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1

Elastin variations implicating in vascular smooth muscle cells phenotype in human tortuous arteries  

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The aim of the present work was to study the morphological implications between the elastin and the phenotypic expression of the vascular smooth muscle cells. For this purpose, sixty human tortuous arteries from different territories have been studied. We have measured the morphometric indexes Intimal Thickening Index and Elastolyse Index and they have been quantified with computer system analysis, image-colour corresponding to the orcein and Verhoeff reactions...

Ortiz, P. P.; Sarrat, R.; Daret, D.; Whyte, J.; Torres, A.; Daniel-lamaziere, J. M.

2000-01-01

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Pulsatile Tinnitus due to a Tortuous Siphon-Like Internal Carotid Artery Successfully Treated by Arterial Remodeling  

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A patient is described with a right-sided tortuous siphon-like extracranial internal carotid artery leading to highly distressing ipsilateral heart beat synchronous pulsatile tinnitus, scoring 9/10 measuring loudness. Dilating the balloon during the occlusion test in or distal to the siphon-like anomaly reduces the arterial pulsations. Subsequently, surgery is performed using Teflon as an external construct to straighten the siphon-like anomaly. Postoperatively, the pulsations improve to 5/10...

Dirk de Ridder; Sven Vanneste; Tomas Menovsky

2013-01-01

3

Pulsatile Tinnitus due to a Tortuous Siphon-Like Internal Carotid Artery Successfully Treated by Arterial Remodeling  

Science.gov (United States)

A patient is described with a right-sided tortuous siphon-like extracranial internal carotid artery leading to highly distressing ipsilateral heart beat synchronous pulsatile tinnitus, scoring 9/10 measuring loudness. Dilating the balloon during the occlusion test in or distal to the siphon-like anomaly reduces the arterial pulsations. Subsequently, surgery is performed using Teflon as an external construct to straighten the siphon-like anomaly. Postoperatively, the pulsations improve to 5/10 in a standing position and disappear during a reclined position. By adding a hearing aid, the pulsations are almost completely gone during a standing position (1/10) and remain absent in a reclined position.

De Ridder, Dirk; Menovsky, Tomas

2013-01-01

4

Sequential bilateral retinal artery occlusion  

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Full Text Available Noel Padrón-Pérez,1 Janny Rosario Aronés,2 Silvia Muñoz,1 Luis Arias-Barquet,1 Jorge Arruga1,31Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, 2Hospital de l'Esperança – Parc de Salut Mar, 3Institut Català de Retina, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: An 86 year old woman experienced a sequential bilateral loss of vision over a period of less than 24 hours. Clinical findings and complementary studies suggested a bilateral atherogenic embolic event. Initially, she presented a superior branch retinal artery occlusion in her right eye followed by a central retinal artery occlusion with cilioretinal artery sparing in her left eye. Some conservative maneuvers performed did not improve visual acuity in the left eye. Supra-aortic Doppler ultrasonography revealed mild right internal carotid artery stenosis and moderate left internal carotid artery stenosis with a small, smooth, and homogeneous plaque. The transthoracic echocardiography showed a severe calcification of the mitral valve with a mild-moderate rim of stenosis. Central retinal artery occlusion and branch retinal artery occlusion are characterized by painless monocular loss of vision. Clinical approach and management attempt to treat the acute event, find the source of the vascular occlusion, and prevent further vascular events from occurring. Giant cell arteritis is a potentially treatable cause of central retinal artery occlusion and should be excluded in every single patient over 50 years old.Keywords: loss of vision, branch retinal artery occlusion, central retinal artery occlusion, Hollenhorst plaque

Padrón-Pérez N

2014-04-01

5

Pulsatile Tinnitus due to a Tortuous Siphon-Like Internal Carotid Artery Successfully Treated by Arterial Remodeling.  

Science.gov (United States)

A patient is described with a right-sided tortuous siphon-like extracranial internal carotid artery leading to highly distressing ipsilateral heart beat synchronous pulsatile tinnitus, scoring 9/10 measuring loudness. Dilating the balloon during the occlusion test in or distal to the siphon-like anomaly reduces the arterial pulsations. Subsequently, surgery is performed using Teflon as an external construct to straighten the siphon-like anomaly. Postoperatively, the pulsations improve to 5/10 in a standing position and disappear during a reclined position. By adding a hearing aid, the pulsations are almost completely gone during a standing position (1/10) and remain absent in a reclined position. PMID:23607023

De Ridder, Dirk; Vanneste, Sven; Menovsky, Tomas

2013-01-01

6

Sequential bilateral retinal artery occlusion  

Science.gov (United States)

An 86 year old woman experienced a sequential bilateral loss of vision over a period of less than 24 hours. Clinical findings and complementary studies suggested a bilateral atherogenic embolic event. Initially, she presented a superior branch retinal artery occlusion in her right eye followed by a central retinal artery occlusion with cilioretinal artery sparing in her left eye. Some conservative maneuvers performed did not improve visual acuity in the left eye. Supra-aortic Doppler ultrasonography revealed mild right internal carotid artery stenosis and moderate left internal carotid artery stenosis with a small, smooth, and homogeneous plaque. The transthoracic echocardiography showed a severe calcification of the mitral valve with a mild-moderate rim of stenosis. Central retinal artery occlusion and branch retinal artery occlusion are characterized by painless monocular loss of vision. Clinical approach and management attempt to treat the acute event, find the source of the vascular occlusion, and prevent further vascular events from occurring. Giant cell arteritis is a potentially treatable cause of central retinal artery occlusion and should be excluded in every single patient over 50 years old.

Padron-Perez, Noel; Arones, Janny Rosario; Munoz, Silvia; Arias-Barquet, Luis; Arruga, Jorge

2014-01-01

7

Ruptured retinal arterial macroaneurysm: Diagnosis and management.  

Science.gov (United States)

Retinal arterial macroaneurysm is an acquired, focal dilation of a retinal artery, typically occurring within the first three bifurcations of the central retinal artery. The clinical presentation of a retinal arterial macroaneurysm is highly variable, making initial diagnosis difficult and differentials many. Identification of retinal arterial macroaneurysms is crucial to appropriately co-manage with the primary care physician for hypertension control. Prognosis is generally good and observation is often an adequate treatment. However, in cases of macular threat or involvement, some treatment options are available and referral to a retinal specialist is indicated. PMID:25000868

Speilburg, Ashley M; Klemencic, Stephanie A

2014-01-01

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Endovascular aneurysm repair in emergent ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm with a 'real' hostile neck and severely tortuous iliac artery of an elderly patient  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) has been a revolutionary development in the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). Meanwhile, unfavorable anatomy of the aneurysm has always been a challenge to vascular surgeons, and the application of EVAR in emergent and elderly patients are still in dispute. Case presentation A 79-year-old woman presented as an emergency of abdominal pain with acute hypotension, heart rate elevation and a rapid decrease of hemoglobin. Emergent computed tomographic angiography (CTA) showed a ruptured AAA (rAAA) extending from below the opening of bilateral renal arteries down to the celiac artery and elongated to both common iliac arteries. The hostile neck and severely tortuous iliac artery made the following procedure a great challenge. An emergent endovascular approach was performed in which an excluder aortic main body was deployed below the origin of the bilateral renal arteries covering the ruptured aortic segment. Two iliac legs were placed superior to the opening of the right hypogastric respectively. In order to avoid the type Ib endoleak, we tried to deploy another cuff above the bifurcation of the iliac artery. However, the severely tortuous right iliac artery made this procedure extremely difficult, and a balloon-assisted technique was used in order to keep the stiff wire stable. Another iliac leg was placed above the bifurcation of the left iliac artery. The following angiography showed a severe Ia endoleak in the proximal neck and therefore, a cuff was deployed distal to opening of the left renal artery with off-the-shelf solution. The patient had an uneventful recovery with a resolution of the rAAA. She is well and symptom-free 6 months later. Conclusion Endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in emergent elderly rAAA with hostile neck and severe tortuous iliac artery is extremely challenging, and endovascular management with integrated technique is feasible and may achieve a satisfactory early result.

2014-01-01

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Guyon's canal syndrome due to tortuous ulnar artery with DeQuervain stenosing tenosynovitis, ligamentous injuries and dorsal intercalated segmental instability syndrome, a rare presentation: a case report  

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The Guyon's canal syndrome is a well known clinical entity and may have significant impact on patient's quality of life. We report a case of 43-year-old male who presented with complaints of pain and numbness in right hand and difficulty in writing for past one month. On imaging diagnosis of Guyon's canal syndrome because of tortuous ulnar artery was made with additional findings of DeQuervain's stenosing tenosynovitis and dorsal intercalated segmental instability syndrome with ligamentous in...

Zeeshan, Muhammad; Ahmed, Farhan; Kanwal, Darakhshan; Khalid, Qazi Saad Bin; Ahmed, Muhammad Nadeem

2009-01-01

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Metabolic syndrome and central retinal artery occlusion  

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Background. The accumulation of risk factors for central retinal artery occlusion can be seen in a single person and might be explained by the metabolic syndrome. Case report. We presented the case of a 52-year-old man with no light perception in his right eye. The visual loss was monocular and painless, fundoscopy showed central retinal artery occlusion and the laboratory investigation showed the raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 105 mm/h and the raised C-reactive protein of 22 mg/l. ...

2005-01-01

11

Theoretical estimation of retinal oxygenation during retinal artery occlusion.  

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The aim of the present work was to simulate the oxygenation of the whole retina under normal conditions as well as during retinal ischemia. A differential equation describing how oxygen is transported from blood to tissue, diffuses through the tissue and is consumed according to Michaelis-Menten kinetics was constructed. The outer retina was divided into three regions of which one was set to have consumption. The inner retina was considered as one uniform region with respect to maximal rate of oxygen consumption and blood flow. The results suggest that extreme hyperoxia would be needed to make the choroid capable of supplying the whole retina during total retinal artery occlusion and moreover confirm that light might to some extent be beneficial. As supplying 100% oxygen by nose cannula or common oxygen mask can hardly increase the arterial oxygen tension to the levels needed to rescue the whole retina, the effects of oxygen treatment of total retinal artery occlusion are expected to be modest, both in darkness and light, unless a non-rebreather face mask system is used. PMID:15712729

Roos, Magnus W

2004-12-01

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A case of cilioretinal artery occlusion resembling hemicentral retinal artery occlusion  

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Full Text Available Shinji Makino, Yuriko Ohkawara, Yukihiro SatoDepartment of Ophthalmology, Jichi Medical University, Shimotsuke, Tochigi, JapanAbstract: A 77-year-old man presented with an inferior hemivisual field defect in the left eye. Funduscopy revealed well demarcated retinal edema of the superior quadrant resembling hemicentral retinal artery occlusion. Further, the upper and inferior retinal arteries emerged separately from the optic disc. Fluorescein angiography demonstrated a marked filling delay of the upper retinal artery. We repeated fluorescein angiography, which showed that the involved upper retinal artery was a cilioretinal artery having an earlier dye appearance than the lower retinal artery. We suggest that when cases of hemicentral retinal artery occlusion are encountered, vascular architecture at the optic disc should be evaluated carefully.Keywords: cilioretinal artery occlusion, hemicentral retinal artery occlusion, fluorescein fundus angiography

Sato Y

2012-11-01

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Impending central retinal vein occlusion associated with cilioretinal artery obstruction  

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Full Text Available Juliana Mantovani Bottós, Fabio Bom Aggio, Eduardo Dib, Michel Eid FarahVision Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Federal University of São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: We report a case of a patient with an impending central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO with cilioretinal artery obstruction, which may help to understand the nature of the retinal hemodynamic changes associated with CRVO which shows direct evidence of arterial vasospasm, suggesting an increased contractility of retinal arteries. The clinical course, with initial retinal whitening along a cilioretinal artery followed by signs of venous stasis, seems to confirm the pathogenesis hypothesis concerning a primary arterial affection due to arterial vasospasm.Keywords: retinal vein occlusion, cilioretinal artery obstruction, arterial spasm, fluorescein angiography

Juliana Mantovani Bottós

2008-10-01

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Concurrent central retinal artery occlusion and branch retinal vein occlusion in giant cell arteritis  

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Ophthalmic involvement in giant cell arteritis can manifest in a number of ways. Central retinal artery occlusion is one of the common causes of visual loss in giant cell arteritis. On the contrary, branch retinal vein occlusion is rarely associated with the latter. We report an 89-year-old lady with acute left central retinal artery occlusion on a background of progressive decline in vision over a 6-month period with a concurrent right branch retinal vein occlusion. Subsequent investigation ...

Chu, Edward R.; Chen, Celia S.

2010-01-01

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Metabolic syndrome and central retinal artery occlusion  

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Full Text Available Background. The accumulation of risk factors for central retinal artery occlusion can be seen in a single person and might be explained by the metabolic syndrome. Case report. We presented the case of a 52-year-old man with no light perception in his right eye. The visual loss was monocular and painless, fundoscopy showed central retinal artery occlusion and the laboratory investigation showed the raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 105 mm/h and the raised C-reactive protein of 22 mg/l. Specific laboratory investigations and fluorescein angiography excluded the presence of vasculitis, collagen vascular diseases, hypercoagulable state and antiphospholipid syndrome. Conclusion. The patient met all the five of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP criteria for the metabolic syndrome: hypertension, abnormal lipid profile, abnormal glucose metabolism, obesity and hyperuricemia. Measurement of C-reactive protein is useful for the assessment of therapeutic systemic effect on any abnormality in the metabolic syndrome. Individual therapy for all risk factors in the metabolic syndrome is necessary to prevent complications such as cardiovascular, retinal vascular diseases and stroke.

Kosanovi?-Jakovi? Natalija

2005-01-01

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Tortuous path chemical preconcentrator  

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A non-planar, tortuous path chemical preconcentrator has a high internal surface area having a heatable sorptive coating that can be used to selectively collect and concentrate one or more chemical species of interest from a fluid stream that can be rapidly released as a concentrated plug into an analytical or microanalytical chain for separation and detection. The non-planar chemical preconcentrator comprises a sorptive support structure having a tortuous flow path. The tortuosity provides repeated twists, turns, and bends to the flow, thereby increasing the interfacial contact between sample fluid stream and the sorptive material. The tortuous path also provides more opportunities for desorption and readsorption of volatile species. Further, the thermal efficiency of the tortuous path chemical preconcentrator is comparable or superior to the prior non-planar chemical preconcentrator. Finally, the tortuosity can be varied in different directions to optimize flow rates during the adsorption and desorption phases of operation of the preconcentrator.

Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Lewis, Patrick R. (Albuquerque, NM); Adkins, Douglas R. (Albuquerque, NM); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Simonson, Robert J. (Cedar Crest, NM)

2010-09-21

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Concurrent central retinal artery occlusion and branch retinal vein occlusion in giant cell arteritis  

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Edward R Chu, Celia S ChenDepartment of Ophthalmology, Flinders Medical Centre and Flinders University, Bedford Park, SA, AustraliaAbstract: Ophthalmic involvement in giant cell arteritis can manifest in a number of ways. Central retinal artery occlusion is one of the common causes of visual loss in giant cell arteritis. On the contrary, branch retinal vein occlusion is rarely associated with the latter. We report an 89-year-old lady with acute left central retinal artery occlusion on a backg...

Chu, Edward R.; Chen, Celia S.

2010-01-01

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Presumed toxoplasmic central retinal artery occlusion and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing.  

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Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing are rare in ocular toxoplasmosis. We report a case of toxoplasmic CRAO and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. A healthy 83-year-old male developed left panuveitis. Funduscopic examination of the left eye showed a swollen optic disc and sheathing of the retinal artery with a dense vitreous haze and a white retinal lesion. Serum anti-toxoplasma antibodies were positive in a latex agglutination assay. Vitrectomy was performed to improve visualization of the retinal lesions and for examination of causative microorganisms. A postoperative fundus examination revealed CRAO with optic disc involvement and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. Qualitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction detected the Toxoplasma gondii B1 gene in ocular fluid from both the aqueous and vitreous humor. The presumed diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis was made and treatment was started with prednisone and acetylspiramycin with subsequent improvement. Two months later, the patient developed active retinochoroiditis in the left eye. After 6 weeks of anti-toxoplasma therapy, the disease involuted. Retinal vascular occlusions and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing are rare in toxoplasmosis. This is the first case report of toxoplasmic CRAO and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. The diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis should be considered in patients with retinal artery occlusions and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing associated with inflammation. PMID:24790408

Arai, Haruka; Sakai, Tsutomu; Okano, Kiichiro; Aoyagi, Ranko; Imai, Ayano; Takase, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Manabu; Tsuneoka, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

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Presumed toxoplasmic central retinal artery occlusion and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing  

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Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing are rare in ocular toxoplasmosis. We report a case of toxoplasmic CRAO and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. A healthy 83-year-old male developed left panuveitis. Funduscopic examination of the left eye showed a swollen optic disc and sheathing of the retinal artery with a dense vitreous haze and a white retinal lesion. Serum anti-toxoplasma antibodies were positive in a latex agglutination assay. Vitrectomy was performed to improve visualization of the retinal lesions and for examination of causative microorganisms. A postoperative fundus examination revealed CRAO with optic disc involvement and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. Qualitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction detected the Toxoplasma gondii B1 gene in ocular fluid from both the aqueous and vitreous humor. The presumed diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis was made and treatment was started with prednisone and acetylspiramycin with subsequent improvement. Two months later, the patient developed active retinochoroiditis in the left eye. After 6 weeks of anti-toxoplasma therapy, the disease involuted. Retinal vascular occlusions and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing are rare in toxoplasmosis. This is the first case report of toxoplasmic CRAO and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. The diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis should be considered in patients with retinal artery occlusions and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing associated with inflammation.

Arai, Haruka; Sakai, Tsutomu; Okano, Kiichiro; Aoyagi, Ranko; Imai, Ayano; Takase, Hiroshi; Mochizuki, Manabu; Tsuneoka, Hiroshi

2014-01-01

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Impending central retinal vein occlusion associated with cilioretinal artery obstruction  

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Juliana Mantovani Bottós, Fabio Bom Aggio, Eduardo Dib, Michel Eid FarahVision Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Federal University of São Paulo, BrazilAbstract: We report a case of a patient with an impending central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) with cilioretinal artery obstruction, which may help to understand the nature of the retinal hemodynamic changes associated with CRVO which shows direct evidence of arterial vasospasm, suggesting an increased contractility of ret...

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Presumed toxoplasmic central retinal artery occlusion and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Haruka Arai,1 Tsutomu Sakai,1 Kiichiro Okano,1 Ranko Aoyagi,1 Ayano Imai,2 Hiroshi Takase,2 Manabu Mochizuki,2 Hiroshi Tsuneoka11Department of Ophthalmology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing are rare in ocular toxoplasmosis. We report a case of toxoplasmic CRAO and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. A healthy 83-year-old male developed left panuveitis. Funduscopic examination of the left eye showed a swollen optic disc and sheathing of the retinal artery with a dense vitreous haze and a white retinal lesion. Serum anti-toxoplasma antibodies were positive in a latex agglutination assay. Vitrectomy was performed to improve visualization of the retinal lesions and for examination of causative microorganisms. A postoperative fundus examination revealed CRAO with optic disc involvement and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. Qualitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction detected the Toxoplasma gondii B1 gene in ocular fluid from both the aqueous and vitreous humor. The presumed diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis was made and treatment was started with prednisone and acetylspiramycin with subsequent improvement. Two months later, the patient developed active retinochoroiditis in the left eye. After 6 weeks of anti-toxoplasma therapy, the disease involuted. Retinal vascular occlusions and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing are rare in toxoplasmosis. This is the first case report of toxoplasmic CRAO and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. The diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis should be considered in patients with retinal artery occlusions and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing associated with inflammation.Keywords: ocular toxoplasmosis, toxoplasma retinochoroiditis, retinal vascular occlusion, polymerase chain reaction, vitrectomy

Arai H

2014-04-01

22

Retinal arterial occlusion in Takayasu?s arteritis  

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Full Text Available Takayasu?s arteritis is an auto-immune disorder of the large and medium-sized arteries, commonly involving the heart and its main vessels. It is now recognised that the inflammatory process of the large arteries affects regions of the walls supplied by the vasa vasorum, suggesting that primary small vessel involvement may contribute to the development of the clinico-pathological features of Takayasu aorto-arteritis. Classical ophthalmic features of the disease result from reduced ocular perfusion, which manifests as hypoxic retinal changes such as microaneurysms, arterio-venous anastomosis and non-perfused areas. Branch retinal artery occlusion has not been previously described in this condition. This case illustrates retinal arterial occlusion as the presenting feature of Takayasu?s arteritis.

Kaushik Sushmita

2005-01-01

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Neovascular Glaucoma Due to Branch Retinal Vein Occlusion Combined with Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion  

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Branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) and branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) rarely cause neovascular glaucoma (NVG). A 58-year-old woman with hypertension and type 2 diabetic mellitus complained of progressive visual loss in her right eye for the previous 3 months. At initial examination, visual acuity was 20 / 63 in the right eye. Angle neovascularization was observed and the intraocular pressure (IOP) was 30 mmHg in her right eye. Fundus examination and fluorescein angiography showed BR...

2013-01-01

24

Unilateral central retinal artery occlusion following intravenous streptokinase.  

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Full Text Available A 38-year-old male with acute myocardial infraction who had received streptokinase presented with acute painless diminution of vision in the left eye. Examination revealed features of central retinal artery occlusion on the left side with vision of perception of light. Treatment in the form of systemic and local intraocular pressure lowering agents, retrobulbar xanthinol nicotinate and systemic injection of B-complex resulted in improvement of vision to counting fingers up to one meter. In this case thrombolytic therapy itself led to embolism into the left central retinal artery resulting in its occlusion and eventually optic atrophy and blindness.

Potdar N

2001-10-01

25

A histological investigation into the correlation of central retinal artery atherosclerosis with the systemic circulation.  

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Current research suggests that retinal arterial changes such as arteriovenous nicking and arterial narrowing are pathologically distinct from atherosclerosis. Other studies have found a positive correlation between retinal changes and systemic atherosclerosis. However, limited recent histopathologic evidence assessing atherosclerosis in the central retinal artery exists. We investigated atherosclerosis in the central retinal artery and how it correlates to atherosclerosis in the carotid and coronary arteries. Twenty-two cadavers (12 males, 10 females) were dissected, obtaining one orbit, one carotid artery, and one coronary artery from each. The specimens were sectioned and stained for histologic analysis by light microscopy using hematoxylin and eosin, Verhoeff's elastic, and Gomori's trichrome stains. The degree of atherosclerosis was graded from absent, or I (least severe) to VIII (most severe) based on the current American Heart Association guidelines. Atherosclerotic changes were present in the central retinal, coronary, and carotid arteries. A positive correlation was found between the central retinal artery and the carotid artery (r?=?0.23, P?=?0.15), the central retinal artery and the coronary artery (r?=?0.31, P?=?0.08), and the carotid artery and the coronary artery (r?=?0.45, P?=?0.02). The presence of low-grade atherosclerosis in the central retinal artery is prevalent in a population of advanced vascular disease. However, central retinal artery atherosclerotic lesion severity is poorly correlated with disease severity in the carotid and coronary arteries. Anat Rec, 297:1430-1434, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24841620

Schear, Matthew J; Beatty, Brian Lee

2014-08-01

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Visual prognosis following treatment of acute central retinal artery obstruction.  

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The authors report the visual outcome in 34 consecutive cases of treated acute central retinal artery obstruction. Visual acuity equal to or better than 6/30 was recovered in 35% of the cases. The presenting visual acuity and duration of visual impairment appear to correlate with visual prognosis.

Augsburger, J. J.; Magargal, L. E.

1980-01-01

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Sequential spectral domain OCT documentation of retinal changes after branch retinal artery occlusion  

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Full Text Available RK Murthy, S Grover, KV ChalamDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Florida-Jacksonville, Jacksonville, FL 32209, USAAbstract: Branch retinal artery occlusions (BRAO are characterized histopathologically by inner retinal edema initially and atrophy in the presence of persistent ischemia. The duration of ischemia leading to irreversible atrophic retinal changes is not clear. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT provides non-invasive detailed in-vivo histological changes in the retina. In this case report, we show sequential in vivo pathological changes seen in the inner retinal layers, in spite of clinical improvement, following the migration of an intraretinal embolus on the optic nerve head, which had previously resulted in symptomatic BRAO.Keywords: BRAO, optic nerve head plaque, SD-OCT

RK Murthy

2010-04-01

28

Automatic classification of retinal vessels into arteries and veins  

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Separating the retinal vascular tree into arteries and veins is important for quantifying vessel changes that preferentially affect either the veins or the arteries. For example the ratio of arterial to venous diameter, the retinal a/v ratio, is well established to be predictive of stroke and other cardiovascular events in adults, as well as the staging of retinopathy of prematurity in premature infants. This work presents a supervised, automatic method that can determine whether a vessel is an artery or a vein based on intensity and derivative information. After thinning of the vessel segmentation, vessel crossing and bifurcation points are removed leaving a set of vessel segments containing centerline pixels. A set of features is extracted from each centerline pixel and using these each is assigned a soft label indicating the likelihood that it is part of a vein. As all centerline pixels in a connected segment should be the same type we average the soft labels and assign this average label to each centerline pixel in the segment. We train and test the algorithm using the data (40 color fundus photographs) from the DRIVE database1 with an enhanced reference standard. In the enhanced reference standard a fellowship trained retinal specialist (MDA) labeled all vessels for which it was possible to visually determine whether it was a vein or an artery. After applying the proposed method to the 20 images of the DRIVE test set we obtained an area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.88 for correctly assigning centerline pixels to either the vein or artery classes.

Niemeijer, Meindert; van Ginneken, Bram; Abràmoff, Michael D.

2009-02-01

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Evaluation of body mass index and lipid fractions levels in patients with retinal artery occlusion  

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Background/Aim. There are studies stressing out that atherosclerosis is most common associated systemic condition in patients with retinal artery occlusion. The aim of this study was to analyze values of body mass index and lipid fractions in healthy individuals and patients with retinal artery occlusion. Methods. This study included 90 participants during a 6-year period. The population was divided into 2 groups: the group with the diagnosed retinal artery occlusion and the group witho...

Risimi? Dijana; Nikoli? Dejan; Jakši? Vesna; Simeunovi? Dejan; Milenkovi? Svetislav; Stefanovi? Ivan; Jakovi? Nataša; Mili? Nada; Ceki? Sonja; Babovi? Siniša

2011-01-01

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Superselective ophthalmic intraarterial thrombolysis for central retinal artery thrombosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To investigate the effect of superselective ophthalmic artery thrombolysis for treatment of central retinal artery (CRAT). Methods: 250000-500000 u urokinase was directly perfused via ophthalmic artery (OA) through the retained superselective catheter after angiography into 8 eyes of 8 patients with CRAT. Results: The visual acuity (VA) was significantly improved in 4 eyes. the VA of 3 eyes reached 0.1-0.3 after 6 months follow-up. the other 3 eyes achieved no significant improvement of VA. The VA of 1 eye decreased from finger count (FC) to light perception (LP). Conclusions: Early diagnosis and early superselective trans-micro catheter thrombolysis would be more effective than traditional treatment. (authors)

2006-07-01

31

Oclusão de ramo arterial retiniano bilateral / Bilateral branch retinal artery occlusion  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os autores relatam o caso de uma paciente que apresentou quadro bilateral de oclusão de ramos arteriais da retina sem causas sistêmicas identificáveis para o aparecimento da doença. [...] Abstract in english The authors report a case of a patient who presented bilateral branch retinal artery occlusion without any meaningful systemic underlying conditions. [...

Luiz Guilherme Azevedo de, Freitas; David Leonardo Cruvinel, Isaac; Luiz Alexandre Rassi, Gabriel; Lívia Carla de Souza Nassar, Bianchi; Marcos Pereira de, Ávila.

32

[Peripheral retinal arterial obstruction associated with hyperhomocysteinemia: case report].  

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Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for thromboembolic events of the retina associated with vascular venous or arterial occlusion. We describe a patient with occlusion of the peripheral arteriolar network without active vasculitis, associated with neovascular proliferation, peripheral vitreous-retinal traction and relapsing vitreous hemorrhage. The high serum homocysteine level resulting from vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency, without further changes in the coagulation cascade including the test for Leiden's Factor V, indicates hyperhomocysteinemia as a direct causal factor in this clinical condition. Despite a high PPD, Eales Disease, a major differential diagnosis, was not fully considered, since it is established by exclusion. The patient was treated with photocoagulation and vitamin supplements and the condition was successfully controlled. Patients with retinal vascular obstruction should have their total plasma homocysteine levels measured, since this modifiable risk factor can be easily treated with dietary approaches including vitamin supplementation. PMID:19039474

Misawa, Alexandre Kazuo; Suzuki, Hisashi; Maia, Otacílio de Oliveira; Bonanomi, Maria Teresa Brizzi Chizzotti; Melo, Carlos Sérgio Nascimento de

2008-01-01

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Traumatic Optic Neuropathy and Central Retinal Artery Occlusion Following Blunt Ocular Trauma  

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We present a case as a rare sign of traumatic optic neuropathy and central retinal artery occlusion following blunt ocular trauma. A 10-year-old child suffered complete loss of the vision of one eye following a blunt ocular injury. He sustained an occlusion of the central retinal artery and traumatic optic neurupathy of the affected eye. Isolated cases of central retinal vessel occlusions and traumatic optic neurapathy following ocular blunt trauma are rare conditions. Clinicians to be aware ...

Cumurcu, Tongabay; Doganay, Selim; Demirel, Soner; Cankaya, Cem

2011-01-01

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Branch retinal artery occlusion secondary to dengue fever  

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Full Text Available Dengue is known to affect the posterior segment of the eye, with a range of hemorrhagic and inflammatory sequelae. A 28-year-old lady convalescing from dengue fever complained of unilateral blurring of inferior visual field. She was evaluated clinically and with fluorescein angiography. Her best-corrected visual acuity was 20/20 bilaterally. Fundus examination revealed a branch retinal artery occlusion in the right eye. Fluorescein angiogram confirmed the clinical diagnosis; and also revealed a late staining and leakage from the affected arterial segment. The patient maintained status quo over a follow-up of six months. We report a major vascular occlusion complicating classic dengue fever even in the absence of severe systemic manifestations.

Kanungo Sanghamitra

2008-01-01

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Carotid arteries in central retinal vessel occlusion as assessed by Doppler ultrasound.  

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Doppler ultrasound was used to detect possible flow changes in the carotid arteries of patients with central retinal artery and vein occlusion. Twenty-three patients with central retinal artery occlusion (mean age 56, SD 11, years) were examined 4 to 48 months after the development of the occlusion and compared with age and sex matched control subjects with no history of any disease known to be associated with pathological changes in carotid vessels. Significant stenosis or occlusion of one o...

1989-01-01

36

Nettleship collaterals: circumpapillary cilioretinal anastomoses after occlusion of the central retinal artery.  

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In extremely rare cases, after occlusion of the central retinal artery, a complete ring of peripapillary anastomotic channels develops. One such case is described and a proposed term given to these channels--'Nettleship collaterals'--after the man who first described them. These collaterals are dilated pathways within the terminal capillary networks of the posterior ciliary arteries and the branches of the central retinal artery. Formation of the channels is believed to be promoted by prelami...

Ragge, N. K.; Hoyt, W. F.

1992-01-01

37

Central retinal artery occlusion in association with fibromuscular dysplasia.  

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A 14 year-old female, whose chief complaint was severe vision loss in the right eye for 2 days, presented to the Clinic of Ophthalmology of Fatih Sultan Mehmet Education and Research Hospital. The patient had been attending follow-up visits for 4 years, following a diagnosis of fibromuscular dysplasia by the Clinic of Pediatrics. The patient underwent a complete ophthalmo-logic, angiographic, hematologic, and systemic evaluation. Fundus fluorescein angiography was performed immediately, because of the cherry-red spot sign in the macula of the right eye. Fundus fluorescein angiography revealed evidence of marked stasis of the retinal arterial circulation in the right eye. Best corrected visual acuity was 20/400 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. PMID:24293990

Altun, Ahmet; Altun, Gulengul; Olcaysu, Osman Okan; Kurna, Sevda Aydin; Aki, Suat Fazil

2013-01-01

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Neovascular glaucoma due to branch retinal vein occlusion combined with branch retinal artery occlusion.  

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Branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) and branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) rarely cause neovascular glaucoma (NVG). A 58-year-old woman with hypertension and type 2 diabetic mellitus complained of progressive visual loss in her right eye for the previous 3 months. At initial examination, visual acuity was 20 / 63 in the right eye. Angle neovascularization was observed and the intraocular pressure (IOP) was 30 mmHg in her right eye. Fundus examination and fluorescein angiography showed BRAO combined with BRVO. We immediately injected intravitreal and intracameral bevacizumab in her right eye. The next day, we performed scatter photocoagulation in the nonperfusion area. One month later, visual acuity was 20 / 20 in her right eye and the IOP was 17 mmHg with one topical antiglaucoma agent. The neovascularization had regressed completely. We report a case of unilateral NVG which was caused by BRAO with concomitant BRVO and advise close ophthalmic examination of the iris and angle in BRVO with BRAO. PMID:23372385

An, Tae-Su; Kwon, Soon-Il

2013-02-01

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Central retinal artery occlusion in association with fibromuscular dysplasia  

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Full Text Available Ahmet Altun,1 Gulengul Altun,2 Osman Okan Olcaysu,3 Sevda Aydin Kurna,1 Suat Fazil Aki11Clinic of Ophthalmology, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Department of Pediatrics, Yeditepe University, Istanbul, Turkey; 3Clinic of Ophthalmology, Erzurum Region Education and Research Hospital, Erzurum, TurkeyAbstract: A 14 year-old female, whose chief complaint was severe vision loss in the right eye for 2 days, presented to the Clinic of Ophthalmology of Fatih Sultan Mehmet Education and Research Hospital. The patient had been attending follow-up visits for 4 years, following a diagnosis of fibromuscular dysplasia by the Clinic of Pediatrics. The patient underwent a complete ophthalmologic, angiographic, hematologic, and systemic evaluation. Fundus fluorescein angiography was performed immediately, because of the cherry-red spot sign in the macula of the right eye. Fundus fluorescein angiography revealed evidence of marked stasis of the retinal arterial circulation in the right eye. Best corrected visual acuity was 20/400 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye.Keywords: retina, artery, occlusion, fibromuscular, dysplasia

Altun A

2013-11-01

40

Evaluation of body mass index and lipid fractions levels in patients with retinal artery occlusion  

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Full Text Available Background/Aim. There are studies stressing out that atherosclerosis is most common associated systemic condition in patients with retinal artery occlusion. The aim of this study was to analyze values of body mass index and lipid fractions in healthy individuals and patients with retinal artery occlusion. Methods. This study included 90 participants during a 6-year period. The population was divided into 2 groups: the group with the diagnosed retinal artery occlusion and the group without retinal artery occlusion. The observed parameters were as follows: body mass index, low and high density lipoproteins and triglycerides. Results. The study revealed no significant difference regarding body mass index and triglycerides values between the two evaluated groups, while low and high density lipoproteins values were significantly higher in the group of patients with retinal artery occlusion. Conclusions. The study demonstrated that body mass index and triglycerides have less important role in atherogenic pathogenesis of retinal artery occlusion, while low density lipoprotein is the fraction that is shown to be most potent in such etiological processes.

Risimi? Dijana

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Automated characterization of blood vessels as arteries and veins in retinal images.  

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In recent years researchers have found that alternations in arterial or venular tree of the retinal vasculature are associated with several public health problems such as diabetic retinopathy which is also the leading cause of blindness in the world. A prerequisite for automated assessment of subtle changes in arteries and veins, is to accurately separate those vessels from each other. This is a difficult task due to high similarity between arteries and veins in addition to variation of color and non-uniform illumination inter and intra retinal images. In this paper a novel structural and automated method is presented for artery/vein classification of blood vessels in retinal images. The proposed method consists of three main steps. In the first step, several image enhancement techniques are employed to improve the images. Then a specific feature extraction process is applied to separate major arteries from veins. Indeed, vessels are divided to smaller segments and feature extraction and vessel classification are applied to each small vessel segment instead of each vessel point. Finally, a post processing step is added to improve the results obtained from the previous step using structural characteristics of the retinal vascular network. In the last stage, vessel features at intersection and bifurcation points are processed for detection of arterial and venular sub trees. Ultimately vessel labels are revised by publishing the dominant label through each identified connected tree of arteries or veins. Evaluation of the proposed approach against two different datasets of retinal images including DRIVE database demonstrates the good performance and robustness of the method. The proposed method may be used for determination of arteriolar to venular diameter ratio in retinal images. Also the proposed method potentially allows for further investigation of labels of thinner arteries and veins which might be found by tracing them back to the major vessels. PMID:23849699

Mirsharif, Qazaleh; Tajeripour, Farshad; Pourreza, Hamidreza

2013-01-01

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Superselective ophthalmic artery fibrinolytic therapy for the treatment of central retinal vein occlusion  

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AIM—To study the effect of superselective ophthalmic artery fibrinolysis as a treatment for central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO).?METHODS—Retrospective, university based single centre study. The charts of 26 eyes of 26 patients treated were reviewed. Among the 26 patients, there were nine cases of combined artery and vein occlusion, three cases of combined cilioretinal artery and CRVO, and 14 cases of classic CRVO. Complete preoperative and postoperative ophthalmological examin...

Paques, M.; Vallee, J.; Herbreteau, D.; Aymart, A.; Santiago, P.; Campinchi-tardy, F.; Payen, D.; Merlan, J.; Gaudric, A.; Massin, P.

2000-01-01

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A study on vascular retinal alterations in patients with coronary artery disease  

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The paper describes the study carried out on a sample of 27 coronary artery disease patients of both sexes and with different agel aiming to determine a correlation between coronary artery disease and anomalies in the retinal circulation. Patients underwent selective coronary arteriography and fundus fluorescein angiography that allowed to investigate the dye dynamies and to detect abnormalities of time evolution, vessel walls and flux. In order to obtain a complete classifieation of the isch...

Strata, Giancarlo; Ammannati, Paola; Azzarelli, Luciano; Chimenti, Massimo; Limbruno, Ugo; Balbarini, Alberto; Mariani, Mario

1995-01-01

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Automated artery-venous classification of retinal blood vessels based on structural mapping method  

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Retinal blood vessels show morphologic modifications in response to various retinopathies. However, the specific responses exhibited by arteries and veins may provide a precise diagnostic information, i.e., a diabetic retinopathy may be detected more accurately with the venous dilatation instead of average vessel dilatation. In order to analyze the vessel type specific morphologic modifications, the classification of a vessel network into arteries and veins is required. We previously described a method for identification and separation of retinal vessel trees; i.e. structural mapping. Therefore, we propose the artery-venous classification based on structural mapping and identification of color properties prominent to the vessel types. The mean and standard deviation of each of green channel intensity and hue channel intensity are analyzed in a region of interest around each centerline pixel of a vessel. Using the vector of color properties extracted from each centerline pixel, it is classified into one of the two clusters (artery and vein), obtained by the fuzzy-C-means clustering. According to the proportion of clustered centerline pixels in a particular vessel, and utilizing the artery-venous crossing property of retinal vessels, each vessel is assigned a label of an artery or a vein. The classification results are compared with the manually annotated ground truth (gold standard). We applied the proposed method to a dataset of 15 retinal color fundus images resulting in an accuracy of 88.28% correctly classified vessel pixels. The automated classification results match well with the gold standard suggesting its potential in artery-venous classification and the respective morphology analysis.

Joshi, Vinayak S.; Garvin, Mona K.; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Abramoff, Michael D.

2012-02-01

45

Comparison of optical coherence tomography findings in a patient with central retinal artery occlusion in one eye and end-stage glaucoma in the fellow eye.  

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This case describes a patient with chronic central retinal artery occlusion in one eye and end-stage traumatic glaucoma in the fellow eye. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the macula of the chronic phase of central retinal artery occlusion of the right eye indicated loss of the normal foveal depression, extensive inner retinal atrophy, and marked retinal thinning. In contrast, scans of the left eye with end-stage glaucoma demonstrated an intact foveal depression and limited retinal thinning. The pattern of macular OCT findings in this patient illustrates distinguishing features between chronic central retinal artery occlusion and chronic optic neuropathy due to end-stage glaucoma. PMID:22623869

Greene, Daniel P; Richards, Charles P; Ghazi, Nicola G

2012-01-01

46

Superselective ophthalmic artery fibrinolytic therapy for the treatment of central retinal vein occlusion  

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AIM—To study the effect of superselective ophthalmic artery fibrinolysis as a treatment for central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO).?METHODS—Retrospective, university based single centre study. The charts of 26 eyes of 26 patients treated were reviewed. Among the 26 patients, there were nine cases of combined artery and vein occlusion, three cases of combined cilioretinal artery and CRVO, and 14 cases of classic CRVO. Complete preoperative and postoperative ophthalmological examination and fluorescein angiography were performed in all cases. The therapeutic procedure comprised the infusion of urokinase through a microcatheter into the ostium of the ophthalmic artery, via a femoral artery approach. The main outcome measure was the improvement in visual acuity 48 hours after the procedure.?RESULTS—Six eyes of six patients exhibited significant improvement in visual acuity immediately after the fibrinolysis procedure. Among them, four had a initial funduscopic appearance suggestive of combined occlusion of the central retinal artery (CRAO) and vein. For these patients, the visual benefit was maintained in the long term. Intravitreal haemorrhage occurred in two patients. There were no extraocular complications linked to the procedure.?CONCLUSIONS—Selective ophthalmic artery infusion of urokinase was followed by improvement in VA in six out of 26 cases of CRVO. Eyes with combined CRAO and CRVO with recent visual loss appeared to be the most responsive. This treatment did not prevent the occurrence of ischaemia in the failure cases. The efficacy of in situ fibrinolysis for treatment of CRVO needs to be further evaluated in a controlled study.??

Paques, M; Vallee, J; Herbreteau, D; Aymart, A; Santiago, P; Campinchi-Tardy, F; Payen, D; Merlan, J; Gaudric, A; Massin, P

2000-01-01

47

Intravitreal Bevacizumab for the Treatment of Neovascular Glaucoma Associated With Central Retinal Artery Occlusion  

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We report three cases of neovascular glaucoma secondary to central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) which were effectively managed with intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) followed by panretinal photocoagulation (PRP). Neovascular glaucoma without peripheral anterior synechiae developed between one and five weeks following CRAO onset. All patients received 0.75 mg (0.03 ml) IVB. In all patients, complete regression of the iris and anterior chamber angle neovascularization was confirmed within one w...

2009-01-01

48

A case of polyarteritis nodosa complicated by left central retinal artery occlusion, ischemic optic neuropathy, and retinal vasculitis.  

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A 23-year-old single female patient developed constitutional manifestations in the form of fever, weight loss, anorexia, malaise, fatigue, and generalized aches in January 1995, 2 weeks after an attack of German measles. This was followed by painful, reddish, macular skin lesions over both legs which healed by dark pigmentation (leucocytoclastic vasculitis), mononeuritis multiplex, and Raynaud's phenomena of both hands and feet. Angiography of lower limbs was done to visualize the arterial tree of both lower limbs and revealed typical beading of distal arterial branches, a diagnosis compatible with polyarteritis nodosa (PAN). At that time, the patient received prednisone (45 mg/day) and azatioprin (100 mg/day) and responded well to treatment. In a second presentation in June 2005, the patient developed sudden attack of loss of vision in her left eye. Ophthalmological examination of the patient revealed evidence of left central retinal artery occlusion, ischemic optic neuropathy. The patient received methyl prednisolone, 1 g IV infusion, daily infusion for three consecutive days followed by oral prednisolone, 30 mg/day. The patient received pulse cyclophosphamide IV infusion (0.6 g/m2) on the fourth day. One week after receiving therapy, the patient progressed from having light perception to counting of fingers from a distance of 1 m. PMID:16575492

Emad, Y; Basaffar, S; Ragab, Y; Zeinhom, F; Gheita, T

2007-05-01

49

A simple model of oxygen diffusion out of the retinal artery  

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The purpose of this study is to explore the possibility that oxygen (O2) diffusion out of the retinal artery (RA) can explain the observed significant (Pintraocular pressure (IOP) is raised from 10 to 55 mmHg. Hyperspectral image data from normal monkeys' optic nerve head (ONH) and overlying retinal blood vessels were recorded at IOP settings of 10, 30, 45 and 55 mmHg. Average percent O2Sat values of the RAs were found from the recorded blood spectra by comparing to reference spectra from saturated and desaturated red cell suspensions. Percent O2Sat of the RAs was 78.9% at IOP of 10 mmHg. This decreased to 74.1% at 45 mmHg (P=0.01); and further decreased to 51.5% at IOP = 55 mmHg (PIOP of 10 mmHg, and 38% at IOP of 55 mmHg. Confirmation still requires measurement of blood velocity.

Beach, J. M.; Ning, J.; Khoobehi, B.; Rice, D. A.

2009-02-01

50

Central retinal artery occlusion following severe blow-out fracture in young adult  

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Full Text Available Noriko Himori, Hiroshi Kunikata, Takaaki Otomo, Nobuo Fuse, Kohji NishidaDepartment of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, JapanAbstract: A 20-year-old woman was involved in a traffic accident while riding a motorcycle. The vision in her right eye was severely reduced. At the first examination, the eyelids of her right eye were severely swollen, and the eye could barely be seen. The fundus was not visible. She had no light perception in her vision. Computed tomography revealed a severe blow-out fracture in her right eye. Surgery was immediately performed to correct the fracture and the eye globe was replaced in the orbit. On the fourth postoperative day, the right fundus was visible and a cherry-red spot and milky-white edema were seen. Fluorescein angiography showed an arterial filling defect. Four months later, her visual acuity was light perception. Our case shows that a central retinal artery occlusion can be a complication of a blow-out fracture of the lower orbital wall and can lead to severe visual loss even with early surgical repair.Keywords: central retinal artery occlusion, blow out fracture, trauma, young adult

Noriko Himori

2009-04-01

51

VZV multifocal vasculopathy with ischemic optic neuropathy, acute retinal necrosis and temporal artery infection in the absence of zoster rash.  

