WorldWideScience
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40 CFR 142.63 - Variances and exemptions from the maximum contaminant level for total coliforms.  

Science.gov (United States)

...the maximum contaminant level for total coliforms. 142.63 Section 142.63 Protection...the maximum contaminant level for total coliforms. (a) No variances or exemptions...of this section relating to the total coliform MCL of § 141.63(a) of this...

2010-07-01

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COMPARISON OF ESCHERICHIA COLI, TOTAL COLIFORM, AND FECAL COLIFORM POPULATIONS AS INDICATORS OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT EFFICIENCY  

Science.gov (United States)

Escherichia coli, total coliform, and fecal coliform data were collected from two wastewater treatment facilities, a subsurface constructed wetlands, and the receiving stream. Results are presented from individual wastewater treatment process streams, final effluent and river sit...

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Bacteriological (fecal and total coliform) quality of Pakistani coastal water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The coliform bacteria group consists of several genera of bacteria belonging to the family enterobacteriaceae. These are harmless bacteria, mostly live in soil, water, and digestive system of animals. Fecal coliform bacteria, which belongs to this group, are present in large numbers in feces and intestinal tract of human beings and other warm-blooded animals which can enter into water bodies from human and animal waste. Swimming in water having high levels of Fecal coliform bacteria increases the chance of developing illness (fever, nausea or stomach cramps) from pathogens entering the body through mouth, nose, ears or cuts in the skin. The objective of the present study was to characterize the bathing quality of Pakistani coastal water with respect to coliform bacteria. Total and Fecal coliform bacteria were determined at seven different locations along Pakistan coast using membrane filtration (MF) technique. 100 ml of water was passed through 0.45 micron (mu) filter paper. These filter papers were put on pads, soaked in Lauryle sulphate broth in petri-dishes and incubated at 44 deg. C for Fecal and 37 deg. for Total coliform for 24 hours. Significantly high population of Fecal and Total coliform bacteria was recorded at Karachi harbour area and Indus delta region. Results indicate that a large amount of domestically originated waste is being discharged into these locations without any pre-treatment (e.g., screening, activated sludge, by using filtration beds etc.) rd sludge, by using filtration beds etc.) resulting in a poor seawater quality making it unfit for bathing. (author)

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75 FR 42440 - Total Coliform Rule Revisions-Notice of Public Information Meetings  

Science.gov (United States)

...AGENCY [FRL-9177-6] Total Coliform Rule Revisions--Notice of Public...meetings on the proposed Revised Total Coliform Rule (RTCR). The proposed RTCR...proposed revision to the current Total Coliform Rule (TCR) which was...

2010-07-21

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75 FR 18205 - Total Coliform Rule Revisions-Notice of Stakeholder Meeting  

Science.gov (United States)

...ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9135-8] Total Coliform Rule Revisions--Notice of Stakeholder Meeting...developing proposed revisions to the 1989 Total Coliform Rule (TCR). The Total Coliform Rule/Distribution System Advisory...

2010-04-09

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Ultrasonic Technology Effectiveness in Total Coliforms Disinfection of Water  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of ultrasonic upon the destruction of total coliforms has been studied in this research. Also, the impact of power intensity and ultrasonic frequency on the germicidal effectiveness of sonification has been explored. The results obtained from the work carried out have shown that ultrasonic can be used effectively for water disinfection and increase in percent kill for coliforms may occur with increase in contact time to ultrasonic in the 42 kHz. These results suggest that ultrasonic in this frequency is capable to some degree in inactivating total coliforms in water.

A.H. Mahvi

2005-01-01

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75 FR 53267 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule; Extension of...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY...Regulation, the Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule (RTCR), which was published in...require systems that have an indication of coliform contamination in the distribution...

2010-08-31

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Ultrasonic Technology Effectiveness in Total Coliforms Disinfection of Water  

OpenAIRE

The effect of ultrasonic upon the destruction of total coliforms has been studied in this research. Also, the impact of power intensity and ultrasonic frequency on the germicidal effectiveness of sonification has been explored. The results obtained from the work carried out have shown that ultrasonic can be used effectively for water disinfection and increase in percent kill for coliforms may occur with increase in contact time to ultrasonic in the 42 kHz. These results suggest that ultrasoni...

Mahvi, A. H.; Dehghani, M. H.; Vaezi, F.

2005-01-01

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Total Coliform Determinations. Training Module 5.205.3.77.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with multiple tube and membrane filter techniques for determining total coliform concentration of a water supply. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This module considers proper…

Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

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33 CFR 159.319 - Fecal coliform and total suspended solids standards.  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Fecal coliform and total suspended solids standards. 159.319 Section...319 Fecal coliform and total suspended solids standards. (a) Treated...than 200 per 100 ml nor total suspended solids greater than 150 mg/l....

2010-07-01

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Enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli from source water by the defined substrate technology.  

OpenAIRE

Many water utilities are required to monitor source water for the presence of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, or both. The Colilert system, an application of the defined substrate technology, simultaneously detects the presence of both total coliforms and Escherichia coli directly from a water sample. After incubation, the formula becomes yellow if total coliforms are present and fluorescent at 366 nm if E. coli is in the same sample. No confirmatory tests are required. The Colilert system ...

Edberg, S. C.; Allen, M. J.; Smith, D. B.; Kriz, N. J.

1990-01-01

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Disinfection of total coli-forms in unchlorinated secondary effluent with electron beam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To investigate the disinfection of total coli-forms in the effluent of secondary sewage treatment plant with radiation, electron beam has introduced. Unchlorinated secondary effluent was irradiated at different dose of 0.2-1.0 kGy with 1 MeV, 40kW electron accelerator. It is observed that nearly 100% reduction in E-Coli. and total coli-forms were achieved with a dose of 0.8kGy. Even with the lower dose of 0.2kGy, the E-Coli. and total coli-forms were successfully inactivated to the level of the new guideline for discharged effluent that has been effective from 2003 in Korea. Besides disinfection of total coli-forms, approximately 50% of removal in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) was also observed at a dose of 0.2kGy. More than 20% removal in suspended solids (SS) and turbidity was also observed at a dose of 1.0kGy. The application of electron beam irradiation appeared to be one of the options to reuse effluent from sewage treatment plant as agricultural or industrial water. (author)

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Disinfection of total coli-forms in the effluent from municipal wastewater plant with electron beam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Electron beam has introduced to investigate the effect of radiation on the disinfection of coliforms in the effluent from the municipal wastewater treatment plant. Unchlorinated secondary effluent was irradiated at different dose of 0.2 - 1.0 kGy with 1 MeV, 40 kW electron accelerator. It is observed that nearly 100% reduction in E. coli and total coliforms were achieved with a dose of 0.8 kGy. Even with the lower dose of 0.2 kGy, the E. coli and total coliforms were successfully inactivated to the level of the new guideline for discharged effluent that has been effective from 2003 in Korea. Based on the data obtained in the experiments, industrial scale plant was designed with 0.2 kGy for the flow rate of 100,000 m3 effluent per day. The overall cost for plant construction is approximately 4.0?4.5M$, and the operation cost is around 1M$/yr. This is quite reasonable when compared to other advanced oxidation techniques such as Ozonation, UV techniques etc. (author)

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Evaluation of total and thermotolerant coliforms on lettuce self service restaurants in Sinop-MT  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. is the leafy vegetable most consumed in the world and present high content of pro vitamin A in green leaves; it’s rich in calcium and iron and presents reasonable amounts of vitamins B1, B2, B6 and C. When eaten raw in salads they can to transmit pathogens if are inadequately cleaned. This study aimed to evaluate the microbiological quality of lettuce served in self-service restaurants in the city of Sinop – MT, concerning the total and thermotolerant coliforms. The laboratory analysis used was the Most Probable Number method (MPN. All samples were positive for total coliforms, reaching values above 1100 MPN/g, and when analyzed to confirm the presence of coliforms tolerant, all samples were negative. These results allowed observing that the values found for tolerant coliforms are within the standards established by legislation, but the total coliform count indicates poor hygiene lettuce served and consumed

P. C. Perondi

2013-11-01

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COMPARISON OF VERIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR THE MEMBRANE FILTER TOTAL COLIFORM TECHNIQUE  

Science.gov (United States)

Verification of membrane filter total coliform colonies from drinking water was increased 87% by testing for the presence of beta-galactosidase and cytochrome oxidase, compared with verification by determination of gas production in lauryl tryptose broth. Over 90% of the coliform...

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Bacteria holding times for fecal coliform by mFC agar method and total coliform and Escherichia coli by Colilert??-18 Quanti-Tray ?? method  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacteria holding-time experiments of up to 62 h were performed on five surface-water samples from four urban stream sites in the vicinity of Atlanta, GA, USA that had relatively high densities of coliform bacteria (Escherichia coli densities were all well above the US Environmental Protection Agency criterion of 126 colonies (100 ml)???-???1 for recreational waters). Holding-time experiments were done for fecal coliform using the membrane filtration modified fecal coliform (mFC) agar method and for total coliform and E. coli using the Colilert??-18 Quanti-Tray ?? method. The precisions of these analytical methods were quantified. Precisions determined for fecal coliform indicated that the upper bound of the ideal range of counts could reasonably be extended upward and would improve precision. For the Colilert??-18 method, analytical precisions were similar to the theoretical precisions for this method. Fecal and total coliform densities did not change significantly with holding times up to about 27 h. Limited information indicated that fecal coliform densities might be stable for holding times of up to 62 h, whereas total coliform densities might not be stable for holding times greater than about 27 h. E. coli densities were stable for holding times of up to 18 h-a shorter period than indicated from a previous studies. These results should be applicable to non-regulatory monitoring sampling designs for similar urban surface-water sample types. ?? 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Aulenbach, B.T.

2010-01-01

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Analysis of The Microbiological Contamination (Total And Fecal Coliforms) In The Bay Of Santa Marta, Colombian Caribbean  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

With the purpose of making an analysis of the microbiological level of contamination and the main sources of contamination in the Bay of Santa Marta (BSM), water samples were collected to measure the concentrations of total and fecal coliforms in 11 stations and two levels of depth (1 and 20 m). For the time of greater precipitations were stops values of total and fecal coliforms, in both depth levels; appearing a similar condition for the dry time. Based on a conceptual scale it was obtained that the BSM presents an average degree of contamination for activities of primary contact (swimming and diving), nevertheless, exist several sources of contamination (submarine emissary, river, seaport, among others) that are generating a high impact on this ecosystem. The high values of contamination that are registered in the BSM find associate to the proximity that has this to the urban zones.

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Use of Readycult[tm] - LMX for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in milk  

OpenAIRE

Readycult[tm] - LMX is a rapid method to test for the presence of total coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli in water, giving results in 24h. It is based on reactions of specific microbial enzymes or indicator nutrients of the medium. The goal of this paper was to study the use of Readycult[tm] - LMX to detect total coliform and E. coli in milk. One hundred twenty five samples of pasteurized and raw milk, collected in Londrina, PR, Brazil, were tested simultaneously by the most probable num...

Beloti Vanerli; Barros Márcia de Aguiar Ferreira; Nunes Maurício Pinto; Santana Elsa Helena Walter de; Nero Luís Augusto; Souza Juliana Aparecida de

2002-01-01

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A new membrane filtration medium for simultaneous detection and enumeration of Escherichia coli and total coliforms.  

OpenAIRE

Recovery of total coliforms and Escherichia coli on a new membrane filtration (MF) medium was evaluated with 25 water samples from seven states. Testing of the new medium, m-ColiBlue24 broth, was conducted according to a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency protocol. For comparison, this same protocol was used to measure recovery of total coliforms and E. coli with two standard MF media, m-Endo broth and mTEC broth. E. coli recovery on the new medium was also compared to recovery on nutrient ...

Grant, M. A.

1997-01-01

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Molecular method for detection of total coliforms in drinking water samples.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work demonstrates the ability of a bacterial concentration and recovery procedure combined with three different PCR assays targeting the lacZ, wecG, and 16S rRNA genes, respectively, to detect the presence of total coliforms in 100-ml samples of potable water (presence/absence test). PCR assays were first compared to the culture-based Colilert and MI agar methods to determine their ability to detect 147 coliform strains representing 76 species of Enterobacteriaceae encountered in fecal and environmental settings. Results showed that 86 (58.5%) and 109 (74.1%) strains yielded a positive signal with Colilert and MI agar methods, respectively, whereas the lacZ, wecG, and 16S rRNA PCR assays detected 133 (90.5%), 111 (75.5%), and 146 (99.3%) of the 147 total coliform strains tested. These assays were then assessed by testing 122 well water samples collected in the Québec City region of Canada. Results showed that 97 (79.5%) of the samples tested by culture-based methods and 95 (77.9%), 82 (67.2%), and 98 (80.3%) of samples tested using PCR-based methods contained total coliforms, respectively. Consequently, despite the high genetic variability of the total coliform group, this study demonstrated that it is possible to use molecular assays to detect total coliforms in potable water: the 16S rRNA molecular assay was shown to be as efficient as recommended culture-based methods. This assay might be used in combination with an Escherichia coli molecular assay to assess drinking water quality. PMID:24771030

Maheux, Andrée F; Boudreau, Dominique K; Bisson, Marc-Antoine; Dion-Dupont, Vanessa; Bouchard, Sébastien; Nkuranga, Martine; Bergeron, Michel G; Rodriguez, Manuel J

2014-07-01

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Molecular Method for Detection of Total Coliforms in Drinking Water Samples  

OpenAIRE

This work demonstrates the ability of a bacterial concentration and recovery procedure combined with three different PCR assays targeting the lacZ, wecG, and 16S rRNA genes, respectively, to detect the presence of total coliforms in 100-ml samples of potable water (presence/absence test). PCR assays were first compared to the culture-based Colilert and MI agar methods to determine their ability to detect 147 coliform strains representing 76 species of Enterobacteriaceae encountered in fecal a...

Maheux, Andre?e F.; Boudreau, Dominique K.; Bisson, Marc-antoine; Dion-dupont, Vanessa; Bouchard, Se?bastien; Nkuranga, Martine; Bergeron, Michel G.; Rodriguez, Manuel J.

2014-01-01

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Influence of inter-annual variations in climatic factors on fecal coliform levels in Mississippi Sound.  

Science.gov (United States)

Information on the effects of inter-annual variations in climatic factors on fecal coliform levels in coastal waters is scarce. We used 11 years (1990-2001) of rainfall, water temperature, Pearl River stage and salinity data to assess the effects of the 1991-1992 and 1997-1998 El Nino events on fecal coliform levels in Mississippi Sound. El Nino-Southern Oscillation had major effects on Pearl River stage and water quality in the Sound. The geometric mean fecal coliform number differed among years (P = 0.0001), being highest during 1991-1992 El Nino years (14.22 MPN per 100 ml) and lowest during 1999-2000 La Nina years (<1.8 MPN per 100 ml). Mean salinity varied among years (P = 0.0001) from 9 ppt (1991-1992) to 21 ppt (1999-2000). Mean water temperature was lowest in 1997-1998 (14.5 degrees C) and highest in 1998-2000 (19.4 degrees C). Pearl River stage differed among years (P = 0.0001), ranging from 1.96 m (1999-2000) to 3.57 m (1997-1998). Inverse relationships were observed between fecal coliform levels and salinity (r(2) = 0.74; P = 0.001) and water temperature (r(2) = 0.69; P=0.001), whereas positive relationships were obtained with total rainfall (r(2) = 0.52; P = 0.013) and Pearl River stage (r(2) = 0.90; P = 0.0001). These relationships are useful for evaluating the potential effects of climate change on water quality and classification of shellfish growing waters in order to protect humans from consuming contaminated shellfish in shallow river-influenced estuaries. PMID:15556209

Chigbu, P; Gordon, S; Strange, T

2004-12-01

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Predicting Fecal Coliform Bacteria Levels in the Charles River, Massachusetts, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

In Massachusetts, the Charles River Watershed Association conducts a regular water quality monitoring and public notification program in the Charles River Basin during the recreational season to inform users of the river? health. This program has relied on laboratory analyses of river samples for fecal coliform bacteria levels, however, results are not available until at least 24 hours after sampling. To avoid the need for laboratory analyses, ordinary least squares (OLS) and logistic regression models were developed to predict fecal coliform bacteria concentrations and the probabilities of exceeding the Massachusetts secondary contact recreation standard for bacteria based on meteorological conditions and streamflow. The OLS models resulted in adjusted R2s ranging from 50 to 60 percent. An uncertainty analysis reveals that of the total variability of fecal coliform bacteria concentrations, 45 percent is explained by the OLS regression model, 15 percent is explained by both measurement and space sampling error, and 40 percent is explained by time sampling error. Higher accuracy in future bacteria forecasting models would likely result from reductions in laboratory measurement errors and improved sampling designs.

Eleria, Anna; Vogel, Richard M.

2005-10-01

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Suitability of total coliform ?-D-galactosidase activity and CFU counts in monitoring faecal contamination of environmental water samples  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Total coliforms are a group of bacteria found in high numbers in mammalian intestines; hence their presence in water indicates the possible contamination with faecal material. Total and faecal coliform counts were monitored over a period of 18 months using mFC, m-Endo and CM1046 media together with [...] enzymatic assays on 215 environmental water samples obtained from the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. A positive correlation, with an R² value of 0.9393 was observed between faecal and total coliform colony units employing mFc and m-Endo media, and 0.8818 using CM1046 media. Also, a positive correlation was observed between Escherichia coli colony-forming units and ?-d-galactosidase (B-GAL) activity (R²=0.8542). Overall, this study indicated that faecal contamination of environmental water samples could be monitored by measuring total coliform ?-galactosidase activity and total coliform colony-forming units.

VC, Wutor; CA, Togo; BI, Pletschke.

2009-01-01

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Use of Readycult? - LMX for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in milk Uso do Readycult? para enumeração de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em leite  

OpenAIRE

Readycult? - LMX is a rapid method to test for the presence of total coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli in water, giving results in 24h. It is based on reactions of specific microbial enzymes or indicator nutrients of the medium. The goal of this paper was to study the use of Readycult? - LMX to detect total coliform and E. coli in milk. One hundred twenty five samples of pasteurized and raw milk, collected in Londrina, PR, Brazil, were tested simultaneously by the most probable...

Vanerli Beloti,; Márcia Aguiar Ferreira Barros; Maurício Pinto Nunes; Elsa Helena Walter Santana; Luís Augusto Nero; Juliana Aparecida de Souza

2002-01-01

26

Evaluation of the Autoanalysis Colilert test for detection and enumeration of total coliforms.  

OpenAIRE

The Autoanalysis Colilert (AC) test was compared with the membrane filter (MF), 10-tube multiple-tube fermentation (MTF) technique, and the presence-absence test as described in Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater for the detection and enumeration of total coliforms in water. The methods were evaluated with 31 samples from seven different sources. Each sample was analyzed by each of the techniques, using replicate 100-ml sample volumes. A total of 582 confirmed tubes ...

Covert, T. C.; Shadix, L. C.; Rice, E. W.; Haines, J. R.; Freyberg, R. W.

1989-01-01

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Comparison of media for recovery of total coliform bacteria from chemically treated water.  

OpenAIRE

Five broth media and two solid media were compared for their ability to quantitatively recover total coliform bacteria from chemically treated water. M-Endo LES and mT7 media were used in the membrane filter technique. Lauryl tryptose broth, lactose broth, presence-absence broth, lactose broth with twice the amount of lactose, and lauryl tryptose broth with twice the amount of sodium lauryl sulfate were used in the fermentation tube procedure. The differences in recovery were not significant ...

Rice, E. W.; Fox, K. R.; Nash, H. D.; Read, E. J.; Smith, A. P.

1987-01-01

28

Detection of false-positives among total and fecal coliform counts by factorial analysis of correspondence.  

OpenAIRE

Application of an analysis of correspondence to the biochemical characteristics of total and fecal coliforms isolated in the Ivory Coast permitted us to separate two small clusters of isolates different from the main clusters, which included isolates from human and animal feces. The isolates grouped in the small clusters were from water samples. An analysis of the biochemical characteristics which permitted the segregation of the "water-specific" isolates from the main clusters indicates that...

Joncas, M.; Michaud, S.; Carmichael, J. P.; Lavoie, M. C.

1985-01-01

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New Medium for the Simultaneous Detection of Total Coliforms and Escherichia coli in Water  

OpenAIRE

A new membrane filter agar medium (MI agar) containing a chromogen, indoxyl-beta-D-glucuronide, and a fluorogen, 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside, was developed to simultaneously detect and enumerate Escherichia coli and total coliforms (TC) in water samples on the basis of their enzyme activities. TC produced beta-galactosidase, which cleaved 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside to form 4-methylumbelliferone, a compound that fluoresced under longwave UV light (366 nm), ...

Brenner, K. P.; Rankin, C. C.; Roybal, Y. R.; Stelma, G. N.; Scarpino, P. V.; Dufour, A. P.

1993-01-01

30

Variability in the characterization of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and escherichia coli in recreational water supplies of North Mississippi, USA  

Science.gov (United States)

The fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, is a historical organism for the detection of fecal pollution in water supplies. The presence of E. coli indicates a potential contamination of the water supply by other more hazardous human pathogens. In order to accurately determine the presence and degree o...

31

Variability in the characterization of total coliforms, fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli in recreational water supplies of north Mississippi, USA.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, is a historical organism for the detection of fecal pollution in water supplies. The presence of E. coli indicates a potential contamination of the water supply by other more hazardous human pathogens. In order to accurately determine the presence and degree of fecal contamination, it is important that standard methods approved by the US Environmental Protection Agency are designed to determine the presence of E. coli in a water supply, and distinguish E. coli from other coliform bacteria (e.g. Citrobacter, Klebsiella and Enterobacter). These genera of bacteria are present not only in fecal matter, but also in soil and runoff water and are not good indicators of fecal contamination. There is also ambiguity in determining a positive result for fecal coliforms on M-FC filters by a blue colony. When all variations of blue, including light blue or glossy blue, were examined, confirmation methods agreed with the positive M-FC result less often than when colonies that the technician would merely call "blue", with no descriptors, were examined. Approximately 48 % of M-FC positive colonies were found to be E. coli with 4 methylumbelliferyl-?-D-glucuronide (MUG), and only 23 % of samples producing a positive result on M-FC media were found to be E. coli using API-20E test strips and current API-20E profiles. The majority of other M-FC blue colonies were found to be Klebsiella or were unidentifiable with current API-20E profiles. Two positive M-FC colonies were found to be Kluyvera with API-20E, both of which cleaved MUG and produced fluorescence under UV light, a characteristic used to differentiate E. coli from other fecal coliforms. PMID:24952738

Fiello, M; Mikell, A T; Moore, M T; Cooper, C M

2014-08-01

32

Disinfection of total coli-forms in the effluent from municipal wastewater plant with electron beam  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Average annual rainfall in Korea is around 1,270mm and is about 30% more than that of the world (973mm), but it varies too much with season and area to control for withdrawal. By considering the high population density (3rd in the world), the annual rainfall per capita is decreased to only 1/11 (3,000 ton/yr/man) of the world average. And even worse, 2/3 of those rainfalls are concentrated in 2 or 3 months in summer and hence only 24% of rainfall could be accessible for human uses. Demand for fresh water in our country increases gradually with industrialization and urbanization, but the supply has limitations in its increasing. To observe the applicability of electron beam treatment for disinfection of the effluent from municipal sewage treatment plant, the effectiveness of electron beam irradiation in the disinfection of wastewater and the improvement of the water quality were measured by determining the changes in organic matter as indicated by the measurement of BOD, COD and TOC. The experiments were conducted with 1MeV, 40kW electron accelerator at EBTECH. Co. Ltd., in Korea. The absorbed doses for all of the experiments were in the region of 0.2kGy - 1.0kGy. The effluent used for this research was from the Daejeon sewage treatment plant, and the effluent is taken after the activated sludge treatment - just prior to discharge. Estimates of E-Coil. and total coli-forms of bacteria were determined by the membrane filter procedures EPA Method. After irradiation, the edures EPA Method. After irradiation, the change of characteristics in effluent was measured as BOD and COD, EPA method. The bench scale electron beam irradiation system used in this research is shown. It is observed that nearly 100% of E-Coli. and total coli-forms were inactivated with a dose of 0.8kGy. Even with the lower dose of 0.2kGy, the E-Coli. and total coli-forms were successfully inactivated to the level of the guideline for effluent discharge. Besides disinfection of total coli-forms, approximately 50% of removal in biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) was pronounced at a dose of 0.2kGy. More than 20% removal in suspended solids (SS) and turbidity was also observed at a dose of 1.0kGy. Based on the data obtained in the laboratory experiments, the suitable doses are determined as around 0.2 kGy for the flow rate of 100,000m3 effluent per day. Therefore, accelerator with the power of 400kW is applied for economies and compactness of the plant. Cost for high power accelerator is around 2.0?2.5M$ and building, piping, other equipment and construction works could be estimated 1.0?1.5M$. Even by considering the additional cost for tax, insurance and documentation as 0.5M$, the overall cost for plant construction is approximately 4.0?4.5M$. Expected construction period includes 11 months in civil and installation works and 3 months for trial operation. To estimate the operation cost, the electricity consumption is estimated for accelerator with 500kW (80% efficiency) and other equipment in additional 300kW to the total of 800kW. Based on the year round operation (8400hr/yr), it costs 336,000$/yr when the cost of electricity (kWh) was assumed to be 0.05$. The labor cost is calculated 3-shift with one additional operator and is approximately 100,000$/yr. Thus, the actual operation cost for 100,000m3/day plants is 436,000$/yr and if we consider the interest and depreciation of investment, the cost comes up to around 1M$/yr. It is approximately 0.12$/m3 for construction and 0.03$/m3/yr for operation of above re-use plant, and is inexpensive compared to other advanced oxidation techniques such as Ozonation, UV techniques etc

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Avaliação do padrão coliformes a 45ºC e comparação da eficiência das técnicas dos tubos múltiplos e Petrifilm EC na detecção de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em alimentos / Coliforms at 45ºc and comparison of most probable number method and Petrifilm EC for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli of foods  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Coliformes fecais são definidos como coliformes capazes de fermentar a lactose com produção de gás em 48 h a 45ºC. Escherichia coli, juntamente com algumas cepas de Enterobacter e Klebsiella, podem apresentar essas características. Entretanto, apenas a presença de Escherichia coli em alimentos indic [...] a contaminação fecal por ser encontrada em grande quantidade no trato gastrointestinal do homem e animais de sangue quente, não sendo isolada normalmente em outros nichos. A denominação clássica de coliformes fecais foi alterada para coliformes a 45ºC, na Resolução nº 12 da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a presença de E. coli entre os coliformes a 45ºC e comparar a eficiência das técnicas dos tubos múltiplos e Petrifilm EC na detecção de coliformes totais e E. coli em queijo Minas, lingüiça frescal, hortaliças e fubá. Petrifilm EC mostrou-se mais sensível na detecção de E. coli em relação ao método de tubos múltiplos, o qual apresentou resultados falso-negativos ou contagens subestimadas de E. coli, principalmente para amostras de alimentos de origem animal. Petrifilm EC foi o mais eficiente e prático, sendo um método alternativo adequado para a enumeração de coliformes totais e E. coli em alimentos. Abstract in english Fecal coliforms are defined as coliforms that ferment lactose with gas production within 48 hours at 45ºC. Escherichia coli and some strains of Enterobacter and Klebsiella show these same characteristics. However, only the presence of E. coli can indicate fecal contamination of foods, because it is [...] abundantly found in the intestinal tract of all warm-blooded animals, including the humans, and it is not usually found in others niches. The classic denomination of fecal coliforms was changed to coliforms at 45ºC in the Resolution nº 12/2001 of the National Surveillance Agency of Brazil. The objectives of this study were to analyse the presence of E. coli among the coliforms at 45ºC and to compare the methods of Most Probable Number Method (MPN) and Petrifilm EC in their efficiency to detect E. coli in Minas cheese, sausage, fresh vegetables and corn flower samples. Petrifilm EC was more accurate method than MNP method, which presented false negative results or underestimation of E. coli. In conclusion, Petrifilm EC was an efficient and practical method to detect E. coli. Therefore, it may be alternatively used for enumeration of total coliforms and E. coli in foods.

M.P., Silva; D.R., Cavalli; T.C.R.M., Oliveira.

2006-06-01

34

Avaliação do padrão coliformes a 45ºC e comparação da eficiência das técnicas dos tubos múltiplos e Petrifilm EC na detecção de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em alimentos Coliforms at 45ºc and comparison of most probable number method and Petrifilm EC for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli of foods  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Coliformes fecais são definidos como coliformes capazes de fermentar a lactose com produção de gás em 48 h a 45ºC. Escherichia coli, juntamente com algumas cepas de Enterobacter e Klebsiella, podem apresentar essas características. Entretanto, apenas a presença de Escherichia coli em alimentos indica contaminação fecal por ser encontrada em grande quantidade no trato gastrointestinal do homem e animais de sangue quente, não sendo isolada normalmente em outros nichos. A denominação clássica de coliformes fecais foi alterada para coliformes a 45ºC, na Resolução nº 12 da Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a presença de E. coli entre os coliformes a 45ºC e comparar a eficiência das técnicas dos tubos múltiplos e Petrifilm EC na detecção de coliformes totais e E. coli em queijo Minas, lingüiça frescal, hortaliças e fubá. Petrifilm EC mostrou-se mais sensível na detecção de E. coli em relação ao método de tubos múltiplos, o qual apresentou resultados falso-negativos ou contagens subestimadas de E. coli, principalmente para amostras de alimentos de origem animal. Petrifilm EC foi o mais eficiente e prático, sendo um método alternativo adequado para a enumeração de coliformes totais e E. coli em alimentos.Fecal coliforms are defined as coliforms that ferment lactose with gas production within 48 hours at 45ºC. Escherichia coli and some strains of Enterobacter and Klebsiella show these same characteristics. However, only the presence of E. coli can indicate fecal contamination of foods, because it is abundantly found in the intestinal tract of all warm-blooded animals, including the humans, and it is not usually found in others niches. The classic denomination of fecal coliforms was changed to coliforms at 45ºC in the Resolution nº 12/2001 of the National Surveillance Agency of Brazil. The objectives of this study were to analyse the presence of E. coli among the coliforms at 45ºC and to compare the methods of Most Probable Number Method (MPN and Petrifilm EC in their efficiency to detect E. coli in Minas cheese, sausage, fresh vegetables and corn flower samples. Petrifilm EC was more accurate method than MNP method, which presented false negative results or underestimation of E. coli. In conclusion, Petrifilm EC was an efficient and practical method to detect E. coli. Therefore, it may be alternatively used for enumeration of total coliforms and E. coli in foods.

M.P. Silva

2006-06-01

35

Level and transport pattern of faecal coliform bacteria from tropical urban catchments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Urbanization and frequent storms play important roles in increasing faecal bacteria pollution, especially for tropical urban catchments. However, only little information on the faecal bacteria levels from different land use types and the factors that influence bacteria concentrations is available. Thus, the objectives of this study were to quantify the levels and transport mechanism of faecal coliforms (FCs) from residential and commercial catchments. Stormwaters were sampled and the runoff flow rates were measured from both catchments during four storm events in Skudai, Malaysia. The samples were then analysed for FC, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and ammoniacal-nitrogen (NH3-N) concentrations. Intra-storm and inter-storm characteristics of FC bacteria were investigated in order to identify the level and transport pattern of FC. The commercial catchment showed significantly higher event mean concentration (EMC) of FC than the residential catchment. For the residential catchment, the highest bacterial concentrations occurred during the early part of stormwater runoff with peak concentrations usually preceding the peak flow. First flush effect was more prevalent at the residential catchment. PMID:23579839

Chow, M F; Yusop, Z; Toriman, M E

2013-01-01

36

ENUMERATION OF TOTAL COLIFORMS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI ON BROILER CHICKENS BY WHOLE CARCASS RINSING AND AN ALTERNATIVE SCRAPE METHOD  

Science.gov (United States)

An experiment was conducted to compare the whole carcass rinse method (WCR) versus scraping the breast skin or back skin for enumeration of total coliforms and E. coli. In each of two replicate trials, four pre-chill broiler carcasses were collected from two different commercial processing plants. W...

37

Inactivation and injury of total coliform bacteria after primary disinfection of drinking water by TiO2 photocatalysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this study the potential application of TiO2 photocatalysis as primary disinfection system of drinking water was investigated in terms of coliform bacteria inactivation and injury. As model water the effluent of biological denitrification unit for nitrate removal from groundwater, which is characterized by high organic matter and bacteria release, was used. The injury of photocatalysis on coliform bacteria was characterized by means of selective (mEndo) and less selective (mT7) culture media. Different catalyst loadings as well as photolysis and adsorption effects were investigated. Photocatalysis was effective in coliform bacteria inactivation (91-99% after 60 min irradiation time, depending on both catalyst loading and initial density of coliform bacteria detected by mEndo), although no total removal was observed after 60 min irradiation time. The contribution of adsorption mechanism was significant (60-98% after 60 min, depending on catalyst loading) compared to previous investigations probably due to the nature of source water rich in particulate organic matter and biofilm. Photocatalysis process did not result in any irreversible injury (98.8% being the higher injury) under investigated conditions, thus a bacteria regrowth may take place under optimum environment conditions if any final disinfection process (e.g., chlorine or chlorine dioxide) is not used.

38

Total Coliforms and Turbidity Removal of Water in the Continuous Sand Filter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The continuous filter is a kind of sand filter, which will operate without any interruptions for backwashing and also it accepts high-suspended solid levels in feed stream. Fouled sand is continuously removed from the filter bed, washed and recycled back without interruption with filtration process. Various samples of water with certain amounts of turbidity enter through a feed pipe and being distributed to the filter. A central column runs from top to bottom of the filter. The water is led through an outer tube in the column by a set of radial, distributor arms. The polluted water flows up ward through the sand bed. The water emerges; clean, in the top section of the tank, and eventually spills over a weir, and then inters into a discharge pipe. In this research, the continuous sand filter was studied to determine its disinfection efficiency in addition to turbidity removal. The results showed that the filtered water had a high quality and the turbidity reduction was 95.5 %. Inspecting the work of the filter had revealed that the removal rates of coliforms and microbial colonies were 99.67 % and 98.99 % respectively. On the other hand, by the use of direct filtration, turbidity reduction was over 97 %. In direct filtration, drinking water with less than 1 NTU turbidity was provided. This continuous sand filter has the advantage of stable operation and more energy saving as compared to the conventional ones.

AH Mahvi

2003-09-01

39

Evaluation of colilert-marine water for detection of total coliforms and Escherichia coli in the marine environment.  

OpenAIRE

A test that allows for early detection of fecally contaminated coastal water would enhance public health protection. Colilert-Marine Water (Colilert-MW; Environetics, Branford, Conn.) is a rapid 24-h test that has recently been developed to detect total coliforms and Escherichia coli in coastal water. We performed a premarketing evaluation of the Colilert-MW product, testing it in parallel with the multiple tube fermentation (MTF) method for 86 coastal water samples in southern California. St...

Palmer, C. J.; Tsai, Y. L.; Lang, A. L.; Sangermano, L. R.

1993-01-01

40

40 CFR 141.803 - Coliform sampling.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coliform sampling. 141.803 Section 141...Aircraft Drinking Water Rule § 141.803 Coliform sampling. (a) Analytical methodology...standard sample volume required for total coliform analysis, regardless of analytical...

2010-07-01

41

Assessment of the characteristic of nutrients, total metals, and fecal coliform in Sibu Laut River, Sarawak, Malaysia  

Science.gov (United States)

The concentrations of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), total metals, and fecal coliform (FC) coupling with chlorophyll-a (chl-a), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and other general environmental parameters were evaluated at the sub-surface and near-bottom water columns of 13 stations in the Sibu Laut River during low and high slack waters. The results indicated that inorganic nitrogen (mainly nitrate) was the primary form of nitrogen whereas organic phosphorus was the major form of phosphorus. The abundance of total heavy metals in Sibu Laut River and its tributaries was in the order of Pb < Cu < Zn < Cd. Fecal coliform concentration was relatively low along Sibu Laut River. The shrimp farm effluents contributed a substantial amount of chl-a, BOD5, nutrients, and FC to the receiving creek except for total metals. Nevertheless, the influence was merely noticeable in the intake creek and amended rapidly along Selang Sibu River and brought minimal effects on the Sibu Laut River. Besides, the domestic sewage effluents from villages nearby also contributed a substantial amount of pollutants.

Soo, Chen-Lin; Ling, Teck-Yee; Lee, Nyanti; Apun, Kasing

2014-06-01

42

COMPARISON OF THE RECOVERIES OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AND TOTAL COLIFORMS FROM DRINKING WATER BY THE MI AGAR METHOD AND THE U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY-APPROVED MEMBRANE FILTER METHOD  

Science.gov (United States)

Drinking water regulations under the Final Coliform Rule require that total coliform-positive drinking water samples be examined for the presence of Escherichia coli or fecal coliforms. The current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-approved membrane filter (MF) method for E. c...

43

Comparison of the recoveries of Escherichia coli and total coliforms from drinking water by the MI agar method and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-approved membrane filter method.  

OpenAIRE

Drinking water regulations under the Final Coliform Rule require that total coliform-positive drinking water samples be examined for the presence of Escherichia coli or fecal coliforms. The current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-approved membrane filter (MF) method for E. coli requires two media, an MF transfer, and a total incubation time of 28 h. A newly developed MF method, the MI agar method, containing indoxyl-beta-D-glucuronide and 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside for...

Brenner, K. P.; Rankin, C. C.; Sivaganesan, M.; Scarpino, P. V.

1996-01-01

44

LISTERIA SPP., COLIFORMES TOTAIS E FECAIS E E.COLI NO LEITE CRU E PASTEURIZADO DE UMA INDÚSTRIA DE LATICÍNIOS, NO ESTADO DA PARAÍBA (BRASIL) / LISTERIA SPP., TOTAL COLIFORM, FECAL COLIFORM AND E.COLI ON RAW AND PASTEURIZED MILK ON A DAIRY INDUSTRY, (PARAÍBA, BRAZIL)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Investigou-se a qualidade microbiológica do leite in natura e na linha de produção (leite recém-pasteurizado e leite ensacado), de uma usina de beneficiamento em Campina Grande-PB. Foi pesquisada a presença de Listeria spp. e sua diversidade de espécies, os níveis de coliformes totais (CT), coliform [...] es fecais (CF) e Escherichia coli. Analisou-se um total de 75 amostras de leite, sendo 45 de leite cru, 15 de leite recém-pasteurizado e 15 de leite ensacado. Os resultados foram reunidos em dois grupos segundo o período de monitoramento: antes e após mudanças no processo de higienização da usina. Foi evidenciada elevada contaminação nas amostras de leite cru nas duas épocas. Na primeira (março-abril/1998), todas as amostras de leite beneficiado estiveram fora dos padrões da legislação vigente para CT e CF; na segunda (maio-agosto/1998), houve acentuada redução dos níveis destas bactérias indicadoras, porém as melhorias na higienização não foram suficientes para solucionar este problema, visto que 11,1% das amostras recém-pasteurizadas estavam fora dos padrões para CT e 33,3% para CF. Das amostras ensacadas, 22,2% estavam fora dos padrões para CT e 44,4% para CF. Comparando-se os resultados de CT, CF, e E.coli nas amostras de leite recém-pasteurizado e não ensacado com as amostras de leite ensacado, foi verificado que as amostras após serem pasteurizadas e ensacadas apresentaram valores de CT e CF levemente mais elevados, sugerindo contaminação durante o processo de ensacamento ou falhas na armazenagem. Observou-se que 33 (73,3%) das amostras de leite cru e 9 (30%) das de leite pasteurizado estavam contaminadas com Listeria spp., sendo identificadas L. monocytogenes em 17 (51,5%) amostras de leite cru e em 9 (100%) de leite beneficiado (4 recém-pasteurizadas e 5 ensacadas). Em relação à diversidade de espécies, nas amostras de leite cru foram encontradas: L. monocytogenes (66,6%), L. innocua (25,3%), L. ivanovii (3,9%), L. welshimeri (2,5%) e L. grayi (1,5%). Nas amostras de leite pasteurizado isolaram-se: L. monocyogenes e L. innocua. O conjunto dos resultados evidenciou deficiências higiênico-sanitárias no leite in natura e ao longo do processo de produção, resultando em porcentagens elevadas de amostras que ultrapassaram os valores padrões de CT e CF além de apresentarem-se contaminadas por Listeria spp., com predominância de L. monocytogenes, sugerindo a existência de uma relação direta entre os altos índices de coliformes e a presença de Listeria spp. Abstract in english The microbiological quality of raw and pasteurized milk was studied along its line production in a dairy factory in Paraíba State, Brazil. Listeria monocytogenes was frequent found in raw milk and the levels of total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC) and Escherichia coli, were high in the same sa [...] mples. The results of 75 milk studied samples (45 raw milk, 15 recently pasteurized and 15 sacked), were distributed in two clusters, according its collected period (before and after changes in factory's hygienic process). Both raw samples groups showed high contamination. In the first period (March-April/1998), all the pasteurized milk were out of total and fecal coliforms standards. During the second period (May-August/1998), there was a significant reduction of coliforms levels, however the progress in hygienic conditions were not enough for eliminate the contamination: 11.1% of recent pasteurized milk samples and 22.2% of sacked milk samples were out of TC and also 33.3% and 44.4% recent pasteurized and sacked milk samples. Sacked milk presented more TC and FC than recent pasteurized milk, suggesting contamination after pasteurization or failure at storage. Listeria spp. was found in 33 raw milk samples (73.3%) and in 9 (30%) of pasteurized milk samples. L. monocytogenes was isolated in 17 (51.5%) raw milk samples and in 9 (100%) pasteurized milk samples (4 recent-pasteurized and 5 sacked). The Listeria spp. di

Raïssa Mayer Ramalho, CATÃO; Beatriz Susana Ovruski de, CEBALLOS.

2001-12-01

45

Comparison of membrane filter, multiple-fermentation-tube, and presence-absence techniques for detecting total coliforms in small community water systems.  

OpenAIRE

Methods for detecting total coliform bacteria in drinking water were compared using 1,483 different drinking water samples from 15 small community water systems in Vermont and New Hampshire. The methods included the membrane filter (MF) technique, a 10-tube fermentation tube (FT) technique, and the presence-absence (P-A) test. Each technique was evaluated using a 100-ml drinking water sample. Of the 1,483 samples tested, 336 (23%) contained coliforms as indicated by either one, two, or all th...

Jacobs, N. J.; Zeigler, W. L.; Reed, F. C.; Stukel, T. A.; Rice, E. W.

1986-01-01

46

Evaluation of Petrifilm™ EC and HS for total coliforms and Escherichia coli enumeration in water / Avaliação do Petrifilm™ EC e HS para enumeração de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em água  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Petrifilm™ EC e HS foram comparados ao método do Número Mais Provável (NMP) para determinar sua eficiência na enumeração de coliformes totais e E. coli em 145 amostras de água (76 de água in natura e 69 de água de abastecimento). Em água in natura, Petrifilm™ HS e EC mostraram boa correlação com o m [...] étodo de NMP. Em água clorada ( Abstract in english Petrifilm™ EC and HS were compared to the MPN method to determine their efficacy to enumerate total coliforms and E. coli in 145 samples of water (76 water in natura, 69 drinking water). For water in natura, Petrifilm™ HS and EC showed good correlation with MPN method. In chlorinated water ([...] /100 mL and negatives) the agreement was low. For E.coli enumeration, Petrifilm™ EC showed a good correlation with MPN method. The results indicated that Petrifilm™ EC and HS are accurate to enumerate coliforms and E. coli in water when the expected counts are higher than 20/100 mL.

Vanerli, Beloti; Juliana Aparecida de, Souza; Márcia de Aguiar Ferreira, Barros; Luís Augusto, Nero; Marcos Rodrigues de, Mattos; Viviane Vieira, Gusmão; Luciane Bilia de, Moraes.

2003-12-01

47

Evaluation of Petrifilm™ EC and HS for total coliforms and Escherichia coli enumeration in water Avaliação do Petrifilm™ EC e HS para enumeração de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em água  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Petrifilm™ EC and HS were compared to the MPN method to determine their efficacy to enumerate total coliforms and E. coli in 145 samples of water (76 water in natura, 69 drinking water. For water in natura, Petrifilm™ HS and EC showed good correlation with MPN method. In chlorinated water (Petrifilm™ EC e HS foram comparados ao método do Número Mais Provável (NMP para determinar sua eficiência na enumeração de coliformes totais e E. coli em 145 amostras de água (76 de água in natura e 69 de água de abastecimento. Em água in natura, Petrifilm™ HS e EC mostraram boa correlação com o método de NMP. Em água clorada (< 20 col/100 mL e negativas a concordância foi baixa. Para enumeração de E. coli, Petrifilm™ EC mostrou boa correlação com o método de NMP. Os resultados indicaram que Petrifilm™ EC e HS podem ser usados com segurança para enumeração de coliformes totais e E. coli em água, desde que as contagens esperadas sejam maiores que 20/100 mL.

Vanerli Beloti

2003-12-01

48

NEW MEDIUM FOR THE SIMULTANEOUS DETECTION OF TOTAL COLIFORMS AND ESCHERICHIA COLI IN WATER (PUBLISHED ERRATUM APPEARS IN APP ENVIRON MICROBIOL 1993 DEC;59(12):4378)  

Science.gov (United States)

A new membrane filter agar medium (MI agar) containing a chromogen, indoxyl-beta-D-glucuronide, and a fluorogen, 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactopyranoside, was developed to simultaneously detect and enumerate Escherichia coli and total coliforms (TC) in water samples on the b...

49

COMPARISON OF MEMBRANE FILTER, MULTIPLE-FERMENTATION-TUBE, AND PRESENCE-ABSENCE TECHNIQUES FOR DETECTING TOTAL COLIFORMS IN SMALL COMMUNITY WATER SYSTEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

Methods for detecting total coliform bacteria in drinking water were compared using 1483 different drinking water samples from 15 small community water systems in Vermont and New Hampshire. The methods included the membrane filter (MF) technique, a ten tube fermentation tube tech...

50

Coliform mastitis  

OpenAIRE

Gram-negative bacteria that commonly cause bovine mastitis are classified as environmental pathogens. The point sources of coliform bacteria that cause infections include bedding materials, soil, manure and other organic matter in the environment of cows. Rates of coliform mastitis increase during climatic periods that maximize populations in the environment. The portal of entry into the mammary gland for Gram-negative bacteria is the teat canal. Once in the gland, bacteria must utilize avail...

Hogan, Joe; Larry Smith, K.

2003-01-01

51

Total removal of coliforms and E. coli from domestic sewage by high-rate pond mass culture of Scenedesmus obliquus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The single celled alga Scenedesmus obliquus was cultured in biologically treated domestic sewage in small experimental ponds (4.5 metres squared) with a depth of 25 cm. Attention was focused on the removal of total coliforms and E. coli - indicators of water pollution by human faecal contamination - from sewage effluent using a mass culture of microalgae (Scenedesmus obliquus). Batch, continuous and intermittent flow systems were studied. Results of batch culture experiments showed total removal of E. coli within 4 days. In the control ponds, in which Scenedesmus obliquus was not inoculated, and natural growth allowed to take place, E. coli was detected even on the tenth day. The results obtained confirmed reports in the literature which concluded that high pH values (above 9.4) were responsible for E. coli removal; pH values were always higher than 9.4 on the third day, reaching a maximum of 11.1 around the fifth day in batch culture systems. Semi-continuous flow culture systems were operated under three dilution rates: 0.5 day/sup -1/, 0.33 day/sup -1/ and 0.25 day/sup -1/. Results indicated that total removal of E. coli was not achieved even at a dilution rate of 0.25 day /sup -1/, even though pH values above 10.0 were observed. Under intermittently fed systems, two dilution rates, 0.5 day/sup -1/ and 0.25/sup -1/, with respective feeding intervals of 1 and 2 days, were studied. Total removal of E. coli was observed at a dilution rate of 0.25 day/sup -1/. These results have proved that a contact time of 2 days at pH 11.0 is adequate for total removal of E. coli from high-rate algal ponds.

Sebastian, S.; Nair, K.V.K.

1984-01-01

52

Evaluation of Petrifilm™ EC and HS for total coliforms and Escherichia coli enumeration in water Avaliação do Petrifilm™ EC e HS para enumeração de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em água  

OpenAIRE

Petrifilm™ EC and HS were compared to the MPN method to determine their efficacy to enumerate total coliforms and E. coli in 145 samples of water (76 water in natura, 69 drinking water). For water in natura, Petrifilm™ HS and EC showed good correlation with MPN method. In chlorinated water (< 20 col/100 mL and negatives) the agreement was low. For E.coli enumeration, Petrifilm™ EC showed a good correlation with MPN method. The results indicated that Petrifilm™ EC and HS are accurate t...

Vanerli Beloti,; Juliana Aparecida de Souza; Márcia Aguiar Ferreira Barros; Luís Augusto Nero; Marcos Rodrigues de Mattos; Viviane Vieira Gusmão; Luciane Bilia de Moraes

2003-01-01

53

Coliform bacterial pollution in Rawal lake, Islamabad and its feeding streams / river  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total coliform and fecal coliform are indicators of drinking water quality. The presence of fecal coliform in water indicates contamination with fecal materials of man and other animals. This paper documents the population of total coliform colonies as well as fecal coliform contamination in Rawal lake, which is one of major source of drinking water supply to inhabitants of Rawalpindi, and its feeding streams (mainly Kurang River and three perennial streams) flowing in the administrative jurisdiction of the capital city, Islamabad, Pakistan. Coliform bacteria in Rawal lake and feeding streams water was determined by membrane filtration technique. The results indicated that E. Coli population in four streams (input waters) feeding the Rawal Lake ranged from 25 - 57 (mean 36) fecal coliform per 100 mL. The Kurang River, one of the feeding streams, hosted the largest population of fecal coliform (57 fecal coliform per 100 mL). The highest population of fecal coliform (105 fecal coliform per 100 mL) in Rawal Lake surface water was observed at the confluence of Kurang River and the Lake in the vicinity of village 'New Ampler'. While in the Rawal Lake water columns, it ranged from 12 - 65 (mean 25) fecal coliform/ 100mL. The measured levels of fecal coliform bacteria are much higher than the maximum permissible levels for drinking water as recommended by WHO and US-EPA (No fecal coliform in drinking water). It is concluded that the indiscriminate amount of pollution from doindiscriminate amount of pollution from domestic sewage and poultry industry has seriously affected the biological quality of stream waters and the Rawal Lake waters. (author)

54

Comparison of nine brands of membrane filter and the most-probable-number methods for total coliform enumeration in sewage-contaminated drinking water.  

OpenAIRE

Nine different brands of membrane filter were compared in the membrane filtration (MF) method, and those with the highest yields were compared against the most-probable-number (MPN) multiple-tube method for total coliform enumeration in simulated sewage-contaminated tap water. The water was chlorinated for 30 min to subject the organisms to stresses similar to those encountered during treatment and distribution of drinking water. Significant differences were observed among membranes in four o...

Tobin, R. S.; Lomax, P.; Kushner, D. J.

1980-01-01

55

Avaliação do padrão coliformes a 45ºC e comparação da eficiência das técnicas dos tubos múltiplos e Petrifilm EC na detecção de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em alimentos Coliforms at 45ºc and comparison of most probable number method and Petrifilm EC for enumeration of total coliforms and Escherichia coli of foods  

OpenAIRE

Coliformes fecais são definidos como coliformes capazes de fermentar a lactose com produção de gás em 48 h a 45ºC. Escherichia coli, juntamente com algumas cepas de Enterobacter e Klebsiella, podem apresentar essas características. Entretanto, apenas a presença de Escherichia coli em alimentos indica contaminação fecal por ser encontrada em grande quantidade no trato gastrointestinal do homem e animais de sangue quente, não sendo isolada normalmente em outros nichos. A denominação...

Silva, M. P.; Cavalli, D. R.; Oliveira, T. C. R. M.

2006-01-01

56

Coliforms in aerosols generated by a municipal solid waste recovery system.  

OpenAIRE

Airborne total and fecal coliform concentrations averaged 2.1 X 10(3) and 9.9 X 10(2)/m3, respectively, inside an operating solid waste recovery system. Installation of dust control equipment reduced these levels by 50%. Frequency of recovery of coliforms also dropped by 15%.

Lembke, L. L.; Kniseley, R. N.

1980-01-01

57

Effect of various oral dose levels of a trimethoprim/sulphadiazine mixture on Bordetella bronchiseptica infection and on the proliferation of trimethoprim-resistant faecal coliforms in pigs.  

OpenAIRE

When a 1:5 mixture of trimethoprim (TMP) and sulphadiazine was fed to pigs intra-nasally infected with bordetella bronchiseptica, 10 mg/kg/day was shown to be highly effective in suppressing the organism. This dose level had little effect on numbers of TMP-resistant coliforms in faeces, but oral doses of 30 mg/kg/day eventually selected a resistant population. It is suggested that the proliferation of resistant coliforms would be minimized by administration of the lowest oral dose rates of an...

Dassanayake, L.; White, G.

1983-01-01

58

EFFECT OF BROILER AGE, FEED WITHDRAWAL AND TRANSPORTATION ON LEVELS OF COLIFORMS, CAMPYLOBACTER, E. COLI AND SALMONELLA ON CARCASSES BEFORE AND AFTER IMMERSION CHILLING  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was conducted to determine the effects of bird age at slaughter, feed withdrawal and transportation on levels of coliforms, Campylobacter, Escherichia coli and Salmonella on carcasses before and after immersion chilling. Broilers were processed at 42, 49 and 56 d-of-age after either a 12 h...

59

Effect of UV light disinfection on antibiotic-resistant coliforms in wastewater effluents.  

OpenAIRE

Total coliforms and total coliforms resistant to streptomycin, tetracycline, or chloramphenicol were isolated from filtered activated sludge effluents before and after UV light irradiation. Although the UV irradiation effectively disinfected the wastewater effluent, the percentage of the total surviving coliform population resistant to tetracycline or chloramphenicol was significantly higher than the percentage of the total coliform population resistant to those antibiotics before UV irradiat...

Meckes, M. C.

1982-01-01

60

Presencia de entamoeba histolytica, ascaris lumbricoides y coliformes totales en ensaladas para perrocalientes, expendidas en el centro de la ciudad de Maracay, Mayo-Junio de 2002. / Entamoeba histolytica, ascaris lumbricoides and total coliforms in salads for hotdog sold in Maracay city’s downtown  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Muchas enfermedades de transmisión alimentaria, cuya etiología incluye bacterias, virus, hongos, parásitos, productos químicos y toxinas, se registran actualmente. En el estado Aragua, Venezuela, las parasitosis son un problema de Salud Pública, siendo la más importante la amebiasis producida por En [...] tamoeba histolytica. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la presencia de parásitos intestinales (Entamoeba histolytica y Ascaris lumbricoides) y coliformes totales en ensaladas para perrocalientes expendidas en el centro de la ciudad de Maracay, estado Aragua. Se realizaron análisis físico-químicos (pH, acidez) y microbiológicos. Se obtuvo una media de pH de 5,41 y para la acidez de 0,47 ml de NaOH 0,1 N. El 20% de las muestras estaban contaminadas con parásitos intestinales, en las cuales el 19,51% presentaron quistes de protozoarios, el 0,39% huevos de helmintos y una media de medias de 2,05 x 10(6) NMP/g. de coliformes totales. No existió diferencia significativa entre las muestras analizadas para los parámetros estudiados. Existió correlación lineal entre el pH y los quistes de Entamoeba histolytica. Abstract in english Many illnesses of food transmission reported at the moment have it etiological agent in bacterias, virus, moulds, parasites, chemical products and toxins. In Aragua state, Venezuela the parasitosis is a problem of Public Health, being the most important the Amibiasis by Entamoeba histolytica. The ob [...] jective of the investigation was to determine the presence of intestinal parasites (Entamoeba histolytica and Ascaris lumbricoides) and total coliforms in salads for hot dogs expended in downtown of Maracay, Aragua. and microbiological and physical-chemical analysis (pH, Acidity) carried out. A mean of pH of 5,41 was obtained and an acidity of 0,47 ml of NaOH 0,1 N. 20% of the samples were polluted with intestinal parasites, where 19,51% presented cysts of protozoa, 0,39% helminthic eggs and a mean of mean of 2,05 x 10(6) NMP/g of total coliforms. Significant difference didn’t exist among the samples analyzed for the studied parameters. Lineal correlation existed between the pH and the cysts of Entamoeba histolytica.

Z, Cartaya; C, Mendoza; R, Oyón.

