WorldWideScience
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New techniques for intracranial stent navigation in patients with tortuous arteries  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We wanted to describe several new techniques of intracranial stenting that are helpful for navigating the stent delivery system in the tortuous carotid or vertebral arteries. Between May 1998 and June 2004, 65 patients with 73 symptomatic, stenotic intracranial arteries (more than 50%) were successfully treated with stent-assisted angioplasty. In eleven of the total cases, the standard technique failed to navigate the stent delivery system into the objective lesion because of the tortuous path of the carotid or vertebral arteries. In these cases, several new techniques were used to overcome the vessels' tortuous path. The several new techniques were 1) the waiting method (20-30 minutes) after advancement of microwire across the lesion; 2) the double wires technique using an additional microwire; and 3) the coaxial double guiding catheters technique using an additional smaller guiding catheter. Five lesions were located in the middle cerebral arteries, four were in the supraclinoid internal carotid arteries, and two were in the distal vertebral arteries. In all difficult cases, intracranial artery stenting was performed successfully by using the several new techniques. The waiting method made smooth stent navigation possible in 5 cases, the double wire technique was successful in 4 cases and the coaxial double guiding catheter technique was successful in 2 case. There was no complication related to the new techniques. In difficult cases where the standard technique faiult cases where the standard technique failed to navigate the stent delivery system into the objective lesion because of the vessels' tortuous path, these new techniques for intracranial stent navigation were usefully implemented

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A pre-retinal arterial loop causing a branch retinal artery occlusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pre-retinal arterial loops are usually incidental findings during examinations in healthy individuals. They are rarely associated with arterial occlusion, with only nine previously reported cases in the literature. The authors report a case of a pre-retinal arterial loop associated with a branch retinal artery occlusion in a myopic young man. They also report the first documented optical coherence tomography scan through the loop causing the branch retinal artery occlusion. PMID:24256988

O'Keefe, Ghazala A Datoo; Sadda, SriniVas R

2014-01-01

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Retinal artery occlusions in children.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study is to present a case of RAO in a 13 year old girl with a preceding history of hyperextension of the neck at her hairdressers for a long duration and use of her mobile phone handset resting it against the side of her neck presumably exerting some pressure on carotids during the same time. Materials and methods of this study was reported as case report and review of literature. A 13 year-old girl presented with the left supero-nasal scotoma due to an inferior temporal branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO). She underwent extensive investigations and no underlying cause was discovered. She gave a history of cervical extension over a long period of time while having the hair coloured twice in the preceding week. She also mentioned that she was using her mobile phone more or less continuously during both these occasions keeping it against her neck. Given the above history it is possible that the pressure on the ipsilateral carotid arteries or the prolong neck extension may have been responsible for the formation of a platelet embolus resulting in the BRAO. In conclusion, although cerebro-vascular accidents due to 'beauty parlor stroke syndrome' (JAMA 269:2085-2086, 1993) have been reported previously it has not been reported in children to our knowledge. On the other hand, 'beauty parlor stroke syndrome' occurs due to a dissection of the vertebral arteries or due to mechanical compression of the vertebral arteries during the prolonged hyperextension of the neck. The central retinal artery originates from the internal carotid circulation and it is highly unlikely for an embolus to enter the retinal circulation from the vertebral arteries. Therefore, the authors favour the possibility that the compulsive use of a mobile phone exerting pressure on the carotid arteries for a long time may have led to the formation of an embolus and subsequent RAO in this case. PMID:23440575

Dharmasena, Aruna; Wallis, Simon

2014-01-01

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Retinal artery occlusion  

Science.gov (United States)

... Electrocardiogram Heart monitor for abnormal heart rhythm Duplex Doppler ultrasound of the carotid arteries ... Massage of the eye The clot-busting drug, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) The health care provider should ...

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Ophthalmic artery aneurysm: potential culprit of central retinal artery occlusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) is one of the most devastating ophthalmic emergencies, causing acute painless visual loss in the affected eye. We describe the first case of acute non-arteritic CRAO associated with peripheral ophthalmic artery aneurysm and its clinical course after intra-arterial thrombolysis therapy. This case suggests that ophthalmic artery aneurysm can be the cause of CRAO and should be included in the differential diagnosis of CRAO. PMID:24311936

Kim, Yong Woo; Woo, Se Joon; Ahn, Jeeyun; Park, Kyu Hyung; Kwon, O-Ki

2013-12-01

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Metabolic syndrome and central retinal artery occlusion  

OpenAIRE

Background. The accumulation of risk factors for central retinal artery occlusion can be seen in a single person and might be explained by the metabolic syndrome. Case report. We presented the case of a 52-year-old man with no light perception in his right eye. The visual loss was monocular and painless, fundoscopy showed central retinal artery occlusion and the laboratory investigation showed the raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 105 mm/h and the raised C-reactive protein of 22 mg/l. ...

Kosanovi?-Jakovi? Natalija; Petrovi? Lidija; Risimi? Dijana; Milenkovi? Svetislav; Mati? Danica

2005-01-01

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[De-novo reversible stenoses in tortuous arteries during coronary angioplasty due to the accordion effect. A clinical case and review of the literature].  

Science.gov (United States)

During the performance of PTCA, the operator must be able to differentiate true complications from pseudocomplications. Mechanical coronary shortening and vessel wall invagination due to accordion effect, "pseudo-transection", dissection, coronary spasm, and localized thrombosis are sources of iatrogenic obstruction during angioplasty. We report a case in which straightening of a right tortuous coronary artery during angioplasty produced an iatrogenic lesion that has a typical invaginate appearance. Conservative management is indicated in the absence of definitive angiographic aspect of vessel trauma, because they disappear after withdrawal of angioplasty equipment or adequate management of the guidewire. PMID:9522627

Gouveia, D; Escudero, J; Domingo, E; Anivarro, I; Angel, J; Soler, J S

1997-12-01

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Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion following Dental Extraction  

Science.gov (United States)

Aim. To describe a case of branch retinal artery occlusion following dental extraction and to point out the ophthalmic complications of dental procedures to ophthalmologists and dentists. Case. A 51-year-old woman was referred to our clinic with painless sudden visual loss in her left eye after tooth extraction two days ago. In her left eye the best corrected visual acuity was 6/30 and fundus examination revealed peripapillary flame-shaped hemorrhages and pale retina in the upper temporal arcuate. The right eye examination was unremarkable. Conclusion. Dental procedures can lead to miscellaneous ophthalmic complications possibly due to the close proximity of the anatomic structures. Retinal arterial occlusion is a rare but serious cause of permanent visual loss among these dental procedures where the exact pathologic mechanism is still obscure. PMID:25580327

O?urel, Tevfik; Onaran, Zafer; O?urel, Reyhan; Örnek, Nurgül; Büyüktortop Gökç?nar, Nesrin; Örnek, Kemal

2014-01-01

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Hemi-central retinal artery occlusion in young adults  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Amongst the clinical presentations of retinal artery occlusion, hemi-central retinal artery occlusion (Hemi-CRAO is rarely described. This case series of four adults aged between 22 and 36 years attempts to describe the clinical profile, etiology and management of Hemi-CRAO. Case 1 had an artificial mitral valve implant. Polycythemia and malignant hypertension were noted in Case 2. The third patient had Leiden mutation while the fourth patient had Eisenmenger?s syndrome. Clinical examination and fundus fluorescein angiography revealed a bifurcated central retinal artery at emergence from the optic nerve head, in all cases. Color Doppler examination of the central retinal artery confirmed branching of the artery behind the lamina cribrosa. It is hypothesized that bifurcation of central retinal artery behind the lamina cribrosa may predispose these hemi-trunks to develop an acute occlusion if associated with underlying risk factors. The prognosis depends upon arterial recanalisation and etiology of the thromboembolic event.

Rishi Pukhraj

2010-01-01

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Metabolic syndrome and central retinal artery occlusion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. The accumulation of risk factors for central retinal artery occlusion can be seen in a single person and might be explained by the metabolic syndrome. Case report. We presented the case of a 52-year-old man with no light perception in his right eye. The visual loss was monocular and painless, fundoscopy showed central retinal artery occlusion and the laboratory investigation showed the raised erythrocyte sedimentation rate of 105 mm/h and the raised C-reactive protein of 22 mg/l. Specific laboratory investigations and fluorescein angiography excluded the presence of vasculitis, collagen vascular diseases, hypercoagulable state and antiphospholipid syndrome. Conclusion. The patient met all the five of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP criteria for the metabolic syndrome: hypertension, abnormal lipid profile, abnormal glucose metabolism, obesity and hyperuricemia. Measurement of C-reactive protein is useful for the assessment of therapeutic systemic effect on any abnormality in the metabolic syndrome. Individual therapy for all risk factors in the metabolic syndrome is necessary to prevent complications such as cardiovascular, retinal vascular diseases and stroke.

Kosanovi?-Jakovi? Natalija

2005-01-01

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Retinal arterial plaques in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome  

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Full Text Available The authors report the unusual observation discrete plaque like excrescencies along the retinal arterial wall in a young patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Though bilateral, in the right eye there was severe arteriolar narrowing and so these plaques were less identifiable. Fluorescein angiography did not reveal any arteriolar occlusion or areas of capillary occlusion in both eyes. There were no other signs of HIV associated microangiopathy and the patient did not have any concurrent cardiovascular or hematological abnormality. The cause of these plaques remains unexplained and we conjecture that they could represent macro immunecomplex deposition along the arteriolar walls.

Satpal Garg

2012-01-01

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Retinal arterial plaques in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome  

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Full Text Available The authors report the unusual observation discrete plaque like excrescencies along the retinal arterial wall in a young patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Though bilateral, in the right eye there was severe arteriolar narrowing and so these plaques were less identifiable. Fluorescein angiography did not reveal any arteriolar occlusion or areas of capillary occlusion in both eyes. There were no other signs of HIV associated microangiopathy and the patient did not have any concurrent cardiovascular or hematological abnormality. The cause of these plaques remains unexplained and we conjecture that they could represent macro immunecomplex deposition along the arteriolar walls.

Satpal Garg

2012-03-01

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Bilateral Central Retinal Artery Occlusion in Behçet Disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Purpose: To report a case of bilateral central retinal artery occlusion as the primary ocular manifestation of Behçet disease. Methods: A 38-year-old patient, with no history of previous ocular complaints, admitted with bilateral sudden vision loss. His ophthalmologic examination revealed a visual acuity of no light perception in both eyes and the diagnosis of bilateral central retinal artery occlusion. A detailed systemic investigation was conducted. Results: With the history of recurrent oral and genital ulcers, and the presence of ocular and skin findings, the diagnosis of Behçet disease was made. Despite a potent immunosuppressive therapy the patient became absolutely blind. Conclusions: Even though retinal arteries are rarely affected in Behçet disease, in the cases of retinal artery occlusion, it should be considered among the differential diagnosis. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of bilateral central retinal artery occlusion as the primary ocular manifestation of Behçet disease. PMID:24654996

Esen, Ebru; Sizmaz, Selcuk; Sariyeva, Ayna; Demircan, Nihal

2014-03-21

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Transluminal Nd:YAG laser embolysis: A reasonable method to reperfuse occluded branch retinal arteries  

OpenAIRE

Introduction. Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO) result in partial or complete retinal ischemia and sudden loss of vision; at this moment, there is no effective therapy for CRAO and BRAO. Transluminal Nd:YAG laser embolysis (TYE) represents a therapeutic approach used for retinal vascular occlusive diseases. The main indication is branch retinal artery occlusion with visible embolus; for central retinal artery...

Stanca Horia T.; Petrovi? Žarko; Munteanu Mihnea

2014-01-01

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Tortuous path chemical preconcentrator  

Science.gov (United States)

A non-planar, tortuous path chemical preconcentrator has a high internal surface area having a heatable sorptive coating that can be used to selectively collect and concentrate one or more chemical species of interest from a fluid stream that can be rapidly released as a concentrated plug into an analytical or microanalytical chain for separation and detection. The non-planar chemical preconcentrator comprises a sorptive support structure having a tortuous flow path. The tortuosity provides repeated twists, turns, and bends to the flow, thereby increasing the interfacial contact between sample fluid stream and the sorptive material. The tortuous path also provides more opportunities for desorption and readsorption of volatile species. Further, the thermal efficiency of the tortuous path chemical preconcentrator is comparable or superior to the prior non-planar chemical preconcentrator. Finally, the tortuosity can be varied in different directions to optimize flow rates during the adsorption and desorption phases of operation of the preconcentrator.

Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Lewis, Patrick R. (Albuquerque, NM); Adkins, Douglas R. (Albuquerque, NM); Wheeler, David R. (Albuquerque, NM); Simonson, Robert J. (Cedar Crest, NM)

2010-09-21

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Electroretinography, retinal ischaemia and carotid artery disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reduction in the amplitude of oscillatory potential (OP) on the B wave of an electroretinogram (ERG) is a sensitive index of experimental retinal ischaemia and is being used clinically to evaluate the progression of diabetic retinopathy. This study assessed whether electroretinography could detect retinal ischaemia in a group of patients with normal fluorescein angiograms and carotid atherosclerosis. Two groups of patients were studied. Group A (n = 15) had carotid atherosclerosis on duplex ultrasonography while a matched control group B (n = 15) had normal vessels. All patients in Group A had flurorescein angiograms. ERGs were recorded bilaterally using a Ganzfeld stimulator and Medelec oscilloscope. The OP amplitudes were determined using the peak-nadir method. Of the 60 eyes examined, 18 had abnormal OPs and all of these occurred in Group A; ten associated with ipsilateral non-stenosing carotid lesions and eight with critical stenoses. Twelve had normal OPs in Group A, only one of which was associated with severe disease. The mean OP amplitudes were 292 mu and 198 mu in Group A and 172.89 mu and 115.6 mu in Group B (P less than 0.005 Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test). (Two readings reflect Medelec readings before and after computer adjustments.) This study demonstrates by electroretinography significant retinal ischaemia in the presence of normal fluorescein angiography in patients with proven carotid artery disease. Further evaluation is required to determine the relative importance of flow reduction and silent micro-embolisation in the genesis of this ischaemia particularly in relation to pre- and postoperative evaluation. PMID:2279565

Coleman, K; Fitzgerald, D; Eustace, P; Bouchier-Hayes, D

1990-12-01

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Thrombophilic screening in retinal artery occlusion patients  

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Full Text Available Valeria Nagy1, Lili Takacs1, Zita Steiber1, György Pfliegler2, Andras Berta11Department of Ophthalmology, 2Division of Rare Diseases, University of Debrecen Medical and Health Science Center, Debrecen, HungaryBackground: Retinal artery occlusion (RAO is an ischemic vascular damage of the retina, which frequently leads to sudden, mostly irreversible loss of vision. In this study, blood thrombophilic factors as well as cardiovascular risk factors were investigated for their relevance to this pathology. Thrombophilic risk factors so far not evaluated were included in the study.Patients and methods: 28 RAO patients and 81 matched control subjects were examined. From blood samples, protein C, protein S, antithrombinopathy, and factor V (Leiden mutation (FV, factor II gene polymorphism, factor VIII C level, plasminogen activity, lipoprotein(a and fibrinogen levels, hyperhomocysteinemia and presence of anticardiolipin – antiphospholipid antibodies were investigated. Possibly relevant pathologies such as diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and ischemic heart disease were also registered. Statistical analysis by logistic regression was performed with 95% confidence intervals.Results: In the group of patients with RAO only the incidence of hypertension (OR: 3.33, 95% CI: 1.30–9.70, p = 0.014 as an average risk factor showed significant difference, but thrombophilic factors such as hyperfibrinogenemia (OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.29–6.57, p = 0.010 and the presence of FV (Leiden mutation (OR: 3.9, 95% CI: 1.43–10.96, p = 0.008 increased the chances of developing this disease.Conclusions: Our results support the assumption that thrombophilia may contribute to the development of RAO besides vascular damage due to the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. Further studies are needed, however, to justify the possible use of secondary prophylaxis in form of anticoagulant/antiplatelet therapy.Keywords: retinal arterial occlusion, risk factors, thrombophilia

Valeria Nagy

2008-10-01

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Unilateral branch retinal arterial occlusion following administration of bevacizumab for branch retinal vein occlusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Intravitreal bevacizumab has been adopted as a well-established treatment modality for the treatment of macular edema associated with branch retinal vein occlusion. It is considered a safe and efficacious option for improving visual acuity. We present an interesting case of unilateral superotemporal branch retinal vein occlusion in a 55-year-old man who received two doses of intravitreal bevacizumab one month apart. Laboratory tests including complete hypercoagulability and thrombotic work-up were completed but the patient successively developed branch retinal artery occlusion. We reviewed cases in literature and combined possible etiologies. We report a previously unpublished case of retinal artery occlusion following the use of intravitreal bevacizumab. Several studies have shown evidence of systemic thromboembolic events after the use of intravenous and systemic bevacizumab; however, to the best of our knowledge, no case has been reported of retinal artery occlusion immediately after administration of intravitreal bevacizumab. PMID:23179231

Kaur, Savleen; Sachdev, Nishant

2013-10-01

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Presumed toxoplasmic central retinal artery occlusion and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing  

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Full Text Available Haruka Arai,1 Tsutomu Sakai,1 Kiichiro Okano,1 Ranko Aoyagi,1 Ayano Imai,2 Hiroshi Takase,2 Manabu Mochizuki,2 Hiroshi Tsuneoka11Department of Ophthalmology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing are rare in ocular toxoplasmosis. We report a case of toxoplasmic CRAO and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. A healthy 83-year-old male developed left panuveitis. Funduscopic examination of the left eye showed a swollen optic disc and sheathing of the retinal artery with a dense vitreous haze and a white retinal lesion. Serum anti-toxoplasma antibodies were positive in a latex agglutination assay. Vitrectomy was performed to improve visualization of the retinal lesions and for examination of causative microorganisms. A postoperative fundus examination revealed CRAO with optic disc involvement and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. Qualitative multiplex polymerase chain reaction detected the Toxoplasma gondii B1 gene in ocular fluid from both the aqueous and vitreous humor. The presumed diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis was made and treatment was started with prednisone and acetylspiramycin with subsequent improvement. Two months later, the patient developed active retinochoroiditis in the left eye. After 6 weeks of anti-toxoplasma therapy, the disease involuted. Retinal vascular occlusions and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing are rare in toxoplasmosis. This is the first case report of toxoplasmic CRAO and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing. The diagnosis of ocular toxoplasmosis should be considered in patients with retinal artery occlusions and multifocal retinitis with perivascular sheathing associated with inflammation.Keywords: ocular toxoplasmosis, toxoplasma retinochoroiditis, retinal vascular occlusion, polymerase chain reaction, vitrectomy

Arai H

2014-04-01

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Retinal arterial occlusion in Takayasu?s arteritis  

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Full Text Available Takayasu?s arteritis is an auto-immune disorder of the large and medium-sized arteries, commonly involving the heart and its main vessels. It is now recognised that the inflammatory process of the large arteries affects regions of the walls supplied by the vasa vasorum, suggesting that primary small vessel involvement may contribute to the development of the clinico-pathological features of Takayasu aorto-arteritis. Classical ophthalmic features of the disease result from reduced ocular perfusion, which manifests as hypoxic retinal changes such as microaneurysms, arterio-venous anastomosis and non-perfused areas. Branch retinal artery occlusion has not been previously described in this condition. This case illustrates retinal arterial occlusion as the presenting feature of Takayasu?s arteritis.