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We describe a 54-year-old diabetic woman who developed ischemic optic neuropathy followed by acute retinal necrosis and multiple areas of focal venous beading. Vitreous fluid contained amplifiable VZV DNA but not HSV-1, CMV or toxoplasma DNA. The clinical presentation was remarkable for jaw claudication and intermittent scalp pain, prompting a temporal artery biopsy that was pathologically negative for giant cell arteritis, but notable for VZV antigen. The current case adds to the clinical spectrum of multifocal VZV vasculopathy. The development of acute VZV retinal necrosis after ischemic optic neuropathy supports the notion that vasculitis is an important additional mechanism in the development of VZV retinal injury. PMID:23312850

Mathias, Marc; Nagel, Maria A; Khmeleva, Nelly; Boyer, Philip J; Choe, Alexander; Durairaj, Vikram D; Bennett, Jeffrey L; Mandava, Naresh; Gilden, Don

2013-02-15

52

A case of Churg-Strauss syndrome complicated with bilateral central retinal artery occlusion  

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Full Text Available A 56-year-old Japanese woman treated for bronchial asthma came to our hospital because of sudden vision loss of the left eye and plantar numbness of the right foot. Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO was diagnosed. Vision loss of the right eye also appeared, and the numbness of the right foot worsened. She was diagnosed with Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS due to bronchial asthma, eosinophilia, and vasculitis (CRAO and numbness. Her symptoms were unresponsive to systemic corticosteroid therapy, but improved when cyclophosphamide pulse was added. Vision disorders are uncommon manifestations of CSS. Close co-ordination with ophthalmologists is important for diagnosis and treatment.

Ken Uchibori

2013-07-01

53

Central retinal artery occlusion in a patient with ANCA-negative Churg-Strauss syndrome  

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Full Text Available Yuji Kumano,1 Noriko Yoshida,2 Satoru Fukuyama,3 Masanori Miyazaki,2 Hiroshi Enaida,2 Takaaki Matsui11Ohshima Hospital of Ophthalmology, Fukuoka, 2Department of Ophthalmology, 3Research Institute for Diseases of the Chest, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, JapanAbstract: Ocular involvement in Churg-Strauss syndrome is infrequent. We describe the case of a 54-year-old woman with eosinophilia and involvement of the respiratory tract, skin, and peripheral nervous system, fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology criteria for Churg-Strauss syndrome. The patient presented with acute, painless vision loss in her right eye. Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO without accompanying retinal vasculitis was diagnosed by angiographic findings and funduscopic findings of retinal whitening with a cherry-red spot. Although her antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA status was negative, CRAO was thought to be an ocular manifestation of Churg-Strauss syndrome, and appropriate treatment was planned. She was treated with high-dose corticosteroids and anticoagulant therapy. Her macular edema improved, but visual recovery was poor. Specific therapy to alter inflammation, blood coagulation, and rheology reportedly plays an important role in ANCA-positive patients with Churg-Strauss syndrome who develop CRAO. Regardless of ANCA status, high-dose corticosteroids should be considered for CRAO in patients with Churg-Strauss syndrome, as discussed in this case.Keywords: CRAO, ANCA, Churg-Strauss syndrome

Miyazaki M

2012-07-01

54

Relationship between Retinal Vascular Caliber and Coronary Artery Disease in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD)  

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Objective: To evaluate the relationship between retinal vascular caliber and cardiovascular disease in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients without diabetes and hypertension. Methods: Intention to treat study of individuals who underwent cardiac computed tomography (CT) during a two year period. Coronary artery disease (CAD) was defined as stenosis of >50% in at least one major coronary artery. Liver and spleen density were measured by abdominal (CT); intima-media thickness (IMT...

Pikkel Josef; Ibrahim Ali; Prober Ariel; Marmor Alon; Assy Nimer

2013-01-01

55

Effect of intraocular pressure on the hemodynamics of the central retinal artery: A mathematical model.  

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Retinal hemodynamics plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of several ocular diseases. There are clear evidences that the hemodynamics of the central retinal artery (CRA) is strongly affected by the level of intraocular pressure (IOP), which is the pressure inside the eye globe. However, the mechanisms through which this occurs are still elusive. The main goal of this paper is to develop a mathematical model that combines the mechanical action of IOP and the blood flow in the CRA to elucidate the mechanisms through which IOP elevation affects the CRA hemodynamics. Our model suggests that the development of radial compressive regions in the lamina cribrosa (a collagen structure in the optic nerve pierced by the CRA approximately in its center) might be responsible for the clinically-observed blood velocity reduction in the CRA following IOP elevation. The predictions of the mathematical model are in very good agreement with experimental and clinical data. Our model also identifies radius and thickness of the lamina cribrosa as major factors affecting the IOP-CRA relationship, suggesting that anatomical differences among individuals might lead to different hemodynamic responses to IOP elevation. PMID:24506550

Guidoboni, Giovanna; Harris, Alon; Carichino, Lucia; Arieli, Yoel; Siesky, Brent A

2014-06-01

56

Intravitreal Bevacizumab for the Treatment of Neovascular Glaucoma Associated With Central Retinal Artery Occlusion  

Science.gov (United States)

We report three cases of neovascular glaucoma secondary to central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) which were effectively managed with intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) followed by panretinal photocoagulation (PRP). Neovascular glaucoma without peripheral anterior synechiae developed between one and five weeks following CRAO onset. All patients received 0.75 mg (0.03 ml) IVB. In all patients, complete regression of the iris and anterior chamber angle neovascularization was confirmed within one week. PRP was applied two weeks after the injection. The follow-up period was four to seven months (average, five months). Intraocular pressure was controlled in all patients using topical antiglaucoma medications alone. However, one patient experienced a recurrence of neovascularization three months after the initial combination treatment. This patient received another IVB injection and additional PRP, and the recurrent neovascularization resolved. There were no local or systemic adverse events in any patients. Therefore, intravitreal bevacizumab may be an effective adjunct in the treatment of neovascular glaucoma associated with CRAO.

Sagong, Min; Kim, Jinseon

2009-01-01

57

Combined central retinal artery and vein occlusion secondary to systemic non-Hodgkin?s lymphoma  

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Full Text Available We report a rare case of low-grade systemic B-cell non-Hodgkin?s lymphoma (NHL causing central retinal artery and vein occlusion, which was the only manifestation of disease recurrence. A young man with resolved systemic NHL underwent fluorescein angiography, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography to investigate a severe unilateral visual loss. A combined vascular occlusion was observed in the right eye. Neuroimaging detected optic nerve infiltration; but no systemic/ central nervous system involvement was observed. The patient was treated with high-doses of corticosteroids and optic nerve irradiation. The optic neuropathy and vascular occlusion were resistant to treatment. The subsequent neovascular glaucoma was treated by panretinal photocoagulation, which relieved the pain, but vision was not recovered. No further recurrence was observed over the following year.

Shukla Dhananjay

2006-01-01

58

Obstrucción de rama macular de arteria central de la retina Occlusion of the macular branch of the central retinal artery  

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Full Text Available We report a 54 years old female on oral anticoagulant treatment with a mitral valve disease, with a history of two transient ischemic attacks and a decreased visual acuity. She was assessed by an ophthalmologist and signs of retinal vascular disease were found. During follow up, the patient experienced an acute unilateral loss of vision in the left eye. Fundoscopy revealed an obstruction of a macular branch of central retinal artery. Aspirin was added to oral anticoagulants and one month later, the patient experienced an upper gastrointestinal bleeding. After four months of follow up, there is no recovery of left eye vision (Rev Méd Chile 2002; 130: 86-89

Jorge Orellana R

2002-01-01

59

Central retinal artery occlusion following severe blow-out fracture in young adult.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 20-year-old woman was involved in a traffic accident while riding a motorcycle. The vision in her right eye was severely reduced. At the first examination, the eyelids of her right eye were severely swollen, and the eye could barely be seen. The fundus was not visible. She had no light perception in her vision. Computed tomography revealed a severe blow-out fracture in her right eye. Surgery was immediately performed to correct the fracture and the eye globe was replaced in the orbit. On the fourth postoperative day, the right fundus was visible and a cherry-red spot and milky-white edema were seen. Fluorescein angiography showed an arterial filling defect. Four months later, her visual acuity was light perception. Our case shows that a central retinal artery occlusion can be a complication of a blow-out fracture of the lower orbital wall and can lead to severe visual loss even with early surgical repair. PMID:19668585

Himori, Noriko; Kunikata, Hiroshi; Otomo, Takaaki; Fuse, Nobuo; Nishida, Kohji

2009-01-01

60

Central Retinal Artery Occlusion- A rare complication of oral contraceptive pills  

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Full Text Available Aim: To propose a hypothesis of causal association between central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO and oral contraceptive pills (OCPCase Summary:A case report-A 22 yr old, female presented with sudden painless loss of vision in OS [Right Eye] for 1 day. VA [Visual Activity] in OS was PL PR [Perception of Light and Projection of Rays] Faulty with RAPD [Relative Afferent Papillary Defect] with normal for fifteen minutes, given five hundred mg of acetazolamide orally stat, 0.4 ml of anterior chamber paracentesis done, 5400 IU LMW [Low Molecular Weight] heparin given SC[Subcutaneous] with carbogen inhalation. Retrospectively she was on oral contraceptives(Mala D for 1 month. She was not hypertensive or diabetic with normal blood, coagulation profile & carotid Doppler. She was evaluated by an intern to find the cause of coagulation disorder and was found to be normal. On first day FFA [Fundus Florescien Angiography] showed no blockage with normal cilioretinal artery perfusion established. Visual fields after one week showed central tubular vision and OCT [Ocular Coherent Tomography] showed normal fovea. After 2 weeks vision was 20/80 with persistent RAPD papilla macular bundle being perfused.

Nidhi Pancholi

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
61

Prevalência de hipertensão arterial em pacientes com oclusão do ramo da veia central da retina / Prevalence of arterial hypertension in branch retinal vein occlusion patients  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: Identificar em pacientes com oclusão do ramo da veia central da retina utilizando a monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial e medidas clínicas da pressão arterial: prevalência de hipertensão e o perfil noturno da pressão arterial. MÉTODOS: Prospectivamente, 93 olhos de 83 pacientes [...] com oclusão do ramo da veia central da retina foram submetidos à avaliação oftalmológica. Após, os pacientes foram encaminhados para avaliação clínica e monitorização da pressão arterial. Pacientes sem descenso da pressão durante o sono ("non-dipper") foram definidos como um declínio na pressão arterial sistólica Abstract in english PURPOSE: To identify in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and clinical blood pressure measures: hypertension prevalence, and nocturnal profile of blood pressure. METHODS: Prospectively, 93 eyes of 83 patients with branch retinal vein occlusion wer [...] e submitted to ophthalmological examination. Afterwards the patients were submitted to clinical evaluation and blood pressure monitoring. Non-dipper was defined as a fall in systolic blood pressure

Alexandre Antonio Marques, Rosa; Kátia Coelho, Ortega; Décio, Mion Jr.; Yoshitaka, Nakashima.

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Central retinal artery occlusion and non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy associated with an overlap syndrome: a case report  

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Abstract Introduction An "overlap syndrome" is defined as the sequential appearance over time of two or more risk factors for glaucomatous damage. The appearance of a new risk factor can alter the course and prognosis of previously stable disease. Exfoliation syndrome is a leading cause of glaucoma and is associated with vascular disease. We report a case of central retinal artery occlusion and non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in a patient with overlap syndrom...

Lima Verônica C; Prata Tiago S; Liebmann Jeffrey M; Ritch Robert

2008-01-01

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Retinal arterial but not venous tortuosity correlates with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy severity  

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Background Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is an autosomal-dominant disease beginning with facial and shoulder girdle weakness with variable progression. Exudative retinal detachment, retinal vessel irregularities on fluorescein angiography, and retinal vessel tortuosity have been found in association with FSHD. Methods In this retrospective study, muscle affectedness severity was rated as mild, moderate, or severe by a neurologist masked to the retinal images. Three o...

Longmuir, Susannah Q.; Mathews, Katherine D.; Longmuir, Reid A.; Joshi, Vinayak; Olson, Richard J.; Abramoff, M. D.

2010-01-01

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Blood Flow Parameters of the Central Retinal and Internal Carotid Arteries in Asymmetric Diabetic Retinopathy  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose To investigate the correlation between diabetic retinopathy severity and blood flow parameters in the central retinal artery (CRA) and internal carotid artery (ICA). Methods This comparative study included 40 eyes of 20 patients with asymmetric diabetic retinopathy. Twelve subjects had asymmetric diabetic macular edema while eight patients had proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) in one eye and non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) in the fellow eye. Bilateral color Doppler imaging (CDI) of the CRA and ICA was performed to determine resistance index (RI) and peak systolic velocity (PSV). RI and PSV values were compared between eyes with higher grades of macular edema (> 2 grades of difference with the fellow eye) and fellow eyes with less severe macular edema, as well as between eyes with PDR and fellow eyes with NPDR. Results Mean RI of the CRA in eyes with higher grades of macular edema was 0.78±0.11 as compared to 0.69±0.08 in fellow eyes with less severe macular edema (P=0.012), while PSV of the CRA was 58.83±18.93 cm/s in eyes with higher grades of macular edema versus 59.75±11.83 cm/s in fellow eyes with less severe macular edema (P=1.00). Mean PSV of the ICA was 55±23.94 cm/s in eyes with PDR and 69.25±34.30 cm/s in eyes with NPDR (P=0.008) while mean RI of the ICA was 0.81±0.13 in eyes with PDR and 0.76±0.12 in eyes with NPDR (P=1.00). Conclusion Evaluation of RI in the CRA and PSV in the ICA by CDI in diabetic patients may identify eyes at risk of more severe macular edema and PDR.

Mehdizadeh, Morteza; Lotfi, Mehrzad; Ghoddusi Johari, Hamed; Ghassemifar, Vahid; Afarid, Mehrdad

2012-01-01

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The Dolichoarteriopathia of Common Carotid Artery Narrowing the Airway  

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Tortuousity of the common carotid artery is rarely seen in otorinolaryngologic  practice. In this report, a case of tortuous common carotid artery narrowing the airway and indenting the epiglottis is presented. In endoscopic examination, pulsating bulge at the level of right lateral farengeal wall, pyriform sinus and larynx was found in a 73 year-old female. Computerized tomographic scan showed tortuous  right common carotid artery bulging the submucosal area of the oropharynx and p...

Erkan Eski

2013-01-01

66

Changes in central retinal artery blood flow after ocular warming and cooling in healthy subjects  

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Full Text Available Context: Retinal perfusion variability impacts ocular disease and physiology. Aim: To evaluate the response of central retinal artery (CRA blood flow to temperature alterations in 20 healthy volunteers. Setting and Design: Non-interventional experimental human study. Materials and Methods: Baseline data recorded: Ocular surface temperature (OST in °C (thermo-anemometer, CRA peak systolic velocity (PSV and end diastolic velocity (EDV in cm/s using Color Doppler. Ocular laterality and temperature alteration (warming by electric lamp/cooling by ice-gel pack were randomly assigned. Primary outcomes recorded were: OST and intraocular pressure (IOP immediately after warming or cooling and ten minutes later; CRA-PSV and EDV at three, six and nine minutes warming or cooling. Statistical Analysis: Repeated measures ANOVA. Results: (n = 20; ?±SD: Pre-warming values were; OST: 34.5±1.02°C, CRA-PSV: 9.3±2.33cm/s, CRA-EDV: 4.6±1.27cm/s. OST significantly increased by 1.96°C (95% CI: 1.54 to 2.37 after warming, but returned to baseline ten minutes later. Only at three minutes, the PSV significantly rose by 1.21cm/s (95% CI: 0.51to1.91. Pre-cooling values were: OST: 34.5±0.96°C, CRA-PSV: 9.7±2.45 cm/s, CRA-EDV: 4.7±1.12cm/s. OST significantly decreased by 2.81°C (95% CI: -2.30 to -3.37 after cooling, and returned to baseline at ten minutes. There was a significant drop in CRA-PSV by 1.10cm/s (95% CI: -2.05 to -0.15 and CRA-EDV by 0.81 (95% CI: -1.47 to -0.14 at three minutes. At six minutes both PSV (95% CI: -1.38 to -0.03 and EDV (95% CI: -1.26 to -0.02 were significantly lower. All values at ten minutes were comparable to baseline. The IOP showed insignificant alteration on warming (95% CI of difference: -0.17 to 1.57mmHg, but was significantly lower after cooling (95% CI: -2.95 to -4.30mmHg. After ten minutes, IOP had returned to baseline. Conclusion : This study confirms that CRA flow significantly increases on warming and decreases on cooling, the latter despite a significant lowering of IOP.

Shamshad M

2010-01-01

67

The Dolichoarteriopathia of Common Carotid Artery Narrowing the Airway  

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Full Text Available Tortuousity of the common carotid artery is rarely seen in otorinolaryngologic  practice. In this report, a case of tortuous common carotid artery narrowing the airway and indenting the epiglottis is presented. In endoscopic examination, pulsating bulge at the level of right lateral farengeal wall, pyriform sinus and larynx was found in a 73 year-old female. Computerized tomographic scan showed tortuous  right common carotid artery bulging the submucosal area of the oropharynx and pyriform sinus. Awareness of the tortuous common carotid artery before any  laryngologic surgical intervention is very important to prevent serious complications.

Erkan Eski

2013-01-01

68

Obstrucción de rama macular de arteria central de la retina / Occlusion of the macular branch of the central retinal artery  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english We report a 54 years old female on oral anticoagulant treatment with a mitral valve disease, with a history of two transient ischemic attacks and a decreased visual acuity. She was assessed by an ophthalmologist and signs of retinal vascular disease were found. During follow up, the patient experien [...] ced an acute unilateral loss of vision in the left eye. Fundoscopy revealed an obstruction of a macular branch of central retinal artery. Aspirin was added to oral anticoagulants and one month later, the patient experienced an upper gastrointestinal bleeding. After four months of follow up, there is no recovery of left eye vision (Rev Méd Chile 2002; 130: 86-89)

Jorge, Orellana R; Ricardo, Garibaldi D; Fernando, Leiva P; Gustavo, Núñez C; César, Vicencio T; Ana L, Quiñones T.

69

Central retinal artery occlusion and non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy associated with an overlap syndrome: a case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction An "overlap syndrome" is defined as the sequential appearance over time of two or more risk factors for glaucomatous damage. The appearance of a new risk factor can alter the course and prognosis of previously stable disease. Exfoliation syndrome is a leading cause of glaucoma and is associated with vascular disease. We report a case of central retinal artery occlusion and non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in a patient with overlap syndrome. Case presentation An 87-year-old woman with longstanding stable primary open-angle glaucoma developed bilateral exfoliation syndrome, after which her intraocular pressure became uncontrolled and her glaucomatous damage progressed rapidly. She also developed ischemic arterial events in both eyes. Conclusion The case presented here shows that overlap syndromes can lead to rapid, irreversible vision impairment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of central retinal artery occlusion and non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in a patient with overlap syndrome.

Lima Verônica C

2008-12-01

70

Endovascular coiling of the ophthalmic artery in pigs to induce retinal ischemia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The authors recently showed that the retinal circulation can be accessed by transfemoral endovascular catheterization. The purpose of this study was to examine whether endovascular coiling can be used to induce different degrees of ischemic injury. The possibility of creating occlusions at different sites in the vasculature to cause retinal ischemia with different degrees of severity was investigated.

Morén, Håkan; Gesslein, Bodil

2011-01-01

71

Treatment of occlusion of the central retinal artery with hyperbaric oxygenation-our experience on eight patients  

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Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the medical treatment with adjuvant hyperbaric oxygenation in eightpatients with central or branch retinal artery occlusion admitted at the Ophthalmology Department ofthe Clinical Hospital in Osijek (Croatia in the period 2004.-2006. Initial visual acuity ranged from lightperception to 0.05. On discharge all patients reported a subjective visual improvement which could beconfirmed considerably in four patients - ranged from 0.2 to 1.0 (more than 3 lines as a result of hyperbaricoxygenations treatment.

Ivanka Štenc Bradvica

2009-02-01

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Prevalência de hipertensão arterial em pacientes com oclusão do ramo da veia central da retina Prevalence of arterial hypertension in branch retinal vein occlusion patients  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Identificar em pacientes com oclusão do ramo da veia central da retina utilizando a monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial e medidas clínicas da pressão arterial: prevalência de hipertensão e o perfil noturno da pressão arterial. MÉTODOS: Prospectivamente, 93 olhos de 83 pacientes com oclusão do ramo da veia central da retina foram submetidos à avaliação oftalmológica. Após, os pacientes foram encaminhados para avaliação clínica e monitorização da pressão arterial. Pacientes sem descenso da pressão durante o sono ("non-dipper" foram definidos como um declínio na pressão arterial sistólica PURPOSE: To identify in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and clinical blood pressure measures: hypertension prevalence, and nocturnal profile of blood pressure. METHODS: Prospectively, 93 eyes of 83 patients with branch retinal vein occlusion were submitted to ophthalmological examination. Afterwards the patients were submitted to clinical evaluation and blood pressure monitoring. Non-dipper was defined as a fall in systolic blood pressure < 10%, and dipper when this value was higher. RESULTS: Disease affected one eye in 73 (88% patients. The temporal superior branch was the site of occlusion in 61 (65.6% eyes, while in the others the infero-temporal branch was affected. Seventy six (92% patients were diagnosed as hypertensive after clinical evaluation. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring identified 76 hipertensives, 5 normotensives, 1 white-coat hypertensive and one masked hypertensive subjects. The two latter were excluded from the analysis. Of the 81 analyzed patients, forty (49% were dippers and 41 (51% were non-dippers. Among the HT (n=76, 36 (47% were dippers and 40 (53% were non-dippers. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of hypertension in our series was extremely high (92% which suggests that physiopathology of the disease has a close relationship with changes promoted by hypertension. A little more than half of the hypertensives were non-dippers (n=40; 52,6%. These evidences suggest that a 24-hour sustained level of blood pressure may be an additional risk factor for branch retinal vein occlusion.

Alexandre Antonio Marques Rosa

2008-04-01

73

Obstrução arterial retiniana periférica associada com hiper-homocisteinemia: relato de caso Peripheral retinal arterial obstruction associated with hyperhomocysteinemia: case report  

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Full Text Available A hiperhomocisteinemia é fator de risco para fenômenos trombo-embólicos retinianos associados a quadro de oclusão vascular venosa e arterial. Descrevemos um paciente com obstrução arterial retiniana periférica, sem sinais de vasculite ativa, associada a proliferação de neovasos com tração vítreo-retiniana e hemorragia vítrea recidivante. O alto nível sérico de homocisteína decorrente de deficiência de vitamina B12 e ácido fólico, sem outras alterações na cascata da coagulação, inclusive com a pesquisa do fator V de Leiden, sugere que a hiper-homocisteinemia esteja diretamente ligada como fator causal deste quadro clínico. Embora apresentasse PPD elevado, o diagnóstico diferencial mais importante de doença de Eales foi menos considerado por ser diagnóstico de exclusão. O controle do quadro clínico foi feito com suplemento de vitaminas (B12 e ácido fólico e fotocoagulação retiniana periférica. A homocisteína plasmática total deve ser dosada em pacientes com obstrução vascular retiniana, já que a hiper-homocisteinemia é fator de risco modificável e de fácil tratamento por meio de dieta ou suplementação vitamínica.Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for thromboembolic events of the retina associated with vascular venous or arterial occlusion. We describe a patient with occlusion of the peripheral arteriolar network without active vasculitis, associated with neovascular proliferation, peripheral vitreous-retinal traction and relapsing vitreous hemorrhage. The high serum homocysteine level resulting from vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency, without further changes in the coagulation cascade including the test for Leiden's Factor V, indicates hyperhomocysteinemia as a direct causal factor in this clinical condition. Despite a high PPD, Eales Disease, a major differential diagnosis, was not fully considered, since it is established by exclusion. The patient was treated with photocoagulation and vitamin supplements and the condition was successfully controlled. Patients with retinal vascular obstruction should have their total plasma homocysteine levels measured, since this modifiable risk factor can be easily treated with dietary approaches including vitamin supplementation.

Alexandre Kazuo Misawa

2008-10-01

74

The cytoplasmic domain of neuropilin 1 is dispensable for angiogenesis, but promotes the spatial separation of retinal arteries and veins.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuropilin 1 (NRP1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is essential for blood vessel development in vertebrates. Best known for its ability to bind members of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and class 3 semaphorin families through its extracellular domain, it also has a highly conserved cytoplasmic domain, which terminates in a SEA motif that binds the PDZ protein synectin/GIPC1/NIP. Previous studies in zebrafish embryos and tissue culture models raised the possibility that the SEA motif of NRP1 is essential for angiogenesis. Here, we describe the generation of mice that express a form of NRP1 that lacks the cytoplasmic domain and, therefore, the SEA motif (Nrp1(cyto)(?)(/)(?) mice). Our analysis of pre- and perinatal vascular development revealed that vasculogenesis and angiogenesis proceed normally in these mutants, demonstrating that the membrane-anchored extracellular domain is sufficient for vessel growth. By contrast, the NRP1 cytoplasmic domain is required for normal arteriovenous patterning, because arteries and veins crossed each other at an abnormally high frequency in the Nrp1(cyto)(?)(/)(?) retina, as previously reported for mice with haploinsufficient expression of VEGF in neural progenitors. At crossing sites, the artery was positioned anteriorly to the vein, and both vessels were embedded in a shared collagen sleeve. In human eyes, similar arteriovenous crossings are risk factors for branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO), an eye disease in which compression of the vein by the artery disrupts retinal blood flow, causing local tissue hypoxia and impairing vision. Nrp1(cyto)(?)(/)(?) mice may therefore provide a suitable genetic model to study the aetiology of BRVO. PMID:21852397

Fantin, Alessandro; Schwarz, Quenten; Davidson, Kathryn; Normando, Eduardo M; Denti, Laura; Ruhrberg, Christiana

2011-10-01

75

Internal carotid artery pseudo occlusion with embolic cerebral ischemia and low flow in the central retinal artery: a diagnostic challenge  

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Full Text Available We present a rare case of internal carotid artery pseudoocclusion (ICAPO in a 60-yearold male Caucasian patient who experienced a reversible sudden loss of vision of the right eye for 10 min followed by recurrent blurring of vision as well as dysarthria and numbness in the left face. The referring ophthalmologist admitted the patient for suspicious occlusion of the internal carotid artery causing anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION.

Felix Schlachetzki

2011-07-01

76

Tomografía óptica de coherencia en oclusión de arteria central de la retina Optical coherence tomography in central retinal artery occlusion  

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Full Text Available Casos clínicos: Presentamos tres ojos afectados de obstrucción de arteria central de la retina (OACR. En todos ellos realizamos exploración con tomografía óptica de coherencia (OCT. Dependiendo del tiempo de evolución del cuadro clínico, los signos oftalmoscópicos de OACR eran más o menos evidentes. Sin embargo, la presencia de una banda hiporreflectante en las imágenes de OCT pudo objetivarse en todos los casos. Discusión: La presencia en las imágenes de OCT de una banda hiporreflectante por debajo de la retina neurosensorial en los casos de OACR, que persiste incluso meses después del inicio del cuadro clínico, resulta útil en el diagnóstico de esta patología retiniana.Clinical cases: Three eyes with central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO have been studied. Optical coherence tomography (OCT was performed in each of them. Ophthalmoscopic signs of CRAO were equivocal in the three eyes. However, the presence of a hyporeflective signal in the OCT scan could be seen clearly in each of them. Discussion: The presence of a hyporeflective band between the neurosensory retina and the retinal pigment epithelium in OCT images, that persist for several months after a CRAO episode, is useful in establishing the diagnosis in these patients.

A. Salinas-Alamán

2006-09-01

77

Tomografía óptica de coherencia en oclusión de arteria central de la retina / Optical coherence tomography in central retinal artery occlusion  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Casos clínicos: Presentamos tres ojos afectados de obstrucción de arteria central de la retina (OACR). En todos ellos realizamos exploración con tomografía óptica de coherencia (OCT). Dependiendo del tiempo de evolución del cuadro clínico, los signos oftalmoscópicos de OACR eran más o menos evidente [...] s. Sin embargo, la presencia de una banda hiporreflectante en las imágenes de OCT pudo objetivarse en todos los casos. Discusión: La presencia en las imágenes de OCT de una banda hiporreflectante por debajo de la retina neurosensorial en los casos de OACR, que persiste incluso meses después del inicio del cuadro clínico, resulta útil en el diagnóstico de esta patología retiniana. Abstract in english Clinical cases: Three eyes with central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) have been studied. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed in each of them. Ophthalmoscopic signs of CRAO were equivocal in the three eyes. However, the presence of a hyporeflective signal in the OCT scan could be seen [...] clearly in each of them. Discussion: The presence of a hyporeflective band between the neurosensory retina and the retinal pigment epithelium in OCT images, that persist for several months after a CRAO episode, is useful in establishing the diagnosis in these patients.

A., Salinas-Alamán; A., García-Layana; H., Heras-Mulero; P.J., García-Gómez.

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Efeito da tibolona sobre parâmetros doplervelocimétricos das artérias oftálmica e retiniana / Tibolone's effect on retinal and ophthalmic arteries flowmetry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: avaliar o efeito do uso da tibolona sobre os parâmetros doplervelocimétricos das artérias oftálmica e retiniana. MÉTODOS: realizou-se ensaio clínico, prospectivo, longitudinal, aleatorizado, controlado com placebo, duplo-cego, no qual dentre 100 mulheres na menopausa, 50 usaram o princípio [...] ativo tibolona 2,5 mg (Grupo Tib) e 50, o placebo para formar o grupo controle (Grupo Plac). No Grupo Tib, das 50 mulheres que iniciaram o estudo, 44 retornaram após 84 dias para a finalização dos exames. No Grupo Plac retornaram 47 delas. As artérias oftálmica e retiniana foram estudadas, determinando-se o índice de resistência (IR), índice de pulsatilidade (IP) e relação sístole/diástole (S/D). As aferições foram feitas antes e 84 dias após a medicação. Utilizou-se o teste t de Student para amostras independentes na comparação das medianas entre os grupos e para amostras dependentes na comparação entre as medianas dentro do mesmo grupo. RESULTADOS: as características das mulheres nos dois grupos foram semelhantes em relação à idade, ao tempo de menopausa, ao índice de massa corporal, à pressão arterial, à paridade e à freqüência cardíaca. O Grupo Tib apresentou as seguintes medianas: IR(pré)=0,71±0,05, IR(pós)=0,72±0,08 (p=0,43); IP(pré)=1,29±0,22, IP(pós)=1,30±0,25 (p=0,4) e SD(pré)=3,49±0,77, SD(pós)=3,65±0,94 (p=0,32). Na artéria retiniana foram obtidas as seguintes medianas na artéria oftálmica: IR(pré)=0,67±0,09, IR(pós)=0,69±0,10 (p=0,7); IP(pré)=1,20±0,29, IP(pós)=1,22±0,3 (p=0,2) e SD(pré)=3,29±0,95, SD(pós)=3,30±1,07 (p=0,3). Os grupos tibolona e controle não apresentaram diferenças significantes nos índices quando avaliados ao final do estudo. CONCLUSÕES: a tibolona, na dose de 2,5 mg, não apresenta efeitos sobre os índices doppler das artérias oftálmica e retiniana. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to evaluate the effect of tibolone use on dopplervelocimetric parameters of ophthalmic and retinal arteries. METHODS: clinical, prospective, longitudinal, randomized, placebo-controlled, triple-blind study, in which among 100 menopausal women, 50 have used 2.5 mg of the active principle tib [...] olone (Tib Group) and 50, placebo as a means to form the control-group (Plac Group). In the Tib Group, 44 of the 50 women returned after 84 days to finish the exams, and in the Plac Group, 47. The ophthalmic and retinal arteries were studied to determine the resistance index (RI), the pulsatility index (PI) and the systole/diastole ratio (S/D). Assessments have been done before and 84 days after medication. The t-Student test has been used for the comparison of means between the groups in independent samples, as well as for within-group comparisons in dependent samples. RESULTS: in both groups, the women's characteristics were similar in age, menopause duration, body mass index, arterial blood pressure, deliveries and cardiac rate. The Tib Group presented the following values in the ophthalmic artery: RI(pre)=0.71±0.05, RI(post)0.72±0.08 (p=0.43); PI(pre)=1.29±0.22, PI(post)=1.30±0.25 (p=0.4) and S/D(pre)=3.49±0.77, SD(post)=3.65±0.94 (p=0.32). In the retinal artery, the following values have been found: RI(pre)=0.67±0.09, RI(post)=0.69±0.10 (p=0.7); PI(pre)=1.20±0.29, PI(post)=1.22±0.3 (p=0.2) and SD(pre)=3.29±0.95, SD(post)=3.30±1.07 (p=0.3). Also, the tibolone and control groups did not show any significant difference in regard to the above indexes in the end of the study. CONCLUSIONS: the 2.5 mg dose of tibolone had no effect on the Doppler velocimetry indexes of the ophthalmic and retinal arteries.

Souza, Marco Aurélio Martins de; Geber, Selmo.

79

Efeito da tibolona sobre parâmetros doplervelocimétricos das artérias oftálmica e retiniana Tibolone's effect on retinal and ophthalmic arteries flowmetry  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o efeito do uso da tibolona sobre os parâmetros doplervelocimétricos das artérias oftálmica e retiniana. MÉTODOS: realizou-se ensaio clínico, prospectivo, longitudinal, aleatorizado, controlado com placebo, duplo-cego, no qual dentre 100 mulheres na menopausa, 50 usaram o princípio ativo tibolona 2,5 mg (Grupo Tib e 50, o placebo para formar o grupo controle (Grupo Plac. No Grupo Tib, das 50 mulheres que iniciaram o estudo, 44 retornaram após 84 dias para a finalização dos exames. No Grupo Plac retornaram 47 delas. As artérias oftálmica e retiniana foram estudadas, determinando-se o índice de resistência (IR, índice de pulsatilidade (IP e relação sístole/diástole (S/D. As aferições foram feitas antes e 84 dias após a medicação. Utilizou-se o teste t de Student para amostras independentes na comparação das medianas entre os grupos e para amostras dependentes na comparação entre as medianas dentro do mesmo grupo. RESULTADOS: as características das mulheres nos dois grupos foram semelhantes em relação à idade, ao tempo de menopausa, ao índice de massa corporal, à pressão arterial, à paridade e à freqüência cardíaca. O Grupo Tib apresentou as seguintes medianas: IR(pré=0,71±0,05, IR(pós=0,72±0,08 (p=0,43; IP(pré=1,29±0,22, IP(pós=1,30±0,25 (p=0,4 e SD(pré=3,49±0,77, SD(pós=3,65±0,94 (p=0,32. Na artéria retiniana foram obtidas as seguintes medianas na artéria oftálmica: IR(pré=0,67±0,09, IR(pós=0,69±0,10 (p=0,7; IP(pré=1,20±0,29, IP(pós=1,22±0,3 (p=0,2 e SD(pré=3,29±0,95, SD(pós=3,30±1,07 (p=0,3. Os grupos tibolona e controle não apresentaram diferenças significantes nos índices quando avaliados ao final do estudo. CONCLUSÕES: a tibolona, na dose de 2,5 mg, não apresenta efeitos sobre os índices doppler das artérias oftálmica e retiniana.PURPOSE: to evaluate the effect of tibolone use on dopplervelocimetric parameters of ophthalmic and retinal arteries. METHODS: clinical, prospective, longitudinal, randomized, placebo-controlled, triple-blind study, in which among 100 menopausal women, 50 have used 2.5 mg of the active principle tibolone (Tib Group and 50, placebo as a means to form the control-group (Plac Group. In the Tib Group, 44 of the 50 women returned after 84 days to finish the exams, and in the Plac Group, 47. The ophthalmic and retinal arteries were studied to determine the resistance index (RI, the pulsatility index (PI and the systole/diastole ratio (S/D. Assessments have been done before and 84 days after medication. The t-Student test has been used for the comparison of means between the groups in independent samples, as well as for within-group comparisons in dependent samples. RESULTS: in both groups, the women's characteristics were similar in age, menopause duration, body mass index, arterial blood pressure, deliveries and cardiac rate. The Tib Group presented the following values in the ophthalmic artery: RI(pre=0.71±0.05, RI(post0.72±0.08 (p=0.43; PI(pre=1.29±0.22, PI(post=1.30±0.25 (p=0.4 and S/D(pre=3.49±0.77, SD(post=3.65±0.94 (p=0.32. In the retinal artery, the following values have been found: RI(pre=0.67±0.09, RI(post=0.69±0.10 (p=0.7; PI(pre=1.20±0.29, PI(post=1.22±0.3 (p=0.2 and SD(pre=3.29±0.95, SD(post=3.30±1.07 (p=0.3. Also, the tibolone and control groups did not show any significant difference in regard to the above indexes in the end of the study. CONCLUSIONS: the 2.5 mg dose of tibolone had no effect on the Doppler velocimetry indexes of the ophthalmic and retinal arteries.

Marco Aurélio Martins de Souza

2008-11-01

80

A Rare Case of Retinal Artery Occlusion in the Context of Mediterranean Spotted Fever  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Mediterranean spotted fever is a zoonosis endemic in the Mediterranean region. The microorganism Rickettsia conorii is responsible for the disease due to its angiotropism for endothelial cells. It produces host cell necrosis, thrombosis, and organ dysfunction. Ophthalmologic manifestations are rare. Findings The authors describe the case of a 55-year-old female with Mediterranean spotted fever who developed localized retinal vasculitis with associated macular edema. Treatment with intravitreal triamcinolone allowed a significant recovery of visual acuity. Conclusion Ophthalmological symptoms in these patients should be emphasized because there can be severe ocular complications with a potentially irreversible loss of visual acuity.

Beselga, Diana; Campos, Antonio; Castro, Miguel; Mendes, Silvia; Campos, Joana; Neves, Arminda; Violante, Luis; Castro Sousa, Joao Paulo

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Clinical significance of retinal emboli during diagnostic and therapeutic cardiac catheterization in patients with coronary artery disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Cardiac catheterization may cause retinal embolization, a risk factor for cerebrovascular emboli and stroke. We describe the incidence of clinically silent and apparent retinal emboli following diagnostic and interventional coronary catheterization and associated risk factors. Methods Three hundred selected patients attending a tertiary referral center for diagnostic and therapeutic cardiac catheterization were studied. Retinal examination an...

Kojuri Javad; Mehdizadeh Morteza; Rostami Hamed; Shahidian Danial

2011-01-01

82

Usefulness of Grasping a Guiding Catheter with a Loop-Snare Wire for Stent Placement into the Vertebrobasilar Artery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In cases in which the subclavian artery is severely tortuous or branches with an extremely angulated origin, stent placement in the vertebrobasilar artery on the approach from the femoral artery is often technically difficult. We report two cases in which a stent placement procedure for the vertebrobasilar artery was successfully performed by grasping a guiding catheter with a loop-snare wire. This technique is useful for tortuous arteries or arteries branching with an extremely angulated origin

2006-08-01

83

Obstrução arterial retiniana periférica associada com hiper-homocisteinemia: relato de caso / Peripheral retinal arterial obstruction associated with hyperhomocysteinemia: case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A hiperhomocisteinemia é fator de risco para fenômenos trombo-embólicos retinianos associados a quadro de oclusão vascular venosa e arterial. Descrevemos um paciente com obstrução arterial retiniana periférica, sem sinais de vasculite ativa, associada a proliferação de neovasos com tração vítreo-ret [...] iniana e hemorragia vítrea recidivante. O alto nível sérico de homocisteína decorrente de deficiência de vitamina B12 e ácido fólico, sem outras alterações na cascata da coagulação, inclusive com a pesquisa do fator V de Leiden, sugere que a hiper-homocisteinemia esteja diretamente ligada como fator causal deste quadro clínico. Embora apresentasse PPD elevado, o diagnóstico diferencial mais importante de doença de Eales foi menos considerado por ser diagnóstico de exclusão. O controle do quadro clínico foi feito com suplemento de vitaminas (B12 e ácido fólico) e fotocoagulação retiniana periférica. A homocisteína plasmática total deve ser dosada em pacientes com obstrução vascular retiniana, já que a hiper-homocisteinemia é fator de risco modificável e de fácil tratamento por meio de dieta ou suplementação vitamínica. Abstract in english Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for thromboembolic events of the retina associated with vascular venous or arterial occlusion. We describe a patient with occlusion of the peripheral arteriolar network without active vasculitis, associated with neovascular proliferation, peripheral vitreous-ret [...] inal traction and relapsing vitreous hemorrhage. The high serum homocysteine level resulting from vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency, without further changes in the coagulation cascade including the test for Leiden's Factor V, indicates hyperhomocysteinemia as a direct causal factor in this clinical condition. Despite a high PPD, Eales Disease, a major differential diagnosis, was not fully considered, since it is established by exclusion. The patient was treated with photocoagulation and vitamin supplements and the condition was successfully controlled. Patients with retinal vascular obstruction should have their total plasma homocysteine levels measured, since this modifiable risk factor can be easily treated with dietary approaches including vitamin supplementation.

Misawa, Alexandre Kazuo; Suzuki, Hisashi; Maia Júnior, Otacílio de Oliveira; Bonanomi, Maria Teresa Brizzi Chizzotti; Melo, Carlos Sérgio Nascimento de.

84

Effect of red blood cells on platelet activation and thrombus formation in tortuous arterioles  

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Full Text Available Thrombosis is a major contributor to cardiovascular disease, which can lead to myocardial infarction and stroke. Thrombosis may form in tortuous microvessels, which are often seen throughout the human body, but the microscale mechanisms and processes are not well understood. In straight vessels, the presence of red blood cells (RBCs is known to push platelets toward walls, which may affect platelet aggregation and thrombus formation. However in tortuous vessels, the effects of RBC interactions with platelets in thrombosis are largely unknown. Accordingly, the objective of this work was to determine the physical effects of RBCs, platelet size, and vessel tortuosity on platelet activation and thrombus formation in tortuous arterioles. A discrete element computational model was used to simulate the transport, collision, adhesion, aggregation, and shear-induced platelet activation of hundreds of individual platelets and RBCs in thrombus formation in tortuous arterioles. Results showed that high shear stress near the inner sides of curved arteriole walls activated platelets to initiate thrombosis. RBCs initially promoted platelet activation, but then collisions of RBCs with mural thrombi reduced the amount of mural thrombus and the size of emboli. In the absence of RBCs, mural thrombus mass was smaller in a highly tortuous arteriole compared to a less tortuous arteriole. In the presence of RBCs however, mural thrombus mass was larger in the highly tortuous arteriole compared to the less tortuous arteriole. As well, smaller platelet size yielded less mural thrombus mass and smaller emboli, either with or without RBCs. This study shed light on microscopic interactions of RBCs and platelets in tortuous microvessels, which have implications in various pathologies associated with thrombosis and bleeding.

Hai-ChaoHan

2013-12-01

85

Optical coherence tomography findings in acute phase of branch retinal artery occlusion: case report / Achados da tomografia de coerência óptica na fase aguda da oclusão de ramo da artéria central da retina: relato de caso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo é demonstrar alterações morfológicas retinianas por meio da tomografia de coerência óptica na oclusão de ramo de artéria central da retina na fase aguda. Homem de 27 anos apresentando escotoma súbito no campo superior de olho direito, com exame fundoscópico compatível com oclusão de ramo [...] ínfero-temporal da artéria central da retina. A tomografia de coerência óptica revelou aumento da espessura e hiperrefletividade das camadas internas da retina, com redução da refletividade das camadas de fotorreceptores e epitélio pigmentar da retina. Os achados na tomografia de coerência óptica são compatíveis com edema intracelular, e não com fluido extracelular secundário a extravasamento vascular, reforçando teorias histopatológicas da isquemia e necrose retiniana, que ocorrem após oclusão arterial retiniana. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to report a case of branch retinal artery occlusion in the acute phase, using optical coherence tomography to evaluate the morphologic changes. A 27 year-old man had a sudden superior scotoma in the right eye, with fundus examination compatible with inferior temporal branch retinal artery o [...] bstruction. The optical coherence tomography revealed increase in thickness and hyper-reflectivity of the inner retinal layers in affected area, with decreased reflectivity of photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelial layers. The optical coherence tomography findings are consistent with intracellular edema, and not with secondary vascular leakage of extracellular fluid, according to histopathological theories of retinal ischemia and necrosis that occurs after retinal artery occlusion.

Cíntia Maria Felix Medrado, Parcero; Bruno de Paula, Freitas; Eduardo Ferrari, Marback; Otacílio de Oliveira, Maia Júnior; Roberto Lorens, Marback.

86

Síndrome do anticorpo antifosfolípide causando oclusão bilateral de artérias e veias centrais da retina: relato de caso Antiphospholipid syndrome and bilateral retinal artery and vein occlusion: case report  

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Full Text Available A síndrome do anticorpo antifosfolípide (SAF tem sido associada a trombose de vasos arteriais e periféricos e de grande ou pequeno calibre. Também os vasos oculares estão sujeitos à ação destes auto-anticorpos que podem promover o aparecimento de perda visual transitória, diplopia, neuropatia óptica isquêmica e oclusão de artéria ou veia da retina. É descrito aqui, um caso de síndrome do anticorpo antifosfolípide com oclusão de vasos centrais arteriais e venosos da retina no intuito de chamar a atenção para este tipo de diagnóstico.The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS has been related to venous and arterial thrombosis of large and small vessels. Ocular vessels can also be involved causing transient visual loss, diplopia, ischemic optic neuropathy and central artery and venous occlusion. We describe here a case of antiphospholipid syndrome with occlusion of central retinal artery and vein to call the attention to this diagnosis.

Ana Paula Beckhauser

2008-04-01

87

Síndrome do anticorpo antifosfolípide causando oclusão bilateral de artérias e veias centrais da retina: relato de caso / Antiphospholipid syndrome and bilateral retinal artery and vein occlusion: case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A síndrome do anticorpo antifosfolípide (SAF) tem sido associada a trombose de vasos arteriais e periféricos e de grande ou pequeno calibre. Também os vasos oculares estão sujeitos à ação destes auto-anticorpos que podem promover o aparecimento de perda visual transitória, diplopia, neuropatia óptic [...] a isquêmica e oclusão de artéria ou veia da retina. É descrito aqui, um caso de síndrome do anticorpo antifosfolípide com oclusão de vasos centrais arteriais e venosos da retina no intuito de chamar a atenção para este tipo de diagnóstico. Abstract in english The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) has been related to venous and arterial thrombosis of large and small vessels. Ocular vessels can also be involved causing transient visual loss, diplopia, ischemic optic neuropathy and central artery and venous occlusion. We describe here a case of antiphospholip [...] id syndrome with occlusion of central retinal artery and vein to call the attention to this diagnosis.

