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Bacteriological (fecal and total coliform) quality of Pakistani coastal water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The coliform bacteria group consists of several genera of bacteria belonging to the family enterobacteriaceae. These are harmless bacteria, mostly live in soil, water, and digestive system of animals. Fecal coliform bacteria, which belongs to this group, are present in large numbers in feces and intestinal tract of human beings and other warm-blooded animals which can enter into water bodies from human and animal waste. Swimming in water having high levels of Fecal coliform bacteria increases the chance of developing illness (fever, nausea or stomach cramps) from pathogens entering the body through mouth, nose, ears or cuts in the skin. The objective of the present study was to characterize the bathing quality of Pakistani coastal water with respect to coliform bacteria. Total and Fecal coliform bacteria were determined at seven different locations along Pakistan coast using membrane filtration (MF) technique. 100 ml of water was passed through 0.45 micron (mu) filter paper. These filter papers were put on pads, soaked in Lauryle sulphate broth in petri-dishes and incubated at 44 deg. C for Fecal and 37 deg. for Total coliform for 24 hours. Significantly high population of Fecal and Total coliform bacteria was recorded at Karachi harbour area and Indus delta region. Results indicate that a large amount of domestically originated waste is being discharged into these locations without any pre-treatment (e.g., screening, activated sludge, by using filtration beds etc.) resulting in a poor seawater quality making it unfit for bathing. (author)

2010-01-01

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The Efficiency of Removal of Total Coliforms, Faecal Coliforms and Coliphages in a Wastewater Treatment Plant in Riyadh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Limited water resources in Saudi Arabia necessitate the re-use of treated wastewater for irrigation, industrial and recreational purposes. The large numbers of pathogenic agents present in wastewater requires continuous monitoring of the removal of such agents from water prior to re-use. In a one year study total and faecal coliforms and coliphages were estimated in monthly samples from a wastewater treatment plant in Riyadh to evaluate the removal efficiency of such indicators at various levels of wastewater treatment. The efficiency of removal of total coliform (TC) and faecal coliform (FC) following aeration and sedimentation processes ranged between (18-34%) and (17-38%) respectively and for coliphages was (4-19%). Chlorinated effluent had negligible counts of TC and FC with an efficiency of removal of (99.2-100%) and (99-100%) for TC and FC respectively whereas the efficiency of removal of coliphages ranged between (91-100%). As coliphages have been proposed as possible indicators of enteric viruses our study suggests their use as indicators of faecal pollution with traditional coliform indicators and the implementation of treatment measures more effective in virus removal in re-used wastewater. Electron microscopy of selected phage lysates showed the presence of tailed coliphages belonging to families Myoviridae, Siphoviridae and Podoviridae. Polyvalent coliphages able to infect enteric bacteria other than E. coli were also detected.

F. A. Fattouh; M. T. Al-Kahtani

2002-01-01

3

Enumeration of total coliforms and E. coli in foods by the SimPlate coliform and E. coli color indicator method and conventional culture methods: collaborative study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The relative effectiveness of the SimPlate Coliform and E. coli Color Indicator (CEc-CI) method was compared to the AOAC 3-tube Most Probable Number (MPN) methods for enumerating and confirming coliforms and Escherichia coli in foods (966.23 and 966.24). In this study, test portions were prepared and analyzed according to the conditions stated in both the AOAC methods and SimPlate directions for use. Six food types were artificially contaminated with coliform bacteria and E. coli: frozen burritos, frozen broccoli, fluid pasteurized milk, whole almond nut meats, cheese, and powdered cake mix. Method comparisons were conducted. Overall, the SimPlate method demonstrated <0.3 log difference for total coliform and E. coli counts compared to the AOAC reference methods for the majority of food types and levels analyzed. In all cases, the repeatability and reproducibility of the SimPlate CEc-CI method were not different from those of the reference methods and in certain cases, were statistically better than those of the AOAC 3-tube MPN methods. These results indicate that the SimPlate CEc-CI method and the reference culture methods are comparable for enumeration of both total coliforms and E. coli in foods.

Feldsine PT; Lienau AH; Roa NH; Green ST

2005-09-01

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78 FR 10269 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule  

Science.gov (United States)

...the Simultaneous Detection of E. coli and other Total Coliforms in Water,'' August 28, 2009. (ii) [Reserved] (4) EMD Millipore (a division of Merck KGaA, Darmstadt Germany), 290 Concord Road, Billerica, MA 01821, telephone...

2013-02-13

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Bacteria holding times for fecal coliform by mFC agar method and total coliform and Escherichia coli by Colilert??-18 Quanti-Tray ?? method  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacteria holding-time experiments of up to 62 h were performed on five surface-water samples from four urban stream sites in the vicinity of Atlanta, GA, USA that had relatively high densities of coliform bacteria (Escherichia coli densities were all well above the US Environmental Protection Agency criterion of 126 colonies (100 ml)???-???1 for recreational waters). Holding-time experiments were done for fecal coliform using the membrane filtration modified fecal coliform (mFC) agar method and for total coliform and E. coli using the Colilert??-18 Quanti-Tray ?? method. The precisions of these analytical methods were quantified. Precisions determined for fecal coliform indicated that the upper bound of the ideal range of counts could reasonably be extended upward and would improve precision. For the Colilert??-18 method, analytical precisions were similar to the theoretical precisions for this method. Fecal and total coliform densities did not change significantly with holding times up to about 27 h. Limited information indicated that fecal coliform densities might be stable for holding times of up to 62 h, whereas total coliform densities might not be stable for holding times greater than about 27 h. E. coli densities were stable for holding times of up to 18 h-a shorter period than indicated from a previous studies. These results should be applicable to non-regulatory monitoring sampling designs for similar urban surface-water sample types. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Aulenbach, B. T.

2010-01-01

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Effects of rainfall on the occurrence of human adenoviruses, total coliforms, and Escherichia coli in seawater.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A two-month survey was conducted in order to evaluate the effects of rainfall on the fate of microorganisms in seawater in the Tokyo Bay, Japan. The seawater sample (1,000 mL) was applied to a method to concentrate virus, followed by a quantification of human adenoviruses using the real-time PCR. Total coliforms and E. coli, which were determined by the colony forming method, were detected in all 47 seawater samples, while human adenoviruses were detected in 38 (81%) of the samples. The concentration of tested microorganisms showed 1-2 log units increase after rainfall events, followed by the gradual decrease to the level before the rainfall within a few days.

Haramoto E; Katayama H; Oguma K; Koibuchi Y; Furumai H; Ohgaki S

2006-01-01

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Effects of rainfall on the occurrence of human adenoviruses, total coliforms, and Escherichia coli in seawater.  

Science.gov (United States)

A two-month survey was conducted in order to evaluate the effects of rainfall on the fate of microorganisms in seawater in the Tokyo Bay, Japan. The seawater sample (1,000 mL) was applied to a method to concentrate virus, followed by a quantification of human adenoviruses using the real-time PCR. Total coliforms and E. coli, which were determined by the colony forming method, were detected in all 47 seawater samples, while human adenoviruses were detected in 38 (81%) of the samples. The concentration of tested microorganisms showed 1-2 log units increase after rainfall events, followed by the gradual decrease to the level before the rainfall within a few days. PMID:17037157

Haramoto, E; Katayama, H; Oguma, K; Koibuchi, Y; Furumai, H; Ohgaki, S

2006-01-01

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ANÁLISIS DE LA CONTAMINACIÓN MICROBIOLÓGICA (COLIFORMES TOTALES Y FECALES) EN LA BAHÍA DE SANTA MARTA, CARIBE COLOMBIANO Analysis Of The Microbiological Contamination (Total And Fecales Coliforms) In The Bay Of Santa Marta, Colombian Caribbean  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Con el fin de realizar un análisis del nivel de contaminación microbiológica y de las principales fuentes de contaminación en la Bahía de Santa Marta (BSM), se colectaron muestras de agua para medir las concentraciones de coliformes totales y fecales en 11 estaciones y dos niveles de profundidad (1 y 20 m). Para la época de mayores precipitaciones se encontraron altos valores de coliformes totales y fecales, en los dos niveles de profundidad; presentándose una condición similar para la época seca. Con base a una escala conceptual se obtuvo que la BSM presenta un grado de contaminación medio para actividades de contacto primario (natación y buceo), sin embargo, existen varias fuentes de contaminación (emisario submarino, río, puerto marítimo, entre otras) que están generando un alto impacto sobre este ecosistema. Los altos valores de contaminación que se registran en la BSM se encuentran asociados a la proximidad que tiene esta a las zonas urbanas.With the purpose of making an analysis of the microbiological level of contamination and the main sources of contamination in the Bay of Santa Marta (BSM), water samples were collected to measure the concentrations of total and fecals coliforms in 11 stations and two levels of depth (1 and 20 m). For the time of greater precipitations were stops values of total and fecals coliforms, in both depth levels; appearing a similar condition for the dry time. Based on a conceptual scale it was obtained that the BSM presents an average degree of contamination for activities of primary contact (swimming and diving), nevertheless, exist several sources of contamination (submarine emissary, river, seaport, among others) that are generating a high impact on this ecosystem. The high values of contamination that are registered in the BSM find associate to the proximity that has this to the urban zones.

LINA MARÍA RAMOS-ORTEGA; LUÍS A VIDAL; SANDRA VILARDY; LINA SAAVEDRA-DÍAZ

2008-01-01

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ANÁLISIS DE LA CONTAMINACIÓN MICROBIOLÓGICA (COLIFORMES TOTALES Y FECALES) EN LA BAHÍA DE SANTA MARTA, CARIBE COLOMBIANO/ Analysis Of The Microbiological Contamination (Total And Fecales Coliforms) In The Bay Of Santa Marta, Colombian Caribbean  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Con el fin de realizar un análisis del nivel de contaminación microbiológica y de las principales fuentes de contaminación en la Bahía de Santa Marta (BSM), se colectaron muestras de agua para medir las concentraciones de coliformes totales y fecales en 11 estaciones y dos niveles de profundidad (1 y 20 m). Para la época de mayores precipitaciones se encontraron altos valores de coliformes totales y fecales, en los dos niveles de profundidad; presentándose una cond (more) ición similar para la época seca. Con base a una escala conceptual se obtuvo que la BSM presenta un grado de contaminación medio para actividades de contacto primario (natación y buceo), sin embargo, existen varias fuentes de contaminación (emisario submarino, río, puerto marítimo, entre otras) que están generando un alto impacto sobre este ecosistema. Los altos valores de contaminación que se registran en la BSM se encuentran asociados a la proximidad que tiene esta a las zonas urbanas. Abstract in english With the purpose of making an analysis of the microbiological level of contamination and the main sources of contamination in the Bay of Santa Marta (BSM), water samples were collected to measure the concentrations of total and fecals coliforms in 11 stations and two levels of depth (1 and 20 m). For the time of greater precipitations were stops values of total and fecals coliforms, in both depth levels; appearing a similar condition for the dry time. Based on a conceptua (more) l scale it was obtained that the BSM presents an average degree of contamination for activities of primary contact (swimming and diving), nevertheless, exist several sources of contamination (submarine emissary, river, seaport, among others) that are generating a high impact on this ecosystem. The high values of contamination that are registered in the BSM find associate to the proximity that has this to the urban zones.

RAMOS-ORTEGA, LINA MARÍA; VIDAL, LUÍS A; VILARDY, SANDRA; SAAVEDRA-DÍAZ, LINA

2008-12-01

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New medium for the simultaneous detection of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in water.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new membrane filter agar medium (MI agar) containing a chromogen, indoxyl-beta-D-glucuronide, and a fluorogen, 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside, was developed to simultaneously detect and enumerate Escherichia coli and total coliforms (TC) in water samples on the basis of their enzyme...

Brenner, K P; Rankin, C C; Roybal, Y R; Stelma, G N; Scarpino, P V; Dufour, A P

11

Endotoxin, Coliform, and Dust Levels in Various Types of Rodent Bedding  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Endotoxins in grain dust, household dust, and animal bedding may induce respiratory symptoms in rodents and humans. We assayed the endotoxin, coliform, and dust levels in 20 types of rodent bedding. Endotoxin concentrations were measured by using a commercial test kit, coliform counts were determine...

Whiteside, Tanya E; Thigpen, Julius E; Kissling, Grace E; Grant, Mary G; Forsythe, Diane B

12

Comparative study of methods for the enumeration of total and fecal coliforms in the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Violet red bile agar and Coli-Count Sampler (Millipore Corp.) procedures were shown to be acceptable alternatives to the standard most-probable-number method for monitoring relative coliform levels in oysters.

Richards, G P

13

Suitability of total coliform ?-D-galactosidase activity and CFU counts in monitoring faecal contamination of environmental water samples  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Total coliforms are a group of bacteria found in high numbers in mammalian intestines; hence their presence in water indicates the possible contamination with faecal material. Total and faecal coliform counts were monitored over a period of 18 months using mFC, m-Endo and CM1046 media together with enzymatic assays on 215 environmental water samples obtained from the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. A positive correlation, with an R² value of 0.9393 was observed be (more) tween faecal and total coliform colony units employing mFc and m-Endo media, and 0.8818 using CM1046 media. Also, a positive correlation was observed between Escherichia coli colony-forming units and ?-d-galactosidase (B-GAL) activity (R²=0.8542). Overall, this study indicated that faecal contamination of environmental water samples could be monitored by measuring total coliform ?-galactosidase activity and total coliform colony-forming units.

Wutor, VC; Togo, CA; Pletschke, BI

2009-01-01

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Avaliação do padrão coliformes a 45ºC e comparação da eficiência das técnicas dos tubos múltiplos e Petrifilm EC na detecção de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em alimentos Coliforms at 45ºc and comparison of most probable number method and Petrifilm EC for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli of foods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Coliformes fecais são definidos como coliformes capazes de fermentar a lactose com produção de gás em 48 h a 45ºC. Escherichia coli, juntamente com algumas cepas de Enterobacter e Klebsiella, podem apresentar essas características. Entretanto, apenas a presença de Escherichia coli em alimentos indica contaminação fecal por ser encontrada em grande quantidade no trato gastrointestinal do homem e animais de sangue quente, não sendo isolada normalmente em outros nichos. A denominação clássica de coliformes fecais foi alterada para coliformes a 45ºC, na Resolução nº 12 da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a presença de E. coli entre os coliformes a 45ºC e comparar a eficiência das técnicas dos tubos múltiplos e Petrifilm EC na detecção de coliformes totais e E. coli em queijo Minas, lingüiça frescal, hortaliças e fubá. Petrifilm EC mostrou-se mais sensível na detecção de E. coli em relação ao método de tubos múltiplos, o qual apresentou resultados falso-negativos ou contagens subestimadas de E. coli, principalmente para amostras de alimentos de origem animal. Petrifilm EC foi o mais eficiente e prático, sendo um método alternativo adequado para a enumeração de coliformes totais e E. coli em alimentos.Fecal coliforms are defined as coliforms that ferment lactose with gas production within 48 hours at 45ºC. Escherichia coli and some strains of Enterobacter and Klebsiella show these same characteristics. However, only the presence of E. coli can indicate fecal contamination of foods, because it is abundantly found in the intestinal tract of all warm-blooded animals, including the humans, and it is not usually found in others niches. The classic denomination of fecal coliforms was changed to coliforms at 45ºC in the Resolution nº 12/2001 of the National Surveillance Agency of Brazil. The objectives of this study were to analyse the presence of E. coli among the coliforms at 45ºC and to compare the methods of Most Probable Number Method (MPN) and Petrifilm EC in their efficiency to detect E. coli in Minas cheese, sausage, fresh vegetables and corn flower samples. Petrifilm EC was more accurate method than MNP method, which presented false negative results or underestimation of E. coli. In conclusion, Petrifilm EC was an efficient and practical method to detect E. coli. Therefore, it may be alternatively used for enumeration of total coliforms and E. coli in foods.

M.P. Silva; D.R. Cavalli; T.C.R.M. Oliveira

2006-01-01

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Determinación de microorganismos indicadores de calidad sanitaria. Coliformes totales, coliformes fecales y aerobios mesófilos en agua potable envasada y distribuida en San Diego, estado Carabobo, Venezuela./ Determination of sanitary quality index microorganisms. Total coliforms, fecal coliforms and aerobic mesophiles in drinking water bottle and distributed in San Diego, Carabobo state, Venezuela.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El consumo de agua potable envasada contaminada con microorganismos patógenos puede ocasionar enfermedades de origen entérico. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar y comparar, mediante dos métodos de análisis, la presencia de microorganismos indicadores de calidad sanitaria, tales como coliformes totales, coliformes fecales y aerobios mesófilos, en dos marcas comerciales de agua potable, distribuidas en San Diego, estado Carabobo, Venezuela. Para ello se recole (more) ctaron 30 muestras de agua potable en presentación de bidones de 20 litros de capacidad, divididas en 15 muestras marca A y 15 marca B. Para la identificación microbiológica se emplearon el método rápido Petrifilm y el método tradicional de siembra en profundidad según las especificaciones del Método Estándar para el Análisis de Aguas Potables y las normas nacionales COVENIN. Los resultados obtenidos no mostraron diferencias significativas para el recuento microbiológico de coliformes totales y de aerobios mesófilos, por el método tradicional de siembra en profundidad y el método rápido de siembra en placas Petrifilm (r = 0,9), para las marcas de agua A y B (p = 0,5). Tres muestras (13%) presentaron recuentos menores de 10 µfc/ml para coliformes totales para la marca de agua A, y siete (47%) para la marca B. Ninguna muestra presentó coliformes fecales. En conclusión, ambos métodos siguen siendo de elección para el análisis de agua potable envasada, y aunque el método de Petrifilm presente ciertas ventajas con respecto al método tradicional de siembra en profundidad, este último sigue siendo el más utilizado en la mayoría de los laboratorios de análisis microbiológicos. Ambas marcas de agua potable presentaron recuentos microbiológicos fuera de especificaciones, según las recomendaciones de las normas respectivas, por lo que su consumo puede representar un riesgo para la salud del consumidor. Abstract in english The consumption of polluted drinking water bottles with pathogen microorganisms, can cause enteric origin illnesses. The aim of this work was to determine and to compare, by two analysis methods, the presence of sanitary quality index microorganisms, such as total coliforms, fecal coliforms and aerobic mesophiles, in two registered trade-marks of drinking water, distributed in San Diego, Carabobo State, Venezuela. Thirty samples of drinking water were gathered in 20 liter (more) s capacity drums presentation, divided in 15 samples brand A and 15 samples brand B respectively. For the microbiological identification, we used the Petrifilm quick test and the traditional method of depth seeding, according to the Standard Methods for the Analysis of Waters specifications and the COVENIN national norms. For the microbiological recount of total coliforms and aerobic mesophiles, the results did not show significant differences for the traditional method of depth seeding and the Petrifilm plates quick test seeding (r = 0,9), for the water brands A and B (p= 0,5). Three samples (13%) presented smaller recounts than 10 UFC/ml for total coliforms for water brand A, and seven (47%) for brand B. No sample presented fecal coliforms. In conclusion, both methods keep on being election for the analysis of bottle drinking water bottle, and although Petrifilm test presents certain advantages regarding the traditional method of depth seeding, this last one continues being the more used method of analysis in most of microbiological laboratories. Both registered trade-marks of drinking water presented microorganisms recounts outside of specifications, according to the recommendations of the respective norms, therefore, their consumption can represent a risk for the consumer?s health.

Silva, J; Ramírez, L; Alfieri, A; Rivas, G; Sánchez, M

2004-01-01

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Avaliação do padrão coliformes a 45ºC e comparação da eficiência das técnicas dos tubos múltiplos e Petrifilm EC na detecção de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em alimentos/ Coliforms at 45ºc and comparison of most probable number method and Petrifilm EC for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli of foods  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Coliformes fecais são definidos como coliformes capazes de fermentar a lactose com produção de gás em 48 h a 45ºC. Escherichia coli, juntamente com algumas cepas de Enterobacter e Klebsiella, podem apresentar essas características. Entretanto, apenas a presença de Escherichia coli em alimentos indica contaminação fecal por ser encontrada em grande quantidade no trato gastrointestinal do homem e animais de sangue quente, não sendo isolada normalmente em outros ni (more) chos. A denominação clássica de coliformes fecais foi alterada para coliformes a 45ºC, na Resolução nº 12 da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a presença de E. coli entre os coliformes a 45ºC e comparar a eficiência das técnicas dos tubos múltiplos e Petrifilm EC na detecção de coliformes totais e E. coli em queijo Minas, lingüiça frescal, hortaliças e fubá. Petrifilm EC mostrou-se mais sensível na detecção de E. coli em relação ao método de tubos múltiplos, o qual apresentou resultados falso-negativos ou contagens subestimadas de E. coli, principalmente para amostras de alimentos de origem animal. Petrifilm EC foi o mais eficiente e prático, sendo um método alternativo adequado para a enumeração de coliformes totais e E. coli em alimentos. Abstract in english Fecal coliforms are defined as coliforms that ferment lactose with gas production within 48 hours at 45ºC. Escherichia coli and some strains of Enterobacter and Klebsiella show these same characteristics. However, only the presence of E. coli can indicate fecal contamination of foods, because it is abundantly found in the intestinal tract of all warm-blooded animals, including the humans, and it is not usually found in others niches. The classic denomination of fecal col (more) iforms was changed to coliforms at 45ºC in the Resolution nº 12/2001 of the National Surveillance Agency of Brazil. The objectives of this study were to analyse the presence of E. coli among the coliforms at 45ºC and to compare the methods of Most Probable Number Method (MPN) and Petrifilm EC in their efficiency to detect E. coli in Minas cheese, sausage, fresh vegetables and corn flower samples. Petrifilm EC was more accurate method than MNP method, which presented false negative results or underestimation of E. coli. In conclusion, Petrifilm EC was an efficient and practical method to detect E. coli. Therefore, it may be alternatively used for enumeration of total coliforms and E. coli in foods.

Silva, M.P.; Cavalli, D.R.; Oliveira, T.C.R.M.

2006-06-01

17

Elimination of overgrowth in delayed-incubation membrane filter test for total coliforms by m-ST holding medium.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two holding media were compared for their effects on total coliform recovery by the delayed-incubation membrane filter procedure. LES-MF holding medium contains tryptone, m-Endo broth, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, sodium benzoate, sulfanilamide, para-aminobenzoic acid, and cycloheximide (pH 7.0). m-ST holding medium contains ethanol, sodium monophosphate, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, sulfanilamide, and Tris (pH 8.6). In tests with natural water and wastewater samples from various sources, recovery with LES-MF and m-ST were similar after a 1-day holding period. With LES-MF, however, after a 2- or 3-day holding period, coliform bacteria frequently were partially or totally overgrown by noncoliforms, causing significant reductions in coliform counts. No significant overgrowth was observed with m-ST. We propose that m-ST be used for all holding periods longer than 1 day. PMID:3777926

Chen, M; Hickey, P J

1986-10-01

18

Elimination of overgrowth in delayed-incubation membrane filter test for total coliforms by m-ST holding medium.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two holding media were compared for their effects on total coliform recovery by the delayed-incubation membrane filter procedure. LES-MF holding medium contains tryptone, m-Endo broth, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, sodium benzoate, sulfanilamide, para-aminobenzoic acid, and cycloheximide (pH 7.0). m-ST holding medium contains ethanol, sodium monophosphate, dipotassium hydrogen phosphate, sulfanilamide, and Tris (pH 8.6). In tests with natural water and wastewater samples from various sources, recovery with LES-MF and m-ST were similar after a 1-day holding period. With LES-MF, however, after a 2- or 3-day holding period, coliform bacteria frequently were partially or totally overgrown by noncoliforms, causing significant reductions in coliform counts. No significant overgrowth was observed with m-ST. We propose that m-ST be used for all holding periods longer than 1 day.

Chen M; Hickey PJ

1986-10-01

19

Level and transport pattern of faecal coliform bacteria from tropical urban catchments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urbanization and frequent storms play important roles in increasing faecal bacteria pollution, especially for tropical urban catchments. However, only little information on the faecal bacteria levels from different land use types and the factors that influence bacteria concentrations is available. Thus, the objectives of this study were to quantify the levels and transport mechanism of faecal coliforms (FCs) from residential and commercial catchments. Stormwaters were sampled and the runoff flow rates were measured from both catchments during four storm events in Skudai, Malaysia. The samples were then analysed for FC, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and ammoniacal-nitrogen (NH3-N) concentrations. Intra-storm and inter-storm characteristics of FC bacteria were investigated in order to identify the level and transport pattern of FC. The commercial catchment showed significantly higher event mean concentration (EMC) of FC than the residential catchment. For the residential catchment, the highest bacterial concentrations occurred during the early part of stormwater runoff with peak concentrations usually preceding the peak flow. First flush effect was more prevalent at the residential catchment. PMID:23579839

Chow, M F; Yusop, Z; Toriman, M E

2013-01-01

20

Level and transport pattern of faecal coliform bacteria from tropical urban catchments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Urbanization and frequent storms play important roles in increasing faecal bacteria pollution, especially for tropical urban catchments. However, only little information on the faecal bacteria levels from different land use types and the factors that influence bacteria concentrations is available. Thus, the objectives of this study were to quantify the levels and transport mechanism of faecal coliforms (FCs) from residential and commercial catchments. Stormwaters were sampled and the runoff flow rates were measured from both catchments during four storm events in Skudai, Malaysia. The samples were then analysed for FC, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and ammoniacal-nitrogen (NH3-N) concentrations. Intra-storm and inter-storm characteristics of FC bacteria were investigated in order to identify the level and transport pattern of FC. The commercial catchment showed significantly higher event mean concentration (EMC) of FC than the residential catchment. For the residential catchment, the highest bacterial concentrations occurred during the early part of stormwater runoff with peak concentrations usually preceding the peak flow. First flush effect was more prevalent at the residential catchment.

Chow MF; Yusop Z; Toriman ME

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
21

Enumeration of total bacteria and coliforms in milk by dry rehydratable film methods: collaborative study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Eleven laboratories participated in a collaborative study to compare the dry rehydratable film (Petrifilm SM and Petrifilm VRB) methods, respectively, to the standard plate count (SPC) and violet red bile agar (VRBA) standard methods for estimation of total bacteria and coliform counts in raw and homogenized pasteurized milk. Each laboratory analyzed 16 samples (8 different samples in blind duplicate) for total count by both the SPC and Petrifilm SM methods. A second set of 16 samples was analyzed by the VRBA and Petrifilm VRB methods. The repeatability standard deviations (the square root of the between-replicates variance) of the SPC, Petrifilm SM, VRBA, and Petrifilm VRB methods were 0.05104, 0.0444, 0.14606, and 0.13806, respectively; the reproducibility standard deviations were 0.7197, 0.06380, 0.15326, and 0.13806, respectively. The difference between the mean log10 SPC and the mean log10 Petrifilm SM results was 0.027. For the VRBA and Petrifilm VRB methods, the mean log10 difference was 0.013. These results generally indicate the suitability of the dry rehydratable film methods as alternatives to the SPC and VRBA methods for milk samples. The methods have been adopted official first action.

Ginn RE; Packard VS; Fox TL

1986-05-01

22

Enumeration of total bacteria and coliforms in milk by dry rehydratable film methods: collaborative study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eleven laboratories participated in a collaborative study to compare the dry rehydratable film (Petrifilm SM and Petrifilm VRB) methods, respectively, to the standard plate count (SPC) and violet red bile agar (VRBA) standard methods for estimation of total bacteria and coliform counts in raw and homogenized pasteurized milk. Each laboratory analyzed 16 samples (8 different samples in blind duplicate) for total count by both the SPC and Petrifilm SM methods. A second set of 16 samples was analyzed by the VRBA and Petrifilm VRB methods. The repeatability standard deviations (the square root of the between-replicates variance) of the SPC, Petrifilm SM, VRBA, and Petrifilm VRB methods were 0.05104, 0.0444, 0.14606, and 0.13806, respectively; the reproducibility standard deviations were 0.7197, 0.06380, 0.15326, and 0.13806, respectively. The difference between the mean log10 SPC and the mean log10 Petrifilm SM results was 0.027. For the VRBA and Petrifilm VRB methods, the mean log10 difference was 0.013. These results generally indicate the suitability of the dry rehydratable film methods as alternatives to the SPC and VRBA methods for milk samples. The methods have been adopted official first action. PMID:3522537

Ginn, R E; Packard, V S; Fox, T L

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75 FR 18205 - Total Coliform Rule Revisions-Notice of Stakeholder Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

...Coliform Rule Revisions--Notice of Stakeholder Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection...of the Committee is that EPA conduct stakeholder outreach as the Agency develops the...Collection Partnership; opportunities for stakeholders to provide feedback on assessment...

2010-04-09

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Inactivation and injury of total coliform bacteria after primary disinfection of drinking water by TiO2 photocatalysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study the potential application of TiO2 photocatalysis as primary disinfection system of drinking water was investigated in terms of coliform bacteria inactivation and injury. As model water the effluent of biological denitrification unit for nitrate removal from groundwater, which is characterized by high organic matter and bacteria release, was used. The injury of photocatalysis on coliform bacteria was characterized by means of selective (mEndo) and less selective (mT7) culture media. Different catalyst loadings as well as photolysis and adsorption effects were investigated. Photocatalysis was effective in coliform bacteria inactivation (91-99% after 60 min irradiation time, depending on both catalyst loading and initial density of coliform bacteria detected by mEndo), although no total removal was observed after 60 min irradiation time. The contribution of adsorption mechanism was significant (60-98% after 60 min, depending on catalyst loading) compared to previous investigations probably due to the nature of source water rich in particulate organic matter and biofilm. Photocatalysis process did not result in any irreversible injury (98.8% being the higher injury) under investigated conditions, thus a bacteria regrowth may take place under optimum environment conditions if any final disinfection process (e.g., chlorine or chlorine dioxide) is not used.

2009-06-15

25

Endotoxin, coliform, and dust levels in various types of rodent bedding.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endotoxins in grain dust, household dust, and animal bedding may induce respiratory symptoms in rodents and humans. We assayed the endotoxin, coliform, and dust levels in 20 types of rodent bedding. Endotoxin concentrations were measured by using a commercial test kit, coliform counts were determined by using conventional microbiologic procedures, and dust content was evaluated by using a rotating-tapping shaker. Paper bedding types contained significantly less endotoxin than did other bedding types; the highest levels of endotoxin were detected in hardwood and corncob beddings. The range of endotoxin content for each bedding type was: corncob bedding, 1913 to 4504 endotoxin units per gram (EU/g); hardwood bedding, 3121 to 5401 EU/g; corncob-paper mixed bedding, 1586 to 2416 EU/g; and paper bedding, less than 5 to 105 EU/g. Coliform counts varied from less than 10 to 7591 cfu/g in corncob beddings, 90 to 4010 cfu/g in corncob-paper mixed beddings, less than 10 to 137 cfu/g in hardwood beddings, and less than 10 cfu/g in paper beddings. Average dust content was less than 0.15% in all commercial bedding types. We conclude that paper bedding is the optimal bedding type for conducting LPS inhalation studies and that rodent bedding containing high levels of endotoxin may alter the results of respiratory and immunologic studies in rodents. PMID:20353693

Whiteside, Tanya E; Thigpen, Julius E; Kissling, Grace E; Grant, Mary G; Forsythe, Diane

2010-03-01

26

Endotoxin, coliform, and dust levels in various types of rodent bedding.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Endotoxins in grain dust, household dust, and animal bedding may induce respiratory symptoms in rodents and humans. We assayed the endotoxin, coliform, and dust levels in 20 types of rodent bedding. Endotoxin concentrations were measured by using a commercial test kit, coliform counts were determined by using conventional microbiologic procedures, and dust content was evaluated by using a rotating-tapping shaker. Paper bedding types contained significantly less endotoxin than did other bedding types; the highest levels of endotoxin were detected in hardwood and corncob beddings. The range of endotoxin content for each bedding type was: corncob bedding, 1913 to 4504 endotoxin units per gram (EU/g); hardwood bedding, 3121 to 5401 EU/g; corncob-paper mixed bedding, 1586 to 2416 EU/g; and paper bedding, less than 5 to 105 EU/g. Coliform counts varied from less than 10 to 7591 cfu/g in corncob beddings, 90 to 4010 cfu/g in corncob-paper mixed beddings, less than 10 to 137 cfu/g in hardwood beddings, and less than 10 cfu/g in paper beddings. Average dust content was less than 0.15% in all commercial bedding types. We conclude that paper bedding is the optimal bedding type for conducting LPS inhalation studies and that rodent bedding containing high levels of endotoxin may alter the results of respiratory and immunologic studies in rodents.

Whiteside TE; Thigpen JE; Kissling GE; Grant MG; Forsythe D

2010-03-01

27

Rapid detection of fluorescent and chemiluminescent total coliforms and Escherichia coli on membrane filters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The detection of fluorescent colonies of Escherichia coli/total coliforms (TC) on a membrane filter is currently carried out using 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glycosides as enzyme substrates and a UV-lamp for visualization. The most rapid procedures based on this approach for the demonstration of these indicator bacteria in water take 6-7.5 h to complete. As part of efforts to further reduce the detection time, an improved two-step procedure for the fluorescence or chemiluminescence labelling of microcolonies of E. coli/TC on a membrane filter has been developed. Essential features of this approach include a separation of the bacterial propagation and target enzyme induction from the actual enzymatic labelling, the use of improved fluorogenic, i.e., 4-trifluoromethylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glycosides and fluorescein-di-beta-D-glycosides, or chemiluminogenic (i.e., phenylglucuronic- or galactose-substituted adamantyl 1,2-dioxetanes) substrates for beta-glucuronidase/beta-galactosidase, of enzyme inducers, of special membrane filters and of polymyxin B to promote the cellular uptake of the substrate. This labelling procedure has been applied in conjunction with different detection devices including a UV-lamp, CCD-cameras, X-ray film and the ChemScan((R)) RDI. Using the former three, microcolonies of pure cultures could be detected within 5.5-6.5 h, but waterborne E. coli/TC may fail to form microcolonies in this short time period, thus yielding poor sensitivity and a high false-negative rate. In contrast, a quantitative enumeration was feasible in less than 4 h with the ChemScan((R)) RDI, owing to its ability to detect both microcolonies and non-dividing single cells.

Van Poucke SO; Nelis HJ

2000-11-01

28

Enhanced recovery of coliforms by anaerobic incubation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A total of 529 well and distribution potable water samples were analyzed for total coliforms by the most probable number (MPN) and membrane filter (MF) techniques. Standard plate count (SPC) bacteria and MF non-coliform bacteria were also enumerated. Frequency of coliform detection, turbidity in MPN tubes and extensive overgrowth by non-coliforms on MF filters were directly proportional to SPC. Overgrowth by non-coliforms on MF filters suppressed sheen development and, in turn, masked coliform detection.

Sinclair, N.A.

1984-01-01

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Disinfection of waterborne coliform bacteria using Luffa cylindrica fruit and seed extracts.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study examined the potential of extracts of the plant Luffa cylindrica to act as disinfectants of drinking water. Aqueous extracts of the seeds and fruit of L. cylindrica were tested against total and faecal coliform bacteria in surface water by varying the extract doses and contact times. Inactivation of both faecal coliforms and total coliforms was highly variable and dose-dependent. The maximum coliform inactivation achieved in any trial was 86%. Fruit extracts were more successful at inactivating total coliforms than faecal coliforms. Seed extracts achieved higher coliform inactivation levels than fruit extracts generally. Overall, the antimicrobial potential of seeds and fruit from L. cylindrica was demonstrated; however the disinfection performance was less than would be required for these extracts to be considered reliable disinfectants for drinking water treatment.

Shaheed A; Templeton MR; Matthews RL; Tripathi SK; Bhattarai K

2009-12-01

30

Disinfection of waterborne coliform bacteria using Luffa cylindrica fruit and seed extracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study examined the potential of extracts of the plant Luffa cylindrica to act as disinfectants of drinking water. Aqueous extracts of the seeds and fruit of L. cylindrica were tested against total and faecal coliform bacteria in surface water by varying the extract doses and contact times. Inactivation of both faecal coliforms and total coliforms was highly variable and dose-dependent. The maximum coliform inactivation achieved in any trial was 86%. Fruit extracts were more successful at inactivating total coliforms than faecal coliforms. Seed extracts achieved higher coliform inactivation levels than fruit extracts generally. Overall, the antimicrobial potential of seeds and fruit from L. cylindrica was demonstrated; however the disinfection performance was less than would be required for these extracts to be considered reliable disinfectants for drinking water treatment. PMID:20088208

Shaheed, Ameer; Templeton, Michael R; Matthews, Robert L; Tripathi, Sabitri K; Bhattarai, Kiran

2009-12-01

31

Coliformes totales, fecales y algunas enterobacterias, Sthaphylococcus sp. y hongos en ensaladas para perro calientes expendidas en la ciudad de Maracay, Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Las comidas rápidas que se expenden en las calles, poseen fuerte potencialidad para la transmisión de enfermedades gastrointestinales debido a que son alimentos extensamente manipulados. De estos alimentos los vegetales representan un sustrato adecuado para la proliferación de gérmenes patógenos. Se determinó la presencia de Coliformes totales, Coliformes fecales, otras Enterobacterias y Staphylococcus sp. y Hongos en las muestras de ensaladas crudas para perros cal (more) ientes expendidas en el centro de la ciudad de Maracay, Venezuela. Se empleó la técnica del Número Más Probable para cuantificar los Coliformes y Staphylococcus sp. Posteriormente se identificaron parcialmente las cepas de Coliformes y de Staphylococcus sp aisladas. También se cuantificó la presencia de Hongos en dichas ensaladas. Se les determinó el pH y la acidez y su relación con el crecimiento microbiano. El resultado para Coliformes totales fue 1,44 x 10(5) NMP/g; Coliformes fecales 4,57 x 10(4) NMP/g; no se detectó E. coli en las muestras analizadas, sin embargo de 87 cepas aisladas se determinó la presencia de Citrobacter freunndi Variedad I (45,09% de las cepas aisladas), Citrobacter freundii Variedad II (21,57%), Enterobacter aerogenes Variedad I (17,65%) y Enterobacter aerogenes Variedad II (15,69%); Staphylococcus sp. 3,93 x 10(6) NMP/g. Las 52 cepas de presuntos Staphylococcus sp. resultaron coagulasa negativa; Hongos 4,5 x 10(4) UFC/g, Penicillium sp., Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp. fueron identificadas parcialmente. Las ensaladas crudas presentaban un pH y una acidez de 5,92 y 0,78 ml NaOH respectivamente Abstract in english Total and fecal coliforms, some enterobacteria, Staphylococcus sp. and moulds in salads for hot dogs sold in Maracay city, Venezuela. Fast food sold on the streets are good vehicule to transmit gastrointestind diseases to consumers because they are highly manipulated. The vegetables are a good media for pathogens growth. Raw vegetables salads for hotdog sold in Maracay city were studied. Total and fecal Coliforms and Staphylococcus sp. were cuantified by the Most Probable (more) Number Technique. Coliforms and Staphylococcus isolated were partially identified. Also the mould population was cuantified and identified. Microbial growth was correlated with pH and acidity measurements. MPN/g of Total Coliforms was 1,44 x 10(5) and 4,57 x 10(4) for fecal Coliforms. E. coli was no detected. 87 isolated from the Coliforms were partilly identified as Citrobacter freundii variety I (45,09% of the isolated), C. freundii variety II (21,57%), Enterobacter aerogenes variety I ( 17,65%) and E. aerogenes variety II (15,69%); Staphylococcus sp. 3,93 x 10(6) MPN/g and all of its isolated (52) were coagulase negative. The mould population was 4,5 x 10(4) ufc/g, Penicillium sp., Aspergillus sp., Fusarium sp. were partially identified. The salads presented a pH of 5,92 and an acidity of 0,78 ml of NaOH

Acevedo, Laura; Mendoza, Clever; Oyón, Rafael

2001-12-01

32

Evaluation of Petrifilm™ EC and HS for total coliforms and Escherichia coli enumeration in water Avaliação do Petrifilm™ EC e HS para enumeração de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em água  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Petrifilm™ EC and HS were compared to the MPN method to determine their efficacy to enumerate total coliforms and E. coli in 145 samples of water (76 water in natura, 69 drinking water). For water in natura, Petrifilm™ HS and EC showed good correlation with MPN method. In chlorinated water (Petrifilm™ EC e HS foram comparados ao método do Número Mais Provável (NMP) para determinar sua eficiência na enumeração de coliformes totais e E. coli em 145 amostras de água (76 de água in natura e 69 de água de abastecimento). Em água in natura, Petrifilm™ HS e EC mostraram boa correlação com o método de NMP. Em água clorada (< 20 col/100 mL e negativas) a concordância foi baixa. Para enumeração de E. coli, Petrifilm™ EC mostrou boa correlação com o método de NMP. Os resultados indicaram que Petrifilm™ EC e HS podem ser usados com segurança para enumeração de coliformes totais e E. coli em água, desde que as contagens esperadas sejam maiores que 20/100 mL.

Vanerli Beloti; Juliana Aparecida de Souza; Márcia de Aguiar Ferreira Barros; Luís Augusto Nero; Marcos Rodrigues de Mattos; Viviane Vieira Gusmão; Luciane Bilia de Moraes

2003-01-01

33

Comparison of nine brands of membrane filter and the most-probable-number methods for total coliform enumeration in sewage-contaminated drinking water.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nine different brands of membrane filter were compared in the membrane filtration (MF) method, and those with the highest yields were compared against the most-probable-number (MPN) multiple-tube method for total coliform enumeration in simulated sewage-contaminated tap water. The water was chlorina...

Tobin, R S; Lomax, P; Kushner, D J

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NEW MEDIUM FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS DETECTION OF TOTAL COLIFORMS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI IN WATER (PUBLISHED ERRATUM APPEARS IN APP ENVIRON MICROBIOL 1993 DEC;59(12):4378)  

Science.gov (United States)

A new membrane filter agar medium (MI agar) containing a chromogen, indoxyl-beta-D-glucuronide, and a fluorogen, 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside, was developed to simultaneously detect and enumerate Escherichia coli and total coliforms (TC) in water samples on the b...

35

Estimation and modeling of direct rapid sand filtration for total fecal coliform removal from secondary clarifier effluents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The filtration of fecal coliform from a secondary clarifier effluent was investigated using direct rapid sand filters as tertiary wastewater treatment on a pilot scale. The effect of the flocculation dose, flow loading rate, and grain size on fecal coliform removal was determined. Direct rapid sand filters can remove 0.6-1.5 log-units of fecal coliform, depending on the loading rate and grain size distribution. Meanwhile, the flocculation dose has little effect on coliform removal, and increasing the loading rate and/or grain size decreases the bacteria removal efficiency. A model was then developed for the removal process. Bacteria elimination and inactivation both in the water phase and the sand bed can be described by first-order kinetics. Removal was successfully simulated at different loading rates and grain size distributions and compared with the data obtained using pilot-scale filters.

Li Y; Yu J; Liu Z; Ma T

2012-01-01

36

Coliform bacterial pollution in Rawal lake, Islamabad and its feeding streams / river  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total coliform and fecal coliform are indicators of drinking water quality. The presence of fecal coliform in water indicates contamination with fecal materials of man and other animals. This paper documents the population of total coliform colonies as well as fecal coliform contamination in Rawal lake, which is one of major source of drinking water supply to inhabitants of Rawalpindi, and its feeding streams (mainly Kurang River and three perennial streams) flowing in the administrative jurisdiction of the capital city, Islamabad, Pakistan. Coliform bacteria in Rawal lake and feeding streams water was determined by membrane filtration technique. The results indicated that E. Coli population in four streams (input waters) feeding the Rawal Lake ranged from 25 - 57 (mean 36) fecal coliform per 100 mL. The Kurang River, one of the feeding streams, hosted the largest population of fecal coliform (57 fecal coliform per 100 mL). The highest population of fecal coliform (105 fecal coliform per 100 mL) in Rawal Lake surface water was observed at the confluence of Kurang River and the Lake in the vicinity of village 'New Ampler'. While in the Rawal Lake water columns, it ranged from 12 - 65 (mean 25) fecal coliform/ 100mL. The measured levels of fecal coliform bacteria are much higher than the maximum permissible levels for drinking water as recommended by WHO and US-EPA (No fecal coliform in drinking water). It is concluded that the indiscriminate amount of pollution from domestic sewage and poultry industry has seriously affected the biological quality of stream waters and the Rawal Lake waters. (author)

2010-01-01

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ENHANCED RECOVERY OF COLIFORMS BY ANAEROBIC INCUBATION  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 529 well and distribution potable water samples were analyzed for total coliforms by the most probable number (MPN) and membrane filter (MF) techniques. Standard plate count (SPC) bacteria and MF non-coliform bacteria were also enumerated. Frequency of coliform detecti...

38

Model of microbial transport and inactivation in the surf zone and application to field measurements of total coliform in Northern Orange County, California.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The classic model of pollutant transport in the surf zone of a long, sandy beach developed by Inman et al. (J. Geophys. Res. 1971, 76, 3493) is altered to account for first-order pollutant inactivation in an effort to understand how rip cell dilution and bacterial inactivation control the length of shoreline adversely impacted by microbial pollution from a point source. A dimensionless number gamma dictates whether physical processes (dilution of microbes in the surf zone by rip cell mixing) or biological processes (microbial inactivation) control the distribution of pollution along the shoreline. Estimates of gamma for beaches in Northern Orange County, California, indicate that dilution is the primary factor controlling total coliform levels surrounding two drains that release nuisance runoff directly onto the beach. It is also shown that, even when alongshore currents are fast, pollutant levels will drop e-fold at distances under 4000 m from the point source due to dilution alone. Because dilution is ultimately controlled by wave climate and shoreline morphology, the results suggest the strategic position of drains and other point sources in high dilution wave environments will reduce potential adverse effects on beach water quality. In addition, the results stress the importance of understanding hydrodynamics when conducting microbial source tracking at wave-dominated marine beaches.

Boehm AB

2003-12-01

39

MICROBIOLOGICAL EFFICACY OF SPRAY WASHING BROILER CARCASSES USING FRESH FX ON E. COLI, TOTAL COLIFORMS AND SALMONELLA POPULATIONS  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted to determine the effect of using FreshFx™, a combined citric, hydrochloric and phosphoric acid solution, in a spray cabinet on the numbers of E.coli, coliforms and Salmonella recovered from broiler carcasses. During each of three experimental trials, broiler carcasses were obt...

40

Analysis of fecal coliform levels at selected storm water monitoring points at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Environmental Protection Agency staff published the final storm water regulation on November 16, 1990. The storm water regulation is included in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) regulations. It specifies the permit application requirements for certain storm water discharges such as industrial activity or municipal separate storm sewers serving populations of 100,000 or greater. Storm water discharge associated with industrial activity is discharge from any conveyance used for collecting and conveying storm water that is directly related to manufacturing, processing, or raw material storage areas at an industrial plant. Quantitative testing data is required for these discharges. An individual storm water permit application was completed and submitted to Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC) personnel in October 1992. After reviewing this data in the permit application, TDEC personnel expressed concern with the fecal coliform levels at many of the outfalls. The 1995 NPDES Permit (Part 111-N, page 44) requires that an investigation be conducted to determine the validity of this data. If the fecal coliform data is valid, the permit requires that a report be submitted indicating possible causes and proposed corrective actions.

Skaggs, B.E.

1995-07-01

 
 
 
 
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Evaluation of the efficiency of the application of uv for microbial inactivation (total coliforms and escherichia coli) in a wastewater treatment plant (Sucuri) In Cuiabá/MT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate a UV disinfection system process, in real scale, in Sucuri WWTP, Cuiabá/MT/Brazil, for total coliforms and Escherichia coli. The effluent came from anaerobium treatment (UASB), followed by aerobium treatment (ASBF). The system’s performance was evaluated from July to November, 2008. The experiments followed physical-chemical analysis to evaluate the influence of pH and Total Suspended Solids (TSS) parameters in the UV efficiency, beyond total phosphorous, to verify the foam formation observed in UASB reactor and after disinfection. The results for this research suggested deficiencies in inactivation process for coliforms: it was one logarithm unit of removal for each. The pH parameter was in the average of 7,5. About TSS, the system presented 52% of removal efficiency, which is one of the factors that causes the system deficiencies. About the variable total phosphorous, it was observed that there was none removal of the parameter. Although it’s been reported that the limitant effect of the low quality of the sewage in the UV’s performance, in practice, even under unfavorable TSS conditions, the results showed the viability about using this method in real treatment systems. Keywords: UV desinfection; UASB reactor; domestic effluent.

Thais dos Santos Borges; Thaisa de Souza Contar

2009-01-01

42

Development of the fecal coliform total maximum daily load using Loading Simulation Program C++ and tidal prism model in estuarine shellfish growing areas: a case study in the Nassawadox coastal embayment, Virginia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, a linked model system including the Loading Simulation Program C++ (LSPC) and the tidal prism water quality model (TPWQM) was proposed as an alternative tool for total maximum daily load (TMDL) studies. The feasibility of the model system was tested by a case study in the Nassawadox Creek, a Virginia tidal water shellfish growing area. The watershed model, driven by hourly precipitation, simulates hydrology and fecal coliform accumulation and transport processes in the watershed. The simulated surface runoff and subsurface flow as well as fecal coliform loads from the watershed are discharged to the tidal creek. The tidal prism model simulates fecal coliform transport in the Creek. The model results demonstrate the effectiveness in simulating hydrology and fecal coliform concentration in the watershed and its embayment. A series of sensitivity runs was conducted to estimate the load reduction necessary for fecal coliform concentration to meet the water quality standards. The model application to the Nassawadox Creek indicates that the model system is useful in developing fecal coliform TMDLs for estuarine shellfish growing areas. PMID:16134369

Shen, Jian; Sun, Shucun; Wang, Taiping

2005-01-01

43

Development of the fecal coliform total maximum daily load using Loading Simulation Program C++ and tidal prism model in estuarine shellfish growing areas: a case study in the Nassawadox coastal embayment, Virginia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, a linked model system including the Loading Simulation Program C++ (LSPC) and the tidal prism water quality model (TPWQM) was proposed as an alternative tool for total maximum daily load (TMDL) studies. The feasibility of the model system was tested by a case study in the Nassawadox Creek, a Virginia tidal water shellfish growing area. The watershed model, driven by hourly precipitation, simulates hydrology and fecal coliform accumulation and transport processes in the watershed. The simulated surface runoff and subsurface flow as well as fecal coliform loads from the watershed are discharged to the tidal creek. The tidal prism model simulates fecal coliform transport in the Creek. The model results demonstrate the effectiveness in simulating hydrology and fecal coliform concentration in the watershed and its embayment. A series of sensitivity runs was conducted to estimate the load reduction necessary for fecal coliform concentration to meet the water quality standards. The model application to the Nassawadox Creek indicates that the model system is useful in developing fecal coliform TMDLs for estuarine shellfish growing areas.

Shen J; Sun S; Wang T

2005-01-01

44

Automated dead-end ultrafiltration for concentration and recovery of total coliform bacteria and laboratory-spiked Escherichia coli O157:H7 from 50-liter produce washes to enhance detection by an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An automated concentration system (ACS) based on dead-end ultrafiltration was used in this study to concentrate bacteria, including Escherichia coli O157:H7, from 50-liter produce washes (PWs, sieved produce wash). Cells trapped in the filters were recovered in approximately 400 ml of buffer to create PW retentates (PWRs). Extent of concentration was determined by analyzing PWs and PWRs for total coliform bacteria and E. coli O157:H7 using standard methods. In addition, an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay was evaluated for detection of E. coli O157:H7 in spiked PWs and PWRs to demonstrate usefulness of the ACS for same-day detection. The levels of total coliform bacteria and E. coli O157:H7 in PWRs were higher than those in PWs by 1.85 ± 0.41 log most probable number per 100 ml and 1.82 ± 0.24 log CFU/ml, respectively. Electrochemiluminescence detection of E. coli O157:H7 was accomplished within 2 h using ACS concentration of lettuce and spinach wash water artificially spiked with the pathogen at levels as low as 0.36 log CFU/ml and 1.39 log CFU/ml, respectively. Detection of E. coli O157:H7 at -0.93 ± 0.15 log CFU/ml in lettuce wash occurred within approximately 6 h when a 4-h enrichment step was added to the procedure. Use of dead-end ultrafiltration increased bacterial concentrations in PWR and allowed same-day detection of low levels of E. coli O157:H7 in PW. This concentration system could be useful to improve the sensitivity of current rapid methods for detection of low levels of foodborne pathogens in PW water.

Magaña S; Schlemmer SM; Leskinen SD; Kearns EA; Lim DV

2013-07-01

45

Examination of market foods for coliform organisms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Food specimens (490) in nine categories were examined for total aerobic plate count and numbers and types of coliform organisms, including the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EEC). The total counts were compared with various suggested standards, and a limit of 100,000/g appeared to be a realistic goal, except for certain food types with a high level of natural flora. Plate counts in VRB were compared to counts obtained by isolation by enrichment in LST Broth, and the latter method produced a higher percentage of isolations. The presence of E. coli was determined by use of EC Medium incubated at 44.5 +/- 0.1 C. Only 40.4% of the positive EC tubes, however, contained E. coli. It appeared that a limit of 10 coliform organisms per g as a suggested standard could be met with several types of foods. Isolation of EEC was obtained only three times, or in 0.6% of the specimens. PMID:4865024

Hall, H E; Brown, D F; Lewis, K H

1967-09-01

46

Examination of market foods for coliform organisms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Food specimens (490) in nine categories were examined for total aerobic plate count and numbers and types of coliform organisms, including the enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EEC). The total counts were compared with various suggested standards, and a limit of 100,000/g appeared to be a realistic goal, except for certain food types with a high level of natural flora. Plate counts in VRB were compared to counts obtained by isolation by enrichment in LST Broth, and the latter method produced a higher percentage of isolations. The presence of E. coli was determined by use of EC Medium incubated at 44.5 +/- 0.1 C. Only 40.4% of the positive EC tubes, however, contained E. coli. It appeared that a limit of 10 coliform organisms per g as a suggested standard could be met with several types of foods. Isolation of EEC was obtained only three times, or in 0.6% of the specimens.

Hall HE; Brown DF; Lewis KH

1967-09-01

47

Presencia de entamoeba histolytica, ascaris lumbricoides y coliformes totales en ensaladas para perrocalientes, expendidas en el centro de la ciudad de Maracay, Mayo-Junio de 2002./ Entamoeba histolytica, ascaris lumbricoides and total coliforms in salads for hotdog sold in Maracay city?s downtown  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Muchas enfermedades de transmisión alimentaria, cuya etiología incluye bacterias, virus, hongos, parásitos, productos químicos y toxinas, se registran actualmente. En el estado Aragua, Venezuela, las parasitosis son un problema de Salud Pública, siendo la más importante la amebiasis producida por Entamoeba histolytica. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la presencia de parásitos intestinales (Entamoeba histolytica y Ascaris lumbricoides) y coliformes (more) totales en ensaladas para perrocalientes expendidas en el centro de la ciudad de Maracay, estado Aragua. Se realizaron análisis físico-químicos (pH, acidez) y microbiológicos. Se obtuvo una media de pH de 5,41 y para la acidez de 0,47 ml de NaOH 0,1 N. El 20% de las muestras estaban contaminadas con parásitos intestinales, en las cuales el 19,51% presentaron quistes de protozoarios, el 0,39% huevos de helmintos y una media de medias de 2,05 x 10(6) NMP/g. de coliformes totales. No existió diferencia significativa entre las muestras analizadas para los parámetros estudiados. Existió correlación lineal entre el pH y los quistes de Entamoeba histolytica. Abstract in english Many illnesses of food transmission reported at the moment have it etiological agent in bacterias, virus, moulds, parasites, chemical products and toxins. In Aragua state, Venezuela the parasitosis is a problem of Public Health, being the most important the Amibiasis by Entamoeba histolytica. The objective of the investigation was to determine the presence of intestinal parasites (Entamoeba histolytica and Ascaris lumbricoides) and total coliforms in salads for hot dogs e (more) xpended in downtown of Maracay, Aragua. and microbiological and physical-chemical analysis (pH, Acidity) carried out. A mean of pH of 5,41 was obtained and an acidity of 0,47 ml of NaOH 0,1 N. 20% of the samples were polluted with intestinal parasites, where 19,51% presented cysts of protozoa, 0,39% helminthic eggs and a mean of mean of 2,05 x 10(6) NMP/g of total coliforms. Significant difference didn?t exist among the samples analyzed for the studied parameters. Lineal correlation existed between the pH and the cysts of Entamoeba histolytica.

Cartaya, Z; Mendoza, C; Oyón, R

2003-01-01

48

BAM: Enumeration of Escherichia coli and the Coliform ...  

Science.gov (United States)

... total coliforms or fecal coliforms are enumeration methods that are based on lactose fermentation (4). The Most Probable Number (MPN) method is ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods

49

Identification of Total and Fecal Coliforms and Heterotrophic to Microbiological Method and E.coli O157:H7 to Immunological, and Real Time PCR Methods in IsfahanWater Treatment Plant  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

"n "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives:Total and Fecal coliforms (TC and FC), heterotrophic plate count (HPC), were counted by microbiological method and E.coli O157:H7 were detected through immunological and Real time PCRmethods inwater intake and all of units of Isfahanwater treatment plant (IWTP)."nM...