Kaushik Sushmita

2005-01-01

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Superselective transcatheter thrombolysis for treatment of central retinal artery occlusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: Intra-arterial administration of urokinase to the territory of the ophthalmic artery was performed in 12 patients with occlusion of the central retinal artery. Methods: The thrombolysis was carried out with a microcatheter placed in the proximal part of the ophthalmic artery, for thrombolysis of the central ophthalmice arterial thrombosis covering impediment of visibility. Results: All patients achieved improvement of visual acuity, continually with one month follow up. Conclusions: Early diagnosis and early superselective trans-microcatheter thrombolytic infusion would be more effective than traditional treatment. (author)

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Simultaneous vitreous hemorrhage and branch retinal artery occlusion after prepapillary arterial loop rupture.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prepapillary arterial loops are rare benign congenital vascular anomalies that may be complicated by vitreous hemorrhage and branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO). We describe the first case in the literature of simultaneous occurrence of both these complications in the same eye of a patient with a bilateral prepapillary arterial loop, successfully treated with vitrectomy. PMID:23410854

Codenotti, M; Fogliato, G; De Benedetto, U; Iuliano, L; Bandello, F

2013-04-01

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Unilateral central retinal artery occlusion following intravenous streptokinase.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 38-year-old male with acute myocardial infraction who had received streptokinase presented with acute painless diminution of vision in the left eye. Examination revealed features of central retinal artery occlusion on the left side with vision of perception of light. Treatment in the form of systemic and local intraocular pressure lowering agents, retrobulbar xanthinol nicotinate and systemic injection of B-complex resulted in improvement of vision to counting fingers up to one meter. In this case thrombolytic therapy itself led to embolism into the left central retinal artery resulting in its occlusion and eventually optic atrophy and blindness.

Potdar N

2001-10-01

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Visual prognosis following treatment of acute central retinal artery obstruction.  

OpenAIRE

The authors report the visual outcome in 34 consecutive cases of treated acute central retinal artery obstruction. Visual acuity equal to or better than 6/30 was recovered in 35% of the cases. The presenting visual acuity and duration of visual impairment appear to correlate with visual prognosis.

Augsburger, J. J.; Magargal, L. E.

1980-01-01

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Central retinal artery occlusion: an unusual complication of snakebite  

OpenAIRE

Snakebites are endemic in some parts of India, being associated with a number of complications. Ocular disturbances are rare, except for injury to the cornea or conjunctiva when the eye is directly exposed to the venom. In this work, we present a case of central retinal artery occlusion caused by snakebite.

Bhalla, A.; Jain, A. P.; Banait, S.; Jajoo, U. N.; Kalantri, S. P.

2004-01-01

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Central retinal artery occlusion: an unusual complication of snakebite  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Snakebites are endemic in some parts of India, being associated with a number of complications. Ocular disturbances are rare, except for injury to the cornea or conjunctiva when the eye is directly exposed to the venom. In this work, we present a case of central retinal artery occlusion caused by sn [...] akebite.

A., Bhalla; A. P., Jain; S., Banait; U. N., Jajoo; S.P., Kalantri.

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A Case of Incomplete Central Retinal Artery Occlusion Associated with Short Posterior Ciliary Artery Occlusion  

OpenAIRE

To our knowledge, incomplete central retinal artery occlusion associated with short posterior ciliary artery occlusion is extremely rare. Herein, we describe a case of a 62-year-old man who was referred to our hospital with of transient blindness in his right eye. At initial examination, the patient's best-corrected visual acuity was 18/20 in the right eye. Fundus examination showed multiple soft exudates around the optic disc and mild macular retinal edema in his right eye; however, a cherry...

Shinji Makino; Mikiko Takezawa; Yukihiro Sato

2013-01-01

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Superselective ophthalmic intraarterial thrombolysis for central retinal artery thrombosis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To investigate the effect of superselective ophthalmic artery thrombolysis for treatment of central retinal artery (CRAT). Methods: 250000-500000 u urokinase was directly perfused via ophthalmic artery (OA) through the retained superselective catheter after angiography into 8 eyes of 8 patients with CRAT. Results: The visual acuity (VA) was significantly improved in 4 eyes. the VA of 3 eyes reached 0.1-0.3 after 6 months follow-up. the other 3 eyes achieved no significant improvement of VA. The VA of 1 eye decreased from finger count (FC) to light perception (LP). Conclusions: Early diagnosis and early superselective trans-micro catheter thrombolysis would be more effective than traditional treatment. (authors)

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Oclusão de ramo arterial retiniano bilateral / Bilateral branch retinal artery occlusion  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os autores relatam o caso de uma paciente que apresentou quadro bilateral de oclusão de ramos arteriais da retina sem causas sistêmicas identificáveis para o aparecimento da doença. [...] Abstract in english The authors report a case of a patient who presented bilateral branch retinal artery occlusion without any meaningful systemic underlying conditions. [...

Luiz Guilherme Azevedo de, Freitas; David Leonardo Cruvinel, Isaac; Luiz Alexandre Rassi, Gabriel; Lívia Carla de Souza Nassar, Bianchi; Marcos Pereira de, Ávila.

2013-08-01

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A framework for retinal layer intensity analysis for retinal artery occlusion patient based on 3D OCT  

Science.gov (United States)

Occlusion of retinal artery leads to severe ischemia and dysfunction of retina. Quantitative analysis of the reflectivity in the retina is very needed to quantitative assessment of the severity of retinal ischemia. In this paper, we proposed a framework for retinal layer intensity analysis for retinal artery occlusion patient based on 3D OCT images. The proposed framework consists of five main steps. First, a pre-processing step is applied to the input OCT images. Second, the graph search method was applied to segment multiple surfaces in OCT images. Third, the RAO region was detected based on texture classification method. Fourth, the layer segmentation was refined using the detected RAO regions. Finally, the retinal layer intensity analysis was performed. The proposed method was tested on tested on 27 clinical Spectral domain OCT images. The preliminary results show the feasibility and efficacy of the proposed method.

Liao, Jianping; Chen, Haoyu; Zhou, Chunlei; Chen, Xinjian

2014-03-01

31

Autofluorescence and high-definition optical coherence tomography of retinal artery occlusions  

OpenAIRE

Raeba Mathew, Evangelia Papavasileiou, Sobha SivaprasadLaser and Retinal Research Unit, Department of Ophthalmology, King’s College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London, UKBackground: The purpose of this study is to illustrate the fundus autofluorescence and high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) features of acute and long-standing retinal artery occlusions.Design: Retrospective case series.Participants: Patients with acute and chronic retinal and cilioretinal artery occlus...

Raeba Mathew; Evangelia Papavasileiou; Sobha Sivaprasad

2010-01-01

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Traumatic Optic Neuropathy and Central Retinal Artery Occlusion Following Blunt Ocular Trauma  

OpenAIRE

We present a case as a rare sign of traumatic optic neuropathy and central retinal artery occlusion following blunt ocular trauma. A 10-year-old child suffered complete loss of the vision of one eye following a blunt ocular injury. He sustained an occlusion of the central retinal artery and traumatic optic neurupathy of the affected eye. Isolated cases of central retinal vessel occlusions and traumatic optic neurapathy following ocular blunt trauma are rare conditions. Clinicians to be aware ...

Cumurcu, Tongabay; Doganay, Selim; Demirel, Soner; Cankaya, Cem

2011-01-01

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A potential pathway for managing diabetic patients with arterial emboli detected by retinal screening.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: The aim was to review a pathway of care for diabetic patients found to have retinal artery emboli detected by retinal screening. DESIGN: This was a retrospective review of a pathway agreed in 2001 by a multidisciplinary team. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The prospectively collected Gloucestershire Diabetic Retinal Screening Programme database was reviewed; patients sent for carotid duplex imaging underwent review of their scan results and their casenotes. RESULTS: The prevalence of retin...

Hadley, G.; Earnshaw, Jj; Stratton, I.; Sykes, J.; Scanlon, Ph

2011-01-01

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Severity of middle cerebral artery occlusion determines retinal deficits in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) using the intraluminal suture technique is a common model used to study cerebral ischemia in rodents. Due to the proximity of the ophthalmic artery to the middle cerebral artery, MCAO blocks both arteries, causing both cerebral ischemia and retinal ischemia. While previous studies have shown retinal dysfunction at 48h post-MCAO, we investigated whether these retinal function deficits persist until 9days and whether they correlate with central neurological deficits. Rats received 90min of transient MCAO followed by electroretinography at 2 and 9days to assess retinal function. Retinal damage was assessed with cresyl violet staining, immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and glutamine synthetase, and TUNEL staining. Rats showed behavioral deficits as assessed with neuroscore that correlated with cerebral infarct size and retinal function at 2days. Two days after surgery, rats with moderate MCAO (neuroscore retinal ganglion cell death was only observed in MCAO retinas from severe animals. By 9days after MCAO, both glutamine synthetase labeling and electroretinograms had returned to normal levels in moderate animals. Early retinal function deficits correlated with behavioral deficits. However, retinal function decreases were transient, and selective retinal cell loss was observed only with severe ischemia, suggesting that the retina is less susceptible to MCAO than the brain. Temporary retinal deficits caused by MCAO are likely due to ischemia-induced increases in extracellular glutamate that impair signal conduction, but resolve by 9days after MCAO. PMID:24518488

Allen, Rachael S; Sayeed, Iqbal; Cale, Heather A; Morrison, Katherine C; Boatright, Jeffrey H; Pardue, Machelle T; Stein, Donald G

2014-04-01

35

Branch retinal artery occlusion secondary to dengue fever  

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Full Text Available Dengue is known to affect the posterior segment of the eye, with a range of hemorrhagic and inflammatory sequelae. A 28-year-old lady convalescing from dengue fever complained of unilateral blurring of inferior visual field. She was evaluated clinically and with fluorescein angiography. Her best-corrected visual acuity was 20/20 bilaterally. Fundus examination revealed a branch retinal artery occlusion in the right eye. Fluorescein angiogram confirmed the clinical diagnosis; and also revealed a late staining and leakage from the affected arterial segment. The patient maintained status quo over a follow-up of six months. We report a major vascular occlusion complicating classic dengue fever even in the absence of severe systemic manifestations.

Kanungo Sanghamitra

2008-01-01

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Acute central retinal artery occlusion associated with livedoid vasculopathy: a variant of Sneddon's syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Livedoid vasculopathy (LV) is characterized by a long history of ulceration of the feet and legs and histopathology indicating a thrombotic process. We report a case of acute central retinal artery occlusion in a 32-year-old woman who had LV. She showed no discernible laboratory abnormalities such as antiphospholipid antibodies and no history of cerebrovascular accidents. Attempted intra-arterial thrombolysis showed no effect in restoring retinal arterial perfusion or vision. The central retinal artery occlusion accompanied by LV in this case could be regarded as a variant form of Sneddon's syndrome, which is characterized by livedo reticularis and cerebrovascular accidents. PMID:24082777

Song, Hyun Beom; Woo, Se Joon; Jung, Cheol Kyu; Lee, Yun Jong; Ahn, Jeeyun; Park, Kyu Hyung; Kwon, O-Ki

2013-10-01

37

Doppler sonographic studies on the ophthalmic and central retinal arteries in the gravid woman.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to establish normative data as gestation advances for pulsed Doppler evaluation of both the ophthalmic artery and the central retinal artery. After measuring intraocular pressure and blood pressure, pulsed Doppler ultrasonographic examination was performed on the ophthalmic and central retinal arteries in both eyes of 125 normal pregnant women. Nomograms, with 95% prediction intervals, have been generated for the Doppler indices, reflecting blood flow in both the ophthalmic and the central retinal arteries. The use of this technique in the management of pregnancy induced hypertension can now be better evaluated. PMID:7500426

MacKenzie, F; De Vermette, R; Nimrod, C; Boisvert, D; Jackson, B

1995-09-01

38

Analysis of emboli and blood flow in the ophthalmic artery to understand retinal artery occlusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Retinal artery occlusion (RAO) is a common ocular vascular occlusive disorder that may lead to partial or complete retinal ischemia with sudden visual deterio ration and visual field defects. Although RAO has been investigated since 1859, the main mechanism is still not fully understood. While hypoperfusion of the ophthalmic artery (OA) due to severe stenosis of the internal carotid artery might lead to RAO, emboli are assumed to be the main reason. Intra-arterial thrombolysis is not a sufficient treatment for RAO, and current research is mainly focused on risk factors. In this study, a computational fluid dynamic model is presented to analyse flow conditions and clot behaviour at the junction of the internal carotid artery and OA based on a realistic geometry from a RAO patient. Clot diameters varied between 5 and 200 ?m, and the probability of clots reaching the OA or being washed into the brain was analysed. Results show sufficient blood flow and perfusion pressure at the end of OA. The probability that clots from the main blood flow will to be washed into the brain is 7.32±1.08%. A wall shear stress hotspot is observed at the curvature proximal to the internal carotid artery/OA junction. Clots released from this hotspot have a higher probability of causing RAO. The occurrence of such patient-specific pathophysiologies will have to be considered in the future. PMID:25029079

Kaufmann, Tim A S; Leisser, Christoph; Gemsa, Jeannie; Steinseifer, Ulrich

2014-12-01

39

Retinal Arterial Occlusive Disease in a Young Patient with Cat Scratch Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Purpose To report an unusual case of a branch retinal arterial occlusion and bilateral multifocal retinitis in a young woman with cat scratch disease. Methods A 23-year-old woman was referred to our clinic complaining of a sudden scotoma in the upper part of the visual field of her left eye. Fundoscopy revealed occlusion of an inferior temporal branch of the retinal artery in the left eye and bilateral multifocal retinitis, which was confirmed by fluorescein angiography. Subsequent indocyanine angiography did not reveal choroidal involvement. Laboratory analysis showed rising IgG titers for Bartonella henselae. Results Cat scratch disease was diagnosed, and a 4-week course of doxycycline was initiated. The patient responded well to the antibiotics. Both retinitis and arterial occlusion were resolved, the visual field was regained and the patient reported elimination of her symptoms. Conclusions Cat scratch disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis in young patients with retinal occlusive disease. PMID:24019792

Batsos, Georgios; Kabanarou, Stamatina A.; Fotiou, Pantelis; Rouvas, Alexandros; Xirou, Tina

2013-01-01

40

The Feasibility of Central Retinal Artery Doppler Ultrasonography in Patients with Sudden Visual Disturbance that's Caused by Retinal Vascular Occlusion  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We evaluated the usefulness of central retinal artery Doppler ultrasonography for assessing the patients with sudden visual disturbance that's caused by retinal vascular occlusion. The blood flow velocity and the resistive and pulsatile indexes were measured at the central retinal arteries of 65 patients with sudden visual disturbance. For all the subjects, the patient's affected eye was compared with the non-affected eye. We investigated the efficacy of the Doppler ultrasonography parameters to predict a significant visual loss on the Snellen test (<20/400). A significantly lower central retinal arterial flow velocity was measured in the affected eye as compared with the unaffected normal eye for all the subjects (p < 0.05). The ROC curves showed that the mean velocity was the best parameter to predict significant visual loss (p < 0.05). If a mean velocity of 4.3 cm/sec was chosen as the cutoff value to predict significant visual loss, then the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were 89%, 95%, 95%, 88% and 92%, respectively (estimated area = 0.958, p-value <0.01). Central retinal artery Doppler ultrasonography was helpful for predicting significant visual loss in patients who complain of sudden visual disturbance. In addition to the other ophthalmologic diagnostic modalities, Doppler ultrasonography may be a feasible modality to depict impending further visual loss of an ischemic originn ischemic origin

41

An alternative approach in tortuous coronary artery and distal stenosis during transradial percutaneous coronary intervention: deep engagement by a 5-Fr guiding catheter.  