2003-01-01

61

Antibiotic resistance of neustonic and planktonic fecal coliform bacteria isolated from two water basins differing in the level of pollution / Resistencia a antibióticos de bacterias coliformes fecales, nesutónicas y planctónicas, aisladas de dos cuerpos de agua con distinto nivel de contaminación  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Se estudió la resistencia a antibióticos de bacterias coliformes fecales aisladas de la microcapa superficial y la capa subsuperficial de un estanque contaminado y de un lago no contaminado. Los resultados sobre la resistencia a los antimicrobianos indicaron que en el depósito de agua estudiado el n [...] ivel de bacterias coliformes fecales varío con diversos antibióticos probados. Las bacterias entéricas fueron las más resistentes a la ampicilina, clindamycina, novobiocina, penicilina y presentaron mayor sensibilidad a amikacina, gentamicina, neomicina y oxitetraciclina. Las bacterias coliformes fecales habitantes de estanques fueron más resistentes a casi todos los antibióticos probados comparados con las bacterias coliformes del lago. El índice de la resistencia múltiple a antibióticos (MAR, siglas en inglés) mostró que los valores de bacterias coliformes fecales fueron mayores en el estanque que en el lago. Por regla general, las bacterias coliformes fecales aisladas tanto en cuencas hidrográficas, como de agua del subsuelo fueron más resistentes a los antibióticos probados que las de la microcapa superficial del mismo cuerpo de agua en el que habitan. El nivel de resistencia de las bacterias a los antibióticos dependió de la estructura química de los antibióticos. Abstract in english Antibiotic resistance of fecal coliform bacteria isolated from the surface microlayer and the subsurface layer of a polluted pond and a non-polluted lake was studied. On the basis of the conducted studies it was stated that the isolated fecal coliform bacteria from both aquatic basins showed various [...] resistance to tested antibiotics. Enteric bacteria were the most resistant to ampicillin, clindmycin, novobiocin, penicillin and the most sensitive to amikacin, gentamycin, neomycin and oxytetracycline. Fecal coliform bacteria inhabiting the pond showed similar resistance to the majority of tested antibiotics than coliform bacteria isolated from the lake. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index value for fecal coliform bacteria was higher in the pond than the lake. Only in a downtown pond fecal coliform bacteria isolated from the subsurface water were more resistant to tested antibiotics than those inhabiting the surface microlayer. The antibiotic resistance level of the bacteria depended on the chemical structure of antibiotics.

Piotr, Skórczewski; Zbigniew Jan, Mudryk; Marta, Jankowska; Piotr, Perli& #324; ski; Marta, Zdanowicz.

2013-12-01

62

Total coliforms, arsenic and cadmium exposure through drinking water in the Western Region of Ghana: application of multivariate statistical technique to groundwater quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent times, surface water resource in the Western Region of Ghana has been found to be inadequate in supply and polluted by various anthropogenic activities. As a result of these problems, the demand for groundwater by the human populations in the peri-urban communities for domestic, municipal and irrigation purposes has increased without prior knowledge of its water quality. Water samples were collected from 14 public hand-dug wells during the rainy season in 2013 and investigated for total coliforms, Escherichia coli, mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd) and physicochemical parameters. Multivariate statistical analysis of the dataset and a linear stoichiometric plot of major ions were applied to group the water samples and to identify the main factors and sources of contamination. Hierarchal cluster analysis revealed four clusters from the hydrochemical variables (R-mode) and three clusters in the case of water samples (Q-mode) after z score standardization. Principal component analysis after a varimax rotation of the dataset indicated that the four factors extracted explained 93.3 % of the total variance, which highlighted salinity, toxic elements and hardness pollution as the dominant factors affecting groundwater quality. Cation exchange, mineral dissolution and silicate weathering influenced groundwater quality. The ranking order of major ions was Na(+)?>?Ca(2+)?>?K(+)?>?Mg(2+) and Cl(-)?>?SO4 (2-)?>?HCO3 (-). Based on piper plot and the hydrogeology of the study area, sodium chloride (86 %), sodium hydrogen carbonate and sodium carbonate (14 %) water types were identified. Although E. coli were absent in the water samples, 36 % of the wells contained total coliforms (Enterobacter species) which exceeded the WHO guidelines limit of zero colony-forming unit (CFU)/100 mL of drinking water. With the exception of Hg, the concentration of As and Cd in 79 and 43 % of the water samples exceeded the WHO guideline limits of 10 and 3 ?g/L for drinking water, respectively. Reported values in some areas in Nigeria, Malaysia and USA indicated that the maximum concentration of Cd was low and As was high in this study. Health risk assessment of Cd, As and Hg based on average daily dose, hazard quotient and cancer risk was determined. In conclusion, multiple natural processes and anthropogenic activities from non-point sources contributed significantly to groundwater salinization, hardness, toxic element and microbiological contamination of the study area. The outcome of this study can be used as a baseline data to prioritize areas for future sustainable development of public wells. PMID:25600401

Affum, Andrews Obeng; Osae, Shiloh Dede; Nyarko, Benjamin Jabez Botwe; Afful, Samuel; Fianko, Joseph Richmond; Akiti, Tetteh Thomas; Adomako, Dickson; Acquaah, Samuel Osafo; Dorleku, Micheal; Antoh, Emmanuel; Barnes, Felix; Affum, Enoch Acheampong

2015-02-01

63

Photocatalytic degradation of E. coliform in water.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aims to further investigate the total mineralization of the bacteria to the extent of death and cell-mass inactivation using a TiO2-Fe2O3 membrane photocatalytic oxidation reactor. Experimental results clearly indicated that dissolved oxygen (DO), hydraulic retention time (HRT) and concentration of the model bacteria (Escherichia coliform) affected the removal efficiency. It was found that the ultimate removal efficiency was 99% at DO level of 21.34 mg/l, HRT at 60s and high concentration of E. coli at 10(9)CFU/ml. The morphologic studies also showed that E. coliform could be further mineralized into CO2 and H2O. Dissolved organic carbon, pH and gas chromatograph analysis had justified most importantly the evolution of CO2. Experimental results revealed that the photomineralization rate of E. coliform followed pseudo-first-order kinetics by the role of DO. The derived empirical models were found consistent with the proposed reaction pathways of a combined UV breakdown on mass cell and a dual-site Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism where the rate-controlling step is the surface interaction between the adsorbed cleavage bacterial cells and hydroxyl radicals. PMID:12834738

Sun, Darren Delai; Tay, Joo Hwa; Tan, Koh Min

2003-08-01

64

Incidence of R factors in coliform, fecal coliform, and Salmonella populations of the Red River in Canada.  

OpenAIRE

Coliforms, fecal coliforms, and Salmonella were isolated from the Red River, Manitoba, Canada, and identified. These organisms were then examined for resistance to 12 antibiotics. Some fecal coliforms were resistant to all 12 antibiotics, and 18% of the Salmonella isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics. A total of 52.9% of the fecal coliforms resistant to three or more antibiotics were able to transfer single or multiple resistance (R) determinants to the Salmonella recipient, and...

Bell, J. B.; Macrae, W. R.; Elliott, G. E.

1980-01-01

65

Fecal coliform modeling under two flow scenarios in St. Louis Bay of Mississippi.  

Science.gov (United States)

St. Louis Bay, along with its two major tributaries, Wolf River and Jourdan River, are included in the Mississippi 1998 Section 303(d) List for violation of the designated water use of recreation and shellfish harvesting. Fecal coliform was identified as one of the pollutants that caused the water quality impairment. In order to facilitate the total maximum daily loads (TMDL) development, the fecal coliform dynamics was investigated under 2 flow scenarios with a calibrated and validated modeling framework by integration of Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC) and Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF). EFDC was used to model the hydrodymics and fecal coliform transportation in the Bay and the tributaries, whereas HSPF was applied to compute the flow and fecal coliform loadings from the watersheds. The total amount of precipitation in the dry year simulation corresponds to a 50-year return period of low flow condition, and a 10-year return period of high flow condition for wet weather simulation. For EFDC modeling, the fecal coliform sources considered were the contributions from the 2 upper watersheds (no tidal influence), the 28 small surrounding watershed, and 12 municipal, industrial, and domestic point sources. When simulating the fecal coliform loadings from the 2 upper watersheds using HSPF, the simulated non-point source loadings of fecal coliform included wildlife, land application of hog and cattle manure, land application of poultry litter, and grazing animals. The EFDC modeling results indicated that the wet weather exerted greater stress on fecal coliform water quality conditions. The number of exceedance of fecal coliform water quality standard in wet year simulation is much higher than that in dry year simulation. The impact of the upper rural watersheds loads on fecal coliform levels in the St. Louis Bay is much less significant than that from the surrounding urban runoff. Fecal coliform TMDL development should be based on high flow conditions since the decision makers are more concerned about worse scenarios. This fecal coliform modeling research would provide useful information of critical condition selection for TMDLs development in similar coastal areas. PMID:20390869

Liu, Zhijun; Hashim, Noor B; Kingery, William L; Huddleston, David H

2010-01-01

66

Comparison of methods of enumerating coliforms after UV disinfection.  

OpenAIRE

In view of the differences that have been found between the most-probable-number and membrane filtration methods for the recovery of coliforms from chlorinated samples, the survival of total and fecal coliforms in UV-irradiated effluent samples, as tested by the most-probable-number and standard single-step membrane filtration methods, was compared. There were no significant differences in the survival of total and fecal coliforms, as tested by the two methods. In a separate set of experiment...

Qualls, R. G.; Chang, J. C.; Ossoff, S. F.; Johnson, J. D.

1984-01-01

67

Remoção de matéria orgânica, coliformes totais e nitrificação no tratamento de esgotos domésticos por filtros de areia / Organic matter and total coliform removal and nitrification in the treatment of domestic wastewater by sand filter  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Segundo o IBGE (2000), 73% dos municípios brasileiros possuem menos de 20.000 habitantes, que em sua maior parte vive na zona rural ou em pequenos núcleos urbanos. Quase a totalidade dos esgotos destas cidades é lançada nos corpos hídricos, contribuindo com o agravamento dos problemas de saúde públi [...] ca e ambiental. Esses danos podem ser minimizados com o emprego de sistemas de tratamento simples, eficientes, sustentáveis e economicamente viáveis. O filtro anaeróbio com recheio de bambu combinado com filtros de areia satisfaria estas exigências, propiciando um efluente adequado para disposição nos cursos d'água ou para reúso, resguardando as fontes de água potável. A aplicação piloto deste método demonstrou que no emprego de baixas cargas de efluente anaeróbio nos filtros de areia havia uma remoção superior a 96% da DBO, adequação na emissão de coliformes totais e uma completa nitrificação. Aumentando-se as cargas, ocorria uma pequena redução da eficiência, no entanto os resultados ainda eram satisfatórios. Abstract in english According to IBGE (2000) 73% of the Brazilian cities are considered small communities with population smaller than 20,000 inhabitants. The majority of domestic wastewater of these places is normally disposed in rivers with no treatment. As a consequence, the irregular disposal may cause health and e [...] nvironmental problems. To reduce this risk it is necessary to develop treatment systems that are simple, efficient, sustainable and of low cost. The treatment of wastewater using up flow anaerobic filter combined with sand filters would be able to satisfy these exigencies, producing an effluent that could be disposed in rivers or even be reused, safeguarding the sources of potable water. The system achieved BOD removal of 96% and complete nitrification for the application of low loads. The increase of the applied loads caused a reduction in the efficiency; however the final values were still satisfactory.

Adriano Luiz, Tonetti; Bruno, Coraucci Filho; Ronaldo, Stefanutti; Roberto Feijó de, Figueiredo; Camilla Cristina Okano, São Pedro.

2005-09-01

68

Contamination of Coliforms in Different Paper Currency Notes of Bangladesh  

OpenAIRE

To determine the degree of contamination of taka notes, samples of the notes circulating in different local markets and people of different professions in Khulna region of Bangladesh were collected. Coliforms, the indicator organisms in taka notes were determined by multiple tube method and identified with differential media and data were analyzed. About 80±5% of old two-taka notes were contaminated with total coliforms and 16±4% of notes were found contaminated with fecal coliforms. But co...

Jakir Hosen, M.; Dilara Islam Sarif; Masuder Rahman, M.; Md. Abul Kalam Azad

2006-01-01

69

National Field Evaluation of a Defined Substrate Method for the Simultaneous Enumeration of Total Coliforms and Escherichia coli from Drinking Water: Comparison with the Standard Multiple Tube Fermentation Method  

OpenAIRE

A defined substrate method was developed to simultaneously enumerate total coliforms and Escherichia coli from drinking waters without the need for confirmatory or completed tests. It is a new method based on technology that uses a hydrolyzable substrate as a specific indicator-nutrient for the target microbes. No equipment other than a 35 degrees C incubator and long-wavelength (366-nm) light is necessary. To perform the test, one only has to add water to the powdered ingredients in a tube o...

1988-01-01

70

Evaluation of Commercial Colilert18-Quantitray® Method by ISO Techniques for Enumeration and Quantification of Total Coliforms and Escherichia coli in Drinking-Water of Buraidah, Saudi Arabia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the present investigation, the Colilert18-QuantiTray® test is compared with ISO 9308-2:1999 Multiple-Tube Fermentation (MTF and 9308-1:2000 Membrane Filtration (MF methods for the detection of coliforms and E. coli in Buraidah drinking water. Regarding sensitivity and specificity of test methods using MTF as reference, the MF method showed a weak sensitivity, while the Colilert18® test showed the highest one. On the other hand, MF method exhibited a higher specificity compared with Colilert18® test. A moderately strong relationship among test methods of coliforms log transformed counts obtained with MF (cfu/100 mL and Coliert18®/Quanti-Tray (MPN/100 mL tests compared to MPN-MTF method was demonstrated. Regression analysis revealed the presence of strong linear correlations (p<0.01 between the three test methods and standard plate count of detecting the concentration of serially diluted E. coli LMG 2092 with high regression coefficients with MF and Colilert18® and lower value for MTF. The Colilert18® had E. coli detection down to 5 MPN/100 mL (? 0.05/1 mL. Results showed that Coliert18®/Quanti-Tray method is comparable with ISO methods further, the former method has more advantages such as higher sensitivity, maximum detection limit ability and time and labor saving.

A. Al-Turki

2009-01-01

71

Arsenic presence and coliforms in drinking water of the Tecuala municipality, Nayarit, Mexico; Presencia de arsenico y coliformes en agua potable del municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit, Mexico  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Total arsenic concentrations (t As) and the presence of total and fecal coliforms in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, Mexico, were determined. The presence of t As was analyzed by means of hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Total and fecal coliforms were determined through the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. According to the results, the mean concentration of t As in Tecuala wa 15.82 {mu}g/L, in Atotonilco 19.88 {mu}g/L, in Pajaritos 21.49 {mu}g/L, in Quimichis 17.80 {mu}g/L, and in Playas de Novillero 19.79 {mu}g/L. The t As concentrations in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, are within the limit set by the Mexican official standards (25 {mu}g/L); still, they are over the limit established by the World Health Organization (10 {mu}g/L). The concentration of coliforms in water from wells 1 and 3 was 180 MPN/100 ml and 43 MPN/100 ml for well water 2. The presence of total and fecal coliforms, suggest the infiltration of sewage which could increase the levels of dissolved arsenic. The results of this study will serve as an antecedent of the water quality in Tecuala, Nayarit. (Author)

Mora B, D.; Gonzalez A, C. A.; Medina D, I. M.; Robledo M, M. L.; Rojas G, A. E. [Universidad Autonoma de Nayarit, Secretaria de Investigacion y Posgrado, Ciudad de la Cultura Amado Nervo, 63155 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); Sanchez P, L. C.; Del Razo, L. M., E-mail: aerg81@gmail.com [IPN, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Departamento de Toxicologia, Av. IPN No. 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

2012-07-01

72

Contamination of Coliforms in Different Paper Currency Notes of Bangladesh  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available To determine the degree of contamination of taka notes, samples of the notes circulating in different local markets and people of different professions in Khulna region of Bangladesh were collected. Coliforms, the indicator organisms in taka notes were determined by multiple tube method and identified with differential media and data were analyzed. About 80±5% of old two-taka notes were contaminated with total coliforms and 16±4% of notes were found contaminated with fecal coliforms. But comparatively newer two-taka notes showed that 43±3% were contaminated with total coliforms and 5±2% were with fecal coliforms, suggesting the notion that more handled taka notes were contaminated more intensely even by fecal coliforms. Ten taka notes also represented the same pattern of results as two-taka notes, indicating that taka notes may carry enteric pathogens. This study also revealed that porsaline paper notes were easily vulnerable to coliforms contamination whereas polymer paper notes were almost free from coliforms suggesting that polymer paper notes are safer to use than porsaline paper notes.

M. Jakir Hosen

2006-01-01

73

Fecal Coliforms in Antarctica  

Science.gov (United States)

In this interrupted case study, students explore the environmental consequences of Antarctic research as they design experiments to assess the impact of disposing untreated sewage from a research station into the ocean. Students review experimental methods to measure coliform bacteria, examine data, and decide what actions, if any, should be taken. The can be used in either a non-majors course in science literacy or a general microbiology class studying bacterial detection methods. For non-majors, the instructor would emphasize the mechanics of data collection and analysis and may touch on the environmental implications of finding fecal coliforms in Antarctic waters. For microbiology students, the instructor would highlight the bacteriology and pair the case with a lab.

Stephen C. Nold

2002-01-01

74

Arsenic presence and coliforms in drinking water of the Tecuala municipality, Nayarit, Mexico  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total arsenic concentrations (t As) and the presence of total and fecal coliforms in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, Mexico, were determined. The presence of t As was analyzed by means of hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Total and fecal coliforms were determined through the Most Probable Number (MPN) method. According to the results, the mean concentration of t As in Tecuala wa 15.82 ?g/L, in Atotonilco 19.88 ?g/L, in Pajaritos 21.49 ?g/L, in Quimichis 17.80 ?g/L, and in Playas de Novillero 19.79 ?g/L. The t As concentrations in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, are within the limit set by the Mexican official standards (25 ?g/L); still, they are over the limit established by the World Health Organization (10 ?g/L). The concentration of coliforms in water from wells 1 and 3 was 180 MPN/100 ml and 43 MPN/100 ml for well water 2. The presence of total and fecal coliforms, suggest the infiltration of sewage which could increase the levels of dissolved arsenic. The results of this study will serve as an antecedent of the water quality in Tecuala, Nayarit. (Author)

75

Frequency of transferable multiple antibiotic resistance amongst coliform bacteria isolated from a treated sewage effluent in Antofagasta, Chile  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria from raw and treated water from activated sludge of a sewage treatment plant were isolated on eosin methylene blue agar (EMB) plates in the separate presence of ampicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol and streptomycin. Antibiotic resistant coliforms obtained [...] from inflow and effluent waters were studied to determine influences of treatment on the species composition, resistance patterns and transferable resistance in these bacteria. The bacterial counts obtained showed a high proportion of antibiotic resistant coliforms in the treated effluent. The resistant coliform species were eliminated at different rates by the treatment. Escherichia coli decreased, whereas the proportion of Klebsiella sp increased. The percentage of multiple-resistant isolates increased at the end of the treatment process. The high frequency of resistance was to ampicillin, followed by tetracycline and sulpha-trimethoprim. Moderate incidence of resistance was to streptomycin, chloramphenicol and cephradine. The lowest rate of resistance was to kanamicin and nalidixic acid. Mating experiments of multiple-resistant coliforms with an E. coli K-12 donor confirmed the capability of transferring its resistance. The results of this study suggested that wastewater treatment could reduce the total number of enteric bacteria in sewage, but may increase the proportion of antibiotic resistant coliforms in effluent water. Environmental release and agricultural use of treated sewage effluent containing bacteria having elevated antibiotic resistance levels presents a potential public health risk, as well as the risk of transferring the antibiotic resistance to bacterial populations in the environment.

Juan, Silva; Gabriela, Castillo; Lorena, Callejas; Héctor, López; Janet, Olmos.

2006-10-15

76

Injured coliforms in drinking water.  

OpenAIRE

Coliforms were enumerated by using m-Endo agar LES and m-T7 agar in 102 routine samples of drinking water from three New England community water systems to investigate the occurrence and significance of injured coliforms. Samples included water collected immediately after conventional treatment, during the backwash cycle, at various points in the distribution system, and 1 week after the break and subsequent repair of a distribution main. Injured coliforms in these samples averaged greater th...

Mcfeters, G. A.; Kippin, J. S.; Lechevallier, M. W.

1986-01-01

77

Effects of UV light disinfection on antibiotic-resistant coliforms in wastewater effluents  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Total coliforms and total coliforms resistant to streptomycin, tetracycline, or chloramphenicol were isolated from filtered activated sludge effluents before and after UV light irradiation. Although the UV irradiation effectively disinfected the wastewater effluent, the percentage of the total surviving coliform population resistant to tetracycline or chloramphenicol was significantly higher than the percentage of the total coliform population resistant to those antibiotics before UV irradiation. This finding was attributed to the mechanism of R-factor mediated resistance to tetracycline. No significant difference was noted for the percentage of the surviving total coliform population resistant to streptomycin before or after UV irradiation. Multiple drug resistant to patterns of 300 total coliform isolates revealed that 82% were resistant to two or more antibiotics. Furthermore, 46% of these isolates were capable of transferring antibiotic resistance to a sensitive strain of Escherichia coli

78

Evaluation of m-T7 agar as a fecal coliform medium.  

OpenAIRE

m-T7 agar, designed to improve recoveries of injured total coliforms, was evaluated for its effectiveness as a fecal coliform medium. The time and temperature of preincubation were found to be crucial to the optimal recovery of fetal coliforms. Isolation rates for fecal coliforms on m-T7 agar from sewage effluents were the highest when plates were preincubated at 37 degrees C for 8 h before transfer to 44.5 degrees C for 12 h. The medium was found to produce consistently higher fecal coliform...

Lechevallier, M. W.; Jakanoski, P. E.; Camper, A. K.; Mcfeters, G. A.

1984-01-01

79

Differential susceptibility of aeromonads and coliforms to cefsulodin.  

OpenAIRE

Cefsulodin was evaluated as a potential selective agent for aeromonads. Resistance of Aeromonas and coliform isolates was determined by using a standard disk diffusion technique. A total of 119 Aeromonas and 78 coliform strains were isolated. For 102 of 130 [corrected] Aeromonas isolates (environmental and reference strains), the MIC of cefsulodin was < 8 micrograms/ml. Results of MIC tests by the agar dilution method showed that a concentration of cefsulodin of 10 micrograms/ml or less inhib...

Alonso, J. L.; Amoros, I.; Alonso, M. A.

1996-01-01

80

The presence-absence coliform test for monitoring drinking water quality.  

OpenAIRE

The concern for improved monitoring of the sanitary quality of drinking water has prompted interest in alternative methods for the detection of total coliform bacteria. A simplified qualitative presence-absence test has been proposed as an alternate procedure for detecting coliform bacteria in potable water. In this paper data from four comparative studies were analyzed to compare the recovery of total coliform bacteria from drinking water using the presence-absence test, the multiple ferment...

Rice, E. W.; Geldreich, E. E.; Read, E. J.

1989-01-01

81

Detection of coliform organisms in drinking water by radiometric method  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The radiometric method has been used for detection of coliform bacteria in water. The method is based on measuring the released metabolic /Sup 14/CO/sub 2/from 14 C-lactose in growth media containing coliform organisms incubated at 37 deg. C. under continues shaking. This rapid and sensitive radiometric method permits the detection of even single coliform organisms within 6 hours in incubation. Using this automated method, a total of 102 samples (in duplicate) collected from different areas in and around Rawalpindi and Islamabad were assessed for coliform bacteria. Of these 102 samples, 50 were tap water samples, 40 from wells and 6 each were from Rawal and Simly dams. About 47% and 67% tap water samples, while 62% and 74% well water samples were found unsatisfactory from around Islamabad and Rawalpindi areas respectively, about 83% and 66% water samples from Rawal dam and Simly dam respectively were found to be unsatisfactory. (author)

82

Coliform density in oyster culture waters and its relationship with environmental factors / Densidade de coliformes em águas de cultivo de ostras e sua relação com fatores ambientais  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as densidades de coliformes totais e termotolerantes, em água de cultivo de ostra de Cananeia, SP, e correlacionar estas densidades com variáveis ambientais e as variações das marés. Foram coletadas amostras de água superficial em duas condições de maré (sizígia [...] e quadratura) de três áreas do Município de Cananéia (Mandira, Itapitangui e Cooperostra). As três áreas estudadas apresentaram boas condições para cultivo, quanto à densidade de coliformes. Diferenças significativas foram registradas entre as condições de marés quanto à concentração total de coliformes; no entanto, o mesmo procedimento não se aplicou para coliformes termotolerantes. Nenhuma correlação foi observada entre a temperatura da água, o pH e as concentrações de coliformes total e termotolerantes. As densidades de coliformes correlacionaram-se positivamente com a pluviosidade e negativamente com a salinidade. O número de coliformes foi significativamente diferente nas marés de sizígia e de quadratura. O simples diagnóstico das condições ambientais é insuficiente para avaliar a qualidade da água de cultivo de ostras. Um programa de monitoramento contínuo de áreas cultivadas é necessário tanto para avaliar o potencial dessas águas, como para garantir o consumo seguro de frutos do mar, além de constituir-se como instrumento importante para a compreensão das relações entre a contaminação por coliformes e as variáveis ambientais envolvidas. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the total and thermotolerant coliform densities in the oyster culture water of Cananeia, SP, Brazil, correlating these densities with environmental variables and tidal variations. Superficial water samples were collected in two tide conditions (spring and n [...] eap) from three areas of Cananéia municipality (Mandira, Itapitangui and Cooperostra). The three studied areas showed good conditions for the culture regarding coliform densities. The two tidal conditions differed significantly as to total coliform concentration; however, the same procedure was not performed for thermotolerant coliforms. No correlation was observed between water temperature, pH, and concentrations of total and thermotolerant coliforms. Coliform density was positively correlated with rainfall and negatively correlated with salinity. Spring and neap tides differed significantly as to coliform number. Simple diagnosis of environmental conditions of the crop fields is insufficient to assess water quality of shellfish cultivation. A continuous monitoring program of planted areas is necessary both for the assessment of water quality potential for marine culture and for ensuring safe consumption of seafood, besides constituting an important tool to understand the relationships between contamination and the involved environmental variables.

Luciene, Mignani; Edison, Barbieri; Helcio Luis de Almeida, Marques; Ana Julia Fernandes Cardoso de, Oliveira.

2013-08-01

83

Relationship among fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. in shellfish.  

OpenAIRE

The relationship of fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp. was examined in freshly harvested and stored shellfish. In 16 of 40 freshly collected oyster samples, fecal coliform levels were above the recommended wholesale level suggested by the National Shellfish Sanitation Program (less than or equal to 230/100 g), and Salmonella spp. were present in three of these samples. Salmonella spp. were not, however, present in any sample containing less than 230 fecal coliforms per 100...

Hood, M. A.; Ness, G. E.; Blake, N. J.

1983-01-01

84

Presencia de arsénico y coliformes en agua potable del municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit, México / Presence of arsenic and coliforms in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se determinaron las concentraciones de arsénico total (AsT) y la presencia de coliformes totales y fecales en agua potable del municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit, México. La determinación de AsT se realizó por espectrofotometría de fluorescencia atómica, por generación de hidruros; la detección de colifo [...] rmes totales y fecales se realizó con la técnica del número más probable (NMP). De acuerdo a los resultados obtenidos, la concentración media de AsT en la cabecera municipal de Tecuala fue de 15.82 µg/L, en el ejido de Atotonilco de 19.88 µg/L, en Pajaritos de 21.49 µg/L, en Quimichis de 17.80 µg/L y en Playas de Novillero de 19.79 µg/L. Aunque las concentraciones de AsT en el agua potable del municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit, se encuentran dentro del límite establecido por las Normas Oficiales Mexicanas (25 µg/L), rebasan el límite establecido por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, que establece un máximo de 10 µg/L. La concentración de coliformes en el agua procedente de los pozos 1 y 3 fue de 180 NMP/100 mL y de 43 NMP/100 mL para el agua del pozo 2. La presencia de coliformes totales y fecales, sugiere la infiltración de aguas negras lo que podría incrementar los niveles de arsénico disuelto. Los resultados de este estudio servirán como antecedente sanitario de la calidad del agua de los pozos que abastecen el municipio de Tecuala, Nayarit. Abstract in english Total arsenic concentrations (tAs) and the presence of total and fecal coliforms in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, Mexico, were determined. The presence of tAs was analyzed by means of hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Total and fecal coliforms were determined through the M [...] ost Probable Number (MPN) method. According to the results, the mean concentration of tAs in Tecuala was 15.82 µg/L, in Atotonilco 19.88 µg/L, in Pajaritos 21.49 µg/L, in Quimichis 17.80 µg/L, and in Playas de Novillero 19.79 µg/L. The tAs concentrations in drinking water from Tecuala, Nayarit, are within the limit set by the Mexican official standards (25 µg/L); still, they are over the limit established by the World Health Organization (10 µg/L). The concentration of coliforms in water from wells 1 and 3 was 180 MPN/100 mL and 43 MPN/100 mL for well water 2. The presence of total and fecal coliforms, suggest the infiltration of sewage which could increase the levels of dissolved arsenic. The results of this study will serve as an antecedent of the water quality in Tecuala, Nayarit.

Daniel, MORA-BUENO; Luz del Carmen, SÁNCHEZ-PEÑA; Luz María, DEL RAZO; Cyndia Azucena, GONZÁLEZ-ARIAS; Irma Martha, MEDINA-DÍAZ; María de Lourdes, ROBLEDO-MARENCO; Aurora Elizabeth, ROJAS-GARCÍA.

2012-05-01

85

Formación de biopelículas y susceptibilidad antimicrobiana entre coliformes aislados en agua potable embotellada en Carabobo, Venezuela / Biofilms formation and antimicrobial susceptibility among coliforms isolated in bottled drinking water in Carabobo, Venezuela  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Bacterias indicadoras de contaminación tales como bacterias heterótrofas, coliformes totales y termotolerantes fueron enumeradas en agua potable embotellada usando métodos estándar y filtración a través de membrana. El desarrollo de biopelículas y la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana (método de Kirby-B [...] auer) fueron evaluados sobre sesenta aislados de coliformes seleccionados de forma aleatoria. De 50 muestras, en un elevado porcentaje (94), se observó niveles de bacterias heterotróficas por encima de 100 UFC/mL de agua, 38 % presentó al menos una UFC/100 mL de coliformes totales o termotolerantes, mientras que, 30 % y 28 %, presentaron más de diez UFC/100 mL para ambos indicadores, respectivamente. Las especies de coliformes identificadas en mayor proporción fueron, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli y Klebsiella oxytoca. Usando un ensayo in vitro para detectar la formación de biopelículas se determinó que entre un 75,8 y 79,2 % de los coliformes totales y termotolerantes, respectivamente, fueron descritos como moderados o fuertes formadores de biopelículas. No se observaron diferencias significativas (P>0,05) con respecto a la capacidad de formación de biopelículas entre los dos grupos. La mayoría de los aislados resultaron susceptibles frente a los antimicrobianos evaluados, únicamente dos especies presentaron fenotipos de resistencia no naturales. Perfiles de multiresistencia, típicos de especies asociadas con actividades clínicas o veterinarias, fueron identificados en un aislado de Enterobacter cloacae (betalactamasas tipo AmpC derreprimida) y un aislado de Escherichia coli fue resistente a ampicilina. Este estudio sugiere que el agua potable en botellones plásticos que se expende en algunas áreas urbanas de Carabobo, Venezuela, puede representar un riesgo para la salud. Abstract in english Pollution indicator bacteria such as heterotrophic bacteria, total and thermotolerant coliforms were quantified in bottled drinking water using standard method and membrane filter procedure. Biofilm formation and antimicrobial susceptibility (Kirby-Bauer method) were tested on sixty randomly selecte [...] d coliform strains. Among 50 water samples, a large percentage (94) were found with heterotrophic bacteria levels above 100 CFU/mL, 46 % showed at least one CFU/100 mL of thermotolerant or total coliformes whereas 28 % and 30 % showed more than ten CFU/100 mL for both indicators. Coliform species found in higher proportion were, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella oxytoca. Using an "in vitro" assay for biofilms formation it was determined that between 75.8 y 79.2 % of total and thermotolerant coliforms, respectively, were found to be moderate or strong biofilm formers. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) between both groups regarding the capacity for biofilm formation. Most of the isolates were susceptible against the antibiotics tested and only two species showed unnatural resistance phenotypes. Multiresistance profiles, typical of strains associated with human clinical or veterinary activities were identified in one Enterobacter cloacae isolated (derepressed AmpC beta-lactamases) and one Escherichia coli strain was ampicilin resistant. This study suggests that the water sold in some plastic bottles in some urban areas near by Carabobo, Venezuela, may be a risk to health.

Tomás, Rojas; Alejandra, Montoya; Alejandra, Moreno; Ritneybi, Mujica; Ysvette, Vásquez.

2012-06-01

86

Automated electrochemical selection of coliforms  

Science.gov (United States)

Computer-controlled sensor system monitors and quantifies coliform organisms in waste water samples through molecular hydrogen detection techniques. System includes cleanup procedures, external sterilization of each sensor interface with working fluid as well as incubation cell interiors. Sensor system may also be operated manually.

Taylor, R. E.; Dill, W. P.; Jeffers, E. L.

1978-01-01

87

EVIDENCE FOR THE ROLE OF COPPER IN THE INJURY PROCESS OF COLIFORM BACTERIA IN DRINKING WATER  

Science.gov (United States)

Low levels of copper in chlorine-free distribution water caused injury of coliform populations. Monitoring of 44 drinking water samples indicated that 64% of the coliform population was injured. Physical and chemical parameters were measured, including three heavy metals (Cu, Cd,...

88

Aerobic bacterial, coliform, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus counts of raw and processed milk from selected smallholder dairy farms of Zimbabwe.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cross sectional study was conducted to enumerate total viable bacteria (TBC), coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in raw (n=120) and processed (n=20) milk from individual farms from three smallholder dairy schemes of Zimbabwe between October, 2009 and February, 2010. Data on management factors were collected using a structured questionnaire. A standard pour plate technique was used to enumerate total viable bacteria, while for coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus, counts were assessed by the spread plate technique. The association of total viable bacterial counts and management factors was assessed using univariable and a linear regression model. The log?? TBC for raw milk differed significantly (P0.05). The coliform, E. coli and S. aureus counts for raw milk significantly differed (Pdairy scheme, delivery time and season of milking as independently associated with increased TBC of raw milk. The high TBC of raw and processed milk generally indicated low levels of milking hygienic practices, and high level of post-processing contamination, respectively. The high TBC, coliform, E. coli and S. aureus counts of both raw and processed milk may present a public health hazard. Thus, educating the farmers on general hygienic practices, quickening the delivery of milk to collection centres, or availing cooling facilities on-farm will improve the microbiological quality and safety of milk. PMID:21944662

Mhone, Tryness A; Matope, Gift; Saidi, Petronella T

2011-12-01

89

Comparison of the hydrophobic-grid membrane filter procedure and standard methods for coliform analysis of water.  

OpenAIRE

The hydrophobic-grid membrane filter (HGMF) has been proposed as an alternate method to the standard membrane filter (MF) procedure for the detection and enumeration of coliforms from water. Eight samples of nonchlorinated wastewater effluents were analyzed by the HGMF, standard MF, and tube fermentation most-probable-number methods for fecal coliforms, and eight samples each of polluted surface and dosed drinking waters were analyzed by the same methods for total coliforms. The drinking wate...

Mcdaniels, A. E.; Bordner, R. H.; Menkedick, J. R.; Weber, C. I.

1987-01-01

90

Coliform Bacteria: The Effect of Sediments on Decay Rates and on Required Detention Times in Stormwater BMPs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fecal indicator bacteria, such as total coliforms and E. coli, are a challenge to control in urban and rural stormwater runoff. To assess the challenges of improving bacterial water quality standards in surface waters, microcosm experiments were conducted to assess how decay rates of total coliforms and E. coli are affected by sediments and associated organic matter. Samples were collected at a lake embayment to create laboratory microcosms consisting of different combinations of unsterilized and sterilized water and sediment. Calculated first-order decay rate constants ranged from 0.021 to 0.047 h-1 for total coliforms and 0.017 and 0.037 h-1 for E. coli, depending on how each microcosm was prepared. It is evident that sediment in contact with the water column decreases bacteria decay rate, showing that care should be taken when designing stormwater treatment measures. In addition, high organic carbon content in the sediment temporarily increased bacteria concentrations in the water column. The results demonstrate that stormwater treatment measures, such as extended detention basins and constructed wetlands, must hold water for several days to allow for reduction of bacterial concentrations to acceptable levels. In addition, to troubleshoot detention basins and constructed wetlands for causes of high effluent bacterial concentrations, analyses of sediment, organic carbon, and water column depth should be conducted.

Danielle C. Usner

2012-08-01

91

33 CFR 159.127 - Safety coliform count: Recirculating devices.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety coliform count: Recirculating devices. 159...and Testing § 159.127 Safety coliform count: Recirculating devices. ...recirculating device must have less than 240 fecal coliform bacteria per 100 milliliters....

2010-07-01

92

Microtechnique for isolating fecal coliforms from soil.  

OpenAIRE

A most-probable-number microtitration technique for isolating fecal coliforms from soil was developed. A correlation coefficient of 0.86, with a 95% confidence interval of 0.76 less than zeta less than 0.92, was obtained when this technique was compared with the standard elevated-temperature fecal coliform most-probable-number procedure.

Hartel, P. G.; Hagedorn, C.

1983-01-01

93

COMPLIANCE CONCERNS WITH THE NEW COLIFORM REGULATIONS  

Science.gov (United States)

The search for the presence or absence of coliforms in the water supply has made the recognition of a biofilm more obvious than ever before. orting out the true coliform biofilm issue from the presence of hidden contamination is of utmost importance. Careful characterization of i...

94

Asellus aquaticus as a potential carrier of Escherichia coli and other coliform bacteria into drinking water distribution systems  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Individuals of the water louse, Asellus aquaticus, enter drinking water distribution systems in temperate parts of the world, where they establish breeding populations. Populations of A. aquaticus in surface water from 2 ponds were analysed for associated faecal indicator bacteria and the risk of A. aquaticus transporting bacteria into distribution systems was assessed. Concn. of ?2 Escherichia coli and 5 total coliforms ml-1 were measured in the water and 200 E. coli and >240 total coliforms ml-1 in the sediments of the investigated ponds. Concn. of A. aquaticus associated bacteria never exceeded 3 E. coli and 6 total coliforms A. aquaticus-1. During exposure to high concn. of coliforms, concn. reached 350 coliforms A. aquaticus-1. A. aquaticus associated E. coli were only detected as long as E. coli were present in the water and sediment. The calculated probability of exceeding drinking water guideline values in non-disinfected systems by intrusion of A. aquaticus was low. Only in scenarios with narrow pipes and low flows, did total coliforms exceed guideline values, implying that the probability of detection by routine monitoring is also low. The study may expand the knowledge base for evaluating incidents with the presence of coliform indicators in drinking water by showing that intruding A. aquaticus are not important carriers of E. coli or other coliform bacteria even when emerging from faecally contaminated waters.

Christensen, Sarah Christine Boesgaard; Arvin, Erik

2013-01-01

95

Asellus aquaticus as a Potential Carrier of Escherichia coli and Other Coliform Bacteria into Drinking Water Distribution Systems  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Individuals of the water louse, Asellus aquaticus, enter drinking water distribution systems in temperate parts of the world, where they establish breeding populations. We analysed populations of surface water A. aquaticus from two ponds for associated faecal indicator bacteria and assessed the risk of A. aquaticus transporting bacteria into distribution systems. Concentrations of up to two E. coli and five total coliforms·mL?1 were measured in the water and 200 E. coli and >240 total coliforms·mL?1 in the sediments of the investigated ponds. Concentrations of A. aquaticus associated bacteria never exceeded three E. coli and six total coliforms·A. aquaticus?1. During exposure to high concentrations of coliforms, concentrations reached 350 coliforms·A. aquaticus?1. A. aquaticus associated E. coli were only detected as long as E. coli were present in the water and sediment. The calculated probability of exceeding drinking water guideline values in non-disinfected systems by intrusion of A. aquaticus was low. Only in scenarios with narrow pipes and low flows, did total coliforms exceed guideline values, implying that the probability of detection by routine monitoring is also low. The study expands the knowledge base for evaluating incidents with presence of coliform indicators in drinking water by showing that intruding A. aquaticus were not important carriers of E. coli or other coliform bacteria even when emerging from faecally contaminated waters.

Hans-Jørgen Albrechtsen

2013-03-01

96

RAPID MONITORING OF INDICATOR COLIFORMS IN DRINKING WATER BY AN ENZYMATIC ASSAY  

OpenAIRE

Coliform group has been extensively used as an indicator of drinking water quality and historically led to the public health protection concept. Multiple tube fermentation technique has been currently used for assessment of the microbial quality of drinking water. This method, however, has limitations. Enzymatic assay constitute an alternative approach for detecting indicator bacteria, namely total coliforms and E.coli in various aquatic environments. This study compared the performance of LM...

Jalali, M. Nikaeen ?. A. Pejhan ?. M.

2009-01-01

97

Total and free thyroid hormone levels in chronic renal failure.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The levels of serum total thyroxine (TT4, triiodothyronine (TT3, free T3, (FT3 free T4 (FT4 and thyrotropin (TSH were measured in 127 clinically euthyroid patients with varying grades of chronic renal failure (CRF; and 97 healthy individuals. They were grouped as: Group I containing 93 patients on conservative management; Group II containing 34 patients on regular dialysis therapy; and Group III (normals. Group I patients showed significant decrease in TT3, TT4 and FT3 levels (p less than 0.001 as compared to Group III, whereas FT4 and TSH values in group I were not significantly altered. TT3, TT4 and FT3 levels reduced as the severity of renal damage increased. Variations in TT3, TT4, FT3, FT4 and TSH levels in Group II patients were similar to those in Group I, except for a decrease in TSH levels (p less than 0.05 as compared to normals. Several thyroid function tests are abnormal in CRF patients, however, finding of normal FT4 and TSH levels would indicate functional euthyroid status.

Mehta H

1991-04-01

98

Survival of coliform bacteria in sewage sludge applied to a forest clearcut and potential movement into groundwater.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anaerobically digested dewatered sludge (10 to 15 cm thick) was applied to a forest clearcut as a fertilizer source in northwest Washington on gravelly glacial outwash soil. This sludge is not microbiologically sterile and may contain pathogenic organisms. Fecal coliform bacterial counts in sludge applied in summer (July) fell from 1.08 X 10(5) to 358/g in 204 days and to 0/g in 267 days. Dieoff appeared more rapid in winter (January)-applied sludge, when colnts fell from 1.2 X 10(5) to 20/g in 162 days. Initial death rates were related to sludge temperature, moisture, pH, physical composition, and microbial competition. Aftergrowth of fecal coliforms occurred in warm summer and fall months, but counts were of similar magnitude to background levels in forest soils, where a maximum count of 54/g was recorded. Total coliform counts in fresh sludge ranged from 1.4 X 10(4) to 1.9 X 10(6)/g. Numbers stabilized at 10(3) to 10(4)/g in spring, fall, and summer, with lower numbers in winter. Both total and fecal bacteria moved from the sludge to the soil beneath, but few penetrated past the first 5 cm. The soil acts as an effective biological filter. Few fecal coliform bacteria were recorded in the groundwater, generally being less than 5/100 ml and mostly 0/100 ml. A maximum count of 52/100 ml was recorded. Groundwater contamination from vertical movement of potential pathogens appears unlikely, but hazards from surface runoff and direct handling in the first year may arise. PMID:10839

Edmonds, R L

1976-10-01

99

Enumeration of coliforms and Escherichia coli in frozen black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon by conventional and rapid methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Conventional (most probable number, MPN) and rapid methods-including Chromocult coliform agar (CCA), Fluorocult(R) LMX broth (LMX), and Petrifilm Escherichia coli count plates (PEC) for enumeration of coliforms and E. coli in frozen black tiger shrimp from Thailand were compared in order to assess the possibility of using one of the rapid methods for routine analysis. Enumeration of coliforms and E. coli from 18 samples of regular frozen black tiger shrimp and 156 samples of frozen black tiger shrimp experimentally contaminated with coliforms or E. coli at concentrations of approximately 10, approximately 10(2), and approximately 10(3) CFU g(-1) revealed that at the level of approximately 10 CFU g(-1), coliform numbers ranked as LMX>CCA>MPN=PEC and E. coli as MPN=LMX=PEC=CCA. At the level of approximately 10(2) CFU g(-1), coliform numbers ranked as LMX>MPN=PEC=CCA and E. coli as MPN=LMX>PEC=CCA. At the level of 10(3) CFU g(-1), coliforms ranked as LMX>MPN=CCA>PEC and E. coli as MPN>LMX>CCA>PEC. Agreements with the conventional MPN method for coliforms were LMX 108%, PEC 87.2%, and CCA 91.2% and agreements for E. coli were LMX 101%, PEC 95.7%, and CCA 96.3%. Sensitivities (%) ranked LMX>MPN>CCA=PEC for coliforms and E. coli, whereas equal specificities (100%) of all methods for coliforms and E. coli were demonstrated. Rankings for the other parameters compared were: convenience, PEC>CCA=LMX>MPN; time to detection, MPN>LMX=PEC=CCA; expense, MPN=PEC>CCA>LMX; labor, MPN>LMX=CCA>PEC; accuracy for coliforms, PEC>CCA>MPN>LMX; and accuracy for E. coli, PEC=CCA>LMX>MPN. PMID:12457585

Suwansonthichai, Sasithorn; Rengpipat, Sirirat

2003-03-15

100

ANALYZING BIOSOLIDS FOR FECAL COLIFORM AND SALMONELLAE  

Science.gov (United States)

Current federal regulations required monitoring for fecal coliforms or Salmonella in biosolids destined for land application. Standard protocols designed to quantify these organisms in water or wastewater were identified and specified in these regulations. However, proto...

101

Comparison of four membrane filter methods for fecal coliform enumeration in tropical waters.  

OpenAIRE

Four membrane filter methods for the enumeration of fecal coliforms were compared for accuracy, specificity, and recovery. Water samples were taken several times from 13 marine, 1 estuarine, and 4 freshwater sites around Puerto Rico, from pristine waters and waters receiving treated and untreated sewage and effluent from a tuna cannery and a rum distillery. Differences of 1 to 3 orders of magnitude in the levels of fecal coliforms were observed in some samples by different recovery techniques...

Santiago-mercado, J.; Hazen, T. C.

1987-01-01

102

To calculation of the hydrostatic level indicators of total water level in the NPP steam generators  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this work consists in derivation of expressions for the actual water level in the zone of positioning level gages by the signals of the differential manometer-level gage and the steam load of the steam generator. The calculation of the hydrostatic level gages of the total water level in the NPPs steam generators with an account of the steam-water mixture density, the hydraulic resistance of the heating pipes package and immersed perforated sheet is considered. The experimental-analytical method for such calculation is proposed

103

Fecal coliform bacteria disappearance rates in a north-central Gulf of Mexico estuary  

Science.gov (United States)

Fecal coliform levels in surface waters often peak after a major rain event. Thereafter, they decrease or disappear from water with time and can concentrate in sediments at high densities. Their dynamics in coastal waters is a function of bacterial loading from inflowing streams and rivers, mass transport, and losses due to death and sedimentation. We used water quality data collected from Mississippi Sound before, during and after 12 rainfall events to assess the effects of rainfall on fecal coliform levels, estimate fecal coliform disappearance rates, and evaluate the influence of season on fecal coliform loss rates. Fecal coliforms typically peaked within 48 h after a rain event, and then decreased precipitously, whereas the Pearl River (a major inflow into the western Mississippi Sound) stage often peaked within 96 h. Fecal coliform disappearance rates per day varied from -0.214 to -0.743 (mean = -0.428). Loss rates were higher in November/December (-0.64 ± 0.06SE) than in January (-0.45 ± 0.03SE) or February/March (-0.35 ± 0.03SE), perhaps due to seasonal differences in water temperature and/or intensities of solar radiation. It took an average of 6 days (range: 0.3-12.9 days) for the geometric mean FC levels to fall to 14 MPN per 100 ml. These data are useful for managing shellfish harvesting areas in Mississippi Sound and other river-influenced estuaries.

Chigbu, P.; Gordon, S.; Strange, T. R.

2005-10-01

104

Contamination of water wells in Khoms city with pathogenic coliform bacteria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

240 Samples from 60 water wells in and around the area of city of Khoms city (in northwestern Libya) were analyzed over four successive seasons for count of faecal Coliform bacteria, of which antibiotic resistance was later assessed. Standard methods were used for analysis of faecla coliform bacteria. Water wells contained varying levels of faecal coliform bacteria ranging from a Most Probable Number of 0 to 1.8 x 103 cfu/100 ml, with zero isolates at autumn and winter seasons, while wells dug at private farms had the highest percentage of contamination, reaching 56.6% of wells in autumn, and also had the highest number of faecal coliform isolates, 1,8x103 cfu/100 ml, in spring and summer seasons, strains of isolated Escherichia coli were most sensitive to chloramphenicol, and most resistant to tetracycline. (author)

105

Coliform Bacteria: The Effect of Sediments on Decay Rates and on Required Detention Times in Stormwater BMPs  

OpenAIRE

Fecal indicator bacteria, such as total coliforms and E. coli, are a challenge to control in urban and rural stormwater runoff. To assess the challenges of improving bacterial water quality standards in surface waters, microcosm experiments were conducted to assess how decay rates of total coliforms and E. coli are affected by sediments and associated organic matter. Samples were collected at a lake embayment to create laboratory microcosms consisting of different combinations of unsterilized...

Usner, Danielle C.; Surbeck, Cristiane Q.; Kinnaman, Alison R.

2012-01-01

106

Teste alternativo para detecção de coliformes em leite humano ordenhado / Alternative test for detection of coliforms bacteria in manually expressed human milk  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivo: comparar um método alternativo com o teste do número mais provável (NMP) para detecção de coliformes totais em leite humano ordenhado. Métodos: 343 amostras de leite humano ordenhado, obtidas a partir de frascos oriundos de coleta domiciliar, recebidas pelo Banco de Leite Humano do Institu [...] to Fernandes Figueira - IFF, por doadoras previamente orientadas, foram encaminhadas ao laboratório de controle de alimentos do IFF e empregadas na comparação de dois métodos: 1 - técnica do número mais provável, conforme descrito no Standard methods for the examination of dairy products; 2 - método alternativo proposto. Resultados: os microorganismos do grupo coliformes foram detectados em 31,2% das amostras analisadas, com populações variando de 3,0 x 100 a 1,1 x 104 coliformes totais N.M.P/ml. A comparação do teste clássico com o alternativo revelou resultados semelhantes quanto à recuperação de microorganismos coliformes em amostras de leite humano ordenhado. O método alternativo detectou a presença de coliformes totais em todas as amostras contaminadas e em quatro amostras não contaminadas, segundo o teste de NMP. Conclusão: o teste alternativo permite constatar a presença ou ausência de coliformes, tornando-se útil no controle de qualidade dos frascos de leite humano ordenhado pasteurizados, manipulados nos bancos de leite humano. Portanto, o teste de NMP pode ser substituído pelo teste alternativo, que poderá ser empregado como rotina nos bancos de leite humano, já que seu custo equivale a 1/7 do tradicional. Abstract in english Objective: To compare an alternative method to the most probable number (MPN) test for the detection of total coliform present in manually expressed human milk. Methods: 343 samples of manually expressed human milk from flasks donated to the Human Milk Bank of Instituto Fernandes Figueira - IFF were [...] sent to the Laboratory of Food Control of IFF. The samples were used for comparing both methods, i.e., the most probable number (MPN) method, as described in the "Standard methods for the examination of dairy products", and the alternative method. Results: Coliforms were detected in 31.2% of the samples analyzed, with populations ranging from 3.0 x 100 to 1.1 x 104 total coliform MPN/mL. The comparison between classical and alternative methods showed similar results regarding the presence of coliform microorganisms in expressed human milk samples. The alternative method detected the presence of total coliform in all contaminated and in four noncontaminated samples according to the MNP method. Conclusions: The alternative test allows the detection of the presence or absence of coliforms and it is useful for the quality control of pasteurized flasks containing manually expressed human milk manipulated at human milk banks. Therefore, we conclude that the alternative test can be used in the routine of human milk banks as a substitute for the MNP method, since its cost is equivalent to 1/7 of the cost of the traditional method.

Franz R., Novak; João Aprígio Guerra de, Almeida.

107

Teste alternativo para detecção de coliformes em leite humano ordenhado Alternative test for detection of coliforms bacteria in manually expressed human milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo: comparar um método alternativo com o teste do número mais provável (NMP para detecção de coliformes totais em leite humano ordenhado. Métodos: 343 amostras de leite humano ordenhado, obtidas a partir de frascos oriundos de coleta domiciliar, recebidas pelo Banco de Leite Humano do Instituto Fernandes Figueira - IFF, por doadoras previamente orientadas, foram encaminhadas ao laboratório de controle de alimentos do IFF e empregadas na comparação de dois métodos: 1 - técnica do número mais provável, conforme descrito no Standard methods for the examination of dairy products; 2 - método alternativo proposto. Resultados: os microorganismos do grupo coliformes foram detectados em 31,2% das amostras analisadas, com populações variando de 3,0 x 100 a 1,1 x 104 coliformes totais N.M.P/ml. A comparação do teste clássico com o alternativo revelou resultados semelhantes quanto à recuperação de microorganismos coliformes em amostras de leite humano ordenhado. O método alternativo detectou a presença de coliformes totais em todas as amostras contaminadas e em quatro amostras não contaminadas, segundo o teste de NMP. Conclusão: o teste alternativo permite constatar a presença ou ausência de coliformes, tornando-se útil no controle de qualidade dos frascos de leite humano ordenhado pasteurizados, manipulados nos bancos de leite humano. Portanto, o teste de NMP pode ser substituído pelo teste alternativo, que poderá ser empregado como rotina nos bancos de leite humano, já que seu custo equivale a 1/7 do tradicional.Objective: To compare an alternative method to the most probable number (MPN test for the detection of total coliform present in manually expressed human milk. Methods: 343 samples of manually expressed human milk from flasks donated to the Human Milk Bank of Instituto Fernandes Figueira - IFF were sent to the Laboratory of Food Control of IFF. The samples were used for comparing both methods, i.e., the most probable number (MPN method, as described in the "Standard methods for the examination of dairy products", and the alternative method. Results: Coliforms were detected in 31.2% of the samples analyzed, with populations ranging from 3.0 x 100 to 1.1 x 104 total coliform MPN/mL. The comparison between classical and alternative methods showed similar results regarding the presence of coliform microorganisms in expressed human milk samples. The alternative method detected the presence of total coliform in all contaminated and in four noncontaminated samples according to the MNP method. Conclusions: The alternative test allows the detection of the presence or absence of coliforms and it is useful for the quality control of pasteurized flasks containing manually expressed human milk manipulated at human milk banks. Therefore, we conclude that the alternative test can be used in the routine of human milk banks as a substitute for the MNP method, since its cost is equivalent to 1/7 of the cost of the traditional method.

Franz R. Novak

2002-01-01

108

Control of coliform bacteria detected from diarrhea associated patients by extracts of Moringa oleifera.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aims of this study were to determine the total population of coliform bacteria in the samples collected from diarrhea associated patients from the local area of Bangladesh and to examine the antibacterial efficacy of leaf extracts of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) against the isolated coliform bacteria. The coliform bacteria detected in these samples by some microbial-biochemical tests such as Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella sp., Enterobacter sp., Klebsiella pneumoniae and Serratia marcescens. The total isolation rate of coliform bacterial species was ranged from 38.01-3.51%. At the concentration of 300 ig/disc, the organic extracts of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Moringa oleifera leaf exhibited a remarkable antibacterial effect against all the tested bacterial pathogens. The zones of inhibition against all the tested bacterial pathogens were found in the range of 8.0 to 23.2 mm, along with their respective minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 62.5-1000 ig/mL. The results obtained in this study suggest that the extracts from Moringa oleifera leaf can be a source of natural antimicrobials with potential applications in pharmaceutical industry to control coliform bacteria. PMID:20677603

Rahman, M M; Rahman, M M; Akhter, S; Jamal, M A H M; Pandeya, D R; Haque, M A; Alam, M F; Rahman, A

2010-03-01

109

Comparación de técnicas para la extracción de bacterias coliformes del sedimento del lago de Xochimilco, México / Comparison of techniques for coliform bacteria extraction from sediment of Xochimilco Lake, Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La necesidad de separar a las bacterias del sedimento para lograr un conteo adecuado ha llevado a probar la eficiencia de distintas técnicas. En este trabajo se comparan técnicas tradicionales: agitación manual, homogenización, ultrasonicación y adición de surfactante. Además, se propone la posibili [...] dad de usar un conjunto de enzimas (pancreatina) y un antibiótico (ampicilina) para la extracción de coliformes del sedimento. Las muestras se obtuvieron del lago de Xochimilco, Ciudad de México. Después de aplicar cada técnica de separación de bacterias se determinó el número más probable de coliformes. La mayoría de las técnicas probadas generaron números similares a la técnica tomada como control (agitación manual). Únicamente se observó una mayor concentración de coliformes totales con el uso de la ampicilina (Mann-Whitney, z = 2,09; p = 0,03). Es posible proponer el uso de la ampicilina como técnica para la extracción de coliformes totales, sin embargo, es necesario considerar la sensibilidad de las bacterias al antibiótico. Abstract in english The need to separate bacteria from sediment in order to appropriately count them has led to test the efficacy of different techniques. In this research, traditional techniques such as manual shaking, homogenization, ultrasonication, and surfactant are compared. Moreover, the possibility of using a s [...] et of enzymes (pancreatine) and an antibiotic (ampicillin) for sediment coliform extraction is proposed. Samples were obtained from Xochimilco Lake in Mexico City. The most probable number of coliform bacteria was determined after applying the appropriate separation procedure. Most of the techniques tested led to numbers similar to those of the control (manual shaking). Only with the use of ampicillin, a greater total coliform concentration was observed (Mann-Whitney, z = 2.09; p = 0.03). It is possible to propose the use of ampicillin as a technique for total coliform extraction; however, it is necessary to consider sensitivity of bacteria to the antibiotic.