P Atabakhsh; M.M Amin; H Mortazavi; M Yaran; A Akhavan Sepahi; A Nouhi; M Jalali

50

What do fecal coliforms indicate in tropical waters  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

High densities of total and fecal coliform bacteria have been detected in pristine streams and in ground water samples collected from many tropical parts of the world, even in epiphytic vegetation 10 m above ground in the rain forest of Puerto Rico. Nucleic acid (DNA) analyses of Escherichia coli from pristine tropical environs has indicated that they are identical to clinical isolates of E. coli. Many tropical source waters have been shown to have enteric pathogens in the complete absence of coliforms. Diffusion chamber studies with E. coli at several tropical sites reveal that this bacterium can survive indefinitely in most freshwaters in Puerto Rico. An evaluation of methods for the enumeration of fecal coliforms showed that currently used media have poor reliability as a result of large numbers of false positive and false negative results when applied to tropical water samples. Total and fecal coliform bacteria are not reliable indicators of recent biological contamination of waters in tropical areas. Fecal streptococci and coliphages in tropical waters, violate the same under lying assumptions of indicator assays as the coliforms. Anaerobic bacteria like Bifidobacterium spp. and Clostridium perfringens show some promise in terms of survival but not in ease of enumeration and media specificity. The best course at present lies in using current techniques for direct enumeration of pathogens by fluorescent staining and nucleic acid analysis and developing tropical maximum containmant levels for certain resistant pathogens in tropical waters. 66 refs.

Hazen, T.C.

1988-01-01

51

RAPID MONITORING OF INDICATOR COLIFORMS IN DRINKING WATER BY AN ENZYMATIC ASSAY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Coliform group has been extensively used as an indicator of drinking water quality and historically led to the public health protection concept. Multiple tube fermentation technique has been currently used for assessment of the microbial quality of drinking water. This method, however, has limitations. Enzymatic assay constitute an alternative approach for detecting indicator bacteria, namely total coliforms and E.coli in various aquatic environments. This study compared the performance of LMX® broth as an enzymatic assay with the standard methods multiple tube fermentation technique and presence–absence test, for the detection of indicator coliforms in drinking water samples. In addition, the potential effect of water quality on the microbial detection method was assayed through measurement of some physicochemical parameters. From the 50 drinking water samples tested, 8 (16%) and 7 (14%) contained total coliforms and E.coli as indicated by all three techniques. Although on average the LMX recovered more total coliforms and E.Coli numbers comparing to multiple tube fermentation, but there was no significant difference. A significant difference existed between the level of residual chlorine for positive and negative samples. In conclusion, enzymatic assay showed a rapid and less labor method, allowing the simultaneous detection of total coliforms and E.coli. The method is particularly useful in the early warning of fecal pollution of drinking water.

M. Nikaeen ? A. Pejhan ? M. Jalali

2009-01-01

52

Fecal coliform modeling under two flow scenarios in St. Louis Bay of Mississippi.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

St. Louis Bay, along with its two major tributaries, Wolf River and Jourdan River, are included in the Mississippi 1998 Section 303(d) List for violation of the designated water use of recreation and shellfish harvesting. Fecal coliform was identified as one of the pollutants that caused the water quality impairment. In order to facilitate the total maximum daily loads (TMDL) development, the fecal coliform dynamics was investigated under 2 flow scenarios with a calibrated and validated modeling framework by integration of Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC) and Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF). EFDC was used to model the hydrodymics and fecal coliform transportation in the Bay and the tributaries, whereas HSPF was applied to compute the flow and fecal coliform loadings from the watersheds. The total amount of precipitation in the dry year simulation corresponds to a 50-year return period of low flow condition, and a 10-year return period of high flow condition for wet weather simulation. For EFDC modeling, the fecal coliform sources considered were the contributions from the 2 upper watersheds (no tidal influence), the 28 small surrounding watershed, and 12 municipal, industrial, and domestic point sources. When simulating the fecal coliform loadings from the 2 upper watersheds using HSPF, the simulated non-point source loadings of fecal coliform included wildlife, land application of hog and cattle manure, land application of poultry litter, and grazing animals. The EFDC modeling results indicated that the wet weather exerted greater stress on fecal coliform water quality conditions. The number of exceedance of fecal coliform water quality standard in wet year simulation is much higher than that in dry year simulation. The impact of the upper rural watersheds loads on fecal coliform levels in the St. Louis Bay is much less significant than that from the surrounding urban runoff. Fecal coliform TMDL development should be based on high flow conditions since the decision makers are more concerned about worse scenarios. This fecal coliform modeling research would provide useful information of critical condition selection for TMDLs development in similar coastal areas.

Liu Z; Hashim NB; Kingery WL; Huddleston DH

2010-01-01

53

Remoção de matéria orgânica, coliformes totais e nitrificação no tratamento de esgotos domésticos por filtros de areia Organic matter and total coliform removal and nitrification in the treatment of domestic wastewater by sand filter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Segundo o IBGE (2000), 73% dos municípios brasileiros possuem menos de 20.000 habitantes, que em sua maior parte vive na zona rural ou em pequenos núcleos urbanos. Quase a totalidade dos esgotos destas cidades é lançada nos corpos hídricos, contribuindo com o agravamento dos problemas de saúde pública e ambiental. Esses danos podem ser minimizados com o emprego de sistemas de tratamento simples, eficientes, sustentáveis e economicamente viáveis. O filtro anaeróbio com recheio de bambu combinado com filtros de areia satisfaria estas exigências, propiciando um efluente adequado para disposição nos cursos d'água ou para reúso, resguardando as fontes de água potável. A aplicação piloto deste método demonstrou que no emprego de baixas cargas de efluente anaeróbio nos filtros de areia havia uma remoção superior a 96% da DBO, adequação na emissão de coliformes totais e uma completa nitrificação. Aumentando-se as cargas, ocorria uma pequena redução da eficiência, no entanto os resultados ainda eram satisfatórios.According to IBGE (2000) 73% of the Brazilian cities are considered small communities with population smaller than 20,000 inhabitants. The majority of domestic wastewater of these places is normally disposed in rivers with no treatment. As a consequence, the irregular disposal may cause health and environmental problems. To reduce this risk it is necessary to develop treatment systems that are simple, efficient, sustainable and of low cost. The treatment of wastewater using up flow anaerobic filter combined with sand filters would be able to satisfy these exigencies, producing an effluent that could be disposed in rivers or even be reused, safeguarding the sources of potable water. The system achieved BOD removal of 96% and complete nitrification for the application of low loads. The increase of the applied loads caused a reduction in the efficiency; however the final values were still satisfactory.

Adriano Luiz Tonetti; Bruno Coraucci Filho; Ronaldo Stefanutti; Roberto Feijó de Figueiredo; Camilla Cristina Okano São Pedro

2005-01-01

54

[Total mercury levels in certain coastal fish  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, we decided to scan some common edible fish species and find out by atomic absorption spectrophotometry their total mercury content, in order to have an idea on their contamination degree and know whether they are edible or can be risky for consumers. The results of our investigations gave us the evidence that total mercury content of several fish species catched at different tunisian harbourgs is beyond the WHO recommended maximum level, and thus, consumption of such fish is harmless.

Nasfi FH

1992-07-01

55

Arsenic presence and coliforms in drinking water of the Tecuala municipality, Nayarit, Mexico; Presencia de arsenico y coliformes en agua potable del municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit, Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Total arsenic concentrations (t As) and the presence of total and fecal coliforms in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, Mexico, were determined. The presence of t As was analyzed by means of hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Total and fecal coliforms were determined through the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. According to the results, the mean concentration of t As in Tecuala wa 15.82 {mu}g/L, in Atotonilco 19.88 {mu}g/L, in Pajaritos 21.49 {mu}g/L, in Quimichis 17.80 {mu}g/L, and in Playas de Novillero 19.79 {mu}g/L. The t As concentrations in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, are within the limit set by the Mexican official standards (25 {mu}g/L); still, they are over the limit established by the World Health Organization (10 {mu}g/L). The concentration of coliforms in water from wells 1 and 3 was 180 MPN/100 ml and 43 MPN/100 ml for well water 2. The presence of total and fecal coliforms, suggest the infiltration of sewage which could increase the levels of dissolved arsenic. The results of this study will serve as an antecedent of the water quality in Tecuala, Nayarit. (Author)

Mora B, D.; Gonzalez A, C. A.; Medina D, I. M.; Robledo M, M. L.; Rojas G, A. E. [Universidad Autonoma de Nayarit, Secretaria de Investigacion y Posgrado, Ciudad de la Cultura Amado Nervo, 63155 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); Sanchez P, L. C.; Del Razo, L. M., E-mail: aerg81@gmail.com [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Departamento de Toxicologia, Av. IPN No. 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

2012-07-01

56

Comparison of an automated most-probable-number technique with traditional plating methods for estimating populations of total aerobes, coliforms, and Escherichia coli associated with freshly processed broiler chickens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An instrument (TEMPO) has been developed to automate the most-probable-number (MPN) technique and reduce the effort required to estimate some bacterial populations. We compared the automated MPN technique with traditional microbiological plating methods and Petrifilm methods for estimating the total viable count of aerobic microorganisms (TVC), total coliforms (CC), and Escherichia coli populations (EC) on freshly processed broiler chicken carcasses (postchill whole carcass rinse [WCR] samples) and cumulative drip-line samples from a commercial broiler processing facility. Overall, 120 broiler carcasses, 36 prechill drip-line samples, and 40 postchill drip-line samples were collected over 5 days (representing five individual flocks) and analyzed by the automated MPN and direct agar plating and Petrifilm methods. The TVC correlation coefficient between the automated MPN and traditional methods was very high (0.972) for the prechill drip samples, which had mean log-transformed values of 3.09 and 3.02, respectively. The TVC correlation coefficient was lower (0.710) for the postchill WCR samples, which had lower mean log values of 1.53 and 1.31, respectively. Correlations between the methods for the prechill CC and EC samples were 0.812 and 0.880, respectively. The estimated number of total aerobes was generally greater than the total number of coliforms or E. coli recovered for all sample types (P < 2e?¹?). Significantly more bacteria were recovered from the prechill samples than from the postchill WCR or cumulative drip samples (P < 9.5e?¹² and P < 2e?¹?, respectively). When samples below the limit of detection were excluded, 92.1% of the total responses were within a single log difference between the traditional plating or Petrifilm methods and the automated MPN method.

Line JE; Stern NJ; Oakley BB; Seal BS

2011-09-01

57

Identification of Total and Fecal Coliforms and Heterotrophic to Microbiological Method and E.coli O157:H7 to Immunological, and Real Time PCR Methods in IsfahanWater Treatment Plant  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "n "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives:Total and Fecal coliforms (TC and FC), heterotrophic plate count (HPC), were counted by microbiological method and E.coli O157:H7 were detected through immunological and Real time PCRmethods inwater intake and all of units of Isfahanwater treatment plant (IWTP)."nMaterials and Methods: The microbial profile including TC, FC, and HPC, were monitored and turbidity and total organic carbon were analyzed in 8 locations of water intake, and unit operation and processes of IWTP, including, inlet, sedimentation, ozonation, and filtration and finished water. Immunological method through anti-serum kits and molecular method of RT-PCR were used to detect E.coli O157:H7 in the 8 locations and also the sludge of the sedimentation basin and filters backwash water of IWTP."nResults: Survival of E.coli O157:H7 in sludge sample of sedimentation basin was indicated by formation of agglutination particles in immunological method and through indicator probes in the RT-PCR method. However, E.coli O157:H7 was not detected in water samples of other units of IWTP. The removal percent of TC, FC, and HPC were: 59.5, 49, and 54.8 % in sedimentation basin; 66, 45.8, and 57 % in ozonation;: 98.8, 98, and 78.8 in the filtration; and 96, 100, 91% in disinfection, respectively."nConclusion: This study approved the existence of the pathogenic coliform, E.coli O157:H7 in the"nsludge of sedimentation basin. Absent of E.coli O157:H7 in the finished water indicates that the existing units of IWTP could eliminate these pathogenic bacteria, before reaching the final units of the plant, including the filters and disinfection.

P Atabakhsh; M.M Amin; H Mortazavi; M Yaran; A Akhavan Sepahi; A Nouhi; M Jalali

2010-01-01

58

Arsenic presence and coliforms in drinking water of the Tecuala municipality, Nayarit, Mexico  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Total arsenic concentrations (t As) and the presence of total and fecal coliforms in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, Mexico, were determined. The presence of t As was analyzed by means of hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Total and fecal coliforms were determined through the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. According to the results, the mean concentration of t As in Tecuala wa 15.82 ?g/L, in Atotonilco 19.88 ?g/L, in Pajaritos 21.49 ?g/L, in Quimichis 17.80 ?g/L, and in Playas de Novillero 19.79 ?g/L. The t As concentrations in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, are within the limit set by the Mexican official standards (25 ?g/L); still, they are over the limit established by the World Health Organization (10 ?g/L). The concentration of coliforms in water from wells 1 and 3 was 180 MPN/100 ml and 43 MPN/100 ml for well water 2. The presence of total and fecal coliforms, suggest the infiltration of sewage which could increase the levels of dissolved arsenic. The results of this study will serve as an antecedent of the water quality in Tecuala, Nayarit. (Author)

2012-01-01

59

Effects of UV light disinfection on antibiotic-resistant coliforms in wastewater effluents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Total coliforms and total coliforms resistant to streptomycin, tetracycline, or chloramphenicol were isolated from filtered activated sludge effluents before and after UV light irradiation. Although the UV irradiation effectively disinfected the wastewater effluent, the percentage of the total surviving coliform population resistant to tetracycline or chloramphenicol was significantly higher than the percentage of the total coliform population resistant to those antibiotics before UV irradiation. This finding was attributed to the mechanism of R-factor mediated resistance to tetracycline. No significant difference was noted for the percentage of the surviving total coliform population resistant to streptomycin before or after UV irradiation. Multiple drug resistant to patterns of 300 total coliform isolates revealed that 82% were resistant to two or more antibiotics. Furthermore, 46% of these isolates were capable of transferring antibiotic resistance to a sensitive strain of Escherichia coli

1982-01-01

60

Effects of UV light disinfection on antibiotic-resistant coliforms in wastewater effluents  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Total coliforms and total coliforms resistant to streptomycin, tetracycline, or chloramphenicol were isolated from filtered activated sludge effluents before and after UV light irradiation. Although the UV irradiation effectively disinfected the wastewater effluent, the percentage of the total surviving coliform population resistant to tetracycline or chloramphenicol was significantly higher than the percentage of the total coliform population resistant to those antibiotics before UV irradiation. This finding was attributed to the mechanism of R-factor mediated resistance to tetracycline. No significant difference was noted for the percentage of the surviving total coliform population resistant to streptomycin before or after UV irradiation. Multiple drug resistant to patterns of 300 total coliform isolates revealed that 82% were resistant to two or more antibiotics. Furthermore, 46% of these isolates were capable of transferring antibiotic resistance to a sensitive strain of Escherichia coli.

Meckes, M.C.

1982-02-01

 
 
 
 
61

Presencia de arsénico y coliformes en agua potable del municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit, México/ Presence of arsenic and coliforms in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Se determinaron las concentraciones de arsénico total (AsT) y la presencia de coliformes totales y fecales en agua potable del municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit, México. La determinación de AsT se realizó por espectrofotometría de fluorescencia atómica, por generación de hidruros; la detección de coliformes totales y fecales se realizó con la técnica del número más probable (NMP). De acuerdo a los resultados obtenidos, la concentración media de AsT en la cabecera (more) municipal de Tecuala fue de 15.82 µg/L, en el ejido de Atotonilco de 19.88 µg/L, en Pajaritos de 21.49 µg/L, en Quimichis de 17.80 µg/L y en Playas de Novillero de 19.79 µg/L. Aunque las concentraciones de AsT en el agua potable del municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit, se encuentran dentro del límite establecido por las Normas Oficiales Mexicanas (25 µg/L), rebasan el límite establecido por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, que establece un máximo de 10 µg/L. La concentración de coliformes en el agua procedente de los pozos 1 y 3 fue de 180 NMP/100 mL y de 43 NMP/100 mL para el agua del pozo 2. La presencia de coliformes totales y fecales, sugiere la infiltración de aguas negras lo que podría incrementar los niveles de arsénico disuelto. Los resultados de este estudio servirán como antecedente sanitario de la calidad del agua de los pozos que abastecen el municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit. Abstract in english Total arsenic concentrations (tAs) and the presence of total and fecal coliforms in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, Mexico, were determined. The presence of tAs was analyzed by means of hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Total and fecal coliforms were determined through the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. According to the results, the mean concentration of tAs in Tecuala was 15.82 µg/L, in Atotonilco 19.88 µg/L, in Pajaritos 21.49 µg/L, in Qu (more) imichis 17.80 µg/L, and in Playas de Novillero 19.79 µg/L. The tAs concentrations in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, are within the limit set by the Mexican official standards (25 µg/L); still, they are over the limit established by the World Health Organization (10 µg/L). The concentration of coliforms in water from wells 1 and 3 was 180 MPN/100 mL and 43 MPN/100 mL for well water 2. The presence of total and fecal coliforms, suggest the infiltration of sewage which could increase the levels of dissolved arsenic. The results of this study will serve as an antecedent of the water quality in Tecuala, Nayarit.

MORA-BUENO, Daniel; SÁNCHEZ-PEÑA, Luz del Carmen; DEL RAZO, Luz María; GONZÁLEZ-ARIAS, Cyndia Azucena; MEDINA-DÍAZ, Irma Martha; ROBLEDO-MARENCO, María de Lourdes; ROJAS-GARCÍA, Aurora Elizabeth

2012-05-01

62

LA ALMEJA DE AGUA DULCE DIPLODON CHILENSIS (BIVALVIA:HYRIIDAE) POTENCIAL BIOFILTRO PARA DISMINUIR LOS NIVELES DE COLIFORMES EN POZOS: EXPERIMENTO DE LABORATORIO THE FRESHWATER MUSSEL DIPLODON CHILENSIS (BIVALVIA:HYRIIDAE) POTENTIAL BIOFILTER TO DIMINISHCOLIFORM LEVELS OF WATER WELLS: LABORATORY EXPERIMENT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Estudios realizados en comunidades rurales de la IX Región, donde habitan familias que se abastecen con agua de pozo, se han detectado índices de coliformes fecales de hasta 5400 NMP en 100 ml, especialmente en pozos de baja profundidad. Considerando la capacidad de bombeo y de filtración de la almeja de agua dulce Diplodon chilensis, se realizó esta investigación tendiente a evaluar en el laboratorio la capacidad de las almejas para disminuir los niveles de coliformes en aguas de pozo así como de digerir la carga bacteriológica. Los resultados de los experimentos llevaron a concluir que densidades de 15 y 25 ejemplares en 30 litros de agua fueron capaces de disminuir la turbidez del agua y el número más probable de coliformes en un período de 6 horas siendo además capaces de digerirlasPrevious studies carried out in rural communities in the IX Region, Chile, have detected up to 5.400 fecal coliforms by 100 ml in drinking water from wells mainly in shallow wells. Considering the pumping and water filtration capacity of the freshwater mussel Diplodon chilensis, a laboratory experiment was carried out to evaluate the capacity of the mussels to decrease coliform levels and to digest them. The experimental results showed that 15 to 25 specimens in 30 litres of water were able to diminish the water turbidity and the coliforms load in a 6 hour-period being able also to digest them

Gladys Lara; Angel Contreras; Francisco Encina

2002-01-01

63

Coliform and Metal Contamination in Lago de Colina, a Recreational Water Body in Chihuahua State, Mexico  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lago de Colina (Colina Lake) is located about 180 km south of the city of Chihuahua (Mexico), and during the Semana Santa (Holy Week) vacation period its recreational use is high. The objective of this study was to quantify coliform and heavy metal levels in this water body before and after the Holy Week vacation period in 2010. Twenty sampling points were randomly selected and two water samples were collected at each point near the surface (0.30 m) and at 1 m depth. After the Holy Week vacation the same twenty points were sampled at the same depths. Therefore, a total 80 water samples were analyzed for fecal and total coliforms and levels of the following metals: Al, As, B, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si and Zn. It was hypothesized that domestic tourism contaminated this water body, and as a consequence, could have a negative impact on visitor health. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) study was performed for each element and its interactions considering a factorial design where factor A was sample date and factor B was sample depth. Fecal coliforms were only detected at eight sampling points in the first week, but after Holy Week, both fecal and total coliforms were detected at most sampling points. The concentrations of Al, B, Na, Ni and Se were only statistically different for factor A. The levels of Cr, Cu, K and Mg was different for both date and depth, but the dual factor interaction was not significant. The amount of Ca and Zn was statistically different due to date, depth and their interaction. No significant differences were found for any factor or the interaction for the elements As, Fe and Mn. Because of the consistent results, it is concluded that local tourism is contaminating the recreational area of Colina Lake, Chihuahua, Mexico.

Hector Rubio-Arias; Nora I. Rey; Rey M. Quintana; G. Virginia Nevarez; Oskar Palacios

2011-01-01

64

Fecal coliform population dynamics associated with the thermophilic stabilization of treated sewage sludge.  

Science.gov (United States)

The inactivation of fecal coliforms in anaerobic batch reactors has been investigated at the thermophilic temperatures of 50, 55 and 60 °C. Throughout inactivation experiments at each temperature, individual colonies were isolated and identified by 16S rDNA gene sequencing to illustrate how the diversity of fecal coliforms is affected by thermophilic treatment. Results indicate that even though fecal coliforms in raw sewage sludge are comprised of several different bacterial species, each with variable temperature induced decay rates, the overall inactivation of fecal coliforms in raw sewage sludge was found to follow a first-order relationship. No tailing was observed across the range of fecal coliform concentrations measured. Fecal coliforms in raw sludge contained six different genera of bacteria and were 62% enriched in E. coli. Within 1.5 log removal of fecal coliform concentration by thermophilic treatment, the populations had shifted to, and remained at 100% E. coli. Subsequent inactivation rates measured in isolated fecal coliform strains confirmed that E. coli cells isolated post-treatment were more thermotolerant than E. coli and non-E coli bacteria isolated prior to thermal treatment. Overall, this study describes the potential enrichment of thermotolerant E. coli in biosolids fecal coliforms and demonstrates that while thermotolerant species are present at the end of treatment, pure first-order approximations are appropriate for estimating residence times to reduce fecal coliforms to levels promulgated in U.S. Class A biosolids standards. PMID:22955448

Ziemba, Chris; Peccia, Jordan

2012-09-07

65

Fecal coliform population dynamics associated with the thermophilic stabilization of treated sewage sludge.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The inactivation of fecal coliforms in anaerobic batch reactors has been investigated at the thermophilic temperatures of 50, 55 and 60 °C. Throughout inactivation experiments at each temperature, individual colonies were isolated and identified by 16S rDNA gene sequencing to illustrate how the diversity of fecal coliforms is affected by thermophilic treatment. Results indicate that even though fecal coliforms in raw sewage sludge are comprised of several different bacterial species, each with variable temperature induced decay rates, the overall inactivation of fecal coliforms in raw sewage sludge was found to follow a first-order relationship. No tailing was observed across the range of fecal coliform concentrations measured. Fecal coliforms in raw sludge contained six different genera of bacteria and were 62% enriched in E. coli. Within 1.5 log removal of fecal coliform concentration by thermophilic treatment, the populations had shifted to, and remained at 100% E. coli. Subsequent inactivation rates measured in isolated fecal coliform strains confirmed that E. coli cells isolated post-treatment were more thermotolerant than E. coli and non-E coli bacteria isolated prior to thermal treatment. Overall, this study describes the potential enrichment of thermotolerant E. coli in biosolids fecal coliforms and demonstrates that while thermotolerant species are present at the end of treatment, pure first-order approximations are appropriate for estimating residence times to reduce fecal coliforms to levels promulgated in U.S. Class A biosolids standards.

Ziemba C; Peccia J

2012-10-01

66

Resistência antimicrobiana de coliformes isolados de leite humano ordenhado Antimicrobial resistance of coliform isolates from expressed human milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A veiculação de microrganismos potencialmente patogênicos, resistentes aos antibióticos, por meio de leite humano ordenhado, pode ser um fator de risco potencial. Este estudo teve como objetivo contribuir para um melhor conhecimento dos coliformes isolados de leite humano ordenhado (LHO) e de seu perfil de resistência a antimicrobianos. Seguiu-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, utilizando 837 amostras de LHO, nas quais 71 (8,48%) estavam contaminadas com coliformes totais, cuja contagem em nenhuma das amostras ultrapassava 1,0x10³NMP/ml. A maioria dos microrganismos isolados (91,6%) pertencia a apenas duas espécies, Enterobacter cloacae e Klebsiella pneumoniae. As 71 cepas de coliformes apresentavam resistência a pelo menos um dos antimicrobianos testados. Conclui-se que o LHO coletado e armazenado sob condições higiênico-sanitárias insatisfatórias, pode apresentar coliformes, que desgastam os fatores de proteção, reduzem o valor nutricional e a qualidade do produto.The dispersion of potentially pathogenic, antibiotic-resistant microorganisms via expressed human milk can be considered a risk factor. The aim of this study was to contribute to a better understanding of coliform isolates from expressed human milk and their antimicrobial resistance profiles. The sampling scheme followed a totally randomized design, using 837 samples of expressed human milk. Of these, 71 (8.48%) were identified as contaminated with total coliforms, although in none of the samples did the population exceed 1.0x10³ MPN/ml. Most of the microorganisms isolated (91.6%) belonged to only two species, Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae, which when subjected to antibiograms, revealed that several strains showed prior resistance to some of the antimicrobials tested. Coliforms may grow in expressed human milk if it is improperly stored, depleting protection factors and reducing the milk's nutritional value.

Franz Reis Novak; João Aprígio Guerra de Almeida; Marise Dutra Asensi; Bianca Aguiar de Moraes; Dália dos Prazeres Rodrigues

2001-01-01

67

Distribution of coliform bacteria in waste water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Biological activity of water can be apparently judged by the colonization of bacteria (microbes). In order to find out the extent of pollution and the relationship between inorganic matters and microbiota, a quantitative and qualitative analysis of bacteria in various types of sewage waters, namely sewage water by the residential colonies (group I), industrial waste water (group II), sewage treatment hub (group III), unorganized collected waste water (group IV) and old residential waste collection center (group V), of Bikaner city (Rajasthan, India) was carried out from February, 2010 to May, 2010. Water samples were taken from surface only owing to low depth and investigated for various abiotic factors (viz. transparency, pH, carbonate, bicarbonate, total alkalinity, total hardness, salinity, chloride, calcium, magnesium, sulphate, nitrate, silica, and inorganic phosphorous) and biotic factors (viz. number and diversity of bacteria). The domestic sewage water causes major water borne diseases basing upon Total Bacterial Count (TBC) and coliform Count (CC). The coliform count in the present study ranged from 2.5 to 5.12 MPN/mL. Comparision of microbial population in sewage water from all different Groups was done and the higher values of TBC and CC were recorded only in Sewage treatement hub (Group III).

Dau Lal Bohra; Vikas Modasiya; Chandan Kumar Bahura

2012-01-01

68

THERMOTOLERANT NON-FECAL SOURCE 'KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE': VALIDITY OF THE FECAL COLIFORM TEST IN RECREATIONAL WATERS  

Science.gov (United States)

Wisconsin pulp and paper mill processing plants were evaluated for fecal coliform and total Klebsiella (i.e., thermotolerant and thermointolerant) bacterial concentrations. Using the standard fecal coliform test, up to 90 per cent of non-fecal source thermo-tolerant K. pneumoniae...

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Formación de biopelículas y susceptibilidad antimicrobiana entre coliformes aislados en agua potable embotellada en Carabobo, Venezuela/ Biofilms formation and antimicrobial susceptibility among coliforms isolated in bottled drinking water in Carabobo, Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Bacterias indicadoras de contaminación tales como bacterias heterótrofas, coliformes totales y termotolerantes fueron enumeradas en agua potable embotellada usando métodos estándar y filtración a través de membrana. El desarrollo de biopelículas y la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana (método de Kirby-Bauer) fueron evaluados sobre sesenta aislados de coliformes seleccionados de forma aleatoria. De 50 muestras, en un elevado porcentaje (94), se observó niveles de bact (more) erias heterotróficas por encima de 100 UFC/mL de agua, 38 % presentó al menos una UFC/100 mL de coliformes totales o termotolerantes, mientras que, 30 % y 28 %, presentaron más de diez UFC/100 mL para ambos indicadores, respectivamente. Las especies de coliformes identificadas en mayor proporción fueron, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli y Klebsiella oxytoca. Usando un ensayo in vitro para detectar la formación de biopelículas se determinó que entre un 75,8 y 79,2 % de los coliformes totales y termotolerantes, respectivamente, fueron descritos como moderados o fuertes formadores de biopelículas. No se observaron diferencias significativas (P>0,05) con respecto a la capacidad de formación de biopelículas entre los dos grupos. La mayoría de los aislados resultaron susceptibles frente a los antimicrobianos evaluados, únicamente dos especies presentaron fenotipos de resistencia no naturales. Perfiles de multiresistencia, típicos de especies asociadas con actividades clínicas o veterinarias, fueron identificados en un aislado de Enterobacter cloacae (betalactamasas tipo AmpC derreprimida) y un aislado de Escherichia coli fue resistente a ampicilina. Este estudio sugiere que el agua potable en botellones plásticos que se expende en algunas áreas urbanas de Carabobo, Venezuela, puede representar un riesgo para la salud. Abstract in english Pollution indicator bacteria such as heterotrophic bacteria, total and thermotolerant coliforms were quantified in bottled drinking water using standard method and membrane filter procedure. Biofilm formation and antimicrobial susceptibility (Kirby-Bauer method) were tested on sixty randomly selected coliform strains. Among 50 water samples, a large percentage (94) were found with heterotrophic bacteria levels above 100 CFU/mL, 46 % showed at least one CFU/100 mL of therm (more) otolerant or total coliformes whereas 28 % and 30 % showed more than ten CFU/100 mL for both indicators. Coliform species found in higher proportion were, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella oxytoca. Using an "in vitro" assay for biofilms formation it was determined that between 75.8 y 79.2 % of total and thermotolerant coliforms, respectively, were found to be moderate or strong biofilm formers. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between both groups regarding the capacity for biofilm formation. Most of the isolates were susceptible against the antibiotics tested and only two species showed unnatural resistance phenotypes. Multiresistance profiles, typical of strains associated with human clinical or veterinary activities were identified in one Enterobacter cloacae isolated (derepressed AmpC beta-lactamases) and one Escherichia coli strain was ampicilin resistant. This study suggests that the water sold in some plastic bottles in some urban areas near by Carabobo, Venezuela, may be a risk to health.

Rojas, Tomás; Montoya, Alejandra; Moreno, Alejandra; Mujica, Ritneybi; Vásquez, Ysvette

2012-06-01

70

Serum total glutathione-s-transferase levels in oral cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We conducted a study wherein serum total glutathione-s-transferase levels were measured in patients (n = 27) with various stages of biopsy proven oral cancer (squamous cell carcinoma) and age and sex matched healthy human volunteers (n=10). In all patients with oral cancer, serum total glutathione-s-transferase was measured before the onset of treatment. There was a significant increase in serum total glutathione-s-transferse levels in patients with stage IV oral cancer as compared to stage II (P = 0.001) and stage III (P = 0.002) oral cancer. This shows that alterations in serum total Glutathione-s-transferase levels may have a role in cancer progression.

Prabhu Krishnananda; Bhat Gopalakrishna

2007-01-01

71

Resistência antimicrobiana de coliformes isolados de leite humano ordenhado/ Antimicrobial resistance of coliform isolates from expressed human milk  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A veiculação de microrganismos potencialmente patogênicos, resistentes aos antibióticos, por meio de leite humano ordenhado, pode ser um fator de risco potencial. Este estudo teve como objetivo contribuir para um melhor conhecimento dos coliformes isolados de leite humano ordenhado (LHO) e de seu perfil de resistência a antimicrobianos. Seguiu-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, utilizando 837 amostras de LHO, nas quais 71 (8,48%) estavam contaminadas com co (more) liformes totais, cuja contagem em nenhuma das amostras ultrapassava 1,0x10³NMP/ml. A maioria dos microrganismos isolados (91,6%) pertencia a apenas duas espécies, Enterobacter cloacae e Klebsiella pneumoniae. As 71 cepas de coliformes apresentavam resistência a pelo menos um dos antimicrobianos testados. Conclui-se que o LHO coletado e armazenado sob condições higiênico-sanitárias insatisfatórias, pode apresentar coliformes, que desgastam os fatores de proteção, reduzem o valor nutricional e a qualidade do produto. Abstract in english The dispersion of potentially pathogenic, antibiotic-resistant microorganisms via expressed human milk can be considered a risk factor. The aim of this study was to contribute to a better understanding of coliform isolates from expressed human milk and their antimicrobial resistance profiles. The sampling scheme followed a totally randomized design, using 837 samples of expressed human milk. Of these, 71 (8.48%) were identified as contaminated with total coliforms, althou (more) gh in none of the samples did the population exceed 1.0x10³ MPN/ml. Most of the microorganisms isolated (91.6%) belonged to only two species, Enterobacter cloacae and Klebsiella pneumoniae, which when subjected to antibiograms, revealed that several strains showed prior resistance to some of the antimicrobials tested. Coliforms may grow in expressed human milk if it is improperly stored, depleting protection factors and reducing the milk's nutritional value.

Novak, Franz Reis; Almeida, João Aprígio Guerra de; Asensi, Marise Dutra; Moraes, Bianca Aguiar de; Rodrigues, Dália dos Prazeres

2001-06-01

72

Coliform bacteria and nitrate contamination of wells in major soils of Frederick, Maryland  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An investigation was conducted on the hypothesis that inadequate septic system construction or placement may cause contamination of wells with coliform bacteria and/or nitrates. Specifically, two predictions were tested: (1) A negative correlation between lot size and coliform bacteria and nitrate contamination will exist in unsewered areas. (2) Coliform bacteria and nitrate contamination will decrease with increasing casing length. The relationship of coliform bacteria and nitrate levels to lot size and casing length was tested for all wells in unsewered areas (n = 832) and for wells in 10 soil groups in Frederick County, Maryland, to determine if septic system construction or placement contributed to well contamination. Coliform bacteria and nitrate contamination were negatively correlated with lot size. In addition, coliform bacteria levels were negatively correlated with casing length, and there was a trend toward nitrate levels being associated with casing length. The results suggest that septic systems may be a source of coliform bacteria and nitrate contamination of wells. The casing length required in well construction should be increased in areas where wells may be prone to coliform bacteria contamination if the minimum amount of casing is used.

Tuthill, A.; Meikle, D.B.; Alavanja, M.C.R. [Virginia Dept. of Health, Culpeper, VA (United States). Office of Water Programs

1998-04-01

73

Early serum procalcitonin level after primary total hip replacement.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Procalcitonin (PCT) is a useful surrogate marker for the differentiation of postoperative infection and unspecific inflammatory reaction after surgery. It is known that postoperative course of the PCT serum level varies with type of surgery. No data exists about the postoperative course of serum PCT levels after primary total hip replacement (THR). PURPOSE: To characterize early postoperative serum PCT levels in uneventful primary THR compared to postoperative levels of different frequently used inflammatory blood parameters. METHOD: We prospectively investigated 31 patients. Blood samples were taken preoperatively and for 5 days postoperatively. PCT levels were compared with C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and blood leucocyte counts (WBC). RESULTS: In uneventful THR PCT levels showed a uniform low-level course with a peak at the second postoperative day. At the fifth day values returned to almost preoperative levels. On contrary, CRP levels remained high during the entire observational period. Only IL-6 levels showed a peak at postoperative day one with a quick and uniform return to preoperative levels. CONCLUSION: Similar to observations in cardiothoracic, intestinal, and neural surgeries, postoperative course of PCT after primary THR showed a uniform low-level course with a peak at the second postoperative day but below expected levels in systemic infections.

Bouaicha S; Blatter S; Moor BK; Spanaus K; Dora C; Werner CM

2013-01-01

74

Early Serum Procalcitonin Level after Primary Total Hip Replacement  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Procalcitonin (PCT) is a useful surrogate marker for the differentiation of postoperative infection and unspecific inflammatory reaction after surgery. It is known that postoperative course of the PCT serum level varies with type of surgery. No data exists about the postoperative course of serum PCT levels after primary total hip replacement (THR). Purpose. To characterize early postoperative serum PCT levels in uneventful primary THR compared to postoperative levels of different frequently used inflammatory blood parameters. Method. We prospectively investigated 31 patients. Blood samples were taken preoperatively and for 5 days postoperatively. PCT levels were compared with C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and blood leucocyte counts (WBC). Results. In uneventful THR PCT levels showed a uniform low-level course with a peak at the second postoperative day. At the fifth day values returned to almost preoperative levels. On contrary, CRP levels remained high during the entire observational period. Only IL-6 levels showed a peak at postoperative day one with a quick and uniform return to preoperative levels. Conclusion. Similar to observations in cardiothoracic, intestinal, and neural surgeries, postoperative course of PCT after primary THR showed a uniform low-level course with a peak at the second postoperative day but below expected levels in systemic infections.

Blatter, Samuel; Moor, Beat K.; Spanaus, Katharina; Werner, Clement M. L.

2013-01-01

75

[Total testosterone level in postmenopausal women with dry eye].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare total testosterone blood level among three groups of postmenopausal women: control, mild to moderate dry eye and severe dry eye. METHODS: Twenty-nine postmenopausal women were selected. The exclusion criteria were: hormone replacement therapy in the last 8 weeks, mechanical palpebral abnormalities, pterygium, lacrimal obstructions, intraocular inflammation or contact lens use. A blood sample was collected for total testosterone level determination, and the patients were submitted to an ophthalmologic examination (emphasizing on dry eye detection) and answered the OSDI (Ocular Surface Disease Index) questionnaire. Five patients were excluded. Postmenopausal women were divided into three groups according to OSDI score and the ophthalmic examination. RESULTS: Five patients were classified in the no dry eye group (control), fifteen in the mild to moderate dry eye group and four in the severe dry eye group. There were no statistically significant differences regarding mean age (p=0.3915); instruction level (p=0.9333); number of comorbidities (p=0.2551); medication taken (p=0.2844) and total testosterone level among those groups (p=0.1275). CONCLUSION: Further research with a greater bigger sample is necessary to establish the relation of androgen levels in dry eye patients.

Duarte MC; Pinto NT; Moreira H; Moreira AT; Wasilewski D

2007-05-01

76

Assessing fecal coliform fate and transport in a coastal watershed using HSPF.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is increasing concern regarding spread and proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms in watersheds and their impacts on water quality. In agricultural and rural watersheds fecal coliform occurrence, an indicator of pathogenic contamination, is often thought to be a result of land applications of animal waste. This study used the Hydrologic Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF) along with the Bacterial Indicator Tool to model fecal coliform transport in a coastal watershed with a view to identifying contaminant sources and key contributing areas. Results indicated that the highest levels of fecal coliform contamination (often exceeding the 400 counts/100 ml standard for the area) emanated from areas with and without livestock operations, and from largely forested areas, indicating that livestock operations were not the determining source of fecal coliform as suggested in previous studies. This study found HSPF to be an effective tool for identifying key coliform contributing areas in coastal watersheds.

Rolle K; Gitau MW; Chen G; Chauhan A

2012-01-01

77

Salmonelas e coliformes fecais em águas de bebida para animais  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available De um total de 402 propriedades rurais do Município de Botucatu, SP (Brasil) com atividades de exploração pecuária, foram sorteadas 60 (15%) pelo processo de amostragem probabilística simples. Nestas 60 propriedades localizaram-se 113 bebedouros que eram os mais utilizados pelos animais para sua dessedentação. Foram colhidas amostras de água desses bebedouros visando a pesquisa de bactérias do gênero Salmonella, a determinação do Número Mais Provável (NMP) de bactérias coliformes fecais e a verificação do pH e da temperatura. Obteve-se isolamento positivo para salmonelas nas amostras de água de 15 (13,27%) bebedouros correspondentes a 12 (20%) das 60 propriedades visitadas, identificando-se os seguintes sorotipos: S. dublin, S. newport, S. madelia, S. IV 43:g, z57: -, S. saphra, S. glostrup, S. IV ochsenzool, S. I 9, 12:i: - e dois novos sorotipos S. IV 41:z52: - e S. IV 50:d:-. Das 113 amostras de água analisadas, 14 (12,39%) apresentaram-se com NMP/100 mL de coliformes fecais acima de 4.000. Não foi constatada associação entre o isolamento positivo de salmonelas e NMP/100 mL de coliformes fecais acima de 4.000. O isolamento de salmonelas e NMP/100 mL de coliformes fecais acima de 4.000 deu-se em temperaturas superiores a 18degreesC e em pH entre 6,0 e 7,0.

Souza Luiz Carlos de; laria Sebastião Timo; Paim Gil Vianna

1992-01-01

78

[Salmonellas and fecal coliforms in drinking water for animals  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sixty small farms of Botucatu County, S. Paulo, Brazil, given over to cattle breeding were studied. These farms account for 15% of the total of 402 farms that exist in the county. The sample was drawn by simple probabilistic technique. There were found to be one hundred and thirteen drinking places located on the farms. Samples of water were taken from these drinking places and examined for bacteria of the genus Salmonella, for the determination of Most Probable Number (MNP) of fecal coliform bacteria as well as determination of the water's pH. Water temperature was measured before collection. Samples from 15 drinking places (13.3%) were positive for Salmonella. The drinking places belonged to 12 of the sixty farms studied (20%). The following serotypes were identified: S. dublin, S. newport, S. madelia, S. IV 43:g,z57:-, S. saphra, S. glostrup, S. IV ochsenzool; S. I9,12:i:- and two new serotypes S. IV 41:z52:- and S. IV 50:d:-. Of the 113 samples studied 14 (12.4%) presented MPN/100ml of fecal coliforms above 4,000. There was no relationship between MPN/100ml of fecal coliforms above 4,000 and positivity for Salmonella. Highest positivity both for Salmonella and MPN/100mL of fecal coliforms over 4,000 occurred at temperatures above 18 degrees C. As regards pH, in both situations the highest positivity occurred between 6.0 and 7.0.

de Souza LC; Iaria ST; Paim GV

1992-10-01

79

Comparison of commercially available kits with standard methods for the detection of coliforms and Escherichia coli in foods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Three commercially available kits that were supplemented with substrates for enzyme reactions were evaluated to determine their abilities to detect coliforms and fecal coliforms in foods. Japanese and U.S. Food and Drug Administration standard methods, as well as two agar plate methods, were compared with the three commercial kits. A total of 50 food samples from various retailers were examined. The levels of detection of coliforms were high with the commercial kits (78 to 98%) compared with the levels of detection with the standard methods (80 to 83%) and the agar plate methods (56 to 83%). Among the kits tested, the Colilert kit had highest level of recovery of coliforms (98%), and the level of recovery of Escherichia coli as determined by beta-glucuronidase activity with the Colilert kit (83%) was comparable to the level of recovery obtained by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration method (87%). Isolation of E. coli on the basis of the beta-glucuronidase enzyme reaction was found to be good. Levine's eosine methylene blue agar, which has been widely used in various laboratories to isolate E. coli was compared with 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG)-supplemented agar for isolation of E. coli. Only 47% of the E. coli was detected when eosine methylene blue agar was used; however, when violet red bile (VRB)-MUG agar was used, the E. coli detection rate was twice as high. Of the 200 E. coli strains isolated, only 2 were found to be MUG negative, and the gene responsible for beta-glucuronidase activity (uidA gene) was detected by the PCR method in these 2 strains. Of the 90 false-positive strains isolated that exhibited various E. coli characteristic features, only 2 non-E.coli strains hydrolyzed MUG and produced fluorescent substrate in VRB-MUG agar. However, the PCR did not amplify uidA gene products in these VRB-MUG fluorescence-positive strains.

Venkateswaran K; Murakoshi A; Satake M

1996-07-01

80

Comparison of commercially available kits with standard methods for the detection of coliforms and Escherichia coli in foods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three commercially available kits that were supplemented with substrates for enzyme reactions were evaluated to determine their abilities to detect coliforms and fecal coliforms in foods. Japanese and U.S. Food and Drug Administration standard methods, as well as two agar plate methods, were compared with the three commercial kits. A total of 50 food samples from various retailers were examined. The levels of detection of coliforms were high with the commercial kits (78 to 98%) compared with the levels of detection with the standard methods (80 to 83%) and the agar plate methods (56 to 83%). Among the kits tested, the Colilert kit had highest level of recovery of coliforms (98%), and the level of recovery of Escherichia coli as determined by beta-glucuronidase activity with the Colilert kit (83%) was comparable to the level of recovery obtained by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration method (87%). Isolation of E. coli on the basis of the beta-glucuronidase enzyme reaction was found to be good. Levine's eosine methylene blue agar, which has been widely used in various laboratories to isolate E. coli was compared with 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG)-supplemented agar for isolation of E. coli. Only 47% of the E. coli was detected when eosine methylene blue agar was used; however, when violet red bile (VRB)-MUG agar was used, the E. coli detection rate was twice as high. Of the 200 E. coli strains isolated, only 2 were found to be MUG negative, and the gene responsible for beta-glucuronidase activity (uidA gene) was detected by the PCR method in these 2 strains. Of the 90 false-positive strains isolated that exhibited various E. coli characteristic features, only 2 non-E.coli strains hydrolyzed MUG and produced fluorescent substrate in VRB-MUG agar. However, the PCR did not amplify uidA gene products in these VRB-MUG fluorescence-positive strains. PMID:8779561

Venkateswaran, K; Murakoshi, A; Satake, M

1996-07-01

 
 
 
 
81

Serum levels of total-RANKL in multiple myeloma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) plays a key role in osteoclast activation in myeloma bone disease. The increased expression of RANKL in the bone marrow microenvironment was demonstrated in several studies, but there are only rare data on circulating RANKL levels in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the current study, we investigated the clinical significance of serum RANKL levels, using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test that detects both free and osteoprotegerin (OPG)-bound RANKL (total-RANKL, tRANKL) in patients with newly diagnosed MM (n = 93) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS; n = 20) compared with healthy controls (n = 20). RESULTS: Circulating serum tRANKL was significantly elevated in patients with MM compared with controls (P < .001) or MGUS (P < .001). Furthermore, tRANKL levels were higher in smoldering MM versus MGUS (P = .031) and in symptomatic versus smoldering MM (P < .001). Serum tRANKL increased parallel to International Staging System stages I to III (P = .004) and correlated with the presence of lytic bone lesions (P < .001). Total-RANKL was a prognostic factor for overall survival in symptomatic MM (P = .043). A significantly longer progression-free survival was observed in patients with a > 50% decrease in tRANKL levels after 3 months of combined chemotherapy and bisphosphonate treatment. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates for the first time that serum tRANKL reflects advanced disease, lytic bone destruction, and poor prognosis in MM.

Jakob C; Goerke A; Terpos E; Sterz J; Heider U; Kühnhardt D; Ziefle S; Kleeberg L; Mieth M; Metzler Iv; Müller C; Sezer O

2009-12-01

82

Aerobic bacterial, coliform, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus counts of raw and processed milk from selected smallholder dairy farms of Zimbabwe.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cross sectional study was conducted to enumerate total viable bacteria (TBC), coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in raw (n=120) and processed (n=20) milk from individual farms from three smallholder dairy schemes of Zimbabwe between October, 2009 and February, 2010. Data on management factors were collected using a structured questionnaire. A standard pour plate technique was used to enumerate total viable bacteria, while for coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus, counts were assessed by the spread plate technique. The association of total viable bacterial counts and management factors was assessed using univariable and a linear regression model. The log?? TBC for raw milk differed significantly (P0.05). The coliform, E. coli and S. aureus counts for raw milk significantly differed (P<0.05) amongst the study areas. The variation in TBC, coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus counts amongst the schemes could be attributed to differences in milking hygiene where farms with more access to training and monitoring of microbiological quality of milk had lower counts. Linear regression analysis revealed dairy scheme, delivery time and season of milking as independently associated with increased TBC of raw milk. The high TBC of raw and processed milk generally indicated low levels of milking hygienic practices, and high level of post-processing contamination, respectively. The high TBC, coliform, E. coli and S. aureus counts of both raw and processed milk may present a public health hazard. Thus, educating the farmers on general hygienic practices, quickening the delivery of milk to collection centres, or availing cooling facilities on-farm will improve the microbiological quality and safety of milk. PMID:21944662

Mhone, Tryness A; Matope, Gift; Saidi, Petronella T

2011-09-10

83

[Coliform microflora of commercial Caucasian cheese].  

Science.gov (United States)

Studied was in the course of several years the extent of coliform bacterial contamination and the peculiarities the bacteria present in ripened cow's and ewe's white brine cheese offered for consumption. It was demonstrated that these kinds of cheese released in the commercial system contain up to 3.1 per cent coliform bacteria. Certain correlation was established between the coliform count in the cheese and the degree of ripening, the consistence, and the aspect of the cross section surface. If hygiene measures were not observed cheese could be contaminated additionally with coliforms during handling in the shops. Coliform microflora was presented mainly by strains characteristic of fresh fecal contamination (E. coli) and urease-positive organisms of the Citrobacter and Enterobacter genera. To guarantee the consumption of qualitative (in terms of hygiene) white brine cheese it is necessary to include into the respective standards the index "coli titer" of a unit value. PMID:1014369

Ikonomov, L; Iotov, I; Todorov, D; Slavchev, G

1976-01-01

84

[Coliform microflora of commercial Caucasian cheese  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Studied was in the course of several years the extent of coliform bacterial contamination and the peculiarities the bacteria present in ripened cow's and ewe's white brine cheese offered for consumption. It was demonstrated that these kinds of cheese released in the commercial system contain up to 3.1 per cent coliform bacteria. Certain correlation was established between the coliform count in the cheese and the degree of ripening, the consistence, and the aspect of the cross section surface. If hygiene measures were not observed cheese could be contaminated additionally with coliforms during handling in the shops. Coliform microflora was presented mainly by strains characteristic of fresh fecal contamination (E. coli) and urease-positive organisms of the Citrobacter and Enterobacter genera. To guarantee the consumption of qualitative (in terms of hygiene) white brine cheese it is necessary to include into the respective standards the index "coli titer" of a unit value.

Ikonomov L; Iotov I; Todorov D; Slavchev G

1976-01-01

85

Asellus aquaticus as a potential carrier of Escherichia coli and other coliform bacteria into drinking water distribution systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Individuals of the water louse, Asellus aquaticus, enter drinking water distribution systems in temperate parts of the world, where they establish breeding populations. Populations of A. aquaticus in surface water from 2 ponds were analysed for associated faecal indicator bacteria and the risk of A. aquaticus transporting bacteria into distribution systems was assessed. Concn. of ?2 Escherichia coli and 5 total coliforms ml-1 were measured in the water and 200 E. coli and >240 total coliforms ml-1 in the sediments of the investigated ponds. Concn. of A. aquaticus associated bacteria never exceeded 3 E. coli and 6 total coliforms A. aquaticus-1. During exposure to high concn. of coliforms, concn. reached 350 coliforms A. aquaticus-1. A. aquaticus associated E. coli were only detected as long as E. coli were present in the water and sediment. The calculated probability of exceeding drinking water guideline values in non-disinfected systems by intrusion of A. aquaticus was low. Only in scenarios with narrow pipes and low flows, did total coliforms exceed guideline values, implying that the probability of detection by routine monitoring is also low. The study may expand the knowledge base for evaluating incidents with the presence of coliform indicators in drinking water by showing that intruding A. aquaticus are not important carriers of E. coli or other coliform bacteria even when emerging from faecally contaminated waters.

Christensen, Sarah Christine; Arvin, Erik

2013-01-01

86

Asellus aquaticus as a potential carrier of Escherichia coli and other coliform bacteria into drinking water distribution systems.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Individuals of the water louse, Asellus aquaticus, enter drinking water distribution systems in temperate parts of the world, where they establish breeding populations. We analysed populations of surface water A. aquaticus from two ponds for associated faecal indicator bacteria and assessed the risk of A. aquaticus transporting bacteria into distribution systems. Concentrations of up to two E. coli and five total coliforms·mL-1 were measured in the water and 200 E. coli and >240 total coliforms·mL-1 in the sediments of the investigated ponds. Concentrations of A. aquaticus associated bacteria never exceeded three E. coli and six total coliforms·A. aquaticus-1. During exposure to high concentrations of coliforms, concentrations reached 350 coliforms·A. aquaticus-1. A. aquaticus associated E. coli were only detected as long as E. coli were present in the water and sediment. The calculated probability of exceeding drinking water guideline values in non-disinfected systems by intrusion of A. aquaticus was low. Only in scenarios with narrow pipes and low flows, did total coliforms exceed guideline values, implying that the probability of detection by routine monitoring is also low. The study expands the knowledge base for evaluating incidents with presence of coliform indicators in drinking water by showing that intruding A. aquaticus were not important carriers of E. coli or other coliform bacteria even when emerging from faecally contaminated waters.

Christensen SC; Arvin E; Nissen E; Albrechtsen HJ

2013-03-01

87

"ASSOCIATION BETWEEN TOTAL SERUM BILIRUBIN LEVEL AND MANIFESTATIONS OF KERNICTERUS "  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Kernicterus (bilirubin induced encephalopathy) is an uncommon disorder with tragic consequences, especially when it affects healthy term and near-term neonates. Appointment of cut off value of total serum bilirubin level that have a safe margin for early prompt treatment, as a result, prevention of kernicterus. In our study, all of icteric neonates that admitted in our center in 1 year were enrolled. From 305 neonates, 25 cases have kernicterus manifestations. These 25 neonates have not any conditions that mimic kernicterus manifestations (such as birth trauma, intra cranial hemorrhage, asphyxia). We divided neonates to 2major groups: neonates 8 days-old. Also these cases were divided to high-risk and low-risk neonates. In this study, 220 neonates (72.1%) were ? 7days and 85 neonates (27.9%) were > 8 days-old. Also 109 neonates (35.7%) were or with risk factors and 196 neonates (64.3%) were or without risk factors. Risk factors were prematurity, acidosis, hemolysis, duration of hyperbilirubinemia, sepsis and respiratory distress. Cutoff value of bilirubin level for neonates ? 7 days was 25.15 mg/dl and for neonates > 8 days was 22.25 mg/dl that no statistically significant difference was found. Cut off value of bilirubin level for high-risk neonates was 22.35 mg/dl and for low-risk neonates was 27.95 mg/dl that statistically significant difference was found. The lower limit of bilirubin in neonates with kernicterus was 16.5 mg/dl and the upper limit was 44 mg/dl. The high-risk neonates need prompt treatment of hyperbilirubinemia at lower levels of total bilirubin compared with low-risk neonates.

S. Behjati-Ardakani; A. Nikkhah; M. R. Ashrafi M. Sedaghat

2006-01-01

88

Comparison of media for enumeration of coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli in non-disinfected water.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this work alternative media for detection and enumeration of E. coli and coliform bacteria were compared to the reference method ISO 9308-1 (LTTC) using non-disinfected water samples with background flora. The alternative media included LES Endo agar medium (LES Endo), Colilert-18 with 51-well Quanti-tray (Colilert), Chromocult Coliform agar (CC), Harlequin E. coli/Coliform medium (HECM) and Chromogenic Escherichia coli/Coliform medium (CECM). A total of 110 samples of groundwater, bathing water and spiked water was used. Our results revealed that confirmation of coliform bacteria counts is necessary, not only on lactose-based LTTC and LES Endo media, but also on the chromogenic agar media tested, due to the growth of oxidase positive colonies. LTTC and CC media also allowed the growth of some morphologically typical coliform colonies containing gram-positive bacteria. The recovery of coliform bacteria was lower on LES Endo than on LTTC. In most cases Colilert, CC, HECM and CECM gave higher coliform counts than LTTC. The use of the LTTC medium led to higher E. coli counts than obtained with any of the alternative mediums. There are three explanations for this: (1) high sensitivity of LTTC, (2) false positives on LTTC or (3) false negatives especially with Colilert, but also with chromogenic agar media. Although LTTC was found to be a very sensitive medium, the high degree of background growth of non-disinfected waters disturbed substantially the use of it. In conclusion, our results suggest that Colilert, CC and CECM are potential alternative media for detection of coliform bacteria and E. coli from non-disinfected water.