Science.gov (United States)

Transradial approach for percutaneous interventions has emerged as an alternative to transfemoral access which is known to be more associated with vascular local complications. However, lack of guiding-catheter support via the radial access is one of the problems encountering the operators. Many solutions have been proposed to overcome this problem. We report on a 62-year-old man with tight stenosis of the distal part of the right coronary artery. He underwent coronary angiography and then percutaneous angioplasty via the right radial artery. During the procedure, attempts to advance a stent beyond a tortuosity at the level of the second segment failed due to lack of support of the 6-Fr Judkins right 4 guiding catheter, even with the buddy wire technique. Then, switching to a 5-Fr Judkins right 4 guiding catheter allowed safe deep engagement and resulted in successful advancement and deployment of the stent. PMID:22710587

Dahdouh, Ziad Said; Roule, Vincent; Sabatier, Rémi; Grollier, Gilles

2012-03-01

42

Cystoid Macular Edema in Acute Presentation of Central Retinal Artery Occlusion  

OpenAIRE

A seventy-six-year-old lady with poor vision of the left eye due to previous retinal detachment presented with acute visual loss of her right eye secondary to central retinal artery occlusion. Clinical examination showed a pale right optic disc, macular edema, and a cherry red spot. Optical coherence tomography done four hours after onset showed right acute cystoid macular edema and diffuse inner retinal thickening. Subsequent treatment with intravenous carbonic anhydrase inhibitor resulted i...

Han, Daphne C. Y.; Yeo, Ian Y. S.; Wong, Doric W. K.; Wei Yan Ng

2012-01-01

43

Central retinal artery occlusion in association with fibromuscular dysplasia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ahmet Altun,1 Gulengul Altun,2 Osman Okan Olcaysu,3 Sevda Aydin Kurna,1 Suat Fazil Aki11Clinic of Ophthalmology, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Education and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey; 2Department of Pediatrics, Yeditepe University, Istanbul, Turkey; 3Clinic of Ophthalmology, Erzurum Region Education and Research Hospital, Erzurum, TurkeyAbstract: A 14 year-old female, whose chief complaint was severe vision loss in the right eye for 2 days, presented to the Clinic of Ophthalmology of Fatih Sultan Mehmet Education and Research Hospital. The patient had been attending follow-up visits for 4 years, following a diagnosis of fibromuscular dysplasia by the Clinic of Pediatrics. The patient underwent a complete ophthalmologic, angiographic, hematologic, and systemic evaluation. Fundus fluorescein angiography was performed immediately, because of the cherry-red spot sign in the macula of the right eye. Fundus fluorescein angiography revealed evidence of marked stasis of the retinal arterial circulation in the right eye. Best corrected visual acuity was 20/400 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye.Keywords: retina, artery, occlusion, fibromuscular, dysplasia

Altun A

2013-11-01

44

Evaluation of body mass index and lipid fractions levels in patients with retinal artery occlusion  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background/Aim. There are studies stressing out that atherosclerosis is most common associated systemic condition in patients with retinal artery occlusion. The aim of this study was to analyze values of body mass index and lipid fractions in healthy individuals and patients with retinal artery occlusion. Methods. This study included 90 participants during a 6-year period. The population was divided into 2 groups: the group with the diagnosed retinal artery occlusion and the group without retinal artery occlusion. The observed parameters were as follows: body mass index, low and high density lipoproteins and triglycerides. Results. The study revealed no significant difference regarding body mass index and triglycerides values between the two evaluated groups, while low and high density lipoproteins values were significantly higher in the group of patients with retinal artery occlusion. Conclusions. The study demonstrated that body mass index and triglycerides have less important role in atherogenic pathogenesis of retinal artery occlusion, while low density lipoprotein is the fraction that is shown to be most potent in such etiological processes.

Risimi? Dijana

2011-01-01

45

A traveling "spot sign" in recurrent amaurosis fugax and central retinal artery occlusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sudden monocular blindness is frequently caused by central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) from embolic sources. Treatment options are insufficient, and spontaneous prognosis toward visual recovery is poor. In addition to ophthalmologic evaluation, transorbital sonographic assessment of the central retinal artery may help establish early diagnosis by Doppler sonographic proof of occlusion and, in some cases, by B-mode detection of an intra-arterial "spot sign". We report the case of a patient with recurrent amaurosis fugax and subsequent CRAO. Ultrasound examination after 2 incidences of amaurosis fugax demonstrated a patent but stenotic central retinal artery, with stenosis caused by an embolus visualized as a "spot sign". The following day, persisting amaurosis suddenly developed. Sonographic re-evaluation revealed downstream dislodgment of the "spot sign" and complete arterial occlusion. Thrombolytic treatment did not result in clinical improvement. In conclusion, this case report describes a single case of repeated amaurosis fugax and deterioration to CRAO via embolization into the central retinal artery and consecutive downstream dislodgment. It emphasizes that ultrasound may render valuable diagnostic information in patients with acute central retinal artery embolization toward its embolic etiology and its risk of subsequent deterioration. PMID:24957310

Nedelmann, Max; Tanislav, Christian; Kaps, Manfred

2014-10-01

46

Autofluorescence and high-definition optical coherence tomography of retinal artery occlusions  

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Full Text Available Raeba Mathew, Evangelia Papavasileiou, Sobha SivaprasadLaser and Retinal Research Unit, Department of Ophthalmology, King’s College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London, UKBackground: The purpose of this study is to illustrate the fundus autofluorescence and high-definition optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT features of acute and long-standing retinal artery occlusions.Design: Retrospective case series.Participants: Patients with acute and chronic retinal and cilioretinal artery occlusions are included in this series.Methods: A detailed clinical examination, color fundus photographs, autofluorescence, and HD-OCT of the subjects were performed.Results: HD-OCT demonstrates the localized and well-demarcated thickening of the inner retina in the acute phase of arterial occlusions that correlates with the areas of blocked autofluorescence caused by the cloudy swelling of the retina. The areas of blocked autofluorescence disappear with chronicity of the disease and this corresponds to the thinning of the inner retinal layers on HD-OCT.Conclusion: Heidelberg OCT and autofluorescence are useful tools to assess retinal arterial occlusions especially in subjects with unexplained visual field loss.Keywords: autofluorescence, high definition OCT, retinal artery occlusion

Raeba Mathew

2010-10-01

47

Visual Recovery and OCT Evolution Following Central Retinal Artery Occlusion Treated With Intra-arterial Verapamil and Alteplase Infusion.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 69-year-old woman presented with a "veil" over the left eye. Clinical examination demonstrated signs of central retinal artery occlusion. Visual acuity was compromised to 1/200E in the left eye. Ocular massage and anterior chamber paracentesis failed to improve vision. An emergent intra-arterial catheterization with verapamil and alteplase infusion was performed less than 12 hours following symptom onset. Initial optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed inner retinal edema. One year later, OCT revealed relatively minor thinning, which could explain the patient's visual recovery to 20/40. This may be the first article to report OCT changes following this treatment for central retinal artery occlusion. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2015;46:77-79.]. PMID:25559514

Kovach, Jaclyn L; Mason, Brian

2015-01-01

48

Protein kinase C in porcine retinal arteries and neuroretina following retinal ischemia-reperfusion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Identification of the intracellular signal-transduction pathways activated in retinal ischemia may be important in revealing novel pharmacological targets. To date, most studies have focused on identifying neuroprotective agents. The retinal blood vessels are key organs in circulatory failure, and this study was therefore designed to examine the retinal vasculature separately from the neuroretina.

Gesslein, Bodil; Gustafsson, Lotta

2009-01-01

49

Transluminal Nd:YAG laser embolysis: A reasonable method to reperfuse occluded branch retinal arteries  

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Full Text Available Introduction. Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO and branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO result in partial or complete retinal ischemia and sudden loss of vision; at this moment, there is no effective therapy for CRAO and BRAO. Transluminal Nd:YAG laser embolysis (TYE represents a therapeutic approach used for retinal vascular occlusive diseases. The main indication is branch retinal artery occlusion with visible embolus; for central retinal artery occlusion this tehnique is hardly applicable. The principle of this method consists of intravascular embolus breakage using the 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser, focused on the embolus surface. Case report. We presented 5 cases with BRAO, 3 with infero-temporal and 2 with supero-temporal BRAO, all of them treated with TYE, with variable results. All the patients had a visible embolus within the BRA, the laser applications being delivered directly to the embolus. Conclusion. Despite our short-term experience regarding this therapeutical approach, we can resume that the moment of emboli distruction, as close as possible to the onset of the occlusion, is decisive for regaining vision and that applying the procedure correctly is superior to observation in most cases. Worldwide experience with TYE is still limited, but the technique seems feasible also when treating CRAO caused by visible emboli on the optic disc surface. This most certainly calls for random trials for identifying precisely the role of TYE in treatment of retinal occlusion pathology, though the relatively small number of properly diagnosed cases affects this objective. In all cases, the risks of TYE must be weighed against the possibility of severe and permanent loss of vision secondary to retinal artery occlusions.

Stanca Horia T.

2014-01-01

50

Superselective ophthalmic artery fibrinolytic therapy for the treatment of central retinal vein occlusion  

OpenAIRE

AIM—To study the effect of superselective ophthalmic artery fibrinolysis as a treatment for central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO).?METHODS—Retrospective, university based single centre study. The charts of 26 eyes of 26 patients treated were reviewed. Among the 26 patients, there were nine cases of combined artery and vein occlusion, three cases of combined cilioretinal artery and CRVO, and 14 cases of classic CRVO. Complete preoperative and postoperative ophthalmological examinatio...

Paques, M.; Vallee, J.; Herbreteau, D.; Aymart, A.; Santiago, P.; Campinchi-tardy, F.; Payen, D.; Merlan, J.; Gaudric, A.; Massin, P.

2000-01-01

51

Current endovascular treatment options for central retinal arterial occlusion: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Central retinal artery occlusion, although relatively rare, is an ophthalmological emergency. If left untreated, complete blindness will ensue. Conventional therapies have not significantly improved outcomes compared with the natural history of the disease. Several case series of more recent endovascular approaches, such as intraarterial fibrinolysis, report successful outcomes. Still other studies regarding intraarterial fibrinolysis do not demonstrate any significantly better outcomes, with some even indicating increased complication rates. Therefore, the authors present a review of the current endovascular treatment options for central retinal artery occlusion. PMID:24380484

Agarwal, Nitin; Gala, Nihar B; Karimi, Reza J; Turbin, Roger E; Gandhi, Chirag D; Prestigiacomo, Charles J

2014-01-01

52

Comparison of Optical Coherence Tomography Findings in a Patient with Central Retinal Artery Occlusion in One Eye and End-stage Glaucoma in the Fellow Eye  

OpenAIRE

This case describes a patient with chronic central retinal artery occlusion in one eye and end-stage traumatic glaucoma in the fellow eye. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) of the macula of the chronic phase of central retinal artery occlusion of the right eye indicated loss of the normal foveal depression, extensive inner retinal atrophy, and marked retinal thinning. In contrast, scans of the left eye with end-stage glaucoma demonstrated an intact foveal depression and limited retinal thinn...

Greene, Daniel P.; Richards, Charles P.; Ghazi, Nicola G.

2012-01-01

53

Central retinal artery occlusion caused by fat embolism following endoscopic sinus surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) can lead to a variety of ophthalmic complications. Central retinal arterial occlusion (CRAO) is one such complication, usually due to orbital compartment syndrome. We report a case of CRAO following endoscopic sinus surgery as a result of fat embolism. PMID:23571187

Kim, Ko Eun; Ahn, Seong Joon; Woo, Se Joon; Kim, Namju; Hwang, Jeong-Min

2013-06-01

54

Superselective ophthalmic artery fibrinolytic therapy for the treatment of central retinal vein occlusion  

Science.gov (United States)

AIM—To study the effect of superselective ophthalmic artery fibrinolysis as a treatment for central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO).?METHODS—Retrospective, university based single centre study. The charts of 26 eyes of 26 patients treated were reviewed. Among the 26 patients, there were nine cases of combined artery and vein occlusion, three cases of combined cilioretinal artery and CRVO, and 14 cases of classic CRVO. Complete preoperative and postoperative ophthalmological examination and fluorescein angiography were performed in all cases. The therapeutic procedure comprised the infusion of urokinase through a microcatheter into the ostium of the ophthalmic artery, via a femoral artery approach. The main outcome measure was the improvement in visual acuity 48 hours after the procedure.?RESULTS—Six eyes of six patients exhibited significant improvement in visual acuity immediately after the fibrinolysis procedure. Among them, four had a initial funduscopic appearance suggestive of combined occlusion of the central retinal artery (CRAO) and vein. For these patients, the visual benefit was maintained in the long term. Intravitreal haemorrhage occurred in two patients. There were no extraocular complications linked to the procedure.?CONCLUSIONS—Selective ophthalmic artery infusion of urokinase was followed by improvement in VA in six out of 26 cases of CRVO. Eyes with combined CRAO and CRVO with recent visual loss appeared to be the most responsive. This treatment did not prevent the occurrence of ischaemia in the failure cases. The efficacy of in situ fibrinolysis for treatment of CRVO needs to be further evaluated in a controlled study.?? PMID:11090479

Paques, M; Vallee, J; Herbreteau, D; Aymart, A; Santiago, P; Campinchi-Tardy, F; Payen, D; Merlan, J; Gaudric, A; Massin, P

2000-01-01

55

A case of Churg–Strauss syndrome and central retinal artery occlusion with good visual recovery  

OpenAIRE

Here we report a case of Churg–Strauss syndrome (CSS) and central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO), with good visual recovery. A 58-year-old Japanese man with CSS experienced acute painless loss of vision in his right eye. CRAO was diagnosed by fundoscopic findings (retinal whitening with a cherry-red spot). Steroid pulse therapy (methylprednisolone at 1 g daily for 3 days) followed by combined treatment with prednisolone (30 mg/day) and cyclophosphamide (150 mg/day) was administered; his vi...

Kamata, Yuki; Hashizume, Kouhei; Kaneko, Muneyoshi; Kurosaka, Daijiro

2013-01-01

56

Visual recovery in two patients after intravenous methylprednisolone treatment of central retinal artery occlusion secondary to giant-cell arteritis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two patients with central retinal artery occlusions secondary to biopsy-proven giant-cell arteritis lost visual acuity to no light perception but recovered to baseline acuity after treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone at a dose of 15 to 30 mg/kg/day. The potential advantages and theoretical basis of early and aggressive treatment with large-dose intravenous corticosteroids in arteritic central retinal artery occlusion are discussed. PMID:1741143

Matzkin, D C; Slamovits, T L; Sachs, R; Burde, R M

1992-01-01

57

The Feasibility of Central Retinal Artery Doppler Ultrasonography in Patients with Sudden Visual Disturbance that's Caused by Retinal Vascular Occlusion  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We evaluated the usefulness of central retinal artery Doppler ultrasonography for assessing the patients with sudden visual disturbance that's caused by retinal vascular occlusion. The blood flow velocity and the resistive and pulsatile indexes were measured at the central retinal arteries of 65 patients with sudden visual disturbance. For all the subjects, the patient's affected eye was compared with the non-affected eye. We investigated the efficacy of the Doppler ultrasonography parameters to predict a significant visual loss on the Snellen test (<20/400). A significantly lower central retinal arterial flow velocity was measured in the affected eye as compared with the unaffected normal eye for all the subjects (p < 0.05). The ROC curves showed that the mean velocity was the best parameter to predict significant visual loss (p < 0.05). If a mean velocity of 4.3 cm/sec was chosen as the cutoff value to predict significant visual loss, then the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy were 89%, 95%, 95%, 88% and 92%, respectively (estimated area = 0.958, p-value <0.01). Central retinal artery Doppler ultrasonography was helpful for predicting significant visual loss in patients who complain of sudden visual disturbance. In addition to the other ophthalmologic diagnostic modalities, Doppler ultrasonography may be a feasible modality to depict impending further visual loss of an ischemic origin.

Park, Ji Won; Lee, Hui Joong; Lee, Jong Min [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

2009-03-15

58

Combined central retinal artery and vein occlusion secondary to systemic non-Hodgkin?s lymphoma  

OpenAIRE

We report a rare case of low-grade systemic B-cell non-Hodgkin?s lymphoma (NHL) causing central retinal artery and vein occlusion, which was the only manifestation of disease recurrence. A young man with resolved systemic NHL underwent fluorescein angiography, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography to investigate a severe unilateral visual loss. A combined vascular occlusion was observed in the right eye. Neuroimaging detected optic nerve infiltration; but no systemic/ cent...