Carlos L, Fernández-Rendón; Guadalupe, Barrera-Escorcia.

2013-09-01

110

Comparison of serum leptin, glucose, total cholesterol and total protein levels in fertile and repeat breeder cows  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available In the present study we measured serum glucose, leptin, total cholesterol and total protein concentrations in repeat breeder cows and compared them with fertile cows. For this aim, 20 repeat breeder cows and 20 fertile cows were used as material. Repeat breeder cows were found to have lower levels o [...] f leptin and glucose as compared with fertile ones. No significant differences in total cholesterol and total protein levels were observed between the two groups. No significant correlation of leptin with glucose, total cholesterol and total protein was observed in fertile and repeat breeder cows. Low concentrations of glucose and leptin can have some effects on reproductive problems as repeat breeder and help to understand potential mechanisms impairing fertility in repeat breeder cows.

Saime, Guzel; Meltem, Tanriverdi.

2014-12-01

111

Removal of fecal coliforms in stabilization lagoons  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The treatment of residual waters by means of stabilization lagoons, it has been a method very used due to their low costs of operation and maintenance, as well as to their efficiency in the removal of organic matter and of microorganisms pathogens. The pathogens removal, measure in terms of fecal coliforms, CF, is one of the objectives of the design and of the control of the operation of plants of treatment of residual waters. In this article summary the main results of the experimental evaluation of the removal of fecal coliforms, In a treatment system for stabilization lagoons. In 1987 the plant of treatment of Chia 1 the main components of the treatment system are an entrance structure, composed by a mitigation tank, to which he receives a 24 diameter pipe with a slope of 0.98% that transports the residual water of a sector of the Chia municipality. The average concentration of fecal coliforms is not affected notably by the hour of sampling. The value of the coliforms concentration in the tributary is of 1.0*106 NMP/100 mL, the concentration in the final tributary is bigger than the one demanded for the watering water without restrictions 3.4*104 NMP/100 mL. The removal average in the system is acceptable during the sampling period, keeping in mind that this compound for two lagoons in series, under anaerobic conditions

112

Interaction of fecal coliforms with soil aggregates  

Science.gov (United States)

Land-applied manures may contain various contaminants that cause water pollution and concomitant health problems. Some of these pollutants are bacteria, and fecal coliforms (FC) have been widely used as an indicator of bacterial contamination. Experiments on bacteria attachment to soil are tradition...

113

Coliforms and Escherichia coli in waters  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The study shows the evaluation of a defined substrate method, Colilert 18/Quanty Tray, for the simultaneous detection of Coliforms bacteria and Escherichia coli in water. The results obtained indicate that this method represents a valid alternative to the traditional methods considering sensitivity, specificity, repeatability but also rapidity and simplicity of use

114

40 CFR 141.21 - Coliform sampling.  

Science.gov (United States)

...The State must review the results of...fecal coliforms are present, except that the...set forth in the article, “New medium for...visible, E. coli are present. (ii...visible, E. coli are present. (iii) Minimal...set forth in the article “National...

2010-07-01

115

33 CFR 159.123 - Coliform test: Type I devices.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coliform test: Type I devices. 159.123...Construction, and Testing § 159.123 Coliform test: Type I devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples...

2010-07-01

116

33 CFR 159.126 - Coliform test: Type II devices.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coliform test: Type II devices. 159.126...Construction, and Testing § 159.126 Coliform test: Type II devices. (a) The arithmetic mean of the fecal coliform bacteria in 38 of 40 samples...

2010-07-01

117

40 CFR 141.802 - Coliform sampling plan.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coliform sampling plan. 141.802 Section...Drinking Water Rule § 141.802 Coliform sampling plan. (a) Each air...under this subpart must develop a coliform sampling plan covering each...

2010-07-01

118

50 CFR 600.516 - Total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF).  

Science.gov (United States)

...false Total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF). 600.516 Section 600...MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Foreign Fishing § 600.516 Total allowable level of foreign fishing (TALFF). (a) The TALFF,...

2010-10-01

119

Coliforms and Helminth Eggs Removals by Coagulation-Flocculation Treatment Based on Natural Polymers  

OpenAIRE

Wastewater from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (Mexico) was treated by a coagulation-flocculation using natural gums. The residual water was characterized in terms of organic load, and biological contaminants, i.e. total Coliforms (TC), fecal Coliforms (FC) and helminth eggs (HE). The sample has values of 2.8 × 107 MPN/100 ml, 8.48 × 106 MPN/100 ml and 470 HE/L is regarded to TC, FC and HH, respectively. The HE identified in the wastewaters were Diphyllobothrium lat...

Evelyn Zamudio-Pérez; Neftalí Rojas-Valencia; Isaac Chairez; Luis Gilberto Torres

2013-01-01

120

Investigation of total ? and total ? radioactive level of environment mediator in the Dushu lake campus of Suzhou university  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To get the message of natural radioactive level in the Dushu lake cam- pus of Suzhou university. Methods: Different types of water, soil and food in this region were collected, and then the level of total ? and total ? radioactivity of the sample was investigated applying model BH1216 equipment which measuring was used for low background total ? and ? radioactivity. Results: Total ? in city water, surface water and soil were 0.061 Bq/L, 0.104 Bq/L, 1708 Bq/kg respectively, total ? were 0.183 Bq/L, 0.319 Bq/L, 780 Bq/kg respectively, total ? in chive, potato, water bamboo, pork, fish were 1.83, 2.36, 1.84, 3.40, 3.76 Bq/kg respectively, total ? of Fish bone was at infra-monitoring lower limit, total ? in them were 70.81, 96.71, 60.63, 86.20, 97.51, 73.94 Bq/kg respectively. Conclusion: The results of the investigation display that the total radioactivity in drinking water and food don't exceed limits, in surface water and soil is at normal natural background. It can be concluded that this region has not been polluted by the artificial radioactivity and the environment of human habitation is healthy and safe. (authors)

121

Comparación de los métodos PetrifilmTM coliformes y Número Más Probable (NMP para la determinación de coliformes fecales en muestras de queso blanco Comparison study between the coliform PetrifilmTM and the Most Probable Number methods for the assessment of fecal coliforms in white cheese  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Los coliformes fecales son un grupo importante de microorganismos indicadores de inocuidad en alimentos, constituido principalmente por Escherichia coli, el cual es considerado como indicador de contaminación reciente de origen fecal, por ello la importancia de investigar su presencia y determinar rápidamente el nivel poblacional en alimentos. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo comparar el método tradicional Número Más Probable (NMP para la determinación de coliformes fecales, según Norma Venezolana Covenin Nº 1104-96 con el método de placas rehidratables PetrifilmTM 3M coliformes incubadas en baño de agua circulante (PBA a 45 ± 0,2°C por 24 ± 2 horas y en estufa con aire circulante 44 ± 1°C por 24 ± 2 horas (PES de acuerdo con lo recomendado por la Asociación Francesa de Normalización (AFNOR y la Corporación 3M. Se analizaron un total de 42 muestras de queso blanco aplicando ambas metodologías, dispensando simultáneamente diluciones seriadas de las muestras. Para el análisis estadístico se realizó una correlación de muestras relacionadas (SPS versión 7,5, obteniéndose los siguientes resultados r = 0,952 entre NMP y PES y r = 0,944 entre NMP y PBA; lo que indica una buena correlación positiva entre ambas metodologías en sus diferentes modalidades para la determinación de coliformes fecales en muestras de queso blanco. Se concluye que las placas PetrifilmTM coliformes incubadas a la temperatura óptima de crecimiento de dichos microorganismos es un método alternativo, rápido y confiable para la determinación del nivel de coliformes fecales en queso blanco.Fecal coliform belong to an important group of sanitary quality indicator microorganisms in food, mainly constituted for Escherichia coli, considerated as indicators of recent fecal contamination, that is why it is very important to investigate their presence and to detect their population in food rapidly. The objetive of this study was to compare the Most Probable Number (NPM method for fecal coliform determination, according to Venezuelan standard COVENIN Nº 1104-96, with the coliform PetrifilmTM 3M TM plates, incubated in circulating thermostatically - controlled water bath (PBA at 45 ± 0,2 ° C for 24 ± 2 hours and in a circulating air incubator at 44 ± 1° C for 24 ± 2 hours (PES, according to the recommendation of Association Francoise of Normalization, Paris (AFNOR and 3M TM corporation. Forty-two white cheese samples were analyzed using both methods mentioned above. They were dispensed at the same time with decimal dilutions of the samples. Data generated were subjected to correlation of related samples (SPS 7.5 version and the correlation coefficients (r were obtained; r = 0.952 NMP and PES; r = 0.944 NMP and PBA. It is interesting to observe a good correlation between the methodologies in their different forms for fecal coliform determination in white cheese. Coliform PetrifilmTM plates incubated at the optimal temperature of coliform fecal culture represent a rapid alternative and reliable method for the assessment of fecal coliform population in white cheese.

Miriam C Ortiz L

2006-12-01

122

Comparación de los métodos PetrifilmTM coliformes y Número Más Probable (NMP) para la determinación de coliformes fecales en muestras de queso blanco / Comparison study between the coliform PetrifilmTM and the Most Probable Number methods for the assessment of fecal coliforms in white cheese  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Los coliformes fecales son un grupo importante de microorganismos indicadores de inocuidad en alimentos, constituido principalmente por Escherichia coli, el cual es considerado como indicador de contaminación reciente de origen fecal, por ello la importancia de investigar su presencia y determinar r [...] ápidamente el nivel poblacional en alimentos. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo comparar el método tradicional Número Más Probable (NMP) para la determinación de coliformes fecales, según Norma Venezolana Covenin Nº 1104-96 con el método de placas rehidratables PetrifilmTM 3M coliformes incubadas en baño de agua circulante (PBA) a 45 ± 0,2°C por 24 ± 2 horas y en estufa con aire circulante 44 ± 1°C por 24 ± 2 horas (PES) de acuerdo con lo recomendado por la Asociación Francesa de Normalización (AFNOR) y la Corporación 3M. Se analizaron un total de 42 muestras de queso blanco aplicando ambas metodologías, dispensando simultáneamente diluciones seriadas de las muestras. Para el análisis estadístico se realizó una correlación de muestras relacionadas (SPS versión 7,5), obteniéndose los siguientes resultados r = 0,952 entre NMP y PES y r = 0,944 entre NMP y PBA; lo que indica una buena correlación positiva entre ambas metodologías en sus diferentes modalidades para la determinación de coliformes fecales en muestras de queso blanco. Se concluye que las placas PetrifilmTM coliformes incubadas a la temperatura óptima de crecimiento de dichos microorganismos es un método alternativo, rápido y confiable para la determinación del nivel de coliformes fecales en queso blanco. Abstract in english Fecal coliform belong to an important group of sanitary quality indicator microorganisms in food, mainly constituted for Escherichia coli, considerated as indicators of recent fecal contamination, that is why it is very important to investigate their presence and to detect their population in food r [...] apidly. The objetive of this study was to compare the Most Probable Number (NPM) method for fecal coliform determination, according to Venezuelan standard COVENIN Nº 1104-96, with the coliform PetrifilmTM 3M TM plates, incubated in circulating thermostatically - controlled water bath (PBA) at 45 ± 0,2 ° C for 24 ± 2 hours and in a circulating air incubator at 44 ± 1° C for 24 ± 2 hours (PES), according to the recommendation of Association Francoise of Normalization, Paris (AFNOR) and 3M TM corporation. Forty-two white cheese samples were analyzed using both methods mentioned above. They were dispensed at the same time with decimal dilutions of the samples. Data generated were subjected to correlation of related samples (SPS 7.5 version) and the correlation coefficients (r) were obtained; r = 0.952 NMP and PES; r = 0.944 NMP and PBA. It is interesting to observe a good correlation between the methodologies in their different forms for fecal coliform determination in white cheese. Coliform PetrifilmTM plates incubated at the optimal temperature of coliform fecal culture represent a rapid alternative and reliable method for the assessment of fecal coliform population in white cheese.

Miriam C, Ortiz L; Manuela, Ríos de S.

2006-12-01

123

Níveis periféricos de testosterona total em touros Guzerá / Peripheral levels of total testosterone in Guzerat bulls  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Foram avaliados 24 touros da raça Guzerá, de 24 a 34 meses de idade, com o objetivo de estudar o perfil da concentração sérica de testosterona e sua variação relativa à idade, peso corporal e características andrológicas. A concentração média de testosterona foi de 1,36 ng/mL, com influência do horá [...] rio de coleta nos níveis circulantes. A equação de regressão da concentração sérica de testosterona em função do peso corporal dos animais apresentou efeito linear, sugerindo que, para cada quilograma a mais no peso corporal, ocorre acréscimo de 0,0082 ng/mL nas concentrações de testosterona. A regressão da concentração sérica de testosterona e a circunferência escrotal (CE) também apresentou efeito linear indicando que, para cada centímetro a mais na CE nos touros Guzerá, ocorreu aumento de 0,2319 ng/mL na concentração de testosterona. A regressão da concentração espermática do sêmen em função da concentração sérica de testosterona apresentou efeito linear, os resultados mostram que, para cada 0,1 ng/mL a mais na concentração de testosterona circulante, ocorreu aumento de 9,29 x 10(6) espermatozoides/mL de sêmen. Os resultados indicam que os níveis circulantes de testosterona podem auxiliar na identificação e seleção de touros Guzerá, com maior potencial reprodutivo. Abstract in english Twenty-four Guzerat bulls were evaluated from 24 to 34 months of age, aiming to determinate the bulls serum testosterone concentration profile and their variation according to age, body weight and andrologic traits. The average of testosterone concentration was 1.36 ng/mL, with effect of time at har [...] vest on circulating levels. The regression equation of testosterone according to body weight showed linear effect, suggesting that for each kilogram added to the body weight, an increase of 0.0082 ng/mL on serum testosterone concentrations occurs; and the regression of testosterone according to scrotal circumference (SC) also showed a linear effect. The results show that for each centimeter added to SC in Guzerat bulls, an increase of 0.2319 ng/mL on testosterone concentrations occurs. The regression of sperm concentration according to serum testosterone showed a linear effect, the results show that for each 0.1 ng/mL added to serum testosterone concentration, an increase of 9.29x10(6) spermatozoa/mL of semen occurs. The results indicate that circulating levels of testosterone may help on identification and selection of Guzerat bulls with major reproductive potential.

Juliano Cesar, Dias; Venício José de, Andrade; Lucas Luz, Emerick; Jorge André Matias, Martins; Vicente Ribeiro do, Vale Filho.

2014-03-01

124

Total glutamine synthetase levels in cerebrospinal fluid of Alzheimer's disease patients are unchanged.  

Science.gov (United States)

Decreased cerebral protein and activity levels of glutamine synthetase (GS) have been reported for Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Using a recently established method, we quantified total GS levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from AD patients and control subjects. Furthermore, we investigated if total GS levels in CSF could differentiate AD from frontotemperal dementia and dementia with Lewy bodies patients. As we found no significantly altered total GS levels in any of the patient groups compared with control subjects, we conclude that levels of total GS in CSF have no diagnostic value for AD, dementia with Lewy bodies, or frontotemperal dementia. PMID:25577411

Timmer, Nienke M; Herbert, Megan K; Claassen, Jurgen A H R; Kuiperij, H Bea; Verbeek, Marcel M

2015-03-01

125

Total coliform rule: Implementation manual (including Appendix D). Final report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to EPA regions and the States on implementation of the rule. More specifically, the document addresses violation determination, FRDS reporting, and State Primacy Revision Application. The first section presents time lines showing deadlines for submission of Primacy Revision applications. The second section addresses violation determination and associated reporting requirements. The third section covers State Special Primacy Requirements. This section breaks the requirements down into three categories of relative importance. States may find this categorization useful in preparing their applications for primacy, because the EPA regions may utilize the categories in evaluating the applications

126

Characterization of the coliform and enteric bacilli in the environment of calves with colibacillosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the first part of the present study the coliform and enteric bacilli in the environment of calves with colibacillosis were examined. The occurrence, number, and pathogenic properties of Escherichia coli in barnyard soils were obtained from six cattle ranches. The O and K serogroups of E. coli isolates obtained from the feces of calves with colibacillosis born at these cattle ranches were determined, and their serotypes were compared with the E. coli O and K serotypes found in soils. The results showed a reservoir of potentially pathogenic E. coli in barnyard soils contaminated with bovine feces. For the second part of this study, 6 healthy calves and 51 calves with colibacillosis were studied. The numbers of total aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, total streptococci, fecal streptococci, total coliforms, and fecal coliforms in the feces of calves were determined. In addition, coliform and enteric bacilli from the feces of both healthy and diseased calves were identified, and their indole, methyl red, Voges-Proskauer, citrate (IMViC) types were described. In parallel, the IMViC types of coliform and enteric bacilli isolated from barnyard soils previously contaminated with bovine feces were compared with those isolated from uncontaminated soils. All fecal specimens were also examined for the presence of rotavirus. No significant effect on the numbers of the bacterial types was found. The results suggest that the predominant IMViC types found in the feces of calves with colibacillosis originate from the soil. From this study it is apparent that the occurrence, number, and survival of E. coli in barnyard soils is related to ranch husbandry and sanitary practices. PMID:3890744

Plews, P I; Bromel, M C; Schipper, I A

1985-04-01

127

Efficacy of chromocult coliform agar for coliform and Escherichia coil detection in foods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chromocult coliform agar (CCA) was compared with Petrifilm Escherichia coli count plate (PEC) for identifying coliforms and E. coli in a variety of meat products. Products examined included 45 raw beef samples, 12 sausage emulsion samples, 11 samples of meat-based ready-to-eat appetizers, and 8 pork trimming samples. Coliforms from CCA and PEC were confirmed by gassing in brilliant green lactose broth plus a positive reaction on purple broth agar plus lactose after incubation at 35 degrees C for 48 h. Lauryl sulfate tryptose plus methylumbelliferyl-beta-glucuronide and tryptophan broth were used to confirm E. coli from CCA and PEC with 48-h incubations at 35 and 42.5 degrees C, respectively. API 20E test strips were inoculated for final confirmation. The overall respective confirmation percentages (CFU/g) for the PEC and the CCA methods were 93.1 and 93.7% for coliforms and 99.8 and 98.1% for E. coli, although the CCA method yielded significantly (P meat products. PMID:10772222

Turner, K M; Restaino, L; Frampton, E W

2000-04-01

128

Coliform accumulation in Amphibalanus amphitrite (Darwin, 1854) (Cirripedia) and its use as an organic pollution bioindicator in the estuarine area of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil / Acumulação de coliformes em Amphibalanus amphitrite (Darwin, 1854) (Cirripedia) e seu uso como bioindicador de poluição orgânica na área estuarina do Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Amostras de água e cirrípedes Amphibalanus amphitrite foram coletados em Recife, Brasil, para avaliar se estes acumulam coliformes totais (CT) e termo-tolerantes (TTC) relacionados à poluição por esgoto doméstico. Foram utilizados os valores de Números Mais Prováveis (NMP) e os procedimentos padrões [...] para exame de bivalves. Comparativamente às amostras de água, os valores mais altos de coliformes foram dos cirrípedes, com valores de TC variando de 2,4 × 10(6) NMP.g-1, e TTC variando de > 2,4 × 10³ a 2,9 × 10(5) NMP.g-1. Os cirrípedes acumularam TC Ewingella americana e TTC Escherichia coli, Enterobacter gergoviae, Enterobacter aerogenes e Enterobacter sakazakii. Os resultados proveram uma indicação de que há contaminação orgânica nas localidades de amostras e que esta espécie pode ser um bioindicador bom de poluição orgânica. Abstract in english Samples of water and barnacles Amphibalanus amphitrite were collected from Recife, Brazil, to assess if it accumulates total (TC) and thermotolerant coliforms (TTC) related with sewage pollution. The Most Probable Number (MPN) values and the standard procedures for examination of shellfish were used [...] . Comparatively with the water samples, the highest coliform values came from the barnacles, with TC values ranging from 2.4 × 10(6) MPN.g-1, and TTC ranging from > 2.4 × 10³ to 2.9 × 10(5) MPN.g-1. Barnacles accumulate the TC Ewingella americana, and the TTC Escherichia coli, Enterobacter gergoviae, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Enterobacter sakazakii. The results provided an indication of the level of organic contamination at the sampling locations and that this species could be a good organic pollution bioindicator.

CMR, Farrapeira; ES, Mendes; J., Dourado; J, Guimarães.

2010-05-01

129

EFFECT OF NONCOLIFORMS ON COLIFORM DETECTION IN POTABLE GROUNDWATER: IMPROVED RECOVERY WITH AN ANAEROBIC MEMBRANE FILTER TECHNIQUE  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 529 well and distribution potable water samples were analyzed for total coliforms by the most-probable-number and membrane filter (MF) techniques. Standard plate count bacteria and MF noncoliform bacteria were also enumerated. This anaerobic modification of the standar...

130

Total sialic acid, total protein and total sugar levels in serum and saliva of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients: A case control study  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Detection of cancer at an early stage is of utmost importance to decrease the morbidity and mortality of the disease. Apart from the conventional biopsy, non-invasive methods like analysis of serum and saliva may provide cost-effective approach for screening a large population. Tumor markers are a major part of secondary prevention and thus, the detection of malignancies. The aim of this study was to evaluate total sialic acid (TSA), total protein and total sugar (TS) in serum and saliva of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and controls to assess their role as a diagnostic marker. Materials and Methods: Unstimulated whole saliva and sera were collected from 40 squamous cell carcinoma patients and 20 controls. Serum and salivary TSA, total protein and TS estimation was carried out. This was correlated with clinical stages and histopathological grades of OSCC. The data obtained was analyzed statistically using Chi-square test, ANOVA and Student's t-test with SPSS statistical software. Results: A highly significant rise in the salivary sialic acid, serum sialic acid and serum protein was noted in OSCC subjects compared to controls. Salivary protein, serum and salivary sugar did not show any significance. Furthermore, serum and salivary sialic acid levels were found to be significantly increased with increasing level of histopathological grading. Conclusion: The present study showed a significant increase in serum sialic acid, salivary sialic acid and serum protein from control to OSCC and suggests that these markers may be reliable in diagnosis and predicting prognosis. PMID:24019802

Dhakar, Nidhi; Astekar, Madhusudan; Jain, Mahesh; Saawarn, Swati; Saawarn, Nisheeth

2013-01-01

131

CORRELATION OF COLIFORM GROWTH RESPONSE WITH OTHER WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS  

Science.gov (United States)

A variety of water types collected from different geographical areas at different stages of water treatment were anlayzed for their ability to support the growth of coliform bacteria. Based on this coliform bioassay, the nutrient status of the water did not correlate with any of...

132

40 CFR 141.63 - Maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for microbiological contaminants.  

Science.gov (United States)

... Maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for microbiological...health. (c) A public water system must determine...the maximum contaminant level for total coliforms in...maintenance of positive water pressure in all parts...developed and implemented under section 1428 of the...

2010-07-01

133

Total and antigen-specific Ige levels in umbilical cord blood  

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Full Text Available Abstract The present study was conducted to learn whether the perinatal and environmental factors could influence the total and antigen-specific IgE levels in umbilical cord blood. Retrospective data were obtained from 173 mother-infant pairs. Total and specific (for children's food, wheat/grass and house dust mite-HDM cord blood IgE levels were determined using the immunoassay test. The total cord blood IgE was between 0.0-23.08 IU/ml (mean 0.55 ± 2.07 IU/ml; median 0.16 IU/ml. Total IgE levels were significantly higher in boys compared with girls (OR = 2.2; P = 0.007, and in newborns with complicated pregnancy (OR = 2.7; P = 0.003. A greater number of siblings correlated with increases in the total cord blood IgE (P

Sybilski AJ

2009-12-01

134

Colonization and Disinfection of Biofilms Hosting Coliform-Colonized Carbon Fines  

OpenAIRE

The documented release of carbon fines from granular activated carbon filters is a concern for drinking water utilities, since these particles may carry coliform and even pathogenic bacteria through the disinfection barrier. Such a breakthrough could have an impact on distribution system biofilms. Using total cell counts, specific monoclonal antibody staining, and computerized image analysis, we monitored the colonization of introduced Klebsiella pneumoniae associated with carbon fines in mix...

Morin, P.; Camper, A.; Jones, W.; Gatel, D.; Goldman, J. C.

1996-01-01

135

Total serum IgE levels in soil-transmitted helminth infected children with atopy symptoms  

OpenAIRE

Background High total serum immunoglobulin E(IgE) levels and eosinophilia are markers for atopy, but other factors may also play a key role in affecting atopy, such as intestinal parasitic infection. Helminthiasis has been associated with a reduced risk of atopy and asthma symptoms in areas with high prevalence of parasitic infections. Objective To assess for associations between total serum IgE level and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) infection, as well as between STH infection and...

Hendri Wijaya; Lily Irsa; Supriatmo; Sjabaroeddin Loebis; Rita Evalina

2014-01-01

136

Comparison between Colifast® Milk and the standard method for the detection of coliforms in pasteurised milk  

OpenAIRE

Colifast® Milk is a rapid screening test for the detection of total coliforms in milk based upon the measurement of change in fluorescence during an incubation period, due to the targeted $\\beta$-D-galactosidase activity on 4-methyl-umbelliferone-$\\beta$-D-galactoside contained in a selective growth medium. In this work, 800 samples of homogenised pasteurised milk, with different fat content (1.5 and 3.5%) and contaminated with various concentrations of coliforms (from 0.03 to $>$ 10000 CFU...

Foschino, Roberto; Colombo, Stefano; Crepaldi, Valeria; Baldi, Lucia

2003-01-01

137

Association of serum total bilirubin levels with diastolic dysfunction in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is one of the main characteristics of heart failure patients with a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction. As bilirubin is regarded as an important endogenous antioxidant molecule, serum total bilirubin levels were compared between heart fail [...] ure patients with a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction and normal controls in this study. We recruited 327 heart failure patients with a preserved left ventricular ejection fraction and 200 healthy controls. Patients were divided into 4 subgroups by their comprehensive echocardiographic manifestations, 1-mild, 2-moderate, 3-severe (reversible restrictive), 4-severe (fixed restrictive). Total bilirubin levels were compared using stepwise multiple regressions adjusted for selected factors. RESULTS: After adjusting for gender, age, smoking, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and triglyceride, serum total bilirubin levels were significantly lower in the heart failure group compared with the control group (P

Huan, Zheng; Ye, Li; Nanzi, Xie.

138

A follow up on the distribution of coliform bacteria along the Jordanian coastline of the gulf of Aq aba  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A survey of the occurrence of enteric indicator organisms (e. g. total and fecal coliform) and enteric pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella sp.) was undertaken at ten sites, along the northern coast of the Gulf of Aq aba (Jordan)m during the period October 1994 to September 1995. Both total coliforms and Escherichia coli counts were within the accepted international standards for marine bathing water. the mean value per 100 ml seawater ranged between 18 to 70(n=12 months) for total coliforms, 1 to 27 (n=8 mon thus) for Escherichia coli and 1 to 9 (n = 8 months) for Salmonella species. The analysis of va rance for total coliforms revealed a highly significant temporal variations (P<0.001), but no significant spatial differences were found .Whereas, Salmonella sp. counts showed significant spatial variations (P<0.001), with the Border site being significantly different from the other sites except the Palace site. These results suggest that the hygienic water quality at the Jordanian side of the Gulf of Aq aba, is good all over the year although the sewage discharge from Ei lat might cause a health hazard as to be the major source of enteric pathogenic bacteria. (authors). 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

139

Determination of fecal contamination origin in reclaimed water open-air ponds using biochemical fingerprinting of enterococci and fecal coliforms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Low levels of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) were recently detected in two reclaimed water open-air ponds used to irrigate a golf course located in Northeastern Spain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a biochemical fingerprinting method to track the origin of fecal contamination in water with low FIB levels, as in the aforementioned ponds. We also aimed to determine whether FIB presence was due to regrowth of the reclaimed water populations or to a contribution of fecal matter whose source was in the golf facility. Three hundred and fifty enterococcal strains and 308 fecal coliform strains were isolated from the ponds and reclamation plant, and they were biochemically phenotyped. In addition, the inactivation of several microbial fecal pollution indicators (fecal coliforms, total bifidobacteria, sorbitol-fermenting bifidobacteria, somatic bacteriophages, and bacteriophages infecting Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron) was studied using a mesocosm in situ in order to obtain information about their decay rate. Although FIB concentration was low, the biochemical fingerprinting provided evidence that the origin of the fecal contamination in the ponds was not related to the reclaimed water. Biochemical fingerprinting thus proved to be a successful approach, since other microbial source-tracking methods perform poorly when dealing with low fecal load matrices. Furthermore, the mesocosm assays indicated that none of the microbial fecal indicators was able to regrow in the ponds. Finally, the study highlights the fact that reclaimed water may be recontaminated in open-air reservoirs, and therefore, its microbial quality should be monitored throughout its use. PMID:23054766

Casanovas-Massana, Arnau; Blanch, Anicet R

2013-05-01

140

The occurrence of coliform bacteria in the cave waters of Slovak Karst, Slovakia.  

Science.gov (United States)

The diversity and abundance of coliform bacteria (taxonomically enterobacterias), an important quality water indicator, were determined for four representative caves in Slovak Karst: Domica Cave, Gombasecká Cave, Milada Cave and Krásnohorská Cave. Three hundred and fifty-two enterobacterial isolates were successfully identified by biochemical testing (commercial ENTEROtest 24) and selected isolates confirmed by molecular techniques (PCR, 16S rDNA sequence analysis). A total of 39 enterobacterial species were isolated from cave waters, with predominance of Escherichia coli, Serratia spp. and Enterobacter spp. PCR amplification of lacZ gene is not specific enough to provide a reliable detection of coliform bacteria isolated from the environment. Sequence analysis of 16S rDNA confirmed that all of the selected isolates belong to the family Enterobacteriaceae. In general, physical and chemical parameters of cave waters in Slovak Karst corresponded to national drinking water quality standards. PMID:25417094

Seman, Milan; Gaálová, Barbora; Cíchová, Marianna; Prokšová, Miloslava; Haviarová, Dagmar; F?aková, Renáta

2014-11-23

141

A low level of serum total testosterone is independently associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The association between low serum testosterone levels, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and metabolic syndrome is now well known. However, the relationship between hepatic steatosis and serum testosterone levels has not been extensively studied. Our aim was to investigate the association of serum total testosterone levels with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), adjusting for the influence of VAT and insulin resistance. Methods This study is a retrospective observation...

Kim Sunmi; Kwon Hyuktae; Park Jin-Ho; Cho Belong; Kim Donghee; Oh Seung-Won; Lee Cheol; Choi Ho-Chun

2012-01-01

142

A comparison of total antioxidant levels in breast-fed and formula-fed infants  

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Full Text Available Aim: We aimed to evaluate the effect of breast milk and formula on the total antioxidant capacity of the plasma. Material and Method: The oxidative stress index was calculated by measuring plasma total antioxidant level and total oxidant level in 35 infants between the ages of 3 and 6 months. The study approved by the ethics committe (14.10.2009-10/7.Results: No significant differences were observed between the two groups in respect of age, gender, plasma total antioxidant status and total oxidant status. Plasma total antioxidant levels were higher in the breast-fed group than the formula-fed group (p=0.004. Plasma total antioxidant status was lower in the breast-fed group compared to the formula-fed infants (p=0.019. The oxidative stress index values of the breast-fed group were lower than formula-fed infants (p=0.006. Conclusions: Breast milk provides better antioxidant defence than does formula in infants before six months of age. (Turk Arch Ped 2012; 47: 95-8

Abdullah Alp?nar

2012-06-01

143

Changing of Total Protein and Plasma Cholinesterase Levels Depending on Age in Human  

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Full Text Available In this study, differences of acetylcholinesterase and total protein levels which plays very important role in nervous system and some of the related diseases like Alzhemier, Down sendrome, Parkinson in the different age groups in human were investigated. Cholinesterase and total protein levels of 200 healthy people`s blood plasma that are between 7-60 years old were investigated by using spectrophotometric techniques. There was no corelation between plasma cholinesterase activity and age groups. Total ?protein levels that are 7-12 years old group shows differences than the other groups. Disfunction of food uptake and situation of social cultural cause decreasing the total blood protein in 7-12 years old groups. Meanwhile, this difference in total protein for this group is not enough to predict for some of the disease which to become fact in future. There was no any study on differences of blood plasma acetylcholinesterase and total protein levels in the different age groups in human for Turkey. Because of this specifity this study has original quality and necessary for investigators which study in this area.

Nuray Unat

2005-01-01

144

Differential effects of olanzapine and clozapine on plasma levels of adipocytokines and total ghrelin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) have been associated with an increased liability for weight gain and metabolic side effects. Among SGAs, clozapine and olanzapine had great liability to induce weight gain and metabolic adverse reactions. Leptin, adiponectin, and total ghrelin play important roles in energy homeostasis and are suggested to be biomarkers of metabolic disturbances. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the differential effects of antipsychotics (olanzapine and clozapine) on the levels of adipocytokines (leptin and adiponectin) and total ghrelin. Three hundred and thirty-three patients with schizophrenia under clozapine or olanzapine monotherapy were recruited. Control participants were recruited from a healthy community population based on a health investigation (N=119). Fasting blood samples for glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, leptin, adiponectin, and total ghrelin were analyzed. There were significant differences in the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose between these three groups. Post hoc comparisons showed that the olanzapine group had the highest levels of cholesterol and triglycerides. The levels of leptin, adiponectin, and total ghrelin were also significantly different between the three groups after controlling age and body mass index (BMI). Post hoc comparisons showed that the olanzapine group had the lowest levels of adiponectin and total ghrelin. The present study found that the uses of olanzapine and clozapine were associated with changes in adipocytokines and total ghrelin, even after adjusting potential confounding factors. Olanzapine had greater influences on adiponectin and total ghrelin than clozapine. The changes in adipocytokines and total ghrelin were a direct effect of antipsychotics on hormonal pathways of energy homeostasis, rather than the result of weight gain. PMID:25496829

Lu, Mong-Liang; Wang, Tsu-Nai; Lin, Tsang-Yaw; Shao, Wen-Chuan; Chang, Sheng-Huang; Chou, Jen-Yu; Ho, Yi-Feng; Liao, Yin-To; Chen, Vincent Chin-Hung

2015-04-01

145

Antibiotic resistance among different species of fecal coliforms isolated from water samples.  

OpenAIRE

The distribution of resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, sulfonamides, tetracycline, and streptomycin among fecal coliforms in sewage, surface waters, and sea water was investigated. The incidence of resistant strains among isolates varied significantly among the water samples, without obvious connection with the water source or the level of pollution. The average frequency of multiple resistance was not always high in the same samples in which the overall resistance was high. The speci...

Niemi, M.; Sibakov, M.; Niemela, S.

1983-01-01

146

Analytical methods for the recovery of coliforms in water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Three selective media currently used for coliforms enumeration from water samples, accomplished by using a membrane filtration technique, were evaluated and compared. Natural water samples and artificially contaminated laboratory samples were analysed

147

The measurement of total serum IgE levels in rats  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A direct solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the measurement of total serum IgE in the rat has been developed. The assay is very sensitive with a lower limit of detection of 5 ng/ml. The intra and interassay reproducibility proves to be very acceptable and the specificity is demonstrated by looking at the interference by other immunoglobulins. Preliminary results on total serum IgE levels are given

148

Fecal coliforms on environmental surfaces in two day care centers.  

OpenAIRE

A survey of environmental surfaces in two Atlanta area day care centers was conducted to determine the prevalence of fecal coliform bacteria, considered a marker for the presence of fecal contamination which might contain pathogenic parasites, bacteria, or viruses. Fecal coliforms were found in 17 (4.3%) of 398 representative samples of building surfaces, furniture, and other objects. These surfaces may be involved in the chain of transmission of enteric diseases among children. Therefore, di...

Weniger, B. G.; Ruttenber, A. J.; Goodman, R. A.; Juranek, D. D.; Wahlquist, S. P.; Smith, J. D.

1983-01-01

149

Normal levels of total body sodium and chlorine by neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In vivo neutron activation analysis was used to measure total body sodium and chlorine in 18 male and 18 female normal adults. Corrections for body size were developed. Normalisation factors were derived which enable the prediction of the normal levels of sodium and chlorine in a subject. The coefficient of variation of normalised sodium was 5.9% in men and 6.9% in women, and of normalised chlorine 9.3% in men and 5.5% in women. In the range examined (40-70 years) no significant age dependence was observed for either element. Total body sodium was correlated with total body chlorine and total body calcium. Sodium excess, defined as the amount of body sodium in excess of that associated with chlorine, also correlated well with total body calcium. In females there was a mean annual loss of sodium excess of 1.2% after the menopause, similar to the loss of calcium. (author)

150

Total serum IgE levels in soil-transmitted helminth infected children with atopy symptoms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background High total serum immunoglobulin E(IgE levels and eosinophilia are markers for atopy, but other factors may also play a key role in affecting atopy, such as intestinal parasitic infection. Helminthiasis has been associated with a reduced risk of atopy and asthma symptoms in areas with high prevalence of parasitic infections. Objective To assess for associations between total serum IgE level and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH infection, as well as between STH infection and allergy symptoms. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study on 84 consecutively-enrolled children, aged 7–13 years, in the Secanggang Subdistrict, Langkat District, North Sumatera Province. Subjects were enrolled into one of two groups, with or without STH infection. Total serum IgE measurements and stool STH examinations were performed in all subjects. Data on atopy or allergy symptoms were obtained by parental interview. Results The 42 subjects with STH infection had significantly higher mean total serum Ig E levels than the 42 subjects without infection, 1,131.26 IU/mL and 744.76 IU/mL, respectively (P=0.029. We also found significant positive associations between STH infection and asthma symptoms (P=0.049, as well as eczema symptoms (P=0.044. Conclusion Mean total serum IgE level is higher in STH-infected subjects than in those without infection. In addition, STH infection is positively associated with asthma and eczema symptoms.

Hendri Wijaya

2014-05-01

151

The total width of the 9.17 MeV level in 14N  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A simple method for the determination of the total width of the 9.17 MeV level in 14N is described. The method is based on the use of a resonant detector which contains nitrogen in its active volume. With the help of the resonant detector the ratio of ??0=0/?T was found to be 0.052±0.004. This result together with the data from a conventional resonant absorption experiment yields for the total width of the level a value of 122±8 eV. (orig.)

152

The association of total sialic acid and malondialdehyde levels with metabolic and anthropometric variables in obesity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Serum sialic acid levels are abnormally high in pathological states that exhibit tissue destruction, tissue proliferation or inflammation. We measured total serum sialic acid levels in 139 women and 125 men. Subjects were divided into quartiles according to their body mass index (BMI): Q1 (18-24.9 kg/m(2)), Q2 (25-29.9 kg/m(2)), Q3 (30-39.9 kg/m(2)) and Q4 (> 40 kg/m(2)). The patients in Q1 constituted the control group. Serum sialic acid levels of subjects in Q2, Q3 and Q4 were significantly higher than those in Q1. Higher BMI quartiles also were associated with higher levels of serum glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, malondialdehyde levels, waist circumference, blood pressure and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance in both women and men. Lower BMI quartiles were associated with higher levels of serum HDL-cholesterol levels in both women and men. We found positive associations among serum sialic acid levels, BMI and oxidative stress. Serum sialic acid also is related to some conventional cardiovascular risk factors including elevated lipid profile, increased blood pressure, increased serum glucose and insulin levels, and insulin resistance in obese people. PMID:25151992

Yerlikaya, F H; Toker, A; Çiçekler, H; Ar?ba?, A

2015-01-01

153

The Relationship Between Depressive Status and Total Cholesterol Levels in a Bomb Plant Workers  

OpenAIRE

Aim: There is significant amount of evidence linking low cholesterol levels to aggressive behaviors, depression and suicide. Material and Methods: The objective of this study was to determine whether a correlation exists between serum total cholesterol levels and depressive state in 77 male workers labouring in a bomb plant and in 80 male office personnel. Depressive statuses of the subjects were determined by using Beck Depression Rating Scale and Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale. Results: ...

Hakan Boyunaga; Levent Kenar; Hatice Keles; Mahir Gulec; Omer Oguzturk

2010-01-01

154

A study of trends in dissolved oxygen and fecal coliform bacteria at NASQAN stations  

Science.gov (United States)

Most stations in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Stream Quality Accounting Network show no significant trend in either dissolved oxygen concentration or fecal coliform bacteria population for the period October 1974. through October 1981. Of the stations which do show trends, however, most show improved water quality: thirty-one of a total of 276 stations show rising dissolved oxygen concentrations, while only 17 show decreasing concentrations. Decreases in fecal coliform populations have occurred at 21 stations while increases have occurred at only 12 stations. Approximately half of the stations showing improving trends in dissolved oxygen and fecal coliform bacteria are in the Missouri-Mississippi-Ohio River system. Decreases in dissolved oxygen have occurred at scattered locations in the Western and South-Central States. Rising bacterial populations occur most frequently in the Eastern and Central States Trends in dissolved oxygen concentration resulting from temperature changes occurring during the study period can be separated from trends caused by chemical or biological processes by analyzing computed values of dissolved oxygen deficit. About half of the observed trends in dissolved oxygen appear to be the result of changes in water temperature.

Smith, Richard A.; Alexander, Richard B.

1982-01-01

155

Elimination of coliforms and Salmonella spp. in sheep meat by gamma irradiation treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed at evaluating the bacteriological effects of the treatment of sheep meat contaminated with total coliforms, coliforms at 45 °C and Salmonella spp. by using irradiation at doses of 3 kGy and 5 kGy. Thirty sheep meat samples were collected from animals located in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, and then grouped in three lots including 10 samples: non-irradiated (control); irradiated with 3 kGy; and irradiated with 5 kGy. Exposure to gamma radiation in a 137Cs source-driven irradiating facility was perfomed at the Nuclear Defense Section of the Brazilian Army Technological Center (CTEx) in Rio de Janeiro. The samples were kept under freezing temperature (?18 °C) until the analyses, which occurred in two and four months after irradiation. The results were interpreted by comparison with the standards of the current legislation and demonstrated that non-irradiated samples were outside the parameters established by law for all groups of bacteria studied. Gamma irradiation was effective in inactivating those microorganisms at both doses tested and the optimal dose was achieved at 3 kGy. The results have shown not only the need for sanitary conditions improvements in slaughter and processing of sheep meat but also the irradiation effectiveness to eliminate coliform bacteria and Salmonella spp. PMID:24688504

Henriques, Luciana Salles Vasconcelos; da Costa Henry, Fábio; Barbosa, João Batista; Ladeira, Silvania Alves; de Faria Pereira, Silvia Menezes; da Silva Antonio, Isabela Maria; Teixeira, Gina Nunes; Martins, Meire Lelis Leal; de Carvalho Vital, Helio; dos Prazeres Rodrigues, Dália; dos Reis, Eliane Moura Falavina

2013-01-01

156

Elimination of coliforms and Salmonella spp. in sheep meat by gamma irradiation treatment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the bacteriological effects of the treatment of sheep meat contaminated with total coliforms, coliforms at 45 °C and Salmonella spp. by using irradiation at doses of 3 kGy and 5 kGy. Thirty sheep meat samples were collected from animals located in Rio de Janeiro State, [...] Brazil, and then grouped in three lots including 10 samples: non-irradiated (control); irradiated with 3 kGy; and irradiated with 5 kGy. Exposure to gamma radiation in a 137Cs source-driven irradiating facility was perfomed at the Nuclear Defense Section of the Brazilian Army Technological Center (CTEx) in Rio de Janeiro. The samples were kept under freezing temperature (-18 °C) until the analyses, which occurred in two and four months after irradiation. The results were interpreted by comparison with the standards of the current legislation and demonstrated that non-irradiated samples were outside the parameters established by law for all groups of bacteria studied. Gamma irradiation was effective in inactivating those microorganisms at both doses tested and the optimal dose was achieved at 3 kGy. The results have shown not only the need for sanitary conditions improvements in slaughter and processing of sheep meat but also the irradiation effectiveness to eliminate coliform bacteria and Salmonella spp.

Luciana Salles Vasconcelos, Henriques; Fábio da Costa, Henry; João Batista, Barbosa; Silvania Alves, Ladeira; Silvia Menezes de Faria, Pereira; Isabela Maria da Silva, Antonio; Gina Nunes, Teixeira; Meire Lelis Leal, Martins; Helio de Carvalho, Vital; Dália dos Prazeres, Rodrigues; Eliane Moura Falavina dos, Reis.

1147-11-01

157

Investigação teórica do processo de redução de coliformes em leitos cultivados / Theoretical investigation of coliform reduction in constructed wetland  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este artigo mostra a continuidade da pesquisa sugerida por Amendola et al. (2003), para o caso em que se quer buscar maior precisão na investigação teórica do processo de redução de poluentes, em função do meio suporte usado em sistemas de leitos cultivados. Esta investigação se dá via modelagem mat [...] emática e simulação numérica do processo descrito por uma equação diferencial parcial de difusão-advecção, que envolve constantes que caracterizam o meio suporte (Moreno-Grau, 1996) e deve ser associada a condições iniciais e de contorno, estabelecidas de acordo com um procedimento experimental previamente realizado. Para resolução da equação implementa-se um algoritmo baseado no esquema implícito do método de diferenças finitas que, executado no MATLAB 6.1, gera valores da concentração dos poluentes que dependem dos valores das referidas constantes. Os resultados obtidos da simulação são comparados com valores de referência para a determinação do valor do coeficiente de dispersão longitudinal que, por sua vez, gera o menor resíduo para cada tipo de meio suporte do leito cultivado. Os resultados obtidos levam à conclusão de que o leito cultivado com brita e pneu picado é mais eficiente que aquele só com brita na remoção de coliformes fecais e totais. Abstract in english This paper shows the continuity of the research, as suggested by Amendola et al. (2003), when looking for better accuracy in the theoretical investigation of the pollutant reduction as a function of the support bed used in constructed wetland. This investigation is performed through the mathematical [...] modeling and numerical simulation of the process, which is described by an advection-diffusion differential equation. This equation depends on certain constants which characterize the support bed (Moreno-Grau, 1996), and must be associated to the initial and boundary conditions established according to the experimental procedure. To solve the equation an algorithm based on the implicit scheme of the finite difference method was implemented which, when ran with MATLAB 6.1, generated values for the pollutant concentration which depend on the mentioned constants. The results obtained with the simulation were compared with the reference values to determine the longitudinal dispersion coefficient value which leads to the least residual value for each kind of support bed. The obtained results lead to the conclusion that the constructed wetland with crushed stone and chopped tires is better than the one with crushed stone alone to reduce fecal and total coliforms.

Mariângela, Amendola; Anderson L., Souza.

2007-12-01

158

Hypogonadism and subnormal total testosterone levels in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To determine the frequency of testosterone deficiency syndrome (TDS) in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Study Design: A cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: The Gbagada General Hospital, Gbagada Lagos, Nigeria, from December 2009 to May 2010. Methodology: A total of 203 men with type 2 DM aged 30-86 years were evaluated for TDS by a combination of positive ADAM (androgen deficiency in the ageing male) scores and subnormal total testosterone levels. Mild testosterone deficiency referred to total testosterone (TT) levels of 8-12 nmol/L with symptoms of hypogonadism and severe testosterone deficiency referred to TT levels < 8 nmol/L with or without hypogonadal symptoms. Results: Mild and severe TDS were present in 18.3% and 17% respectively of the study subjects. Commonly occurring clinical parameters of the TDS were erectile dysfunction and loss of libido, which were documented in 63% and 60% respectively in the study subjects. The majority of clinical features of the TDS were comparable in men with and without the TDS. Conclusion: About a third of men with type 2 DM had the TDS. The majority of the symptoms of hypogonadism are largely non-specific and their occurrence is comparable in men with and without low testosterone levels; thus, underscoring the need to have testosterone levels determined in men presenting with such symptoms. (author)

159

The role of bacterial pathogens in coliform mastitis in sows.  

Science.gov (United States)

Even in modern piglet production, mastitis and lactation failure in sows represent a considerable health problem post partum, affecting in its consequences both the sow and her piglets. Known as a multifactorial syndrome, Mastitis-Metritis-Agalactia (MMA) has been topic of several studies investigating possible influencing factors at farm and sow level in the recent past. However, there is a lack of current investigations on the causative pathogens, especially with advanced laboratory methods and with an adequate control group of healthy animals. Therefore, 1026 milk samples from coliform mastitis (CM)-affected, and 972 samples from healthy sows on six farms were examined bacteriologically in this study. The spectrum of isolated bacteria did not differ significantly between diseased and healthy animals for most species, with Escherichia coli as predominant species with 70.4% positive samples from diseased, and 78.0% positive samples from healthy animals. Furthermore, other Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcaceae, Streptococcaceae and Enterococcaceae were isolated both from CM-affected and non-affected animals.The similar bacteria distribution underlines the multifactorial pathogenesis of CM: Only with further adverse--endogen or exogen--factors being present, ubiquitous bacteria from the sow's environment can contribute to the development of clinical signs of infection. PMID:23540195

Kemper, Nicole; Bardehle, Danilo; Lehmann, Jörg; Gerjets, Imke; Looft, Holger; Preissler, Regine

2013-01-01

160

Immunoglobulin levels in dogs after total-body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The influence of total-body irradiation (TBI) and autologous or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation on serum immunoglobulin subclasses was determined in a dog model. Only IgG1 levels decreased after low-dose (+/- 4.5 Gy) TBI, but levels of all immunoglobulin classes fell after high-dose TBI (8.5 GyX1 or 2X6.0 Gy). After autologous bone marrow transplantation IgM levels were the first and IgE levels were the last to return to normal. After successful allogeneic bone marrow transplantation prolonged low IgM and IgE levels were found but IgA levels increased rapidly to over 150% of pretreatment values. A comparison of dogs with or without clinical signs or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), revealed no differences in IgM levels. Dogs with GVHD had higher IgA but lower IgE levels. Dogs that rejected their allogeneic bone marrow cells showed significant early rises in IgE and IgA levels in comparison with dogs with GVHD. These results differ from the observations made on Ig levels in human bone marrow transplant patients. No significant differences in phytohemagglutinin stimulation tests were found between dogs with or without GVHD or dogs receiving an autologous transplant for the first four months after TBI and transplantation. An early primary or secondary involvement of humoral immunity in GVHD and graft rejection in dogs is postulated

161

Total Salivary Anti-oxidant Levels, Dental Development and Oral Health Status in Childhood Obesity  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The objectives of this study were to assess the total antioxidant levels, dental development, and oral health status in childhood obesity. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 children aged 6-12 years consisting of both genders from different school along Coastal Karnataka, India were part of the study and were categorized into obese/overweight, and normal children based on body mass index for age and sex. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels determined by phosphomolybidic acid and spectrophotometric method were considered. Oral hygiene index-simplified, modified gingival index and dentition status index were used to analyze oral health status. Dental development was assessed using a clinical method and correlated with standard chronology of human dentition. Results: Levels of the total salivary antioxidants were increased in the study group which is very highly significant when compared with control group, oral health status in both the study group and control group was good. Number of children in study group showing accelerated dental development is relatively less when compared with control group, but is not statistically significant. Conclusion: Salivary TAC was significantly high in overweight and obese children than their normal counterparts. Prevalence of dental caries was high in obese/overweight children when compared to normal children. PMID:25214735

Gunjalli, Gururaj; Kumar, K Naveen; Jain, Swapnil Kumar; Reddy, Satheesh Kumar; Shavi, Girish R; Ajagannanavar, Sunil Lingaraj

2014-01-01

162

Changes in plasma methionine and total homocysteine levels in patients receiving methotrexate infusions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Methotrexate reduces intracellular pools of 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and could result in reduced conversion of homocysteine to methionine by methionine synthetase. This study was designed to investigate the effects of moderate dose to very high dose methotrexate on methionine and total homocysteine as reflections of methotrexate induced intracellular events. Methionine and total homocysteine were measured prior to, during, and following twenty-six 24-h i.v. infusions of 33.6 g/m2 methotrexate (very high dose methotrexate) in 16 children with acute lymphocytic leukemia and seven 4-h i.v. infusions of 8 g/m2 methotrexate (high dose methotrexate) in 5 children with osteogenic sarcoma. Amino acids were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrophotometry. Mean methionine levels decreased by 70.0 +/- 3.1% (SE) with very high dose methotrexate and 72.6 +/- 5.9% with high dose methotrexate at 24 and 4.5 h, respectively, after beginning methotrexate infusions. Mean total homocysteine levels increased by 61.7 +/- 3.1% with very high dose methotrexate and 55.6 +/- 17.5% with high dose methotrexate at 36 and 24 h, respectively, after beginning methotrexate infusions. No consistent or significant changes were noted in levels of total cysteine, leucine, isoleucine, or valine. Similar changes did not occur in patients receiving prednisone, vincristine, daunomycin, and intrathecal methotrexate as therapy for acute lymphocytic leukemia. These changes in homocysteine and methionine may reflect biological effects of methotrexate that may predict cytotoxicity of methotrexate. PMID:2790801

Broxson, E H; Stork, L C; Allen, R H; Stabler, S P; Kolhouse, J F

1989-11-01

163

Tear ascorbic acid levels and the total antioxidant status in contact lens wearers: A pilot study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aims: The tear ascorbate owing to its high concentration, functions as an effective antioxidant against the oxidative damage of cornea. Contact lens wearers (CLW are prone to oxidative stress due to the lens-induced hypoxic conditions. A pilot study was done to compare the tear ascorbic acid level and the total antioxidant capacity give as in normal and CLW. Materials and Methods: In this study 21 CLW (Mean age 23 ± 3 years ; M-2, F-19, who were daily wear users, with duration of wear not more than four years, along with age-matched 28 controls (Mean age 28 ± 3 ; M-15, F-13 were recruited in the study for collection of reflex tears using Schirmer?s strip. Ascorbic acid in tears was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, total antioxidant capacity (TAC and total protein assay by spectrophotometric analysis. Results: CLW showed no significant change in the tear ascorbic acid levels (0.4 ± 0.26 mM compared to the control subjects (0.61 ± 0.59 mM. The amount of ascorbic acid in tears did not correlate with the TAC or the total protein of the tears. The mean TAC in CLW was 0.69 ± 0.16 mM, with a total protein of 1.35 ± 0.46?mg/ml while in controls it was 0.7 ± 0.18 mM and 1.21 ± 0.47 mg/ml respectively . Conclusions: Soft contact lens wear did not show any significant change in tear ascorbic acid, TAC and total protein levels compared to controls.

Venkata Sai

2009-01-01

164

Coliform bacteria as in indicator of sewerage water mixing with drinking water sources in Rawalpindi city  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The coliform group of bacteria are consider to be one of the prominent indicators of surface/groundwater pollution as their presence in drinking water sources shows that water has been in contact with soil, plants, septic tanks or sewerage lines/drains. As a part of surface/groundwater pollution studies in various areas of Rawalpindi city coliform bacteria have been determined in the available drinking sources to evaluate their possible connection with the nearby septic tanks and sewerage lines/drains. Selective water samples were tapped from 72 domestic dug wells, and 98 municipal corporation tube-wells and associated water supply lines in some poorly drained areas of Rawalpindi. These samples were analyzed using membrane filter technique. In general, the sampled areas have indicated poor water quality w.r.t. coliform activity. 52% samples of the collected samples have indicated presence of Ecoli. Of these, 73% samples mostly collected from the poorly drained areas have shown significant counts of Ecoli. These water are rendered unfit for drinking purposes. Thirteen water samples collected indicated toxic levels of Ecoli in the municipal water supply caused due to a known leakage in the main domestic water supply line. The presence of coliform in the tube-well water supply taps are thus attributed to ruptures in the underground water supply lines. Present study reveals that general sanitary condition and water quality in the city are poor and that there is an urgent need of improvement in the water treatment and distribution systems by the concern quaters. (Orig./A.B.)

165

Levels of total mercury in predatory fish sold in Canada in 2005  

OpenAIRE

Total mercury was analysed in 188 samples of predatory fish purchased at the retail level in Canada in 2005. The average concentrations (ng g?1, range) were: sea bass 329 (38–1367), red snapper 148 (36–431), orange roughy 543 (279–974), fresh water trout 55 (20–430), grouper 360 (8–1060), black cod 284 (71–651), Arctic char 37 (28–54), king fish 440 (42–923), tilefish 601 (79–1164) and marlin 854 (125–2346). The Canadian standard for maximum total mercury allowed in the ...

Dabeka, R. W.; Mckenzie, A. D.; Forsyth, D. S.