Pitkänen T; Paakkari P; Miettinen IT; Heinonen-Tanski H; Paulin L; Hänninen ML

2007-03-01

89

Total and speciated arsenic levels in rice from China.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although the need for policy development on arsenic (As) in rice has been recognized and a legally enforceable maximum contaminant level (MCL) for inorganic arsenic (As(i)) in rice has been established in China, evidence reported in this article indicates that the risk of exposure to As for the Chinese population through rice is still underestimated. Polished rice from various production regions of China was analyzed for total As and arsenic species using HPLC-ICPMS. Total As concentration ranged 65.3-274.2 ng g(-1), with an average value of 114.4 ng g(-1). Four arsenic species, including arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), were detected in most rice samples. The As(i) (As(III) + As(V)) species was predominant, accounting for approximately 72% of the total As in rice, with a mean concentration of 82.0 ng g(-1). In assessing the risk from As in rice, we found that As intake for the Chinese population through rice is higher than from drinking water, with a 37.6% contribution to the maximum tolerable daily intake (MTDI) of As recommended by World Health Organization (WHO), compared with 1.5% from drinking water. Compared to other countries, the risk for the Chinese from exposure to As through rice is more severe due to the large rice consumption in China. Therefore, not only the scientific community but also local authorities should take this risk seriously. Furthermore, more stringent legislation of the MCL for rice should be enacted to protect the Chinese consumer from a high intake of As.

Liang F; Li Y; Zhang G; Tan M; Lin J; Liu W; Li Y; Lu W

2010-06-01

90

Evaluation of Total Oxidative Level and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Cases with Chronic Viral Hepatitis  

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Full Text Available Objective: Oxidative stress is described as an instability between production of free radicals from cells and antioxidant defence of the body. The aim of the study was to investigate the correlation of total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidative level (TOL) with the severity of the disease and reliability of these parameters in the follow up of response to treatment in cases with chronic viral hepatitis (CVH).Methods: Between January 2004-March 2006, 73 cases with CVH were included in the study. The ages of the patients ranged from 15 to 70 years. Diagnosis of CVH was confirmed by clinical serological, and biochemical markers. The cases were divided into two groups: Group 1 as HBsAg-positive or anti-HCV-positive but HBV DNA or HCV RNA-negative and Group 2 as proven CVH. TAC, lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), and TOL of the sera were studied according to Erel method, and statistically evaluated by ?2 test in all the cases. Results: TAC, LOOH and TOL were found statistically significantly different between two groups. Average values of TAC were 1.8±0.5 mmol Trolox-Eqv./L and 1.0±0.15 mmol Trolox-Eqv./L in Group 1 and Group 2 ( p=0.0001) respectively. Average values of LOOH were 5.3±2.8 µmol H202 in Group 1 and 10.6±10.1 µmol H202 in Group 2 (p=0.002). Average values of TOL were 10.2±5.9 µmol H2O2 Eqv./L in Group 1 and 18.5±16.6 µmol H2O2 Eqv./L in Group 2 (p=0.004).Conclusions: TAC was found higher, and TOL and LOOH were found lower in Group 1 than Group 2. The evaluation of plasma TAC, TOS ve LOOH levels may be important activation markers for the follow up of CVH.

Fatma S?rmatel; Fazilet Duygu; Hakim Çelik; ?ahabettin Selek; Öcal S?rmatel; Bensu Gürsoy; Fatma Nur Eri?

2009-01-01

91

Contamination of water wells in Khoms city with pathogenic coliform bacteria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] 240 Samples from 60 water wells in and around the area of city of Khoms city (in northwestern Libya) were analyzed over four successive seasons for count of faecal Coliform bacteria, of which antibiotic resistance was later assessed. Standard methods were used for analysis of faecla coliform bacteria. Water wells contained varying levels of faecal coliform bacteria ranging from a Most Probable Number of 0 to 1.8 x 103 cfu/100 ml, with zero isolates at autumn and winter seasons, while wells dug at private farms had the highest percentage of contamination, reaching 56.6% of wells in autumn, and also had the highest number of faecal coliform isolates, 1,8x103 cfu/100 ml, in spring and summer seasons, strains of isolated Escherichia coli were most sensitive to chloramphenicol, and most resistant to tetracycline. (author)

2007-01-01

92

Coliform and pathologic bacteria in Sierra Nevada national forest wilderness area lakes and streams.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To analyze backcountry-area water quality in US Department of Agriculture Forest Service-designated wilderness areas for the presence of coliform and potentially pathogenic bacteria. METHODS: Thirty-one backcountry lakes and streams were selected that would stratify the risk based on use by backpackers, pack animals, commercial grazing animals, or natural unaffected wilderness areas. Sites included Desolation Wilderness (10 sites), Carson-Iceberg Wilderness (4 sites), Emigrant Wilderness (3 sites), Hoover Wilderness (6 sites), John Muir Wilderness (3 sites), and Golden Trout Wilderness (5 sites). Water was collected in sterile tubes and quantification was performed through Millipore bacterial samplers. On return to the laboratory, bacteria were harvested from the samplers and subjected to qualitative analysis that identified species according to standard laboratory methods. RESULTS: Coliform bacteria were detected in 14 of 31 sites (45%). Eight sites had high levels of coliforms. All 8 of these sites correlated with heavy human use or commercial grazing. Coliforms were identified as Escherichia coli. In addition, 1 sample contained Yersinia entercolitica. All samples contained expected amounts of normal aquatic bacteria, including Pseudomonas spp, Rahnella aquatilis, Serratia spp, and other nonpathogenic species of Yersinia in concentrations of 600 to 10,000 colony-forming units per 100 mL. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, coliform bacteria were found at nearly half of the sampling sites. High coliform levels correlated with high-impact human use or cattle grazing.

Derlet RW; Carlson JR; Noponen MN

2004-01-01

93

Coliform bacteria in Sierra Nevada wilderness lakes and streams: what is the impact of backpackers, pack animals, and cattle?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The presence of coliform bacteria indicates a watershed risk for harboring microbes capable of causing human disease. We hypothesized that water from watersheds that have different human- or animal-use patterns would have differing risks for the presence of coliform bacteria. METHODS; Water was collected in wilderness areas of the Sierra Nevada range in California. A total of 60 sites from lakes or streams were selected to statistically differentiate the risk categories: 1) high use by backpackers, 2) high use by pack animals, 3) cattle- and sheep-grazing tracts, and 4) natural areas rarely visited by humans or domestic animals. Water was collected in sterile test tubes and Millipore coliform samplers during the summer of 2004. Water was analyzed at the university microbiology lab, where bacteria were harvested and then subjected to analysis by standardized techniques. Confirmation was performed with a Phoenix 100 bacteria analyzer. Statistical analysis to compare site categories was performed with Fisher exact test. RESULTS: Only 1 of 15 backpacker sites yielded coliforms. In contrast, 12 of 15 sites with heavy pack-animal traffic yielded coliforms. All 15 sites below the cattle-grazing areas grew coliforms. Differences between backpacker and cattle or pack-animal areas were significant (P < or = .05). Only 1 of the 15 wild sites rarely visited by humans grew coliforms. All coliforms were identified as Escherichia coli. All samples grew normal aquatic bacteria of the genera Pseudomonas, Ralstonia, and Serratia and nonpathogenic strains of Yersinia. No correlation could be made with temperature or elevation. Sites below cattle-grazing tracts and pack-animal usage areas tended to have more total bacteria. CONCLUSIONS: Alpine wilderness water below cattle-grazing tracts or areas used by pack animals are at risk for containing coliform organisms. Areas exclusively used by backpackers were nearly free of coliforms.

Derlet RW; Carlson JR

2006-01-01

94

Coliforms in processed mango: significance and control.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aims of this investigation were to enumerate coliforms in fresh mangoes, puree, cheeks, and cheeks-in-puree in order to determine the source of these organisms in the processed products, to determine methods for their control, and to identify coliforms isolated from cheeks-in-puree to determine whether they have any public health significance. Product from four processors was tested on two occasions. The retail packs of cheeks-in-puree having the highest coliform counts were those in which raw puree was added to the cheeks. Coliform counts in these samples ranged between 1.4 x 10(3) and 5.4 x 10(4) cfu/g. Pasteurisation reduced the coliform count of raw puree to < 5 cfu/g. Forty-seven percent of the 73 colonies, isolated as coliforms on the basis of their colony morphology on violet red bile agar, were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae using the ATB 32E Identification System. Klebsiella strains were tested for growth at 10 degrees C, faecal coliform response, and fermentation of D-melizitose, to differentiate the three phenotypically similar strains, K. pneumoniae, K. terrigena and K planticola. Results indicated that 41% of K. pneumoniae isolates gave reactions typical of K. pneumoniae. A further 44% of strains gave an atypical reaction pattern for these tests and were designed 'psychrotrophic' K. pneumoniae. Klebsiella pneumoniae counts of between 2.1 x 10(3) and 4.9 x 10(4) cfu/g were predicted to occur in the retail packs of mango cheeks-in-puree produced by the processors who constituted this product with raw puree. In view of the opportunistic pathogenic nature of K. pneumoniae, its presence in these products is considered undesirable and steps, such as pasteurisation of puree, should be taken in order to inactivate it.

O'Connor-Shaw RE; Guthrie JA; Dunlop KJ; Roberts

1995-03-01

95

Evaluation of the Sanita-kun coliforms, a dehydrated medium sheet for coliform detection. Performance-Tested Method 100402.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Sanita-kun Coliforms consists of a transparent cover film, an adhesive sheet, a layer of nonwoven fabric, and a water-soluble compound film, including a culture medium formula for the detection of coliforms. The medium sheet was validated with 26 food types belonging to 9 food categories (meat, poultry, fish and seafood, fruits and vegetable, dairy, chocolate or bakery, animal feeds, pasta, and miscellaneous) using violet red bile (VRB) agar method in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual as a reference according to the AOAC guideline. The medium sheet showed 100% inclusivity and exclusivity. Ruggedness study suggested allowances in the incubation temperature and time as 33-35 degrees C and 24 +/- 4 h, respectively. The performance of 3 different lots of the medium sheets was equivalent and suggested no change of the performance at least for 3 years. In the comparative recovery study, many samples (84.6%), which were inoculated with a coliform strain, showed no significant difference between the 2 methods. The linear correlation coefficient (r2) to the VRB agar was calculated as 0.94. In the repeatability study, the average relative standard deviation of total foods was 0.10 in the medium sheet. In the independent study, the medium sheet detected significantly more colonies than VRB plates in the frozen raw milk sample, while there was no significant difference between the 2 methods in raw ground beef sample. Comparative recovery study on foods, inoculated and then frozen, showed the medium sheet detected injured cells with better recovery than VRB agar. The analysts in the independent study wrote that the medium sheet was easy to use and read overall. The Sanita-kun sheet provides an alternative method to coliform count agar. PMID:16640288

Morita, Hiroshi; Ushiyama, Masashi; Aoyama, Shigeyuki; Iwasaki, Mihoko

96

Evaluation of the Sanita-kun coliforms, a dehydrated medium sheet for coliform detection. Performance-Tested Method 100402.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The Sanita-kun Coliforms consists of a transparent cover film, an adhesive sheet, a layer of nonwoven fabric, and a water-soluble compound film, including a culture medium formula for the detection of coliforms. The medium sheet was validated with 26 food types belonging to 9 food categories (meat, poultry, fish and seafood, fruits and vegetable, dairy, chocolate or bakery, animal feeds, pasta, and miscellaneous) using violet red bile (VRB) agar method in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Bacteriological Analytical Manual as a reference according to the AOAC guideline. The medium sheet showed 100% inclusivity and exclusivity. Ruggedness study suggested allowances in the incubation temperature and time as 33-35 degrees C and 24 +/- 4 h, respectively. The performance of 3 different lots of the medium sheets was equivalent and suggested no change of the performance at least for 3 years. In the comparative recovery study, many samples (84.6%), which were inoculated with a coliform strain, showed no significant difference between the 2 methods. The linear correlation coefficient (r2) to the VRB agar was calculated as 0.94. In the repeatability study, the average relative standard deviation of total foods was 0.10 in the medium sheet. In the independent study, the medium sheet detected significantly more colonies than VRB plates in the frozen raw milk sample, while there was no significant difference between the 2 methods in raw ground beef sample. Comparative recovery study on foods, inoculated and then frozen, showed the medium sheet detected injured cells with better recovery than VRB agar. The analysts in the independent study wrote that the medium sheet was easy to use and read overall. The Sanita-kun sheet provides an alternative method to coliform count agar.

Morita H; Ushiyama M; Aoyama S; Iwasaki M

2006-03-01

97

Nutrient-Induced Growth of Coliform and HPC Bacteria in Drinking-Water Pipes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We conducted a study on a model drinking water distribution system to evaluate the impact of nutrient in the form of sodium acetate on the growth and survival of coliform and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria for a maximum of 21 days residence time of water in pipes. Our results show that, besides the nutrient added and the absence of any additional source of contamination and additional supply of nutrient, there was significant growth of the above mentioned bacteria in the pipes and bottles for a couple of days, after which the bacterial population began to decrease. The results indicate that the bacteria used the nutrient to grow and multiply until the nutrient was totally consumed and became depleted in the bulk water phase, after which the bacterial population reached a near stationary level and subsequently declined. This suggests the death of some of the bacteria and their dead cells were used by other bacteria for growth and survival. Using a detection limit of 3.3 CFU/100 mL for the coliforms, the study shows that after sometime, no bacteria were found in the water phase of the pipe, however, the biofilm in the pipes still harbored some of the bacteria. The results have revealed that the bacteria also have the tendency to move from the water phase to the biofilm since the latter provides a more suitable environment for bacteria to thrive on and grow, thus prolonging their survival in the system.

Patrick Asamoah Sakyi; Roland Asare; Chris Anani; Samuel Boakye Dampare

2012-01-01

98

A follow up on the distribution of coliform bacteria along the Jordanian coastline of the gulf of Aq aba  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A survey of the occurrence of enteric indicator organisms (e. g. total and fecal coliform) and enteric pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella sp.) was undertaken at ten sites, along the northern coast of the Gulf of Aq aba (Jordan)m during the period October 1994 to September 1995. Both total coliforms and Escherichia coli counts were within the accepted international standards for marine bathing water. the mean value per 100 ml seawater ranged between 18 to 70(n=12 months) for total coliforms, 1 to 27 (n=8 mon thus) for Escherichia coli and 1 to 9 (n = 8 months) for Salmonella species. The analysis of va rance for total coliforms revealed a highly significant temporal variations (P

1997-01-01

99

Coliforms and Enterobacteriaceae isolates from selected foods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract: Coliform and Enterobacteriaceae were obtained from 5 food products, using violet red bile agar (VRB) and VRB+1% glucose (VRBG). About 80% of VRB isolates from mechanically deboned poultry (MDPM) and from broiler skin met all criteria for fecal coliforms; only 36.5% and 62.5%, respectively, of VRBG isolates met these criteria. Less than 10% of VRB and VRBG isolates from ground beef, pork sausage, or chicken pot pie produced gas in LST broth. Fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli (TYPE I or II) percentages among 179 VRB isolates were 34.1% and 33.5% ; among 193 VRBG isolates, corresponding numbers were 20.7% and 19.7%. E. Coli was the predominant species isolated from MDPM and broiler skin; Enterobacter agglomerans from pork sausage and chicken pot pie; and Serratia liquifaciens predominated in ground beef.

Mercuri AJ; Cox NA

1978-09-01

100

Total mercury and methyl mercury levels in british estuarine sediments  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The most recent results from an ongoing, large-scale study of total mercury and methyl mercury concentrations in sediments of Mersey Estuary, U.K., are presented. Correlations between total mercury, methyl mercury, silt, and organic carbon contents of the sediments are compared with previously reported results. The influence of redox potential and sulfide content of a sediment on the ambient concentration of methyl mercury and on the growth and decay of methyl mercury concentrations in sediments after sampling is discussed. Evidence suggests that sulfide concentrations may control methyl mercury concentrations in estuary sediments.

Bartlett, P.D.; Craig, P.J.

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Efficacy of chromocult coliform agar for coliform and Escherichia coil detection in foods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chromocult coliform agar (CCA) was compared with Petrifilm Escherichia coli count plate (PEC) for identifying coliforms and E. coli in a variety of meat products. Products examined included 45 raw beef samples, 12 sausage emulsion samples, 11 samples of meat-based ready-to-eat appetizers, and 8 pork trimming samples. Coliforms from CCA and PEC were confirmed by gassing in brilliant green lactose broth plus a positive reaction on purple broth agar plus lactose after incubation at 35 degrees C for 48 h. Lauryl sulfate tryptose plus methylumbelliferyl-beta-glucuronide and tryptophan broth were used to confirm E. coli from CCA and PEC with 48-h incubations at 35 and 42.5 degrees C, respectively. API 20E test strips were inoculated for final confirmation. The overall respective confirmation percentages (CFU/g) for the PEC and the CCA methods were 93.1 and 93.7% for coliforms and 99.8 and 98.1% for E. coli, although the CCA method yielded significantly (P < 0.001) higher mean CFU/g values for both coliforms and E. coli. Regression analyses of these data indicated a strong positive linear relationship existed between the two methods over a wide CFU/g range for both coliforms and E. coli. The respective correlation coefficients obtained for coliforms and E. coli of 0.89 and 0.86 indicate that the CCA method provides a reliable optional method for these determinations in meat products. PMID:10772222

Turner, K M; Restaino, L; Frampton, E W

2000-04-01

102

Efficacy of chromocult coliform agar for coliform and Escherichia coil detection in foods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chromocult coliform agar (CCA) was compared with Petrifilm Escherichia coli count plate (PEC) for identifying coliforms and E. coli in a variety of meat products. Products examined included 45 raw beef samples, 12 sausage emulsion samples, 11 samples of meat-based ready-to-eat appetizers, and 8 pork trimming samples. Coliforms from CCA and PEC were confirmed by gassing in brilliant green lactose broth plus a positive reaction on purple broth agar plus lactose after incubation at 35 degrees C for 48 h. Lauryl sulfate tryptose plus methylumbelliferyl-beta-glucuronide and tryptophan broth were used to confirm E. coli from CCA and PEC with 48-h incubations at 35 and 42.5 degrees C, respectively. API 20E test strips were inoculated for final confirmation. The overall respective confirmation percentages (CFU/g) for the PEC and the CCA methods were 93.1 and 93.7% for coliforms and 99.8 and 98.1% for E. coli, although the CCA method yielded significantly (P < 0.001) higher mean CFU/g values for both coliforms and E. coli. Regression analyses of these data indicated a strong positive linear relationship existed between the two methods over a wide CFU/g range for both coliforms and E. coli. The respective correlation coefficients obtained for coliforms and E. coli of 0.89 and 0.86 indicate that the CCA method provides a reliable optional method for these determinations in meat products.

Turner KM; Restaino L; Frampton EW

2000-04-01

103

THAWING PROCEDURES FOR HOSPITAL-MADE ENTERAL FEEDINGS: SURVIVAL OF COLIFORM AND MESOPHILIC AEROBIC BACTERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study had the purpose to observe the effect of thawing procedures on survival of coliform and mesophilic aerobic bacteria in hospital-made enteral feedings. The samples are represented by three different lots. The tests were realized in three moments: immediately after the sample preparation and after freezing during 1 or 2 months. The thawing procedures were denominated convencional and alternative. The first, used by hospital, utilizes water bath at 50ºC, considering the time spent from the total thawing to its distribution in the infirmaries. The second was the fast thawing made by microwaving. The results showed that the reduction of the mesophiles and coliform was related to the time the samples were frozen. The results obtained indicate an advantage of the alternative method, which presented lower total and fecal coliform counts than the conventional one. KEYWORDS: Enteral feedings; thawing; food microbiology.

KATHIA ROSSI ROLIM LOPES; IZABEL BRANDãO STREIT; ROSA HELENA LUCHESE; MARCO ANTôNIO ZACHIA AYUB

2009-01-01

104

THAWING PROCEDURES FOR HOSPITAL-MADE ENTERAL FEEDINGS: SURVIVAL OF COLIFORM AND MESOPHILIC AEROBIC BACTERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study had the purpose to observe the effect of thawing procedures on survival of coliform and mesophilic aerobic bacteria in hospital-made enteral feedings. The samples are represented by three different lots. The tests were realized in three moments: immediately after the sample preparation and after freezing during 1 or 2 months. The thawing procedures were denominated convencional and alternative. The first, used by hospital, utilizes water bath at 50ºC, considering the time spent from the total thawing to its distribution in the infirmaries. The second was the fast thawing made by microwaving. The results showed that the reduction of the mesophiles and coliform was related to the time the samples were frozen. The results obtained indicate an advantage of the alternative method, which presented lower total and fecal coliform counts than the conventional one. KEYWORDS: Enteral feedings; thawing; food microbiology.

Kathia Rossi Rolim LOPES; Izabel Brandão STREIT; Rosa Helena LUCHESE; Marco Antônio Zachia AYUB

2009-01-01

105

Low serum total nitrite and nitrate levels in severe leptospirosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The relationship between inducible nitric oxide synthatase activity and disease severity in leptospirosis is unclear. Nitric oxide is converted to nitrites and nitrates, thus nitrite and nitrate levels (NOx) in serum are considered surrogate markers for nitric oxide. NOx are excreted through the kidneys, and elimination is diminished in renal impairment. We assessed the correlation of NOx with disease severity in patients with leptospirosis, compared with healthy controls and non-leptospirosis fever patients. METHODS: All patients admitted over a two-month period to the National Hospital, Colombo, Sri Lanka with a clinical picture suggestive of leptospirosis were included. Leptospirosis was confirmed by the microscopic agglutination test (titre ? 400). Severe leptospirosis was defined by the presence of two or more of the following criteria: jaundice (bilirubin> 51.3 ?mol/l), oliguria (urine output < 400 ml/day), serum creatinine> 133 ?mol/l or blood urea > 25.5 mmol/l, or the presence of organ dysfunction. Non-leptospirosis fever patients and healthy volunteers were used as control groups. NOx levels were measured using a modified Griess reaction. RESULTS: Forty patients were confirmed as having leptospirosis and 26 of them had severe disease. NOx levels were significantly higher in confirmed leptospirosis patients compared to healthy controls, MAT equivocal patients and non-leptospirosis fever patients (p<0.001). NOx concentrations were also significantly higher in patients with severe compared to mild leptospirosis (p<0.001). Once NOx levels were corrected for renal function, by using the ratio NOx/creatinine, NOx levels were actually significantly lower in patients with severe disease compared to other patients, and values were similar to those of healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: We postulate that high NOx levels may be protective against severe leptospirosis, and that finding low NOx levels (when corrected for renal function) in patients with leptospirosis may predict the development of severe disease and organ dysfunction.

Kalugalage T; Rodrigo C; Vithanage T; Somaratne P; De Silva HJ; Handunnetti S; Rajapakse S

2013-01-01

106

Factors influencing total mercury levels among Lebanese dentists.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of the current study is to examine the various factors, which contribute to high levels of mercury (Hg) in the hair of Lebanese dentists. The survey, which was carried out on ninety-nine dentists in the greater Beirut area, included a structured questionnaire designed to provide information about the parameters that influenced their occupational exposure to Hg. These included: precautionary measures, dental fillings, work habits and lifestyle of the tested dentists. The study showed that two of the four investigated precautionary measures had a significant effect on Hg level. The results revealed that, at the 95% confidence levels, Hg concentration in hair was significantly lower among the dentists who always used gloves and masks. Multiple regression analysis showed that the use of masks (P = 0.055) had significant effects on mercury accumulation in hair. In addition, dentists who saw more than eight patients per day had marginally higher mercury levels in their hair than those who did not. Since it was shown that precautionary measures could limit exposure to Hg concentration, then the use of protective measures needs to be emphasized.

Harakeh S; Sabra N; Kassak K; Doughan B

2002-10-01

107

Factors influencing total mercury levels among Lebanese dentists.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the current study is to examine the various factors, which contribute to high levels of mercury (Hg) in the hair of Lebanese dentists. The survey, which was carried out on ninety-nine dentists in the greater Beirut area, included a structured questionnaire designed to provide information about the parameters that influenced their occupational exposure to Hg. These included: precautionary measures, dental fillings, work habits and lifestyle of the tested dentists. The study showed that two of the four investigated precautionary measures had a significant effect on Hg level. The results revealed that, at the 95% confidence levels, Hg concentration in hair was significantly lower among the dentists who always used gloves and masks. Multiple regression analysis showed that the use of masks (P = 0.055) had significant effects on mercury accumulation in hair. In addition, dentists who saw more than eight patients per day had marginally higher mercury levels in their hair than those who did not. Since it was shown that precautionary measures could limit exposure to Hg concentration, then the use of protective measures needs to be emphasized. PMID:12389787

Harakeh, Steve; Sabra, Nada; Kassak, Kassem; Doughan, Bassel

2002-10-01

108

Total and toxic arsenic levels in North Sea fish (poster)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Levels of arsenic contamination in muscle and liver tissue of 25 seafish and 4 shellfish species from the North Sea and the English Channel were determined. Analyses were done both by ICP-MS and HG-AFS in order to distinguish between the toxic fraction, consisting of As(III), As(V), MMA and DMA on ...

De Gieter, M.; Leermakers, M.; Van Ryssen, R.; Noyen, J.; Goeyens, L.; Baeyens, W.

109

Low serum total nitrite and nitrate levels in severe leptospirosis  

Science.gov (United States)

Background The relationship between inducible nitric oxide synthatase activity and disease severity in leptospirosis is unclear. Nitric oxide is converted to nitrites and nitrates, thus nitrite and nitrate levels (NOx) in serum are considered surrogate markers for nitric oxide. NOx are excreted through the kidneys, and elimination is diminished in renal impairment. We assessed the correlation of NOx with disease severity in patients with leptospirosis, compared with healthy controls and non-leptospirosis fever patients. Methods All patients admitted over a two-month period to the National Hospital, Colombo, Sri Lanka with a clinical picture suggestive of leptospirosis were included. Leptospirosis was confirmed by the microscopic agglutination test (titre?400). Severe leptospirosis was defined by the presence of two or more of the following criteria: jaundice (bilirubin> 51.3 ?mol/l), oliguria (urine output 133 ?mol/l or blood urea > 25.5 mmol/l, or the presence of organ dysfunction. Non-leptospirosis fever patients and healthy volunteers were used as control groups. NOx levels were measured using a modified Griess reaction. Results Forty patients were confirmed as having leptospirosis and 26 of them had severe disease. NOx levels were significantly higher in confirmed leptospirosis patients compared to healthy controls, MAT equivocal patients and non-leptospirosis fever patients (pleptospirosis (pleptospirosis, and that finding low NOx levels (when corrected for renal function) in patients with leptospirosis may predict the development of severe disease and organ dysfunction.

2013-01-01

110

Coliform species recovered from untreated surface water and drinking water by the membrane filter, standard, and modified most-probable-number techniques.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The species of total coliform bacteria isolated from drinking water and untreated surface water by the membrane filter (MF), the standard most-probable-number (S-MPN), and modified most-probable-number (M-MPN) techniques were compared. Each coliform detection technique selected for a different profi...

Evans, T M; LeChevallier, M W; Waarvick, C E; Seidler, R J

111

Coliforms and Escherichia coli in waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study shows the evaluation of a defined substrate method, Colilert 18/Quanty Tray, for the simultaneous detection of Coliforms bacteria and Escherichia coli in water. The results obtained indicate that this method represents a valid alternative to the traditional methods considering sensitivity, specificity, repeatability but also rapidity and simplicity of use.

2005-01-01

112

Investigation of total ? and total ? radioactive level of environment mediator in the Dushu lake campus of Suzhou university  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To get the message of natural radioactive level in the Dushu lake cam- pus of Suzhou university. Methods: Different types of water, soil and food in this region were collected, and then the level of total ? and total ? radioactivity of the sample was investigated applying model BH1216 equipment which measuring was used for low background total ? and ? radioactivity. Results: Total ? in city water, surface water and soil were 0.061 Bq/L, 0.104 Bq/L, 1708 Bq/kg respectively, total ? were 0.183 Bq/L, 0.319 Bq/L, 780 Bq/kg respectively, total ? in chive, potato, water bamboo, pork, fish were 1.83, 2.36, 1.84, 3.40, 3.76 Bq/kg respectively, total ? of Fish bone was at infra-monitoring lower limit, total ? in them were 70.81, 96.71, 60.63, 86.20, 97.51, 73.94 Bq/kg respectively. Conclusion: The results of the investigation display that the total radioactivity in drinking water and food don't exceed limits, in surface water and soil is at normal natural background. It can be concluded that this region has not been polluted by the artificial radioactivity and the environment of human habitation is healthy and safe. (authors)

2008-01-01

113

Occurrence of heterotrophic and coliform bacteria in liquid hand soaps from bulk refillable dispensers in public facilities.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The goal of the study discussed in this article was to determine the occurrence of heterotrophic and coliform bacteria in liquid soap from bulk refillable dispensers, obtained from restrooms in a variety of public facilities. A total of 541 samples was collected from five U.S. cities. Liquid soap from dispensers in public areas was found to contain heterotrophic and coliform bacterial numbers averaging more than 106 CFU/mL in 24.8% of the dispensers.

Chattman M; Gerba SL; Maxwell CP

2011-03-01

114

Study of Relationship between Total Magnesium and Total Bilirubin Levels in Neonates' Sera before and after Phototherapy  

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Full Text Available Background : Binding indirect bilirubin to neuronal membranes receptors such as N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) causes permanent injuries. Magnesium (Mg) ion is proposed to be one of the most important antagonistic regulators of this receptor. We studied relationship between serum levels of total magnesium and total bilirubin before and after phototherapy in term neonates to find new therapeutic and management techniques and the best time for discharge.Methods: In this semi-experimental, we evaluated icteric neonates whom admitted to Zahedan Imam Ali hospital from March 2009 to March2010. Neonates with symptoms in favor of sepsis, hemolysis and with administration of magnesium sulfate in their mother were not included in this study. The collected data were analyzed by paired sample t-test, and Analysis of Variance via SPSS software.Results: 90 patients with icterus were studied. Hyperbillirubinemia frequencies before phototherapy included Mild (14-16mg/dl) 28.8%, Moderate (16-18) 33.3% and, Severe (?18 ( 37.7% Hyperbillirubinemia. Means of billirubin levels were 18.38mg/dl before and 12.99 mg/dl after phototherapy (p<0.0001 T= 19.44). Mg levels were also 2.669 before phototherapy, and 2.03 afterwards (p< 0.001 T= 5 . 13). Levels of magnesium in neonates with severe hyperbilirubinemia were higher than mild hyperbilirubinemia group (p= 0.03) before phototherapy. ANOVA- test results showed significant differences between total magnesium levels just in severe hyperbilirubinemia and bilirubin below 14 groups after phototherapy (p= 0.016) respectively. There was a correlation between total magnesium and total bilirubin levels before (r= 0.315, p= 0.001) and after phototherapy (r= 0.314 p = 0.004).Conclusion: It is concluded that phototherapy can decline total magnesium and total bilirubin serum levels in the same direction.

Mahmood Imani; Mahmood Rezaee-pour; Mehdi Mohamdi; Mehdi Shiri; Maysam Noroozifar; Nasrin Mahmodi

2012-01-01

115

Comparación de los métodos PetrifilmTM coliformes y Número Más Probable (NMP) para la determinación de coliformes fecales en muestras de queso blanco/ Comparison study between the coliform PetrifilmTM and the Most Probable Number methods for the assessment of fecal coliforms in white cheese  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Los coliformes fecales son un grupo importante de microorganismos indicadores de inocuidad en alimentos, constituido principalmente por Escherichia coli, el cual es considerado como indicador de contaminación reciente de origen fecal, por ello la importancia de investigar su presencia y determinar rápidamente el nivel poblacional en alimentos. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo comparar el método tradicional Número Más Probable (NMP) para la determinación de coliforme (more) s fecales, según Norma Venezolana Covenin Nº 1104-96 con el método de placas rehidratables PetrifilmTM 3M coliformes incubadas en baño de agua circulante (PBA) a 45 ± 0,2°C por 24 ± 2 horas y en estufa con aire circulante 44 ± 1°C por 24 ± 2 horas (PES) de acuerdo con lo recomendado por la Asociación Francesa de Normalización (AFNOR) y la Corporación 3M. Se analizaron un total de 42 muestras de queso blanco aplicando ambas metodologías, dispensando simultáneamente diluciones seriadas de las muestras. Para el análisis estadístico se realizó una correlación de muestras relacionadas (SPS versión 7,5), obteniéndose los siguientes resultados r = 0,952 entre NMP y PES y r = 0,944 entre NMP y PBA; lo que indica una buena correlación positiva entre ambas metodologías en sus diferentes modalidades para la determinación de coliformes fecales en muestras de queso blanco. Se concluye que las placas PetrifilmTM coliformes incubadas a la temperatura óptima de crecimiento de dichos microorganismos es un método alternativo, rápido y confiable para la determinación del nivel de coliformes fecales en queso blanco. Abstract in english Fecal coliform belong to an important group of sanitary quality indicator microorganisms in food, mainly constituted for Escherichia coli, considerated as indicators of recent fecal contamination, that is why it is very important to investigate their presence and to detect their population in food rapidly. The objetive of this study was to compare the Most Probable Number (NPM) method for fecal coliform determination, according to Venezuelan standard COVENIN Nº 1104-96, (more) with the coliform PetrifilmTM 3M TM plates, incubated in circulating thermostatically - controlled water bath (PBA) at 45 ± 0,2 ° C for 24 ± 2 hours and in a circulating air incubator at 44 ± 1° C for 24 ± 2 hours (PES), according to the recommendation of Association Francoise of Normalization, Paris (AFNOR) and 3M TM corporation. Forty-two white cheese samples were analyzed using both methods mentioned above. They were dispensed at the same time with decimal dilutions of the samples. Data generated were subjected to correlation of related samples (SPS 7.5 version) and the correlation coefficients (r) were obtained; r = 0.952 NMP and PES; r = 0.944 NMP and PBA. It is interesting to observe a good correlation between the methodologies in their different forms for fecal coliform determination in white cheese. Coliform PetrifilmTM plates incubated at the optimal temperature of coliform fecal culture represent a rapid alternative and reliable method for the assessment of fecal coliform population in white cheese.

Ortiz L, Miriam C; Ríos de S, Manuela

2006-12-01

116

Comparación de los métodos PetrifilmTM coliformes y Número Más Probable (NMP) para la determinación de coliformes fecales en muestras de queso blanco Comparison study between the coliform PetrifilmTM and the Most Probable Number methods for the assessment of fecal coliforms in white cheese  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los coliformes fecales son un grupo importante de microorganismos indicadores de inocuidad en alimentos, constituido principalmente por Escherichia coli, el cual es considerado como indicador de contaminación reciente de origen fecal, por ello la importancia de investigar su presencia y determinar rápidamente el nivel poblacional en alimentos. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo comparar el método tradicional Número Más Probable (NMP) para la determinación de coliformes fecales, según Norma Venezolana Covenin Nº 1104-96 con el método de placas rehidratables PetrifilmTM 3M coliformes incubadas en baño de agua circulante (PBA) a 45 ± 0,2°C por 24 ± 2 horas y en estufa con aire circulante 44 ± 1°C por 24 ± 2 horas (PES) de acuerdo con lo recomendado por la Asociación Francesa de Normalización (AFNOR) y la Corporación 3M. Se analizaron un total de 42 muestras de queso blanco aplicando ambas metodologías, dispensando simultáneamente diluciones seriadas de las muestras. Para el análisis estadístico se realizó una correlación de muestras relacionadas (SPS versión 7,5), obteniéndose los siguientes resultados r = 0,952 entre NMP y PES y r = 0,944 entre NMP y PBA; lo que indica una buena correlación positiva entre ambas metodologías en sus diferentes modalidades para la determinación de coliformes fecales en muestras de queso blanco. Se concluye que las placas PetrifilmTM coliformes incubadas a la temperatura óptima de crecimiento de dichos microorganismos es un método alternativo, rápido y confiable para la determinación del nivel de coliformes fecales en queso blanco.Fecal coliform belong to an important group of sanitary quality indicator microorganisms in food, mainly constituted for Escherichia coli, considerated as indicators of recent fecal contamination, that is why it is very important to investigate their presence and to detect their population in food rapidly. The objetive of this study was to compare the Most Probable Number (NPM) method for fecal coliform determination, according to Venezuelan standard COVENIN Nº 1104-96, with the coliform PetrifilmTM 3M TM plates, incubated in circulating thermostatically - controlled water bath (PBA) at 45 ± 0,2 ° C for 24 ± 2 hours and in a circulating air incubator at 44 ± 1° C for 24 ± 2 hours (PES), according to the recommendation of Association Francoise of Normalization, Paris (AFNOR) and 3M TM corporation. Forty-two white cheese samples were analyzed using both methods mentioned above. They were dispensed at the same time with decimal dilutions of the samples. Data generated were subjected to correlation of related samples (SPS 7.5 version) and the correlation coefficients (r) were obtained; r = 0.952 NMP and PES; r = 0.944 NMP and PBA. It is interesting to observe a good correlation between the methodologies in their different forms for fecal coliform determination in white cheese. Coliform PetrifilmTM plates incubated at the optimal temperature of coliform fecal culture represent a rapid alternative and reliable method for the assessment of fecal coliform population in white cheese.

Miriam C Ortiz L; Manuela Ríos de S

2006-01-01

117

Aerobic bacterial, coliform, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus counts of raw and processed milk from selected smallholder dairy farms of Zimbabwe.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A cross sectional study was conducted to enumerate total viable bacteria (TBC), coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in raw (n=120) and processed (n=20) milk from individual farms from three smallholder dairy schemes of Zimbabwe between October, 2009 and February, 2010. Data on management factors were collected using a structured questionnaire. A standard pour plate technique was used to enumerate total viable bacteria, while for coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus, counts were assessed by the spread plate technique. The association of total viable bacterial counts and management factors was assessed using univariable and a linear regression model. The log?? TBC for raw milk differed significantly (P<0.05) amongst the schemes with the lowest (5.6±4.7 log?? cfu/ml) and highest (6.7±5.8 log?? cfu/ml) recorded from Marirangwe and Nharira respectively. The mean log?? of TBC of processed milk (6.6±6.0 log?? cfu/ml) were marginally higher than those of raw milk (6.4±5.6 log?? cfu/ml) but not significant (P>0.05). The coliform, E. coli and S. aureus counts for raw milk significantly differed (P<0.05) amongst the study areas. The variation in TBC, coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus counts amongst the schemes could be attributed to differences in milking hygiene where farms with more access to training and monitoring of microbiological quality of milk had lower counts. Linear regression analysis revealed dairy scheme, delivery time and season of milking as independently associated with increased TBC of raw milk. The high TBC of raw and processed milk generally indicated low levels of milking hygienic practices, and high level of post-processing contamination, respectively. The high TBC, coliform, E. coli and S. aureus counts of both raw and processed milk may present a public health hazard. Thus, educating the farmers on general hygienic practices, quickening the delivery of milk to collection centres, or availing cooling facilities on-farm will improve the microbiological quality and safety of milk.

Mhone TA; Matope G; Saidi PT

2011-12-01

118

Fecal coliform accumulation within a river subject to seasonally-disinfected wastewater discharges.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As pathogen contamination is a leading cause of surface water impairment, there has been increasing interest in the implications of seasonal disinfection practices of wastewater effluents for meeting water quality goals. For receiving waters designated for recreational use, disinfection during the winter months is often considered unnecessary due to reduced recreational usage, and assumptions that lower temperatures may reduce pathogen accumulation. For a river subject to seasonal disinfection, we sought to evaluate whether fecal coliforms accumulate during the winter to concentrations that would impair river water quality. Samples were collected from municipal wastewater outfalls along the river, as well as upstream and downstream of each outfall during the winter, when disinfection is not practiced, and during the summer, when disinfection is practiced. During both seasons, fecal coliform concentrations reached 2000-5000 CFU/100 mL, nearly an order of magnitude higher than levels targeted for the river to achieve primary contact recreational uses. During the summer, wastewater effluents were not significant contributors to fecal coliform loadings to the river. During the winter, fecal coliform accumulated along the river predominantly due to loadings from successive wastewater outfalls. In addition to the exceedance of fecal coliform criteria within the river, the accumulation of wastewater-derived fecal coliform along the river during the winter season suggests that wastewater outfalls may contribute elevated loads of pathogens to the commercial shellfish operations occurring at the mouth of the river. Reductions in fecal coliform concentrations between wastewater outfalls were attributed to dilution or overall removal. Combining discharge measurements from gauging stations, tributaries and wastewater outfalls to estimate seepage, dilution between wastewater outfalls was estimated, along with the percentage of the river deriving from wastewater outfalls. After accounting for dilution, the residual reductions in fecal coliform concentrations observed between outfalls were attributed to actual fecal coliform removal. The estimated rate of removal of 1.52 d(-1) was significantly higher than die-off rates determined by previous researchers at similarly low temperatures in laboratory batch experiments, indicating the potential importance of other removal mechanisms, such as predation or sedimentation.

Mitch AA; Gasner KC; Mitch WA

2010-09-01

119

Analytical method of total ? activity in high level radioactive solution. Possibility of application of GM counter method to total ? analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Analytical design of RETE set up a GM counter method as an analytical method of total ? activity in the high level radioactive solution. To confirm the fundamental properties of GM counter, RI test was carried out by use of 90Sr as pure ? source and 137Cs as ? and ? source. Hot test of the light water reactor reprocessing liquid waste indicated that this method could be used as the analytical method of total ? in the high level radioactive solution. Important results were explained as following: the detection efficiency of GM counter at ? ray 0.06 to 0.66 MeV was 0.25% or below. Its effect on the total ? ray measurement was negligible. The internal conversion electron radiated from 137Cs (137mBa) gave positive effect on the total counter and the effect on the nuclide components in the light water reactor reprocessing liquid waste was about 3.5%. The total beta activity in the light water reactor reprocessing liquid waste was determined by this method, and the values obtained were 7.4 x 109 and 8.3 x 109 Bq/ml which agreed with the values by ORIGEN-2 etc. Reproducibility of the total ? activity, analytical value by high dilute solution-GM counter direct method was in the range of 1.8% (RSD) that was enough to a process analytical method. (S.Y.)

1997-01-01

120

Serum total IgE levels and total eosinophil counts: relationship with treatment response in patients with acute asthma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether serum total IgE levels and total eosinophil counts have any relationship with the response to routine pharmacological treatment in patients with acute asthma. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 162 patients with acute asthma. Serum total IgE levels, peripheral blood cell counts and eosinophil counts were determined. The treatment was adjusted for each patient according to the severity of asthma. Spirometry was performed at baseline and two weeks after the treatment. The patients were divided into two groups: high IgE (>100 IU/mL) and low IgE (<100 IU/mL). We compared the two groups in terms of the relationships between baseline values and final values (percentage change) for the following parameters: FEV1, FVC, FEF25-75%, peripheral white blood cell counts and eosinophil counts. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the groups regarding the percentage changes of the studied parameters. Nor were there significant differences between the groups regarding FEV1, FVC, and FEF25-75% (% of the predicted values) at baseline. CONCLUSIONS: On the basis of these findings, we conclude that serum total IgE levels, peripheral white blood cell counts and eosinophil counts cannot predict the response to the pharmacological treatment of patients with acute asthma.

Razi E; Moosavi GA

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Improved membrane filter method for fecal coliform analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A two-layer agar method has been developed which consistently yields higher recovery of fecal coliforms on membrane filters when compared to the existing membrane fecal coliform procedure. This method has been evaluated by three laboratories using samples of raw and chlorinated waste water, and reservoir, river, and marine waters. Verification of 1,013 fecal coliform colonies isolated from 61 water samples averaged 92% on this proposed procedure. Comparison with the Standard Methods membrane fecal coliform procedure revealed the two-layer agar method had an overall increased sensitivity to fecal coliform detection in these waters. It is therefore proposed that this procedure be evaluated as an alternative to the Standard Methods fecal coliform membrane Filter test in the examination of chlorinated secondary effluents, marine waters, and any natural waters that may contain pollutants with heavy metal ions.

Rose RE; Geldreich EE; Litsky W

1975-04-01

122

Improved membrane filter method for fecal coliform analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A two-layer agar method has been developed which consistently yields higher recovery of fecal coliforms on membrane filters when compared to the existing membrane fecal coliform procedure. This method has been evaluated by three laboratories using samples of raw and chlorinated waste water, and reservoir, river, and marine waters. Verification of 1,013 fecal coliform colonies isolated from 61 water samples averaged 92% on this proposed procedure. Comparison with the Standard Methods membrane fecal coliform procedure revealed the two-layer agar method had an overall increased sensitivity to fecal coliform detection in these waters. It is therefore proposed that this procedure be evaluated as an alternative to the Standard Methods fecal coliform membrane Filter test in the examination of chlorinated secondary effluents, marine waters, and any natural waters that may contain pollutants with heavy metal ions. PMID:1092264

Rose, R E; Geldreich, E E; Litsky, W

1975-04-01

123

Antagonistic effect of Lactobacillus strains against gas-producing coliforms isolated from colicky infants  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Infantile colic is a common disturb within the first 3 months of life, nevertheless the pathogenesis is incompletely understood and treatment remains an open issue. Intestinal gas production is thought to be one of the causes of abdominal discomfort in infants suffering from colic. However, data about the role of the amount of gas produced by infants' colonic microbiota and the correlation with the onset of colic symptoms are scanty. The benefit of supplementation with lactobacilli been recently reported but the mechanisms by which they exert their effects have not yet been fully defined. This study was performed to evaluate the interaction between Lactobacillus spp. strains and gas-forming coliforms isolated from stools of colicky infants. Results Strains of coliforms were isolated from stools of 45 colicky and 42 control breastfed infants in McConkey Agar and identified using PCR with species-specific primers, and the BBL™ Enterotube™ II system for Enterobacteriaceae. Gas-forming capability of coliforms was assessed in liquid cultures containing lactose as sole carbon source. The average count of total coliforms in colicky infants was significantly higher than controls: 5.98 (2.00-8.76) log10 vs 3.90 (2.50-7.10) CFU/g of faeces (p = 0.015). The following strains were identified: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter aerogenes, Enterobacter cloacae and Enterococcus faecalis. Then, 27 Lactobacillus strains were tested for their antagonistic effect against coliforms both by halo-forming method and in liquid co-cultures. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.delbrueckii DSM 20074 and L. plantarum MB 456 were able to inhibit all coliforms strains (halo-forming method), also in liquid co-cultures, thus demonstrating an antagonistic activity. Conclusions This study shows that two out of 27 strains of Lactobacillus examined possess an antimicrobial effect against six species of gas-forming coliforms isolated from colicky infants. Our findings may stimulate new researches to identify which Lactobacillus strains can improve colicky symptoms by acting on coliforms gut colonization.

Savino Francesco; Cordisco Lisa; Tarasco Valentina; Locatelli Emanuela; Di Gioia Diana; Oggero Roberto; Matteuzzi Diego

2011-01-01

124

An analysis of wilderness water in Kings Canyon, Sequoia, and Yosemite national parks for coliform and pathologic bacteria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of coliform and potentially pathogenic bacteria in remote backcountry alpine lakes and streams of national parks in the Sierra Nevada mountains. METHODS: Water was sampled at 55 predetermined lakes and streams that would stratify the risk, based on sites used by backpackers, sites used by pack animals, and uncontaminated wild areas. Sites were distributed among Kings Canyon (15), Sequoia (17), and Yosemite (23). Water was collected using Millipore bacterial samplers, which provided specific counts of coliform and other bacteria in each water sample and also served as a transport media from the wilderness to the laboratory. On return to the laboratory, bacteria were harvested from the samplers and subjected to specific identification and qualitative analysis using standard microbiology techniques for the analysis of water. RESULTS: Coliform bacteria were detected in 22 of the 55 sites. All of these sites were below areas used by backpackers or pack animals. Thirty-three sites were free of coliforms. These sites included both those used lightly by backpackers and those with no human or domestic animal use. All samples contained expected amounts of normal aquatic bacteria including Pseudomonas, Rahnella aquatilis, Serratia spp, and nonpathogenic species of Yersinia. CONCLUSIONS: Most sampling sites in these national parks are free of coliform or pathogenic organisms. Low levels of coliform bacteria are found in some bodies of water where the watershed has been affected by human or pack animal travel.

Derlet RW; Carlson JR

2004-01-01

125

Changing of Total Protein and Plasma Cholinesterase Levels Depending on Age in Human  

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In this study, differences of acetylcholinesterase and total protein levels which plays very important role in nervous system and some of the related diseases like Alzhemier, Down sendrome, Parkinson in the different age groups in human were investigated. Cholinesterase and total protein levels of 2...

Nuray Unat; C?neyt Aki

126

Total sialic acid, total protein and total sugar levels in serum and saliva of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients: A case control study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Detection of cancer at an early stage is of utmost importance to decrease the morbidity and mortality of the disease. Apart from the conventional biopsy, non-invasive methods like analysis of serum and saliva may provide cost-effective approach for screening a large population. Tumor markers are a major part of secondary prevention and thus, the detection of malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate total sialic acid (TSA), total protein and total sugar (TS) in serum and saliva of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and controls to assess their role as a diagnostic marker. Materials and Methods: Unstimulated whole saliva and sera were collected from 40 squamous cell carcinoma patients and 20 controls. Serum and salivary TSA, total protein and TS estimation was carried out. This was correlated with clinical stages and histopathological grades of OSCC. The data obtained was analyzed statistically using Chi-square test, ANOVA and Student's t-test with SPSS statistical software. Results: A highly significant rise in the salivary sialic acid, serum sialic acid and serum protein was noted in OSCC subjects compared to controls. Salivary protein, serum and salivary sugar did not show any significance. Furthermore, serum and salivary sialic acid levels were found to be significantly increased with increasing level of histopathological grading. Conclusion: The present study showed a significant increase in serum sialic acid, salivary sialic acid and serum protein from control to OSCC and suggests that these markers may be reliable in diagnosis and predicting prognosis.

Dhakar, Nidhi; Astekar, Madhusudan; Jain, Mahesh; Saawarn, Swati; Saawarn, Nisheeth

2013-01-01

127

Rapid enumeration of Fecal Coliforms in water by a colorimetric beta-galactosidase assay.  

Science.gov (United States)

The colorimetric beta-galactosidase assay is based upon the enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside (ONPG) by fecal coliforms. This technique provides an estimate of the fecal coliform concentration within 8 to 20 h. A 100-ml portion of test sample was passed through a 0.45 micrometer membrane filter. This filter was then incubated at 37 degrees C for 1 h in EC medium followed by the addition of filter-sterilized ONPG. The incubation was continued at 44.5 degrees C until a half-maximum absorbance (at 420 nm) was reached. The time between the start of incubation and the half-maximum absorbance was proportional to the concentration of fecal coliforms present. Escherichia coli (K-12) was used to measure the kinetics of substrate hydrolysis and the response time of different cell concentrations. High cell densities produced an immediate response, whereas 1 cell/ml will produce a response in less than 20 h. In field studies in which samples were taken from a range of grossly polluted streams to relatively clean lake water, a linear correlation between ONPG hydrolysis times and fecal coliform most-probable-number values was established. A total of 302 isolates randomly selected from positive ONPG-EC media, which were derived from 11 different habitats, were identified as E. coli (96.69 percent), Enterobacter cloacae (2.32 percent), Klebsiella pneumoniae (0.66 percent), and Citrobacter freundii (0.33 percent). PMID:414659

Warren, L S; Benoit, R E; Jessee, J A

1978-01-01

128

Rapid enumeration of Fecal Coliforms in water by a colorimetric beta-galactosidase assay.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The colorimetric beta-galactosidase assay is based upon the enzymatic hydrolysis of the substrate o-nitrophenyl-beta-D-galactoside (ONPG) by fecal coliforms. This technique provides an estimate of the fecal coliform concentration within 8 to 20 h. A 100-ml portion of test sample was passed through a 0.45 micrometer membrane filter. This filter was then incubated at 37 degrees C for 1 h in EC medium followed by the addition of filter-sterilized ONPG. The incubation was continued at 44.5 degrees C until a half-maximum absorbance (at 420 nm) was reached. The time between the start of incubation and the half-maximum absorbance was proportional to the concentration of fecal coliforms present. Escherichia coli (K-12) was used to measure the kinetics of substrate hydrolysis and the response time of different cell concentrations. High cell densities produced an immediate response, whereas 1 cell/ml will produce a response in less than 20 h. In field studies in which samples were taken from a range of grossly polluted streams to relatively clean lake water, a linear correlation between ONPG hydrolysis times and fecal coliform most-probable-number values was established. A total of 302 isolates randomly selected from positive ONPG-EC media, which were derived from 11 different habitats, were identified as E. coli (96.69 percent), Enterobacter cloacae (2.32 percent), Klebsiella pneumoniae (0.66 percent), and Citrobacter freundii (0.33 percent).

Warren LS; Benoit RE; Jessee JA

1978-01-01

129

Coliform accumulation in Amphibalanus amphitrite (Darwin, 1854) (Cirripedia) and its use as an organic pollution bioindicator in the estuarine area of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil Acumulação de coliformes em Amphibalanus amphitrite (Darwin, 1854) (Cirripedia) e seu uso como bioindicador de poluição orgânica na área estuarina do Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Samples of water and barnacles Amphibalanus amphitrite were collected from Recife, Brazil, to assess if it accumulates total (TC) and thermotolerant coliforms (TTC) related with sewage pollution. The Most Probable Number (MPN) values and the standard procedures for examination of shellfish were used. Comparatively with the water samples, the highest coliform values came from the barnacles, with TC values ranging from 2.4 × 10(6) MPN.g-1, and TTC ranging from > 2.4 × 10³ to 2.9 × 10(5) MPN.g-1. Barnacles accumulate the TC Ewingella americana, and the TTC Escherichia coli, Enterobacter gergoviae, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Enterobacter sakazakii. The results provided an indication of the level of organic contamination at the sampling locations and that this species could be a good organic pollution bioindicator.Amostras de água e cirrípedes Amphibalanus amphitrite foram coletados em Recife, Brasil, para avaliar se estes acumulam coliformes totais (CT) e termo-tolerantes (TTC) relacionados à poluição por esgoto doméstico. Foram utilizados os valores de Números Mais Prováveis (NMP) e os procedimentos padrões para exame de bivalves. Comparativamente às amostras de água, os valores mais altos de coliformes foram dos cirrípedes, com valores de TC variando de 2,4 × 10(6) NMP.g-1, e TTC variando de > 2,4 × 10³ a 2,9 × 10(5) NMP.g-1. Os cirrípedes acumularam TC Ewingella americana e TTC Escherichia coli, Enterobacter gergoviae, Enterobacter aerogenes e Enterobacter sakazakii. Os resultados proveram uma indicação de que há contaminação orgânica nas localidades de amostras e que esta espécie pode ser um bioindicador bom de poluição orgânica.

CMR Farrapeira; ES Mendes; J. Dourado; J Guimarães

2010-01-01

130

Coliform accumulation in Amphibalanus amphitrite (Darwin, 1854) (Cirripedia) and its use as an organic pollution bioindicator in the estuarine area of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil/ Acumulação de coliformes em Amphibalanus amphitrite (Darwin, 1854) (Cirripedia) e seu uso como bioindicador de poluição orgânica na área estuarina do Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Amostras de água e cirrípedes Amphibalanus amphitrite foram coletados em Recife, Brasil, para avaliar se estes acumulam coliformes totais (CT) e termo-tolerantes (TTC) relacionados à poluição por esgoto doméstico. Foram utilizados os valores de Números Mais Prováveis (NMP) e os procedimentos padrões para exame de bivalves. Comparativamente às amostras de água, os valores mais altos de coliformes foram dos cirrípedes, com valores de TC variando de (more) 10³ a > 2,4 × 10(6) NMP.g-1, e TTC variando de > 2,4 × 10³ a 2,9 × 10(5) NMP.g-1. Os cirrípedes acumularam TC Ewingella americana e TTC Escherichia coli, Enterobacter gergoviae, Enterobacter aerogenes e Enterobacter sakazakii. Os resultados proveram uma indicação de que há contaminação orgânica nas localidades de amostras e que esta espécie pode ser um bioindicador bom de poluição orgânica. Abstract in english Samples of water and barnacles Amphibalanus amphitrite were collected from Recife, Brazil, to assess if it accumulates total (TC) and thermotolerant coliforms (TTC) related with sewage pollution. The Most Probable Number (MPN) values and the standard procedures for examination of shellfish were used. Comparatively with the water samples, the highest coliform values came from the barnacles, with TC values ranging from 2.4 × 10(6) MPN.g-1, and TT (more) C ranging from > 2.4 × 10³ to 2.9 × 10(5) MPN.g-1. Barnacles accumulate the TC Ewingella americana, and the TTC Escherichia coli, Enterobacter gergoviae, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Enterobacter sakazakii. The results provided an indication of the level of organic contamination at the sampling locations and that this species could be a good organic pollution bioindicator.