Shukla Dhananjay; Arora Amit; Hadi Khazaei; Kumar Mahesh; Baddela Satish; Kim Ramasamy

2006-01-01

59

Central Retinal and Posterior Ciliary Artery Occlusion After Intralesional Injection of Sclerosant to Glabellar Subcutaneous Hemangioma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The aim of this study is to describe vision loss caused by central retinal artery and posterior ciliary artery occlusion as a consequence of sclerotherapy with a polidocanol injection to a glabellar hemangioma. An 18-year-old man underwent direct injection with a 23-gauge needle of 1 mL of a polidocanol-carbon dioxide emulsion into the glabellar subcutaneous hemangioma under ultrasound visualization of the needle tip by radiologists. He developed lid swelling the next day, and 3 days later at referral, the visual acuity in the left eye was no light perception. Funduscopy revealed central retinal artery occlusion and fluorescein angiography disclosed no perfusion at all in the left fundus, indicating concurrent posterior ciliary artery occlusion. The patient also showed mydriasis, blepharoptosis, and total external ophthalmoplegia on the left side. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the swollen medial rectus muscle. In a month, blepharoptosis and ophthalmoplegia resolved but the visual acuity remained no light perception. Sclerosing therapy for facial hemangioma may develop a severe complication such as permanent visual loss.

60

A tortuous road for septic pulmonary emboli in left-sided endocarditis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Coronary artery fistulae are rare congenital or acquired connections between the coronary vessels and the cardiac chambers or other vascular structures. We report a case of a woman with mitral valve endocarditis and multiple pulmonary septic emboli. Transesophageal echocardiography revealed a tortuous coronary fistula as the pathway for the septic emboli. The fistula, which originated from the right coronary artery to the right atrium, was visualized using different imaging modalities. PMID:25240707

Reinders, Sjoerd; Bogaard, Kjell; Reichert, Constant L A; Knol, Remco J J

2014-11-01

61

A case of central retinal artery occlusion following embolization procedure for juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma  

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Full Text Available A 23-year-old male patient with right nasal Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibroma (JNA developed Central Retinal Artery Occlusion (CRAO during embolization of the tumor using polyvinyl alcohol particles before endoscopic excision. Classic CRAO management was initiated by an ophthalmologist after 12 h. Retrospective evaluation of the angiograms revealed a tiny communication between the external carotid and ophthalmic arteries which had not been noticed before embolization. During endoscopic excision, the tumor was found to originate extraordinarily from midline structures. It was concluded that CRAO might be a rare complication of JNA embolization. Careful preoperative angiographic evaluations to detect communicating arteries and immediate ophthalmologic consultation in case of developing visual symptoms during the procedure are necessary.

Ramezani Alireza

2010-01-01

62

Cerebro-retinal ischemia after bilateral occlusion of internal carotid artery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Six patients with occlusion of internal carotid arteries (ICAs) were prospectively followed during a mean period of 14 months. Prior to demonstration of occlusions, four patients suffered a mild stroke, and three isolated transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) or amaurosis fugax. All patients remained alive and with an unchanged functional ability. During follow-up, one patient suffered amaurosis fugax and TIAs followed by a mild stroke, three suffered isolated TIAs or amaurosis fugax, two suffered reversible cerebro-retinal ischemia of more than 24 hours, and one remained symptomfree. In three cases, delayed cerebro-retinal ischemia distal to one of the occluded ICAs was systematically triggered by orthostatic, cardiogenic or iatrogenic hypotension, and resolved after adequate medical treatment or restoration of a functional collateral circulation by endarterectomy of a tightly stenosed ipsilateral external carotid artery (ECA), suggesting hemodynamic phenomena. In three cases, micro-emboli originating from a stump or an ulcerated ipsilateral common carotid artery and migrating through well-developed ECA collateral channels explained delayed episodes of ipsilateral TIAs or amaurosis fugax, which disappeared in two cases after adequate anticoagulant therepy was introduced. Bilateral occlusion of ICA may be a relatively benign condition, if the patients are carefully controlled and treated. (orig.)

63

Central retinal artery occlusion following severe blow-out fracture in young adult  

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Full Text Available Noriko Himori, Hiroshi Kunikata, Takaaki Otomo, Nobuo Fuse, Kohji NishidaDepartment of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, JapanAbstract: A 20-year-old woman was involved in a traffic accident while riding a motorcycle. The vision in her right eye was severely reduced. At the first examination, the eyelids of her right eye were severely swollen, and the eye could barely be seen. The fundus was not visible. She had no light perception in her vision. Computed tomography revealed a severe blow-out fracture in her right eye. Surgery was immediately performed to correct the fracture and the eye globe was replaced in the orbit. On the fourth postoperative day, the right fundus was visible and a cherry-red spot and milky-white edema were seen. Fluorescein angiography showed an arterial filling defect. Four months later, her visual acuity was light perception. Our case shows that a central retinal artery occlusion can be a complication of a blow-out fracture of the lower orbital wall and can lead to severe visual loss even with early surgical repair.Keywords: central retinal artery occlusion, blow out fracture, trauma, young adult

Noriko Himori

2009-04-01

64

A case of Churg-Strauss syndrome complicated with bilateral central retinal artery occlusion  

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Full Text Available A 56-year-old Japanese woman treated for bronchial asthma came to our hospital because of sudden vision loss of the left eye and plantar numbness of the right foot. Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO was diagnosed. Vision loss of the right eye also appeared, and the numbness of the right foot worsened. She was diagnosed with Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS due to bronchial asthma, eosinophilia, and vasculitis (CRAO and numbness. Her symptoms were unresponsive to systemic corticosteroid therapy, but improved when cyclophosphamide pulse was added. Vision disorders are uncommon manifestations of CSS. Close co-ordination with ophthalmologists is important for diagnosis and treatment.

Ken Uchibori

2013-07-01

65

Optical coherence tomography in retinal arterial occlusions: case series and review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Retinal arterial occlusions (RAOs) are an uncommon source of monocular vision loss, typically occurring in patients over the age of 60. Diagnosis is typically made by history and clinical examination, while ancillary testing may include fluorescein angiography. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is not routinely utilized in the diagnostic assessment of RAO, and its role in the diagnosis and management of patients with RAO is still evolving. In this series, we review the literature on OCT findings in RAOs, particularly noting the role of OCT in delineating anatomic findings, chronicity and natural course, and functional outcomes. A case series of five patients with RAOs is provided to illustrate these findings. PMID:24074452

Kapoor, Kapil G; Barkmeier, Andrew J; Bakri, Sophie J

2015-01-01

66

Central retinal artery occlusion in a patient with ANCA-negative Churg-Strauss syndrome  

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Full Text Available Yuji Kumano,1 Noriko Yoshida,2 Satoru Fukuyama,3 Masanori Miyazaki,2 Hiroshi Enaida,2 Takaaki Matsui11Ohshima Hospital of Ophthalmology, Fukuoka, 2Department of Ophthalmology, 3Research Institute for Diseases of the Chest, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, JapanAbstract: Ocular involvement in Churg-Strauss syndrome is infrequent. We describe the case of a 54-year-old woman with eosinophilia and involvement of the respiratory tract, skin, and peripheral nervous system, fulfilling the American College of Rheumatology criteria for Churg-Strauss syndrome. The patient presented with acute, painless vision loss in her right eye. Central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO without accompanying retinal vasculitis was diagnosed by angiographic findings and funduscopic findings of retinal whitening with a cherry-red spot. Although her antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA status was negative, CRAO was thought to be an ocular manifestation of Churg-Strauss syndrome, and appropriate treatment was planned. She was treated with high-dose corticosteroids and anticoagulant therapy. Her macular edema improved, but visual recovery was poor. Specific therapy to alter inflammation, blood coagulation, and rheology reportedly plays an important role in ANCA-positive patients with Churg-Strauss syndrome who develop CRAO. Regardless of ANCA status, high-dose corticosteroids should be considered for CRAO in patients with Churg-Strauss syndrome, as discussed in this case.Keywords: CRAO, ANCA, Churg-Strauss syndrome

Miyazaki M

2012-07-01

67

A new imaging technique for retinal vessel oximetry: principles and first clinical results in patients with retinal arterial occlusion and diabetic retinopathy  

Science.gov (United States)

The oxygen saturation of blood inside retinal vessels is an essential measure for the estimation of oxygen supply to the tissue as well as its oxygen consumption. In the current approach, the blood oxygenation is measured by a dual-wavelength technique. Using a fundus camera, equipped with a special dual wavelength transmission filter and a color CCD camera, two monochromatic fundus images at 548 nm and 610 nm were recorded simultaneously. The optical densities of retinal vessels for both wavelengths and their ratio, which is known to be proportional to the oxygen saturation, were calculated. From a health control population, mean arterial and venous oxygen saturations were measured of 98+/-10.1% and 65+/-11.7% with reproducibility of 2.52% and 3.25% respectively. In 10 patients with arterial occlusion, a reduction of the arterial oxygen saturation to 78 +/-17% (mean +/- standard deviation, branch arterial occlusion) and 91+/-11% (central arterial occlusion) respectively was found in the occluded vessel. After 5 days on pentoxifilin therapy, the arterial saturation increased to an average of 93+/-12% or 103 +/-6% respectively. In 70 eyes of 42 patients suffering from diabetic retinopathy, an increase of the venous oxygen saturation with the severity of the retinopathy was found (mild nonproliferative retinopathy: 68.4+/-8.2%, moderate non-proliferative retinopathy: 70.5+/-6.8%, severe non-proliferative retinopathy: 72.4+/-7.6%, proliferative retinopathy 75.7+/-8.3%) due to vessel shunting and diabetic changes of the permeability of vessel walls. These first clinical results demonstrate the ability of an accurate measurement of retinal vessel oxygenation with a very simple setup just requiring a special filter in the illumination path of a fundus camera and dedicated software.

Hammer, M.; Riemer, T.; Vilser, W.; Gehlert, S.; Schweitzer, D.

2009-02-01

68

Retinal Tear and Detachment  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... It is attached to the choroid tissue, which supplies the retina with blood. Retinal detachment is a ... retina needs blood to function. The retinal arteries supply the surface of the retina. Symptoms Retinal tears ...

69

Retinal protective effects of topically administered agmatine on ischemic ocular injury caused by transient occlusion of the ophthalmic artery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Agmatine, an endogenous polyamine and putative neuromodulator, is known to have neuroprotective effects on various neurons in the central nervous system. We determined whether or not topically administered agmatine could reduce ischemic retinal injury. Transient ocular ischemia was achieved by intraluminal occlusion of the middle cerebral artery of ddY mice (30-35 g for 2 h, which is known to also induce occlusion of the ophthalmic artery. In the agmatine group (N = 6, a 1.0 mM agmatine-containing ophthalmic solution was administered four times daily for 2 weeks before occlusion. In the control group (N = 6, a 0.1% hyaluronic acid ophthalmic solution was instilled at the same times. At 22 h after reperfusion, the eyeballs were enucleated and the retinal sections were stained by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL. Transient ocular ischemia induced apoptosis of retinal cells in the entire retinal layer, and topically administered agmatine can significantly reduce this ischemic retinal injury. The proportion of apoptotic cells was definitely decreased (P < 0.001; Kruskal-Wallis test. Overall, we determined that topical agmatine application effectively decreases retinal damage in an in vivo ocular ischemic injury model. This implies that agmatine is a good candidate as a direct neuroprotective agent for eyes with ocular ischemic diseases.

S. Hong

2012-03-01

70

Retinal protective effects of topically administered agmatine on ischemic ocular injury caused by transient occlusion of the ophthalmic artery  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Agmatine, an endogenous polyamine and putative neuromodulator, is known to have neuroprotective effects on various neurons in the central nervous system. We determined whether or not topically administered agmatine could reduce ischemic retinal injury. Transient ocular ischemia was achieved by intra [...] luminal occlusion of the middle cerebral artery of ddY mice (30-35 g) for 2 h, which is known to also induce occlusion of the ophthalmic artery. In the agmatine group (N = 6), a 1.0 mM agmatine-containing ophthalmic solution was administered four times daily for 2 weeks before occlusion. In the control group (N = 6), a 0.1% hyaluronic acid ophthalmic solution was instilled at the same times. At 22 h after reperfusion, the eyeballs were enucleated and the retinal sections were stained by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). Transient ocular ischemia induced apoptosis of retinal cells in the entire retinal layer, and topically administered agmatine can significantly reduce this ischemic retinal injury. The proportion of apoptotic cells was definitely decreased (P

S., Hong; H., Hara; M., Shimazawa; K., Hyakkoku; C.Y., Kim; G.J., Seong.

2012-03-01

71

Obstrucción de rama macular de arteria central de la retina Occlusion of the macular branch of the central retinal artery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report a 54 years old female on oral anticoagulant treatment with a mitral valve disease, with a history of two transient ischemic attacks and a decreased visual acuity. She was assessed by an ophthalmologist and signs of retinal vascular disease were found. During follow up, the patient experienced an acute unilateral loss of vision in the left eye. Fundoscopy revealed an obstruction of a macular branch of central retinal artery. Aspirin was added to oral anticoagulants and one month later, the patient experienced an upper gastrointestinal bleeding. After four months of follow up, there is no recovery of left eye vision (Rev Méd Chile 2002; 130: 86-89

Jorge Orellana R

2002-01-01

72

Mitogen-activated protein kinases in the porcine retinal arteries and neuroretina following retinal ischemia-reperfusion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The aim of the present study was to examine changes in the expression of intracellular signal-transduction pathways, specifically mitogen-activated protein kinases, following retinal ischemia-reperfusion.

Gesslein, Bodil; Håkansson, Gisela

2010-01-01

73

Central Retinal Artery Occlusion- A rare complication of oral contraceptive pills  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Aim: To propose a hypothesis of causal association between central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO and oral contraceptive pills (OCPCase Summary:A case report-A 22 yr old, female presented with sudden painless loss of vision in OS [Right Eye] for 1 day. VA [Visual Activity] in OS was PL PR [Perception of Light and Projection of Rays] Faulty with RAPD [Relative Afferent Papillary Defect] with normal for fifteen minutes, given five hundred mg of acetazolamide orally stat, 0.4 ml of anterior chamber paracentesis done, 5400 IU LMW [Low Molecular Weight] heparin given SC[Subcutaneous] with carbogen inhalation. Retrospectively she was on oral contraceptives(Mala D for 1 month. She was not hypertensive or diabetic with normal blood, coagulation profile & carotid Doppler. She was evaluated by an intern to find the cause of coagulation disorder and was found to be normal. On first day FFA [Fundus Florescien Angiography] showed no blockage with normal cilioretinal artery perfusion established. Visual fields after one week showed central tubular vision and OCT [Ocular Coherent Tomography] showed normal fovea. After 2 weeks vision was 20/80 with persistent RAPD papilla macular bundle being perfused.

Nidhi Pancholi

2013-07-01

74

Prevalência de hipertensão arterial em pacientes com oclusão do ramo da veia central da retina / Prevalence of arterial hypertension in branch retinal vein occlusion patients  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVOS: Identificar em pacientes com oclusão do ramo da veia central da retina utilizando a monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial e medidas clínicas da pressão arterial: prevalência de hipertensão e o perfil noturno da pressão arterial. MÉTODOS: Prospectivamente, 93 olhos de 83 pacientes [...] com oclusão do ramo da veia central da retina foram submetidos à avaliação oftalmológica. Após, os pacientes foram encaminhados para avaliação clínica e monitorização da pressão arterial. Pacientes sem descenso da pressão durante o sono ("non-dipper") foram definidos como um declínio na pressão arterial sistólica Abstract in english PURPOSE: To identify in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and clinical blood pressure measures: hypertension prevalence, and nocturnal profile of blood pressure. METHODS: Prospectively, 93 eyes of 83 patients with branch retinal vein occlusion wer [...] e submitted to ophthalmological examination. Afterwards the patients were submitted to clinical evaluation and blood pressure monitoring. Non-dipper was defined as a fall in systolic blood pressure

Alexandre Antonio Marques, Rosa; Kátia Coelho, Ortega; Décio, Mion Jr.; Yoshitaka, Nakashima.

2008-04-01

75

Recurrent Bilateral Branch Retinal Artery Occlusion with Hearing Loss and Encephalopathy: The First Case Report of Susac Syndrome in Korea  

OpenAIRE

We report the first case of Susac syndrome in Koreans, in a 23-yr-old female patient who presented with sudden visual loss and associated neurological symptoms. Ophthalmic examination and fluorescein angiography showed multiple areas of branch retinal artery occlusion, which tended to recur in both eyes. Magnetic resonance imaging showed dot-like, diffusion-restricted lesions in the corpus callosum and left fornix, and audiometry showed low-frequency sensory hearing loss, compatible with Susa...

Joe, Soo Geun; Kim, June-gone; Kwon, Sun Uck; Lee, Choong Wook; Lim, Hyun Woo; Yoon, Young Hee

2011-01-01

76

Retinal protective effects of topically administered agmatine on ischemic ocular injury caused by transient occlusion of the ophthalmic artery  

OpenAIRE

Agmatine, an endogenous polyamine and putative neuromodulator, is known to have neuroprotective effects on various neurons in the central nervous system. We determined whether or not topically administered agmatine could reduce ischemic retinal injury. Transient ocular ischemia was achieved by intraluminal occlusion of the middle cerebral artery of ddY mice (30-35 g) for 2 h, which is known to also induce occlusion of the ophthalmic artery. In the agmatine group (N = 6), a 1.0 mM agmatine-con...