Ana Paula, Beckhauser; Luís Augusto, Arana; Thelma Larocca, Skare.

88

A case report and brief review of the literature on bilateral retinal infarction following cardiopulmonary bypass for coronary artery bypass grafting  

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Full Text Available Abstract Postoperative visual loss is a devastating perioperative complication. The commonest aetiologies are anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (AION, posterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (PION, and central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO. These appear to be related to certain types of operation, most commonly spinal and cardiac bypass procedures; with the rest divided between: major trauma causing excessive blood loss; head/neck and nasal or sinus surgery; major vascular procedures (aortic aneurysm repair, aorto-bifemoral bypass; general surgery; urology; gynaecology; liposuction; liver transplantation and duration of surgery. The non-surgical risk factors are multifactorial: advanced age, prolonged postoperative anaemia, positioning (supine v prone, alteration of venous drainage of the retina, hypertension, smoking, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, hypercoagulability, hypotension, blood loss and large volume resuscitation. Other important cardiac causes are septic emboli from bacterial endocarditis and emboli caused by atrial myxomata. The majority of AION cases occur during CPB followed by head/neck surgery and prone spine surgery. CPB is used to allow coronary artery bypass grafting on a motionless heart. It has many side-effects and complications associated with its use and we report here a case of bilateral retinal infarction during routine coronary artery bypass grafting in a young male patient with multiple risk factors for developing this complication despite steps to minimise its occurrence.

Trethowan Brian A

2011-11-01

89

Prevalência de hipertensão arterial em pacientes com oclusão do ramo da veia central da retina Prevalence of arterial hypertension in branch retinal vein occlusion patients  

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OBJETIVOS: Identificar em pacientes com oclusão do ramo da veia central da retina utilizando a monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial e medidas clínicas da pressão arterial: prevalência de hipertensão e o perfil noturno da pressão arterial. MÉTODOS: Prospectivamente, 93 olhos de 83 pacientes com oclusão do ramo da veia central da retina foram submetidos à avaliação oftalmológica. Após, os pacientes foram encaminhados para avaliação clínica e monitorização da press...

2008-01-01

90

AUTOMATIC RETINAL VESSEL TORTUOSITY MEASUREMENT  

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Retinal vascular vessels have the role to indicate the retinal diseases and for systematic diseases when there are any abnormalities in retinal vascular pattern. A characteristic of the vascular pattern that is appreciated by clinicians is vascular tortuosity, i.e., how curved or kinked a blood vessel, either vein or artery, appears along its course. In this study we suggest a novel mask filter to track the blood vessel along its course and measuring the blood vessels tortuosity over the enti...

2013-01-01

91

Arterial tortuosity syndrome: A rare entity  

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Full Text Available We present a 5 month old baby who was referred for an incidental detection of a murmur and was found to have tortuous pulmonary arteries with multiple peripheral pulmonary stenoses and bilateral inguinal hernia pointing towards the diagnosis of arterial tortuosity syndrome.

Marwah Ashutosh

2008-01-01

92

Arterial tortuosity syndrome: A rare entity  

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We present a 5 month old baby who was referred for an incidental detection of a murmur and was found to have tortuous pulmonary arteries with multiple peripheral pulmonary stenoses and bilateral inguinal hernia pointing towards the diagnosis of arterial tortuosity syndrome.

Marwah, Ashutosh; Shah, Sejal; Suresh, P. V.; Maheshwari, Sunita

2008-01-01

93

[Congenital retinal macrovessel: case report].  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors report a case of arteriolar retinal macrovessel, diagnosed by routine ophthalmologic examination, as well as its optic coherence tomography aspects. Congenital retinal macrovessel is a large aberrant vessel, often unilateral, usually a vein, rarely an artery, located in the posterior pole which can cross the fovea and median raphe. PMID:17505740

Silva, Billy de Moura Palha e; Rosa, Alexandre Antonio Marques; Santos, Etiene Mendes França dos; Almeida Sobrinho, Edmundo Frota de

2007-01-01

94

Retinal detachment  

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Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) is the most common form of retinal detachment, where a retinal "break" allows the ingress of fluid from the vitreous cavity to the subretinal space, resulting in retinal separation. It occurs in about 1 in 10,000 people a year.

Fraser, Scott; Steel, David

2010-01-01

95

Retinal detachment  

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Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) is the most common form of retinal detachment, where a retinal "break" allows the ingress of fluid from the vitreous cavity to the subretinal space, resulting in retinal separation. It occurs in about 1 in 10,000 people a year.

Fraser, Scott; Steel, David

2008-01-01

96

Variação do fluxo sanguíneo da artéria central da retina durante as diferentes fases do ciclo menstrual ovulatório Central retinal artery blood flow variation during menstrual cycle  

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Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a resistência vascular da artéria central da retina, por meio do fluxo Doppler, nas diferentes fases do ciclo menstrual ovulatório. MÉTODOS: estudo observacional, longitudinal e prospectivo com avaliação de 34 mulheres saudáveis, submetidas a estudo dopplerfluxométrico do fundo do olho para avaliação da resistência vascular da artéria central da retina nas posições sentada e deitada, durante quatro fases do ciclo menstrual: fase folicular inicial, fase folicular média, fase periovulatória e fase lútea média. A confirmação da ovulação no ciclo de estudo foi feita pela dosagem de progesterona sérica na fase lútea média. Foram avaliados os índices de pulsatilidade (IP e de resistência, e as velocidades máxima, mínima e média. RESULTADOS: a idade média foi de 29,7 anos. Não foram observadas diferenças entre os índices obtidos para ambos os olhos; assim, utilizamos as médias dos índices para realizar o cálculo estatístico. Quando comparadas às posições de realização do exame, detectou-se um IP maior na posição sentada; assim, as análises foram avaliadas em separado, respeitando-se a posição da paciente. O IP da artéria central da retina, avaliado com a paciente deitada, variou durante o ciclo menstrual, apresentando-se significativamente mais baixo nas fases folicular média (1,5±0,3 e periovulatória (1,5±0,3 quando comparadas às fases folicular precoce (1,7±0,4 e lútea média (1,7±0,4. Quando a avaliação foi feita com a paciente sentada não foram observadas diferenças para as diferentes fases do ciclo. CONCLUSÕES: num ciclo menstrual ovulatório ocorre diminuição da resistência vascular na artéria central da retina e posterior reversão do efeito, como demonstrado pelas variações do IP.PURPOSE: to evaluate the vascular blood flow of the central retinal arteries using dopplervelocimetry in the different phases of the ovulatory menstrual cycle. METHODS: we performed an observational, longitudinal and prospective study evaluating 34 healthy and ovulatory women. All women were submitted to Doppler scan of the eye to evaluate the vascular resistance of the central retinal arteries, either lying down or on a seated position, during four phases of the menstrual cycle. Confirmation of ovulation was performed by measuring serum progesterone during the luteal phase. We analyzed the pulsatility and resistance index and the maximum, minimum and mean velocity. RESULTS: mean age was 29.7 years. No differences were observed between the indexes obtained in both eyes, therefore a mean index was used for comparisons. As the comparison between the positions used for the exams showed a higher PI for the seated position, the analyses were performed separately. The pulsatility index in the lying position was different among the different phases of the menstrual cycle. The arterial resistance was significantly lower during the intermediate follicular and the periovulatory phases, as compared to the early follicular and luteal phases. When the comparison was performed with the patient in the seated position, no differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate a reduction in the vascular resistance of the cerebral microcirculation and a posterior reversal, as shown by changes in the PI.

Luiz Carlos Viana

2007-03-01

97

Variação do fluxo sanguíneo da artéria central da retina durante as diferentes fases do ciclo menstrual ovulatório / Central retinal artery blood flow variation during menstrual cycle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: avaliar a resistência vascular da artéria central da retina, por meio do fluxo Doppler, nas diferentes fases do ciclo menstrual ovulatório. MÉTODOS: estudo observacional, longitudinal e prospectivo com avaliação de 34 mulheres saudáveis, submetidas a estudo dopplerfluxométrico do fundo do [...] olho para avaliação da resistência vascular da artéria central da retina nas posições sentada e deitada, durante quatro fases do ciclo menstrual: fase folicular inicial, fase folicular média, fase periovulatória e fase lútea média. A confirmação da ovulação no ciclo de estudo foi feita pela dosagem de progesterona sérica na fase lútea média. Foram avaliados os índices de pulsatilidade (IP) e de resistência, e as velocidades máxima, mínima e média. RESULTADOS: a idade média foi de 29,7 anos. Não foram observadas diferenças entre os índices obtidos para ambos os olhos; assim, utilizamos as médias dos índices para realizar o cálculo estatístico. Quando comparadas às posições de realização do exame, detectou-se um IP maior na posição sentada; assim, as análises foram avaliadas em separado, respeitando-se a posição da paciente. O IP da artéria central da retina, avaliado com a paciente deitada, variou durante o ciclo menstrual, apresentando-se significativamente mais baixo nas fases folicular média (1,5±0,3) e periovulatória (1,5±0,3) quando comparadas às fases folicular precoce (1,7±0,4) e lútea média (1,7±0,4). Quando a avaliação foi feita com a paciente sentada não foram observadas diferenças para as diferentes fases do ciclo. CONCLUSÕES: num ciclo menstrual ovulatório ocorre diminuição da resistência vascular na artéria central da retina e posterior reversão do efeito, como demonstrado pelas variações do IP. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to evaluate the vascular blood flow of the central retinal arteries using dopplervelocimetry in the different phases of the ovulatory menstrual cycle. METHODS: we performed an observational, longitudinal and prospective study evaluating 34 healthy and ovulatory women. All women were submitt [...] ed to Doppler scan of the eye to evaluate the vascular resistance of the central retinal arteries, either lying down or on a seated position, during four phases of the menstrual cycle. Confirmation of ovulation was performed by measuring serum progesterone during the luteal phase. We analyzed the pulsatility and resistance index and the maximum, minimum and mean velocity. RESULTS: mean age was 29.7 years. No differences were observed between the indexes obtained in both eyes, therefore a mean index was used for comparisons. As the comparison between the positions used for the exams showed a higher PI for the seated position, the analyses were performed separately. The pulsatility index in the lying position was different among the different phases of the menstrual cycle. The arterial resistance was significantly lower during the intermediate follicular and the periovulatory phases, as compared to the early follicular and luteal phases. When the comparison was performed with the patient in the seated position, no differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate a reduction in the vascular resistance of the cerebral microcirculation and a posterior reversal, as shown by changes in the PI.

Luiz Carlos, Viana; Michelle Amorim Costa, Burmann; Marcos, Sampaio; Selmo, Geber.

98

Retinitis Pigmentosa.  

Science.gov (United States)

The author describes the etiology of retinitis pigmentosa, a visual dysfunction which results from progressive loss of the retinal photoreceptors. Sections address signs and symptoms, ancillary findings, heredity, clinical diagnosis, therapy, and research. (SBH)

Carr, Ronald E.

1979-01-01

99

Tortuously structured polyvinyl chloride/polyurethane fibrous membranes for high-efficiency fine particulate filtration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two-tier composite filtration medium exhibiting excellent filtration performance to airborne particulate was prepared by a facile deposition of electrospun polyvinyl chloride (PVC)/polyurethane (PU) fibers on a conventional filter paper support. The tortuous structure and composition of resultant fibrous membranes can be finely controlled by regulating the precursor solution composition. By employing the PU incorporation, the pristine PVC fibrous membranes were endowed with robust tensile strength approaching to 9.9 MPa. The plausible correlation between resultant blended fibrous structure and mechanical property of relevant membranes was discussed, and a three-step break mechanism upon the external stress was proposed. Additionally, quantitative pore size and porosity distribution analysis using the capillary flow porometry method has confirmed the tortuous structure of PVC/PU fibrous membranes. Furthermore, the as-prepared membranes with high abrasion resistance (134 cycles) and comparable air permeability (154.1mm/s) showed fascinating filtration efficiency (99.5%) and low pressure drop (144 Pa) performance for 300-500 nm sodium chloride aerosol particles, suggesting their use as a promising medium for variety of potential applications in air filtration. PMID:23489615

Wang, Na; Raza, Aikifa; Si, Yang; Yu, Jianyong; Sun, Gang; Ding, Bin

2013-05-15

100

Animal path integration: a model of positional uncertainty along tortuous paths.  

Science.gov (United States)

Exact closed form mathematical solutions are reported which quantify the dynamic uncertainty resulting from path integration (PI) along tortuous paths. Based on a correlated random walk model, the derived results quantify positional estimation error moments with and without a compass, in discrete and continuous time. Consistent with earlier studies on attempted straight-line navigation, using a compass significantly reduces the uncertainty during PI, making purely idiothetic PI biologically implausible except over short distances. Examples are used to illustrate the contributions of angular noise, linear noise and path tortuosity, under different conditions. Linear noise is shown to be relatively more important with a compass while angular noise is more important without. It is shown that increasing path tortuosity decreases positional uncertainty, true for long and short journeys, irrespective of whether a compass is used, or the level of noise. In contrast, reducing angular noise also reduces uncertainty, but only below some critical level of noise. Using canonical equations of PI, it is shown that polar PI using a compass accumulates uncertainty in a manner similar to Cartesian PI without a compass. Issues of data sampling bias and intermittent use of a compass are also considered for PI along tortuous paths. PMID:24096099

Cheung, Allen

2014-01-21

 
 
 
 
101

[Arteriovenous dissection for branch retinal vein occlusion].  

Science.gov (United States)

Arteriovenous dissection (AVD) is a surgical maneuver to separate the retinal artery and vein at the crossing site in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). The published studies showed an evidence level 3. AVD seems to be maintainable in patients with recent onset of BRVO and decimal visual acuity < or =0.4. PMID:18317778

Feltgen, N; Hattenbach, L-O; Mirshahi, A; Hansen, L

2008-04-01

102

Learning about Retinitis Pigmentosa  

Science.gov (United States)

... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Retinitis Pigmentosa What is retinitis pigmentosa? What are the symptoms ... Pigmentosa Additional Resources for Retinitis Pigmentosa What is retinitis pigmentosa? Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the name given to ...

103

Retinitis pigmentosa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited retinal dystrophy caused by the loss of photoreceptors and characterized by retinal pigment deposits visible on fundus examination. Prevalence of non syndromic RP is approximately 1/4,000. The most common form of RP is a rod-cone dystrophy, in which the first symptom is night blindness, followed by the progressive loss in the peripheral visual field in daylight, and eventually leading to blindness after several decades. Some extreme...

Hamel Christian

2006-01-01

104

Retinitis pigmentosa  

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Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a degenerative disorder typically affecting the retinal rod photoreceptors first, resulting in night-blindness, and progressive deterioration of the cones, often ending in blindness. The disease has a prevalence of about 1 in 4000 and considers a major cause of visual impairment under the age of 60. The discovery of multiple disease-causing genes starting from 1990 has contributed to an increasing knowledge of the retinal function. However, the genetic heterogenei...

Hartong, Dyonne Tabitha

2009-01-01

105

Lycium Barbarum Polysaccharides Reduce Neuronal Damage, Blood-Retinal Barrier Disruption and Oxidative Stress in Retinal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury  

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Neuronal cell death, glial cell activation, retinal swelling and oxidative injury are complications in retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuries. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP), extracts from the wolfberries, are good for “eye health” according to Chinese medicine. The aim of our present study is to explore the use of LBP in retinal I/R injury. Retinal I/R injury was induced by surgical occlusion of the internal carotid artery. Prior to induction of ischemia, mice were treated or...

Li, Suk-yee; Yang, Di; Yeung, Chung-man; Yu, Wing-yan; Chang, Raymond Chuen-chung; So, Kwok-fai; Wong, David; Lo, Amy C. Y.

2011-01-01

106

Dolichoectasia of vertebrobasilar arteries as a cause of hydrocephalus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dolichoectasia of vertebrobasilar artery is a condition in which the vertebral/basilar artery is elongated, distended and tortuous. It is usually asymptomatic. It may present with compressive or ischemic symptoms. Hydrocephalus as a complication of vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia is rare. We present a case of a 60-year-old male with dolichoectasia of the basilar artery causing compression of the third ventricular outflow and, thus, presenting with noncommunicating hydrocephalus. PMID:21716844

Kansal, Ritesh; Mahore, Amit; Dange, Nitin; Kukreja, Sanjay

2011-01-01

107

Dolichoectasia of vertebrobasilar arteries as a cause of hydrocephalus  

Science.gov (United States)

Dolichoectasia of vertebrobasilar artery is a condition in which the vertebral/basilar artery is elongated, distended and tortuous. It is usually asymptomatic. It may present with compressive or ischemic symptoms. Hydrocephalus as a complication of vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia is rare. We present a case of a 60-year-old male with dolichoectasia of the basilar artery causing compression of the third ventricular outflow and, thus, presenting with noncommunicating hydrocephalus.

Kansal, Ritesh; Mahore, Amit; Dange, Nitin; Kukreja, Sanjay

2011-01-01

108

Retinal prosthesis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Retinal prosthesis has been translated from the laboratory to the clinic over the past two decades. Currently, two devices have regulatory approval for the treatment of retinitis pigmentosa. These devices provide partial sight restoration and patients use this improved vision in their everyday lives. Improved mobility and object detection are some of the more notable findings from the clinical trials. However, significant vision restoration will require both better technology and improved understanding of the interaction between electrical stimulation and the retina. This paper reviews the recent clinical trials and highlights technology breakthroughs that will contribute to next generation of retinal prostheses. PMID:24710817

Weiland, James D; Humayun, Mark S

2014-05-01

109

RX-08-HD, a low-viscosity, injection-moldable explosive for filling tortuous paths  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cast cure, extrusion cast, and paste extrudable explosives have not been designed for transferring through long tortuous paths or into fine three dimensional shapes. To allow the crystalline explosive to flow a lubricating fluid is required. The energetic liquid ethane trinitrate (TMETN) was used as the lubricant to maximize the explosive energy. TMETN is a liquid nitrate ester which requires stabilization with conventional free radical stabilizers such as 2- nitrodiphenylamine, methyl-nitroanaline, or ethyl centrylite. Since these injection moldable explosives are expected to cure in place, a polyesterurethane binder based on polymeric isocyanate of hexamethylene diisocyanate and polycaprolactone polyols is dissolved in TMETN. The solubility of the polymer precursors in TMETN also reduces the energetic liquids sensitivity. The latent cure catalyst Dabco T-131 was used to minimize shrinkage associated with thermal expansion, reduce cost associated with oven cures, to give 4-6 hour potlife and overnight cure to handling strength. The product RX-08-HD is a new, low-viscosity, injection moldable explosive that can be extruded into complex, void-free shapes. Combined with appropriate design and other aspects of weaponization, RX-08-HD has produced outstanding results.

Hoffman, D.M.; Jessop, E.S.; Swansiger, R.W.

1997-10-01

110

Retinal vasculitis.  

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Evidence is now accumulating on both clinical and experimental grounds that the retina is an a priori source of inflammatory activity. Reactive inflammation in the retina may produce many of the clinical signs previously ascribed to uveal inflammation. Autoimmune mechanisms are probably responsible for the majority of cases of retinal vasculitis. Autoimmune retinal vasculitis occurs without other classical signs of inflammatory response in any other parts of the body. When associated systemic...

Sanders, M. D.; Graham, E. M.

1988-01-01

111

[Systemic lysis therapy in retinal vascular occlusions].  

Science.gov (United States)

In the management of acute major vessel occlusion, the use of fibrinolytic agents such as recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), urokinase or streptokinase is widely accepted. Today, the spectrum of indications for thrombolytic drugs comprises acute myocardial infarction, lung embolism, ischaemic stroke, deep vein thrombosis and acute arterial occlusions of the lower limbs. In view of the histopathological and clinical features of retinal vessel occlusion, fibrinolysis aimed at early restoration of blood flow appears to be a promising therapeutic approach. Basically, it is of some concern that the systemic administration of fibrinolytic agents is associated with a haemorrhagic risk. Since this includes cerebral haemorrhage or gastrointestinal bleeding, the choice of an appropriate intravenous thrombolytic therapy in a non-life threatening situation such as central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) or central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) should be based on minimising the risk of adverse events. Furthermore, the fibrinolytic treatment of choice should be able to produce rapid and complete restoration of retinal capillary and arterial or venous blood flow and maintain patency long enough for retinal salvage to take place. In this article, we review several studies of fibrinolytic therapy in patients with retinal vessel occlusion to determine whether this treatment is likely to improve major clinical outcomes. Moreover, we review the large scale trials of fibrinolysis in myocardial infarction and acute ischaemic stroke to evaluate safety and efficacy of various thrombolytic regimens. Furthermore, we report on our results of fibrinolytic therapy with low dose rt-PA in patients with retinal artery occlusion and ischaemic central retinal vein occlusion. In light of the fact that the occurrence of bleeding complications constitutes a dose dependent problem, we conclude that the use of low dose regimens should be the ideal approach to fibrinolysis in retinal vessel occlusion. Although the results of our pilot studies must be interpreted with caution, we believe that the administration of low-dose rt-PA (50 mg) in a frontloaded manner (= simultaneous administration of rt-PA and intravenous heparin) constitutes a reasonable treatment option in patients with central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) or ischaemic retinal vein occlusion (RVO), recent onset of symptoms (CRAO < or = 12 h, RVO < or = 11 d) and severe visual loss (< or = 20/50). Because of these limitations and the numerous contraindications of fibrinolytic therapy, only a limited number of patients will be suitable for this treatment. In view of the poor visual and ocular prognosis in severe retinal vessel occlusion, controlled clinical trials are needed to determine the benefit of thrombolysis in the management of this disease. PMID:9782735

Hattenbach, L O

1998-08-01

112

Retinal arteriolar macroaneurysm and congenital retinal macrovessel.  

Science.gov (United States)

Variations in the morphology of the aneurysm and its serosanguineous complications serve to make a retinal arteriolar macroaneurysm, a common masquerading entity, particularly if it is accompanied by another un-associated retinal vascular abnormality. The authors present a patient who had an unusually large retinal arteriolar macroaneurysm in conjunction with a congenital retinal macrovessel. PMID:19772280

Koizumi, Hideki; Iida, Tomohiro; Mori, Takafumi; Furuta, Minoru; Yannuzzi, Lawrence A

2009-01-01

113

Unilateral central retinal artery occlusion as the sole presenting sign of Susac syndrome in a young man: case report / Oclusão unilateral da artéria central da retina como único sinal de apresentação da síndrome de Susac em jovem do sexo masculino: relato de caso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Descrevemos um paciente de 24 anos, sexo masculino, que se apresentou com perda súbita da visão do olho esquerdo causado por oclusão da artéria central da retina. Ele foi submetido à investigação clínica detalhada sem encontrar uma causa. Três semanas depois, no entanto, desenvolveu surdez, encefalo [...] patia e múltiplas oclusões de ramo arterial da retina no olho direito. Angiofluoresceinografia confirmou as oclusões de ramo arterial no OD e oclusão da artéria central da retina no OE, sem qualquer sinal de vascutile. O exame neurológico revelou encefalopatia difusa, enquanto que o estudo efetuado por ressonância nuclear magnética mostrou várias áreas de enfarte do cérebro e a audiometria demonstrou perda auditiva neurosensorial bilateral. A síndrome de Susac foi diagnosticada e tratamento com metilprednisolona e ciclofosfamida instituido com melhora discreta, seguida de estabilização clínica. Este caso é importante para chamar a atenção de que nem todos os três critérios diagnósticos (encefalopatia, oclusão de ramo arterial retiniano e surdez) para a síndrome de Susac precisam estar presentes de início, o que pode causar confusão diagnóstica. O diagnóstico deve portanto ser incluído no diferencial de oclusão da artéria central da retina mesmo quando ocorre em homem sem outros sintomas associados. Abstract in english We report the case of a 24-year-old man presenting with sudden visual loss in the left eye from a central retinal artery occlusion. An extensive clinical investigation revealed no etiology. Three weeks later, however, the patient developed hearing loss followed by encephalopathy and multiple branch [...] retinal artery occlusions in the right eye. Fluorescein angiography confirmed retinal vascular occlusions with no sign of vasculitis. The neurological examination revealed a diffuse encephalopathy while the MRI scan disclosed several small areas of infarcts in the brain. Bilateral sensorineural hearing loss was confirmed on audiometry. The patient was diagnosed with Susac syndrome and treated with methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide, resulting in slight improvement and stabilization. This case shows that Susac syndrome may be diagnosed late due to the absence at onset of one or more of the symptoms of the classic triad (encephalopathy, multiple branch retinal artery occlusions and hearing loss). This case also serves to emphasize that Susac syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of central retinal artery occlusion, even in apparently healthy young men.

Apóstolos-Pereira, Samira Luiza dos; Kara-José, Lúcia B. Passos; Marchiori, Paulo Euripedes; Monteiro, Mário Luiz Ribeiro.

114

Coronary artery anatomy and variants  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Variants and congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries are usually asymptomatic, but may present with severe chest pain or cardiac arrest. The introduction of multidetector CT coronary angiography (MDCT-CA) allows the detection of significant coronary artery stenosis. Improved performance with isotropic spatial resolution and higher temporal resolution provides a valid alternative to conventional coronary angiography (CCA) in many patients. MDCT-CA is now considered the ideal tool for three-dimensional visualization of the complex and tortuous anatomy of the coronary arteries. With multiplanar and volume-rendered reconstructions, MDCT-CA may even outperform CCA in determining the relative position of vessels, thus providing a better view of the coronary vascular anatomy. The purpose of this review is to describe the normal anatomy of the coronary arteries and their main variants based on MDCT-CA with appropriate reconstructions. (orig.)

2011-12-01

115

Retinal hemorrhage as a unique ophthalmic manifestation of cerebral hyper perfusion syndrome  

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Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHPS) is a rare, complication of carotid artery revascularization. Acute retinal hemorrhage is a very rare entity previously described as a manifestation of CHPS following carotid artery stenting (CAS), but to the best of our knowledge, ...

Eitan Heldenberg; Arie Bass

2013-01-01

116

Retinal Tear and Detachment  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Retinal Tear and Detachment Introduction The retina is the layer of tissue in the back of the eye that ... retina separates from the choroid after a retinal tear develops. Retinal detachment is a serious eye condition. ...

117

Retinitis pigmentosa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Retinitis pigmentosa (RP is an inherited retinal dystrophy caused by the loss of photoreceptors and characterized by retinal pigment deposits visible on fundus examination. Prevalence of non syndromic RP is approximately 1/4,000. The most common form of RP is a rod-cone dystrophy, in which the first symptom is night blindness, followed by the progressive loss in the peripheral visual field in daylight, and eventually leading to blindness after several decades. Some extreme cases may have a rapid evolution over two decades or a slow progression that never leads to blindness. In some cases, the clinical presentation is a cone-rod dystrophy, in which the decrease in visual acuity predominates over the visual field loss. RP is usually non syndromic but there are also many syndromic forms, the most frequent being Usher syndrome. To date, 45 causative genes/loci have been identified in non syndromic RP (for the autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked, and digenic forms. Clinical diagnosis is based on the presence of night blindness and peripheral visual field defects, lesions in the fundus, hypovolted electroretinogram traces, and progressive worsening of these signs. Molecular diagnosis can be made for some genes, but is not usually performed due to the tremendous genetic heterogeneity of the disease. Genetic counseling is always advised. Currently, there is no therapy that stops the evolution of the disease or restores the vision, so the visual prognosis is poor. The therapeutic approach is restricted to slowing down the degenerative process by sunlight protection and vitaminotherapy, treating the complications (cataract and macular edema, and helping patients to cope with the social and psychological impact of blindness. However, new therapeutic strategies are emerging from intensive research (gene therapy, neuroprotection, retinal prosthesis.

Hamel Christian

2006-10-01

118

Atypical twin renal arteries with altered hilar anatomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Twin renal arteries (superior and inferior were encountered on the left side in a 58-year-old male Indian cadaver. Both the renal arteries took a tortuous course to the hilum. The inferior renal artery, labeled as the accessory renal artery travelled sinuously and anteriorly over the left renal vein to enter the inferior most part of the hilum. The superior artery, labeled as main renal artery bifurcated before the hilum and its two branches were placed anterior to the vein. Thus the normal anteroposterior disposition of structures viz. renal vein, renal artery and the renal pelvis was not seen. Such renal arteries having sinuous course with atypical sequence of structures at the hilum are of worth concern to the urologists performing renal angiography and to surgeons performing laparoscopies or renal transplantation.

Loh HK

2009-10-01

119

Interventional therapy of complications after liver transplantation: hepatic artery stricture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hepatic artery stricture (HAS) after liver transplantation can lead directly to transplanted liver function exhaustion and complications of biliary system. The early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for better prognosis. Doppler ultrasound is the first method of choice, and angiography can give further clear dignosis. The balloon dilatation is still effective for hepatic arterial stenosis. With the more adaptable usage of oronary stent, if possible, would reveal more promising result especially for tortuous stenotic hepatic artery. The vascular reconstruction or repeated liver transplantation is still the effective therapeutic methods. (authors)

2008-10-01

120

Recanalization of Splenic Artery Aneurysm After Transcatheter Arterial Embolization Using N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 65-year-old woman who had been diagnosed as having microscopic polyangiitis developed sudden abdominal pain and entered a state of shock. Abdominal CT showed massive hemoperitoneum, and emergent angiography revealed a ruptured splenic artery aneurysm. After direct catheterization attempts failed due to tortuous vessels and angiospasm, transcatheter arterial embolization using an n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA)-lipiodol mixture was successfully performed. Fifty days later, the patient developed sudden abdominal pain again. Repeated angiography demonstrated recanalization of the splenic artery and splenic artery aneurysm. This time, the recanalized aneurysm was embolized using metallic coils with the isolation method. Physicians should keep in mind that recanalization can occur after transcatheter arterial embolization using N-butyl cyanoacrylate, which has been used as a permanent embolic agent.

2010-02-01

 
 
 
 
121

Percutaneous coronary intervention by retrograde approach for chronic total occlusion of the proximal left anterior descending artery via a gastroepiploic artery graft.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coronary arteries connecting to septal branch are often occluded in post-coronary artery bypass graft cases. A 70-year-old male had undergone CABG; radial artery graft to the LCX, and gastroepiploic artery (GEA) graft to the RCA. Coronary angiography revealed total occlusion in proximal LAD, while both graft vessels had good flow. Retrograde percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedure from the septal channel via GEA graft to the RCA was performed for total occlusion of LAD. Despite the tortuous GEA, deep engagement with a 4-french guiding catheter ensured powerful back-up force. After retrograde wire crossing, two drug-eluting stents were implanted, successfully. PMID:22810923

Mibiki, Yoshiaki; Kikuta, Hisashi; Sumiyoshi, Takenori; Shibata, Muneichi; Osawa, Noboru

2013-01-01

122

Local flicker stimulation evokes local retinal blood velocity changes  

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We investigated the effect of localized visual stimulation on human retinal blood velocity using an adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AOSLO). To measure the blood velocity response, the AOSLO scanning raster was moved over the target arteries and red blood cell velocity was measured. Localized visual stimuli were delivered by projecting flicker patterns inside or outside the target artery’s downstream region. The blood velocity increased in the presence of a flicker stimulus in...

2012-01-01

123

Preliminary report on effect of retinal panphotocoagulation on rubeosis iridis and neovascular glaucoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eight eyes with central retinal vein occlusion one eye with old central retinal artery occlusion complicated by rubeosis iridis or increased intraocular pressure, or both; and one eye with diabetic retinopathy and rubeosis iridis were treated by retinal panphotocoagulation. Vision did not improve but intraocular pressure was lower and iris neovascularisation regressed in most cases, supporting the hypothesis that retinal hypoxia is a cause of iris neovascularisation and suggesting that retinal panphotocoagulation has a potential prophylactic and therapeutic role in rubeosis iridis and early neovascular glaucoma. Images

Laatikainen, L

1977-01-01

124

Functional in-vivo assessment and biofluidmechanical analysis of age-related and pathological microstructural changes in retinal vessels  

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Retinal vessels can be assessed in non invasive ways by optical methods and are similar to cerebral vessels in their structure and function. Retinal vessels possess narrower and wider diameters in different segments which are changing in response to a metabolic demand. Changes in longitudinal vessel section of retinal vessel segments in healthy persons and in patients with arterial hypertension, obesity and open angle glaucoma were investigated clinically using the Retinal Vessel Analyzer. Re...

Kotliar, Konstantin

2009-01-01

125

Retinal Tear and Detachment  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... tear or break is usually treated with a laser. Some retinal tears do not need treatment. However, ... history of eye trauma and prior cataract surgery. Laser and cryoprobe treatments for retinal tears are very ...

126

Retinal Tear and Detachment  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... The lens acts like the lens of a camera. After passing through the lens, focused light continues ... the retina from detaching. A retinal tear or break is usually treated with a laser. Some retinal ...

127

Retinal Tear and Detachment  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... if the retina is weak in a certain area, a retinal tear can occur as the vitreous separates from it. Once a retinal tear develops, there is a large chance that the liquefied vitreous will go through ...

128

Retinal Tear and Detachment  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... detachment. There are clear warning signs that a person is developing a retinal tear or detachment. When ... or flashes is a warning sign that a person may have retinal tears. Floaters are small, moving ...

129

Photogenetic Retinal Prosthesis  

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The last few decades have witnessed an immense effort to develop working retinal implants for patients suffering from retinal degeneration diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa. However, it is becoming apparent that this approach is unable to restore levels of vision that will be sufficient to offer significant improvement in the quality of life of patients. Herein, a new type of retinal prosthesis that is based on genetic expression of microbial light sensitive ion channel, Chanelrhodopsin-2...

Grossman, Nir

2010-01-01

130

Congenital retinal arteriovenous anastomoses.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a rare type of retinal vascular abnormality--retinal arteriovenous anastomoses--and discuss the associated pathoanatomy and hemodynamics of the retinal vascular anomaly itself as demonstrated by fluorescein angiography. We emphasize our preference for using infused computed tomographic scanning rather than cerebral arteriography to rule out the existence of associated intracranial vascular lesions in such cases. PMID:3178081

Slusher, M M; Olkowski, S T

1988-07-01

131

MRI of retinal and choroidal blood flow with laminar resolution  

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The retina is nourished by two distinct circulations: the retinal vessels within the inner retina and the choroidal vessels behind the neural retina. The outer nuclear layer and the inner and outer segments of the photoreceptors in between are avascular. The aim of this study was to determine whether arterial spin labeling MRI could provide sufficient resolution to differentiate between quantitative retinal blood flow (rBF) and choroidal blood flow (chBF), and whether this technique is suffic...

Muir, Eric R.; Duong, Timothy Q.

2011-01-01

132

Regional retinal blood flow reduction following half fundus photocoagulation treatment.  

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Regional changes in retinal blood flow following inferior and subsequent superior argon laser half fundus photocoagulation treatment were measured in six diabetic patients with advanced retinopathy. Centreline blood velocity, vessel diameter, and blood flow in major inferior and superior temporal retinal arteries were measured at baseline and following each treatment using the bidirectional laser Doppler technique and monochromatic fundus photography. Inferior fundus laser treatment produced ...

1994-01-01

133

Celiac artery stenting to facilitate hepatic yttrium-90 radioembolization therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Radioembolization offers a novel way to treat the nonresectable, liver predominant hepatic malignancies with better tumor response and overall progression-free survival rates. Transarterial catheter-based radioembolization procedure involves the hepatic arterial administration of glass- or resin-based beta emitting Yttirum-90 microspheres. Safe delivery of the tumoricidal radiation dose requires careful angiogram planning and coil embolization to quantify lung shunting and prevent systemic toxicity, respectively. Diagnostic pretreatment angiogram also serves to identify the hepatic arterial variant anatomy and other coexisting pathologies that might require a different or alternative approach. We describe a complex case of celiac artery stenosis with tortuous pancreaticoduodenal arterial arcade precluding access to the right hepatic artery for performing radioembolization. Celiac artery stenting of the stenosis was performed to facilitate subsequent safe and successful Yttrium-90 microsphere radioembolization. PMID:23304610

Chamarthy, Murthy R; Hughes, Terence W; Gupta, Mohit; Vossen, Josephina A; Velasco, Noel B; Zinn, Kenneth M

2012-01-01

134

Retinal Embolism from Calcified Vegetations of Aortic Valve: Spontaneous Complication of Rheumatic Heart Disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Emboli to the retinal arterial system can be classified on the basis of the nature of the embolic material. The purpose of this report is to demonstrate the gross and histopathologic appearance of a calcific embolus observed ophthalmoscopically in a retin...

R. Penner R. L. Font

1968-01-01

135

Ophthalmodynamometric determination of the central retinal vessel collapse pressure correlated with systemic blood pressure  

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Aims: To evaluate whether determination of the central retinal artery and vein collapse pressure correlate with systemic blood pressure measurements, using a new Goldmann contact lens associated ophthalmodynamometric device

2004-01-01

136

Modern Treatment of Retinal Detachment.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article concerns only rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. The management of tractional or exudative cases will not be considered. Adequate treatment of a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment may require five essential steps: (a) localization of retinal b...

C. L. Schepens H. S. Liu

1980-01-01

137

Ocular manifestations of internal carotid artery insufficiency  

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8 cases of internal carotid artery insufficiency were studied to find out the various ophthalmic manifestations in such cases. 50% cases had ophthalmic signs and symptoms. These manifestations were amaurosis fugax, central retinal artery block, field defects, pupillary abnormalities and disc oedema. Ammaurosis fugax is a sign of impending carotid insufficiency and these cases must be investigated thoroughly.

Nath Rajiv; Mehra M; Nag D; Agarwal J

1987-01-01

138

Traumatic retinal detachment.  

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Seventy-seven patients developed retinal breaks following an episode of ocular contusion, and 65 (84.4%) of these developed rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Surgical treatment successfully restored or maintained retinal apposition in 74 (96.1%) of the eyes. Thirty-six (46.8%) eyes recovered visual acuity of 6/9 or better. Of the retinal breaks recognised dialysis at the ora serrata was observed in 49 eyes, of which 28 were situated at the lower temporal quadrant. Seventeen eyes had irregula...

Johnston, P. B.

1991-01-01

139

Retinal and choroidal vascular occlusion secondary to corticosteroid embolisation.  

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We report a case of visual loss following intranasal injection of triamcinolone acetonide and phenylephrine hydrochloride in a 22-year-old female with chronic sinusitis. Clinical examination and fluorescein angiography revealed vascular occlusions which involved multiple small branches of both the choroidal and retinal circulations. The mechanism of such a complication probably involves inadvertent intra-arterial injection into the anterior or the posterior ethmoidal artery, with retrograde f...

1989-01-01

140

[An analyzing system for fluorescein angiography of retinal blood flow using a high speed, high sensitivity camera].  

Science.gov (United States)

We constructed a speedy and sensitive fundus camera system, and developed a new method to analyze retinal blood flow in rabbits and monkeys. The system is composed of a fluorescein fundus camera (TRC-50X, Topcon), a relay lens, an image intensifier (Ektapro-intensified-imager, Kodak), a digital recorder (Ektapro-EM, Kodak), an S-VHS analogue recorder, a picture analyzer (IMAGEnet, Topcon), and a CRT (cathode-ray tube) monitor. The speed of retinal blood flow in rabbits is calculated by measuring the time and distance between two points of an advancing illumined fluorescein dye front in a vessel. The speed in monkeys is obtained by analysis using an autocorrelative function, instead of the method used with rabbits, because of background fluorescein noise and vessel tortuousity. PMID:7661041

Sakurai, T

1995-07-01

 
 
 
 
141

Retinal vascular tortuosity in obstructive sleep apnea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Amir Mohsenin,1 Vahid Mohsenin,2 Ron A Adelman1 1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA; 2Yale Center for Sleep Medicine, Department of Medicine, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA Purpose: Endothelial dysfunction and vascular disease are common in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. We sought to examine the retinal vascular manifestations of OSA. Methods: Nine consecutive patients with OSA underwent ophthalmic examination regardless of any ocular complaints. Seven patients without OSA matched for demographics were used as controls. Fundus photographs from both eyes were used to quantitate retinal vascular tortuosity of the temporal arterial and venous arcades using ImageJ digital analysis software. The tortuosity of each vessel from the optic disc rim to the crossing point of a 5 disc diameter (5DD circle and 10 disc diameter (10DD circle centered on the optic disc were quantitated. Results: The mean age of patients with OSA in the study was 52 years ± SD of 10 years and 67 years ± SD of 10 years in the control group. The apnea-hypopnea index in patients with OSA ranged from 12 to 102 events/hr of sleep. The nadir oxyhemoglobin saturation during sleep in patients with OSA ranged from 60% to 87%. There was no significant difference in the frequency of diabetes or hypertension between the groups. Total tortuosity was increased at the 5DD (P = 0.011 and 10DD (P = 0.004 marks. Arterial tortuosity was significantly increased at the 10DD mark (P = 0.016. Venular tortuosity was increased at both the 5DD (P = 0.001 and 10DD (P = 0.028 marks. Conclusion: Patients with OSA have increased retinal vascular tortuosity as compared to matched controls. Increased tortuosity of the retinal vasculature may be a novel association with OSA. A larger prospective study will be necessary to further explore this relationship and its clinical significance. Keywords: retinal vessel tortuosity, sleep apnea, retinal vasculature, retinal vascular tortuosity

Mohsenin A

2013-04-01

142

Internal Carotid Artery Ectasia: The Value of Imaging Studies Prior to Biopsy of a Retropharyngeal Mass  

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The presence of retropharyngeal tissue mass often raises the suspicion of malignancy, especially in elderly patients. This prompts urgent biopsy to investigate tissue histology. We discuss a case where this is contraindicated as the retropharyngeal mass was illustrated by CT scanning and confirmed with MRI to be a tortuous coursing internal carotid artery. An awareness of this unusual anatomical variation and a careful interpretation of imaging studies both at the stage of differential diagno...

2010-01-01

143

Transient tractional retinal detachment in an eye with retinitis pigmentosa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Shuichiro Hirahara, Yoshio Hirano, Tsutomu Yasukawa, Yuichiro OguraDepartment of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, JapanAbstract: We present a case of retinitis pigmentosa with vitreoretinal traction-associated retinal detachment. The retinal detachment was detected in the nasal periphery. No retinal breaks and no active vascular leakage were observed by fundus scopy and fluorescein angiography, respectively. However, 8 months later, the tractional retinal detachment was spontaneously resolved with posterior vitreous detachment.Keywords: retinitis pigmentosa, vitreoretinal traction, retinal detachment

Shuichiro Hirahara

2010-09-01

144

Anatomy of the ocular arteries in the horse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Orbital and intrabulbar arteries were studied in 20 equine eyes by means of latex injections and methylmethacrylate casts. The orbital branches of the external ophthalmic artery arise far caudal to the posterior pole of the eyeball and present a variable topographic arrangement. The intrabulbar arteries are supplied by ciliary and choroidoretinal arteries. Dependent on their entrance into the eyeball, the ciliary arteries are subdivided into a posterior and an anterior group. The posterior ciliary arteries perforate the sclera post equatorially and consist of 4 major vessels that penetrate in the lateral, medial, dorsal and ventral meridian of the eyeball, respectively. The lateral and medial of these arteries follow a long intrabulbar trajectory after having supplied several short posterior ciliary arteries to the choroid. The anterior ciliary arteries consist of a dorsal and a ventral vessel which penetrate the eyeball in the pericorneal area. The choroidoretinal arteries form an arterial network around the optic nerve at the posterior pole of the eyeball. They give rise to all retinal arterioles and some peridiscal choroidal branches. The larger part of the choroid is supplied by branches of the posterior ciliary arteries. Additionally, the anterior choroid receives recurrent branches from an arterial circle that lies externally in the ciliary ring. The iris contains a major arterial circle formed by the lateral and medial long posterior ciliary arteries and both anterior ciliary arteries. A minor iridic arterial circle nor central retinal artery could be found in the equine eyes examined. PMID:8894533

Simoens, P; Muylle, S; Lauwers, H

1996-09-01

145

The Retinal Homeobox (Rx) gene is necessary for retinal regeneration  

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The Retinal Homeobox (Rx) gene is essential for vertebrate eye development. Rx function is required for the specification and maintenance of retinal progenitor cells (RPCs). Loss of Rx function leads to a lack of eye development in a variety of species. Here we show that Rx function is also necessary during retinal regeneration. We performed a thorough characterization of retinal regeneration after partial retinal resection in pre-metamorphic X. laevis. We show that after injury the wound is ...

Martinez-de Luna, Reyna I.; Kelly, Lisa E.; El-hodiri, Heithem M.

2011-01-01

146

Retinal detachment and herpesvirus retinitis in patients with AIDS.  

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BACKGROUND--The prolongation of survival of patients with herpesvirus retinitis and AIDS has been associated with a rise in the incidence of retinal detachment. In such cases, however, retinal reattachment may be difficult to achieve, and postoperative visual acuity may be poor despite anatomically successful surgery. METHODS--In order to examine factors affecting the visual outcome of surgery, a retrospective review of 29 patients with retinal detachment, herpesvirus retinitis, and AIDS was ...

Dowler, J. G.; Towler, H. M.; Mitchell, S. M.; Cooling, R. J.; Lightman, S. L.

1995-01-01

147

Retropharyngeal internal carotid artery: case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Variations to the course of carotid arteries may lead to abnormal pharyngeal protrusions, to which the otorhinolaryngologist should always attentive. Objective: To report a case of abnormal pharyngeal protrusion due to vascular anomaly in the course of the internal carotid artery, with literature review. Case Report: A 73- year-old woman complained of globus pharyngeus and intermittent dysphonia. A pulsating convexity was observed at the right part of the oropharynx, associated to laryngoscopic signals of pharyngo-laryngeal reflux. The pharyngeal computed tomography scan showed an abnormal tortuous internal carotid in the retropharyngeal space. The patient was sent to the vascular surgeon, who, after a normal blood flow finding at the Doppler, opted for an expectation conduct. The pharyngeal symptoms improved with the antireflux treatment. Final Comments: Internal carotid vascular anomalies must always be recalled in the pharyngeal wall convexity differential diagnosis.