2011-01-01

166

A low level of serum total testosterone is independently associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The association between low serum testosterone levels, visceral adipose tissue (VAT, and metabolic syndrome is now well known. However, the relationship between hepatic steatosis and serum testosterone levels has not been extensively studied. Our aim was to investigate the association of serum total testosterone levels with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, adjusting for the influence of VAT and insulin resistance. Methods This study is a retrospective observational cross-sectional one of healthy Korean men and was conducted at the Seoul National University Hospital Healthcare System Gangnam Center. We used data obtained from 495 men who were at least 20?years of age and who had undergone blood testing, abdominal computed tomography, and ultrasonography. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association of serum total testosterone levels with NAFLD. Results Men in the low serum testosterone quintile were at a higher risk for NAFLD than men in the highest serum testosterone quintile. After adjusting for age, smoking, diabetes, exercise, BMI, triglycerides, and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, subjects with serum testosterone levels in the lowest quintile had an odds ratio (OR (95% confidence interval (CI of 5.12 (2.43–10.77 for NAFLD (p value, 0.0004. The inverse association between serum testosterone and NAFLD was attenuated by further adjustment for variables including VAT; however, it remained statistically significant (OR (95% CI: 4.52 (2.09–9.80 in the lowest quintile; p value=0.004. Conclusions A low serum total testosterone level was independently associated with NAFLD. This report is the first one suggesting the association remains unchanged even after controlling for VAT and insulin resistance.

Kim Sunmi

2012-06-01

167

Measuring total health inequality: adding individual variation to group-level differences.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: Studies have revealed large variations in average health status across social, economic, and other groups. No study exists on the distribution of the risk of ill-health across individuals, either within groups or across all people in a society, and as such a crucial piece of total health inequality has been overlooked. Some of the reason for this neglect has been that the risk of death, which forms the basis for most measures, is impossible to observe directly and difficult to estimate. METHODS: We develop a measure of total health inequality - encompassing all inequalities among people in a society, including variation between and within groups - by adapting a beta-binomial regression model. We apply it to children under age two in 50 low- and middle-income countries. Our method has been adopted by the World Health Organization and is being implemented in surveys around the world; preliminary estimates have appeared in the World Health Report (2000). RESULTS: Countries with similar average child mortality differ considerably in total health inequality. Liberia and Mozambique have the largest inequalities in child survival, while Colombia, the Philippines and Kazakhstan have the lowest levels among the countries measured. CONCLUSIONS: Total health inequality estimates should be routinely reported alongside average levels of health in populations and groups, as they reveal important policy-related information not otherwise knowable. This approach enables meaningful comparisons of inequality across countries and future analyses of the determinants of inequality. PMID:12379153

Gakidou, Emmanuela; King, Gary

2002-08-12

168

Measuring total health inequality: adding individual variation to group-level differences  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies have revealed large variations in average health status across social, economic, and other groups. No study exists on the distribution of the risk of ill-health across individuals, either within groups or across all people in a society, and as such a crucial piece of total health inequality has been overlooked. Some of the reason for this neglect has been that the risk of death, which forms the basis for most measures, is impossible to observe directly and difficult to estimate. Methods We develop a measure of total health inequality – encompassing all inequalities among people in a society, including variation between and within groups – by adapting a beta-binomial regression model. We apply it to children under age two in 50 low- and middle-income countries. Our method has been adopted by the World Health Organization and is being implemented in surveys around the world; preliminary estimates have appeared in the World Health Report (2000. Results Countries with similar average child mortality differ considerably in total health inequality. Liberia and Mozambique have the largest inequalities in child survival, while Colombia, the Philippines and Kazakhstan have the lowest levels among the countries measured. Conclusions Total health inequality estimates should be routinely reported alongside average levels of health in populations and groups, as they reveal important policy-related information not otherwise knowable. This approach enables meaningful comparisons of inequality across countries and future analyses of the determinants of inequality.

Gakidou Emmanuela

2002-08-01

169

Assessment of Total Protein, Albumin, Creatinine and Aspartate Transaminase level in Toxemia of Pregnancy  

OpenAIRE

Preeclampsia is majorly a clinical disorder of pregnancy (occurring after 20 weeks of gestation in previously normotensive women) with unknown pathophysiology and associated organ dysfunctions. This study determined the biochemical changes associated with preeclampsia in the serum and urine. Blood pressure, serum total protein, albumin, creatinine and aspartate transaminase level and urinary protein were assessed (using standard methods) in 105 primigravidae. There was no significant differen...

Banjo, T. A.; Adeleye, A. A.; Mosuro, A. O.; Amballi, A. A.; Olooto, W. E.

2013-01-01

170

Prenatal determinants of cord blood total immunoglobulin E levels in Mexican newborns  

OpenAIRE

Asthma and allergic diseases have increased worldwide; however, etilogic factors for this increase are still poor. Prenatal consumptions of fatty acids are hypothesized, although few clinical trials in developing countries have been performed. This study was designed to identify predictors of immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in cord blood of Mexican newborns. Total IgE was measured in umbilical cord blood from 613 infants whose mothers participated in a double-blind randomized controlled trial o...

Herna?ndez, Evelia; Barraza-villarreal, Albino; Escamilla-nu?n?ez, Maria Consuelo; Herna?ndez-cadena, Leticia; Sly, Peter D.; Neufeld, Lynnette Marie; Ramakishnan, Usha; Romieu, Isabelle

2013-01-01

171

Occurrence of coliforms in water samples of the Perequê and Penedo Rivers in Paraná, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Os rios Perequê e Penedo têm suas fontes na planície de Praia Leste e fluem para o mar entre os municípios de Pontal do Sul e Ponta do Poço. Ambos pertencem à sub-bacia da Baía de Paranaguá e são partes da bacia hidrográfica do Oceano Atlântico (Estado do Paraná). Foram selecionados quatro sítios ao [...] longo do Rio Perequê (Estações 1-4) e um no Rio Penedo (Estação 5) para monitorar a poluição de água em um período de 12 meses. Durante o período de dezembro de 1995 e novembro de 1996, foram coletadas de cada local, 3 amostras de 100 ml água em frascos esterilizados e transportadas para o laboratório em caixas com gelo. Foram analisadas a ocorrência de coliformes totais (TC) e fecais (FC), temperatura e pH. A contaminação de coliformes foi menor nos sítios 1 e 5 do que em outros locais, provavelmente por causa da menor influência de áreas urbanizadas. A água na estação 4 estava fortemente contaminada por causa de sua proximidade a um canal de esgoto. Este estudo demonstrou que a água dos rios Pequerê e Penedo, "habitats" para várias espécies de camarões de água doce, estão contaminados com coliformes totais e fecais, e esta ocorrência não está relacionada com a temperatura ou pH. Abstract in english The Perequê and Penedo rivers flow through the plains of Praia de Leste and fall into the sea between the municipalities of Pontal do Sul and Ponta do Poço. Both of these rivers belong to the sub-basin of Paranaguá Bay, and are constituent parts of the hydrographic basin of the Atlantic Ocean (State [...] of Paraná). Four sites along the Perequê River (Stations 1-4) and one along the Penedo River (Station 5) were monitorated for water pollution over a 12-month period. During the period of December 1995 to November 1996, three water samples were collected from each site, placed in sterilized bottles and transported to the laboratory in ice-boxes. They were analyzed for the occurrence of total and fecal coliforms, temperature and pH. Fecal pollution was detected throughout the period of study. Coliform contamination was smaller in Station 1 and 5 than in any other sites, probably due to lesser influence from urbanized areas. Water at Station 4 was strongly contaminated due to its close proximity to a sewage canal. This study demonstrated that the Pequerê and Penedo rivers, freshwater shrimps habitats, were heavily contaminated with fecal indicator bacteria, and this occurrence was not related with temperature or pH.

Ilma Hiroko, Higuti; Ivone Rodrigues, Macena; Setuko, Masunari; Mario de Oliveira, Branco Filho; Marita Maciel Moreira, Blaskowiski; Aguinaldo José do, Nascimento.

1998-08-01

172

The Effect of Short-term Frozen Storage on the Chemical Composition and Coliform Microflora of Wara Cheese `Wara Cheese under Frozen Storage`  

OpenAIRE

The effect of short-term frozen (-20°C) storage on the chemical composition, pH and coliform bacterial count (cbc) of Wara cheese was investigated. Wara cheese at day old contained 31.00% total solids, 38.26% fat, 33.14% protein, 3.39% ash, 69.00% moisture, 376.50 * 105 cfu g-1 coliform bacteria and a pH of 5.04. At the end of 3 days of frozen storage, average total solids, fat, protein, moisture and ash were found, respectively, 33.25, 35.45, 36...

Alalade, O. A.; Adeneye, J. A.

2007-01-01

173

Simulating extreme total water levels using a time-dependent, extreme value approach  

Science.gov (United States)

Coastal flood hazard zones and the design of coastal defenses are often devised using the maximum recorded water level or a "design" event such as the 100 year return level, usually projected from observed extremes. Despite technological advances driving more consistent instrumental records of waves and water levels, the observational record may be short, punctuated with intermittent gaps, and vary in quality. These issues in the record often preclude accurate and robust estimates of extreme return level events. Here we present a total water level full simulation model (TWL-FSM) that simulates the various components of TWLs (waves, tides, and nontidal residuals) in a Monte Carlo sense, taking into account conditional dependencies that exist between the various components. Extreme events are modeled using nonstationary extreme value distributions that include seasonality and climate variability. The resulting synthetic TWLs allow for empirical extraction of return level events and the ability to more robustly estimate and assess present-day flood and erosion hazards. The approach is demonstrated along a northern Oregon, USA littoral cell but is applicable to beaches anywhere wave and water level records or hindcasts are available. Simulations result in extreme 100 year TWL return levels as much as 90 cm higher than those extrapolated from the "observational" record. At the Oregon site, this would result in 30% more coastal flooding than the "observational" 100 year TWL return level projections. More robust estimates of extreme TWLs and tighter confidence bounds on return level events can aid coastal engineers, managers, and emergency planners in evaluating exposure to hazards.

Serafin, Katherine A.; Ruggiero, Peter

2014-09-01

174

Inactivation of particle-associated coliforms by chlorine and monochloramine.  

OpenAIRE

Sieves and nylon screens were used to separate primary sewage effluent solids into particle fractions of less than 7- or greater than 7-micron size. The efficiency of separation was determined by using a particle counter. Indigenous coliforms associated with the particle fractions were tested for their resistance to chlorine and monochloramine. Coliforms associated with the less than 7-microns fraction were inactivated more rapidly by 0.5 mg of chlorine per liter at 5 degrees C and pH 7 than ...

Berman, D.; Rice, E. W.; Hoff, J. C.

1988-01-01

175

Prevelance of total coliforms, faecal coliforms and E. coli in Rawalpindi vegetable markets  

OpenAIRE

Nutritional value of vegetables and high prices of meat and meat originated food compel common people to consume plant originated food particularly salad vegetables. Microbial population of vegetable surfaces contains a large number of pathogenic bacteria including members of Enterobactereace like Escherichia coli (E. coli). A survey was conducted in three major markets of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. Tomato, lettuce, cabbage and cucumber samples were collected from three shops of each market. ...

Sadia Alam; Samina Khalil; Najma Ayub; Abida Bibi; Beena Saeed; Salma Khalid; Sumaira Siddiq

2013-01-01

176

Removal of Total Coliforms, Thermotolerant Coliforms, and Helminth Eggs in Swine Production Wastewater Treated in Anaerobic and Aerobic Reactors  

OpenAIRE

The present work evaluated the performance of two treatment systems in reducing indicators of biological contamination in swine production wastewater. System I consisted of two upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors, with 510 and 209?L in volume, being serially arranged. System II consisted of a UASB reactor, anaerobic filter, trickling filter, and decanter, being also organized in series, with volumes of 300, 190, 250, and 150?L, respectively. Hydraulic retention times (HRT) app...

Silvia Helena Zacarias Sylvestre; Estevam Guilherme Lux Hoppe; Roberto Alves de Oliveira

2014-01-01

177

Increased acetyl and total histone levels in post-mortem Alzheimer's disease brain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Histone acetylation is an epigenetic modification that plays a critical role in chromatin remodelling and transcriptional regulation. There is increasing evidence that epigenetic modifications may become compromised in aging and increase susceptibility to the development of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. Immunohistochemical labelling of free-floating sections from the inferior temporal gyrus (Alzheimer's disease, n=14; control, n=17) and paraffin-embedded tissue microarrays containing tissue from the middle temporal gyrus (Alzheimer's disease, n=29; control, n=28) demonstrated that acetyl histone H3 and acetyl histone H4 levels, as well as total histone H3 and total histone H4 protein levels, were significantly increased in post-mortem Alzheimer's disease brain tissue compared to age- and sex-matched neurologically normal control brain tissue. Changes in acetyl histone levels were proportional to changes in total histone levels. The increase in acetyl histone H3 and H4 was observed in Neuronal N immunopositive pyramidal neurons in Alzheimer's disease brain. Using immunolabelling, histone markers correlated significantly with the level of glial fibrillary acidic protein and HLA-DP, -DQ and -DR immunopositive cells and with the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (hyperphosphorylated tau load and ?-amyloid plaques). Given that histone acetylation changes were correlated with changes in total histone protein, it was important to evaluate if protein degradation pathways may be compromised in Alzheimer's disease. Consequently, significant positive correlations were also found between ubiquitin load and histone modifications. The relationship between histone acetylation and ubiquitin levels was further investigated in an in vitro model of SK-N-SH cells treated with the proteasome inhibitor Mg132 and the histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid. In this model, compromised protein degradation caused by Mg132 lead to elevated histone labelling. In addition, valproic acid worked synergistically with Mg132 in elevating ubiquitin load and causing cell death. These findings highlight important pathological relationships linking a compromise in protein turnover with the histone changes observed in Alzheimer's disease post-mortem human brain. PMID:25484284

Narayan, Pritika J; Lill, Claire; Faull, Richard; Curtis, Maurice A; Dragunow, Mike

2015-02-01

178

Low-level waste disposal performance assessments - Total source-term analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Disposal of low-level radioactive waste at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities is regulated by DOE. DOE Order 5820.2A establishes policies, guidelines, and minimum requirements for managing radioactive waste. Requirements for disposal of low-level waste emplaced after September 1988 include providing reasonable assurance of meeting stated performance objectives by completing a radiological performance assessment. Recently, the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board issued Recommendation 94-2, {open_quotes}Conformance with Safety Standards at Department of Energy Low-Level Nuclear Waste and Disposal Sites.{close_quotes} One of the elements of the recommendation is that low-level waste performance assessments do not include the entire source term because low-level waste emplaced prior to September 1988, as well as other DOE sources of radioactivity in the ground, are excluded. DOE has developed and issued guidance for preliminary assessments of the impact of including the total source term in performance assessments. This paper will present issues resulting from the inclusion of all DOE sources of radioactivity in performance assessments of low-level waste disposal facilities.

Wilhite, E.L.

1995-12-31

179

Seminal plasma total antioxidant capacity and vitamin- C levels in asthenozoospermia: a case- control study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Defective sperm function is now recognized as one of the most important causes of male infertility. Seminal plasma possesses a rich source of different enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as vitamin C (ascorbic acid that protect spermatozoa against oxidative stress as one of the mediators of infertility causing sperm dysfunction and low sperm quality. The aim of this study was investigation of seminal total antioxidant capacity and determination of vitamin C effects on sperm motility. "n"nMethods: We designed a case-control study with a total subject of 62 males. Sperm parameters were analyzed according to World Health Organization guidelines (WHO, 1999. Total antioxidant capacity and vitamin C level of seminal plasma were measured in the 32 normozoospermic as the control group and 32 asthenospermic men as the case group using FRAP (Ferric Reducing of Antioxidants Powers and RP-HPLC (Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography methods, respectively. "n"nResults: Our results indicated that total antioxidant capacity levels in the seminal plasma of asthenospermic men were significantly lower than healthy men (p=0.002. In addition, we found a positive correlation between reduced total antioxidant capacity levels and low sperm motility. Vitamin C levels of seminal plasma in asthenospermic men were statistically lower than control men (p=0.01."n"nConclusions: It is suggested that asthenospermia could be related to an antioxidant deficiency or it's reduction.

Ali Bidmeshkipour

2010-03-01

180

Ethanol affects acylated and total ghrelin levels in peripheral blood of alcohol-dependent rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is a hypothesis that ghrelin could take part in the central effects of alcohol as well as function as a peripheral indicator of the changes which occur during long-term alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to determine a correlation between alcohol concentration and acylated and total form of ghrelin after a single administration of alcohol (intraperitoneal, i.p.) (experiment 1) and prolonged ethanol consumption (experiment 2). The study was performed using Wistar alcohol preferring (PR) and non-preferring (NP) rats and rats from inbred line (Warsaw High Preferring, WHP; Warsaw Low Preferring, WLP). It was found that ghrelin in ethanol-naive WHP animals showed a significantly lower level when compared with the ethanol-naive WLP or Wistar rats. After acute ethanol administration in doses of 1.0; 2.0 and 4.0?g/kg, i.p., the simple (WHP) or inverse (WLP and Wistar) relationship between alcohol concentration and both form of ghrelin levels in plasma were found. Chronic alcohol intake in all groups of rats led to decrease of acylated ghrelin concentration. PR and WHP rats, after chronic alcohol drinking, had lower levels of both form of ghrelin in comparison with NP and WLP rats, respectively, and the observed differences in ghrelin levels were in inverse relationship with their alcohol intake. In conclusion, it is suggested that there is a strong relationship between alcohol administration or intake, ethanol concentration in blood and both active and total ghrelin level in the experimental animals, and that ghrelin plasma concentration can be a marker of alcohol drinking predisposition. PMID:23311595

Szulc, Michal; Mikolajczak, Przemyslaw L; Geppert, Bogna; Wachowiak, Roman; Dyr, Wanda; Bobkiewicz-Kozlowska, Teresa

2013-07-01

181

Prenatal determinants of cord blood total immunoglobulin E levels in Mexican newborns  

Science.gov (United States)

Asthma and allergic diseases have increased worldwide; however, etilogic factors for this increase are still poor. Prenatal consumptions of fatty acids are hypothesized, although few clinical trials in developing countries have been performed. This study was designed to identify predictors of immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels in cord blood of Mexican newborns. Total IgE was measured in umbilical cord blood from 613 infants whose mothers participated in a double-blind randomized controlled trial of 400 mg of docosahexaenoic acid or placebo from 18 to 22 weeks gestation through delivery. During pregnancy, information on sociodemographic characteristics, environmental exposures, and perceived maternal stress were obtained; a maternal blood sample was also collected to determine atopy via specific IgE levels. Logistic regression models were used to identify the main prenatal predictors of detectable total IgE levels in cord blood. IgE was detectable in cord blood from 344 (53.7%) infants; the main predictors in multivariate analyses were maternal atopy (odds ratio [OR] = 1.69; 95% CI, 1.19–2.42; p < 0.05) and pesticide use in the home (OR = 1.49; 95% CI, 1.04–2.14; p < 0.05). When stratified by maternal atopy, season of birth was a significant predictor in the atopic group only (OR = 2.48; 95% CI, 1.00–6.16; p < 0.05), and pesticide use was a significant predictor for infants born to nonatopic mothers (OR = 1.64; 95% CI, 1.07–2.51; p < 0.05). No differences were seen in the proportion of infants with detectable IgE by treatment group. Prenatal supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid did not alter the detectable cord blood IgE levels. Maternal atopy and pesticide use during pregnancy are strong predictors of cord blood IgE levels in newborns. Clinical trial NCT00646360, www.clinicaltrials.gov. PMID:23998234

Hernández, Evelia; Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Escamilla-Núñez, Maria Consuelo; Hernández-Cadena, Leticia; Sly, Peter D.; Neufeld, Lynnette Marie; Ramakishnan, Usha

2013-01-01

182

Millennial total sea-level commitments projected with the Earth system model of intermediate complexity LOVECLIM  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sea-level is expected to rise for a long time to come, even after stabilization of human-induced climatic warming. Here we use simulations with the Earth system model of intermediate complexity LOVECLIM to project sea-level changes over the third millennium forced with atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations that stabilize by either 2000 or 2100 AD. The model includes 3D thermomechanical models of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets coupled to an atmosphere and an ocean model, a global glacier melt algorithm to account for the response of mountain glaciers and ice caps, and a procedure for assessing oceanic thermal expansion from oceanic heat uptake. Four climate change scenarios are considered to determine sea-level commitments. These assume a 21st century increase in greenhouse gases according to SRES scenarios B1, A1B and A2 with a stabilization of the atmospheric composition after the year 2100. One additional scenario assumes 1000 years of constant atmospheric composition from the year 2000 onwards. For our preferred model version, we find an already committed total sea-level rise of 1.1 m by 3000 AD. In experiments with greenhouse gas concentration stabilization at 2100 AD, the total sea-level rise ranges between 2.1 m (B1), 4.1 m (A1B) and 6.8 m (A2). In all scenarios, more than half of this amount arises from the Greenland ice sheet, thermal expansion is the second largest contributor, and the contribution of glaciers and ice caps is small as it is limiteiers and ice caps is small as it is limited by the available ice volume of maximally 25 cm of sea-level equivalent. Additionally, we analysed the sensitivity of the sea-level contributions from an ensemble of nine different model versions that cover a large range of climate sensitivity realized by model parameter variations of the atmosphere–ocean model. Selected temperature indices are found to be good predictors for sea-level contributions from the different components of land ice and oceanic thermal expansion after 1000 years. (letter)

183

COLIFORM NON-COMPLIANCE NIGHTMARES IN WATER SUPPLY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

Coliform occurrences in distribution systems have created a great concern for both utilities and water authorities because of the implied public health implications and failure to meet Federal regulations. Many of the known cases involve systems in the east and midwest. The commo...

184

Fecal Coliform Determinations. Training Module 5.115.3.77.  

Science.gov (United States)

This document is an instructional module package prepared in objective form for use by an instructor familiar with multiple tube and membrane filter techniques for determining fecal coliform concentrations in a wastewater sample. Included are objectives, instructor guides, student handouts and transparency masters. This module considers proper…

Kirkwood Community Coll., Cedar Rapids, IA.

185

A comparison between minerals-modified glutamate medium and lauryl tryptose lactose broth for the enumeration of Escherichia coli and coliform organisms in water by the multiple tube method.  

OpenAIRE

In a multi-laboratory trial, minerals-modified glutamate medium (MMGM) was compared with lauryl tryptose lactose broth (LTLB) in the multiple tube method for the enumeration of coliform organisms, including Escherichia coli, in water. Samples of raw and chlorinated waters yielded a total of 2313 positive tube-reactions with MMGM and 2174 with LTLB. These were interpreted either as E. coli; other coliform organisms; or as false positive reactions. The results at first reading (18 or 24 h) and ...

1980-01-01

186

Industry-level total-factor energy efficiency in developed countries: A Japan-centered analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Highlights: • This study compares Japan with other developed countries for energy efficiency at the industry level. • We compute the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) for industries in 14 developed countries in 1995–2005. • Energy conservation can be further optimized in Japan’s industry sector. • Japan experienced a slight decrease in the weighted TFEE from 0.986 in 1995 to 0.927 in 2005. • Japan should adapt energy conservation technologies from the primary benchmark countries: Germany, UK, and USA. - Abstract: Japan’s energy security is more vulnerable today than it was before the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in March 2011. To alleviate its energy vulnerability, Japan has no choice but to improve energy efficiency. To aid in this improvement, this study compares Japan’s energy efficiency at the industry level with that of other developed countries. We compute the total-factor energy efficiency (TFEE) of industries in 14 developed countries for 1995–2005 using data envelopment analysis. We use four inputs: labor, capital stock, energy, and non-energy intermediate inputs. Value added is the only relevant output. Results indicate that Japan can further optimize energy conservation because it experienced only a marginal decrease in the weighted TFEE, from 0.986 in 1995 to 0.927 in 2005. To improve inefficient industries, Japan should adapt energy conservation technologies from benchmark countries such as Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States

187

Controlled disposal of domestic effluent sewage in the ground to reduce fecal coliforms  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The indiscriminate launching in water bodies of domestic sewage without treatment, or even treated, but without appropriate disinfection, contributes with significant amount of organisms of the called "coliform group” that can carry specific illnesses agents propagated through the water. The application of effluent in the ground, instead of direct disposal in water courses, in addition to being an alternative way for the disposal of residues and biological control of pollutants, constitutes an adequate way of nutrients supply to the soil and plants. So, this work had as objective the evaluation of the reduction of fecal coliforms, after controlled applications of 60 days treated effluent in cultivated soil, by analyzing the increase of fluorescent rhizobacterias Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus spp. present in the rhizospheres of different crops. The experiment was developed in field conditions in the Experimental Farm of Department of Agrarian Sciences of the University of Taubaté, municipality of Taubaté, SP. The Experimental design consisted of random blocks, with five treatments including annual crops (Oats, Barley, Triticale - a cross between wheat and rye, Black Beans and non-cultivated soil as witness - blank reference and four repetitions, totalizing 20 ground plots with area of 2 m x 1 m with 50 cm space among plots on a Dystrophic Red-Yellow Latossol. Results from the microbial analyses of rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil indicated that the rhizosphere of oats had denser rhizobacterias than the other crops. However, the greatest efficiency was found in the reduction of thermo-tolerant coliforms for both black beans and non-cultivated soil.

Paulo Fortes Neto

2008-12-01

188

Analysis of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD Level of Distribution Network Using DVR  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The modern sensitive, Non-linear and sophisticated load affects the power quality. Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR provides the fast, flexible and efficient solution to improve the power quality for such distribution network [8]. The active power, reactive power, variation of voltage, flicker, harmonics, and electrical behavior of switching operations are the major source of affecting power quality. The intent of this paper is to demonstrate the improvements obtained with DVR in power system network using MATLAB/SIMULINK. In this paper, an overview of the DVR, its functions, configurations, components, control strategies are reviewed. The Simulation results are presented to illustrate the performance of DVR in Total Harmonic Distortion (THD. The results showed clearly the performance of using DVR in improving THD level.

Himanshu Kalara

2014-08-01

189

Analytical method of total {beta} activity in high level radioactive solution. Possibility of application of GM counter method to total {beta} analysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Analytical design of RETE set up a GM counter method as an analytical method of total {beta} activity in the high level radioactive solution. To confirm the fundamental properties of GM counter, RI test was carried out by use of {sup 90}Sr as pure {beta} source and {sup 137}Cs as {beta} and {gamma} source. Hot test of the light water reactor reprocessing liquid waste indicated that this method could be used as the analytical method of total {beta} in the high level radioactive solution. Important results were explained as following: the detection efficiency of GM counter at {gamma} ray 0.06 to 0.66 MeV was 0.25% or below. Its effect on the total {beta} ray measurement was negligible. The internal conversion electron radiated from {sup 137}Cs ({sup 137m}Ba) gave positive effect on the total counter and the effect on the nuclide components in the light water reactor reprocessing liquid waste was about 3.5%. The total beta activity in the light water reactor reprocessing liquid waste was determined by this method, and the values obtained were 7.4 x 10{sup 9} and 8.3 x 10{sup 9} Bq/ml which agreed with the values by ORIGEN-2 etc. Reproducibility of the total {beta} activity, analytical value by high dilute solution-GM counter direct method was in the range of 1.8% (RSD) that was enough to a process analytical method. (S.Y.)

Shiba, Masanori [Joyo Industry Co. Ltd., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Funakoshi, Tomomasa; Suganuma, Takashi; Tanaka, Yasumasa

1997-11-01

190

Economical Appraisal of Total Aflatoxin Level in the Poultry Feeds by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Single-bounce attenuated total reflectance (SB-ATR) Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been used for the quantitative determination of total aflatoxins in the broiler poultry feed. An FTIR calibration spanning the range 1-70 micro g/L aflatoxin standards in (70:30, v/v) methanol-water solvent system based on partial least square (PLS) model, developed by relating mid IR region between 3755-950 cm/ sub -1/. The excellent coefficient of various (using 0.998) was achieved with 1.49 relative mean square error of calibration (RMSEC). Aflatoxins from each of eight poultry feeds was extracted and the determined by the widely used commercially available Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) procedure and the SB-ATR/FTIR method. The SB-ATR/FTIR aflatoxins predictions were related to those determined by the ELISA method by linear regression, producing an R value of 0.989 and a SD of +- 2.80 micro g/L. The result of the study clearly indicated that FT-IR spectroscopy due to its rapidity and simplicity along with data manipulation by advance computer software could be effectively used for routine determination of aflatoxins present in the poultry feeds at very low level. (author)

191

Macadamia nut consumption lowers plasma total and LDL cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic men.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was conducted to assess the cholesterol-lowering potential of macadamia nuts. Seventeen hypercholesterolemic men (mean age 54 y) were given macadamia nuts (40-90 g/d), equivalent to 15% energy intake, for 4 wk. Plasma total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and homocysteine concentrations and the fatty acid composition of plasma lipids were determined before and after treatment. Plasma MUFA 16:1(n-7), 18:1(n-7) and 20:1(n-9) were elevated after intervention with macadamia nuts. Plasma (n-6) and (n-3) PUFA concentrations were unaffected by macadamia nut consumption. Plasma total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol concentrations decreased by 3.0 and 5.3%, respectively, and HDL cholesterol levels increased by 7.9% in hypercholesterolemic men after macadamia nut consumption. Plasma triglyceride and homocysteine concentrations were not affected by treatment. Macadamia nut consumption was associated with a significant increase in the relative intake of MUFA and a reduced relative intake of saturated fatty acids and PUFA. This study demonstrates that macadamia nut consumption as part of a healthy diet favorably modifies the plasma lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic men despite their diet being high in fat. PMID:12672919

Garg, Manohar L; Blake, Robert J; Wills, Ron B H

2003-04-01

192

Determination and assessment of total mercury levels in local, frozen and canned fish in Lebanon.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fish is an important constituent of the Lebanese diet. However, very little attention in our area is given to bring awareness regarding the effect of the toxicity of mercury (Hg) mainly through fish consumption. This study aimed to report analytical data on total mercury levels in several fish species for the first time in thirty years and to also made individuals aware of the presence and danger from exposure to mercury through fish consumption. Fish samples were selected from local Lebanese markets and fisheries and included 94 samples of which were fresh, frozen, processed, and canned fish. All values were reported as microgram of mercury per gram of fish based on wet weight. The level of mercury ranged from 0.0190 to 0.5700 microg/g in fresh samples, 0.0059 to 0.0665 microg/g in frozen samples, and 0.0305 to 0.1190 microg/g in canned samples. The data clearly showed that higher levels of mercury were detected in local fresh fish as opposed to other types thus placing consumers at higher risk from mercury exposure. Moreover, the data revealed that Mallifa (yellowstripe barracuda/Sphyraena chrysotaenia), Sargous (white seabream/Diplodus sargus), Ghobbos (bogue/Boops boops), and shrimp (Penaeus sp.) were among the types containing the highest amounts of mercury. On the other hand, processed fish such as fish fillet, fish burger, small shrimp and crab are found to contain lower levels of mercury and are associated with lower exposure risks to mercury. Lebanese population should therefore, be aware to consume limited amounts of fresh local fish to minimize exposure to mercury. PMID:22432295

Obeid, Pierre J; El-Khoury, Bilal; Burger, Joanne; Aouad, Samer; Younis, Mira; Aoun, Amal; El-Nakat, John Hanna

2011-01-01

193

Comparison of two methods of assessing total body water at sea level and increasing high altitude.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluid retention is a recognized feature of acute mountain sickness. However, accurate assessment of hydration, including the quantification of body water, has traditionally relied on expensive and non-portable equipment limiting its utility in the field setting. We compared the assessment of total body water (TBW) and their relationship to total body weight using two non-invasive methods using the NICas single-frequency bioimpedance analysis (SF-BIA) system and the BodyStat QuadScan 4000 multifrequency BIA system (MF-BIA). TBW measurements were performed at rest at sea level and at high altitude (HA) at 3833 m postexercise and at rest and thereafter at rest at 4450 m and 5129 m on 47 subjects. The average age was 34.5 ± 9.3 years with an age range of 21-54 years (70.2% male). There were strong correlations between TBW assessment with both methods at sea level (r = 0.90; 95% CI 0.78-0.95: P<0.0001) and at HA (r = 0.92; 0.89-0.94: P<0.0001), however, TBW readings were 0.2 l and 1.91 l lower, respectively, with the NICaS. There was a stronger correlation between TBW and body weight with the QuadScan (r = 0.91; P<0.0001) than with the NICaS (r = 0.83; P<0.0001). The overall agreement between the two TBW methods was good, but the 95% confidence intervals around these agreements were relatively wide. We conclude that there was reasonable agreement between the two methods of BIA for TBW, but this agreement was lower at HA. PMID:24797153

Boos, C J; Holdsworth, D A; Hall, D P; Mellor, A; O'Hara, J; Woods, D R

2014-11-01

194

Modeling the transport and distribution of fecal coliform in a tidal estuary.  

Science.gov (United States)

A laterally averaged two-dimensional fecal coliform transport model incorporated into hydrodynamic and salt modules was developed to simulate the fate and transport of fecal coliform in the tidal Danshui River estuary of northern Taiwan. We validated the developed model with measured data, including longitudinal velocity, salinity, and fecal coliform concentration, collected in 2000. The simulated results of current, salinity, and fecal coliform concentration quantitatively agreed well with the measured data. The model sensitivity analysis indicated that the mortality rate plays an important role in the distribution of fecal coliform concentrations along the tidal Danshui River estuary to Tahan Stream. The validated model was applied to investigate the effects of different freshwater discharges at upstream boundaries on the distributions of fecal coliform. The results revealed that low freshwater discharge resulted in a higher fecal coliform concentration at upstream reaches but had little influence on the downstream of the estuary. PMID:22652036

Liu, Wen-Cheng; Huang, Wei-Cher

2012-08-01

195

Pollution studies of Kabul river and its tributes for the assessment of organic strength and fecal coliform  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thirty eight samples of water from Kabul River and its tributaries starting from Warsak Reservoir to the confluence point of Kabul and Indus Rivers covering a stretch of about 90 km and the waste water being discharged by different drains into the river were collected systematically and analysed for total organic strength as Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and degradable organics as Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) using standard methods. River water samples from different locations were also analysed bacteriologically for Fecal coliforms. All the waste water samples and river water in a few locations were found to be high in COD, BOD and Fecal coliform rendering it unfit for irrigation and human consumption. The results also suggest that the Board Mills and from different tanneries are the main sources of organic pollution in the Kabul River. Reduction in fish crop in Kabul River could be referred to the increased organic pollution. (author)

196

Faecal coliforms, faecal enterococci, Salmonella Typhi and Acanthamoeba spp. UV inactivation in three different biological effluents  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english Efficiency of UV-light to inactivate microbial indicators, Salmonella Typhi and Acanthamoeba spp. was studied in three different biological secondary effluents. Even though effluents differed in terms of their total suspended solids content, transmittance and particle size distribution, the UV-light [...] dose required to fulfil WHO agricultural water reuse criteria was the same (30 mW-s/cm²), because the particle content with sizes >40 |xm was similar and very small. Using this dosage, 3 log of Salmonella Typhi and faecal enterococci were also inactivated. To avoid faecal coliform and Salmonella Typhi photoreactivation, the UV dose had to be doubled and in the process 2.5 log of Acanthamoeba spp. were also inactivated. This is interesting because its presence in wastewater, pathogenicity and resistance to conventional disinfection processes has been reported in the literature. Additionally, it was found that the faecal coliforms' inactivation rate constant was the lowest one of all the bacteria studied (Salmonella Typhi and faecal enterococci), suggesting the limitation of this indicator when several kinds of pathogens are present, as is the case in developing countries.

NA, Beltrán; BE, Jiménez.

2008-02-01

197

Coliform bacteria removal from sewage in constructed wetlands planted with Mentha aquatica.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study evaluated the performance of the species Mentha aquatica in constructed wetlands of horizontal subsurface flow (CW-HSSF) with regard to the removal of coliforms bacteria in an effluent from the primary treatment of sewage as well as to obtain adjustment parameters of the bacterial decay kinetic model along the length of the CW-HSSF. Therefore, four CW-HSSFs measuring 24.0 m x 1.0 m x 0.35 m were built and filled with number 0 gravel as the support medium to a height of 0.20m. Two of the CW-HSSFs were planted with the species M. aquatica, while the other two remained uncultivated. Cultivation of M. aquatica in CW-HSSF resulted in total coliforms (TC) and Escherichia coli (EC) removals from 0.9 to 1.3 log units greater than those obtained in the uncultivated experimental plots, for the hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 4.5 and 6.0 days. For HRT ranged from 1.5 to 6.0 days, the highest removal efficiencies in counts of TC and EC were obtained when using longer HRT. The mathematical models evaluated showed good fit to average counts of TC and EC highlighting the modified first-order kinetic model with the inclusion of the power parameter in the HRT variable. PMID:24956804

Avelar, Fabiana F; de Matos, Antonio T; de Matos, Mateus P; Borges, Alisson C

2014-08-01

198

Coliforms Everywhere! Using Microbiology to Teach the Scientific Method†  

OpenAIRE

The scientific method is a fundamental concept in science. In this exercise the scientific method is taught as a hands-on investigative laboratory experience. Students generate a hypothesis concerning the environmental distribution of coliforms, design and execute an experimental test of that hypothesis, and analyze the resulting data. The exercise is safe and straightforward. It is appropriate for use in undergraduate laboratory courses for science majors and secondary school students...

Cisar, Cindy R.; Banzie, John S.

2010-01-01

199

Comparison of four membrane filter methods for fecal coliform enumeration.  

OpenAIRE

Four membrane filter methods fecal coliform enumeration were evaluated and compared in six laboratories based on determination of accuracy, specificity, upper counting limit, and recovery comparability. Recovery accuracy with pure cultures ranged from 89 to 100% for m-FC, mTEC (a procedure developed for thermotolerant Escherichia coli), and m-FC2 methods (the latter incorporating a 2-h, 35 degrees C resuscitation period), but was less than 60% for the MacConkey membrane broth method. These fi...

Pagel, J. E.; Qureshi, A. A.; Young, D. M.; Vlassoff, L. T.

1982-01-01

200

Nível de testosterona total em mulheres pós-menopausa com olho seco / Total testosterone level in postmenopausal women with dry eye  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar o nível sérico de testosterona total entre mulheres pós-menopausa divididas em 3 grupos: controle, olho seco leve a moderado e olho seco intenso. MÉTODOS: No ambulatório de climatério foram selecionadas 29 mulheres pós-menopausa que não faziam reposição hormonal há pelo menos 8 se [...] manas. Critérios de exclusão: alterações palpebrais mecânicas, pterígio, obstrução de vias lacrimais, inflamação intra-ocular e uso de lente de contato. As mulheres selecionadas foram submetidas à dosagem de testosterona total, aplicação do questionário OSDI (Ocular Surface Disease Index) e exame oftalmológico para detecção de olho seco. As mulheres foram divididas em 3 grupos conforme o resultado do escore OSDI e do exame oftalmológico. RESULTADOS: Cinco pacientes foram classificadas como ausência de olho seco, 15 com olho seco leve a moderado e 4 com olho seco intenso. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre a média dos valores das idades (p=0,3915); nível de instrução (p=0,9333); doenças associadas (p=0,2551); tipo de medicação utilizada (p=0,2844) e nível sérico de testosterona total entre os grupos (p=0,1275). CONCLUSÃO: Não encontramos diferença estatisticamente significativa entre o nível de testosterona total entre mulheres pós-menopausa com olho seco. Novos estudos clínicos com maior amostra são necessários para melhor esclarecer a relação dos níveis séricos dos androgênios nos portadores de olho seco. Abstract in english PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare total testosterone blood level among three groups of postmenopausal women: control, mild to moderate dry eye and severe dry eye. METHODS: Twenty-nine postmenopausal women were selected. The exclusion criteria were: hormone replacement therapy in the [...] last 8 weeks, mechanical palpebral abnormalities, pterygium, lacrimal obstructions, intraocular inflammation or contact lens use. A blood sample was collected for total testosterone level determination, and the patients were submitted to an ophthalmologic examination (emphasizing on dry eye detection) and answered the OSDI (Ocular Surface Disease Index) questionnaire. Five patients were excluded. Postmenopausal women were divided into three groups according to OSDI score and the ophthalmic examination. RESULTS: Five patients were classified in the no dry eye group (control), fifteen in the mild to moderate dry eye group and four in the severe dry eye group. There were no statistically significant differences regarding mean age (p=0.3915); instruction level (p=0.9333); number of comorbidities (p=0.2551); medication taken (p=0.2844) and total testosterone level among those groups (p=0.1275). CONCLUSION: Further research with a greater bigger sample is necessary to establish the relation of androgen levels in dry eye patients.

Maria Cecília Barros, Duarte; Natércia Trindade, Pinto; Hamilton, Moreira; Ana Tereza Ramos, Moreira; Daniel, Wasilewski.

2007-06-01

201

THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN G6PD DEFICIENCY AND TOTAL SERUM BILIRUBIN LEVEL IN ICTERIC NEONATES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nGlucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is the most important disease of the hexose monophosphate pathway. Deficiency of this enzym can lead to hemolysis of red blood cells. Our aim was to study the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in relation to neonatal jaundice. We studied 456 clinically icteric neonates Laboratory investigations included determination of direct and indirect serum bilirubin concentrations, blood group typing, direct coomb's test, hemoglobin, blood smear, reticulocyte count and G6PD level. We divided these neonates to 3 groups based on total serum bilirubin level (TSB: TSB< 20 mg%, TSB=20-25 mg%, and TSB>25 mg%. In only 35 (7.6% of cases G6PD deficiency was diagnosed. All of these babies were male. From 456 icteric neonates, 213 cases belong to group 1 (TSB<20 mg%, 158 cases belong to group 2 (TSB=20-25 mg% and 85 cases belong to group 3 (TSB>25 mg%. 16 neonates from 213 neonates of group 1, 6 neonates from 158 neonates of group 2 and 13 neonates from 85 neonates of group 3 had G6PD deficiency. There was statistically significant difference of prevalence of G6PD deficiency between group 2 and 3 ( 15.3% vs 3.8%( P = 0.001. Between groups 1 vs 2 and 1 vs 3 no statistically significant difference was found. Early detection of this enzymopathy regardless of sex and close surveillance of the affected newborns may be important in reducing the risk of severe hyperbilirubinemia. This emphasizes the necessity of neonatal screening on cord blood samples for G6PD deficiency.

S. Behjati-Ardakani

2007-07-01

202

Measurement of Deformations by MEMS Arrays, Verified at Sub-millimetre Level Using Robotic Total Stations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Measurement of sub-millimetre-level deformations of structures in the presence of ambienttemperature changes can be challenging. This paper describes the measurement of astructure moving due to temperature changes, using two ShapeAccelArray (SAAinstruments, and verified by a geodetic monitoring system. SAA is a geotechnicalinstrument often used for monitoring of displacements in soil. SAA uses micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS sensors to measure tilt in the gravity field. The geodeticmonitoring system, which uses ALERT software, senses the displacements of targetsrelative to control points, using a robotic total station (RTS. The test setup consists of acentral four-metre free-standing steel tube with other steel tubes welded to most of itslength. The central tube is anchored in a concrete foundation. This composite “pole” isequipped with two SAAs as well as three geodetic prisms mounted on the top, in the middle,and in the foundation. The geodetic system uses multiple control targets mounted inconcrete foundations of nearby buildings, and at the base of the pole. Long-termobservations using two SAAs indicate that the pole is subject to deformations due to cyclicalambient temperature variations causing the pole to move by a few millimetres each day. Ina multiple-day experiment, it was possible to track this movement using SAA as well as theRTS system. This paper presents data comparing the measurements of the two instrumentsand provides a good example of the detection of two-dimensional movements of seeminglyrigid objects due to temperature changes.

Tomas Beran

2014-06-01

203

[Determination of total protein levels in the liver and the heart of normal and ytterbium chloride treated female rabbits].  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors study the effects of ytterbium chloride on the levels of total liver and heart proteins of rabbits. The results showed that in the rabbits treated by yterbium chloride, the total proteins founded in treated animals was lower than those observed in normal ones. PMID:1233598

Rodgrigues, N L; Nogueira, D M; de Medina, T L; Medina, H S

1975-01-01

204

Assessment of the efficiency of ColiSure™ for coliforms Escherichia coli enumeration in pasteurizad milk / Avaliação do desempenho do ColiSure™ na enumeração de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em leite pasteurizado  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the dairy industry the coliforms detection can he used as indicative of hygiene production of the raw milk and the contamination after-pasteurization. The traditional methods for the enumeration of the total and faecal coliforms are laborious and needs an incubation time of 96 hours. Rapid methods for detection of these microorganisms have been developed and among them the ColsSuroit is a rapid method that gives results in 24 hours and involves defined substrates for simultaneous determination of total conforms and E. coli in water based in specific enzymatic reactions of these microorganisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate its utilization in milk. Ninety-five samples of pasteurized milk were collected from the markets in Londrina city, Parana and analyzed by the Most Probable Number (NMP enumeration using the Brilliant Green Bile Lactose Broth (BGBL and ColiSure™. There was a correlation of 0.80 betwee-n the mediums when the incubation time was 43 hours for total conforms. The low down occurrence of E. coffin the analyzed samples made impossible to comparate the performance of methods for this microorganism. Compfementary analysis showed a greater sensibility and especifity of the ColiSure™ in comparation with the BGBL. The CofiSure™ can be indicated as a substitute for the traditional method, with the advantage to be faster and easier.Na indústria láctea a detecção de microrganismos do grupo coliformes é utilizada como indicativo da higiene na produção do leite e de contaminação pós-pasteurizaçüo. Os métodos tradicionais para a enumeração de coliformes totais e fecais são trabalhosos, com tempo de incubação longo, de até 96 horas. Métodos rápidos para a detecção destes microrganismos têm sido desenvolvidos na área de microbiologia de alimentos. O ColiSure™ é um método rápido, que fornece resultados simultaneamente para a presença ou a ausência de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli em água em 24 horas, baseando-se em reações enzimáticas específicas destes microrganismos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar sua utilização para enumeração destes microrganismos em leite. Foram colhidas 95 amostras do loite pasteurizado no comércio de Londrina, Paraná, para a enumeração do Número Mais Provável (NMP, comparando o meio ColiSure™ com o Caldo Lactosado Bile Verde Brilhante (CLBVB. A análise estatística indicou uma correlação de 0,80 entre os dois meios quando o período de incubação foi de 48 horas para coliformes totais. Devido ú baixa ocorrência de E.coli nas amostras analisadas não foi possível comparar o desempenho dos métodos para enumeração desses microrganismos. Realizou-se então, um experimento para avaliar a sensibilidade do CotiSuro™ na detecção de E. coli. Contra provas realizadas demonstraram maior sensibilidade e especificidade do ColiSure™ quando comparado com o CLBVB, para detecção de coliformes totais, podendo substituir o método padrão, com a vantagem de apresentar maior praticidade e rapidez na obtenção dos resultados.

Elsa Helena Walter de Santana

2000-12-01

205

Thyrocalcitonin: its importance on the regulation of the plasmatic levels in total thyroidectomy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Effect of thyrocalcitonin ou calcium and blood phosphorus is studied. Twelve patients with adenocarcinoma of the thyroid, previously submited to total thyroidectomy and complementary radioiodine theraphy, are studied

206

Modification of delayed-incubation procedure for detection of fecal coliforms in water.  

OpenAIRE

Three holding media, including the vitamin-free Casitone holding medium (m-VFC) recommended by Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater for use with the delayed-incubation membrane filter procedure, were compared for their ability to maintain viability of fecal coliforms. Each medium was tested according to the procedure described in the above reference with 60 to 80 pure cultures of fecal coliforms and a variety of natural water samples containing fecal coliforms. Fecal c...

Chen, M.; Hickey, P. J.

1983-01-01

207

Isolation of fecal coliforms from pristine sites in a tropical rain forest.  

OpenAIRE

Samples collected from water accumulated in leaf axilae of bromeliads (epiphytic flora) in a tropical rain forest were found to harbor fecal coliforms. Random identification of fecal coliform-positive isolates demonstrated the presence of Escherichia coli. This bacterium was also isolated from bromeliad leaf surfaces. These data indicate that E. coli may be part of the phyllosphere microflora and not simply a transient bacterium of this habitat. The isolation of fecal coliforms from these sit...

Rivera, S. C.; Hazen, T. C.; Toranzos, G. A.

1988-01-01

208

COLIFORMES TERMOTOLERANTES EN AGUAS DE LAS POBLACIONES COSTERAS Y PALAFÍTICAS DE LA CIÉNAGA GRANDE DE SANTA MARTA, COLOMBIA Fecals Coliforms in Waters of Coastal and Palafiticos Populations of Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombia  

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Full Text Available La Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta es el sistema lagunar costero más grande e importante de Colombia y el más extenso del Caribe. En su territorio se alojan siete poblaciones carentes de un sistema de saneamiento básico adecuado, que vierten sus desechos sin ningún tipo de tratamiento directamente a la ciénaga. Teniendo en cuenta la importancia ambiental de este cuerpo de agua y con el objeto de conocer su calidad sanitaria se determinaron las concentraciones de Coliformes termotolerantes en aguas adyacentes de dos poblaciones costeras (Tasajera e isla del Rosario y tres palafiticas (Buenavista, Nueva Venecia y Trojas de Cataca durante el periodo 2004-2007. Adicionalmente, se realizaron mediciones de pH, temperatura, salinidad y oxígeno disuelto en cada sitio de muestreo. Las mayores concentraciones de Coliformes se encontraron en el palafito Trojas de Cataca, en la época seca mayor de cada año (7.800-9.000 NMP/ 100 mL y los menores niveles en la estación Buenavista (2-1.100 NMP/100mL. El patrón de comportamiento de las densidades de Coliformes en las poblaciones costeras fue similar en el tiempo y no se observó ninguna relación directa entre las variables fisicoquímicas y el grupo Coliformes. Dado lo observado, se considera importante vigilar la calidad del agua en el estuario, teniendo en cuenta que constituye una fuente potencial de riesgo para el desarrollo de las actividades económicas de la zona y para la salud de los pobladores.The coastal lagoon system most important and biggest of Colombia and the largest in the Caribbean is the Cienaga Grande of Santa Marta. In their territory, seven populations lacking of an appropriate sanitation system, that pour their waste directly without any treatment to the cienaga. Keeping in mind the importance of this body of water and in order to know their sanitary quality the concentrations of thermotolerant coliforms were determined in two coastal (Tasajera and Isla del Rosario and three palafitics populations (Buenavista, Nueva Venecia and Trojas de Cataca during the period 2004-2007. Additionally, pH, temperature, salinity and oxygen measurements were carried out in each station. The highest coliforms concentrations were found in Trojas de Cataca, in the dry season more each year (7,800-9,000 MPN/100ml and the lowest level in Buenavista station (2-1,100 MPN/100mL. The behavior pattern of Coliform densities in coastal populations was similar in the time and there was no direct relationship between physicochemical variables and Coliform group. It is important take care and watch over the estuary quality, taking into account that constitutes a potential risk source for economic activities development of the area and for the residents health.

SILVIA NARVÁEZ

209

COLIFORMES TERMOTOLERANTES EN AGUAS DE LAS POBLACIONES COSTERAS Y PALAFÍTICAS DE LA CIÉNAGA GRANDE DE SANTA MARTA, COLOMBIA / Fecals Coliforms in Waters of Coastal and Palafiticos Populations of Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta, Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La Ciénaga Grande de Santa Marta es el sistema lagunar costero más grande e importante de Colombia y el más extenso del Caribe. En su territorio se alojan siete poblaciones carentes de un sistema de saneamiento básico adecuado, que vierten sus desechos sin ningún tipo de tratamiento directamente a l [...] a ciénaga. Teniendo en cuenta la importancia ambiental de este cuerpo de agua y con el objeto de conocer su calidad sanitaria se determinaron las concentraciones de Coliformes termotolerantes en aguas adyacentes de dos poblaciones costeras (Tasajera e isla del Rosario) y tres palafiticas (Buenavista, Nueva Venecia y Trojas de Cataca) durante el periodo 2004-2007. Adicionalmente, se realizaron mediciones de pH, temperatura, salinidad y oxígeno disuelto en cada sitio de muestreo. Las mayores concentraciones de Coliformes se encontraron en el palafito Trojas de Cataca, en la época seca mayor de cada año (7.800-9.000 NMP/ 100 mL) y los menores niveles en la estación Buenavista (2-1.100 NMP/100mL). El patrón de comportamiento de las densidades de Coliformes en las poblaciones costeras fue similar en el tiempo y no se observó ninguna relación directa entre las variables fisicoquímicas y el grupo Coliformes. Dado lo observado, se considera importante vigilar la calidad del agua en el estuario, teniendo en cuenta que constituye una fuente potencial de riesgo para el desarrollo de las actividades económicas de la zona y para la salud de los pobladores. Abstract in english The coastal lagoon system most important and biggest of Colombia and the largest in the Caribbean is the Cienaga Grande of Santa Marta. In their territory, seven populations lacking of an appropriate sanitation system, that pour their waste directly without any treatment to the cienaga. Keeping in m [...] ind the importance of this body of water and in order to know their sanitary quality the concentrations of thermotolerant coliforms were determined in two coastal (Tasajera and Isla del Rosario) and three palafitics populations (Buenavista, Nueva Venecia and Trojas de Cataca) during the period 2004-2007. Additionally, pH, temperature, salinity and oxygen measurements were carried out in each station. The highest coliforms concentrations were found in Trojas de Cataca, in the dry season more each year (7,800-9,000 MPN/100ml) and the lowest level in Buenavista station (2-1,100 MPN/100mL). The behavior pattern of Coliform densities in coastal populations was similar in the time and there was no direct relationship between physicochemical variables and Coliform group. It is important take care and watch over the estuary quality, taking into account that constitutes a potential risk source for economic activities development of the area and for the residents health.

SILVIA, NARVÁEZ; MARTHA, GÓMEZ; JORGE, ACOSTA.

2008-12-01

210

The Effect of Different Doses of Aerobic Exercise Training on Total Bilirubin Levels  

OpenAIRE

Low serum bilirubin levels have been associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease, and recent data suggest that lower body fat and reductions in weight are associated with higher bilirubin levels. However, it is unknown if exercise training can increase bilirubin levels and whether a higher dose of exercise will further increase bilirubin levels compared to a lower dose.

Swift, Damon L.; Johannsen, Neil M.; Earnest, Conrad P.; Blair, Steven N.; Church, Timothy S.

2012-01-01

211

Distribution of sewage pollution around a maritime Antarctic research station indicated by faecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens and faecal sterol markers  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study describes the distribution of sewage pollution markers (faecal coliforms, Clostridium perfringens and faecal sterols) in seawater and marine sediments around Rothera Research Station, Antarctic Peninsula. Untreated sewage waste has been released from this site since 1975, creating the potential for long-term contamination of the benthic environment. Faecal coliform concentrations in seawater reached background levels within 300 m of the outfall. In sediment cores, both C. perfringens and faecal coliform concentrations declined with distance from the outfall, though C. perfringens persisted at greater depths in the sediment. High concentrations of 5?(H)-cholestan-3?-ol (coprostanol) relative to the corresponding 5?-epimer (cholestanol), indicative of sewage pollution, were only found in sediments within 200 m of the sewage outfall. This study has shown that sewage contamination is limited to the immediate vicinity of the sewage outfall. Nevertheless, a sewage treatment plant was installed in February 2003 to reduce this contamination further. - Sewage contamination of seawater and marine sediments near Rothera Research Station (Antarctic Peninsula) was limited to the immediate vicinity of the outfall

212

Effect of Energy Levels of Diets Formulated on Total and Digestible Amino Acid Basis on Performance of Female Broiler  

OpenAIRE

In order to evaluate the effects of different levels of energy and method for formulation of Amino Acid (AA) requirements of diets, this experiment was conducted using 294 female broiler chicks. The experiment was carried out using a complete block design with a 7x2 factorial arrangement. Factors were included different levels of energy (7 energy levels) and formulation methods of diets AA requirements (total and digestible). Results showed that feed consumption decreased by increasing ...

Marziyeh Ghafari; Shivazad, M.; Zaghari, M.

2007-01-01

213

Association between Plasma PFOA and PFOS Levels and Total Cholesterol in a Middle-Aged Danish Population  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are used in a variety of consumer products and have been detected worldwide in human blood. Recent studies mainly of highly exposed populations have indicated that PFOA and PFOS may affect serum cholesterol levels, but the magnitude of the effect may be inconsistent across exposure levels. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between plasma PFOA and PFOS and total cholesterol in a general, middle-aged Danish population. The study population comprised 753 individuals (663 men and 90 women), 50-65 years of age, nested within a Danish cohort of 57,053 participants. Blood samples were taken from all cohort members at enrolment (1993-1997) and stored in a biobank at -150°C. Plasma levels of PFOA and PFOS and serum levels of total cholesterol were measured. The associations between plasma PFOA and PFOS levels and total cholesterol levels were analysed by generalized linear models, both crude and adjusted for potential confounders. We observed statistically significant positive associations between both perfluorinated compounds and total cholesterol, e.g. a 4.4 [95% CI ?=? 1.1-7.8] higher concentration of total cholesterol (mg/dL) per interquartile range of PFOA plasma level. Sex and prevalent diabetes appeared to modify the association between PFOA and PFOS, respectively, and cholesterol. In conclusion, this study indicated positive associations between plasma PFOA and PFOS levels and total cholesterol in a middle-aged Danish population, although whether the observed pattern of results reflects a causal association is unclear.