Hong, S.; Hara, H.; Shimazawa, M.; Hyakkoku, K.; Kim, C. Y.; Seong, G. J.

2012-01-01

77

FDG PET findings of the brain in sudden blindness caused by bilateral central retinal artery occlusion revealing giant cell arteritis.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the case of a 73-year-old woman presenting sudden blindness caused by bilateral simultaneous central retinal artery occlusion revealed by ophthalmoscopy. Temporal artery biopsy confirmed the giant cell arteritis. The patient was treated with a systemic steroid without visual recovery. FDG PET/CT was performed 6 months later in the context of persistent inflammatory syndrome. This case shows the close relationship between functional activity and glucose energy metabolism. We observed both bilateral occipital hypometabolism corresponding to loss of functional activity and bilateral temporal (auditory areas) and orbitofrontal hypermetabolism related to compensatory neuronal plasticity. PMID:25275418

Dietemann, Sébastien; Noblet, Vincent; Imperiale, Alessio; Blondet, Cyrille; Namer, Izzie Jacques

2015-01-01

78

Decreased peripheral arterial volume distensibility in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion in comparison with normal subjects.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study aimed to quantify arterial volume distensibility in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in comparison with normal subjects and to investigate factors associated with their differences. 40 normal subjects and 30 BRVO patients were studied. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) was measured to determine arterial volume distensibility. In comparison with the normal subjects, after adjusting for pulse pressure, baPWV in the BRVO patients was significantly higher by 2.3?m/s (P arterial distensibility was significantly lower by 0.015% per mmHg (P arterial distensibility lower than 0.04% per mmHg, in comparison with 67% (20/30) in the BRVO group. Arterial distensibility was significantly related to systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP and DBP) and ageing for both groups (all P arterial volume distensibility. Peripheral arterial distensibility has been shown to be significantly lower in BRVO patients in comparison with normal subjects. The more prominent effect of SBP, DBP and ageing on arterial distensibility indicates the potential underlying mechanisms of the interaction between higher blood pressures, ageing and BRVO disease. PMID:25328000

Chen, Zhiqing; Mao, Lingna; Liu, Chengyu; Blake, James R; Zheng, Dingchang

2014-01-01

79

Obstrucción de rama macular de arteria central de la retina / Occlusion of the macular branch of the central retinal artery  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english We report a 54 years old female on oral anticoagulant treatment with a mitral valve disease, with a history of two transient ischemic attacks and a decreased visual acuity. She was assessed by an ophthalmologist and signs of retinal vascular disease were found. During follow up, the patient experien [...] ced an acute unilateral loss of vision in the left eye. Fundoscopy revealed an obstruction of a macular branch of central retinal artery. Aspirin was added to oral anticoagulants and one month later, the patient experienced an upper gastrointestinal bleeding. After four months of follow up, there is no recovery of left eye vision (Rev Méd Chile 2002; 130: 86-89)

Jorge, Orellana R; Ricardo, Garibaldi D; Fernando, Leiva P; Gustavo, Núñez C; César, Vicencio T; Ana L, Quiñones T.

2002-01-01

80

Central retinal artery occlusion and non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy associated with an overlap syndrome: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Introduction An "overlap syndrome" is defined as the sequential appearance over time of two or more risk factors for glaucomatous damage. The appearance of a new risk factor can alter the course and prognosis of previously stable disease. Exfoliation syndrome is a leading cause of glaucoma and is associated with vascular disease. We report a case of central retinal artery occlusion and non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in a patient with overlap syndrome. Case presentation An 87-year-old woman with longstanding stable primary open-angle glaucoma developed bilateral exfoliation syndrome, after which her intraocular pressure became uncontrolled and her glaucomatous damage progressed rapidly. She also developed ischemic arterial events in both eyes. Conclusion The case presented here shows that overlap syndromes can lead to rapid, irreversible vision impairment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of central retinal artery occlusion and non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy in a patient with overlap syndrome.

Lima Verônica C

2008-12-01

81

The Dolichoarteriopathia of Common Carotid Artery Narrowing the Airway  

OpenAIRE

Tortuousity of the common carotid artery is rarely seen in otorinolaryngologic  practice. In this report, a case of tortuous common carotid artery narrowing the airway and indenting the epiglottis is presented. In endoscopic examination, pulsating bulge at the level of right lateral farengeal wall, pyriform sinus and larynx was found in a 73 year-old female. Computerized tomographic scan showed tortuous  right common carotid artery bulging the submucosal area of the oropharynx and p...

Erkan Eski

2013-01-01

82

Prevalência de hipertensão arterial em pacientes com oclusão do ramo da veia central da retina Prevalence of arterial hypertension in branch retinal vein occlusion patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Identificar em pacientes com oclusão do ramo da veia central da retina utilizando a monitorização ambulatorial da pressão arterial e medidas clínicas da pressão arterial: prevalência de hipertensão e o perfil noturno da pressão arterial. MÉTODOS: Prospectivamente, 93 olhos de 83 pacientes com oclusão do ramo da veia central da retina foram submetidos à avaliação oftalmológica. Após, os pacientes foram encaminhados para avaliação clínica e monitorização da pressão arterial. Pacientes sem descenso da pressão durante o sono ("non-dipper" foram definidos como um declínio na pressão arterial sistólica PURPOSE: To identify in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and clinical blood pressure measures: hypertension prevalence, and nocturnal profile of blood pressure. METHODS: Prospectively, 93 eyes of 83 patients with branch retinal vein occlusion were submitted to ophthalmological examination. Afterwards the patients were submitted to clinical evaluation and blood pressure monitoring. Non-dipper was defined as a fall in systolic blood pressure < 10%, and dipper when this value was higher. RESULTS: Disease affected one eye in 73 (88% patients. The temporal superior branch was the site of occlusion in 61 (65.6% eyes, while in the others the infero-temporal branch was affected. Seventy six (92% patients were diagnosed as hypertensive after clinical evaluation. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring identified 76 hipertensives, 5 normotensives, 1 white-coat hypertensive and one masked hypertensive subjects. The two latter were excluded from the analysis. Of the 81 analyzed patients, forty (49% were dippers and 41 (51% were non-dippers. Among the HT (n=76, 36 (47% were dippers and 40 (53% were non-dippers. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of hypertension in our series was extremely high (92% which suggests that physiopathology of the disease has a close relationship with changes promoted by hypertension. A little more than half of the hypertensives were non-dippers (n=40; 52,6%. These evidences suggest that a 24-hour sustained level of blood pressure may be an additional risk factor for branch retinal vein occlusion.

Alexandre Antonio Marques Rosa

2008-04-01

83

Obstrução arterial retiniana periférica associada com hiper-homocisteinemia: relato de caso Peripheral retinal arterial obstruction associated with hyperhomocysteinemia: case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A hiperhomocisteinemia é fator de risco para fenômenos trombo-embólicos retinianos associados a quadro de oclusão vascular venosa e arterial. Descrevemos um paciente com obstrução arterial retiniana periférica, sem sinais de vasculite ativa, associada a proliferação de neovasos com tração vítreo-retiniana e hemorragia vítrea recidivante. O alto nível sérico de homocisteína decorrente de deficiência de vitamina B12 e ácido fólico, sem outras alterações na cascata da coagulação, inclusive com a pesquisa do fator V de Leiden, sugere que a hiper-homocisteinemia esteja diretamente ligada como fator causal deste quadro clínico. Embora apresentasse PPD elevado, o diagnóstico diferencial mais importante de doença de Eales foi menos considerado por ser diagnóstico de exclusão. O controle do quadro clínico foi feito com suplemento de vitaminas (B12 e ácido fólico e fotocoagulação retiniana periférica. A homocisteína plasmática total deve ser dosada em pacientes com obstrução vascular retiniana, já que a hiper-homocisteinemia é fator de risco modificável e de fácil tratamento por meio de dieta ou suplementação vitamínica.Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for thromboembolic events of the retina associated with vascular venous or arterial occlusion. We describe a patient with occlusion of the peripheral arteriolar network without active vasculitis, associated with neovascular proliferation, peripheral vitreous-retinal traction and relapsing vitreous hemorrhage. The high serum homocysteine level resulting from vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency, without further changes in the coagulation cascade including the test for Leiden's Factor V, indicates hyperhomocysteinemia as a direct causal factor in this clinical condition. Despite a high PPD, Eales Disease, a major differential diagnosis, was not fully considered, since it is established by exclusion. The patient was treated with photocoagulation and vitamin supplements and the condition was successfully controlled. Patients with retinal vascular obstruction should have their total plasma homocysteine levels measured, since this modifiable risk factor can be easily treated with dietary approaches including vitamin supplementation.

Alexandre Kazuo Misawa

2008-10-01

84

Retinal Tear and Detachment  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... other parts of the body, the retina needs blood to function. The retinal arteries supply the surface of the retina. Symptoms Retinal tears and detachments are painless. ... supplies the retina with some blood. Retinal detachment is a disease where the retina ...

85

Internal carotid artery pseudo occlusion with embolic cerebral ischemia and low flow in the central retinal artery: a diagnostic challenge.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a rare case of internal carotid artery pseudoocclusion (ICAPO) in a 60-year-old male Caucasian patient who experienced a reversible sudden loss of vision of the right eye for 10 min followed by recurrent blurring of vision as well as dysarthria and numbness in the left face. The referring ophthalmologist admitted the patient for suspicious occlusion of the internal carotid artery causing anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION). PMID:24765323

Röhrer, Christoph; Ertl, Michael; Altmann, Mathias; Kasprzak, Piotr; Bogdahn, Ulrich; Schuierer, Gerhard; Schlachetzki, Felix

2011-07-01

86

Efeito da tibolona sobre parâmetros doplervelocimétricos das artérias oftálmica e retiniana Tibolone's effect on retinal and ophthalmic arteries flowmetry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar o efeito do uso da tibolona sobre os parâmetros doplervelocimétricos das artérias oftálmica e retiniana. MÉTODOS: realizou-se ensaio clínico, prospectivo, longitudinal, aleatorizado, controlado com placebo, duplo-cego, no qual dentre 100 mulheres na menopausa, 50 usaram o princípio ativo tibolona 2,5 mg (Grupo Tib e 50, o placebo para formar o grupo controle (Grupo Plac. No Grupo Tib, das 50 mulheres que iniciaram o estudo, 44 retornaram após 84 dias para a finalização dos exames. No Grupo Plac retornaram 47 delas. As artérias oftálmica e retiniana foram estudadas, determinando-se o índice de resistência (IR, índice de pulsatilidade (IP e relação sístole/diástole (S/D. As aferições foram feitas antes e 84 dias após a medicação. Utilizou-se o teste t de Student para amostras independentes na comparação das medianas entre os grupos e para amostras dependentes na comparação entre as medianas dentro do mesmo grupo. RESULTADOS: as características das mulheres nos dois grupos foram semelhantes em relação à idade, ao tempo de menopausa, ao índice de massa corporal, à pressão arterial, à paridade e à freqüência cardíaca. O Grupo Tib apresentou as seguintes medianas: IR(pré=0,71±0,05, IR(pós=0,72±0,08 (p=0,43; IP(pré=1,29±0,22, IP(pós=1,30±0,25 (p=0,4 e SD(pré=3,49±0,77, SD(pós=3,65±0,94 (p=0,32. Na artéria retiniana foram obtidas as seguintes medianas na artéria oftálmica: IR(pré=0,67±0,09, IR(pós=0,69±0,10 (p=0,7; IP(pré=1,20±0,29, IP(pós=1,22±0,3 (p=0,2 e SD(pré=3,29±0,95, SD(pós=3,30±1,07 (p=0,3. Os grupos tibolona e controle não apresentaram diferenças significantes nos índices quando avaliados ao final do estudo. CONCLUSÕES: a tibolona, na dose de 2,5 mg, não apresenta efeitos sobre os índices doppler das artérias oftálmica e retiniana.PURPOSE: to evaluate the effect of tibolone use on dopplervelocimetric parameters of ophthalmic and retinal arteries. METHODS: clinical, prospective, longitudinal, randomized, placebo-controlled, triple-blind study, in which among 100 menopausal women, 50 have used 2.5 mg of the active principle tibolone (Tib Group and 50, placebo as a means to form the control-group (Plac Group. In the Tib Group, 44 of the 50 women returned after 84 days to finish the exams, and in the Plac Group, 47. The ophthalmic and retinal arteries were studied to determine the resistance index (RI, the pulsatility index (PI and the systole/diastole ratio (S/D. Assessments have been done before and 84 days after medication. The t-Student test has been used for the comparison of means between the groups in independent samples, as well as for within-group comparisons in dependent samples. RESULTS: in both groups, the women's characteristics were similar in age, menopause duration, body mass index, arterial blood pressure, deliveries and cardiac rate. The Tib Group presented the following values in the ophthalmic artery: RI(pre=0.71±0.05, RI(post0.72±0.08 (p=0.43; PI(pre=1.29±0.22, PI(post=1.30±0.25 (p=0.4 and S/D(pre=3.49±0.77, SD(post=3.65±0.94 (p=0.32. In the retinal artery, the following values have been found: RI(pre=0.67±0.09, RI(post=0.69±0.10 (p=0.7; PI(pre=1.20±0.29, PI(post=1.22±0.3 (p=0.2 and SD(pre=3.29±0.95, SD(post=3.30±1.07 (p=0.3. Also, the tibolone and control groups did not show any significant difference in regard to the above indexes in the end of the study. CONCLUSIONS: the 2.5 mg dose of tibolone had no effect on the Doppler velocimetry indexes of the ophthalmic and retinal arteries.

Marco Aurélio Martins de Souza

2008-11-01

87

Efeito da tibolona sobre parâmetros doplervelocimétricos das artérias oftálmica e retiniana / Tibolone's effect on retinal and ophthalmic arteries flowmetry  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese OBJETIVO: avaliar o efeito do uso da tibolona sobre os parâmetros doplervelocimétricos das artérias oftálmica e retiniana. MÉTODOS: realizou-se ensaio clínico, prospectivo, longitudinal, aleatorizado, controlado com placebo, duplo-cego, no qual dentre 100 mulheres na menopausa, 50 usaram o princípio [...] ativo tibolona 2,5 mg (Grupo Tib) e 50, o placebo para formar o grupo controle (Grupo Plac). No Grupo Tib, das 50 mulheres que iniciaram o estudo, 44 retornaram após 84 dias para a finalização dos exames. No Grupo Plac retornaram 47 delas. As artérias oftálmica e retiniana foram estudadas, determinando-se o índice de resistência (IR), índice de pulsatilidade (IP) e relação sístole/diástole (S/D). As aferições foram feitas antes e 84 dias após a medicação. Utilizou-se o teste t de Student para amostras independentes na comparação das medianas entre os grupos e para amostras dependentes na comparação entre as medianas dentro do mesmo grupo. RESULTADOS: as características das mulheres nos dois grupos foram semelhantes em relação à idade, ao tempo de menopausa, ao índice de massa corporal, à pressão arterial, à paridade e à freqüência cardíaca. O Grupo Tib apresentou as seguintes medianas: IR(pré)=0,71±0,05, IR(pós)=0,72±0,08 (p=0,43); IP(pré)=1,29±0,22, IP(pós)=1,30±0,25 (p=0,4) e SD(pré)=3,49±0,77, SD(pós)=3,65±0,94 (p=0,32). Na artéria retiniana foram obtidas as seguintes medianas na artéria oftálmica: IR(pré)=0,67±0,09, IR(pós)=0,69±0,10 (p=0,7); IP(pré)=1,20±0,29, IP(pós)=1,22±0,3 (p=0,2) e SD(pré)=3,29±0,95, SD(pós)=3,30±1,07 (p=0,3). Os grupos tibolona e controle não apresentaram diferenças significantes nos índices quando avaliados ao final do estudo. CONCLUSÕES: a tibolona, na dose de 2,5 mg, não apresenta efeitos sobre os índices doppler das artérias oftálmica e retiniana. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to evaluate the effect of tibolone use on dopplervelocimetric parameters of ophthalmic and retinal arteries. METHODS: clinical, prospective, longitudinal, randomized, placebo-controlled, triple-blind study, in which among 100 menopausal women, 50 have used 2.5 mg of the active principle tib [...] olone (Tib Group) and 50, placebo as a means to form the control-group (Plac Group). In the Tib Group, 44 of the 50 women returned after 84 days to finish the exams, and in the Plac Group, 47. The ophthalmic and retinal arteries were studied to determine the resistance index (RI), the pulsatility index (PI) and the systole/diastole ratio (S/D). Assessments have been done before and 84 days after medication. The t-Student test has been used for the comparison of means between the groups in independent samples, as well as for within-group comparisons in dependent samples. RESULTS: in both groups, the women's characteristics were similar in age, menopause duration, body mass index, arterial blood pressure, deliveries and cardiac rate. The Tib Group presented the following values in the ophthalmic artery: RI(pre)=0.71±0.05, RI(post)0.72±0.08 (p=0.43); PI(pre)=1.29±0.22, PI(post)=1.30±0.25 (p=0.4) and S/D(pre)=3.49±0.77, SD(post)=3.65±0.94 (p=0.32). In the retinal artery, the following values have been found: RI(pre)=0.67±0.09, RI(post)=0.69±0.10 (p=0.7); PI(pre)=1.20±0.29, PI(post)=1.22±0.3 (p=0.2) and SD(pre)=3.29±0.95, SD(post)=3.30±1.07 (p=0.3). Also, the tibolone and control groups did not show any significant difference in regard to the above indexes in the end of the study. CONCLUSIONS: the 2.5 mg dose of tibolone had no effect on the Doppler velocimetry indexes of the ophthalmic and retinal arteries.