Farrapeira, CMR; Mendes, ES; Dourado, J.; Guimarães, J

2010-05-01

131

The Relationship Between Depressive Status and Total Cholesterol Levels in a Bomb Plant Workers  

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Full Text Available Aim: There is significant amount of evidence linking low cholesterol levels to aggressive behaviors, depression and suicide. Material and Methods: The objective of this study was to determine whether a correlation exists between serum total cholesterol levels and depressive state in 77 male workers labouring in a bomb plant and in 80 male office personnel. Depressive statuses of the subjects were determined by using Beck Depression Rating Scale and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. Results: Depression scores were significantly higher and total cholesterol levels were significantly lower in bomb factory workers than that of office staff. In both types of workers, cholesterol levels were negatively correlated with depression scores according to both Beck and Zung scales. Total cholesterol levels of bomb factory workers with moderate and severe depression symptoms were significantly lower when compared with normal and mild depression. Conclusions: These data indicate that low serum total cholesterol level is associated with increased risk of depressive state.

Hakan Boyunaga; Levent Kenar; Hatice Keles; Mahir Gulec; Omer Oguzturk

2010-01-01

132

Risk factors for coliform bacteria in backcountry lakes and streams in the Sierra Nevada mountains: a 5-year study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To provide a 5-year longitudinal assessment of risk of acquiring disease from Sierra Nevada Wilderness area lakes and streams. This study examines the relative risk factors for harmful water microorganisms, using coliforms as an indicator. METHODS: Streams and lakes in the backcountry of Yosemite and Kings Canyon National Parks and neighboring wilderness areas were selected and water was analyzed each year over a 5-year period. A total of 364 samples from lakes or streams were chosen to statistically differentiate the risk categories based on land usage, as follows: 1) areas rarely visited by humans (Wild), 2) human day-use-only areas (Day Hike), 3) areas used by backpackers with overnight camping allowed (Backpack), 4) areas primarily impacted by horses or pack animals (Pack Animal), and 5) cattle and sheep grazing tracts (Cattle). Water was collected in sterile test tubes and Millipore coliform samplers. Water was analyzed at the university microbiology lab, where bacteria were harvested and then subjected to analysis using standardized techniques. Statistical analysis to compare site categories was performed utilizing Fisher exact test and analysis of variance. RESULTS: A total of 364 sampling sites were analyzed. Coliforms were found in 9% (4/47) of Wild site samples, 12% (5/42) of Day Hike site samples, and 18% (20/111) of Backpacker site samples. In contrast, 63% (70/111) of Pack Animal site samples yielded coliforms, and 96% (51/53) of samples from the Cattle areas grew coliforms. Differences between Backpacker vs Cattle or Pack Animal areas were significant at P coliform organisms. Water from Wild, Day Hike, or Backpack sites poses far less risk for contamination by coliforms.

Derlet RW; Ger KA; Richards JR; Carlson JR

2008-01-01

133

US EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) perspective on AOC (assimilable organic carbon) research as related to coliform colonization and compliance problems  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The biological stability of treated drinking water has become a major concern for water utilities. The U.S. E.P.A. is concerned from the perspective of coliform MCL compliance and remediation of coliform biofilm problems. The levels of readily assimilable nutrients present in treated water are affected by water treatment processes, but of greatest concern are those processes, such as ozonation, that cause increases in the levels of assimilable organic carbon (AOC) and therefore contribute to biological instability of the water. Thus, the combined use of ozonation (pre-oxidant) and a lower disinfectant residual as an approach to reducing disinfectant byproducts may result in increased bacterial growth, including coliforms, in the distribution system. Information is needed on: the AOC flux level that stimulate coliform growth in biofilm: the specific nutrients and concentrations that can stimulate growth of both coliforms and HPC; treatment strategies to reduce AOC levels and strategies to effectively control biofilm formation where AOC levels cannot be reduced.

Reasoner, D.J.; Rice, E.W.

1989-01-01

134

Hypogonadism and subnormal total testosterone levels in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Objective: To determine the frequency of testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The Gbagada General Hospital, Gbagada Lagos, Nigeria, from December 2009 to May 2010. Methodology: A total of 203 men with type 2 DM aged 30-86 years were evaluated for TDS by a combination of positive ADAM (androgen deficiency in the ageing male) scores and subnormal total testosterone levels. Mild testosterone deficiency referred to total testosterone (TT) levels of 8-12 nmol/L with symptoms of hypogonadism and severe testosterone deficiency referred to TT levels

2009-12-00

135

Total and antigen-specific Ige levels in umbilical cord blood  

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Full Text Available Abstract The present study was conducted to learn whether the perinatal and environmental factors could influence the total and antigen-specific IgE levels in umbilical cord blood. Retrospective data were obtained from 173 mother-infant pairs. Total and specific (for children's food, wheat/grass and house dust mite-HDM) cord blood IgE levels were determined using the immunoassay test. The total cord blood IgE was between 0.0-23.08 IU/ml (mean 0.55 ± 2.07 IU/ml; median 0.16 IU/ml). Total IgE levels were significantly higher in boys compared with girls (OR = 2.2; P = 0.007), and in newborns with complicated pregnancy (OR = 2.7; P = 0.003). A greater number of siblings correlated with increases in the total cord blood IgE (P

Sybilski AJ; Doboszynska A; Samolinski B

2009-01-01

136

Relationships between serum total bilirubin levels and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with insulin resistance in all parts of its natural history, which is accompanied by oxidative stress. Bilirubin is a potent endogenous antioxidant and cytoprotectant. The current study was performed to identify the major predictors of the total bilirubin level and to assess the relationships between the total bilirubin levels and MS in Korean adults. METHODS AND RESULTS: This is a cross-sectional study involving 12342 adults aged 20 years and over who visited a Health Promotion Center. Physical examinations and laboratory tests including total and direct bilirubin levels were performed. MS was defined based on the modified NCEP-ATP III definition and the determinations of the Korean Society for the Study of Obesity. The results showed that hemoglobin had the strongest influence on the total bilirubin levels after adjusting for age, gender, and all other variables. The high-bilirubin group (?15.4 ?mol/L in males and ?12.1 ?mol/L in females) was associated with significantly decreased odds of MS compared to the low-bilirubin group (OR 0.74 [95% CI 0.64-0.86]). High levels of bilirubin also were negatively associated with abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridemia. The total bilirubin levels decreased with an increase in the number of MS components after adjustment for all covariates. CONCLUSION: Within the physiological range, the serum total bilirubin level was negatively associated with the MS in subjects without overt metabolic or cardiovascular diseases. This may be partially due to the negative association between the total bilirubin level and abdominal obesity and hypertriglyceridemia.

Choi SH; Yun KE; Choi HJ

2013-01-01

137

The Relationship Between Depressive Status and Total Cholesterol Levels in a Bomb Plant Workers  

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Aim: There is significant amount of evidence linking low cholesterol levels to aggressive behaviors, depression and suicide. Material and Methods: The objective of this study was to determine whether a correlation exists between serum total cholesterol levels and depressive state in 77 male workers ...

Hakan Boyunaga; Levent Kenar; Hatice Keles; Mahir Gulec; Omer Oguzturk

138

A comparison between faecal sterols and coliform counts in the investigation of sewage contamination in sediments  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Em setembro de 2002, foram coletadas nove amostras de sedimento superficial (0-2 cm) na Enseada de Botafogo (sudoeste da Baía de Guanabara/RJ), a fim de comparar o uso de marcadores químicos (coprostanol) e biológicos (E. coli e coliformes totais) na identificação da contaminação fecal da região. Os resultados obtidos (carbono orgânico - 6,0 to 64,8 mg g-1; coprostanol - 1,4 to 105 µg g-1; E. coli - (more) foram iguais ou maiores aos observados em outras áreas contaminadas da Baía de Guanabara. Nas estações próximas à linha de costa, as concentrações de coprostanol e as contagens das bactérias confirmaram que o esgoto doméstico se acumulou no sedimento da enseada. As concentrações de coprostanol se mantiveram altas nas estações distantes das fontes de contaminação, porém o material fecal representou uma menor fração do carbono orgânico. Nessas mesmas estações, redução na contagem de colimetria foi proporcionalmente mais alta, provavelmente pela baixa sobrevivência das bactérias devido ao efeito de luz, salinidade e temperatura. durante o transporte e deposição das partículas de esgoto. Portanto, baseando-se nos resultados obtidos, o coprostanol foi um indicador mais adequado da contaminação fecal nos sedimentos da Enseada de Botafogo. Abstract in english In September 2002, nine sediment samples (0-2 cm) were collected from Botafogo Cove (southwestern part of Guanabara Bay) in order to compare the use of chemical (coprostanol) and biological markers (E. coli and total coliforms) in identifying faecal contamination. The values found (organic carbon - 6.0 to 64.8 mg g-1; coprostanol - 1.4 to 105 µg g-1; E. coli - (more) d in other contaminated areas of Guanabara Bay. In stations close to the shoreline, both coprostanol concentration and bacteria count confirmed that domestic sewage had accumulated in the cove. Coprostanol concentrations were still relatively high in the stations furthest from contamination sources, although faecal material represented a smaller fraction of the total organic carbon originated by dilution in waters containing algae. Reduction was proportionately higher by virtue of the use of the colimetric assessment method. This result may be associated with the effect that environmental variables (light, salinity, temperature) may have on the survival of bacteria during transport and deposition of sewage particles. Consequently, based on these results, coprostanol may be considered the better indicator of the faecal contamination level in Botafogo Cove sediments.

Costa, Renata Lima da; Carreira, Renato S.

2005-12-01

139

Relationship between cyanobacterial biomass and total microcystin-LR levels in drinking and recreational water.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cyanobacterial biomass, chlorophyll-a, and microcystin-LR levels were monitored in drinking and recreational water in Seoul, South Korea and three satellite cities from Oct 2006 to Aug 2007. Total microcystin-LR was the sum of particulate and dissolved microcystin. Except during cold periods, toxic cyanobacteria, including Anabaena flos-aquae, were found at all sites. The total microcystin-LR levels were below guideline danger levels (<1.0 ?g/L) except one time (1.27 ?g/L in October), whereas chl-a (111.7 ?g/L) and cell levels (2.6 × 10? cells/mL) were at 'vigilance' and 'alert' levels for drinking water and at 'guidance' level for recreational water, respectively. Discrepancies in these parameters may thus lead to frequent unnecessary alerts, thereby increasing water management costs.

Kim BH; Hwang SJ; Park MH; Kim YJ

2010-11-01

140

Relationship between cyanobacterial biomass and total microcystin-LR levels in drinking and recreational water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cyanobacterial biomass, chlorophyll-a, and microcystin-LR levels were monitored in drinking and recreational water in Seoul, South Korea and three satellite cities from Oct 2006 to Aug 2007. Total microcystin-LR was the sum of particulate and dissolved microcystin. Except during cold periods, toxic cyanobacteria, including Anabaena flos-aquae, were found at all sites. The total microcystin-LR levels were below guideline danger levels (<1.0 ?g/L) except one time (1.27 ?g/L in October), whereas chl-a (111.7 ?g/L) and cell levels (2.6 × 10? cells/mL) were at 'vigilance' and 'alert' levels for drinking water and at 'guidance' level for recreational water, respectively. Discrepancies in these parameters may thus lead to frequent unnecessary alerts, thereby increasing water management costs. PMID:20938641

Kim, Baik-Ho; Hwang, Soon-Jin; Park, Myung-Hwan; Kim, Yong-Jae

2010-10-12

 
 
 
 
141

Spine and total body bone mineral density and serum testosterone levels in male athletes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of intense endurance vs strengthening exercise on bone mass and serum testosterone levels in male athletes. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the total body and spine and serum testosterone levels were measured in male rowers (n = 12), triathletes (n = 8) and sedentary controls (n = 13). The total body scan also gave values for percentage body fat and regional bone densities. Calcium intake and physical activity levels were measured by questionnaire. The rowers had significantly higher BMD in the spine and total body than the triathletes (P rowing training seemed to result in significant bone accretion. The low testosterone levels in the triathletes may have negated any positive effect of the increased exercise on BMD. PMID:8299600

Smith, R; Rutherford, O M

1993-01-01

142

Assessment of total mercury levels in Clarias gariepinus from the Sagua la Grande River, Cuba.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Total mercury levels (Thg) were quantified in Clarias gariepinus captured from the Sagua la Grande River (Cuba) in the vicinity of an active chlor-alkali plant, and relationships among place of capture; fish size, weight, and sex; and THg levels were assessed. THg levels ranged from 67 to 375 ng/g ww in collected fish, never exceeding the Cuban recommended maximum limit for fish consumption of 500 ng/g ww. No significant correlation was observed between mercury levels and fish allometric characteristics (p < 0.05); however, levels were significantly higher in fish captured below the chlor-alkali facility, suggesting a connection between mercury bioaccumulation and plant discharges.

De La Rosa D; Lima L; Olivares-Rieumont S; Graham DW; Enriquez I; Diaz O; Bastías JM; Muñoz O

2009-01-01

143

Changing of Total Protein and Plasma Cholinesterase Levels Depending on Age in Human  

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Full Text Available In this study, differences of acetylcholinesterase and total protein levels which plays very important role in nervous system and some of the related diseases like Alzhemier, Down sendrome, Parkinson in the different age groups in human were investigated. Cholinesterase and total protein levels of 200 healthy people`s blood plasma that are between 7-60 years old were investigated by using spectrophotometric techniques. There was no corelation between plasma cholinesterase activity and age groups. Total ?protein levels that are 7-12 years old group shows differences than the other groups. Disfunction of food uptake and situation of social cultural cause decreasing the total blood protein in 7-12 years old groups. Meanwhile, this difference in total protein for this group is not enough to predict for some of the disease which to become fact in future. There was no any study on differences of blood plasma acetylcholinesterase and total protein levels in the different age groups in human for Turkey. Because of this specifity this study has original quality and necessary for investigators which study in this area.

Nuray Unat; C?neyt Aki

2005-01-01

144

Spine and total body bone mineral density and serum testosterone levels in male athletes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to compare the effects of intense endurance vs strengthening exercise on bone mass and serum testosterone levels in male athletes. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the total body and spine and serum testosterone levels were measured in male rowers (n = 12), triathletes (n = 8) and sedentary controls (n = 13). The total body scan also gave values for percentage body fat and regional bone densities. Calcium intake and physical activity levels were measured by questionnaire. The rowers had significantly higher BMD in the spine and total body than the triathletes (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05 respectively) and sedentary controls (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05). There were no differences between the triathletes and controls. Serum testosterone levels were significantly lower in the triathletes than in the controls (P < 0.05); there was no significant difference between the rowers and controls. All groups fell within the normal range for testosterone. In a step-wise multiple regression, including age, body mass, height, calcium intake and activity, no single factor had a significant effect on spine BMD. Body mass had a significant effect on total body BMD and could account for the differences between the groups. A significant positive correlation was found between calcium intake and total body BMD. The heavy weight training typical of rowing training seemed to result in significant bone accretion. The low testosterone levels in the triathletes may have negated any positive effect of the increased exercise on BMD.

Smith R; Rutherford OM

1993-01-01

145

Limitations of highly sensitive enzymatic presence-absence tests for detection of waterborne coliforms and Escherichia coli.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study presents evidence for the unfeasibility of enzymatic presence-absence tests to detect one total coliform or one Escherichia coli organism in 100 ml of drinking water within a working day. The results of field trials with prototype chemiluminometric procedures indicated that the sensitivity-boosting measures that are essential to achieve the required speed compromise the specificity of the tests.

Van Poucke, S O; Nelis, H J

1997-01-01

146

Limitations of highly sensitive enzymatic presence-absence tests for detection of waterborne coliforms and Escherichia coli.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study presents evidence for the unfeasibility of enzymatic presence-absence tests to detect one total coliform or one Escherichia coli organism in 100 ml of drinking water within a working day. The results of field trials with prototype chemiluminometric procedures indicated that the sensitivity-boosting measures that are essential to achieve the required speed compromise the specificity of the tests.

Van Poucke SO; Nelis HJ

1997-02-01

147

Total anthocyanins, total carotenoids, hydrophilic- and lipophilic-ORAC levels in diverse clones and breeding lines over six field environments  

Science.gov (United States)

Seven specialty clones were grown in six field locations and tuber samples were analyzed for total carotenoids, total anthocyanins, hydrophilic_Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC), and lipophilic (ORAC). Four of the genotypes had red or purple pigmented flesh. The highest total anthocyanins ...

148

The comparison of total fumonisin and total aflatoxin levels in biscuit and cookie samples in babol city, northern iran.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Fumonisins and aflatoxins are mycotoxins that are produced by Fusarium and Aspergillus genus respectively. Due to the toxicity of aflatoxin and fumonisin and its effects on human and animals' health, the purpose of this study was analysis of total fumonisin and total aflatoxin contamination in biscuit and cookie samples in Babol City, Northern Iran. METHODS: Thirty biscuit (n=15) and cookie (n=15) samples were randomly collected at supermarkets in Babol City in winter 2011. Competitive ELISA was conducted for total fumonisin and total aflatoxin separately. RESULTS: Out of 30 biscuit and cookie samples, 28 (93.4%) samples were contaminated with <2ppm of total fumonisin and 2 (6.6%) showed infection with 2-4ppm of this toxin. The highest contamination rate of total fumonisin was 2.3 ppm in biscuit samples. In addition, none of the samples was infected by > 4ppm of total fumonisin. From 30 samples, 26 (86.7%) were contaminated with <4ppb of total aflatoxin and 4 (13.3%) were positive in total aflatoxin with ?4ppb and highest contamination rate was found 7.9 ppb in biscuit samples. Contamination rate of samples by total aflatoxin was higher than total fumonisin. CONCLUSION: Since biscuits and cookies are extensively used among all ages of humans, consumption of contaminated food causes different diseases in human. Therefore, determination, management, and prevention of mycotoxins according to the climatic conditions should be considered.

Gholamour Azizi I; Rouhi S

2013-01-01

149

Resistência antimicrobiana de coliformes isolados de leite humano ordenhado  

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Full Text Available A veiculação de microrganismos potencialmente patogênicos, resistentes aos antibióticos, por meio de leite humano ordenhado, pode ser um fator de risco potencial. Este estudo teve como objetivo contribuir para um melhor conhecimento dos coliformes isolados de leite humano ordenhado (LHO) e de seu perfil de resistência a antimicrobianos. Seguiu-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, utilizando 837 amostras de LHO, nas quais 71 (8,48%) estavam contaminadas com coliformes totais, cuja contagem em nenhuma das amostras ultrapassava 1,0x10³NMP/ml. A maioria dos microrganismos isolados (91,6%) pertencia a apenas duas espécies, Enterobacter cloacae e Klebsiella pneumoniae. As 71 cepas de coliformes apresentavam resistência a pelo menos um dos antimicrobianos testados. Conclui-se que o LHO coletado e armazenado sob condições higiênico-sanitárias insatisfatórias, pode apresentar coliformes, que desgastam os fatores de proteção, reduzem o valor nutricional e a qualidade do produto.

Novak Franz Reis; Almeida João Aprígio Guerra de; Asensi Marise Dutra; Moraes Bianca Aguiar de; Rodrigues Dália dos Prazeres

2001-01-01

150

The total width of the 9. 17 MeV level in sup 14 N  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A simple method for the determination of the total width of the 9.17 MeV level in {sup 14}N is described. The method is based on the use of a resonant detector which contains nitrogen in its active volume. With the help of the resonant detector the ratio of Gamma{sub gamma0}=0/Gamma{sub T} was found to be 0.052{plus minus}0.004. This result together with the data from a conventional resonant absorption experiment yields for the total width of the level a value of 122{plus minus}8 eV. (orig.).

Vartsky, D.; Goldberg, M.B.; Engler, G.; Goldschmidt, A. (Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Yavne. Soreq Nuclear Research Center (Israel)); Breskin, A. (Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel). Dept. of Nuclear Physics (Israel)); Morgado, R.E.; Hollas, C.; Ussery, L.; Berman, B.L.; Moss, C. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

1989-12-11

151

The total width of the 9.17 MeV level in 14N  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple method for the determination of the total width of the 9.17 MeV level in 14N is described. The method is based on the use of a resonant detector which contains nitrogen in its active volume. With the help of the resonant detector the ratio of ??0=0/?T was found to be 0.052±0.004. This result together with the data from a conventional resonant absorption experiment yields for the total width of the level a value of 122±8 eV. (orig.).

1989-01-01

152

Rapid seven-hour fecal coliform test.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A rapid 7-h fecal coliform (FC) test for the detection of FC in water has been developed. This membrane filter test utilizes a lightly buffered lactose-based medium (m-7-h FC medium) combined with a sensitive pH indicator system. FC colonies appeared yellow against a light purple background after incubation at 41.5 degrees C for 7 to 7.25 h. Comparison of FC test results showed that the mean verified FC count ratio (7-h FC count/24-h FC count) for surface water samples was 1.08. The mean FC count ratio (7-h FC count/24-h FC count) for unchlorinater wastewater ranged from 1.95 to 5.05. Verification of yellow FC colonies from m-7-h FC medium averaged 97%. Data from field tests on Lake Michigan bathing beach water samples showed that unverified 7-h FC counts averaged 96% of the 24-h FC counts. The 7-h FC test was found to be suitable for the examination of surface waters and unchlorinated sewage and could serve as an emergency test for detection of sewage or fecal contamination of potable water.

Reasoner DJ; Blannon JC; Geldreich EE

1979-08-01

153

Rapid seven-hour fecal coliform test.  

Science.gov (United States)

A rapid 7-h fecal coliform (FC) test for the detection of FC in water has been developed. This membrane filter test utilizes a lightly buffered lactose-based medium (m-7-h FC medium) combined with a sensitive pH indicator system. FC colonies appeared yellow against a light purple background after incubation at 41.5 degrees C for 7 to 7.25 h. Comparison of FC test results showed that the mean verified FC count ratio (7-h FC count/24-h FC count) for surface water samples was 1.08. The mean FC count ratio (7-h FC count/24-h FC count) for unchlorinater wastewater ranged from 1.95 to 5.05. Verification of yellow FC colonies from m-7-h FC medium averaged 97%. Data from field tests on Lake Michigan bathing beach water samples showed that unverified 7-h FC counts averaged 96% of the 24-h FC counts. The 7-h FC test was found to be suitable for the examination of surface waters and unchlorinated sewage and could serve as an emergency test for detection of sewage or fecal contamination of potable water. PMID:42349

Reasoner, D J; Blannon, J C; Geldreich, E E

1979-08-01

154

Identification of coliform genera recovered from water using different technologies.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: Methods for the detection of coliforms in water have changed significantly in recent years with procedures incorporating substrates for the detection of beta-d-galactosidase becoming more widely used. This study was undertaken to determine the range of coliform genera detected with methods that rely on lactose fermentation and compare them to those recovered using methods based upon beta-d-galactosidase. METHODS AND RESULTS: Coliform isolates were recovered from sewage-polluted water using m-endo, membrane lauryl sulfate broth, tergitol TTC agar, Colilert-18, ChromoCult and ColiScan for primary isolation. Organisms were grouped according to whether they had been isolated based upon lactose fermentation or beta-d-galactosidase production. CONCLUSIONS: A wide range of coliform genera were detected using both types of methods. There was considerable overlap between the two groups, and whilst differences were seen between the genera isolated with the two method types, no clear pattern emerged. Substantial numbers of 'new' coliforms (e.g. Raoutella spp.) were recovered using both types of methods. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The results presented here confirm that both methods based on lactose fermentation or detection of beta-d-galactosidase activity recover a range of coliform organisms. Any suggestion that only methods which are based upon fermentation of lactose recover organisms of public health or regulatory significance cannot be substantiated. Furthermore, the higher recovery of coliform organisms from sewage-polluted water using methods utilizing beta-d-galactosidase-based methods does not appear to be because of the recovery of substantially more 'new' coliforms.

Fricker CR; Eldred BJ

2009-12-01

155

Total oxidant, antioxidant, and paraoxonase levels in babies born to pre-eclamptic mothers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the oxidant-antioxidant status in babies born to pre-eclamptic mothers (BBPM). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The paraoxonase (PON)-1, total antioxidant status (TAS), and total oxidant status (TOS) levels were measured in the cord blood and venous blood (7th day) of BBPM (n?=?31) and babies born to normotensive mothers (n?=?25). RESULTS: The PON-1 and TOS levels in the cord blood and venous blood on the 7th day were not significantly different between the two groups; however, the cord blood TAS levels were higher in BBPM (P?=?0.001), and the TAS levels in the venous blood were higher in the control group (P?=?0.021). Furthermore, the cord blood PON-1 levels of babies born to severely pre-eclamptic mothers (n?=?18) were higher than those of babies born to moderately pre-eclamptic mothers (n?=?13) (P?=?0.042). There were no differences in the cord blood TAS and TOS levels and venous blood PON-1, TAS, and TOS levels between babies born to severely and moderately pre-eclamptic mothers. CONCLUSION: The increased TAS levels found in the cord blood of BBPM indicate that the fetus is protected against oxidative damage caused by increased oxidative stress in the mother. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study in the published work investigating PON-1 levels in BBPM.

Altunhan H; Annagür A; Kurban S; Ertu?rul S; Konak M; Ors R

2013-05-01

156

Evidence for the role of copper in the injury process of coliform bacteria in drinking water. [Escherichia coli  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Low levels of copper in chlorine-free distribution water caused injury of coliform populations. Monitoring of 44 drinking water samples indicated that 64% of the coliform population was injured. Physical and chemical parameters were measured, including three heavy metals (Cu, Cd, and Pb). Copper concentrations were important, ranging from 0.007 to 0.54 mg/liter. Statistical analyses of these factors were used to develop a model to predict coliform injury. The model predicted almost 90% injury with a copper concentration near the mean observed value (0.158 mg/liter) in distribution waters. Laboratory studies with copper concentrations of 0.025 and 0.050 mg/liter in an inorganic carbon buffer under controlled conditions of temperature and pH caused over 90% injury within 6 and 2 days, respectively. Studies of the metabolism of injured Escherichia coli cells indicated that the respiratory chain is at least one site of damage in injured cells.

Domek, M.J.; LeChevallier, M.W.; Cameron, S.C.; McFeters, G.A.

1984-08-01

157

INFLUENCE OF MEAT MATURATION TO THE PRESENCE OF COLIFORM BACTERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false SK JA X-NONE The aim of our study was detection of coliforms bacteria and pH changes in the process of beef maturation. The number of coliforms bacteria were lower as 1 log cfu.g-1 in four samples and the highest coliforms bacteria count was 3.1 log cfu.g-1 after 1-st week of meat maturation. Average number of coliforms bacteria was lower as 1.43 log cfu.g-1.  The pH values of meat varied from 5.5 to 6.1 after 1-st week. Average value of pH was 5.75.  The number of coliforms bacteria were from 2.61 log cfu.g-1 to 3.35 log cfu.g-1 after 2-nd week of meat maturation. Average number of coliforms bacteria was 3.17 log cfu.g-1. The pH values of meat were from 6.0 to 6.2 after 2-nd week of meat maturation. Average value of pH was 6.05. doi:10.5219/181

Simona Kunová; Klára Vavrišínová; Miroslava Ka?ániová; Juraj ?ubo?; Dagmar Kozelová; ?ubomír Lopašovský

2012-01-01

158

Storm and Seasonal Distributions of Fecal Coliforms and Cryptosporidium  

Science.gov (United States)

The transmission of disease in ground water is a topic of great concern to government agencies, ground water specialists, and the general public. The purpose of this study was to compare the temporal variability in storm flow of fecal coliform bacteria densities and Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst densities in agriculturally impacted karst ground water. Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst densities ranged from 0 to 1,050 oocysts/l, and mean storm densities ranged from 3.5 to 156.8 oocysts/l. Fecal coliform densities ranged from less than 1 CFU/100ml to more than 40,000 CFU/100ml, and geometric mean storm densities ranged from 1.7 CFU/100ml to more than 7,000 CFU/100ml. Fecal coliform densities correlated well with flow during storms, but Cryptosporidium oocyst densities exhibited a great deal of sample to sample variability and were not correlated with flow. Fecal coliform densities did not correlate positively with Cryptosporidium oocyst densities. Fecal coliform densities were greatest at storm peaks, when sediment loads were also greatest. Multiple transport mechanisms for fecal coliform bacteria and C. parvum oocysts may necessitate various agricultural land management and livestock health maintenance practices to control movement of pathogens to karst ground water.

Boyer, Douglas G.; Kuczynska, Ewa

2003-12-01

159

Comparative seric TGF(?1, ?2) levels and platelets count response in total body irradiated baboons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total body irradiation associated or not with r-hIL-6 treatment a relation between TGF-?1 and TGF-?2 blood levels and platelets count. During radio-induced thrombocytopenia, by decreasing its ability to inhibit proliferation of stem cells and megakaryocytopoiesis, the TGF-? falling induced a favorable condition for hematopoietic recovery. (author).

1994-01-01

160

Total and lipid bound sialic acid levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate serum total and lipid bound sialic acid (TSA&LBSA) levels in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).Material and Methods: Forty women with PCOS and 35 healthy controls were enrolled in the study. Serum TSA, LBSA, follicle stimulating hormone, lutenizing hormone, estradiol, thyroid stimulating hormone, prolactin, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, free testosterone, total testosterone, 17-OH progesterone, sex hormone binding globulin, cortisol, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein were measured in each subject. Insulin resistance was estimated by fasting insulin level, fasting glucose: insulin ratio and 75-g glucose tolerance test for 2 hours. Results: Serum TSA levels were not significantly different between the groups. Serum LBSA levels were higher in patients with PCOS compared to the control group. TSA was correlated with androstenedione and HOMA-IR in the PCOS group. Positive correlations were found between LBSA and dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate in patients with PCOS. After correction for BMI, the only existing significant correlation was between LBSA and follicle stimulating hormone.Conclusion: Serum LBSA levels, which has previously been found to be higher in cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus, are elevated in PCOS.

Ali Özcan; Aykan Yücel; Volkan Noyan; Nevin Sa?söz; Osman Ça?layan

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Transition levels of defects in ZnO: Total energy and Janak's theorem methods  

Science.gov (United States)

Transition levels of defects are commonly calculated using either methods based on total energies of defects in relevant charge states or energy band single particle eigenvalues. The former method requires calculation of total energies of charged, perfect bulk supercells, as well as charged defect supercells, to obtain defect formation energies for various charge states. The latter method depends on Janak's theorem to obtain differences in defect formation energies for various charge states. Transition levels of VZn, VO, and VZnO vacancy defects in ZnO are calculated using both methods. The mean absolute deviation in transition level calculated using either method is 0.3 eV. Relative computational costs and accuracies of the methods are discussed.

Chakrabarty, Aurab; Patterson, Charles H.

2012-08-01

162

Transition levels of defects in ZnO: total energy and Janak's theorem methods.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Transition levels of defects are commonly calculated using either methods based on total energies of defects in relevant charge states or energy band single particle eigenvalues. The former method requires calculation of total energies of charged, perfect bulk supercells, as well as charged defect supercells, to obtain defect formation energies for various charge states. The latter method depends on Janak's theorem to obtain differences in defect formation energies for various charge states. Transition levels of V(Zn), V(O), and V(ZnO) vacancy defects in ZnO are calculated using both methods. The mean absolute deviation in transition level calculated using either method is 0.3 eV. Relative computational costs and accuracies of the methods are discussed.

Chakrabarty A; Patterson CH

2012-08-01

163

Immunoglobulin levels in dogs after total-body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The influence of total-body irradiation (TBI) and autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation on serum immunoglobulin subclasses was determined in a dog model. Only IgG1 levels decreased after low-dose (+/- 4.5 Gy) TBI, but levels of all immunoglobulin classes fell after high-dose TBI (8.5 GyX1 or 2X6.0 Gy). After autologous bone marrow transplantation IgM levels were the first and IgE levels were the last to return to normal. After successful allogeneic bone marrow transplantation prolonged low IgM and IgE levels were found but IgA levels increased rapidly to over 150% of pretreatment values. A comparison of dogs with or without clinical signs or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), revealed no differences in IgM levels. Dogs with GVHD had higher IgA but lower IgE levels. Dogs that rejected their allogeneic bone marrow cells showed significant early rises in IgE and IgA levels in comparison with dogs with GVHD. These results differ from the observations made on Ig levels in human bone marrow transplant patients. No significant differences in phytohemagglutinin stimulation tests were found between dogs with or without GVHD or dogs receiving an autologous transplant for the first four months after TBI and transplantation. An early primary or secondary involvement of humoral immunity in GVHD and graft rejection in dogs is postulated.

Vriesendorp, H.M.; Halliwell, R.E.; Johnson, P.M.; Fey, T.A.; McDonough, C.M.

1985-06-01

164

[Total IgE levels in the serum in dermatologic diseases  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A total of 2,951 determinations of total IgE serum levels in dermatologic patients revealed significantly elevated geometric mean values in 18 of 25 diagnostic groups. The highest IgE concentrations (geometric mean greater than 100 kU/l) were found in atopic diseases (atopic eczema, extrinsic asthma, allergic rhinitis), scabies, ichthyosis vulgaris and diseases of the prurigo group. Furthermore, total IgE was elevated in acute, chronic, and physical urticaria, in patients with immediate-type allergies, in various kinds of eczema, in patients with characteristic features of atopy (typus atopicus), in psoriasis, in pyogenic skin infections, and alopecia areata. The range of individual IgE values was wide: in all diagnostic groups individual IgE levels beneath the normal adult geometric mean of 14 kU/l were found; the maximum concentrations were 340-47,000 kU/l, thus exceeding the upper limit of 100 kU/l for individual values. Knowledge of the patient's clinical condition is a prerequisite for the diagnostic interpretation of an individual total IgE serum level.

Przybilla B; Ring J; Völk M

1986-02-01

165

Comparison of total protein and phospholipase A2 levels in individual coralsnake venoms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Studies of differences or changes in venom protein levels or enzymatic activities have significance only if contrasted to the normal variations between individual snakes. This study involves the analysis and comparison of venom from 13 individual Texas coralsnakes (Micrurus tener tener) in order to detect differences in the volume, total protein concentration, electrophoretic profile, and PLA2 enzyme activity. A significant inverse correlation between venom volume and total protein concentration was found. Although the 13 venoms were indistinguishable from their electrophoretic protein profiles, phospholipase A2 enzymatic activities varied considerably.

Kopper RA; Harper GR; Zimmerman S; Hook J

2013-09-01

166

Association between total plasma homocysteine level and cognitive functions in elderly Egyptian subjects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: High plasma total homocysteine has emerged as a new risk for cognitive decline with age. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to examine the association of plasma homocysteine with cognitive performance in normal aged Egyptians. SUBJECT AND METHODS: Forty five aged Egyptians subjects were included in the study. Their cognitive performance was assessed using Mini-Mental State Examination MMSE, Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scale. Total plasma homocysteine level in fasting blood samples was also measured. RESULTS: A statistically significant negative association was detected between plasma homocysteine level and age. A statistically highly significant inverse association was found between plasma tHcy and scores of cognitive assessment in aged subjects after adjustment for age, gender, education years and cardiovascular risk factors. No significant association was detected between total plasma homocysteine level and sex, blood sugar or lipid profile (p?0.05). CONCLUSION: Elevated tHcy level is an independent risk factor for the decline of cognitive performance in normal elderly subjects.

Allam M; Fahmy E; Elatti SA; Amer H; Abo-Krysha N; El-Sawy E

2013-09-01

167

Fluoxetine Decreased Serum Total Cholesterol and Triglyceride Levels in a Hypercholesterolemic Patient with Postpartum Depression  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To report the case of a 28-year old hypercholesterolemic female with postpartum depression, whose triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) levels decreased while being treated with fluoxetine. Method: A 28-year old female, with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder with postpartum onset based on DSM-IV criteria, was hospitalized at a mental health hospital. Her past history included another episode of depression 4 months after giving birth to her second child, which was 12 years prior to her recent episode. Her serum total cholestrol and triglyceride levels were measured prior to the initiation of medication. Then fluoxetine was initiated at a daily dose of 20 mg and had been increased to 40 mg per day at the time of discharge. The lipid profile measurements was repeated at week 4 and 8 following treatment. Results: Total cholesterol level was reduced from 242 mg/dL at baseline to 224 mg/dL at week 4 and to 202 mg/dL at week 8; triglyceride level was decreased from 516 mg/dL to 448 mg/dL at week 4 and to 404 mg/dL at week 8. Conclusions: Fluoxetine may be an appropriate treatment for hyperlipidemic women with postpartum depression..

Padideh Ghaeli; Esmail Shahsavand; Majid Sadeghi; Hossein Khalili

2006-01-01

168

Coliformes em água de abastecimento de lojas fast-food da Região Metropolitana de Recife (PE, Brasil)/ Coliforms in the water supply of fast-food chains in the Metropolitan Region of Recife, in the state of Pernambuco (Brazil)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A garantia do fornecimento de água potável nos serviços de alimentação é uma questão relevante para a saúde pública. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade microbiológica da água destinada ao abastecimento de uma rede de lojas fast-food da cidade de Recife (PE) e Região Metropolitana e comparar os resultados aos padrões estabelecidos pela Portaria nº 518/2004 do Ministério da Saúde. Mensalmente, foi analisada uma amostra proveniente de uma (more) das torneiras da área de manipulação das oito lojas investigadas, perfazendo 96 amostras ao longo de um ano, todas coletadas em duplicata. As análises seguiram a metodologia estabelecida na American Public Health Association (APHA) para realização do ensaio presuntivo utilizando o Teste Presença-Ausência, considerando-se o padrão de potabilidade determinado na legislação pertinente. Os resultados revelaram que 11,46% de todas as amostras apresentaram água contaminada por coliformes totais e 1,04% contaminação por coliformes termotolerantes. Conclui-se, portanto, que a qualidade da água disponível nos estabelecimentos produtores de alimentos estudados encontra-se em estado de alerta, uma vez que o percentual significativo das amostras analisadas mostrava-se impróprio para o consumo humano de acordo com a legislação vigente, a qual preconiza ausência de coliformes totais e termotolerantes. Abstract in english A guaranteed supply of clean drinking water in food outlets is a relevant subject for public health. The scope of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of 96 water samples of a network of fast-food stores in the city of Recife (state of Pernambuco, Brazil) and Metropolitan Area and to compare the results to the standards established by Brazilian Health Ministry decree nº 518/2004. Every month, a double sample from one of the faucets in the food preparation (more) area of the eight stores investigated was analyzed, totaling 96 samples over one year. The analyses followed the established methodology of American Public Health Association (APHA), in order to conduct the Presence-Absence Test, considering the potability standard in pertinent legislation. Results revealed that 11.46% and 1.04% of samples contained water contaminated with total coliforms and thermotolerant coliforms, respectively. The quality of the water in the food establishments studied is thus a health hazard since a significant percentage of samples analyzed were inappropriate for human consumption in accordance with current legislation, which stipulates the absence of total coliforms and thermotolerant coliforms.

Porto, Maria Anunciada Leal; Oliveira, Amanda de Morais; Fai, Ana Elizabeth Cavalcante; Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro

2011-05-01

169

Coliformes em água de abastecimento de lojas fast-food da Região Metropolitana de Recife (PE, Brasil) Coliforms in the water supply of fast-food chains in the Metropolitan Region of Recife, in the state of Pernambuco (Brazil)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A garantia do fornecimento de água potável nos serviços de alimentação é uma questão relevante para a saúde pública. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade microbiológica da água destinada ao abastecimento de uma rede de lojas fast-food da cidade de Recife (PE) e Região Metropolitana e comparar os resultados aos padrões estabelecidos pela Portaria nº 518/2004 do Ministério da Saúde. Mensalmente, foi analisada uma amostra proveniente de uma das torneiras da área de manipulação das oito lojas investigadas, perfazendo 96 amostras ao longo de um ano, todas coletadas em duplicata. As análises seguiram a metodologia estabelecida na American Public Health Association (APHA) para realização do ensaio presuntivo utilizando o Teste Presença-Ausência, considerando-se o padrão de potabilidade determinado na legislação pertinente. Os resultados revelaram que 11,46% de todas as amostras apresentaram água contaminada por coliformes totais e 1,04% contaminação por coliformes termotolerantes. Conclui-se, portanto, que a qualidade da água disponível nos estabelecimentos produtores de alimentos estudados encontra-se em estado de alerta, uma vez que o percentual significativo das amostras analisadas mostrava-se impróprio para o consumo humano de acordo com a legislação vigente, a qual preconiza ausência de coliformes totais e termotolerantes.A guaranteed supply of clean drinking water in food outlets is a relevant subject for public health. The scope of this study was to assess the microbiological quality of 96 water samples of a network of fast-food stores in the city of Recife (state of Pernambuco, Brazil) and Metropolitan Area and to compare the results to the standards established by Brazilian Health Ministry decree nº 518/2004. Every month, a double sample from one of the faucets in the food preparation area of the eight stores investigated was analyzed, totaling 96 samples over one year. The analyses followed the established methodology of American Public Health Association (APHA), in order to conduct the Presence-Absence Test, considering the potability standard in pertinent legislation. Results revealed that 11.46% and 1.04% of samples contained water contaminated with total coliforms and thermotolerant coliforms, respectively. The quality of the water in the food establishments studied is thus a health hazard since a significant percentage of samples analyzed were inappropriate for human consumption in accordance with current legislation, which stipulates the absence of total coliforms and thermotolerant coliforms.

Maria Anunciada Leal Porto; Amanda de Morais Oliveira; Ana Elizabeth Cavalcante Fai; Tânia Lúcia Montenegro Stamford

2011-01-01

170

Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism and total serum cholesterol level in Iranian population  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Apolipoprotein E (APOE) is known as a major regulator of blood lipid levels in humans. A number of APOE gene allelic variants have been reported including E2, E3 and E4. Recent studies suggested a role for APOE in obesity and increased Body Mass Index (BMI) and plasma lipid levels in obese children. Aim: The aim of this study was to examine the association between APOE genetic variants and the BMI and lipid profile in an Iranian cohort. Setting and Design: Samples were obtained from subjects who participated in a study based on the WHO-designed MONICA (multinational monitoring of trends and determinants in cardiovascular disease) study for coronary artery disease risk assessment in Zone 17 of Tehran. The study was approved by the local ethical committee. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects included in this study. Materials and Methods: Subjects (n=320) were recruited. The level of triglyceride (TG) and total serum cholesterol was tested for all subjects in this study. Genotyping for APOE was carried using polymerase chain reaction-Restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP)technique. Statistical Analysis: Levels of significance were determined using contingency tables by either Chi-square or Fisher exact analysis using the STATA (v8) software. The analysis of regression and significance of differences for level of cholesterol and TG was established by one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett post hoc multiple comparison tests using SPSS software Version 11.5. Results: The frequency of allele E2 was significantly higher in patients with total serum cholesterol level P 0.01 OR 2.1 95% CI 1.1-4.2). Conclusion: The association found in this study between allele E2 and lower total cholesterol level had been reported in previous studies. We have also observed that the frequency of genotype E2/E3 and E2/E4 was significantly higher in patients with normal total serum cholesterol level compared to patients with abnormal cholesterol (P=0.003 OR 2.4 95% CI; 1.3-4.6). Our data needs to be repeated in a larger population with more information for serum LDL and HDL levels and their subgroups.

Bazzaz J; Nazari M; Nazem H; Amiri P; Fakhrzadeh H; Heshmat R; Abbaszadeh S; Amoli M

2010-01-01

171

Coliform bacteria as in indicator of sewerage water mixing with drinking water sources in Rawalpindi city  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The coliform group of bacteria are consider to be one of the prominent indicators of surface/groundwater pollution as their presence in drinking water sources shows that water has been in contact with soil, plants, septic tanks or sewerage lines/drains. As a part of surface/groundwater pollution studies in various areas of Rawalpindi city coliform bacteria have been determined in the available drinking sources to evaluate their possible connection with the nearby septic tanks and sewerage lines/drains. Selective water samples were tapped from 72 domestic dug wells, and 98 municipal corporation tube-wells and associated water supply lines in some poorly drained areas of Rawalpindi. These samples were analyzed using membrane filter technique. In general, the sampled areas have indicated poor water quality w.r.t. coliform activity. 52% samples of the collected samples have indicated presence of Ecoli. Of these, 73% samples mostly collected from the poorly drained areas have shown significant counts of Ecoli. These water are rendered unfit for drinking purposes. Thirteen water samples collected indicated toxic levels of Ecoli in the municipal water supply caused due to a known leakage in the main domestic water supply line. The presence of coliform in the tube-well water supply taps are thus attributed to ruptures in the underground water supply lines. Present study reveals that general sanitary condition and water quality in the city are poor and that there is an urgent need of improvement in the water treatment and distribution systems by the concern quaters. (Orig./A.B.)

1993-01-01

172

Measuring total health inequality: adding individual variation to group-level differences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have revealed large variations in average health status across social, economic, and other groups. No study exists on the distribution of the risk of ill-health across individuals, either within groups or across all people in a society, and as such a crucial piece of total health inequality has been overlooked. Some of the reason for this neglect has been that the risk of death, which forms the basis for most measures, is impossible to observe directly and difficult to estimate. Methods We develop a measure of total health inequality – encompassing all inequalities among people in a society, including variation between and within groups – by adapting a beta-binomial regression model. We apply it to children under age two in 50 low- and middle-income countries. Our method has been adopted by the World Health Organization and is being implemented in surveys around the world; preliminary estimates have appeared in the World Health Report (2000). Results Countries with similar average child mortality differ considerably in total health inequality. Liberia and Mozambique have the largest inequalities in child survival, while Colombia, the Philippines and Kazakhstan have the lowest levels among the countries measured. Conclusions Total health inequality estimates should be routinely reported alongside average levels of health in populations and groups, as they reveal important policy-related information not otherwise knowable. This approach enables meaningful comparisons of inequality across countries and future analyses of the determinants of inequality.

Gakidou Emmanuela; King Gary

2002-01-01

173

Estimation of Ionized Calcium and Corrected Total Calcium Concentration Based on Serum Albumin Level  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ionized calcium is the physiologically active fraction of serum calcium and therefore its evaluation is an important clinical parameter both in mammals and birds. In the present study, concentration of total calcium (tCa), ionized calcium (iCa) based on the serum albumin level and on the total protein content, and corrected total calcium (ctCa) based on the serum albumin level were evaluated, and the correlation between these biochemical parameters was investigated in broiler chickens. The average serum iCa was 4.91±0.49g/dL representing 51.76±0.53% from the ctCa. The correlation coefficient between tCa and albumin (r = 0.8608) was greater than that between tCa and total protein (r = 0.7997). Our study illustrated that iCa and ctCa concentrations calculated from tCa and albumin are better indicators of calcium homeostasis than tCa concentrations alone.

Rodica C?pri??; Adrian Caprita; Iuliana Cretescu

2013-01-01

174

Distribution of synthetic organotins and total tin levels in Mytilus galloprovincialis along the Portuguese coast.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite the huge amount of literature available on butyltins (BuTs), few studies addressed the environmental levels of phenyltins (PhTs), octyltins (OcTs) and total tin (Sn(T)) in environmental samples. In 2006 a mussel watch survey was developed for the Portuguese coast (total of 29 sampling sites) in order to describe the concentrations of BuTs , PhTs, OcTs and Sn(T) in the whole tissues of Mytilus galloprovincialis (Lamarck, 1819). BuTs were detected in all analyzed samples accounting, in average, for 98.6% of total organotins (Sigma OTs=BuTs+PhTs+OcTs), and presented highest values in the vicinity of harbors. Tributyltin (TBT) was the dominant butyltin, representing, in average, 62% of summation operatorBuTs (Sigma BuTs=TBT+DBT+MBT) suggesting that fresh inputs of TBT are still occurring in the Portuguese coast, particularly near harbors. The contribution of organotin compounds derived from antifouling paints to the total tin levels in M. galloprovincialis is discussed.

Sousa A; Ikemoto T; Takahashi S; Barroso C; Tanabe S

2009-08-01

175

Symmetry of electronic energy level sets and total energy relations in the abstract nuclear charge space  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Symmetry properties of electronic energy level sets of polyatomic molecules, defined over the abstract space spanned by the nuclear charges, are analyzed. Inequality relations, derived earlier for the electronic energies of isoelectronic molecules, are now extended to the total energies of certain conformations of isoelectronic polyatomic systems. These relations are readily applicable to molecule pairs or reaction paths, without explicit use of wavefunctions, quantum chemical calculations or experimental data.

Mezey, P.G. (Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering)

1982-09-01

176

Total Quantum Zeno effect and Intelligent States for a two level system in a squeezed bath  

CERN Document Server

In this work we show that by frequent measurements of adequately chosen observables, a complete suppression of the decay in an exponentially decaying two level system interacting with a squeezed bath is obtained. The observables for which the effect is observed depend on the the squeezing parameters of the bath. The initial states which display Total Zeno Effect are intelligent states of two conjugate observables associated to the electromagnetic fluctuations of the bath.

Mundarain, D; Stephany, J

2006-01-01

177

Levels of organic and inorganic mercury in human blood predicted from measurements of total mercury.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The toxicologically relevant mercury species inorganic and organic Hg in blood are frequently determined by separate measurements of total Hg and of inorganic Hg, with their difference indicating organic Hg. It is shown that the different partition of inorganic and organic Hg between erythrocytes and plasma (e/p ratio) can be used to calculate the concentrations of either Hg species in either blood constituent from measurement of total Hg only. This was tested on the blood of different groups of volunteers. The calculated concentrations of inorganic and organic Hg in cells and plasma were then compared by linear regression with their previously measured counterparts. An accurate prediction has been found for individual levels of inorganic Hg in plasma and organic Hg in cells. These calculated levels were little affected by variations of the e/p ratios. The coincidence between calculated and measured levels of inorganic Hg in cells and organic Hg in plasma was more sensitive to alterations of the e/p ratios. In conclusion, the relevant concentrations of inorganic Hg in plasma and organic Hg in cells can reliably be calculated from measurements of total Hg and from assumed e/p ratios. This means a sizeable reduction of analytical work, and also provides specific information in cases of low-level co-exposure to both Hg species. Besides the possibility to introduce automated analyses of total Hg in mercury speciation in blood, the proposed calculation scheme has the potential to easily enlarge the data base in epidemiological and toxicological surveys of mercury exposure.

Halbach S; Welzl G

2010-10-01

178

Level and distribution of employee exposures to total and respirable wood dust in two Canadian sawmills.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Personal respirable (N = 230) and total (N = 237) dust measurements were made in two coastal British Columbia sawmills using a sampling strategy that randomly selected workers from all jobs in the mills over two seasons. Information about job title, department, season, weather conditions, location of the job relative to wood-cutting machines, and control measures also was collected at the time of sampling. Only 16 respirable wood dust samples were above the detection limit of 0.08 mg/m3; all 16 had levels < or = 0.20 mg/m3. Total wood dust concentrations were also low (36% less than the detection limit), with a mean of 0.51 mg/m3, and ranging from < 0.08 to 52 mg/m3. Measurements of exposure taken close to chippers, planers, and multiple saws had the highest total wood dust levels. Sawmill department and booth enclosures also were associated with wood dust concentrations, while local exhaust ventilation and weather conditions were not. Wood dust levels in this study were generally lower than in other studies of this industry, but most sawmill investigations report mean wood dust concentrations lower than those measured in the furniture and cabinetmaking industries, where concerns about wood dust exposures initially were raised.

Teschke K; Hertzman C; Morrison B

1994-03-01

179

[Serum PTH levels as a predictive factor of hypocalcaemia after total thyroidectomy].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Postoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels as a predictor of hypocalcaemia in patients subjected to total thyroidectomy is analyzed. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Prospective study involving 67 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy due to a benign disease. Serum PTH and ionised calcium were measured 20 h after surgery. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of PTH and ionised calcium levels were calculated to predict clinical and analytical hypocalcaemia. RESULTS: A total of 42 (62.7%) patients developed hypocalcaemia (ionised calcium<0.95 mmol/l), but only 20 (29.9%) presented with symptoms. PTH concentration the day after surgery was significantly lower in the group that developed symptomatic hypocalcaemia (5.57+/-6.4 pg/ml) than in the asymptomatic (21.5+/-15.3 pg/ml) or normocalcaemic (26.8+/-24.9 pg/ml) groups (p=0.001). Taking the value of 13 pg/ml as a cut-off point of PTH levels, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 54%, 72%, 76% and 48%, respectively. On the other hand, sensitivity for predicting symptomatic hypocalcaemia was 95% and specificity was 76%. The test showed a high incidence of false positives (11/30, 36%). Negative predictive value was 97% and positive predictive value was 65%. In multivariate analysis, PTH and ionised calcium were the only perioperative factors that showed an independent predictive value as risk indicators of symptomatic hypocalcaemia. CONCLUSIONS: Normal PTH levels 20 h after surgery practically rule out the subsequent appearance of hypocalcaemia symptoms. On the other hand, low PTH levels are not necessarily associated to symptomatic hypocalcaemia due to the high number of false positives.

Díez Alonso M; Sánchez López JD; Sánchez-Seco Peña MI; Ratia Jiménez T; Arribas Gómez I; Rodríguez Pascual A; Martín-Duce A; Guadalix Hidalgo G; Hernández Domínguez S; Granell Vicent J

2009-02-01

180

Plasma total cholesterol level and some related factors in northern Iranian people.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In middle age people, hypercholesterolemia (HC) has been included as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of HC and some related factors in the north of Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a population-based cross-sectional study that enrolled 1995 subjects (997 males and 998 females) in 25-65 year age using stratified cluster sampling. Interviewers recorded the data using a multidimensional questionnaire including anthropometric indexes. Plasma cholesterol was measured in the morning after a 12-hour fast and determined by an auto-analyzer. HC was defined by a total plasma total cholesterol level over 200 mg/dl. The SPSS.16 software was used to analyze data. RESULTS: The mean age of the participant was 44.2 years and mean ± SD plasma total cholesterol level in men and women was 196.7 ± 39.11 and 209.4 ± 42.9, respectively. Generally, the prevalence of HC was 50.4% with a significant differences between men (44.7%) and women (57%) (P < 0.05). The mean plasma total cholesterol levels were significantly differenced among age groups, location area, BMI, and waist circumferences (P < 0.001). Women gender (OR = 1.64), 55-65 years old (OR = 2.79), BMI ?40 kg/m(2) (OR = 10.0), and abdominal obesity (OR = 2.47) were associated with increased risk of HC (P = 0.001 and 95%CI for all). CONCLUSION: HC is one of the most health problems in the northern Iran and it is more common in women than in men. General and abdominal obesity are the most common risk factors for HC.

Veghari G; Sedaghat M; Joshghani H; Niknezad F; Angizeh A; Tazik E; Moharloei P; Banihashem S

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
181

Application of decision-tree technique to assess herd specific risk factors for coliform mastitis in sows  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate factors associated with coliform mastitis in sows, determined at herd level, by applying the decision-tree technique. Coliform mastitis represents an economically important disease in sows after farrowing that also affects the health, welfare and performance of the piglets. The decision-tree technique, a data mining method, may be an effective tool for making large datasets accessible and different sow herd information comparable. It is based on the C4.5-algorithm which generates trees in a top-down recursive strategy. The technique can be used to detect weak points in farm management. Two datasets of two farms in Germany, consisting of sow-related parameters, were analysed and compared by decision-tree algorithms. Data were collected over the period of April 2007 to August 2010 from 987 sows (499 CM-positive sows and 488 CM-negative sows) and 596 sows (322 CM-positive sows and 274 CM-negative sows), respectively. Depending on the dataset, different graphical trees were built showing relevant factors at the herd level which may lead to coliform mastitis. To our understanding, this is the first time decision-tree modeling was used to assess risk factors for coliform mastitis. Herd specific risk factors for the disease were illustrated what could prove beneficial in disease and herd management.

Imke Gerjets; Imke Traulsen; Kerstin Reiners; Nicole Kemper

2011-01-01

182

Determination of total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nickel ferrocyanide compounds (Na2-xCsxNiFe (CN)6) were produced in a scavenging process to remove 137Cs from Hanford Site single-shell tank waste supernates. Methods for determining total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes are needed for the evaluation of potential exothermic reactions between cyanide and oxidizers such as nitrate and for safe storage, processing, and management of the wastes in compliance with regulatory requirements. Hanford Site laboratory experience in determining cyanide in high-level wastes is summarized. Modifications were made to standard cyanide methods to permit improved handling of high-level waste samples and to eliminate interferences found in Hanford Site waste matrices. Interferences and associated procedure modifications caused by high nitrates/nitrite concentrations, insoluble nickel ferrocyanides, and organic complexants are described

1994-01-01

183

The influence of chloroquine administration on antioxidant levels, oxidant marker and total cholesterol in Wistar rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine some biochemical changes of importance associated with chloroquine (CQ)treatment, using rat model of Plasmodium beighei berghei parasites. Chloroquine phosphate (5mg/kg body wt,dissolved in distilled water) was administered 3days per week for 8 weeks after infection by Plasmodium beigheibeighei. The chloroquine did not potentiate any adverse effect on the formation of ascorbic acid-linked lipidperoxidation. The drug increased glutathione contents, but decreased protein and cholesterol levels. Chloroquinealone had no significant effect on malondialdehyde and alanine/aspartate transaminases, but decreased proteinsynthesis and cholesterol level. The characteristic biologic effects of CQ including the decrease in total cholesterol,protein synthesis, and stabilizer of lipid peroxidation as measured by malondialdehyde and the increased level ofglutathione, may enhance the environmental measures of public health in cholesterol compromised individuals.