Figueiredo, Ricardo Rodrigues

2009-03-01

148

Differential diagnosis of retinal vasculitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Retinal vaculitis is a sight-threatening inflammatory eye condition that involves the retinal vessels. Detection of retinal vasculitis is made clinically, and confirmed with the help of fundus fluorescein angiography. Active vascular disease is characterized by exudates around retinal vessels resulting in white sheathing or cuffing of the affected vessels. In this review, a practical approach to the diagnosis of retinal vasculitis is discussed based on ophthalmoscopic and fundus fluorescein angiographic findings.

Abu El-Asrar Ahmed

2009-01-01

149

[Ophthalmological manifestations of arterial hypertension].  

Science.gov (United States)

Systemic Arterial hypertension (AHT) is one of the most frequent diseases in the industrialised countries, with an incidence reaching 30%, a figure that is rising due to the greater life expectancy of the population. This rise in arterial tension causes, or accelerates, changes in the vascular wall of the target organs such as the kidney, brain, heart and eye. At the ocular level, AHT produces lesions in the retina, the choroids and optic nerve head; this can include a wide range of lesions, from slight vascular narrowing to severe visual loss due to ischaemic optical neuropathy. The primary response of the retinal arteries to systemic arterial hypertension is vascular narrowing and the manifestations that appear at the back of the eye in hypertensive retinopathy are diffuse or focal vasoconstriction, extravasation due to increased vascular permeability and arteriosclerosis with swelling of the wall of the vessels. These three entities are responsible for the appearance of different lesions that characterise the stages of the retinal disease, which are: arteriovenous crossings, hard and cotton-like exudates, thrombosis, embolisms, haemorrhages in the retinal parenchyma, vitreous detachment from the retina, papilla edema and ischaemic optical neuropathy in the more severe cases, such as in case malign arterial hypertension. PMID:19169291

Rodríguez, N A; Zurutuza, A

2008-01-01

150

Determinación de factores trombofílicos en pacientes con trombosis venosas retinianas Markers of thrombophilia in patients with retinal vein thrombosis  

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Background: Thrombophilia is an alteration of hemostasis that increases the risk to venous or arterial thrombosis. This condition may be the underlying cause of retinal vein thrombosis. Aim: To study the presence of thrombophilia in patients with retinal vein thrombosis. Patients and methods: Prospective study of 55 patients aged 22 to 86 years, with retinal vein thrombosis (central or branch). Antithrombin III, coagulant protein C, functional protein S, resis...

2005-01-01

151

Kyrieleis´ vasculitis in acute retinal necrosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ester Francés-Muñoz1, Roberto Gallego-Pinazo1, Ruth López-Lizcano1, Salvador García-Delpech1, J Luis Mullor3, Manuel Díaz-Llopis1,21Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital La Fe, Valencia, Spain; 2University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain; 3Unit of Experimental Ophthalmology. Fundación para la Investigación del Hospital Universitario La Fe. Valencia, Valencia, SpainAbstract: We report the first case in the literature of Kyrieleis´ vasculitis related to acute retinal necrosis by Varicella zoster virus in a 76-year-old woman with bilateral involvement. In our patient the arterial lesions appeared 15 days after the initial presentation.Keywords: Kyrieleis´ vasculitis, retinal necrosis, herpes virus

Ester Francés-Muñoz

2010-07-01

152

Novel Neuroprotective Strategies in Ischemic Retinal Lesions  

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Full Text Available Retinal ischemia can be effectively modeled by permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion, which leads to chronic hypoperfusion-induced degeneration in the entire rat retina. The complex pathways leading to retinal cell death offer a complex approach of neuroprotective strategies. In the present review we summarize recent findings with different neuroprotective candidate molecules. We describe the protective effects of intravitreal treatment with: (i urocortin 2; (ii a mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ channel opener, diazoxide; (iii a neurotrophic factor, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide; and (iv a novel poly(ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitor (HO3089. The retinoprotective effects are demonstrated with morphological description and effects on apoptotic pathways using molecular biological techniques.

Robert Gabriel

2010-02-01

153

Pipeline embolization device: a new source for embolic retinal vascular occlusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 57-year-old woman underwent treatment of a left internal carotid artery aneurysm with a Pipeline embolization device. She subsequently experienced multiple branch retinal artery occlusions in her left eye. Although rare, ophthalmic complications may follow this new technique in the treatment of intracranial aneurysms. PMID:24051422

Sise, Adam B; Osher, James M; Kolsky, Martin P; Stemer, Andrew; Bank, William O; Garfinkel, Richard A

2013-12-01

154

Arterial supply to the optic nerve and the retina of the sheep.  

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The arterial supply of the optic nerve and the retina of four fetal and ten adult sheep was studied by various injection techniques and verified by histological examination in one neonatal lamb. The optic nerve was supplied by the rostral cerebral artery, including the rostral hypophysial artery, the internal ophthalmic artery and its chiasmatic rete, and recurrent branches from the choroidoretinal arteries. The retinal arterioles were supplied by the choroidoretinal arteries, which coursed r...

Simoens, P.; Ghoshal, N. G.

1981-01-01

155

Retinal and choroidal vascular occlusion secondary to corticosteroid embolisation.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a case of visual loss following intranasal injection of triamcinolone acetonide and phenylephrine hydrochloride in a 22-year-old female with chronic sinusitis. Clinical examination and fluorescein angiography revealed vascular occlusions which involved multiple small branches of both the choroidal and retinal circulations. The mechanism of such a complication probably involves inadvertent intra-arterial injection into the anterior or the posterior ethmoidal artery, with retrograde flow into the opthalmic arterial system. Precautions can be taken to avoid such complications. PMID:2920152

Wilkinson, W S; Morgan, C M; Baruh, E; Gitter, K A

1989-01-01

156

Retinal and choroidal intravascular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose:â?? To examine retinal and choroidal blood vessels using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods:â?? Retrospective case series. Results:â?? Scans through retinal blood vessels in healthy subjects demonstrated vessel wall reflexes and a tri-layer profile of the blood column on longitudinal scans and a figure-of-eight configuration on cross-sectional scans. Intravascular reflectivity decreased with increasingly oblique angles of observation and was absent when blood flow was parallel to the line of sight. The high blood flow in the choroidal vessels in healthy subjects and the low flow in the retinal vessels in patients with ocular ischaemic syndrome and central retinal artery occlusion were both associated with lower reflectivity of the blood and an unstructured intravascular SD-OCT profile. Discussion:â?? This qualitative in vivo study found a characteristically structured SD-OCT profile of the blood column in retinal vessels with normal blood flow. Both structure and total reflectivityfaded when blood flow was lower or higher than normal or at oblique angles to the line of sight. In conclusion, SD-OCT scans of the vessels in the posterior pole of the eye may assist the clinical assessment of gross abnormalities of ocular blood flow, e.g. in carotid artery stenosis.

Willerslev, Anne; Li, Xiao Q

2013-01-01

157

Retinal Tear and Detachment  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... to recognize the parts of the eye before learning about retinal tears and detachments. This section reviews ... for your specific condition. ©1995-2012, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.X-Plain.com Last reviewed: ...

158

Retinal Tear and Detachment  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the macula becomes detached. Once it detaches, permanent damage is done. Macula Even if the macula is ... then examine your eyes to check for retinal damage. The doctor will not be able to see ...

159

Retinal laser optical aids  

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Full Text Available Knowledge of optics, comparative magnification and working field of view is essential for rational use of ophthalmoscopic contact lenses for retinal photocoagulation. The three commonly used contact lenses are described and compared.

Das Traprasad

1991-01-01

160

Retinal Tear and Detachment  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... light that enters the eye by changing the size of the pupil. As light passes through the ... 1 of these 3 procedures. Depending on the size, location, and complexity of the retinal detachment, the ...

 
 
 
 
161

Retinal Tear and Detachment  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... condition. If it is not treated, it can lead to blindness. Each year, thousands of people are ... during that time. Unfortunately, a retinal tear sometimes leads to detachment immediately. However, there may not be ...

162

Retinal Tear and Detachment  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... months or years. However, if floaters and flashes begin suddenly, it may indicate a more serious eye ... support. As retinal detachment gets worse, the retina begins to detach from the macula, or the center ...

163

Retinal Tear and Detachment  

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Full Text Available ... retinal examination. Scleral depression may be a little bit uncomfortable. Your doctor may use anesthetic eye drops ... any printed material, it may become out of date over time. It is important that you rely ...

164

Retinal Tear and Detachment  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... fluid under the retina, or subretinal fluid, usually drains away in 1 to 2 days. A scleral ... bubble covers the tear, the subretinal fluid usually drains away in 1 to 2 days. The retinal ...

165

Giant retinal tears.  

Science.gov (United States)

A giant retinal tear (GRT) is a full-thickness neurosensory retinal break that extends circumferentially around the retina for three or more clock hours in the presence of a posteriorly detached vitreous. Its incidence in large population-based studies has been estimated as 1.5% of rhegmatogenous retinal detachments, with a significant male preponderance, and bilaterality in 12.8%. Most GRTs are idiopathic, with trauma, hereditary vitreoretinopathies and high myopia each being causative in decreasing frequency. The vast majority of GRTs are currently managed with a pars plana vitrectomy; the use of adjunctive circumferential scleral buckling is debated, but no studies have shown a clear anatomical or visual advantage with its use. Similarly, silicone oil tamponade does not influence long-term outcomes when compared with gas. Primary and final retinal reattachment rates are achieved in 88% and 95% of patients, respectively. Even when the retina remains attached, however, visual recovery may be limited. Furthermore, fellow eyes of patients with a GRT are at higher risk of developing retinal tears and retinal detachment. Prophylactic treatment under these circumstances may be considered but there is no firm evidence of its efficacy at the present time. PMID:24138895

Shunmugam, Manoharan; Ang, Ghee Soon; Lois, Noemi

2014-01-01

166

Flupirtine protects against ischaemic retinal dysfunction in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study investigated whether flupirtine attenuates the depression and enhances the recovery of the b-wave of the electroretinogram (ERG) in response to retinal ischaemia. The ERG was recorded from pentobarbital-anaesthetized rats before, during and after transient (24 min) occlusion of both common carotid arteries. Flupirtine administered 20 min before ischaemia reduced the depression of the b-wave during occlusion and accelerated recovery during reperfusion. When given at the onset of ischaemia flupirtine led to attenuation of the reduction of the b-wave during occlusion and to enhancement of the recovery during reperfusion. The present results suggest that flupirtine provides protection against ischaemic retinal dysfunction. PMID:7696619

Block, F; Pergande, G; Schwarz, M

1994-12-20

167

If I Had - Retinitis Pigmentosa  

Science.gov (United States)

... as Alternative MS Treatment VIDEO: If I Had - Retinitis Pigmentosa - Dr. Gerry Chader, MD, PhD, University of Southern ... Back to Home Page VIDEO: If I Had - Retinitis Pigmentosa - Dr. Gerry Chader, MD, PhD, University of Southern ...

168

If I Had - Retinitis Pigmentosa  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... that are known to ultimately result in one form or another of retinitis pigmentosa. What is noticed ... is very good. I know adults with various forms of retinitis pigmentosa who have what is called ...

169

Cytomegalovirus retinitis mimicking intraocular lymphoma  

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We present a case of an unusual retinal infiltrate requiring retinal biopsy for definitive diagnosis. A 62-year-old man with treated lymphoma presented with decreased vision in the right eye associated with a white retinal lesion, which extended inferonasally from an edematous disc. Intraocular lymphoma was considered as a diagnosis; thus, the patient was managed with vitrectomy and retinal biopsy. Cytological analysis of the vitreous aspirate could not rule out a lymphoproliferative disorder...

Gooi, Patrick; Farmer, James; Hurley, Bernard; Brodbaker, Elliott

2008-01-01

170

Angiographic results of retinal-retinal anastomosis and retinal-choroidal anastomosis after treatments in eyes with retinal angiomatous proliferation  

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Masaaki Saito,1 Tomohiro Iida,1,2 Mariko Kano,1 Kanako Itagaki11Department of Ophthalmology, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Women's Medical University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the angiographic results of retinal-retinal anastomosis (RRA) and retinal-choroidal anastomosis (RCA) for eyes with retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP) after treatment with intravitreal b...

Saito M; Iida T.; Kano M; Itagaki K

2012-01-01

171

Apoptosis in human retinal degenerations.  

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PURPOSE: This paper examined the role of apoptosis in human retinal degenerations including pathologic myopia, age-related macular degeneration, serous retinal detachment, retinal lattice, and paving stone degenerations. METHOD: Thirty-seven enucleated human eyes with 1 of the above-mentioned retinal degenerations were studied by histopathology and by TdT-mediated biotin-dUTP nicked-end labelling (TUNEL) technique. RESULTS: Tunnel labelling characteristic DNA fragmentation of apoptosis was ob...

Xu, G. Z.; Li, W. W.; Tso, M. O.

1996-01-01

172

Amino acids in retinitis pigmentosa  

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Full Text Available Retinitis pigmentosa may be associated with amino acid? disorders; whether the association is incidental or consequential is not known. The present investigation on amino acids in retinitis pigmentosa indicates that the level of plasma amino acids does not differ significantly in pa-tients with retinitis pigmentosa compared to that of normal subjects, hence it has no etiological bearing.

Singh M

1988-01-01

173

Finding the retinal break in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment  

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Full Text Available The development of subretinal fluid is governed by a limited number of anatomical factors and gravity. As a result, rhegmatogenous retinal detachments form in a predictable manner around the retinal break of their origin. The shape of the detachments points to the position of the break. The purpose of this review is to describe the characterstic contours of subretinal fluid in rhegmatogenous retinal detachments, and to highlight some rules and methodology which can help in the detection of the retinal break in phakic, psuedophakic and recurrent retinal detachments.

Saxena Sandeep

2001-01-01

174

Empirical description of bronchial and nonbronchial arteries with MDCT  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: We aimed to retrospectively evaluate bronchial and nonbronchial systemic arteries using multi-detector row helical computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography in patients with pulmonary disorders. Materials and Methods: Thirty-nine patients (24 men, 15 women; mean age, 63.4 years; range, 20-82 years) with congenital and acquired pulmonary disorders of the bronchial and nonbronchial systemic arteries underwent multi-detector row helical computed tomographic angiography of the thorax using a 16-detector row scanner. Each of these patients had experienced an episode of hemoptysis. Computed tomographic angiogram data, which included maximum intensity projections, multiplanar reconstruction, and three-dimensional volume-rendered images, were used to retrospectively analyse the characteristics of the bronchial and nonbronchial systemic arteries. Results: We identified a total of 128 bronchial arteries (76 on the right side and 52 on the left) in 39 patients. We detected 42 nonbronchial systemic artery branches, including 19 internal mammary artery branches, 8 subclavian artery branches, 8 inferior phrenic artery branches, 5 intercostal artery branches, 1 thyrocervical trunk branch, and 1 celiac trunk branch. Thirty-five dilated and tortuous nonbronchial systemic arteries entered into the lung parenchyma and extended down to the lesions. Every case, except the one case of sequestration, was associated with pleural thickening where the vascular structures passed through the extrapleural fat. Conclusions: The variations in both the bronchial artery anatomy and the location and type of the nonbronchial arteries were great. Nonbronchial arteries may be a significant source of hemoptysis. MDCT angiography can be used to detect detailed anatomical information about the origins and courses of bronchial and nonbronchial systemic arteries and their pathophysiologic features.

2010-08-01

175

Empirical description of bronchial and nonbronchial arteries with MDCT  

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Purpose: We aimed to retrospectively evaluate bronchial and nonbronchial systemic arteries using multi-detector row helical computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography in patients with pulmonary disorders. Materials and Methods: Thirty-nine patients (24 men, 15 women; mean age, 63.4 years; range, 20-82 years) with congenital and acquired pulmonary disorders of the bronchial and nonbronchial systemic arteries underwent multi-detector row helical computed tomographic angiography of the thorax using a 16-detector row scanner. Each of these patients had experienced an episode of hemoptysis. Computed tomographic angiogram data, which included maximum intensity projections, multiplanar reconstruction, and three-dimensional volume-rendered images, were used to retrospectively analyse the characteristics of the bronchial and nonbronchial systemic arteries. Results: We identified a total of 128 bronchial arteries (76 on the right side and 52 on the left) in 39 patients. We detected 42 nonbronchial systemic artery branches, including 19 internal mammary artery branches, 8 subclavian artery branches, 8 inferior phrenic artery branches, 5 intercostal artery branches, 1 thyrocervical trunk branch, and 1 celiac trunk branch. Thirty-five dilated and tortuous nonbronchial systemic arteries entered into the lung parenchyma and extended down to the lesions. Every case, except the one case of sequestration, was associated with pleural thickening where the vascular structures passed through the extrapleural fat. Conclusions: The variations in both the bronchial artery anatomy and the location and type of the nonbronchial arteries were great. Nonbronchial arteries may be a significant source of hemoptysis. MDCT angiography can be used to detect detailed anatomical information about the origins and courses of bronchial and nonbronchial systemic arteries and their pathophysiologic features.

Yu Hong, E-mail: yuhong.2002@hotmail.co [Department of Imageology, Changzheng hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Liu Shiyuan, E-mail: cjr.liushiyuan@vip.163.co [Department of Imageology, Changzheng hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Li Huimin, E-mail: yuhongphd@163.co [Department of Imageology, Changzheng hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Xiao Xiangsheng, E-mail: cjr.xxsh@vip.163.co [Department of Imageology, Changzheng hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Dong Weihua, E-mail: dongweihua2000@163.co [Department of Imageology, Changzheng hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China)

2010-08-15

176

Retinal hemodynamic influence of compound xueshuantong capsule on nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy after laser photocoagulation  

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Full Text Available AIM: To observe retinal hemodynamic influence of compound xueshuantong capsule on nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy(NPDRafter laser photocoagulation. METHODS: A total of 41 patients(72 eyeswith NPDR after laser photocoagulation were enrolled in this study. They were all given compound xueshuantong capsule, and used color Doppler flow imaging for detection of retinal hemodynamics. RESULTS: After treatment, patients with retinal blood perfusion significantly improved; central retinal arterial peak systolic velocity(PSV, end-diastolic velocity(EDVand medial velocity(Vmwere increased, while the resistance index(RIdecreased. The difference have statistical significance(PCONCLUSION: Compound xueshuantong capsule can improve retinal blood perfusion for nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy after laser photocoagulation, which is related to improvement of visual prognosis.

Yu-Yan Wang

2014-07-01

177

Accuracy of visible retinal emboli for the detection of cardioembolic lesions requiring anticoagulation or cardiac surgery  

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AIM—To determine the accuracy of visible retinal emboli as a diagnostic "test" for the likelihood of receiving anticoagulation or cardiac surgery based on the results of transthoracic echocardiography, in the setting of acute retinal arterial occlusion.?METHODS—A multicentre retrospective diagnostic study at Kingston Eye Centre, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario; Wills Eye Hospital, Philadelphia; Ottawa Eye Institute, Ottawa, Ontario; and the Halifax Infirmary, Halifax, Nova Sco...

Sharma, S.; Brown, G.; Cruess, A.

1998-01-01

178

Retinal blood flow measurement by circumpapillary Fourier domain Doppler optical coherence tomography  

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We present in vivo human total retinal blood flow measurements using Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). The scan pattern consisted of two concentric circles around the optic nerve head, transecting all retinal branch arteries and veins. The relative positions of each blood vessel in the two OCT conic cross sections were measured and used to determine the angle between the OCT beam and the vessel. The measured angle and the Doppler shift profile were used to compute blo...

2008-01-01

179

Automatic Retinal Oximetry  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a method for automating the evaluation of hemoglobin oxygen saturation in the retina. This method should prove useful for monitoring ischemic retinal diseases and the effect of treatment. In order to obtain saturation values automatically, spectral images must be registered in pairs, the vessels of the retina located and measurement points must be selected. The registration algorithm is based on a data driven approach that circumvents many of the problems that have plagued previous methods. The vessels are extracted using an algorithm based on morphological profiles and supervised classifiers. Measurement points on retinal arterioles and venules as well as reference points on the adjacent fundus are automatically selected. Oxygen saturation values along vessels are averaged to arrive at a more accurate estimate of the retinal vessel oxygen saturation. The system yields reproducible results as well as being sensitive to changes in oxygen saturation.

Halldorsson, G. H.; Karlsson, R. A.; Hardarson, S. H.; Mura, M. Dalla; Eysteinsson, T.; Beach, J. M.; Stefansson, E.; Benediktsson, J. A.

2007-10-01

180

Multi-slice spiral CT diagnosis of arterial sequestration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: The purpose of this study was to present the characteristic features on MSCT angiography of arterial sequestration. Methods: The MSCT images of 5 patients with arterial sequestration were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent MSCT contrast-enhanced angiography. 3D rendering was made to evaluate the lung parenchyma, bronchial system, and vascular anatomy. Results: All 5 cases demonstrated the anomalous systemic artery (ASA) as an isolated and tortuous artery arising from the descending thoracic aorta, taking a sigmoid course and running along with airway, entering the basal segments of the left lowed lobe. The inferior pulmonary vein (IPV) was significantly engorged. The typical AS was diagnosed in 4 patients. Its ASA intercrossed with the IPV and two branches entering segments 7 and 8 over the IPV, and two branches entering segments 9 and 10 under the IPV. The volume of involved lung shrunk with the artery markedly engorged. A characteristic avascular section was found between the pulmonary artery supplying area and the ASA supplying area, and the bronchi did not accompany the arteries. One was diagnosed atypical AS because of coexistence with bronchial atresia. Conclusion: The arterial sequestration had characteristic MSCT findings. The typical type can be definitely diagnosed, but the atypical type needs further three-dimensional analysis. (authors)

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
181

Flicker-induced changes in retinal blood flow assessed by Doppler optical coherence tomography  

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We used Doppler Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) to investigate flicker-induced changes of total retinal blood flow. Total retinal blood flow was measured by summing flows in veins imaged in double-circular scans around the optic disc. In 3 healthy volunteers, total retinal blood flow was measured before and 10-15 seconds after 30 seconds of flicker stimulation. The average blood flow increased 22.2% (p = 0.002). The total venous and arterial vessel cross-sectional area incre...

2011-01-01

182

Clinical and immunological features of retinal vasculitis in systemic diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background/Aim. Vasculitis is a clinical, pathologic process characterized by inflammation and necrosis of blood vessel occurring anywhere in the body. The aim of the study was to present some clinical and immunologic features of retinal vasculitis in systemic diseases: systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, sarcoidosis, Behcet's diseases, and others. Methods. A total of 1 254 patients with uveitis were included in the study. The immunochemical diagnostic methods were used to determine the pathogenesis of ocular manifestations. Ocular manifestations were examined using biomicroscope, direct or indirect ophtalmoscopy. Results. Primary retinal vasculitis was diagnosed in 85/1254 (6.8% of total uveitis. In more than half of the cases of vasculitis (58.8%, both arteries and veins were involved in inflammatory process. Periphlebitis was diagnosed far more commonly (36.5% than periarteritis (4.7%. Retinal vasculitis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus was characterized by microinfarctions and the consequent foci of inflammatory cells or diseases of large arteries manifesting in vasospasm and occlusions. Cotton wool spots occurred in 38.3% and retinal hemorrhages in 34% of the cases. In this study periphlebitis of the retina was one of the less frequent ocular manifestations of multiple sclerosis. Comparing with the other changes of the retinal blood vessels, venous sheating occurred in 25.1% and occlusion and vein trombosis in 43.75% of the cases. Retinal vasculitis associated with chronic sarcoidosis occured in 37.5% of patients with sarcoidosis. The most frequent manifestation of ocular sarcoidosis was intermediary uveitis (43.75%. Anterior granulomatous uveitis occured in 37.5% of patients with sarcoidoses. Immune complexes occurred in 13/20 (65% of the patients. Antiretinal anti-S antibody in the serum occurred in 73% of the patients with retinal detachment as a complication of primary disease and in 25% those with vasculitis. Conclusion. Systemic diseases such as Behcet's syndrome, collagen vascular diseases, systemic granulomatous diseases (sarcoidosis and tuberculosis were the main causes of retinal vasculitis. Knowledge of the symptomatology and pathogenesis of retinal vasculitis is of the major significance for the diagnosis and therapy of the disease.

Paovi? Jelena

2009-01-01

183

[Retinal arteriovenous malformation].  

Science.gov (United States)

The case of a 27-year-old patient is described who presented at our hospital with an asymptomatic retinal vascular alteration which was found during a routine check-up. The typical clinical presentation led to the diagnosis of an arteriovenous malformation. Further diagnostics did not show any indications for an involvement of brain or facial blood vessels. PMID:20533045

Finis, D; Stammen, J

2010-12-01

184

Retinal tolerance to dyes  

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Background: Dye solutions for intraoperative staining of epiretinal membranes and the internal limiting membrane improve the visualisation of these thin structures and facilitate their removal. In the present study the authors investigated the effects of indocyanine green 0.05%, trypan blue 0.15%, and patent blue 0.48% on bovine retinal function.

Lu?ke, C.; Lu?ke, M.; Dietlein, T. S.; Hueber, A.; Jordan, J.; Sickel, W.; Kirchhof, B.

2005-01-01

185

Retinal Tear and Detachment  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Flashes are similar to the sensation of "seeing stars" when a person is hit on the head. ... the macula completely detaches, the retinal cells start wasting away. The cells keep getting ... and surgery of the eyes. The ophthalmologist examines ...

186

Retinal circulation during a spontaneous rise of intraocular pressure.  

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The retinal haemodynamic changes occurring in an eye with a spontaneous elevation of intraocular pressure were investigated by bidirectional laser Doppler velocimetry and monochromatic fundus photography. At an intraocular pressure of 47 mmHg the blood velocity and volumetric blood flow rate were significantly smaller and arterial blood velocity pulsatility was significantly greater than normal. The corresponding 88% reduction in perfusion pressure was accompanied by a 67% reduction in total ...

Grunwald, J. E.; Riva, C. E.; Kozart, D. M.

1988-01-01

187

Measurement of oxygen saturation in small retinal vessels with adaptive optics confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope  

Science.gov (United States)

We have used an adaptive optics confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope to assess oxygen saturation in small retinal vessels. Images of the vessels with a diameter smaller than 50 ?m are recorded at oxygen sensitive and isosbestic wavelengths (680 and 796 nm, respectively). The vessel optical densities (ODs) are determined by a computer algorithm. Then, OD ratios (ODRs), which are inversely proportional to oxygen saturation, are calculated. The results show that arterial ODRs are significantly smaller than venous ODRs, indicating that oxygen saturation in the artery is higher than that in the vein. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first noninvasive measurement of oxygen saturation in small retinal vessels.

Li, Hao; Lu, Jing; Shi, Guohua; Zhang, Yudong

2011-11-01

188

Lycium barbarum polysaccharides reduce neuronal damage, blood-retinal barrier disruption and oxidative stress in retinal ischemia/reperfusion injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Neuronal cell death, glial cell activation, retinal swelling and oxidative injury are complications in retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injuries. Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBP), extracts from the wolfberries, are good for "eye health" according to Chinese medicine. The aim of our present study is to explore the use of LBP in retinal I/R injury. Retinal I/R injury was induced by surgical occlusion of the internal carotid artery. Prior to induction of ischemia, mice were treated orally with either vehicle (PBS) or LBP (1 mg/kg) once a day for 1 week. Paraffin-embedded retinal sections were prepared. Viable cells were counted; apoptosis was assessed using TUNEL assay. Expression levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), aquaporin-4 (AQP4), poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) and nitrotyrosine (NT) were investigated by immunohistochemistry. The integrity of blood-retinal barrier (BRB) was examined by IgG extravasations. Apoptosis and decreased viable cell count were found in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) and the inner nuclear layer (INL) of the vehicle-treated I/R retina. Additionally, increased retinal thickness, GFAP activation, AQP4 up-regulation, IgG extravasations and PAR expression levels were observed in the vehicle-treated I/R retina. Many of these changes were diminished or abolished in the LBP-treated I/R retina. Pre-treatment with LBP for 1 week effectively protected the retina from neuronal death, apoptosis, glial cell activation, aquaporin water channel up-regulation, disruption of BRB and oxidative stress. The present study suggests that LBP may have a neuroprotective role to play in ocular diseases for which I/R is a feature. PMID:21298100

Li, Suk-Yee; Yang, Di; Yeung, Chung-Man; Yu, Wing-Yan; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung; So, Kwok-Fai; Wong, David; Lo, Amy C Y

2011-01-01

189

Radiologic evaluation of coronary artery fistula in adult  

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To evaluate the clinical and radiologic findings of coronary artery fistula (CAF) by reviwing adult patients in whom this condition had been diagnosed by coronary angiogram. We retrospectively analysed the clinical findings, chest X-rays and angiographic findings of 37 adult CAF patients treated at three institutes over a period of is 15 years. On coronary angiogram, the origin of CAF was found to be the left coronary artery (LCA) in 20 cases(54%), the right coronary artery (RCA) in five (14%), and both in 12(32%). By subdividing the coronary artery into four segments [RCA, left main coronary artery, left anterior descending artery(LAD), and left circumflex artery(LCX)], the origin of CAF (total 55 cases) was found to be the LAD in 23 cases(42%), the LCX in 12(22%), the left main coronary artery in three (5%), and the RCA in 17(31%). The draining site of CAF was the right heart [right atrium, right ventricle, and main pulmonary artery(MPA)] in 28 cases(75%) the left heart(left atrium and left ventricle) in 8(22%), and both in one (3%). The fistula drained to the cardiac chamber in 12 cases (33%), the MPA in 23(62%), and both in 2(5%). Among 55 cases, the total number of fistulas to the MPA was 35, and their origin was the RCA in nine instances (26%), and the left coronary artery in 26(74%). CAF to the MPA was classified into four types:Type I(single, tortuous and not dilated) was seen in six patients (17%), type II(single, tortuous and dilated) in three (9%), type III(multiple and fine plexus) in 21(60%), and type IV(multiple and dilated plexus)in five (14%). Eighteen cases (49%) were associated with the other cardiac disease. In these Korean adults, CAF originated most commonly from the LCA, especially from the LAD segment of this artery, and most frequently drained to the right cardic chamber, especially to the MPA. The morphology of the CAF to the MPA was mostly multiple and fine plexus. We suggest that to ensure the most suitable treatment, and for better prognosis, patients with other cardiac disease should be evaluated for the presence of CAF.

Je, Eun Kyoung; Kim, Yang Min; Choi, Ik Joon; Kim, Seong Bae; Lee, Jae Young; Han, Sang Wook [Sejong General Hospital, Puchon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Sung Hwui; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Yonug Hi [Dankook Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1997-06-01

190

Influence of cataract surgery and blood pressure changes caused by sodium restriction on retinal vascular diameter  

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Full Text Available Takatoshi Tano1, Yoshimune Hiratsuka2, Koichi Ono1, Akira Murakami11Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo; 2National Institute of Public Health, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: To investigate the impact of cataract surgery and blood pressure changes induced by one week of sodium restriction on retinal vascular diameter.Methods: Fundus photographs of 200 patients were obtained before and one week after cataract surgery. For one week after admission, 100 patients received sodium restriction and 100 patients (ie, the control group did not receive sodium restriction. The diameter of the retinal vessels and blood pressure were compared between the sodium restriction group and the control group. The vascular diameter was measured using an objective computer-based method.Results: Neither group had a significant change in the diameter of the retinal vessels after cataract surgery. Although there was no significant change in retinal arterial and venular diameter in the sodium restriction group, one-week sodium restriction significantly reduced mean blood pressure. However, multiple linear regression analyses indicated that an increase in retinal arteriolar diameter was significantly associated with diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and alcohol intake.Conclusion: Cataract surgery and blood pressure reduction induced by one week of sodium restriction resulted in no significant change in retinal arteriolar diameter.Keywords: cataract surgery, hypertension, retinal blood vessel diameter, retinal fundus camera, sodium restriction.

Takatoshi Tano

2010-11-01

191

Bilateral Carotid and Vertebral Rete Mirabile Presenting with a Prominent Anterior Spinal Artery Mimicking a Spinal Dural AV Fistula at MRI  

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Bilateral carotid and vertebral rete mirabile (CVRM) is a very rare condition. We report a new case of CVRM initially detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine. MRI demonstrated tortuous vascular signal voids limited to the anterior cerebrospinal fluid space mimicking spinal dural arteriovenous fistula. A diagnosis of CVRM was confirmed on the basis of angiographic findings of rete formation associated with bilateral aplasia of the cavernous internal carotid and vertebral arteries without abnormal arteriovenous connection.

Lee, Seung Young; Cha, Sang Hoon [Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

2011-11-15

192

Altered Hemodynamics Associated with Pathogenesis of the Vertebral Artery Dissecting Aneurysms  

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The etiology of the vertebral dissecting aneurysms is largely unknown, and they frequently occurs in relatively healthy young men. Objectives and Methods. A series of 57 consecutive cases defined by angiography were evaluated with regard to deviation in the course of the affected and contralateral vertebral arteries. Division was into 3 types: Type I without any deviation, Type II with mild-to-moderate deviation but not over the midline; and Type III with marked deviation over to the contralateral side beyond the midline. Results. The most frequent type of VA running was Type III for the affected and Type I nonaffected side, with this being found in all 17 patients except one. All of the Type III dissections occurred just proximal to a tortuous portion, while in cases with Type-I- and Type-II-affected sides, the majority (33 of 39) occurred near the union of the vertebral artery. In 10 of 57, a non-dominant side was affected, all except one being of Type I or II. With 12 recent patients assessed angiographically in detail for hemodynamics, eleven patients showed contrast material retrograde inflowing into the pseudolumen from the distal portion of the dissection site. Turbulent blood flow was recognized in all of these patients with retrograde inflow. Conclusions. Turbulent blood flow is one etiology of vertebral artery dissection aneurysms, with the sites in the majority of the cases being just proximal to a tortuous portion or union of vessels. In cases with dissection proximal to the tortuous course of the vertebral artery, retrograde inflow will occur more frequently than antegrade, which should be taken into account in designing therapeutic strategies.

Kurata, Akira; Suzuki, Sachio; Iwamoto, Kazuhisa; Nakahara, Kuniaki; Abe, Katsutoshi; Inukai, Madoka; Niki, June; Sasaki, Makoto; Fujii, Kiyotaka; Konno, Shingo; Kan, Shinichi; Fukasaku, Kazuaki

2012-01-01

193

Automated method for the identification and analysis of vascular tree structures in retinal vessel network  

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Structural analysis of retinal vessel network has so far served in the diagnosis of retinopathies and systemic diseases. The retinopathies are known to affect the morphologic properties of retinal vessels such as course, shape, caliber, and tortuosity. Whether the arteries and the veins respond to these changes together or in tandem has always been a topic of discussion. However the diseases such as diabetic retinopathy and retinopathy of prematurity have been diagnosed with the morphologic changes specific either to arteries or to veins. Thus a method describing the separation of retinal vessel trees imaged in a two dimensional color fundus image may assist in artery-vein classification and quantitative assessment of morphologic changes particular to arteries or veins. We propose a method based on mathematical morphology and graph search to identify and label the retinal vessel trees, which provides a structural mapping of vessel network in terms of each individual primary vessel, its branches and spatial positions of branching and cross-over points. The method was evaluated on a dataset of 15 fundus images resulting into an accuracy of 92.87 % correctly assigned vessel pixels when compared with the manual labeling of separated vessel trees. Accordingly, the structural mapping method performs well and we are currently investigating its potential in evaluating the characteristic properties specific to arteries or veins.

Joshi, Vinayak S.; Garvin, Mona K.; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Abramoff, Michael D.

2011-03-01

194

An in vivo rat model of artery buckling for studying wall remodeling.  

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Theoretical modeling and in vitro experiments have demonstrated that arterial buckling is a possible mechanism for the development of artery tortuosity. However, there has been no report of whether artery buckling develops into tortuosity, partially due to the lack of in vivo models for long-term studies. The objective of this study was to establish an in vivo buckling model in rat carotid arteries for studying arterial wall remodeling after buckling. Rat left carotid arteries were transplanted to the right carotid arteries to generate buckling under in vivo pressure and were maintained for 1 week to examine wall remodeling and adaptation. Our results showed that a significant buckling was achieved in the carotid arterial grafts with altered wall stress. Cell proliferation and matrix metalloprotinease-2 (MMP-2) expression in the buckled arteries increased significantly compared with the controls. The tortuosity level of the grafts also slightly increased 1 week post-surgery, while there was no change in vessel dimensions, blood pressure, and blood flow velocity. The artery buckling model provides a useful tool for further study of the adaptation of arteries into tortuous shapes. PMID:24793586

Zhang, Jinzhou; Liu, Qin; Han, Hai-Chao

2014-08-01

195

Retinal vasculature enhancement using independent component analysis  

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Retinal vasculature is a network of vessels in the retinal layer. In ophthalmology, information of retinal vasculature in analyzing fundus images is important for early detection of diseases related to the retina, e.g. diabetic retinopathy. However, in fundus images the contrast between retinal vasculature and the background is very low. As a result, analyzing or visualizing tiny retinal vasculature is difficult. There-fore, enhancement of retinal vasculature in digital fundus image is import...

Hani, Ahmad Fadzil M.; Hanung Adi Nugroho

2009-01-01

196

Contrast sensitivity in retinitis pigmentosa.  

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Arden gratings were used to measure contrast sensitivity in 40 patients with retinitis pigmentosa whose Snellen visual acuity was 6/12 or better. When compared with a group of 30 normal subjects the patients with retinitis pigmentosa had substantially decreased contrast sensitivity, especially at high frequencies. The Arden grating test appeared to be a sensitive test of abnormal central visual function in patients with retinitis pigmentosa.

Lindberg, C. R.; Fishman, G. A.; Anderson, R. J.; Vasquez, V.

1981-01-01

197

Ceramide Signaling in Retinal Degeneration  

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Retinal degenerations (RD) are a complex heterogeneous group of diseases in which retinal photoreceptors and the supporting retinal pigment epithelial cells die irreversibly, causing visual loss for millions of people. Mutations on more than 150 genes have been discovered for RD and there are many forms that possess complex etiology involving more than one gene and environmental effect. For years many have searched for some common intracellular second messenger for these many forms of cell de...

Chen, Hui; Tran, Julie-thu A.; Brush, Richard S.; Saadi, Anisse; Rahman, Abul K.; Yu, Man; Yasumura, Douglas; Matthes, Michael T.; Ahern, Kelly; Yang, Haidong; Lavail, Matthew M.; Mandal, Md Nawajes A.

2012-01-01

198

[Retinal arteritis in pregnancy].  

Science.gov (United States)

The case of a 35-year-old pregnant patient is described who presented with acute bilateral visual loss. As the reason for this a retinal arteritis could be demonstrated. The patient also suffered from acute unilateral hearing loss in combination with cerebral changes detectable by MRI. After exclusion of other causes the diagnosis of Susac syndrome (retinocochleocerebral microangiopathy) was made and appropriate therapy was initiated. PMID:21487713

Finis, D; Stammen, J; Gonnermann, J

2011-07-01

199

Acute retinal necrosis syndrome.  

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Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is a rare syndrome with characteristic fundal appearances which can have devastating effects on vision. We present six cases (nine eyes) seen in the Medical Eye Unit of St Thomas's Hospital over the past six years and discuss the clinical features, aetiology, and management. Our findings support the present consensus that the condition is caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV) or herpes simplex virus (HSV). One of our patients, who was atypical in having common va...

Gartry, D. S.; Spalton, D. J.; Tilzey, A.; Hykin, P. G.

1991-01-01

200

Late retinal reattachment.  

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Six cases are described in which late reattachment of detached retina occurred 9-16 months after what had been considered to be failed retinal detachment surgery. In all cases reattachment had been associated with partial restoration of vision. No cause for such reattachment can be clearly established, but it is felt that spontaneous separation of the posterior vitreous face with subsequent release of traction from the surface of the retina may be a contributory factor.

Kokolakis, S. N.; Bravo, L.; Chignell, A. H.

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Elastic fibres in retinal detachment  

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Full Text Available Generalised abnormalities have been described previously in familial and bilateral retinal detachment 1.2.3. Some studies have shown the presence of specific histological skin changes in cases of retinal detachment per se as well as in other syndromes having associated retinal detachment, hence pointing towards a generalised abnormality of constitution3.9.12. Drawing an analogy from these observations, the aim of our study was to study the histological changes in the skin of patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and to relate its a etiopathogenesis to a generalized abnormality.

Azad Rajvardhan

1990-01-01

202

Descolamento de retina seroso em paraganglioma: relato de caso / Serous retinal detachment in paraganglioma: case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os autores descrevem um caso de uma paciente gestante com hipertensão arterial resistente ao tratamento e descolamento seroso bilateral de retina. Confirmou-se, pelo exame anátomo-patológico, ser um paraganglioma. [...] Abstract in english The authors describe a case of a pregnant patient with arterial hypertension that resists to the treatment and retinal bilateral serous detachment. It was confirmed to be a paraganglioma by anatomicopathological examination. [...

Villas Boas, Oscar; Bastos, André Moura; Ramiro, Alexandre Campelo; Fonseca, Roberto Alexandre.

203

Retinal hemorrhage as a unique ophthalmic manifestation of cerebral hyper perfusion syndrome  

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Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHPS) is a rare disease with complications of carotid artery revascularization. Acute retinal hemorrhage is a very rare entity that has been previously described as a manifestation of CHPS followed by the carotid artery stenting (CAS), but to the best of our knowledge, not yet described as a complication of carotid surgery. An Ascending Aorta to bilateral Carotid bypass was performed in a 35 years ...

Eitan Heldenberg; Arie Bass

2013-01-01

204

Descolamento de retina seroso em paraganglioma: relato de caso Serous retinal detachment in paraganglioma: case report  

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Full Text Available Os autores descrevem um caso de uma paciente gestante com hipertensão arterial resistente ao tratamento e descolamento seroso bilateral de retina. Confirmou-se, pelo exame anátomo-patológico, ser um paraganglioma.The authors describe a case of a pregnant patient with arterial hypertension that resists to the treatment and retinal bilateral serous detachment. It was confirmed to be a paraganglioma by anatomicopathological examination.

Oscar Villas Boas

2008-02-01

205

Refractile superficial retinal crystals and chronic retinal detachment: Case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Few previous reports have described the presence of retinal refractile opacities at the macular area in patients presenting with longstanding peripheral retinal detachment. The exact nature of these opacities is unknown. Case presentation Two patients were referred with an abnormal appearance of refractile opacities in the macular area noted during routine examination. Both were found to have longstanding peripheral retinal detachments. Subretinal fluid analysis of one patient revealed the presence of multiple birefringent crystals. We hypothesise that these crystals are the origin of the refractile macular opacities noted. Conclusion This report describes the rare presentation of asymptomatic peripheral retinal detachment by the detection of refractile macular opacities on routine examination. It highlights the importance of meticulous peripheral retinal examination in these cases. The article also describes the findings of the subretinal fluid analysis and discusses the possible hypothesis behind their appearance.

McCarthy John H

2006-01-01

206

Oclusão de ramo da veia central da retina / Retinal vein branch occlusion  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As oclusões venosas retinianas são a segunda causa mais comum de doenças vasculares da retina, atrás apenas da retinopatia diabética. A obstrução venosa de ramo é definida como a oclusão focal de uma veia retiniana em nível de um cruzamento arteriovenoso, no qual a artéria passa anteriormente à veia [...] . Serão revisto o estudo multicêntrico sobre o tratamento com fotocoagulação a "laser" para esta doença, bem como abordadas as novas terapêuticas cirúrgicas propostas. Abstract in english Retinal venous occlusions are the second most common retinal vascular diseases, behind diabetic retinopathy. The retinal vein branch occlusion is defined as a retinal vein focal occlusion at the level of an arteriovenous crossing, where the artery lies anterior to vein. The clinical trial with laser [...] photocoagulation for this disease, as well as new proposed surgical therapeutic techniques will be reviewed.

Alexandre Antonio Marques, Rosa.

207

If I Had - Retinitis Pigmentosa  

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Full Text Available ... as Alternative MS Treatment VIDEO: If I Had - Retinitis Pigmentosa - Dr. Gerry Chader, MD, PhD, University of Southern ... Back to Home Page VIDEO: If I Had - Retinitis Pigmentosa - Dr. Gerry Chader, MD, PhD, University of Southern ...

208

Retinal detachment surgery without cryotherapy.  

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A series of cases of retinal detachment treated without the application of cryotherapy at the time of surgery has been studied. The omission of cryotherapy while not interfering with retinal reattachment, carries the risk of redetachment at a later date. Macular pucker may still occur in spite of the absence of cryotherapy.

Chignell, A. H.; Markham, R. H.

1981-01-01

209

[Does timolol modify retinal hemodynamics in patients with normal pressure glaucoma?].  

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In 31 patients with normal-pressure glaucoma, retinal blood flow, diameter of the retinal vessels and velocity were measured with 2-point fluorometry and automatic measurement of the diameters before and after administration of 0.5% timolol over 2 weeks. After timolol therapy the tension was significantly decreased (before therapy: 18.26 +/- 2.50; after therapy: 15.61 +/- 2.56 mm Hg, P < or = 0.01). The arterial and venous diameters and blood flow were nearly unchanged, but a slight increase in the arterial and venous velocity was noted. We conclude that timolol does not significantly influence the retinal hemodynamics in patients with normal-pressure glaucoma. PMID:1486259

Truckenbrodt, C; Klein, S; Vilser, W

1992-12-01

210

Retinal vasculitis in Lyme borreliosis.  

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Three patients with retinal vasculitis are reported who were found to be seroreactive for Lyme borreliosis. Careful investigation revealed no other apparent etiology for the angiitis, and improvement of the retinal vasculitis on tetracycline therapy was documented by fluorescein angiography in one of them. Two cases of retinal vasculitis were presented at the International Conference on Lyme Borreliosis in Stockholm 18-21 June 1990, and two cases of cerebral vasculitis due to Borrelia burgdorferi have been published. To our knowledge, this is the first published report of retinal vasculitis occurring in patients seroreactive for Lyme borreliosis. Although further investigation will be necessary to prove a cause-and-effect relationship, ophthalmologists encountering patients with otherwise unexplained cases of retinal vasculitis, or Eales disease, are encouraged to study these patients carefully for the possibility of Borrelia burgdorferi infection. PMID:1827466

Smith, J L; Winward, K E; Nicholson, D F; Albert, D W

1991-03-01

211

Pathogenesis and Risk Factors In Retinal Vein Occlusions  

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Full Text Available Retinal vein occlusions (RVO are by far the most common cause of retinal vascular occlusive diseases especially in middle-aged and older individuals. Basically, there are two forms of RVO, namely, branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO. Even though mechanisms resulting in venous occlusion may differ, there are also similarities in the etiopathogenesis of these two types. Like other vascular occlusive diseases elsewhere in the body, it is very crucial to find out if there is an underlying cause and / or predisposing factor for RVO. Most researches show that the pathogenesis of RVO is multifactorial and the most common associated disease is arterial hypertension. Moreover, recent investigations have determined that numerous genetic and acquired disorders may predispose to RVO and thereby affect visual prognosis. In this review, it was aimed to consider the pathogenesis of RVO along with its local, systemic and haemostasis-related risk factors and to discuss well-known as well as new predisposing factors for thrombosis.