Eriksen, Kirsten T; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

2013-01-01

214

Human apoB contributes to increased serum total apo(a level in LPA transgenic mice  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The Lp(a lipoprotein (Lp(a consists of the polymorphic glycoprotein apolipoprotein(a (apo(a, which is attached by a disulfide bond to apolipoprotein B (apoB. Apo(a, which has high homology with plasminogen, is present only in primates and hedgehogs. However, transgenic mice and rabbits with high serum apo(a levels exist. Liver is the main site for apo(a synthesis, but the site of removal is uncertain. To examine differences between transgenic mice expressing the LPA gene and mice capable of forming Lp(a particles, LPA-YAC transgenic mice and hAPOB transgenic mice were crossed and their offspring examined. Results Comparison of LPA-YAC with LPA-YAC/hAPOB transgenic mice showed that LPA-YAC/hAPOB transgenic mice have higher serum total apo(a and total cholesterol level than mice lacking the hAPOB gene. However, hepatic apo(a mRNA level was higher in LPA-YAC transgenic mice than in LPA-YAC/hAPOB transgenic mice. Feeding of a high-cholesterol/high-fat diet to male LPA-YAC transgenic mice with or without the hAPOB gene resulted in reduced serum total apo(a and hepatic apo(a mRNA level. Conclusion In conclusion, the higher serum total apo(a level in LPA-YAC/hAPOB transgenic mice than in LPA-YAC transgenic mice is not caused by increased apo(a synthesis. Lower hepatic apo(a mRNA level in LPA-YAC/hAPOB than in LPA-YAC transgenic mice may suggest that the increase in total apo(a level is a result of apo(a accumulation in serum. Furthermore, observed higher serum total cholesterol level in LPA-YAC/hAPOB transgenic mice than either in wild type or LPA-YAC transgenic mice may further suggest that human APOB transgenicity is a factor that contributes to increased serum total apo(a and cholesterol levels. Our results on reduced serum total apo(a and hepatic apo(a mRNA levels in HCHF fed male LPA-YAC transgenic mice confirm earlier findings in females, and show that there are no sex difference in mechanisms for lowering apo(a level in response to HCHF feeding.

Teivainen Päivi A

2004-05-01

215

Effect of total lymphoid irradiation on levels of serum autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus and in rheumatoid arthritis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The effects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) on serum levels of autoantibodies, and of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, and pneumococcal polysaccharide in patients with lupus nephritis were compared with those previously observed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Baseline levels of antibodies to diphtheria toxoid and tetanus toxoid decreased significantly after TLI in patients with lupus and RA, but antibody levels to pneumococcal polysaccharide remained unchanged. After TLI, the levels of antinuclear and anti-DNA antibodies were reduced significantly in lupus, but levels of rheumatoid factor, antinuclear, and antigranulocyte antibodies all tended to increase in RA

216

Coliforms Everywhere! Using Microbiology to Teach the Scientific Method  

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Full Text Available The scientific method is a fundamental concept in science. In this exercise the scientific method is taught as a hands-on investigative laboratory experience. Students generate a hypothesis concerning the environmental distribution of coliforms, design and execute an experimental test of that hypothesis, and analyze the resulting data. The exercise is safe and straightforward. It is appropriate for use in undergraduate laboratory courses for science majors and secondary school students and undergraduate non-majors with the appropriate mathematical backgrounds. Students learn both the process by which science progresses, as well as more advanced concepts in microbiology and statistics.

Cindy R. Cisar

2010-11-01

217

Manageable risk factors associated with bacterial and coliform counts in unpasteurized bulk milk in Flemish dairy herds.  

Science.gov (United States)

Associations between herd management practices and both bacterial counts (BC) and coliform counts (CC) from 254 and 242 dairy herds in Flanders (Belgium), respectively, were studied. Data were analyzed using multivariable, multilevel linear regression analysis, allowing variance components analyses. Both BC and CC fluctuated throughout the year, although the milk quality parameters followed an opposite pattern. Bacterial count values decreased with each increase of the cleaning frequency of the cubicles (once per week, once per day, twice per day, or more than twice per day) between January and March. Herds with a conventional milking parlor had substantially lower BC than herds where the cows were milked using an automatic milking system. Lower BC were observed when the milking parlor was equipped with an automatic cluster removal system, when premilking teat disinfection was applied, when the dry cows were supplemented with a mix of minerals and vitamins, and when the teats were prepared either first wet and dried or via an automatic milking system. Milking cows with a high-pipeline milking parlor setup or with an automatic milking system was associated with substantially higher CC values. Herds where prepartum heifers were often treated with antimicrobials before calving had a lower CC than farms where heifers were either not or only rarely treated. Most variation in BC and CC resided at the herd level rather than at the observation level, indicating that management is important in the control of both BC and CC. Still, only a small proportion of the total variance was explained by factors capturing information related to the milking, herd health, and dry cow management, which suggests that the bacteriological milk quality and, in particular, CC is primarily driven by other factors than the ones included in this study. PMID:24704236

Piepers, S; Zrimšek, P; Passchyn, P; De Vliegher, S

2014-06-01

218

Total Quality Management in the Classroom: Applications to University-Level Mathematics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Describes a Total Quality Management-based system of instruction that is used in a variety of undergraduate mathematics courses. The courses that incorporate this approach include mathematics appreciation, introductory calculus, and advanced applied linear algebra. (DDR)

Williams, Frank

1995-01-01

219

Allergic diseases, drug adverse reactions and total immunoglobulin E levels in lupus erythematosus patients.  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: The association of allergic diseases, drug adverse reactions and elevated total immunoglobulin E (IgE) concentration in systemic lupus erythematosus patients remains controversial. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of those features in active and inactive systemic lupus erythematosus patients, and in the control group as well. METHODS: Total IgE concentration was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study ...

Zbigniew Samochocki; Ewa Robak; Anna Sysa-Jedrzejowska; Anna Wozniacka; Malgorzata Zak-Prelich

2003-01-01

220

Total serum IgE level influences oral food challenge tests for IgE-mediated food allergies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Probability curves predicting oral food challenge test (OFC) results based on specific IgE levels are widely used to prevent serious allergic reactions. Although several confounding factors are known to affect probability curves, the main factors that affect OFC outcomes are currently unclear. We hypothesized that an increased total IgE level would reduce allergic reactivity. Medical records of 337 and 266 patients who underwent OFCs for 3.5 g boiled hen's egg white and 3.1 ml raw cow's milk, respectively, were examined retrospectively. We subdivided the patients into three groups based on total IgE levels and age by percentile (75th percentiles), and logistic regression analyses were performed on each group. Patients with higher total IgE levels were significantly less responsive. In addition, age did not significantly affect the OFC results. Therefore, total IgE levels should be taken into account when predicting OFC results based on food-specific IgE levels. PMID:25495854

Horimukai, K; Hayashi, K; Tsumura, Y; Nomura, I; Narita, M; Ohya, Y; Saito, H; Matsumoto, K

2015-03-01

221

Remoción mediante vermicomposteo de los coliformes fecales presentes en lodos biológicos / Vermicomposting of biological sludge for coliforms reduction  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available En este trabajo se buscó establecer el efecto de la densidad inicial de lombrices en la remoción de patógenos, mediante vermicomposteo de lodo, usando como indicador el número más probable de coliformes fecales (NMPCF). El lodo utilizado se generó en una planta de aireación extendida, se trabajó con [...] 4 densidades: alta con 0,2 kg lombrices/kg lodo, media con 0,1 kg lombrices/ kg lodo, baja con 0,05 kg lombrices/kg lodo y un blanco sin la adición de lombrices al lodo. Al segundo día de experimentación con la densidad media se logró una mayor remoción, estadísticamente significativa, del NMPCF que la obtenida con la densidad alta. El mismo día, todas las densidades lograron la clasificación de lodo clase B según United States Enviroment Protection Agency. Entre el día 13 y el 20 las muestras con densidades alta, baja y media lograron la clasificación clase A, no así el blanco. Al día 20 tanto la densidad media como la alta lograron el 100% de remoción de los coliformes fecales. Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of stoking density on the pathogens reduction, through the sludge vermicomposting, using the most probable number of fecal coliforms as indicator. The sludge used was generated at an extended aeration system; the stoking density was investig [...] ated at 0.2, 0.1 and 0.05 kg-worms/kg-sludge plus a control without worms. At the second day of experimentation the 0.1 kg/kg density achieved a significantly higher removal than the 0.2 kg/kg density. In the same day, all the stoking densities achieved the United States Environment Agency class B sludge standards. Between the 13 and 20 day all the stoking densities, with the exception of the control, achieved the USEPA class A standards. On day 20 the removal in the two biggest stoking densities was 100%.

Carmen Verónica, Droppelmann; Carolina Pía, Gaete; Paulina, Miranda.

2009-09-01

222

Tratamento de esgotos sanitários em sistemas reatores UASB/wetlands construídas de fluxo horizontal: eficiência e estabilidade de remoção de matéria orgânica, sólidos, nutrientes e coliformes / Domestic wastewater treatment in UASB-horizontal flow constructed wetlands systems: organic matter, solids, nutrients and coliforms removal  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho apresentou os resultados de um estudo realizado durante 19 meses sobre o comportamento de wetlands construídas na remoção de matéria orgânica, sólidos, nutrientes e coliformes, em unidades em escala piloto de fluxo horizontal, subsuperficial e superficial, com tempo de detenção hidrául [...] ica entre 1,3 a 5,3 dias, operando como pós-tratamento de efluentes de reatores UASB (esgotos sanitários). A remoção de matéria orgânica e de sólidos mostrou-se elevada e estável, com eficiências médias de 70, 80 e 60% para SST, DBO5 e DQO, respectivamente. A remoção de nutrientes, após início promissor, mostrou-se instável e aparentemente influenciada pela temperatura. O sistema de tratamento revelou elevado potencial de remoção de coliformes, embora com variações relativamente amplas ao longo do período de operação: ? 2 log10 de remoção de coliformes totais e 2-4 log10 de remoção de Escherichia coli. Abstract in english This work presented the results of a 19-month study on the performance of constructed wetlands in terms of organic matter, solids, nutrients and coliforms removal in pilot scale unities with horizontal, subsurface and surface flow, with hydraulic retention time from 1.3 to 5.3 days, as post-treatmen [...] t of UASB effluents (domestic wastewater). Organic matter and solids were effectively and consistently removed, with average values of 70, 80 and 60% for TSS, BOD5 and COD, respectively. Nutrients removal, after a promising start up, became unstable and apparently influenced by temperature. The treatment system has also shown high potential to remove coliforms, although with relatively wide variations over the study period: ? 2 log10 reduction of total coliforms and 2-4 log10 reduction of Escherichia coli.

Maria Lúcia, Calijuri; Rafael Kopschitz Xavier, Bastos; Tiago de Brito, Magalhães; Bruna Cesca, Capelete; Edgard Henrique Oliveira, Dias.

2009-09-01

223

Tratamento de esgotos sanitários em sistemas reatores UASB/wetlands construídas de fluxo horizontal: eficiência e estabilidade de remoção de matéria orgânica, sólidos, nutrientes e coliformes Domestic wastewater treatment in UASB-horizontal flow constructed wetlands systems: organic matter, solids, nutrients and coliforms removal  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este trabalho apresentou os resultados de um estudo realizado durante 19 meses sobre o comportamento de wetlands construídas na remoção de matéria orgânica, sólidos, nutrientes e coliformes, em unidades em escala piloto de fluxo horizontal, subsuperficial e superficial, com tempo de detenção hidráulica entre 1,3 a 5,3 dias, operando como pós-tratamento de efluentes de reatores UASB (esgotos sanitários. A remoção de matéria orgânica e de sólidos mostrou-se elevada e estável, com eficiências médias de 70, 80 e 60% para SST, DBO5 e DQO, respectivamente. A remoção de nutrientes, após início promissor, mostrou-se instável e aparentemente influenciada pela temperatura. O sistema de tratamento revelou elevado potencial de remoção de coliformes, embora com variações relativamente amplas ao longo do período de operação: ? 2 log10 de remoção de coliformes totais e 2-4 log10 de remoção de Escherichia coli.This work presented the results of a 19-month study on the performance of constructed wetlands in terms of organic matter, solids, nutrients and coliforms removal in pilot scale unities with horizontal, subsurface and surface flow, with hydraulic retention time from 1.3 to 5.3 days, as post-treatment of UASB effluents (domestic wastewater. Organic matter and solids were effectively and consistently removed, with average values of 70, 80 and 60% for TSS, BOD5 and COD, respectively. Nutrients removal, after a promising start up, became unstable and apparently influenced by temperature. The treatment system has also shown high potential to remove coliforms, although with relatively wide variations over the study period: ? 2 log10 reduction of total coliforms and 2-4 log10 reduction of Escherichia coli.

Maria Lúcia Calijuri

2009-09-01

224

La sensibilidad del grupo coliforme como indicador de la presencia de enterobacterias patógenas en cuatro cuerpos acuáticos de México / The coliform group sensitivity as indicator of the enteropathogenic bacteria presence in four water bodies from Mexico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La contaminación microbiológica en los cuerpos acuáticos se caracteriza a través de la detección de organismos indicadores como las bacterias coliformes totales (CT) y fecales (CF). El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la sensibilidad de estos indicadores para predecir la presencia de enteroba [...] cterias patógenas en cuatro cuerpos acuáticos mexicanos. Dos con mayor influencia humana: lago de Pátzcuaro, Mich. y ecosistema lacustre de Xochimilco, D. F y dos con menor: la laguna de Metztitlán, Hgo. y el lago Zirahuén, Mich. Se cuantificaron coliformes totales y coliformes fecales en agua y sedimento por la técnica del Número Más Probable y se aislaron bacterias entéricas del agua mediante el uso de medios de cultivo selectivos. Se evaluaron: el índice de sensibilidad, el riesgo atribuible y la presenciaausencia de indicadores y patógenos. Pátzcuaro y Xochimilco mostraron alta contaminación bacteriana. El sedimento presentó mayor concentración de CT y CF que el agua. Los CF mostraron ser indicadores más confiables para predecir la presencia de Salmonella y Shigella, con una sensibilidad para cada género de 60 y 75% y un riesgo atribuible del 58 y 67%. Los CF mostraron una relación presencia-ausencia con un porcentaje de casos verdaderos del 82 a 88%. En contraste, los CT mostraron un riesgo atribuible bajo (inferior a 27%) y un alto porcentaje de falsos positivos (65%), lo que impidió considerarlo como un buen indicador. Es conveniente evaluar la presencia de indicadores y patógenos simultáneamente para determinar el riesgo sanitario al caracterizar la calidad microbiológica en ecosistemas acuáticos. Abstract in english Microbiological pollution in water bodies is characterized through the detection of indicator organisms like total coliform (TC) and fecal coliform (FC) bacteria. The objective of the present paper was to determine the sensibility of these indicators of the presence of pathogenic enterobacteria in f [...] our Mexican aquatic systems. Two with major anthropogenic influence: Patzcuaro Lake and Xochimilco Lake ecosystem; and two with less: Metztitlan Lagoon and Zirahuen Lake. TC and FC were quantified with the Most Probable Number technique in water and sediment and enteric bacteria were isolated in water using selective culture media. The sensibility index, the risk attributable, and the presenceabsence of indicators and pathogens were evaluated. Patzcuaro and Xochimilco showed high bacterial pollution. The sediment presented higher concentrations of total and fecal coliforms than water. FC were the most reliable indicators to predict the presence of Salmonella and Shigella, with a sensitivity of 60 and 75%, an attributable risk of 58 and 67% for each genus. FC showed a presence-absence relationship with a percentage of true cases of 82 to 88%. In contrast, TC showed a low attributable risk, inferior to 27% and a high percentage of false positives (65%), which impede to consider it a good indicator. It is convenient to evaluate the presence of indicators and pathogens simultaneously to determine the sanitary risk when characterizing microbial water quality in aquatic ecosystems.

Guadalupe, Barrera-Escorcia; Carlos Leopoldo, Fernández-Rendón; Irma, Wong-Chang; Patricia, Ramírez Romero.

2013-04-01

225

Radioiodine total body scan versus serum thyroglobulin levels in follow-up of patients with thyroid cancer  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two groups of patients were studied to compare the efficacy of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels to 131I total body scans in the follow-up of patients with thyroid cancer. All of the group of 30 patients without recurrence had undetectable Tg levels on and off thyroid hormone replacement, and all had negative total body scan results although eight patients showed uptake in remnant thyroid tissue. In the second group of 37 patients with documented recurrent or metastatic disease, 34 (92%) had positive serum Tg levels, although the levels in five of these patients were undetectable while on thyroid replacement, and 31 (84%) had positive total body scan results. The false negative results of the two tests were not overlapping, and of those with positive Tg levels, 29 showed a significant increase once thyroid hormone therapy had been withdrawn. We conclude that although the percentages of positive Tg levels and body scan results in patients with recurrent disease are similar, both tests are required to minimize the number of patients with undiagnosed metastases. Second, thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression has a definite although unpredictable effect on serum Tg levels in patients with thyroid cancer, and thyroid hormone should be withdrawn prior to measurement of serum Tg to minimize the number of false negative results

226

Association of HLA class II Alleles with Childhood Asthma and Total IgE Levels  

OpenAIRE

Asthma is a complex and multifactorial disorder. Several studies have reported association between different HLA- DQB1 and HLA- DRB1 alleles and allergic asthma. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of HLA-class II alleles and haplotypes, with total serum IgE and the results of the skin prick test in Iranian children with allergic asthma. A total of 112 patients with allergic asthma symptoms (75 males and 37 females) were selected randomly from the pediatric hospita...

Mohammad Hossein Nicknam; Batoul Moradi; Saied Dianat; AsgharAghamohammadi; Mohammad Gharagozlou; Mostafa Moin; Masoud Movahedi; Behrouz Nikbin; Aliakbar Amirzargar

2008-01-01

227

Level of response to telematic questionnaires on Health Related Quality of Life on total knee replacement.  

Science.gov (United States)

Questionnaires measuring health-related quality of life are difficult to perform and obtain for patients and professionals. Computerised tools are now available to collect this information. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of patients undergoing total knee replacement to fill in health-related quality-of-life questionnaires using a telematic platform. PMID:25435294

Besalduch-Balaguer, M; Aguilera-Roig, X; Urrútia-Cuchí, G; Puntonet-Bruch, A; Jordan-Sales, M; González-Osuna, A; Celaya-Ibáñez, F; Colomina-Morales, J

2014-11-26

228

Prevalencia de Cyclospora sp., Cryptosporidium sp., microsporidos y determinación de coliformes fecales en frutas y vegetales frescos de consumo crudo en Costa Rica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Venezuela | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La presencia de Cyclospora sp., Cryptosporidium sp., microsporidios y los niveles de coliformes fecales fueron determinados en lechuga, apio, cilantro, fresas y moras adquiridas en ferias del Agricultor del Valle Central de Costa Rica, con el fin de establecer el riesgo de transmisión de estos micro [...] organismos y otros patógenos a partir del consumo de productos crudos. Durante el Segundo semestre del 2001 y primero del 2002, 50 muestras de cada producto fueron evaluadas, 25 durante la estación seca y 25 durante la estación lluviosa y provenientes de cinco diferentes ferias del Agricultor. El recuento de coliformes fecales fue realizado de acuerdo a la técnica recomendada por Vanderzant & Splittstoesser. La determinación de parásitos fue hecha utilizando las tinciones de Ziehl Nielsen y Weber a partir de un sedimento obtenido por el lavado de los productos mencionados, usando agua peptonada estéril 0,1% y centrifugando a 900 G por 15 min. 100% de las muestras de vegetales presentaron coliformes fecales, y la mayor prevalencia fue obtenida durante la estación lluviosa. A pesar de que todos los vegetales presentaron coliformes fecales en altas concentraciones, la lechuga y cilantro presentaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre la estación lluviosa y la seca, siendo mayor durante la estación lluviosa. No se detectó coliformes fecales en fresas y moras probablemente debido a su bajo pH. Todos los productos evaluados presentaron, aunque sea una vez, Cyclospora sp., Cryptosporidium sp. y microsporidios, demostrando el riesgo que representan para la Salud Pública. Cryptosporidium sp. estuvo presente en todos los productos excepto fresas. Los microsporidios fueron aislados de todos los productos excepto moras y Cyclospora sp. únicamente fue aislado de lechuga durante la estación seca. Los resultados demuestran la importancia de introducir en el país las Buenas Prácticas Agrícolas, especialmente debido a la resistencia de Cyclospora sp. y Cryptosporidium sp. a agentes desinfectantes. Abstract in english Prevalence of Cyclospora sp., Cryptosporidium sp, microsporidia and fecal coliform determination in fresh fruit and vegetables consumed in Costa Rica. The presence of Cyclospora sp., Cryptosporidium sp. and microsporidia and the levels of fecal coliforms were determined in lettuce, parsley, cilantro [...] , strawberries and blackberries acquired in local agricultural markets of the Central Valley of Costa Rica, in order to establish the possible transmission risk of these microorganisms and other pathogens from the consumption of these raw products. During the second semester of 2001 and the first of 2002, 50 different samples of each product, 25 taken in the dry season and 25 in the rainy season and coming from five different local agricultural markets were evaluated. The fecal coliforms count was done according to the technique recommended by Vanderzant & Splittstoesser. The parasite determination was done using Zielh Nielsen and Weber staining techniques from a sediment obtained through the rinse of the mentioned products, using sterile peptonated water 0,1% and centrifuging at 900 G for 15 min. One hundred per cent of vegetable samples had fecal coliforms and the greatest prevalence was obtained during the rainy season. Although all vegetables presented fecal coliforms in high concentrations, lettuce and cilantro presented statistical difference between rainy and dry season, being greater during the rainy season. Fecal coliforms were not detected in strawberries and blackberries probablydue to its low pH. All products evaluated presented, at least once, Cryptosporidium sp., Cyclospora sp. and microsporidia, showing the risk they represent to Public Health. Cryptosporidium was present in all products but strawberries. Microsporidia was present in all products except blackberries and Cyclospora was only isolated from lettuce during the dry season. These results show the importance of introducing in the country Goo

Melvin, Calvo; Melissa, Carazo; María Laura, Arias; Carolina, Chaves; Rafael, Monge; Misael, Chinchilla.

2004-12-01

229

Ethnic differences in maternal total cholesterol and triglyceride levels during pregnancy: the contribution of demographics, behavioural factors and clinical characteristics.  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background/Objectives: Lipid disturbances during pregnancy may lead to early onset of metabolic diseases in the offspring. However, there is little knowledge on ethnic differences in lipid levels during pregnancy. We evaluated ethnic differences in non-fasting total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels during early gestation and the role of demographics, behavioural factors and clinical characteristics. Subjects/Methods: Non-diabetic pregnant women (N=3025) fr...

Vrijkotte, Tanja; Schreuder, Ysbrand; Eijsden, Manon; Hutten, Barbara; Jansen, Eugene; Twickler, Marcel; Vissers, Maud

2011-01-01

230

Anaerobic incubation of membrane filter cultures for improved detection of fecal coliforms from recreational waters.  

OpenAIRE

Anaerobic incubation of membrane filter cultures significantly enhanced detection of fecal coliforms in surface-water samples from recreational beaches. In contrast to standard aerobic incubation, anaerobic incubation suppressed overgrowth of masking, noncoliform bacteria but did not increase the frequency of fecal coliform recovery.

Doyle, J. D.; Tunnicliff, B.; Brickler, S. K.; Kramer, R. E.; Sinclair, N. A.

1984-01-01

231

Evaluation of Colilert-18 for Detection of Coliforms and Eschericha coli in Subtropical Freshwater  

OpenAIRE

The accuracy of Colilert-18 as a test for coliforms and Escherichia coli in subtropical freshwater was evaluated by using API 20E strips and fatty acid methyl ester analysis. The false-positive and -negative rates of detection were 7.4 and 3.5%, respectively, for E. coli and 9.6 and 6.3%, respectively, for coliforms.

Chao, Kuo-kuang; Chao, Chen-ching; Chao, Wei-liang

2004-01-01

232

Test/QA Plan for Verification of Coliform Detection Technologies for Drinking Water  

Science.gov (United States)

The coliform detection technologies to be tested use chromatogenic and fluorogenic growth media to detect coliforms and E. coli based on the enzymatic activity of these organisms. The systems consist of single-use sample containers that contain pre-measured reagents and can be u...

233

Association of HLA class II Alleles with Childhood Asthma and Total IgE Levels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Asthma is a complex and multifactorial disorder. Several studies have reported association between different HLA- DQB1 and HLA- DRB1 alleles and allergic asthma. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of HLA-class II alleles and haplotypes, with total serum IgE and the results of the skin prick test in Iranian children with allergic asthma. A total of 112 patients with allergic asthma symptoms (75 males and 37 females were selected randomly from the pediatric hospital. In some patients total serum IgE and prick test were determined. Data of this study shows that HLA-DRB1*12 significantly increased in asthmatic patients (4.5% vs. 0%, P-value=0.04. HLA-DQB1*0603 and 0604 alleles were significantly higher in asthmatics than those in normal controls (10% vs. 0%, P-value= 0.0001; and 9.3% vs. 3.7%, P-value= 0.04, respectively. The statistical significance was relinquished after p value correction for all alleles except for HLA-DQB1*0602 (Pc=0.03 and HLA-DQB1*0603 (Pc=0.0015. Conversely, HLA-DQB1*0501 and 0602 were decreased in asthmatics compared to normal controls (7.5% vs. 13.5%, P-value= 0.05; and 4% vs. 12.5%, P-value= 0.002, respectively. The mean of total IgE in patients was 483 IU, and it was significantly high about 1140 IU in asthmatic patients with positive skin prick test to house dust. The most frequent alleles in asthmatic patients with the total IgE>200 IU/mL were HLA-DRB1*11and 1401, HLA-DQA1*0505, HLA-DQB1*0301 and in patients with total IgE<200 IU/mL were HLA-DRB1*0301, 07 and 1301, HLADQA1*0201 and 0301, HLA-DQB1*0201."nThese data suggests that HLA-DRB1, DQA1 & DQB1 alleles and haplotypes might be implicated in susceptibility to allergy and asthma and serum IgE production. As asthma and atopy are multifactorial disorders, probably HLA genes are involved in the regulation of immune specific responses to common allergen.

Mohammad Hossein Nicknam

2008-12-01

234

Serum level modifications of female sex hormones after radiocastration with different total doses  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We determined serum level of estradiol, FSH and LH over a period of six to eight weeks after ovarian irradiation for castration with different doses (2x2.5 Gy/3x2.5 Gy/4x2.5 Gy) in 15 patients with metastatic breast cancer as compared to changes after ovarectomy in five patients. The time course of the changing estradiol-, FSH and LH-serum levels sigificantly depends on the ovarian dose. After radiological castration with a dose of 4x2.5 Gy = 10 Gy in four days the estrogen levels decrease within two to three weeks, and the FSH- and LH-levels increase after three to four weeks into the postmenopausal range. Therefore, the time course is not very different from changes after ovarectomy. (orig.)

235

Serum level modifications of female sex hormones after radiocastration with different total doses  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We determined serum level of estradiol, FSH and LH over a period of six to eight weeks after ovarian irradiation for castration with different doses (2x2.5 Gy/3x2.5 Gy/4x2.5 Gy) in 15 patients with metastatic breast cancer as compared to changes after ovarectomy in five patients. The time course of the changing estradiol-, FSH and LH-serum levels sigificantly depends on the ovarian dose. After radiological castration with a dose of 4x2.5 Gy = 10 Gy in four days the estrogen levels decrease within two to three weeks, and the FSH- and LH-levels increase after three to four weeks into the postmenopausal range. Therefore, the time course is not very different from changes after ovarectomy.

Naujokat, B.; Rohloff, R.; Willich, N.; Eiermann, W.

1988-04-01

236

Total Factor Productivity of Korean Manufacturing Industries : Comparison of Competing Models with Firm-Level Data  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents the parametric estimation of the rates of technical change and total factor productivity (TFP) growth of 7,462 Korean manufacturing firms for the period 1987 to 2007. Two alternative formulations of technical change measured by the time trend and the general index approaches are estimated with panel data models assuming flexible functional forms. Several extensions of each approach are also considered and their benefits and limitations are discussed. In addition to making ...

Lo?o?f, Hans; Oh, Donghyun; Heshmati, Almas

2009-01-01

237

Polymorphisms in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene influence plasma total homocysteine levels.  

OpenAIRE

Elevated plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is a risk factor for various disorders. We investigated whether functional polymorphisms in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) influence tHcy, since COMT activity produces S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), a homocysteine precursor. We hypothesized that high activity COMT variants would be associated with high tHcy, since they presumably result in increased formation of SAH. We genotyped 780 community-dwelling elderly individuals for functional COMT (Val(...

Tunbridge, Em; Harrison, Pj; Warden, Dr; Johnston, C.; Refsum, H.; Smith, Ad

2008-01-01

238

Metal ion levels in maternal and placental blood after metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty.  

Science.gov (United States)

There is concern regarding elevated metal ion levels in the blood during pregnancy and the potential fetal effects in women with metal-on-metal (MOM) implants. We obtained maternal and umbilical cord blood samples from 3 patients with a MOM hip arthroplasty and 7 control subjects without any metallic implants. Serum metal ion levels including chromium, cobalt, titanium, and nickel were tested using high-resolution sector-field inductively-coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Mothers with MOM-bearing implants had significantly elevated levels of serum cobalt and chromium compared with control-group mothers, and umbilical cord blood from mothers with MOM implants also had significantly higher serum metal ion levels compared with control-group mothers. The results of this study show that circulating serum levels of metal ion degradation products from MOM bearings cross the placenta and expose the fetus to metal ions. However, the placenta exerts a modulatory effect on cord blood, resulting in decreased levels compared with maternal samples (approximately 15% of maternal chromium and 50% of maternal cobalt). Physicians and women of child-bearing age should be aware of this potential effect when considering the use of MOM-bearing implants. PMID:25490017

Novak, Clifford C; Hsu, Andrew R; Della Valle, Craig J; Skipor, Anastasia K; Campbell, Patricia; Amstutz, Harlan C; Jiranek, William A; Onyike, Aham; Pombar, Xavier F; Jacobs, Joshua J

2014-12-01

239

Total copper, manganese, and zinc levels in a Cecil soil during ten years of poultry litter application  

Science.gov (United States)

Heavy metals in poultry litter (PL) can cause environmental problems despite the cost-effectiveness of PL as source of plant nutrients. We compared total Cu, Mn, and Zn levels in a Cecil soil near Watkinsville, GA, in a 5-yr of cotton and 5-yr of corn study under conventional tillage (CT) and no-til...

240

The effects of breast milk storage and freezing procedure on interleukine-10 levels and total antioxidant activity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Objective: To compare interleukine-10 (IL-10) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels after breast milk storage by studying premature and term mothers' colostrum and mature milk and by analyzing those levels relative to gestational week. Methods: Fifty-four colostrum and mature breast milk samples were collected from both premature and term mothers. The samples were divided into three groups based on the time of analysis: fresh milk, at +4?°C for 72?h, and at -20?°C for 14?d. The IL-10 and TAC levels were measured quantitatively. Results: Fresh colostrum and mature milk had similar IL-10 levels. Term mothers' fresh-colostrum TAC levels were higher than their mature milk. The mature milk of the premature mothers' had higher TAC levels than that of term mothers. Storage did not affect the IL-10 levels of breast milk, but fresh milk antioxidant capacity halved after 72?h and 14?d. Colostrum IL-10 and TAC levels did not correlate with gestational week. Mature milk IL-10 levels did not correlate with gestational week, but TAC levels negatively correlated with gestational week (r: -0.61: p?levels as the fresh samples. This should be considered especially for sick infants who need more antioxidant capability in neonatal units. PMID:25252637

Aksu, Tekin; Atalay, Y?ld?z; Türky?lmaz, Canan; Gülbahar, Ozlem; Hirfano?lu, Ibrahim M; Demirel, Nihal; Onal, Esra; Ergenekon, Ebru; Koç, Esin

2014-10-13

241

Relationship between plasma total homocysteine level and dietary caffeine and vitamin B6 intakes in pregnant women.  

Science.gov (United States)

A high total homocysteine (tHcy) level during pregnancy is a risk factor for adverse perinatal outcomes, such as fetal growth restriction and preeclampsia. Caffeine is assumed to increase tHcy levels by acting as a vitamin B6 antagonist. The objective of this study was to examine a relationship between circulating tHcy levels and dietary caffeine and vitamin B6 intakes in pregnant Japanese women. A total of 321 healthy women with singleton pregnancies were recruited in metropolitan Tokyo, from June to December 2008, resulting in the final number included in the study as 254. Dietary caffeine intakes did not correlate with plasma tHcy levels. When we analyzed the data according to caffeinated beverages, caffeinated tea consumption was positively associated with plasma tHcy levels only among the women with a high intake of vitamin B6 , after controlling for confounding factors (P?=?0.029). No correlation between coffee consumption and plasma tHcy levels was found. Pregnant Japanese women might need to cut down the consumption of caffeinated tea as well as take sufficient vitamin B6 in order to prevent the tHcy levels from increasing. PMID:23855730

Shiraishi, Mie; Haruna, Megumi; Matsuzaki, Masayo; Ota, Erika; Murayama, Ryoko; Sasaki, Satoshi; Yeo, SeonAe; Murashima, Sachiyo

2014-06-01

242

Detección de Salmonella y coliformes fecales en agua de uso agrícola para la producción de melón "Cantaloupe" / Detection of Salmonella and fecal coliforms in water for agricultural use destined to melon"Cantaloupe"  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El agua que se utiliza en la producción de cultivos hortofrutícolas representa una fuente potencial de microorganismos que ocasionan enfermedades de transmisión alimentaria. Con el objetivo de evaluar la calidad sanitaria de diferentes fuentes de agua empleadas en la producción de melón Cantaloupe ( [...] Cucumis melo L. [grupo reticulatus] cv. Ovación y Caminos), en Zirándaro de los Chávez, Guerrero, se analizaron 71 muestras de agua provenientes de dos unidades de campo (23) y de una unidad de empaque (48) mediante métodos bacteriológicos convencionales para la detección deSalmonella spp, y por el método de filtración en membrana y el crecimiento en medios selectivos, para la detección de coliformes fecales, como indicadores de contaminación fecal. Del total de muestras de agua analizadas sólo tres muestras de campo resultaron positivas a la presencia de Salmonella spp. y nueve muestras, siete de campo y dos de la unidad de empaque, resultaron positivas a coliformes fecales. Salmonella spp. y coliformes fecales se detectaron principalmente en muestras de agua no clorada a 29 °C y 7.5 de pH, en promedio. En pruebas de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR), dos de cuatro cepas presuntivas de Salmonella ssp. dieron amplificaciones positivas con los iniciadores Sal-3 y Sal-4, y invA-1 e invA-2; de las otras dos, sólo dieron amplificación positiva con Sal-3 y Sal-4. Aparentemente se tiene más de una raza o serovar de Salmonella en la región. Estos resultados sugieren que algunas de las fuentes de agua empleadas en la producción de melón Cantaloupe en Zirándaro de los Chávez, Guerrero, no cumplen con la normatividad sanitaria por lo que estas fuentes deben establecerse como puntos prerequisitos de control para evitar la contaminación de melones frescos con patógenos de humanos. Abstract in english Water used in the production of horticultural crops represents a potential source of microorganisms that cause food-transmitted diseases. In order to evaluate the sanitary quality of different agricultural water sources used in the production of Cantaloupe melon (Cucumis melo L. [group reticulatus] [...] cv. Ovacion and Caminos), in Zirandaro Chavez, Guerrero, 71 water samples were analyzed from two field units (23) and one packaging house unit (48) through traditional bacteriological methods, to detect Salmonella spp, and the filtering membrane method and growth selective media, to detect fecal coliforms, as fecal contamination indicators. Of the total analyzed water samples only three field samples were positive to Salmonella spp. and nine samples, seven coming from the field and two from the packaging house, were positive to fecal coliforms. Salmonella spp. and fecal coliforms were detected mainly in non-chlorinated water samples at 29 °C and pH of 7.5, on average. Two out of four presumptive Salmonella spp. isolates were confirmed by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers Sal-3 and Sal-4, and invA-1 and invA-2; the other two were only confirmed with Sal-3 y Sal-4. Apparently more than one race or serovar of Salmonella spp. are present in this region. Results suggest that some water sources used in the Cantaloupe melon production in Zirandaro Chavez, Guerrero, do not meet sanitary standards therefore these sources should be considered as critical control points to prevent fresh melon contamination with human pathogens.

Carmela, Hernández-Domínguez; Ana María, Hernández-Anguiano; Cristóbal, Cháidez-Quiroz; Gilberto, Rendón-Sánchez; Trevor, Suslow.

2008-03-01

243

Evaluación de tres métodos para la inactivación de coliformes y Escherichia coli presentes en agua residual doméstica, empleada para riego / Evaluation of three methods for the inactivation of coliforms and Escherichia coli present in domestic wastewaters used in irrigation / Avaliação de três métodos para a inativação de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli presentes em águas residuais domésticas utilizadas para a irrigação  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in portuguese Objetivo. Avaliar três tratamentos (lagoas, fotocatálise com TiO2 e desinfecção química) para inativação de coliformes totais e Escherichia coli presentes em águas residuais domésticas utilizadas na irrigação dos cultivos. Materiais e métodos. O efluente foi caracterizado por analises físicos, quími [...] cos e microbiológicos. Posteriormente foi submetido a tratamento de lagoas facultativas (TLF), pós-tratamento fotocatalítico (PTF TiO2/UV) e pós-tratamento químico (PTQ NaClO). Avaliando a capacidade desinfetante de cada um para inativar coliformes totais e E. coli. Posteriormente, foram processados três novos lotes de águas residuais para testar a irrigação em escala de laboratório por 30 dias, utilizando-se como modelo plantas de Lactuca sativa variedade Batavia e avaliando a concentração inicial e final dos dois grupos. Resultados. O PTFTiO2/UV foi significativamente maior a TLFLF e PTQ NaClO (p Abstract in spanish Objetivo. Evaluar tres tratamientos (lagunaje, fotocatálisis con TiO2 y desinfección química) para la inactivación de coliformes totales y Escherichia coli presentes en agua residual doméstica empleada para riego agrícola. Materiales y métodos. El agua residual fue caracterizada por medio de análisi [...] s físicos, químicos y microbiológicos. Posteriormente fue sometida a un tratamiento de lagunaje facultativo (TLF), pos tratamiento fotocatalítico (PTFTiO2/UV) y pos tratamiento químico (PTQ NaClO). Valorando la capacidad desinfectante de cada uno de ellos para inactivar coliformes totales y E. coli. A continuación se procesaron tres nuevos lotes de agua residual y se utilizaron para realizar pruebas de riego a escala de laboratorio por 30 días, empleando como modelo plantas de Lactuca sativa variedad Batavia y evaluando la concentración inicial y final de los dos grupos. Resultados. El PTFTiO2/UV fue significativamente superior que TLFLF y el PTQ NaClO (p Abstract in english Objective. To evaluate three treatments (facultative stabilization ponds, heterogeneous photocatalysis with TiO2 and chemical disinfection with sodium hypochlorite) for the inactivation of coliforms and Escherichia coli presen in domestic wastewaters used in agricultural irrigation. Materials and me [...] thods. Wastewater was characterized by physical, chemical and microbiological analyses and was then exposed to a facultative pond treatment (FPT), post-photocatalytic treatment (PTFTiO2/UV) and post-chemical treatment (PTQNaClO) to assess the disinfecting capacity of each method in the inactivation of total coliforms and E. coli. Three new samples of wastewater were processed and used in irrigation tests on a laboratory-scale basis for 30 days, using Lactuca sativa cultivar. Batavia as a model plant and evaluating the initial and final concentrations of the two groups. Results. PTFTiO2/UV was significantly higher than FPT and PTQNaClO (p

Naydú, Rojas-Higuera; Andrea, Sánchez-Garibello; Adriana, Matiz-Villamil; Juan Carlos, Salcedo-Reyes; Ana Karina, Carrascal-Camacho; Aura M, Pedroza-Rodríguez.

2010-05-01

244

Serum specific vasopressin-degrading activity is related to blood total cholesterol levels in men but not in women.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of vasopressin (AVP) in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease is controversial, but this peptide hormone is elevated in heart failure and some forms of hypertension. Also, AVP has vasoconstrictor, mitogenic, hyperplasic and renal fluid retaining properties which, by analogy with angiotensin II, may have deleterious effects when present in chronic excess. Furthermore, cholesterol blood levels are also associated with hypertension, although the underlying mechanism is not known. Here we analyze the relationship between blood total cholesterol levels and serum vasopressin- degrading cystyl-aminopeptidase activity (AVP-DA) in healthy humans, and the differences between men and women. Linear correlation coefficients were calculated to test relationships between AVP-DA and blood total cholesterol levels. Sex differences were observed for AVP-DA, being this activity higher in men than in women. According to the linear model of the regression analysis, AVP-DA showed a significant negative correlation with blood total cholesterol levels in men, whereas no correlation was observed in women. Several studies in humans demonstrate the existence of greater plasma AVP concentrations in normal men compared to normal women, which could explain the gender-differences observed in the present work in relation with AVP-DA. However, AVP-DA is related to blood cholesterol levels only in men, although in our hands, women showed higher blood cholesterol levels than men. This could indicate that the risk of high cholesterol-related hypertension is more probable in men than in women. Although AVP-DA misregulation could be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, its relation with cholesterol levels appears only in men, but not in women. PMID:22530905

Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; Arrazola, Marcelina; Carrera-González, María Pilar; Arias de Saavedra, José Manuel; Sánchez-Agesta, Rafael; Mayas, María Dolores; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel

2012-07-01

245

470?Relationship of Blood Lead Levels with Total Ige in Teenagers with Environmental Exposure in Torreon Coahuila, Mexico  

Science.gov (United States)

Background There are precedents that suggest gender differences in the relationship of lead in blood with serum total IgE. The aim of this study was to evaluate in a population of teenagers attending 9 schools in Torreon, Coahuila, the relationship of lead in blood with total IgE and their dependence on gender. Methods We included 230 teenagers (105 females, 125 males) between 11 and 14 years of age, from a cohort of children evaluated for its history of lead exposure since 2000. Clinical diagnosis was performed to detect allergies; skin tests were applied for 47 common allergens in the region. IgE levels were quantified in serum by chemiluminescence and the blood lead levels by spectrophotometry AAS. Results The average blood lead levels in allergic group were of 4.86 ± 2.9 ?g/dL and in the non-allergic group 5.1 ± 2.7 ?g/dL. There were not gender differences between allergic group versus non allergic group, however, among the types of allergic diseases, a higher percentage of males had rhinitis, conjunctivitis and asthma, compared with the females. The blood lead level in males was significantly higher (5.61 ± 3.3 mg/dL) compared with females (4.22 ± 2.1 mg/dL) and the regression analysis between blood lead levels with total IgE was significant in males and not in females. Conclusions Gender differences observed appear to be explained by blood lead levels, however, we should consider the contribution of other variables in the model.

Meza-Velazquez, Rocío; Goytia Acevedo, Raquel Concepción; García-Arenas, Guadalupe; Calderon Aranda, Emma S.; Gonzalez, Manuel Rosales; Rubio-Andrade, Marisela; Maravilla-Domínguez, Aurora; Cebrian, Mariano Enrique; Rosado, Jorge Luis; Stoltzfus, Rebeca; García Vargas, Gonzalo Gerardo

2012-01-01

246

Effects of lysine levels of diets formulated based on total or digestible amino acids on broiler carcass composition  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The study was conducted to evaluate carcass yield and chemical composition of thigh and breast muscles of broilers fed three different lysine requirement levels: high lysine (+10% NRC), standard (NRC) and low lysine (-10% NRC) and two ways of expressing amino acids in feedstuffs (total or digestible [...] amino acids). The results of this study showed that diet formulation based on digestible amino acids significantly influenced breast yield and abdominal fat deposition. The study showed that increasing lysine level (+10% NRC) of diet significantly increased both carcass and breast percentage and also carcass, breast and thigh weight. The interaction between digestible amino acids and lysine requirement levels affected carcass and breast percentage. Feeding broilers high lysine diets (+10% NRC) significantly increased lysine content in breast and thigh. The response to formulation based on digestible amino acids was maximized when broilers received the high lysine level diet.

J, Nasr; F, Kheiri.

2012-12-01

247

Genome-Wide Scan on Total Serum IgE Levels Identifies FCER1A as Novel Susceptibility Locus  

OpenAIRE

High levels of serum IgE are considered markers of parasite and helminth exposure. In addition, they are associated with allergic disorders, play a key role in anti-tumoral defence, and are crucial mediators of autoimmune diseases. Total IgE is a strongly heritable trait. In a genome-wide association study (GWAS), we tested 353,569 SNPs for association with serum IgE levels in 1,530 individuals from the population-based KORA S3/F3 study. Replication was performed in four independent populatio...

Weidinger, Stephan; Gieger, Christian; Rodriguez, Elke; Baurecht, Hansjoerg; Mempel, Martin; Klopp, Norman; Gohlke, Henning; Wagenpfeil, Stefan; Ollert, Markus; Ring, Johannes; Behrendt, Heidrun; Heinrich, Joachim; Novak, Natalija; Bieber, Thomas; Kraemer, Ursula

2008-01-01

248

Total Mercury and Methylmercury Levels in Fish from the Department Madre de Díos, Peru  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Very little is known about environmental contamination in most otter species. In the range of the Giant Otter, Pteronura brasiliensis, gold miners discharge a great deal of methylmercury into the environment, and this is known to biomagnify in the food chain. Assays for methylmercury were carried out on fish collected in the Madre de Dios department of Peru, from near gold mining areas, and also from more than 100km away; additional fish were obtained from fish markets. Results show that significant contamination occurs in fish bigger than the normal prey size of the otters, but at present, there are low levels in prey species - this should be monitored closely in future.

Gutleb A.C.

1993-02-01

249

High independence level in functional activities reduces hospital stay after total hip arthroplasty regardless of pain intensity.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between independence level in functional activities and pain, and length of hospital stay in the early postoperative period in patients with total hip arthroplasty (THA). METHODS The study was performed over 26 end stage hip arthritis patients who were hospitalized in the Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Hacettepe University Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, between January 2000 and July 2003 for THA and opera...

Nazan Tugay; Inci Akarcali; Defne Kaya; Tugay, Baki U.; Bulent Atilla; Tokgozoglu, Ahmet M.

2004-01-01

250

Total mercury levels in nine species of freshwater fish from two hydroelectric reservoirs and a crater lake in Ghana.  

Science.gov (United States)

Total mercury (Hg) concentrations were determined in the muscle tissue of fish from three reservoirs in Ghana, namely, Lake Bosomtwi, Kpong and Akosombo Hydroelectric Reservoirs. A total of 165 fish samples covering nine species were collected and analysed for total mercury. A mixture of HNO3, H2SO4 and HClO4 were used for complete oxidation of organic tissues. Hg was detected by the Cold Vapour Atomic Absorption Spectrometry technique using an automatic mercury analyzer. Total mercury concentrations in microg g(-1) (wet weight) ranged from below 0.001 to 0.070 for fish from Lake Bosomtwi, 0.010 to 0.275 for fish from Kpong Reservoir and from below 0.001 to 0.042 for fish from Akosombo Reservoir. All the results obtained are below the World Health Organization limit of 0.5 microg g(-1). The low levels of total mercury obtained in this study suggest that the three aquatic environments have not been significantly impacted by mercury contamination. PMID:18581245

Agorku, E S; Voegborlo, R B; Adimado, A A

2009-06-01

251

Antibiotic resistance and R-factors in the fecal coliform flora of urban and rural dogs.  

OpenAIRE

The incidence of antibiotic-resistant fecal coliforms in the rectal flora of 106 healthy dogs in the Galway area was investigated. As far as could be determined, none of the dogs had received antimicrobial drugs. Half of the dogs sampled were from homes within the city boundaries, whereas the remainder were from farms within a 40-mile (24.8-km) radius of the city. Of the dogs sampled, 47 had a highly susceptible fecal coliform flora, with less than 1% of the coliform population resistant to a...

Monaghan, C.; Tierney, U.; Colleran, E.

1981-01-01

252

Assessment of serum selenium levels in 2-month-old sucking calves using Total Reflection Technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The assessment of selenium status of livestock is an important aspect of production medicine as evidence for the influence of low Se levels on disease resistance in ruminants is reviewed with emphasis on susceptibility to various pathologies (such as infections, exudative diathesis, pneumonia, pancreatic degeneration). Additional evidence suggests that Se deficiency may cause muscular dystrophy in calves, while, severe deficiency has been associated with cardiomyopathy and even death. Serum Se content is a good indicator of the short term Se status and reflects the recent dietary intake of the element. Since Serum Se content is a good indicator of the short term status of the element and reflects the its recent dietary intake, the present work is aimed to determine Se concentration in serum from a group of 2 month old sucking calves suspected to be severely deficient. We used the TX 2000 X-ray spectrometer manufactured by Ital Structures. The energy resolution (FWHM) of the Si(Li) detector was 137 eV for Mn K?. Among nuclear techniques the TXRF method is the best suitable for trace element analysis in liquid or dissolved samples and can deal much easier with elemental investigation. Physical basis of used analytical method, experimental set up and the sample preparation procedure are described. The concentration data obtained are presented and discussed

253

Assessment of serum selenium levels in 2-month-old sucking calves using total reflection technique  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The assessment of selenium status of livestock is an important aspect of production medicine as evidence for the influence of low Se levels on disease resistance in ruminants is reviewed with emphasis on susceptibility to various pathologies (such as infections, exudative diathesis, pneumonia, pancreatic degeneration). Additional evidence suggests that Se deficiency may cause muscular dystrophy in calves, while, severe deficiency has been associated with cardiomyopathy and even death. Serum Se content is a good indicator of the short term Se status and reflects the recent dietary intake of the element. Since serum Se content is a good indicator of the short term status of the element and reflects the its recent dietary intake, the present work is aimed to determine Se concentration in serum from a group of 2 months old sucking calves suspected to be severely deficient. We used the TX 2000 X-ray spectrometer manufactured by Ital Structures. The energy resolution (FWHM) of the Si(Li) detector was 137 eV for Mn K?. Among nuclear techniques the TXRF method is the best suitable for trace element analysis in liquid or dissolved samples and can deal much easier with elemental investigation. Physical basis of used analytical method, experimental set up and the sample preparation procedure are described. The concentration data obtained are presented and discussed. (author)

254

The relationship between total sialic acid levels and antioxidant status in the tadpoles of Bufo viridis and Rana ridibunda ridibunda.  

Science.gov (United States)

Total sialic acid levels (TSA), antioxidant enzymes activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were investigated during the developmental period in tadpoles of the predominantly terrestrial amphibian B. viridis and the predominantly aquatic amphibian R. r. ridibunda. Maximum TSA levels were observed in B. viridis and R. r. ridibunda at the fifth and third week of their development, respectively. SOD and CAT activity variations during development in B. viridis were higher than in R. r. ridibunda. Although SOD activity in B. viridis was higher than R. r. ridibunda at the eighth week, SOD activity increased 19.2-fold in R. r. ridibunda and 10.4-fold in B. viridis between the first and eighth week. CAT activity in R. r. ridibunda did not significantly change (p>0.001) until the fifth week then increased, whereas in B. viridis CAT increased after the third week. In contrast to the rise in the antioxidant enzyme activities, LPO levels tended to decrease during the developmental period. Levels of LPO showed a similar trend until the third week for both species. The minimum LPO levels in B. viridis and R. r. ridibunda were 23+/-1.2 and 146+/-7.3 nmol MDA g(-1) tissue, at the eighth week, respectively. While decreasing LPO levels correlated with increasing antioxidant enzyme activities, TSA tended to decrease after reaching a maximum point. PMID:12910479

Cava?, Levent; Tarhan, Leman

2003-09-01

255

Correlates of cerebrospinal fluid levels of oligomeric- and total-?-synuclein in premotor, motor and dementia stages of Parkinson's disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

High-oligomeric and low-total-?-synuclein cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels have been found in Parkinson's disease (PD), but with inconsistent or limited data, particularly on their clinical and structural correlates in earliest (premotor) or latest (dementia) PD stages. We determined CSF oligomeric- and total-?-synuclein in 77 subjects: 23 with idiopathic REM-sleep behaviour disorder (iRBD, a condition likely to include a remarkable proportion of subjects in the premotor stage of PD) and 41 with PD [21 non-demented (PDND) + 20 demented (PDD)], intended to reflect the premotor-motor-dementia PD continuum, along with 13 healthy controls. The study protocol also included the Unified PD Rating Scale motor-section (UPDRS-III), mini mental state examination (MMSE), neuropsychological cognitive testing, 3T brain MRI for cortical-thickness analyses, CSF ? and CSF A?. CSF oligomeric-?-synuclein was higher in PDND than iRBD and in PDD than iRBD and controls, and correlated with UPDRS-III, MMSE, semantic fluency and visuo-perceptive scores across the proposed premotor-motor-dementia PD continuum (iRBD + PDND + PDD). CSF total-?-synuclein positively correlated with age, CSF A?, and, particularly, CSF ?, tending towards lower levels in PD (but not iRBD) vs. controls only when controlling for CSF ?. Low CSF total-?-synuclein was associated with dysfunction in phonetic-fluency (a frontal-lobe function) in PD and with frontal cortical thinning in iRBD and PDND independently of CSF ?. Conversely, the associations of high (instead of low) CSF total-?-synuclein with posterior-cortical neuropsychological deficits in PD and with posterior cortical thinning in PDD were driven by high CSF ?. These findings suggest that CSF oligomeric- and total-?-synuclein have different clinical, neuropsychological and MRI correlates across the proposed premotor-motor-dementia PD continuum. CSF total-?-synuclein correlations with CSF ? and A? support the hypothesis of an interaction among these proteins in PD, with CSF ? probably influencing the presence of high (instead of low) CSF total-?-synuclein and its correlates mostly in the setting of PD-related dementia. PMID:25380583

Compta, Yaroslau; Valente, Tony; Saura, Josep; Segura, Bàrbara; Iranzo, Álex; Serradell, Mònica; Junqué, Carme; Tolosa, Eduard; Valldeoriola, Francesc; Muñoz, Esteban; Santamaria, Joan; Cámara, Ana; Fernández, Manel; Fortea, Juan; Buongiorno, Mariateresa; Molinuevo, José Luis; Bargalló, Núria; Martí, María José

2015-02-01

256

The level of red cell distribution width cannot identify deep vein thrombosis in patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, studies have reported that increased level of red cell distribution width (RDW) is associated with deep vein thrombosis (DVT). We are aiming to evaluate the validity of RDW in DVT in patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty (TJA). A total of 110 patients (55 patients with DVT and 55 control individuals undergoing TJA) were included in this retrospective cross-sectional study. Age, sex, RDW, red blood cell count, D-dimer, hematocrit and hemoglobin levels of patients were matched. The relationship between RDW and DVT has been estimated. There is no statistical difference of RDW levels between the DVT group and the control group (13.12?±?0.12 vs. 13.08?±?0.13; P?=?0.84). Pearson's correlation analysis showed that there were no significant associations between RDW and other referral groups. Logistic regression analysis indicated that RDW, red blood cell count, hemoglobin and hematocrit were not associated with DVT. Meanwhile, age, sex and D-dimer were independently associated with DVT. The receiver-operating characteristic curve and area under the curve demonstrated low accuracy of RDW in predicting DVT. Although D-dimer may identify the risk of venous thrombosis, the specificity and sensitivity were low. Preoperative level of RDW does not show predictive value for diagnosis of DVT in patients undergoing TJA. PMID:25806961

Xu, Zhihong; Li, Lan; Shi, Dongquan; Chen, Dongyang; Dai, Jin; Yao, Yao; Teng, Huajian; Jiang, Qing

2015-04-01

257

Comparative analysis of radon sources' contribution into total radon indoor levels for Altai and Tomsk regions of Russian Federation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The analysis of climatic, geological and architecture features of two regions was carried out from radon potential point of view. Altaiskii Krai and Tomsk Oblast are situated in the south of West Siberia. Therefore, the continental climate with a high dynamics of climatic and ecological parameters is typical for both regions. Architecture and building material types are alike in many aspects. However, geological features of these regions differ substantially. This may cause a difference in distributions of radon levels in buildings. Radon levels inside buildings of rural and urban types were measured using SSNTDs, charcoal canisters and radon-monitors Alpha-GUARD PQ2000 (confirmative measurements). Exposure periods were 1-3 months in different year seasons. The experimental results were statistically analyzed. The contributions of main radon sources into total level were revealed and the gradation of sources was made. The results of the comparative analysis and discussion are presented in the paper

258

Mutation in APOA1 predicts increased risk of ischaemic heart disease and total mortality without low HDL cholesterol levels  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVES: To determine whether mutations in APOA1 affect levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and to predict risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and total mortality in the general population. BACKGROUND: Epidemiologically, risk of IHD is inversely related to HDL cholesterol levels. Mutations in apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, the major protein constituent of HDL, might be associated with low HDL cholesterol and predispose to IHD and early death. DESIGN: We resequenced APOA1 in 190 individuals and examined the effect of mutations on HDL cholesterol, risk of IHD, myocardial infarction (MI) and mortality in 10 440 individuals in the prospective Copenhagen City Heart Study followed for 31 years. Results were validated in an independent case-control study (n = 16 035). Additionally, we determined plasma ratios of mutant to wildtype (WT) apoA-I in human heterozygotes and functional effects of mutations in adenovirus-transfected mice. RESULTS: We identified a new mutation, A164S (1 : 500 in the general population), which predicted hazard ratios for IHD, MI and total mortality of 3.2 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6-6.5], 5.5 (95% CI: 2.6-11.7) and 2.5 (95% CI: 1.3-4.8), respectively, in heterozygotes compared with noncarriers. Mean reduction in survival time in heterozygotes was 10 years (P < 0.0001). Results for IHD and MI were confirmed in the case-control study. Furthermore, the ratio of mutant S164 to WT A164 apoA-I in plasma of heterozygotes was reduced. In addition, A164S heterozygotes had normal plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels, including HDL cholesterol and apoA-I, and this finding was confirmed in adenovirus-transfected mice. CONCLUSIONS: A164S is the first mutation in APOA1 to be described that predicts an increased risk of IHD, MI and total mortality without low HDL cholesterol levels.