AC Achudume

2009-01-01

184

Evidence for a locus regulating total serum IgE levels mapping to chromosome 5  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Genetic studies of total serum IgE levels were preformed since high IgE levels correlate with clinical expression of allergy and asthma. Families ascertained through a parent with asthma were genotyped for markers on 5q where there are multiple candidate genes that may influence the control of IgE and inflammation. Evidence for linkage of the IgE phenotype to 5q was obtained by both sib-pair and lod score analysis with evidence for recessive inheritance of high IgE levels from segregation analysis. These findings represent a major step in mapping genes important in the regulation of allergic responses and the pathogenesis of asthma. 52 refs., 3 tabs.

Meyers, D.A.; Xu, J.; Levitt, R.C. [The Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

1994-09-15

185

Determination of total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Nickel ferrocyanide compounds (Na{sub 2-x}Cs{sub x}NiFe (CN){sub 6}) were produced in a scavenging process to remove {sup 137}Cs from Hanford Site single-shell tank waste supernates. Methods for determining total cyanide in Hanford Site high-level wastes are needed for the evaluation of potential exothermic reactions between cyanide and oxidizers such as nitrate and for safe storage, processing, and management of the wastes in compliance with regulatory requirements. Hanford Site laboratory experience in determining cyanide in high-level wastes is summarized. Modifications were made to standard cyanide methods to permit improved handling of high-level waste samples and to eliminate interferences found in Hanford Site waste matrices. Interferences and associated procedure modifications caused by high nitrates/nitrite concentrations, insoluble nickel ferrocyanides, and organic complexants are described.

Winters, W.I. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Pool, K.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1994-05-01

186

Occurrence of coliforms in water samples of the Perequê and Penedo Rivers in Paraná, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os rios Perequê e Penedo têm suas fontes na planície de Praia Leste e fluem para o mar entre os municípios de Pontal do Sul e Ponta do Poço. Ambos pertencem à sub-bacia da Baía de Paranaguá e são partes da bacia hidrográfica do Oceano Atlântico (Estado do Paraná). Foram selecionados quatro sítios ao longo do Rio Perequê (Estações 1-4) e um no Rio Penedo (Estação 5) para monitorar a poluição de água em um período de 12 meses. Durante o período de dez (more) embro de 1995 e novembro de 1996, foram coletadas de cada local, 3 amostras de 100 ml água em frascos esterilizados e transportadas para o laboratório em caixas com gelo. Foram analisadas a ocorrência de coliformes totais (TC) e fecais (FC), temperatura e pH. A contaminação de coliformes foi menor nos sítios 1 e 5 do que em outros locais, provavelmente por causa da menor influência de áreas urbanizadas. A água na estação 4 estava fortemente contaminada por causa de sua proximidade a um canal de esgoto. Este estudo demonstrou que a água dos rios Pequerê e Penedo, "habitats" para várias espécies de camarões de água doce, estão contaminados com coliformes totais e fecais, e esta ocorrência não está relacionada com a temperatura ou pH. Abstract in english The Perequê and Penedo rivers flow through the plains of Praia de Leste and fall into the sea between the municipalities of Pontal do Sul and Ponta do Poço. Both of these rivers belong to the sub-basin of Paranaguá Bay, and are constituent parts of the hydrographic basin of the Atlantic Ocean (State of Paraná). Four sites along the Perequê River (Stations 1-4) and one along the Penedo River (Station 5) were monitorated for water pollution over a 12-month period. Duri (more) ng the period of December 1995 to November 1996, three water samples were collected from each site, placed in sterilized bottles and transported to the laboratory in ice-boxes. They were analyzed for the occurrence of total and fecal coliforms, temperature and pH. Fecal pollution was detected throughout the period of study. Coliform contamination was smaller in Station 1 and 5 than in any other sites, probably due to lesser influence from urbanized areas. Water at Station 4 was strongly contaminated due to its close proximity to a sewage canal. This study demonstrated that the Pequerê and Penedo rivers, freshwater shrimps habitats, were heavily contaminated with fecal indicator bacteria, and this occurrence was not related with temperature or pH.

Higuti, Ilma Hiroko; Macena, Ivone Rodrigues; Masunari, Setuko; Branco Filho, Mario de Oliveira; Blaskowiski, Marita Maciel Moreira; Nascimento, Aguinaldo José do

1998-08-01

187

Comparison Of Serum Calcium, Phosphorus And Total Protein Levels, In Pregnancy With Or Without Hypertensive Disorders  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Pre-eclampsia is characterized by hypertension development and proteinuria during pregnancy. Hypertension disorder is a leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and death in worldwide. Although the pathophysiology of hypertension during pregnancy is unclear, but there is consensus that early diagnosis and aggressive treatment is warranted to prevent complicated to both fetus and mother. The changes of serum trace elements during pregnancy are paramount important to predict and good understanding the situation of patients. The aim of this study was about this issue. Materials and Methods: In a case-control study we investigated the possible differences in the level of serum calcium, phosphorus and total protein in 55 healthy pregnant and 52 pregnant with hypertensive disease at 32-40 weeks of gestational age during the recent two years in Loghman hospital of Tehran. Some information such as age, blood group, parity number and blood pressure was taken from patients by a questionnaire. Results: The case population consisted of 22 sever preeclampsia, 15 mild preeclampsia, 8 eclampsia, and 7 chronic hypertensive. The mean serum calcium concentration (mg/dl) was 9.18?0.74 in control group, 8.81?0.9 in mild preeclampsia, 7.85?0.38 in sever preeclampsia, 7.83? 0.47 in eclampsia, 8.91? 0.3 in chronic blood pressure. The mean serum phosphorus (mg/dl) level observed, 4.27 in sever preeclampsia, 3.74 in eclampsia, 3.59 in mild eclampsia, 4.09 in chronic blood pressure, and 3.43 in control pregnant women. The mean serum total protein concentration level in sever preeclampsia and eclampsia was 5.46 and 5.04 mg/dl respectively. Conclusion: In conclusion, sever preeclampsia and eclampsia are associated with decreased level of calcium, total protein, and increased concentration of phosphorus.

Rashid Pooraei M; Shahwerdi Z; Azargoshasb A; Omidi Nia E

2005-01-01

188

Seminal plasma total antioxidant capacity and vitamin- C levels in asthenozoospermia: a case- control study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Defective sperm function is now recognized as one of the most important causes of male infertility. Seminal plasma possesses a rich source of different enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as vitamin C (ascorbic acid) that protect spermatozoa against oxidative stress as one of the mediators of infertility causing sperm dysfunction and low sperm quality. The aim of this study was investigation of seminal total antioxidant capacity and determination of vitamin C effects on sperm motility. "n"nMethods: We designed a case-control study with a total subject of 62 males. Sperm parameters were analyzed according to World Health Organization guidelines (WHO, 1999). Total antioxidant capacity and vitamin C level of seminal plasma were measured in the 32 normozoospermic as the control group and 32 asthenospermic men as the case group using FRAP (Ferric Reducing of Antioxidants Powers) and RP-HPLC (Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography) methods, respectively. "n"nResults: Our results indicated that total antioxidant capacity levels in the seminal plasma of asthenospermic men were significantly lower than healthy men (p=0.002). In addition, we found a positive correlation between reduced total antioxidant capacity levels and low sperm motility. Vitamin C levels of seminal plasma in asthenospermic men were statistically lower than control men (p=0.01)."n"nConclusions: It is suggested that asthenospermia could be related to an antioxidant deficiency or it's reduction.

Ali Bidmeshkipour; Abaslt Hosseinzadeh Colagar; Maryam Gholinezhad Chari; Pourya Biparva

2010-01-01

189

Low-level waste disposal performance assessments - Total source-term analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities is regulated by DOE. DOE Order 5820.2A establishes policies, guidelines, and minimum requirements for managing radioactive waste. Requirements for disposal of low-level waste emplaced after September 1988 include providing reasonable assurance of meeting stated performance objectives by completing a radiological performance assessment. Recently, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board issued Recommendation 94-2, {open_quotes}Conformance with Safety Standards at Department of Energy Low-Level Nuclear Waste and Disposal Sites.{close_quotes} One of the elements of the recommendation is that low-level waste performance assessments do not include the entire source term because low-level waste emplaced prior to September 1988, as well as other DOE sources of radioactivity in the ground, are excluded. DOE has developed and issued guidance for preliminary assessments of the impact of including the total source term in performance assessments. This paper will present issues resulting from the inclusion of all DOE sources of radioactivity in performance assessments of low-level waste disposal facilities.

Wilhite, E.L.

1995-12-31

190

The Association Between Body Temperature and Level of Sleepiness in Total and Partial Sleep Deprivation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: The sleep-related changes in body temperature and the effects of ambient temperature on sleep gave rise to the thought that regulation of sleep and of body temperature are closely related. In this study, association of body temperature and level of sleepiness was investigated during total or partial sleep deprivation.Study Design: Following the approval of local ethics committee, 13 healthy young adult males (age and BMI; 22±1 years, and 22.6±1.7 kg/m2, respectively) were enrolled in the study. Oral body temperature and sleepiness degree of all participants were recorded by two-hour intervals during 36 hours total sleep deprivation and one-night partial sleep deprivation under laboratory conditions. Association between body temperature and sleepiness at each recording point was investigated by the Spearman correlation test. Regression analysis was performed to determine the relation between the mean values.Results: There was no significant association between body temperature and sleepiness during 36 hours total sleep deprivation. However, these two parameters were significantly related with each other during one-night partial sleep deprivation (r=0.828; p=0.02).Conclusion: Our results suggest that level of sleepiness during sleep deprivation is determined initially by circadian factors (body temperature) and then by homeostatic factors (duration of sleep deprivation).

Levent OZTURK; Selma Arzu VARDAR; Erdogan BULUT; Cem KURT; Mevlut YAPRAK

2006-01-01

191

Evaluation of Coliform and Enterococcus as Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Frozen Meat and Vegetables in Ankara  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: In this study, it was aimed to evaluate 120 frozen meat and vegetable samples (meat ball, minced meat, small chunks, broccoli, peas and cauliflower) purchased from different supermarkets in Ankara, Turkey for the presence of fecal coliform and fecal Enterococcus as indicator microorganisms and to determine of other bacteriological criteria in these samples. Method: One hundred twenty samples including frozen meat and vegetables were analyzed for isolation of total aerobic bacteria, total coliform, S. aureus, Enterococcus and fecal E.coli by conventional biochemical tests and the results of colony counts of the isolates were evaluated as cfu/g and Log10.Results: It was found that the total numbers of aerobic bacteria, coliform, Enterococcus spp, and S. aureus were 4.5x105 - 5.4x105 cfu/g, 2.12x105 - 3.57x105 cfu/g, 3.53x104 - 7.6x104 cfu/g, and 4.33x105 - 5.18x105 cfu/g, respectively in 120 frozen food samples in which fecal E. coli and fecal Enterococcus were detected as 39 (32.5 %) and 40 (33.3 %) respectively. Among the 40 isolates of fecal Enterococcus, 28 (70 %) were E. faecalis,12 (30 %) were E. faecium.Conclusion: The microbiological criteria of the 120 frozen meat and vegetable samples which were analyzed were above the standart values of Turkish Standardization Institute (TSE) and the colony counts of fecal Enterococcus were also very high. This results showed that it is necessary to present fecal Enterococcus together with fecal E. coli as indicator microorganism in Turkish Food Codex.

Sumru ÇITAK; Neslihan GÜNDO?AN; Erol KALA

2009-01-01

192

Fecal-coliform bacteria in extended-aeration plant sludge  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The concentration of fecal-coliform bacteria in sludge from extended-aeration plants was analyzed for compliance with new state and federal land application requirements. This study was initiated to determine if additional digestion would be necessary for plants to meet the new pathogen standards of less than 2 million CFU per gm of solids. Sludge was found to contain less than 2 million fecal coliform bacteria/gm of sludge as a result of a combination or aerobic digestion and/or long term storage.

Anderson, M.; Kester, G.; Arant, S.

1998-07-01

193

Calculated free testosterone and radioimmunoassay free testosterone as a predictor of subnormal levels of total testosterone.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the relationship among aFT, cFT, and total testosterone (TT) and the best method in diagnosing subnormal levels of TT. METHODS: A total of 213 men were analyzed. Fasting blood samples were drawn for the determination of the lipid profile as well as of plasmatic glucose and serum levels of albumin, TT, aFT, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). The values of cFT were determined by Vermeulen's formula. RESULTS: No correlation between aFT and cFT was observed (r = 0.062; P = 0.368), except after controlling for confounders (r = 0.188; P = 0.007). Only 44.8% of hypogonadal men (TT ? 300 ng/dL) were classified by aFT, whereas 72.4% of hypogonadal men were classified by both TT and cFT. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and positive likelihood ratio were greater in cFT when compared with aFT. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that cFT is more accurate in diagnosing subnormal levels of TT. Furthermore, we do not recommend using aFT due to its lack of accuracy. Further studies should be performed in order to evaluate the correlation between aFT and cFT with clinical signs and symptoms of androgen deficiency.

Halmenschlager G; Rhoden EL; Riedner CE

2012-06-01

194

Linkage mapping of total cholesterol level in a young cohort via nonparametric regression  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Compared to model-based approaches, nonparametric methods for quantitative trait loci mapping are more robust to deviations in distributional assumptions. In this study, we modify a nonparametric regression method and the "contrast function"- based regression method to analyze total cholesterol level in the younger cohort (the offspring generation) of the Genetic Analysis Workshop 13 simulated data set. Results We obtained significant evidence of linkage near four of the six non-sex-specific genes in at least 30% of the replicates. Conclusions The proposed nonparametric method seems to be a powerful robust alternative to distribution-based methods.

Ghosh Saurabh; Bertelsen Sarah; Reich Theodore

2003-01-01

195

Association of two MTHFR polymorphisms with total homocysteine plasma levels in dialysis patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of the combined 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C-->T and 1298A-->C genotype on total homocysteine (tHcy), folate, and vitamin B(12) plasma levels was investigated in 983 subjects, including 415 hemodialysis patients, 179 peritoneal dialysis patients, and 389 healthy individuals. Mean tHcy plasma concentrations were 27.2 +/- 15.8 micromol/L in hemodialysis patients, 25.4 +/- 19.1 micromol/L in peritoneal dialysis patients, and 8.9 +/- 3.5 micromol/L in healthy individuals. Hyperhomocysteinemia (tHcy > 15 micromol/L) was detected in 81.6% of patients and 2.6% of controls. Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that the MTHFR 677C-->T/1298A-->C genotype (CC/AA, CC/AC, CC/CC, CT/AA, CT/AC, TT/AA), vitamin use, age, folate and vitamin B(12) plasma level were significant predictors of tHcy plasma levels. Analysis of variance showed that this effect of MTHFR genotypes on tHcy level was caused by significantly greater tHcy levels in 677TT/1298AA hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis patients versus other genotypes. Compound heterozygous controls (677CT/1298AC genotype) had significantly greater tHcy levels compared with 677CC/1298AA controls. There was no major effect of MTHFR polymorphisms on folate and vitamin B(12) plasma concentrations. This study shows that the MTHFR 677TT/1298AA genotype, but not the 677CT/1298AC genotype, is a significant predictor of tHcy plasma levels in dialysis patients.

Födinger M; Buchmayer H; Heinz G; Papagiannopoulos M; Kletzmayr J; Perschl A; Vychytil A; Hörl WH; Sunder-Plassmann G

2001-07-01

196

Lowered serum total L-carnitine levels are associated with obesity at term pregnancy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Objective: This study aims to compare the serum total l-carnitine concentrations of obese and non-obese pregnant women and to identify the role of l-carnitine in both maternal and fetal weight gain during pregnancy. Method: This study reviews 118 healthy women with singleton term pregnancy (?37 weeks). The characteristics of the recruited subjects were analyzed according to their pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). Results: The women with pre-pregnancy BMI?levels whereas the women with BMI?>?29.9?kg/m(2) at term pregnancy had significantly lower serum l-carnitine levels (p?=?0.001 for both). The neonates born to women with BMI?>?29.9?kg/m(2) at term pregnancy had significantly longer height and wider head circumference (p?=?0.001 for both). Serum total l-carnitine levels correlated significantly and negatively with pre-pregnancy body weight, pre-pregnancy BMI, pregnancy body weight, pregnancy BMI and serum triglyceride levels (r?=?-0.397, p?=?0.001; r?=?-0.357, p?=?0.001; r?=?-0.460, p?=?0.001; r?=?-0.463, p?=?0.001 and r?=?-0.216, p?=?0.019, respectively). There was a significant and positive correlation between l-carnitine and HDL values (r?=?0.243, p?=?0.008). Conclusions: The crucial role of l-carnitine in pregnancy metabolism suggests that nutritional supplementation of this amino acid can be offered to women who are either overweight or obese at the beginning of the pregnancy.

Tipi-Akbas P; Arioz DT; Kanat-Pektas M; Koken T; Koken G; Yilmazer M

2013-10-01

197

Lowered serum total L-carnitine levels are associated with obesity at term pregnancy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Objective: This study aims to compare the serum total l-carnitine concentrations of obese and non-obese pregnant women and to identify the role of l-carnitine in both maternal and fetal weight gain during pregnancy. Method: This study reviews 118 healthy women with singleton term pregnancy (?37 weeks). The characteristics of the recruited subjects were analyzed according to their pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI). Results: The women with pre-pregnancy BMI?carnitine levels whereas the women with BMI?>?29.9?kg/m(2) at term pregnancy had significantly lower serum l-carnitine levels (p?=?0.001 for both). The neonates born to women with BMI?>?29.9?kg/m(2) at term pregnancy had significantly longer height and wider head circumference (p?=?0.001 for both). Serum total l-carnitine levels correlated significantly and negatively with pre-pregnancy body weight, pre-pregnancy BMI, pregnancy body weight, pregnancy BMI and serum triglyceride levels (r?=?-0.397, p?=?0.001; r?=?-0.357, p?=?0.001; r?=?-0.460, p?=?0.001; r?=?-0.463, p?=?0.001 and r?=?-0.216, p?=?0.019, respectively). There was a significant and positive correlation between l-carnitine and HDL values (r?=?0.243, p?=?0.008). Conclusions: The crucial role of l-carnitine in pregnancy metabolism suggests that nutritional supplementation of this amino acid can be offered to women who are either overweight or obese at the beginning of the pregnancy. PMID:23560471

Tipi-Akbas, Pinar; Arioz, Dagistan Tolga; Kanat-Pektas, Mine; Koken, Tulay; Koken, Gulengul; Yilmazer, Mehmet

2013-04-22

198

Evaluation of an optical microbiological method for rapidly estimating populations of aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and Escherichia coli from ground pork.  

Science.gov (United States)

The BioSys optical methods for estimating populations of aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and Escherichia coli from ground pork were evaluated. Ground pork samples were analyzed immediately, after temperature abuse at 25 degrees C for various periods of time, or after temperature abuse and dilution by mixing with pork that was prepared by grinding whole muscles that had the outer portion excised using a sterile scalpel. Each ground pork sample was tested using standard methods such as aerobic plate counts (APC), violet red bile (VRB) agar plate counts (coliforms), and three-tube most probable numbers (MPN--E. coli). Each sample was tested using the BioSys for total viable counts (TVC) by placing 2 ml of ground pork homogenate (25 g into 225 ml of sterile 1% buffered peptone water) into 8 ml of nutrient medium containing brom-cresol purple in a test vial and monitoring at 35 degrees C. Coliforms were enumerated by placing 5 ml of ground pork homogenate into 5 ml of coliform medium (CM) in a test vial and monitoring at 35 degrees C. E. coli were enumerated by placing 5 ml of ground pork homogenate into 5 ml of double-strength CM with 2% dextrose in a test vial and monitoring at 42 degrees C. The correlation coefficients for the regression lines comparing APC to BioSys TVC detection times (DT), VRB to BioSys coliform DT, and MPN to BioSys E. coli DT were -0.95, -0.94, and -0.93, and the line equations were logl0 CFU/ml = 8.94 - 0.40(DT), log10 CFU/ml = 8.77 - 0.43(DT), and log10 CFU/ml = 8.96 - 0.81(DT), respectively. These methods may allow pork producers to monitor equipment surfaces and products in less than 16 h and obtain microbiological results prior to shipment. PMID:11347998

Russell, S M

2001-05-01

199

Evaluation of an optical microbiological method for rapidly estimating populations of aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and Escherichia coli from ground pork.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The BioSys optical methods for estimating populations of aerobic bacteria, coliforms, and Escherichia coli from ground pork were evaluated. Ground pork samples were analyzed immediately, after temperature abuse at 25 degrees C for various periods of time, or after temperature abuse and dilution by mixing with pork that was prepared by grinding whole muscles that had the outer portion excised using a sterile scalpel. Each ground pork sample was tested using standard methods such as aerobic plate counts (APC), violet red bile (VRB) agar plate counts (coliforms), and three-tube most probable numbers (MPN--E. coli). Each sample was tested using the BioSys for total viable counts (TVC) by placing 2 ml of ground pork homogenate (25 g into 225 ml of sterile 1% buffered peptone water) into 8 ml of nutrient medium containing brom-cresol purple in a test vial and monitoring at 35 degrees C. Coliforms were enumerated by placing 5 ml of ground pork homogenate into 5 ml of coliform medium (CM) in a test vial and monitoring at 35 degrees C. E. coli were enumerated by placing 5 ml of ground pork homogenate into 5 ml of double-strength CM with 2% dextrose in a test vial and monitoring at 42 degrees C. The correlation coefficients for the regression lines comparing APC to BioSys TVC detection times (DT), VRB to BioSys coliform DT, and MPN to BioSys E. coli DT were -0.95, -0.94, and -0.93, and the line equations were logl0 CFU/ml = 8.94 - 0.40(DT), log10 CFU/ml = 8.77 - 0.43(DT), and log10 CFU/ml = 8.96 - 0.81(DT), respectively. These methods may allow pork producers to monitor equipment surfaces and products in less than 16 h and obtain microbiological results prior to shipment.

Russell SM

2001-05-01

200

[Total prostatic specific antigen levels among subjects exposed and not exposed to arsenic in drinking water].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There is an association between arsenic exposure and prostatic cancer mortality. AIM: To analyze and to compare the serum levels of total prostatic specific antigEn (TPSA) in asymptomatic men of a rural zone, exposed and not exposed to high concentrations of arsenic (As) in drinking water. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 161 men that were subjected to a clinical evaluation, serum TPSA determination and a trans rectal ultrasonography. Exposed and non-exposed subjects were divided in groups GA, GB and GC according to TPSA levels (<4 ng/ml, 4.1-10 ng/ml and >10.1 ng/ml respectively). RESULTS: Exposed and non-exposed subjects had similar TPSA levels. Among exposed subjects, 88.2, 8,8 and 3% were ascribed to groups GA, GB and GC respectively. The figures for non-exposed subjects were 90. 6, 6,3 and 3,1%. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for TPSA in exposed and non-exposed subjects was 0.64 (95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.40-0.9) and 0.71 (95% CI 0.6-0.8) respectively. CONCLUSIONS: No differences in TPSA levels between subjects exposed and non-exposed to arsenic were observed in this study.

Soria de González A; Tefaha L; Guber R; Arias N; Romero C; Martínez M; Valdivia M; Sandoval N; Toledo R; Czejack M

2011-12-01

 
 
 
 
201

Effect of orlistat on the total ghrelin and leptin levels in obese patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity, characterized by hyperleptinemia and hypoghrelinemia, has become a major health problem all over the world and is associated with an increased risk of complications including insulin resistance, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. The use of the pancreatic lipase inhibitor Orlistat can help seriously overweight people to achieve and maintain weight loss. The aim of our study was to compare the serum leptin and ghrelin levels in obese subjects who take orlistat with those receiving only dietary treatment. Twenty-one obese patients and 10 control subjects participated. The obese patients were divided into two groups; one group (n=11) took orlistat (120 mg, 3 times daily) and received dietary treatment and the other (n=10) only received the dietary treatment. The study lasted twelve weeks. The concentrations of serum ghrelin, leptin, insulin and C-peptide, and routine biochemical parameters, were measured in both groups. The serum ghrelin level was higher in control (183+/-62 fmol/ml) than obese (59+/-30 fmol/ml) subjects while the plasma leptin level was lower in control (8.7+/-12 microg/L) than obese (36.7+/-19 microg/L) subjects (all p<0.001). BMI and the total blood cholesterol, LDL and triglyceride levels fell significantly after both orlistat and dietary treatment in the obese subjects (all p<0.01), and the plasma ghrelin level rose (p<0.01). The leptin level demonstrated the opposite trend in both groups but only the patients taking orlistat showed a significant change (p<0.05).Taken together, these results show that orlistat has no effect on body weight in obese subjects additional to that conferred by a non-pharmacological life-style intervention. We therefore conclude that weight lost rather than type of treatment might be more valuable in obesity. PMID:20119816

Ozkan, Y; Aydin, S; Donder, E; Koca, S S; Aydin, Suna; Ozkan, B; Sahin, I

2009-09-01

202

Transrectal ultrasound in detecting prostate cancer compared with serum total prostate-specific antigen levels  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We carried out a retrospective study to review the efficiency of grey-scale transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) in detecting prostate cancer compared with the data in recent published work, including alternative imaging methods of the prostate gland. Our study group consisted of 830 patients who underwent TRUS-guided biopsy of the prostate between May 2000 and June 2004. The relation between abnormal TRUS findings and serum total prostate-specific antigen (tPSA) levels was evaluated in patients with prostate cancer who were divided into three different groups according to serum tPSA levels. Group I included patients with tPSA levels of 4-9.9 ng/mL, group II included tPSA levels of 10-19.9 ng/mL and group III included patients with tPSA levels of 20 ng/mL or more. In general, TRUS detected 185 (64%) of 291 cancers with a specificity of 89%, a PPV of 76% and an accuracy of 80%. TRUS findings enabled the correct identification of 22 (56%) of the 39 cancers in group I, 28 (30%) of the 93 cancers in group II and 135 (85%) of the 159 cancers in group III. In conclusion, TRUS alone has a limited potential to identify prostate cancer, especially in patients with tPSA levels lower than 20 ng/mL. Therefore, increased numbers of systematically placed biopsy cores must be taken or alternative imaging methods are required to direct TRUS-guided biopsy for improving prostate cancer detection.

2000-05-00

203

Total plasma level of antioxidant and immune system function in radiology and nuclear medicine staff  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Despite major diagnostic and industrial progresses in the technology and use of Ionizing radiations, they have been found to be harmful to the health of the radiology and nuclear medicine staffs. Since Ionizing radiations have the potential to produce free radicals, therefore, it is likely that the total plasma level of anti-oxidant in medical and nuclear medicine staffs could be reduced.Methods: In this case-control study the relationship of total anti oxidant level of plasma and the function of immune cells such as lymphocyte proliferating response using MTT method, Neutrophil chemotaxi, Intensity of respiratory burst (NBT) and evaluation of IL-2 and IL-4 (ELISA) were investigated. 101 samples were collected for this study and they were assigned as two groups: 61 samples cases from radiology and nuclear medicine staffs of Tehran University Of Medical Science hospitals (Shariaty, Imam Khomeyni, Ghalb-e-Tehran) were assigned as the exposed group, whereas, 40 samples from Pediatric, Orthopedic, Infirmary and Emergencies wards were assigned as control group. Using heparinized syringes, 8 to 10 ml of blood samples were collected from each person with age between 25 to 50, averaging 36.4±7.2, and several assays including Anii Oxidant Capacity of Total Plasma (FRAP Method), T cell proliferative response to PHA mitogen (MTT Method), Chemotaxi of neutrophils and Magnitude of respiratory burst were carried out on these samples. The results were analyzed using spirman correlation analysis.Results: The results showed that exposure to ionizing radiation chronically with low dosed had no effect on chemotaxis of neutorophils and intensity of respiratory burst, but could have effect on lymphocyte function specially in cytokines secretion like IL-2 which are essential in the immune responses.Conclusion: This study indicates that long term low dose ionizing radiation may have effect in some parts of the immune function."n 

Kalamzadeh A; Keihani A; Hajati J; Nooraei M; Latifinia A; Zaker F; Khansari N

2007-01-01

204

Delayed-incubation membrane-filter test for fecal coliforms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A delayed-incubation membrane-filter technique for fecal coliforms was developed and compared with the immediate fecal coliform test described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (13th ed., 1971). Laboratory and field evaluations demonstrated that the delayed-incubation test, with the use of the proposed vitamin-free Casitone holding medium, produces fecal coliform counts which very closely approximate those from the immediate test, regardless of the source or type of fresh-water sample. Limited testing indicated that the method is not as effective when used with saline waters. The delayed-incubation membrane-filter test will be especially useful in survey monitoring or emergency situations when the standard immediate fecal coliform test cannot be performed at or near the sample site or when time and temperature limitations for water sample storage cannot be met. The procedure can also be used for analyzing the bacterial quality of water or waste discharges by a standardized procedure in a central examining laboratory remote from the sample source.

Taylor RH; Bordner RH; Scarpino PV

1973-03-01

205

Delayed-incubation membrane-filter test for fecal coliforms.  

Science.gov (United States)

A delayed-incubation membrane-filter technique for fecal coliforms was developed and compared with the immediate fecal coliform test described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (13th ed., 1971). Laboratory and field evaluations demonstrated that the delayed-incubation test, with the use of the proposed vitamin-free Casitone holding medium, produces fecal coliform counts which very closely approximate those from the immediate test, regardless of the source or type of fresh-water sample. Limited testing indicated that the method is not as effective when used with saline waters. The delayed-incubation membrane-filter test will be especially useful in survey monitoring or emergency situations when the standard immediate fecal coliform test cannot be performed at or near the sample site or when time and temperature limitations for water sample storage cannot be met. The procedure can also be used for analyzing the bacterial quality of water or waste discharges by a standardized procedure in a central examining laboratory remote from the sample source. PMID:4572892

Taylor, R H; Bordner, R H; Scarpino, P V

1973-03-01

206

BIOASSAY PROCEDURES FOR PREDICTING COLIFORM BACTERIAL GROWTH IN DRINKING WATER  

Science.gov (United States)

Water quality degradation due to the growth of microorganisms is an area of concern for many water utilities. o date, the procedures developed or determining the amount of biodegradable material present in potable water have utilized heterotrophic non-coliform bacteria as bioassa...

207

Serum total bilirubin levels and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in Chinese population.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Patients with type 2 diabetes are at a high risk of developing microvascular complications such as diabetic retinopathy. Previous literatures showed that low serum bilirubin concentration in type 2 diabetic patients might confer increased risk of diabetic complications. Thus, we aimed to investigate the association between the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and levels of serum total bilirubin in a Chinese population. METHODS: This research was a population-based cross-sectional study, which included 1761 diabetic patients aged 40 years or older in Jiading district of Shanghai, China. Fundus photographs were taken to confirm the presence and severity of diabetic retinopathy. The subjects were assigned in to quartiles based on serum total bilirubin concentration (quartile 1 < 0.60 mg/dl, quartile 2 = 0.60-0.76 mg/dl, quartile 3 = 0.77-0.99 mg/dl, and quartile 4 > 0.99 mg/dl). Logistic regression models were used to explore the association of different bilirubin level groups and prevalence of diabetic retinopathy. RESULTS: The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 9.6 % in our population. The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was significantly lower in quartile 4 as compared to the other three quartiles (P for trend = 0.004). After adjustment for multiple confounding factors, diabetics with highest serum bilirubin quartile (> 0.99 mg/dl) were less likely (OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.33-0.91) to suffer from diabetic retinopathy as compared to those with lowest bilirubin quartile (< 0.60 mg/dl). CONCLUSION: Serum bilirubin levels were inversely associated with diabetic retinopathy in an elderly Chinese population, which is independent of traditional risk factors.

Najam SS; Sun J; Zhang J; Xu M; Lu J; Sun K; Li M; Wang T; Bi Y; Ning G

2013-08-01

208

Total Quality Management in Classroom at University Level in Islamabad City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The progress of a country inter-depends on the quality of education provided to its citizens. Higher level Education is the most important stage in education system of any country. This stage provides educated graduates and skilled workers that immediatelyenters into the practical field and takes over the responsibilities. That is why to increase the quality of education at this stage is the foremost mission of all the countries. By defining the term, quality is the level of satisfaction for which the consumer pays. In thecase of education, the Consumer is the student as well as society. Therefore, quality education is the standard of education that satisfies the students and society both. The main objectives of this study were to identify the indicators of Total Quality Management(T.Q.M) in classroom to study the efforts of teachers to ensure TQM in classroom and to identify the ways to improve the quality of education at higher level.From the findings of the study it was revealed that the teachers did not covered the five standards of TQM elements completely, students were not completely satisfied by the teaching methodology during knowledge transitory process. Most of the teachers were not prepared before delivering there lectures, teacher showed biasness that discouraged the students. Teacher also ignored the daily assessment of the students, and use of the audio visual (AV) aids in classroom, obsolete teaching material, and ineffective material caused failure to produce total quality education, and failed to produce skilled workforce. Based upon the conclusion of the study it is recommended that teacher may be punctual, teacher should use AV aids for teaching in classroom, teachers may be prepared well before delivering the lecture, teacher may encourage the classroom discussion, andteacher may treat equally in classroom.

Tanvir Kayani

2012-01-01

209

Effect of two-level total disc replacement on cervical spine kinematics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

STUDY DESIGN: Biomechanical study using human cadaver spines. OBJECTIVE: To characterize kinematics of cervical spines implanted with total disc replacement (TDR) at 2-levels referencing the implanted and adjacent levels. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Cervical TDR is an appealing alternative to fusion particularly when treating multilevel disease, where the advantages of maintaining motion and reducing adjacent level stresses with TDR are compelling. To our knowledge there are no biomechanical studies evaluating multilevel cervical TDR. METHODS: Six human cadaveric cervical spine specimens (C3-C7, age: 57 +/- 12 years) were tested (i) intact, (ii) after TDR (Discover, DePuy, Raynham, MA) at C5-C6, and (iii) after additional TDR at C6-C7. Specimens were subjected to flexion/extension, lateral bending and axial rotation (+/-1.5 Nm). Segmental range of motion (ROM) was measured using optoelectronic instrumentation and fluoroscopy. RESULTS: Insertion of TDR at C5-C6 increased flexion/extension ROM of the implanted segment compared with intact (8.6 +/- 1.0 vs. 12.3 +/- 3.3 degrees , P < 0.025). The TDR maintained ROM to intact levels in lateral bending (7.4 +/- 2.6 vs 6.0 +/- 1.6, P > 0.025) and axial rotation (5.5 +/- 1.9 vs. 6.0 +/- 2.9, P > 0.025). The TDR at C5-C6 did not affect ROM at the adjacent levels. Implantation of a second TDR at C6-C7 maintained the ROM at that segment to intact values in flexion/extension (9.6 +/- 4.3 vs. 11.2 +/- 5.5, P > 0.025), lateral bending (6.1 +/- 4.0 vs. 4.1 +/- 2.1, P > 0.025), and axial rotation (6.7 +/- 3.6 vs. 5.5 +/- 3.7, P > 0.025). The second TDR at C6-C7 did not affect the ROM of the prosthesis implanted at C5-C6. Two-level TDR at C5-C6-C7 did not affect the ROM at C4-C5 in flexion/extension or axial rotation, however, in lateral bending a small increase occurred (8.9 +/- 3.6 vs. 10.1 +/- 4.5, P < 0.025). CONCLUSION: Cervical TDR at 2 levels can provide near-normal mobility at both levels without destabilizing the implanted segments or affecting adjacent segment motions. These observations lend support to the notion that single or multilevel cervical TDR may be advantageous when compared to fusion.

Phillips FM; Tzermiadianos MN; Voronov LI; Havey RM; Carandang G; Dooris A; Patwardhan AG

2009-10-01

210

Leveling Process of Total Electron Content (TEC) Using Malaysian Global Positioning System (GPS) Data  

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Full Text Available The signals from the satellites of the Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS) travel through the earth's ionosphere on their way to GPS receivers. However, ionospheric delay is one of the main sources of error in GPS. The magnitude of the ionospheric delay is influenced by the Total Electron Content (TEC) along the radio wave path from a GPS satellite to the ground receiver. This study investigates the TEC using GPS data collected from Wisma Tanah, Kuala Lumpur, KTPK (3° 10' 15.44"N, 101° 43' 03.35"E) station and processed and analyzed under quiet geomagnetic day at the equatorial region on 8 November 2005. This research assesses the errors translated from the code-delay to the carrier-phase ionospheric observable by the so-called leveling process, which was applied to reduce multipath from the data. It was found that the leveled carrier-phase ionosphere observable was affected by a systematic error, produced by code-delay multipath through the leveling procedure. The effects, however, do not cancel after averaging all the data. Dual frequency carrier-phase and code-delay GPS observations are combined to obtain ionospheric observable related to the slant TEC (TECs) along the satellite-receiver line of sight (los). This results in the absolute differential delay and the remaining noise was discarded. These are the first results obtained using TEC-GPS technique for TEC measurement in Malaysia.

Y. Norsuzila; M. Abdullah; M. Ismail

2008-01-01

211

[Prevalence of Cyclospora sp., Cryptosporidium sp, microsporidia and fecal coliform determination in fresh fruit and vegetables consumed in Costa Rica].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The presence of Cyclospora sp., Cryptosporidium sp. and microsporidia and the levels of fecal coliforms were determined in lettuce, parsley, cilantro, strawberries and blackberries acquired in local agricultural markets of the Central Valley of Costa Rica, in order to establish the possible transmission risk of these microorganisms and other pathogens from the consumption of these raw products. During the second semester of 2001 and the first of 2002, 50 different samples of each product, 25 taken in the dry season and 25 in the rainy season and coming from five different local agricultural markets were evaluated. The fecal coliforms count was done according to the technique recommended by Vanderzant & Splittstoesser. The parasite determination was done using Zielh Nielsen and Weber staining techniques from a sediment obtained through the rinse of the mentioned products, using sterile peptonated water 0.1% and centrifuging at 900 G for 15 min. One hundred per cent of vegetable samples had fecal coliforms and the greatest prevalence was obtained during the rainy season. Although all vegetables presented fecal coliforms in high concentrations, lettuce and cilantro presented statistical difference between rainy and dry season, being greater during the rainy season. Fecal coliforms were not detected in strawberries and blackberries probablydue to its low pH. All products evaluated presented, at least once, Cryptosporidium sp., Cyclospora sp. and microsporidia, showing the risk they represent to Public Health. Cryptosporidium was present in all products but strawberries. Microsporidia was present in all products except blackberries and Cyclospora was only isolated from lettuce during the dry season. These results show the importance of introducing in the country Good Agricultural Practices, especially due to the resistance of Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora to disinfecting agents.

Calvo M; Carazo M; Arias ML; Chaves C; Monge R; Chinchilla M

2004-12-01

212

[Prevalence of Cyclospora sp., Cryptosporidium sp, microsporidia and fecal coliform determination in fresh fruit and vegetables consumed in Costa Rica].  

Science.gov (United States)

The presence of Cyclospora sp., Cryptosporidium sp. and microsporidia and the levels of fecal coliforms were determined in lettuce, parsley, cilantro, strawberries and blackberries acquired in local agricultural markets of the Central Valley of Costa Rica, in order to establish the possible transmission risk of these microorganisms and other pathogens from the consumption of these raw products. During the second semester of 2001 and the first of 2002, 50 different samples of each product, 25 taken in the dry season and 25 in the rainy season and coming from five different local agricultural markets were evaluated. The fecal coliforms count was done according to the technique recommended by Vanderzant & Splittstoesser. The parasite determination was done using Zielh Nielsen and Weber staining techniques from a sediment obtained through the rinse of the mentioned products, using sterile peptonated water 0.1% and centrifuging at 900 G for 15 min. One hundred per cent of vegetable samples had fecal coliforms and the greatest prevalence was obtained during the rainy season. Although all vegetables presented fecal coliforms in high concentrations, lettuce and cilantro presented statistical difference between rainy and dry season, being greater during the rainy season. Fecal coliforms were not detected in strawberries and blackberries probablydue to its low pH. All products evaluated presented, at least once, Cryptosporidium sp., Cyclospora sp. and microsporidia, showing the risk they represent to Public Health. Cryptosporidium was present in all products but strawberries. Microsporidia was present in all products except blackberries and Cyclospora was only isolated from lettuce during the dry season. These results show the importance of introducing in the country Good Agricultural Practices, especially due to the resistance of Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora to disinfecting agents. PMID:15969268

Calvo, Melvin; Carazo, Melissa; Arias, Maria Laura; Chaves, Carolina; Monge, Rafael; Chinchilla, Misael

2004-12-01

213

Research of total levels on DNA methylation in plant based on HPLC analysis  

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Full Text Available HPLC analysis is important for determination of total level on DNA methylation in plants. It can be used to help characterise epigenetic changes during growth, development and stress. HPLC methods have been optimised for mammalian and microbial DNA, but not for plants. This article examines several important factors in the HPLC analysis of plant DNA methylation including extraction and purification of DNA and HPLC conditions choice by using leaves of rice seedling. The experimental results showed that RNA of nucleic acid was removed by using RNase A. This study also identified critical components of HPLC analysis. With the optimized method of HPLC conditions, the better result was achieved in the chromatogram of cytosine and 5-methylcytosine in genomic DNA acid hydrolysis. The study would offer a comprehensive guide for the stringent analysis of DNA methylation in plants.

Qiang Chen; Siyuan Tao; Xiaohua Bi; Xin Xu; Lanlan Wang; Xuemei Li

2013-01-01

214

[Correlation of fat content and dioxins, total mercury and methyl mercury levels in tuna].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In this study, we analyzed the concentrations of mercury and dioxins in tuna with various fat contents (akami; the leaner meat, Chutoro; the belly area of the tuna along the side of the fish between the akami and the otoro. Otoro; the fattiest portion of the tuna) in wild and farmed bluefin tuna and farmed southern bluefin tuna. In the three kinds of tuna, average dioxins concentrations in Akami, chutoro and otoro were 1.7, 4.7 and 9.6 pg TEQ/g, respectively. The dioxins concentration in all three regions of tuna was in direct proportion to the fat content. In the farmed bluefin tuna, the dioxins concentration was almost the same as that of the wild tuna, but differed from that of the farmed southern bluefin tuna. Average total mercury concentration based on wet weight in akami was 0.42 µg/g, being higher than the values of 0.36 µg/g of chutoro and 0.31 µg/g of otoro, and in inverse proportion to the fat content. In all three regions, the total mercury concentration of the wild bluefin tuna was equal to that of the farmed tuna. The total mercury concentration in the latter was two to three times higher than that of the farmed southern bluefin tuna. If the Japanese intake is one fin of tuna (80 g) a day, the daily intake levels of dioxins and methyl mercury can be estimated as 0.48-37 pg TEQ/kg bw and 0.21-0.90 µg/kg bw, respectively.

Kawakami H; Amakura Y; Tsutsumi T; Sasaki K; Iketsu A; Inasaki M; Kubota E; Toyoda M

2010-01-01

215

Economical Appraisal of Total Aflatoxin Level in the Poultry Feeds by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Single-bounce attenuated total reflectance (SB-ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been used for the quantitative determination of total aflatoxins in the broiler poultry feed. An FTIR calibration spanning the range 1-70 micro g/L aflatoxin standards in (70:30, v/v) methanol-water solvent system based on partial least square (PLS) model, developed by relating mid IR region between 3755-950 cm/ sub -1/. The excellent coefficient of various (using 0.998) was achieved with 1.49 relative mean square error of calibration (RMSEC). Aflatoxins from each of eight poultry feeds was extracted and the determined by the widely used commercially available Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) procedure and the SB-ATR/FTIR method. The SB-ATR/FTIR aflatoxins predictions were related to those determined by the ELISA method by linear regression, producing an R value of 0.989 and a SD of +- 2.80 micro g/L. The result of the study clearly indicated that FT-IR spectroscopy due to its rapidity and simplicity along with data manipulation by advance computer software could be effectively used for routine determination of aflatoxins present in the poultry feeds at very low level. (author)

2013-01-01

216

Evaluation of Colilert-18 for the detection of coliforms and Escherichia coli in tropical fresh water.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: To evaluate the suitability of Colilert-18 in detecting Escherichia coli and total coliforms in tropical freshwater samples. METHODS AND RESULTS: Target organisms were isolated from yellow-fluorescent and yellow wells of Colilert-18/Quanti-Tray using m-TEC agar and m-ENDO LES agar respectively. All the selected isolates were first identified based on their fatty acid methyl ester profile. Isolates showing contradictory results to that of the Colilert-18 procedure were re-identified using API 20E strips. A total of 357 isolates, 177 from yellow-fluorescent wells and 180 from yellow wells, were identified. CONCLUSIONS: The false-positive and -negative rates for E. coli detection using Colilert-18 were 36.4% and 11%, respectively, while for coliform detection the false-positive rate was 10.3%. SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The high false-positive rate of Colilert-18, tempers its value for E. coli detection when used for tropical freshwater samples.

Chao WL

2006-02-01

217

Temperature-independent pectin gel method for coliform determination in dairy products: collaborative study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ten laboratories participated in a collaborative study to compare a pectin-based violet red bile (VRB) method with the VRB agar-based standard method for estimation of coliform bacterial counts in 7 different dairy food groups: cream, cheddar cheese, cottage cheese, homogenized milk, raw milk, sour cream, and yogurt. Each laboratory analyzed 8 samples of each food group as sample pairs prepared at high, medium, and low inoculum levels, and an uninoculated control pair. Overall mean log counts were higher for the pectin gel method in 18 of 21 cases (7 samples at 3 inoculum levels); 12 results were significantly higher (P less than 0.01) than those for the VRB agar method. Of the 3 higher VRB agar method means, 2 were not significant at P less than 0.10, and one was of borderline significance (0.05 less than P less than 0.06). Repeatability variation (sr) favored the pectin gel method in 14 of 21 cases; 7 were highly significant differences (P less than 0.01). None of the 7 results favoring the VRB agar method was statistically significant. Reproducibility variation (sR) favored the pectin gel method in 14 of 21 results. These data indicate that the pectin gel method gives higher recovery of coliforms with better precision than does the VRB agar method, and strongly support the suitability of the pectin gel method as an alternative to the agar-based VRB method for coliform counts in dairy products. The pectin gel method has been adopted official first action.

Roth JN; Bontrager GL

1989-03-01

218

Temperature-independent pectin gel method for coliform determination in dairy products: collaborative study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ten laboratories participated in a collaborative study to compare a pectin-based violet red bile (VRB) method with the VRB agar-based standard method for estimation of coliform bacterial counts in 7 different dairy food groups: cream, cheddar cheese, cottage cheese, homogenized milk, raw milk, sour cream, and yogurt. Each laboratory analyzed 8 samples of each food group as sample pairs prepared at high, medium, and low inoculum levels, and an uninoculated control pair. Overall mean log counts were higher for the pectin gel method in 18 of 21 cases (7 samples at 3 inoculum levels); 12 results were significantly higher (P less than 0.01) than those for the VRB agar method. Of the 3 higher VRB agar method means, 2 were not significant at P less than 0.10, and one was of borderline significance (0.05 less than P less than 0.06). Repeatability variation (sr) favored the pectin gel method in 14 of 21 cases; 7 were highly significant differences (P less than 0.01). None of the 7 results favoring the VRB agar method was statistically significant. Reproducibility variation (sR) favored the pectin gel method in 14 of 21 results. These data indicate that the pectin gel method gives higher recovery of coliforms with better precision than does the VRB agar method, and strongly support the suitability of the pectin gel method as an alternative to the agar-based VRB method for coliform counts in dairy products. The pectin gel method has been adopted official first action. PMID:2708281

Roth, J N; Bontrager, G L

219

Controlled disposal of domestic effluent sewage in the ground to reduce fecal coliforms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The indiscriminate launching in water bodies of domestic sewage without treatment, or even treated, but without appropriate disinfection, contributes with significant amount of organisms of the called "coliform group” that can carry specific illnesses agents propagated through the water. The application of effluent in the ground, instead of direct disposal in water courses, in addition to being an alternative way for the disposal of residues and biological control of pollutants, constitutes an adequate way of nutrients supply to the soil and plants. So, this work had as objective the evaluation of the reduction of fecal coliforms, after controlled applications of 60 days treated effluent in cultivated soil, by analyzing the increase of fluorescent rhizobacterias Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus spp. present in the rhizospheres of different crops. The experiment was developed in field conditions in the Experimental Farm of Department of Agrarian Sciences of the University of Taubaté, municipality of Taubaté, SP. The Experimental design consisted of random blocks, with five treatments including annual crops (Oats, Barley, Triticale - a cross between wheat and rye, Black Beans and non-cultivated soil as witness - blank reference) and four repetitions, totalizing 20 ground plots with area of 2 m x 1 m with 50 cm space among plots on a Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latossol. Results from the microbial analyses of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil indicated that the rhizosphere of oats had denser rhizobacterias than the other crops. However, the greatest efficiency was found in the reduction of thermo-tolerant coliforms for both black beans and non-cultivated soil.

Teresa Blandina Castro Ribas; Paulo Fortes Neto

2008-01-01

220

A comparison between faecal sterols and coliform counts in the investigation of sewage contamination in sediments  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In September 2002, nine sediment samples (0-2 cm) were collected from Botafogo Cove (southwestern part of Guanabara Bay) in order to compare the use of chemical (coprostanol) and biological markers (E. coli and total coliforms) in identifying faecal contamination. The values found (organic carbon - 6.0 to 64.8 mg g-1; coprostanol - 1.4 to 105 µg g-1; E. coli - Em setembro de 2002, foram coletadas nove amostras de sedimento superficial (0-2 cm) na Enseada de Botafogo (sudoeste da Baía de Guanabara/RJ), a fim de comparar o uso de marcadores químicos (coprostanol) e biológicos (E. coli e coliformes totais) na identificação da contaminação fecal da região. Os resultados obtidos (carbono orgânico - 6,0 to 64,8 mg g-1; coprostanol - 1,4 to 105 µg g-1; E. coli - < 30 to 2400 NMP/10g e coliformes totais - 40 to 9300 NMP/10g) foram iguais ou maiores aos observados em outras áreas contaminadas da Baía de Guanabara. Nas estações próximas à linha de costa, as concentrações de coprostanol e as contagens das bactérias confirmaram que o esgoto doméstico se acumulou no sedimento da enseada. As concentrações de coprostanol se mantiveram altas nas estações distantes das fontes de contaminação, porém o material fecal representou uma menor fração do carbono orgânico. Nessas mesmas estações, redução na contagem de colimetria foi proporcionalmente mais alta, provavelmente pela baixa sobrevivência das bactérias devido ao efeito de luz, salinidade e temperatura. durante o transporte e deposição das partículas de esgoto. Portanto, baseando-se nos resultados obtidos, o coprostanol foi um indicador mais adequado da contaminação fecal nos sedimentos da Enseada de Botafogo.

Renata Lima da Costa; Renato S. Carreira

2005-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Kinematics of cervical total disc replacement adjacent to a two-level, straight versus lordotic fusion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

STUDY DESIGN: In vitro biomechanical study. OBJECTIVE: To characterize cervical total disc replacement (TDR) kinematics above two-level fusion, and to determine the effect of fusion alignment on TDR response. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Cervical TDR may be a promising alternative for a symptomatic adjacent level after prior multilevel cervical fusion. However, little is known about the TDR kinematics in this setting. METHODS: Eight human cadaveric cervical spines (C2-T1, age: 59 ± 8.6 years) were tested intact, after simulated two-level fusion (C4-C6) in lordotic alignment and then in straight alignment, and after C3-C4 TDR above the C4-C6 fusion in lordotic and straight alignments. Fusion was simulated using an external fixator apparatus, allowing easy adjustment of C4-C6 fusion alignment, and restoration to intact state upon disassembly. Specimens were tested in flexion-extension using hybrid testing protocols. RESULTS: The external fixator device significantly reduced range of motion (ROM) at C4-C6 to 2.0 ± 0.6°, a reduction of 89 ± 3.0% (P < 0.05). Removal of the fusion construct restored the motion response of the spinal segments to their intact state. The C3-C4 TDR resulted in less motion as compared to the intact segment when the disc prosthesis was implanted either as a stand-alone procedure or above a two-level fusion. The decrease in motion of C3-C4 TDR was significant for both lordotic and straight fusions across C4-C6 (P < 0.05). Flexion and extension moments needed to bring the cervical spine to similar C2 motion endpoints significantly increased for the TDR above a two-level fusion compared to TDR alone (P < 0.05). Lordotic fusion required significantly greater flexion moment, whereas straight fusion required significantly greater extension moment (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: TDR placed adjacent to a two-level fusion is subjected to a more challenging biomechanical environment as compared to a stand-alone TDR. An artificial disc used in such a clinical scenario should be able to accommodate the increased moment loads without causing impingement of its endplates or undue wear during the expected life of the prosthesis.

Martin S; Ghanayem AJ; Tzermiadianos MN; Voronov LI; Havey RM; Renner SM; Carandang G; Abjornson C; Patwardhan AG

2011-08-01

222

Analytical method of total {beta} activity in high level radioactive solution. Possibility of application of GM counter method to total {beta} analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Analytical design of RETE set up a GM counter method as an analytical method of total {beta} activity in the high level radioactive solution. To confirm the fundamental properties of GM counter, RI test was carried out by use of {sup 90}Sr as pure {beta} source and {sup 137}Cs as {beta} and {gamma} source. Hot test of the light water reactor reprocessing liquid waste indicated that this method could be used as the analytical method of total {beta} in the high level radioactive solution. Important results were explained as following: the detection efficiency of GM counter at {gamma} ray 0.06 to 0.66 MeV was 0.25% or below. Its effect on the total {beta} ray measurement was negligible. The internal conversion electron radiated from {sup 137}Cs ({sup 137m}Ba) gave positive effect on the total counter and the effect on the nuclide components in the light water reactor reprocessing liquid waste was about 3.5%. The total beta activity in the light water reactor reprocessing liquid waste was determined by this method, and the values obtained were 7.4 x 10{sup 9} and 8.3 x 10{sup 9} Bq/ml which agreed with the values by ORIGEN-2 etc. Reproducibility of the total {beta} activity, analytical value by high dilute solution-GM counter direct method was in the range of 1.8% (RSD) that was enough to a process analytical method. (S.Y.)

Shiba, Masanori [Joyo Industry Co. Ltd., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Funakoshi, Tomomasa; Suganuma, Takashi; Tanaka, Yasumasa

1997-11-01

223

Comparison of the effects of total blood substitution during two different levels of hypothermic cardiac arrest.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of total blood replacement with a solution containing neither hemoglobin nor fluorocarbon was studied under two different levels of hypothermia. Ten dogs were anesthetized and esophageal temperature lowered to about 24 degrees at which time exsanguination began. Upon cardiac arrest and the completion of exsanguination, continuous whole body closed chest extracorporeal circulation of an oxygenated blood substitute was begun. Hematocrit was 1% while core temperature remained less than 10 degrees C for 3 hours of perfusion during which nadirs of 1.3 degrees C (Group I, N = 5) and 7.3 degrees (Group II, N = 5) were achieved. Replacement of the perfusate with whole blood began once the dog was rewarmed to approximately 10 degrees C. All dogs survived the procedure. Two dogs from each group died by the fourth post-operative day but the others survived long term. Group II showed a faster return to normal based on motor behavioral, biochemical and hematological changes. Thus the combination of profound hypothermia and complete blood substitution with a solution lacking any special oxygen carrying molecule, can be tolerated for 3 hours using both levels of hypothermia, however, the warmer one appears to be associated with faster recovery. PMID:1391541

Leavitt, M L; Bailes, J E; Elrifai, A M; Teeple, E; Shih, T S; Ciongoli, K; Devenyi, C; Bazmi, B; Maroon, J C

1992-01-01

224

Modeling the transport and distribution of fecal coliform in a tidal estuary.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A laterally averaged two-dimensional fecal coliform transport model incorporated into hydrodynamic and salt modules was developed to simulate the fate and transport of fecal coliform in the tidal Danshui River estuary of northern Taiwan. We validated the developed model with measured data, including longitudinal velocity, salinity, and fecal coliform concentration, collected in 2000. The simulated results of current, salinity, and fecal coliform concentration quantitatively agreed well with the measured data. The model sensitivity analysis indicated that the mortality rate plays an important role in the distribution of fecal coliform concentrations along the tidal Danshui River estuary to Tahan Stream. The validated model was applied to investigate the effects of different freshwater discharges at upstream boundaries on the distributions of fecal coliform. The results revealed that low freshwater discharge resulted in a higher fecal coliform concentration at upstream reaches but had little influence on the downstream of the estuary.

Liu WC; Huang WC

2012-08-01

225

Modeling the transport and distribution of fecal coliform in a tidal estuary.  