Koray Gümü?

2007-08-01

212

Retinal oxygen saturation evaluation by multi-spectral fundus imaging  

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Purpose: To develop a multi-spectral method to measure oxygen saturation of the retina in the human eye. Methods: Five Cynomolgus monkeys with normal eyes were anesthetized with intramuscular ketamine/xylazine and intravenous pentobarbital. Multi-spectral fundus imaging was performed in five monkeys with a commercial fundus camera equipped with a liquid crystal tuned filter in the illumination light path and a 16-bit digital camera. Recording parameters were controlled with software written specifically for the application. Seven images at successively longer oxygen-sensing wavelengths were recorded within 4 seconds. Individual images for each wavelength were captured in less than 100 msec of flash illumination. Slightly misaligned images of separate wavelengths due to slight eye motion were registered and corrected by translational and rotational image registration prior to analysis. Numerical values of relative oxygen saturation of retinal arteries and veins and the underlying tissue in between the artery/vein pairs were evaluated by an algorithm previously described, but which is now corrected for blood volume from averaged pixels (n > 1000). Color saturation maps were constructed by applying the algorithm at each image pixel using a Matlab script. Results: Both the numerical values of relative oxygen saturation and the saturation maps correspond to the physiological condition, that is, in a normal retina, the artery is more saturated than the tissue and the tissue is more saturated than the vein. With the multi-spectral fundus camera and proper registration of the multi-wavelength images, we were able to determine oxygen saturation in the primate retinal structures on a tolerable time scale which is applicable to human subjects. Conclusions: Seven wavelength multi-spectral imagery can be used to measure oxygen saturation in retinal artery, vein, and tissue (microcirculation). This technique is safe and can be used to monitor oxygen uptake in humans. This work is original and is not under consideration for publication elsewhere.

Khoobehi, Bahram; Ning, Jinfeng; Puissegur, Elise; Bordeaux, Kimberly; Balasubramanian, Madhusudhanan; Beach, James

2007-03-01

213

[Acute retinal necrosis].  

Science.gov (United States)

Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is a rare entity caused by Herpes viruses. An immunocompromised background and the complications of ARN mostly lead to a poor visual outcome. Confirmation of the early diagnosis through polymerase chain reaction and antibody detection from aqueous or vitreous taps is recommended to improve the medical management and prevent disease progression with an increased risk of complications. Favourable outcomes are possible by means of combined antiviral systemic and intravitreal strategies with Acyclovir, Foscarnet and Ganciclovir. We report on the relevant literature recommendations and our own experience. PMID:17657690

Winterhalter, S; Adams, O; Althaus, Ch; Stammen, J; Schöler, E M; Joussen, A M

2007-07-01

214

Retinal lead toxicity  

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Full Text Available A 35-year-old female who had suffered from acute lead poisoning when she was 22 years old, presented 13 years later with loss of vision in the right eye and normal vision in the left eye. She had a pale disc, narrowed arterioles and mid-peripheral heavy pigmentation, right eye being more affected than the left eye. Electrodiagnostic tests identified marked asymmetry of visual function. We would postulate lead retinal toxicity as the cause of the asymmetric findings.

Gilhotra J

2007-01-01

215

Internal Carotid Artery Ectasia: The Value of Imaging Studies Prior to Biopsy of a Retropharyngeal Mass  

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Full Text Available The presence of retropharyngeal tissue mass often raises the suspicion of malignancy, especially in elderly patients. This prompts urgent biopsy to investigate tissue histology. We discuss a case where this is contraindicated as the retropharyngeal mass was illustrated by CT scanning and confirmed with MRI to be a tortuous coursing internal carotid artery. An awareness of this unusual anatomical variation and a careful interpretation of imaging studies both at the stage of differential diagnosis and pre-operative screening are essential to avoid damage to important structures, causing unnecessary complications.

Kenneth Chan

2010-11-01

216

Acute retinal necrosis  

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Full Text Available Purpose: Clinical features in a case of acute retinal necrosis are described as well as its diagnostic approach and response to early treatment.Methods: This is a descriptive and retrospective study case report of a 26 year old male patient who arrived to the emergency room with a three day history of sudden visual loss in the right eye (RE. At initial evaluation a visual acuity of hand movements in the RE, 20/15 in the left eye (LE and a right relative afferent pupillary defect were found. Fundoscopy revealed profuse soft exudates and hemorrhages involving posterior pole, inferior hemiretina and superotemporal periphery. Infectious workup and fluoresceinic angiography were made and positive serologies for herpes virus types 1 and 2, without HIV, were found. A diagnosis of acute retinal necrosis was made and treatment with intravenous valgancyclovir for two weeks and intra-vitreous triamcinolone for severe vasculitis, was given. Then a 3 months treatment with oral antiviral agents was prescribed.Results: Patient’s evolution showed improvement with treatment and at two and a half months of follow up, visual acuity was 20/50 in the right eye, normal slit lamp examination, tonometry of 12 mm Hg and fundoscopy improved when compared to initial pictures.Conclusions: A high index of suspicion is needed for diagnosing ARN taking into account clinical findings. Prompt intravenous and intra-vitreous treatments are needed to achieve good clinical and functional outcomes and to avoid central nervous system complications.

Hugo Hernán Ocampo

2009-09-01

217

Tubercular retinal vasculitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intraocular tuberculosis (TB) infection can have different clinical manifestations including retinal vasculitis. It more frequently involves the veins and is associated with retina haemorrhages and neovascularisation. The diagnosis may be difficult and presumptive being based on clinical findings and evidence of systemic TB infection. The authors present a case of a 61-year-old woman with blurred vision and floaters in her left eye for 6 years, associated with recurrent vitreous haemorrahages. A temporal branch retinal vein occlusion was presumed. Four years later her right eye was also involved. Her best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was 20/50 in both eyes. Fundoscopic examination showed bilateral venous occlusion with vascular staining on fluorescein angiography suggestive of vasculitis secondary to Eales Disease (ED). The interferon gamma release assay (IGRA-QuantiFERON-TB Gold) was positive and antituberculosis treatment (ATT) was started. Her final BCVA was 20/20 bilaterally, without recurrences over a follow-up of 15 months. The use of ATT is likely to reduce recurrent vitreous haemorrhages and eliminate future recurrences. PMID:23737572

Patricio, Maria Sara; Portelinha, Joana; Passarinho, Maria Picoto; Guedes, Marta Esteves

2013-01-01

218

Advances in Retinal Tissue Engineering  

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Full Text Available Retinal degenerations cause permanent visual loss and affect millions world-wide. Current treatment strategies, such as gene therapy and anti-angiogenic drugs, merely delay disease progression. Research is underway which aims to regenerate the diseased retina by transplanting a variety of cell types, including embryonic stem cells, fetal cells, progenitor cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. Initial retinal transplantation studies injected stem and progenitor cells into the vitreous or subretinal space with the hope that these donor cells would migrate to the site of retinal degeneration, integrate within the host retina and restore functional vision. Despite promising outcomes, these studies showed that the bolus injection technique gave rise to poorly localized tissue grafts. Subsequently, retinal tissue engineers have drawn upon the success of bone, cartilage and vasculature tissue engineering by employing a polymeric tissue engineering approach. This review will describe the evolution of retinal tissue engineering to date, with particular emphasis on the types of polymers that have routinely been used in recent investigations. Further, this review will show that the field of retinal tissue engineering will require new types of materials and fabrication techniques that optimize the survival, differentiation and delivery of retinal transplant cells.

Matthew Trese

2012-01-01

219

The ovarian and uterine arteries in the chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO South Africa | Language: English Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to describe arteries supplying the ovaries and uterus in the chinchilla. Five healthy adult female chinchillas were used. In order to reveal the arterial network by dissecting under a stereoscopic microscope, latex coloured with red ink was injected through the common c [...] arotid artery. The ovaries of the chinchilla are supplied by the arteriae ovaricae which formed end-to-end anastomoses with the cranial termination of the arteria uterina. Soon after leaving the aorta abdominalis, the arteriae ovaricae extended 2-3 mm caudolaterally, then released 1 branch and extended caudally and bifurcated into 2 further branches. One of these supplied branches to fat tissue. The other branch coursed caudally and anastomosed with the arteria circumflexa ilium profunda and dispersed into fat tissue. The arteria ovarica further subdivided into 2 rami ovaricae. The origins of the uterine arteries were exclusively from the left arteria iliaca externa. The arteria uterina gave a branch to the arteria umbilicalis and consecutive branches which supplied to the ureter, urinary bladder and cranial aspects of the vagina. It also gave rise to 2-3 branches to the cervix and further supplied 10-12 meandering branches to the uterine horns. The arteria uterina gave rise to many tortuous arteries to the uterus and provided 2 further branches to the ovary.

A, Çevik-Demirkan; V, Özdemir; I, Demirkan.

220

Retinal Microvascular Abnormalities in Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Associated with Congenital Retinal Macrovessels  

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Here, we report a case of retinal microvascular abnormalities in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) associated with congenital retinal macrovessels. An abnormal retinal macrovessel, crossing the macula horizontally, was detected in the right eye. Additionally, retinal microvascular abnormalities were detected. Eight years after the initial visit, the retinal microvascular abnormalities were noted to have changed substantially. We speculate that retinal microvascular abnormalities i...

Makino, Shinji; Endoh, Katsuhisa; Tampo, Hironobu

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Misfolded proteins and retinal dystrophies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many mutations associated with retinal degeneration lead to the production of misfolded proteins by cells of the retina. Emerging evidence suggests that these abnormal proteins cause cell death by activating the Unfolded Protein Response, a set of conserved intracellular signaling pathways that detect protein misfolding within the endoplasmic reticulum and control protective and proapoptotic signal transduction pathways. Here, we review the misfolded proteins associated with select types of retinitis pigmentosa, Stargadt-like macular degeneration, and Doyne Honeycomb Retinal Dystrophy and discuss the role that endoplasmic reticulum stress and UPR signaling play in their pathogenesis. Last, we review new therapies for these diseases based on preventing protein misfolding in the retina. PMID:20238009

Lin, Jonathan H; Lavail, Matthew M

2010-01-01

222

Misfolded Proteins and Retinal Dystrophies  

Science.gov (United States)

Many mutations associated with retinal degeneration lead to the production of misfolded proteins by cells of the retina. Emerging evidence suggests that these abnormal proteins cause cell death by activating the Unfolded Protein Response, a set of conserved intracellular signaling pathways that detect protein misfolding within the endoplasmic reticulum and control protective and proapoptotic signal transduction pathways. Here, we review the misfolded proteins associated with select types of retinitis pigmentosa, Stargadt-like macular degeneration, and Doyne Honeycomb Retinal Dystrophy and discuss the role that endoplasmic reticulum stress and UPR signaling play in their pathogenesis. Last, we review new therapies for these diseases based on preventing protein misfolding in the retina.

Lin, Jonathan H.; LaVail, Matthew M.

2010-01-01

223

Antioxidant therapy for retinal disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Disease mechanisms associated with retinal disease are of immense complexity, mutations within 45 genes having been implicated, for example, in retinitis pigmentosa, while interplay between genetic, environmental, and demographic factors can lead to diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucoma. In light of such diversity, any therapeutic modality that can be targeted to an early molecular process instrumental in multiple forms of disease, such as oxidative stress, holds much attraction. Here, we provide a brief overview of a selection of compounds displaying antioxidant activity, which have been shown to slow down degeneration of retinal tissues and highlight suggested modes of action. PMID:24664771

Kiang, Anna-Sophia; Humphries, Marian M; Campbell, Matthew; Humphries, Peter

2014-01-01

224

Is quality of diet associated with the microvasculature? An analysis of diet quality and retinal vascular calibre in older adults.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is unknown whether diet quality is associated with microvascular structure. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between diet quality, reflecting adherence to dietary guidelines, with retinal microvascular calibre in older adults. The dietary data of 2720 Blue Mountains Eye Study participants, aged 50+ years, were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ. A modified version of the Healthy Eating Index for Australians was developed to determine total diet scores (TDS). Fundus photographs were taken and retinal vascular calibre measured using computer-assisted techniques and summarised. After adjusting for age, sex, BMI, mean arterial blood pressure, smoking, serum glucose, leucocyte count and history of diagnosed stroke or CHD, persons with higher TDS had healthier retinal vessels cross-sectionally, with wider retinal arteriolar calibre (by approximately 3 ?m, comparing the highest with the lowest quartile of TDS, Ptrend = 0·0001) and narrower retinal venular calibre (by approximately 2·5 ?m; Ptrend = 0·02). In younger subjects aged ?65 years, increasing TDS (lowest to the highest quartile) was associated with healthier retinal vessels: approximately 4·4 ?m wider retinal arteriolar (Ptrend < 0·0001) and approximately 2·3 ?m narrower venular calibre (Ptrend = 0·03). After multivariable adjustment, however, baseline TDS were not associated with retinal arteriolar (Ptrend = 0·89) or venular calibre (Ptrend = 0·25), 5 years later. Also, baseline TDS were not associated with the 5-year change in retinal arteriolar (? = 0·14; P=0·29) or venular calibre (? = - 0·26; P=0·07). Greater compliance with published dietary guidelines (higher diet quality) was cross-sectionally associated with wider retinal arterioles and narrower venules, indicating better retinal microvascular health. PMID:23531363

Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Wang, Jie Jin; Rochtchina, Elena; Wong, Tien Y; Mitchell, Paul

2013-08-01

225

Flexible retinal electrode array  

Science.gov (United States)

An electrode array which has applications for neural stimulation and sensing. The electrode array can include a large number of electrodes each of which is flexibly attached to a common substrate using a plurality of springs to allow the electrodes to move independently. The electrode array can be formed from a combination of bulk and surface micromachining, with electrode tips that can include an electroplated metal (e.g. platinum, iridium, gold or titanium) or a metal oxide (e.g. iridium oxide) for biocompatibility. The electrode array can be used to form a part of a neural prosthesis, and is particularly well adapted for use in an implantable retinal prosthesis where the electrodes can be tailored to provide a uniform gentle contact pressure with optional sensing of this contact pressure at one or more of the electrodes.

Okandan, Murat (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM; Wessendorf, Kurt O. (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM; Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM

2006-10-24

226

Genetics Home Reference: Retinitis pigmentosa  

Science.gov (United States)

... a feature of several other genetic syndromes, including Bardet-Biedl syndrome; Refsum disease; and neuropathy, ataxia, and ... about neuropathy, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa ; Usher syndrome ; Bardet-Biedl syndrome ; and Refsum disease . How common is ...

227

If I Had - Retinitis Pigmentosa  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation Shows Potential as Alternative MS Treatment VIDEO: If I Had - Retinitis Pigmentosa - Dr. ... coming. OUR TEAM Sanjay Sharma BSc, MD, FRCS, MS (Epid), MBA Susan M. Sharma BSc, MD, CCFP ...

228

Light and inherited retinal degeneration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Light deprivation has long been considered a potential treatment for patients with inherited retinal degenerative diseases, but no therapeutic benefit has been demonstrated to date. In the few clinical studies that have addressed this issue, the underlying mutations were unknown. Our rapidly expanding knowledge of the genes and mechanisms involved in retinal degeneration have made it possible to reconsider the potential value of light restriction in specific genetic contexts. This review summarises the clinical evidence for a modifying role of light exposure in retinal degeneration and experimental evidence from animal models, focusing on retinitis pigmentosa with regional degeneration, Oguchi disease, and Stargardt macular dystrophy. These cases illustrate distinct pathophysiological roles for light, and suggest that light restriction may benefit carefully defined subsets of patients. PMID:16707518

Paskowitz, D M; LaVail, M M; Duncan, J L

2006-08-01

229

Ceramide Signaling in Retinal Degeneration  

Science.gov (United States)

Retinal degenerations (RD) are a complex heterogeneous group of diseases in which retinal photoreceptors and the supporting retinal pigment epithelial cells die irreversibly, causing visual loss for millions of people. Mutations on more than 150 genes have been discovered for RD and there are many forms that possess complex etiology involving more than one gene and environmental effect. For years many have searched for some common intracellular second messenger for these many forms of cell death which could be targeted for therapy. Ceramide is a novel cellular second messenger which signals for apoptosis. Several lines of evidence suggest an integral role of ceramide in photoreceptor apoptosis and cell death. Understanding their role in the pathogenic pathways of retinal degenerative diseases is important for development of targeted therapeutics.

Chen, Hui; Tran, Julie-Thu A.; Brush, Richard S.; Saadi, Anisse; Rahman, Abul K.; Yu, Man; Yasumura, Douglas; Matthes, Michael T.; Ahern, Kelly; Yang, Haidong; LaVail, Matthew M.; Mandal, Md Nawajes A.

2013-01-01

230

Intracellular Signalling in Retinal Ischemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

In vivo models of retinal ischemia, using laser induced vein obstruction were created and evaluated by non-invasive measurement of vessel permeability and flow, and by histofluorescence of intravenously injected dyes, fluorescein and Evans Blue. We conclu...

M. S. Burns R. W. Bellhorn C. M. Panattoni J. Rheinhardt C. Hitzman

1990-01-01

231

If I Had - Retinitis Pigmentosa  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... and some of these seemed to do a bit better, and so he chose two vitamins, Vitamin ... of prolonged vision in those patients. So to date, the only treatment for retinitis pigmentosa is in ...

232

A Novel Retinal Identification System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper presents a novel biometric identification system with high performance based on the features obtained from human retinal images. This system is composed of three principal modules including blood vessel segmentation, feature generation, and feature matching. Blood vessel segmentation module has the role of extracting blood vessels pattern from retinal images. Feature generation module includes the following stages. First, the optical disk is found and a circular region of interest ...

Hadi Farzin; Hamid Abrishami-Moghaddam; Mohammad-Shahram Moin

2008-01-01

233

Adult retinal stem cells revisited.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent advances in retinal stem cell research have raised the possibility that these cells have the potential to be used to repair or regenerate diseased retina. Various cell sources for replacement of retinal neurons have been identified, including embryonic stem cells, the adult ciliary epithelium, adult Müller stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS). However, the true stem cell nature of the ciliary epithelium and its possible application in cell therapies has now been questio...

Bhatia, B.; Singhal, S.; Jayaram, H.; Khaw, P. T.; Limb, G. A.

2010-01-01

234

Retinal imaging and image analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Many important eye diseases as well as systemic diseases manifest themselves in the retina. While a number of other anatomical structures contribute to the process of vision, this review focuses on retinal imaging and image analysis. Following a brief overview of the most prevalent causes of blindness in the industrialized world that includes age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma, the review is devoted to retinal imaging and image analysis methods and their clin...

Abramoff, M. D.; Garvin, Mona K.; Sonka, Milan

2010-01-01

235

Adult Retinal Stem Cells Revisited  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent advances in retinal stem cell research have raised the possibility that these cells have the potential to be used to repair or regenerate diseased retina. Various cell sources for replacement of retinal neurons have been identified, including embryonic stem cells, the adult ciliary epithelium, adult Müller stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS). However, the true stem cell nature of the ciliary epithelium and its possible application in cell therapies has now been questio...

Bhatia, Bhairavi; Singhal, Shweta; Jayaram, Hari; Khaw, Peng T.; Limb, G. Astrid

2010-01-01

236

Retinal vasculitis in rheumatoid arthritis.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A woman with exacerbation of severe rheumatoid arthritis developed lesions compatible with retinal vasculitis. Laboratory studies confirmed the diagnosis, and the rapid clinical improvement that accompanied a fall in circulating immune complexes suggested that the vasculitis was a direct consequence of the rheumatoid disease. From these observations retinal vasculitis should probably be sought in any patient with rheumatoid disease and the vasculitis added to the list of ocular complications ...

Martin, M. F.; Scott, D. G.; Gilbert, C.; Dieppe, P. A.; Easty, D. L.

1981-01-01

237

Light and inherited retinal degeneration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Light deprivation has long been considered a potential treatment for patients with inherited retinal degenerative diseases, but no therapeutic benefit has been demonstrated to date. In the few clinical studies that have addressed this issue, the underlying mutations were unknown. Our rapidly expanding knowledge of the genes and mechanisms involved in retinal degeneration have made it possible to reconsider the potential value of light restriction in specific genetic contexts. This review summ...

2006-01-01

238

Filling in the retinal image  

Science.gov (United States)

The optics of the eye form an image on a surface at the back of the eyeball called the retina. The retina contains the photoreceptors that sample the image and convert it into a neural signal. The spacing of the photoreceptors in the retina is not uniform and varies with retinal locus. The central retinal field, called the macula, is densely packed with photoreceptors. The packing density falls off rapidly as a function of retinal eccentricity with respect to the macular region and there are regions in which there are no photoreceptors at all. The retinal regions without photoreceptors are called blind spots or scotomas. The neural transformations which convert retinal image signals into percepts fills in the gaps and regularizes the inhomogeneities of the retinal photoreceptor sampling mosaic. The filling-in mechamism plays an important role in understanding visual performance. The filling-in mechanism is not well understood. A systematic collaborative research program at the Ames Research Center and SRI in Menlo Park, California, was designed to explore this mechanism. It was shown that the perceived fields which are in fact different from the image on the retina due to filling-in, control some aspects of performance and not others. Researchers have linked these mechanisms to putative mechanisms of color coding and color constancy.

Larimer, James; Piantanida, Thomas

1990-01-01

239

Advances in retinal stem cell biology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tremendous progress has been made in recent years to generate retinal cells from pluripotent cell sources. These advances provide hope for those suffering from blindness due to lost retinal cells. Understanding the intrinsic genetic network in model organisms, like fly and frog, has led to a better understanding of the extrinsic signaling pathways necessary for retinal progenitor cell formation in mouse and human cell cultures. This review focuses on the culture methods used by different groups, which has culminated in the generation of laminated retinal tissue from both embryonic and induced pluripotent cells. The review also briefly describes advances made in transplantation studies using donor retinal progenitor and cultured retinal cells. PMID:23943690

Viczian, Andrea S

2013-04-01

240

Neural retinal regeneration with pluripotent stem cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Retinal degeneration represents a huge burden of blinding disease, and currently there are no effective treatments that reverse the most common causes of neural retinal degeneration. Stem cell biology has the potential to significantly ease this burden, not only through the development of disease models of retinal degeneration but also in the manufacture of a replacement for the neural retinal tissue. This review summarizes the major advancements in the last decade in the field of neural retinal regeneration with an emphasis on the differentiation of embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells into cells with retinal and specifically photoreceptor characteristics. PMID:24732764

Ramsden, Conor M; Powner, Michael B; Carr, Amanda-Jayne F; Smart, Matthew J K; da Cruz, Lyndon; Coffey, Peter J

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Macrovaso retiniano congênito: relato de caso Congenital retinal macrovessel: case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os autores apresentam o caso de um macrovaso arteriolar de retina, diagnosticado ao exame de rotina, bem como seu aspecto à tomografia de coerência óptica. O macrovaso retiniano congênito é um grande vaso aberrante, geralmente unilateral, usualmente uma veia, raramente uma artéria, presente no pólo posterior e que pode cruzar a região foveal e rafe mediana.The authors report a case of arteriolar retinal macrovessel, diagnosed by routine ophthalmologic examination, as well as its optic coherence tomography aspects. Congenital retinal macrovessel is a large aberrant vessel, often unilateral, usually a vein, rarely an artery, located in the posterior pole which can cross the fovea and median raphe.

Billy de Moura Palha e Silva

2007-02-01

242

Transverse subisthmic course of the innominate artery in an adult: detailed anatomy and additional variation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A rare morphology of an aberrant innominate artery (IA) is reported here, together with additional arterial variation encountered in the respective specimen. The IA originated in the aortic arch on the left side of the trachea, coursed on that side of the trachea to reach the left thyroid lobe, turned in at a right angle to pass anterior to the trachea and immediately inferior and parallel to the thyroid isthmus, and finally it divided inferior to the right thyroid lobe into the right subclavian and common carotid arteries. The right common carotid artery immediately turned at a right angle to ascend in the neck. Thus the terminal branches of the IA had origins in a higher position than is usually expected. This aberrant course of the IA determined a step-like morphology in the sagittal plane of the left common carotid artery. Additional variations were also encountered: (a) a lateralised right external carotid artery with the superior thyroid artery initially coursing over the internal carotid artery; (b) the right vertebral artery coursing over the inferior thyroid artery and entering the transverse process of the fifth cervical vertebra; (c) the left subclavian and vertebral arteries were tortuous. Knowledge of the presence of this IA variant, with a transverse subisthmic segment, appears to be important in various surgical approaches, such as tracheostomies, thyroidectomies, and mediastinoscopies; in addition, the variations of the IA and the vertebral arteries are relevant for lower cervical spine approaches. Nevertheless, the lateralised external carotid artery may lead, if unidentified, to hemorrhagic complications during carotid space approaches. It is important for surgeons to be aware that if an aberrant IA is identified it may not be the only variation in that patient. PMID:21120815

Rusu, M C; Bo?cu, A L

2010-11-01

243

Carotid artery stenting: which stent for which lesion?  

Science.gov (United States)

The different geometries and working principles of carotid stents (nitinol or cobalt chromium, open- or closed-cell configuration) provide each product with unique functional properties. The individual characteristics of each device may make it an attractive choice in one circumstance but render it less desirable in other situations. In approximately 75% of all procedures, all types of stents will achieve similar outcomes, making adequate device selection unnecessary. For the remaining quarter, careful preoperative screening is mandatory. In addition to eventual access issues, the choice of the optimal carotid stent depends mainly on arterial anatomy and lesion morphology. When treating a tortuous anatomy, stents with a flexible and comformable open-cell configuration are preferred. In arteries with a significant mismatch between common carotid artery and internal carotid artery diameter, cobalt chromium (Elgiloy) or tapered nitinol stents are selected. Lesions with suspected high emboligenicity are best covered with stents with a closed-cell configuration, whereas highly calcified lesions need treatment with nitinol stents. Thorough knowledge of the characteristics, advantages and disadvantages, and working principles of the different available stents is mandatory to optimally select the materials to be used for patients eligible for carotid revascularization. PMID:16229793

Bosiers, Marc; Deloose, Koen; Verbist, Jürgen; Peeters, Patrick

2005-01-01

244

Direct cervical arterial access for intracranial endovascular treatment  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Tortuous vasculature is a cause of failure of endovascular treatment of intracranial vascular lesions. We report our experience of direct cervical accesses in patients in whom the arterial femoral route was not attainable. In this retrospective study, 42 direct punctures of the carotid or the vertebral arteries at the neck were performed in 38 patients. The vessel harboring the intracranial lesion was punctured at the neck above the main tortuosity, a sheath was then positioned under fluoroscopic control to allow a stable access to the intracranial circulation. After the procedure, the sheath was removed and hemostasis was gained either by manual compression or by an arterial closure device (4 of 42, 9%). The cervical route allowed access to all intracranial lesions in all 42 procedures. A complication was encountered in six procedures (14%) related to the direct puncture. In 2 of the 42 procedures (4%), a transient vasospasm was encountered. A cervical hematoma formed in 3 of the 42 procedures (7%) after sheath withdrawal (one patient in whom an 8F sheath had been used, required surgical evacuation of a hematoma compressing the upper airways; the other patients did well without surgical evacuation). In the remaining patient (1 of 42 procedures, 2%), a small asymptomatic aneurysm at the puncture site was seen on the follow-up angiogram. Direct cervical arterial approaches to accessing the intracranial circulation is effective in patients in whom the femoral route does not allow the navigation and stabilization of guiding catheters. (orig.)

Blanc, R. [Fondation Rothschild, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Paris (France); APHP, Hopital Henri Mondor, Service de Neuroradiologie Diagnostique et Therapeutique, Creteil Cedex (France); Piotin, M.; Mounayer, C.; Spelle, L. [Fondation Rothschild, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Paris (France); Moret, J. [Fondation Rothschild, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Paris (France); Hopital de la Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild, Service de Neuroradiologie Interventionnelle, Paris Cedex 19 (France)

2006-12-15

245

Doppler flow parameters in orbital arteries in gestational diabetes mellitus patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the blood flow in orbital arteries in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Material: We have examined 65 GDM patients and 38 healthy pregnant women at 28-32 weeks. Doppler parameters were assessed in ophthalmic, central retinal and short posterior ciliary arteries. Results: In ophthalmic arteries V2 was significantly higher and RI lower in GDM. In the subgroup treated with insulin V1 and V2 in ciliary artery and V2 in central retinal artery were significantly lower and PI in ciliary artery was higher when compared to subgroup on diet. Conclusion: Doppler examination can be useful in detection of pre-clinical ophthalmological changes in GDM patients. PMID:24090506

Moneta-Wielgos, Joanna; Golebiewska, Joanna; Brydak-Godowska, Joanna; Ciszewska, Joanna; Bomba-Opon, Dorota A; Wegrzyn, Piotr; Kecik, Dariusz

2014-07-01

246

The blood pressure-induced diameter response of retinal arterioles decreases with increasing diabetic maculopathy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to compare the diameter response of retinal arterioles and retinal thickness in patients with different stages of diabetic maculopathy during an increase in the arterial blood pressure. METHODS: Four groups each consisting of 19 individuals were studied. Group A consisted of normal individuals and groups B-D consisted of type 2 diabetic patients matched for diabetes duration, age, and gender, and characterized by: Group B no retinopathy, Group C mild retinopathy, Group D maculopathy not requiring laser treatment. The diameter changes of a large retinal arteriole were measured using the Retinal Vessel Analyzer (RVA, Imedos, Germany) before, during, and after an increase in the blood pressure induced by isometric exercise. Additionally, the retinal thickness was measured using optical coherence tomography scanning. RESULTS: The arterioles contracted during isometric exercise in normal persons (diameter response: -0.70+/-0.48%) and in patients with no retinopathy (-1.15+/-0.44%), but dilated in patients with mild retinopathy (0.41+/-0.49%) and diabetic maculopathy (0.54+/-0.44%), p=0.01. Retinal thickness was normal in Group A (260+/-5.0 microm), Group B (257+/-4.5 microm), and Group C (253+/-4.4 microm), but was significantly (p=0.006) increased in Group D (279+/-5.3 microm). CONCLUSIONS: The diameter response was reduced in type 2 diabetic patients with retinopathy, whereas retinal thickness was increased in patients with diabetic maculopathy. This suggests that impairment of diameter response in retinal arterioles precedes the development of diabetic macular edema.

Frederiksen, Christian Alcaraz; Jeppesen, Peter

2006-01-01

247

Cirsoid Aneurysm of Coronary Arteries Associated with Arterioventricular Fistula Evaluated by 64-Multidetector CT Coronary Angiography: Depiction of a Case  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A female patient with severe pulmonary hypertension was admitted for lung transplant evaluation. As an incidental finding, the chest CT showed diffuse and dilated coronaries, not detected at previous echocardiography. A coronary CT angiography was then performed using a 64-multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scanner to better evaluate the coronary tree. The images obtained after postprocessing demonstrated tremendously aneurysmatic and tortuous coronary arteries and the presence of a septal branch deepening into the myocardium and penetrating the right ventricle cavity, forming an abnormal arterioventricular fistula. A causal relation between the aneurysms and the fistula is suspected.

2009-05-01

248

Characterization of Ground Squirrel Retinal Ganglion Cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

The identification of retinal neurotransmitters/ modulators remains central to a complete understanding of the role of the retina in visual function. Immunohistochemical techniques have provided a precise means of identifying populations of retinal neuron...

J. Caban N. Lugo-Garcia R. E. Blanco

1989-01-01

249

Acute Retinal Necrosis after Herpetic Encephalitis  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose To report a case of unilateral acute retinal necrosis after herpetic encephalitis Case Report A young man was referred with a chief complaint of blurred vision and pain of the left eye 1 month after herpetic encephalitis in the left frontotemporal lobe. The patient had multiple foci of retinitis in the retinal periphery associated with vitritis, blot retinal hemorrhage and retinal arteriolitis. The impression of acute retinal necrosis was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction of aqueous humor by detecting herpes simplex virus type 2; therefore, the patient received intravenous acyclovir. Conclusion Herpetic encephalitis may be a risk factor for acute retinal necrosis. The virus may reach the eye by the trans-axonal route. Prophylaxis with acyclovir may be necessary after herpetic encephalitis to prevent acute retinal necrosis.

Kianersi, F.; Masjedi, A.; Ghanbari, H.

2010-01-01

250

Embolization of a Bleeding Maxillary Arteriovenous Malformation via the Superficial Temporal Artery after External Carotid Artery Ligation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of the jaw is an uncommon lesion found mainly in children. It can present with massive oral bleeding, resulting in death. The external carotid artery (ECA) is often the feeding artery and can be ligated to control the hemorrhage. As a result, transarterial embolization is difficult or even impossible to perform when re-bleeding occurs. We report a new approach of a successful embolization of a bleeding maxillary AVM via the superficial temporal artery (STA) after a previous ECA ligation. This technique has not yet been reported for endovascular management of a bleeding maxillary AVM. This approach of embolization of a maxillary AVM via the STA is minimally invasive, repeatable and has little effect on the physical appearance of the patient. It may be performed on patients with hyper vascular craniofacial lesions whose feeding arteries have been ligated or are too tortuous to navigate a catheter. It can also be performed urgently during active bleeding, pre-operatively and before trans-venous embolization

2008-04-01

251

Embolization of a Bleeding Maxillary Arteriovenous Malformation via the Superficial Temporal Artery after External Carotid Artery Ligation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

An arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of the jaw is an uncommon lesion found mainly in children. It can present with massive oral bleeding, resulting in death. The external carotid artery (ECA) is often the feeding artery and can be ligated to control the hemorrhage. As a result, transarterial embolization is difficult or even impossible to perform when re-bleeding occurs. We report a new approach of a successful embolization of a bleeding maxillary AVM via the superficial temporal artery (STA) after a previous ECA ligation. This technique has not yet been reported for endovascular management of a bleeding maxillary AVM. This approach of embolization of a maxillary AVM via the STA is minimally invasive, repeatable and has little effect on the physical appearance of the patient. It may be performed on patients with hyper vascular craniofacial lesions whose feeding arteries have been ligated or are too tortuous to navigate a catheter. It can also be performed urgently during active bleeding, pre-operatively and before trans-venous embolization.

Wang, Chaohua; Yan, Qing; Xie, Xiaodong; Li, Jiangtao; Zhou, Dong [West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

2008-04-15

252

Shifting subretinal fluid in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In a consecutive series of 470 cases of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment 25 (5%) were found to have shifting subretinal fluid (SRF) at the preoperative examination. The study showed that the association between SRF and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment is unusual but not rare. Shifting SRF was most often associated with aphakic and longstanding retinal detachment, and found in cases in which the retinal holes were small.

Kirkby, G. R.; Chignell, A. H.

1985-01-01

253

Identifying All True Vessels from Segmented Retinal Images  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Measurements of retinal blood vessel morphology have been shown to be related to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The wrong identification of vessels may result in a large variation of these measurements, leading to a wrong clinical diagnosis Both the arteries and veins of the retina are generally binary trees, whose properties can be considered either locally or globally. Measurable geometrical changes in diameter, branching angle, length, or tortuosity, as a result of disease, have been described in retinal blood vessels. The detection and measurement of retinal blood vessels can be used to quantify the severity of disease such as hypertension, stroke and arteriosclerosis, as part of the process of automated diagnosis of disease or in the assessment of the progression of therapy. Thus, a reliable method of vessel detection and quantification would be valuable. In this paper, we address the problem of identifying true vessels as a postprocessing step to vascular structure segmentation. We model the segmented vascular structure as a vessel segment graph and formulate the problem of identifying vessels as one of finding the optimal forest in the graph given a set of constraints.

G. Delucta Mary

2014-02-01

254

Tortuosity and calcification of the splenic artery. More than an additional finding  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tortuosity of the splenic artery and calcification of the vessel wall are typical additional findings on plain abdominal x-ray. The combination of both anomalies is common in elderly persons presenting without symptoms of splenic ischemia. Its pathogenesis is thought to be multifactorial. In infancy and childhood, the splenic artery is stretched in its entire course. A growing difference between the length of the vessel and the distance between its origin and the splenic hilum gives rise to tortuosity. The artery's proximal segment is involved more frequently and more severely than the distal one. The tortuous route of the vessel is accentuated by the direction of its major branches, which is roughly perpendicular to the main trajectory. Neither tortuosity nor calcification should be taken to be risk factors for the comparatively common splenic artery aneurysm. Calcific deposits are not confined to the media but are also detected in the intima of the vascular wall. Critical narrowings of the lumen arising on the calcium deposits are not observed. Calcifying atherosclerosis of the splenic artery is comparable to medial sclerosis of the peripheral arteries frequently noticed in diabetics and dialysis patients. Only the less important calcification of the intima may be attributed to mechanisms of the hydrohemodynamic theory of atherosclerosis. The spleen's blood storage capacity may contribute to the characteristic age-dependent alterations of the shape and course of the splenic artery. (orig.)

2008-11-01

255

Human retinal circuitry and physiology  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Every second, in an average daytime light environment, hundreds of millions of photons enter the human eye and arrive at the photoreceptor layer of the retina. All our information about the visible world is contained in this rain of photons. The retina is a complex tissue, literally an extension of [...] the brain, which transforms the rain of photons into bioelectric signals containing all the information available to the brain to interpret and respond to the external visual world. A considerable amount of processing takes place within the retinal tissue itself. Understanding what kind of processing takes place at each retinal stage is crucial for understanding normal vision, vision in the presence of diseases affecting the retina, and, ultimately, for the development of therapies to treat such diseases. This manuscript reviews the relation between structure and function of the different retinal pathways and addresses their possible roles for visual perception.

Christina, Joselevitch.

256

Clinical application of uterine arterial embolization for treatment of placenta praevia with hemorrhage in advanced stage of pregnancy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To investigate the value of the uterine arterial embolization for the placenta praevia and hemorrhage in late stage of pregnancy. Methods: 16 patients of placenta praevia with hemorrhage in late stage of pregnancy were treated with uterine arterial embolization (UAE)and simultaneously with Lee Rivanol intra-amniotic membrane injection for artificial laboring. Results: During late stage of pregnancy, uterine arteries appeared to be elongated and enlarged with numerous dilated tortuous branches with positive proportion to gestalional age, and rich in blood supply of the placenta. 15 cases passed successfully through the induced abortion. The procedure completed with an average of 4.5 h afterwards, without postpartum hemorrhage. The other ease failed due to complicated reasons and cured by caesarean section. Conclusion: UAE is a safe and effective method for late stage placenta praevia with hemaorrhage and also provides the reservation of fertility and together with promotion of induced abortion. (authors)

2008-07-01

257

Angiographic results of retinal-retinal anastomosis and retinal-choroidal anastomosis after treatments in eyes with retinal angiomatous proliferation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Masaaki Saito,1 Tomohiro Iida,1,2 Mariko Kano,1 Kanako Itagaki11Department of Ophthalmology, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Women's Medical University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the angiographic results of retinal-retinal anastomosis (RRA and retinal-choroidal anastomosis (RCA for eyes with retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP after treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab injections as monotherapy or intravitreal bevacizumab combined with photodynamic therapy.Methods: In this interventional, consecutive case series, we retrospectively reviewed five naïve eyes from four patients (mean age 80 years treated with three consecutive monthly intravitreal bevacizumab (1.25 mg/0.05 mL injections as initial treatment, and followed up for at least 3 months. In cases with over 3 months of follow-up and having recurrence of RAP or leakage by fluorescein angiography, retreatment was performed with a single intravitreal bevacizumab injection and photodynamic therapy.Results: Indocyanine green angiography showed RRA in three eyes with subretinal neovascularization and RCA in two eyes with choroidal neovascularization at baseline. At 3 months after baseline (month 3, neither the RRA nor RCA was occluded in any eye on indocyanine green angiography. Retreatment with intravitreal bevacizumab plus photodynamic therapy was performed in three eyes at months 3 (persistent leakage on fluorescein angiography, 6, and 7 (recurrence of RAP lesion, which achieved obvious occlusion of the RRA and RCA. Mean best-corrected visual acuity improved from 0.13 to 0.21 at month 3 (P = 0.066. No complications or systemic adverse events were noted.Conclusion: Although intravitreal bevacizumab for RAP was effective in improving visual acuity during short-term follow-up, intravitreal bevacizumab could not achieve complete occlusion of RRA and RCA, which could lead to recurrence of a RAP lesion and exudation. Retreatment with intravitreal bevacizumab plus photodynamic therapy ultimately achieved complete occlusion of the RRA and RCA.Keywords: retinal angiomatous proliferation, retinal-retinal anastomosis, retinal-choroidal anastomosis, bevacizumab, photodynamic therapy, ranibizumab

Saito M

2012-08-01

258

Adenocarcinoma of retinal pigment epithelium.  

Science.gov (United States)

This report describes a 41-year-old man with an intraocular tumour misinterpreted clinically as choroidal melanoma. The fluorescein angiographic features were not fully characteristic of uveal malignancy, and indeed histopathology revealed the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the retinal pigment epithelium. It is suggested that, in cases with the fundus and angiographic findings described here, the rare possibility of adenocarcinoma of retinal pigment epithelium should be kept in mind. Of particular interest were the changing pathological findings in the various parts of the tumour, which paralleled the fluorescein angiographic pattern. PMID:3651364

Ramahefasolo, S; Soubrane, G; Dhermy, P; Godel, V; Regenbogen, L; Coscas, G

1987-07-01

259

Stem Cells Therapy for Retinal Degeneration  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Stem cell therapy is widely considered as a therapeutic approach for retinal degeneration. Retinal injury results in permanent visual disturbance or blindness. Repair of such damage by stem cells is one of the most feasible types of central nervous system repair. In this review, we consider how stem cells might be optimized for use as donor cells. We discuss the benefits of stem cells for transplantation in retinal degenerative disease. A wide range of stem cells from different sources is being investigated for the treatment of retinal degeneration. This study reviews the recent and old achievements about stem cells for retinal repair.

M. Safari

2010-01-01

260

Prostatic artery embolization for enlarged prostates due to benign prostatic hyperplasia. How I do it.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prostatic artery embolization (PAE) has emerged as an alternative to surgical treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Patient selection and refined technique are essential for good results. Urodynamic evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging are very important and technical limitations are related to elderly patients with tortuous and atherosclerotic vessels, anatomical variations, difficulty visualizing and catheterizing small diameter arteries feeding the prostate, and the potential risk of bladder and rectum ischemia. The use of small-diameter hydrophilic microcatheters is mandatory. Patients can be treated safely by PAE with low rates of side effects, reducing prostate volume with clinical symptoms and quality of life improvement without urinary incontinence, ejaculatory disorders, or erectile dysfunction. A multidisciplinary approach with urologists and interventional radiologists is essential to achieve better results. PMID:23903785

Carnevale, Francisco C; Antunes, Alberto A

2013-12-01

 
 
 
 
261

Prostatic Artery Embolization for Enlarged Prostates Due to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. How I Do It  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Prostatic artery embolization (PAE) has emerged as an alternative to surgical treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Patient selection and refined technique are essential for good results. Urodynamic evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging are very important and technical limitations are related to elderly patients with tortuous and atherosclerotic vessels, anatomical variations, difficulty visualizing and catheterizing small diameter arteries feeding the prostate, and the potential risk of bladder and rectum ischemia. The use of small-diameter hydrophilic microcatheters is mandatory. Patients can be treated safely by PAE with low rates of side effects, reducing prostate volume with clinical symptoms and quality of life improvement without urinary incontinence, ejaculatory disorders, or erectile dysfunction. A multidisciplinary approach with urologists and interventional radiologists is essential to achieve better results

2013-12-01

262

Prostatic Artery Embolization for Enlarged Prostates Due to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. How I Do It  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Prostatic artery embolization (PAE) has emerged as an alternative to surgical treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Patient selection and refined technique are essential for good results. Urodynamic evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging are very important and technical limitations are related to elderly patients with tortuous and atherosclerotic vessels, anatomical variations, difficulty visualizing and catheterizing small diameter arteries feeding the prostate, and the potential risk of bladder and rectum ischemia. The use of small-diameter hydrophilic microcatheters is mandatory. Patients can be treated safely by PAE with low rates of side effects, reducing prostate volume with clinical symptoms and quality of life improvement without urinary incontinence, ejaculatory disorders, or erectile dysfunction. A multidisciplinary approach with urologists and interventional radiologists is essential to achieve better results.

Carnevale, Francisco C., E-mail: fcarnevale@uol.com.br [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Interventional Radiology Unit (Brazil); Antunes, Alberto A., E-mail: antunesuro@uol.com.br [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Division of Urology (Brazil)

2013-12-15

263

Color Doppler Indices of Orbital Arterial Flow in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients; Are the Changes Related to Chronic Hemodialysis or Chronic Renal Failure?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Endothelial injury is a well-known complication in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hemodialysis. One of the sites in which early vascular changes may be detected is the retina. Of course, these flow changes may not be detected in ophthalmologic exams, but it seems that color Doppler sonography of retinal arteries may be helpful in these cases.Objectives: In previous studies on CKD patients who underwent chronic hemodialysis, hemodynamic changes were noted in retinal arteries, but...

2012-01-01

264

Laser Cyclophotocoagulation Enhances the Regulative Capacity of Retinal Vessels in Glaucoma  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose: To determine the effects of laser surgical IOP reduction by means of transscleral cyclophotocoagulation (CPC) on retinal blood flow parameters in glaucoma patients using Dynamic Vessel Analysis (DVA). Materials and Methodology: 26 patients (average age: 70 years) with a long history of primary open angle glaucoma underwent CPC. The effect on the reactive capacity of retinal vessels was assessed before and 6-8 weeks after CPC by means of the Dynamic Vessel Analyzer (DVA) using flicker light provocation. Results: In our group of POAG patients, IOP was significantly reduced about approximately 20% by CPC while systemic blood pressure and heart rate were not changed. The most obvious differences between the pre- and postoperative DVA measurements could be observed in the maximal dilation of the retinal arteries which increased from 0.75 % (+/- 0.6) to 3.17 % (+/- 0.5) with an average increase of 2.4 % (pDVA measurements after an IOP-lowering laser surgical intervention (CPC) reveal a significant recovery of the regulative capacity of retinal arteries in glaucoma patients that has up to now neither been properly documented nor appreciated. Future studies with long-term follow-up must determine the clinical importance of these findings for the treatment of glaucoma patients.

