of ethanol and the preservative paraben; populations were subsequently measured from the surface of citrus fruit coated with these formulations. Numbers of the two bacteria increased over 24 h from 10(6) CFU/ml to approximately 10(8) CFU/ml in the carboxymethylcellulose solution, but over this time numbers remained little changed in the neutral solution of shellac. The Enterobacter was more tolerant of alcohol over a 3-h period: although its numbers in a shellac solution with 10% ethanol dropped from more than 10(6) CFU/ml to just over 10(3) CFU/ml. E. coli and a third species. Klebsiella pneunoniae, declined toward the limit of detection (5 CFU/ ml) during this time. The addition of morpholine to increase the formulation pH to 9.0 caused numbers of bacteria to plummet to an undetectable level within 30 to 60 min. On Ruby Red grapefruit and Valencia oranges in storage at 13 degrees C numbers of E. aerogenes and E. coli declined over 2 weeks from 10(5) CFU/cm2 to less than 2.5 x 10(1), but most of the loss in numbers occurred within 1 day. Numbers remained significantly less on shellacked fruit compared with those applied in the carboxymethylcellulose coating, and a shellac coating prepared from a pH 9 solution was more toxic to these species than one in which 12% ethanol had been added to the neutral formulation. The addition of the preservative paraben in the basic shellac was further inhibitory. PMID:11726155

  15. DETECTION OF FECAL COLIFORMS IN WATER USING 14C-MANNITOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interest in rapid bacterial detection methods for sanitary indicator bacteria in water prompted a study of the use of 14C-mannitol (UL) to detect fecal coliforms (FC). implemethod was developed using m-FC broth, membrane filtration, and two-temperature incubation (35oC for 2 h, f...

  16. RUNOFF TRANSPORT OF MANURE-BORNE FECAL COLIFORMS AND CHLORIDE: FIELD PLOT EXPERIMENT AND MODELING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal coliform (FC) and chloride (Cl) transport from dissolving manure applied on hillslopes was studied in the field plot scale and simulated. Two-by-six meters runoff plots were set in triplicate on vegetated and bare 20% slopes with sandy loam and clay loam soils in the ARS BARC. Fresh bovine man...

  17. Comparison of Selected Methods for the Enumeration of Fecal Coliforms and Escherichia coli in Shellfish

    OpenAIRE

    Grabow, W.O.K.; De Villiers, J. C.; Schildhauer, C. I.

    1992-01-01

    In a comparison of five selected methods for the enumeration of fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli in naturally contaminated and sewage-seeded mussels (Choromytilus spp.) and oysters (Ostrea spp.), a spread-plate procedure with mFC agar without rosolic acid and preincubation proved the method of choice for routine quality assessment.

  18. Short incubation of presumptive media for detection of fecal coliforms in shellfish.

    OpenAIRE

    Hastback, W G

    1981-01-01

    Positive fecal coliform most-probable number results were compiled from 7,701 shellfish samples examined over 9 years. Generally, less than 2% of all positive reactions in EC medium are results of inoculations from presumptive media positive at the maximum (48-h) incubation period.

  19. PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA-FECAL COLIFORM RELATIONSHIPS IN ESTUARINE AND FRESH RECREATIONAL WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study has shown that Pseudomonas aeruginosa cannot be used as the basis of water standards for the prevention of enteric disease during the recreational use of surface waters. However, P. aeruginosa determinations, when used in conjunction with the assay of fecal coliforms o...

  20. Land cover impacts on stream nutrients and fecal coliform in the lower Piedmont of West Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonover, Jon E.; Lockaby, B. Graeme

    2006-12-01

    SummaryAs urbanization infiltrates into rural areas, stream water quality is expected to decline as a result from increased impervious surface and greater sources for pollutants. Consequently, West Georgia's water quality is threatened by extensive development as well as other land uses such as livestock grazing and silvicultural activity. Maintenance of stream water quality, as land development occurs, is critical for the protection of drinking water and biotic integrity. A 2-phase, watershed-scale study was established to develop relationships among land cover and water quality within western Georgia. During phase 1, nutrient and fecal coliform data were collected within 18 mixed land use watersheds, ranging in size from 500 to 2500 ha. Regression models were developed that related land cover to stream water nutrient and fecal coliform concentrations. Nutrient and fecal coliform concentrations within watersheds having >24% impervious surface (IS) were often higher than those in nonurban watersheds (i.e., Fecal coliform bacteria in urbanized areas consistently exceeded the US EPA's review criterion for recreational waters during both base flow and to a greater extent storm flow. During phase 2, regression models were tested based on data from six newly chosen watersheds with similar land use/cover patterns. Lastly, theoretical watersheds, based on land use percentages, were created to illustrate trends in water quality impairment as land development occurs. The models developed from this research could be used to forecast water quality changes under various land use scenarios in the developing Piedmont region of the US.

  1. A-1 medium: alternative technique for fecal coliform organism enumeration in chlorinated wastewaters.

    OpenAIRE

    Standridge, J. H.; Delfino, J J

    1981-01-01

    A 24-h most-probable-number technique using A-1 medium for detecting fecal coliforms in chlorinated wastewaters was evaluated. The A-1 medium technique, using 3 h of preincubation at 35 degrees C, gave results statistically equivalent to those obtained with the American Public Health Association Standard Methods two-step most-probable-number technique.

  2. Comparison of selected methods for the enumeration of fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli in shellfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabow, W O; De Villiers, J C; Schildhauer, C I

    1992-09-01

    In a comparison of five selected methods for the enumeration of fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli in naturally contaminated and sewage-seeded mussels (Choromytilus spp.) and oysters (Ostrea spp.), a spread-plate procedure with mFC agar without rosolic acid and preincubation proved the method of choice for routine quality assessment. PMID:1444438

  3. Alternative methods for fecal coliform load reductions in South Georgia watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Of the 11,285 miles of streams and rivers assessed in the state of Georgia, roughly 57% have been classified as impaired. Of the impaired water bodies, impairments due to fecal coliform (FC) bacteria are the most prevalent form of pollutant. FC bacteria are found in both urban and rural settings a...

  4. Contamination of faecal coliforms in ice cubes sampled from food outlets in Kubang Kerian, Kelantan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor Izani, N J; Zulaikha, A R; Mohamad Noor, M R; Amri, M A; Mahat, N A

    2012-03-01

    The use of ice cubes in beverages is common among patrons of food outlets in Malaysia although its safety for human consumption remains unclear. Hence, this study was designed to determine the presence of faecal coliforms and several useful water physicochemical parameters viz. free residual chlorine concentration, turbidity and pH in ice cubes from 30 randomly selected food outlets in Kubang Kerian, Kelantan. Faecal coliforms were found in ice cubes in 16 (53%) food outlets ranging between 1 CFU/100mL to >50 CFU/ 100mL, while in the remaining 14 (47%) food outlets, in samples of tap water as well as in commercially bottled drinking water, faecal coliforms were not detected. The highest faecal coliform counts of >50 CFU/100mL were observed in 3 (10%) food outlets followed by 11-50 CFU/100mL and 1-10 CFU/100mL in 7 (23%) and 6 (20%) food outlets, respectively. All samples recorded low free residual chlorine concentration (food outlets or (2) they may not be the water sources used for making ice cubes. Since low free residual chlorine concentrations were observed (food outlets, including that of ice cube is crucial in ensuring better food and water for human consumption. PMID:22543605

  5. The modified SWAT model for predicting fecal coliform in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal contamination has been an issue for water quality because fecal coliform bacteria are used as an indicator organism to detect pathogens in water. In order to assess fecal contamination in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed in Massachusetts, USA, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a comm...

  6. Assessing climate variability impact on thermotolerant coliform bacteria in surface water

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the impacts of climate variability on fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) transport in the Upper Pearl River Watershed (UPRW) in Mississippi. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was applied to the UPRW using observed flow and FCB concentrations. The SWAT hydrologic model was ...

  7. Effect of Manure on Fecal Coliform Attachment to Soil and Soil Particles of Different Sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    It has been recognized that bacteria transport in runoff can be different for free cells, cells attached to soil particles, and cells attached to manure particles. Objectives of this work were to compare attachment of fecal coliforms (FC) to different soils and soil fractions, and to assess effect o...

  8. Fecal Coliform Interaction with Soil Aggregates: Effect of Water Content and Bovine Manure Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aims: To test the hypothesis that fecal coliform (FC) interaction with soil aggregates is affected by aggregate size, water content and bovine manure application. Methods and Results: Tyler loam soil aggregates were separated into fractions of 3.35-4.75 mm, 4.75-7.93 mm and 7.93-9.5 mm. Air-dry an...

  9. Method of Detecting Coliform Bacteria and Escherichia Coli Bacteria from Reflected Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Robert (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of detecting coliform bacteria in water from reflected light and a method of detecting Eschericha Coli bacteria in water from reflected light, and also includes devices for the measurement, calculation and transmission of data relating to that method.

  10. Efeito do período experimental sobre a digestão parcial e total em bovinos alimentados com dois níveis de volumosos Effect of experimental periods on the parcial and total digestion in cattle fed two levels of forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Cylene Guimarães

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar os efeitos de dois períodos experimentais e dois níveis de volumosos na dieta sobre a digestibilidade total e parcial da matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, energia bruta (EB e amido. Foram utilizados quatro novilhos da raça Holandês Preto e Branco, com dois anos de idade e 340 kg de peso vivo e canulados no rúmen e duodeno. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o quadrado latino 4 x 4, em que os animais receberam quatro tratamentos, que consistiram de dois níveis de volumosos (30 e 70% e dois períodos experimentais (14 e 21 dias. Houve efeito significativo do nível de volumoso sobre a digestibilidade ruminal de FDA e FDN, a digestibilidade intestinal e total da MS, MO, PB e amido e a digestibilidade total da EB. Não houve efeito do período experimental sobre os coeficientes de digestibilidade dos nutrientes avaliados. Conclui-se que a utilização de período experimental de 14 dias, em experimentos de digestão, é viável, quando se utiliza feno como fonte de volumoso.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of two experimental periods and two forage levels in the diet on the total and parcial apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, acid detergent fiber (ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, gross energy (GE and starch. Four Holstein steers, averaging two years old and 340 kg of body weight, ruminally and duodenally cannulated, were used. The experimental design was a 4 x 4 latin square and the animals received four treatments as following: two forage levels (30 and 70% and two experimental periods (14 and 21 days. There was effect of forage level on intestinal and total digestibility of DM, OM, CP and starch and on total digestibility of GE. There was effect of forage level on ruminal digestibility of ADF and NDF. There was no effect of experimental periods on the digestibility coefficients of the nutrients. It was concluded that 14 days experimental period is practible when hay is used.

  11. Serum total IGF-I, free IGF-I, and IGFB-1 levels in an elderly population: relation to cardiovascular risk factors and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, J. A. M. J. L.; Stolk, R. P.; Pols, H. A. P.; Grobbee, D. E.; Lamberts, S. W. J.

    1998-01-01

    Recently, a method to measure free insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels has been developed. Free IGF-I levels may have greater physiological and clinical relevance than total (bound and free) IGF-I. The associations between the circulating IGF-I/IGF binding protein (IGFBP) system and cardiovascular disorders was studied. In a cross-sectional study of 218 healthy persons (103 men, 115 women) aged 55 to 80 years, ...

  12. Growth and total-N content of Prosopis juliflora (SW D. C. are stimulated by low NaCl levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viégas Ricardo Almeida

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the early effects of salinity on growth, total N and ion accumulation and partitioning in Prosopis juliflora (common name algaroba were studied with 30-day-old plants grown for 8 days in aerated nutrient solution (NS free of (control or supplied with 25, 50, 75 and 100 mmol.L-1 NaCl. Plants grown in 25 and 50 mmol.L-1 NaCl accumulated a total dry mass (DM and shoot N content greater than the control. However, at 75 and 100 mmol.L-1 NaCl such parameters were diminished. Whole plant transpiration rates were higher with 25 and 50 mmol.L-1 NaCl and lower with 75 and 100 mmol.L-1 NaCl. Salinity did not influence shoot (80% and root (70% water content (WC but reduced the K+ content of shoot while that of root was not affected. Increasing external NaCl concentrations increased K+/Na+ ratios of both plant parts. The data support the hypothesis that increase in transpiration rates and in shoot total N may account for growth stimulation of algaroba under mild salinity.

  13. Levels of b-carotene, ascorbic acid and total phenols in the pulp of five commercial varieties of mango (Mangifera indica L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five varieties of mangoes from four countries were evaluated with multiple harvests over a year to compare the ß-carotene, total phenol, and ascorbic acid levels of the fruit pulp. Only soft fruit (0.5 to 1 N compression) with a minimum of 10% soluble solids were used for these measurements to minim...

  14. Survey of total and inorganic arsenic content in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) from Norwegian fiords: Revelation of unusual high levels of inorganic arsenic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Jens JØrgen; Julshamn, Kåre

    2008-01-01

    The present study reports the findings of unusual high levels of inorganic arsenic in samples of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). A total of 175 pooled samples of blue mussels from various locations along the Norwegian coastline were analyzed for their content of total arsenic and inorganic arsenic. Total arsenic was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) following microwave-assisted acidic digestion of the samples. Inorganic arsenic was determined using an anion-exchange HPLC-ICPMS method following microwave-assisted alkaline solubilization of the samples. For the majority of the samples (78%) the concentration of total arsenic was below 3 mg kg(-1) wet weight (ww) and inorganic arsenic constituted

  15. Colimetria de água marinha em áreas de cultivo e extrativismo de mexilhões no município de Niterói, RJ / Coliform enumeration in mussel-growing waters from Niteroi city, RJ-Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A.A., Pinheiro Jr.; L.A.T., Oliveira; R.M., Franco; J.C.A.P., Carvalho.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Analisaram-se amostras de água do mar de cinco pontos da Baía de Guanabara quanto ao número mais provável (NMP) de coliformes totais e de Escherichia coli usando-se o método fluorogênico, e verificaram-se o pH, a salinidade e a temperatura dos locais de colheita. As contagens de E. coli nas amostras [...] das estações Icaraí, Boa Viagem e Santa Cruz foram, em média, acima do previsto na legislação, enquanto que nas estações Piratininga e Rio Branco, 92,9% e 100% das amostras tiveram contagens de E. coli menor que 3/100ml. Observou-se relação positiva entre coliformes totais e E. coli, enquanto que a correlação entre colimetria, pH, salinidade e temperatura da água não foi significativa. Temperatura e pH mostraram pouca variação entre as estações, sendo as médias de salinidade, coliformes totais e E. coli semelhantes em Icaraí, Boa Viagem e Santa Cruz. Piratininga e Rio Branco apresentaram médias diferentes destas e semelhantes entre si. Os resultados em Icaraí, Boa Viagem e Santa Cruz indicam provável impropriedade para o cultivo e/ou extrativismo de mexilhões destinados ao consumo, enquanto que os de Piratininga e Rio Branco indicam provável propriedade para a instalação de cultivo de mexilhões ou mesmo para depuração natural de mexilhões cultivados em águas contaminadas. Abstract in english Water samples from five different sites on Guanabara Bay (Icaraí, Boa Viagem, Santa Cruz, Piratininga, and Rio Branco) were analyzed for estimated numbers of coliform and Escherichiacoli. Water pH, salt concentration, and temperature were measuredin the sampling place. E.coli countings for samples c [...] ollected in Icaraí, Boa Viagem, and Santa Cruz were usually higher than the values legallyaccepted by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture. In Piratininga and Rio Branco, respectively, 92.3% and 100% of the sampleshad countings of lessthan 3 E.coli/100ml. A significant correlation was found between total coliforms and E. coli countings. The average water temperature and pH were equal in the investigated sites. By contrast, water salinity, total coliforms, and E. coli counts were statistically equal in Icaraí, Boa Viagem, and Santa Cruz, but different when compared to samples collected in Piratininga and Rio Branco. Nevertheless, samples collected in Piratininga and Rio Branco were statistically similar in these two sites. Results indicate that water from Icaraí, Boa Viagem, and Santa Cruz are unsuitable for cultivating and/or harvesting bivalves for human consumption.