Science.gov (United States)

A laterally averaged two-dimensional fecal coliform transport model incorporated into hydrodynamic and salt modules was developed to simulate the fate and transport of fecal coliform in the tidal Danshui River estuary of northern Taiwan. We validated the developed model with measured data, including longitudinal velocity, salinity, and fecal coliform concentration, collected in 2000. The simulated results of current, salinity, and fecal coliform concentration quantitatively agreed well with the measured data. The model sensitivity analysis indicated that the mortality rate plays an important role in the distribution of fecal coliform concentrations along the tidal Danshui River estuary to Tahan Stream. The validated model was applied to investigate the effects of different freshwater discharges at upstream boundaries on the distributions of fecal coliform. The results revealed that low freshwater discharge resulted in a higher fecal coliform concentration at upstream reaches but had little influence on the downstream of the estuary. PMID:22652036

Liu, Wen-Cheng; Huang, Wei-Cher

2012-05-29

226

Nível de testosterona total em mulheres pós-menopausa com olho seco Total testosterone level in postmenopausal women with dry eye  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o nível sérico de testosterona total entre mulheres pós-menopausa divididas em 3 grupos: controle, olho seco leve a moderado e olho seco intenso. MÉTODOS: No ambulatório de climatério foram selecionadas 29 mulheres pós-menopausa que não faziam reposição hormonal há pelo menos 8 semanas. Critérios de exclusão: alterações palpebrais mecânicas, pterígio, obstrução de vias lacrimais, inflamação intra-ocular e uso de lente de contato. As mulheres selecionadas foram submetidas à dosagem de testosterona total, aplicação do questionário OSDI (Ocular Surface Disease Index) e exame oftalmológico para detecção de olho seco. As mulheres foram divididas em 3 grupos conforme o resultado do escore OSDI e do exame oftalmológico. RESULTADOS: Cinco pacientes foram classificadas como ausência de olho seco, 15 com olho seco leve a moderado e 4 com olho seco intenso. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre a média dos valores das idades (p=0,3915); nível de instrução (p=0,9333); doenças associadas (p=0,2551); tipo de medicação utilizada (p=0,2844) e nível sérico de testosterona total entre os grupos (p=0,1275). CONCLUSÃO: Não encontramos diferença estatisticamente significativa entre o nível de testosterona total entre mulheres pós-menopausa com olho seco. Novos estudos clínicos com maior amostra são necessários para melhor esclarecer a relação dos níveis séricos dos androgênios nos portadores de olho seco.PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare total testosterone blood level among three groups of postmenopausal women: control, mild to moderate dry eye and severe dry eye. METHODS: Twenty-nine postmenopausal women were selected. The exclusion criteria were: hormone replacement therapy in the last 8 weeks, mechanical palpebral abnormalities, pterygium, lacrimal obstructions, intraocular inflammation or contact lens use. A blood sample was collected for total testosterone level determination, and the patients were submitted to an ophthalmologic examination (emphasizing on dry eye detection) and answered the OSDI (Ocular Surface Disease Index) questionnaire. Five patients were excluded. Postmenopausal women were divided into three groups according to OSDI score and the ophthalmic examination. RESULTS: Five patients were classified in the no dry eye group (control), fifteen in the mild to moderate dry eye group and four in the severe dry eye group. There were no statistically significant differences regarding mean age (p=0.3915); instruction level (p=0.9333); number of comorbidities (p=0.2551); medication taken (p=0.2844) and total testosterone level among those groups (p=0.1275). CONCLUSION: Further research with a greater bigger sample is necessary to establish the relation of androgen levels in dry eye patients.

Maria Cecília Barros Duarte; Natércia Trindade Pinto; Hamilton Moreira; Ana Tereza Ramos Moreira; Daniel Wasilewski

2007-01-01

227

Nível de testosterona total em mulheres pós-menopausa com olho seco/ Total testosterone level in postmenopausal women with dry eye  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: Comparar o nível sérico de testosterona total entre mulheres pós-menopausa divididas em 3 grupos: controle, olho seco leve a moderado e olho seco intenso. MÉTODOS: No ambulatório de climatério foram selecionadas 29 mulheres pós-menopausa que não faziam reposição hormonal há pelo menos 8 semanas. Critérios de exclusão: alterações palpebrais mecânicas, pterígio, obstrução de vias lacrimais, inflamação intra-ocular e uso de lente de contato. As (more) mulheres selecionadas foram submetidas à dosagem de testosterona total, aplicação do questionário OSDI (Ocular Surface Disease Index) e exame oftalmológico para detecção de olho seco. As mulheres foram divididas em 3 grupos conforme o resultado do escore OSDI e do exame oftalmológico. RESULTADOS: Cinco pacientes foram classificadas como ausência de olho seco, 15 com olho seco leve a moderado e 4 com olho seco intenso. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre a média dos valores das idades (p=0,3915); nível de instrução (p=0,9333); doenças associadas (p=0,2551); tipo de medicação utilizada (p=0,2844) e nível sérico de testosterona total entre os grupos (p=0,1275). CONCLUSÃO: Não encontramos diferença estatisticamente significativa entre o nível de testosterona total entre mulheres pós-menopausa com olho seco. Novos estudos clínicos com maior amostra são necessários para melhor esclarecer a relação dos níveis séricos dos androgênios nos portadores de olho seco. Abstract in english PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare total testosterone blood level among three groups of postmenopausal women: control, mild to moderate dry eye and severe dry eye. METHODS: Twenty-nine postmenopausal women were selected. The exclusion criteria were: hormone replacement therapy in the last 8 weeks, mechanical palpebral abnormalities, pterygium, lacrimal obstructions, intraocular inflammation or contact lens use. A blood sample was collected for total testost (more) erone level determination, and the patients were submitted to an ophthalmologic examination (emphasizing on dry eye detection) and answered the OSDI (Ocular Surface Disease Index) questionnaire. Five patients were excluded. Postmenopausal women were divided into three groups according to OSDI score and the ophthalmic examination. RESULTS: Five patients were classified in the no dry eye group (control), fifteen in the mild to moderate dry eye group and four in the severe dry eye group. There were no statistically significant differences regarding mean age (p=0.3915); instruction level (p=0.9333); number of comorbidities (p=0.2551); medication taken (p=0.2844) and total testosterone level among those groups (p=0.1275). CONCLUSION: Further research with a greater bigger sample is necessary to establish the relation of androgen levels in dry eye patients.

Duarte, Maria Cecília Barros; Pinto, Natércia Trindade; Moreira, Hamilton; Moreira, Ana Tereza Ramos; Wasilewski, Daniel

2007-06-01

228

THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN G6PD DEFICIENCY AND TOTAL SERUM BILIRUBIN LEVEL IN ICTERIC NEONATES  

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Full Text Available "nGlucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most important disease of the hexose monophosphate pathway. Deficiency of this enzym can lead to hemolysis of red blood cells. Our aim was to study the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in relation to neonatal jaundice. We studied 456 clinically icteric neonates Laboratory investigations included determination of direct and indirect serum bilirubin concentrations, blood group typing, direct coomb's test, hemoglobin, blood smear, reticulocyte count and G6PD level. We divided these neonates to 3 groups based on total serum bilirubin level (TSB): TSB< 20 mg%, TSB=20-25 mg%, and TSB>25 mg%. In only 35 (7.6%) of cases G6PD deficiency was diagnosed. All of these babies were male. From 456 icteric neonates, 213 cases belong to group 1 (TSB<20 mg%), 158 cases belong to group 2 (TSB=20-25 mg%) and 85 cases belong to group 3 (TSB>25 mg%). 16 neonates from 213 neonates of group 1, 6 neonates from 158 neonates of group 2 and 13 neonates from 85 neonates of group 3 had G6PD deficiency. There was statistically significant difference of prevalence of G6PD deficiency between group 2 and 3 ( 15.3% vs 3.8%)( P = 0.001). Between groups 1 vs 2 and 1 vs 3 no statistically significant difference was found. Early detection of this enzymopathy regardless of sex and close surveillance of the affected newborns may be important in reducing the risk of severe hyperbilirubinemia. This emphasizes the necessity of neonatal screening on cord blood samples for G6PD deficiency.

S. Behjati-Ardakani; A. Nikkhah M. Sedaghat

2007-01-01

229

Total estradiol, rather than testosterone levels, predicts osteoporosis in aging men.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To study and establish sex hormone cutoff levels for osteoporosis risk in men over 50 years old. METHODS: Case-control study of 216 men > 50 years, 110 with osteoporosis (O) and 106 with normal bone density (C). We measured estradiol (E2), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), total testosterone (TT) and albumin. Free testosterone (FT) and bioavailable testosterone (BT) were calculated through Vermeulen's formula. RESULTS: There was no difference in TT between groups. Relative risks of osteoporosis were 1.89 for E2 < 37 pg/mL (p = 0.02); 1.91 for SHBG > 55 nmol/L (p = 0.019); 2.5 for FT < 7 ng/dL (p = 0.015); 2.7 for BT < 180 ng/dL (p = 0.0003). CONCLUSIONS: In men over 50 years old, TT was not indicative of osteoporosis risk while E2 < 37 ng/mL was. SHBG > 55 nmol/L, FT < 7 ng/dL and BT < 180 ng/dL can represent additional indications for osteoporosis screening in men over 50 years old.

Clapauch R; Mattos TM; Silva P; Marinheiro LP; Buksman S; Schrank Y

2009-11-01

230

BRUCELLA AND COLIFORM ORGANISMS IN FRESH CHEESE PRODUCED IN HAMADAN – 2000  

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Full Text Available Milk and its Products possess high nutritional value. It could be a desirable source for growing of pathogenic microorganisms. The objectives of this study was to obtain the frequency of pathogenic bacterial agents (i.e. brucella spp. and coliforms) in fresh cheese in Hamedan. A total of 210 cheese samples were collected randomly from Hamadan and its rural area for a period of six months. 50 to 100 gm of fresh cheese was purchesed in each time and one gram weighted to preparation of diluted concentration in selective media. The data were gathered through a questionnaire and analysed using IEPI6"; system. Of 210 samples, only 5 cases (2.4 percent) of Brucella spp. Were isolated, however, all samples tested were positive for Coliforms contaminations (100 percent). E.coli type I was 143 (68.1 percent). E.coli type 11 42 (19.8 percent). The other major pathogenic bacteria isolated were as follows: Staph aureus 8.1 percent, Bacillus cereus 4.7 percent, psuedomonas 1.9 percent and Salmonella typhimurium 1.2 percent. Because of isolation of the pathogenic bacteria such as Brucella species, Pathogenic Cofiforms and Staph aures, from fresh cheese, and the role of them in transition of infectious disease, it is recommended that high health cares must be performed to preparation and distribution of fresh cheese.

R YOUSEFI MASHOUF

2002-01-01

231

Thyrocalcitonin: its importance on the regulation of the plasmatic levels in total thyroidectomy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of thyrocalcitonin ou calcium and blood phosphorus is studied. Twelve patients with adenocarcinoma of the thyroid, previously submited to total thyroidectomy and complementary radioiodine theraphy, are studied.

1975-01-01

232

Total Level of Serum Homocysteine in Males and Females with Coronary Heart Disease of Different Age Groups  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Elevated plasma total homocysteine concentration is a risk factor of cardiovascular disease. Total homocysteine level is a strong predictor of mortality in-patient with an angiographically confirmed Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), so we want to know at what age in males and f...

Faisal I. Mohammad; Sally Awawdeh; Akram Saleh; Nabil A. Bashir

233

Salmonelas e coliformes fecais em águas de bebida para animais Salmonellas and fecal conforms in animal drinking water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available De um total de 402 propriedades rurais do Município de Botucatu, SP (Brasil) com atividades de exploração pecuária, foram sorteadas 60 (15%) pelo processo de amostragem probabilística simples. Nestas 60 propriedades localizaram-se 113 bebedouros que eram os mais utilizados pelos animais para sua dessedentação. Foram colhidas amostras de água desses bebedouros visando a pesquisa de bactérias do gênero Salmonella, a determinação do Número Mais Provável (NMP) de bactérias coliformes fecais e a verificação do pH e da temperatura. Obteve-se isolamento positivo para salmonelas nas amostras de água de 15 (13,27%) bebedouros correspondentes a 12 (20%) das 60 propriedades visitadas, identificando-se os seguintes sorotipos: S. dublin, S. newport, S. madelia, S. IV 43:g, z57: -, S. saphra, S. glostrup, S. IV ochsenzool, S. I 9, 12:i: - e dois novos sorotipos S. IV 41:z52: - e S. IV 50:d:-. Das 113 amostras de água analisadas, 14 (12,39%) apresentaram-se com NMP/100 mL de coliformes fecais acima de 4.000. Não foi constatada associação entre o isolamento positivo de salmonelas e NMP/100 mL de coliformes fecais acima de 4.000. O isolamento de salmonelas e NMP/100 mL de coliformes fecais acima de 4.000 deu-se em temperaturas superiores a 18°C e em pH entre 6,0 e 7,0.Sixty small farms of Botucatu County, S.Paulo, Brazil, given over to cattle breeding were studied. These farms account for 15% of the total of 402 farms that exist in the county. The sample was drawn by simple probabilistic technique. There were found to be one hundred and thirteen drinking places located on the farms. Samples of water were taken from these drinking places and examined for bacteria of the genus Salmonella, for the determination of Most Probable Number (MNP) of fecal coliform bacteria as well as determination of the water's pH. Water temperature was measured before collection. Samples from 15 drinking places (13.3%) were positive for Salmonella. The drinking places belonged to 12 of the sixty farms studied (20%). The following serotypes were identifie d: S. dublin, S. newport, S. madelia, S. IV 43:g,z57:-, S. saphra, S. glostrup, S. IV ochsenzool; S. I9,12:i:-and two new serotypes S. IV 41:z52:- and S. IV 50:d:-. Of the 113 samples studied 14 (12,4%) presented MPN/100ml of fecal coliforms above 4,000. There was no relationship between MPN/100ml of fecal coliforms above 4,000 and positivity for Salmonella. Highest positivity both for Salmonella and MPN/100mL of fecal coliforms over 4,000 occurred at temperatures above 18°C. As regards pH, in both situations the highest positivity occurred between 6.0 and 7.0.

Luiz Carlos de Souza; Sebastião Timo laria; Gil Vianna Paim

1992-01-01

234

Salmonelas e coliformes fecais em águas de bebida para animais/ Salmonellas and fecal conforms in animal drinking water  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese De um total de 402 propriedades rurais do Município de Botucatu, SP (Brasil) com atividades de exploração pecuária, foram sorteadas 60 (15%) pelo processo de amostragem probabilística simples. Nestas 60 propriedades localizaram-se 113 bebedouros que eram os mais utilizados pelos animais para sua dessedentação. Foram colhidas amostras de água desses bebedouros visando a pesquisa de bactérias do gênero Salmonella, a determinação do Número Mais Provável (NMP) d (more) e bactérias coliformes fecais e a verificação do pH e da temperatura. Obteve-se isolamento positivo para salmonelas nas amostras de água de 15 (13,27%) bebedouros correspondentes a 12 (20%) das 60 propriedades visitadas, identificando-se os seguintes sorotipos: S. dublin, S. newport, S. madelia, S. IV 43:g, z57: -, S. saphra, S. glostrup, S. IV ochsenzool, S. I 9, 12:i: - e dois novos sorotipos S. IV 41:z52: - e S. IV 50:d:-. Das 113 amostras de água analisadas, 14 (12,39%) apresentaram-se com NMP/100 mL de coliformes fecais acima de 4.000. Não foi constatada associação entre o isolamento positivo de salmonelas e NMP/100 mL de coliformes fecais acima de 4.000. O isolamento de salmonelas e NMP/100 mL de coliformes fecais acima de 4.000 deu-se em temperaturas superiores a 18°C e em pH entre 6,0 e 7,0. Abstract in english Sixty small farms of Botucatu County, S.Paulo, Brazil, given over to cattle breeding were studied. These farms account for 15% of the total of 402 farms that exist in the county. The sample was drawn by simple probabilistic technique. There were found to be one hundred and thirteen drinking places located on the farms. Samples of water were taken from these drinking places and examined for bacteria of the genus Salmonella, for the determination of Most Probable Number (MN (more) P) of fecal coliform bacteria as well as determination of the water's pH. Water temperature was measured before collection. Samples from 15 drinking places (13.3%) were positive for Salmonella. The drinking places belonged to 12 of the sixty farms studied (20%). The following serotypes were identifie d: S. dublin, S. newport, S. madelia, S. IV 43:g,z57:-, S. saphra, S. glostrup, S. IV ochsenzool; S. I9,12:i:-and two new serotypes S. IV 41:z52:- and S. IV 50:d:-. Of the 113 samples studied 14 (12,4%) presented MPN/100ml of fecal coliforms above 4,000. There was no relationship between MPN/100ml of fecal coliforms above 4,000 and positivity for Salmonella. Highest positivity both for Salmonella and MPN/100mL of fecal coliforms over 4,000 occurred at temperatures above 18°C. As regards pH, in both situations the highest positivity occurred between 6.0 and 7.0.

Souza, Luiz Carlos de; laria, Sebastião Timo; Paim, Gil Vianna

1992-10-01

235

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EFFICIENCY LEVEL OF WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT AND RETURN ON TOTAL ASSETS IN ISE (ISTANBUL STOCK EXCHANGE)  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In our study we aimed to determine the relationship between efficiency level of firms being traded in ISE in working capital management and their return on total assets. We tried to explain the relationship between different indicators relating to efficiency in working capital management and their return on total assets through two models. According to the results in terms of both all the firms involved in the study and sectors there is a significance negative relationship between cash conversion cycle, net working capital level, current ratio, accounts receivable period, inventory period and return on total assets. 

Mehmet ?EN; Eda ORUÇ

2009-01-01

236

Effect of dredge spoil deposition on fecal coliform counts in sediments at a disposal site.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The most-probable-number of fecal coliforms in sediments was monitored at the New London dump site in Long Island Sound during the deposition of dredge spoil from the Thames River. Although the geometric mean for fecal coliforms at five stations in the river was 14,000/100 ml before dredging commenced, the deposition of this material did not increase the incidence of fecal coliforms at 17 spoil stations and 13 control stations in the disposal and surrounding areas. Fecal coliforms appear to occur only in the surface sediment material and are diluted by the subsurface material during the dredging operation. Fecal coliform analyses of bottom waters during high and low tides indicated that the flow of water from the Thames River played a major role in determining the most-probable-number of fecal coliforms in the sediments at the disposal site.

Babinchak JA; Graikoski JT; Dudley S; Nitkowski MF

1977-07-01

237

Antibacterial behavior of silver-modified clinoptilolite-heulandite rich tuff on coliform microorganisms from wastewater in a column system.  

Science.gov (United States)

The water disinfecting behavior of silver-modified clinoptilolite-heulandite rich tuff (ZSAg) as an antibacterial agent against coliform microorganisms from water in a continuous mode was investigated. Silver recovery from the disinfected effluents by the sodium-modified clinoptilolite-heulandite rich tuff (ZSNa) was also considered. Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739) and total coliform microorganisms, as indicators of microbiological contamination of water, were chosen to achieve the disinfection of synthetic wastewater or municipal wastewater. Ammonium (NH(4)(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) ions were added to the synthetic wastewater as an interfering chemical species on the disinfection processes. The antibacterial activity of the ZSAg as a bactericide was measured by the coliform concentration as evaluated by the APHA method. The amount of silver in the disinfected effluents was determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The inactivation of the ZSAg was calculated from the breakthrough curves based on the model reported by Gupta et al. It was found that when the silver concentration in the effluent is less than 0.6 microg/mL, the bacterial survival percentage increased and the volume of disinfected water diminished. The total silver amounts found in the effluent at the end of the disinfection processes varied depending on the water treated (synthetic or municipal wastewater). The presence of NH(4)(+) ions in synthetic wastewater influent notably improved the disinfected water volume (zero NVC/100mL), in comparison to the disinfection of the same influent without NH(4)(+) ions. A contrary water disinfection behavior was observed in the presence of Cl(-) ions. The silver recovery does not depend on the mass of the sodium zeolitic bed according with the wastewater to be treated (synthetic or municipal wastewater) and the presence of NH(4)(+) or Cl(-) ions in the influent also influenced the silver recovery from wastewater. The ZSNa did not have antibacterial activity. Therefore the amount of bactericide agent (silver-modified natural zeolite), coliform microorganisms from water (E. coli or consort of coliform microorganisms) as well as the water quality (synthetic wastewater or municipal wastewater) influenced both the disinfection process and the silver recovery in a column system. PMID:17573181

De la Rosa-Gómez, I; Olguín, M T; Alcántara, D

2007-06-15

238

Antibacterial behavior of silver-modified clinoptilolite-heulandite rich tuff on coliform microorganisms from wastewater in a column system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The water disinfecting behavior of silver-modified clinoptilolite-heulandite rich tuff (ZSAg) as an antibacterial agent against coliform microorganisms from water in a continuous mode was investigated. Silver recovery from the disinfected effluents by the sodium-modified clinoptilolite-heulandite rich tuff (ZSNa) was also considered. Escherichia coli (ATCC 8739) and total coliform microorganisms, as indicators of microbiological contamination of water, were chosen to achieve the disinfection of synthetic wastewater or municipal wastewater. Ammonium (NH(4)(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) ions were added to the synthetic wastewater as an interfering chemical species on the disinfection processes. The antibacterial activity of the ZSAg as a bactericide was measured by the coliform concentration as evaluated by the APHA method. The amount of silver in the disinfected effluents was determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The inactivation of the ZSAg was calculated from the breakthrough curves based on the model reported by Gupta et al. It was found that when the silver concentration in the effluent is less than 0.6 microg/mL, the bacterial survival percentage increased and the volume of disinfected water diminished. The total silver amounts found in the effluent at the end of the disinfection processes varied depending on the water treated (synthetic or municipal wastewater). The presence of NH(4)(+) ions in synthetic wastewater influent notably improved the disinfected water volume (zero NVC/100mL), in comparison to the disinfection of the same influent without NH(4)(+) ions. A contrary water disinfection behavior was observed in the presence of Cl(-) ions. The silver recovery does not depend on the mass of the sodium zeolitic bed according with the wastewater to be treated (synthetic or municipal wastewater) and the presence of NH(4)(+) or Cl(-) ions in the influent also influenced the silver recovery from wastewater. The ZSNa did not have antibacterial activity. Therefore the amount of bactericide agent (silver-modified natural zeolite), coliform microorganisms from water (E. coli or consort of coliform microorganisms) as well as the water quality (synthetic wastewater or municipal wastewater) influenced both the disinfection process and the silver recovery in a column system.

De la Rosa-Gómez I; Olguín MT; Alcántara D

2008-09-01

239

Association between Plasma PFOA and PFOS Levels and Total Cholesterol in a Middle-Aged Danish Population  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are used in a variety of consumer products and have been detected worldwide in human blood. Recent studies mainly of highly exposed populations have indicated that PFOA and PFOS may affect serum cholesterol levels, but the magnitude of the effect may be inconsistent across exposure levels. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between plasma PFOA and PFOS and total cholesterol in a general, middle-aged Danish population. The study population comprised 753 individuals (663 men and 90 women), 50-65 years of age, nested within a Danish cohort of 57,053 participants. Blood samples were taken from all cohort members at enrolment (1993-1997) and stored in a biobank at -150°C. Plasma levels of PFOA and PFOS and serum levels of total cholesterol were measured. The associations between plasma PFOA and PFOS levels and total cholesterol levels were analysed by generalized linear models, both crude and adjusted for potential confounders. We observed statistically significant positive associations between both perfluorinated compounds and total cholesterol, e.g. a 4.4 [95% CI ?=? 1.1-7.8] higher concentration of total cholesterol (mg/dL) per interquartile range of PFOA plasma level. Sex and prevalent diabetes appeared to modify the association between PFOA and PFOS, respectively, and cholesterol. In conclusion, this study indicated positive associations between plasma PFOA and PFOS levels and total cholesterol in a middle-aged Danish population, although whether the observed pattern of results reflects a causal association is unclear.

Eriksen, Kirsten T; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

2013-01-01

240

Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on levels of serum autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus and in rheumatoid arthritis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The effects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on serum levels of autoantibodies, and of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and pneumococcal polysaccharide in patients with lupus nephritis were compared with those previously observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Baseline levels of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid and tetanus toxoid decreased significantly after TLI in patients with lupus and RA, but antibody levels to pneumococcal polysaccharide remained unchanged. After TLI, the levels of antinuclear and anti-DNA antibodies were reduced significantly in lupus, but levels of rheumatoid factor, antinuclear, and antigranulocyte antibodies all tended to increase in RA.

Tanay, A.; Schiffman, G.; Strober, S.

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on levels of serum autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus and in rheumatoid arthritis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The effects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on serum levels of autoantibodies, and of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and pneumococcal polysaccharide in patients with lupus nephritis were compared with those previously observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Baseline levels of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid and tetanus toxoid decreased significantly after TLI in patients with lupus and RA, but antibody levels to pneumococcal polysaccharide remained unchanged. After TLI, the levels of antinuclear and anti-DNA antibodies were reduced significantly in lupus, but levels of rheumatoid factor, antinuclear, and antigranulocyte antibodies all tended to increase in RA

1986-01-01

242

238U and 222Rn activity concentrations and total radioactivity levels in lake waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The concentrations and distributions of natural radioactivity, uranium and radon in lake waters from around Van, Turkey were investigated with an aim of evaluating the environmental radioactivity. Fourteen lake waters were collected from different six lakes around Van (Turkey) to determine 238U, 222Rn and total alpha and total beta distributions in 2009. The total ? and total ? activities were counted by using ?/? counter of the multi-detector low background system (PIC-MPC-9604) and the 238U concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (Thermo Scientific Element 2) and radon concentrations were measured with the solid state nuclear track detector technique. The activity concentrations ranging from ND to 0.039 Bq L-1 and from 0.026 to 3.728 Bq L-1 for total alpha and beta, respectively, and uranium concentrations ranging from 0.083 to 3.078 ?g L-1, and radon concentrations varying between 47.80 and 354.86 Bq m-3 were observed in the lake waters. (author)

2013-01-01

243

Distribution of sewage pollution around a maritime Antarctic research station indicated by faecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens and faecal sterol markers  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study describes the distribution of sewage pollution markers (faecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens and faecal sterols) in seawater and marine sediments around Rothera Research Station, Antarctic Peninsula. Untreated sewage waste has been released from this site since 1975, creating the potential for long-term contamination of the benthic environment. Faecal coliform concentrations in seawater reached background levels within 300 m of the outfall. In sediment cores, both C. perfringens and faecal coliform concentrations declined with distance from the outfall, though C. perfringens persisted at greater depths in the sediment. High concentrations of 5{beta}(H)-cholestan-3{beta}-ol (coprostanol) relative to the corresponding 5{alpha}-epimer (cholestanol), indicative of sewage pollution, were only found in sediments within 200 m of the sewage outfall. This study has shown that sewage contamination is limited to the immediate vicinity of the sewage outfall. Nevertheless, a sewage treatment plant was installed in February 2003 to reduce this contamination further. - Sewage contamination of seawater and marine sediments near Rothera Research Station (Antarctic Peninsula) was limited to the immediate vicinity of the outfall.

Hughes, Kevin A.; Thompson, Anu

2004-02-01

244

Estimating changes in river faecal coliform loading using nonparametric multiplicative regression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Faecal coliform (FC) concentration was monitored weekly in the Tangipahoa River over an eight year period. Available USGS discharge and precipitation data were used to construct a nonparametric multiplicative regression (NPMR) model for both forecasting and backcasting of FC density. NPMR backcasting and forecasting of FC allowed for estimation of concentration for any flow regime. During this study a remediation effort was undertaken to improve disinfection systems of contributing municipal waste water treatment plants in the watershed. Time-series analysis of FC concentrations demonstrated a drop in FC levels coinciding with remediation efforts. The NPMR model suggested the reduction in FC levels was not due to climate variance (i.e. discharge and precipitation changes) alone. Use of the NPMR method circumvented the need for construction of a more complex physical watershed model to estimate FC loading in the river. This method can be used to detect and estimate new discharge impacts, or forecast daily FC estimates.

Schulz CJ; Childers GW

2011-03-01

245

PROTEINURIA AS A PREDICATOR OF TOTAL PLASMA HOMOCYSTEINE LEVELS IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with diabetes who manifest proteinuria are at increased risk for cardiovascular events. Some studies suggest that proteinuria exerts its cardiovascular effects at least partly through a positive association with total plasma homocysteine (tHcy). Modestly sized but better designed contrary s...

246

Leveling Process of Total Electron Content (TEC) Using Malaysian Global Positioning System (GPS) Data  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The signals from the satellites of the Navstar Global Positioning System (GPS) travel through the earth's ionosphere on their way to GPS receivers. However, ionospheric delay is one of the main sources of error in GPS. The magnitude of the ionospheric delay is influenced by the Total Electron Conten...

Y. Norsuzila; M. Abdullah; M. Ismail

247

Inverse relationship between serum total bilirubin levels and severity of disease in patients with stable coronary artery disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Many studies have shown that bilirubin may protect against atherosclerosis. In the present study, we assess the association between serum total bilirubin levels and the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) assessed by angiography and the Syntax score. METHODS: Patients from our center, who visited the center for a coronary angiography, from January 2008 to January 2011, were eligible for this analysis. Serum bilirubin levels and other blood parameters in at least 12-h fasting states were determined. The patients were divided into tertiles according to their Syntax score. RESULTS: A total of 299 patients were registered for the study. The total bilirubin levels in the low Syntax score group were significantly higher than those of the other groups. After multiple logistic regression analysis, serum bilirubin levels (odds ratio=0.155, 95% confidence interval, 0.039-0.62, P=0.008) were identified as independent correlates of a high Syntax score. CONCLUSION: Serum bilirubin levels were independently and inversely associated with the severity of disease in patients with stable CAD. Serum total bilirubin level may be useful as a marker of the severity of CAD.

Turfan M; Duran M; Poyraz F; Yayla C; Akboga MK; Sahinarslan A; Tavil Y; Pasaoglu H; Boyaci B

2013-01-01

248

Effects of stress on serum triglycerides, nonsterified fatty acids, and total cholesterol levels in male rats after ethanol administration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Serum triglycerides, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and total cholesterol were determined during one hour immobilization stress in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats after ethanol administration (2g/kg, i.p.). Stress and ethanol effects were evaluated in two experiments: (1) rats maintained on Purina Rodent Chow for six weeks and fasted for 24 hours; and (2) rats maintained on the same diet supplemented with 1% cholesterol and 10% peanut oil for six weeks and nonfasted prior to experimentation. Blood was obtained from indwelling jugular catheters. In each experiment, differences were seen in triglyceride and NEFA levels but not in total cholesterol. In the regular diet-fed rats (1), serum triglyceride levels were not affected by either stress or ethanol. However, NEFA levels did show differences in the response to ethanol and stress. A 63% decrease from baseline after 5{prime} of stress was partially abolished by ethanol; instead, a 24% increase was observed. Also, a stress-induced increase in NEFA which occurred after 15{prime} was not observed in the ethanol treated rats; rather, a decrease in NEFA was noted. Total cholesterol did not change in response to stress or ethanol. In the high cholesterol diet-fed rats (2), ethanol did not suppress a stress-induced increase in triglyceride levels. NEFA levels in ethanol-treated rats were higher during the first 15{prime} of stress as compared to stress alone. A decrease in NEFA was however seen in the ethanol-treated rats after 30{prime} of stress and these levels remained lower than the stress alone group. A diet-induced increase in total cholesterol levels was observed; however, no changes were seen due to either or ethanol. Thus, ethanol administration prior to acute immobilization stress did affect serum triglyceride and NEFA levels but did not change total cholesterol.

Hershock, D.; Vogel, W.H. (Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA))

1989-02-09

249

Mass-induced sea level change in the northwestern North Pacific and its contribution to total sea level change  

Science.gov (United States)

Over the period 2003-2011, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite pair revealed a remarkable variability in mass-induced sea surface height (MSSH) in the northwestern North Pacific. A significant correlation is found between MSSH and observed total sea surface height (SSH), indicative of the importance of barotropic variability in this region. For the period 2003-2011, MSSH rose at a rate of 6.1 ± 0.7 mm/yr, which has a significant contribution to the SSH rise (8.3 ± 0.7 mm/yr). Analysis of the barotropic vorticity equation based on National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis product, GRACE, and altimetry data suggests that the MSSH signal is primarily caused by negative wind stress curl associated with an anomalous anticyclonic atmospheric circulation. Regression analysis indicates that trends in MSSH and surface wind are related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, whose index had a decreasing trend in the last decade.

Cheng, Xuhua; Li, Lijuan; Du, Yan; Wang, Jing; Huang, Rui-Xin

2013-08-01

250

Association of HLA class II Alleles with Childhood Asthma and Total IgE Levels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Asthma is a complex and multifactorial disorder. Several studies have reported association between different HLA- DQB1 and HLA- DRB1 alleles and allergic asthma. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of HLA-class II alleles and haplotypes, with total serum IgE and the results of the skin prick test in Iranian children with allergic asthma. A total of 112 patients with allergic asthma symptoms (75 males and 37 females) were selected randomly from the pediatric hospital. In some patients total serum IgE and prick test were determined. Data of this study shows that HLA-DRB1*12 significantly increased in asthmatic patients (4.5% vs. 0%, P-value=0.04). HLA-DQB1*0603 and 0604 alleles were significantly higher in asthmatics than those in normal controls (10% vs. 0%, P-value= 0.0001; and 9.3% vs. 3.7%, P-value= 0.04, respectively). The statistical significance was relinquished after p value correction for all alleles except for HLA-DQB1*0602 (Pc=0.03) and HLA-DQB1*0603 (Pc=0.0015). Conversely, HLA-DQB1*0501 and 0602 were decreased in asthmatics compared to normal controls (7.5% vs. 13.5%, P-value= 0.05; and 4% vs. 12.5%, P-value= 0.002, respectively). The mean of total IgE in patients was 483 IU, and it was significantly high about 1140 IU in asthmatic patients with positive skin prick test to house dust. The most frequent alleles in asthmatic patients with the total IgE>200 IU/mL were HLA-DRB1*11and 1401, HLA-DQA1*0505, HLA-DQB1*0301 and in patients with total IgE<200 IU/mL were HLA-DRB1*0301, 07 and 1301, HLADQA1*0201 and 0301, HLA-DQB1*0201."nThese data suggests that HLA-DRB1, DQA1 & DQB1 alleles and haplotypes might be implicated in susceptibility to allergy and asthma and serum IgE production. As asthma and atopy are multifactorial disorders, probably HLA genes are involved in the regulation of immune specific responses to common allergen.

Masoud Movahedi; Mostafa Moin; Mohammad Gharagozlou; AsgharAghamohammadi; Saied Dianat; Batoul Moradi; Mohammad Hossein Nicknam; Behrouz Nikbin; Aliakbar Amirzargar

2008-01-01

251

Serum level modifications of female sex hormones after radiocastration with different total doses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We determined serum level of estradiol, FSH and LH over a period of six to eight weeks after ovarian irradiation for castration with different doses (2x2.5 Gy/3x2.5 Gy/4x2.5 Gy) in 15 patients with metastatic breast cancer as compared to changes after ovarectomy in five patients. The time course of the changing estradiol-, FSH and LH-serum levels sigificantly depends on the ovarian dose. After radiological castration with a dose of 4x2.5 Gy = 10 Gy in four days the estrogen levels decrease within two to three weeks, and the FSH- and LH-levels increase after three to four weeks into the postmenopausal range. Therefore, the time course is not very different from changes after ovarectomy.

Naujokat, B.; Rohloff, R.; Willich, N.; Eiermann, W.

1988-04-01

252

[Determining the level of total nitrogen in wastes from the microbiological industry  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Optimization of the Kjeldahl method for determination of total nitrogen in the objects of microbial synthesis was performed in regard to biomass of the benzylpenicillin-producing culture, activated sludge and certain organic compounds. Mathematical processing of the data was carried out, which showed that the difference in the mean values for the five tested conditions of mineralization was insignificant. The method is useful in assaying the final and intermediate products as well as the waste in biotechnological production.

Vlasenko IIu; Kroshilova TM; Krunchak VG; Mel'nikova OIu

1991-12-01

253

Linking on-farm dairy management practices to storm-flow fecal coliform loading for California coastal watersheds.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

How and where to improve water quality within an agricultural watershed requires data at a spatial scale that corresponds with individual management decision units on an agricultural operation. This is particularly true in the context of water quality regulations, such as Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs), that identify agriculture as one source of non-point source pollution through larger tributary watershed scale and above and below water quality investigations. We have conducted a systems approach study of 10 coastal dairies and ranches to document fecal coliform concentration and loading to surface waters at the management decision unit scale. Water quality samples were collected on a storm event basis from loading units that included: manure management systems; gutters; storm drains; pastures; and corrals and lots. In addition, in-stream samples were collected above and below the dairy facilities and from a control watershed, managed for light grazing and without a dairy facility or human residence and corresponding septic system. Samples were analyzed for fecal coliform concentration by membrane filtration. Instantaneous discharge was measured for each collected sample. Storm runoff was also calculated using the curve number method (SCS, 1985). Results for a representative dairy as well as the entire 10 dairy data set are presented. Fecal coliform concentrations demonstrate high variability both within and between loading units. Fecal coliform concentrations for pastures range from 206 to 2,288,888 cfu/100 ml and for lots from 1,933 to 166,105,000 cfu/100 ml. Mean concentrations for pastures and lots are 121,298 (SE = 62,222) and 3,155,584 (SE = 1,902,713) cfu/100 ml, respectively. Fecal coliform load from units of concentrated animals and manure are significantly more than units such as pastures while storm flow amounts were significantly less. Compared with results from earlier tributary scale studies in the watershed, this systems approach has generated water quality data that is beneficial for management decisions because of its scale and representation of current management activities. These results are facilitating on-farm changes through the cooperative efforts of dairy managers, regulatory agency staff, and sources of technical and financial assistance.

Lewis DJ; Atwill ER; Lennox MS; Hou L; Karle B; Tate KW

2005-08-01

254

Linking on-farm dairy management practices to storm-flow fecal coliform loading for California coastal watersheds.  

Science.gov (United States)

How and where to improve water quality within an agricultural watershed requires data at a spatial scale that corresponds with individual management decision units on an agricultural operation. This is particularly true in the context of water quality regulations, such as Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs), that identify agriculture as one source of non-point source pollution through larger tributary watershed scale and above and below water quality investigations. We have conducted a systems approach study of 10 coastal dairies and ranches to document fecal coliform concentration and loading to surface waters at the management decision unit scale. Water quality samples were collected on a storm event basis from loading units that included: manure management systems; gutters; storm drains; pastures; and corrals and lots. In addition, in-stream samples were collected above and below the dairy facilities and from a control watershed, managed for light grazing and without a dairy facility or human residence and corresponding septic system. Samples were analyzed for fecal coliform concentration by membrane filtration. Instantaneous discharge was measured for each collected sample. Storm runoff was also calculated using the curve number method (SCS, 1985). Results for a representative dairy as well as the entire 10 dairy data set are presented. Fecal coliform concentrations demonstrate high variability both within and between loading units. Fecal coliform concentrations for pastures range from 206 to 2,288,888 cfu/100 ml and for lots from 1,933 to 166,105,000 cfu/100 ml. Mean concentrations for pastures and lots are 121,298 (SE = 62,222) and 3,155,584 (SE = 1,902,713) cfu/100 ml, respectively. Fecal coliform load from units of concentrated animals and manure are significantly more than units such as pastures while storm flow amounts were significantly less. Compared with results from earlier tributary scale studies in the watershed, this systems approach has generated water quality data that is beneficial for management decisions because of its scale and representation of current management activities. These results are facilitating on-farm changes through the cooperative efforts of dairy managers, regulatory agency staff, and sources of technical and financial assistance. PMID:16418926

Lewis, D J; Atwill, E R; Lennox, M S; Hou, L; Karle, B; Tate, K W

2005-08-01

255

Reduction in total plasma ghrelin levels following catecholamine depletion: Relation to bulimic and depressive symptoms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

There is increasing preclinical and clinical evidence of the important role played by the gastric peptide hormone ghrelin in the pathogenesis of symptoms of depression and eating disorders. To investigate the role of ghrelin and its considered counterpart, peptide tyrosine tyrosine (PYY), in the development of bulimic and depressive symptoms induced by catecholamine depletion, we administered the tyrosine hydroxylase inhibitor alpha-methyl-paratyrosine (AMPT) in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover, single-site experimental trial to 29 healthy controls and 20 subjects with fully recovered bulimia nervosa (rBN). We found a decrease between peprandial and postprandial plasma ghrelin levels (p<0.0001) and a postprandial rise in plasma PYY levels (p<0.0001) in both conditions in the entire study population. Plasma ghrelin levels decreased in the entire study population after treatment with AMPT compared to placebo (p<0.006). AMPT-induced changes in plasma ghrelin levels were negatively correlated with AMPT-induced depressive symptoms (p<0.004). Plasma ghrelin and plasma PYY levels were also negatively correlated (p<0.05). We did not observe a difference in ghrelin or PYY response to catecholamine depletion between rBN subjects and healthy controls, and there was no correlation between plasma ghrelin and PYY levels and bulimic symptoms induced by catecholamine depletion. These findings suggest a relationship between catecholamines and ghrelin with depressive symptoms.

Homan P; Grob S; Milos G; Schnyder U; Hasler G

2013-09-01

256

Radioiodine total body scan versus serum thyroglobulin levels in follow-up of patients with thyroid cancer  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Two groups of patients were studied to compare the efficacy of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels to /sup 131/I total body scans in the follow-up of patients with thyroid cancer. All of the group of 30 patients without recurrence had undetectable Tg levels on and off thyroid hormone replacement, and all had negative total body scan results although eight patients showed uptake in remnant thyroid tissue. In the second group of 37 patients with documented recurrent or metastatic disease, 34 (92%) had positive serum Tg levels, although the levels in five of these patients were undetectable while on thyroid replacement, and 31 (84%) had positive total body scan results. The false negative results of the two tests were not overlapping, and of those with positive Tg levels, 29 showed a significant increase once thyroid hormone therapy had been withdrawn. We conclude that although the percentages of positive Tg levels and body scan results in patients with recurrent disease are similar, both tests are required to minimize the number of patients with undiagnosed metastases. Second, thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression has a definite although unpredictable effect on serum Tg levels in patients with thyroid cancer, and thyroid hormone should be withdrawn prior to measurement of serum Tg to minimize the number of false negative results.

Colacchio, T.A.; LoGerfo, P.; Colacchio, D.A.; Feind, C.

1982-01-01

257

Tratamento de esgotos sanitários em sistemas reatores UASB/wetlands construídas de fluxo horizontal: eficiência e estabilidade de remoção de matéria orgânica, sólidos, nutrientes e coliformes/ Domestic wastewater treatment in UASB-horizontal flow constructed wetlands systems: organic matter, solids, nutrients and coliforms removal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho apresentou os resultados de um estudo realizado durante 19 meses sobre o comportamento de wetlands construídas na remoção de matéria orgânica, sólidos, nutrientes e coliformes, em unidades em escala piloto de fluxo horizontal, subsuperficial e superficial, com tempo de detenção hidráulica entre 1,3 a 5,3 dias, operando como pós-tratamento de efluentes de reatores UASB (esgotos sanitários). A remoção de matéria orgânica e de sólidos mostrou-se (more) elevada e estável, com eficiências médias de 70, 80 e 60% para SST, DBO5 e DQO, respectivamente. A remoção de nutrientes, após início promissor, mostrou-se instável e aparentemente influenciada pela temperatura. O sistema de tratamento revelou elevado potencial de remoção de coliformes, embora com variações relativamente amplas ao longo do período de operação: ? 2 log10 de remoção de coliformes totais e 2-4 log10 de remoção de Escherichia coli. Abstract in english This work presented the results of a 19-month study on the performance of constructed wetlands in terms of organic matter, solids, nutrients and coliforms removal in pilot scale unities with horizontal, subsurface and surface flow, with hydraulic retention time from 1.3 to 5.3 days, as post-treatment of UASB effluents (domestic wastewater). Organic matter and solids were effectively and consistently removed, with average values of 70, 80 and 60% for TSS, BOD5 and COD, res (more) pectively. Nutrients removal, after a promising start up, became unstable and apparently influenced by temperature. The treatment system has also shown high potential to remove coliforms, although with relatively wide variations over the study period: ? 2 log10 reduction of total coliforms and 2-4 log10 reduction of Escherichia coli.

Calijuri, Maria Lúcia; Bastos, Rafael Kopschitz Xavier; Magalhães, Tiago de Brito; Capelete, Bruna Cesca; Dias, Edgard Henrique Oliveira

2009-09-01

258

Tratamento de esgotos sanitários em sistemas reatores UASB/wetlands construídas de fluxo horizontal: eficiência e estabilidade de remoção de matéria orgânica, sólidos, nutrientes e coliformes Domestic wastewater treatment in UASB-horizontal flow constructed wetlands systems: organic matter, solids, nutrients and coliforms removal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho apresentou os resultados de um estudo realizado durante 19 meses sobre o comportamento de wetlands construídas na remoção de matéria orgânica, sólidos, nutrientes e coliformes, em unidades em escala piloto de fluxo horizontal, subsuperficial e superficial, com tempo de detenção hidráulica entre 1,3 a 5,3 dias, operando como pós-tratamento de efluentes de reatores UASB (esgotos sanitários). A remoção de matéria orgânica e de sólidos mostrou-se elevada e estável, com eficiências médias de 70, 80 e 60% para SST, DBO5 e DQO, respectivamente. A remoção de nutrientes, após início promissor, mostrou-se instável e aparentemente influenciada pela temperatura. O sistema de tratamento revelou elevado potencial de remoção de coliformes, embora com variações relativamente amplas ao longo do período de operação: ? 2 log10 de remoção de coliformes totais e 2-4 log10 de remoção de Escherichia coli.This work presented the results of a 19-month study on the performance of constructed wetlands in terms of organic matter, solids, nutrients and coliforms removal in pilot scale unities with horizontal, subsurface and surface flow, with hydraulic retention time from 1.3 to 5.3 days, as post-treatment of UASB effluents (domestic wastewater). Organic matter and solids were effectively and consistently removed, with average values of 70, 80 and 60% for TSS, BOD5 and COD, respectively. Nutrients removal, after a promising start up, became unstable and apparently influenced by temperature. The treatment system has also shown high potential to remove coliforms, although with relatively wide variations over the study period: ? 2 log10 reduction of total coliforms and 2-4 log10 reduction of Escherichia coli.

Maria Lúcia Calijuri; Rafael Kopschitz Xavier Bastos; Tiago de Brito Magalhães; Bruna Cesca Capelete; Edgard Henrique Oliveira Dias

2009-01-01

259

Investigation of Coliform Removal from Drinking Water by Electrolysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The practice of eliminating pathogenic microorganisms in water dates back to ancient times. The most common methods for water disinfection are using chemicals, Ozonation, Ultra Violet ray, Membrane Processes and etc. There has been considerable interest in disinfection of water by using electrochemical methods in recent years. The main purpose of this study is to conduct experimental investigation of water disinfection by using the electrolysis method. Inactivation and killing Coliform in polluted waters was investigated by different voltage, electrodes (Al, St and Cu) and distance between electrodes.Materials & Methods: The polluted water was prepared by adding a colony of coliform growth on EMB in raw water. Experiments were done similarly via the same electrolyzes time, electrodes distance and voltage intensity for all types of combinations of electrodes respectively. Results: The experimental results show that the removal efficiency depends on the voltage and electrodes material. From the experiments carried out at 10 V. and at current intensity of 135 mA, it was found that five-minute period was sufficient for disinfecting water using Stainless Steel electrodes.Conclusion: Due to the results, the electrochemical methods can be proposed as a promising cleaning and purifying method for water disinfection.

A. Rahmani; M.R. Samarghandi

2008-01-01

260

The Association Among Lipoprotein-associated Phospholipase A2 Levels, Total Antioxidant Capacity and Arousal in Male Patients with OSA  

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Full Text Available Background: The mechanisms of the increased cardiac and vascular events in patients with OSA are not well understood. Arousal which is an important component of OSA was associated with increased sympathetic activation and electrocardiographic changes which prone to arrhythmias. We planned to examine the association among arousal, circulating Lp-PLA2 and total antioxidant capacity in male patients with OSA.Methods: Fifty male patients with newly diagnosed OSA were enrolled the study. A full-night polysomnography was performed and arousal index was obtained. Lp-PLA2 concentrations were measured in serum samples with the PLAC Test. Total antioxidant capacity in patients was determined with Antioxidant Assay Kit.Results: Arousal was positively correlated with LP-PLA2 levels (r=0.43, p=0.002) and was negatively correlated with total antioxidant capacity (r= -0.29, p=0.04). Elevated LP-PLA2 levels and decreased total antioxidant activities were found in the highest arousal quartile compared with the lowest and 2nd quartiles (p=0.02, p=0.05, respectively). LP-PLA2 was an independently predictor of arousal index in regression model (?=0.357, p=0.002)Conclusions: This study demonstrated a moderate linear relationship between arousal and LP-PLA2 levels. Also, total antioxidant capacities were decreased in the higher arousal index. Based on the study result, the patients with higher arousal index may be prone to vascular events.

Taha T. Bekci, Mehmet Kayrak, Aysel Kiyici, Emin Maden, Hatem Ari, Zeynettin Kaya, Turgut Teke, Hakan Akilli

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Prevalencia de Cyclospora sp., Cryptosporidium sp., microsporidos y determinación de coliformes fecales en frutas y vegetales frescos de consumo crudo en Costa Rica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La presencia de Cyclospora sp., Cryptosporidium sp., microsporidios y los niveles de coliformes fecales fueron determinados en lechuga, apio, cilantro, fresas y moras adquiridas en ferias del Agricultor del Valle Central de Costa Rica, con el fin de establecer el riesgo de transmisión de estos microorganismos y otros patógenos a partir del consumo de productos crudos. Durante el Segundo semestre del 2001 y primero del 2002, 50 muestras de cada producto fueron evaluadas, (more) 25 durante la estación seca y 25 durante la estación lluviosa y provenientes de cinco diferentes ferias del Agricultor. El recuento de coliformes fecales fue realizado de acuerdo a la técnica recomendada por Vanderzant & Splittstoesser. La determinación de parásitos fue hecha utilizando las tinciones de Ziehl Nielsen y Weber a partir de un sedimento obtenido por el lavado de los productos mencionados, usando agua peptonada estéril 0,1% y centrifugando a 900 G por 15 min. 100% de las muestras de vegetales presentaron coliformes fecales, y la mayor prevalencia fue obtenida durante la estación lluviosa. A pesar de que todos los vegetales presentaron coliformes fecales en altas concentraciones, la lechuga y cilantro presentaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre la estación lluviosa y la seca, siendo mayor durante la estación lluviosa. No se detectó coliformes fecales en fresas y moras probablemente debido a su bajo pH. Todos los productos evaluados presentaron, aunque sea una vez, Cyclospora sp., Cryptosporidium sp. y microsporidios, demostrando el riesgo que representan para la Salud Pública. Cryptosporidium sp. estuvo presente en todos los productos excepto fresas. Los microsporidios fueron aislados de todos los productos excepto moras y Cyclospora sp. únicamente fue aislado de lechuga durante la estación seca. Los resultados demuestran la importancia de introducir en el país las Buenas Prácticas Agrícolas, especialmente debido a la resistencia de Cyclospora sp. y Cryptosporidium sp. a agentes desinfectantes. Abstract in english Prevalence of Cyclospora sp., Cryptosporidium sp, microsporidia and fecal coliform determination in fresh fruit and vegetables consumed in Costa Rica. The presence of Cyclospora sp., Cryptosporidium sp. and microsporidia and the levels of fecal coliforms were determined in lettuce, parsley, cilantro, strawberries and blackberries acquired in local agricultural markets of the Central Valley of Costa Rica, in order to establish the possible transmission risk of these microo (more) rganisms and other pathogens from the consumption of these raw products. During the second semester of 2001 and the first of 2002, 50 different samples of each product, 25 taken in the dry season and 25 in the rainy season and coming from five different local agricultural markets were evaluated. The fecal coliforms count was done according to the technique recommended by Vanderzant & Splittstoesser. The parasite determination was done using Zielh Nielsen and Weber staining techniques from a sediment obtained through the rinse of the mentioned products, using sterile peptonated water 0,1% and centrifuging at 900 G for 15 min. One hundred per cent of vegetable samples had fecal coliforms and the greatest prevalence was obtained during the rainy season. Although all vegetables presented fecal coliforms in high concentrations, lettuce and cilantro presented statistical difference between rainy and dry season, being greater during the rainy season. Fecal coliforms were not detected in strawberries and blackberries probablydue to its low pH. All products evaluated presented, at least once, Cryptosporidium sp., Cyclospora sp. and microsporidia, showing the risk they represent to Public Health. Cryptosporidium was present in all products but strawberries. Microsporidia was present in all products except blackberries and Cyclospora was only isolated from lettuce during the dry season. These results show the importance of introducing in the country Good Agricultural Practices, especially

Calvo, Melvin; Carazo, Melissa; Arias, María Laura; Chaves, Carolina; Monge, Rafael; Chinchilla, Misael

2004-12-01

262

Total and methyl mercury levels in wild mammals from the PreCambrian Shield area of south central Ontario, Canada  

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It has been established that elevated mercury levels in fish occur in areas remote from recognized point sources of mercury contamination. It may be expected, therefore, that mercury levels may also be accumulated through natural processes in wild mammals inhabiting those areas. A process for demethylating organic mercury to less toxic inorganic mercury has been suggested in some marine mammals exposed to high mercury levls. It is possible that similar demethylating process exists in terrestial mammals which are exposed to elevated levels of mercury in their diet. Natural mercury levels in fish have been reported in the PreCambrian Shield of the Muskoka District. The present paper compares total and methyl mercury levels occurring in various organs of wilder beaver, raccoon and otter representing herbivorous, omnivorous and carnivorous life styles, collected from the same general area where substantial mercury levels are known to occur in fish.

Wren, C. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario); MacCrimmon, H.; Frank, R.; Suda, P.

1980-07-01

263

The performance of Electro-Fenton oxidation in the removal of coliform bacteria from landfill leachate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Leachate pollution is one of the main problems in landfilling. Researchers have yet to find an effective solution to this problem. The technology that can be used may differ based on the type of leachate produced. Coliform bacteria were recently reported as one of the most problematic pollutants in semi-aerobic (stabilized) leachate. In the present study, the performance of the Electro-Fenton process in removing coliform from leachate was investigated. The study focused on two types of leachate: Palau Borung landfill leachate with low Coliform content (200 MPN/100 m/L) and Ampang Jajar landfill leachate with high coliform content (>24 × 10(4)MPN/100 m/L). Optimal conditions for the Electro-Fenton treatment process were applied on both types of leachate. Then, the coliform was examined before and after treatment using the Most Probable Number (MPN) technique. Accordingly, 100% removal of coliform was obtained at low initial coliform content, whereas 99.9% removal was obtained at high initial coliform content. The study revealed that Electro-Fenton is an efficient process in removing high concentrations of pathogenic microorganisms from stabilized leachate.

Aziz HA; Othman OM; Abu Amr SS

2013-02-01

264

Effect of dredge spoil deposition on fecal coliform counts in sediments at a disposal site.  

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The most-probable-number of fecal coliforms in sediments was monitored at the New London dump site in Long Island Sound during the deposition of dredge spoil from the Thames River. Although the geometric mean for fecal coliforms at five stations in the river was 14,000/100 ml before dredging commenc...

Babinchak, J A; Graikoski, J T; Dudley, S; Nitkowski, M F

265

Reliability of VRB agar and BGLB broth for enumeration of 44 degrees C coliforms in food.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study shows that colony diameter exceeding 0.5 mm and presence of a surrounding precipitation zone are not unconditional criteria for 44 degrees C coliforms (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species) grown on violet red bile agar. Confirmatory studies in brilliant green lactose bile broth will add to the numbers of coliforms which are missed if these criteria are adhered to.

Tham W; Danielsson ML

1980-07-01

266

Reliability of VRB agar and BGLB broth for enumeration of 44 degrees C coliforms in food.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study shows that colony diameter exceeding 0.5 mm and presence of a surrounding precipitation zone are not unconditional criteria for 44 degrees C coliforms (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella species) grown on violet red bile agar. Confirmatory studies in brilliant green lactose bile broth will add to the numbers of coliforms which are missed if these criteria are adhered to. PMID:7015268

Tham, W; Danielsson, M L

267

Determination of Total Serum Protein Levels Fed by Hot Smoked Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Diets in Rats  

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Full Text Available The effects on total serum protein levels of rats fed by hot smoked Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were investigated. Four diets containing fresh and hot smoked rainbow trout flesh and vitamin were prepared and commercial pellet food purchased. Four groups of female Wistar rats were fed with the diets for 28 days. Total serum protein and detection of protein bands using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-Page) were evaluated. The total serum protein level of rat fed by hot smoked rainbow trout flesh+vitamin diet were increased significantly according to the other groups (p<0.017, p<0.002). Eight protein bands were visualised on rat gels. The molecular weights of protein bands detected were 166, 112, 90, 63, 47, 45, 36 and 14 kDa, respectively.