Kremmer, Stephan; Anastassiou, Gerasimos; Schallenberg, Maurice; Steuhl, Klaus-Peter; W, Vilser; J, Michael Selbach

2014-01-01

265

The effect of pars plan vitrectomy on oxygen saturation in retinal vessels - a pilot study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose:? To determine the effect of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) on oxygen saturation in retinal vessels. Methods:? We performed a prospective consecutive interventional case series of 20 eyes of 20 patients with macular hole or epiretinal membrane. We performed automatic retinal oximetry (Oxymap Inc., Reykjavik, Iceland) in each patient 24?hr prior to and 45?days (range 42-49) after PPV (classic 20G or sutureless 23G). We analysed oxygen saturations in retinal arteries and veins. Vessel segments of first or second degree were selected. The same segment was analysed before and after PPV. Oximetry data were compared by paired two-tailed t-test. Results:? Pars plana vitrectomy did not alter arterial haemoglobin saturation with oxygen (98?±?2% prior to the surgery and 98?±?3% after the procedure, p?=?0.549). The mean venous haemoglobin saturation with oxygen increased after vitrectomy from 63?±?10% to 66?±?8% (p?=?0.012). Conclusions:? Oxygen saturation is higher in retinal veins after pars plana vitrectomy. Further studies are needed to unveil the mechanism of how vitrectomy affects oxygen metabolism in the retina. PMID:23848230

Sín, Martin; Sínová, Irena; Chrapek, Old?ich; Pracha?ová, Zuzana; Karhanová, Marta; Langová, Kate?ina; Rehák, Ji?i

2014-06-01

266

Central retinal artery occlusion in association with fibromuscular dysplasia  

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Ahmet Altun,1 Gulengul Altun,2 Osman Okan Olcaysu,3 Sevda Aydin Kurna,1 Suat Fazil Aki11Clinic of Ophthalmology, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Department of Pediatrics, Yeditepe University, Istanbul, Turkey; 3Clinic of Ophthalmology, Erzurum Region Education and Research Hospital, Erzurum, TurkeyAbstract: A 14 year-old female, whose chief complaint was severe vision loss in the right eye for 2 days, presented to the Clinic of Ophthalmology of Fatih Su...

Altun A; Altun G; Oo, Olcaysu; Sa, Kurna; Sf, Aki

2013-01-01

267

Retinal projections in gymnotid fishes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Retinal projections were studied in four species of gymnotid fishes, Gymnotus carapo, Hypopomus artedi, Eigenmannia virescens and Sternopygus sp. with the aid of cobalt or horseradish peroxidase labelling and autoradiographic techniques. The optic tract gives off a small branch, the axial optic tract and then, after crossing in the midline, splits into a dorsomedial, dorsal and ventral fascicle. E. virescens and Sternopygys sp. display in addition an accessory optic tract. In all four species retinal projections are bilateral; ipsilateral projections, however, are extremely sparse. In all four species, the retinal fibres terminate bilaterally in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, dorsolateral optic nucleus of the thalamus and the optic nucleus of the posterior commissure; a bilateral retinotectal projection was only found in E. virescens and G. carapo. Retinal projections are only contralateral to the ventromedical nucleus of the thalamus, the central pretectal nucleus and the accessory optic nucleus. The contralateral retinotectal fibres terminate in the stratum fibrosum and griseum superficiale, and in the stratum album centrale and stratum periventriculare. A small accessory optic tract and nucleus were detected in E. virescens and Sternopygys sp. but not in G. carapo and H. artedi. The results indicate that the visual system of gymnotid fish is as simple as that of mormyrids. The poor visibility in the environment where these animals live and the additional sensory system which these animals possess may explain the poor development of the visual system. (author)

1987-01-01

268

Retinal arteritis, iridocyclitis, and giardiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia was found in the stools of three patients with retinal arteritis. Iridocyclitis was also present in two of these patients, who had not responded to treatment with systemic corticosteroids. Antiparasitic drug treatment was followed by improvement of ocular and systemic findings. PMID:6891764

Knox, D L; King, J

1982-12-01

269

Retinitis Pigmentosa and Education Issues  

Science.gov (United States)

Retinitis Pigmentosa includes a number of inherited diseases which usually result in blindness. The disease is progressive in nature and begins with the deterioration of cells in the eye responsible for peripheral vision. As the condition worsens there is a gradual loss of peripheral vision and night blindness. Proper educational planning requires…

Brown, Thomas J.

2005-01-01

270

Loss of caveolin-1 causes blood-retinal barrier breakdown, venous enlargement, and mural cell alteration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Blood-retinal barrier (BRB) breakdown and related vascular changes are implicated in several ocular diseases. The molecules and mechanisms regulating BRB integrity and pathophysiology are not fully elucidated. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) ablation results in loss of caveolae and microvascular pathologies, but the role of Cav-1 in the retina is largely unknown. We examined BRB integrity and vasculature in Cav-1 knockout mice and found a significant increase in BRB permeability, compared with wild-type controls, with branch veins being frequent sites of breakdown. Vascular hyperpermeability occurred without apparent alteration in junctional proteins. Such hyperpermeability was not rescued by inhibiting eNOS activity. Veins of Cav-1 knockout retinas exhibited additional pathological features, including i) eNOS-independent enlargement, ii) altered expression of mural cell markers (eg, down-regulation of NG2 and up-regulation of ?SMA), and iii) dramatic alterations in mural cell phenotype near the optic nerve head. We observed a significant NO-dependent increase in retinal artery diameter in Cav-1 knockout mice, suggesting that Cav-1 plays a role in autoregulation of resistance vessels in the retina. These findings implicate Cav-1 in maintaining BRB integrity in retinal vasculature and suggest a previously undefined role in the retinal venous system and associated mural cells. Our results are relevant to clinically significant retinal disorders with vascular pathologies, including diabetic retinopathy, uveoretinitis, and primary open-angle glaucoma. PMID:24326256

Gu, Xiaowu; Fliesler, Steven J; Zhao, You-Yang; Stallcup, William B; Cohen, Alex W; Elliott, Michael H

2014-02-01

271

Angiographic studies of the totally arterialized rat liver.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-three angiographies were performed in 20 rats with a totally arterialized liver. The arterialization was obtained by the construction of an end-to-side portacaval shunt (PCS) and an arteriovenous (AV) fistula between the left gastric artery and the portal stump. Microsurgical technique was necessary because of the small diameter of the AV fistula (0.5 mm). The angiographic examinations showed an AV fistula patency rate of 70% and a PCS rate of 100%. A successively increasing diameter of the fistula with dilation of the intrahepatic portal vessels was demonstrated in the rats with a patent arterioportal fistula. Tortuous and irregular vessels were also observed. All these signs suggest an overarterialization which developed despite the use of a very small AV fistula. None of the three rats examined histologically had cirrhosis of the liver. Further research is needed to attempt to avoid or minimize the deleterious effects of overarterialization of the portal tree, while utilizing the advantages of a dual liver blood supply in patients with decompressive PCS. PMID:6642939

Ivancev, K; Teuscher, J; Flati, G; Buchholtz, B; Holmin, T

1983-01-01

272

Bilateral retinal cyst accompanying with renal and thyroidal multiorgan cyst  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although retinal cysts are commonly seen in von Hippel Lindau syndrome, bilateral retinal cysts can occasionally appear unrelated to this syndrome. Retinal cysts can be confused with retinal tumours and infectious diseases of retina. In this report we represent a patient demonstrating bilateral retinal cyst accompanying with renal and thyroidal multiorgan cysts without Von-Hippel Lindau syndrome.

Amber ?enel

2011-01-01

273

Bilateral retinal cyst accompanying with renal and thyroidal multiorgan cyst  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although retinal cysts are commonly seen in von Hippel Lindau syndrome, bilateral retinal cysts can occasionally appear unrelated to this syndrome. Retinal cysts can be confused with retinal tumours and infectious diseases of retina. In this report we represent a patient demonstrating bilateral retinal cyst accompanying with renal and thyroidal multiorgan cysts without Von-Hippel Lindau syndrome.

Özgür Artunay; Alper ?engül; Erdal Yüzba??o?lu; R?fat Rasier; Amber ?enel; Halil Bahçecio?lu

2011-01-01

274

[Arterial heterogeneity].  

Science.gov (United States)

More and more clinical observations and trials support the concept of heterogeneity of atheroma according to the arterial bed. In a pilot study named "Étude Comparative des Lésions Athéromateuses" (ECLA), we have shown that carotid and femoral plaques possess different characteristics. Carotid arteries display increased lipid content compared to femoral arteries whereas femoral arteries are more prone to calcify and to develop osteoid metaplasia. These observations should lead the researcher and the clinician to look at the cellular and molecular mechanisms governing the heterogeneity of atheromas. At last, a better understanding of the characteristics of plaques should help us to determine plaque stability, to prevent cardiovascular events and to choose the best medical, endovascular or surgical option. PMID:23159822

Gouëffic, Y; Davaine, J-M; Merlini, T; Rimbert, A; Hérisson, F; Heymann, M-F; Heymann, D; Steenman, M; Lambert, G

2013-01-01

275

The effect of intravitreal bevacizumab on ocular blood flow in diabetic retinopathy and branch retinal vein occlusion as measured by laser speckle flowgraphy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fumihiko Nitta,1 Hiroshi Kunikata,1,2 Naoko Aizawa,1 Kazuko Omodaka,1 Yukihiro Shiga,1 Masayuki Yasuda,1 Toru Nakazawa1–31Department of Ophthalmology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; 2Department of Retinal Disease Control, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; 3Department of Advanced Ophthalmic Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, JapanBackground: This study evaluated the effect of intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (IVB on macular edema associated with diabetic retinopathy (DME or branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVOME using laser speckle flowgraphy.Methods: A comparative interventional study of 25 eyes from 22 patients with macular edema (DME group: 12 eyes; BRVOME group: 13 eyes who underwent IVB. Mean blur rate (MBR was measured in the retinal artery, retinal vein, optic nerve head (ONH, and choroid before and after IVB. Results: In the BRVOME group, there was no significant change in MBR in the retinal artery, retinal vein or ONH, but choroidal MBR decreased significantly (P=0.04. In the DME group, the MBR in the retinal artery, retinal vein, ONH, and choroid decreased significantly (P=0.02, P=0.04, P<0.001, and P=0.04, respectively. In the DME group, pre-IVB MBR in the ONH was significantly correlated with post-IVB foveal thickness (R= -0.71, P=0.002. There was no such correlation in the BRVOME group in the ONH.Conclusion: IVB had a suppressive effect on circulation in eyes with DME but not in those with BRVOME. This suggests that this noninvasive and objective biomarker may be a useful part of pre-IVB evaluations and decision-making in DME.Keywords: macular edema, mean blur rate, optic nerve head, biomarker, ocular circulation

Nitta F

2014-06-01

276

The porcine retinal vasculature accessed using an endovascular approach : a new experimental model for retinal ischemia  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of this study was to examine whether the retinal circulation in the pig can be accessed using interventional neuroradiology and to explore the possibility of creating occlusions that result in experimental retinal ischemia.

Morén, Håkan; Undrén, Per

2009-01-01

277

Manifestaciones oftalmológicas de la hipertensión arterial / Ophthalmological manifestations of arterial hypertension  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La hipertensión arterial sistémica (HTA) es una de las enfermedades más frecuentes en los países industrializados, llegando su incidencia hasta un 30%, cifra que va en aumento por la mayor esperanza de vida de la población. Esta elevación de la presión arterial ocasiona o acelera los cambios en la p [...] ared vascular de los órganos diana como el riñón, cerebro, corazón y ojo. A nivel ocular, la HTA produce lesiones en la retina, la coroides y cabeza del nervio óptico, pudiendo abarcar un amplio rango de lesiones, desde un estrechamiento vascular leve hasta una pérdida visual severa por neuropatía óptica isquémica. La respuesta primaria de las arterias retinianas a la hipertensión arterial sistémica es un estrechamiento vascular y los signos que aparecen en el fondo de ojo en la retinopatía hipertensiva son la vasoconstricción difusa o focal, la extravasación por permeabilidad vascular aumentada y la arteriolosclerosis con engrosamiento de la pared de los vasos. Estas tres entidades son las responsables de la aparición de diferentes lesiones que van a caracterizar los estadíos de la enfermedad retiniana como son: los cruces arteriovenosos, exudados duros y algodonosos, trombosis, embolias, hemorragias en el parénquima retiniano, desprendimiento seroso de retina, edema de papila y neuropatía óptica isquémica en los casos más severos como el caso de la hipertensión arterial maligna. Abstract in english Systemic Arterial hypertension (AHT) is one of the most frequent diseases in the industrialised countries, with an incidence reaching 30%, a figure that is rising due to the greater life expectancy of the population. This rise in arterial tension causes, or accelerates, changes in the vascular wall [...] of the target organs such as the kidney, brain, heart and eye. At the ocular level, AHT produces lesions in the retina, the choroids and optic nerve head; this can include a wide range of lesions, from slight vascular narrowing to severe visual loss due to ischaemic optical neuropathy. The primary response of the retinal arteries to systemic arterial hypertension is vascular narrowing and the manifestations that appear at the back of the eye in hypertensive retinopathy are diffuse or focal vasoconstriction, extravasation due to increased vascular permeability and arteriosclerosis with swelling of the wall of the vessels. These three entities are responsible for the appearance of different lesions that characterise the stages of the retinal disease, which are: arteriovenous crossings, hard and cotton-like exudates, thrombosis, embolisms, haemorrhages in the retinal parenchyma, vitreous detachment from the retina, papilla edema and ischaemic optical neuropathy in the more severe cases, such as in case malign arterial hypertension.

N. A., Rodríguez; A., Zurutuza.

278

Manifestaciones oftalmológicas de la hipertensión arterial Ophthalmological manifestations of arterial hypertension  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La hipertensión arterial sistémica (HTA es una de las enfermedades más frecuentes en los países industrializados, llegando su incidencia hasta un 30%, cifra que va en aumento por la mayor esperanza de vida de la población. Esta elevación de la presión arterial ocasiona o acelera los cambios en la pared vascular de los órganos diana como el riñón, cerebro, corazón y ojo. A nivel ocular, la HTA produce lesiones en la retina, la coroides y cabeza del nervio óptico, pudiendo abarcar un amplio rango de lesiones, desde un estrechamiento vascular leve hasta una pérdida visual severa por neuropatía óptica isquémica. La respuesta primaria de las arterias retinianas a la hipertensión arterial sistémica es un estrechamiento vascular y los signos que aparecen en el fondo de ojo en la retinopatía hipertensiva son la vasoconstricción difusa o focal, la extravasación por permeabilidad vascular aumentada y la arteriolosclerosis con engrosamiento de la pared de los vasos. Estas tres entidades son las responsables de la aparición de diferentes lesiones que van a caracterizar los estadíos de la enfermedad retiniana como son: los cruces arteriovenosos, exudados duros y algodonosos, trombosis, embolias, hemorragias en el parénquima retiniano, desprendimiento seroso de retina, edema de papila y neuropatía óptica isquémica en los casos más severos como el caso de la hipertensión arterial maligna.Systemic Arterial hypertension (AHT is one of the most frequent diseases in the industrialised countries, with an incidence reaching 30%, a figure that is rising due to the greater life expectancy of the population. This rise in arterial tension causes, or accelerates, changes in the vascular wall of the target organs such as the kidney, brain, heart and eye. At the ocular level, AHT produces lesions in the retina, the choroids and optic nerve head; this can include a wide range of lesions, from slight vascular narrowing to severe visual loss due to ischaemic optical neuropathy. The primary response of the retinal arteries to systemic arterial hypertension is vascular narrowing and the manifestations that appear at the back of the eye in hypertensive retinopathy are diffuse or focal vasoconstriction, extravasation due to increased vascular permeability and arteriosclerosis with swelling of the wall of the vessels. These three entities are responsible for the appearance of different lesions that characterise the stages of the retinal disease, which are: arteriovenous crossings, hard and cotton-like exudates, thrombosis, embolisms, haemorrhages in the retinal parenchyma, vitreous detachment from the retina, papilla edema and ischaemic optical neuropathy in the more severe cases, such as in case malign arterial hypertension.

N. A. Rodríguez

2008-01-01

279

[The research progress on microelectrode array (MEA) of retinal prosthesis].  

Science.gov (United States)

This review paper presents the current research progress, challenges and future development on microelectrode array of retinal prosthesis, including epi-retinal and sub-retinal implants. PMID:21179713

Li, Tianao; Cao, Zheng; Sui, Xiaohong; Jiang, Xia; Ren, Qiushi; Chai, Xinyu

2010-09-01

280

Role of retinal metabolism in methanol-induced retinal toxicity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methanol is a toxicant that causes systemic and ocular toxicity after acute exposure. The folate-reduced (FR) rat is an excellent animal model that mimics characteristic human methanol toxic responses. The present study examines the role of the methanol metabolites formaldehyde and formate in the initiation of methanol-induced retinal toxicity. After a single oral dose of 3.0 g/kg methanol, blood methanol concentrations were not significantly different in FR rats compared with folate-sufficient (FS) (control) rats. However, FR rats treated with 3.0 g/kg methanol displayed elevated blood (14.6 mM) and vitreous humor (19.5 mM) formate levels and abnormal electroretinograms (loss of b-wave) 48 h postdose. FR rats pretreated with disulfiram (DSF) prior to 3.0 g/kg methanol treatment failed to display these symptoms. Formaldehyde was not detected in blood or vitreous humor with or without DSF treatment, suggesting that formate is the toxic metabolite in methanol-induced retinal toxicity. Additionally, creating a blood formate profile (14.2 mM at 48 h) similar to that observed in methanol-treated rats by iv infusion of pH-buffered formate does not alter the electroretinogram as is observed with methanol treatment. These data suggest that intraretinal metabolism of methanol is necessary for the formate-mediated initiation of methanol-induced retinal toxicity. 31 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Garner, C.D. [General Motors Corp., Warren, MI (United States)]|[Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); Lee, E.W.; Terzo, T.S. [General Motors Corp., Warren, MI (United States); Louis-Ferdinand, R.T. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States)

1995-08-01

 
 
 
 
281

Enhanced generation of retinal progenitor cells from human retinal pigment epithelial cells induced by amniotic fluid  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Retinal progenitor cells are a convenient source of cell replacement therapy in retinal degenerative disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression patterns of the homeobox genes PAX6 and CHX10 (retinal progenitor markers) during treatment of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells with amniotic fluid (AF), RPE cells harvested from neonatal cadaver globes were cultured in a mixture of DMEM and Ham's F12 supplemen...

2012-01-01

282

Full thickness macular breaks in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with peripheral retinal breaks.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Between 1975 and 1989, 11 eyes were treated for retinal detachments with both peripheral and full thickness macular breaks. Long term retinal reattachment was dependent on successful closure of peripheral retinal breaks. Direct treatment of the macular break was necessary in only one case, which redetached 3 months after vitrectomy. Vitrectomy is not the initial treatment of choice for uncomplicated retinal detachments with both peripheral and full thickness macular breaks, unless required fo...

Riordan-eva, P.; Chignell, A. H.

1992-01-01

283

Primitive retinal vascular abnormalities: tumors and telangiectasias.  

Science.gov (United States)

Primitive retinal vascular abnormalities are benign conditions of the retinal circulation that comprise vascular tumors and telangiectasias. The principal vascular tumors of the retina include retinal capillary hemangioma, cavernous hemangioma of the retina, racemose hemangiomatosis of the retina and retinal vasoproliferative tumor, while primary retinal telangiectasias include Coats' disease, Leber's miliary aneurysms and idiopathic juxtafoveal telangiectasias. In most cases, these alterations result in significant visual impairment due to exudation determined by the structural abnormalities of the retinal vasculature. The aim of this review is to assess the different clinical and diagnostic features of the single pathological entities and to discuss the available treatment modalities including the onset of intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor therapy. PMID:22738997

Knutsson, Karl Anders; De Benedetto, Umberto; Querques, Giuseppe; Del Turco, Claudia; Bandello, Francesco; Lattanzio, Rosangela

2012-01-01

284

Current perspectives of herpesviral retinitis and choroiditis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vision-threatening viral retinitis are primarily caused by members of the herpesvirus family. The biology and molecular characterization of herpesviruses, clinical presentations of retinopathies, pathology and pathogenesis including the host responses, epidemiology and the laboratory methods of aetiological diagnosis of these diseases are described. Clinical syndromes are acute retinal necrosis (ARN), progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN), cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis, multifocal choroiditis and serpiginous choroiditis besides other viral retinopathies. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) retinitis is more common in immunocompetent persons while varicella zoster virus (VZV) affects both immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients equally. CMV retinitis is most common among patients with AIDS. The currently employed laboratory methods of antigen detection, virus isolation and antibody detection by enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA) have low sensitivity. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has increased the value of diagnosis due to its high clinical sensitivity and absolute specificity in detection of herpesviruses in intraocular specimens. PMID:16295367

Madhavan, H N; Priya, K; Biswas, J

2004-10-01

285

Gender-Dependent Effects of Enriched Environment and Social Isolation in Ischemic Retinal Lesion in Adult Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Exposure to an enriched environment has been shown to have many positive effects on brain structure and function. Numerous studies have proven that enriched environment can reduce the lesion induced by toxic and traumatic injuries. Impoverished environment, on the other hand, can have deleterious effects on the outcome of neuronal injuries. We have previously shown that enriched conditions have protective effects in retinal injury in newborn rats. It is well-known that the efficacy of neuroprotective strategies can depend on age and gender. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to examine the effects of environmental enrichment and social isolation in retinal ischemia. We used bilateral common carotid artery occlusion to induce retinal hypoperfusion in adult Wistar rats of both genders. Groups were housed in standard, enriched or impoverished conditions. Impoverished environment was induced by social isolation. Retinas were processed for histological analysis after two weeks of survival. In the present study, we show that (1 enriched environment has protective effects in adult ischemic retinal lesion, while (2 impoverished environment further increases the degree of ischemic injury, and (3 that these environmental effects are gender-dependent: females are less responsive to the positive effects of environmental enrichment and more vulnerable to retinal ischemia in social isolation. In summary, our present study shows that the effects of both positive and negative environmental stimuli are gender-dependent in ischemic retinal lesions.

Dora Reglodi

2013-08-01

286

Iatrogenic occlusion of the ophthalmic artery after cosmetic facial filler injections: a national survey by the korean retina society.  

Science.gov (United States)

IMPORTANCE Iatrogenic occlusion of the ophthalmic artery and its branches is a rare but devastating complication of cosmetic facial filler injections. OBJECTIVE To investigate clinical and angiographic features of iatrogenic occlusion of the ophthalmic artery and its branches caused by cosmetic facial filler injections. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Data from 44 patients with occlusion of the ophthalmic artery and its branches after cosmetic facial filler injections were obtained retrospectively from a national survey completed by members of the Korean Retina Society from 27 retinal centers. Clinical features were compared between patients grouped by angiographic findings and injected filler material. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Visual prognosis and its relationship to angiographic findings and injected filler material. RESULTS Ophthalmic artery occlusion was classified into 6 types according to angiographic findings. Twenty-eight patients had diffuse retinal and choroidal artery occlusions (ophthalmic artery occlusion, generalized posterior ciliary artery occlusion, and central retinal artery occlusion). Sixteen patients had localized occlusions (localized posterior ciliary artery occlusion, branch retinal artery occlusion, and posterior ischemic optic neuropathy). Patients with diffuse occlusions showed worse initial and final visual acuity and less visual gain compared with those having localized occlusions. Patients receiving autologous fat injections (n?=?22) had diffuse ophthalmic artery occlusions, worse visual prognosis, and a higher incidence of combined brain infarction compared with patients having hyaluronic acid injections (n?=?13). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Clinical features of iatrogenic occlusion of the ophthalmic artery and its branches following cosmetic facial filler injections were diverse according to the location and extent of obstruction and the injected filler material. Autologous fat injections were associated with a worse visual prognosis and a higher incidence of combined cerebral infarction. Extreme caution and care should be taken during these injections, and physicians should be aware of a diverse spectrum of complications following cosmetic facial filler injections. PMID:24676334

Park, Kyu Hyung; Kim, Yong-Kyu; Woo, Se Joon; Kang, Se Woong; Lee, Won Ki; Choi, Kyung Seek; Kwak, Hyung Woo; Yoon, Ill Han; Huh, Kuhl; Kim, Jong Woo

2014-06-01

287

Intraocular pressure in retinal vein occlusion.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The intraocular pressure of 59 patients with retinal vein occlusion was studied. Central retinal vein occlusion (CVO) was diagnosed in 24 patients and branch retinal vein occlusion (BVO) was diagnosed in the rest. The intraocular pressure of a sex and age matched group of controls was also studied for comparison. The intraocular pressure in the CVO group were significantly different from those of the matched controls (p less than 0.001). A statistically significant difference of a lesser degr...

Frucht, J.; Shapiro, A.; Merin, S.

1984-01-01

288

Photovoltaic Retinal Prosthesis with High Pixel Density  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Retinal degenerative diseases lead to blindness due to loss of the “image capturing” photoreceptors, while neurons in the “image processing” inner retinal layers are relatively well preserved. Electronic retinal prostheses seek to restore sight by electrically stimulating surviving neurons. Most implants are powered through inductive coils, requiring complex surgical methods to implant the coil-decoder-cable-array systems, which deliver energy to stimulating electrodes via intraocular...

2012-01-01

289

Aggressive retinal astrocytoma associated with tuberous sclerosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report the case of a patient with an aggressive retinal astrocytoma accompanied with macular edema and neovascular vessels, who was initially treated with intravitreal bevacizumab injections. A 24-year-old male presented to our clinic complaining of visual disturbance in his right eye. At 8 years of age, he had been diagnosed as having tuberous sclerosis complex. Fundus examination demonstrated a retinal tumor accompanied with marked neovascular vessels on the surface, retinal hemorrhage, ...

Tomida, Machiko; Mitamura, Yoshinori; Katome, Takashi; Eguchi, Hiroshi; Naito, Takeshi; Harada, Takayuki

2012-01-01

290

Combined retinal detachment and candida chorioretinitis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To report a case of slowly progressive traction and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment after successfully managed candida chorioretinitis. A 44-year-old immunocompromised woman was treated with voriconazole for fungal chorioretinitis. Six months after onset she developed a combined retinal detachment. Slow progression of retinal detachment was observed and vitrectomy was performed. The macular area remained attached and visual acuity was maintained. Ophthalmologists should be aware of this unu...

Vela, Jose? I.; Rosello?, Noemi?; Di?az-cascajosa, Jesu?s; Crespi?, Jaume; Buil, Jose? A.

2010-01-01

291

Retinoids for Treatment of Retinal Diseases  

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Knowledge about retinal photoreceptor signal transduction and the visual cycle required for normal eyesight has expanded exponentially over the past decade. Substantial progress in human genetics has allowed identification of candidate genes and complex networks underlying inherited retinal diseases. Natural mutations in animal models that mimic human diseases have been characterized and advanced genetic manipulation now permits generation of small mammalian models of human retinal diseases. ...

Palczewski, Krzysztof

2010-01-01

292

Stem Cells for Retinal Replacement Therapy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Retinal degenerative disease has limited therapeutic options and the possibility of stem cell-mediated regenerative treatments is being actively explored for these blinding retinal conditions. The relative accessibility of this central nervous system tissue and the ability to visually monitor changes after transplantation make the retina and adjacent retinal pigment epithelium prime targets for pioneering stem cell therapeutics. Prior work conducted for several decades indicated the promise o...

2011-01-01

293

Primary vitrectomy for pseudophakic retinal detachment.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIM/BACKGROUND: Viewing the peripheral retina is the major problem in the repair of pseudophakic retinal detachments. Conventional buckling procedures in pseudophakic eyes are complicated by persistent retinal (re-) detachment and proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) more often than in phakic eyes. METHODS: Primary vitrectomy was performed in 33 consecutive cases for pseudophakic retinal detachment with the help of liquid perfluorocarbons and a wide angle viewing system, following a standard...

Bartz-schmidt, K. U.; Kirchhof, B.; Heimann, K.

1996-01-01

294

Magnum Meier wires with Crag Fx wire catheter for total occlusive coronary arteries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Magnum Meier wire was used with Crag Fx wire catheter instead of Magnum balloon catheter to facilitate wire crossing through total occlusion by improving flexibility of the system without losing wire pushability. Of 372 coronary angioplasty procedures performed between January 1994 and April 1995, there were 12 subacute occlusions with an interval of 3 wk or less and 30 chronic occlusions with an interval of > 3 wk. Regular over-the-wire-type balloon catheters failed to dilate four subacute occlusions and nine chronic total occlusions. Magnum Meier wire with Crag Fx wire catheter was tried for one subacute occlusion and four chronic occlusions that were undilatable with a regular balloon system and successfully dilated the subacute occlusion and three of the chronic occlusions. The lesions successfully dilated by this new approach were either long or tandem lesions in vessels that were excessively tortuous or showed an acute angle at the orifice. Thus the Magnum Meier wire with Crag Fx wire catheter can be a useful tool for dilating totally occluded lesions in tortuous coronary arteries. PMID:9047067

Kitazume, H; Kubo, I; Iwama, T

1997-02-01

295

Differential diameter responses in macular and peripheral retinal arterioles may contribute to the regional distribution of diabetic retinopathy lesions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Diabetic retinopathy is assumed to be due to impaired retinal autoregulation, involving both pressure autoregulation and metabolic autoregulation. The disease displays regional differences, with signs of hyperperfusion in the macular area and capillary occlusion with retinal ischemia in the peripheral retinal areas. It can be hypothesized that these regional differences in the occurrence of retinopathy lesions may reflect differences in the capacity of retinal arterioles to autoregulate the diameter of retinal arterioles. METHODS: Seventeen normal persons and two matched groups of patients with respectively diabetic maculopathy and proliferative diabetic retinopathy were examined. The diameter change of a macular and a peripheral retinal arteriole during an increase in the arterial blood pressure induced by isometric exercise, during an increase in retinal metabolism induced by flicker stimulation, and during both stimulus paradigms simultaneously were studied using the dynamic vessel analyzer (DVA). RESULTS: During isometric exercise, the diameter response was reduced in both macular and peripheral retinal arterioles in the two groups of patients with diabetes mellitus. During flicker stimulation, the diameter response was significantly reduced in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy, but there was no significant difference between the responses of macular and peripheral arterioles. During simultaneous isometric exercise and flicker stimulation, there was no difference between the diameter response of macular arterioles in the three groups, whereas the diameter response of macular arterioles was significantly lower in normal persons and significantly higher in persons with proliferative diabetic retinopathy as compared to peripheral arterioles. CONCLUSIONS: Regional differences in the disturbances of the diameter response to increased blood pressure may contribute to the regional differences in the distribution of diabetic retinopathy lesions. In the central retinal areas, the diameter response to increased blood pressure and retinal metabolism interacted in a way that may potentially protect this area from ischaemia, whereas this protective mechanism was absent in the peripheral retinal arterioles. An elucidation of the mechanisms underlying diameter regulation to increased blood pressure and retinal metabolism, and the interaction between these two mechanisms, may help in understanding the pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy.

Skov Jensen, Peter; Jeppesen, Peter

2011-01-01

296

Alterations of the blood-retinal barrier and retinal thickness in preclinical retinopathy in subjects with type 2 diabetes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To identify alterations of the blood-retinal barrier by mapping retinal fluorescein leakage into the vitreous and changes in retinal thickness occurring in the macular region in preclinical diabetic retinopathy.

Lobo, Cl; Bernardes, Rc; Cunha-vaz, Jg

2000-01-01

297

Prothrombin time in retinitis pigmentosa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The prothrombin time was recorded for 87 primary retinitis pigmentosa (RP patients belonging to three different clinical categories. All categories showed prothrombin time higher than normal. There was no correlation between the age of onset and the prothrombin time, nor between duration of disease and the prothrombin time. The high prothrombin time in patients with RP suggests that further study of prothrombin time and related factors may help in better understanding of the pathogenesis of RP.

Vinchurkar Manisha

1998-01-01

298

Cytomegalovirus retinitis mimicking intraocular lymphoma  

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Patrick Gooi1, James Farmer2, Bernard Hurley3, Elliott Brodbaker41Department of Ophthalmology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada; 2Department of Pathology and Lab Medicine University of Ottawa and The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; 3Department of Ophthalmology, University of Ottawa Eye Institute and The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; 4Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: We present a case of an unusual retinal infiltra...

Patrick Gooi; James Farmer; Bernard Hurley; Elliott Brodbaker

2008-01-01

299

Misfolded Proteins and Retinal Dystrophies  

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Many mutations associated with retinal degeneration lead to the production of misfolded proteins by cells of the retina. Emerging evidence suggests that these abnormal proteins cause cell death by activating the Unfolded Protein Response, a set of conserved intracellular signaling pathways that detect protein misfolding within the endoplasmic reticulum and control protective and proapoptotic signal transduction pathways. Here, we review the misfolded proteins associated with select types of r...

Lin, Jonathan H.; Lavail, Matthew M.

2010-01-01

300

Surgery of aphakic retinal detachment.  

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In a prospective study 84 patients with aphakic retinal detachment were treated either by local scleral buckling alone or combined with an encirclement. The rate of surgical reattachment of the retina was found to be similar with either technique over a minimum follow-up period of one year. Simplicity and a low incidence of serious complications of the local procedure merit its application as the initial method of repairing aphakic detachments.

Singh, M.

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

A Novel Retinal Identification System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents a novel biometric identification system with high performance based on the features obtained from human retinal images. This system is composed of three principal modules including blood vessel segmentation, feature generation, and feature matching. Blood vessel segmentation module has the role of extracting blood vessels pattern from retinal images. Feature generation module includes the following stages. First, the optical disk is found and a circular region of interest (ROI around it is selected in the segmented image. Then, using a polar transformation, a rotation invariant template is created from each ROI. In the next stage, these templates are analyzed in three different scales using wavelet transform to separate vessels according to their diameter sizes. In the last stage, vessels position and orientation in each scale are used to define a feature vector for each subject in the database. For feature matching, we introduce a modified correlation measure to obtain a similarity index for each scale of the feature vector. Then, we compute the total value of the similarity index by summing scale-weighted similarity indices. Experimental results on a database, including 300 retinal images obtained from 60 subjects, demonstrated an average equal error rate equal to 1 percent for our identification system.

Mohammad-Shahram Moin

2008-05-01

302

Accordion effect during carotid artery stenting. Report of two cases and review of the literature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The term ''accordion effect'' is used to describe a mechanical distortion of tortuous arteries mimicking spasm or dissection. This phenomenon has been reported in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of the accordion effect during carotid artery intervention. Two patients who developed the accordion effect during carotid artery stenting (CAS) are described. Angiograms obtained just after CAS showed a stenosing lesion with wall irregularity at the distal part of the stent. This lesion disappeared and tortuosity of the internal carotid artery developed after withdrawing the guidewire until its floppy segment rested equally on the lesion. In another patient, the lesion did not disappear completely until the guiding catheter had been withdrawn to the proximal portion of the common carotid artery. We conclude that these stenosing lesions reflected the accordion effect. It is essential to differentiate the accordion effect from dissection, spasm, and thrombosis because the management is importantly different. We report our findings and present a review of the literature. (orig.)

2007-07-01

303

Accordion effect during carotid artery stenting. Report of two cases and review of the literature  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The term ''accordion effect'' is used to describe a mechanical distortion of tortuous arteries mimicking spasm or dissection. This phenomenon has been reported in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of the accordion effect during carotid artery intervention. Two patients who developed the accordion effect during carotid artery stenting (CAS) are described. Angiograms obtained just after CAS showed a stenosing lesion with wall irregularity at the distal part of the stent. This lesion disappeared and tortuosity of the internal carotid artery developed after withdrawing the guidewire until its floppy segment rested equally on the lesion. In another patient, the lesion did not disappear completely until the guiding catheter had been withdrawn to the proximal portion of the common carotid artery. We conclude that these stenosing lesions reflected the accordion effect. It is essential to differentiate the accordion effect from dissection, spasm, and thrombosis because the management is importantly different. We report our findings and present a review of the literature. (orig.)

Tsutsumi, Masanori; Kazekawa, Kiyoshi; Onizuka, Masanari; Aikawa, Hiroshi; Iko, Minoru; Kodama, Tomonobu; Nii, Kouhei; Matsubara, Shuko; Etou, Housei; Tanaka, Akira [Fukuoka University Chikushi Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Fukuoka (Japan)

2007-07-15

304

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Introduction Sometimes people have serious problems with their heart and the arteries that go into it. Coronary artery bypass graft surgery, or CABG, bypasses clogged arteries in the ...

305

Retinal arterioles have impaired reactivity to hyperoxia in type 1 diabetes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

PURPOSE: Diabetes has adverse effects on the retinal microvasculature. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of inhalation of hypoxic, hyperoxic and normoxic-hypercapnic gas mixtures on retinal vessel diameter in people with and without diabetes. METHODS: Sixty-one participants (aged 24-50 years) 29 with (male : female ratio 2.6 : 1) and 32 without (male : female ratio 0.7 : 1) diabetes, inhaled hypoxic, hyperoxic and normoxic-hypercapnic gas mixtures for 3-5 mins. The diameters of arterioles and venules were measured using digital retinal images taken before and after gas inhalation. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the diameters of arterioles and venules prior to gas inhalation in people with and without diabetes. Inhalation of the hyperoxic gas mixture caused a statistically significant decrease in arteriolar and venular diameters without altering mean arterial pressure significantly. Arteriolar vasoconstriction in response to the hyperoxic gas mixture was significantly reduced in people with diabetes (3.95% versus 7.75%; p = 0.04), but venular vasoconstriction did not differ significantly. A hypoxic gas mixture caused increased arteriolar and venular diameter and a normoxic-hypercapnic gas mixture had no significant effect on vessel diameter. Responses to hypoxic and normoxic-hypercapnic gas did not differ significantly between diabetes and non-diabetes subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Type 1 diabetes impairs retinal arteriolar responses to hyperoxia. Abnormalities in retinal arteriolar reactivity in response to oxygen may play a role in the development of diabetic retinopathy and this technique may represent a simple means of identifying early abnormalities in the reactivity of retinal arterioles in diabetes.

Justesen, Birgitte L; Mistry, Paresh

2010-01-01

306

Peripheral retinal detachments and retinal pigment epithelial atrophic tracts secondary to central serous pigment epitheliopathy. 1984.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty-five patients with central serous pigment epitheliopathy (CSP), also known as central serous chorioretinopathy, have been observed to have inferior hemispheric retinal pigment epithelial atrophic tracts, presumptive of antecedent retinal detachments. Five of these patients were noted to have clinically discernible, dependent peripheral retinal detachments. The clinical and fluorescein angiographic features of these patients are reviewed. Alterations in the retina, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and the choroid are also described. They include the commonly associated manifestations of CSP such as RPE leaks and macular detachment as well as some newly recognized disturbances such as retinal capillary dilatation (telangiectasia), retinal capillary leakage, retinal lipid deposition, cystoid macular edema, choriocapillaris atrophy, choroidal neovascularization and disciform scarring. PMID:22451960

Yannuzzi, Lawrence A; Shakin, Jeffrey L; Fisher, Yale L; Altomonte, Mary Ann

2012-02-01

307

[Serous retinal detachment in O2 therapy of primary pulmonary hypertension].  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is a rare disease, which almost inevitably leads to right-sided heart failure and death. This is to our knowledge the first report of ophthalmological complications. A 43-year-old woman in the late stage of PPH who had been continuously treated with oxygen developed an uveal effusion syndrome, which manifested as bilateral central serous retinal detachment and ciliochoroidal swelling. The serous detachment improved promptly after interruption of the oxygen therapy and again worsened when it was resumed because of massive dyspnea. Systemic blood pressure was 115/95. Right-sided cardiac catheterization revealed a systolic pulmonary arterial pressure of 110 mmHg. Pulmonary function tests showed a normal PO2 with oxygen and a light hypoxia without therapy. We came to the following conclusions: First, the central serous retinal detachment and peripheral choroidal swelling were induced by the striking increase in pulmonary arterial pressure, which almost equaled the systemic arterial pressure. Although the same ophthalmological findings have been reported in experimental animals after exposure to pure oxygen, pulmonary function tests disproved high oxygen concentration as the causative agent in our patient. Second, the improvement of pigment epithelial function after the interruption of oxygen therapy could be explained by the following hypotheses. Hypoxia induced a dilation of the choroidal arteries, followed by an improved supply of nutritive material for the pigment epithelium. There is experimental evidence that glucose might be the limiting metabolite of pigment epithelial function. PMID:1786918

Scheider, A; Asiyo, M; Habersetzer, K

1991-01-01

308

Mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis associated with retinitis pigmentosa.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two patients with retinitis pigmentosa and glomerulonephritis are described. The patients were unrelated and had identical renal lesions, mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis. This may not be a chance association, and simple dip-stick urine analysis in patients with primary retinal degenerations may lead to earlier identification of renal disease.

Kalra, P. A.; Turney, J. H.

1988-01-01

309

Retinal vein occlusion: pathophysiology and treatment options  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Niral KariaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Southend Hospital, Prittlewell Chase, Westcliff on Sea, Essex, United KingdomAbstract: This paper reviews the current thinking about retinal vein occlusion. It gives an overview of its pathophysiology and discusses the evidence behind the various established and emerging treatment paradigms.Keywords: central, hemispheric, branch, retinal vein occlusion, visual loss

Niral Karia

2010-07-01

310

Ocular blood flow parameters in patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study is to evaluate the potential statistically significant differences in the ocular blood flow parameters in eyes with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RD). Eleven patients, 5 females and 6 males, mean age 46 years (range 22-70), with the unilateral rhegmatogenous RD were enrolled in the study. Colour Doppler Ultrasound was used to measure ocular blood flow velocities in the ophthalmic artery (OA), posterior ciliary's arteries (PCA) and ophthalmic vein (OV). The contralateral eye served as a control. All Doppler examinations were performed 1 day before and exactly 3 days after the retinal detachment surgery. The measurements of the peak systolic velocity (Vmax), diastolic velocity (Vd), minimum velocity (Vmin), time-averaged velocity (TAV), resistive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) showed no statistically significant difference (by paired Student's t-test, p > 0.05) between the OA, PCA and OV in healthy eyes and eyes with RD before operation, as well as between the eyes with RD before and after the operation. Only was increased RI in OV of eyes with RD after the surgery (p 0.05). Pearson correlation method gave statistically significant correlation between RI and PI of the OA in healthy eyes (r = 0.826, p < 0.01), eyes with RD before operation (r = 0.847, p < 0.01) and eyes with RD after the operation (r = 0.856, p < 0.01). Formula for the calculation of PI by RI was derived using linear regression analysis in all three cases. Scleral buckling surgery leaves the ocular blood parameters in OA unchanged. The correlation between RD and logarithm of duration of RD in days is statistically significant. PMID:16193682

Juki?, Tomislav; Katusi?, Damir; Cikara, Igor; Kordi?, Rajko; Siki?, Jakov; Vukojevi?, Nenad; Sari?, Borna

2005-01-01

311

New mouse primary retinal degeneration (rd-3)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A new mouse retinal degeneration that appears to be an excellent candidate for modeling human retinitis pigmentosa is reported. In this degeneration, called rd-3, differentiation proceeds postnatally through 2 weeks, and photoreceptor degeneration starts by 3 weeks. The rod photoreceptor loss is essentially complete by 5 weeks, whereas remnant cone cells are seen through 7 weeks. This is the only mouse homozygous retinal degeneration reported to date in which photoreceptors are initially normal. Crosses with known mouse retinal degenerations rd, Rds, nr, and pcd are negative for retinal degeneration in offspring, and linkage analysis places rd-3 on mouse chromosome 1 at 10 [+-]2.5 cM distal to Akp-1. Homology mapping suggests that the homologous human locus should be on chromosome 1q. 32 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

Chang, B.; Hawes, N.L.; Roderick, T.H. (Jackson Lab., Bar Harbor, ME (United States)); Heckenlively, J.R. (UCLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA (United States))

1993-04-01

312

Cone pathway function in relation to asymmetric carotid artery stenosis : correlation to blood pressure  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose:  To examine retinal function in relation to retinal perfusion pressure in patients with carotid artery stenosis. Methods:  Thirteen patients with carotid artery stenosis without clinical eye disease underwent assessment of ophthalmic artery systolic blood pressure (OSP) by ocular pneumoplethysmography, carotid artery obstructive disease by ultrasonography, intraocular pressure by applanation tonometry, retinal perfusion by fluorescein angiography and retinal function by multifocal electroretinography (mfERG). Data analysis compared the eye on the most stenotic side with the fellow eye in the same patient. Results:  Ophthalmic systolic pressure was 95.8â??±â??13.1â??mmHg on the side with the highest degree of carotid artery stenosis (mean 94.0%) and 111.7â??±â??10.3â??mmHg in the fellow eyes on the side with the lesser degree of stenosis (mean 33.9%). Summed mfERG implicit times (N1 and P1) were 3.4% and 2.0% longer (pâ??=â??0.013 and 0.021), and N1 and P1 amplitudes were 18.0% and 16.0% (pâ??=â??0.0041 and 0.020) lower in eyes on the side with the higher stenosis compared with the contralateral eyes. Shorter implicit times and higher amplitudes were correlated with higher brachial systolic arterial blood pressure (pâ??=â??0.0028, 0.011, 0.041 for N1, P1, N2 implicit times, respectively, and pâ??=â??0.0086, 0.016, 0.040 for N1, P1, N2 for amplitudes, respectively, corrected for OSP). Conclusion:  Cone function deviation was observed in clinically healthy eyes on the side with highest degree of carotid artery stenosis and was found correlated to arterial blood pressure.