  16. Colimetria de água marinha em áreas de cultivo e extrativismo de mexilhões no município de Niterói, RJ Coliform enumeration in mussel-growing waters from Niteroi city, RJ-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Pinheiro Jr.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Analisaram-se amostras de água do mar de cinco pontos da Baía de Guanabara quanto ao número mais provável (NMP de coliformes totais e de Escherichia coli usando-se o método fluorogênico, e verificaram-se o pH, a salinidade e a temperatura dos locais de colheita. As contagens de E. coli nas amostras das estações Icaraí, Boa Viagem e Santa Cruz foram, em média, acima do previsto na legislação, enquanto que nas estações Piratininga e Rio Branco, 92,9% e 100% das amostras tiveram contagens de E. coli menor que 3/100ml. Observou-se relação positiva entre coliformes totais e E. coli, enquanto que a correlação entre colimetria, pH, salinidade e temperatura da água não foi significativa. Temperatura e pH mostraram pouca variação entre as estações, sendo as médias de salinidade, coliformes totais e E. coli semelhantes em Icaraí, Boa Viagem e Santa Cruz. Piratininga e Rio Branco apresentaram médias diferentes destas e semelhantes entre si. Os resultados em Icaraí, Boa Viagem e Santa Cruz indicam provável impropriedade para o cultivo e/ou extrativismo de mexilhões destinados ao consumo, enquanto que os de Piratininga e Rio Branco indicam provável propriedade para a instalação de cultivo de mexilhões ou mesmo para depuração natural de mexilhões cultivados em águas contaminadas.Water samples from five different sites on Guanabara Bay (Icaraí, Boa Viagem, Santa Cruz, Piratininga, and Rio Branco were analyzed for estimated numbers of coliform and Escherichiacoli. Water pH, salt concentration, and temperature were measuredin the sampling place. E.coli countings for samples collected in Icaraí, Boa Viagem, and Santa Cruz were usually higher than the values legallyaccepted by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture. In Piratininga and Rio Branco, respectively, 92.3% and 100% of the sampleshad countings of lessthan 3 E.coli/100ml. A significant correlation was found between total coliforms and E. coli countings. The average water temperature and pH were equal in the investigated sites. By contrast, water salinity, total coliforms, and E. coli counts were statistically equal in Icaraí, Boa Viagem, and Santa Cruz, but different when compared to samples collected in Piratininga and Rio Branco. Nevertheless, samples collected in Piratininga and Rio Branco were statistically similar in these two sites. Results indicate that water from Icaraí, Boa Viagem, and Santa Cruz are unsuitable for cultivating and/or harvesting bivalves for human consumption.

  17. Blood serum and seminal plasma selenium, total antioxidant capacity and coenzyme q10 levels in relation to semen parameters in men with idiopathic infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroglu, Mustafa; Sahin, Sadik; Durukan, Birol; Ozakpinar, Ozlem Bingol; Erdinc, Nese; Turkgeldi, Lale; Sofuoglu, Kenan; Karateke, Ates

    2014-06-01

    In this case-control study, we aimed to evaluate the serum and seminal plasma levels of Selenium (Se), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ-10) and determine their relationship with sperm concentration, motility, and morphology in men with idiopathic infertility. A total of 59 subjects were enrolled in the study. Forty four patients were diagnosed with idiopathic male infertility and had abnormal sperm parameters, and 15 subjects had normal sperm parameters with proven fertility. Serum Se, semen Se, and semen TAC levels were significantly different in the fertile and infertile groups (pdeterminant of abnormal sperm parameters and idiopathic male infertility. Measurement of serum Se levels may help determine nutritional status and antioxidant capacity in infertile patients, which may help distinguish those patients who will benefit from supplementation therapy. PMID:24752972

  18. Value of the first serum thyroglobulin level after total thyroidectomy for the diagnosis of metastases from differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic significance of the first serum thyroglobulin (Tg) measurement, performed 40 days after total thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma and prior to the ablation of residual thyroid tissue by means of iodine-131 therapy. In a retrospective study we examined 334 consecutive patients followed up for 4-16 years by means of regular Tg measurements, 131I whole-body scans (WBS) and other diagnostic techniques, if necessary. In 79 patients metastases were discovered (32 lymph node and 47 distant metastases) within 18 months following thyroidectomy. Mean values of first Tg were significantly higher in patients with than in patients without metastases (258.9±310.6 vs 15.9±19.6 ng/ml; P131I uptake by residual thyroid tissue. No other parameter (age, histological type, site of metastases, 131I uptake by metastases) was significantly related to the first Tg value. We conclude that the first Tg measurement after total thyroidectomy provides a useful early diagnostic indication of metastatic disease in spite of the presence of a post-surgical thte of the presence of a post-surgical thyroid remnant, and that this holds true regardless of the TSH value and WBS result. This early information is of clinical relevance for patient follow-up. (orig.)

  19. Association of MTHFR C677T with total homocysteine plasma levels and susceptibility to Parkinson's disease: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ying; Zhu, Rui-Xia; He, Zhi-Yi; Liu, Xu; Liu, He-Nan

    2015-06-01

    The C677T single-nucleotide polymorphism in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene (MTHFR) may elevate homocysteine (Hcy) levels and increase the risk of Parkinson's disease (PD); however, results are conflicting. Our aim was to resolve contradictions in the literature and to determine whether MTHFR C677T has a significant role in regulating Hcy levels and/or is a significant risk factor for PD. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, China Biological Medicine Database and Google Scholar were searched until May 2014. Strict selection and exclusion criteria were determined, and odds ratios (ORs)/weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of associations. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA 12.0. Fifteen studies that together assessed 2690 PD cases and 8465 controls were included. Meta-analysis showed that no significant difference in the distribution of MTHFR C677T between PD cases and controls was found. While stratifying for ethnicity, significant association was revealed in Europeans (T vs. C, OR = 1.17, 95 % CIs 1.04-1.31) but not in Asians. Significant association between the T allele and increased Hcy levels was found in PD cases and controls; Hcy levels were higher in PD cases and controls carrying the MTHFR T677 allele than in non-carriers (TT vs. CC, PD WMD = 6.50, 95 % CIs 6.20-6.80; controls WMD = 4.52, 95 % CIs 4.24-4.80). Other within-group comparisons showed similar results. This meta-analysis suggests that MTHFR C667T may confer PD susceptibility in Europeans. The T allele may be an independent risk factor for elevated Hcy levels in PD patients. PMID:25564416

  20. Interlaboratory evaluation of the AOAC method and the A-1 procedure for recovery of fecal coliforms from foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, W H; Wilson, C R; Poelma, P L; Bullock, L K; McClure, F D; Gentile, D E

    1981-09-01

    An interlaboratory evaluation was made of the 96 h AOAC method and the 24 h A-1 procedure for the enumeration of fecal coliforms in samples of yellow corn meal, rye flour, mung beans, raw ground beef, and raw oyster homogenate. Results indicated that the efficiency of the A-1 procedure, measured in terms of recovery of fecal coliforms, and the reproducibility of that recovery were dependent on the particular food being analyzed. Accordingly, until its efficiency can be more fully demonstrated, the A-1 procedure is recommended only as a screening procedure for fecal coliforms in foods. PMID:7026527

  1. Effects of radiation and ?-tocopherol on saliva flow rate, amylase activity, total protein and electrolyte levels in oral cavity cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitra S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate early and late effects of radiation and a-tocopherol on the secretion rate of saliva and on selected saliva salivary parameters in oral cavity cancer patients. Patients & Methods: Eighty-nine histologically confirmed oral cavity cancer patients (OCC were enrolled in the study. Resting whole saliva was collected before, during and at the end of the radiation therapy (RT and simultaneous supplementation with ? - tocopherol to the radiation treated patients (RT + AT. Results: Salivary flow rate, pH, amylase activity, total protein, sodium and potassium were analyzed. Increased pH, potassium and decreased flow rate, amylase activity, protein content and sodium were observed in 6 weeks of radiation treated patients when compared to OCC patients. A significant improvement of those parameters was observed on ? - tocopherol supplementation in RT + AT patients. Conclusion: Supplementation with ? - tocopherol improves the salivary flow rate thereby, maintains salivary parameters.

  2. Testable uniqueness conditions for empirical assessment of undersampling levels in total variation-regularized X-ray CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØrgensen, Jakob Sauer; Kruschel, C.

    2014-01-01

    We study recoverability in fan-beam computed tomography (CT) with sparsity and total variation priors: how many underdetermined linear measurements suffice for recovering images of given sparsity? Results from compressed sensing (CS) establish such conditions for example for random measurements, but not for CT. Recoverability is typically tested by checking whether a computed solution recovers the original. This approach cannot guarantee solution uniqueness and the recoverability decision therefore depends on the optimization algorithm. We propose new computational methods to test recoverability by verifying solution uniqueness conditions. Using both reconstruction and uniqueness testing, we empirically study the number of CT measurements sufficient for recovery on new classes of sparse test images. We demonstrate an average-case relation between sparsity and sufficient sampling and observe a sharp phase transition as known from CS, but never established for CT. In addition to assessing recoverability more reliably, we show that uniqueness tests are often the faster option.

  3. Evaluation of the level of skill required of operators of a computer-assisted radiologic total lung capacity measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research was conducted to obtain information regarding the feasibility of using non-medical personnel to obtain measurements of radiologic total lung capacity (TLC). Operators from each of four groups (general undergraduates, nursing students, medical students, radiologists) differing in the amount of medical training and/or experience reading x-rays, performed each of two tasks. The first task was the measurement of radiologic TLC for a set of twenty x-rays. The second task consisted of tracing the outline of the anatomical structures that must be identified in the execution of the radiologic TLC measurement task. Data from the radiologic TLC measurement task were used to identify possible group differences in the reliability and validity of the measures. The reliability analyses were performed within the framework of Generalizability Theory. While the results are not conclusive, due to small sizes, the analyses suggest that group differences in reliability of the measures, if they exist, are small

  4. Immunohistochemically determined total epidermal growth factor receptor levels not of prognostic value in newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme: Report from the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) performed an analysis of patterns of immunohistochemically detected total epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) protein expression levels and their prognostic significance on archival tissue in newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients from prior prospective RTOG clinical trials. Methods and materials: Patients in this study had been treated on previous RTOG GBM trials (RTOG 7401, 7918, 8302, 8409, 9006, 9305, 9602, and 9806). Tissue microarrays were prepared from 155 patients enrolled in these trials. These specimens were stained using a mouse monoclonal antibody specific for the extracellular binding domain of EGFR to detect total EGFR (including both wild-type phosphorylated and wild-type unphosphorylated isoforms with some cross-reactivity with EGFRvIII). The intensity of total EGFR protein expression was measured by computerized quantitative image analysis using the SAMBA 4000 Cell Image Analysis System. The parameters measured were the mean optical densities over the labeled areas and the staining index, which represents the proportion of stained area relative to the mean stain concentration. Both parameters were correlated with the clinical outcome. Results: No differences in either overall or progression-free survival could be demonstrated by the mean optical density class or mean optical density quartile or the staining index of total EGFR immunostaining among the representative RTOG GBM caseing among the representative RTOG GBM cases. Conclusion: Total EGFR protein expression levels, as measured immunohistochemically, do not appear to be of prognostic value in newly diagnosed GBM patients. Given the accumulating clinical evidence of the activity of anti-EGFR agents in GBM and the preclinical data suggesting the important role of downstream mediators as effectors of EGFR signaling, the RTOG is conducting additional investigations into the prognostic value of activation patterns of EGFR signaling, both at the level of the receptor (e.g., EGFRvIII, phospho-EGFR) and at the level of downstream signal transduction pathways (e.g., PI3K, Ras/MAPK pathways)

  5. Lund computer codes for the calculation of nuclear single-particle levels and total potential energies as functions of nuclear shape: a brief description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The input parameters for a set of codes that calculate nuclear single-particle levels and total potential energies as functions of shape are discussed. These codes were developed in Lund. In the codes, the macroscopic-microscopic method is used to calculate the total energy. The single-particle potential is a modified-oscillator potential. The macroscopic energy is calculated for both a liquid drop model and the droplet model. Mass-asymmetric and axially (?) asymmetric shapes may be studied by use of these codes

  6. Measuring Partial Pressure of Ammonia in Arterial or Venous Blood VS total Ammonia Levels in Hepatic Encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Asif Mehmood; Tariq Waseem; Malik Asif Humayun; Farina Zia Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To find out the correlation between clinical grade of hepaticencephalopathy and different serum ammonia levels, namely,serum arterial ammonia, serum venous ammonia, partial pressureof ammonia in arterial plasma and partial pressure of ammonia invenous plasma.METHODS: After informed consent from patients or their relatives,100 patients in hepatic encephalopathy due to advanced liver disease,were examined for their clinical grade of hepatic encephalopathywithin 24 hours of admission. Fasti...

  7. Total system performance predictions (TSPA-1995) for the potential high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The management and operating contractor for the potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has been recently completed a new performance assessment of the ability of the repository to isolate and contain nuclear waste for long time periods (up to 1,000,000 years). Sensitivity analyses determine the most important physical parameters and processes, using the most current information and models

  8. Effects of oral, vaginal, and transdermal hormonal contraception on serum levels of coenzyme q(10), vitamin e, and total antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palan, Prabhudas R; Strube, Felix; Letko, Juraj; Sadikovic, Azra; Mikhail, Magdy S

    2010-01-01

    The use of the transdermal contraceptive patch is associated with greater bioavailability of ethinyl estradiol (EE) compared with contraceptive vaginal ring or oral contraceptives (OC). We compared the influences of three contraceptive methods (OC, vaginal ring, and transdermal patch) on serum levels of coenzyme Q(10), alpha-tocopherol, gamma-tocopherol and total antioxidant capacity in premenopausal women. Blood samples from 30 premenopausal women who used hormonal contraception for at least 4 months were collected. Forty subjects who did not use any contraception were studied as control. Serum levels of coenzyme Q(10), alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Serum samples were also assayed for total antioxidant capacity (TAOC). Serum levels of coenzyme Q(10) and alpha-tocopherol were found to be significantly lower (P < .05) in all three contraceptive users compared with controls. Contraceptive patch users had the lowest levels of coenzyme Q(10) levels compared with normal subjects. Serum TAOC levels were significantly lower (P < .05) among the contraceptive user groups. Alterations in coenzyme Q(10) and alpha-tocopherol induced by hormonal contraception and the potential effect(s) of exogenous ovarian hormones should be taken into consideration in future antioxidant research. PMID:20814444

  9. Effects of Oral, Vaginal, and Transdermal Hormonal Contraception on Serum Levels of Coenzyme Q10, Vitamin E, and Total Antioxidant Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palan, Prabhudas R.; Strube, Felix; Letko, Juraj; Sadikovic, Azra; Mikhail, Magdy S.