Suleyman Kaleli; Mustafa Unlusayin; Sengul Bilgin; Levent Izci; Ali Gunlu

2008-01-01

268

Determination of Total Serum Protein Levels Fed by Hot Smoked Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Diets in Rats  

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The effects on total serum protein levels of rats fed by hot smoked Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were investigated. Four diets containing fresh and hot smoked rainbow trout flesh and vitamin were prepared and commercial pellet food purchased. Four groups of female Wistar rats were ...

Suleyman Kaleli; Mustafa Unlusayin; Sengul Bilgin; Levent Izci; Ali Gunlu

269

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FREQUENCY OF SKIN ULCERATION AND TOTAL PLASMA IMMUNOGLOBULIN LEVELS IN ATLANTIC MENHADEN FROM DELAWARE AND MARYLAND INLAND BAYS  

Science.gov (United States)

In the summer and fall of 2000, a high prevalence of ulcerative skin lesions in Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus, from inland bays of Delaware and Maryland caused public and governmental concern. We investigated the possible linkage between total plasma immunoglobulin (Ig) levels and the freq...

270

Populations of antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria change rapidly in a wastewater effluent dominated stream.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Incomplete elimination of bacteria and pharmaceutical drugs during wastewater treatment results in the entry of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria into receiving streams with effluent inputs. In Mud Creek in Fayetteville, AR, ofloxacin, trimethoprim, and sulfamethoxazole have been detected in water and sediment, and tetracycline has been detected in sediment downstream of treated effluent input. These antibiotics have been measured repeatedly, but at low concentrations (<1?g/L) in the stream. To determine if effluent input results in detectable and stable changes in antibiotic resistances downstream of effluent input, antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli and total coliform bacteria in Mud Creek stream water and sediment were determined using a culture-based method. Isolated E. coli colonies were characterized for multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) patterns on solid media and to evaluate E. coli isolate richness by amplification of a partial uidA gene followed by denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Despite temporal variability, proportions of antibiotic-resistant E. coli were generally high in effluent and 640m downstream. The MAR pattern ampicillin-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was associated with a DGGE profile that was detected in effluent and downstream E. coli isolates, but not upstream. Percent resistance among coliform bacteria to trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole was higher 640m downstream compared to upstream sediment and water (with one exception). Resistance to ofloxacin was too low to analyze statistically and tetracycline resistance was fairly constant across sites. Resistances changed from 640m to 2000m downstream, although dissolved nutrient concentrations within that stream stretch resembled effluent. Antibiotic resistant bacteria are entering the stream, but resistances change within a short distance of effluent inputs, more quickly than indicated based on chemical water properties. Results illustrate the difficulty in tracking the input and fate of antibiotic resistance and in relating the presence of low antibiotic concentrations to selection or persistence of antibiotic resistances.

Akiyama T; Savin MC

2010-11-01

271

Lower levels of total HDL and HDL3 cholesterol are associated with albuminuria in normoalbuminuric type 1 diabetic patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background: Previous studies have suggested a positive association between dyslipidemia and chronic kidney disease, but sparse data are available on the relation of lipids and urinary albumin excretion rate (UAE) in normoalbuminuric patients with normal renal function. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of serum lipids, including total, LDL, HDL, HDL2, HDL3 cholesterol, and triglyceride levels with UAE in normoalbuminuric type 1 diabetic patients. Methods: Study included 313 normoalbuminuric type 1 diabetic patients with normal renal function and before any interventions with statins, ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers. Subjects were classified as low-normoalbuminuric (UAE<11.0 mg/24h) or highnormoalbuminuric (UAE?11.0 mg/24h) based on median UAE of at least two 24-h urine collections. Correlations and multiple linear regressions analysis were performed to identify relationships between serum lipids and UAE in normoalbuminuric subjects. Results: Total HDL (P=0.02) and HDL3 cholesterol (P=0.01) levels were higher in lownormoalbuminuric subjects compared to high-normoalbuminuric subjects. In logistic regression analysis, after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, duration of diabetes and HbA1c, lower total HDL and HDL3 cholesterol levels were significantly associated with risk of higher UAE in our normoalbuminuric subjects (p?0.01), with odds ratios of 0.34 to 0.43. Conclusions: Elevated total HDL and HDL3 cholesterol levels are associated with lower UAE in normoalbuminuric type 1 diabetic patients. However, whether the detection of elevated total HDL and HDL3 cholesterol levels in type 1 diabetic patients has protective value for development of microalbuminuria needs to be assessed in further follow-up studies.

Bulum T; Kolari? B; Duvnjak L

2013-02-01

272

Growth Advantage of Fast Lactose-Fermenting Mutants of Slow Lactose-Fermenting Coliform Bacteria in Gnotobiotic Rats and Mice  

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When germ-free rats or mice were mono-associated with either Escherichia coli lac? (ATCC 15939) or a slow lactose-fermenting coliform (Paracolobactrum coliforme ATCC 11605), fast lactose-fermenting mutants overgrew the parent organisms.

Wilkins, Tracy D.; Franzese, Jacqueline A.

273

Recovery of Coliforms by the MPN and MF Techniques Using A(2sup n) Factorial Experimental Design.  

Science.gov (United States)

Since the coliform group of organisms were adopted as indicators of water pollution, numerous laboratory tests have been devised to determine the presence or absence of these organisms. Coliforms in water supplies, surface waters or sewage effluents can b...

K. G. Janardan M. C. Long D. J. Schaeffer

1977-01-01

274

COLIFORMES TERMOTOLERANTES EN AGUAS DE LAS POBLACIONES COSTERAS Y PALAFÍTICAS DE LA CIÉNAGA GRANDE DE SANTA MARTA, COLOMBIA/ Fecals Coliforms in Waters of Coastal and Palafiticos Populations of Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish La Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta es el sistema lagunar costero más grande e importante de Colombia y el más extenso del Caribe. En su territorio se alojan siete poblaciones carentes de un sistema de saneamiento básico adecuado, que vierten sus desechos sin ningún tipo de tratamiento directamente a la ciénaga. Teniendo en cuenta la importancia ambiental de este cuerpo de agua y con el objeto de conocer su calidad sanitaria se determinaron las concentraciones de Colif (more) ormes termotolerantes en aguas adyacentes de dos poblaciones costeras (Tasajera e isla del Rosario) y tres palafiticas (Buenavista, Nueva Venecia y Trojas de Cataca) durante el periodo 2004-2007. Adicionalmente, se realizaron mediciones de pH, temperatura, salinidad y oxígeno disuelto en cada sitio de muestreo. Las mayores concentraciones de Coliformes se encontraron en el palafito Trojas de Cataca, en la época seca mayor de cada año (7.800-9.000 NMP/ 100 mL) y los menores niveles en la estación Buenavista (2-1.100 NMP/100mL). El patrón de comportamiento de las densidades de Coliformes en las poblaciones costeras fue similar en el tiempo y no se observó ninguna relación directa entre las variables fisicoquímicas y el grupo Coliformes. Dado lo observado, se considera importante vigilar la calidad del agua en el estuario, teniendo en cuenta que constituye una fuente potencial de riesgo para el desarrollo de las actividades económicas de la zona y para la salud de los pobladores. Abstract in english The coastal lagoon system most important and biggest of Colombia and the largest in the Caribbean is the Cienaga Grande of Santa Marta. In their territory, seven populations lacking of an appropriate sanitation system, that pour their waste directly without any treatment to the cienaga. Keeping in mind the importance of this body of water and in order to know their sanitary quality the concentrations of thermotolerant coliforms were determined in two coastal (Tasajera and (more) Isla del Rosario) and three palafitics populations (Buenavista, Nueva Venecia and Trojas de Cataca) during the period 2004-2007. Additionally, pH, temperature, salinity and oxygen measurements were carried out in each station. The highest coliforms concentrations were found in Trojas de Cataca, in the dry season more each year (7,800-9,000 MPN/100ml) and the lowest level in Buenavista station (2-1,100 MPN/100mL). The behavior pattern of Coliform densities in coastal populations was similar in the time and there was no direct relationship between physicochemical variables and Coliform group. It is important take care and watch over the estuary quality, taking into account that constitutes a potential risk source for economic activities development of the area and for the residents health.

NARVÁEZ, SILVIA; GÓMEZ, MARTHA; ACOSTA, JORGE

2008-12-01

275

Relationship between plasma total homocysteine level and dietary caffeine and vitamin B6 intakes in pregnant women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A high total homocysteine (tHcy) level during pregnancy is a risk factor for adverse perinatal outcomes, such as fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia. Caffeine is assumed to increase tHcy levels by acting as a vitamin B6 antagonist. The objective of this study was to examine a relationship between circulating tHcy levels and dietary caffeine and vitamin B6 intakes in pregnant Japanese women. A total of 321 healthy women with singleton pregnancies were recruited in metropolitan Tokyo, from June to December 2008, resulting in the final number included in the study as 254. Dietary caffeine intakes did not correlate with plasma tHcy levels. When we analyzed the data according to caffeinated beverages, caffeinated tea consumption was positively associated with plasma tHcy levels only among the women with a high intake of vitamin B6 , after controlling for confounding factors (P?=?0.029). No correlation between coffee consumption and plasma tHcy levels was found. Pregnant Japanese women might need to cut down the consumption of caffeinated tea as well as take sufficient vitamin B6 in order to prevent the tHcy levels from increasing.

Shiraishi M; Haruna M; Matsuzaki M; Ota E; Murayama R; Sasaki S; Yeo S; Murashima S

2013-07-01

276

Factors associated with coliform count in unpasteurized bulk milk.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with bulk milk coliform count (CC). Dairy farms (n=10) were visited once weekly on sequential weekdays over a period of 10 wk. During each visit, in-line drip samplers were used to collect 1 milk sample from 2 points of the milk line (between the receiver jar and milk filters, and after the plate cooler). During the same period that in-line milk samples were collected, university personnel observed milking performance and hygiene and collected liner (n=40) and teat skin swabs (n=40). Coliform counts were determined for milk samples and swabs using Petrifilm CC plates (3M, St. Paul, MN). A mixed model was used to assess the association between in-line milk CC (ILCC) and several potential predictor variables. The mean duration of each visit was 73 min and the time between start of milking and beginning of milk sampling was 154 min. The mean number of cows milked during each visit was 236. For all milk samples (n=181), geometric mean ILCC was 37 cfu/mL. In-line milk CC varied by farm, ranging from 5 to 1,198 cfu/mL. Rate of fall-offs, rate of cluster washes, outdoor and indoor temperature, indoor humidity, sampling duration, and parity group were unconditionally associated with ILCC but did not enter the final multivariate model. In-line milk CC was 4 times greater (115 cfu/mL) when milking machine wash failures occurred compared with ILCC after normal washes (26 cfu/mL). Pre-filter and post-cooler ILCC were not different when milk samples were collected at the beginning (<33% of herd milked) or at mid-milking (33 to 66% of the herd milked), whereas pre-filter ILCC was less than post-cooler for samples collected at the end of milking (>67% of the herd milked). Geometric mean ILCC (cfu/mL) increased 6.3% for every 10% increase in in-line milk SCC (cells/mL). Geometric mean ILCC increased 2.3% for every 10% increase in liner CC (cfu/mL). Results of this study provide novel information about farm factors associated with CC, as estimated in milk before storage in tankers or bulk tanks, and highlight the importance of proper and consistent milking machine washes in minimizing bulk milk coliform contamination. The nature of the associations between liner CC, rate of cluster washes, rate of milking units fall-offs, and ILCC indicates that managing and monitoring such events has the potential for improving bacteriological quality of farm bulk milk.

Pantoja JC; Reinemann DJ; Ruegg PL

2011-06-01

277

Evaluation of tea cups washing water contamination to fecal coliform at traditional tea shops in Sari, Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and purpose: Most traditional tea shop owners use a bowl to wash tea cups in Sari city (North of Iran). There are more than 140 traditional tea shops in the city. Unfortunately most people drinking at these shops as well as health authorities do not pay attention to the health criteria of the shop. The objective of this study was to examin the tea cups washing water of traditional tea shops for contamination to fecal coliform in Sari city.Materials and Methods: Twenty traditional tea shops (16%) were randomly selected for this study in different areas of the city. Multistage (3 stages) samples were taken from tea set of the shops. All samples were collected from the tea sets of the shops without prior notice. The samples were transferred to the laboratory in cold box as quickly as possible.Results: Forty four samples from a total of 60 (66.6%) were positive for total coliforms. Also 32 samples (33.3%) were positive for fecal coliforms. Number of bacteria in the samples varied from zero to over 1100 per 100 cc sample. The study showed that in warmer situations the contamination was higher. The results showed that the differences between contamination rates in both groups of internal and external traditional tea shops were insignificant.Conclusion: The results showed that only two samples in multistage sampling were not contaminated and in all other samples at least in one stage of sampling, contamination was detected. The results of this study is an important message for food administration.

Z. Yousefi; A.A. Ghanbari

2006-01-01

278

Plasma total ghrelin and leptin levels in human narcolepsy and matched healthy controls: Basal concentrations and response to sodium oxybate.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Narcolepsy is caused by a selective loss of hypocretin neurons and is associated with obesity. Ghrelin and leptin interact with hypocretin neurons to influence energy homeostasis. Here, we evaluated whether human hypocretin deficiency, or the narcolepsy therapeutic agent sodium oxybate, alter the levels of these hormones. METHODS: Eight male, medication free, hypocretin deficient, narcolepsy with cataplexy patients, and 8 healthy controls matched for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), waisttohip ratio, and body fat percentage were assessed. Blood samples of total ghrelin and leptin were collected over 24 hours at 60 and 20-min intervals, respectively, during 2 study occasions: baseline, and during the last night of 5 consecutive nights of sodium oxybate administration (2 × 3.0 g/night). RESULTS: At baseline, mean 24-h total ghrelin (936 ± 142 vs. 949 ± 175 pg/mL, p = 0.873) and leptin (115 ± 5.0 vs. 79.0 ± 32 mg/L, p = 0.18) levels were not different between hypocretin deficient narcolepsy patients and controls. Furthermore, sodium oxybate did not significantly affect the plasma concentration of either one of these hormones. CONCLUSIONS: The increased BMI of narcolepsy patients is unlikely to be mediated by hypocretin deficiency-mediated alterations in total ghrelin or leptin levels. Thus, the effects of these hormones on hypocretin neurons may be mainly unidirectional. Although sodium oxybate may influence body weight, the underlying mechanism is unlikely to involve changes in total ghrelin or leptin secretion. CITATION: Donjacour CEHM; Pardi D; Aziz NA; Frölich M; Roelfsema F; Overeem S; Pijl H; Lammers GJ. Plasma total ghrelin and leptin levels in human narcolepsy and matched healthy controls: basal concentrations and response to sodium oxybate. J Clin Sleep Med 2013;9(8):797-803.

Donjacour CE; Pardi D; Aziz NA; Frölich M; Roelfsema F; Overeem S; Pijl H; Lammers GJ

2013-01-01

279

Effect of cold storage on total phenolics content, antioxidant activity and vitamin C level of selected potato clones.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Twelve Colorado-grown specialty potato clones were evaluated for total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and ascorbic acid content at harvest and after 2, 4, 6 and 7?months cold storage at 4?°C. Potato clones were categorized as pigmented ('CO97226-2R/R', 'CO99364-3R/R', 'CO97215-2P/P', 'CO97216-3P/P', 'CO97227-2P/P', 'CO97222-1R/R', 'Purple Majesty', 'Mountain Rose' and 'All Blue'), yellow ('Yukon Gold') and white fleshed ('Russet Nugget', 'Russet Burbank'). Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was used to estimate total phenolic content, and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS(•+) ) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(•) ) radical scavenging assays were used to estimate antioxidant capacity. RESULTS: Pigmented potato genotypes had significantly higher total phenolic content and antioxidant activity at all data points than yellow- and white-fleshed cultivars. Vitamin C content was higher in 'Yukon Gold' than in the other clones. The highest level of vitamin C in all clones was at harvest and after 2 months in cold storage. Vitamin C content in all potato clones dropped rapidly with longer intervals of cold storage. Although total phenolic content and antioxidant activity fluctuated during cold storage, after 7 months of cold storage their levels were slightly higher than at harvest. Total phenolic content was better correlated with Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC)/ABTS(•+) than the TEAC/DPPH(•) radical scavenging assay. CONCLUSION: Pigmented potato clones had significantly higher total phenolic content and antioxidant activity, while the yellow-fleshed potato cultivar 'Yukon Gold' had significantly higher vitamin C content. Vitamin C content decreased in all potato clones during cold storage, while total phenolics increased in pigmented clones.

Külen O; Stushnoff C; Holm DG

2013-08-01

280

Antimicrobial substances produced by coliform strains active against foodborne pathogens.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the present study, 31 coliform strains were isolated from salad, cheese, and meat products sold in commercial establishments in Rio de Janeiro city, and were tested for antibiotic resistance and antimicrobial substance production. Thirteen strains (41.9%) were resistant to at least one antibiotic tested, among which one presented resistance to nine different antibiotics. Two strains (6.4%) exhibited inhibitory activity against the indicator strains, Escherichia coli LMIFRJ and Salmonella enterica I. The antimicrobial substances that they produced were sensitive to proteolytic enzymes, suggesting that they might be bacteriocins. The producer strains were identified as Klebsiella ozaenae and Raoultella terrigena. Although they had similar spectrums of action, the bacteriocins were shown to be different. Both of them were able to inhibit E. coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Salmonella strains, including antibiotic-resistant ones. Our results suggest that these bacteriocins, named klebicin K and raoultellin L, could have potential use against some foodborne pathogens.

Fleming LR; Bolzan DN; Nascimento Jdos S

2010-03-01

 
 
 
 
281

Antimicrobial substances produced by coliform strains active against foodborne pathogens.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, 31 coliform strains were isolated from salad, cheese, and meat products sold in commercial establishments in Rio de Janeiro city, and were tested for antibiotic resistance and antimicrobial substance production. Thirteen strains (41.9%) were resistant to at least one antibiotic tested, among which one presented resistance to nine different antibiotics. Two strains (6.4%) exhibited inhibitory activity against the indicator strains, Escherichia coli LMIFRJ and Salmonella enterica I. The antimicrobial substances that they produced were sensitive to proteolytic enzymes, suggesting that they might be bacteriocins. The producer strains were identified as Klebsiella ozaenae and Raoultella terrigena. Although they had similar spectrums of action, the bacteriocins were shown to be different. Both of them were able to inhibit E. coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Salmonella strains, including antibiotic-resistant ones. Our results suggest that these bacteriocins, named klebicin K and raoultellin L, could have potential use against some foodborne pathogens. PMID:19895262

Fleming, Luana Rocha; Bolzan, Dayana Nascimento; Nascimento, Janaína Dos Santos

2010-03-01

282

Increased total Renin levels but not Angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In this case-control study, 41 obese (PCOS) women and 29 healthy controls, matched for age and body mass index, were enrolled. Anthropometric, metabolic, and hormonal patterns, including plasma aldosterone, plasma renin, and ACE activity, were measured in each subject. RESULTS: Plasma renin levels were significantly higher in PCOS patients (19.7 ± 14.5 µg/ml) compared with controls (12.9 ± 9.0 µg/ml, p < 0.05). ACE activity and aldosterone levels did not significantly differ between both groups (p = 0.15 and p = 0.18, respectively). Analysis of PCOS patients showed a significant correlation of fasting insulin levels with levels of renin (r = 0.305, p < 0.01) and free testosterone (r = 0.384, p = 0.001). Similarly, homeostasis model assessment index was positively correlated with total renin concentrations (r = 0.366, p < 0.01) and free testosterone (r = 0.352, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Obese PCOS women had higher total renin levels, but not ACE activity and aldosterone levels, related to insulin resistance compared with controls.

Alphan Z; Berberoglu Z; Gorar S; Candan Z; Aktas A; Aral Y; Ademoglu E

2013-01-01

283

Food-bound B12 absorption and serum total homocysteine in patients with low serum B12 levels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This study was undertaken to determine whether measurements of serum total homocysteine (Hcys) and bound B12 absorption are useful in determining which patients with low- or low-normal levels of serum B12 are B12 deficient. In 40 patients with low or borderline serum levels of B12, food-bound B12 absorptions were determined using a body counter in an iron room, and were related to serum total Hcys levels. Food-bound B12 absorption was decreased in 16 patients and in an additional four, absorption of the free vitamin was also decreased. Homocysteine levels were elevated in four of the 16; in three of the four who had both decreased bound and free B12 absorptions, Hcys was elevated. If elevation of the Hcys level indicates tissue deficiency of B12, the 75% incidence of normal levels of Hcys in these patients with low food-bound B12 absorptions suggests the existence of a cohort of patients who may be at risk to develop, but have not yet developed, B12 deficiency. Only long term follow-up will reveal how many ultimately will become B12 deficient.

Miller A; Slingerland DW; Hall CA; Chu RC

1998-09-01

284

Food-bound B12 absorption and serum total homocysteine in patients with low serum B12 levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was undertaken to determine whether measurements of serum total homocysteine (Hcys) and bound B12 absorption are useful in determining which patients with low- or low-normal levels of serum B12 are B12 deficient. In 40 patients with low or borderline serum levels of B12, food-bound B12 absorptions were determined using a body counter in an iron room, and were related to serum total Hcys levels. Food-bound B12 absorption was decreased in 16 patients and in an additional four, absorption of the free vitamin was also decreased. Homocysteine levels were elevated in four of the 16; in three of the four who had both decreased bound and free B12 absorptions, Hcys was elevated. If elevation of the Hcys level indicates tissue deficiency of B12, the 75% incidence of normal levels of Hcys in these patients with low food-bound B12 absorptions suggests the existence of a cohort of patients who may be at risk to develop, but have not yet developed, B12 deficiency. Only long term follow-up will reveal how many ultimately will become B12 deficient. PMID:9723575

Miller, A; Slingerland, D W; Hall, C A; Chu, R C

1998-09-01

285

Serum Total Homocysteine Level: A True Cardiovascular Risk Factor or an Acute Phase Reactant Protein?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death in the developed world1.In Pakistan; the disease seems to follow an accelerated course with ischaemic events occurring a decade earlier than those reported worldwide2. While many risk factors of cardiovascular diseases are well established, many are still under evaluation; like homocysteine, which is now being considered an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases3.Homocysteine is a sulfur containing amino acid which is not our dietary constituent but is formed by metabolism of methionine, another amino acid present in our daily protein diet. In case of excess formation of homocysteine as compared to its consumption, it appears in urine if levels are too high3. Normal plasma homocysteine concentration ranges from 5 to 15?mol/litre. Of this, almost 75% is bound to proteins, especially albumin, through disulfide bond. Classification of hyperhomocysteinemia described by Kang SS 4 is followed widely.Moderate hyperhomocysteinemia (15 to 30 ?mol/litre)Intermediate hyperhomocysteinemia (30 to 100?mol/litre)Severe hyperhomocysteinemia (>100 ?mol/litre

Dr. Malik Asif Humayoun et al.

2011-01-01

286

Assessment of serum selenium levels in 2-month-old sucking calves using total reflection technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The assessment of selenium status of livestock is an important aspect of production medicine as evidence for the influence of low Se levels on disease resistance in ruminants is reviewed with emphasis on susceptibility to various pathologies (such as infections, exudative diathesis, pneumonia, pancreatic degeneration). Additional evidence suggests that Se deficiency may cause muscular dystrophy in calves, while, severe deficiency has been associated with cardiomyopathy and even death. Serum Se content is a good indicator of the short term Se status and reflects the recent dietary intake of the element. Since serum Se content is a good indicator of the short term status of the element and reflects the its recent dietary intake, the present work is aimed to determine Se concentration in serum from a group of 2 months old sucking calves suspected to be severely deficient. We used the TX 2000 X-ray spectrometer manufactured by Ital Structures. The energy resolution (FWHM) of the Si(Li) detector was 137 eV for Mn K?. Among nuclear techniques the TXRF method is the best suitable for trace element analysis in liquid or dissolved samples and can deal much easier with elemental investigation. Physical basis of used analytical method, experimental set up and the sample preparation procedure are described. The concentration data obtained are presented and discussed. (author)

2000-01-01

287

Assessment of serum selenium levels in 2-month-old sucking calves using Total Reflection Technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The assessment of selenium status of livestock is an important aspect of production medicine as evidence for the influence of low Se levels on disease resistance in ruminants is reviewed with emphasis on susceptibility to various pathologies (such as infections, exudative diathesis, pneumonia, pancreatic degeneration). Additional evidence suggests that Se deficiency may cause muscular dystrophy in calves, while, severe deficiency has been associated with cardiomyopathy and even death. Serum Se content is a good indicator of the short term Se status and reflects the recent dietary intake of the element. Since Serum Se content is a good indicator of the short term status of the element and reflects the its recent dietary intake, the present work is aimed to determine Se concentration in serum from a group of 2 month old sucking calves suspected to be severely deficient. We used the TX 2000 X-ray spectrometer manufactured by Ital Structures. The energy resolution (FWHM) of the Si(Li) detector was 137 eV for Mn K?. Among nuclear techniques the TXRF method is the best suitable for trace element analysis in liquid or dissolved samples and can deal much easier with elemental investigation. Physical basis of used analytical method, experimental set up and the sample preparation procedure are described. The concentration data obtained are presented and discussed

1999-01-01

288

Evaluación de tres métodos para la inactivación de coliformes y Escherichia coli presentes en agua residual doméstica, empleada para riego/ Evaluation of three methods for the inactivation of coliforms and Escherichia coli present in domestic wastewaters used in irrigation/ Avaliação de três métodos para a inativação de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli presentes em águas residuais domésticas utilizadas para a irrigação  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Objetivo. Avaliar três tratamentos (lagoas, fotocatálise com TiO2 e desinfecção química) para inativação de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli presentes em águas residuais domésticas utilizadas na irrigação dos cultivos. Materiais e métodos. O efluente foi caracterizado por analises físicos, químicos e microbiológicos. Posteriormente foi submetido a tratamento de lagoas facultativas (TLF), pós-tratamento fotocatalítico (PTF TiO2/UV) e pós-tratamento qu (more) ímico (PTQ NaClO). Avaliando a capacidade desinfetante de cada um para inativar coliformes totais e E. coli. Posteriormente, foram processados três novos lotes de águas residuais para testar a irrigação em escala de laboratório por 30 dias, utilizando-se como modelo plantas de Lactuca sativa variedade Batavia e avaliando a concentração inicial e final dos dois grupos. Resultados. O PTFTiO2/UV foi significativamente maior a TLFLF e PTQ NaClO (p Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Evaluar tres tratamientos (lagunaje, fotocatálisis con TiO2 y desinfección química) para la inactivación de coliformes totales y Escherichia coli presentes en agua residual doméstica empleada para riego agrícola. Materiales y métodos. El agua residual fue caracterizada por medio de análisis físicos, químicos y microbiológicos. Posteriormente fue sometida a un tratamiento de lagunaje facultativo (TLF), pos tratamiento fotocatalítico (PTFTiO2/UV) y pos (more) tratamiento químico (PTQ NaClO). Valorando la capacidad desinfectante de cada uno de ellos para inactivar coliformes totales y E. coli. A continuación se procesaron tres nuevos lotes de agua residual y se utilizaron para realizar pruebas de riego a escala de laboratorio por 30 días, empleando como modelo plantas de Lactuca sativa variedad Batavia y evaluando la concentración inicial y final de los dos grupos. Resultados. El PTFTiO2/UV fue significativamente superior que TLFLF y el PTQ NaClO (p Abstract in english Objective. To evaluate three treatments (facultative stabilization ponds, heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO2 and chemical disinfection with sodium hypochlorite) for the inactivation of coliforms and Escherichia coli presen in domestic wastewaters used in agricultural irrigation. Materials and methods. Wastewater was characterized by physical, chemical and microbiological analyses and was then exposed to a facultative pond treatment (FPT), post-photocatalytic treatment (more) (PTFTiO2/UV) and post-chemical treatment (PTQNaClO) to assess the disinfecting capacity of each method in the inactivation of total coliforms and E. coli. Three new samples of wastewater were processed and used in irrigation tests on a laboratory-scale basis for 30 days, using Lactuca sativa cultivar. Batavia as a model plant and evaluating the initial and final concentrations of the two groups. Results. PTFTiO2/UV was significantly higher than FPT and PTQNaClO (p

Rojas-Higuera, Naydú; Sánchez-Garibello, Andrea; Matiz-Villamil, Adriana; Salcedo-Reyes, Juan Carlos; Carrascal-Camacho, Ana Karina; Pedroza-Rodríguez, Aura M

2010-05-01

289

Plasma (total and ionized), erythrocyte and platelet magnesium levels in renal transplant recipients during cyclosporine and/or azathioprine treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

We evaluated total and ionized plasma magnesium levels, and erythrocyte and platelet magnesium concentrations from two groups of renal transplant recipients treated either with cyclosporine, azathioprine and prednisolone (group CAP, n = 8) or with azathioprine and prednisolone (group AP, n = 13), and in a group of age- and sex-matched healthy subjects (n = 10). Reduced plasma (total and ionized), erythrocyte and platelet magnesium concentrations were found in both CAP and AP groups with respect to controls (CAP: total plasma Mg median 0.61 vs 0.86 mmol/L, p magnesium depletion and ionized plasma magnesium reduction induced by immunosuppressive therapy could be involved in the increased risk from atherosclerotic disease in renal transplant recipients. PMID:9595545

Allegra, A; Corica, F; Ientile, R; Corsonello, A; Sparacino, V; Accettola, F; Caputo, F; Macaione, S; Buemi, M

1998-03-01

290

Effects of lysine levels of diets formulated based on total or digestible amino acids on broiler carcass composition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate carcass yield and chemical composition of thigh and breast muscles of broilers fed three different lysine requirement levels: high lysine (+10% NRC), standard (NRC) and low lysine (-10% NRC) and two ways of expressing amino acids in feedstuffs (total or digestible amino acids). The results of this study showed that diet formulation based on digestible amino acids significantly influenced breast yield and abdominal fat deposition. The study showed that increasing lysine level (+10% NRC) of diet significantly increased both carcass and breast percentage and also carcass, breast and thigh weight. The interaction between digestible amino acids and lysine requirement levels affected carcass and breast percentage. Feeding broilers high lysine diets (+10% NRC) significantly increased lysine content in breast and thigh. The response to formulation based on digestible amino acids was maximized when broilers received the high lysine level diet.

J Nasr; F Kheiri

2012-01-01

291

Effects of lysine levels of diets formulated based on total or digestible amino acids on broiler carcass composition  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english The study was conducted to evaluate carcass yield and chemical composition of thigh and breast muscles of broilers fed three different lysine requirement levels: high lysine (+10% NRC), standard (NRC) and low lysine (-10% NRC) and two ways of expressing amino acids in feedstuffs (total or digestible amino acids). The results of this study showed that diet formulation based on digestible amino acids significantly influenced breast yield and abdominal fat deposition. The st (more) udy showed that increasing lysine level (+10% NRC) of diet significantly increased both carcass and breast percentage and also carcass, breast and thigh weight. The interaction between digestible amino acids and lysine requirement levels affected carcass and breast percentage. Feeding broilers high lysine diets (+10% NRC) significantly increased lysine content in breast and thigh. The response to formulation based on digestible amino acids was maximized when broilers received the high lysine level diet.

Nasr, J; Kheiri, F

2012-12-01

292

Plasma Levels of Asymmetric Dimethylarginine and Total Homocysteine in First Degree Relatives of Type 2 Diabetic Patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objectives: Cardiovascular diseases are more common among first degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients than healthy subjects without a family history of diabetes. Plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and homocysteine (Hcy) levels are markers of endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. The objective of this study was to evaluate levels of ADMA, Hcy and their association with cardiovascular risk factors in first degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients.Patients and Methods: The circulating ADMA and Hcy levels were measured in 15 first degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients and 15 control subjects without a known family history of diabetes.Results: No statistically significant differences were found in plasma levels of ADMA and Hcy between the two groups (p>0.05). Plasma ADMA levels correlated significantly with waist circumference (p=0.02), fasting insulin levels (p=0.03), insulin resistance (p=0.01), total cholesterol (p=0.04) and HDL-cholesterol (p=0.03) levels in the first degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients.Conclusion: These results suggest that plasma ADMA levels do not directly contribute to the development of endothelial dysfunction in first degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients with cardiovascular risk factors.

Sibel GULDIKEN; Hakan KARADAG; Muzaffer DEMIR; Ender ARIKAN; Mujdat KARA

2007-01-01

293

Correlation of symptoms with total IgE and specific IgE levels in patients presenting with allergic rhinitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation of symptoms in patients with presumed allergic rhinitis on the basis of their medical history and physical examination with the levels of total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and specific IgE, and to question the necessity of these tests in diagnosis. METHODS: The records of 295 patients, who had at least two complaints of nasal itching, nasal obstruction, runny discharge and sneezing, and/or presumed as allergic rhinitis on physical examination findings were retrospectively screened. The correlation between the levels of IgE, specific inhalant IgE, and food-specific serum IgE were evaluated in these patients. RESULTS: A total of 70 cases (23.7%) were determined to have a total value of IgE under 20 U/ml, 113 cases (38.3%) with IgE values between 20 U/ml and 100 U/ml, and 100 cases with IgE values above 100 U/ml. Results of total IgE could not be obtained in 12 (4.06%) patients. Dermatophagoides farinae was the most common allergy in this group with 74 (68.5%) cases. CONCLUSIONS: The determination of IgE in allergic rhinitis is a supportive method. However, it cannot be recommended for routine use because of the time loss and high cost.

Karli R; Balbaloglu E; Uzun L; Cinar F; Ugur MB

2013-04-01

294

Total Level of Serum Homocysteine in Males and Females with Coronary Heart Disease of Different Age Groups  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Elevated plasma total homocysteine concentration is a risk factor of cardiovascular disease. Total homocysteine level is a strong predictor of mortality in-patient with an angiographically confirmed Coronary Heart Disease (CHD), so we want to know at what age in males and females elevated homocysteine will be significantly elevated and this will help for better management and prognosis by decreasing the level of homocysteine. Approach: Plasma level of homocysteine was determined in male and female patients below and above 50 years old, who have coronary heart disease with diabetes or without diabetes. Fifty two coronary heart diseases with type 2 diabetic patients and a matched number of healthy subjects as a control and another 52 coronary heart disease patients without diabetes were included in this study. Plasma homocysteine was determined by Enzymatic Immuno Sorbant Assay (ELISA). Results: Plasma homocysteine level in coronary heart disease diabetic male and female patients who are -1, respectively, while it is 28.12±9.5 and 29.44±4.3 umol L-1 in male and female patients >50 years old, respectively. Plasma homocysteine level in coronary heart disease nondiabetic male and female patients who are -1, respectively, while it is 26.9±1.1 and 27.56±6.8 umol L-1 in male and female patients >50 years old, respectively. Conclusion: It is concluded that plasma level of homocysteine is significantly elevated in diabetic coronary heart disease female patients above 50 years old and significantly elevated in nondiabetic coronary heart disease males and female patients, thus nondiabetic coronary heart disease male and female patients and diabetic coronary female patients are at high risk of vascular diseases. It is recommended that these patients may take supplementation of folate and vitamin B12 to reduce the level of homocysteine.

Faisal I. Mohammad; Sally Awawdeh; Akram Saleh; Nabil A. Bashir

2010-01-01

295

In vivo serum titanium ion levels following modular neck total hip arthroplasty--10 year results in 67 patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of the present cross-sectional study was to determine in vivo titanium ion levels following cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA) using a modular stem system with different shapes for femoral canal fit and multiple neck options. A consecutive series of 173 patients (190 hips) who underwent cementless modular neck THA and a ceramic on polyethylene bearing with a median follow-up of 9 (7-13) years was evaluated retrospectively. According to a standardized protocol, titanium ion measurements were performed on 67 patients using high-resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Ion levels were compared to a control group comprising patients with non-modular titanium implants (n=11) and to individuals without implants (n=23). Modular neck THA did not result in elevated titanium ion levels compared to non-modular THA. Compared to individuals without implants, both modular THA and non-modular THA showed elevated titanium ion levels. Absolute titanium ion levels, however, were comparatively low for both implants. The data suggest that the present modular stem system does not result in elevated systemic titanium ion levels in the medium term when compared to non-modular stems. Further longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate the use of systemic titanium ion levels as an objective diagnostic tool to identify THA failure and to monitor patients following revision surgery.

Omlor GW; Kretzer JP; Reinders J; Streit MR; Bruckner T; Gotterbarm T; Aldinger PR; Merle C

2013-04-01

296

UREA LEVEL IN COWS’ MILK FED ON TOTAL MIXED RATION (TMR) AND TRADITIONAL SYSTEM IN SUMMER AND WINTER SEASON  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the research urea content in milk and frequency of the occurrence of samples with different urea level in milk of cows fed on total mixed ration (TMR) and traditional system in summer and winter season were analyzed. Analysis covered 14272 of milk samples. On account of urea level they were divided on three groups: to 140, 141-250 and above 250 mg of urea in 1 liter of milk. It was found that average urea content in milk of cows fed on total mixed rations (TMR) amounted to 196 mg.l-1. Milk of cows from farm applying traditional feeding system included 184 mg.l-1 of that constituent average. Both these values therefore could have been recognized as optimal. Urea level pointed out to the energy-protein unbalancing of feed rations in 55.6% (TMR) and 57.7% (traditional) of milk samples. Urea level in milk of cows fed in traditional system was at p?0.01 higher (196 mg.l-1) in summer than in winter season (166 mg.l-1). In winter feeding season the frequency of the occurrence of milk samples indicating the lack of protein in feed rations (to 140 mg of urea in 1 liter) was 11.9% higher than in summer season.

Ewa JANU?

2009-01-01

297

Significance of total creatine kinase and creatine kinase-mb levels in patients with acute myocardial infarction  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the significace of measuring total creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB levels in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction.A strategy for diagnosing acute myocardial infarction was evaluated by studying 500 suspected patients aged 30-65 years. The control group,which included 200 subjects,was randomly selected from the casualty department. Investigations were carried out at Prince Rashid Bin Al-Hassan Military Hospital in the north region of jordan over one year period in 2009-2010 Total creatine kinase and creatin kinase-MB were measured in serum applying the creatine kinase,creatine kinase-MB NAC activated methods (Boehringer Mannheim’s) using the Hitashi -912 autoanalyzer. In acute myocardial infarction patients,the mean value of total creatine kinase was greater than that of normal range. Results of 25-900U/L for creatin kinase((for both sexes) were obtained at admission. Also the mean value of creatine kinase-MB(8-40U/L)and % cratine kinase-MB were geater than that of the normal range in both sexes. The maximum peak was found after 8-12 hours from the time of admission of myocardial infarction patients,both males and females. This study demonstrated that measurement of total creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB is currently the test of choice to confirm the diagnosis of an acute myocardial infarction.Measurement of total creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB every 8-12 hours is an adequate and costeffective method for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. It was found that measurements of total creatin kinase and creatine kinase-MB are useful parameters for identifying people at high risk for acute myocardial infarction.

Fethi Abed ALGani

2011-01-01

298

Mutation in APOA1 predicts increased risk of ischaemic heart disease and total mortality without low HDL cholesterol levels  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether mutations in APOA1 affect levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and to predict risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and total mortality in the general population. BACKGROUND: Epidemiologically, risk of IHD is inversely related to HDL cholesterol levels. Mutations in apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, the major protein constituent of HDL, might be associated with low HDL cholesterol and predispose to IHD and early death. DESIGN: We resequenced APOA1 in 190 individuals and examined the effect of mutations on HDL cholesterol, risk of IHD, myocardial infarction (MI) and mortality in 10 440 individuals in the prospective Copenhagen City Heart Study followed for 31 years. Results were validated in an independent case-control study (n = 16 035). Additionally, we determined plasma ratios of mutant to wildtype (WT) apoA-I in human heterozygotes and functional effects of mutations in adenovirus-transfected mice. RESULTS: We identified a new mutation, A164S (1 : 500 in the general population), which predicted hazard ratios for IHD, MI and total mortality of 3.2 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6-6.5], 5.5 (95% CI: 2.6-11.7) and 2.5 (95% CI: 1.3-4.8), respectively, in heterozygotes compared with noncarriers. Mean reduction in survival time in heterozygotes was 10 years (P < 0.0001). Results for IHD and MI were confirmed in the case-control study. Furthermore, the ratio of mutant S164 to WT A164 apoA-I in plasma of heterozygotes was reduced. In addition, A164S heterozygotes had normal plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels, including HDL cholesterol and apoA-I, and this finding was confirmed in adenovirus-transfected mice. CONCLUSIONS: A164S is the first mutation in APOA1 to be described that predicts an increased risk of IHD, MI and total mortality without low HDL cholesterol levels.

Haase, C L; Frikke-Schmidt, R

2011-01-01

299

Evaluation of Flow Rate, pH, Buffering Capacity, Calcium, Total Proteins and Total Antioxidant Capacity Levels of Saliva in Caries Free and Caries Active Children: An In Vivo Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the physicochemical properties of saliva such as flow rate, pH, buffering capacity, calcium level, total protein and total antioxidant levels in caries free and caries active children. The present study included one hundred and twent...

Preethi, B. P.; Reshma, Dodawad; Anand, Pyati

300

Serum Total and Lipid Bound Sialic Acid Levels in Patients With Benign and Nonmelanom Malignant Skin Tumors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It has been reported that sialic acid containing oligosaccharides play an important rolein the adhesion between cancer cells and endothelial cells and metastatic potential of tumorcells is proportional to cell surface sialylation. In the present study, we investigatedwhether there is a change in serum total and lipid bound sialic acid levels of patientswith benign and non-melanom malignant skin tumors and, evaluated whether the measurementof sialic acid levels may be useful clinically in distinguishing patients with benignskin tumors from those with non-melanom malignant skin tumors. In this study, 27patients with malignant skin tumors (16 men, age 50.78 ± 12.46 years), 39 patients withbenign skin tumors (17 men, age 48.59 ± 16.23 years) were included. Serum total andlipid bound sialic acid determination was performed by the thiobarbituric acid methoddescribed by Warren and, the resorsinol method described by Katopodis, respectively.Student’s T test and Z test were used to analyze the results. The mean serum total andlipid bound sialic acid levels were found to be 63.01 ± 11.89 mg/dl and 15.77 ± 2.44mg/dl, respectively in patients with benign skin tumors; and 65.95 ± 7.30 mg/dl and16.70 ± 3.80 mg/dl, respectively in patients with non-melanom malignant skin tumors.Serum total sialic acid and lipid bound sialic acid of patients with benign skin tumorswere not different from those of patients with non-melanom malignant skin tumors. Thepercentage of lipid bound sialic acid was found to be 25.3 in patients with non-melanommalignant skin tumors, 25 in patients with benign skin tumors. There was no significantdifference between the value of lipid bound sialic acid percentage in these groups. Ourfinding that there is no significant difference between serum total and lipid-bound sialicacid levels of patients with non melanom malignant skin tumors which are not able tometastase and patients with benign skin tumors supports the studies reporting that sialicacids play an important role in metastases.

Cemal Kazezo?lu,; Selma Süer Gökmen,; 1Bendigar Sunar; Cemal Ayg?t; Beyhan Çak?r

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

75 FR 14607 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli  

Science.gov (United States)

...of the SECG to the Division of Plant and Dairy Food Safety (HFS-317), Office of Food Safety, Center for Food Safety and...Posnick Robin, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-317), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch...

2010-03-26

302

75 FR 49930 - Stakeholder Meeting Regarding Re-Evaluation of Currently Approved Total Coliform Analytical Methods  

Science.gov (United States)

...PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9190-2] Stakeholder Meeting Regarding Re-Evaluation of...will have a technical dialogue with stakeholders regarding re-evaluation of currently...analytical methods. At these meetings, stakeholders will be given an opportunity to...

2010-08-16

303

75 FR 42440 - Total Coliform Rule Revisions-Notice of Public Information Meetings  

Science.gov (United States)

...published in the Federal Register on July 14, 2010. During the public information meetings, EPA will discuss the major provisions of the current TCR, the history of the development of the proposed RTCR, the core elements of the proposed...

2010-07-21

304

Treated domestic sewage: kinetics of Escherichia coli and total coliform inactivation by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide has been used for decades in developed countries as an oxidizing agent in the treatment of water, domestic sewage and industrial effluents. This study evaluated the influence of the concentration of H2O2 and pH on the inactivation of Escherichia coli cells and the disinfection of sewage treated. The results showed that the inactivation rate increased with pH and H2O2. The presence of other contaminants dissolved in the effluent is probably the cause of these differences, because E. coli inactivation in synthetic wastewater was found to be much faster than in the real treated domestic sewage.

Gean Delise L. P. Vargas; Regina F. P. M. Moreira; Deisi Spricigo; Humberto J. José

2013-01-01

305

Treated domestic sewage: kinetics of Escherichia coli and total coliform inactivation by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in english Hydrogen peroxide has been used for decades in developed countries as an oxidizing agent in the treatment of water, domestic sewage and industrial effluents. This study evaluated the influence of the concentration of H2O2 and pH on the inactivation of Escherichia coli cells and the disinfection of sewage treated. The results showed that the inactivation rate increased with pH and H2O2. The presence of other contaminants dissolved in the effluent is probably the cause of t (more) hese differences, because E. coli inactivation in synthetic wastewater was found to be much faster than in the real treated domestic sewage.

Vargas, Gean Delise L. P.; Moreira, Regina F. P. M.; Spricigo, Deisi; José, Humberto J.

2013-01-01

306

75 FR 40925 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule  

Science.gov (United States)

...syndrome, reduced kidney function, hypertension and reactive arthritis can result from infection by a waterborne agent...syndrome, reduced kidney function, hypertension and reactive arthritis can result from infection by a...

2010-07-14

307

An independent positive relationship between the serum total osteocalcin level and fat-free mass in healthy premenopausal women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: It is widely reported that osteocalcin is negatively associated with fat mass. However, there are few reports describing its correlation with fat-free mass, particularly in women. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the current study was to investigate the possible relationship between osteocalcin and fat-free mass in healthy, nonobese women. DESIGN AND SETTING: This study was performed in a tertiary university teaching hospital. SUBJECTS: A total of 504 healthy women aged 20-75 years were enrolled. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Body composition was measured using a bioelectronics impedance analyzer. The serum concentrations of total osteocalcin, estradiol, leptin, osteoprotegerin, the receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand, IGF-I, fasting plasma glucose, and urinary N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen were tested. The bone mineral densities (BMDs) at the lumbar spine and proximal femoral neck were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: The serum total osteocalcin level had a significant positive association with fat-free mass (r = 0.168, P = .007) after adjusting for age, fat mass, menopausal status, estradiol, fasting glucose, leptin, osteoprotegerin, receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand, IGF-I, N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, BMDs, and waist and hip circumference. Analysis in pre- and postmenopausal women demonstrated that this association was only present in premenopausal women (r = 0.190, P = .005). The multiple stepwise regression analysis revealed that hip circumference, femoral neck-BMD, fat mass, leptin, osteocalcin, and age are the contributors to the changes in fat-free mass in premenopausal women (adjusted R(2) = 0.521, P < .001). CONCLUSION: The serum level of total osteocalcin was positively associated with fat-free mass independent of age, fat mass, leptin, and other confounders in premenopausal women.

Liu JM; Zhao HY; Zhao L; Chen Y; Zhang LZ; Tao B; Sun LH; Zhao YJ; Wang WQ; Xu MY; Chen JL; Ning G

2013-05-01

308

Serum total homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) levels in acute myocardial infarction and their response to treatment with vitamins serum total homocysteine and lipoprotein (a) levels in acute myocardial infarction and their response to treatment with vitamins  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To assess the relationship of serum total homocysteine (tHcy) and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels with systemic hypertension, Diabetes mellitus and smoking as risk factors in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and changes in the former levels with vitamins supplementation. Study Design: An interventional study. Place and Duration of Study: Medical College for Women and Hospital (MCW and H), Dhaka, Bangladesh, from July 2008 to December 2009. Methodology: Consecutive AMI patients were recruited from the Coronary Care Unit (CCU) at MCW and H, Dhaka. Blood samples were collected at inclusion (Patient-I0). They were given conventional treatments and prescribed vitamins (vitamins B6=25 mg, B12=2 mg and folic acid=2.5 mg) daily for 2 months. After follow-up, blood samples were taken again (Patient-II0). A group of 25 normal subjects were also included as controls. Serum tHcy and Lp(a) were measured by kinetic method and nephelometric method respectively. Results: Serum tHcy (macor mol/L) and Lp(a) (mg/dl) levels were elevated in Patient-I that reduced in Patient-II after vitamins supplementation, but not to the normal control level. tHcy of Patient-I0 was 25.1 +- 4.7 macro mol/L, of Patient-II0 was 20.1 +- 4.5 mu mol/L and of controls 12.1 +- 3.3, p 0.1). However, in a significant proportion of patients tHcy and Lp(a) levels were reduced to control levels (tHcy: p

2008-07-00

309

Acute organo-phosphorus pesticide poisoning in North Karnataka, India: oxidative damage, haemoglobin level and total leukocyte.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Pesticide poisoning is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in India. OBJECTIVES: To assess the oxidative damage, hemoglobin level and leukocyte count in acute organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. METHODS: Plasma cholinesterase was assessed as a toxicity marker. Oxidative damage was assessed by estimating serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC), erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels. RESULTS: Progressive and significant decline (p< 0.001) in plasma cholinesterase in correlation with the severity of organophosphorus poisoning was observed. Serum MDA levels significantly increased (p< 0.001) in all grades of organophosphorus poisoning cases as compared to controls. Erythrocyte SOD, CAT and GPx were significantly increased (p< 0.05) in earlier grade and (p< 0.001) in later grades of organophosphorus poisoning cases as compared to controls. While plasma TAC (p<0.001) was significantly decreased in all grades of organophosphorus poisoning cases as compared to controls. Leucocytosis observed in these cases signifies the activation of defense mechanism which could be a positive response for survival. CONCLUSION: Organophosphorus compounds inhibit cholinesterase action leading to cholinergic hyperactivity. Increased MDA level may lead to peroxidative damages deteriorating the structural and functional integrity of neuronal membrane. Increased erythrocyte SOD, CAT and GPx activities suggest an adaptive measure to tackle the pesticide accumulation. Hence it is concluded that cholinesterase inhibition may initiate cellular dysfunction leading to acetylcholine induced oxidative damage.

Hundekari IA; Suryakar AN; Rathi DB

2013-03-01

310

Comparison of methods for the enumeration of fecal coliforms exposed to certain synfuel process waters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Resuscitation methodology was found to give increased counts over the standard Membrane Filtration method in the enumeration of fecal coliforms exposed to a coal gasification and two oil shale process waters under certain but not all conditions studied.

Adams JC

1985-01-01

311

Umbilical cord levels of sclerostin, placental weight, and birth weight are predictors of total bone mineral content in neonates.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: During pregnancy, changes occur in the maternal calcium homeostasis to fulfill fetal demand. We hypothesized that the fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) system and Wnt signaling pathway are important for normal skeletal development in the offspring. AIMS: Circulating ?-klotho, FGF23, sclerostin, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) at the fetal and maternal sides of the placenta were measured to investigate associations with newborn bone mass independent of maternal BMI, calcium and phosphate levels, placental weight, and birth weight. METHODS: In a prospective cohort of healthy pregnant women, the total body bone mineral content (BMC) in 202 newborns was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Maternal circulating levels of the biomarkers were measured at gestational weeks 30-32 and in umbilical cord plasma (UCP) at birth. RESULTS: Mean ?-klotho and sclerostin concentrations in the UCP were significantly higher than maternal levels (3004 vs 1077? pg/ml; P<0.001 and 629 vs 346 ?pg/ml; P<0.001 respectively), and mean 25(OH)D was lower (31 vs 45 ?nmol/l; P<0.001). The UCP and maternal FGF23 levels were similar. No significant effects of maternal biomarkers on BMC were found in regression analyses. Among UCP biomarkers, only UCP sclerostin was significantly associated with BMC in univariate analyses, and the effect remained significant after adjustment for birth weight and other confounders. CONCLUSIONS: We found that UCP sclerostin levels, birth weight, and placental weight were significant predictors of neonatal BMC but found no evidence for a main role of maternal levels of ?-klotho, FGF23, sclerostin, or 25(OH)D nor of UCP levels of ?-klotho, FGF23, or 25(OH)D.

Godang K; Frøslie KF; Henriksen T; Isaksen GA; Voldner N; Lekva T; Ueland T; Bollerslev J

2013-03-01

312

Bacterial growth state distinguished by single-cell protein profiling: Does chlorination kill coliforms in municipal effluent?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Municipal effluent is the largest reservoir of human enteric bacteria. Its public health significance, however, depends upon the physiological status of the wastewater bacterial community. A novel immunofluorescence assay was developed and used to examine the bacterial growth state during wastewater disinfection. Quantitative levels of three highly conserved cytosolic proteins (DnaK, Dps, and Fis) were determined by using enterobacterium-specific antibody fluorochrome-coupled probes. Enterobacterial Fis homologs were abundant in growing cells and nearly undetectable in stationary-phase cells. In contrast, enterobacterial Dps homologs were abundant in stationary-phase cells but virtually undetectable in growing cells. The range of variation in the abundance of both proteins was at least 100-fold as determined by Western blotting and immunofluorescence analysis. Enterobacterial DnaK homologs were nearly invariant with growth state, enabling their use as permeabilization controls. The cellular growth states of individual enterobacteria in wastewater samples were determined by measurement of Fis, Dps, and DnaK abundance (protein profiling). Intermediate levels of Fis and Dps were evident and occurred in response to physiological transitions. The results indicate that chlorination failed to kill coliforms but rather elicited nutrient starvation and a reversible nonculturable state. These studies suggest that the current standard procedures for wastewater analysis which rely on detection of culturable cells likely underestimate fecal coliform content.

Rockabrand, D.; Austin, T.; Kaiser, R.; Blum, P.

1999-09-01

313

Potential mechanism of action of J5 vaccine in protection against severe bovine coliform mastitis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Coliform mastitis is one of the most difficult diseases to treat in the modern dairy industry. Curative therapy with antibiotics remains only moderately effective and depends on the stage at which the disease is treated. The most successful strategies for combating coliform mastitis appear to be prevention by hygienic management or prophylactic immunization. The severity of clinical symptoms of coliform mastitis has been shown to be reduced by immunization with the Escherichia coli J5 vaccine. However, although the J5 vaccine has been licensed in the United States for about 10 years, the immunological basis of its mechanism of action is still unknown. Until now, protection by J5 vaccination has often been explained by a straightforward mechanism of enhanced antibody production resulting in increased opsonization of coliform bacteria and lipopolysaccharides (LPS). The possibility that J5 vaccination could decrease risk factors for coliform mastitis such as impaired blood polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocyte (PMN) diapedesis has never been investigated. This review provides arguments to support the hypothesis that J5 vaccination may reduce the severity of coliform mastitis by inducing a condition of mammary gland hyper-responsiveness, characterized by a T helper 1 (Th1) response and mediated by memory cells inside the mammary gland, finally resulting in enhanced PMN diapedesis upon an intramammary infection.

Dosogne H; Vangroenweghe F; Burvenich C

2002-01-01

314

Correlation of salivary and serum IgG, IgA levels with total protein in oral submucous fibrosis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a disabling, potentially malignant condition of the oral cavity. The aetiology of OSMF is multifactorial but remains obscure. Although arecanut is considered to be the most important causative agent, responses observed in individuals using arecanut vary in relation to quantity and duration. It is considered that an immunological process is responsible for the pathogenesis of disease. We correlated salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA), salivary immunoglobulin G (IgG) and serum immunoglobulin A (IgA), serum immunoglobulin G (IgG), levels by turbidometric immunoassay. We estimated the levels of total serum protein (TSP) and haemoglobin (Hb) to determine the role of nutritional deficiency. The study population comprised 30 cases of OSMF and 10 controls. Five milliliters of blood and 2 ml of saliva were collected. Quantitative analysis of serum and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hb were estimated by Biuret and cyanmethaemoglobin methods, respectively. All patients showed significant (P < 0.01) increase in serum and salivary IgG, IgA levels as compared to controls. TSP patients showed significant (P < 0.01) decrease as compared to controls. Results of Hb in patients were not significant. The estimation of immunoglobulin levels is important to support the concept of autoimmune basis. Estimation of TSP and Hb suggests that nutrition has a definite role in OSMF.