Haase, C L; Frikke-Schmidt, R

2011-01-01

259

Serum Total and Lipid Bound Sialic Acid Levels in Patients With Benign and Nonmelanom Malignant Skin Tumors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available It has been reported that sialic acid containing oligosaccharides play an important rolein the adhesion between cancer cells and endothelial cells and metastatic potential of tumorcells is proportional to cell surface sialylation. In the present study, we investigatedwhether there is a change in serum total and lipid bound sialic acid levels of patientswith benign and non-melanom malignant skin tumors and, evaluated whether the measurementof sialic acid levels may be useful clinically in distinguishing patients with benignskin tumors from those with non-melanom malignant skin tumors. In this study, 27patients with malignant skin tumors (16 men, age 50.78 ± 12.46 years, 39 patients withbenign skin tumors (17 men, age 48.59 ± 16.23 years were included. Serum total andlipid bound sialic acid determination was performed by the thiobarbituric acid methoddescribed by Warren and, the resorsinol method described by Katopodis, respectively.Student’s T test and Z test were used to analyze the results. The mean serum total andlipid bound sialic acid levels were found to be 63.01 ± 11.89 mg/dl and 15.77 ± 2.44mg/dl, respectively in patients with benign skin tumors; and 65.95 ± 7.30 mg/dl and16.70 ± 3.80 mg/dl, respectively in patients with non-melanom malignant skin tumors.Serum total sialic acid and lipid bound sialic acid of patients with benign skin tumorswere not different from those of patients with non-melanom malignant skin tumors. Thepercentage of lipid bound sialic acid was found to be 25.3 in patients with non-melanommalignant skin tumors, 25 in patients with benign skin tumors. There was no significantdifference between the value of lipid bound sialic acid percentage in these groups. Ourfinding that there is no significant difference between serum total and lipid-bound sialicacid levels of patients with non melanom malignant skin tumors which are not able tometastase and patients with benign skin tumors supports the studies reporting that sialicacids play an important role in metastases.

Beyhan Çak?r

2007-05-01

260

No effect of oral tyrosine on total tyrosine levels in breast milk: implications for dietary supplementation in early postpartum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Postpartum depression (PPD) is the most common complication of childbearing with a 13 % prevalence rate, and there is no widespread approach for prevention. There is an appealing theoretical rationale for oral tyrosine to help prevent PPD. However, the effect of oral tyrosine on its total and free concentrations in breast milk and plasma of breastfeeding mothers is not known. Twenty-four healthy breastfeeding women were randomly assigned to 0, 2, 5, or 10 g of oral tyrosine. Free and total tyrosine in breast milk and free tyrosine in plasma were measured. Free tyrosine was also measured in 12 different infant formulas. Total tyrosine in breast milk did not rise, but there was a slight tendency towards a reduction (up to ?12 %; repeated measures ANOVA (RMANOVA): p?=?0.074). Maternal plasma tyrosine rose (RMANOVA: p?levels in breast milk rose in each group (RMANOVA: p?levels were within the range found in common infant formulas. The negligible effect of oral tyrosine on its concentration in breast milk supports further development of oral tyrosine as part of a prevention strategy for PPD. PMID:25015680

Dowlati, Yekta; Ravindran, Arun V; Maheux, Maxim; Steiner, Meir; Stewart, Donna E; Meyer, Jeffrey H

2014-12-01

261

Avaliação de ensaios analíticos para detecção de coliformes fecais em queijo Minas / Evaluation of analytical methods for detecting of fecal coliforms in Minas cheese  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram submetidas à pesquisa de coliformes fecais, utilizando-se a técnica do número mais provável (NMP/g), 168 amostras de variedades de queijo Minas (20 frescal, 48 canastra e 100 padronizado) coletadas em Belo Horizonte. Para a comparação de diferentes ensaios em temperatura elevada, utilizou-se o [...] caldo EC isoladamente, e caldos EC e triptofano em paralelo. Visando à pesquisa de indol foi realizado ensaio para confirmação de produção de beta-D-glucuronidase e indol em caldo fluorocult lauril sulfato. Os resultados demonstraram não haver diferença estatística significativa entre as três metodologias utilizadas para a pesquisa de coliformes fecais, considerando os índices de aceitação definidos pelos padrões legais de inspeção de queijo Minas. A facilidade de execução do ensaio da beta-D-glucuronidase em caldo fluorocult lauril sulfato, associada à confiabilidade dos resultados e demanda de tempo (redução de 96 para até 48h), permitem sugeri-lo como método de escolha para enumeração de coliformes em queijo Minas. Abstract in english There were submitted to fecal coliforms enumeration, according to the most probable number (MPN/g) method, 168 samples of "Minas" cheese varieties (20 white, 48 "canastra" and 199 standardized), collected in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. In order to comparing different assays under high temperature, there [...] was used EC broth isolated, and EC broth and tryptophane broth in parallel. With the aim of indol search, it was carried out an assay for beta-D-glucuronidase in indol production in fluorocult lauryl sulphate broth. The results did not show significant statistical difference among the three approaches used for fecal coliforms research, considering the acceptance indexes established by legal standards for "Minas" cheese inspection. The feasibility for beta-D-glucuronidase assay in fluorocult lauryl sulphate broth, coupled with results’ confidence and time required (reduction from 96 to up to 48h), suggest it as a preference method for fecal coliforms enumeration in "Minas" cheese.

M.L., Pereira; M.C.A., Gastelois; E.M.A.F., Bastos; W.T., Caiaffa; E.S.C., Faleiro.

1999-10-01

262

Fecal coliform management using a coupled hydrodynamics and water quality model for the river Ravi in Pakistan  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Fecal Coliform (FC) management framework is developed incorporating segmentation of river reaches, hydrodynamic and water quality models and FC management under critical winter low flow conditions for a highly polluted River Ravi. FC die-off rate in the river is determined from a field survey of a selected river reach. The travel time calculated with the help of a hydrodynamic model is 0.25 days in the selected reach. FC die-off rate (Kb) was found to be 1.2 day/sup -1/ at 20 degree C. Model calibration with monitoring data set reveals reasonable agreement of the simulation results with the measured field values under low flow conditions. Presently, the river is receiving raw wastewater and the simulation results shows very high fecal coliform levels up to 100 X 10/sup 6/ MPN/100mL in the river water. These levels are much higher than the required recreation and irrigation standards. Simulations are carried out to assess water quality for the future fecal pollution loads in year 2025 and the results reveal that up to 6 log reduction in FC is required at the wastewater out falls, whereas, 5 log reduction would be sufficient for surface drains to meet desired FC standards under low flow conditions. (author)

263

Spectrofluorometric assay for rapid detection of total and fecal coliforms from surface water.  

OpenAIRE

With a spectrofluorometer, the length of the incubation time required in the fluorogenic assay was reduced to 12 h. The threshold emissions for reading the fluorogenic reaction by the spectrofluorometer were 5 and 10 U for lauryl tryptose broth media containing 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactoside and 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide, respectively. These two kinds of threshold units were equivalent to known concentrations of free 4-methylumbelliferone of 2.5 and 6 microM, respective...

Park, S. J.; Lee, E. J.; Lee, D. H.; Lee, S. H.; Kim, S. J.

1995-01-01

264

75 FR 40925 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule  

Science.gov (United States)

...Byproducts Federal Advisory Committee Agreement in Principle. 65 FR 83015. (December...TCRDS) Federal Advisory Committee Agreement In Principle. Available online...requirements of an EPA-approved State Wellhead Protection Program developed and...

2010-07-14

265

78 FR 10269 - National Primary Drinking Water Regulations: Revisions to the Total Coliform Rule  

Science.gov (United States)

...work is accomplished through cooperative agreements between EPA and private non-profit...TCRDS) Federal Advisory Committee Agreement In Principle. Available online...requirements of an EPA-approved State Wellhead Protection Program developed...

2013-02-13

266

75 FR 49930 - Stakeholder Meeting Regarding Re-Evaluation of Currently Approved Total Coliform Analytical Methods  

Science.gov (United States)

...PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9190-2] Stakeholder Meeting Regarding Re-Evaluation of...will have a technical dialogue with stakeholders regarding re-evaluation of currently...analytical methods. At these meetings, stakeholders will be given an opportunity to...

2010-08-16

267

Treated domestic sewage: kinetics of Escherichia coli and total coliform inactivation by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Hydrogen peroxide has been used for decades in developed countries as an oxidizing agent in the treatment of water, domestic sewage and industrial effluents. This study evaluated the influence of the concentration of H2O2 and pH on the inactivation of Escherichia coli cells and the disinfection of s [...] ewage treated. The results showed that the inactivation rate increased with pH and H2O2. The presence of other contaminants dissolved in the effluent is probably the cause of these differences, because E. coli inactivation in synthetic wastewater was found to be much faster than in the real treated domestic sewage.

Gean Delise L. P., Vargas; Regina F. P. M., Moreira; Deisi, Spricigo; Humberto J., José.

268

75 FR 14607 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli  

Science.gov (United States)

...DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration...source water from a source that has tested positive for E. coli, the bottler must take appropriate...SECG represents the agency's current thinking on this topic. It does not create...

2010-03-26

269

Coliforms and prevalence of Escherichia coli and foodborne pathogens on minimally processed spinach in two packing plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Minimally processed spinach has been recently associated with outbreaks of foodborne illnesses. This study investigated the effect of commercial minimal processing of spinach on the coliform and Escherichia coli counts and the prevalence of E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, Shigella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes on two types of spinach before and after minimal processing. A total of 1,356 spinach samples (baby spinach, n = 574; savoy spinach, n = 782) were collected daily in two processing plants over a period of 14 months. Raw spinach originated from nine farms in the United States and three farms in Canada. Overall, the proportion of samples positive for coliforms increased from 53% before minimal processing to 79% after minimal processing (P coli was isolated from 8.9% of the samples (mean +/- standard deviation, 1.81 +/- 0.14 log CFU/g), and no difference in prevalence or CFU counts after processing (P > 0.1) was observed. E. coli O157:H7 and Shigella spp. were not isolated from any of the samples. Salmonella and L. monocytogenes were isolated from 0.4 and 0.7% of samples, respectively. Results demonstrate that commercial minimal processing of spinach based on monitored chlorine washing and drying may not decrease microbial load on spinach leaves as expected. Further research is needed to identify the most appropriate measures to control food safety risk under commercial minimal processing of fresh vegetables. PMID:19244890

Ilic, Sanja; Odomeru, Joseph; LeJeune, Jeffrey T

2008-12-01

270

A transient increase in total head phosphotyrosine levels is observed upon the emergence of Aedes aegypti from the pupal stage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of protein tyrosine residues constitutes a major biochemical regulatory mechanism for the cell. We report a transient increase in the total tyrosine phosphorylation of the Aedes aegypti head during the first days after emergence from the pupal stage. This correl [...] ates with an initial reduction in total head protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) activity. Similarly, phosphotyrosine (pTyr)-containing bands are seen in extracts prepared from both male and female heads and are spread among a variety of structures including the antennae, proboscis and the maxillary palps combined with the proboscis. Also, mosquitoes treated with sodium orthovanadate, a classical PTP inhibitor, show reduced blood-feeding activity and higher head tyrosine phosphorylation levels. These results suggest that pTyr-mediated signalling pathways may play a role in the initial days following the emergence of the adult mosquito from the pupal stage.

Willy, Jablonka; Raquel, Senna; Thaisa, Nahu; Guilherme, Ventura; Lidiane, Menezes; Mário Alberto C, Silva-Neto.

2011-08-01

271

A transient increase in total head phosphotyrosine levels is observed upon the emergence of Aedes aegypti from the pupal stage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of protein tyrosine residues constitutes a major biochemical regulatory mechanism for the cell. We report a transient increase in the total tyrosine phosphorylation of the Aedes aegypti head during the first days after emergence from the pupal stage. This correlates with an initial reduction in total head protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP activity. Similarly, phosphotyrosine (pTyr-containing bands are seen in extracts prepared from both male and female heads and are spread among a variety of structures including the antennae, proboscis and the maxillary palps combined with the proboscis. Also, mosquitoes treated with sodium orthovanadate, a classical PTP inhibitor, show reduced blood-feeding activity and higher head tyrosine phosphorylation levels. These results suggest that pTyr-mediated signalling pathways may play a role in the initial days following the emergence of the adult mosquito from the pupal stage.

Willy Jablonka

2011-08-01

272

Serum levels of total immunoglobulin e in patients with alopecia areata: relationship with clinical type of the disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Alopecia areata (AA) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by nonscarring hair loss on the scalp or any hair-bearing surface. A wide range of clinical presentations can occur, from a single patch of hair loss to complete loss of hair on the scalp (alopecia totalis, AT) or over the entire body (alopecia universalis, AU). The cause of AA is unknown although most evidence supports the hypothesis that AA is an immunologically mediated disease. The aim of the study was to compare serum levels of total immunoglobulin E (IgE) between patients with AA and healthy subjects, and to assess the difference between the localized form and extensive forms of the disease such as AT and AU. Sixty patients with AA and 50 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study. Fifty patients had localized AA (LAA), and ten patients had AT, AU or AT/AU. Serum levels of IgE were measured using fluoroenzyme immunoassay techniques. Serum levels of total IgE were significantly higher in AA patients than in controls (p0.05). The exact role of serum IgE in AA should be additionally investigated in future studies. PMID:17010262

Kasumagi?-Halilovi?, Emina; Prohi?, Asja

2006-01-01

273

Thermotolerant Coliforms Are Not a Good Surrogate for Campylobacter spp. in Environmental Water ?  

OpenAIRE

This study aimed to assess the importance of quantitatively detecting Campylobacter spp. in environmental surface water. The prevalence and the quantity of Campylobacter spp., thermotolerant coliforms, and Escherichia coli in 2,471 samples collected weekly, over a 2-year period, from 13 rivers and 12 streams in the Eastern Townships, Québec, Canada, were determined. Overall, 1,071 (43%), 1,481 (60%), and 1,463 (59%) samples were positive for Campylobacter spp., thermotolerant coliforms, and ...

St-pierre, Karen; Le?vesque, Simon; Frost, Eric; Carrier, Nathalie; Arbeit, Robert D.; Michaud, Sophie

2009-01-01

274

Analytical notes - Electrochemical method for early detection and monitoring of coliforms  

Science.gov (United States)

An electrochemical method for detecting bacteria, based on a linear relationship between inoculum size and the time of hydrogen evolution, was tested for the early detection and monitoring of coliforms in naturally contaminated estuarine and fresh water samples. Standard methods for coliform analysis were performed on each sample, and membrane filtration counts were used to construct dose-response curves; relationships and results are discussed herein.

Wilkins, J. R.; Boykin, E. H.

1976-01-01

275

Comparison of Coliforms and Coliphages as Tools for Assessment of Viral Contamination in River Water  

OpenAIRE

The aim of the study was to evaluate the presence of pathogenic viruses in the Moselle River and to compare the usefulness of thermotolerant coliforms and somatic coliphages as tools for river water quality assessment in terms of viral contamination. Thermotolerant coliforms and somatic coliphages were enumerated by standardized methods in 170 samples of river water drawn from five sampling sites along the Moselle River (eastern France). BGM cell culture and integrated cell culture-reverse tr...

Skraber, S.; Gassilloud, B.; Gantzer, C.

2004-01-01

276

Presence and Sources of Fecal Coliform Bacteria in Epilithic Periphyton Communities of Lake Superior?  

OpenAIRE

Epilithic periphyton communities were sampled at three sites on the Minnesota shoreline of Lake Superior from June 2004 to August 2005 to determine if fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli were present throughout the ice-free season. Fecal coliform densities increased up to 4 orders of magnitude in early summer, reached peaks of up to 1.4 × 105 CFU cm?2 by late July, and decreased during autumn. Horizontal, fluorophore-enhanced repetitive-PCR DNA fingerprint analyses indicated that the sour...

Ksoll, Winfried B.; Ishii, Satoshi; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Hicks, Randall E.

2007-01-01

277

Total digestible nutrient levels in supplements for finishing steers in the rainy season: nutritional characteristics and microbial efficiency  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of total digestible nutrient (TDN) levels in supplements on rumen pH, ruminal ammonia nitrogen concentration, intake and digestibility, nitrogen balance and microbial efficiency in beef cattle grazing on Marandu grass during the rainy season. T [...] he supplements comprised a mineral mixture, ground corn grain, soybean hulls, roasted soybeans and urea:ammonium sulfate. The mineral mix (MM) and supplements were supplied at 800, 1,600 and 2,400 g/animal/day, contained 500, 1,000 and 1,500 g of TDN, respectively, and were termed S500, S1000 and S1500. Supplemental crude protein (CP) was fixed at 300g animal/day for all supplementing strategies. Four crossbred rumen-fistulated steers, with an average weight of 512kg, were utilized. The animals were distributed in a 4×4 Latin square in four paddocks of 0.25 ha. The rumen nitrogen concentration was increased by 63% after four hours of supplementation. Supplements with increased TDN levels did not alter the total dry matter and forage intakes, although the TDN levels linearly increased the non-fibrous carbohydrates intake. Additionally, most supplements did not alter the digestibility of the diet nutrients.The nitrogen balance was similar in all treatments. However, supplements with the highest TDN levels linearly improved the microbial efficiency of finishing beef cattle that were pasture-grazed during the rainy season. Supplements with in creasing TDN levels improve the microbial efficiency during the rainy season.

Jefferson Fabiano Werner, Koscheck; Joanis Tilemahos, Zervoudakis; Luciana Keiko, Hatamoto Zervoudakis; Luciano da Silva, Cabral; André Alves de, Oliveira; João Marcos Beltrame, Benatti; Daniel Marino Guedes de, Carvalho; Renata Pereira da, Silva.

2013-11-01

278

Two-level total disc replacement with Mobi-C® over 3-years / Artroplastía total de disco con Mobi-C® después de tres años / Artroplastia total de disco com Mobi-C® depois de três anos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Objetivo: Avaliar a segurança e a eficácia da artroplastia total de disco (ATD) em dois níveis, usando o disco cervical artificial Mobi-C® aos 36 meses de acompanhamento. Métodos: Realizou-se estudo clínico prospectivo, randomizado, controlado e multicêntrico de disco cervical artificial (Mobi-C® re [...] gido pelas regulamentações de Investigational Device Exemptions (IDE, isenção do dispositivo em investigação) e da Food & Drug Administration (FDA) dos Estados Unidos. Um total de 339 pacientes com doença degenerativa de disco foi inscrito para receber tratamento com ATD em dois níveis ou discectomia cervical anterior e fusão em dois níveis (DCAF) que constituíram o grupo controle. Os 234 pacientes tratados com ATD e os 105 tratados com DCAF tiveram acompanhamento em pontos do tempo regulares durante três anos após a cirurgia. Resultados: Aos 36 meses, ambos os grupos apresentaram melhora das medidas de desfecho clínico e perfil de segurança comparável. Os escores NDI, SF-12 e PCS, a satisfação dos pacientes e o êxito geral indicaram melhora com maior significância estatística desde o início do estudo no grupo ATD, em comparação com o grupo DCAF. Os pacientes do grupo ATD tiveram percentuais menores de cirurgia subsequente e taxas inferiores de degeneração do segmento adjacente. Em média, os pacientes do grupo ATD mantiveram a amplitude de movimento segmentar nos 36 meses, sem falhas do dispositivo. Conclusão: Os resultados aos três anos corroboram que a ATD é uma alternativa segura, eficaz e estatisticamente superior à DCAF no tratamento de doenças degenerativas de disco em dois níveis cervicais contíguos. Abstract in spanish Objetivo: Evaluar la seguridad y la eficacia de la artroplastía total de disco (ATD) en dos niveles, usando el disco cervical artificial Mobi-C® a los 36 meses de acompañamiento. Métodos: Se realizó estudio clínico prospectivo, aleatorio, controlado y multicéntrico de disco cervical artificial (Mobi [...] -C®) regido por las reglamentaciones de Investigational Device Exemptions (IDE, exención del dispositivo en investigación) y de la Food & Drug Administration (FDA) de los Estados Unidos. Un total de 339 pacientes con enfermedad degenerativa de disco fue inscripto para recibir tratamiento con ATD en dos niveles o discectomía cervical anterior y fusión en dos niveles (DCAF) que constituyeron el grupo control. Los 234 pacientes tratados con ATD y los 105 tratados con DCAF tuvieron acompañamiento en puntos de tiempo regulares durante tres años después de la cirugía. Resultados: A los 36 meses, ambos grupos presentaron mejora de las medidas de resultado clínico y perfil de seguridad comparable. Los registros NDI, SF-12 y PCS, la satisfacción de los pacientes y el éxito general indicaron mejora con mayor significado estadístico desde el inicio del estudio en el grupo ATD, en comparación con el grupo DCAF. Los pacientes del grupo ATD tuvieron porcentuales menores de cirugía subsiguiente y tasas inferiores de degeneración del segmento adyacente. Como promedio, los pacientes del grupo ATD mantuvieron la amplitud de movimiento segmentar en los 36 meses, sin fallas del dispositivo. Conclusión: Los resultados a los tres años corroboran que la ATD es una alternativa segura, eficaz y estadísticamente superior a DCAF en el tratamiento de enfermedades degenerativas de disco en dos niveles cervicales contiguos. Abstract in english Objective: To evaluate the safety and effectiveness of two-level total disc replacement (TDR) using a Mobi-C® Cervical Artificial Disc at the 36 month follow-up. Methods: a Prospective, randomized, controlled, multicenter clinical trial of an artificial cervical disc (Mobi-C® Cervical Artificial Dis [...] c) was conducted under the Investigational Device Exemptions (IDE) and the U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA) regulations. A total of 339 patients with degenerative disc disease were enrolled to receive either two-level treatment with TDR

Reginald, Davis; Pierce Dalton, Nunley; Kee, Kim; Michael, Hisey; Hyun, Bae; Gregory, Hoffman; Steven, Gaede.

279

Total testosterone levels are often more than three times elevated in patients with androgen-secreting tumours  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Hirsutism is present in up to 25% reproductive aged women and is most often caused by polycystic ovary syndrome. Less than 5% of patients with hirsutism are diagnosed with rare endocrine diseases including ovarian or adrenal androgen-producing tumours, but these tumours may be malignant and need surgery. Terminal hair growth on lip and chin gradually increases after menopause, which complicates distinction from normal physiological variation. Precise testosterone assays have just recently become available in the daily clinic. We present three women diagnosed with testosterone-producing tumours. Gold standard techniques were used to measure testosterone levels. All tumours originated from the ovaries. Based on the present cases and the existing literature, we suggest that androgen-producing tumours should be suspected in patients with rapid progression of hyperandrogen symptoms, particularly when total testosterone levels are above three times the upper reference limit.

Glintborg, Dorte; Altinok, Magda L

2015-01-01

280

Application of annular centrifugal contactors in the hot test of the improved total partitioning process for high level liquid waste.  

Science.gov (United States)

High level liquid waste (HLLW) produced from the reprocessing of the spent nuclear fuel still contains moderate amounts of uranium, transuranium (TRU) actinides, (90)Sr, (137)Cs, etc., and thus constitutes a permanent hazard to the environment. The partitioning and transmutation (P&T) strategy has increasingly attracted interest for the safe treatment and disposal of HLLW, in which the partitioning of HLLW is one of the critical technical issues. An improved total partitioning process, including a TRPO (tri-alkylphosphine oxide) process for the removal of actinides, a CESE (crown ether strontium extraction) process for the removal of Sr, and a CECE (calixcrown ether cesium extraction) process for the removal of Cs, has been developed to treat Chinese HLLW. A 160-hour hot test of the improved total partitioning process was carried out using 72-stage 10-mm-dia annular centrifugal contactors (ACCs) and genuine HLLW. The hot test results showed that the average DFs of total ? activity, Sr and Cs were 3.57 × 10(3), 2.25 × 10(4) and 1.68 × 10(4) after the hot test reached equilibrium, respectively. During the hot test, 72-stage 10-mm-dia ACCs worked stable, continuously with no stage failing or interruption of the operation. PMID:25016455

Duan, Wuhua; Chen, Jing; Wang, Jianchen; Wang, Shuwei; Feng, Xiaogui; Wang, Xinghai; Li, Shaowei; Xu, Chao

2014-08-15

281

Correlation of salivary and serum IgG, IgA levels with total protein in oral submucous fibrosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a disabling, potentially malignant condition of the oral cavity. The aetiology of OSMF is multifactorial but remains obscure. Although arecanut is considered to be the most important causative agent, responses observed in individuals using arecanut vary in relation to quantity and duration. It is considered that an immunological process is responsible for the pathogenesis of disease. We correlated salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA), salivary immunoglobulin G (IgG) and serum immunoglobulin A (IgA), serum immunoglobulin G (IgG), levels by turbidometric immunoassay. We estimated the levels of total serum protein (TSP) and haemoglobin (Hb) to determine the role of nutritional deficiency. The study population comprised 30 cases of OSMF and 10 controls. Five milliliters of blood and 2 ml of saliva were collected. Quantitative analysis of serum and salivary IgG, IgA was done by turbidometric immunoassay. TSP and Hb were estimated by Biuret and cyanmethaemoglobin methods, respectively. All patients showed significant (P < 0.01) increase in serum and salivary IgG, IgA levels as compared to controls. TSP patients showed significant (P < 0.01) decrease as compared to controls. Results of Hb in patients were not significant. The estimation of immunoglobulin levels is important to support the concept of autoimmune basis. Estimation of TSP and Hb suggests that nutrition has a definite role in OSMF. PMID:21467820

Patidar, Kalpana A; Parwani, Rajkumar N; Wanjari, Sangeeta Panjab

2011-03-01

282

Physical activity level, leisure activities and related quality of life 1 year after lumbar decompression or total hip arthroplasty  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

PURPOSE: Lumbar decompression surgery (LDS) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) are frequently performed in the elderly population, but very little is known about their subsequent physical capacity and participation in leisure activities. Despite similar demographics and comorbidities, it is questionable whether LDS patients achieve equally high levels of physical capacity and quality of life postoperatively as do THA patients. The aim was to compare the physical activity level, participation in leisure activities and related quality of life 1 year after an LDS and THA procedure. METHODS: Data from 95 THA patients and 83 LDS patients were gathered from questionnaires on self-reported physical activity level, leisure activities and quality of life. RESULTS: LDS and THA patients reported equally moderate levels of physical activity. The median score was 42.3 METs/day (IQR 37.9; 47.7) for the LDS group and 41.0 METs/day (IQR 38.5; 48.5) for the THA group (p = 0.79). Weekly time consumption for leisure activities inthe LDS group was a median of 420 min/week (IQR 210; 660) compared to a median of 480 min/week (IQR 240; 870) in the THA group (p = 0.16). Regarding quality of life, LDS patients reported significantly worse Euroqol Five Dimensions scores with a median value of 0.740 (IQR 0.68; 0.82) compared to THA patients' median of 0.824 (IQR 0.72; 1.0), p 

Rolving, Nanna; Obling, Kirstine HØj

2012-01-01

283

Total and inorganic arsenic levels in some marine organisms from Izmir Bay (Eastern Aegean Sea): a risk assessment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The arsenic compounds in marine biota were evaluated from Izmir Bay (Eastern Aegean) and found that inorganic arsenic occurred as a minor fraction. No information is available on the annual variations of arsenic in important edible biota species from Izmir Bay. Fish and mussel samples were taken from different regions of Izmir Bay between 2009 and 2011 (n=854 individual specimens). The average percentages of inorganic arsenic to total arsenic for all biota samples were 3.43±3.38% with a range of 0.11-11.8%. The importance of speciation analysis for arsenic is supported by our work, because arsenic is ubiquitous in the ecosystem, and flexible toxicity of arsenic is based on chemical form. The average total As levels in Mullus barbatus were 6 times higher than Diplodus annularis and Mytilus galloprovincialis. This study also revealed that spatial variation influenced the arsenic levels in the fish samples and the highest concentrations of arsenic were found in Gediz site. Our study showed that estimated daily intakes of arsenic via consumption of flesh fish and shell fish were below the BMDL0.5 values established by FAO/WHO. PMID:25048921

Kucuksezgin, Filiz; Gonul, Lutfi Tolga; Tasel, Didem

2014-10-01

284

Spirulina platensis effects on the levels of total cholesterol, HDL and triacylglycerols in rabbits fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A microalga Spirulina é cultivada e comercializada no mundo devido a suas características nutricionais (elevada concentração de proteínas, em torno de 65%, vitaminas e sais minerais) e ao seu potencial terapêutico no tratamento de inúmeras doenças, inclusive a hipercolesterolemia. Neste trabalho foi [...] avaliada a inibição da hipercolesterolemia induzida em coelhos por uma dieta adicionada de colesterol (350 mg.d-1), pela suplementação de 0,5 g.dia-1 de biomassa de Spirulina platensis, sendo avaliados os níveis de colesterol total, triglicerídeos e HDL nos tempos de 0 d, 30 d e 60 d de tratamento. Os resultados indicaram que a adição de Spirulina platensis na dieta ocasionou decréscimo nos níveis de colesterol total de 1054±101 mg.dL-1 para 516±163 mg.dL-1 (p Abstract in english In this work, hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits by feeding them a high cholesterol diet (CD, 350 mg/d) and the effects of supplementing this diet with 0.5 g/d Spirulina platensis was evaluated by measuring the levels of serum total-cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TAG) and high-density [...] lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol) at the start of the experiment and after 30 d and 60 d. It was found that the levels of serum cholesterol decreased from 1,054±101 mg.dL-1 in the rabbits fed a CD without S. platensis to 516±163 mg.dL-1 to those fed with a high cholesterol diet supplemented with S. platensis (significant at p

Luciane Maria, Colla; Ana Luiza, Muccillo-Baisch; Jorge Alberto Vieira, Costa.

2008-04-01

285

Extreme total solar irradiance due to cloud enhancement at sea level of the NE Atlantic coast of Brazil  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Extraterrestrial total solar irradiance, usually called Solar Constant, is attenuated by the atmosphere in different proportions, depending mainly on solar zenith angle and altitude of the measurement point. In this work, it is presented very high and extreme horizontal plane measurements of global solar irradiance that in some days overpassed the Solar Constant corrected by the actual Sun-Earth distance (CSC). They were obtained at sea level of the intertropical Atlantic coast, in the city of Recife, Brazil, in the period February 2008-January 2009. Extreme total solar irradiance values larger than CSC were measured during 3.4% of the days of the total registered period. This percentage increases to 7.4% for global solar irradiance within 95.1-100% of the CSC and to 15.3% within 90.1-95% of the CSC. The largest extreme total solar irradiance value, 1477 ± 30 W/m2, was registered the 28th of March 2008 at 11:34 local time (UT - 3h). It overpassed by 7.9% the CSC value for this day (1369.4 W/m2) and by 42.3% the estimated value of the clear sky Iqbal C radiation model (1037.7 W/m2). The observation of extreme values should be taken into account in the study of solar radiation effects related to materials exposed to the outside, UV index and biological effects, among others. Also, the detailed knowledge of this interesting effect may contribute significantly to clarify physical aspects about the interaction of global solar radiation witinteraction of global solar radiation with the ecosystem and climate change. (author)

286

Observation of total VEGF level in hyperglycemic mouse eyes after intravitreal injection of the novel anti-VEGF drug conbercept  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose Conbercept (KH902), a novel recombinant, soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor–IgG fusion protein, has been developed as a new drug for ocular neovascularization and macular edema. The present study aims to clarify the changes in conbercept levels, VEGF, and intraocular pressure (IOP) after the intravitreal injection of conbercept into diabetic mouse eyes. Methods Five-week-old C57BL/6 mice were injected with streptozotocin to induce diabetes. Total VEGF and conbercept levels in the eyes were detected using an ELISA kit at ?2 h, 1 h, 1 d, 4 d, 8 d, 16 d, 28 d, and 34 d after intravitreal injection of conbercept into diabetic and control mice. IOP was measured with a noninvasive TonoLab tonometer 7 d after intravitreal conbercept injection. Results The concentration of conbercept in the treated eyes increased immediately after injection and remained at high levels for 4 d (29.77±27.19 ng/ml, 20.28±28.85 ng/ml, and 42.43±36.51 ng/ml for days 1, 2, and 4, respectively). The concentration of conbercept in the untreated fellow eyes increased from day 2 to day 4 after injection with a level of about 1% of that in the injected eyes. Conbercept concentrations in both the treated and fellow eyes decreased from day 7 after intravitreal injection. The concentration of VEGF in the treated eyes increased significantly 1 h after injection when compared with the baseline measured 2 h before injection in both the diabetic and control mice (645.91±86.47 pg/ml versus 296.10±76.11 pg/ml and 860.50±201.47 pg/ml versus 377.69±70.72 pg/ml, respectively). VEGF concentration reached its peak 24 h after injection and then decreased thereafter. At day 7 after intravitreal injection, the difference in IOP between mice that received conbercept and mice that received PBS injections was not significant (p>0.05). Conclusions Conbercept and total VEGF levels in the mouse eyes were elevated after intravitreal injection of conbercept. Increased VEGF levels likely reflect VEGF sequestered by conbercept. These data could be helpful in understanding the metabolism of anti-VEGF drugs in the eye and for determining the protocol of multiple intravitreal injections of conbercept in patients. PMID:25737631

Du, Liping; Peng, Hui; Wu, Quan; Zhu, Meidong; Luo, Delun; Ke, Xiao; Yang, Peizeng

2015-01-01

287

Lake level change and total water discharge in East Africa Rift Valley from satellite-based observations  

Science.gov (United States)

The measurement of total basin water discharge is important for understanding the hydrological and climatologic issues related to the water and energy cycles. Climatic extreme events are normal climatic occurrences in Africa. For example, extensive droughts are regular features in the last few decades in parts of East Africa, which suffers from a lack of in situ observations as well as a lack of regional hydrological models. In this study, multi-disciplinary different types of space-borne observations and global hydrological models are used to study total water discharge in the Great Rift Valley of East Africa (i.e. Lakes Victoria, Tanganyika, and Malawi) from January 2003 to December 2012. The data include the following: (1) total water storage (TWS) variations from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), (2) the lake level variations from Satellite Alimetric data, (3) rainfall from Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) products, (4) soil moisture from WaterGAP Global Hydrology Model (WGHM), and (5) water fluxes from Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). Results show that a significant decline in the average lake level is found for all of the three lakes between 2003 and 2006. GRACE TWS variations of the whole basin area show the same pattern of variation as the average lake level variations estimated from Altimetric data. The TWS in the basin area of Lakes Victoria and Malawi is governed by the surface water stored in each lake itself, while for Lake Tanganyika, it is governed by both surface water and the soil moisture content in the basin area. Furthermore, the effect of rainfall on TWS is also studied. A phase lag of ~ 2 months is found between TRMM rainfall and GRACE TWS (generally, rainfall precedes the GRACE TWS) for the three lakes. In addition, the regional evapotranspiration ET is estimated from the water balance equation using GRACE land-water solutions, rainfall data from TRMM and runoff values obtained as a fraction of rainfall. It is found that the computed ET represents approximately 90% of the rainfall over the study region.

Hassan, Ayman A.; Jin, Shuanggen

2014-06-01

288

Effect of growth conditions and substratum composition on the persistence of coliforms in mixed-population biofilms.  

OpenAIRE

Laboratory reactors operated under oligotrophic conditions were used to evaluate the importance of initial growth rate and substratum composition on the long-term persistence of coliforms in mixed-population biofilms. The inoculum growth rate had a dramatic effect on the ability of coliforms to remain on surfaces. The most slowly grown coliforms (mu = 0.05/h) survived at the highest cell concentration. Antibody staining revealed that Klebsiella pneumoniae existed primarily as discrete microco...

Camper, A. K.; Jones, W. L.; Hayes, J. T.

1996-01-01

289

Failure of the most-probable-number technique to detect coliforms in drinking water and raw water supplies.  

OpenAIRE

A procedure was developed to detect false-negative reactions (interference) in the standard most-probable-number (S-MPN) technique for coliform enumeration of untreated surface water and potable water supplies. This modified MPN (M-MPN) procedure allowed a quantitative assessment of the interference with coliform detection in untreated surface water and potable water supplies. Coliform interference was found to occur in the presumptive, confirmed, and completed tests of the S-MPN technique. W...

Evans, T. M.; Waarvick, C. E.; Seidler, R. J.; Lechevallier, M. W.

1981-01-01

290

How much locomotive activity is needed for an active physical activity level: analysis of total step counts  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Although physical activity recommendations for public health have focused on locomotive activity such as walking and running, it is uncertain how much these activities contribute to overall physical activity level (PAL. The purpose of the present study was to determine the contribution of locomotive activity to PAL using total step counts measured in a calorimeter study. Methods PAL, calculated as total energy expenditure divided by basal metabolic rate, was evaluated in 11 adult men using three different conditions for 24-hour human calorimeter measurements: a low-activity day (L-day targeted at a low active level of PAL (1.45, and a high-frequency moderate activity day (M-day or a high-frequency vigorous activity day (V-day targeted at an active level of PAL (1.75. These subjects were permitted only light activities except prescribed activities. In a separate group of 41 adults, free-living PAL was evaluated using doubly-labeled water (DLW. In both experiments, step counts per day were also measured using an accelerometer. Results In the human calorimeter study, PAL and step counts were 1.42 ± 0.10 and 8,973 ± 543 steps/d (L-day, 1.82 ± 0.14 and 29,588 ± 1,126 steps/d (M-day, and 1.74 ± 0.15 and 23,755 ± 1,038 steps/d (V-day, respectively. In the DLW study, PAL and step counts were 1.73 ± 0.15 and 10,022 ± 2,605 steps/d, and there was no significant relationship between PAL and daily step counts. Conclusions These results indicate that an enormous number of steps are needed for an active level of PAL if individuals extend physical activity-induced energy expenditure by only locomotive activity. Therefore, non-locomotive activity such as household activity should also play a significant role in increasing PAL under free-living conditions.

Ohkawara Kazunori

2011-11-01

291

Single dose testosterone increases total cholesterol levels and induces the expression of HMG CoA Reductase  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol is mainly synthesised in liver and the rate-limiting step is the reduction of 3-hydroxy-3methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA to mevalonate, a reaction catalysed by HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR. There is a comprehensive body of evidence documenting that anabolic-androgenic steroids are associated with deleterious alterations of lipid profile. In this study we investigated whether a single dose of testosterone enanthate affects the cholesterol biosynthesis and the expression of HMGCR. Methods 39 healthy male volunteers were given 500 mg testosterone enanthate as single intramuscular dose of Testoviron®--Depot. The total cholesterol levels prior to and two days after testosterone administration were analysed. Protein expression of HMGCR in whole blood was investigated by Western blotting. In order to study whether testosterone regulates the mRNA expression of HMGCR, in vitro studies were performed in a human liver cell-line (HepG2. Results The total cholesterol level was significantly increased 15% two days after the testosterone injection (p = 0.007. This is the first time a perturbation in the lipoprotein profile is observed after only a single dose of testosterone. Moreover, the HMGCR mRNA and protein expression was induced by testosterone in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Conclusion Here we provide a molecular explanation how anabolic androgenic steroids may impact on the cholesterol homeostasis, i.e. via an increase of the HMGCR expression. Increasing knowledge and understanding of AAS induced side-effects is important in order to find measures for treatment and care of these abusers.

Gårevik Nina

2012-03-01

292

Spirulina platensis effects on the levels of total cholesterol, HDL and triacylglycerols in rabbits fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet  

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Full Text Available In this work, hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits by feeding them a high cholesterol diet (CD, 350 mg/d and the effects of supplementing this diet with 0.5 g/d Spirulina platensis was evaluated by measuring the levels of serum total-cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerols (TAG and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol at the start of the experiment and after 30 d and 60 d. It was found that the levels of serum cholesterol decreased from 1,054±101 mg.dL-1 in the rabbits fed a CD without S. platensis to 516±163 mg.dL-1 to those fed with a high cholesterol diet supplemented with S. platensis (significant at p A microalga Spirulina é cultivada e comercializada no mundo devido a suas características nutricionais (elevada concentração de proteínas, em torno de 65%, vitaminas e sais minerais e ao seu potencial terapêutico no tratamento de inúmeras doenças, inclusive a hipercolesterolemia. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a inibição da hipercolesterolemia induzida em coelhos por uma dieta adicionada de colesterol (350 mg.d-1, pela suplementação de 0,5 g.dia-1 de biomassa de Spirulina platensis, sendo avaliados os níveis de colesterol total, triglicerídeos e HDL nos tempos de 0 d, 30 d e 60 d de tratamento. Os resultados indicaram que a adição de Spirulina platensis na dieta ocasionou decréscimo nos níveis de colesterol total de 1054±101 mg.dL-1 para 516±163 mg.dL-1 (p<0,0001, para os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica em comparação com os que receberam a dieta adicionada de Spirulina platensis. A adição de Spirulina a dieta colesterolêmica não ocasionou decréscimo significativo nos níveis de triglicerídios dos coelhos. Os valores de HDL aumentaram de 73±31 mg.dL-1 para 91,0±15,7 mg.dL-1, comparando-se os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica e os alimentados com a dieta adicionada de Spirulina, estatisticamente diferentes a um nível de significância maior que 0,1533.

Luciane Maria Colla

2008-04-01

293

Estimation of total and bioaccessible levels of iodine in edible seaweeds of Japan by epithermal neutron activation analysis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Edible seaweeds play important roles as daily source of minerals and dietary fibers for Japanese population groups. It is therefore of interest to estimate the intake of minerals and dietary fibers from seaweeds. Although the levels of iodine can be measured by ICP-MS in liquid samples such as urine and water, it is rather difficult to do the same in seaweeds due to polysaccharides in them. In this study, the following eight edible seaweeds were collected from local shores or purchased from stores. Sea mustard is the most popular edible seaweed in Japan; it starts growing quickly in January until it reaches a height of about 2 m in March. Sea mustards in different growing stages were collected, cut into several longitudinal pieces, freeze dried, and pulverized. Dietary fiber was separated from dried powder by in vitro enzymolysis using ?-Amylase, protease, and amyloglucosidase. Portions of dried powder and dietary fiber were irradiated for 1-5 min at the Dalhousie University SLOWPOKE-2 Reactor (DUSR) in Canada or the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) in Japan. After appropriate cooling time, the 442.9-keV gamma-ray of 128I was used to assay iodine by epithermal instrumental neutron activation analysis (EINAA). Total and bioaccesible iodine levels in eight edible seaweeds are shown

294

The organic contamination level based on the total soil mass is not a proper index of the soil contamination intensity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Concentrations of organic contaminants in common productive soils based on the total soil mass give a misleading account of actual contamination effects. This is attributed to the fact that productive soils are essentially water-saturated, with the result that the soil uptake of organic compounds occurs principally by partition into the soil organic matter (SOM). This report illustrates that the soil contamination intensity of a compound is governed by the concentration in the SOM (Com) rather than by the concentration in whole soil (Cs). Supporting data consist of the measured levels and toxicities of many pesticides in soils of widely differing SOM contents and the related levels in in-situ crops that defy explanation by the Cs values. This SOM-based index is timely needed for evaluating the contamination effects of food crops grown in different soils and for establishing a dependable priority ranking for intended remediation of numerous contamination sites. - The concentration of an organic compound in soil based on the entire soil mass is not a proper measure of its contamination intensity.

295

The Seasonality of Fecal Coliform Bacteria Pollution and its Influence on Closures of Shellfish Harvesting Areas in Mississippi Sound  

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Full Text Available Runoff from agricultural lands and farm animal feedlots is one of the major sources of fecal coliforms in surface waters, and fecal coliform (FC bacteria concentrations tend to vary with season because of seasonal variations in climatic factors. However, El Niño -Southern Oscillation (ENSO events may affect the extent and patterns of seasonality in FC levels in coastal waters. Water quality monitoring data for shellfish management collected during El Niño (1990, 1992, 1997, and La Niña (1999, 2000 years were analyzed to evaluate the extent to which these events influenced Pearl River stage, and bacterial levels, water temperature, and salinity in the western part of Mississippi Sound. Models to predict FC levels in relation to various environmental factors were also developed. In 1990, 1992 and 1997, FC geometric mean counts peaked in late winter (January/February reaching 120 MPN (February 1990, 165 MPN (January 1992, and 86 MPN (January 1997, and then decreased considerably during spring and summer (1.2 – 19 MPN. Thereafter, FC abundance increased slightly in fall and early winter (1.9 – 24 MPN. Fecal coliform abundance during the 2000 La Niña year was much lower (1.0 – 10.3 MPN than in 1992 (1.2 – 165 MPN, and showed no seasonal pattern from January to August, perhaps due to the relative scarcity of rainfall in 2000. In 1995 (ENSO neutral year, peak geometric mean FC count (46 MPN was lower than during El Niño years and occurred in early spring (March. The seasonal and between year variations in FC levels determined the number of days during which the conditionally approved shellfish growing area was opened for harvesting shellfish. For example, from January to April 1997, the area was not opened for shellfish harvesting, whereas in 2000, the number of days during which the area was opened ranged from 6 - 27 (January to April to 24 - 26 (October to December. ENSO events thus influenced the extent and timing of the peak levels of fecal coliforms in Mississippi Sound. Models consisting of one or more of the variables: Pearl River stage, water temperature, and salinity were developed to predict FC concentrations in the Sound. The model parameter(s explained 56 to 91% of the variations in FC counts. Management of shellfish in Mississippi Sound can be improved by utilizing information on the forecasted three to seven years occurrence of ENSO events. In addition, since Pearl River stage was the most important variable predicting FC concentration in the Sound, a study of the levels and sources of FC bacteria in the river, especially the middle and lower sections, is needed for developing a management plan for reducing FC bacteria pollution in the Sound.

Paul B. Tchounwou

2005-08-01

296

Serum levels of free and total insulin-link growth factor (IGF)-1 and (IGF) binding protein-3 in normal and growth hormone deficient children  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor- 1 (IGF-1) and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) reflect endogenous GH secretion in healthy children, which makes them good diagnostic markers for screening GH deficiency (GHD) in short children, although some controversy still exists. Only a minor fraction of the total IGF-1 circulates in its free form, which is believed to be the biologically active form. Serum levels of free IGF-1, total IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured in 144 healthy children (72 boys and 72 girls, aged from 0 to 16 years) and in 12 prepubertal GH. deficient (GHD) children to study correlation between the age and free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels. In healthy subjects (both sexes), serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were low in infancy, increasing during puberty and declining thereafter. Free IGF-1 in serum occupied about 0.97. 1.45 % of the total IGF-1 values, and the ratios of free IGF-1 to total IGF-1 were significantly increased in the pubertal age groups than in the prepubertal age groups. Serum levels of free IGF-1 showed significant positive correlation with those of total IGF-I and IGFBP-3. Serum free IGF-1, total IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels in patients with GHD decreased significantly with increasing degree of hypopituitarism. These observations suggest that the increase in serum free IGF-1 level during puberty was caused by a dramatic increase in total IGF-1 rather than IGFBP-3. Also, high levels of these hormones may play an important role in pubertal growth spurt and may become a useful tool for diagnosing GHD and predicting growth response to long term GH therapy

297

Pré-resfriamento na redução de coliformes em carcaças de frango de corte / Immersion chilling in fecal coliforms count reduction on broiler carcasses  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar a análise individual (plano de duas classes) e a análise por lotes (plano de três classes), priorizado pelo plano amostragem oficial da ANVISA, na influência do pré-resfriamento de carcaças de frangos de corte na redução da contaminação por coliformes termotole [...] rantes. Foram analisadas 240 carcaças de frangos de corte, sendo coletadas 120 amostras antes e 120 após a etapa de pré-resfriamento, para quantificação de coliformes termotolerantes pela técnica de contagem em placas. As médias das contagens obtidas das carcaças coletadas antes e após o pré-resfriamento foram diferentes, com uma redução média de 0,99log10 UFC g-1 de coliformes termotolerantes. Na interpretação dos resultados obtidos antes do pré-resfriamento pela análise individual, 16,7% (20/120) das carcaças foram classificadas como inaceitáveis, enquanto, pela análise por lotes, foram 37,5% (45/120). Houve associação entre a aceitabilidade dos lotes e a passagem pelo chiller com um valor de Odds Ratio de 35,48. Ficou demonstrada a importância da utilização do plano de análise por lotes e da etapa de pré-resfriamento no processo de produção, sendo decisivos para a aceitação dos lotes de carcaças de aves para comercialização pelos parâmetros vigentes na legislação nacional. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to assess the influence of immersion chilling on broiler carcasses contamination by fecal coliforms counting in a poultry slaughterhouse under Federal Sanitary Inspection by individual and three class plan interpretation of the results. Two hundred and forty broiler c [...] arcasses, being collected 120 before and 120 after passage thought chillers, were analyzed for coliform counting by plate count technique. The averages of the counts obtained from all carcasses collected before and after immersion chilling were different, with an average reduction of 0.99log10 CFU g-1 of fecal coliforms. Regarding individual results (two class plan) before chilling, 16.7% (20/120) of the carcasses were classified as unacceptable, against 37.5% (45/120) regarding lots results (three class plan). There was a strong association between the acceptability of lots and immersion chilling with an Odds Ratio value of 35.48. It was demonstrated the importance of the official sampling plan and immersion chilling in the production process, being decisive for the acceptance of the chicken carcass lots by the national legislation standards.

Vanessa Silva, Simas; Felipe Faccini dos, Santos; Raquel, Gouvêa; Maria Helena Cosendey de, Aquino; Dayse Lima da Costa, Abreu; Elmiro Rosendo do, Nascimento; Virginia Léo de Almeida, Pereira.

1618-16-01

298

COD, TSS, nutrients and coliforms removals in UASB reactors in two stages treating swine wastewater / Remoções de DQO, sólidos, nutrientes e coliformes em reatores UASB em dois estágios tratando água residuárias de suinocultura  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Foi avaliado o desempenho de dois reatores anaeróbios de fluxo ascendente com manta de lodo (UASB) em escala-piloto (908 e 188 L), instalados em série (R1 e R2), para o tratamento de águas residuárias de suinocultura com concentrações médias de SST em torno de 5 e 13 g L-1. Os TDH foram de 36 e 18 h [...] com COV de 5,5 a 34,4 g DQO (L d)-1 no R1 e TDH de 7,5 e 3,7 h com COV de 5,1 a 45,2 g DQO (L d)-1 no R2. As eficiências médias de remoção de DQO variaram de 55 a 85% no R1 e de 43 a 57% no R2, resultando valores de 82 a 93% nos reatores UASB em dois estágios. As concentrações de metano no biogás foram de 69 a 74%, com produções de 0,05 a 0,27 L CH4 (g DQOremovida)-1 no R1 e de 0,10 a 0,12 L CH4 (g DQOremovida)-1 no R2. Os valores médios de eficiência de remoção de Ptotal foram de 61 a 75%; de NK de 39 a 69%; de Norg. de 82 a 93%, e de Fe, Zn, Cu e Mn de 20 a 94%. As concentrações de N-am. não foram reduzidas, indicando a necessidade de pós-tratamento para disposição do efluente em corpos d'água. Houve redução de coliformes totais de 99,8123 a 99,9989%, e de coliformes termotolerantes de 99,9725 a 99,9999%. As condições impostas aos reatores UASB em dois estágios propiciaram reduções acentuadas da carga poluidora orgânica e inorgânica das águas residuárias de suinocultura, com conversão de até 77% da DQO removida em metano. Abstract in english The performance of two upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors was evaluated in pilot scale (908 and 188 L), installed in series (R1 and R2), fed with swine wastewater with TSS around 5 and 13 g L-1. The UASB reactors were submitted to HDT of 36 and 18 h with VOL of 5.5 to 34.4 g COD (L d)-1 [...] in the R1 and HDT of 7.5 e 3.7 h with VOL from 5.1 to 45.2 g COD (L d)-1 in the R2. The average removal efficiencies of COD ranged from 55 to 85% in the R1 and from 43 to 57% in the R2, resulting in values from 82 to 93% in the UASB reactors in two stage. Methane concentrations in the biogas were 69 to 74% with specific production from 0.05 to 0.27 L CH4 (g removedCOD)-1 in the R1 and of 0.10 to 0.12 L CH4 (g removedCOD)-1 in the R2. The average removal efficiencies were 61 to 75% for totalP, 39 to 69% for KN, 82 to 93% for orgN and 20 to 94% for Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn. The amN concentration were not reduced indicating the need to post-treatment for effluent disposal into water bodies. There were reductions of total coliforms from 99.8123 to 99.9989% and of thermotolerant coliforms from 99.9725 to 99.9999%. The conditions imposed to the UASB reactors in two stage provided high conversions of removedCOD into methane (up to 77%) and reductions of organic an inorganic pollution loads from swine wastewater.

299

Measuring Partial Pressure of Ammonia in Arterial or Venous Blood VS total Ammonia Levels in Hepatic Encephalopathy  

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Full Text Available AIM: To find out the correlation between clinical grade of hepaticencephalopathy and different serum ammonia levels, namely,serum arterial ammonia, serum venous ammonia, partial pressureof ammonia in arterial plasma and partial pressure of ammonia invenous plasma.METHODS: After informed consent from patients or their relatives,100 patients in hepatic encephalopathy due to advanced liver disease,were examined for their clinical grade of hepatic encephalopathywithin 24 hours of admission. Fasting arterial and venous bloodsamples were collected and sent to lab within 30 min. ection. BloodpH was measured in both samples for each patient. Ammonia levelswere measured directly by an enzymatic UV-Method. Partial pressurein a given sample was calculated by the recommended formula, usingtotal ammonia and blood pH of the respective sample.RESULTS: Maximum number of patients (53% in this study was inclinical grade I of hepatic encephalopathy, 30% were in grade II, and12% were in Grade III. Only 5% were in grade IV. While comparingmeans of serum arterial ammonia (0.26049, serum venous ammonia(0.264, partial pressure of ammonia in arterial blood (4.520 andpartial pressure of ammonia (4.357 in venous blood with clinicalgrades of hepatic encephalopathy, they increased with increasingclinical grade of hepatic encephalopathy with p-values of 0.001, 0.01,0.002, and 0.003 respectively. Partial pressure of ammonia in venousblood was most strongly associated with hepatic encephalopathy(p-value 0.001 followed by serum venous ammonia (p-value 0.002.CONCLUSIONS: Total arterial ammonia, total venous ammonia,partial pressure of arterial ammonia, and partial pressure of venousammonia, all are positively and significantly correlated withworsening clinical grades of hepatic encephalopathy. Partial pressureof ammonia in venous blood followed by that in serum venousammonia were most strongly associated with grade of hepaticencephalopathy.

Mohammad Asif Mehmood

2013-05-01

300

Are Total, Intensity- and Domain-Specific Physical Activity Levels Associated with Life Satisfaction among University Students?  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Thorough information about the relationship between physical activity (PA) and life satisfaction is still lacking. Therefore, this study examined the cross-sectional relationships between life satisfaction and meeting the World Health Organization (WHO) moderate to vigorous-intensity PA recommendations, total volume and duration of PA, intensity-specific PA (walking, moderate- and vigorous-intensity), domain-specific PA (work, transport-related, domestic, and leisure-time), and 11 domain and intensity-specific PA types among university students. Additionally, we examined the associations between life satisfaction and gender, age, disposable income, community size, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI), and self-rated health. Methods The study included a random sample of 1750 university students in Zagreb, Croatia (response rate = 71.7%; 62.4% females; mean age 21.5 ± 1.8 years), using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire — long form and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. Results Higher life satisfaction was associated with female gender (? = 0.13; p = <0.001), younger age (? = -0.07; p = 0.024), higher disposable income (? = 0.10; p = 0.001), and better self-rated health (? = 0.30; p = <0.001). No significant association was found between life satisfaction and size of community (p = 0.567), smoking status (p = 0.056), alcohol consumption (p = 0.058), or BMI (p = 0.508). Among all PA variables, only leisure-time vigorous-intensity PA was significantly associated with life satisfaction after adjustments for socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle and self-rated general health (? = 0.06; p = 0.045). Conclusions This study indicated a weak positive relationship between leisure-time vigorous-intensity PA and life satisfaction, whilst no such association was found for other PA variables. These findings underscore the importance of analyzing domain and intensity-specific PA levels in future studies among university students, as drawing conclusions about the relationship between PA and life satisfaction based on total PA levels only may be misleading. PMID:25695492

Pediši?, Željko; Greblo, Zrinka; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Milton, Karen; Bauman, Adrian E.