    2010-01-01

    The use of the transdermal contraceptive patch is associated with greater bioavailability of ethinyl estradiol (EE) compared with contraceptive vaginal ring or oral contraceptives (OC). We compared the influences of three contraceptive methods (OC, vaginal ring, and transdermal patch) on serum levels of coenzyme Q10, ?-tocopherol, ?-tocopherol and total antioxidant capacity in premenopausal women. Blood samples from 30 premenopausal women who used hormonal contraception for at least 4 months were collected. Forty subjects who did not use any contraception were studied as control. Serum levels of coenzyme Q10, ?-tocopherol and ?-tocopherol were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Serum samples were also assayed for total antioxidant capacity (TAOC). Serum levels of coenzyme Q10 and ?-tocopherol were found to be significantly lower (P < .05) in all three contraceptive users compared with controls. Contraceptive patch users had the lowest levels of coenzyme Q10 levels compared with normal subjects. Serum TAOC levels were significantly lower (P < .05) among the contraceptive user groups. Alterations in coenzyme Q10 and ?-tocopherol induced by hormonal contraception and the potential effect(s) of exogenous ovarian hormones should be taken into consideration in future antioxidant research. PMID:20814444

  10. Influence of oak wood polyphenols on cysteine, homocysteine and glutathione total levels and PON1 activities in human adult volunteers - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deáková, Zuzana; Országhová, Zuzana; Andrezálová, Lucia; Slezák, Peter; Lehotay, Jozef; Muchová, Jana; Bürki, Carolina; ?ura?ková, Zde?ka

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between antioxidants and pro-oxidants. Many diseases like atherosclerosis or heart failure are involved in oxidative stress. Increased oxidative stress is one of the potential contributing factors to aging. The aim of this study was to monitor the total thiol levels as markers of oxidative stress in 20 healthy volunteers after polyphenols intake (extract from the French oak wood Quercus robur - Robuvit® (300 mg/day)). Polyphenols are known as biomodulators with antioxidant activities. Homocysteine, cysteine and glutathione total levels were determined by using HPLC with electrochemical detection. The activity of the antioxidant enzyme paraoxonase-1 toward two substrates was determined by spectrophotometry. The level of thiol compounds and paraoxonase-1 activities were controlled after run-in (week 0), intervention (week 4) and washout (week 6) period. After the intervention period the results showed that Robuvit® had no significant influence on glutathione level (p = 0.382) and paraoxonase activities towards both, arylester and lactone substrates. On the other hand, homocysteine and cysteine levels decreased significantly (p = 0.029; p < 0.001, respectively). The negative correlation between paraoxonase lactonase activity and homocysteine level was noticed. This confirms that paraoxonase might play an important role in homocysteine-thiolactone metabolism. PMID:25367762

  11. Vitamin A supplementation enhances specific IgG antibody levels and total lymphocyte numbers while improving morbidity in measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutsoudis, A; Kiepiela, P; Coovadia, H M; Broughton, M

    1992-03-01

    The effect of vitamin A supplementation on selected factors of immunity was tested in African children (ages 4 to 24 months with complicated measles) during a randomized double-blind intervention trial. Placebo (n = 31) and treated groups (n = 29) had similar baseline characteristics. The supplemented group had significant reductions in morbidity (expressed as integrated morbidity scores) during the acute (Day 8, P = 0.006) and chronic (Day 42, P = 0.02; 6 months; P = 0.002) phases. In the treated group there was an increase in total number of lymphocytes (Day 42, P = 0.05) and measles IgG antibody concentrations (Day 8, P = 0.02), both of which have consistently been previously shown to correlate more closely with outcome in measles than other immunologic, clinical and radiologic factors. Interleukin 2 and plasma complement values were unaffected by vitamin A supplementation. These findings reinforce results from animal studies that show that the pathways of vitamin A activity in decreasing morbidity and mortality are partly founded on selective immunopotentiation. PMID:1565535

  12. Significance analysis of the leachate level in a solid waste landfill in a coastal zone using total water balance and slope stability alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, Ja-Kong; Do, Nam-Young [Korea Advanced Institute of Science & Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    The K site near Seoul began landfilling in 1992. The landfilled wastes include municipal solid waste (66.4%), construction residues (20.4%), water and wastewater sludges (trace levels), and hazardous waste (trace levels). The water content of the municipal solid waste is very high (47.3%); as a result, the leachate level (average E.L.) of the landfill, the design value of which is 7.0 m, was measured at 10.3 m in January 1995 and is increasing. The increase of leachate level in the landfill site causes a problem with slope stability. The leachate level at each disposal stage divided by the intermediate cover layer was calculated with the HELP (Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance) model and calibrated with the data measured from February 1993 to June 1995. Also, the hydraulic conductivities of the waste layer and the intermediate cover layer in each stage were calibrated continuously with HELP model analysis. To verify these results, the total water balance in the landfill site was calculated using the infiltration rate calculated from HELP modeling. The leachate level was E.L. 10.0 m, which was close to the measured leachate level. To estimate the change of the leachate level in the future, the total water balances with different leachate discharge rates of 3,000, 3,500, and 5,000 m{sup 3}/day were analyzed. When the leachate discharge rate was 5,000 ton/day and the initial water content was decreased below 25%, the average leachate level was 10.8 m. This result satisfies the safety factor requirements (=1.3) for landfill slope stability. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  13. IgE sérica total em atópicos e não-atópicos na cidade de Porto Alegre Total serum IgE level in atopic and non-atopic individuals in Porto Alegre, RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Spalding

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar em nossa cidade o nível sérico de IgE em indivíduos sadios, não- atópicos e em pacientes atópicos com manifestações respiratórias. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 92 pacientes atópicos e 86 indivíduos sadios de ambos os sexos, classificados em grupos de acordo com faixa etária e sexo. A presença de atopia foi determinada através da história, exame físico e reatividade a testes cutâneos de puntura com alérgenos inalantes. A IgE sérica foi avaliada utilizando-se o sistema Pharmacia Immuno-Cap. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que o nível de IgE no soro é mais elevado no sexo masculino. Os valores médios de IgE total nos pacientes atópicos (401 UI/mL são significativamente maiores que àqueles observados entre indivíduos não-atópicos (54,4 UI/mL. Através desse levantamento foi possível determinar os valores normais para as faixas etárias estudadas entre indivíduos sadios de Porto Alegre. CONCLUSÕES: Nosso estudo permitiu observar que o nível de IgE entre pacientes atópicos e indivíduos não-atópicos apresenta distribuição similar àquela verificada em outros países.PURPOSE: We determined the total serum IgE levels among healthy individuals and atopic patients with respiratory symptoms in Porto Alegre. METHODS: Atopic patients (n: 92 and normal controls (n: 86 were stratified according to age and sex. Presence of atopy was recorded by history, clinical examination and skin prick test reactivity to common aeroallergens. Serum IgE was measured by Pharmacia Immuno-Cap System. RESULTS: It was demonstrated that total serum IgE is higher in males than in females. Total serum IgE levels were significantly higher in the atopic group (404 UI/mL in comparison with the non-atopics controls (54.4 UI/mL. Our study provided the normal range for total serum IgE among atopics and non-atopics individuals in Porto Alegre. CONCLUSIONS: The profile of serum IgE among our population (atopics and non-atopics is similar to the one observed in other countries.

  14. IgE sérica total em atópicos e não-atópicos na cidade de Porto Alegre / Total serum IgE level in atopic and non-atopic individuals in Porto Alegre, RS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.M., Spalding; V., Wald; L.A. G., Bernd.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar em nossa cidade o nível sérico de IgE em indivíduos sadios, não- atópicos e em pacientes atópicos com manifestações respiratórias. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 92 pacientes atópicos e 86 indivíduos sadios de ambos os sexos, classificados em grupos de acordo com faixa etária e sexo. [...] A presença de atopia foi determinada através da história, exame físico e reatividade a testes cutâneos de puntura com alérgenos inalantes. A IgE sérica foi avaliada utilizando-se o sistema Pharmacia Immuno-Cap. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que o nível de IgE no soro é mais elevado no sexo masculino. Os valores médios de IgE total nos pacientes atópicos (401 UI/mL) são significativamente maiores que àqueles observados entre indivíduos não-atópicos (54,4 UI/mL). Através desse levantamento foi possível determinar os valores normais para as faixas etárias estudadas entre indivíduos sadios de Porto Alegre. CONCLUSÕES: Nosso estudo permitiu observar que o nível de IgE entre pacientes atópicos e indivíduos não-atópicos apresenta distribuição similar àquela verificada em outros países. Abstract in english PURPOSE: We determined the total serum IgE levels among healthy individuals and atopic patients with respiratory symptoms in Porto Alegre. METHODS: Atopic patients (n: 92) and normal controls (n: 86) were stratified according to age and sex. Presence of atopy was recorded by history, clinical examin [...] ation and skin prick test reactivity to common aeroallergens. Serum IgE was measured by Pharmacia Immuno-Cap System. RESULTS: It was demonstrated that total serum IgE is higher in males than in females. Total serum IgE levels were significantly higher in the atopic group (404 UI/mL) in comparison with the non-atopics controls (54.4 UI/mL). Our study provided the normal range for total serum IgE among atopics and non-atopics individuals in Porto Alegre. CONCLUSIONS: The profile of serum IgE among our population (atopics and non-atopics) is similar to the one observed in other countries.

  15. Effect of carnosine supplementation on apoptosis and irisin, total oxidant and antioxidants levels in the serum, liver and lung tissues in rats exposed to formaldehyde inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Suna; Ogeturk, Murat; Kuloglu, Tuncay; Kavakli, Ahmet; Aydin, Suleyman

    2015-02-01

    The main objective of the study has been to show whether carnosine has positive effects on liver and lung tissues of rats exposed to a range of formaldehyde concentrations, and to explore how irisin expression and antioxidant capacity are altered in these tissues by carnosine supplementation. Sprague-Dawley type male rats were divided into 8 groups with 6 animals in each: (I) Control; no chemical supplementation); (II) sham (100mg/kg/day carnosine); (III) low dose formaldehyde (LDFA) for 5 days/week; (IV) LDFA for 5 days/week and carnosine); (V) moderate dose formaldehyde (MDFA) for 5 days/week); (VI) MDFA for 5 days/week and carnosine; (VII) high dose formaldehyde (HDFA) for 5 days/week; (VIII) and HDFA for 5 days/week and carnosine. Sham and control groups were exposed to normal air. Irisin levels of the serum, liver and lung tissue supernatants were analyzed by ELISA, while the REL method was used to determine total oxidant/antioxidant capacity. Irisin production by the tissues was detected immunohistochemically. Increasing doses of FA decreased serum/tissue irisin and total antioxidant levels relative to the controls, as also to increases in TUNEL expressions, total oxidant level, oxidant and apoptosis index. Irisin expression was detected in hepatocyte and sinusoidal cells of the liver and parenchymal cells of the lung. In conclusion, while FA exposure reduces irisin and total oxidant in the serum, liver and lung tissues in a dose-dependent manner and increases the total antioxidant capacity, carnosine supplementation reduces the oxidative stress and restores the histopathological and biochemical signs. PMID:25541044

  16. Glutathione levels in and total antioxidant capacity of Candida sp. cells exposed to oxidative stress caused by hydrogen peroxide / Níveis de glutationa e capacidade antioxidante total em células de Candida sp. expostas a estresse oxidativo causado por peróxido de hidrogênio

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maxwel Adriano, Abegg; Paulo Vinícius Gil, Alabarse; Ártur Krumberg, Schüller; Mara Silveira, Benfato.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A capacidade de suportar o estresse oxidativo imposto por fagócitos parece ser crítica para que espécies de Candida causem candidíase invasiva. MÉTODOS: Para melhor caracterizar a resposta ao estresse oxidativo (REO) de oito Candida sp. clinicamente relevantes, um componente vital do bal [...] anço redox intracelular, a glutationa, foi mensurada pelo método de reconversão DTNB-GSSG redutase e a capacidade antioxidante total (CAT) foi mensurada por um método modificado baseado na descoloração do ABTS*+. Ambos os métodos foram utilizados em extratos celulares das espécies de Candida tratadas ou não com peróxido de hidrogênio (0,5mM). RESULTADOS: O estresse oxidativo induzido pelo peróxido de hidrogênio claramente reduziu os níveis intracelulares de glutationa. Esta diminuição foi mais intensa em C. albicans e os níveis de glutationa em células não tratadas foram também maiores nesta espécie. A capacidade antioxidante total demonstrou variação intraespecífica na capacidade antioxidante. CONCLUSÕES: Os níveis de glutationa não se correlacionaram com a capacidade antioxidante total mensurada, apesar desta ser a defesa antioxidante intracelular não-enzimática mais importante. Os resultados indicam que a medição isolada da CAT não fornece um quadro claro da habilidade de certa espécie de Candida responder ao estresse oxidativo. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The capacity to overcome the oxidative stress imposed by phagocytes seems to be critical for Candida species to cause invasive candidiasis. METHODS: To better characterize the oxidative stress response (OSR) of 8 clinically relevant Candida sp., glutathione, a vital component of the in [...] tracellular redox balance, was measured using the 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB)-glutathione disulfide (GSSG) reductase reconversion method; the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was measured using a modified method based on the decolorization of the 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic) acid radical cation (ABTS*+). Both methods were used with cellular Candida sp. extracts treated or not with hydrogen peroxide (0.5 mM). RESULTS: Oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide clearly reduced intracellular glutathione levels. This depletion was stronger in Candida albicans and the levels of glutathione in untreated cells were also higher in this species. The TAC demonstrated intra-specific variation. CONCLUSIONS: Glutathione levels did not correlate with the measured TAC values, despite this being the most important non-enzymatic intracellular antioxidant molecule. The results indicate that the isolated measurement of TAC does not give a clear picture of the ability of a given Candida sp. to respond to oxidative stress.

  17. Concentração plasmática de colesterol total e lipoproteína de alta densidade em novilhas mestiças doadoras de embriões tratadas com somatotropina bovina recombinante / Total plasma cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein levels in crossbred heifer embryo donors treated with bovine recombinant somatotropin

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Á.M., Borges; C.A.A., Torres; J.R.M., Ruas; G.R., Carvalho; V.R., Rocha Júnior.

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi o de estudar as concentrações plasmáticas de colesterol total e lipoproteína de alta densidade (HDL) em novilhas mestiças tratadas com somatotropina bovina recombinante (rbST). Coletas de sangue foram feitas durante dois ciclos estrais, normal e superovulado, em 26 fême [...] as distribuídas em dois tratamentos: T1 = aplicação de 500mg de rbST no terceiro dia do ciclo estral utilizado para a superovulação e T2 = controle. Análises dos metabólitos sangüíneos foram feitas utilizando-se o método enzimático, cujas concentrações médias plasmáticas de colesterol total e de HDL durante o ciclo estral normal não foram diferentes (P>0,05) entre os dois tratamentos: 87,9 e 25,8mg/dl e 85,9 e 26,7mg/dl para T1 e T2, respectivamente. O ciclo estral utilizado para a superovulação foi dividido em três períodos: P1 = do estro à inseminação artificial (0 ao15º dia), P2 = da inseminação artificial até a coleta de embriões (15º ao 21º dia) e P3 = da coleta até o final do período experimental (21º ao 27º dia). As concentrações plasmáticas de colesterol total e HDL no P1 não diferiram entre os tratamentos (P>0,05). Em P2 e P3 houve diferença nas concentrações de HDL e colesterol total entre os dois tratamentos: 29,0 e 88,5mg/dl (T1) e 27,1 e 81,8mg/dl (T2) no P2; e 30,4 e 88,0mg/dl (T1) e 26,6 e 80,5mg/dl (T2) no P3, respectivamente (P Abstract in english The objective of the experiment was to study the total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels in crossbred heifers treated with bovine recombinant somatotropina (rbST). Blood samples were collected for two estrous cycles, normal and superovulated, from 26 animals randomly distributed [...] into two treatments: T1 - injected with 500mg rbST on day 3 of estrous cycle and T2 - control. The lipidic metabolite levels were determined by an enzymatic method, and plasma levels of total cholesterol and HDL in normal estrous cycle did not differ (P>0.05) between treatments: 87.9 and 25.8mg/dl for T1 and 85.9 and 26.7mg/dl for T2, respectively. The superovulated estrous cycle was divided into three periods: P1 - from estrus to artificial insemination (AI) (0 to 15th day), P2 - from AI to embryo collection (15th to 21st day) and P3 - from collection to the end of the experiment (21st to 27th day). The rbST treatment did not affect the HDL and cholesterol levels in the P1 (P>0.05), but did so in P2 and P3: 29.0 and 88.5mg/dl (T1) and 27.1 and 81.8mg/dl (T2) during P2; 30.4 and 88.0mg/dl (T1) and 26.6 and 80.5mg/dl (T2) during P3, respectively (P