Patidar KA; Parwani RN; Wanjari SP

2011-03-01

315

A cherry nutraceutical modulates melatonin, serotonin, corticosterone, and total antioxidant capacity levels: effect on ageing and chronotype  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Impaired daily rhythms in vertebrate physiology occur with age. Particularly, age-related changes in melatonin and serotonin rhythms and hypercortisolemia have been reported to be linked to age-related disorders. This study was aimed at assessing the effect of a Jerte Valley cherry-based nutraceutical product (patent no ES 2342141 B1), which contains high levels of tryptophan, serotonin, and melatonin, on the serum melatonin, serotonin, corticosterone, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels in young and old ring doves (Streptopelia risoria) and rats (Rattus norvegicus) as representatives of animals with diurnal and nocturnal habits, respectively. The animals consumed the cherry product for 10 days. Serum melatonin, serotonin, corticosterone, and TAC were measured with commercial ELISA kits. The consumption of the cherry product induced a significant increase in the circulating levels of melatonin and serotonin, as well as in the serum TAC and a significant decrease in the circulating levels of corticosterone in both species and groups of age as compared to their respective values in the control groups. The consumption of a Jerte Valley cherry-based nutraceutical product may help to counteract the decrease in melatonin and serotonin and the increase in oxidative stress, suggesting a potential health benefit especially in aged populations where these parameters have been found to be altered.

Jonathan Delgado; Maria Pilar Terron; Jose Antonio Pariente; Carmen Barriga; Ana Beatriz Rodriguez; Sergio Damian Pared

2012-01-01

316

Association of asthma and total IgE levels with human leucocyte antigen-DR in patients with grass allergy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Exposure to grass pollens during the pollen season, reveals in sensitive patients symptoms of allergic rhinitis, conjunctivitis and/or bronchial asthma. It is not well understood why, in some patients, only symptoms of rhinitis occur while in others similar exposure causes symptoms of asthma and rhinitis. An association study is reported here, where the possible contribution of human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DR gene polymorphisms to differential phenotypic expression of symptoms in patients with grass-pollen allergy was determined. HLA-DR genotyping was performed by the polymerase chain reaction with the sequence-specific primers method in 82 patients with symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis and/or bronchial asthma and 52 healthy nonatopic control subjects. A significant association was found between HLA-DRB1*02, B5* haplotype and asthma phenotype in patients with grass-pollen allergy when compared to patients with rhinitis only. Significantly higher total serum immunoglobulin E levels were observed in patients with HLA-DRB1*01 alleles in comparison to patients without these alleles. The data in this study suggest that human leucocyte antigen-DR locus, or other genes in linkage disequilibrium, may play an important role in asthma phenotype expression in patients with grass-pollen allergy as well as in determining total immunoglobulin E levels in these patients.

Woszczek G; Kowalski ML; Borowiec M

2002-07-01

317

Bivariate variance-component analysis, with application to systolic blood pressure and total cholesterol levels in the Framingham Heart Study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The correlations between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and total cholesterol levels (CHOL) might result from genetic or environmental factors that determine variation in the phenotypes and are shared by family members. Based on 330 nuclear families in the Framingham Heart Study, we used a multivariate normal model, implemented in the software FISHER, to estimate genetic and shared environmental components of variation and genetic and shared environmental correlation between the phenotypes. The natural logarithm of the phenotypes measured at the last visit in both Cohort 1 and 2 was used in the analyses. The antihypertensive treatment effect was corrected before adjustment of the systolic blood pressure for age, sex, and cohort. Results The univariate correlation coefficient was statistically significant for sibling pairs and parent-offspring pairs, but not significant for spouse pairs. In the bivariate analysis, the cross-trait correlation coefficients were not statistically significant for all relative pairs. The shared environmental correlation was statistically significant, but the genetic correlation was not significant. Conclusion There is no significant evidence for a close genetic correlation between systolic blood pressure and total cholesterol levels. However, some shared environmental factors may determine the variation of both phenotypes.

Cui Jisheng S; Sheffield Leslie J

2003-01-01

318

Histamine increases the level of IFN? produced by HIV-1 specific CTLs and this production depends on total IgE level.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) population remains a global concern whose treatment is effective, though not yet optimal. Immune based therapies have thus far been disappointing and still need to be explored further. Based on published data suggesting that the functions of cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocytes (CTL) can be improved by histamine, we investigated the effect of histamine in vitro on HIV-1 specific CD8+ T lymphocytes in HIV+ subjects. RESULTS: 60 HIV+ subjects were included in the study. We evaluated CTL function by IFN? (interferon gamma) production (using the enzyme-linked immunospot assay (Elispot), BD Bioscience). Changes in the production of IFN? after incubation with histamine were compared with the levels of total IgE (immunoglobulin E, measured using a Dade Behring analyzer), because histamine is endogenously released through IgE. Activation of HIV-specific CTL by histamine occurs via H2R (histamine receptors). Thus we attempted to block this activation using cimetidine (antagonist H2R). CONCLUSIONS: We found an increase in IFN? production after the activation of HIV-1 specific CD8+ T lymphocytes by histamine (this elevation was blocked by cimetidine), furthermore, we demonstrated a negative correlation between the production of IFN? and levels of total IgE.

Hanzlikova J; Sedlacek D; Liska M; Gorcikova J; Vlas T; Amiramini S; Panzner P; Maly M

2012-01-01

319

Effects of dissolved oxygen level on cell growth and total lipid accumulation in the cultivation of Rhodotorula glutinis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The total amount of lipids produced in Rhodotorula glutinis is a subject which has attracted increasing attention due to the potential biodiesel conversion from these microbial oils. The effects of the dissolved oxygen (DO) level in lipid accumulation were examined in this study. Variations of different medium volumes (30, 40 and 50ml) and shaking speed (60, 150 and 210rpm) in the flask trials were adopted to explore the DO effects on lipid production. All of the results revealed that a low DO could retard cell growth, while enhancing lipid accumulation. The 5l-fermentor results also confirm that a low DO (25 ± 10%) batch could have higher lipid content than that of high DO batch (60 ± 10%). Nevertheless, the DO level would not obviously affect the lipid composition profile. Oleic acid (C18:1) was the primary fatty acid in both batches. Due to the slow biomass growth rate resulting from the low DO, a two-stage DO controlled strategy (consisting of a high DO stage and following a low DO stage) was performed to improve the cell growth and lipid accumulation simultaneously. However, the strategy was not successful on the enhancement of total lipid production as compared to other batches. Conclusively, even a low DO could retard cell growth; the total production of lipids in the batch with low DO was higher that of the high DO batch due to the enhancement of lipid accumulation. Therefore, the batch operation of R. glutinis at the low DO was suggested for the purpose of lipid production.

Yen HW; Zhang Z

2011-07-01

320

Effects of dissolved oxygen level on cell growth and total lipid accumulation in the cultivation of Rhodotorula glutinis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The total amount of lipids produced in Rhodotorula glutinis is a subject which has attracted increasing attention due to the potential biodiesel conversion from these microbial oils. The effects of the dissolved oxygen (DO) level in lipid accumulation were examined in this study. Variations of different medium volumes (30, 40 and 50ml) and shaking speed (60, 150 and 210rpm) in the flask trials were adopted to explore the DO effects on lipid production. All of the results revealed that a low DO could retard cell growth, while enhancing lipid accumulation. The 5l-fermentor results also confirm that a low DO (25 ± 10%) batch could have higher lipid content than that of high DO batch (60 ± 10%). Nevertheless, the DO level would not obviously affect the lipid composition profile. Oleic acid (C18:1) was the primary fatty acid in both batches. Due to the slow biomass growth rate resulting from the low DO, a two-stage DO controlled strategy (consisting of a high DO stage and following a low DO stage) was performed to improve the cell growth and lipid accumulation simultaneously. However, the strategy was not successful on the enhancement of total lipid production as compared to other batches. Conclusively, even a low DO could retard cell growth; the total production of lipids in the batch with low DO was higher that of the high DO batch due to the enhancement of lipid accumulation. Therefore, the batch operation of R. glutinis at the low DO was suggested for the purpose of lipid production. PMID:21498112

Yen, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Zhiyong

2011-04-16

 
 
 
 
321

Extreme total solar irradiance due to cloud enhancement at sea level of the NE Atlantic coast of Brazil  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Extraterrestrial total solar irradiance, usually called Solar Constant, is attenuated by the atmosphere in different proportions, depending mainly on solar zenith angle and altitude of the measurement point. In this work, it is presented very high and extreme horizontal plane measurements of global solar irradiance that in some days overpassed the Solar Constant corrected by the actual Sun-Earth distance (CSC). They were obtained at sea level of the intertropical Atlantic coast, in the city of Recife, Brazil, in the period February 2008-January 2009. Extreme total solar irradiance values larger than CSC were measured during 3.4% of the days of the total registered period. This percentage increases to 7.4% for global solar irradiance within 95.1-100% of the CSC and to 15.3% within 90.1-95% of the CSC. The largest extreme total solar irradiance value, 1477 {+-} 30 W/m{sup 2}, was registered the 28th of March 2008 at 11:34 local time (UT - 3h). It overpassed by 7.9% the CSC value for this day (1369.4 W/m{sup 2}) and by 42.3% the estimated value of the clear sky Iqbal C radiation model (1037.7 W/m{sup 2}). The observation of extreme values should be taken into account in the study of solar radiation effects related to materials exposed to the outside, UV index and biological effects, among others. Also, the detailed knowledge of this interesting effect may contribute significantly to clarify physical aspects about the interaction of global solar radiation with the ecosystem and climate change. (author)

Piacentini, Ruben D. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET-Universidad Nacional de Rosario), 27 de Febrero 210bis, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Ingenieria y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Salum, Graciela M. [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET-Universidad Nacional de Rosario), 27 de Febrero 210bis, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Facultad Regional Concepcion del Uruguay, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Concepcion del Uruguay (Argentina); Fraidenraich, Naum; Tiba, Chigueru [Grupo de Pesquisas em Fontes Alternativas de Energia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Luiz Freire, 1000 - 50.740-540, Recife, PE (Brazil)

2011-01-15

322

The Effect of Laetiporus sp. (Bull. ex Fr.) Bond. et Sing. (Polyporaceae) Extract on Total Blood Cholesterol Level  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A study on the effect of a local medicinal mushroom, Laetiporus sp. (Polyporaceae) extract on total blood cholesterol level has been conducted using Wistar rats with high cholesterol feed and prophylthiouracil (PTU) as hypercholesterolemia inducing agent. The study was aimed to evaluate the inhibition and reduction effect of the dried (hot water) extract of grain grown mycelia on hypercholesterolemia of the rat model. The rats were randomly classified into tested group and control group, each group consists of six rats. After a preliminary study, two doses level of the extract, i.e., 55 and 110 mg kg-1 b.wt. were tested, respectively. Commercial lovastatin tablet at a dose of 1.8 mg kg-1 b.wt. was also incorporated in the test as reference medicine. Total blood cholesterol level was observed once a week over 4 weeks. The trial was also conducted on human by involving 19 volunteers. They were asked to consume one Laetiporus sp. capsule per day after meal before going to bed over 30 days. The fungal extract at dose 55 mg kg-1 b.wt. could inhibit the blood cholesterol level by an average of 11.0% and dose 110 mg kg-1 b.wt. could inhibit by an average of 19.0% compared to commercial lovastatin at dose 1.8 mg kg-1 b.wt. which could inhibit at an average of 14.6% over 4 weeks. On the other hand, dose 110 mg kg-1 b.wt. could reduce blood cholesterol level by an average of 11.4%, compared to commercial lovastatin tablet which could reduce by an average of 5.5% over 4 weeks. In addition, blood cholesterol level was found to be reduced in 14 out of 19 (73.6%) of human volunteers while 5 out of 19 (26.4%) were increased. It is concluded that the mycelial extract of Laetiporus sp. is potential to be used as an anti hypercholesterolemia agent.

I. Nyoman Pugeg Aryantha; Suswini Kusmaningati; Afifah Bambang Sutjiatmo; Yuli Sumartini; Aida Nursidah; Suci Narvikasari

2010-01-01

323

Evaluation of the 7-h membrane filter test for quantitation of fecal coliforms in water.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The 7-h fecal coliform (FC) test for detection of FC organisms in water was evaluated to establish its validity and usefulness for emergency and disaster situations. The waters tested consisted of routine samples collected for public health surveillance and enforcement purposes. A total of 984 water samples from throughout California were assayed. These included samples from coastal salt waters, rivers, canals, and reservoirs, in addition to potable and miscellaneous freshwater sources. A portion of each sample was tested concurrently by both the 7-h FC test and the most-probable-number FC five-tube test. The 7-h FC test samples were incubated for 7 to 7.25 h at 41.5 degrees C. Overall, greater than 90% agreement was obtained between the methods in determining whether the water quality was acceptable or unacceptable. Statistical analysis of the 984 samples confirmed that the 7-h FC method was a suitable alternative to the most-probable-number FC method for evaluation of freshwater samples. During emergencies or disasters, the 7-h FC test could provide a means for detection of fecal contamination of water with results available in less than 1 day.

Barnes R; Curry JI; Elliott LM; Peter CR; Tamplin BR; Wilcke BW Jr

1989-06-01

324

Evaluation of the 7-h membrane filter test for quantitation of fecal coliforms in water.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 7-h fecal coliform (FC) test for detection of FC organisms in water was evaluated to establish its validity and usefulness for emergency and disaster situations. The waters tested consisted of routine samples collected for public health surveillance and enforcement purposes. A total of 984 water samples from throughout California were assayed. These included samples from coastal salt waters, rivers, canals, and reservoirs, in addition to potable and miscellaneous freshwater sources. A portion of each sample was tested concurrently by both the 7-h FC test and the most-probable-number FC five-tube test. The 7-h FC test samples were incubated for 7 to 7.25 h at 41.5 degrees C. Overall, greater than 90% agreement was obtained between the methods in determining whether the water quality was acceptable or unacceptable. Statistical analysis of the 984 samples confirmed that the 7-h FC method was a suitable alternative to the most-probable-number FC method for evaluation of freshwater samples. During emergencies or disasters, the 7-h FC test could provide a means for detection of fecal contamination of water with results available in less than 1 day. PMID:2764562

Barnes, R; Curry, J I; Elliott, L M; Peter, C R; Tamplin, B R; Wilcke, B W

1989-06-01

325

Monitoring of human enteric viruses and coliform bacteria in waters after urban flood in Jakarta, Indonesia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Floodwaters in Kampung Melayu village, Jakarta, Indonesia, as well as river water and consumable water (including groundwater and tap water) samples in flooded and non-flooded areas, were quantitatively analysed to assess occurrence of viruses and total coliforms and E. coli as bacterial indicators after flooding event. High numbers of enterovirus, hepatitis A virus, norovirus (G1, G2) and adenovirus were detected at high concentration in floodwaters and waters sampled from Ciliwung River which runs across metropolitan Jakarta and is used widely for agriculture and domestic purposes by poor residents. One out of three groundwater wells in the flooded area was contaminated with all viruses tested while no viruses were found in groundwater samples in non-flooded areas and tap water samples. The results revealed that human enteric viruses, especially hepatitis A virus and adenovirus, were prevalent in Jakarta, Indonesia. This study suggested that flooding posed a higher risk of viral infection to the people through contamination of drinking water sources or direct contact with floodwaters.

Phanuwan C; Takizawa S; Oguma K; Katayama H; Yunika A; Ohgaki S

2006-01-01

326

Monitoring of human enteric viruses and coliform bacteria in waters after urban flood in Jakarta, Indonesia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Floodwaters in Kampung Melayu village, Jakarta, Indonesia, as well as river water and consumable water (including groundwater and tap water) samples in flooded and non-flooded areas, were quantitatively analysed to assess occurrence of viruses and total coliforms and E. coli as bacterial indicators after flooding event. High numbers of enterovirus, hepatitis A virus, norovirus (G1, G2) and adenovirus were detected at high concentration in floodwaters and waters sampled from Ciliwung River which runs across metropolitan Jakarta and is used widely for agriculture and domestic purposes by poor residents. One out of three groundwater wells in the flooded area was contaminated with all viruses tested while no viruses were found in groundwater samples in non-flooded areas and tap water samples. The results revealed that human enteric viruses, especially hepatitis A virus and adenovirus, were prevalent in Jakarta, Indonesia. This study suggested that flooding posed a higher risk of viral infection to the people through contamination of drinking water sources or direct contact with floodwaters. PMID:17037154

Phanuwan, C; Takizawa, S; Oguma, K; Katayama, H; Yunika, A; Ohgaki, S

2006-01-01

327

Analysis of concentration levels of particulate matter (PM10, total suspended particulates and black smoke) in the city of Zrenjanin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Air quality monitoring on the territory of AP Vojvodina was initiated in mid 90s. During the last decade of the 20th century the development of the air quality monitoring in Serbia didn’t keep up with the pace of the other countries in the region due to political isolation and severe economic crisis. Monitoring of the particular pollutants was conducted unsystematically and sporadically. Data presented in this paper were obtained on the territory of the city of Zrenjanin, which represents typical agglomeration in the region in regard to its geographical location, population, level of industry development and the presence of natural gas as energy product in the remote and domestic heating system of residential objects. Available data on the concentration levels of PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 ?m), TSP (total suspended particulates) and BS (black smoke) during the period of 2005-2007 (three cold and three warm seasons) have been used in this work in order to carry out analysis and comparison of the daily concentration levels of PM10, TSP and BS and their seasonal variation.

Vuji? Bogdana B.; Milovanovi? Dušan B.; Ubavin Dejan M.

2010-01-01

328

Comparison of arterial lactate levels during sevoflurane versus spinal anesthesia in elderly females undergoing total knee arthroplasty.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Prolonged tourniquet inflation during total knee arthroplasty (TKR) could lead to ischemic muscle injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of spinal and sevoflurane anesthesia on arterial lactate levels, acid-base status, and on hemodynamic variables in elderly women undergoing TKR. Forty women more than 65 years of age scheduled for elective TKR were enrolled in this study. Patients were allocated to receiving either sevoflurane anesthesia (sevoflurane group, n = 20) or spinal anesthesia (spinal group, n = 20) according to the patient's decision. Arterial lactate levels were significantly higher in the sevoflurane group than in the spinal group at 5 and 65 min after tourniquet deflation (P < 0.001 and P = 0.033, respectively), but there were no intergroup differences in the increment of arterial glucose levels at any time point. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were significantly higher at 5 min before tourniquet inflation (P < 0.001, P = 0.029, respectively) and lower at 65 min after tourniquet deflation (P = 0.009, P = 0.033, respectively) in the spinal group than in the sevoflurane group. Our results suggest that spinal anesthesia is associated with lower production of ischemic metabolites than sevoflurane anesthesia after pneumatic tourniquet deflation in elderly women undergoing TKR.

Park HY; Lee KC; Son WR; Lee JS; Jo YY

2013-08-01

329

Surface water quality along the Central John Muir Trail in the Sierra Nevada Mountains: coliforms and algae.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The John Muir Trail (JMT) in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California is one of the most popular alpine wilderness trails in the United States, where backpackers depend on trailside water sources for more than 335 km (208 miles). This study addressed the risk of acquiring waterborne disease by analyzing prevalence and changes in coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli (E. coli) in lakes and streams adjacent to the central JMT. Chlorophyll-a levels were also measured as an indicator of high elevation eutrophication. Categories of environmental land use which might affect water quality were defined as: Pristine areas rarely traversed by humans; Backpack off-trail areas not traversed by pack or stock animals; and Multiuse areas with backpacker and animal use. We analyzed surface water at 36 different sites three separate times over an eight week period in the summer of 2008. Chlorophyll-a concentration increased significantly in Backpack and Multiuse sites over the summer months, but not in Pristine sites. Similar results were obtained for coliforms, with prevalence also increasing significantly over the summer months in Backpack and Multiuse sites. There was a much higher prevalence of E. coli in Multiuse sites compared to Pristine and Backpack sites. Our study provides evidence pack and stock animals serve as a source of microbial contamination of water along this section of trail.

Ursem C; Evans CS; Ger KA; Richards JR; Derlet RW

2009-01-01

330

Surface water quality along the Central John Muir Trail in the Sierra Nevada Mountains: coliforms and algae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The John Muir Trail (JMT) in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California is one of the most popular alpine wilderness trails in the United States, where backpackers depend on trailside water sources for more than 335 km (208 miles). This study addressed the risk of acquiring waterborne disease by analyzing prevalence and changes in coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli (E. coli) in lakes and streams adjacent to the central JMT. Chlorophyll-a levels were also measured as an indicator of high elevation eutrophication. Categories of environmental land use which might affect water quality were defined as: Pristine areas rarely traversed by humans; Backpack off-trail areas not traversed by pack or stock animals; and Multiuse areas with backpacker and animal use. We analyzed surface water at 36 different sites three separate times over an eight week period in the summer of 2008. Chlorophyll-a concentration increased significantly in Backpack and Multiuse sites over the summer months, but not in Pristine sites. Similar results were obtained for coliforms, with prevalence also increasing significantly over the summer months in Backpack and Multiuse sites. There was a much higher prevalence of E. coli in Multiuse sites compared to Pristine and Backpack sites. Our study provides evidence pack and stock animals serve as a source of microbial contamination of water along this section of trail. PMID:20039816

Ursem, Carling; Evans, C Scott; Ger, Kemal Ali; Richards, John R; Derlet, Robert W

2009-01-01

331

Analysis of serum ?-fetoprotein-L3% and des-? carboxyprothrombin markers in cases with misleading hepatocellular carcinoma total ?-fetoprotein levels.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Serum fraction of ?-fetoprotein L3 (AFP-L3%) and des-? carboxyprothrombin (DCP) are proposed serum markers for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We evaluated their performance in two patient populations with total AFP levels non-diagnostic for HCC. From a cohort of 150 consecutive patients with HCC, 60 patients with total AFP <200 ng/ml were identified. Additionally, 50 patients with elevated AFP and no radiological evidence of HCC, for at least one year of follow-up, were included. AFP-L3% and DCP were measured by the Liquid Phase Binding Assay System (LiBASys). In cases where AFP-L3% was undetectable, a more sensitive method based on-chip electrokinetic reaction was applied. AFP-L3% was found to be positive in 22 (36.7%) of patients with HCC and 6 (12%) of non-HCC patients. DCP was found to be positive in 26 patients with HCC (43%) and in none of the non-HCC patients. Thirty-six out of sixty (60%) patients with HCC were positive for either AFP-L3% or DCP. With the on-chip technology, AFP-L3% was found to be positive in 10 patients with HCC and in 5 patients without HCC, who tested negative by LiBASys. The final sensitivity of combined AFP, AFP-L3% and DCP testing, in the entire cohort of patients with HCC, was 84%. The specificity of AFP-L3% and DCP in the studied population was 78.5 and 100%, respectively. The addition of AFP-L3% and DCP increased the sensitivity and specificity of total serum AFP for the diagnosis of HCC. The on chip AFP-L3% assay was more sensitive but less specific compared to LiBASys.

Hadziyannis E; Sialevris K; Georgiou A; Koskinas J

2013-02-01

332

Tryptophan-enriched cereal intake improves nocturnal sleep, melatonin, serotonin, and total antioxidant capacity levels and mood in elderly humans.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Melatonin and serotonin rhythms, which exhibit a close association with the endogenous circadian component of sleep, are attenuated with increasing age. This decrease seems to be linked to sleep alterations in the elderly. Chrononutrition is a field of chronobiology that establishes the principle of consuming foodstuffs at times of the day when they are more useful for health, improving, therefore, biorhythms and physical performance. Our aim was to analyze whether the consumption of cereals enriched with tryptophan, the precursor of both serotonin and melatonin, may help in the reconsolidation of the sleep/wake cycle and counteract depression and anxiety in 35 middle-aged/elderly (aged 55-75 year) volunteers in a simple blind assay. Data were collected for 3 weeks according to the following schedule: The control week participants consumed standard cereals (22.5 mg tryptophan in 30 g cereals per dose) at breakfast and dinner; for the treatment week, cereals enriched with a higher dose of tryptophan (60 mg tryptophan in 30 g cereals per dose) were eaten at both breakfast and dinner; the posttreatment week volunteers consumed their usual diet. Each participant wore a wrist actimeter that logged activity during the whole experiment. Urine was collected to analyze melatonin and serotonin urinary metabolites and to measure total antioxidant capacity. The consumption of cereals containing the higher dose in tryptophan increased sleep efficiency, actual sleep time, immobile time, and decreased total nocturnal activity, sleep fragmentation index, and sleep latency. Urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels, and urinary total antioxidant capacity also increased respectively after tryptophan-enriched cereal ingestion as well as improving anxiety and depression symptoms. Cereals enriched with tryptophan may be useful as a chrononutrition tool for alterations in the sleep/wake cycle due to age.

Bravo R; Matito S; Cubero J; Paredes SD; Franco L; Rivero M; Rodríguez AB; Barriga C

2013-08-01

333

How much locomotive activity is needed for an active physical activity level: analysis of total step counts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity level (PAL). The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of locomotive activity to PAL using total step counts measured in a calorimeter study. Methods PAL, calculated as total energy expenditure divided by basal metabolic rate, was evaluated in 11 adult men using three different conditions for 24-hour human calorimeter measurements: a low-activity day (L-day) targeted at a low active level of PAL (1.45), and a high-frequency moderate activity day (M-day) or a high-frequency vigorous activity day (V-day) targeted at an active level of PAL (1.75). These subjects were permitted only light activities except prescribed activities. In a separate group of 41 adults, free-living PAL was evaluated using doubly-labeled water (DLW). In both experiments, step counts per day were also measured using an accelerometer. Results In the human calorimeter study, PAL and step counts were 1.42 ± 0.10 and 8,973 ± 543 steps/d (L-day), 1.82 ± 0.14 and 29,588 ± 1,126 steps/d (M-day), and 1.74 ± 0.15 and 23,755 ± 1,038 steps/d (V-day), respectively. In the DLW study, PAL and step counts were 1.73 ± 0.15 and 10,022 ± 2,605 steps/d, and there was no significant relationship between PAL and daily step counts. Conclusions These results indicate that an enormous number of steps are needed for an active level of PAL if individuals extend physical activity-induced energy expenditure by only locomotive activity. Therefore, non-locomotive activity such as household activity should also play a significant role in increasing PAL under free-living conditions.

Ohkawara Kazunori; Ishikawa-Takata Kazuko; Park Jong; Tabata Izumi; Tanaka Shigeho

2011-01-01

334

Distinct genetic signatures for variability in total and free serum thyroxine levels in four sets of recombinant inbred mice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

C3H/He and BALB/c mice have elevated serum thyroxine levels associated with low deiodinase type-1 activity whereas C57BL/6 (B6) mice have low thyroxine levels and elevated deiodinase type-1 activity. High-resolution genetic maps are available for four sets of recombinant inbred (RI) mice derived from B6 parents bred to C3H/He, BALB/c, DBA/2, or A strains. Total and free T4 (T-T4 and F-T4) levels in females from these RI sets (BXH, CXB, BXD, and AXBXA) were analyzed to test two hypotheses: first, serum T4 variability is linked to the deiodinase type-1 gene; second, because of their shared B6 parent, the RI sets will share linkages responsible for T-T4 or F-T4 variability. A number of chromosomes (Chr) and loci were linked to T-T4 (Chr 1, 4, 13, 11) or F-T4 (Chr 1, 6, 13, 18, 19). Linkage between T-T4 and Chr 4 was limited to CXB and BXH strains, but the locus was distinct from the deiodinase type-1 gene. Surprisingly, many linkages were unique providing "genetic signatures" for T-T4 or F-T4 in each set of RI mice. Indeed, the strongest linkage between T-T4 (or F-T4) and a Chr 2 locus (logarithm of the odds scores >4.4) was only observed in AXBXA strains. Some loci corresponded to genes/Chr associated in humans with variable TSH or T-T4 levels. Unlike inbred mice, human populations are extremely diverse. Consequently, our data suggest that the contributions of unique chromosomes/loci controlling T-T4 and F-T4 in distinct human subgroups are likely to be "buried" in genetic analyses of heterogeneous human populations.

McLachlan SM; Lu L; Aliesky HA; Williams RW; Rapoport B

2011-03-01

335

Distinct genetic signatures for variability in total and free serum thyroxine levels in four sets of recombinant inbred mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

C3H/He and BALB/c mice have elevated serum thyroxine levels associated with low deiodinase type-1 activity whereas C57BL/6 (B6) mice have low thyroxine levels and elevated deiodinase type-1 activity. High-resolution genetic maps are available for four sets of recombinant inbred (RI) mice derived from B6 parents bred to C3H/He, BALB/c, DBA/2, or A strains. Total and free T4 (T-T4 and F-T4) levels in females from these RI sets (BXH, CXB, BXD, and AXBXA) were analyzed to test two hypotheses: first, serum T4 variability is linked to the deiodinase type-1 gene; second, because of their shared B6 parent, the RI sets will share linkages responsible for T-T4 or F-T4 variability. A number of chromosomes (Chr) and loci were linked to T-T4 (Chr 1, 4, 13, 11) or F-T4 (Chr 1, 6, 13, 18, 19). Linkage between T-T4 and Chr 4 was limited to CXB and BXH strains, but the locus was distinct from the deiodinase type-1 gene. Surprisingly, many linkages were unique providing "genetic signatures" for T-T4 or F-T4 in each set of RI mice. Indeed, the strongest linkage between T-T4 (or F-T4) and a Chr 2 locus (logarithm of the odds scores >4.4) was only observed in AXBXA strains. Some loci corresponded to genes/Chr associated in humans with variable TSH or T-T4 levels. Unlike inbred mice, human populations are extremely diverse. Consequently, our data suggest that the contributions of unique chromosomes/loci controlling T-T4 and F-T4 in distinct human subgroups are likely to be "buried" in genetic analyses of heterogeneous human populations. PMID:21209025

McLachlan, Sandra M; Lu, Lu; Aliesky, Holly A; Williams, Robert W; Rapoport, Basil

2011-01-05

336

Physical activity level, leisure activities and related quality of life 1 year after lumbar decompression or total hip arthroplasty.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Lumbar decompression surgery (LDS) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) are frequently performed in the elderly population, but very little is known about their subsequent physical capacity and participation in leisure activities. Despite similar demographics and comorbidities, it is questionable whether LDS patients achieve equally high levels of physical capacity and quality of life postoperatively as do THA patients. The aim was to compare the physical activity level, participation in leisure activities and related quality of life 1 year after an LDS and THA procedure. METHODS: Data from 95 THA patients and 83 LDS patients were gathered from questionnaires on self-reported physical activity level, leisure activities and quality of life. RESULTS: LDS and THA patients reported equally moderate levels of physical activity. The median score was 42.3 METs/day (IQR 37.9; 47.7) for the LDS group and 41.0 METs/day (IQR 38.5; 48.5) for the THA group (p = 0.79). Weekly time consumption for leisure activities in the LDS group was a median of 420 min/week (IQR 210; 660) compared to a median of 480 min/week (IQR 240; 870) in the THA group (p = 0.16). Regarding quality of life, LDS patients reported significantly worse Euroqol Five Dimensions scores with a median value of 0.740 (IQR 0.68; 0.82) compared to THA patients' median of 0.824 (IQR 0.72; 1.0), p < 0.001. CONCLUSION: Despite being equally physically active and engaged in leisure activities, LDS patients did not achieve a quality of life comparable to that of THA patients 1 year postoperatively.

Rolving N; Obling KH; Christensen FB; Fonager K

2013-04-01

337

Low erythrocyte catalase enzyme activity is correlated with high serum total homocysteine levels in Tunisian patients with acute myocardial infarction.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: An imbalance between pro-oxidants and antioxidant systems has been suggested to be implicated in the physiopathology of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We aimed to evaluate the antioxidant capacity in Tunisian patients and to assess the possible relationship between erythrocyte catalase enzyme activity and hyperhomocysteinaemia. METHODS: 108 patients with AMI and 81 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Catalase erythrocyte enzyme activity was determined spectrophotometrically whereas "total antioxidant status" (TAS) concentration was measured by a commercially available method. Serum total homocysteine (tHcy) level was determined by a fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA). Lipid peroxidation was measured with a fluorimetric method as "thiobarbituric acid reactive substances" (TBARS). RESULTS: Compared with healthy subjects, patients with AMI had significantly lower catalase activity (P<0.001), TAS concentrations (P<0.001), and significantly higher serum tHcy (P<0.001) and TBARS levels (P<0.001). Erythrocyte catalase enzyme activity was negatively correlated with serum tHcy and TBARS while serum tHcy and TBARS were in positive correlation. Furthermore, the unbalance between pro-oxidants and antioxidants seems to be more aggravated in patients with Q wave AMI compared to patients with non-Q wave AMI. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest the involvement of hyperhomocysteinaemia in the drop of erythrocyte catalase activity related to myocardial ischemia reperfusion. Hyperhomocysteinaemia may increase the myocardial wall dysfunction under ischemia reperfusion by excessive production of reactive oxygen species which is made evident by increased lipid peroxidation. VIRTUAL SLIDES: The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1623509866881834.

Noichri Y; Chalghoum A; Chkioua L; Baudin B; Ernez S; Ferchichi S; Miled A

2013-01-01

338

Single dose testosterone increases total cholesterol levels and induces the expression of HMG CoA Reductase  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol is mainly synthesised in liver and the rate-limiting step is the reduction of 3-hydroxy-3methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) to mevalonate, a reaction catalysed by HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR). There is a comprehensive body of evidence documenting that anabolic-androgenic steroids are associated with deleterious alterations of lipid profile. In this study we investigated whether a single dose of testosterone enanthate affects the cholesterol biosynthesis and the expression of HMGCR. Methods 39 healthy male volunteers were given 500 mg testosterone enanthate as single intramuscular dose of Testoviron®--Depot. The total cholesterol levels prior to and two days after testosterone administration were analysed. Protein expression of HMGCR in whole blood was investigated by Western blotting. In order to study whether testosterone regulates the mRNA expression of HMGCR, in vitro studies were performed in a human liver cell-line (HepG2). Results The total cholesterol level was significantly increased 15% two days after the testosterone injection (p = 0.007). This is the first time a perturbation in the lipoprotein profile is observed after only a single dose of testosterone. Moreover, the HMGCR mRNA and protein expression was induced by testosterone in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Conclusion Here we provide a molecular explanation how anabolic androgenic steroids may impact on the cholesterol homeostasis, i.e. via an increase of the HMGCR expression. Increasing knowledge and understanding of AAS induced side-effects is important in order to find measures for treatment and care of these abusers.

Gårevik Nina; Skogastierna Cristine; Rane Anders; Ekström Lena

2012-01-01

339

[Air contamination levels in operating rooms during surgery of total hip and total knee arthroplasty, hemiarthroplasty and osteosynthesis in the surgical center of a Brazilian hospital].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: The air contamination levels during orthopedic surgeries were evaluated. METHODS: The air of operating rooms (ORs) was examined through exposure to microbiological plates placed near the surgical table for an hour. RESULTS: values above that recommended (369 CFU/m³) for conventional ORs and ORs with ultraclean air were determined. Contamination was predominantly by Staphylococcus sp (86.9%). In all surgeries a high number of people were present inside the ORs and the doors were opened frequently. CONCLUSIONS: The contamination levels are above the values accepted by regulatory agencies, representing risk for patients.

Dolinger EJ; Brito DV; Souza GM; Melo GB; Gontijo Filho PP

2010-09-01

340

Spirulina platensis effects on the levels of total cholesterol, HDL and triacylglycerols in rabbits fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits by feeding them a high cholesterol diet (CD, 350 mg/d) and the effects of supplementing this diet with 0.5 g/d Spirulina platensis was evaluated by measuring the levels of serum total-cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TAG) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol) at the start of the experiment and after 30 d and 60 d. It was found that the levels of serum cholesterol decreased from 1,054±101 mg.dL-1 in the rabbits fed a CD without S. platensis to 516±163 mg.dL-1 to those fed with a high cholesterol diet supplemented with S. platensis (significant at p A microalga Spirulina é cultivada e comercializada no mundo devido a suas características nutricionais (elevada concentração de proteínas, em torno de 65%, vitaminas e sais minerais) e ao seu potencial terapêutico no tratamento de inúmeras doenças, inclusive a hipercolesterolemia. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a inibição da hipercolesterolemia induzida em coelhos por uma dieta adicionada de colesterol (350 mg.d-1), pela suplementação de 0,5 g.dia-1 de biomassa de Spirulina platensis, sendo avaliados os níveis de colesterol total, triglicerídeos e HDL nos tempos de 0 d, 30 d e 60 d de tratamento. Os resultados indicaram que a adição de Spirulina platensis na dieta ocasionou decréscimo nos níveis de colesterol total de 1054±101 mg.dL-1 para 516±163 mg.dL-1 (p<0,0001), para os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica em comparação com os que receberam a dieta adicionada de Spirulina platensis. A adição de Spirulina a dieta colesterolêmica não ocasionou decréscimo significativo nos níveis de triglicerídios dos coelhos. Os valores de HDL aumentaram de 73±31 mg.dL-1 para 91,0±15,7 mg.dL-1, comparando-se os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica e os alimentados com a dieta adicionada de Spirulina, estatisticamente diferentes a um nível de significância maior que 0,1533.

Luciane Maria Colla; Ana Luiza Muccillo-Baisch; Jorge Alberto Vieira Costa

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Carotid Intima Media Thickness and its Association With Total Bilirubin Levels in Patients With Coronary Artery Ectasia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Atherosclerosis plays an important role in the etiopathogenesis of coronary artery ectasia (CAE). The relationship between total bilirubin (TBil) and carotid intima media thickness (cIMT) in patients with CAE has not been fully investigated. Hence, we evaluated the relationship between TBil levels and cIMT in 142 consecutive eligible patients with CAE, newly diagnosed coronary artery disease (CAD), and normal coronary arteries. There were no significant differences in TBil (P = .772) and cIMT (P = .791) between the CAE and CAD groups. Bilirubin levels were significantly lower in both CAE and CAD groups compared to the controls (P < .01). The cIMT was significantly higher in both CAE and CAD groups compared to control participants (P < .01). A negative correlation between cIMT and TBil was found in all the groups (P < .01, r = .354). We show for the first time that patients with CAE and CAD have lower TBil and greater cIMT compared to controls with normal coronary angiograms.

Demirkol S; Balta S; Celik T; Unlu M; Arslan Z; Cakar M; Kucuk U; Iyisoy A; Barcin C; Demirbas S; Kocak N; Cayci T

2013-01-01

342

Correlation of salivary and serum IgG, IgA levels with total protein in oral submucous fibrosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a disabling, potentially malignant condition of the oral cavity. The aetiology of OSMF is multifactorial but remains obscure. Although arecanut is considered to be the most important causative agent, responses observed in individuals using arecanut vary in relation to quantity and duration. It is considered that an immunological process is responsible for the pathogenesis of disease. We correlated salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA), salivary immunoglobulin G (IgG) and serum immunoglobulin A (IgA), serum immunoglobulin G (IgG), levels by turbidometric immunoassay. We estimated the levels of total serum protein (TSP) and haemoglobin (Hb) to determine the role of nutritional deficiency. The study population comprised 30 cases of OSMF and 10 controls. Five milliliters of blood and 2 ml of saliva were collected. Quantitative analysis of serum and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hb were estimated by Biuret and cyanmethaemoglobin methods, respectively. All patients showed significant (P OSMF. PMID:21467820

Patidar, Kalpana A; Parwani, Rajkumar N; Wanjari, Sangeeta Panjab

2011-03-01

343

Serum levels of total IgE in non-allergic children. Influence of genetic and environmental factors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this study was to establish the range of total serum IgE in a healthy population lacking personal and family history of allergy, as well as the influence of genetic factors (family history of allergy), environmental factors (degree of air pollution), age, and sex on the serum IgE levels. Using a commercial enzyme immunoassay (Phadezym IgE Prist) the mean serum level of IgE was determined in 363 non-atopic children from 0 to 12 years of age. The geometric mean of serum IgE increased according to age, indicating a positive correlation between both. Higher mean values of serum IgE were found for children with a family history of allergy, than for children without (27.82 and 14.49 U/ml respectively). The percentage of variation due to age was about 94.5% in children with no family history of allergy. The mean value of serum IgE increased with the degree of air pollution in the living area (15.49 U/ml in non-polluted areas, 20.78 U/ml in very polluted areas). However, the influence of air pollution was smaller than the influence of family history on the mean values of serum IgE. The mean value of serum IgE was not modified by sex.

Berciano FA; Crespo M; Bao CG; Alvarez FV

1987-05-01

344

Effect of energy levels of diets formulated on total or digestible amino acid basis on broiler performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the performance and carcass and breast yields of broilers fed two different energy levels (3,200 or 2,900 kcal ME/kg) and two ways of expressing amino acid requirements (total - TAA or digestible - DAA) between 21 and 42 days of age. The results showed that broilers fed the diet containing 3,200 kcal ME/kg had higher weight gain (P=0.015), better feed conversion (P=0.001), and higher abdominal fat deposition (P=0.001) as compared to those fed the diet containing 2,900 kcal ME/kg. Diets formulated on DAA basis promoted higher weight gain (P=0.043), better feed conversion (P=0.010) and better conversion of ME intake into weight gain (P=0.007) as compared to those formulated on TAA basis. The results of this study suggest that formulation based on DAA is necessary if the diets contain protein sources that are not reliable in terms of amino acid digestibility. The response to formulation based on DAA was minimized when birds received the low energy level diet (2,900 kcal ME/kg).

A Maiorka; F Dahlke; E Santin; AM Kessler; AM Penz Jr.

2004-01-01

345

African ancestry is a risk factor for asthma and high total IgE levels in African admixed populations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Characterization of genetic admixture of populations in the Americas and the Caribbean is of interest for anthropological, epidemiological, and historical reasons. Asthma has a higher prevalence and is more severe in populations with a high African component. Association of African ancestry with asthma has been demonstrated. We estimated admixture proportions of samples from six trihybrid populations of African descent and determined the relationship between African ancestry and asthma and total serum IgE levels (tIgE). We genotyped 237 ancestry informative markers in asthmatics and nonasthmatic controls from Barbados (190/277), Jamaica (177/529), Brazil (40/220), Colombia (508/625), African Americans from New York (207/171), and African Americans from Baltimore/Washington, D.C. (625/757). We estimated individual ancestries and evaluated genetic stratification using Structure and principal component analysis. Association of African ancestry and asthma and tIgE was evaluated by regression analysis. Mean ± SD African ancestry ranged from 0.76 ± 0.10 among Barbadians to 0.33 ± 0.13 in Colombians. The European component varied from 0.14 ± 0.05 among Jamaicans and Barbadians to 0.26 ± 0.08 among Colombians. African ancestry was associated with risk for asthma in Colombians (odds ratio (OR) = 4.5, P = 0.001) Brazilians (OR = 136.5, P = 0.003), and African Americans of New York (OR: 4.7; P = 0.040). African ancestry was also associated with higher tIgE levels among Colombians (? = 1.3, P = 0.04), Barbadians (? = 3.8, P = 0.03), and Brazilians (? = 1.6, P = 0.03). Our findings indicate that African ancestry can account for, at least in part, the association between asthma and its associated trait, tIgE levels.

Vergara C; Murray T; Rafaels N; Lewis R; Campbell M; Foster C; Gao L; Faruque M; Oliveira RR; Carvalho E; Araujo MI; Cruz AA; Watson H; Mercado D; Knight-Madden J; Ruczinski I; Dunston G; Ford J; Caraballo L; Beaty TH; Mathias RA; Barnes KC

2013-05-01

346

African ancestry is a risk factor for asthma and high total IgE levels in African admixed populations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Characterization of genetic admixture of populations in the Americas and the Caribbean is of interest for anthropological, epidemiological, and historical reasons. Asthma has a higher prevalence and is more severe in populations with a high African component. Association of African ancestry with asthma has been demonstrated. We estimated admixture proportions of samples from six trihybrid populations of African descent and determined the relationship between African ancestry and asthma and total serum IgE levels (tIgE). We genotyped 237 ancestry informative markers in asthmatics and nonasthmatic controls from Barbados (190/277), Jamaica (177/529), Brazil (40/220), Colombia (508/625), African Americans from New York (207/171), and African Americans from Baltimore/Washington, D.C. (625/757). We estimated individual ancestries and evaluated genetic stratification using Structure and principal component analysis. Association of African ancestry and asthma and tIgE was evaluated by regression analysis. Mean ± SD African ancestry ranged from 0.76 ± 0.10 among Barbadians to 0.33 ± 0.13 in Colombians. The European component varied from 0.14 ± 0.05 among Jamaicans and Barbadians to 0.26 ± 0.08 among Colombians. African ancestry was associated with risk for asthma in Colombians (odds ratio (OR) = 4.5, P = 0.001) Brazilians (OR = 136.5, P = 0.003), and African Americans of New York (OR: 4.7; P = 0.040). African ancestry was also associated with higher tIgE levels among Colombians (? = 1.3, P = 0.04), Barbadians (? = 3.8, P = 0.03), and Brazilians (? = 1.6, P = 0.03). Our findings indicate that African ancestry can account for, at least in part, the association between asthma and its associated trait, tIgE levels. PMID:23554133

Vergara, Candelaria; Murray, Tanda; Rafaels, Nicholas; Lewis, Rachel; Campbell, Monica; Foster, Cassandra; Gao, Li; Faruque, Mezbah; Oliveira, Ricardo Riccio; Carvalho, Edgar; Araujo, Maria Ilma; Cruz, Alvaro A; Watson, Harold; Mercado, Dilia; Knight-Madden, Jennifer; Ruczinski, Ingo; Dunston, Georgia; Ford, Jean; Caraballo, Luis; Beaty, Terri H; Mathias, Rasika A; Barnes, Kathleen C

2013-04-02

347

Total diet study on pesticide residues in France: levels in food as consumed and chronic dietary risk to consumers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic dietary exposure to pesticide residues was assessed for the French population using a total diet study (TDS) to take into account realistic levels in foods as consumed at home (table-ready). Three hundred and twenty-five pesticides and their transformation products, grouped into 283 pesticides according to their residue definition, were sought in 1235 composite samples corresponding to 194 individual food items that cover 90% of the adult and child diet. To make up the composite samples, about 19,000 food products were bought during different seasons from 2007 to 2009 in 36 French cities and prepared according to the food preparation practices recorded in the individual and national consumption survey (INCA2). The results showed that 37% of the samples contained one or more residues. Seventy-three pesticides were detected and 55 quantified at levels ranging from 0.003 to 8.7mg/kg. The most frequently detected pesticides, identified as monitoring priorities in 2006, were the post-harvest insecticides pirimiphos-methyl and chlorpyrifos-methyl-particularly in wheat-based products-together with chlorpyrifos, iprodione, carbendazim and imazalil, mainly in fruit and fruit juices. Dietary intakes were estimated for each subject of INCA2 survey, under two contamination scenarios to handle left-censored data: lower-bound scenario (LB) where undetected results were set to zero, and upper-bound (UB) scenario where undetected results were set to the detection limit. For 90% of the pesticides, exposure levels were below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) under the two scenarios. Under the LB scenario, which tends to underestimate exposure levels, only dimethoate intakes exceeded the ADI for high level consumers of cherry (0.6% of children and 0.4% of adults). This pesticide, authorised in Europe, and its metabolite were detected in both cherries and endives. Under the UB scenario, that overestimates exposure, a chronic risk could not be excluded for nine other pesticides (dithiocarbamates, ethoprophos, carbofuran, diazinon, methamidophos, disulfoton, dieldrin, endrin and heptachlor). For these pesticides, more sensitive analyses of the main food contributors are needed in order to refine exposure assessment. PMID:22595191

Nougadère, Alexandre; Sirot, Véronique; Kadar, Ali; Fastier, Antony; Truchot, Eric; Vergnet, Claude; Hommet, Frédéric; Baylé, Joëlle; Gros, Philippe; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

2012-05-15

348

Total diet study on pesticide residues in France: levels in food as consumed and chronic dietary risk to consumers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Chronic dietary exposure to pesticide residues was assessed for the French population using a total diet study (TDS) to take into account realistic levels in foods as consumed at home (table-ready). Three hundred and twenty-five pesticides and their transformation products, grouped into 283 pesticides according to their residue definition, were sought in 1235 composite samples corresponding to 194 individual food items that cover 90% of the adult and child diet. To make up the composite samples, about 19,000 food products were bought during different seasons from 2007 to 2009 in 36 French cities and prepared according to the food preparation practices recorded in the individual and national consumption survey (INCA2). The results showed that 37% of the samples contained one or more residues. Seventy-three pesticides were detected and 55 quantified at levels ranging from 0.003 to 8.7mg/kg. The most frequently detected pesticides, identified as monitoring priorities in 2006, were the post-harvest insecticides pirimiphos-methyl and chlorpyrifos-methyl-particularly in wheat-based products-together with chlorpyrifos, iprodione, carbendazim and imazalil, mainly in fruit and fruit juices. Dietary intakes were estimated for each subject of INCA2 survey, under two contamination scenarios to handle left-censored data: lower-bound scenario (LB) where undetected results were set to zero, and upper-bound (UB) scenario where undetected results were set to the detection limit. For 90% of the pesticides, exposure levels were below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) under the two scenarios. Under the LB scenario, which tends to underestimate exposure levels, only dimethoate intakes exceeded the ADI for high level consumers of cherry (0.6% of children and 0.4% of adults). This pesticide, authorised in Europe, and its metabolite were detected in both cherries and endives. Under the UB scenario, that overestimates exposure, a chronic risk could not be excluded for nine other pesticides (dithiocarbamates, ethoprophos, carbofuran, diazinon, methamidophos, disulfoton, dieldrin, endrin and heptachlor). For these pesticides, more sensitive analyses of the main food contributors are needed in order to refine exposure assessment.

Nougadère A; Sirot V; Kadar A; Fastier A; Truchot E; Vergnet C; Hommet F; Baylé J; Gros P; Leblanc JC

2012-09-01

349

Determinação do volume saturante de solução desinfetante em piso de chão batido de granja avícola em função da carga microbiana (coliformes) e composição do solo Determination of saturant volume of disinfectant solution in floor soil ground of poultry farms in function of microbian load (coliforms) and composition of the soil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O piso de chão batido é utilizado na maioria das granjas avícolas brasileiras devido ao baixo custo em relação à construção de pisos concretados. A presença de matéria orgânica na superfície do solo dificulta sua desinfecção, devido à redução da ação antimicrobiana dos desinfetantes, sendo que os testes realizados in vitro para verificar a eficácia dos desinfetantes não contemplam as condições adversas encontradas em granjas avícolas. Assim, o presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a contaminação por coliformes totais e fecais através do número mais provável (NMP) no piso de chão batido de uma granja avícola e definir o volume de solução desinfetante necessário para saturar uma determinada área conforme a composição físico-hídrica do solo. Foi detectada a presença de coliformes totais e fecais na profundidade de 0,5cm, com população média de 1100NMP g-1 e 460NMP g-1, respectivamente. O volume de solução desinfetante adequado para saturar 1m² a uma profundidade de 1cm em um piso de chão batido composto por solo argiloso, com baixa porosidade e boa compactação, foi de um litro.The floor soil ground is used in most of the Brazilian poultry farms due to the high cost of the construction of concreted floors. The presence of organic matter on the surface of the soil hinders its disinfection, due to the reduction of the antimicrobial action of disinfectants and the tests accomplished in vitro to verify the effectiveness of the disinfectants do not contemplate the adverse conditions found at poultry farms. Thus, the present work intended to determinate the volume of disinfectant solution required to be used on m² floor and the counting of total and fecal coliforms in floor soil ground. Presence of total and faecal coliforms was detected in the depth of 0.5cm with 1100NMP g-1 e 460NMP g-1, respective. The volume of disinfectant solution defined to saturate 1m² to 1cm of depth was of one liter.

Fernando Pilotto; Vilson Antonio Klein; Vera Beatriz Wald; Laura Beatriz Rodrigues; Luciana Ruschel dos Santos; Frederico de Mello Colussi; Vladimir Pinheiro do Nascimento

2006-01-01

350

Serum levels of free and total insulin-link growth factor (IGF)-1 and (IGF) binding protein-3 in normal and growth hormone deficient children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor- 1 (IGF-1) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) reflect endogenous GH secretion in healthy children, which makes them good diagnostic markers for screening GH deficiency (GHD) in short children, although some controversy still exists. Only a minor fraction of the total IGF-1 circulates in its free form, which is believed to be the biologically active form. Serum levels of free IGF-1, total IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured in 144 healthy children (72 boys and 72 girls, aged from 0 to 16 years) and in 12 prepubertal GH. deficient (GHD) children to study correlation between the age and free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels. In healthy subjects (both sexes), serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were low in infancy, increasing during puberty and declining thereafter. Free IGF-1 in serum occupied about 0.97. 1.45 % of the total IGF-1 values, and the ratios of free IGF-1 to total IGF-1 were significantly increased in the pubertal age groups than in the prepubertal age groups. Serum levels of free IGF-1 showed significant positive correlation with those of total IGF-I and IGFBP-3. Serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in patients with GHD decreased significantly with increasing degree of hypopituitarism. These observations suggest that the increase in serum free IGF-1 level during puberty was caused by a dramatic increase in total IGF-1 rather than IGFBP-3. Also, high levels of these hormones may play an important role in pubertal growth spurt and may become a useful tool for diagnosing GHD and predicting growth response to long term GH therapy

2008-01-01

351

Effect of dark chocolate on plasma epicatechin levels, DNA resistance to oxidative stress and total antioxidant activity in healthy subjects.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dark chocolate (DC) may be cardioprotective by antioxidant properties of flavonoids. We investigated the effect of DC (860 mg polyphenols, of which 58 mg epicatechin) compared with white chocolate (WC; 5 mg polyphenols, undetectable epicatechin) on plasma epicatechin levels, mononuclear blood cells (MNBC) DNA damage and plasma total antioxidant activity (TAA). Twenty healthy subjects followed a balanced diet (55 % of energy from carbohydrates, 30 % from fat and 1 g protein/kg body weight) for 4 weeks. Since the 14th day until the 27th day, they introduced daily 45 g of either WC (n 10) or DC (n 10). Whole experimental period was standardised in antioxidant intake. Blood samples were collected at T(0), after 2 weeks (T(14)), 2 h and 22 h after the first chocolate intake (T(14+2 h) and T(14+22 h)), and at 27th day, before chocolate intake (T(27)), 2 h and 22 h after (T(27+2 h) and T(27+22 h)). Samples, except for T(14+2 h) and T(27+2 h), were fasting collected. Detectable epicatechin levels were observed exclusively 2 h after DC intake (T(14+2 h) = 0.362 (se 0.052) micromol/l and T(27+2 h) = 0.369 (se 0.041) micromol/l); at the same times corresponded lower MNBC DNA damages (T(14+2 h) = - 19.4 (se 3.4) % v. T(14), P < 0.05; T(27+2 h) = - 24 (se 7.4) % v. T(27), P < 0.05; T(14+2 h) v. T(27+2 h), P = 0.7). Both effects were no longer evident after 22 h. No effect was observed on TAA. WC did not affect any variable. DC may transiently improve DNA resistance to oxidative stress, probably for flavonoid kinetics.

Spadafranca A; Martinez Conesa C; Sirini S; Testolin G

2010-04-01

352

Effect of dark chocolate on plasma epicatechin levels, DNA resistance to oxidative stress and total antioxidant activity in healthy subjects.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dark chocolate (DC) may be cardioprotective by antioxidant properties of flavonoids. We investigated the effect of DC (860 mg polyphenols, of which 58 mg epicatechin) compared with white chocolate (WC; 5 mg polyphenols, undetectable epicatechin) on plasma epicatechin levels, mononuclear blood cells (MNBC) DNA damage and plasma total antioxidant activity (TAA). Twenty healthy subjects followed a balanced diet (55 % of energy from carbohydrates, 30 % from fat and 1 g protein/kg body weight) for 4 weeks. Since the 14th day until the 27th day, they introduced daily 45 g of either WC (n 10) or DC (n 10). Whole experimental period was standardised in antioxidant intake. Blood samples were collected at T(0), after 2 weeks (T(14)), 2 h and 22 h after the first chocolate intake (T(14+2 h) and T(14+22 h)), and at 27th day, before chocolate intake (T(27)), 2 h and 22 h after (T(27+2 h) and T(27+22 h)). Samples, except for T(14+2 h) and T(27+2 h), were fasting collected. Detectable epicatechin levels were observed exclusively 2 h after DC intake (T(14+2 h) = 0.362 (se 0.052) micromol/l and T(27+2 h) = 0.369 (se 0.041) micromol/l); at the same times corresponded lower MNBC DNA damages (T(14+2 h) = - 19.4 (se 3.4) % v. T(14), P < 0.05; T(27+2 h) = - 24 (se 7.4) % v. T(27), P < 0.05; T(14+2 h) v. T(27+2 h), P = 0.7). Both effects were no longer evident after 22 h. No effect was observed on TAA. WC did not affect any variable. DC may transiently improve DNA resistance to oxidative stress, probably for flavonoid kinetics. PMID:19889244

Spadafranca, A; Martinez Conesa, C; Sirini, S; Testolin, G

2009-11-05

353

Effect of different fibrous and nonfiber carbohydrate levels on nutrients digestibility of total mixed ration using in vivo in buffalo  

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Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of different levels of NDF on chewing behavior and their relationship with ruminal acidity, 3 ruminally fistulated buffalo steers (average BW = 389.6 ±7.5 Kg) were allotted in a change over design in Agriculture and Natural Resource center of Uremia city of Iran. Two diets with 2 levels of NDF were used as treatments. First and second diets had 52 and 47 % of NDF, respectively.