Kofoed, Peter Kristian; Munch, Inger Christine

2013-01-01

313

Therapeutic developments in cytomegalovirus retinitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

The incidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in AIDS has declined significantly due to the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). However, patients with HIV, especially those failing HAART, may still suffer with CMV retinitis, which can lead to significant loss of vision and blindness. Ganciclovir has traditionally been considered the recommended treatment for CMV retinitis; however, due to side effects and the possibility of developing viral resistance, other agents may be preferred in certain situations. Foscarnet, which has similar efficacy to ganciclovir but a different side effect profile, is more difficult to administer and is less well-tolerated. Intravenous cidofovir, which may be more effective than either iv. ganciclovir or foscarnet, can also be used as a first line agent; however, it is associated with toxicity (renal and ocular) and thus needs careful use. Local therapy for CMV retinitis has been a significant advance. The intraocular ganciclovir implant has the highest efficacy of the approved agents and is well-tolerated. Fomivirsen, an oligonucleotide injected intravitreally, is a newly approved agent which offers alternative treatment. Intravitreal ganciclovir or foscarnet, although not approved, have been used successfully in some patients especially those with recurrent or refractory disease. The development of new anti-CMV agents has been stalled by the decreased incidence of the disease. Valganciclovir, a prodrug of ganciclovir, offers excellent oral bioavailability and is the closest to approval of all the new anti-CMV drugs. High ganciclovir blood levels are achieved without the complications associated with the requirement for long-term iv. access. The monoclonal antibody (mAb) MSL-109, did not offer a significant advantage when added to traditional anti-CMV therapy. Development plans of other agents such as cyclic HPMPC and lobucavir have been put on hold by their respective manufacturers. Adefovir is a nucleotide analogue that possesses anti-CMV activity, but is currently only being pursued for the treatment of hepatitis B virus. Other compounds possessing significant anti-CMV activity, including BAY 38-4766 and GW1263W94 are still in the early stages of development. PMID:11060672

Hoffman, V F; Skiest, D J

2000-02-01

314

Fomivirsen approved for CMV retinitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fomivirsen (Vitravene) is the first antisense drug to be approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and it will be used for the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis. Fomivirsen is administered by intravitreal injection, and it can be used to help patients who are resistant to other treatments for CMV. Isis Pharmaceuticals, Inc., manufacturer of fomivirsen, had a difficult time recruiting people for its clinical trials, due to the decline in the incidence of opportunistic infections. However, Isis still made a presentation to the FDA, providing clinical data about patients, treatment methods, and outcomes. A detailed explanation of antisense drugs is included. PMID:11365956

Roehr, B

1998-10-01

315

Primary Reactions in Retinal Proteins  

Science.gov (United States)

Conversion of sunlight into energy or information and their storage on a chemical level is essential for life on earth. An important family of chromoproteins performing these tasks is that of retinal binding proteins. Prominent examples are rhodopsin (Rh) [1,2] as the visual pigment in vertebrate and invertebrate animals, the archaeal rhodopsins bacteriorhodopsin (BR) [3] as a light driven proton pump, halorhodopsin (HR) [4,5] as a light driven chloride pump, sensory rhodopsin I and II (SRI, SRII) [6] as photoreceptors, and proteorhodopsin (PR) [7] as another bacterial proton pump.

Diller, R.

316

Determinants of Retinal Venular Diameter: the Beaver Dam Eye Study  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To describe how retinal venular diameter changes over time for an individual and to examine differences in these changes among people with different risk profiles. Design Population-based cohort study. Participants 4600 persons aged 43–86 years from the Beaver Dam Eye Study who participated in at least 1 examination and had venular diameter measured in the right eye. Methods Data from 4 examinations over 15 years were analyzed. Retinal venular diameter was measured from photographs at each examination by computer-assisted methods and summarized as the central retinal venular equivalent (CRVE). Associations of risk factors to concurrent CRVE measurements and changes in CRVE over time were determined using multivariate analyses. Main Outcome Measure CRVE. Results CRVE tended to narrow with age. Mean CRVE was about 5 µm smaller (225 vs. 230 µm) for the average 70-year-old compared to the average 50-year-old, and was about 13 µm smaller (217 vs. 230 µm) for the average 85-year-old compared to the average 50-year-old. Male sex (beta estimate [?]=5.34; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.58, 6.90), current smoking (?=9.38; 95% CI 8.26, 10.49), and higher white blood cell count (per 1000/µL: ?=0.95; 95% CI 0.74, 1.16) were independently associated with larger concurrent CRVE while higher mean arterial blood pressure (per 5 mmHg: ?=?0.36; 95% CI ?0.50, ?0.23) and higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (per 10 mg/dL: ?=?0.89; 95% CI ?1.15, ?0.63) were independently associated with smaller concurrent CRVE. History of cardiovascular disease (?=?0.16; 95% CI ?0.26, ?0.06) and presence of chronic kidney disease (?=?0.20; 95% CI ?0.34, ?0.05) were associated with a greater decrease in CRVE over time. Conclusions These data show that retinal venular diameter tended to narrow with age, and that concurrent venular diameter is independently associated with sex, blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, white blood cell count, and current smoking, and change in CRVE is independently associated with a history of cardiovascular disease and presence of chronic kidney disease. The different independent effects of these interrelated factors on CRVE highlight the complex relationship between systemic diseases and conditions and CRVE, and the difficulty in determining specific causes of change in CRVE over time.

Myers, Chelsea E.; Klein, Ronald; Knudtson, Michael D.; Lee, Kristine E.; Gangnon, Ronald; Wong, Tien Y.; Klein, Barbara E. K.

2012-01-01

317

Transvitreal cyanoacrylate retinopexy in the management of complicated retinal detachment.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Failures in vitreous surgery for complex vitreoretinal disorders are frequently due to an inability to keep preexisting or iatrogenic retinal breaks permanently closed. We have used transvitreally delivered cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive to seal retinal breaks in selected patients undergoing vitreous surgery for complicated retinal detachment. With a minimum follow-up period of 6 months, all but one retinal hole have remained closed and complete retinal reattachment posterior to the encircling...

Mccuen, B. W.; Hida, T.; Sheta, S. M.; Machemer, R.

1987-01-01

318

A sciatic nerve with three roots and its perforation by the enlarged ischiadic artery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowledge about the variations of the sciatic nerve (SN) is important for many medical science disciplines. Its compression, entrapment or injury of any kind can result in loss of sensation, pain or motor disabilities in the lower limbs. We observed concurrent neurovascular variations in the gluteal region of an adult female cadaver. The SN had three roots as it emerged out of the greater sciatic foramen. The upper root passed above the piriformis; the middle and lower roots passed below the piriformis. The three roots joined to form the SN in the gluteal region. The inferior gluteal artery (IGA) was large, and it passed below the piriformis, between the middle and lower root of the SN. After a tortuous course, this artery continued down as the sciatic/ischiadic artery. The ischiadic artery (IA) was large in size and pierced the SN in the thigh. After piercing the nerve, it terminated by dividing into muscular branches. The inferior gluteal nerve emerged out from the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen, above the level of the piriformis. The SN in this case was highly predisposed to compression by the piriformis, IGA or IA, which in turn may lead to altered cutaneous sensation or weakness of the muscles. PMID:23959929

Nayak, Satheesha B; George, Bincy M; Mishra, Snigdha

2014-03-01

319

Uterine artery embolization with Pingyangmycin lipiodol emulsion for treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness and side effects of uterine arterial embolization with Pingyangmycin(a homogenous bleomycin) lipiodol emulsion(PLE) for symptomatic uterine fibroids. Methods: Uterine arterial embolization with PLE was performed in 25 patients. The improvement of symptoms and uterine size changes were followed up in 3-18 months(mean 6 months) after the procedure. Results: All but 2 cases were successfully treated bilaterally. Super-selective angiography showed enlargement of uterine artery, accompanied by tortuous branches. The uterine size was increased. The uterus itself was significantly stained and emptied slowly. Coagulation necrosis was found in resected fibroids after embolization in 3 patients. One month after the procedure, a mean 40% reduction of uterine volume was obtained in 18 followed-up cases. The clinical symptoms were relieved significantly. The main side effects were hypogastric pain(13/25),which was intense in 6 cases. Conclusion: Uterine arterial embolization with PLE is a good non-surgical therapy in symptomatic uterine fibroids with mild side effects

2000-12-01

320

Retinal repair with induced pluripotent stem cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Retinal degeneration such as age-related macular degeneration and other inherited forms, such as Stargardt's disease and retinitis pigmentosa, and optic neuropathies including glaucoma and ischemic optic neuropathy are major causes of vision loss and blindness worldwide. Damage to retinal pigment epithelial cells and photoreceptors in the former, and to retinal ganglion cell axons in the optic nerve and their cell bodies in the retina in the latter diseases lead to the eventual death of these retinal cells, and in humans there is no endogenous replacement or repair. Cell replacement therapies provide 1 avenue to restore function in these diseases, particularly in the case of retinal repair, although there are considerable issues to overcome, including the differentiation and integration of the transplanted cells. What stem cell sources could be used for such therapies? One promising source is induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which could be drawn from an individual patient needing therapy, or generated and banked from select donors. We review developing research in the use of iPSCs for retinal cell replacement therapy. PMID:24291154

Al-Shamekh, Shomoukh; Goldberg, Jeffrey L

2014-04-01

 
 
 
 
321

Bilateral acute retinal necrosis after herpetic meningitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Keisho Hirota1,2, Masayuki Akimoto1,3, Toshiaki Katsura21Department of Ophthalmology, Kyoto Medical Center, National Hospital Organization, 2Internal Medicine, Kyoto Medical Center, 3Clinical Research Center, Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto, JapanPurpose: The report of a case of bilateral acute retinal necrosis after herpetic meningitis.Case report: A 47-year-old man was admitted with the chief complaint of persistent high fever and transient loss of consciousness. Although his general condition improved after intravenous acyclovir administration, the patient presented with visual loss in both eyes 4 days after admission. Visual acuity in his right eye was 20/200 and his left eye had light perception alone. Both eyes showed panretinal arteritis diagnosed as acute retinal necrosis. Panretinal photocoagulation was performed for both eyes. Progression of retinal detachment was prevented in both eyes; however, visual acuity of the left eye was totally lost because of neovascular glaucoma. Visual acuity of the right eye recovered to 20/20.Conclusion: Although cases of bilateral acute retinal necrosis have been reported after herpetic encephalitis, this condition is rare after herpetic meningitis. Prophylactic acyclovir therapy and early panretinal photocoagulation may prevent retinal detachment and improve the prognosis. Neurologists and ophthalmologists should be aware that not only herpetic encephalitis but also herpetic meningitis can lead to acute retinal necrosis within a very short interval.Keywords: acute retinal necrosis, herpetic meningitis, herpes simplex, varicella zoster virus

Katsura T

2012-04-01

322

Silver nano - a trove for retinal therapies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pathological retinal angiogenesis (neovascularization) is one of the most feared complications among retinal diseases, leading to visual impairment and irreversible blindness. Recent findings made by us on therapeutic applications of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against VEGF induced retinal endothelial cells, elucidates the effectual inhibitory activities of AgNPs over the downstream signaling pathways (Src and AKT/PI3K) leading to retinal angiogenesis. The current review focuses on the imperative role of VEGF induced angiogenesis in the development of retinal neovascularization and despite the fact that several VEGF targeting ocular drugs are available; the review examines the need for a cost economic alternative, thereby suggesting the role of AgNPs as an emerging economic ocular drug for retinal therapies. The current technologies available for the development of targeted and controlled release of drugs is being discussed and a model has been proposed for the amenable targeting mechanism, by which Poly gamma glutamic acid (PGA) capsulated AgNPs conjugated to cyclic RGD peptides carry out a sustained controlled release specifically targeting the neovascularization cells and induce apoptosis unaffecting the normal retinal cells. These constructs consequently affirm the futuristic application of silver nanoparticles as a boon to ocular therapies. PMID:20359511

Kalishwaralal, Kalimuthu; Barathmanikanth, Selvaraj; Pandian, Sureshbabu Ram Kumar; Deepak, Venkatraman; Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi

2010-07-14

323

Macrovaso retiniano congênito: relato de caso / Congenital retinal macrovessel: case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os autores apresentam o caso de um macrovaso arteriolar de retina, diagnosticado ao exame de rotina, bem como seu aspecto à tomografia de coerência óptica. O macrovaso retiniano congênito é um grande vaso aberrante, geralmente unilateral, usualmente uma veia, raramente uma artéria, presente no pólo [...] posterior e que pode cruzar a região foveal e rafe mediana. Abstract in english The authors report a case of arteriolar retinal macrovessel, diagnosed by routine ophthalmologic examination, as well as its optic coherence tomography aspects. Congenital retinal macrovessel is a large aberrant vessel, often unilateral, usually a vein, rarely an artery, located in the posterior pol [...] e which can cross the fovea and median raphe.

Billy de Moura Palha e, Silva; Alexandre Antonio Marques, Rosa; Etiene Mendes França dos, Santos; Edmundo Frota de, Almeida Sobrinho.

324

High quality optical microangiography of ocular microcirculation and measurement of total retinal blood flow in mouse eye  

Science.gov (United States)

Visualization and measurement of retinal blood flow (RBF) is important to the diagnosis and management of different eye diseases, including diabetic retinopathy. Optical microangiography (OMAG) is developed for generating 3D dynamic microcirculation image and later refined into ultra-high sensitive OMAG (UHS-OMAG) for true capillary vessels imaging. Here, we present the application of OMAG imaging technique for visualization of depth-resolved vascular network within retina and choroid as well as measurement of total retinal blood flow in mice. A fast speed spectral domain OCT imaging system at 820nm with a line scan rate of 140 kHz was developed to image mouse posterior eye. By applying UHS-OMAG scanning protocol and processing algorithm, we achieved true capillary level imaging of retina and choroid vasculature in mouse eye. The vascular pattern within different retinal layers and choroid was presented. An en face Doppler OCT approach [1] without knowing Doppler angle was adopted for the measurement of total retinal blood flow. The axial blood flow velocity is measured in an en face plane by raster scanning and the flow is calculated by integrating over the vessel area of the central retinal artery.

Zhi, Zhongwei; Yin, Xin; Dziennis, Suzan; Alpers, Charles E.; Wang, Ruikang K.

2013-03-01

325

Retinal thickness variation in the diabetic patient measured by the retinal thickness analyser  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIM—To evaluate the potential of the retinal thickness analyser (RTA) as an objective tool for assessment and follow up of diabetic macular oedema.?METHODS—A prototype of the RTA that operates on the principle of laser slit biomicroscopy was used. Retinal thickness was obtained in 41 eyes of 41 diabetic patients. The clinical diagnosis was cystoid macular oedema (CMO) in 10 eyes, clinically significant macular oedema (CSMO) without retinal cysts in 21 eyes, and "dry" macula foll...

Weinberger, D.; Axer-siegel, R.; Landau, D.; Yassur, Y.

1998-01-01

326

Retinal Stimulation on Rabbit Using Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Based Multichip Flexible Stimulator toward Retinal Prosthesis  

Science.gov (United States)

The Functionality of a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) LSI-based, multichip flexible retinal stimulator was demonstrated in retinal stimulation experiments on rabbits. A 1× 4-configured multichip stimulator was fabricated for application to experiments on animals. An experimental procedure including surgical operations was developed, and retinal stimulation was performed with the fabricated multichip stimulator. Neural responses on the visual cortex were successfully evoked by the fabricated stimulator. The stimulator is confirmed to be applicable to acute animal experiments.

Tokuda, Takashi; Asano, Ryosuke; Sugitani, Sachie; Taniyama, Mari; Terasawa, Yasuo; Nunoshita, Masahiro; Nakauchi, Kazuaki; Fujikado, Takashi; Tano, Yasuo; Ohta, Jun

2008-04-01

327

Missense Mutations in a Retinal Pigment Epithelium Protein, Bestrophin-1, Cause Retinitis Pigmentosa  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Bestrophin-1 is preferentially expressed at the basolateral membrane of the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) of the retina. Mutations in the BEST1 gene cause the retinal dystrophies vitelliform macular dystrophy, autosomal-dominant vitreochoroidopathy, and autosomal-recessive bestrophinopathy. Here, we describe four missense mutations in bestrophin-1, three that we believe are previously unreported, in patients diagnosed with autosomal-dominant and -recessive forms of retinitis pigmentosa (...

Davidson, Alice E.; Millar, Ian D.; Urquhart, Jill E.; Burgess-mullan, Rosemary; Shweikh, Yusrah; Parry, Neil; O Sullivan, James; Maher, Geoffrey J.; Mckibbin, Martin; Downes, Susan M.; Lotery, Andrew J.; Jacobson, Samuel G.; Brown, Peter D.; Black, Graeme C. M.; Manson, Forbes D. C.

2009-01-01

328

Management of inferior retinal breaks during pars plana vitrectomy for retinal detachment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIMS—To determine whether it is necessary to support inferior retinal breaks with a scleral explant during pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RD).?METHODS—A prospective study was carried out on nine eyes of nine consecutive patients undergoing PPV for primary RD with associated inferior retinal breaks and no significant proliferative vitreoretinopathy.?RESULTS—Eight eyes were successfully reattached with a single operation. No cases presented ...

Tanner, V.; Minihan, M.; Williamson, T.

2001-01-01

329

Plasma Kallikrein Mediates Retinal Vascular Dysfunction and Induces Retinal Thickening in Diabetic Rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: Plasma kallikrein (PK) has been identified in vitreous fluid obtained from individuals with diabetic retinopathy and has been implicated in contributing to retinal vascular dysfunction. In this report, we examined the effects of PK on retinal vascular functions and thickness in diabetic rats. Research Design and Methods: We investigated the effects of a selective PK inhibitor, ASP-440, and C1 inhibitor (C1-INH), the primary physiological inhibitor of PK, on retinal vascular permeab...

Chilcote, Tamie J.; Kita, Takeshi; Riva, Priscilla; Sinha, Sukanto; Clermont, Allen Charles; Liu, Jia; Feener, Edward Paul

2011-01-01

330

Homocysteine, MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism, folic acid and vitamin B 12 in patients with retinal vein occlusion  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Background Many available data have suggested that hyperhomocysteinaemia, an established independent risk factor for thrombosis (arterial and venous), may be associated with an increased risk of retinal vein occlusion (RVO). Aim of the study To evaluate homocysteine metabolism in consecutive caucasian patients affected by RVO from Northern Italy. Patients and Methods 69 consecutive patients from Northern Italy (mean age 64.1 ± 14.6 yy) wi...

Ferrazzi Paola; Di Micco Pierpaolo; Quaglia Ilaria; Rossi Lisa; Bellatorre Alessandro; Gaspari Giorgio; Rota Lidia; Lodigiani Corrado

2005-01-01

331

Fluid vitreous substitutes in vitreo retinal surgery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Advances in the surgical instrumentation and vitreoretinal techniques have allowed intraoperative reapproximation of retina to a more normal position. The use of intravitreally injected liquid materials (viscoelastic liquids, liquid perfluorocarbons and silicone oil, as adjunctive agents to vitreo-retinal surgery play an important role in facilitating retinal reattachment. These materials are used as intraoperative instruments to re-establish intraocular volume, assist in separating membranes adherent to the retina, manipulate retinal detachments and mechanically flatten detached retina. Over the longer term, silicone oil maintains intraocular tamponade. One should be cognizant of the potential uses, benefits and risks of each of these vitreous substitutes.

Saxena Sandeep

1996-01-01

332

Electrical properties of retinal electrode interface  

Science.gov (United States)

A critical element of a retinal prosthesis is the stimulating electrode array, which is placed in close proximity to the retina. It is via this retinal-electrode interface that a retinal prosthesis electrically stimulates nerve cells to produce the perception of light. The impedance load seen by the current driver consists of the tissue resistance and the complex electrode impedance. The results in this paper show that the tissue resistance of the retina is significantly greater than that of the vitreous humor in the eye. Circuit models of the electrode-retina interface are used to parameterize the different contributors to the overall impedance.

Shah, Samip; Hines, Amy; Zhou, David; Greenberg, Robert J.; Humayun, Mark S.; Weiland, James D.

2007-03-01

333

Retinal prostheses: clinical results and future challenges.  

Science.gov (United States)

Retinal prostheses aim at restoring visual perception in blind patients affected by retinal diseases leading to the loss of photoreceptors, such as age-related macular degeneration or retinitis pigmentosa. Recent clinical trials have demonstrated the feasibility of this approach for restoring useful vision. Despite a limited number of electrodes (60), and therefore of pixels, some patients were able to read words and to recognize high-contrast objects. Face recognition and independent locomotion in unknown urban environments imply technological breakthroughs to increase the number and density of electrodes. This review presents recent clinical results and discusses future solutions to answer the major technological challenges. PMID:24702848

Picaud, Serge; Sahel, José-Alain

2014-03-01

334

Hypoxia-inducible factor and vascular endothelial growth factor in the neuroretina and retinal blood vessels after retinal ischemia  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Retinal ischemia arises from circulatory failure. As the retinal blood vessels are key organs in circulatory failure, our aim was to study the retinal vasculature separately from the neuroretina to elucidate the role of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 1? and 1? and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in retinal ischemia. Retinal ischemia was induced in porcine eyes by applying an intraocular pressure, followed by 12 h of reperfusion. HIF-1? mRNA expression was not affected by ischemi...

2010-01-01

335

Renal artery stenting via brachial artery approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To assess the effectiveness and safety of brachial artery access for percutaneous renal artery stenting. Methods: From January 2002 to January 2005, transbrachial artery renal angioplasty and stenting(RAS) was performed in 8 patients(7 males, 1 female)with severe renal artery stenosis. Imaging assessment of the target renal artery was performed before all procedures, which precluded the possibility of femoral approach. Either long guiding sheath or otherwise pigtail methods were selected according to patients' status for evaluation of the target renal artery during the procedure. Monitoring the blood pressure and renal function was followed up of 6 months after the procedure. Results: The technical success was 100% with no procedure-related complication and good outcome follow up to 6 months. Conclusion: Brachial artery access for renal artery stenting is a safe and technically feasible for renal artery stenosis, providing an alternative for unsuitable femoral approach. (authors)

2007-07-01

336

Idiopathic juxtafoveal retinal telangiectasis and retinal macroaneurysm treated with indocyanine green dye-enhanced photocoagulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

This case report presents the use of indocyanine green dye-enhanced photocoagulation (ICG-DEP) for the treatment of idiopathic juxtafoveal retinal telangiectasis and a retinal macroaneurysm. A 35-year-old male with 20/20 vision had been followed for 5 years for a retinal macroaneurysm with retinal telangiectasis outside the macular area. He then presented with a recently decreased vision in his right. He had macular edema with a new area of idiopathic juxtafoveal retinal telangiectasis. After 4 focal argon laser treatments, angiographic closure of the lesions was not obtained and the retinal edema remained. After 3 sessions of ICG-DEP, the lesions were closed and the edema absorbed. The 810 nm infrared laser with ICG-DEP should be considered for the treatment of idiopathic juxtafoveal retinal telangiectasis and retinal macroaneurysms. In this case the procedure appears to be safe and well tolerated. It may allow for more direct energy absorption than that of the argon laser to these types of retinal lesions with better tissue closure. PMID:23241941

Steigerwalt, R D; Pascarella, A; Arrico, L; Librando, A; Plateroti, R; Plateroti, A M; Plateroti, P; Nebbioso, M

2012-12-01

337

Mesenteric artery ischemia  

Science.gov (United States)

Mesenteric artery ischemia occurs when there is a narrowing or blockage of one or more of the three major arteries that ... that supply blood to the intestine causes mesenteric ischemia. The arteries that supply blood to the intestines ...

338

Carotid artery surgery  

Science.gov (United States)

Carotid endarterectomy; CAS surgery; Carotid artery stenosis - surgery; Endarterectomy - carotid artery ... turned to one side. The side your blocked carotid artery is on faces up. The surgeon makes a ...

339

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... known as coronary arteries. Symptoms and Their Causes Cholesterol deposits accumulate in the coronary arteries, forming “plaques” ... Healthy diet and medications that lower your blood cholesterol can help slow the process that clogs arteries. ...

340

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... as coronary arteries. Symptoms and Their Causes Cholesterol deposits accumulate in the coronary arteries, forming “plaques” that ... Last reviewed: 12/29/2012 6 Summary Cholesterol deposits can block the coronary arteries. If this happens ...

 
 
 
 
341

Coronary artery disease (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

... through these arteries is critical for the heart. Coronary artery disease usually results from the build-up of fatty material and plaque, a condition called atherosclerosis. As the coronary arteries narrow, the flow of blood to the ...

342

New directions in retinal research.  

Science.gov (United States)

Direction-selective retinal ganglion cells (DSGCs) respond to image motion in a "preferred" direction but not the opposite "null" direction. Extracellular spike recordings from rabbit DSGCs suggested that the key mechanism underlying the directional responses is spatially offset inhibition projecting in the null direction. Recent patch-clamp recordings have shown that this inhibition, which acts directly on the DSGC, is already direction selective. Dual recordings established that the inhibition arises from starburst amacrine cells (SBACs) located on the null side of the DSGC but not from those on the preferred side. Thus, for each radially symmetric SBAC, processes pointing in different directions would provide the null-direction inhibition to subtypes of DSGCs with different preferred directions. Ca2+ imaging revealed that the SBAC terminal processes respond more strongly to image motion away from the soma than towards the soma, therefore accounting for the direction selectivity of the inhibitory input to the DSGCs. PMID:12850434

Taylor, W Rowland; Vaney, David I

2003-07-01

343

BLOOD VESSEL DIAMETER MEASUREMENT ON RETINAL IMAGE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Accurate measurement of vessel diameters on retinal images plays an important part in diagnosing cardiovascular diseases and early signs of certain systemic diseases, such as diabetes and hypertension. In this study we develop new method based on computer aided to determine the width of retinal blood vessels by analysing the color fundus image. Retinal vessel diameter was measured based on blood vessel wall estimating on the digital fundus image. We suggested a dependable and accurate technique to determine the diameter (width of retinal blood vessel based on suggested mask created to use specifically on measuring the blood vessel diameter. The suggested system starts by removing the bifurcations and determine the width for each blood vessel segment. Suggested algorithm tested and gives accurate and promised results.

Nidhal El Abbadi

2014-01-01

344

New Device Offers Hope to People Blinded Due to Incurable Eye Disorders (Retinitis Pigmentosa)  

Science.gov (United States)

... first FDA-approved retinal implant for adults with retinitis pigmentosa. Retinitis pigmentosa is a group of genetic disorders that affect ... Up to one-quarter of all patients with retinitis pigmentosa will become legally blind in both eyes. [ii] ...

345

Retinoid receptors trigger neuritogenesis in retinal degenerations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Anomalous neuritogenesis is a hallmark of neurodegenerative disorders, including retinal degenerations, epilepsy, and Alzheimer's disease. The neuritogenesis processes result in a partial reinnervation, new circuitry, and functional changes within the deafferented retina and brain regions. Using the light-induced retinal degeneration (LIRD) mouse model, which provides a unique platform for exploring the mechanisms underlying neuritogenesis, we found that retinoid X receptors (RXRs) control ne...

Lin, Yanhua; Jones, Bryan W.; Liu, Aihua; Tucker, James F.; Rapp, Kevin; Luo, Ling; Baehr, Wolfgang; Bernstein, Paul S.; Watt, Carl B.; Yang, Jia-hui; Shaw, Marguerite V.; Marc, Robert E.

2012-01-01

346

Fluid vitreous substitutes in vitreo retinal surgery  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Advances in the surgical instrumentation and vitreoretinal techniques have allowed intraoperative reapproximation of retina to a more normal position. The use of intravitreally injected liquid materials (viscoelastic liquids, liquid perfluorocarbons and silicone oil), as adjunctive agents to vitreo-retinal surgery play an important role in facilitating retinal reattachment. These materials are used as intraoperative instruments to re-establish intraocular volume, assist in separating membrane...

1996-01-01

347

Retinitis pigmentosa and ocular blood flow  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Is the concept of integrative, preventive and personalised medicine applicable to the relationship between retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and ocular blood flow (OBF)? RP encompasses a group of hereditary diseases of the posterior segment of the eye characterised by degeneration, atrophy and finally loss of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium, leading to progressive visual loss. Many different mutations affecting different genes can lead to the clinical picture of RP. E...

Konieczka Katarzyna; Flammer Andreas, J.; Todorova Margarita; Meyer Peter; Flammer Josef

2012-01-01

348

Photochemistry of retinal chromophore in mouse melanopsin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In mammals, melanopsin is exclusively expressed in intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), which play an important role in circadian photoentrainment and other nonimage-forming functions. These ipRGCs reside in the inner retina, far removed from the pigment epithelium, which synthesizes the 11-cis retinal chromophore used by rod and cone photoreceptors to regenerate opsin for light detection. There has been considerable interest in the identification of the melanopsin ch...

Walker, Marquis T.; Brown, R. Lane; Cronin, Thomas W.; Robinson, Phyllis R.

2008-01-01

349

Evaluation of the Zeiss retinal vessel analyser  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIM—To investigate the reproducibility and sensitivity of the Zeiss retinal vessel analyser, a new method for the online determination of retinal vessel diameters in healthy subjects.?METHODS—Two model drugs were administered, a peripheral vasoconstrictor (the ? receptor agonist phenylephrine) and a peripheral vasodilator (the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside) in stepwise increasing doses. Nine healthy young subjects were studied in a placebo controlled double masked three ...

2000-01-01

350

Retinal iron homeostasis in health and disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Iron is essential for life, but excess iron can be toxic. As a potent free radical creator, iron generates hydroxyl radicals leading to significant oxidative stress. Since iron is not excreted from the body, it accumulates with age in tissues, including the retina, predisposing to age-related oxidative insult. Both hereditary and acquired retinal diseases are associated with increased iron levels. For example, retinal degenerations have been found in hereditary iron overload disorders, like aceruloplasminemia, Friedreich’s ataxia, and pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. Similarly, mice with targeted mutation of the iron exporter ceruloplasmin and its homolog hephaestin showed age-related retinal iron accumulation and retinal degeneration with features resembling human age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Post mortem AMD eyes have increased levels of iron in retina compared to age-matched healthy donors. Iron accumulation in AMD is likely to result, in part, from inflammation, hypoxia, and oxidative stress, all of which can cause iron dysregulation. Fortunately, it has been demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo studies that iron in the retinal pigment epithelium and retina is chelatable. Iron chelation protects photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE in a variety of mouse models. This has therapeutic potential for diminishing iron-induced oxidative damage to prevent or treat AMD.

DeluSong

2013-06-01

351

Retinal imaging using adaptive optics technology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adaptive optics (AO) is a technology used to improve the performance of optical systems by reducing the effect of wave front distortions. Retinal imaging using AO aims to compensate for higher order aberrations originating from the cornea and the lens by using deformable mirror. The main application of AO retinal imaging has been to assess photoreceptor cell density, spacing, and mosaic regularity in normal and diseased eyes. Apart from photoreceptors, the retinal pigment epithelium, retinal nerve fiber layer, retinal vessel wall and lamina cribrosa can also be visualized with AO technology. Recent interest in AO technology in eye research has resulted in growing number of reports and publications utilizing this technology in both animals and humans. With the availability of first commercially available instruments we are making transformation of AO technology from a research tool to diagnostic instrument. The current challenges include imaging eyes with less than perfect optical media, formation of normative databases for acquired images such as cone mosaics, and the cost of the technology. The opportunities for AO will include more detailed diagnosis with description of some new findings in retinal diseases and glaucoma as well as expansion of AO into clinical trials which has already started. PMID:24843304

Kozak, Igor

2014-04-01

352

Retinal remodeling triggered by photoreceptor degenerations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many photoreceptor degenerations initially affect rods, secondarily leading to cone death. It has long been assumed that the surviving neural retina is largely resistant to this sensory deafferentation. New evidence from fast retinal degenerations reveals that subtle plasticities in neuronal form and connectivity emerge early in disease. By screening mature natural, transgenic, and knockout retinal degeneration models with computational molecular phenotyping, we have found an extended late phase of negative remodeling that radically changes retinal structure. Three major transformations emerge: 1) Müller cell hypertrophy and elaboration of a distal glial seal between retina and the choroid/retinal pigmented epithelium; 2) apparent neuronal migration along glial surfaces to ectopic sites; and 3) rewiring through evolution of complex neurite fascicles, new synaptic foci in the remnant inner nuclear layer, and new connections throughout the retina. Although some neurons die, survivors express molecular signatures characteristic of normal bipolar, amacrine, and ganglion cells. Remodeling in human and rodent retinas is independent of the initial molecular targets of retinal degenerations, including defects in the retinal pigmented epithelium, rhodopsin, or downstream phototransduction elements. Although remodeling may constrain therapeutic intervals for molecular, cellular, or bionic rescue, it suggests that the neural retina may be more plastic than previously believed. PMID:12866125

Jones, Bryan W; Watt, Carl B; Frederick, Jeanne M; Baehr, Wolfgang; Chen, Ching-Kang; Levine, Edward M; Milam, Ann H; Lavail, Matthew M; Marc, Robert E

2003-09-01

353

Management of pseudoaneurysms in the intracranial segment of the internal carotid artery with covered stents specially designed for use in the intracranial vasculature: technical notes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Vascular diseases like aneurysms, pseudoaneurysms and direct high-flow carotid-cavernous fistulas on the intracranial segment of the internal carotid artery are usually managed through transarterial embolization with detachable coils or balloons. Utility of covered stents has been reported with good results in the treatment of selective cases. But the current generation of covered stents for coronary use is rather stiff and difficult to navigate in tortuous vessels particularly in the intracranial vasculature. Herein, we report on the use and technical respects of balloon-expanded covered stents specially designed for intracranial vasculature in the treatment of two pseudoaneurysms secondary to the successful obliteration of direct CCFs on the intracranial segment of the internal carotid artery. This is the first report of covered stents specially developed for use in intracranial vasculature. (orig.)

Li, Ming-Hua; Gao, Bu-Lang; Wang, Yong-Li; Fang, Chun; Li, Yong-Dong [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Shanghai Sixth People' s Hospital, Shanghai (China)

2006-11-15

354

Management of pseudoaneurysms in the intracranial segment of the internal carotid artery with covered stents specially designed for use in the intracranial vasculature: technical notes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Vascular diseases like aneurysms, pseudoaneurysms and direct high-flow carotid-cavernous fistulas on the intracranial segment of the internal carotid artery are usually managed through transarterial embolization with detachable coils or balloons. Utility of covered stents has been reported with good results in the treatment of selective cases. But the current generation of covered stents for coronary use is rather stiff and difficult to navigate in tortuous vessels particularly in the intracranial vasculature. Herein, we report on the use and technical respects of balloon-expanded covered stents specially designed for intracranial vasculature in the treatment of two pseudoaneurysms secondary to the successful obliteration of direct CCFs on the intracranial segment of the internal carotid artery. This is the first report of covered stents specially developed for use in intracranial vasculature. (orig.)

2006-11-01

355

Retinal Neovascularization and An Angioma-like Lesion after Demarcation Photocoagulation for Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Laser photocoagulation might aggravate the ischemia of an area of retinal detachmentand predispose the retina to formation of neovascularization and an angioma-like lesion. Wepresent a case of retinal neovascularization (RNV and an angioma-like lesion occurringafter demarcation photocoagulation for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD. A 20-year-old woman suffered from a retinal atrophic hole with localized shallow retinal detachmentin the right eye. Laser photocoagulation was performed to wall off the area of detachment.Fifteen months later, RNV and an angioma-like lesion had developed in the previouslydetached retina. Treatment with demarcation photocoagulation for RRD may run a risk offormation of RNV and angioma-like lesion if the retina is not reattached.

San-Ni Chen

2006-04-01

356

Pars plana vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment associated with benign retinal tumors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two patients with known histories of benign retinal tumors presented with rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (RRD) in the same eye. One had a retinocytoma and presenting vision of 20/50, while the other had congenital hypertrophy of the retinal pigment epithelium and vision of 20/30. Both had subretinal fluid accumulation in a configuration consistent with a retinal break near the tumor; however, no breaks were detected on examination or intraoperatively. Pars plana vitrectomy (PPV), drainage retinotomy, fluid-air exchange, barrier laser around the tumor, and gas tamponade successfully reattached the retina in both cases. After 12 and 6 months of follow-up, respectively, final vision was 20/25 and the retina remained attached. RRD may be associated with benign retinal tumors presumably with microscopic breaks at the margins. In these cases, PPV, drainage retinotomy, fluid-air exchange, endolaser around the tumor, and gas tamponade can be effective for treatment. PMID:23883537

Say, Emil Anthony T; Jani, Pooja D; Ulrich, J Niklas

2013-01-01

357

Changes in the retrobulbar arterial circulation after decrease of elevated intraocular pressure in patients with primary open angle glaucoma  

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Full Text Available Introduction. An altered perfusion of the optic nerve head has been proposed as a pathogenic factor in glaucoma. Objective. To evaluate changes of haemodynamic parameters in the retrobulbar arterial circulation after a decrease of elevated intraocular pressure (IOP in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG. Methods. Twenty-six patients were examined, 14 men and 12 women, 21 up to 50 years old and 5 below, all with previously diagnosed and treated POAG, and all examined at the Eye Clinic, Clinical Centre of Serbia. IOP was measured both with a Goldmann aplanation tonometer and dynamic contour tonometer. Central corneal thickness was measured with ultrasound pachymeter. Imaging of the retrobulbar arterial circulation by colour Doppler was performed at the Neurology Clinic, Clinical Centre of Serbia. It involved measuring of haemodynamic parameters of the ophthalmic artery, central retinal artery, and posterior ciliary arteries. Peak systolic velocity (PSV and end-diastolic velocity (EDV were measured, and resistive index (RI and pulsatility index (PI were calculated. Results. Haemodynamic arterial parameters PSV and EDV in the ophthalmic and central retinal artery after decrease of IOP were lower, while RI and PI were higher. In the posterior ciliary arteries PSV, EDV and PI were lower, and RI was higher. Conclusion. Changes of the retrobulbar arterial circulation after elevated IOP in POAG patients are important for approach and treatment, while the role of vascular factors in the supplement of the optic disc neuroretinal rim could be a key for progression backlash of glaucoma and the radix of neuroprotection.

Kneževi? Miroslav

2011-01-01

358

Prenylation defects in inherited retinal diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many proteins depend on post-translational prenylation for a correct subcellular localisation and membrane anchoring. This involves the covalent attachment of farnesyl or geranylgeranyl residues to cysteines residing in consensus motifs at the C-terminal parts of proteins. Retinal photoreceptor cells are highly compartmentalised and membranous structures, and therefore it can be expected that the proper function of many retinal proteins depends on prenylation, which has been proven for several proteins that are absent or defective in different inherited retinal diseases (IRDs). These include proteins involved in the phototransduction cascade, such as GRK1, the phosphodiesterase 6 subunits and the transducin ? subunit, or proteins involved in transport processes, such as RAB28 and retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator (RPGR). In addition, there is another class of general prenylation defects due to mutations in proteins such as AIPL1, PDE6D and rab escort protein-1 (REP-1), which can act as chaperones for subsets of prenylated retinal proteins that are associated with IRDs. REP-1 also is a key accessory protein of geranylgeranyltransferase II, an enzyme involved in the geranylgeranylation of almost all members of a large family of Rab GTPases. Finally, mutations in the mevalonate kinase (MVK) gene, which were known to be principally associated with mevalonic aciduria, were recently associated with non-syndromic retinitis pigmentosa. We hypothesise that MVK deficiency results in a depletion of prenyl moieties that affects the prenylation of many proteins synthesised specifically in the retina, including Rabs. In this review, we discuss the entire spectrum of prenylation defects underlying progressive degeneration of photoreceptors, the retinal pigment epithelium and the choroid. PMID:24401286

Roosing, Susanne; Collin, Rob W J; den Hollander, Anneke I; Cremers, Frans P M; Siemiatkowska, Anna M

2014-03-01

359

Toward high-resolution optoelectronic retinal prosthesis  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been already demonstrated that electrical stimulation of retina can produce visual percepts in blind patients suffering from macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. Current retinal implants provide very low resolution (just a few electrodes), while several thousand pixels are required for functional restoration of sight. We present a design of the optoelectronic retinal prosthetic system that can activate a retinal stimulating array with pixel density up to 2,500 pix/mm2 (geometrically corresponding to a visual acuity of 20/80), and allows for natural eye scanning rather than scanning with a head-mounted camera. The system operates similarly to "virtual reality" imaging devices used in military and medical applications. An image from a video camera is projected by a goggle-mounted infrared LED-LCD display onto the retina, activating an array of powered photodiodes in the retinal implant. Such a system provides a broad field of vision by allowing for natural eye scanning. The goggles are transparent to visible light, thus allowing for simultaneous utilization of remaining natural vision along with prosthetic stimulation. Optical control of the implant allows for simple adjustment of image processing algorithms and for learning. A major prerequisite for high resolution stimulation is the proximity of neural cells to the stimulation sites. This can be achieved with sub-retinal implants constructed in a manner that directs migration of retinal cells to target areas. Two basic implant geometries are described: perforated membranes and protruding electrode arrays. Possibility of the tactile neural stimulation is also examined.

Palanker, Daniel; Huie, Philip; Vankov, Alexander; Asher, Alon; Baccus, Steven

2005-04-01

360

Novel approaches to retinal drug delivery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research into treatment modalities affecting vision is rapidly progressing due to the high incidence of diseases such as diabetic macular edema, proliferative vitreoretinopathy, wet and dry age-related macular degeneration and cytomegalovirus retinitis. The unique anatomy and physiology of eye offers many challenges to developing effective retinal drug delivery systems. Historically, drugs have been administered to the eye as liquid drops instilled in the cul-de-sac. However retinal drug delivery is a challenging area. The transport of molecules between the vitreous/retina and systemic circulation is restricted by the blood-retinal barrier, which is made up of retinal pigment epithelium and endothelial cells of the retinal blood vessels. An increase in the understanding of drug absorption mechanisms into the retina from local and systemic administration has led to the development of various drug delivery systems, such as biodegradable and non-biodegradable implants, microspheres, nanoparticles and liposomes, gels and transporter-targeted prodrugs. Such diversity in approaches is an indication that there is still a need for an optimized noninvasive or minimally invasive drug delivery system to the eye. A number of large molecular weight compounds (i.e., oligonucleotides, RNA aptamers, peptides and monoclonal antibodies) have been and continue to be introduced as new therapeutic entities. However, for high molecular weight polar compounds the mechanism of epithelial transport is primarily through the tight junctions in the retinal pigment epithelium, as these agents undergo limited transcellular diffusion. Delivery and administration of these new drugs in a safe and effective manner is still a major challenge facing pharmaceutical scientists. In this review article, the authors discuss various drug delivery strategies, devices and challenges associated with drug delivery to the retina. PMID:17683251

Janoria, Kumar G; Gunda, Sriram; Boddu, Sai H S; Mitra, Ashim K

2007-07-01

 
 
 
 
361

Endovascular Treatment for Ruptured Distal Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery Aneurysm  

Science.gov (United States)

A 42-year-old woman presented with Hunt and Hess grade (HHG) III subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) caused by a ruptured left distal anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) aneurysm. Computed tomography showed a thin SAH on the cerebellopontine angle cistern, and small vermian intracerebral hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage in the fourth ventricle. Digital subtraction angiography revealed the aneurysm on the postmeatal segment of left distal AICA, a branching point of rostrolateral and caudomedial branch of the left distal AICA. Despite thin caliber, tortuous running course and far distal location, the AICA aneurysm was obliterated successfully with endovascular coils without compromising AICA flow. However, the patient developed left side sensorineural hearing loss postoperatively, in spite of definite patency of distal AICA on the final angiogram. She was discharged home without neurologic sequela except hearing loss and tinnitus. Endovascular treatment of distal AICA aneurysm, beyond the meatal loop, is feasible while preserving the AICA flow. However, because the cochlear hair cell is vulnerable to ischemia, unilateral hearing loss can occur, possibly caused by the temporary occlusion of AICA flow by microcatheter during endovascular treatment.

Oh, Jae-Sang; Shim, Jai-Joon; Bae, Hack-Gun; Yoon, Il-Gyu

2014-01-01

362

Genetics Home Reference: Neuropathy, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa  

Science.gov (United States)

... OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Neuropathy, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa (often shortened to NARP ) On this page: Description ... November 2006 What is NARP? Neuropathy, ataxia, and retinitis pigmentosa (NARP) is a condition that causes a variety ...

363

Changes in the retrobulbar arterial circulation after decrease of the elevated intraocular pressure in men and women with primary open angle glaucoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction. An altered perfusion of the optic nerve head has been proposed as a pathogenic factor of glaucoma. Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes of the hemodynamic parameters in the retrobulbar arterial circulation after decrease of the elevated intraocular pressure (IOP in women and men with primary open angle glaucoma. Methods. The study included 60 patients (33 males and 27 females older than 50 years, with diagnosed and treated primary open angle glaucoma (77 eyes of 39 patients had increased IOP, >25 mm Hg. They were examined at the Clinic of Eye Diseases (complete ophthalmologic exam and Clinic of Neurology, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, from December 2009 to December 2010. Imaging of hemodynamic parameters of three retrobulbar arterial vessels: ophthalmic, central retinal and posterior ciliary arteries with color Doppler was performed. Results. Among women, hemodynamic arterial parameter of the peak-systolic velocity was increased in the central retinal artery and decreased in the ophthalmic artery and posterior ciliary arteries; end- diastolic velocity was increased in all three retrobulbar vascular levels; Pourcelot resistivity index was increased, but pulsatility index was decreased in all three vessels. Among men, peak-systolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity and pulsatility index were decreased in all three vessels; resistivity index was increased in the ophthalmic artery, but decreased in the central retinal artery and posterior ciliary arteries. There was a significant change of the ophthalmic artery pulsatility index in women, and the end-diastolic velocity of the ophthalmic artery in men. Conclusion. There was a difference of the retrobulbar arterial circulation between women and men with primary open angle glaucoma after decrease of the elevated intraocular pressure. The role of vascular factors in the supply of the optic disc neuroretinal rim is important.