  18. Concentração plasmática de colesterol total e lipoproteína de alta densidade em novilhas mestiças doadoras de embriões tratadas com somatotropina bovina recombinante Total plasma cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein levels in crossbred heifer embryo donors treated with bovine recombinant somatotropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á.M. Borges

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi o de estudar as concentrações plasmáticas de colesterol total e lipoproteína de alta densidade (HDL em novilhas mestiças tratadas com somatotropina bovina recombinante (rbST. Coletas de sangue foram feitas durante dois ciclos estrais, normal e superovulado, em 26 fêmeas distribuídas em dois tratamentos: T1 = aplicação de 500mg de rbST no terceiro dia do ciclo estral utilizado para a superovulação e T2 = controle. Análises dos metabólitos sangüíneos foram feitas utilizando-se o método enzimático, cujas concentrações médias plasmáticas de colesterol total e de HDL durante o ciclo estral normal não foram diferentes (P>0,05 entre os dois tratamentos: 87,9 e 25,8mg/dl e 85,9 e 26,7mg/dl para T1 e T2, respectivamente. O ciclo estral utilizado para a superovulação foi dividido em três períodos: P1 = do estro à inseminação artificial (0 ao15º dia, P2 = da inseminação artificial até a coleta de embriões (15º ao 21º dia e P3 = da coleta até o final do período experimental (21º ao 27º dia. As concentrações plasmáticas de colesterol total e HDL no P1 não diferiram entre os tratamentos (P>0,05. Em P2 e P3 houve diferença nas concentrações de HDL e colesterol total entre os dois tratamentos: 29,0 e 88,5mg/dl (T1 e 27,1 e 81,8mg/dl (T2 no P2; e 30,4 e 88,0mg/dl (T1 e 26,6 e 80,5mg/dl (T2 no P3, respectivamente (PThe objective of the experiment was to study the total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL levels in crossbred heifers treated with bovine recombinant somatotropina (rbST. Blood samples were collected for two estrous cycles, normal and superovulated, from 26 animals randomly distributed into two treatments: T1 - injected with 500mg rbST on day 3 of estrous cycle and T2 - control. The lipidic metabolite levels were determined by an enzymatic method, and plasma levels of total cholesterol and HDL in normal estrous cycle did not differ (P>0.05 between treatments: 87.9 and 25.8mg/dl for T1 and 85.9 and 26.7mg/dl for T2, respectively. The superovulated estrous cycle was divided into three periods: P1 - from estrus to artificial insemination (AI (0 to 15th day, P2 - from AI to embryo collection (15th to 21st day and P3 - from collection to the end of the experiment (21st to 27th day. The rbST treatment did not affect the HDL and cholesterol levels in the P1 (P>0.05, but did so in P2 and P3: 29.0 and 88.5mg/dl (T1 and 27.1 and 81.8mg/dl (T2 during P2; 30.4 and 88.0mg/dl (T1 and 26.6 and 80.5mg/dl (T2 during P3, respectively (P<0.01.

  19. Swirl Flow Bioreactor coupled with Cu-alginate beads: A system for the eradication of Coliform and Escherichia coli from biological effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Sov; Thomas, Simon F.; Goddard, Paul; Bransgrove, Rachel M.; Mason, Paul T.; Oak, Ajeet; Bansode, Anand; Patankar, Rohit; Gleason, Zachary D.; Sim, Marissa K.; Whitesell, Andrew; Allen, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    It is estimated that approximately 1.1 billion people globally drink unsafe water. We previously reported both a novel copper-alginate bead, which quickly reduces pathogen loading in waste streams and the incorporation of these beads into a novel swirl flow bioreactor (SFB), of low capital and running costs and of simple construction from commercially available plumbing pipes and fittings. The purpose of the present study was to trial this system for pathogen reduction in waste streams from an operating Dewats system in Hinjewadi, Pune, India and in both simulated and real waste streams in Seattle, Washington, USA. The trials in India, showed a complete inactivation of coliforms in the discharged effluent (Mean Log removal Value (MLRV) = 3.51), accompanied by a total inactivation of E. coli with a MLRV of 1.95. The secondary clarifier effluent also showed a 4.38 MLRV in viable coliforms during treatment. However, the system was slightly less effective in reducing E. coli viability, with a MLRV of 1.80. The trials in Seattle also demonstrated the efficacy of the system in the reduction of viable bacteria, with a LRV of 5.67 observed of viable Raoultella terrigena cells (100%). PMID:25999243

  20. Swirl Flow Bioreactor coupled with Cu-alginate beads: A system for the eradication of Coliform and Escherichia coli from biological effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Sov; Thomas, Simon F; Goddard, Paul; Bransgrove, Rachel M; Mason, Paul T; Oak, Ajeet; Bansode, Anand; Patankar, Rohit; Gleason, Zachary D; Sim, Marissa K; Whitesell, Andrew; Allen, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    It is estimated that approximately 1.1 billion people globally drink unsafe water. We previously reported both a novel copper-alginate bead, which quickly reduces pathogen loading in waste streams and the incorporation of these beads into a novel swirl flow bioreactor (SFB), of low capital and running costs and of simple construction from commercially available plumbing pipes and fittings. The purpose of the present study was to trial this system for pathogen reduction in waste streams from an operating Dewats system in Hinjewadi, Pune, India and in both simulated and real waste streams in Seattle, Washington, USA. The trials in India, showed a complete inactivation of coliforms in the discharged effluent (Mean Log removal Value (MLRV) = 3.51), accompanied by a total inactivation of E. coli with a MLRV of 1.95. The secondary clarifier effluent also showed a 4.38 MLRV in viable coliforms during treatment. However, the system was slightly less effective in reducing E. coli viability, with a MLRV of 1.80. The trials in Seattle also demonstrated the efficacy of the system in the reduction of viable bacteria, with a LRV of 5.67 observed of viable Raoultella terrigena cells (100%). PMID:25999243

  1. Total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine among women free from occupational exposure and their relations to renal tubular function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the relations among total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine, together with potential effects of methylmercury intake on renal tubular function, we determined their levels, and urinary N-acetyl-?-d-glucosaminidase activity (NAG) and ?1-microglobulin (AMG) in 59 women free from occupational exposures, and estimated daily mercury intakes from fish and other seafood using a food frequency questionnaire. Mercury levels (mean+/-SD) in the women were 1.51+/-0.91?g/g in hair, 0.59+/-0.32?g/g in toenail, and 0.86+/-0.66?g/g creatinine in urine; and, there were positive correlations among them (P<0.001). The daily mercury intake of 9.15+/-7.84?g/day was significantly correlated with total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine (r=0.551, 0.537, and 0.604, P<0.001). Among the women, the NAG and AMG were positively correlated with both the daily mercury intake and mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine (P<0.01); and, these relations were almost similar when using multiple regression analysis to adjust for possible confounders such as urinary cadmium (0.47+/-0.28?g/g creatinine) and smoking status. In conclusion, mercury resulting from fish consumption can explain total mercury levels in hair, toenail, and urine to some degree (about 30%), partly through the degradation into the inorganic form, and it may confound the renal tubular effect of other nephrotoxic agents. Also, the following equation may be applicable to the population ny be applicable to the population neither with dental amalgam fillings nor with occupational exposures: [hair mercury (?g/g)]=2.44x[toenail mercury (?g/g)

  2. Examination of Implementation Level of the Total Quality Management Principles by the Principals and Teachers Functioning at Elementary Schools: The Case of Adiyaman Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin H. Tasar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study is conducted for the purpose of examining the implementation levels of the Total Quality Management principles by the principals and teachers functioning at the elementary schools. The study is executed with 30 school principal and 300 teachers functioning at the public elementary schools in Adiyaman province. A questionnaire set up by the researchers after consulting to the expert opinion is used for data gathering. Data concerning the study is analyzed by using SPSS package software. At the end of the study, it was observed that the principals and teachers functioning at the elementary schools implement the Total Quality Management principles at their occupational studies. It is further determined that the teachers have higher implementation levels than the principals as regards such principles.

  3. Influence of pH and Oxidant Ozone to Amount of Bacterium Coliform at Hospital Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Influence of pH and oxidant ozone to amount of bacterium coliform at hospital waste have been done. As sample is liquid waste Public Hospital of town (RSUD) Yogyakarta. Sample waste processed by 3 kinds of treatment, that is first certain ozone waste during, that is waste given by the third and just chalk of waste given by the certain and ozonization chalk during. From third the treatment, in the reality third treatment which can give the maximal result, that is waste given the chalk until pH waste 8.5 and ozonization during 40 minute give the following result : bacterium coliform from 810.000 MPN become 0 MPN ( cell / 100 mL). This result have fulfilled the conditions as according to decision of Governor of DIY no. 65 year 1999 for the waste of faction II, that is waste used for the irrigation of fishery and agriculture. (author)

  4. The modified SWAT model for predicting fecal coliforms in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyung Hwa; Pachepsky, Yakov A; Kim, Joon Ha; Kim, Jung-Woo; Park, Mi-Hyun

    2012-10-01

    This study assessed fecal coliform contamination in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed in Massachusetts, USA using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) because bacteria are one of the major water quality parameters of concern. The bacteria subroutine in SWAT, considering in-stream bacteria die-off only, was modified in this study to include solar radiation-associated die-off and the contribution of wildlife. The result of sensitivity analysis demonstrates that solar radiation is one of the most significant fate factors of fecal coliform. A water temperature-associated function to represent the contribution of beaver activity in the watershed to fecal contamination improved prediction accuracy. The modified SWAT model provides an improved estimate of bacteria from the watershed. Our approach will be useful for simulating bacterial concentrations to provide predictive and reliable information of fecal contamination thus facilitating the implementation of effective watershed management. PMID:22784807

  5. Use of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation in increased levels of total polyphenol extracts of bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Gustavo H.F.; Silva, Edvane B.; Silva, Hianna A.M.F.; Amorin, Elba L.C.; Peixoto, Tadeu J.S.; Yara, Ricardo; Lima, Claudia S.A., E-mail: santosghf@hotmail.com, E-mail: edvborges@yahoo.com, E-mail: amdemelo@hotmail.com, E-mail: claudia.salima@gmail.com, E-mail: ricardo.yara@gmail.com, E-mail: tadeu1903@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: elba@ufpe.br [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) is well known as sources of phenolic compounds. Known as mastic pepper, red pepper tree is a plant native to midsize coast of Brazil. Some of its structures have proven antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal and healing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference in the phenol contents of crude extracts that were measured after irradiating the barks of S. terebinthifolius using gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co. The crude extract were divided into a control group and eight experimental groups, which were separated based on the doses of gamma radiation to which they were exposed: 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, 15.0, 20.0 and 50.0 kGy (Assays were performed in triplicate). The results allow observe that gamma radiation promoted in extracts of bark of S. terebinthifolius, many percents increase (p> 0.05) of total polyphenol content between 2.5 kGy (41.93%) and 50.0 kGy (44.52%) compared to 0 kGy (30.07%), with the same gradual to 10.0 kGy, and reaching peak maximum at 10.0 kGy (68.44%). However, the study puts the process of gamma radiation from {sup 60}Co as an alternative significant increase in the percentage of some natural substances of plant material, and subsequently contribute to the augmentation of various therapeutic applications to which they are assigned. (author)

  6. Use of 60Co gamma radiation in increased levels of total polyphenol extracts of bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) is well known as sources of phenolic compounds. Known as mastic pepper, red pepper tree is a plant native to midsize coast of Brazil. Some of its structures have proven antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal and healing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference in the phenol contents of crude extracts that were measured after irradiating the barks of S. terebinthifolius using gamma radiation from 60Co. The crude extract were divided into a control group and eight experimental groups, which were separated based on the doses of gamma radiation to which they were exposed: 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, 15.0, 20.0 and 50.0 kGy (Assays were performed in triplicate). The results allow observe that gamma radiation promoted in extracts of bark of S. terebinthifolius, many percents increase (p> 0.05) of total polyphenol content between 2.5 kGy (41.93%) and 50.0 kGy (44.52%) compared to 0 kGy (30.07%), with the same gradual to 10.0 kGy, and reaching peak maximum at 10.0 kGy (68.44%). However, the study puts the process of gamma radiation from 60Co as an alternative significant increase in the percentage of some natural substances of plant material, and subsequently contribute to the augmentation of various therapeutic applications to which they are assigned. (author)

  7. Removal of Escherichia coli and Faecal Coliforms from Surface Water and Groundwater by Household Water Treatment Devices/Systems: A Sustainable Solution for Improving Water Quality in Rural Communities of the Southern African Development Community Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyne K. Mwabi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is significant evidence that household water treatment devices/systems (HWTS are capable of dramatically improving microbially contaminated water quality. The purpose of this study was to examine five filters [(biosand filter-standard (BSF-S; biosand filter-zeolite (BSF-Z; bucket filter (BF; ceramic candle filter (CCF; and silver-impregnated porous pot (SIPP] and evaluate their ability to improve the quality of drinking water at the household level. These HWTS were manufactured in the workshop of the Tshwane University of Technology and evaluated for efficiency to remove turbidity, faecal coliforms and Escherichia coli from multiple water source samples, using standard methods. The flow rates ranged from 0.05 L/h to 2.49 L/h for SIPP, 1 L/h to 4 L/h for CCF, 0.81 L/h to 6.84 L/h for BSF-S, 1.74 L/h to 19.2 L/h and 106.5 L/h to 160.5 L/h for BF The turbidity of the raw water samples ranged between 2.17 and 40.4 NTU. The average turbidity obtained after filtration ranged from 0.6 to 8 NTU (BSF-S, 1 to 4 NTU (BSF-Z, 2 to 11 NTU (BF, and from 0.6 to 7 NTU (CCF and 0.7 to 1 NTU for SIPP. The BSF-S, BSF-Z and CCF removed 2 to 4 log10 (99% to 100% of coliform bacteria, while the BF removed 1 to 3 log (90% to 99.9% of these bacteria. The performance of the SIPP in removing turbidity and indicator bacteria (>5 log10, 100% was significantly higher compared to that of the other HWTS (p < 0.05. The findings of this study indicate that the SIPP can be an effective and sustainable HWTS for the Southern African Development Community (SADC rural communities, as it removed the total concentration of bacteria from test water, can be manufactured using locally available materials, and is easy to operate and to maintain.

  8. Removal of Escherichia coli and faecal coliforms from surface water and groundwater by household water treatment devices/systems: a sustainable solution for improving water quality in rural communities of the Southern African development community region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwabi, Jocelyne K; Mamba, Bhekie B; Momba, Maggy N B

    2012-01-01

    There is significant evidence that household water treatment devices/systems (HWTS) are capable of dramatically improving microbially contaminated water quality. The purpose of this study was to examine five filters [(biosand filter-standard (BSF-S); biosand filter-zeolite (BSF-Z); bucket filter (BF); ceramic candle filter (CCF); and silver-impregnated porous pot (SIPP)] and evaluate their ability to improve the quality of drinking water at the household level. These HWTS were manufactured in the workshop of the Tshwane University of Technology and evaluated for efficiency to remove turbidity, faecal coliforms and Escherichia coli from multiple water source samples, using standard methods. The flow rates ranged from 0.05 L/h to 2.49 L/h for SIPP, 1 L/h to 4 L/h for CCF, 0.81 L/h to 6.84 L/h for BSF-S, 1.74 L/h to 19.2 L/h and 106.5 L/h to 160.5 L/h for BF The turbidity of the raw water samples ranged between 2.17 and 40.4 NTU. The average turbidity obtained after filtration ranged from 0.6 to 8 NTU (BSF-S), 1 to 4 NTU (BSF-Z), 2 to 11 NTU (BF), and from 0.6 to 7 NTU (CCF) and 0.7 to 1 NTU for SIPP. The BSF-S, BSF-Z and CCF removed 2 to 4 log(10) (99% to 100%) of coliform bacteria, while the BF removed 1 to 3 log (90% to 99.9%) of these bacteria. The performance of the SIPP in removing turbidity and indicator bacteria (>5 log(10), 100%) was significantly higher compared to that of the other HWTS (p SADC) rural communities, as it removed the total concentration of bacteria from test water, can be manufactured using locally available materials, and is easy to operate and to maintain. PMID:22470284

  9. Preliminary total-system analysis of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The placement of high-level radioactive wastes in minded repositories deep underground is considered a disposal method that would effectively isolate these wastes from the environment for long periods of time. This report describes modeling performed at PNL for Yucca Mountain between May and November 1991 addressing the performance of the entire repository system related to regulatory criteria established by the EPA in 40 CFR Part 191. The geologic stratigraphy and material properties used in this study were chosen in cooperation with performance assessment modelers at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Sandia modeled a similar problem using different computer codes and a different modeling philosophy. Pacific Northwest Laboratory performed a few model runs with very complex models, and SNL performed many runs with much simpler (abstracted) models

  10. Antibiotic resistance of fecal coliforms after long-term withdrawal of therapeutic and subtherapeutic antibiotic use in a swine herd.