Marco Aurélio Martins de, Souza; Selmo, Geber.

2008-11-01

88

Central retinal artery occlusion associated with traumatic carotid cavernous fistula: case report Oclusão de artéria central da retina associada com fístula carótido-cavernosa traumática: relato de caso  

OpenAIRE

Carotid cavernous fistulas are a rare entity occurring as result of head trauma and also spontaneously. The authors report a rare case of central retinal artery occlusion complicating traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula, resulting in severe visual acuity loss. Spontaneous closure of the fistula was observed. The possible mechanisms responsible for this complication are discussed.Fístulas carótido-cavernosas são raras e ocorrem como resultado de trauma cefálico e também espontaneament...

Paulo de Tarso Ponte Pierre Filho; Flavio Mac Cord Medina; Fabrício Kafury Pereira Rodrigues; Clayton Rocha Lara Carrera

2007-01-01

89

[Ischemic optic neuropathy (apoplexia papillae) and ischemic micro-infarcts of the retinal nerve fiber layer in extreme internal carotid artery kinking].  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors report on 2 patients with extreme kinking of the internal carotid artery and ipsilateral, recurrent ischemic optic neuropathy associated with localized microangiopathy of the retinal nerve fiber layer (cotton wool spots). In conjunction with the kinking phenomenon, the atheromatous plaques represent a potential cause of dangerous embolization causing ocular symptoms. The kinking phenomenon may not be diagnosed by Doppler sonography, including duplex B-scan evaluation, and digital subtraction angiography may be necessary. Extreme kinking of the internal carotid artery, which causes ocular embolisms, must be recognized and treated immediately by angioplasty to prevent damage to the eyes and brain. PMID:2395309

Schönherr, U; Rupprecht, H; Schweiger, H; Bialasiewicz, A A

1990-07-01

90

Clinical significance of retinal emboli during diagnostic and therapeutic cardiac catheterization in patients with coronary artery disease  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Cardiac catheterization may cause retinal embolization, a risk factor for cerebrovascular emboli and stroke. We describe the incidence of clinically silent and apparent retinal emboli following diagnostic and interventional coronary catheterization and associated risk factors. Methods Three hundred selected patients attending a tertiary referral center for diagnostic and therapeutic cardiac catheterization were studied. Retinal examination an...

Rostami Hamed; Mehdizadeh Morteza; Kojuri Javad; Shahidian Danial

2011-01-01

91

The predictive value of retinal vascular findings for carotid artery atherosclerosis: are further recommendations with regard to carotid atherosclerosis screening needed?  

Science.gov (United States)

Vascular retinopathy is the consequence of vascular disease, and the retina is the only place where the arteries can be visualized directly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive value of retinal vascular findings for carotid artery atherosclerosis. From December 2009 to January 2011, the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and total plaque area (TPA) were measured in 179 consecutive patients, who received a fundoscopic examination. The patients were divided into groups as follows: normal retinal artery (normal; n = 44), diabetic retinopathy (DR; n = 25), retinal artery occlusion (RAO; n = 17), retinal vein occlusion (RVO; n = 67), and hypertensive retinopathy (HTN-R; n = 26). The subjects were classified according to the presence of an increased (? 1 mm) IMT and plaque. The values of the mean carotid IMT in the patients with vascular retinopathy (DR, 0.87 ± 0.14 mm; RAO, 1.18 ± 0.47 mm; RVO, 0.84 ± 0.14 mm; HTN-R, 0.90 ± 0.20 mm) were significantly increased compared with those in the normal subjects (0.77 ± 0.13 mm). A total 77 of 135 vascular retinopathy patients demonstrated an increased IMT (57 %), and 97 vascular retinopathy patients had carotid artery plaque (72 %). The relative risk of vascular retinopathy in the prediction of an increased IMT and the presence of plaque was 2.79 and 3.95, respectively. Although The TPA was significantly increased in the patients with RAO (1.87 ± 2.67 cm(2)) and RVO (0.27 ± 0.23 cm(2)) compared with the normal subjects (0.18 ± 0.23 cm(2), all Ps < 0.05), there was no significant difference in the ipsilateral carotid IMT and TPA of the affected eye compared with that of the contralateral eye. In conclusion, vascular retinopathy demonstrated a good predictive value in identifying asymptomatic carotid artery atherosclerosis, and this was not confined to the ipsilateral carotid artery of the affected eye. Further recommendations with regard to carotid atherosclerosis screening in patients with vascular retinopathy should be considered. PMID:22684417

Song, Yeo-Jeong; Cho, Kyoung-Im; Kim, Seong-Man; Jang, Hyun-Duk; Park, Jung-Min; Kim, Sang-Soo; Kim, Dong-Jun; Lee, Hyeon-Gook; Kim, Tae-Ik

2013-05-01

92

Central retinal artery and vein collapse pressure in giant cell arteritis versus nonarteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy and nonarteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy are acute optic neuropathies, which have to be differentiated from each other. It was the purpose of this study to assess whether ophthalmodynamometry with an assessment of the collapse pressure of the central retinal artery (CRA) and vein (CRV) is helpful for that. Using a Goldmann contact lens-associated ophthalmodynamometer, the diastolic collapse pressure of the CRA and CRV were measured in six patients (eight eyes) with giant cell arteritis-induced anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (GC-AION) and in 10 patients (12 eyes) with acute non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION). CRA collapse pressure was significantly (P=0.001; 95% confidence interval (CI): -68.7, -20.0) lower in the GC-AION group (52.7+/-24.6 arbitrary units) than in the NAION group (97.0+/-25.8 arbitrary units). CRV collapse pressure did not vary significantly (P=0.47). As measured by ophthalmodynamometry, CRA pressure is significantly lower in GC-AION than in NAION. CRV pressure does not vary markedly. These finding may be helpful for the clinical differentiation between GC-AION and NAION, and may give hints for the pathogenesis. PMID:17384573

Jonas, J B; Harder, B

2008-04-01

93

Obstrução arterial retiniana periférica associada com hiper-homocisteinemia: relato de caso / Peripheral retinal arterial obstruction associated with hyperhomocysteinemia: case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A hiperhomocisteinemia é fator de risco para fenômenos trombo-embólicos retinianos associados a quadro de oclusão vascular venosa e arterial. Descrevemos um paciente com obstrução arterial retiniana periférica, sem sinais de vasculite ativa, associada a proliferação de neovasos com tração vítreo-ret [...] iniana e hemorragia vítrea recidivante. O alto nível sérico de homocisteína decorrente de deficiência de vitamina B12 e ácido fólico, sem outras alterações na cascata da coagulação, inclusive com a pesquisa do fator V de Leiden, sugere que a hiper-homocisteinemia esteja diretamente ligada como fator causal deste quadro clínico. Embora apresentasse PPD elevado, o diagnóstico diferencial mais importante de doença de Eales foi menos considerado por ser diagnóstico de exclusão. O controle do quadro clínico foi feito com suplemento de vitaminas (B12 e ácido fólico) e fotocoagulação retiniana periférica. A homocisteína plasmática total deve ser dosada em pacientes com obstrução vascular retiniana, já que a hiper-homocisteinemia é fator de risco modificável e de fácil tratamento por meio de dieta ou suplementação vitamínica. Abstract in english Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for thromboembolic events of the retina associated with vascular venous or arterial occlusion. We describe a patient with occlusion of the peripheral arteriolar network without active vasculitis, associated with neovascular proliferation, peripheral vitreous-ret [...] inal traction and relapsing vitreous hemorrhage. The high serum homocysteine level resulting from vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency, without further changes in the coagulation cascade including the test for Leiden's Factor V, indicates hyperhomocysteinemia as a direct causal factor in this clinical condition. Despite a high PPD, Eales Disease, a major differential diagnosis, was not fully considered, since it is established by exclusion. The patient was treated with photocoagulation and vitamin supplements and the condition was successfully controlled. Patients with retinal vascular obstruction should have their total plasma homocysteine levels measured, since this modifiable risk factor can be easily treated with dietary approaches including vitamin supplementation.

Alexandre Kazuo, Misawa; Hisashi, Suzuki; Otacílio de Oliveira, Maia Júnior; Maria Teresa Brizzi Chizzotti, Bonanomi; Carlos Sérgio Nascimento de, Melo.

2008-10-01

94

Optical coherence tomography findings in acute phase of branch retinal artery occlusion: case report / Achados da tomografia de coerência óptica na fase aguda da oclusão de ramo da artéria central da retina: relato de caso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo é demonstrar alterações morfológicas retinianas por meio da tomografia de coerência óptica na oclusão de ramo de artéria central da retina na fase aguda. Homem de 27 anos apresentando escotoma súbito no campo superior de olho direito, com exame fundoscópico compatível com oclusão de ramo [...] ínfero-temporal da artéria central da retina. A tomografia de coerência óptica revelou aumento da espessura e hiperrefletividade das camadas internas da retina, com redução da refletividade das camadas de fotorreceptores e epitélio pigmentar da retina. Os achados na tomografia de coerência óptica são compatíveis com edema intracelular, e não com fluido extracelular secundário a extravasamento vascular, reforçando teorias histopatológicas da isquemia e necrose retiniana, que ocorrem após oclusão arterial retiniana. Abstract in english PURPOSE: to report a case of branch retinal artery occlusion in the acute phase, using optical coherence tomography to evaluate the morphologic changes. A 27 year-old man had a sudden superior scotoma in the right eye, with fundus examination compatible with inferior temporal branch retinal artery o [...] bstruction. The optical coherence tomography revealed increase in thickness and hyper-reflectivity of the inner retinal layers in affected area, with decreased reflectivity of photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelial layers. The optical coherence tomography findings are consistent with intracellular edema, and not with secondary vascular leakage of extracellular fluid, according to histopathological theories of retinal ischemia and necrosis that occurs after retinal artery occlusion.

Cíntia Maria Felix Medrado, Parcero; Bruno de Paula, Freitas; Eduardo Ferrari, Marback; Otacílio de Oliveira, Maia Júnior; Roberto Lorens, Marback.

2010-04-01

95

Optical coherence tomography findings in acute phase of branch retinal artery occlusion: case report Achados da tomografia de coerência óptica na fase aguda da oclusão de ramo da artéria central da retina: relato de caso  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available PURPOSE: to report a case of branch retinal artery occlusion in the acute phase, using optical coherence tomography to evaluate the morphologic changes. A 27 year-old man had a sudden superior scotoma in the right eye, with fundus examination compatible with inferior temporal branch retinal artery obstruction. The optical coherence tomography revealed increase in thickness and hyper-reflectivity of the inner retinal layers in affected area, with decreased reflectivity of photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelial layers. The optical coherence tomography findings are consistent with intracellular edema, and not with secondary vascular leakage of extracellular fluid, according to histopathological theories of retinal ischemia and necrosis that occurs after retinal artery occlusion.O objetivo é demonstrar alterações morfológicas retinianas por meio da tomografia de coerência óptica na oclusão de ramo de artéria central da retina na fase aguda. Homem de 27 anos apresentando escotoma súbito no campo superior de olho direito, com exame fundoscópico compatível com oclusão de ramo ínfero-temporal da artéria central da retina. A tomografia de coerência óptica revelou aumento da espessura e hiperrefletividade das camadas internas da retina, com redução da refletividade das camadas de fotorreceptores e epitélio pigmentar da retina. Os achados na tomografia de coerência óptica são compatíveis com edema intracelular, e não com fluido extracelular secundário a extravasamento vascular, reforçando teorias histopatológicas da isquemia e necrose retiniana, que ocorrem após oclusão arterial retiniana.

Cíntia Maria Felix Medrado Parcero

2010-04-01

96

Síndrome do anticorpo antifosfolípide causando oclusão bilateral de artérias e veias centrais da retina: relato de caso / Antiphospholipid syndrome and bilateral retinal artery and vein occlusion: case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A síndrome do anticorpo antifosfolípide (SAF) tem sido associada a trombose de vasos arteriais e periféricos e de grande ou pequeno calibre. Também os vasos oculares estão sujeitos à ação destes auto-anticorpos que podem promover o aparecimento de perda visual transitória, diplopia, neuropatia óptic [...] a isquêmica e oclusão de artéria ou veia da retina. É descrito aqui, um caso de síndrome do anticorpo antifosfolípide com oclusão de vasos centrais arteriais e venosos da retina no intuito de chamar a atenção para este tipo de diagnóstico. Abstract in english The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) has been related to venous and arterial thrombosis of large and small vessels. Ocular vessels can also be involved causing transient visual loss, diplopia, ischemic optic neuropathy and central artery and venous occlusion. We describe here a case of antiphospholip [...] id syndrome with occlusion of central retinal artery and vein to call the attention to this diagnosis.

Ana Paula, Beckhauser; Luís Augusto, Arana; Thelma Larocca, Skare.

2008-04-01

97

Síndrome do anticorpo antifosfolípide causando oclusão bilateral de artérias e veias centrais da retina: relato de caso Antiphospholipid syndrome and bilateral retinal artery and vein occlusion: case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A síndrome do anticorpo antifosfolípide (SAF tem sido associada a trombose de vasos arteriais e periféricos e de grande ou pequeno calibre. Também os vasos oculares estão sujeitos à ação destes auto-anticorpos que podem promover o aparecimento de perda visual transitória, diplopia, neuropatia óptica isquêmica e oclusão de artéria ou veia da retina. É descrito aqui, um caso de síndrome do anticorpo antifosfolípide com oclusão de vasos centrais arteriais e venosos da retina no intuito de chamar a atenção para este tipo de diagnóstico.The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS has been related to venous and arterial thrombosis of large and small vessels. Ocular vessels can also be involved causing transient visual loss, diplopia, ischemic optic neuropathy and central artery and venous occlusion. We describe here a case of antiphospholipid syndrome with occlusion of central retinal artery and vein to call the attention to this diagnosis.

Ana Paula Beckhauser

2008-04-01

98

Retinal Vessel Occlusion  

Science.gov (United States)

... once a year. To help prevent retinal artery occlusion related to traumatic eye injuries, always wear appropriate protective eye gear (goggles, face shield, face mask) at work and while playing sports. Also, ... cases of retinal vessel occlusion. Ask your doctor about your risk of this ...

99

Retinal Tear and Detachment  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... of the body, the retina needs blood to function. The retinal arteries supply the surface of the ... with a cotton swab or a blunt metal instrument called a scleral depressor. Pushing on the eye, ...

100

A case report and brief review of the literature on bilateral retinal infarction following cardiopulmonary bypass for coronary artery bypass grafting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Postoperative visual loss is a devastating perioperative complication. The commonest aetiologies are anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (AION), posterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (PION), and central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO). These appear to be related to certain types of operation, most commonly spinal and cardiac bypass procedures; with the rest divided between: major trauma causing excessive blood loss; head/neck and nasal or sinus surgery; major vascular procedures (aortic aneurysm repair, aorto-bifemoral bypass); general surgery; urology; gynaecology; liposuction; liver transplantation and duration of surgery. The non-surgical risk factors are multifactorial: advanced age, prolonged postoperative anaemia, positioning (supine v prone), alteration of venous drainage of the retina, hypertension, smoking, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, hypercoagulability, hypotension, blood loss and large volume resuscitation. Other important cardiac causes are septic emboli from bacterial endocarditis and emboli caused by atrial myxomata. The majority of AION cases occur during CPB followed by head/neck surgery and prone spine surgery. CPB is used to allow coronary artery bypass grafting on a motionless heart. It has many side-effects and complications associated with its use and we report here a case of bilateral retinal infarction during routine coronary artery bypass grafting in a young male patient with multiple risk factors for developing this complication despite steps to minimise its occurrence. PMID:22104114

Trethowan, Brian A; Gilliland, Helen; Popov, Aron F; Varadarajan, Barathi; Phillips, Sally-Anne; McWhirter, Louise; Ghent, Robert

2011-01-01

101

A case report and brief review of the literature on bilateral retinal infarction following cardiopulmonary bypass for coronary artery bypass grafting  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Postoperative visual loss is a devastating perioperative complication. The commonest aetiologies are anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (AION, posterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (PION, and central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO. These appear to be related to certain types of operation, most commonly spinal and cardiac bypass procedures; with the rest divided between: major trauma causing excessive blood loss; head/neck and nasal or sinus surgery; major vascular procedures (aortic aneurysm repair, aorto-bifemoral bypass; general surgery; urology; gynaecology; liposuction; liver transplantation and duration of surgery. The non-surgical risk factors are multifactorial: advanced age, prolonged postoperative anaemia, positioning (supine v prone, alteration of venous drainage of the retina, hypertension, smoking, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, hypercoagulability, hypotension, blood loss and large volume resuscitation. Other important cardiac causes are septic emboli from bacterial endocarditis and emboli caused by atrial myxomata. The majority of AION cases occur during CPB followed by head/neck surgery and prone spine surgery. CPB is used to allow coronary artery bypass grafting on a motionless heart. It has many side-effects and complications associated with its use and we report here a case of bilateral retinal infarction during routine coronary artery bypass grafting in a young male patient with multiple risk factors for developing this complication despite steps to minimise its occurrence.