2015-01-01

301

Influencing factors in the occurrence of injured coliforms in the drinking water distribution system in the city of La Plata, Argentina  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study was to evaluate the influencing factors in the occurrence of coliforms in the drinking water in La Plata (Argentina) from June 1999 to June 2001. A total of 180 samples were collected from Rio de La Plata (102 samples) and Puelche Aquifer (78 samples); 45 samples were collected for each of the four seasons. The membrane filter procedure was used for isolating bacteria, and each sample was tested for chlorine and pH. The highest percentage of samples positive for co...

Co?rdoba, Alejandra; Del Coco, V.; Minvielle, Marta Cecilia; Basualdo Farjat, Juan A?ngel

2010-01-01

302

Isolamento e identificação de coliformes no queijo Minas comercializado na região metropolitana de Salvador - Bahia.  

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Full Text Available RESUMO: A estreita relação entre o consumo de leite e seus derivados e a melhoria da qualidade de vida é sistematicamente defendida por pesquisadores de todo mundo. O queijo é um importante derivado do leite, apreciado tanto pelo seu valor nutritivo como pelo seu sabor, que atende aos mais exigentes paladares. No entanto, as condições de processamento, armazenamento e comercialização podem comprometer suas características organolépticas, bem como torná-lo impróprio para o consumo, em virtude da contaminação por microrganismos responsáveis por toxinfecções alimentares. Foram realizadas seis coletas, perfazendo 24 ( 75% amostras de queijo Minas frescal analisadas de sete diferentes marcas, sendo oito (33,33 % representando a marca B, cinco (20,83 % a marca C, quatro (16,66 % a marca D, três (12,50 % a marca E, dois (8,33 % a marca F, uma (4,16 % a marca G e uma (4,16 % a marca H, enquanto foram coletadas e analisadas seis (25 % amostras de queijo Minas padrão, em três diferentes marcas perfazendo três (50 % amostras da marca A1, duas (33,33 da marca A2 e uma (16,66% da marca A3. De acordo com os resultados da análise de variância houve efeito significativo o que demonstra a baixa qualidade do queijo Minas frescal comercializado na região metropolitana de Salvador. PALAVRAS CHAVES: Queijo, qualidade, coliformes SUMMARY: The proximal relation between the milk and derivatives consume and advance of the live quality is defended by experts in worldwide. Cheese is na important derivative of the milk, appreciated for nutritive value and for your flavour, which attend at many palates exigent. However, conditions of manufactures, storage and commercialization can compromise your characteristics, caused for microorganisms responsible for contamination and toxin-infection alimentary. Six collect were accomplished, and total of 24 (75% samples of â?? Minas frescalâ? cheese analyzed of seven differents marks, eight (33,33% of the mark B, five (20,83% of the mark C, four (16,66% of the mark D, three (12,50% of the mark E, two (8.33% of the mark F, one (4,16% of the mark G and one (4,16% of the mark H, While were acomplished and analyzed six (25% samples of â?? Minas padrãoâ? cheese, of three differents marks and total three (50% samples of the mark A1, two (33,33% of the mark A2 and one (16,66% of the mark A3. According results of the analysis there were significant effects a which showed a low quality of â??Minas frescalâ? cheese commercialized in metropolitan area of Salvador /BA. KEYWORDS: Cheese,quality, coliformes

T. C. N. Martinez

2005-03-01

303

Evaluación de la tasa de aclaración de la almeja dulceacuícola Anodontites tortolis en un medio con coliformes Escherichia coli / Clearance rate of faecal coliforms by netropical freshwater clam  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En condiciones de laboratorio se evaluón acute; la eficiencia de la almeja de agua dulce (Anodontites tortolis) para disminuir la carga de coliformes fecales (Escherichia coli) determinada mediante filtración en membrana por 8 horas. El experimento se diseñó con dos tratamientos (densidades de seis [...] (T1) y ocho almejas (T2) más un control) con tres replicaciones. Se encontraron diferencias significativas (P Abstract in english Under laboratory conditions the efficiency of the freshwater clam Anodontites tortolis to diminish the quantity of faecal coliforms, determined by the membrane filtration method during eight hours was evaluated. The experiment was design with two treatments (two densities of six (T1) and eight clams [...] (T2) and a control) and three replications. Statistical significant differences (P

Juan René, Mallama Leyton; Angela Inés, Guzmán Alvis.

2011-01-01

304

Molecular and Bacteriological Examination of Milk from Different Milch Animals with Special Reference to Coliforms  

OpenAIRE

In the present study, 20 samples of raw milk of cow, buffalo and goat and pasteurized milk were collected from the local market and were analyzed for microbial count and IMViC tests to determine the coliform load in the sample. Further, the presence of E. coli was confirmed by using PCR. Majority of the milk samples of different origin were found to be contaminated by the coliform group of bacteria. Nine samples were found to be positive for E. coli by PCR analysis. Pasteurized milk sa...

Parekh, T. S.; Subhash, R.

2008-01-01

305

Effects of low voltage electrolysis and freezing on coliform content of contaminated water  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A sewage sample was mixed with drinking water and subjected to low voltage (15V) electrolysis in the presence of 1% NaCl. The prepared sample was also kept in freezer with and without the presence of sodium chloride for 4-hours. Among these treatments the electrolysis proved to kill the coliforms, while the freezing reduced the bacterial content. Antibiotics sensitivity patterns revealed that certain of the coliform strains survived the freezing and thawing shocks. Nature of such surviving bacteria and need to study chemical parameters of electrolyzed water are discussed. (author)

306

Evaluation of a rapid method for the quantitative estimation of coliforms in meat by impedimetric procedures.  

OpenAIRE

A 24-h instrumental procedure is described for the quantitative estimation of coliforms in ground meat. The method is simple and rapid, and it requires but a single sample dilution and four replicates. The data are recorded automatically and can be used to estimate coliforms in the range of 100 to 10,000 organisms per g. The procedure is an impedance detection time (IDT) method using a new medium, tested against 131 stock cultures, that markedly enhances the impedance response of gram-negativ...

Martins, S. B.; Selby, M. J.

1980-01-01

307

Evaluation of some natural products on sugar beet contamined with coliform bacteria group  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The sugar beet crop has great importance because its ability on sugar production that can be extracted and crystallized. The use of wastewater in the irrigation has increased because this water has some nutrients sources. However the use of wastewater may cause some health problems due to the presence of coliform bacteria group. In this trial, the objective was to contribute for the sugar beet decontamination. Some products as lemon juice, NaClO and ascetic acid were used by sugar beet immersion during a little time. In conclusion, the lemon juice showed best results by reducing coliform bacteria group.

Rogéria Maria Alves de Almeida

2006-08-01

308

Effect of different fibrous and nonfiber carbohydrate levels on nutrients digestibility of total mixed ration using in vivo in buffalo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of different levels of NDF on chewing behavior and their relationship with ruminal acidity, 3 ruminally fistulated buffalo steers (average BW = 389.6 ±7.5 Kg were allotted in a change over design in Agriculture and Natural Resource center of Uremia city of Iran. Two diets with 2 levels of NDF were used as treatments. First and second diets had 52 and 47 % of NDF, respectively. The experiment had two periods and each period’s take 15d for adaptation, 7d for sample collection and determination of nutrient digestibility and for determination of passage rate, 2d for measuring ruminal pH, and 3d for measuring chewing activity. Using Penn Stat Particle Separator (PSPS, distribution, geometric mean, its standard deviation and physically effective factor (pef of diets were determined. Animals fed ad libitum at 09:00a.m and 21:00p.m. The time that spent for eating and rumination were optically recorded in 24h with 5 minutes intervals and total chewing activity calculated from sum of eating and rumination time. There were no significant differences between chemical composition, particles distribution, geometric mean, its standard deviation and physically effective factor (pef of diets, dry matter intake (kg/d and nutrients intake (NDF, ADF, NFC and crude protein and their digestibility, but digestibility ADF, NDF and NFC decreased as content of fiber increased(P1.18 increased (P1.18 increased (P<0.05.

Gh. Manafiazar

2010-02-01

309

Characterization of the genomic responses in early Senegalese sole larvae fed diets with different dietary triacylglycerol and total lipids levels.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this work was to evaluate the genomic responses of premetamorphic sole larvae (9 days post-hatching, dph) fed diets with different lipid and triacylglycerol (TAG) content. For this purpose, two diets with high (rotifers enriched with a fish oil-based emulsion; referred to as HTAG) and low (rotifers enriched with a krill oil-based emulsion; LTAG) levels of total lipids and TAG were evaluated. Lipid class and fatty acid (FA) profiles, histological characterization of intestine, liver and pancreas and expression patterns using RNA-seq were determined. Discriminant analysis results showed that larvae could be clearly differentiated on the basis of their FA profile as a function of the diet supplied until 9dph although no difference in growth was observed. RNA-seq analysis showed that larvae fed HTAG activated coordinately the transcription of apolipoproteins (apob, apoa4, apoc2, apoe, and apobec2) and other related transcripts involved in chylomicron formation, likely to facilitate proper lipid absorption and delivery. In contrast, larvae fed LTAG showed higher mRNA levels of several pancreatic enzymes (try1a, try2, cela1, cela3, cela4, chym1, chym2, amy2a and pnlip) and appetite modulators (agrp1) and some intra- and extracellular lipases. Moreover, KEGG analysis also showed that several transcripts related to lipid metabolism and glycolysis were differentially expressed with a higher abundance in larvae fed LTAG diet. All these data suggest that early larvae were able to establish compensatory mechanisms for energy homeostasis regulating key molecules for FA and TAG biosynthesis, FA uptake and intracellular management of TAG and FA to warrant optimal growth rates. PMID:25463059

Hachero-Cruzado, I; Rodríguez-Rua, A; Román-Padilla, J; Ponce, M; Fernández-Díaz, C; Manchado, M

2014-12-01

310

Enumeração de coliformes fecais e presença de Salmonella sp. em queijo Minas / Enumeration of fecal coliforms and presense of Salmonella sp. in Minas cheese  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Foram submetidas à contagem de coliformes fecais e pesquisa de Salmonella sp. 168 amostras de variedades de queijo Minas (20 frescal, 48 canastra e 100 padronizado) coletadas em Belo Horizonte no período de 1995 a 1996. Foram adquiridos queijos com e sem registro no Serviço de Inspeção Federal (SIF) [...] para avaliar a diferença de qualidade microbiológica. Os resultados evidenciaram ausência de Salmonella sp. em todas as amostras de queijo. Entretanto, verificou-se que 90% das amostras de queijo Minas frescal, 81,2% de Minas canastra e 52% de Minas padronizado apresentavam elevada contagem de coliformes fecais, sendo essas superiores aos valores permitidos para inspeção. Não houve diferença estatística significativa entre os queijos com e sem SIF com relação aos resultados das análises microbiológicas de queijo Minas frescal padronizado. Abstract in english There were submitted to the fecal coliforms enumeration and Samonella sp. search 168 samples of "Minas" cheese varieties (20 white, 48 "canastra" and 100 standardized), collected in Belo Horizonte, Brazil, from 1995 to 1996. There were purchased cheeses with and without Federal Inspection Service (F [...] IS) register, in order to evaluate microbiological quality difference. However, it was verified that 90.0% of the "Minas" white cheese, 81.2% of the "canastra Minas" and 52.0% of the standardized "Minas" presented high fecal coliforms counts, which were superior to the inspection allowed values. There was no significant statistical difference among FIS registered and not registered cheeses concerning "Minas" white and standardized cheeses microbiological analysis.

M.L., Pereira; M.C.A., Gastelois; E.M.A.F., Bastos; W.T., Caiaffa; E.S.C., Faleiro.

1999-10-01

311

Diets formulated on total or digestible amino acid basis with different energy levels and physical form on broiler performance  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We studied the effects of two different systems of expressing amino acid requirements (total - TAA or digestible - DAA, two energy levels (2,900 or 3,200 kcal of ME/kg and two physical forms (mash or pellet on the performance of male broilers from 21 to 42 d of age. Diets formulated on DAA basis improved feed conversion (p<0.001 and the conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001. Birds fed 3,200 kcal ME/kg presented better feed conversion (p<0.001, higher abdominal fat deposition (p<0.001 and worse conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001 as compared to birds fed 2,900 kcal ME/kg. Birds fed pelleted feed had higher feed intake (p<0.001, higher weight gain (p<0.001, better feed conversion (p<0.001, better conversion of consumed ME into body weight gain (p<0.001 and higher abdominal fat deposition (p<0.001. The results obtained in the present study suggest that feed formulation based on DAA is required when diets contain protein sources which amino acid digestibility is unreliable. Besides, pelleted feed improves performance parameters of broilers.

A Maiorka

2005-03-01

312

The Effect of Short-term Frozen Storage on the Chemical Composition and Coliform Microflora of Wara Cheese `Wara Cheese under Frozen Storage`  

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Full Text Available The effect of short-term frozen (-20°C storage on the chemical composition, pH and coliform bacterial count (cbc of Wara cheese was investigated. Wara cheese at day old contained 31.00% total solids, 38.26% fat, 33.14% protein, 3.39% ash, 69.00% moisture, 376.50 * 105 cfu g-1 coliform bacteria and a pH of 5.04. At the end of 3 days of frozen storage, average total solids, fat, protein, moisture and ash were found, respectively, 33.25, 35.45, 36.63, 66.75 and 3.88%, while values for pH and cbc were 4.65 and 63.50 * 105 cfu g-1. Daily differences obtained in the parameters observed during frozen storage were similar except for the total solids content that was significantly different (p<0.01. A superior and highly significant correlation (r = 0.664, p<0.01 was found between pH and cbc, while cbc had a positive correlation (r = 0.366 with moisture content.

O.A. Alalade

2007-01-01

313

Influence of Ileo-Caecal Cannulation and Oxytetracycline on Ileo-Caecal and Rectal Coliform Populations in Pigs  

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Full Text Available The effect of surgery (insertion of an ileo-caecal cannula and a subsequent parenteral treatment with oxytetracycline on the ileo-caecal and rectal coliform populations in 7 Swedish Yorkshire castrates were studied. Samples were collected during surgery as well as 3, 7, 14 and 20 days post surgery. The diversity of the enteric coliform flora was initially high both in the ileo-caecal ostium and in rectum. No alteration in the diversity of the enteric coliform flora was observed following surgery and treatment with oxytetracycline. As the insertion of ileo-caecal cannulas did not affect the intestinal coliform flora this study gives support to the use of this technique to mirror processes in the small intestine of pigs. Further, the diversity of the enteric coliform flora was unaffected by the parenteral treatment with oxytetracycline.

Wallgren P

2001-12-01

314

Contribution of thermolabile methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase variant to total plasma homocysteine levels in healthy men and women. Inter99 (2)  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Elevation in plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is believed to be causally related to cardiovascular disease. Like age and sex, the thermolabile variant of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR(C677T)) is an important nonmodifiable determinant of tHcy, which may be considered when describing normal ranges of tHcy in the general population. We investigated the simultaneous effect of sex, age, and MTHFR(C677T) genotype on the distribution of tHcy in a cross-sectional study design. THcy concentrations and MTHFR(C677T) genotype were determined in a population-based sample of 2,788 Danish men and women aged 30-60 years participating in the Inter99 Study. The prevalences of MTHFR(C677T) genotypes were 48.8% (CC), 42.4% (CT), and 8.8% (TT). The overall median tHcy was 8.1 micromol/l, and the 2.5-97.5 percentiles were 4.8-17.8 micro mol/l. The estimated proportionally higher level of tHcy in men compared to women was 14.3% (P<0.001). A significant interaction term was found between age and MTHFR(C677T) genotype (P<0.001). The estimated changes in tHcy per 5 years of age were 1.5% in CC individuals (P<0.01), 2.1% in CT individuals (P<0.001), and -4.1% in TT individuals (P<0.01). The T allele was associated with elevated tHcy. However, the proportionally higher level of tHcy in TT individuals compared to CT and CC individuals decreased with increasing age. The MTHFR(C677T) polymorphism explained 6% of the phenotypic variation in tHcy. In conclusion, we found that tHcy is associated with sex, age, and MTHFR genotype. Our results indicate that the effect of age is modified by MTHFR genotype.

Husemoen, Lise Lotte N; Thomsen, Troels F

2003-01-01

315

Detection of fecal coliforms in water by using [14C]mannitol  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Interest in rapid bacterial detection methods for sanitary indicator bacteria in water prompted a study of the use of [U-14C]mannitol to detect fecal coliforms (FC). A simple method which used m-FC broth, membrane filtration, and two-temperature incubation (35 degrees C for 2 h followed by 44.5 degrees C for 2.5 h) was developed. [U-14C]mannitol was added to the medium, and the temperature was raised to 44.5 degrees C after 2 h at 35 degrees C. 14CO2 was collected as Ba14CO3 and assayed by liquid scintillation spectroscopy. Correlations were examined between FC cell numbers at the start of incubation (standard 24-h FC test) and Ba14CO3 counts per minute after 4.5 h. Results indicated that FC numbers ranging from 1 x 10(1) to 2.1 x 10(5) cells could be detected in 4.5 h. Within-sample reproducibility at all cell concentrations was good, but sample-to-sample reproducibility was variable. Comparisons between m-FC broth and m-FC broth modified by substituting D-mannitol for lactose indicated that the standard m-FC broth was the better test medium. Results from experiments in which dimethyl sulfoxide was used to increase permeability of FC to [U-14C]mannitol indicated no increase in 14CO2 production due to dimethyl sulfoxide. Detection of FC by this method may be useful for rapid estimation of FC levels in freshwater recreational areas, for estimating the quality of potable source water, and potentially for emergency testing of potable water, suspected of contamination dueable water, suspected of contamination due to distribution line breaks or cross-connections

316

Serum folate, total homocysteine levels and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677C>T polymorphism in young healthy female Japanese.  

Science.gov (United States)

Environmental and genetic factors influence serum total homocysteine (tHcy), a risk factor for vascular diseases. The gene polymorphism of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is reported to be a genetic factor for influencing tHcy. However, it is not clear whether MTHFR polymorphism influences tHcy in the younger generation. To investigate the influence of MTHFR polymorphism on vascular disease risks in young Japanese females, we determined dietary intakes, serum folate and tHcy, and examined the influence of MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism in healthy junior and high school students (n=192, 12-18y). The relationships between MTHFR polymorphism and folate intake, serum folate or tHcy were investigated by dividing participants into CC, CT and TT types. Among individuals with the TT genotype, folate and tHcy levels were significantly lower (p<0.05) or higher (p<0.0001), respectively, than in those with the other genotypes; although there were no significant differences in the intake of folate among genotypes. In addition, a significant inverse correlation between folate and tHcy (p<0.05) was noted in all genotypes, even in young females, so far not examined in Asian populations. Therefore, MTHFR genotypes were proven to be a significant determinant for folate and tHcy concentrations. However, the association of increased folate intake with lower tHcy concentration, even in cases of the mutation TT type, indicates the importance of folate intake in young Japanese females for early detection of risk, as well as the prevention of vascular diseases. PMID:22507617

Taguchi, Takashi; Mori, Hideki; Hamada, Atsumi; Yamori, Yukio; Mori, Mari

2012-01-01

317

DETECTION OF FECAL COLIFORMS IN WATER USING 14C-MANNITOL  

Science.gov (United States)

Interest in rapid bacterial detection methods for sanitary indicator bacteria in water prompted a study of the use of 14C-mannitol (UL) to detect fecal coliforms (FC). implemethod was developed using m-FC broth, membrane filtration, and two-temperature incubation (35oC for 2 h, f...

318

NEW MEDIUM FOR IMPROVED RECOVERY OF COLIFORM BACTERIA FROM DRINKING WATER  

Science.gov (United States)

A new membrane filter medium was developed for the improved recovery of injured coliforms from drinking water. The new medium, termed m-T7, consists of 5.0 g of Difco Proteose Peptone no. 3,20 g of lactose, 3.0 g of yeast extract, 0.4 ml of Tergitol 7 (25% solution), 5.0 g of pol...

319

Effect of Manure on Fecal Coliform Attachment to Soil and Soil Particles of Different Sizes  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been recognized that bacteria transport in runoff can be different for free cells, cells attached to soil particles, and cells attached to manure particles. Objectives of this work were to compare attachment of fecal coliforms (FC) to different soils and soil fractions, and to assess effect o...

320

COMPARING THREE SAMPLING DESIGNS FOR MONITORING COLIFORMS IN SMALL COMMUNITY WATER SYSTEMS  

Science.gov (United States)

Three sampling designs: weekly, monthly and spatial cluster are compared as to their effectiveness in detecting coliform contamination in small community drinking water systems. Water samples were collected over a one-year period from fifteen drinking water systems in rural commu...

321

RUNOFF TRANSPORT OF MANURE-BORNE FECAL COLIFORMS AND CHLORIDE: FIELD PLOT EXPERIMENT AND MODELING  

Science.gov (United States)

Fecal coliform (FC) and chloride (Cl) transport from dissolving manure applied on hillslopes was studied in the field plot scale and simulated. Two-by-six meters runoff plots were set in triplicate on vegetated and bare 20% slopes with sandy loam and clay loam soils in the ARS BARC. Fresh bovine man...

322

Comparison of Selected Methods for the Enumeration of Fecal Coliforms and Escherichia coli in Shellfish  

OpenAIRE

In a comparison of five selected methods for the enumeration of fecal coliforms and Escherichia coli in naturally contaminated and sewage-seeded mussels (Choromytilus spp.) and oysters (Ostrea spp.), a spread-plate procedure with mFC agar without rosolic acid and preincubation proved the method of choice for routine quality assessment.

Grabow, W. O. K.; Villiers, J. C.; Schildhauer, C. I.

1992-01-01

323

PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA-FECAL COLIFORM RELATIONSHIPS IN ESTUARINE AND FRESH RECREATIONAL WATERS  

Science.gov (United States)

This study has shown that Pseudomonas aeruginosa cannot be used as the basis of water standards for the prevention of enteric disease during the recreational use of surface waters. However, P. aeruginosa determinations, when used in conjunction with the assay of fecal coliforms o...

324

ELECTROLYTIC DISINFECTION OF ESCHERICHIA COLI AND COLIFORM BACTERIA IN A BATCH CELL WITH DSA ELECTRODES  

Science.gov (United States)

Electrolytic treatment of dairy manure lagoon water using DSA electrodes is shown to produce a progressive disinfection of native coliforms and introduced E. coli. The disinfectant effect continues post-treatment for several minutes. To further examine the process, flow cytometry was employed to st...

325

Contamination of faecal coliforms in ice cubes sampled from food outlets in Kubang Kerian, Kelantan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of ice cubes in beverages is common among patrons of food outlets in Malaysia although its safety for human consumption remains unclear. Hence, this study was designed to determine the presence of faecal coliforms and several useful water physicochemical parameters viz. free residual chlorine concentration, turbidity and pH in ice cubes from 30 randomly selected food outlets in Kubang Kerian, Kelantan. Faecal coliforms were found in ice cubes in 16 (53%) food outlets ranging between 1 CFU/100mL to >50 CFU/ 100mL, while in the remaining 14 (47%) food outlets, in samples of tap water as well as in commercially bottled drinking water, faecal coliforms were not detected. The highest faecal coliform counts of >50 CFU/100mL were observed in 3 (10%) food outlets followed by 11-50 CFU/100mL and 1-10 CFU/100mL in 7 (23%) and 6 (20%) food outlets, respectively. All samples recorded low free residual chlorine concentration (residual chlorine concentrations were observed (<0.10mg/ L) in all samples as well as in both tap water and commercially bottled drinking water, with the pH ranged between 5.5-7.3, ineffective disinfection of water source as a contributing factor to such high counts of faecal coliforms in ice cubes also could not be ruled out. Therefore, a periodical, yet comprehensive check on the food outlets, including that of ice cube is crucial in ensuring better food and water for human consumption. PMID:22543605

Noor Izani, N J; Zulaikha, A R; Mohamad Noor, M R; Amri, M A; Mahat, N A

2012-03-01

326

The Relationship Between Serum Levels of Total IgE, IL-18, IL-12, IFN-? and Disease Severity in Children With Atopic Dermatitis  

Science.gov (United States)

Studies about the role of cytokines on the immunopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD) are generally based on in vitro observations and this role has not been completely clarified yet. Serum levels of total IgE, IL-18, IL-12, IFN-? and the relationship between these parameters and disease severity, determined using the SCORAD index, in a group of atopic patients were investigated in this study. Serum levels of total IgE were measured by the nephelometric method and serum levels of IL-18, IL-12/p40 and IFN-? were measured by ELISA method. Serum levels of total IgE and IL-18 were found significantly higher in study group than in controls (P < .001). There was no statistically significant difference between patients and controls in respect of serum levels of IL-12/p40 (P = .227). A statistically significant relationship between SCORAD values and serum levels of total IgE (P < .001), IL-18 (P < .001), and IL-12/p40 (P < .001) was determined. These results show that serum levels of IL-18 can be a sensitive parameter that importantly correlates with clinical severity of AD, can play a role in the immunopathogenesis of AD, and furthermore may be used in the diagnosis and follow-up of the disease in addition to other parameters. PMID:17047294

Aral, Murat; Arican, Ozer; Gul, Mustafa; Sasmaz, Sezai; Kocturk, Sumeyra Alkis; Kastal, Ummugulsum; Ekerbicer, Hasan Cetin

2006-01-01

327

The Relationship Between Serum Levels of Total IgE, IL-18, IL-12, IFN- ? and Disease Severity in Children With Atopic Dermatitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Studies about the role of cytokines on the immunopathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD are generally based on in vitro observations and this role has not been completely clarified yet. Serum levels of total IgE, IL-18, IL-12, IFN- ? and the relationship between these parameters and disease severity, determined using the SCORAD index, in a group of atopic patients were investigated in this study. Serum levels of total IgE were measured by the nephelometric method and serum levels of IL-18, IL-12/p40 and IFN- ? were measured by ELISA method. Serum levels of total IgE and IL-18 were found significantly higher in study group than in controls ( p<.001 . There was no statistically significant difference between patients and controls in respect of serum levels of IL-12/p40 ( p=.227 . A statistically significant relationship between SCORAD values and serum levels of total IgE ( p<.001 , IL-18 ( p<.001 , and IL-12/p40 ( p<.001 was determined. These results show that serum levels of IL-18 can be a sensitive parameter that importantly correlates with clinical severity of AD, can play a role in the immunopathogenesis of AD, and furthermore may be used in the diagnosis and follow-up of the disease in addition to other parameters.

2006-01-01

328

A 5-year survey (2007-2011) of enteric viruses in Korean aquatic environments and the use of coliforms as viral indicators.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three hundred and thirty-nine water samples obtained from 90 locations in Korea from 2007 to 2011 were tested for the presence of enteric viruses (EV), total coliforms (TC), and fecal coliforms (FC). A total culturable virus assay revealed that 89 samples (26.3%) were positive for EVs, the average concentration being 5.8 most probable number (MPN)/100 L. The Han river basin exhibited the highest contamination by EVs (occurrence, 41.3%; average concentration, 24.0 MPN/100 L). EV contamination was found more frequently in river water (occurrence, 33.6%; concentration, 8.4 MPN/100 L) than in lake water or groundwater. The concentration of EVs was highest in spring (7.7 MPN/100 L), whereas it was found most frequently in winter (36.1%). The number of TCs ranged from 0 - 1.2 × 10(5) colony forming units (CFU)/100 mL and that of FCs from 0-6.2 × 10(3) CFU/100 mL per sample. Statistical analyses showed that the presence of EVs, TCs and FCs did not correlate significantly with temperature or turbidity. In addition, presence of TCs and FCs was not significantly correlated with presence of EVs. In conclusion, TCs and FCs may not be accurate microbial indicators of waterborne EVs in Korean aquatic environments. PMID:23046421

Lee, Gyu-Cheol; Jheong, Weon-Hwa; Kim, Min-jeong; Choi, Don Hyeok; Baik, Kyoung-Hee

2013-01-01

329

Serum testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin and total calcium levels predict the calcaneal speed of sound in men  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english OBJECTIVES: Variations in sex hormones and the calcium balance can influence bone health in men. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between the calcaneal speed of sound and biochemical determinants of bone mass, such as sex hormones, parathyroid hormones and serum calcium. METHODS: [...] Data from 549 subjects from the Malaysian Aging Male Study, which included Malay and Chinese men aged 20 years and older residing in the Klang Valley, were used for analysis. The subjects' calcaneal speed of sound was measured, and their blood was collected for biochemical analysis. Two sets of multiple regression models were generated for the total/bioavailable testosterone and estradiol to avoid multicollinearity. RESULTS: The multiple regression results revealed that bioavailable testosterone and serum total calcium were significant predictors of the calcaneal speed of sound in the adjusted model. After adjustment for ethnicity and body mass index, only bioavailable testosterone remained significant; the total serum calcium was marginally insignificant. In a separate model, the total testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin were significant predictors, whereas the total serum calcium was marginally insignificant. After adjustment for ethnicity and body mass index (BMI), the significance persisted for total testosterone and SHBG. After further adjustment for age, none of the serum biochemical determinants was a significant predictor of the calcaneal speed of sound. CONCLUSION: There is a significant age-dependent relationship between the calcaneal speed of sound and total testosterone, bioavailable testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin in Chinese and Malay men in Malaysia. The relationship between total serum calcium and calcaneal speed of sound is ethnicity-dependent.

Kok-Yong, Chin; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman; Isa Naina, Mohamed; Wan Zurinah Wan, Ngah.

2012-08-01

330

Colimetria de água marinha em áreas de cultivo e extrativismo de mexilhões no município de Niterói, RJ Coliform enumeration in mussel-growing waters from Niteroi city, RJ-Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Analisaram-se amostras de água do mar de cinco pontos da Baía de Guanabara quanto ao número mais provável (NMP de coliformes totais e de Escherichia coli usando-se o método fluorogênico, e verificaram-se o pH, a salinidade e a temperatura dos locais de colheita. As contagens de E. coli nas amostras das estações Icaraí, Boa Viagem e Santa Cruz foram, em média, acima do previsto na legislação, enquanto que nas estações Piratininga e Rio Branco, 92,9% e 100% das amostras tiveram contagens de E. coli menor que 3/100ml. Observou-se relação positiva entre coliformes totais e E. coli, enquanto que a correlação entre colimetria, pH, salinidade e temperatura da água não foi significativa. Temperatura e pH mostraram pouca variação entre as estações, sendo as médias de salinidade, coliformes totais e E. coli semelhantes em Icaraí, Boa Viagem e Santa Cruz. Piratininga e Rio Branco apresentaram médias diferentes destas e semelhantes entre si. Os resultados em Icaraí, Boa Viagem e Santa Cruz indicam provável impropriedade para o cultivo e/ou extrativismo de mexilhões destinados ao consumo, enquanto que os de Piratininga e Rio Branco indicam provável propriedade para a instalação de cultivo de mexilhões ou mesmo para depuração natural de mexilhões cultivados em águas contaminadas.Water samples from five different sites on Guanabara Bay (Icaraí, Boa Viagem, Santa Cruz, Piratininga, and Rio Branco were analyzed for estimated numbers of coliform and Escherichiacoli. Water pH, salt concentration, and temperature were measuredin the sampling place. E.coli countings for samples collected in Icaraí, Boa Viagem, and Santa Cruz were usually higher than the values legallyaccepted by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture. In Piratininga and Rio Branco, respectively, 92.3% and 100% of the sampleshad countings of lessthan 3 E.coli/100ml. A significant correlation was found between total coliforms and E. coli countings. The average water temperature and pH were equal in the investigated sites. By contrast, water salinity, total coliforms, and E. coli counts were statistically equal in Icaraí, Boa Viagem, and Santa Cruz, but different when compared to samples collected in Piratininga and Rio Branco. Nevertheless, samples collected in Piratininga and Rio Branco were statistically similar in these two sites. Results indicate that water from Icaraí, Boa Viagem, and Santa Cruz are unsuitable for cultivating and/or harvesting bivalves for human consumption.

A.A. Pinheiro Jr.

2002-08-01

331

Comparative Study of Serum Iron, Total Iron Binding Capacity and Transferrin Saturation Fraction Levels in Two Groups of Nigerians in Different Socio-Economic Classes  

OpenAIRE

An analysis of serum iron concentration, total iron-binding capacity and transferrin saturation fraction using standard procedures on apparently healthy adults, 100 males and 100 females revealed the following: (1) A high degree of variability exists within our adults` serum iron, total iron-binding capacity and transferrin saturation fraction whether in rural or urban areas. (2) The analysis of the data for sex differences showed that the adult males have higher serum iron levels, slightly l...

Akpotuzor, J. O.; Eke, O.; Okpokam, D. C.; Etukudo, M. H.

2007-01-01

332

Effects of Low-intensity Pulsed Ultrasound and Cryotherapy on Recovery of Joint Function and C-reactive Protein Levels in Patients after Total Knee Replacement Surgery  

OpenAIRE

[Purpose] We investigated the effect of low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and cryotherapy on joint function recovery and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels of patients with total knee replacement. [Subjects] Forty-six patients with total knee replacement were recruited and allocated to either low-intensity pulsed ultrasound therapy (n=15), cryotherapy (n=15), or a combination of both (n=16). Therapy was administered once a day, 5 times a week for 3 weeks. To determine functional joi...

Kang, Jeong Il; Kim, Yong-nam; Choi, Hyun

2014-01-01

333

Validity and reproducibility of the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) questionnaire for the measurement of the physical activity level in patients after total knee arthroplasty  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: The need for valid and reproducible questionnaires to routinely assess the physical activity level of patients after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is of particular concern in clinical settings. Aims of this study were to evaluate the validity and reproducibility of the physical activity scale for the elderly (PASE) questionnaire in TKA patients, with a particular view on gender differences. METHODS: A total of 50 elderly patients (25 women and 25 men aged 70?±?6 years) follo...

Bolszak, Sylvain; Casartelli, Nicola; Impellizzeri, Franco; Maffiuletti, Nicola

2014-01-01

334

Alterações nos níveis de colesterol, triglicerídeo e fosfolipídeo total em plasma de Callithrix jacchus (sagüi) reinfectado por Schistosoma mansoni / Alterations in cholesterol, triglyceride and total phospholipid levels in plasma of Callithrix jacchus (sagüi) reinfected by Schistosoma mansoni  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Pouco se conhece a cerca de alterações nos lipídeos plasmáticos devido à reinfecção por Schistosoma mansoni. Neste trabalho, foram avaliadas alterações nos lipídeos plasmáticos decorrentes de uma reinfecção por Schistosoma mansoni no primata não humano Callithrix jacchus (sagüi). Amostras de sangue [...] dos animais, antes e após serem infectados e reinfectados, foram coletadas por punção venosa, anticoaguladas com EDTA (1mg/mL) e centrifugadas a 2.500xg para obtenção do plasma. Os níveis plasmáticos de colesterol total, colesterol éster, fosfolipídeo total e triglicerídeo foram determinados por métodos espectrofotométricos. Os resultados mostraram haver redução significativa nas concentrações de colesterol total, colesterol esterificado, triglicerídeo e fosfolipídeo total em plasma de animais reinfectados por Schistosoma mansoni, em comparação com os mesmos animais antes da infecção e após uma infecção. Este estudo mostra que uma segunda infecção por Schistosoma mansoni causa alterações lipídicas plasmáticas significativamente mais acentuadas que as decorrentes de uma única infecção. Abstract in english Little information is available on the lipid changes caused by Schistosoma mansoni reinfection. In this work it was evaluated alteration in the plasma lipids due to one reinfection by Schistosoma mansoni in the non human primate Callithrix jacchus (sagüi). Blood samples from C. jacchus, prior and af [...] ter 60 days infection and reinfection, were collected by intravenous puncture, anticoagulated with EDTA (1mg/mL) and centrifuged at 2,500xg, in order to obtain the plasma. Total cholesterol, cholesteryl ester, total phospholipid and triglyceride levels were determined by spectrophotometer methods. The results showed that there are significant reduction in cholesterol total, cholesteryl ester, total phospholipid and triglyceride concentrations in plasma of animals reinfected by Schistosoma mansoni, in comparison to the same animals prior and after one infection. This study showed that a second infection of Callithrix jacchus by Schistosoma mansoni causes plasma lipid alterations, which are more significant than after a single infection.

Thadzia Maria de Brito, Ramos; Amanda Soares de, Vasconcelos; Vera Cristina Oliveira de, Carvalho; Vera Lúcia de Menezes, Lima.

2004-02-01

335

Key issues in the 2006 total system performance assessment of a potential high level radioactive waste repository in Korea  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since 1997, KAERI has worked on the ten year long R and D project to develop the KRDC(Korean Reference Disposal Concept) and associated TSPA(Total System Performance Assessment) technologies. During the second phase of the project ended in 2002, the reference disposal option and technologies for probabilistic safety assessment were developed. In the next four years, KAERI will finalize the KRDC suitable for the Korean social and hydro-geological conditions and assure the total safety of it. To achieve this agenda, this paper summarizes what are the key remaining issues in TSPA to be further studied in the future

336

Effect of feeding level on ileal and total tract digestibility of nutrients and energy from soybean meal-based diets for piglets.  

Science.gov (United States)

A total of 36 piglets with an initial body weight (BW) of 5.6 ± 0.7 kg, fitted with simple T-cannulas at the distal ileum, were used to evaluate the effect of three graded feeding levels (50, 75 or 100 g/kg BW(0.75) day) on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N) and energy, and on ATTD of organic matter (OM), ether extracts (EE), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and digestible (DE), metabolisable (ME) and net energy (NE) content in soybean meal (SBM)-casein-cornstarch-based diets. The AID of DM, N and energy and ATTD of NDF, ADF and EE in the diets were not affected (p > 0.05) by the feed intake (FI) level. There was a small decrease in ATTD of DM, N (CP), OM, ash and energy, and in DE, ME and NE content in the diets (p ileal recovery) decreased for DM, N and energy (p ileal endogenous loss of N and total tract endogenous loss of ash, N and EE, for estimating corresponding true ileal and total tract digestibility values, and for estimating urinary endogenous N loss. High variability in estimates of ileal endogenous N loss and total tract endogenous losses of N, EE and ash reflects great variation in individual endogenous losses between animals. Estimation of true total tract digestibility of N, EE and ash by regression analysis was affected by their decrease in ATTD with increasing FI level, as estimates for true digestibility were lower compared to their apparent values. The present results suggest that FI level can affect both apparent and true total tract nutrient digestibility in piglets. PMID:24589011

Goerke, M; Mosenthin, R; Jezierny, D; Sauer, N; Piepho, H-P; Messerschmidt, U; Eklund, M

2014-12-01

337

Investigation of the 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, total antioxidant and nitric oxide levels of serum in dogs infected with Babesia vogeli.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxidative stress was defined as corruption of balance between oxidant-antioxidant states in favor of oxidants. In this study, it was aimed to determine oxidative stress in naturally infected dogs with Babesia vogeli. The 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), nitric oxide (NO) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels in the sera were analyzed by ELISA. 8-OHdG levels increased in B. vogeli infected dogs compared to control group (P0.05). PMID:24882747

Ciftci, Gulay; Ural, Kerem; Aysul, Nuran; Cenesiz, Sena; Guzel, Murat; Pekmezci, Didem; Sogut, Mehtap Ünlü

2014-08-29

338

Nível sérico de IgE total em alergia respiratória: estudo em pacientes com alto risco de infecção por helmintos / Total IgE level in respiratory allergy: study of patients at high risk for helminthic infection  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Eosinofilia e elevação de IgE sérica são expressões de atopia, contudo há fatores intervenientes como, por exemplo, as parasitoses intestinais. Esta pesquisa verifica a relação entre IgE sérica total, eosinófilos e IgE específica anti-áscaris em indivíduos portadores de asma e/ou rinite al [...] érgica. MÉTODOS: Estudo do tipo transversal em adolescentes portadores de asma e/ou rinite alérgica que foram examinados quanto ao nível sérico de IgE total, de IgE anti-áscaris e de contagem dos eosinófilos sangüíneos. RESULTADOS: Foram analisados 101 pacientes com idade entre 12 e 21 anos. A mediana da IgE foi 660 UI/mL (P25-75 243,5-1500), e a dos eosinófilos foi 510 células/mm³ (P25-75 284-811). A IgE anti-áscaris foi positiva em 73% (74/101) da amostra, mas houve apenas 33,7% (34/101) de positividade ao parasitológico de fezes. Os coeficientes de correlação encontrados foram: 0,34 (p = 0,001) entre IgE total e eosinófilos, 0,52 (p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: Eosinophilia and increased serum IgE levels are indicators of atopy; however, other factors can also play a key role, such as intestinal parasitic infections. This study assesses the relationship between total serum IgE, eosinophil count, and anti-Ascaris IgE in individuals with asthma an [...] d/or allergic rhinitis. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in adolescents with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis. The patients had their total serum IgE, anti-Ascaris IgE and eosinophil count measured. RESULTS: A total of 101 patients aged 12 to 21 years were assessed. Median IgE level was 660 IU/mL (P25-75 243.5-1500), and the eosinophil count corresponded to 510 cells/mm³ (P25-75 284-811). Anti-Ascaris IgE was positive in 73% (74/101) of the individuals, but parasitological stool examination yielded positive results in only 33.7% (34/101). The correlation coefficients were the following: 0.34 (p = 0.001) between total IgE level and eosinophil count, 0.52 (p

Décio, Medeiros; Almerinda Rego, Silva; José Angelo, Rizzo; Maria Eugênia, Motta; Francisca Hosana Bezerra de, Oliveira; Emanuel Sávio Cavalcanti, Sarinho.

2006-08-01

339

Efeito do período experimental sobre a digestão parcial e total em bovinos alimentados com dois níveis de volumosos Effect of experimental periods on the parcial and total digestion in cattle fed two levels of forage  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar os efeitos de dois períodos experimentais e dois níveis de volumosos na dieta sobre a digestibilidade total e parcial da matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, energia bruta (EB e amido. Foram utilizados quatro novilhos da raça Holandês Preto e Branco, com dois anos de idade e 340 kg de peso vivo e canulados no rúmen e duodeno. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o quadrado latino 4 x 4, em que os animais receberam quatro tratamentos, que consistiram de dois níveis de volumosos (30 e 70% e dois períodos experimentais (14 e 21 dias. Houve efeito significativo do nível de volumoso sobre a digestibilidade ruminal de FDA e FDN, a digestibilidade intestinal e total da MS, MO, PB e amido e a digestibilidade total da EB. Não houve efeito do período experimental sobre os coeficientes de digestibilidade dos nutrientes avaliados. Conclui-se que a utilização de período experimental de 14 dias, em experimentos de digestão, é viável, quando se utiliza feno como fonte de volumoso.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of two experimental periods and two forage levels in the diet on the total and parcial apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, acid detergent fiber (ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, gross energy (GE and starch. Four Holstein steers, averaging two years old and 340 kg of body weight, ruminally and duodenally cannulated, were used. The experimental design was a 4 x 4 latin square and the animals received four treatments as following: two forage levels (30 and 70% and two experimental periods (14 and 21 days. There was effect of forage level on intestinal and total digestibility of DM, OM, CP and starch and on total digestibility of GE. There was effect of forage level on ruminal digestibility of ADF and NDF. There was no effect of experimental periods on the digestibility coefficients of the nutrients. It was concluded that 14 days experimental period is practible when hay is used.

Kátia Cylene Guimarães

2001-06-01

340

Efeito do período experimental sobre a digestão parcial e total em bovinos alimentados com dois níveis de volumosos / Effect of experimental periods on the parcial and total digestion in cattle fed two levels of forage  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar os efeitos de dois períodos experimentais e dois níveis de volumosos na dieta sobre a digestibilidade total e parcial da matéria seca (MS), matéria orgânica (MO), proteína bruta (PB), fibra em detergente ácido (FDA), fibra em detergente neutro (FDN), energia [...] bruta (EB) e amido. Foram utilizados quatro novilhos da raça Holandês Preto e Branco, com dois anos de idade e 340 kg de peso vivo e canulados no rúmen e duodeno. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o quadrado latino 4 x 4, em que os animais receberam quatro tratamentos, que consistiram de dois níveis de volumosos (30 e 70%) e dois períodos experimentais (14 e 21 dias). Houve efeito significativo do nível de volumoso sobre a digestibilidade ruminal de FDA e FDN, a digestibilidade intestinal e total da MS, MO, PB e amido e a digestibilidade total da EB. Não houve efeito do período experimental sobre os coeficientes de digestibilidade dos nutrientes avaliados. Conclui-se que a utilização de período experimental de 14 dias, em experimentos de digestão, é viável, quando se utiliza feno como fonte de volumoso. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of two experimental periods and two forage levels in the diet on the total and parcial apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), gross energ [...] y (GE) and starch. Four Holstein steers, averaging two years old and 340 kg of body weight, ruminally and duodenally cannulated, were used. The experimental design was a 4 x 4 latin square and the animals received four treatments as following: two forage levels (30 and 70%) and two experimental periods (14 and 21 days). There was effect of forage level on intestinal and total digestibility of DM, OM, CP and starch and on total digestibility of GE. There was effect of forage level on ruminal digestibility of ADF and NDF. There was no effect of experimental periods on the digestibility coefficients of the nutrients. It was concluded that 14 days experimental period is practible when hay is used.

Kátia Cylene, Guimarães; Antonio Ferriani, Branco; Lúcia Maria, Zeoula; Ivanor Nunes do, Prado; Gisele Fernanda, Mouro; Fábio Jose, Maia; Luís Paulo, Rigolon.

2001-06-01

341

The modified SWAT model for predicting fecal coliforms in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed, USA.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study assessed fecal coliform contamination in the Wachusett Reservoir Watershed in Massachusetts, USA using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) because bacteria are one of the major water quality parameters of concern. The bacteria subroutine in SWAT, considering in-stream bacteria die-off only, was modified in this study to include solar radiation-associated die-off and the contribution of wildlife. The result of sensitivity analysis demonstrates that solar radiation is one of the most significant fate factors of fecal coliform. A water temperature-associated function to represent the contribution of beaver activity in the watershed to fecal contamination improved prediction accuracy. The modified SWAT model provides an improved estimate of bacteria from the watershed. Our approach will be useful for simulating bacterial concentrations to provide predictive and reliable information of fecal contamination thus facilitating the implementation of effective watershed management. PMID:22784807

Cho, Kyung Hwa; Pachepsky, Yakov A; Kim, Joon Ha; Kim, Jung-Woo; Park, Mi-Hyun

2012-10-01

342

Influence of pH and Oxidant Ozone to Amount of Bacterium Coliform at Hospital Waste  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Influence of pH and oxidant ozone to amount of bacterium coliform at hospital waste have been done. As sample is liquid waste Public Hospital of town (RSUD) Yogyakarta. Sample waste processed by 3 kinds of treatment, that is first certain ozone waste during, that is waste given by the third and just chalk of waste given by the certain and ozonization chalk during. From third the treatment, in the reality third treatment which can give the maximal result, that is waste given the chalk until pH waste 8.5 and ozonization during 40 minute give the following result : bacterium coliform from 810.000 MPN become 0 MPN ( cell / 100 mL). This result have fulfilled the conditions as according to decision of Governor of DIY no. 65 year 1999 for the waste of faction II, that is waste used for the irrigation of fishery and agriculture. (author)

343

Particle effects on ultraviolet disinfection of coliform bacteria in recycled water.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pilot- and bench-scale coliform inactivation tests with UV irradiation were used to show how suspended solids remaining in filtered secondary effluent affect the efficiency of the UV disinfection process. Observed kinetic inactivation rates decreased with increasing suspended particle sizes of 7 microm or larger present in tertiary effluent. First-order inactivation rates estimated from collimated beam dose-response curves for discrete ranges of UV doses were substantially different, which should caution researchers not to compare inactivation data obtained with largely dissimilar UV doses or suspended particle distributions. A dose of approximately 800 J/m2 was identified as the minimum dose that will consistently meet the California wastewater reclamation coliform criterion when applied to in-line filtration effluent. PMID:11563383

Jolis, D; Lam, C; Pitt, P

2001-01-01

344

Antibiotic resistance of fecal coliforms after long-term withdrawal of therapeutic and subtherapeutic antibiotic use in a swine herd.  

OpenAIRE

Tetracycline resistance of fecal coliforms isolated from swine decreased from 82 to 42%, a decrease of less than 50%, after the use of all forms of antimicrobial agents were discontinued in the herd for 126 months.

Langlois, B. E.; Cromwell, G. L.; Stahly, T. S.; Dawson, K. A.; Hays, V. W.

1983-01-01

345

A MECHANISTIC MODEL OF RUNOFF-ASSOCIATED FECAL COLIFORM FATE AND TRANSPORT THROUGH A COASTAL LAGOON. (R828676C003)  

Science.gov (United States)

Fecal coliform (FC) contamination in coastal waters is an ongoing public health problem worldwide. Coastal wetlands and lagoons are typically expected to protect coastal waters by attenuating watershed pollutants including FC bacteria. However, new evidence suggests that coast...

346

The Establish of the Coliforms/cm2 on the Area of Cattle Carcass Air Drying  

OpenAIRE

Coliforms present in 1 cm2 of carcass surface shows the degree of contamination during slaughtering as well as the hygienic condition of the air, the slaughtering hall, the equipment getting in contact with the carcasses, of the utensils, operators’ work equipment, of the operators’ hygiene. The indicator is determined by inoculating microorganisms from the carcasses surface in nutritional and selective environments, followed by their placing under heat control and counting of the microor...

Dorin Tibulca; Claudiu Dan Salagean; Mirela Jimborean

2014-01-01

347

Characterization of the coliform and enteric bacilli in the environment of calves with colibacillosis.  

OpenAIRE

In the first part of the present study the coliform and enteric bacilli in the environment of calves with colibacillosis were examined. The occurrence, number, and pathogenic properties of Escherichia coli in barnyard soils were obtained from six cattle ranches. The O and K serogroups of E. coli isolates obtained from the feces of calves with colibacillosis born at these cattle ranches were determined, and their serotypes were compared with the E. coli O and K serotypes found in soils. The re...

Plews, P. I.; Bromel, M. C.; Schipper, I. A.

1985-01-01

348

Coliform Sources and Mechanisms for Regrowth in Household Drinking Water in Limpopo, South Africa  

OpenAIRE

Resource-limited communities throughout the developing world face significant environmental health problems related to the myriad of coliform sources within those communities. This study comprehensively investigated contamination sources and the biological and chemical mechanisms sustaining them in two adjacent communities in rural Limpopo, South Africa. An 8-month study was conducted of household (n = 14) and source water quality, measurements of biofilm layers on the inside of household wat...

Mellor, Jonathan E.; Smith, James A.; Samie, Amidou; Dillingham, Rebecca A.

2013-01-01

349

Total, unbound plasma and salivary phenytoin levels in critically ill patients / Níveis totais, livres em plasma, e salivares de fenitoína em doentes graves  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a confiabilidade de concentrações salivares de fenitoina (PHT) e níveis livres de PHT pronosticado por equação de Sheiner-Tozer, o efeito da substituição das concentrações medidas livres de PHT em doentes graves. MÉTODO: Vinte e quatro doentes adultos que recebem PHT intravenoso fo [...] rem incluídos no estudo. Análises de PHT total, livre em plasma e saliva foram realizadas por uma técnica de imune fluorescência polarizassem. Os níveis de albumina em plasma foram também determinados. RESULTADOS: Concentrações livres de PHT em plasma e saliva correlacionam melhor ao efeito clínico que concentrações de fármaco total. Análise de regressão lineal mostrou uma correlação forte entre concentrações livres de PHT estimadas por Sheiner-Tozer e os níveis livres de PHT medidos (r=0.835; p Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability of salivary phenytoin (PHT) concentrations and predicted free PHT levels by Sheiner-Tozer equation in order to substitute measured free PHT concentrations in critically ill patients. METHODOLOGY: Twenty-four neurocritically ill adult patients receiving intravenou [...] s PHT were included in the study. Analyses of total, free plasma and saliva PHT concentrations were performed by fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Plasma albumin levels were also determined. RESULTS: Free PHT concentrations as well as salivary levels better correlate to clinical effect than total drug concentrations. Linear regression analysis showed a strong correlation between estimated free PHT concentrations by Sheiner-Tozer and measured free PHT levels (r=0.835; p

M., Ibarra; Marta, Vázquez; P., Fagiolino; F., Mutilva; A., Canale.

350

Growth and total-N content of Prosopis juliflora (SW D. C. are stimulated by low NaCl levels  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study the early effects of salinity on growth, total N and ion accumulation and partitioning in Prosopis juliflora (common name algaroba were studied with 30-day-old plants grown for 8 days in aerated nutrient solution (NS free of (control or supplied with 25, 50, 75 and 100 mmol.L-1 NaCl. Plants grown in 25 and 50 mmol.L-1 NaCl accumulated a total dry mass (DM and shoot N content greater than the control. However, at 75 and 100 mmol.L-1 NaCl such parameters were diminished. Whole plant transpiration rates were higher with 25 and 50 mmol.L-1 NaCl and lower with 75 and 100 mmol.L-1 NaCl. Salinity did not influence shoot (80% and root (70% water content (WC but reduced the K+ content of shoot while that of root was not affected. Increasing external NaCl concentrations increased K+/Na+ ratios of both plant parts. The data support the hypothesis that increase in transpiration rates and in shoot total N may account for growth stimulation of algaroba under mild salinity.

Viégas Ricardo Almeida

2004-01-01

351

Total homocysteine levels in plasma: high-performance liquid chromatographic determination with electrochemical detection and glassy carbon electrode.  

Science.gov (United States)

An isocratic high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ED) method for the determination of total plasma homocysteine [H(e)] has been developed. The electrochemical detection is performed using a glassy-carbon electrode that is not specific for thiol groups. We have tried to solve the problem of specificity focusing our work on chromatographic resolution and have obtained good results without coelution of other thiol compounds or any substances mentioned as common interferences for carbon electrode methods: uric acid, ascorbic acid and salicylates. Thirty samples a day can be assayed for total homocysteine with a lower limit of detection of 2 pmol, and a limit of quantification of 1.0 micromol/l, with a coefficient of variation (C.V.) <20%. For a concentration of total plasma homocysteine of 9.36 micromol/l, the intra- and inter-assay C.V.s were of 3.86% and 5.55% respectively. The analytical recovery achieved in the preparation of the samples ranged from 85.0% to 98.3% and the electrochemical response was linear up to 100 micromol/l. PMID:9892083

D'Eramo, J L; Finkelstein, A E; Boccazzi, F O; Fridman, O

1998-12-11

352

Survey of total and inorganic arsenic content in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.) from Norwegian fiords: Revelation of unusual high levels of inorganic arsenic  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The present study reports the findings of unusual high levels of inorganic arsenic in samples of blue mussels (Mytilus edulis L.). A total of 175 pooled samples of blue mussels from various locations along the Norwegian coastline were analyzed for their content of total arsenic and inorganic arsenic. Total arsenic was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) following microwave-assisted acidic digestion of the samples. Inorganic arsenic was determined using an anion-exchange HPLC-ICPMS method following microwave-assisted alkaline solubilization of the samples. For the majority of the samples (78%) the concentration of total arsenic was below 3 mg kg(-1) wet weight (ww) and inorganic arsenic constituted

Sloth, Jens JØrgen; Julshamn, Kåre

2008-01-01

353

Temperature range for growth of Escherichia coli serotype O157:H7 and selected coliforms in E. coli medium.  

OpenAIRE

Escherichia coli serotype O157H:7 and five other fecal and nonfecal coliforms were tested for minimum and maximum temperatures for growth in E. coli medium by using a temperature gradient incubator with a mean temperature increment of 1.67 degrees C (+/- 0.392). The temperature range for growth of E. coli O157:H7 is inconsistent with that of other fecal coliforms, suggesting that this pathogen is excluded with standard enumeration procedures used for foods and water.

Raghubeer, E. V.; Matches, J. R.

1990-01-01

354

Survival of Salmonella adelaide and fecal coliforms in coarse sands of the swan costal plain, Western Australia.  

OpenAIRE

The survival of Salmonella adelaide and fecal coliforms in two coarse sands influenced by two sources of septic tank effluent was studied. The experiments were conducted in conditions that reflected the soil environment beneath functioning septic tank systems. Significant differences in survival were found with different effluent sources. In one experiment the survival of S. adelaide was similar to that of fecal coliforms; in the other it was not. The nonuniform, multiphasic nature of surviva...