    OpenAIRE

    Langlois, B E; Cromwell, G L; Stahly, T S; K.A. Dawson; Hays, V W

    1983-01-01

    Tetracycline resistance of fecal coliforms isolated from swine decreased from 82 to 42%, a decrease of less than 50%, after the use of all forms of antimicrobial agents were discontinued in the herd for 126 months.

  11. A MECHANISTIC MODEL OF RUNOFF-ASSOCIATED FECAL COLIFORM FATE AND TRANSPORT THROUGH A COASTAL LAGOON. (R828676C003)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecal coliform (FC) contamination in coastal waters is an ongoing public health problem worldwide. Coastal wetlands and lagoons are typically expected to protect coastal waters by attenuating watershed pollutants including FC bacteria. However, new evidence suggests that coast...

  12. Monitoring and spatial distribution of heterotrophic bacteria and fecal coliforms in the Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutterbach Márcia T. S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of heterothrophic bacteria and fecal coliforms was monitored at four sampling stations located near the shore of the Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon, in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Water samples were collected, monthly from October 1994 through September 1998. The highest heterothrophic count (6.5x10 7 CFU/100mL was recorded at stations 2 and 4 during August 1998 and the lowest (10 ³ CFU/100 mL at station 3 during February 1995. With respect to fecal coliforms, the highest and lowest counts were 1.6x10 5 coliforms/100mL at station 3 during March 1997 and <1 coliform/100mL at all the stations during February 1995 and September 1997 as well as station 3 during February 1998. The data indicated a percentage increase of the microorganisms surveyed over time at all the sampling stations studied.

  13. The Effect of Laetiporus sp. (Bull. ex Fr.) Bond. et Sing. (Polyporaceae) Extract on Total Blood Cholesterol Level

    OpenAIRE

    Afifah Bambang Sutjiatmo; Suswini Kusmaningati; I. Nyoman Pugeg Aryantha; Yuli Sumartini; Aida Nursidah; Suci Narvikasari

    2010-01-01

    A study on the effect of a local medicinal mushroom, Laetiporus sp. (Polyporaceae) extract on total blood cholesterol level has been conducted using Wistar rats with high cholesterol feed and prophylthiouracil (PTU) as hypercholesterolemia inducing agent. The study was aimed to evaluate the inhibition and reduction effect of the dried (hot water) extract of grain grown mycelia on hypercholesterolemia of the rat model. The rats were randomly classified into tested group and control group, each...

  14. The Effect of Chromium Added into Basal Diet on Serum Total Protein, Urea, Triglyceride, Cholesterol and Serum and Tissue Chromium, Zinc, Copper Levels in Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    *, Kâzim ?AH?N; *, Talat GÜLER; +, N. ?AH?N; *, O. N. ERTAS; +, N. ERKAL

    1999-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of supplemantal dietary chromium on serum total protein, urea, triglycerides, cholesterol, and serum and tissue chromium, zinc, and copper contents of pregnant rabbits, their offspring and their young rabbits. Treatment groups consisted of chromium level as follows: Control Group no supplementation chromium into basal diet, Treatment I (200 ppb Group) contained 200 ppb of supplemental chromium into basal diet, and Treatment II (400 ppb Group...

  15. Effects of Oral, Vaginal, and Transdermal Hormonal Contraception on Serum Levels of Coenzyme Q10, Vitamin E, and Total Antioxidant Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Mikhail, Magdy S.; Azra Sadikovic; Juraj Letko; Felix Strube; Palan, Prabhudas R.

    2010-01-01

    The use of the transdermal contraceptive patch is associated with greater bioavailability of ethinyl estradiol (EE) compared with contraceptive vaginal ring or oral contraceptives (OC). We compared the influences of three contraceptive methods (OC, vaginal ring, and transdermal patch) on serum levels of coenzyme Q10, ?-tocopherol, ?-tocopherol and total antioxidant capacity in premenopausal women. Blood samples from 30 premenopausal women who used hormonal contraception for at least 4 mont...

  16. Effect of varying levels of formaldehyde treatment of mustard oil cake on rumen fermentation, digestibility in wheat straw based total mixed diets in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahima

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the current study was to protect the protein in mustard cake by different levels of formaldehyde treatment with a view to optimize the level of formaldehyde. Materials and Methods: Different levels of formaldehyde treatment (0, 1, 1.5 and 2% of crude protein containing concentrate and roughages diet in 40:60 ratio were tested for their effect on nutrients digestibility, in vitro ammonia release, in vitro gas production and change in protein fractions. Non-significant (p?0.05 effect on pH, microbial biomass, partitioning factor, total gas production (TGP, TGP per g dry matter and TGP per g digestible dry matter (ml/g was observed in almost all the treatments. Results: Total volatile fatty acids at 2% formaldehyde treatment level of mustard cake was lower (p<0.05 as compared to other groups, while in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vitro organic matter digestibility were reported to be low in 1% formaldehyde treated group. Conclusion: On a holistic view, it could be considered that formaldehyde treatment at 1.5% level was optimal for protection of mustard oil cake protein.

  17. Characterization of the coliform and enteric bacilli in the environment of calves with colibacillosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Plews, P I; Bromel, M C; Schipper, I. A.

    1985-01-01

    In the first part of the present study the coliform and enteric bacilli in the environment of calves with colibacillosis were examined. The occurrence, number, and pathogenic properties of Escherichia coli in barnyard soils were obtained from six cattle ranches. The O and K serogroups of E. coli isolates obtained from the feces of calves with colibacillosis born at these cattle ranches were determined, and their serotypes were compared with the E. coli O and K serotypes found in soils. The re...

  18. Coliform Sources and Mechanisms for Regrowth in Household Drinking Water in Limpopo, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mellor, Jonathan E.; Smith, James A.; Samie, Amidou; Dillingham, Rebecca A.

    2013-01-01

    Resource-limited communities throughout the developing world face significant environmental health problems related to the myriad of coliform sources within those communities. This study comprehensively investigated contamination sources and the biological and chemical mechanisms sustaining them in two adjacent communities in rural Limpopo, South Africa. An 8-month study was conducted of household (n = 14) and source water quality, measurements of biofilm layers on the inside of household wat...

  19. Prevention of clinical coliform mastitis in dairy cows by a mutant Escherichia coli vaccine.

    OpenAIRE

    Gonza?lez, R. N.; Cullor, J. S.; Jasper, D. E.; Farver, T. B.; Bushnell, R. B.; Oliver, M. N.

    1989-01-01

    A prospective cohort study was undertaken in two commercial California dairies. The treatment group, 246 cows, received three doses of a whole cell bacterin of J5 Escherichia coli (mutant of E. coli O111:B4) plus Freund's incomplete adjuvant vaccine (two in the dry period and one after calving) while 240 unvaccinated cows served as controls. Thirty-five cases of clinical coliform mastitis were diagnosed, six in vaccinated cows and 29 in unvaccinated cows. Bacteria isolated from the clinical c...

  20. Antibacterial Activities of Jatropha curcas (LINN) on Coliforms Isolated from Surface Waters in Akure, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Dada, E. O.; Ekundayo, F. O.; Makanjuola, O. O.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the antibacterial activities of hot water, ethanol and acetone extracts of Jatropha curcas (LINN) leaves on coliforms isolated from surface waters using growth inhibition indices based on agar plate technique. The percentage recovery of the extracts was 19.17%, 18.10% and 18.80% for hot water, ethanol and acetone respectively. Phytochemical screening of the extracts was also determined. Qualitative phytochemical screening showed that the plant extracts contained steroi...

  1. Niveles séricos de homocisteína total y lipoproteínas en adultos jóvenes de áreas rurales y urbanas de Costa Rica / Serum total homocysteine and lipoproteins levels in young adults from urban and rural areas of Costa Rica.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ileana, Holst -Schumacher; Rafael, Monge-Rojas; Mauro, Barrantes-Santamaría.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el perfil de lípidos y los niveles séricos de homocisteína total de una población de 400 adultos con edades entre 20 y 40 años residentes de áreas rurales y urbanas del valle central de Costa Rica. Los resultados indican que la proporción de sujetos de zona urbana con niveles elevados de [...] LDL-C (= 4,13 mmol/L) fue un 11% mayor que la proporción de individuos de zona rural (29,2% y 18,0%, p=0,045). Por el contrario, la proporción de individuos de zona rural con niveles de HDL-C bajos (15 ìmol/L), hipercolesterolemia (= 5,17 mmol/L) e hipertrigliceridemia (= 1,69 mmol/L) en la población estudiada fue 5,8%; 53,6% y 50,1% respectivamente. El 82% de la población estudiada presentó valores de LDL-C = 2,58 mmol/L y un 61% aproximadamente de los adultos tenían las HDL-C en niveles inferiores a 1,03 mmol/L. Los datos indican que la población costarricense estudiada presenta un alto riesgo cardiovascular. La prevalencia de niveles bajos de HDL-C ( Abstract in english This study evaluated the lipid profile and the serum levels of total homocysteine of 400 adults aged 20 to 40 years, residents of rural and urban areas of the central valley of Costa Rica. The results showed that the proportion of subjects from urban areas with high levels of LDL-C (= 4,13 mmol/L) w [...] as 11% higher than the proportion of adults from rural areas (29,2% y 18,0%, p=0,045). On the contrary, the proportion of rural subjects with low HDL-C levels (15 ìmol/L), hypercholesterolemia (= 5,17 mmol/L) and hypertriglyceridemia (=1,69 mmol/L) in the studied population were 5,8%, 53,6% y 50,1% respectively. 82% of the studied population had LDL-C levels above 2,58 mmol/L and approximately 61% of the adults had HDL-C levels lower than 1,03 mmol/L. Our data suggest that the studied costarrican population has a very high cardiovascular risk. The prevalence of low levels of HDL-C (

  2. Association of total-mixed-ration chemical composition with milk, fat, and protein yield lactation curves at the individual level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caccamo, M; Veerkamp, R F; Licitra, G; Petriglieri, R; La Terra, F; Pozzebon, A; Ferguson, J D

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of the chemical composition of a total mixed ration (TMR) tested quarterly from March 2006 through December 2008 for milk, fat, and protein yield curves for 27 herds in Ragusa, Sicily. Before this study, standard yield curves were generated on data from 241,153 test-day records of 9,809 animals from 42 herds in Ragusa province collected from 1995 to 2008. A random regression sire-maternal grandsire model was used to develop variance components for yields. The model included parity, age at calving, year at calving, and stage of pregnancy as fixed effects. Random effects were herd × test date, sire and maternal grandsire additive genetic effect, and permanent environmental effect modeled using third-order Legendre polynomials. Model fitting was carried out using ASReml. Subsequently, the model with estimated variance components was used to examine the influence of TMR crude protein, soluble N, acid detergent lignin, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, starch, and ash on milk, fat, and protein yield curves. The data set contained 46,531 test-day milk yield records from 3,554 cows in the 27 herds recorded during the study period. Initially, an analysis was performed using one dietary component (one-component analysis) within each model as a fixed effect associated with the test-day record closest to the months the TMR was sampled within each herd. An interaction was included with the nutrient component and days in milk. The effect of the TMR chemical component(s) was modeled using a ninth-order Legendre polynomial. The conditional Wald F-statistic for the fixed effects revealed significant effects for acid detergent fiber, neutral detergent fiber, crude protein, starch, and their interactions with days in milk on milk, fat, and protein yield. On the basis of these results, a multicomponent analysis was performed in which crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and starch were simultaneously included in the model with days in milk interactions. Although both analyses revealed that diet composition influenced production responses depending on lactation stage, the multiple-component analysis showed more pronounced effects of starch and neutral detergent fiber relative to crude protein for all traits throughout lactation. PMID:22884348

  3. Temperature range for growth of Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 and selected coliforms in E. coli medium.

    OpenAIRE

    Raghubeer, E V; Matches, J. R.

    1990-01-01

    Escherichia coli serotype O157H:7 and five other fecal and nonfecal coliforms were tested for minimum and maximum temperatures for growth in E. coli medium by using a temperature gradient incubator with a mean temperature increment of 1.67 degrees C (+/- 0.392). The temperature range for growth of E. coli O157:H7 is inconsistent with that of other fecal coliforms, suggesting that this pathogen is excluded with standard enumeration procedures used for foods and water.

  4. Fecal Coliform and E. coli Concentrations in Effluent-Dominated Streams of the Upper Santa Cruz Watershed

    OpenAIRE

    Emily C. Sanders; Ann Pitchford; Yongping Yuan

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses the water quality of the Upper Santa Cruz Watershed in southern Arizona in terms of fecal coliform and Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria concentrations discharged as treated effluent and from nonpoint sources into the Santa Cruz River and surrounding tributaries. The objectives were to (1) assess the water quality in the Upper Santa Cruz Watershed in terms of fecal coliform and E. coli by comparing the available data to the water quality criteria established by Arizona, ...

  5. Survival of Salmonella adelaide and fecal coliforms in coarse sands of the swan costal plain, Western Australia.

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, W F; Mee, B J

    1982-01-01

    The survival of Salmonella adelaide and fecal coliforms in two coarse sands influenced by two sources of septic tank effluent was studied. The experiments were conducted in conditions that reflected the soil environment beneath functioning septic tank systems. Significant differences in survival were found with different effluent sources. In one experiment the survival of S. adelaide was similar to that of fecal coliforms; in the other it was not. The nonuniform, multiphasic nature of surviva...

  6. Avaliação de ensaios analíticos para detecção de coliformes fecais em queijo Minas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira M.L.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram submetidas à pesquisa de coliformes fecais, utilizando-se a técnica do número mais provável (NMP/g, 168 amostras de variedades de queijo Minas (20 frescal, 48 canastra e 100 padronizado coletadas em Belo Horizonte. Para a comparação de diferentes ensaios em temperatura elevada, utilizou-se o caldo EC isoladamente, e caldos EC e triptofano em paralelo. Visando à pesquisa de indol foi realizado ensaio para confirmação de produção de beta-D-glucuronidase e indol em caldo fluorocult lauril sulfato. Os resultados demonstraram não haver diferença estatística significativa entre as três metodologias utilizadas para a pesquisa de coliformes fecais, considerando os índices de aceitação definidos pelos padrões legais de inspeção de queijo Minas. A facilidade de execução do ensaio da beta-D-glucuronidase em caldo fluorocult lauril sulfato, associada à confiabilidade dos resultados e demanda de tempo (redução de 96 para até 48h, permitem sugeri-lo como método de escolha para enumeração de coliformes em queijo Minas.