Marjanovi? Ivan

2013-01-01

364

Multi-MHz retinal OCT  

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We analyze the benefits and problems of in vivo optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of the human retina at A-scan rates in excess of 1 MHz, using a 1050 nm Fourier-domain mode-locked (FDML) laser. Different scanning strategies enabled by MHz OCT line rates are investigated, and a simple multi-volume data processing approach is presented. In-vivo OCT of the human ocular fundus is performed at different axial scan rates of up to 6.7 MHz. High quality non-mydriatic retinal imaging over an ultra-wide field is achieved by a combination of several key improvements compared to previous setups. For the FDML laser, long coherence lengths and 72 nm wavelength tuning range are achieved using a chirped fiber Bragg grating in a laser cavity at 419.1 kHz fundamental tuning rate. Very large data sets can be acquired with sustained data transfer from the data acquisition card to host computer memory, enabling high-quality averaging of many frames and of multiple aligned data sets. Three imaging modes are investigated: Alignment and averaging of 24 data sets at 1.68 MHz axial line rate, ultra-dense transverse sampling at 3.35 MHz line rate, and dual-beam imaging with two laser spots on the retina at an effective line rate of 6.7 MHz.

Klein, Thomas; Wieser, Wolfgang; Reznicek, Lukas; Neubauer, Aljoscha; Kampik, Anselm; Huber, Robert

2013-01-01

365

Bilateral pericallosal arterial ectasia  

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We report a rare case of ectasia of both pericallosal arteries in a non-hypertensive 37-year-old female, whose internal carotid arteries and vertebrobasilar arteries were normal. The computed tomography (CT) showed irregular calcifications in the midline in the frontal region extending to the corpus callosum, which became partially enhanced along the course of the pericallosal artery following intravenous contrast administration. The diagnosis of arterial ectasia was established by angiography.

Tsukamoto, Y.; Nakata, H.; Soejima, T.; Yamamoto, H.; Araki, R.

1985-05-01

366

An image-based software tool for screening retinal fundus images using vascular morphology and network transport analysis  

Science.gov (United States)

As the number of digital retinal fundus images taken each year grows at an increasing rate, there exists a similarly increasing need for automatic eye disease detection through image-based analysis. A new method has been developed for classifying standard color fundus photographs into both healthy and diseased categories. This classification was based on the calculated network fluid conductance, a function of the geometry and connectivity of the vascular segments. To evaluate the network resistance, the retinal vasculature was first manually separated from the background to ensure an accurate representation of the geometry and connectivity. The arterial and venous networks were then semi-automatically separated into two separate binary images. The connectivity of the arterial network was then determined through a series of morphological image operations. The network comprised of segments of vasculature and points of bifurcation, with each segment having a characteristic geometric and fluid properties. Based on the connectivity and fluid resistance of each vascular segment, an arterial network flow conductance was calculated, which described the ease with which blood can pass through a vascular system. In this work, 27 eyes (13 healthy and 14 diabetic) from patients roughly 65 years in age were evaluated using this methodology. Healthy arterial networks exhibited an average fluid conductance of 419 ± 89 ?m3/mPa-s while the average network fluid conductance of the diabetic set was 165 ± 87 ?m3/mPa-s (p diseased eyes from color fundus imagery.

Clark, Richard D.; Dickrell, Daniel J.; Meadows, David L.

2014-03-01

367

Promises of stem cell therapy for retinal degenerative diseases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

With the development of stem cell technology, stem cell-based therapy for retinal degeneration has been proposed to restore the visual function. Many animal studies and some clinical trials have shown encouraging results of stem cell-based therapy in retinal degenerative diseases. While stem cell-based therapy is a promising strategy to replace damaged retinal cells and ultimately cure retinal degeneration, there are several important challenges which need to be overcome before stem cell tech...

2011-01-01

368

A Developmental Mechanism of Spontaneous Reattachment in Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment  

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This retrospective observational case series on eyes from three patients was done to elucidate the developmental mechanism of spontaneous reattachment of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (SRRRD). The study eyes of each patients showed evidence of retinal break and diffuse retinal pigmentary change. Ultrasound biomicroscopic examination revealed vitreous fibers attached to the area around the retinal break. Posterior vitreous attachment was confirmed in each eye. A thin fibrovascular membrane...

Chung, Song Ee; Kang, Se Woong; Yi, Chan-hui

2012-01-01

369

Retinal haemorrhages in vacuum extraction deliveries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two hundred and thirty eight newly born infants were subjected to fundus examination in the first 5 hours of labour then daily till discharge from the hospital then weekly till complete absorption of retinal haemorrhages The 238 infants were 23 delivered by caesarean section, 90 with spontaneous vaginal delivery,45 babies (over3.5 kgm delivered vaginallyand80 delivered by vacuum extraction. It was found that 37.39% of the newborns had retinal haemorrhages. The incidence, type and severity of retinal haemorrhages were related to the extent of obstetric trauma during birth. They were least with caesarean section. (4.35%, more in babies with spontaneous vaginal delivery (20%, more higher in infants over 3.5 kgm birth weight (33.33% and maximum in vacuum extraction deliveries (68.75%. A good correlation was made between the site and duration of cup application, level and rate of increase of negative pressure, the presence and size of cephalhematoma and the incidence and severity of retinal haemorrhages A good choice of cases as well as good control of the technique of vacuum extraction will minimize the incidence and severity of retinal haemorrhages in the new born.

Bahgat Mostafa

1987-01-01

370

Retinoid receptors trigger neuritogenesis in retinal degenerations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anomalous neuritogenesis is a hallmark of neurodegenerative disorders, including retinal degenerations, epilepsy, and Alzheimer's disease. The neuritogenesis processes result in a partial reinnervation, new circuitry, and functional changes within the deafferented retina and brain regions. Using the light-induced retinal degeneration (LIRD) mouse model, which provides a unique platform for exploring the mechanisms underlying neuritogenesis, we found that retinoid X receptors (RXRs) control neuritogenesis. LIRD rapidly triggered retinal neuron neuritogenesis and up-regulated several key elements of retinoic acid (RA) signaling, including retinoid X receptors (RXRs). Exogenous RA initiated neuritogenesis in normal adult retinas and primary retinal cultures and exacerbated it in LIRD retinas. However, LIRD-induced neuritogenesis was partly attenuated in retinol dehydrogenase knockout (Rdh12(-/-)) mice and by aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitors. We further found that LIRD rapidly increased the expression of glutamate receptor 2 and ? Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (?CaMKII). Pulldown assays demonstrated interaction between ?CaMKII and RXRs, suggesting that CaMKII pathway regulates the activities of RXRs. RXR antagonists completely prevented and RXR agonists were more effective than RA in inducing neuritogenesis. Thus, RXRs are in the final common path and may be therapeutic targets to attenuate retinal remodeling and facilitate global intervention methods in blinding diseases and other neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:21940995

Lin, Yanhua; Jones, Bryan W; Liu, Aihua; Tucker, James F; Rapp, Kevin; Luo, Ling; Baehr, Wolfgang; Bernstein, Paul S; Watt, Carl B; Yang, Jia-Hui; Shaw, Marguerite V; Marc, Robert E

2012-01-01

371

Human retinal progenitor cell transplantation preserves vision.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cell transplantation is a potential therapeutic strategy for retinal degenerative diseases involving the loss of photoreceptors. However, it faces challenges to clinical translation due to safety concerns and a limited supply of cells. Human retinal progenitor cells (hRPCs) from fetal neural retina are expandable in vitro and maintain an undifferentiated state. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of hRPCs transplanted into a Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rat model of retinal degeneration. At 12 weeks, optokinetic response showed that hRPC-grafted eyes had significantly superior visual acuity compared with vehicle-treated eyes. Histological evaluation of outer nuclear layer (ONL) characteristics such as ONL thickness, spread distance, and cell count demonstrated a significantly greater preservation of the ONL in hRPC-treated eyes compared with both vehicle-treated and control eyes. The transplanted hRPCs arrested visual decline over time in the RCS rat and rescued retinal morphology, demonstrating their potential as a therapy for retinal diseases. We suggest that the preservation of visual acuity was likely achieved through host photoreceptor rescue. We found that hRPC transplantation into the subretinal space of RCS rats was well tolerated, with no adverse effects such as tumor formation noted at 12 weeks after treatment. PMID:24407289

Luo, Jing; Baranov, Petr; Patel, Sherrina; Ouyang, Hong; Quach, John; Wu, Frances; Qiu, Austin; Luo, Hongrong; Hicks, Caroline; Zeng, Jing; Zhu, Jing; Lu, Jessica; Sfeir, Nicole; Wen, Cindy; Zhang, Meixia; Reade, Victoria; Patel, Sara; Sinden, John; Sun, Xiaodong; Shaw, Peter; Young, Michael; Zhang, Kang

2014-03-01

372

Investigation of PACAP Fragments and Related Peptides in Chronic Retinal Hypoperfusion  

Science.gov (United States)

Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) has neuroprotective effects in different neuronal and retinal injuries. Retinal ischemia can be effectively modelled by permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO), which causes chronic hypoperfusion-induced degeneration in the entire rat retina. The retinoprotective effect of PACAP 1-38 and VIP is well-established in ischemic retinopathy. However, little is known about the effects of related peptides and PACAP fragments in ischemic retinopathy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential retinoprotective effects of different PACAP fragments (PACAP 4-13, 4-22, 6-10, 6-15, 11-15, and 20-31) and related peptides (secretin, glucagon) in BCCAO-induced ischemic retinopathy. Wistar rats (3-4 months old) were used in the experiment. After performing BCCAO, the right eyes of the animals were treated with PACAP fragments or related peptides intravitreal (100?pM), while the left eyes were injected with saline serving as control eyes. Sham-operated (without BCCAO) rats received the same treatment. Routine histology was performed 2 weeks after the surgery; cells were counted and the thickness of retinal layers was compared. Our results revealed significant neuroprotection by PACAP 1-38 but did not reveal retinoprotective effect of the PACAP fragments or related peptides. These results suggest that PACAP 1-38 has the greatest efficacy in ischemic retinopathy.

Werling, Dora; Reglodi, Dora; Kiss, Peter; Toth, Gabor; Szabadfi, Krisztina; Tamas, Andrea; Biro, Zsolt; Atlasz, Tamas

2014-01-01

373

Pilot Study of Optical Coherence Tomography Measurement of Retinal Blood Flow in Retinal and Optic Nerve Diseases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new method of retinal blood flow measurement using Doppler optical coherence tomography was developed. It showed circulatory abnormalities in retinal and optic nerve diseases that correlated with disease location and severity.

Wang, Yimin; Fawzi, Amani A.; Varma, Rohit; Sadun, Alfredo A.; Zhang, Xinbo; Tan, Ou; Izatt, Joseph A.; Huang, David

2011-01-01

374

Low Vision Rehabilitation of Retinitis Pigmentosa. Practice Report  

Science.gov (United States)

Retinitis pigmentosa is a rod-cone dystrophy, commonly genetic in nature. Approximately 60-80% of those with retinitis pigmentosa inherit it by an autosomal recessive transmission (Brilliant, 1999). There have been some reported cases with no known family history. The symptoms of retinitis pigmentosa are decreased acuity, photophobia, night…

Rundquist, John

2004-01-01

375

Genetic determinants of hyaloid and retinal vasculature in zebrafish  

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Abstract Background The retinal vasculature is a capillary network of blood vessels that nourishes the inner retina of most mammals. Developmental abnormalities or microvascular complications in the retinal vasculature result in severe human eye diseases that lead to blindness. To exploit the advantages of zebrafish for genetic, developmental and pharmacological studies of retinal vasculature, we characterised the intraocular vasculature in zebrafish. Results We...

Alvarez Yolanda; Cederlund Maria L; Cottell David C; Bill Brent R; Ekker Stephen C; Torres-Vazquez Jesus; Weinstein Brant M; Hyde David R; Vihtelic Thomas S; Kennedy Breandan N

2007-01-01

376

Reproducibility of retinal circulation measurements obtained using laser speckle flowgraphy-NAVI in patients with glaucoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Naoko Aizawa, Yu Yokoyama, Naoki Chiba, Kazuko Omodaka, Masayuki Yasuda, Takaaki Otomo, Masahiko Nakamura, Nobuo Fuse, Toru NakazawaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine Sendai, Miyagi, JapanBackground: Laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG enables noninvasive quantification of the retinal circulation in glaucoma patients. In this study, we tested the intrasession reproducibility of LSFG-NAVI, a modified LSFG technique.Methods: Sixty-five eyes from 33 subjects (male (M:female (F = 17:16 with a mean age of 49.4 ± 11.2 years were examined in this study. Two parameters indicating reproducibility – the coefficient of variation (COV and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC – were analyzed three times on the same day that mean blur rate (MBR was measured using LSFG-NAVI. The sites analyzed were the retinal artery and vein, the optic disk, and the choroid. Following classification according to the Glaucoma Hemifield Test (GHT; SITA-Standard 30-2 program, the COV and ICC were examined in patients with (GHT+; 38 eyes, M:F = 20:18, average age 48.9 ± 12.8 years and without (GHT-; 27 eyes, M:F = 13:14, average age 50.1 ± 8.7 years abnormal glaucomatous visual fields.Results: For all subjects, the intrasession reproducibility of MBR in the optic disk (COV: 3.4 ± 2.0; ICC: 0.95 and choroid (COV: 4.7 ± 3.4; ICC: 0.98 was excellent. The reproducibility for the retinal vein (COV: 8.4 ± 5.6, ICC: 0.90 and retinal artery (COV: 10.9 ± 9.9, ICC: 0.9 was moderate. MBRs in the optic disk had good reproducibility in both the GHT+ group (COV: 3.8 ± 2.0; ICC: 0.97 and the GHT? group (COV: 2.9 ± 2.1; ICC: 0.95. Local assessment of the optic disk in normal or glaucoma patients showed that the COVs of the quadrant optic disk areas were best in the temporal area of MBR (3.4%, 4.2%, respectively.Conclusion: LSFG-NAVI showed favorable reproducibility in evaluation of retinal circulation of glaucoma patients, particularly in the optic disk and choroid.Keywords: ocular circulation, reproducibility, optic nerve, retina

Nakamura M

2011-08-01

377

Enhanced generation of retinal progenitor cells from human retinal pigment epithelial cells induced by amniotic fluid  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Retinal progenitor cells are a convenient source of cell replacement therapy in retinal degenerative disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the expression patterns of the homeobox genes PAX6 and CHX10 (retinal progenitor markers during treatment of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE cells with amniotic fluid (AF, RPE cells harvested from neonatal cadaver globes were cultured in a mixture of DMEM and Ham's F12 supplemented with 10% FBS. At different passages, cells were trypsinized and co-cultured with 30% AF obtained from normal fetuses of 1416 weeks gestational age. Results Compared to FBS-treated controls, AF-treated cultures exhibited special morphological changes in culture, including appearance of spheroid colonies, improved initial cell adhesion and ordered cell alignment. Cell proliferation assays indicated a remarkable increase in the proliferation rate of RPE cells cultivated in 30% AF-supplemented medium, compared with those grown in the absence of AF. Immunocytochemical analyses exhibited nuclear localization of retinal progenitor markers at a ratio of 33% and 27% for CHX10 and PAX6, respectively. This indicated a 3-fold increase in retinal progenitor markers in AF-treated cultures compared to FBS-treated controls. Real-time PCR data of retinal progenitor genes (PAX6, CHX10 and VSX-1 confirmed these results and demonstrated AF's capacity for promoting retinal progenitor cell generation. Conclusion Taken together, the results suggest that AF significantly promotes the rate of retinal progenitor cell generation, indicating that AF can be used as an enriched supplement for serum-free media used for the in vitro propagation of human progenitor cells.

Sanie-Jahromi Fatemeh

2012-04-01

378

Repetitive magnetic stimulation improves retinal function in a rat model of retinal dystrophy  

Science.gov (United States)

Vision incapacitation and blindness associated with retinal dystrophies affect millions of people worldwide. Retinal degeneration is characterized by photoreceptor cell death and concomitant remodeling of remaining retinal cells. Repetitive Magnetic Stimulation (RMS) is a non-invasive technique that creates alternating magnetic fields by brief electric currents transmitted through an insulated coil. These magnetic field generate action potentials in neurons, and modulate the expression of neurotransmitter receptors, growth factors and transcription factors which mediate plasticity. This technology has been proven effective and safe in various psychiatric disorders. Here we determined the effect of RMS on retinal function in Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats, a model for retinal dystrophy. Four week-old RCS and control Spargue Dawley (SD) rats received sham or RMS treatment over the right eye (12 sessions on 4 weeks). RMS treatment at intensity of at 40% of the maximal output of a Rapid2 stimulator significantly increased the electroretinogram (ERG) b-wave responses by up to 6- or 10-fold in the left and right eye respectively, 3-5 weeks following end of treatment. RMS treatment at intensity of 25% of the maximal output did not significant effect b-wave responses following end of treatment with no adverse effect on ERG response or retinal structure of SD rats. Our findings suggest that RMS treatment induces delayed improvement of retinal functions and may induce plasticity in the retinal tissue. Furthermore, this non-invasive treatment may possibly be used in the future as a primary or adjuvant treatment for retinal dystrophy.

Rotenstreich, Ygal; Tzameret, Adi; Levi, Nir; Kalish, Sapir; Sher, Ifat; Zangen, Avraham; Belkin, Michael

2014-02-01

379

Retinal haemorrhage in abusive head trauma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Paediatric abusive head injury may have grave consequences, especially when characterized by repetitive acceleration-deceleration forces (shaken baby syndrome). Death occurs in approximately 30% and permanent neurologic damage in up to 80% of the victims. Retinal haemorrhages are a cardinal sign seen in approximately 85% of cases. In most cases haemorrhages are preretinal, intraretinal and subretinal, too numerous to count, and involving the entire retinal surface extending to the ora serrata. Traumatic macular retinoschisis is a lesion with important diagnostic significance. Vitreoretinal traction appears to be the mechanism of haemorrhage and schisis formation along with a possible role of orbital tissue trauma from repetitive acceleration-deceleration forces. Ophthalmologists must carefully document ocular findings. Appropriate autopsy examination should include ocular and orbital tissue removal. Although there is a wide differential diagnosis for retinal haemorrhages, clinical appearance, when considered in the context of systemic and laboratory findings, usually leads to the correct diagnosis. PMID:20584025

Morad, Yair; Wygnansky-Jaffe, Tamara; Levin, Alex V

2010-07-01

380

Identification system by eye retinal pattern  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Identification system by eye retinal pattern is introduced from the view-point of history of R and D, measurement, apparatus, evaluation tests, safety and application. According to our evaluation tests, enrolling time is approximately less than 1 min, verification time is a few seconds and false accept rate is 0 %. Evaluation tests at Sandia National Laboratories in USA show the comparison data of false accept rates such as 0 % for eye retinal pattern, 10.5 % for finger-print, 5.8 % for signature dynamics and 17.7 % for speaker voice. The identification system by eye retinal pattern has only three applications in Japan, but there has been a number of experience in USA. This fact suggests that the system will become an important means for physical protections not only in nuclear field but also in other industrial fields in Japan. (author)

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Computer-aided retinal photocoagulation system  

Science.gov (United States)

Researchers at the University of Texas at Austin's Biomedical Engineering Laser Laboratory and the U.S. Air Force Academy's Department of Electrical Engineering are developing a computer-assisted prototype retinal photocoagulation system. The project goal is to rapidly and precisely automatically place laser lesions in the retina for the treatment of disorders such as diabetic retinopathy and retinal tears while dynamically controlling the extent of the lesion. Separate prototype subsystems have been developed to control lesion parameters (diameter or depth) using lesion reflectance feedback and lesion placement using retinal vessels as tracking landmarks. Successful subsystem testing results in vivo on pigmented rabbits using an argon continuous wave laser are presented. A prototype integrated system design to simultaneously control lesion parameters and placement at clinically significant speeds is provided.

Barrett, Steven F.; Wright, Cameron H.; Jerath, Maya R.; Lewis, R. Stephen; Dillard, Bryan C.; Rylander, Henry G.; Welch, Ashley J.

1996-01-01

382

Anatomical variations affect radial artery spasm and procedural achievement of transradial cardiac catheterization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transradial cardiac catheterization (TRCC) has unique technical challenges such as access difficulty related to anatomical variations and/or radial artery (RA) spasm. We sought to evaluate the incidence of anatomical variations of the RA and whether they would affect RA spasm and procedural achievement of TRCC. A total of 744 consecutive patients who underwent TRCC were analyzed by routine radial arteriography. Anatomical variations were defined as abnormal origin of the RA and/or radioulnar loop and/or tortuous configuration. RA spasm was defined as >75 % stenosis at first radial arteriography. Overall, anatomical variations were noted in 68 patients (9.1 %), including 39 cases of abnormal origin (5.2 %), 11 cases of radioulnar loop (1.5 %), and 42 cases of tortuous configuration (5.6 %). Transradial procedures failed in 26 patients (3.5 %), and more frequently in patients with anatomical variation than in those with normal anatomy (23.5 % vs 1.5 %, P < 0.001). Importantly, on multivariate analysis the presence of anatomical variation was a distinct predictor of transradial procedure failure (odds ratio (OR) 17.80; 95 % CI 7.55-43.73; P < 0.001). RA spasm was observed in 83 patients (11.2 %), and more frequently in patients with anatomical variation than in those with normal anatomy (35.3 % vs 8.7 %, P < 0.001). Anatomical variation (OR 4.74; 95 % CI 2.61-8.47; P < 0.001) and female gender (OR 2.23; 95 % CI 1.01-4.73; P = 0.041) were distinct predictors of RA spasm. Anatomical variations were observed in 9.1 % of the patients, and strongly correlated with RA spasm and procedural achievement of TRCC. PMID:23430268

Numasawa, Yohei; Kawamura, Akio; Kohsaka, Shun; Takahashi, Masashi; Endo, Ayaka; Arai, Takahide; Ohno, Yohei; Yuasa, Shinsuke; Maekawa, Yuichiro; Fukuda, Keiichi

2014-01-01

383

Dissecting aneurysm of the cervical internal carotid artery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On lifting a heavy case, a 51-year-old male experienced a sudden onset of headache with giddiness and clouded vision. A week later, vertigo and right hand numbness were added to his symptoms. The next day anisocoria (right > left) and dilation of the left retinal veins were noted. Cranial computed tomography (CT) scan appeared normal and there were no other remarkable neurological findings. The patient was treated conservatively for cerebral infarction, however, the headache worsened and diplopia occurred. Neurological examination on admission revealed nothing unusual except for left Horner's syndrome. Physical examination showed a palpable sausage-like painless tumor on the left side of the neck. Angiography showed a narrowing of the internal carotid artery in the cervical region with a small dissecting aneurysm at the C3 level. Cervical CT scan at the upper C3 level showed a low density lunar defect in the high density section of the enlarged left internal carotid artery. The patient was operated on by superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery anastomosis to increase the intracranial blood flow. Postoperatively the symptoms were quickly relieved. Angiography 1 month later showed less narrowing of the carotid artery, though the dissecting aneurysm still remained. Postoperative cervical CT scan showed the left internal carotid artery to be of normal size. The patient returned to his work in normal condition 2 months later. It is emphasized that cervical CT scan may be useful in the diagnosis of this unusual type of cervical dissecting aneurysm. (author)

1987-01-01

384

Reading visual Braille with a retinal prosthesis  

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Full Text Available Retinal prostheses, which restore partial vision to patients blinded by outer retinal degeneration, are currently in clinical trial. The Argus II retinal prosthesis system was recently awarded CE approval for commercial use in Europe. While retinal prosthesis users have achieved remarkable visual improvement to the point of reading letters and short sentences, the reading process is still fairly cumbersome. This study investigates the possibility of using an epiretinal prosthesis to stimulate visual Braille as a sensory substitution for reading written letters and words. The Argus II retinal prosthesis system, used in this study, includes a 10 x 6 electrode array implanted epiretinally, a tiny video camera mounted on a pair of glasses, and a wearable computer that processes the video and determines the stimulation current of each electrode in real time. In the Braille reading system, individual letters are created by a subset of dots from a 3 by 2 array of six dots. For the visual Braille experiment, a grid of six electrodes was chosen out of the 10 x 6 Argus II array. Groups of these electrodes were then directly stimulated (bypassing the camera to create visual percepts of individual Braille letters. Experiments were performed in a single subject. Single letters were stimulated in an alternative forced choice (AFC paradigm, and short 2-4-letter words were stimulated (one letter at a time in an open-choice reading paradigm. The subject correctly identified 89% of single letters, 80% of 2-letter, 60% of 3-letter, and 70% of 4-letter words. This work suggests that text can successfully be stimulated and read as visual Braille in retinal prosthesis patients.

ThomasZaccarinLauritzen

2012-11-01

385

Aggressive retinal astrocytoma associated with tuberous sclerosis  

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Full Text Available Machiko Tomida,1 Yoshinori Mitamura,1 Takashi Katome,1 Hiroshi Eguchi,1 Takeshi Naito,1 Takayuki Harada21Department of Ophthalmology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima, 2Visual Research Project, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: We report the case of a patient with an aggressive retinal astrocytoma accompanied with macular edema and neovascular vessels, who was initially treated with intravitreal bevacizumab injections. A 24-year-old male presented to our clinic complaining of visual disturbance in his right eye. At 8 years of age, he had been diagnosed as having tuberous sclerosis complex. Fundus examination demonstrated a retinal tumor accompanied with marked neovascular vessels on the surface, retinal hemorrhage, and macular edema. After six monthly intravitreal bevacizumab injections, fundus examination demonstrated marked regression of the macular edema and neovascular vessels. Two months later, a vitreous hemorrhage developed which necessitated pars plana vitrectomy. After additional intravitreal bevacizumab injection for preventing intraoperative bleeding, vitrectomy with endophotocoagulation for the tumor was performed. The vitreous sample was obtained during vitrectomy, and we measured the vascular endothelial growth factor concentration by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The surgically removed epiretinal neovascular membrane and biopsied retinal tumor expressed vascular endothelial growth factor, although several intravitreal bevacizumab injections led to a vitreous vascular endothelial growth factor concentration of undetectable levels. The clinical course and immunohistochemical analyses indicate that intravitreal bevacizumab monotherapy may have been insufficient to treat the aggressive retinal astrocytoma with macular edema and that laser photocoagulation or photodynamic therapy for the tumor should be considered following intravitreal bevacizumab injection in such cases.Keywords: aggressive retinal astrocytoma, bevacizumab, macular edema, tuberous sclerosis, vitrectomy, vitreous hemorrhage 

Tomida M

2012-05-01

386

Determinación de factores trombofílicos en pacientes con trombosis venosas retinianas Markers of thrombophilia in patients with retinal vein thrombosis  

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Full Text Available Background: Thrombophilia is an alteration of hemostasis that increases the risk to venous or arterial thrombosis. This condition may be the underlying cause of retinal vein thrombosis. Aim: To study the presence of thrombophilia in patients with retinal vein thrombosis. Patients and methods: Prospective study of 55 patients aged 22 to 86 years, with retinal vein thrombosis (central or branch. Antithrombin III, coagulant protein C, functional protein S, resistance to activated C protein, homocysteine, prothrombin G20210A gene, lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibodies were measured in all. Results: Seventeen patients had thrombophilic markers (antiphospholipid syndrome in seven, hyperhomocysteinemia in six and resistance to protein C in three. Of these 17 patients, 53% had high blood pressure, 35% an abnormal serum lipid profile and 23% a personal history of thrombosis. The thrombosis was central in 12 (ischemic in four and of a branch in five (ischemic in two. Conclusions: Thrombophilic markers must be assessed in patients with retinal vein thrombosis (Rev Méd Chile 2005; 133: 167-74

Leonidas Traipe C

2005-02-01

387

Determinación de factores trombofílicos en pacientes con trombosis venosas retinianas / Markers of thrombophilia in patients with retinal vein thrombosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: Thrombophilia is an alteration of hemostasis that increases the risk to venous or arterial thrombosis. This condition may be the underlying cause of retinal vein thrombosis. Aim: To study the presence of thrombophilia in patients with retinal vein thrombosis. Patients and methods: Prospe [...] ctive study of 55 patients aged 22 to 86 years, with retinal vein thrombosis (central or branch). Antithrombin III, coagulant protein C, functional protein S, resistance to activated C protein, homocysteine, prothrombin G20210A gene, lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibodies were measured in all. Results: Seventeen patients had thrombophilic markers (antiphospholipid syndrome in seven, hyperhomocysteinemia in six and resistance to protein C in three). Of these 17 patients, 53% had high blood pressure, 35% an abnormal serum lipid profile and 23% a personal history of thrombosis. The thrombosis was central in 12 (ischemic in four) and of a branch in five (ischemic in two). Conclusions: Thrombophilic markers must be assessed in patients with retinal vein thrombosis (Rev Méd Chile 2005; 133: 167-74)

Leonidas, Traipe C; Guillermo, Conte L; Francisco J, Conte S; Santiago, Ibáñez L; Patricio, Meza R; Basilio, Rojas U; Marianela, Cuneo V; Juan, Verdaguer T.

388

Three-dimensional evaluation of retinal ganglion cell axon regeneration and pathfinding in whole mouse tissue after injury.  

Science.gov (United States)

Injured retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons do not regenerate spontaneously, causing loss of vision in glaucoma and after trauma. Recent studies have identified several strategies that induce long distance regeneration in the optic nerve. Thus, a pressing question now is whether regenerating RGC axons can find their appropriate targets. Traditional methods of assessing RGC axon regeneration use histological sectioning. However, tissue sections provide fragmentary information about axonal trajectory and termination. To unequivocally evaluate regenerating RGC axons, here we apply tissue clearance and light sheet fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) to image whole optic nerve and brain without physical sectioning. In mice with PTEN/SOCS3 deletion, a condition known to promote robust regeneration, axon growth followed tortuous paths through the optic nerve, with many axons reversing course and extending towards the eye. Such aberrant growth was prevalent in the proximal region of the optic nerve where strong astroglial activation is present. In the optic chiasms of PTEN/SOCS3 deletion mice and PTEN deletion/Zymosan/cAMP mice, many axons project to the opposite optic nerve or to the ipsilateral optic tract. Following bilateral optic nerve crush, similar divergent trajectory is seen at the optic chiasm compared to unilateral crush. Centrally, axonal projection is limited predominantly to the hypothalamus. Together, we demonstrate the applicability of LSFM for comprehensive assessment of optic nerve regeneration, providing in-depth analysis of the axonal trajectory and pathfinding. Our study indicates significant axon misguidance in the optic nerve and brain, and underscores the need for investigation of axon guidance mechanisms during optic nerve regeneration in adults. PMID:23510761

Luo, Xueting; Salgueiro, Yadira; Beckerman, Samuel R; Lemmon, Vance P; Tsoulfas, Pantelis; Park, Kevin K

2013-09-01

389

Retinitis pigmentosa and congenital toxoplasmosis: A rare coexistence  

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Full Text Available We describe a previously unreported co-existence of retinitis pigmentosa and congenital toxoplasmosis. An eight year old male presented to our center with complaints of decreased night vision. Fundus evaluations in both the eyes demonstrated features typical of retinitis pigmentosa. There were well-defined punched out healed chorio-retinal scars suggestive of congenital toxoplasmosis. On the basis of history, clinical findings and reduction of a and b wave amplitudes on scotopic and photopic electroretinograph, a diagnosis of retinitis pigmentosa with congenital toxoplasmosis was made. Retinitis pigmentosa may co-exist with congenital toxoplasmosis that may affect the patient?s overall ocular morbidity and visual acuity.

Chhabra Manpreet

2007-01-01

390

Reprogramming of the chick retinal pigmented epithelium after retinal injury  

Science.gov (United States)

Background One of the promises in regenerative medicine is to regenerate or replace damaged tissues. The embryonic chick can regenerate its retina by transdifferentiation of the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) and by activation of stem/progenitor cells present in the ciliary margin. These two ways of regeneration occur concomitantly when an external source of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) is present after injury (retinectomy). During the process of transdifferentiation, the RPE loses its pigmentation and is reprogrammed to become neuroepithelium, which differentiates to reconstitute the different cell types of the neural retina. Somatic mammalian cells can be reprogrammed to become induced pluripotent stem cells by ectopic expression of pluripotency-inducing factors such as Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc and in some cases Nanog and Lin-28. However, there is limited information concerning the expression of these factors during natural regenerative processes. Organisms that are able to regenerate their organs could share similar mechanisms and factors with the reprogramming process of somatic cells. Herein, we investigate the expression of pluripotency-inducing factors in the RPE after retinectomy (injury) and during transdifferentiation in the presence of FGF2. Results We present evidence that upon injury, the quiescent (p27Kip1+/BrdU-) RPE cells transiently dedifferentiate and express sox2, c-myc and klf4 along with eye field transcriptional factors and display a differential up-regulation of alternative splice variants of pax6. However, this transient process of dedifferentiation is not sustained unless FGF2 is present. We have identified lin-28 as a downstream target of FGF2 during the process of retina regeneration. Moreover, we show that overexpression of lin-28 after retinectomy was sufficient to induce transdifferentiation of the RPE in the absence of FGF2. Conclusion These findings delineate in detail the molecular changes that take place in the RPE during the process of transdifferentiation in the embryonic chick, and specifically identify Lin-28 as an important factor in this process. We propose a novel model in which injury signals initiate RPE dedifferentiation, while FGF2 up-regulates Lin-28, allowing for RPE transdifferentiation to proceed.

2014-01-01

391

Probing how initial retinal configuration controls photochemical dynamics in retinal proteins  

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Full Text Available The effects of the initial retinal configuration and the active isomerization coordinate on the photochemistry of retinal proteins (RPs are assessed by comparing photochemical dynamics of two stable retinal ground state configurations (all-trans,15-anti vs. 13-cis,15-syn, within two RPs: Bacteriorhodopsin (BR and Anabaena Sensory Rhodopsin (ASR. Hyperspectral pump-probe spectroscopy shows that photochemistry starting from 13-cis retinal in both proteins is 3-10 times faster than when started in the all-trans state, suggesting that the hastening is ubiquitous to microbial RPs, regardless of their different biological functions and origin. This may also relate to the known disparity of photochemical rates between microbial RPs and visual pigments. Importance and possible underlying mechanisms are discussed as well.

Sheves M.

2013-03-01

392

Cytomegalovirus retinitis after central retinal vein occlusion in a patient on systemic immunosuppression: does venooclusive disease predispose to cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients already at risk?  

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Full Text Available John D Welling, Ahmad B Tarabishy, John ChristoforidisDepartment of Ophthalmology, Havener Eye Institute, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Cytomegalovirus (CMV retinitis remains the most common opportunistic ocular infection in immunocompromised patients. Patients with immunocompromising diseases, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, inherited immunodeficiency states, malignancies, and those on systemic immunosuppressive therapy, are known to be at risk. Recently, it has been suggested that patients undergoing intravitreal injection of immunosuppressive agents may also be predisposed. One previous case report speculated that there may be an additional risk for CMV retinitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with venoocclusive disease. This case study presents a case of CMV retinitis following central retinal vein occlusion in a patient on systemic immunosuppressants.Keywords: cytomegalovirus retinitis, central retinal vein occlusion, immunosuppression, solid organ transplant, venous stasis, risk factor

Welling JD

2012-04-01

393

Potential for autoimmune pathogenesis of Rift Valley Fever virus retinitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a significant threat to human health because it can progress to retinitis, encephalitis, and hemorrhagic fever. The timing of onset of Rift Valley Fever virus (RVFV) retinitis suggests an autoimmune origin. To determine whether RVFV retinitis is associated with increased levels of IgG against retinal tissue, we measured and compared levels of IgG against healthy human eye tissue by immunohistochemical analysis. We found that serum samples from RVFV-exposed Kenyans with retinitis (n = 8) were slightly more likely to have antibodies against retinal tissue than control populations, but the correlation was not statistically significant. Further investigation into the possible immune pathogenesis of RVFV retinitis could lead to improved therapies to prevent or treat this severe complication. PMID:23918215

Newman-Gerhardt, Shoshana; Muiruri, Samuel; Muchiri, Eric; Peters, Clarence J; Morrill, John; Lucas, Alexander H; King, Charles H; Kazura, James; LaBeaud, Angelle Desiree

2013-09-01

394

Spontaneous Oscillatory Rhythm in Retinal Activities of Two Retinal Degeneration (rd1 and rd10) Mice  

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Previously, we reported that besides retinal ganglion cell (RGC) spike, there is ~ 10 Hz oscillatory rhythmic activity in local field potential (LFP) in retinal degeneration model, rd1 mice. The more recently identified rd10 mice have a later onset and slower rate of photoreceptor degeneration than the rd1 mice, providing more therapeutic potential. In this study, before adapting rd10 mice as a new animal model for our electrical stimulation study, we investigated electrical characteristics o...

Goo, Yong Sook; Ahn, Kun No; Song, Yeong Jun; Ahn, Su Heok; Han, Seung Kee; Ryu, Sang Baek; Kim, Kyung Hwan

2011-01-01

395

Cone dysfunctions in retinitis pigmentosa with retinal nerve fiber layer thickening  

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Güngör Sobaci, Gökhan Özge, Fatih Ç Gündo?anDepartment of Ophthalmology, Gülhane Military Medical Academy and Medical School, Etlik, Ankara, TurkeyPurpose: To investigate whether or not thicker retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients relates to functional abnormalities of the photoreceptors.Methods: Optical coherence tomography-based RNFL thickness was measured by Stratus-3™ (Zeiss, Basel, Switzerland) optical coherenc...

Sobaci G; Özge G; Ccedil, G. Uuml Ndog?an F.

2012-01-01

396

Massive exudative retinal detachment following photodynamic therapy for retinal hemangioma in von Hippel-Lindau Syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a common treatment on retinal capillary hemangioma. We applied PDT to a patient with von Hippel-Lindau(VHL) syndrome and she developed severe massive exudative retinal detachment the next day, which is a rare complication for PDT. After intraocular anti-VEGF agent and peribulbar dexamethasone several times to the patient, her subretinal fluid disappeared and hemangiomas atrophied. Treatment with Anti-VEGF agent and corticosteroid is effective for such complication. PMID:24632330

Chen, Yao; Liu, Hong; Zhang, Kun; Gao, Ling

2014-06-01

397

A CMOS LSI-Based Flexible Retinal Stimulator for Retinal Prosthesis  

Science.gov (United States)

A CMOS LSI-based neural stimulator was developed for retinal prosthesis. The stimulator was designed with “multi-chip” architecture. Small LSI neural stimulators named “Unit Chip” were assembled on a flexible substrate into a flexible, multi-site retinal stimulator. An experimental system equipped with the fabricated LSI-based flexible stimulator was configured and current injection functionality was demonstrated in saline solution. Materials for improved charge injection were also discussed.

Tokuda, Takashi; Sugitani, Sachie; Asano, Ryosuke; Taniyama, Mari; Terasawa, Yasuo; Uehara, Akihiro; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Nunoshita, Masahiro; Tano, Yasuo; Ohta, Jun

398

Retinal vein occlusions: The potential impact of a dysregulation of the retinal veins  

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A retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is a sight threatening disease. It can be divided into central vein occlusion and branch retinal vein occlusion. The pathogenesis of the condition remains to be solved. Mechanical compression of the vessel wall or thrombotic occlusion of the vessel lumen, sometimes combined with rheological disorders, are often assumed pathomechanisms. Accordingly, the therapy relies either on mechanical decompression, lyses of thrombi or improvement of rheology. A number of obs...

Fraenkl, Stephan A.; Mozaffarieh, Maneli; Flammer, Josef

2010-01-01

399

Retinal homeobox 1 is required for retinal neurogenesis and photoreceptor differentiation in embryonic zebrafish  

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Retinal homeobox (Rx/Rax) genes are essential for the organogenesis of the vertebrate eye. These genes are dynamically expressed in a tissue-specific manner during eye development, suggesting pleiotropic roles. We use a temporally-selective gene knockdown approach to identify endogenous functions for the zebrafish rx genes, rx1 and rx2. Depletion of rx1 over the period of eye organogenesis resulted in severely reduced proliferation of retinal progenitors, the loss of expression of the transcr...

Nelson, Steve M.; Park, Leon; Stenkamp, Deborah L.

2009-01-01

400

Extended retinal tamponade in the treatment of retinal detachment with proliferative vitreoretinopathy.  

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We have used intraocular sulphur hexafluoride or liquid silicone as an adjunct to vitreous surgery in the treatment of a non-randomised sequential series of 19 eyes with retinal detachment complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy. We have studied the surgical results and complications of these two tamponades and drawn preliminary conclusions on their use in retinal reattachment surgery. After a seven-month minimum follow-up 13 (68%) of the eyes have reattached retinas. Six (60%) of 10 e...

Stern, W. H.; Johnson, R. N.; Irvine, A. R.; Barricks, M. E.; Boyden, B. S.; Hilton, G. F.; Lonn, L. I.; Schwartz, A.

1986-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Outer retinal abnormalities associated with inner retinal pathology in nonglaucomatous and glaucomatous optic neuropathies  

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Inner and outer retinal morphology were quantified in vivo for 6 nonglaucomatous and 10 glaucomatous optic neuropathy patients. Custom, ultrahigh-resolution imaging modalities were used to evaluate segmented retinal layer thickness in 3D volumes (Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography), cone photoreceptor density (adaptive optics fundus camera), and the length of inner and outer segments of cone photoreceptors (adaptive optics–optical coherence tomography). Quantitative comparisons wer...

2011-01-01

402

Automated segmentation of outer retinal layers in macular OCT images of patients with retinitis pigmentosa  

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To provide a tool for quantifying the effects of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) seen on spectral domain optical coherence tomography images, an automated layer segmentation algorithm was developed. This algorithm, based on dual-gradient information and a shortest path search strategy, delineates the inner limiting membrane and three outer retinal boundaries in optical coherence tomography images from RP patients. In addition, an automated inner segment (IS)/outer segment (OS) contour detection met...

Yang, Qi; Reisman, Charles A.; Chan, Kinpui; Ramachandran, Rithambara; Raza, Ali; Hood, Donald C.

2011-01-01

403

Chronic retinal detachment and giant retinal tears in 34 dogs: Outcome comparison of no treatment, topical medical therapy, and retinal reattachment after vitrectomy  

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The outcomes of dog’s eyes with chronic (>1 month) retinal detachment and giant retinal tears without therapy were compared with those treated with topical steroids and antiglaucoma medications, and with those that received a vitrectomy, retinal reattachment, endolaser therapy, and silicone oil tamponade. Fourteen of 16 eyes that did not receive therapy developed uveitis and secondary glaucoma, and were enucleated (4) or eviscerated (6); and 2 dogs were euthanized due to blindness and uveit...

Grahn, Bruce H.; Barnes, Laura D.; Breaux, Carrie B.; Sandmeyer, Lynne S.

2007-01-01

404

Optimal management of cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients with AIDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Michael W StewartDepartment of Ophthalmology, Mayo School of Medicine, Jacksonville, FL, USAAbstract: Cytomegalovirus (CMV retinitis is the most common cause of vision loss in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. CMV retinitis afflicted 25% to 42% of AIDS patients in the pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART era, with most vision loss due to macula-involving retinitis or retinal detachment. The introduction of HAART significantly decreased the incidence and severity of CMV retinitis. Optimal treatment of CMV retinitis requires a thorough evaluation of the patient’s immune status and an accurate classification of the retinal lesions. When retinitis is diagnosed, HAART therapy should be started or improved, and anti-CMV therapy with oral valganciclovir, intravenous ganciclovir, foscarnet, or cidofovir should be administered. Selected patients, especially those with zone 1 retinitis, may receive intravitreal drug injections or surgical implantation of a sustained-release ganciclovir reservoir. Effective anti-CMV therapy coupled with HAART significantly decreases the incidence of vision loss and improves patient survival. Immune recovery uveitis and retinal detachments are important causes of moderate to severe loss of vision. Compared with the early years of the AIDS epidemic, the treatment emphasis in the post-HAART era has changed from short-term control of retinitis to long-term preservation of vision. Developing countries face shortages of health care professionals and inadequate supplies of anti-CMV and anti-HIV medications. Intravitreal ganciclovir injections may be the most cost effective strategy to treat CMV retinitis in these areas.Keywords: cytomegalovirus, AIDS, retinitis, immune recovery uveitis, retinal detachment, treatment

Michael W Stewart

2010-04-01

405

A Novel In Vitro Sensing Configuration for Retinal Physiology Analysis of a Sub-Retinal Prosthesis  

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Full Text Available This paper presents a novel sensing configuration for retinal physiology analysis, using two microelectrode arrays (MEAs. In order to investigate an optimized stimulation protocol for a sub-retinal prosthesis, retinal photoreceptor cells are stimulated, and the response of retinal ganglion cells is recorded in an in vitro environment. For photoreceptor cell stimulation, a polyimide-substrate MEA is developed, using the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS technology. For ganglion cell response recording, a conventional glass-substrate MEA is utilized. This new sensing configuration is used to record the response of retinal ganglion cells with respect to three different stimulation methods (monopolar, bipolar, and dual-monopolar stimulation methods. Results show that the geometrical relation between the stimulation microelectrode locations and the response locations seems very low. The threshold charges of the bipolar stimulation and the monopolar stimulation are in the range of 10~20 nC. The threshold charge of the dual-monopolar stimulation is not obvious. These results provide useful guidelines for developing a sub-retinal prosthesis.

Kyung Hwan Kim

2012-03-01

406

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... to the chest wall or arteries from the arm (radial artery) are then used to bypass the ... used to help restart the heart or to control its rate. These wires are brought out through ...

407

Anomalous superior thyroid artery.  

Science.gov (United States)

The variations in the pattern of distribution of superior thyroid artery assume paramount importance for neck surgeons, in view of its vital topographical relationship to the external laryngeal nerve. In this study, we report an unusual variation in the arterial supply of the thyroid gland, which was detected during a routine dissection of an adult male cadaver. The right superior thyroid artery was absent whereas the left superior thyroid artery took origin from the left common carotid artery and showed a dominant pattern of distribution supplying the superior aspect of both the left and right lobes of the thyroid gland. It exhibited a usual relationship with the left external laryngeal nerve. The inferior thyroid arteries did not show any unusual distribution. Knowledge of such arterial variations related to the thyroid gland is immensely helpful for surgeons in order to put ligature on anomalous artery and to avoid damage to vital structures in this area, such as the external laryngeal nerve. PMID:22610776

Mehta, Vandana; Suri, Rajesh K; Arora, Jyoti; Rath, Gayatri; Das, Srijit

2010-01-01

408

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft  

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Full Text Available ... the clogged arteries in the heart. Once the new blood vessels are connected, blood can flow through ... usual daily activities. To decrease the chances of new blockages in your arteries: • You should avoid smoking. • ...

409

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... time, special tubes are attached to the biggest veins and arteries of the body, close to the ... and loaded with oxygen by the bypass mac