Parker, W. F.; Mee, B. J.

1982-01-01

355

Can E. coli or thermotolerant coliform concentrations predict pathogen presence or prevalence in irrigation waters?  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract An increase in food-borne illnesses in the United States has been associated with fresh produce consumption. Irrigation water presents recognized risks for microbial contamination of produce. Water quality criteria rely on indicator bacteria. The objective of this review was to collate and summarize experimental data on the relationships between pathogens and thermotolerant coliform (THT) and/or generic E. coli, specifically focusing on surface fresh waters used in or potentially suitable for irrigation agriculture. We analyzed peer-reviewed publications in which concentrations of E. coli or THT coliforms in surface fresh waters were measured along with concentrations of one or more of waterborne and food-borne pathogenic organisms. The proposed relationships were significant in 35% of all instances and not significant in 65% of instances. Coliform indicators alone cannot provide conclusive, non-site-specific and non-pathogen-specific information about the presence and/or concentrations of most important pathogens in surface waters suitable for irrigation. Standards of microbial water quality for irrigation can rely not only on concentrations of indicators and/or pathogens, but must include references to crop management. Critical information on microbial composition of actual irrigation waters to support criteria of microbiological quality of irrigation waters appears to be lacking and needs to be collected. PMID:25198779

Pachepsky, Yakov; Shelton, Daniel; Dorner, Sarah; Whelan, Gene

2014-09-01

356

Avaliação de ensaios analíticos para detecção de coliformes fecais em queijo Minas  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Foram submetidas à pesquisa de coliformes fecais, utilizando-se a técnica do número mais provável (NMP/g, 168 amostras de variedades de queijo Minas (20 frescal, 48 canastra e 100 padronizado coletadas em Belo Horizonte. Para a comparação de diferentes ensaios em temperatura elevada, utilizou-se o caldo EC isoladamente, e caldos EC e triptofano em paralelo. Visando à pesquisa de indol foi realizado ensaio para confirmação de produção de beta-D-glucuronidase e indol em caldo fluorocult lauril sulfato. Os resultados demonstraram não haver diferença estatística significativa entre as três metodologias utilizadas para a pesquisa de coliformes fecais, considerando os índices de aceitação definidos pelos padrões legais de inspeção de queijo Minas. A facilidade de execução do ensaio da beta-D-glucuronidase em caldo fluorocult lauril sulfato, associada à confiabilidade dos resultados e demanda de tempo (redução de 96 para até 48h, permitem sugeri-lo como método de escolha para enumeração de coliformes em queijo Minas.

Pereira M.L.

1999-01-01

357

Comparison of thermotolerant coliforms and Escherichia coli densities in freshwater bodies  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Fecal bacterial indicator analyses have been widely used for monitoring the water quality. This study was designed to determine the ratio between the density of Escherichia coli and other Thermotolerant Coliforms (TtC) bacteria from freshwater samples collected for a two-year period of monitoring. T [...] tC were enumerated by membrane filtration on mFC agar. E. coli enumeration was done by two methods: TtC colonies identified in mFC were inoculated in EC-MUG or water samples were filtered and inoculated in modified mTEC agar media, and both methods were compared for quantitative recovery of E. coli. The results pointed out a mean percentage of E. coli among other thermotolerant coliforms (E. coli/TtC ratio) of 84.3% in mFC media. Taking these results into account, a mandatory standard of 1000 thermotolerant coliforms would correspond to 800 E. coli and the adoption of these E. coli based standards will represent a major improvement for the monitoring of freshwater quality.

Elayse M., Hachich; Marisa, Di Bari; Ana Paula G., Christ; Cláudia C., Lamparelli; Solange S., Ramos; Maria Inês Z., Sato.

2012-06-01

358

Níveis de metionina + cistina total para frangos de corte de 22 a 42 dias de idade mantidos em ambiente termoneutro / Levels of total methionine + cystine for 22-to-42-day-old broilers kept under thermoneutral environment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O experimento foi realizado para determinar a exigência de metionina + cistina (met + cis) para frangos de corte dos 22 aos 42 dias de idade mantidos em ambiente termoneutro (23,5ºC). Foram utilizados 240 frangos de corte machos Avian Farms, com peso médio inicial de 827 g, em delineamento inteirame [...] nte casualizado, com cinco níveis de met + cist (0,659; 0,704; 0,750; 0,796 e 0,841%), seis repetições e oito aves por unidade experimental. O aumento do nível de met + cis influenciou positivamente a conversão alimentar (CA), o consumo de met + cis, o peso absoluto da coxa e o peso relativo da sobrecoxa. Não foi verificado efeito dos níveis de met + cis sobre o peso final, o ganho de peso, o consumo de ração, os pesos absoluto e relativo do peito, da carcaça e da gordura abdominal, o peso absoluto da sobrecoxa e o peso relativo da coxa, assim como para os pesos absolutos e relativos dos órgãos (coração, fígado, moela, proventrículo, pulmão e intestinos). O nível de 0,727% de met + cis total (0,661% met + cis digestível), correspondente à relação met + cis/lis total de 70% (72% para lis digestível), proporcionou melhor conversão alimentar em frangos de corte mantidos em ambiente termoneutro. Abstract in english The experiment was carried out to determine the requirement of methionine + cystine (met + cys) for broilers from 22-to-42-day-old kept under thermoneutral environment (23.5°C). A total of 240 Avian Farm male broilers, with 827 g average initial weight were distributed in a randomized experimental d [...] esign with five levels of met + cys (0.659, 0.704, 0.750, 0.796, and 0.841%), six replications and eight birds per experimental unit. The increase of met + cys level influenced positively feed: gain ratio, met + cys intake, drumstick absolute weigh and thigh relative weight. No effect of met + cys levels was observed on the final weight, weight gain, feed intake, breast, carcass and abdominal fat absolute and relative weight, thigh absolute weight, and drumstick relative weight, or for relative and absolute weight of the organs (heart, liver, gizzard, proventriculus, lung and intestines). The level 0.727% met + total cys (0.661% digestible met + cys), corresponding to the ratio met + cys/total lys of 70% (72% for digestible lys) gave the best feed: gain ratio for male broilers kept in thermoneutral environment.

Adhemar Rodrigues de, Oliveira Neto; Rita Flávia Miranda de, Oliveira; Juarez Lopes, Donzele; Sergio Luiz de Toledo, Barreto; Roberta Gomes Marçal Vieira, Vaz; Eliane, Gasparino.

1359-13-01

359

Characteristic level total petroleum hydrocarbons is soil, sediment and surface water of an oil impacted area in the niger delta  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Soil, bottom sediments and surface water were collected at several points in Abalagada-Aboh area in the Niger delta, Nigeria, that had previously received spilled crude oil. The samples were analyzed for total petroleum hydrocarbon contents. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations varied significantly among various environmental matrices. The concentrations ranged widely between 2.80-785.6 mg/kg, 2.84-804.74 mg/kg, 0.30-865.64 mg/kg and 0.03-22.99 mg/kg for surface water, sediments, topsoil and subsoil, respectively. The samples showed elevated concentrations of hydrocarbon when compared to the control site. (author)

360

Association of total-mixed-ration chemical composition with milk, fat, and protein yield lactation curves at the individual level  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study was to examine the effect of the chemical composition of a total mixed ration (TMR) tested quarterly from March 2006 through December 2008 for milk, fat, and protein yield curves for 27 herds in Ragusa, Sicily. Before this study, standard yield curves were generated on data from 241,153 test-day records of 9,809 animals from 42 herds in Ragusa province collected from 1995 to 2008. A random regression sire-maternal grandsire model was used to develop variance compon...

Caccamo, M.; Veerkamp, R. F.; Licitra, G.; Petriglieri, R.; La Terra, F.; Pozzebon, A.; Ferguson, J. D.

2012-01-01

361

Determinação do volume saturante de solução desinfetante em piso de chão batido de granja avícola em função da carga microbiana (coliformes) e composição do solo / Determination of saturant volume of disinfectant solution in floor soil ground of poultry farms in function of microbian load (coliforms) and composition of the soil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O piso de chão batido é utilizado na maioria das granjas avícolas brasileiras devido ao baixo custo em relação à construção de pisos concretados. A presença de matéria orgânica na superfície do solo dificulta sua desinfecção, devido à redução da ação antimicrobiana dos desinfetantes, sendo que os te [...] stes realizados in vitro para verificar a eficácia dos desinfetantes não contemplam as condições adversas encontradas em granjas avícolas. Assim, o presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a contaminação por coliformes totais e fecais através do número mais provável (NMP) no piso de chão batido de uma granja avícola e definir o volume de solução desinfetante necessário para saturar uma determinada área conforme a composição físico-hídrica do solo. Foi detectada a presença de coliformes totais e fecais na profundidade de 0,5cm, com população média de 1100NMP g-1 e 460NMP g-1, respectivamente. O volume de solução desinfetante adequado para saturar 1m² a uma profundidade de 1cm em um piso de chão batido composto por solo argiloso, com baixa porosidade e boa compactação, foi de um litro. Abstract in english The floor soil ground is used in most of the Brazilian poultry farms due to the high cost of the construction of concreted floors. The presence of organic matter on the surface of the soil hinders its disinfection, due to the reduction of the antimicrobial action of disinfectants and the tests accom [...] plished in vitro to verify the effectiveness of the disinfectants do not contemplate the adverse conditions found at poultry farms. Thus, the present work intended to determinate the volume of disinfectant solution required to be used on m² floor and the counting of total and fecal coliforms in floor soil ground. Presence of total and faecal coliforms was detected in the depth of 0.5cm with 1100NMP g-1 e 460NMP g-1, respective. The volume of disinfectant solution defined to saturate 1m² to 1cm of depth was of one liter.

Fernando, Pilotto; Vilson Antonio, Klein; Vera Beatriz, Wald; Laura Beatriz, Rodrigues; Luciana Ruschel dos, Santos; Frederico de Mello, Colussi; Vladimir Pinheiro do, Nascimento.

1837-18-01

362

Heat-to-heat variations of total strain ;to 5 ]3<: at discrete stress levels in types 316 and 304 stainless steel from 24 to 316  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tensile tests were conducted on eight heats of randomly selected, mill-annealed type 316 stainless steel and seven heats of mill-annealed type 304 stainless steel at 24, 93, 204, and 3160C to establish the effects of heat-to-heat variations on total strain (to 5 percent) at discrete stress levels. Factors of difference were established between maximum and average strain (corresponding to minimum and nominal yield strength material respectively) for regulatory analysis applications. Limited tests were conducted to show the effects of product form and material condition on total strain. 13 tables, 25 fig

363

Heat-to-heat variations of total strain; to 5 )3<: at discrete stress levels in types 316 and 304 stainless steel from 24 to 316  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tensile tests were conducted on eight heats of randomly selected, mill-annealed type 316 stainless steel and seven heats of mill-annealed type 304 stainless steel at 24, 93, 204, and 316/sup 0/C to establish the effects of heat-to-heat variations on total strain (to 5 percent) at discrete stress levels. Factors of difference were established between maximum and average strain (corresponding to minimum and nominal yield strength material respectively) for regulatory analysis applications. Limited tests were conducted to show the effects of product form and material condition on total strain. 13 tables, 25 fig. (auth)

Hammond, J.P./Sikka, V.K.

1976-10-20

364

Testable uniqueness conditions for empirical assessment of undersampling levels in total variation-regularized X-ray CT  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

We study recoverability in fan-beam computed tomography (CT) with sparsity and total variation priors: how many underdetermined linear measurements suffice for recovering images of given sparsity? Results from compressed sensing (CS) establish such conditions for example for random measurements, but not for CT. Recoverability is typically tested by checking whether a computed solution recovers the original. This approach cannot guarantee solution uniqueness and the recoverability decision therefore depends on the optimization algorithm. We propose new computational methods to test recoverability by verifying solution uniqueness conditions. Using both reconstruction and uniqueness testing, we empirically study the number of CT measurements sufficient for recovery on new classes of sparse test images. We demonstrate an average-case relation between sparsity and sufficient sampling and observe a sharp phase transition as known from CS, but never established for CT. In addition to assessing recoverability more reliably, we show that uniqueness tests are often the faster option.

JØrgensen, Jakob Sauer; Kruschel, C.

2014-01-01

365

Evaluation of the level of skill required of operators of a computer-assisted radiologic total lung capacity measurement system  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This research was conducted to obtain information regarding the feasibility of using non-medical personnel to obtain measurements of radiologic total lung capacity (TLC). Operators from each of four groups (general undergraduates, nursing students, medical students, radiologists) differing in the amount of medical training and/or experience reading x-rays, performed each of two tasks. The first task was the measurement of radiologic TLC for a set of twenty x-rays. The second task consisted of tracing the outline of the anatomical structures that must be identified in the execution of the radiologic TLC measurement task. Data from the radiologic TLC measurement task were used to identify possible group differences in the reliability and validity of the measures. The reliability analyses were performed within the framework of Generalizability Theory. While the results are not conclusive, due to small sizes, the analyses suggest that group differences in reliability of the measures, if they exist, are small

366

Genome-wide scan on total serum IgE levels identifies no common variants in a healthy Chinese male population.  

Science.gov (United States)

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) provides important information on the humoral immune status, and the IgE level is routinely detected in clinical practice. There are many diseases associated with IgE, such as atopic disease, autoimmune diseases, and so on. IgE is a genetically complex trait, but comprehensive genetic assessment of the variability in serum IgE levels is lacking. Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on total serum IgE levels have identified FCER1A as the susceptibility locus; however, the candidate gene association study in southern Chinese patients reported no association. Given the genetic difference in different populations, we firstly conducted this two-stage GWAS in a Chinese population of 3,495 men, including 1,999 unrelated subjects in the first stage and 1,496 independent individuals replicated in the second stage. In the first stage, we totally identified three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) which reached a P value of 1.0 × 10??. Rs17090302 on chromosome 3 and Rs28708846 on chromosome 13 are intergenic. Rs432085 from chromosome 3p28 is located in the gene CCDC50. When the two-stage data was combined, none of the SNPs reached the genome-wide significant level. Collectively, we did not identify novel loci associated with the serum IgE level in Chinese males, but we hypothesized that CCDC50 was a candidate gene in regulation on IgE level. PMID:23661040

Liao, Ming; Shi, Dianchun; Wang, Yao; Zhang, Kai; Chen, Xin; Gao, Yong; Tan, Aihua; Xuan, Qiang; Yang, Xiaobo; Hu, Yanlin; Qin, Xue; Zhang, Haiying; Mo, Zengnan

2013-08-01

367

Influence of oak wood polyphenols on cysteine, homocysteine and glutathione total levels and PON1 activities in human adult volunteers - a pilot study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between antioxidants and pro-oxidants. Many diseases like atherosclerosis or heart failure are involved in oxidative stress. Increased oxidative stress is one of the potential contributing factors to aging. The aim of this study was to monitor the total thiol levels as markers of oxidative stress in 20 healthy volunteers after polyphenols intake (extract from the French oak wood Quercus robur - Robuvit® (300 mg/day)). Polyphenols are known as biomodulators with antioxidant activities. Homocysteine, cysteine and glutathione total levels were determined by using HPLC with electrochemical detection. The activity of the antioxidant enzyme paraoxonase-1 toward two substrates was determined by spectrophotometry. The level of thiol compounds and paraoxonase-1 activities were controlled after run-in (week 0), intervention (week 4) and washout (week 6) period. After the intervention period the results showed that Robuvit® had no significant influence on glutathione level (p = 0.382) and paraoxonase activities towards both, arylester and lactone substrates. On the other hand, homocysteine and cysteine levels decreased significantly (p = 0.029; p < 0.001, respectively). The negative correlation between paraoxonase lactonase activity and homocysteine level was noticed. This confirms that paraoxonase might play an important role in homocysteine-thiolactone metabolism. PMID:25367762

Deáková, Zuzana; Országhová, Zuzana; Andrezálová, Lucia; Slezák, Peter; Lehotay, Jozef; Muchová, Jana; Bürki, Carolina; ?ura?ková, Zde?ka

2015-01-01

368

The correlation between total lesion glycolysis and serum SCC level in different stages of cervical cancer using PET-FDG imaging  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: The concept of whole body 'functional' tumor mass was developed in evaluating biochemical characteristics of tumor by using positron emission tomography (PET) and [F-18] fludeoxyglucose (FDG) (Larson SM, et al. Clin Positron Imaging 1999;2:159-171). The evaluation of cancer total lesion glycolysis was useful in monitoring cancer treatment response. A lesion detection system based on image segmentation method of region growing in FDG whole body PET imaging was developed for calculating the total lesion glycolysis. This method will automatically compute the lesion volume and the total standard uptake value (SUV) number in each detected lesion by a user-entered SUV threshold. After excluding the physiological uptake region, the summation of SUV values from all lesion volumes will be added up to represent the total tumor (including lymph node and distant metastasis) glycolysis. With the concept of tumor burden, total tumor glycolysis was first tested to correlate with the serum SCC level and clinical FIGO staging in cervical cancer patients. Methods: The software was written in MATLAB. Given SUV images, each lesion volume is detected by using a 3D region-growing segmentation method, in terms of some SUV thresholds, and starting from a given location (seed). The seeds are selected by using the mouse, and by simply viewing the whole body images slice-by-slice. The threshold is a user-entered value in the SUV software. After the lesion detection, the SUV software wi the lesion detection, the SUV software will display the detected lesion volumes, and show the SUV value in each lesion volume, as well as the total SUV values of all detected lesion volumes. In this study, the FDG whole body PET imaging of 84 different FIGO stage cervical cancer patients were used for the total tumor glycolysis measurement. The total tumor glycolysis was correlated with the serum SCC level and clinical FIGO staging in these patients. Results: The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient=0.221 for SUV and SCC with p=0.043. This indicates statistical positive significance. The median ( min, max) for each stage group are listed as follow: Stage II: 3410 (198, 19197); Stage III: 3716 (640, 25123); and Stage IV: 12998 (263, 59114). The comparisons between stages in SUV are evaluated using the Mann-Whitney test. The results of the Mann-Whitney test showed significant different between Stage II and Stage IV ( p<0.001), and between Stage III and Stage IV (p=0.016). However, there was no significant difference between Stage II and Stage III (p=0.382). The correlation between total tumor glycolysis and serum SCC level was poor in poor differentiated cancer patients due to very low SCC expression with very aggressive tumor growth and glucose consumption. Conclusions: The evaluation of total tumor glycolysis in cervical caner patients by this program was demonstrated feasible. There was statistical positive significance correlation between total tumor glycosis and serum SCC level. The calculation of total tumor glycolysis is probably especially useful in poor differentiated cancer patients for the treatment response due to low serum SCC level in these patients. (authors)

369

Overweight and obesity associated with increased total serum calcium level: comparison of cross-sectional data in the health screening for teaching faculty.  

Science.gov (United States)

Obesity is a risk of cardiovascular diseases. Our previous studies revealed that serum calcium level may have influence in the blood pressure to older male subjects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between total serum calcium level and overweight and obesity subjects. In our study, overweight and obesity status and total serum calcium level were measured among 2,503 subjects, at age range of 22-94 years, who were recruited for the routine health screening in 2006. The estimated mean for age (p ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for overweight/obesity of the second, third, and fourth quartiles compared to the lowest quartile were 1.407 (1.050-1.883), 1.543 (1.136-2.095), and 1.360 (0.995-1.859), respectively, after adjusting for sex and age (p < 0.001). These findings suggest that a higher prevalence of adult overweight/obesity is weakly associated with higher total serum calcium level in the Chinese population. PMID:24222605

Ren, Xiao-Hua; Yao, Ying-Shui; He, Lian-Ping; Jin, Yue-Long; Chang, Wei-Wei; Li, Jie; Chen, Yan; Song, Xiu-Li; Tang, Hui; Ding, Ling-Ling; Guo, Dao-Xia; Li, Chao-Ping

2013-12-01

370

Significance analysis of the leachate level in a solid waste landfill in a coastal zone using total water balance and slope stability alternatives  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The K site near Seoul began landfilling in 1992. The landfilled wastes include municipal solid waste (66.4%), construction residues (20.4%), water and wastewater sludges (trace levels), and hazardous waste (trace levels). The water content of the municipal solid waste is very high (47.3%); as a result, the leachate level (average E.L.) of the landfill, the design value of which is 7.0 m, was measured at 10.3 m in January 1995 and is increasing. The increase of leachate level in the landfill site causes a problem with slope stability. The leachate level at each disposal stage divided by the intermediate cover layer was calculated with the HELP (Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance) model and calibrated with the data measured from February 1993 to June 1995. Also, the hydraulic conductivities of the waste layer and the intermediate cover layer in each stage were calibrated continuously with HELP model analysis. To verify these results, the total water balance in the landfill site was calculated using the infiltration rate calculated from HELP modeling. The leachate level was E.L. 10.0 m, which was close to the measured leachate level. To estimate the change of the leachate level in the future, the total water balances with different leachate discharge rates of 3,000, 3,500, and 5,000 m{sup 3}/day were analyzed. When the leachate discharge rate was 5,000 ton/day and the initial water content was decreased below 25%, the average leachate level was 10.8 m. This result satisfies the safety factor requirements (=1.3) for landfill slope stability. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Koo, Ja-Kong; Do, Nam-Young [Korea Advanced Institute of Science & Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

1996-12-31

371

Ocorrência de Salmonella e coliformes de origem fecal na canela em pó (Cinnamomum cassia Blume a Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees comercializada em Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Salmonella and fecal coliforms in cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia Blume and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees sold in the city of Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cem amostras de canela em pó de dez marcas diferentes comercializadas na cidade de Florianópolis, SC, foram submetidas à análise microbiológica, pesquisando-se Salmonella e coliformes de origem fecal. Em nenhuma amostra foi detectada Salmonella. Coliformes de origem fecal foram encontrados entre os valores The microbiological quality of a hundred samples of ten differents commercial brands of a ground cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia Blume and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Nees from supermarkets in the city of Florianópolis, Brazil, was assessed. Salmonella and fecal coliforms were determined. Results were negative for Salmonella Fecal coliforms values ranged from 100 MPN per g. Fecal coliforms were detected in 37% of the cinnamon samples.

Jane Maria de S. Philippi

1995-12-01

372

Polyacrylamide+Al2(SO4)3 and polyacrylamide+CaO remove coliform bacteria and nutrients from swine wastewater  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Polyacrylamide mixture may be able to reduce run-off of enteric bacteria from animal wastes. - Animal wastes are a major contributor of nutrients and enteric microorganisms to surface water and ground water. Polyacrylamide (PAM) mixtures are an effective flocculent, and we hypothesized that they would reduce transport of microorganisms in flowing water. After waste water running at 60.0 l min-1 flowed over PAM+Al2(SO4)3, or PAM+CaO in furrows, total coliform bacteria (TC) and fecal coliform bacteria (FC) were reduced by 30-50% at 1 and 50 m downstream of the treatments compared to the control. In a column study, PAM+Al2(SO4)3, and PAM+CaO applied to sandy, sandy loam, loam, and clay soils reduced NH4+ and ortho-P concentrations in leachate compared to the source waste water and the control. PAM+Al2(SO4)3 and PAM+CaO applied to sandy, sandy loam and loam soils reduced both total and ortho-P, concentrations in leachate compared to the source wastewater and control treatment. In a field study, PAM+Al2(SO4)3, or PAM+CaO treatments did not consistently reduce NH4+, NO3-, ortho-P, and total P concentrations in wastewater flowing over any soil compared to inflow wastewater or the control treatment. With proper application PAM+ Al2(SO4)3 l2(SO4)3 and PAM+CaO may be able to reduce the numbers of enteric bacteria in slowly flowing wastewater running off animal confinement areas, reducing the amount of pollutants entering surface water and groundwater

373

Feasibility study of UV disinfection for agricultural reuse of secondary level effluent in Korea.  

Science.gov (United States)

A pilot study was performed to examine the feasibility of UV disinfection for agricultural reuse of reclaimed water. The effluent from the bio-filter of a 16-unit apartment was used as input to the flow-through type UV disinfection system, with average suspended solid (SS) and biological oxygen demand (BOD) concentrations of 3.4 and 5.9 mg/L, respectively, and a mean level of total coliforms in the range of 1.5 x 10(4) MPN/100 mL. UV disinfection was found to be effective, in that it reduced mean concentration of indicator microorganisms (total coliform [TC], fecal coliform [FC], and E. coli) to less than 100 MPN/ 100 mL within 60s exposure using 17, 25, and 40 W lamps. The microorganisms often exceeded 200 MPN/100 mL with 17 and 25W lamps, but were completely removed with 40W lamp in one cylindrical chamber. Disinfection with two chambers in series demonstrated complete removal for all the experiments. About 30 mW x s/cm2 was thought to be adequate for the disinfection of secondary effluent to keep the suggested bacterial standards of 100 MPN FC/100 mL for agricultural reuse. Water quality effect on the UV efficiency was not apparent within the experimental conditions. Statistical analysis showed that the removal rates of TC, FC, and E. coli did not significantly vary with turbidity, dissolved organic matter (DOM), or SS concentrations (p = 0.05). Photo-reactivation problems after UV disinfection might be a lesser concern in agricultural reuse than for other uses, due to exposure of water to solar radiation and resulting inactivation. Overall, UV disinfection of effluent from secondary level wastewater treatment plants in Korea was thought to be an effective and feasible alternative for agricultural reuse, and thus it is strongly recommended. PMID:15055945

Yoon, Chun G; Chung, Kwang-Wuk; Ham, Jong-Hwa; Jeon, Ji-Hong

2004-01-01

374

Artifact level produced by different femoral head prostheses in CT imaging: diamond coated silicon nitride as total hip replacement material.  

Science.gov (United States)

Commercial femoral head prostheses (cobalt-chromium alloy, yttria partially stabilized zirconia (Y-PSZ) and alumina) and new silicon nitride ceramic ones (nanocrystalline diamond coated and uncoated) were compared in terms of artifact level production by computed tomography (CT). Pelvis examination by CT allows the correct diagnosis of some pathologies (e.g. prostate and colon cancer) and the evaluation of the prosthesis-bone interface in post-operative joint surgery. Artifact quantification is rarely seen in literature despite having a great potential to grade biomaterials according to their imaging properties. Materials' characteristics (density and effective atomic number), size and geometry of the prostheses can cause more or less artifact. A quantification procedure based on the calculation of four statistical parameters for the Hounsfield pixel values (mean, standard deviation, mean squared error and worst case error) is presented. CT sequential and helical scanning modes were performed. Results prove the artifact reproducibility and indicate that the cobalt-chromium and Y-PSZ are the most artifact-inducing materials, while alumina and silicon nitride (diamond coated and uncoated) ceramic ones present a low level of artifact. Considering the excellent biocompatibility and biotribological behaviour reported in earlier works, combined with the high medical imaging quality here assessed, diamond coated silicon nitride ceramics are arising as new materials for joint replacement. PMID:23053807

Rodrigues, Simone P; Paiva, José M; De Francesco, Silvia; Amaral, Margarida I; Oliveira, Filipe J; Silva, Rui F

2013-01-01

375

Plasma catalase, glutathione-s-transferase and total antioxidant activity levels of children with attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we plan to measure plasma Catalase (CAT, Antioxidant Activity (AOA and Glu- tathione-S-Transferase (GST levels to understand whether oxidative stress develops or not and whether or not the detoxification mechanism properly functions in children with Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD with unknown etiology and pathogenesis. Method and Results: Plasma CAT, AOA, and GST activities were spectrophotometrically measured in forty patients (average age 10.27 ± 2.54 and thirty-five (average age, 9.97 ± 2.59 healthy individuals as the control group. While the CAT activity showed no difference in the patient group (P > 0.05 compared to the control group, AOA and GST levels were found significantly meaningful (P = 0.001. Conclusion: In this pilot study ,the study shows that no oxidative stress develops in individuals with ADHD in high AOA and stable CAT activity, and that the de- toxification mechanism functions extremely in high GST activity. These findings need to be supported by other studies.

V. Kenan Çelik

2013-02-01

376

Plasma levels of free and total catecholamines and two deaminated metabolites in man--rapid deconjugation by heat in acid.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have described a procedure for deconjugation of plasma catecholamines, norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E) and dopamine (DA) and two catecholamine metabolites 3,4-dihydroxymandelic acid (DOMA) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (DOPEG). Heat at 100 degrees C of the acidified specimen, pH 0.8, produced complete deconjugation of catecholamines in 7 minutes and of metabolites in 5-7 minutes. Subsequently all five products were simultaneously measured with a radioenzymatic assay. However, hydrolysis for 7 minutes produced approximately a loss of 5% in DA and E, 15% in NE and 50% in the metabolites. The percent of free compound in the plasma of 11 normotensive and healthy subjects was 23 +/- 16 for NE, 20 +/- 8 E, 0.8 +/- 1 DA, 20 +/- 7 DOMA and 42 +/- 12 for DOPEG. Similar results were obtained in a random specimen of six patients with primary hypertension. In a group of four patients with pheochromocytoma free levels of NE, DOPEG and DOMA were significantly greater than in the other two groups, whereas conjugates were not. The intravenous administration of NE or the activation of sympathetic nervous system by standing combined with exercise for 15 minutes did not produce a change in the levels of plasma conjugates. These findings suggest that short changes in plasma catecholamines are better reflected in the free than the conjugated part. PMID:6705233

Vlachakis, N D; Kogosov, E; Yoneda, S; Alexander, N; Maronde, R F

1984-02-28

377

Effect of carnosine supplementation on apoptosis and irisin, total oxidant and antioxidants levels in the serum, liver and lung tissues in rats exposed to formaldehyde inhalation.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main objective of the study has been to show whether carnosine has positive effects on liver and lung tissues of rats exposed to a range of formaldehyde concentrations, and to explore how irisin expression and antioxidant capacity are altered in these tissues by carnosine supplementation. Sprague-Dawley type male rats were divided into 8 groups with 6 animals in each: (I) Control; no chemical supplementation); (II) sham (100mg/kg/day carnosine); (III) low dose formaldehyde (LDFA) for 5 days/week; (IV) LDFA for 5 days/week and carnosine); (V) moderate dose formaldehyde (MDFA) for 5 days/week); (VI) MDFA for 5 days/week and carnosine; (VII) high dose formaldehyde (HDFA) for 5 days/week; (VIII) and HDFA for 5 days/week and carnosine. Sham and control groups were exposed to normal air. Irisin levels of the serum, liver and lung tissue supernatants were analyzed by ELISA, while the REL method was used to determine total oxidant/antioxidant capacity. Irisin production by the tissues was detected immunohistochemically. Increasing doses of FA decreased serum/tissue irisin and total antioxidant levels relative to the controls, as also to increases in TUNEL expressions, total oxidant level, oxidant and apoptosis index. Irisin expression was detected in hepatocyte and sinusoidal cells of the liver and parenchymal cells of the lung. In conclusion, while FA exposure reduces irisin and total oxidant in the serum, liver and lung tissues in a dose-dependent manner and increases the total antioxidant capacity, carnosine supplementation reduces the oxidative stress and restores the histopathological and biochemical signs. PMID:25541044

Aydin, Suna; Ogeturk, Murat; Kuloglu, Tuncay; Kavakli, Ahmet; Aydin, Suleyman

2015-02-01

378

IgE sérica total em atópicos e não-atópicos na cidade de Porto Alegre Total serum IgE level in atopic and non-atopic individuals in Porto Alegre, RS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar em nossa cidade o nível sérico de IgE em indivíduos sadios, não- atópicos e em pacientes atópicos com manifestações respiratórias. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 92 pacientes atópicos e 86 indivíduos sadios de ambos os sexos, classificados em grupos de acordo com faixa etária e sexo. A presença de atopia foi determinada através da história, exame físico e reatividade a testes cutâneos de puntura com alérgenos inalantes. A IgE sérica foi avaliada utilizando-se o sistema Pharmacia Immuno-Cap. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que o nível de IgE no soro é mais elevado no sexo masculino. Os valores médios de IgE total nos pacientes atópicos (401 UI/mL são significativamente maiores que àqueles observados entre indivíduos não-atópicos (54,4 UI/mL. Através desse levantamento foi possível determinar os valores normais para as faixas etárias estudadas entre indivíduos sadios de Porto Alegre. CONCLUSÕES: Nosso estudo permitiu observar que o nível de IgE entre pacientes atópicos e indivíduos não-atópicos apresenta distribuição similar àquela verificada em outros países.PURPOSE: We determined the total serum IgE levels among healthy individuals and atopic patients with respiratory symptoms in Porto Alegre. METHODS: Atopic patients (n: 92 and normal controls (n: 86 were stratified according to age and sex. Presence of atopy was recorded by history, clinical examination and skin prick test reactivity to common aeroallergens. Serum IgE was measured by Pharmacia Immuno-Cap System. RESULTS: It was demonstrated that total serum IgE is higher in males than in females. Total serum IgE levels were significantly higher in the atopic group (404 UI/mL in comparison with the non-atopics controls (54.4 UI/mL. Our study provided the normal range for total serum IgE among atopics and non-atopics individuals in Porto Alegre. CONCLUSIONS: The profile of serum IgE among our population (atopics and non-atopics is similar to the one observed in other countries.

S.M. Spalding

2000-06-01

379

Glutathione levels in and total antioxidant capacity of Candida sp. cells exposed to oxidative stress caused by hydrogen peroxide / Níveis de glutationa e capacidade antioxidante total em células de Candida sp. expostas a estresse oxidativo causado por peróxido de hidrogênio  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: A capacidade de suportar o estresse oxidativo imposto por fagócitos parece ser crítica para que espécies de Candida causem candidíase invasiva. MÉTODOS: Para melhor caracterizar a resposta ao estresse oxidativo (REO) de oito Candida sp. clinicamente relevantes, um componente vital do bal [...] anço redox intracelular, a glutationa, foi mensurada pelo método de reconversão DTNB-GSSG redutase e a capacidade antioxidante total (CAT) foi mensurada por um método modificado baseado na descoloração do ABTS*+. Ambos os métodos foram utilizados em extratos celulares das espécies de Candida tratadas ou não com peróxido de hidrogênio (0,5mM). RESULTADOS: O estresse oxidativo induzido pelo peróxido de hidrogênio claramente reduziu os níveis intracelulares de glutationa. Esta diminuição foi mais intensa em C. albicans e os níveis de glutationa em células não tratadas foram também maiores nesta espécie. A capacidade antioxidante total demonstrou variação intraespecífica na capacidade antioxidante. CONCLUSÕES: Os níveis de glutationa não se correlacionaram com a capacidade antioxidante total mensurada, apesar desta ser a defesa antioxidante intracelular não-enzimática mais importante. Os resultados indicam que a medição isolada da CAT não fornece um quadro claro da habilidade de certa espécie de Candida responder ao estresse oxidativo. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: The capacity to overcome the oxidative stress imposed by phagocytes seems to be critical for Candida species to cause invasive candidiasis. METHODS: To better characterize the oxidative stress response (OSR) of 8 clinically relevant Candida sp., glutathione, a vital component of the in [...] tracellular redox balance, was measured using the 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid (DTNB)-glutathione disulfide (GSSG) reductase reconversion method; the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was measured using a modified method based on the decolorization of the 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic) acid radical cation (ABTS*+). Both methods were used with cellular Candida sp. extracts treated or not with hydrogen peroxide (0.5 mM). RESULTS: Oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide clearly reduced intracellular glutathione levels. This depletion was stronger in Candida albicans and the levels of glutathione in untreated cells were also higher in this species. The TAC demonstrated intra-specific variation. CONCLUSIONS: Glutathione levels did not correlate with the measured TAC values, despite this being the most important non-enzymatic intracellular antioxidant molecule. The results indicate that the isolated measurement of TAC does not give a clear picture of the ability of a given Candida sp. to respond to oxidative stress.

Maxwel Adriano, Abegg; Paulo Vinícius Gil, Alabarse; Ártur Krumberg, Schüller; Mara Silveira, Benfato.

2012-10-01

380

Concentração plasmática de colesterol total e lipoproteína de alta densidade em novilhas mestiças doadoras de embriões tratadas com somatotropina bovina recombinante Total plasma cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein levels in crossbred heifer embryo donors treated with bovine recombinant somatotropin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi o de estudar as concentrações plasmáticas de colesterol total e lipoproteína de alta densidade (HDL em novilhas mestiças tratadas com somatotropina bovina recombinante (rbST. Coletas de sangue foram feitas durante dois ciclos estrais, normal e superovulado, em 26 fêmeas distribuídas em dois tratamentos: T1 = aplicação de 500mg de rbST no terceiro dia do ciclo estral utilizado para a superovulação e T2 = controle. Análises dos metabólitos sangüíneos foram feitas utilizando-se o método enzimático, cujas concentrações médias plasmáticas de colesterol total e de HDL durante o ciclo estral normal não foram diferentes (P>0,05 entre os dois tratamentos: 87,9 e 25,8mg/dl e 85,9 e 26,7mg/dl para T1 e T2, respectivamente. O ciclo estral utilizado para a superovulação foi dividido em três períodos: P1 = do estro à inseminação artificial (0 ao15º dia, P2 = da inseminação artificial até a coleta de embriões (15º ao 21º dia e P3 = da coleta até o final do período experimental (21º ao 27º dia. As concentrações plasmáticas de colesterol total e HDL no P1 não diferiram entre os tratamentos (P>0,05. Em P2 e P3 houve diferença nas concentrações de HDL e colesterol total entre os dois tratamentos: 29,0 e 88,5mg/dl (T1 e 27,1 e 81,8mg/dl (T2 no P2; e 30,4 e 88,0mg/dl (T1 e 26,6 e 80,5mg/dl (T2 no P3, respectivamente (PThe objective of the experiment was to study the total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL levels in crossbred heifers treated with bovine recombinant somatotropina (rbST. Blood samples were collected for two estrous cycles, normal and superovulated, from 26 animals randomly distributed into two treatments: T1 - injected with 500mg rbST on day 3 of estrous cycle and T2 - control. The lipidic metabolite levels were determined by an enzymatic method, and plasma levels of total cholesterol and HDL in normal estrous cycle did not differ (P>0.05 between treatments: 87.9 and 25.8mg/dl for T1 and 85.9 and 26.7mg/dl for T2, respectively. The superovulated estrous cycle was divided into three periods: P1 - from estrus to artificial insemination (AI (0 to 15th day, P2 - from AI to embryo collection (15th to 21st day and P3 - from collection to the end of the experiment (21st to 27th day. The rbST treatment did not affect the HDL and cholesterol levels in the P1 (P>0.05, but did so in P2 and P3: 29.0 and 88.5mg/dl (T1 and 27.1 and 81.8mg/dl (T2 during P2; 30.4 and 88.0mg/dl (T1 and 26.6 and 80.5mg/dl (T2 during P3, respectively (P<0.01.

Á.M. Borges

2001-10-01

381

Effect of 50?Hz electric field in diacylglycerol acyltransferase mRNA expression level and plasma concentration of triacylglycerol, free fatty acid, phospholipid and total cholesterol  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background The effects of exposure to a 50?Hz electric field (EF) on plasma level of triacylglycerol, free fatty acids, total cholesterol and phospholipid and mRNA expression level of diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) 1 and 2 in liver and intestines from C57BL/6?J mice were studied. Methods The test was based on comparison between mice post treated with 50?Hz EF of 45?kV/m intensity for 30?min per day for 11?days or without EF. DGATs mRNA expression was analyzed by re...

Hori Takuya; Harakawa Shinji; Herbas Shirley M; Ueta Yoshiko Y; Inoue Noboru; Suzuki Hiroshi

2012-01-01

382

Preliminary total-system analysis of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The placement of high-level radioactive wastes in minded repositories deep underground is considered a disposal method that would effectively isolate these wastes from the environment for long periods of time. This report describes modeling performed at PNL for Yucca Mountain between May and November 1991 addressing the performance of the entire repository system related to regulatory criteria established by the EPA in 40 CFR Part 191. The geologic stratigraphy and material properties used in this study were chosen in cooperation with performance assessment modelers at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Sandia modeled a similar problem using different computer codes and a different modeling philosophy. Pacific Northwest Laboratory performed a few model runs with very complex models, and SNL performed many runs with much simpler (abstracted) models

383

Preliminary total-system analysis of a potential high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The placement of high-level radioactive wastes in mined repositories deep underground is considered a disposal method that would effectively isolate these wastes from the environment for long periods of time. This report describes modeling performed at PNL for Yucca Mountain between May and November 1991 addressing the performance of the entire repository system related to regulatory criteria established by the EPA in 40 CFR Part 191. The geologic stratigraphy and material properties used in this study were chosen in cooperation with performance assessment modelers at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Sandia modeled a similar problem using different computer codes and a different modeling philosophy. Pacific Northwest Laboratory performed a few model runs with very complex models, and SNL performed many runs with much simpler (abstracted) models.

Eslinger, P.W.; Doremus, L.A.; Engel, D.W.; Miley, T.B.; Murphy, M.T.; Nichols, W.E.; White, M.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Langford, D.W.; Ouderkirk, S.J. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-01-01

384

Examination of Implementation Level of the Total Quality Management Principles by the Principals and Teachers Functioning at Elementary Schools: The Case of Adiyaman Province  

OpenAIRE

This study is conducted for the purpose of examining the implementation levels of the Total Quality Management principles by the principals and teachers functioning at the elementary schools. The study is executed with 30 school principal and 300 teachers functioning at the public elementary schools in Adiyaman province. A questionnaire set up by the researchers after consulting to the expert opinion is used for data gathering. Data concerning the study is analyzed by using SPSS package softw...

Tasar, Huseyin H.; Mucahit Celik

2011-01-01

385

Association between high serum total IgE levels and D11S97 on chromosome 11q13 in Japanese subjects.  

OpenAIRE

The genetic linkage of atopy to chromosome 11q13 through maternally derived alleles has been previously reported. Linkage analysis in Japanese families did not confirm the existence of a major gene for atopy at this locus under the model of autosomal dominant inheritance. However, we observed a significant association between serum total IgE levels and genetic markers at this locus both in 14 Japanese atopic families and in 120 unrelated Japanese subjects. We detected eight alleles at the D11...

Hizawa, N.; Yamaguchi, E.; Furuya, K.; Ohnuma, N.; Kodama, N.; Kojima, J.; Ohe, M.; Kawakami, Y.

1995-01-01

386

Total, unbound plasma and salivary phenytoin levels in critically ill patients Níveis totais, livres em plasma, e salivares de fenitoína em doentes graves  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability of salivary phenytoin (PHT concentrations and predicted free PHT levels by Sheiner-Tozer equation in order to substitute measured free PHT concentrations in critically ill patients. METHODOLOGY: Twenty-four neurocritically ill adult patients receiving intravenous PHT were included in the study. Analyses of total, free plasma and saliva PHT concentrations were performed by fluorescence polarization immunoassay. Plasma albumin levels were also determined. RESULTS: Free PHT concentrations as well as salivary levels better correlate to clinical effect than total drug concentrations. Linear regression analysis showed a strong correlation between estimated free PHT concentrations by Sheiner-Tozer and measured free PHT levels (r=0.835; pOBJETIVO: Avaliar a confiabilidade de concentrações salivares de fenitoina (PHT e níveis livres de PHT pronosticado por equação de Sheiner-Tozer, o efeito da substituição das concentrações medidas livres de PHT em doentes graves. MÉTODO: Vinte e quatro doentes adultos que recebem PHT intravenoso forem incluídos no estudo. Análises de PHT total, livre em plasma e saliva foram realizadas por uma técnica de imune fluorescência polarizassem. Os níveis de albumina em plasma foram também determinados. RESULTADOS: Concentrações livres de PHT em plasma e saliva correlacionam melhor ao efeito clínico que concentrações de fármaco total. Análise de regressão lineal mostrou uma correlação forte entre concentrações livres de PHT estimadas por Sheiner-Tozer e os níveis livres de PHT medidos (r=0.835; p<0.001, e entre concentrações em saliva de PHT e concentrações livres medidas de PHT (r=0.964; p<0.001. A equação de Sheiner-Tozer poderia ser inadequada na presença de fármacos competidores da ligação às proteínas. CONCLUSÕES: Saliva pode servir como substituto do plasma para ser utilizado no controle de concentração livre de PHT em plasma nesta população.

M. Ibarra

2010-01-01

387

Listeria spp. associated to different levels of autochthonous microbiota in meat, meat products and processing plants / Listeria spp. associado a diferentes níveis da microbiota autóctone de carne, produtos cárneos e plantas de processamento  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Altos níveis de contaminação microbiana, usualmente encontrados em alimentos de origem animal e nos ambientes de processamento, podem inibir a multiplicação de microrganismos patogênicos nesses produtos e interferir nos resultados das análises laboratoriais para o isolamento desses patógenos. Com o [...] objetivo de verificar as possíveis interferências da microbiota autóctone encontrada na carne, produtos cárneos e plantas de processamento sobre a presença de Listeria spp., 443 amostras, coletadas em 11 estabelecimentos processadores, foram submetidas a análises microbiológicas para determinação dos níveis de contaminação por aeróbios mesófilos, coliformes totais e Escherichia coli e para verificação da presença de Listeria spp., de acordo com a metodologia proposta pelo USDA. Os resultados obtidos não mostraram uma interferência evidente da microbiota autóctone sobre Listeria spp., uma vez que esse gênero foi detectado mesmo nas amostras de carne e produtos cárneos e amostras ambientais e de superfície de equipamentos que apresentaram altos níveis de contaminação por aeróbios mesófilos e coliformes. Abstract in english High levels of microbial contamination, commonly found in animal origin foods and food processing environments, are able to hinder the growth of pathogens in these products and interfere in the results of laboratory analyses for detection of these pathogens. With the aim of verifying the possible in [...] terference of the autochthonous microbiota encountered in meat and meat products and processing plants over the presence of Listeria spp., 443 samples, collected from 11 meat retail establishments, were submitted to microbiological analysis to determine the levels of mesophilic aerobes, total coliforms and Escherichia coli and the presence of Listeria spp., according to the methodology proposed by the USDA. The results did not show evident interference of the autochthonous microbiota over Listeria spp., once the genus was detected even in the meat, meat products and environmental samples with high levels of contamination by mesophilic aerobes and coliforms.

Márcia de Aguiar Ferreira, Barros; Luís Augusto, Nero; Aline Villas-Bôas, Manoel; Loredana, d' Ovídio; Lívia Cavaletti da, Silva; Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo, Franco; Vanerli, Beloti.

2007-12-01

388

Listeria spp. associated to different levels of autochthonous microbiota in meat, meat products and processing plants Listeria spp. associado a diferentes níveis da microbiota autóctone de carne, produtos cárneos e plantas de processamento  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available High levels of microbial contamination, commonly found in animal origin foods and food processing environments, are able to hinder the growth of pathogens in these products and interfere in the results of laboratory analyses for detection of these pathogens. With the aim of verifying the possible interference of the autochthonous microbiota encountered in meat and meat products and processing plants over the presence of Listeria spp., 443 samples, collected from 11 meat retail establishments, were submitted to microbiological analysis to determine the levels of mesophilic aerobes, total coliforms and Escherichia coli and the presence of Listeria spp., according to the methodology proposed by the USDA. The results did not show evident interference of the autochthonous microbiota over Listeria spp., once the genus was detected even in the meat, meat products and environmental samples with high levels of contamination by mesophilic aerobes and coliforms.Altos níveis de contaminação microbiana, usualmente encontrados em alimentos de origem animal e nos ambientes de processamento, podem inibir a multiplicação de microrganismos patogênicos nesses produtos e interferir nos resultados das análises laboratoriais para o isolamento desses patógenos. Com o objetivo de verificar as possíveis interferências da microbiota autóctone encontrada na carne, produtos cárneos e plantas de processamento sobre a presença de Listeria spp., 443 amostras, coletadas em 11 estabelecimentos processadores, foram submetidas a análises microbiológicas para determinação dos níveis de contaminação por aeróbios mesófilos, coliformes totais e Escherichia coli e para verificação da presença de Listeria spp., de acordo com a metodologia proposta pelo USDA. Os resultados obtidos não mostraram uma interferência evidente da microbiota autóctone sobre Listeria spp., uma vez que esse gênero foi detectado mesmo nas amostras de carne e produtos cárneos e amostras ambientais e de superfície de equipamentos que apresentaram altos níveis de contaminação por aeróbios mesófilos e coliformes.

Márcia de Aguiar Ferreira Barros

2007-12-01

389

Use of 60Co gamma radiation in increased levels of total polyphenol extracts of bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) is well known as sources of phenolic compounds. Known as mastic pepper, red pepper tree is a plant native to midsize coast of Brazil. Some of its structures have proven antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal and healing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference in the phenol contents of crude extracts that were measured after irradiating the barks of S. terebinthifolius using gamma radiation from 60Co. The crude extract were divided into a control group and eight experimental groups, which were separated based on the doses of gamma radiation to which they were exposed: 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, 15.0, 20.0 and 50.0 kGy (Assays were performed in triplicate). The results allow observe that gamma radiation promoted in extracts of bark of S. terebinthifolius, many percents increase (p> 0.05) of total polyphenol content between 2.5 kGy (41.93%) and 50.0 kGy (44.52%) compared to 0 kGy (30.07%), with the same gradual to 10.0 kGy, and reaching peak maximum at 10.0 kGy (68.44%). However, the study puts the process of gamma radiation from 60Co as an alternative significant increase in the percentage of some natural substances of plant material, and subsequently contribute to the augmentation of various therapeutic applications to which they are assigned. (author)

390

Niveles séricos de homocisteína total y lipoproteínas en adultos jóvenes de áreas rurales y urbanas de Costa Rica / Serum total homocysteine and lipoproteins levels in young adults from urban and rural areas of Costa Rica.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Se estudió el perfil de lípidos y los niveles séricos de homocisteína total de una población de 400 adultos con edades entre 20 y 40 años residentes de áreas rurales y urbanas del valle central de Costa Rica. Los resultados indican que la proporción de sujetos de zona urbana con niveles elevados de [...] LDL-C (= 4,13 mmol/L) fue un 11% mayor que la proporción de individuos de zona rural (29,2% y 18,0%, p=0,045). Por el contrario, la proporción de individuos de zona rural con niveles de HDL-C bajos (15 ìmol/L), hipercolesterolemia (= 5,17 mmol/L) e hipertrigliceridemia (= 1,69 mmol/L) en la población estudiada fue 5,8%; 53,6% y 50,1% respectivamente. El 82% de la población estudiada presentó valores de LDL-C = 2,58 mmol/L y un 61% aproximadamente de los adultos tenían las HDL-C en niveles inferiores a 1,03 mmol/L. Los datos indican que la población costarricense estudiada presenta un alto riesgo cardiovascular. La prevalencia de niveles bajos de HDL-C ( Abstract in english This study evaluated the lipid profile and the serum levels of total homocysteine of 400 adults aged 20 to 40 years, residents of rural and urban areas of the central valley of Costa Rica. The results showed that the proportion of subjects from urban areas with high levels of LDL-C (= 4,13 mmol/L) w [...] as 11% higher than the proportion of adults from rural areas (29,2% y 18,0%, p=0,045). On the contrary, the proportion of rural subjects with low HDL-C levels (15 ìmol/L), hypercholesterolemia (= 5,17 mmol/L) and hypertriglyceridemia (=1,69 mmol/L) in the studied population were 5,8%, 53,6% y 50,1% respectively. 82% of the studied population had LDL-C levels above 2,58 mmol/L and approximately 61% of the adults had HDL-C levels lower than 1,03 mmol/L. Our data suggest that the studied costarrican population has a very high cardiovascular risk. The prevalence of low levels of HDL-C (

Ileana, Holst -Schumacher; Rafael, Monge-Rojas; Mauro, Barrantes-Santamaría.

2006-12-01

391

A hepatocarcinogenic tryptophan-pyrolyzate component, Trp-P-1, decreases serum total testosterone level and induces hepatic Cyp1a2 in male mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Male (BALB/c x DBA/2) F(1) mice were given 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido [4,3-b] indole acetate (Trp-P-1; 20 mg/kg body weight) by gavage at 24-h intervals for 1 or 2 weeks, and the effects of Trp-P-1 on the levels of serum total testosterone and hepatic cytochrome P4501a2 (Cyp1a2) were examined. A significant decrease in serum total testosterone level was observed after treatment with Trp-P-1 for 2 weeks, but not for 1 week. Likewise, gene expression levels of testicular androgenic enzymes, including cholesterol side chain cleavage cytochrome P450, 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and steroid 17alpha-hydroxylase/C17-20 lyase, decreased only in the mice treated with Trp-P-1 for 2 weeks. In contrast, levels of the mRNA and apoprotein of hepatic Cyp1a2 and its enzyme activity for O-demethylation of methoxyresorufin significantly increased in the mice treated with Trp-P-1 for 2 weeks, but only a small increase was observed in mice treated for 1 week. In the present study, we demonstrate for the first time that treatment of male mice with Trp-P-1 results in a decrease in serum total testosterone level through suppression of the gene expression of testicular enzymes responsible for androgen biosynthesis, and this then leads to induction of hepatic Cyp1a2. PMID:16367918

Degawa, Masakuni; Hanaki, Koji; Sekimoto, Masashi

2006-01-01

392

Spatial variability in levels of benzene, formaldehyde, and total benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes in New York City: a land-use regression study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Hazardous air pollutant exposures are common in urban areas contributing to increased risk of cancer and other adverse health outcomes. While recent analyses indicate that New York City residents experience significantly higher cancer risks attributable to hazardous air pollutant exposures than the United States as a whole, limited data exist to assess intra-urban variability in air toxics exposures. Methods To assess intra-urban spatial variability in exposures to common hazardous air pollutants, street-level air sampling for volatile organic compounds and aldehydes was conducted at 70 sites throughout New York City during the spring of 2011. Land-use regression models were developed using a subset of 59 sites and validated against the remaining 11 sites to describe the relationship between concentrations of benzene, total BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes and formaldehyde to indicators of local sources, adjusting for temporal variation. Results Total BTEX levels exhibited the most spatial variability, followed by benzene and formaldehyde (coefficient of variation of temporally adjusted measurements of 0.57, 0.35, 0.22, respectively. Total roadway length within 100?m, traffic signal density within 400?m of monitoring sites, and an indicator of temporal variation explained 65% of the total variability in benzene while 70% of the total variability in BTEX was accounted for by traffic signal density within 450?m, density of permitted solvent-use industries within 500?m, and an indicator of temporal variation. Measures of temporal variation, traffic signal density within 400?m, road length within 100?m, and interior building area within 100?m (indicator of heating fuel combustion predicted 83% of the total variability of formaldehyde. The models built with the modeling subset were found to predict concentrations well, predicting 62% to 68% of monitored values at validation sites. Conclusions Traffic and point source emissions cause substantial variation in street-level exposures to common toxic volatile organic compounds in New York City. Land-use regression models were successfully developed for benzene, formaldehyde, and total BTEX using spatial indicators of on-road vehicle emissions and emissions from stationary sources. These estimates will improve the understanding of health effects of individual pollutants in complex urban pollutant mixtures and inform local air quality improvement efforts that reduce disparities in exposure.

Kheirbek Iyad

2012-07-01

393

Thyroid stimulating hormone, independent of thyroid hormone, can elevate the serum total cholesterol level in patients with coronary heart disease: a cross-sectional design  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between TSH and the lipid profile is contradictory because few studies have excluded the potential influence of the thyroid hormones (TH. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between serum TSH levels and the lipid profile independent of TH. Methods 1302 CHD patients diagnosed by coronary angiography were retrospectively studied. The prevalence and distribution of thyroid dysfunction were analyzed first. To assess the impact of TSH on serum lipids, Pearson’s correlation analysis was performed after adjustments for classic factors and TH. To calculate the extent of the effect of TSH on the serum cholesterol level, the partial least squares method and additional statistical methods were used. Results After the exclusions, a total of 568 patients (270 males and 298 females with a mean age of 63.56?±?11.376?years were selected. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction among the patients was 18.66%, and the prevalence of hypothyroidism (15.32% was higher than that of hyperthyroidism (3.34%. Even after adjusting for confounding factors, such as sex, age, smoking status, fasting plasma glucose levels and TH, a significant positive impact of TSH on the serum total cholesterol (TC level was revealed (r?=?0.095, p?=?0.036. Each 1 mIU/L increase in the TSH level might be linked to a 0.015580712?mmol/L elevation of the serum TC value. Conclusions TSH can increase the TC level in CHD patients independent of TH. The present study suggests a potential physiological role of TSH and the importance of maintaining an appropriate TSH level in CHD patients.

Xu Chao

2012-05-01

394

Multivariate Logistic Regression for Predicting Total Culturable Virus Presence at the Intake of a Potable-Water Treatment Plant: Novel Application of the Atypical Coliform/Total Coliform Ratio?  

OpenAIRE

Predicting the presence of enteric viruses in surface waters is a complex modeling problem. Multiple water quality parameters that indicate the presence of human fecal material, the load of fecal material, and the amount of time fecal material has been in the environment are needed. This paper presents the results of a multiyear study of raw-water quality at the inlet of a potable-water plant that related 17 physical, chemical, and biological indices to the presence of enteric viruses as indi...

Black, L. E.; Brion, G. M.; Freitas, S. J.

2007-01-01

395