  7. Comparison of thermotolerant coliforms and Escherichia coli densities in freshwater bodies

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Elayse M., Hachich; Marisa, Di Bari; Ana Paula G., Christ; Cláudia C., Lamparelli; Solange S., Ramos; Maria Inês Z., Sato.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fecal bacterial indicator analyses have been widely used for monitoring the water quality. This study was designed to determine the ratio between the density of Escherichia coli and other Thermotolerant Coliforms (TtC) bacteria from freshwater samples collected for a two-year period of monitoring. T [...] tC were enumerated by membrane filtration on mFC agar. E. coli enumeration was done by two methods: TtC colonies identified in mFC were inoculated in EC-MUG or water samples were filtered and inoculated in modified mTEC agar media, and both methods were compared for quantitative recovery of E. coli. The results pointed out a mean percentage of E. coli among other thermotolerant coliforms (E. coli/TtC ratio) of 84.3% in mFC media. Taking these results into account, a mandatory standard of 1000 thermotolerant coliforms would correspond to 800 E. coli and the adoption of these E. coli based standards will represent a major improvement for the monitoring of freshwater quality.

  8. Escherichia coli and fecal-coliform bacteria as indicators of recreational water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, D.S.; Myers, D.N.; Metzker, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    In 1986, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) recommended that Escherichia coli (E. coli) be used in place of fecal-coliform bacteria in State recreational water-quality standards as an indicator of fecal contamination. This announcement followed an epidemiological study in which E. coli concentration was shown to be a better predictor of swimming-associated gastrointestinal illness than fecal-coliform concentration. Water-resource managers from Ohio have decided to collect information specific to their waters and decide whether to use E. coli or fecal-coliform bacteria as the basis for State recreational water-quality standards. If one indicator is a better predictor of recreational water quality than the other and if the relation between the two indicators is variable, then the indicator providing the most accurate measure of recreational water quality should be used in water-quality standards. Water-quality studies of the variability of concentrations of E. coli to fecal-coliform bacteria have shown that (1) concentrations of the two indicators are positively correlated, (2) E. coli to fecal-coliform ratios differ considerably from site to site, and (3) the E. coli criteria recommended by USEPA may be more difficult to meet than current (1992) fecal-coliform standards. In this study, a statistical analysis was done on concentrations of E. coli and fecal-coliform bacteria in water samples collected by two government agencies in Ohio-- the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Ohio River Valley Water Sanitation Commission (ORSANCO). Data were organized initially into five data sets for statistical analysis: (1) Cuyahoga River, (2) Olentangy River, (3) Scioto River, (4) Ohio River at Anderson Ferry, and (5) Ohio River at Cincinnati Water Works and Tanners Creek. The USGS collected the data in sets 1, 2, and 3, whereas ORSANCO collected the data in sets 4 and 5. The relation of E. coli to fecal-coliform concentration was investigated by use of linear-regression analysis and analysis of covariance. Log-transformed E. coli and fecal-coliform concentrations were highly correlated in all data sets (r-values ranged from 0.929 to 0.984). Linear regression analysis on USGS and ORSANCO data sets showed that concentration of E. coli could be predicted from fecal-coliform concentration (coefficients of determination (R2) ranged from 0.863 to 0.970). Results of analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) indicated that the predictive equations among the three USGS data sets and two ORSANCO data sets were not significantly different and that the data could be pooled into two large data sets, one for USGS data and one for ORSANCO data. However, results of ANCOVA indicated that USGS and ORSANCO data could not be pooled into one large data set. Predictions of E. coli concentrations calculated for USGS And ORSANCO regression relations, based on fecal-coliform concentrations set to equal Ohio water-quality standards, further showed the differences in E. coli to fecal-coliform relations among data sets. For USGS data, a predicted geometric mean of 176 col/100 mL (number of colonies per 100 milliliters) was greater than the current geometric-mean E. coli standard for bathing water of 126 col/100mL. In contrast, for ORSANCO data, the predicted geometric mean of 101 col/100 mL was less than the current E. coli standard. The risk of illness associated with predicted E. coli concentrations for USGS and ORSANCO data was evaluated by use of the USEPA regression equation that predicts swimming-related gastroenteritis rates from E. coli concentrations.1 The predicted geometric-mean E. coli concentrations for bathing water of 176 col/100 mL for USGS data and 101 col/100 mL for ORSANCO data would allow 9.4 and 7.1 gastrointestinal illnesses per 1,000 swimmers, respectively. This prediction compares well with the illness rate of 8 individuals per 1,000 swimmers estimated by the USEPA for an E. coli concentration of 126 col/100 mL. Therefore, the

  9. Spatial variability in levels of benzene, formaldehyde, and total benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes in New York City: a land-use regression study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheirbek Iyad

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hazardous air pollutant exposures are common in urban areas contributing to increased risk of cancer and other adverse health outcomes. While recent analyses indicate that New York City residents experience significantly higher cancer risks attributable to hazardous air pollutant exposures than the United States as a whole, limited data exist to assess intra-urban variability in air toxics exposures. Methods To assess intra-urban spatial variability in exposures to common hazardous air pollutants, street-level air sampling for volatile organic compounds and aldehydes was conducted at 70 sites throughout New York City during the spring of 2011. Land-use regression models were developed using a subset of 59 sites and validated against the remaining 11 sites to describe the relationship between concentrations of benzene, total BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes and formaldehyde to indicators of local sources, adjusting for temporal variation. Results Total BTEX levels exhibited the most spatial variability, followed by benzene and formaldehyde (coefficient of variation of temporally adjusted measurements of 0.57, 0.35, 0.22, respectively. Total roadway length within 100?m, traffic signal density within 400?m of monitoring sites, and an indicator of temporal variation explained 65% of the total variability in benzene while 70% of the total variability in BTEX was accounted for by traffic signal density within 450?m, density of permitted solvent-use industries within 500?m, and an indicator of temporal variation. Measures of temporal variation, traffic signal density within 400?m, road length within 100?m, and interior building area within 100?m (indicator of heating fuel combustion predicted 83% of the total variability of formaldehyde. The models built with the modeling subset were found to predict concentrations well, predicting 62% to 68% of monitored values at validation sites. Conclusions Traffic and point source emissions cause substantial variation in street-level exposures to common toxic volatile organic compounds in New York City. Land-use regression models were successfully developed for benzene, formaldehyde, and total BTEX using spatial indicators of on-road vehicle emissions and emissions from stationary sources. These estimates will improve the understanding of health effects of individual pollutants in complex urban pollutant mixtures and inform local air quality improvement efforts that reduce disparities in exposure.

  10. Consumption of tall oil-derived phytosterols in a chocolate matrix significantly decreases plasma total and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Graaf, Jacqueline; De Sauvage Nolting, Pernette R W; Van Dam, Marjel; Belsey, Elizabeth M; Kastelein, John J P; Haydn Pritchard, P; Stalenhoef, Anton F H

    2002-11-01

    In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial we evaluated the effect of dietary chocolates enriched with a wood-based phytosterol-phytostanol mixture, containing 18 % (w/w) sitostanol, compared with placebo dietary chocolates in seventy subjects with primary hypercholesterolaemia (total cholesterol levels below 8 mmol/l). For 4 weeks, participants consumed three servings of the phytosterol-enriched chocolate/d that provided 1.8 g unesterified phytosterols/d or a placebo chocolate in conjunction with a low-fat, low-cholesterol diet. Plasma total and LDL-cholesterol levels were statistically significantly reduced by 6.4 % (-0.44 mmol/l) and 10.3 % (-0.49 mmol/l), respectively, after 4 weeks of phytosterol-enriched-chocolate treatment. Plasma HDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were not affected. Consumption of phytosterol-enriched chocolates significantly increased plasma lathosterol concentration (+20.7 %), reflecting an increased endogenous cholesterol synthesis in response to phytosterol-induced decreased intestinal cholesterol absorption. Furthermore, the chocolates enriched with phytosterols significantly increased both plasma sitosterol (+95.8 %) and campesterol (+64.1 %) levels, compared with the placebo chocolate group. However, the absolute values of plasma sitosterol and campesterol remained within the normal range, that is, below 10 mg/l. The chocolates with phytosterols were palatable and induced no clinical or biochemical side effects. These findings indicate that dietary chocolate enriched with tall oil-derived phytosterols (1.8 g/d) is effective in lowering blood total and LDL-cholesterol levels in subjects with mild hypercholesterolaemia and thus may be helpful in reducing the risk of CHD in these individuals. PMID:12425728

  11. Rendimiento masticatorio y nivel de satisfacción de pacientes tratados con prótesis totales en la Universidad Mayor / Masticatory performance and satisfaction level in patients treated with complete dentures

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniela, von Kretschmann San Martin; Alejandro, Torres Varela; Marcial, Sierra Fuentes; Julieta, del Pozo Bassi; Rodrigo, Quiroga Aravena; Rodrigo, Quiroga del Pozo.

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio para medir y comparar el rendimiento masticatorio empleando el Test de Manly en 2 grupos de 18 individuos cada uno. El primer grupo estaba conformado por pacientes desdentados totales tratados en la Universidad Mayor en el año 2012 con prótesis totales removibles, y el segundo [...] grupo, por pacientes con dentadura natural completa. Además, al grupo de pacientes rehabilitados con prótesis totales se le aplicó la encuesta GOHAI para conocer el nivel de satisfacción con el uso de sus prótesis. Los resultados muestran que el rendimiento masticatorio es muy superior en los individuos dentados naturales con respecto a los portadores de prótesis totales, y esta diferencia es estadísticamente significativa. Los pacientes portadores de prótesis totales señalan un bajo nivel de satisfacción con el uso de sus dentaduras completas, en especial durante la función masticatoria. Abstract in english This study was conducted in order to measure and compare the masticatory performance using the Manly Test in 2 groups of 18 people. The first group was formed by edentulous patients treated in the Universidad Mayor of Santiago, Chile, in 2012 with removable dentures, and the second group consisted o [...] f patients with complete natural dentition. In addition, the GOHAI questionnaire was also applied to determinate the level of satisfaction of the group of patients rehabilitated with complete dentures. The results showed that masticatory performance is much higher in individuals with complete natural dentition than in patients rehabilitated with complete dentures, with the difference being statistically significant. Patients with dentures indicated a low level of satisfaction with the use of their complete dentures, especially during masticatory function.

  12. Evaluation of Serumal Levels of AST, ALT, Total Bilirubin, Glucose, Urea and Creatinin in Mice after Administration of Tc-99m MIBI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Amouoghli Tabrizi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Tc-99m MIBI methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI is a lipophilic cationic agent which is widely used for myocardial perfusion imaging and also for the detection of various tumors. In present study, for evaluation of serum level of AST, ALT, Total bilirubin, FBC, Urea and Creatinin, 25 mice, respectively were selected and they were divided in 5 groups. 0.3 mC/kg of drug was injected to 4 groups via tail vein. In the control group, before beginning of the investigation bleeding was done. Twenty four hours after injection from the 2nd group, 48 h later from the 3rd group, one week later from the 4th group and two weeks later from the 5th group bleeding was done respectively and the levels of Glucose, Urea, creatinin, ALT, AST and T-bilirubin, respectively were measured using spectophotometr (Biowave S2100 made in England and diagnostic kits (made in bio-chemistry company, Iran. In Comparison to control group, results had significant differences in serum level of Urea, Creatinin and total bilirubin after 24 and 48 h of administration(p<0.05. Also there were insignificant differences in serum ALT and AST level and Glucose after 24 h of administration in all groups (p<0.05. Results shows that more care is needed for administration of drug in diabetic, renal and hepatic patients.

  13. Total mercury and methylmercury levels in pregnant women, nursing women and preschool children resident in fishing villages in the eighth region of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of this project is to perform a descriptive study about the levels of total mercury (Hg-T) and of methylmercury (Me-Hg) in scalp hair specimens of a selected human population of high risk in the Eighth Region of Chile, the group studied included pregnant women (PW), nursing women (NW) and preschool children residing in fishing villages distributed within the coastal zone of this region, the diets of the test group included fish and shellfish as main food components. The degree of Hg contamination of this population was compared to a control population (''core programme''). The methylmercury-to-total mercury ratio (Me-Hg/Hg-T) levels in scalp hair enabled interpretation of the results with respect to the degree of contamination by Hg, and the dietary habits of the sample donors of each fishing village under study. Furthermore, Se levels in scalp hair of the populations with relatively high Hg content were to be investigated for possible correlation with Me-Hg levels (''supplementary programme''). 5 refs, 2 figs, 9 tabs

  14. Linking Near Real-Time Water Quality Measurements to Fecal Coliforms and Trace Organic Pollutants in Urban Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henjum, M.; Wennen, C.; Hondzo, M.; Hozalski, R. M.; Novak, P. J.; Arnold, W. A.

    2009-05-01

    Anthropogenic pollutants, including pesticides, herbicides, pharmaceuticals, and estrogens are detected in urban water bodies. Effective examination of dilute organic and microbial pollutant loading rates within surface waters is currently prohibitively expensive and labor intensive. Effort is being placed on the development of improved monitoring methodologies to more accurately assess surface water quality and evaluate the effectiveness of water quality management practices. Throughout the summer and fall of 2008 a "real-time" wireless network equipped with high frequency fundamental water quality parameter sensors measured turbidity, conductivity, pH, depth, temperature, dissolved oxygen and nitrate above and below stormwater inputs at two urban stream locations. At each location one liter grab samples were concurrently collected by ISCO automatic samplers at two hour intervals for 24 hour durations during three dry periods and five rain events. Grab samples were analyzed for fecal coliforms, atrazine (agricultural herbicide), prometon (residential herbicide) and caffeine (wastewater indicator). Surrogate relationships between easy-to-measure water quality parameters and difficult-to-measure pollutants were developed, subsequently facilitating monitoring of these pollutants without the development of new, and likely costly, technologies. Additionally, comparisons were made between traditional grab sampling techniques and the "real-time" monitoring to assess the accuracy of Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) calculations.

  15. Historical trends and concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria in the Brandywine Creek basin, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Town, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    The Brandywine Creek in Chester County is used for recreation and as an important source of drinking water. For this study, 40 sites were established for collection of water samples for analysis of fecal coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria in 1998-99. Samples were collected during base-flow conditions and during five storms in which rainfall exceeded 0.5 inch. During base- flow conditions, the median concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria exceeded 200 col/100 mL at 26 of the 40 sites (65 percent). During stormflow conditions, the median concentration of fecal coliform bacteria exceeded the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP) criterion of 200 col/100 mL at 30 of 33 sites sampled (91 percent). Trends in fecal coliform bacteria concentrations were downward for the period 1973-99 at three long-term water-quality monitor stations, the result of upgrades in wastewater treatment plants, decreases in point-source discharges, and a decrease in agricultural land. A positive relation exists between streamflow and concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria at two of the long-term stations, but concentrations are elevated in base flow and stormflow at all three stations. Factors affecting bacteria concentrations in the Brandywine Creek Basin include nonpoint-source contaminants, reservoirs, seasonality, and stormflow. Nonpoint sources of bacterial contamination in the basin include, but are not limited to, land-surface runoff, urbanization, agricultural processes, groundwater contamination, and wildlife. Bacteria concentrations in streams that flow directly from the reservoirs are much lower than the concentrations in the streams flowing into the reservoirs. During March, April, May, October, and November, the Brandywine Creek tends to have lower water temperatures and bacteria concentrations than during June, July, August, and September. The 10-year median concentrations of bacteria at West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena and East Branch Brandywine Creek below Downingtown exceed the criterion of 200 col/100 mL established by the PaDEP during the swimming season. The 10-year median concentrations of bacteria at Brandywine Creek at Chadds Ford exceed the criterion of 200 col/100 mL only during June. None of the stations exceed the criterion of 2,000 col/100 mL as established by the PaDEP for the remainder of the year.