Trethowan Brian A

2011-11-01

102

Incontinentia pigmenti (Bloch-Sulzberger syndrome) and retinal changes.  

OpenAIRE

Incontinentia pigmenti is associated with various anomalies in 80% of cases. Among the most important are the ocular abnormalities and more particularly a retrolental mass with detachment of a dysplastic retina. At the basis of this manifestation are retinal vascular changes, characterised at first by ectatic tortuous veins and arteriovenous anastomoses as well as by aneurysmal-like dilatations.

Franc?ois, J.

1984-01-01

103

A tortuous proximal urethra in urorectal septum malformation sequence?  

Science.gov (United States)

We observed a newborn boy with urorectal septum malformation sequence. Anomalies of the genitalia and rectum were present. He expired on the first day of life, due to severe lung hypoplasia. Autopsy showed a colon that ended in a blind sac, an enlarged bladder with no grossly visible urethra, and dysplastic kidneys. A cone-shaped tissue at the usual site of the bladder outlet contained tortuous and slit-like lumina, suggesting an undeveloped proximal urethra. The urethral structure was lined by transitional epithelium with squamous metaplasia. Many small buds-lined with columnar epithelium-branched from the urethral structure. These ductal buds lined with columnar epithelium stained for prostatic acid phosphatase. Basal cells surrounding the ductal buds stained for p63 and high molecular weight cytokeratin-supporting an interpretation that the buds were early prostatic ducts with normal histology. To our knowledge, these are the first histological images of an undeveloped, obstructed urethra associated with the urorectal septum malformation sequence. PMID:24665006

Lin, Henry J; Lugo, Hector; Tran, Thu; Tovar, Jason P; Corral, Julia; Zork, Noelia M; Smith, Lynne M; French, Samuel W; Barajas, Luciano

2014-05-01

104

Central retinal artery occlusion associated with traumatic carotid cavernous fistula: case report / Oclusão de artéria central da retina associada com fístula carótido-cavernosa traumática: relato de caso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Fístulas carótido-cavernosas são raras e ocorrem como resultado de trauma cefálico e também espontaneamente. Os autores relatam um caso raro de oclusão de artéria central da retina complicando fístula carótido-cavernosa traumática, resultando em perda grave da acuidade visual. Fechamento espontâneo [...] da fístula foi observado. Os possíveis mecanismos responsáveis por esta complicação são discutidos. Abstract in english Carotid cavernous fistulas are a rare entity occurring as result of head trauma and also spontaneously. The authors report a rare case of central retinal artery occlusion complicating traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula, resulting in severe visual acuity loss. Spontaneous closure of the fistula was [...] observed. The possible mechanisms responsible for this complication are discussed.

Paulo de Tarso Ponte, Pierre Filho; Flavio Mac Cord, Medina; Fabrício Kafury Pereira, Rodrigues; Clayton Rocha Lara, Carrera.

2007-10-01

105

Central retinal artery occlusion associated with traumatic carotid cavernous fistula: case report Oclusão de artéria central da retina associada com fístula carótido-cavernosa traumática: relato de caso  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Carotid cavernous fistulas are a rare entity occurring as result of head trauma and also spontaneously. The authors report a rare case of central retinal artery occlusion complicating traumatic carotid-cavernous fistula, resulting in severe visual acuity loss. Spontaneous closure of the fistula was observed. The possible mechanisms responsible for this complication are discussed.Fístulas carótido-cavernosas são raras e ocorrem como resultado de trauma cefálico e também espontaneamente. Os autores relatam um caso raro de oclusão de artéria central da retina complicando fístula carótido-cavernosa traumática, resultando em perda grave da acuidade visual. Fechamento espontâneo da fístula foi observado. Os possíveis mecanismos responsáveis por esta complicação são discutidos.

Paulo de Tarso Ponte Pierre Filho

2007-10-01

106

Transcorneal Electrical Stimulation Therapy for Retinal Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Retinitis Pigmentosa; Macula Off; Primary Open Angle Glaucoma; Hereditary Macular Degeneration; Treated Retina Detachment; Retinal Artery Occlusion; Retinal Vein Occlusion; Non-Arthritic-Anterior-Ischemic Optic-Neuropathy; Hereditary Autosomal Dominant Optic Atrophy; Dry Age Related Macular Degeneration; Ischemic Macula Edema

2012-05-03

107

Cytomegalovirus retinitis  

Science.gov (United States)

CMV retinitis ... CMV retinitis is caused by a member of a group of herpes-type viruses. CMV is very common. Most ... Some people with CMV retinitis have no symptoms. Symptoms include: ... vision problems Floaters Retinitis usually begins in one eye, ...

108

Variação do fluxo sanguíneo da artéria central da retina durante as diferentes fases do ciclo menstrual ovulatório Central retinal artery blood flow variation during menstrual cycle  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar a resistência vascular da artéria central da retina, por meio do fluxo Doppler, nas diferentes fases do ciclo menstrual ovulatório. MÉTODOS: estudo observacional, longitudinal e prospectivo com avaliação de 34 mulheres saudáveis, submetidas a estudo dopplerfluxométrico do fundo do olho para avaliação da resistência vascular da artéria central da retina nas posições sentada e deitada, durante quatro fases do ciclo menstrual: fase folicular inicial, fase folicular média, fase periovulatória e fase lútea média. A confirmação da ovulação no ciclo de estudo foi feita pela dosagem de progesterona sérica na fase lútea média. Foram avaliados os índices de pulsatilidade (IP e de resistência, e as velocidades máxima, mínima e média. RESULTADOS: a idade média foi de 29,7 anos. Não foram observadas diferenças entre os índices obtidos para ambos os olhos; assim, utilizamos as médias dos índices para realizar o cálculo estatístico. Quando comparadas às posições de realização do exame, detectou-se um IP maior na posição sentada; assim, as análises foram avaliadas em separado, respeitando-se a posição da paciente. O IP da artéria central da retina, avaliado com a paciente deitada, variou durante o ciclo menstrual, apresentando-se significativamente mais baixo nas fases folicular média (1,5±0,3 e periovulatória (1,5±0,3 quando comparadas às fases folicular precoce (1,7±0,4 e lútea média (1,7±0,4. Quando a avaliação foi feita com a paciente sentada não foram observadas diferenças para as diferentes fases do ciclo. CONCLUSÕES: num ciclo menstrual ovulatório ocorre diminuição da resistência vascular na artéria central da retina e posterior reversão do efeito, como demonstrado pelas variações do IP.PURPOSE: to evaluate the vascular blood flow of the central retinal arteries using dopplervelocimetry in the different phases of the ovulatory menstrual cycle. METHODS: we performed an observational, longitudinal and prospective study evaluating 34 healthy and ovulatory women. All women were submitted to Doppler scan of the eye to evaluate the vascular resistance of the central retinal arteries, either lying down or on a seated position, during four phases of the menstrual cycle. Confirmation of ovulation was performed by measuring serum progesterone during the luteal phase. We analyzed the pulsatility and resistance index and the maximum, minimum and mean velocity. RESULTS: mean age was 29.7 years. No differences were observed between the indexes obtained in both eyes, therefore a mean index was used for comparisons. As the comparison between the positions used for the exams showed a higher PI for the seated position, the analyses were performed separately. The pulsatility index in the lying position was different among the different phases of the menstrual cycle. The arterial resistance was significantly lower during the intermediate follicular and the periovulatory phases, as compared to the early follicular and luteal phases. When the comparison was performed with the patient in the seated position, no differences were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate a reduction in the vascular resistance of the cerebral microcirculation and a posterior reversal, as shown by changes in the PI.

Luiz Carlos Viana

2007-03-01

109

Retinal Tear and Detachment  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... and cryoprobe treatments for retinal tears are very successful. Retinal detachment can usually be avoided if retinal ... or cryoprobe treatment for retinal tears is very successful. Retinal detachment is usually avoided if retinal tears ...

110

Retinal Tear and Detachment  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... developing a retinal tear or detachment. When diagnosed early, most retinal problems are treatable. With treatment, retinal ... retinal tear or a retinal detachment. When diagnosed early, most retinal problems can be treated, and vision ...

111

Platelet size and density affect shear-induced thrombus formation in tortuous arterioles  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thrombosis accounts for 80% of deaths in patients with diabetes mellitus. Diabetic patients demonstrate tortuous microvessels and larger than normal platelets. Large platelets are associated with increased platelet activation and thrombosis, but the physical effects of large platelets in the microscale processes of thrombus formation are not clear. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the physical effects of mean platelet volume (MPV), mean platelet density (MPD) and vessel tortuosity on platelet activation and thrombus formation in tortuous arterioles. A computational model of the transport, shear-induced activation, collision, adhesion and aggregation of individual platelets was used to simulate platelet interactions and thrombus formation in tortuous arterioles. Our results showed that an increase in MPV resulted in a larger number of activated platelets, though MPD and level of tortuosity made little difference on platelet activation. Platelets with normal MPD yielded the lowest amount of mural thrombus. With platelets of normal MPD, the amount of mural thrombus decreased with increasing level of tortuosity but did not have a simple monotonic relationship with MPV. The physical mechanisms associated with MPV, MPD and arteriole tortuosity play important roles in platelet activation and thrombus formation. (paper)

112

Retinitis Pigmentosa.  

Science.gov (United States)

The author describes the etiology of retinitis pigmentosa, a visual dysfunction which results from progressive loss of the retinal photoreceptors. Sections address signs and symptoms, ancillary findings, heredity, clinical diagnosis, therapy, and research. (SBH)

Carr, Ronald E.

1979-01-01

113

Retinal Detachment  

Science.gov (United States)

... for reading, driving, and seeing fine detail. A retinal detachment lifts or pulls the retina from its normal ... women and whites more than African Americans. A retinal detachment is also more likely to occur in people ...

114

Thrombophilia and retinal vascular occlusion  

OpenAIRE

Charles J Glueck,1 Robert K Hutchins,2,3 Joel Jurantee,1 Zia Khan,1 Ping Wang11Cholesterol Center, Jewish Hospital of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA; 3Cincinnati Eye Institute, Cincinnati, OH, USAPurpose: The purpose of this research was to assess associations of thrombophilia with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO), and amaurosis fugax (AF); to evaluat...

Cj, Glueck; Rk, Hutchins; Jurantee J; Khan Z.; Wang P.

2012-01-01

115

Retinal microscopy  

OpenAIRE

Our research interest is focused on the disease mechanisms and therapeutic treatments for retinal degenerative diseases using animal models. Our work attempt to understand more about retinal degenerative diseases like retinitis pigmentosa and macular degeneration and provide tactics to design various therapies.

Cuenca Navarro, Nicola?s

2008-01-01

116

Spectrophotometric retinal oximetry in pigs  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

PURPOSE: To assess the validity of spectrophotometric retinal oximetry, by comparison to blood gas analysis and intra-vitreal measurements of partial pressure of oxygen (pO2). METHODS: Female domestic pigs were used for all experiments (n=8). Oxygen fraction in inspired air was changed using a mixture of room air, pure oxygen and pure nitrogen, ranging from 5% to 100% oxygen. Femoral arterial blood gas analysis and retinal oximetry was performed at each level of inspiratory oxygen fraction. Retinal oximetry was performed using a commercial instrument, the Oxymap Retinal Oximeter T1 (Oxymap ehf, Reykjavik, Iceland). The device simultaneously acquires images at two wavelengths (570 nm and 600 nm) and specialized software automatically detects retinal blood vessels. In three pigs, invasive pO2-measurements were performed after the initial non-invasive measurements. RESULTS: Comparison of femoral arterial oxygen saturation and the optical density ratio over retinal arteries revealed an approximately linear relationship (R(2) = 0.74, p = 3.4 x 10(-9)). In order to test the validity of applying the arterial calibration to veins, we compared non-invasive oximetry measurements to invasive pO2-measurements in three pigs. This relationship was approximately linear (R(2) = 0.45, p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Non-invasive spectrophotometric oximetry is sensitive to changes in oxygen saturation in pigs and correlated with intravitreal pO2-measurements and with femoral artery pO2. Pigs present a higher intra-individual variability in retinal oxygen saturation and a lower overall saturation than humans. The difference between porcine and human eyes makes direct comparisons of measurements difficult.

Traustason, Sindri; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke

2013-01-01

117

Imaging of a Cilioretinal Artery Embolisation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Retinal artery occlusion can be the first indicator of a significant cardiovascular disorder and the need for treatment. We present the case of a 69-year-old man with a cilioretinal artery occlusion and retinal ischemia. Retinal imaging, in particular fundus autofluorescence, highlighted an intraluminal hyperautofluorescent lesion which led to the diagnosis of retinal emboli. Subsequently a severe, previously undiagnosed carotid occlusive disease was discovered. The patient underwent prompt endarterectomy.

Marion R. Munk

2014-09-01

118

Retinitis pigmentosa  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited retinal dystrophy caused by the loss of photoreceptors and characterized by retinal pigment deposits visible on fundus examination. Prevalence of non syndromic RP is approximately 1/4,000. The most common form of RP is a rod-cone dystrophy, in which the first symptom is night blindness, followed by the progressive loss in the peripheral visual field in daylight, and eventually leading to blindness after several decades. Some extreme...

Hamel Christian

2006-01-01

119

Foveomacular retinitis  

OpenAIRE

A group of patients is described who developed the clinical features of foveomacular retinitis. No causative factors were isolated, and all patients strongly denied any type of sun gazing. It is possible that there is a group of patients who have the features of foveomacular retinitis but have not had any direct exposure to the sun. These patients would then constitute a primary type of foveomacular retinitis, as opposed to a secondary type which has a known cause and is synonymous with solar...

Jacobs, N. A.; Kuming, B. S.

1987-01-01

120

Retinitis pigmentosa  

OpenAIRE

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited retinal dystrophy caused by the loss of photoreceptors and characterized by retinal pigment deposits visible on fundus examination. Prevalence of non syndromic RP is approximately 1/4,000. The most common form of RP is a rod-cone dystrophy, in which the first symptom is night blindness, followed by the progressive loss in the peripheral visual field in daylight, and eventually leading to blindness after several decades. Some extreme cases may have a r...

Hamel, Christian

2006-01-01

121

Retinitis pigmentosa.  

OpenAIRE

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited retinal dystrophy caused by the loss of photoreceptors and characterized by retinal pigment deposits visible on fundus examination. Prevalence of non syndromic RP is approximately 1/4,000. The most common form of RP is a rod-cone dystrophy, in which the first symptom is night blindness, followed by the progressive loss in the peripheral visual field in daylight, and eventually leading to blindness after several decades. Some extreme cases may have a r...

Hamel, Christian

2006-01-01

122

Localised retinal vasculitis in cat scratch disease  

OpenAIRE

We report an atypical presentation of ocular cat scratch disease (CSD) in an 8-year-old Caucasian male who presented with localised retinal arterial vasculitis and associated retinal oedema. His history of headaches, frequent contact with a kitten and a high Bartonella henslelae titre confirmed the diagnosis of CSD. Over an 18-month follow-up period, his best corrected visual acuity in the affected eye improved from 20/30?2 to 20/25+3 without treatment; however, the affected retinal artery ...

Jacobs, David Jonathan; Scott, Michele L.; Slusher, M. Madison

2009-01-01

123

What do retinal vessels reveal about systemic disease? Retinal vessels and systemic disease--basic findings.  

Science.gov (United States)

A number of systemic disorders are attended by distinct changes in blood vessels. The retinal vessels can easily be inspected with an ophthalmoscope. Some changes in retinal vessels allow us to draw direct conclusions about the status of blood vessels in the entire body. Major systemic diseases, such as diabetes or hypertension, can lead to typical changes in the retinal vessels with the resulting retinal pathology. Changes in the retinal vessels can also be an indicator for some specific ocular diseases. Early diagnosis and treatment of such diseases often prevent long-term damage or even blindness. Therefore, the evaluation of retinal arteries and veins should be a crucial part of an eye examination. In the following some basic principles of retinal findings and their correlation with systemic disease shall be discussed. PMID:23837224

Grein, Hans-Jürgen

2013-04-01

124

Atypical Arterial Supply to the Spleen by Polar Branches of Splenic Artery and Accessory Splenic Artery – A Case Report  

Science.gov (United States)

Vascular anomalies of the spleen are usually asymptomatic. However, variant anatomy of splenic artery becomes clinically important, when the patients undergo diagnostic angiography for gastrointestinal bleeding or during transcatheter therapy. We report here a concurrent variant arterial pattern of the spleen. The splenic artery was unusually elongated and excessively tortuous. Prior to its normal termination into segmental arteries, it gave superior and inferior polar arteries which entered the spleen distal to corresponding ends of the splenic hilum. In addition to this, the spleen also received an additional blood supply from an accessory splenic artery arising from left gastro-epiploic artery. The accessory splenic artery entered the substance of the spleen through its lateral end. Presence of such kind of concurrent variant arterial pattern of spleen makes the surgeons obligatory to have prior knowledge to prevent bleeding during any surgical or radiological interventional procedures targeting the spleen, pancreas etc. PMID:25302184

Patil, Jyothsna; Swamy, Ravindra S; Guru, Anitha; Nayak, Satheesha B

2014-01-01

125

Atypical twin renal arteries with altered hilar anatomy  

OpenAIRE

Twin renal arteries (superior and inferior) were encountered on the left side in a 58-year-old male Indian cadaver. Both the renal arteries took a tortuous course to the hilum. The inferior renal artery, labeled as the accessory renal artery travelled sinuously and anteriorly over the left renal vein to enter the inferior most part of the hilum. The superior artery, labeled as main renal artery bifurcated before the hilum and its two branches were placed anterior to the vein. Thus the normal ...