  16. Níveis de proteína bruta em dietas para bovinos de corte: consumo e digestibilidades total e parcial dos nutrientes / Crude protein levels in diets of beef cattle: intake and apparent total tract, intestinal, and ruminal digestibilities of nutrients

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Andréa Borges, Cavalcante; Odilon Gomes, Pereira; Sebastião de Campos, Valadares Filho; Karina Guimarães, Ribeiro; Fernanda Helena Martins, Chizzotti; Dalton Henrique, Pereira.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os consumos e as digestibilidades total e parcial dos nutrientes em novilhos Holandês x Zebu recebendo dietas contendo quatro níveis de proteína bruta (10,5; 12; 13,5 e 15% de PB na matéria seca), constituídas de 65% de feno de capim-tifton 85 e 35% de concentrado. Foram utilizados quat [...] ro animais castrados, fistulados no rúmen e abomaso, com peso vivo médio inicial de 487,3 kg, distribuídos em um quadrado latino 4 x 4. Cada período experimental teve duração de 20 dias - 10 para adaptação às dietas, seis para coletas de amostras de fezes e digestas de abomaso, um para a coleta de líquido ruminal, um para a coleta total de urina, em 24 horas, e dois para a coleta de conteúdo ruminal. Para determinação da excreção fecal, utilizou-se o óxido crômico como indicador. Os consumos de matéria seca (MS), matéria orgânica (MO), fibra em detergente neutro (FDN) e nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT) não foram influenciados pelos níveis de proteína bruta (PB) das dietas, mas os consumos de PB aumentaram e os de extrato etéreo (EE) e carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF) reduziram com o incremento de PB das dietas. As digestibilidades aparentes totais da MS, MO e PB aumentaram linearmente com a concentração protéica das dietas. As digestibilidades aparentes ruminal e intestinal dos nutrientes não foram afetadas pelos níveis de PB das dietas, com exceção à digestibilidade intestinal da PB, que aumentou 2,77 unidades para cada percentual de PB acrescentado à dieta. Abstract in english The objective of this trial was to study the effects of different dietary levels of crude protein (CP) on intake and apparent total tract, intestinal, and ruminal digestibilities of nutrients in Holstein x Zebu steers. The diets contained [dry matter (DM) basis]: 10.5, 12, 13.5, or 15% of CP and a f [...] orage (Tifton 85):concentrate ratio of 65:35. Four castrated animals averaging 487.3 kg of body weight at the beginning of the trial and fitted with both abomasum and rumen cannulas were randomly assigned to a 4 x 4 Latin square. Each experimental period lasted 20 days with 10 days for diet adaptation and 10 days for sample collection (feces, abomasum digesta, ruminal content, and urine). Chromium oxide was used as the external marker for determination of fecal excretion. Increasing dietary levels of CP did not change significantly the intakes of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and total digestible nutrients (TDN). However, intake of CP increased while that of ether extract (EE) and non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC) decreased with the increment of dietary CP. Apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, OM, and CP all increased linearly by increasing the dietary CP from 10.5 to 15%. Except for intestinal digestibility of CP that increased 2.77 percentage units for each 1% increment in the diet CP, the different dietary CP levels did not affect intestinal and ruminal digestibilities of all remaining nutrients in the current trial.

  17. Racial differences in the association of CD14 polymorphisms with serum total IgE levels and allergen skin test reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang ZY

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ZongYao Wang,1 John S Sundy,1 Catherine M Foss,1 Huiman X Barnhart,2 Scott M Palmer,1 Sallie D Allgood,3 Evan Trudeau,1 Katie M Alexander,3 Marc C Levesque31Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, 2Duke Clinical Research Institute, 3Division of Rheumatology and Immunology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USABackground: The CD14 C-159T single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP has been investigated widely as a candidate genetic locus in patients with allergic disease. There are conflicting results for the association of the CD14 C-159T SNP with total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE levels and atopy. There are limited data regarding the association of the CD14 C-159T SNP in subjects of African ancestry. The aim of the study was to determine whether the C-159T SNP and other CD14 SNPs (C1188G, C1341T were associated with total serum IgE levels and with allergy skin test results in nonatopic and atopic subjects; as well as in Caucasian and African American subjects.Methods: A total of 291 participants, 18–40 years old, were screened to determine whether they were atopic and/or asthmatic. Analyses were performed to determine the association between CD14 C-159T, C1188G, or C1341T genotypes with serum IgE levels and with the number of positive skin tests among Caucasian or African American subjects.Results: We found no significant association of serum total IgE level with CD14 C-159T, C1188G, or C1341T genotypes within nonatopic or atopic subjects. Subjects with CD14-159 T alleles had significantly more positive allergen skin tests than subjects without CD14-159 T alleles (P = 0.0388. There was a significant association between the CD14 1188 G allele, but not the CD14 1341 T allele, with the number of positive skin-test results in Caucasians, but not in African Americans.Conclusion: These results support a possible association between CD14 polymorphisms and atopy. CD14-159 T or CD14 1188 G alleles were associated with atopic disease. For subjects with CD14 1188 G alleles, the association with atopic disease was stronger in Caucasians compared to African Americans.Keywords: total serum immunoglobulin E, IgE, skin prick test, SPT, CD14-159T, single nucleotide polymorphism, SNP, lipopolysaccharide, LPS, endotoxin

  18. Polyacrylamide+Al2(SO4)3 and polyacrylamide+CaO remove coliform bacteria and nutrients from swine wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyacrylamide mixture may be able to reduce run-off of enteric bacteria from animal wastes. - Animal wastes are a major contributor of nutrients and enteric microorganisms to surface water and ground water. Polyacrylamide (PAM) mixtures are an effective flocculent, and we hypothesized that they would reduce transport of microorganisms in flowing water. After waste water running at 60.0 l min-1 flowed over PAM+Al2(SO4)3, or PAM+CaO in furrows, total coliform bacteria (TC) and fecal coliform bacteria (FC) were reduced by 30-50% at 1 and 50 m downstream of the treatments compared to the control. In a column study, PAM+Al2(SO4)3, and PAM+CaO applied to sandy, sandy loam, loam, and clay soils reduced NH4+ and ortho-P concentrations in leachate compared to the source waste water and the control. PAM+Al2(SO4)3 and PAM+CaO applied to sandy, sandy loam and loam soils reduced both total and ortho-P, concentrations in leachate compared to the source wastewater and control treatment. In a field study, PAM+Al2(SO4)3, or PAM+CaO treatments did not consistently reduce NH4+, NO3-, ortho-P, and total P concentrations in wastewater flowing over any soil compared to inflow wastewater or the control treatment. With proper application PAM+ Al2(SO4)3 l2(SO4)3 and PAM+CaO may be able to reduce the numbers of enteric bacteria in slowly flowing wastewater running off animal confinement areas, reducing the amount of pollutants entering surface water and groundwater

  19. Effect of meteorologic conditions on total suspended particulate (TSP) levels and elemental concentration of aerosols in a semi-arid zone (Beer-Sheva, Israel)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total suspended particulate (TSP) levels in Beer-Sheva, situated in a semi-arid area with winds bringing in dust from the surrounding deserts, was measured 41 times between June 1977 and May 1978. The TSP levels are correlated with climatic conditions. High TSP levels (890 +- 250 ?g m-3) were found during Sharav conditions and sandstorms (hot, dry weather, typical to this region). Low TSP levels (59 +- 28 ?g m-3) were found in the winter following rain. Usual TSP levels were found to be 140 +- 20 ?g m-3 occurring during normal weather conditions. The elemental composition of the Beer-Sheva aerosols were determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INNA) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF). The concentrations of the following elements Fe, Na, Br, K, Sm, Au, Sb, Ga, La, Yb, Lu, Se, Hg, Cr, Sc, Rb, Co, Ta and Zn were determined by INNA and Ca, Si, S, Ti, Cl, Pb, Fe, V, Ni and Mn by XRF. Their relative abundances were found to depend on the prevailing TSP level. (Auth.)

  20. A study of lipid- and water-soluble arsenic species in liver of Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua) containing high levels of total arsenic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sele, Veronika; Sloth, Jens JØrgen

    2015-01-01

    In the present study liver samples (n = 26) of Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua), ranging in total arsenic concentrations from 2.1 to 240 mg/kg liver wet weight (ww), were analysed for their content of total arsenic and arsenic species in the lipid-soluble and water-soluble fractions. The arsenic concentrations in the lipid fractions ranged from 1.8 to 16.4 mg As/kg oil of liver, and a linear correlation (r(2) = 0.80, p <0.001) was observed between the total arsenic concentrations in liver and the total arsenic concentrations in the respective lipid fractions of the same livers. The relative proportion of arsenolipids was considerably lower in liver samples with high total arsenic levels (33-240 mg/kg ww), which contained from 3 to 7% of the total arsenic in the lipid-soluble fraction. In contrast liver samples with low arsenic concentrations (2.1-33 mg/kg ww) contained up to 50% of the total arsenic as lipid-soluble species. Arsenic speciation analysis of the lipid-soluble fractions of the livers, using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS), revealed the presence of several arsenolipids. Three major arsenic-containing hydrocarbons (C17H39AsO, C19H41AsO and C23H37AsO) and five arsenic-containing fatty acids (C17H35AsO3, C(19)H(39)AO(3), C19H37AsO3, C23H37AsO3 and C24H37AsO3) were identified using HPLC coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS). Arsenobetaine was the major arsenic species in the water-soluble fraction of the livers, while dimethylarsinate, arsenocholine and inorganic arsenic were minor constituents. Inorganic arsenic accounted for less than 0.1% of the total arsenic in the liver samples. (C) 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of heavy metals on the level of vitamin E, total lipid and glycogen reserves in the liver of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinodhini Rajamanickam

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine some changes in the biochemical profile of the liver tissue of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L. exposed to a sublethal concentration of heavy metal mixture (cadmium, chromium, nickel and lead. The biochemical profile, specifically glycogen, total lipid and vitamin E content in the liver tissue was examined and compared to that of the control group. The exposed group showed a marked decline in glycogen and vitamin E reserves. Conversely an increase in total lipid in comparison to control was observed. The result reflects the sensitivity of these biochemical parameters to the effects of sublethal levels of combined heavy metals for this the widely consumed freshwater fish.

  2. Ocorrência de Salmonella e coliformes de origem fecal na canela em pó (Cinnamomum cassia Blume a Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees comercializada em Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Salmonella and fecal coliforms in cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia Blume and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees sold in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Maria de S. Philippi

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Cem amostras de canela em pó de dez marcas diferentes comercializadas na cidade de Florianópolis, SC, foram submetidas à análise microbiológica, pesquisando-se Salmonella e coliformes de origem fecal. Em nenhuma amostra foi detectada Salmonella. Coliformes de origem fecal foram encontrados entre os valores The microbiological quality of a hundred samples of ten differents commercial brands of a ground cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia Blume and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees from supermarkets in the city of Florianópolis, Brazil, was assessed. Salmonella and fecal coliforms were determined. Results were negative for Salmonella Fecal coliforms values ranged from 100 MPN per g. Fecal coliforms were detected in 37% of the cinnamon samples.

  3. Listeria spp. associated to different levels of autochthonous microbiota in meat, meat products and processing plants Listeria spp. associado a diferentes níveis da microbiota autóctone de carne, produtos cárneos e plantas de processamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia de Aguiar Ferreira Barros

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available High levels of microbial contamination, commonly found in animal origin foods and food processing environments, are able to hinder the growth of pathogens in these products and interfere in the results of laboratory analyses for detection of these pathogens. With the aim of verifying the possible interference of the autochthonous microbiota encountered in meat and meat products and processing plants over the presence of Listeria spp., 443 samples, collected from 11 meat retail establishments, were submitted to microbiological analysis to determine the levels of mesophilic aerobes, total coliforms and Escherichia coli and the presence of Listeria spp., according to the methodology proposed by the USDA. The results did not show evident interference of the autochthonous microbiota over Listeria spp., once the genus was detected even in the meat, meat products and environmental samples with high levels of contamination by mesophilic aerobes and coliforms.Altos níveis de contaminação microbiana, usualmente encontrados em alimentos de origem animal e nos ambientes de processamento, podem inibir a multiplicação de microrganismos patogênicos nesses produtos e interferir nos resultados das análises laboratoriais para o isolamento desses patógenos. Com o objetivo de verificar as possíveis interferências da microbiota autóctone encontrada na carne, produtos cárneos e plantas de processamento sobre a presença de Listeria spp., 443 amostras, coletadas em 11 estabelecimentos processadores, foram submetidas a análises microbiológicas para determinação dos níveis de contaminação por aeróbios mesófilos, coliformes totais e Escherichia coli e para verificação da presença de Listeria spp., de acordo com a metodologia proposta pelo USDA. Os resultados obtidos não mostraram uma interferência evidente da microbiota autóctone sobre Listeria spp., uma vez que esse gênero foi detectado mesmo nas amostras de carne e produtos cárneos e amostras ambientais e de superfície de equipamentos que apresentaram altos níveis de contaminação por aeróbios mesófilos e coliformes.

  4. Niveles de carbono orgánico total en el Suelo de Conservación del Distrito Federal, centro de México / Levels of total organic carbon in The Suelo de Conservación of the Distrito Federal, Central Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gilberto, Vela Correa; Jorge, López Blanco; María de Lourdes, Rodríguez Gamiño.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El Suelo de Conservación (SC) del Distrito Federal es un reservorio de carbono, por lo que es importante contar con datos sobre su capacidad de almacenamiento bajo diferentes tipos de cobertura vegetal. En este trabajo se estimó el contenido de carbono orgánico total en suelos (COS) de áreas con cob [...] ertura de bosque, uso agrícola y en áreas reforestadas. Se delimitaron unidades geomorfogenéticas que sirvieron de base para el muestreo de suelos. En total se estudiaron 50 sitios con muestras de suelo tomadas a una profundidad de 0-30 cm con diferente cobertura vegetal. Se determinó la cantidad de carbono orgánico total en el suelo por hectáreas (COS) a partir de una ecuación que considera la densidad aparente, porosidad y superficie. El mayor contenido de COS se presentó en los suelos de sitios reforestados con Abies religiosa, Pinus spp., y Pinus-Cupressus. Los suelos agrícolas contienen menos de la mitad de COS que los suelos forestales. Los contenidos más altos de COS se localizan en la Sierra de las Cruces y Sierra de Guadalupe, así como en los suelos de los volcanes Pelado, Cuautzin y Tláloc. Las delegaciones cuyos suelos tienen mayor contenido de COS son Cuajimalpa y Magdalena Contreras. Es necesario evaluar, desde una perspectiva económico-ambiental, los servicios ecosistémicos que ofrece el SC, en este caso como almacén de carbono en el suelo, a fin de que los estímulos económicos sean atractivos para los poseedores de la tierra. Abstract in english The Suelo de Conservación (SC) of the Distrito Federal (Central Mexico) is a reservoir of carbon, so it is important to have storage-capacity data under different types of vegetation. In this paper we estimated the total organic carbon content in soils (TOCS) of land cover areas of forest, forested [...] areas and agricultural use. Geomorphogenetic units were delineated that were the basis for soil sampling. In total 50 sites were considered with soil samples taken at a 0-30 cm depth with different land cover. We determined the total amount of organic carbon in soil (TOCS) from an equation considering the bulk density, porosity and surface area. The highest content of TOCS is presented in the soils of sites reforested with Abies religiosa, Pinus spp. and Pinus-Cupressus. The agricultural soils contain less than a half of COS in relation the forest soils. Higher levels of TOCS content are located in the Las Cruces and Guadalupe Ranges, as well as the volcanic soils of the Pelado, Tláloc and Cuautzin volcanoes. Local administrative units whose soils have the highest concentration of TOCS are Cuajimalpa and Magdalena Contreras. It is necessary to assess, from an economic-environmental approach the ecosystem services provided by the SC, in this case as a soil carbon storage, so that economic incentives are attractive to the local land-owners.

  5. Total mercury and methylmercury levels in pregnant women, nursing women and preschool children resident in fishing villages in the eighth region of Chile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of this project is to perform a descriptive study about the levels of total mercury (Hg-T) and of methylmercury (Me-Hg) in human scalp hair specimens of a selected human population of high risk in the Eighth Region of Chile (composed by pregnant women, nurse women and prescholar children residing in fisheries distributed within the coastal zone of this region), whose diet should include fish and shellfish as main food components, and to evaluate the degree of mercury contamination of this population by comparison with a control population. 6 refs, 2 tabs

  6. Evaluation of Serum Levels of HER2, MMP-9, Nitric Oxide, and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Egyptian Breast Cancer Patients: Correlation with Clinico-Pathological Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Rashad, Yara A.; Elkhodary, Tawfik R.; Amal M. El-Gayar; Eissa, Laila A.

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer is by far the most common cancer in women worldwide and the main cause of cancer-related mortality. Breast cancer accounts for 38% of all malignancies among Egyptian women. The aim of our study was to evaluate the serum levels of human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), nitric oxide (NO), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in breast cancer patients and to correlate these markers with clinico-pathological parameters. Serum HER2, MMP-9...

  7. Modification of Death rate and Disturbances induced in the Levels of serum total Lipids and free fatty acids of irradiated rats by ascorbic acid and serotonin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intraperitoneal injection of normal rats with ascorbic acid (10 mg/100 g body weight ) or serotonin (2 mg/100 g body weight) had no harmful effect on the life span. Moreover, the levels of serum total lipids and free fatty acids did not show any significant changes at 3, 7, 10 and 14 days after injection. Administration of ascorbic acid or serotonin to rats at the pre mentioned doses, 15 minutes, before gamma irradiation at 7.5 Gy (single dose ) improved the survival time of rats and the hyperlipemic state recorded after radiation exposure

  8. Multivariate Logistic Regression for Predicting Total Culturable Virus Presence at the Intake of a Potable-Water Treatment Plant: Novel Application of the Atypical Coliform/Total Coliform Ratio?

    OpenAIRE

    Black, L. E.; Brion, G. M.; Freitas, S. J.

    2007-01-01

    Predicting the presence of enteric viruses in surface waters is a complex modeling problem. Multiple water quality parameters that indicate the presence of human fecal material, the load of fecal material, and the amount of time fecal material has been in the environment are needed. This paper presents the results of a multiyear study of raw-water quality at the inlet of a potable-water plant that related 17 physical, chemical, and biological indices to the presence of enteric viruses as indi...

  9. The impact of hypoxemia on serum total and free prostate-specific antigen levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozge, Cengiz; Bozlu, Murat; Ozgur, Eylem Sercan; Tek, Mesut; Tunckiran, Ahmet; Muslu, Necati; Ilvan, Ahmet

    2015-05-01

    Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is the most important biochemical marker in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with prostate cancer. In recent years, a relationship between PSA levels and hypoxic conditions has been described. However, no study has investigated the PSA levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of hypoxemia on serum total (tPSA) and free PSA (fPSA) levels in patients with COPD. Between January 2010 and January 2014, 95 male patients who hospitalized for acute exacerbations of COPD and 80 control subjects were enrolled in the study. Serum tPSA and fPSA levels and f/tPSA ratios were determined in all patients on the first day of hospitalization (exacerbation) and 7 days after the treatment (stable state). Statistical analysis included paired t test and Mann-Whitney U test. No statistically significant differences were found between COPD and control groups with regard to the baseline characteristics, except for smoking status. The levels of serum tPSA and fPSA during exacerbation of COPD were significantly higher than the levels of the stable period (p 0.05). Hypoxemia during acute exacerbation of COPD can cause a rise in serum tPSA and fPSA levels, but f/tPSA ratio is not affected. Acute exacerbation of COPD may be added to list of the events in which PSA measurements must be interpreted with caution. PMID:25837435

  10. Evolution of blood magnesium and phosphorus ion levels following thyroidectomy and correlation with total calcium values / Evolução dos níveis dos íons fósforo e magnésio séricos e sua correlação com valores de cálcio total após tireoidectomia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandre de Andrade, Sousa; José Maria Porcaro, Salles; João Marcos Arantes, Soares; Gustavo Meyer de, Moraes; Jomar Rezende, Carvalho; Paulo Roberto, Savassi-Rocha.

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO E OBJETIVO: A concentração do íon magnésio está diretamente e a do íon fósforo inversamente relacionada à calcemia. O objetivo foi avaliar a evolução das concentrações dos íons magnésio e fósforo nos pacientes submetidos a tireoidectomia, e relacioná-los com as alterações da concentração do [...] cálcio. TIPO DE ESTUDO E LOCAL: Estudo prospectivo realizado no Instituto Alfa de Gastroenterologia, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. MÉTODOS: O estudo incluiu 333 pacientes de ambos os sexos, com média de idade de 45 ± 15 anos, submetidos a tireoidectomia no período de 2000 a 2005. Cálcio total, fósforo e magnésio foram dosados no pré-operatório e com 24 e 48 horas de pós-operatório. As alterações dos íons foram avaliadas de acordo com a presença ou ausência de hipocalcemia pós-operatória. RESULTADOS: Houve queda estatisticamente significativa dos níveis sanguíneos de fósforo 24 horas e 48 horas após a tireoidectomia em relação ao pré-operatório nos pacientes que não tiveram hipocalcemia. Quanto aos pacientes que evoluíram com hipocalcemia, houve queda significativa do fósforo plasmático no primeiro dia de pós-operatório e elevação, também estatisticamente significativa, no segundo dia em relação ao fósforo pré-operatório. Foi também observada queda significativa do magnésio pós-operatório em relação ao pré-operatório no primeiro e no segundo dia após a tireoidectomia nos pacientes com hipocalcemia. Naqueles sem hipocalcemia, a queda do magnésio foi significativa no primeiro dia, mas não houve diferença no segundo dia. CONCLUSÃO: Embora alterados no pós-operatório, as concentrações dos íons magnésio e fósforo não apresentaram papel na calcemia pós-tireoidectomia. Abstract in english CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Magnesium ion concentration is directly related and phosphorus ion concentration is inversely related to calcemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the evolution of magnesium and phosphorus ion levels in patients undergoing thyroidectomy and correlate these with changes t [...] o calcium concentration. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective study at the Alpha Institute of Gastroenterology, Hospital das Clínicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. METHODS: The study included 333 patients, of both genders and mean age 45 ± 15 years, who underwent thyroidectomy between 2000 and 2005. Total calcium, phosphorus and magnesium were measured in the blood preoperatively and 24 and 48 hours postoperatively. Ionic changes were evaluated according to the presence or absence of postoperative hypocalcemia. RESULTS: There were statistically significant drops in blood phosphorus levels 24 and 48 hours after thyroidectomy, compared with preoperative values, in the patients without hypocalcemia. In the patients who developed hypocalcemia, there was a significant drop in plasma phosphorus on the first postoperative day and an increase (also statistically significant) on the second day, in relation to preoperative phosphorus levels. A significant drop in postoperative magnesium was also observed on the first and second days after thyroidectomy in the patients with hypocalcemia, in relation to preoperative levels. In the patients without hypocalcemia, the drop in magnesium was significant on the first day, but there was no difference on the second day. CONCLUSION: Despite the postoperative changes, neither magnesium nor phosphorus ion levels had any role in post-thyroidectomy calcemia.

  11. Critical evaluation of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels during thyroid hormone suppression therapy versus Tg levels after hormone withdrawal and total body scan: Results in 291 patients with thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels were measured during thyroid-hormone suppressive therapy in 291 patients who had been treated for well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. The findings were compared with those of a subsequent total body scan (TBS) and with Tg levels measured after thyroid-hormone withdrawal. Of the patients with low Tg levels during suppressive therapy, 91.6% were subsequently shown to be free of disease or to have only remnants in the thyroid bed, whereas 8.4% had metastases (false-negative). Of the patients with false-negative findings, 89.3% had nodal metastases; 60.8% of the patients with nodal metastases exhibiting radioiodine uptake and only 23% of those with nonfunctioning nodal metastases had low Tg levels during suppression therapy. After thyroid-hormone withdrawal, all but 1 of the patients with nodal metastases had high Tg levels. All but 2 of the patients with distant metastases had high Tg levels during suppression therapy; 1 of these 2 patients exhibited high Tg levels after T3 withdrawal. No differences between Tg levels in patients with functioning and non-functioning metastases were found. Our study indicates that Tg assays performed during suppressive therapy have a fairly good predictive value and can be used as a general guide in the follow-up of thyroid cancer. However, since most differentiated metastases produce Tg only when stimulated by thyroid-stimulating hormone, measurements of Tg levels after the discontinuation of of Tg levels after the discontinuation of suppressive therapy would also seem to be necessary. (orig.)

  12. Sunlight Inactivation of Enterococci and Fecal Coliforms in Sewage Effluent Diluted in Seawater

    OpenAIRE

    Davies-Colley, Robert J.; Bell, Robert G.; Donnison, Andrea M.

    1994-01-01

    Inactivation (loss of culturability) by sunlight of enterococci and fecal coliforms within sewage effluent diluted in seawater was investigated in field experiments. In most experiments, 500-ml flasks of pure silica were used to confine activated sludge effluent diluted to 2% (vol/vol) in seawater. Inactivation of bacteria in these flasks (diameter, 0.1 m) was faster than in either open chambers (depth, 0.25 m) or patches of dyed effluent (depth of order, 1 m), probably because of the longer ...

  13. Comparison of thermotolerant coliforms and Escherichia coli densities in freshwater bodies

    OpenAIRE

    Elayse M. Hachich; Marisa Di Bari; Christ, Ana Paula G.; Lamparelli, Cláudia C.; Ramos, Solange S.; Maria Inês Z. Sato

    2012-01-01

    Fecal bacterial indicator analyses have been widely used for monitoring the water quality. This study was designed to determine the ratio between the density of Escherichia coli and other Thermotolerant Coliforms (TtC) bacteria from freshwater samples collected for a two-year period of monitoring. TtC were enumerated by membrane filtration on mFC agar. E. coli enumeration was done by two methods: TtC colonies identified in mFC were inoculated in EC-MUG or water samples were filtered and inocu...

  14. New medium for improved recovery of coliform bacteria from drinking water.

    OpenAIRE

    LeChevallier, M. W.; Cameron, S C; McFeters, G. A.

    1983-01-01

    A new membrane filter medium was developed for the improved recovery of injured coliforms from drinking water. The new medium, termed m-T7, consists of 5.0 g of Difco Proteose Peptone no. 3, 20 g of lactose, 3.0 g of yeast extract, 0.4 ml of Tergitol 7 (25% solution), 5.0 g of polyoxyethylene ether W-1, 0.1 g of bromthymol blue, 0.1 g of bromcresol purple, and 15 g of agar per liter of distilled water. Additional selectivity may be obtained by aseptically adding 0.1 microgram of penicillin G ...

  15. Monitoring and spatial distribution of heterotrophic bacteria and fecal coliforms in the Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Márcia T. S., Lutterbach; Joselito Cabral, Vazquez; Jorge A., Pinet; José V., Andreata; Alexandre Carlos da, Silva.

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available O monitoramento e a distribuição espacial de bactérias heterotróficas e coliformes fecais foram realizados em quatro áreas marginais da Laguna Rodrigo de Freitas, Rio de Janeiro. Amostras mensais foram coletadas no período de outubro de 1994 a setembro de 1998. A maior quantidade de bactérias hetero [...] tróficas foi de 6.5x10(7) UFC/100mL nas áreas 2 e 4 no mês de agosto de 1998, enquanto o menor valor encontrado foi de 10³ UFC/100mL na área 3 em fevereiro de 1995. Quanto aos coliformes fecais os maiores valores foram de 1.6x10(5) colif./100mL na área 3 em março de 1997 e os menores valores encontrados foram Abstract in english The distribution of heterothrophic bacteria and fecal coliforms was monitored at four sampling stations located near the shore of the Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon, in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Water samples were collected, monthly from October 1994 through September 1998. The highest heteroth [...] rophic count (6.5x10 7 CFU/100mL) was recorded at stations 2 and 4 during August 1998 and the lowest (10 ³ CFU/100 mL) at station 3 during February 1995. With respect to fecal coliforms, the highest and lowest counts were 1.6x10 5 coliforms/100mL at station 3 during March 1997 and

  16. Elimination of fecal coliforms and F-specific RNA coliphage from oysters (Crassostrea virginica) relaid in floating containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kator, H; Rhodes, M

    2001-06-01

    Declining oyster (Crassostrea virginica) production in the Chesapeake Bay has stimulated aquaculture based on floats for off-bottom culture. While advantages of off-bottom culture are significant, the increased use of floating containers raises public health and microbiological concerns, because oysters in floats may be more susceptible to fecal contamination from storm runoff compared to those cultured on-bottom. We conducted four commercial-scale studies with market-size oysters naturally contaminated with fecal coliforms (FC) and a candidate viral indicator, F-specific RNA (FRNA) coliphage. To facilitate sampling and to test for location effects, 12 replicate subsamples, each consisting of 15 to 20 randomly selected oysters in plastic mesh bags, were placed at four characteristic locations within a 0.6- by 3.0-m "Taylor" float, and the remaining oysters were added to a depth not exceeding 15.2 cm. The float containing approximately 3,000 oysters was relaid in the York River, Virginia, for 14 days. During relay, increases in shellfish FC densities followed rain events such that final mean levels exceeded initial levels or did not meet an arbitrary product end point of 50 FC/100 ml. FRNA coliphage densities decreased to undetectable levels within 14 days (16 to 28 degrees C) in all but the last experiment, when temperatures fell between 12 and 16 degrees C. Friedman (nonparametric analysis of variance) tests performed on FC/Escherichia coli and FRNA densities indicated no differences in counts as a function of location within the float. The public health consequences of these observations are discussed, and future research and educational needs are identified. PMID:11403128

  17. Aerobic Stability and Effects of Yeasts during Deterioration of Non-fermented and Fermented Total Mixed Ration with Different Moisture Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, W; Wang, H L; Ning, T T; Yang, F Y; Xu, C C

    2015-06-01

    The present experiment evaluated the influence of moisture level and anaerobic fermentation on aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR). The dynamic changes in chemical composition and microbial population that occur after air exposure were examined, and the species of yeast associated with the deterioration process were also identified in both non-fermented and fermented TMR to deepen the understanding of aerobic deterioration. The moisture levels of TMR in this experiment were adjusted to 400 g/kg (low moisture level, LML), 450 g/kg (medium moisture level, MML), and 500 g/kg (high moisture level, HML), and both non-fermented and 56-d-fermented TMR were subjected to air exposure to determine aerobic stability. Aerobic deterioration resulted in high losses of nutritional components and largely reduced dry matter digestibility. Non-fermented TMR deteriorated during 48 h of air exposure and the HML treatment was more aerobically unstable. On dry matter (DM) basis, yeast populations significantly increased from 10(7) to 10(10) cfu/g during air exposure, and Candida ethanolica was the predominant species during deterioration in non-fermented TMR. Fermented TMR exhibited considerable resistance to aerobic deterioration. Spoilage was only observed in the HML treatment and its yeast population increased dramatically to 10(9) cfu/g DM when air exposure progressed to 30 d. Zygosaccharomyces bailii was the sole yeast species isolated when spoilage occurred. These results confirmed that non-fermented and fermented TMR with a HML are more prone to spoilage, and fermented TMR has considerable resistance to aerobic deterioration. Yeasts can trigger aerobic deterioration in both non-fermented and fermented TMR. C. ethanolica may be involved in the spoilage of non-fermented TMR and the vigorous growth of Z. bailii can initiate aerobic deterioration in fermented TMR. PMID:25925059

  18. Aerobic Stability and Effects of Yeasts during Deterioration of Non-fermented and Fermented Total Mixed Ration with Different Moisture Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, W.; Wang, H. L.; Ning, T. T.; Yang, F. Y.; Xu, C. C.

    2015-01-01

    The present experiment evaluated the influence of moisture level and anaerobic fermentation on aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR). The dynamic changes in chemical composition and microbial population that occur after air exposure were examined, and the species of yeast associated with the deterioration process were also identified in both non-fermented and fermented TMR to deepen the understanding of aerobic deterioration. The moisture levels of TMR in this experiment were adjusted to 400 g/kg (low moisture level, LML), 450 g/kg (medium moisture level, MML), an