Hk, Loh; Gupta V; Arora J; Mehta V; Suri R; Kohli M; Rath G

2009-01-01

126

Retinitis Pigmentosa  

Science.gov (United States)

... basliyorlar erotik hikayeler grup porno videosunda En azgin Turk ciftler diyorum ama beni porno destekleyeceksinizdir bu videoyu ... Diagnosed FFB in Your Area Stories of Hope Videos Resources Low Vision Specialists Retinal Physicians Become an ...

127

Mechanical instability of normal and aneurysmal arteries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tortuous arteries associated with aneurysms have been observed in aged patients with atherosclerosis and hypertension. However, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of aneurysms on arterial buckling instability and the effect of buckling on aneurysm wall stress. We investigated the mechanical buckling and post-buckling behavior of normal and aneurysmal carotid arteries and aorta's using computational simulations and experimental measurements to elucidate the interrelationship between artery buckling and aneurysms. Buckling tests were done in porcine carotid arteries with small aneurysms created using elastase treatment. Parametric studies were done for model aneurysms with orthotropic nonlinear elastic walls using finite element simulations. Our results demonstrated that arteries buckled at a critical buckling pressure and the post-buckling deflection increased nonlinearly with increasing pressure. The presence of an aneurysm can reduce the critical buckling pressure of arteries, although the effect depends on the aneurysm's dimensions. Buckled aneurysms demonstrated a higher peak wall stress compared to unbuckled aneurysms under the same lumen pressure. We conclude that aneurysmal arteries are vulnerable to mechanical buckling and mechanical buckling could lead to high stresses in the aneurysm wall. Buckling could be a possible mechanism for the development of tortuous aneurysmal arteries such as in the Loeys-Dietz syndrome. PMID:25458146

Lee, Avione Y; Sanyal, Arnav; Xiao, Yangming; Shadfan, Ramsey; Han, Hai-Chao

2014-12-18

128

Novel Neuroprotective Strategies in Ischemic Retinal Lesions  

OpenAIRE

Retinal ischemia can be effectively modeled by permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion, which leads to chronic hypoperfusion-induced degeneration in the entire rat retina. The complex pathways leading to retinal cell death offer a complex approach of neuroprotective strategies. In the present review we summarize recent findings with different neuroprotective candidate molecules. We describe the protective effects of intravitreal treatment with: (i) urocortin 2; (ii) a mitochondria...

Robert Gabriel; Andrea Tamas; Aliz Szabo; Krisztina Kovacs; Boglarka Racz; Norbert Babai; Peter Kiss; Dora Reglodi; Krisztina Szabadfi; Laszlo Mester; Tamas Atlasz

2010-01-01

129

Water vapour permeability of poly(lactic acid): Crystallinity and the tortuous path model  

Science.gov (United States)

The water vapour transmission rates (WVTR) through samples of polylactic acid of different crystallinities have been measured. Three different grades of commercial poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were used with different ratios of L-lactide and D-lactide to give a range of crystallinities from 0% to 50%. Sheets of PLA were prepared by melt compounding followed by compression moulding and annealing at different temperatures and for different times to give the range of crystallinities required. Crystallinity was measured by differential scanning calorimetry and the morphology of the samples was observed under crossed polars in a transmitted light microscope. Water vapour transmission rates through the films were measured at 38 °C and at a relative humidity of 90%. It was found that the measured values of WVTR decreased linearly with increasing crystallinity of the PLA from 0% to 50%. The results are discussed in terms of the effect of crystallinity on solubility and shown to fit the "Tortuous Path Model." The model was also successfully used to explain published data on water permeability of polyethylene terephthalate.

Duan, Z.; Thomas, N. L.

2014-02-01

130

RX-08-HD, a low-viscosity, injection-moldable explosive for filling tortuous paths  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cast cure, extrusion cast, and paste extrudable explosives have not been designed for transferring through long tortuous paths or into fine three dimensional shapes. To allow the crystalline explosive to flow a lubricating fluid is required. The energetic liquid ethane trinitrate (TMETN) was used as the lubricant to maximize the explosive energy. TMETN is a liquid nitrate ester which requires stabilization with conventional free radical stabilizers such as 2- nitrodiphenylamine, methyl-nitroanaline, or ethyl centrylite. Since these injection moldable explosives are expected to cure in place, a polyesterurethane binder based on polymeric isocyanate of hexamethylene diisocyanate and polycaprolactone polyols is dissolved in TMETN. The solubility of the polymer precursors in TMETN also reduces the energetic liquids sensitivity. The latent cure catalyst Dabco T-131 was used to minimize shrinkage associated with thermal expansion, reduce cost associated with oven cures, to give 4-6 hour potlife and overnight cure to handling strength. The product RX-08-HD is a new, low-viscosity, injection moldable explosive that can be extruded into complex, void-free shapes. Combined with appropriate design and other aspects of weaponization, RX-08-HD has produced outstanding results.

Hoffman, D.M.; Jessop, E.S.; Swansiger, R.W.

1997-10-01

131

Accordion Phenomenon in the Radial Artery  

Science.gov (United States)

The accordion phenomenon is a well-known finding mechanism in the field of interventional cardiology. It is a benign condition and has mainly been described in tortuous coronary arteries during percutaneous coronary interventions. It is believed to be induced by a stiff guidewire. However, this phenomenon has not been observed previously in the radial artery. We present a case of accordion phenomenon in the radial artery, which was successfully resolved after the catheters and the wire were retrieved, with the pseudolesions found to have completely disappeared in subsequent image findings. PMID:24516747

Dahdouh, Ziad S.; Abdel-Massih, Tony; Sarkis, Antoine; Grollier, Gilles

2014-01-01

132

Unilateral central retinal artery occlusion as the sole presenting sign of Susac syndrome in a young man: case report / Oclusão unilateral da artéria central da retina como único sinal de apresentação da síndrome de Susac em jovem do sexo masculino: relato de caso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Descrevemos um paciente de 24 anos, sexo masculino, que se apresentou com perda súbita da visão do olho esquerdo causado por oclusão da artéria central da retina. Ele foi submetido à investigação clínica detalhada sem encontrar uma causa. Três semanas depois, no entanto, desenvolveu surdez, encefalo [...] patia e múltiplas oclusões de ramo arterial da retina no olho direito. Angiofluoresceinografia confirmou as oclusões de ramo arterial no OD e oclusão da artéria central da retina no OE, sem qualquer sinal de vascutile. O exame neurológico revelou encefalopatia difusa, enquanto que o estudo efetuado por ressonância nuclear magnética mostrou várias áreas de enfarte do cérebro e a audiometria demonstrou perda auditiva neurosensorial bilateral. A síndrome de Susac foi diagnosticada e tratamento com metilprednisolona e ciclofosfamida instituido com melhora discreta, seguida de estabilização clínica. Este caso é importante para chamar a atenção de que nem todos os três critérios diagnósticos (encefalopatia, oclusão de ramo arterial retiniano e surdez) para a síndrome de Susac precisam estar presentes de início, o que pode causar confusão diagnóstica. O diagnóstico deve portanto ser incluído no diferencial de oclusão da artéria central da retina mesmo quando ocorre em homem sem outros sintomas associados. Abstract in english We report the case of a 24-year-old man presenting with sudden visual loss in the left eye from a central retinal artery occlusion. An extensive clinical investigation revealed no etiology. Three weeks later, however, the patient developed hearing loss followed by encephalopathy and multiple branch [...] retinal artery occlusions in the right eye. Fluorescein angiography confirmed retinal vascular occlusions with no sign of vasculitis. The neurological examination revealed a diffuse encephalopathy while the MRI scan disclosed several small areas of infarcts in the brain. Bilateral sensorineural hearing loss was confirmed on audiometry. The patient was diagnosed with Susac syndrome and treated with methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide, resulting in slight improvement and stabilization. This case shows that Susac syndrome may be diagnosed late due to the absence at onset of one or more of the symptoms of the classic triad (encephalopathy, multiple branch retinal artery occlusions and hearing loss). This case also serves to emphasize that Susac syndrome should be considered in the differential diagnosis of central retinal artery occlusion, even in apparently healthy young men.

Samira Luiza dos, Apóstolos-Pereira; Lúcia B. Passos, Kara-José; Paulo Euripedes, Marchiori; Mário Luiz Ribeiro, Monteiro.

2013-06-01

133

Multiple Retinal Emboli Following a New Carotid Stenting Procedure  

OpenAIRE

This report discusses the observation of multiple retinal emboli following placement of a new carotid stenting device. Especially dense plaques in the carotid artery can shatter into dust-like particles that may be fine enough to penetrate the filter of the new device, thus posing the danger of retinal perfusion.

Hesse, Richard J.; Culotta, Anthony J.; Ramee, Stephen R.; N Dandu, Zola

2006-01-01

134

Retinitis pigmentosa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hereditary degenerations of the human retina are genetically heterogeneous, with well over 100 genes implicated so far. This Seminar focuses on the subset of diseases called retinitis pigmentosa, in which patients typically lose night vision in adolescence, side vision in young adulthood, and central vision in later life because of progressive loss of rod and cone photoreceptor cells. Measures of retinal function, such as the electroretinogram, show that photoreceptor function is diminished generally many years before symptomic night blindness, visual-field scotomas, or decreased visual acuity arise. More than 45 genes for retinitis pigmentosa have been identified. These genes account for only about 60% of all patients; the remainder have defects in as yet unidentified genes. Findings of controlled trials indicate that nutritional interventions, including vitamin A palmitate and omega-3-rich fish, slow progression of disease in many patients. Imminent treatments for retinitis pigmentosa are greatly anticipated, especially for genetically defined subsets of patients, because of newly identified genes, growing knowledge of affected biochemical pathways, and development of animal models. PMID:17113430

Hartong, Dyonne T; Berson, Eliot L; Dryja, Thaddeus P

2006-11-18

135

Coronary artery anatomy and variants  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Variants and congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries are usually asymptomatic, but may present with severe chest pain or cardiac arrest. The introduction of multidetector CT coronary angiography (MDCT-CA) allows the detection of significant coronary artery stenosis. Improved performance with isotropic spatial resolution and higher temporal resolution provides a valid alternative to conventional coronary angiography (CCA) in many patients. MDCT-CA is now considered the ideal tool for three-dimensional visualization of the complex and tortuous anatomy of the coronary arteries. With multiplanar and volume-rendered reconstructions, MDCT-CA may even outperform CCA in determining the relative position of vessels, thus providing a better view of the coronary vascular anatomy. The purpose of this review is to describe the normal anatomy of the coronary arteries and their main variants based on MDCT-CA with appropriate reconstructions. (orig.)

Malago, Roberto; Pezzato, Andrea; Barbiani, Camilla; Alfonsi, Ugolino; Nicoli, Lisa; Caliari, Giuliana; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto [Policlinico G.B. Rossi, University of Verona, Department of Radiology, Verona (Italy)

2011-12-15

136

Spectral domain optical coherence tomography findings in eyes with acute ischaemic retinal whitening.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acute retinal ischaemia presents in various forms depending on the type and location of the associated vascular occlusion. Cotton wool spots have been considered one manifestation of ischaemia and represent swelling in the nerve fibre layer. However, clinical retinal whitening also occurs in areas not affected by cotton wool spots, and has distinguishing spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) features. We present SD-OCT findings of hyper-reflectivity and thickening in four eyes with representative retinal arterial or retinal venous occlusions, specifically branch retinal artery occlusion, central retinal vein occlusion, Purtscher-like retinopathy and ophthalmic artery occlusion. The spectrum of retinal ischaemia from various causes was found to manifest in inner nuclear layer hyper-reflectivity and thickening on SD-OCT. En Face OCT imaging further characterises the topographical distribution of ischaemia, and reveals patterns which provide insight into the pathological processes involved. PMID:24993106

Coady, Patrick A; Cunningham, Emmett T; Vora, Robin A; McDonald, H Richard; Johnson, Robert N; Jumper, J Michael; Fu, Arthur D; Haug, Sara J; Williams, Steven L; Lujan, Brandon J

2014-07-01

137

Congenital absence of the splenic artery and splenic vein accompanied with a duodenal ulcer and deformity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Congenital absence of the splenic artery is a very rare condition. To the best of our knowledge, congenital absence of the splenic artery accompanied with absence of the splenic vein has not been reported. We report a case of the absence of the splenic artery and vein in a 61-year-old woman who presented with postprandial epigastric discomfort. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed a dilated, pulsatile vessel in the fundus and duodenal stenosis. An abdominal computed tomography (CT scan revealed absence of the splenic vein with a tortuously engorged gastroepiploic vein. Three-dimensional CT demonstrated the tortuously dilated left gastric artery and the left gastroepiploic artery with non-visualization of the splenic artery. After administration of a proton pump inhibitor, abdominal symptoms resolved without any recurrence of symptoms during 6 mo of follow-up.

Eun Kyung Shin, Won Moon, Seun Ja Park, Moo In Park, Kyu Jong Kim, Jee Suk Lee, Jin Hwan Kwon

2009-03-01

138

Retinal detachment repair  

Science.gov (United States)

Retinal detachment repair is eye surgery to place a detached retina back into its normal position. A detached ... layers. This article describes the repair of rhegmatogenous retinal detachments -- retinal detachments that occur due to a hole ...

139

Accordion Phenomenon in the Radial Artery: Should we treat the radial as a coronary artery?  

Science.gov (United States)

The accordion phenomenon is a well-known finding mechanism in the field of interventional cardiology. It is a benign condition and has mainly been described in tortuous coronary arteries during percutaneous coronary interventions. It is believed to be induced by a stiff guidewire. However, this phenomenon has not been observed previously in the radial artery. We present a case of accordion phenomenon in the radial artery, which was successfully resolved after the catheters and the wire were retrieved, with the pseudolesions found to have completely disappeared in subsequent image findings. PMID:24516747

Dahdouh, Ziad S; Abdel-Massih, Tony; Sarkis, Antoine; Grollier, Gilles

2014-02-01

140

Treatment of splenic artery aneurysm with double overlapping bare stents: case report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The traditional treatment of splenic artery aneurysm (SAA) is generally surgery and/or transcatheter arterial embolization, but recently, the treatment of SAA using a stent graft has been reported. However, the acute angle of the celiac axis, as well as the tortuous path of the splenic artery makes the use of stent graft difficult for treatment of aneurysma. We report here a case of SAA treated with the technique of double overlapping metallic stents.

Kwak, Hyo Sung; Han, Young Min; Jin, Gong Yong [School of Medicine, Chonbuk National Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

2004-09-01

141

Retinitis pigmentosa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Retinitis pigmentosa (RP is an inherited retinal dystrophy caused by the loss of photoreceptors and characterized by retinal pigment deposits visible on fundus examination. Prevalence of non syndromic RP is approximately 1/4,000. The most common form of RP is a rod-cone dystrophy, in which the first symptom is night blindness, followed by the progressive loss in the peripheral visual field in daylight, and eventually leading to blindness after several decades. Some extreme cases may have a rapid evolution over two decades or a slow progression that never leads to blindness. In some cases, the clinical presentation is a cone-rod dystrophy, in which the decrease in visual acuity predominates over the visual field loss. RP is usually non syndromic but there are also many syndromic forms, the most frequent being Usher syndrome. To date, 45 causative genes/loci have been identified in non syndromic RP (for the autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked, and digenic forms. Clinical diagnosis is based on the presence of night blindness and peripheral visual field defects, lesions in the fundus, hypovolted electroretinogram traces, and progressive worsening of these signs. Molecular diagnosis can be made for some genes, but is not usually performed due to the tremendous genetic heterogeneity of the disease. Genetic counseling is always advised. Currently, there is no therapy that stops the evolution of the disease or restores the vision, so the visual prognosis is poor. The therapeutic approach is restricted to slowing down the degenerative process by sunlight protection and vitaminotherapy, treating the complications (cataract and macular edema, and helping patients to cope with the social and psychological impact of blindness. However, new therapeutic strategies are emerging from intensive research (gene therapy, neuroprotection, retinal prosthesis.

Hamel Christian

2006-10-01

142

Retinal ischemia in aortic arch atheromatous disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Retinal ischemia is often caused by emboli arising from the cardiac chambers or the common carotid artery bifurcation; the latter are often composed of cholesterol. However, in many patients no lesions are identified after evaluation of these sources of emboli. Two patients were observed who had retinal ischemia and emboli originating from aortic atheromatous plaques that were visualized by transesophageal echocardiography. Cardiac, carotid, and intracranial sources of emboli were excluded. The embolic nature of retinal ischemia was further corroborated by the presence of microembolic signals during transcranial Doppler insonation of the middle cerebral artery on the side ipsilateral to the symptomatic retina. In patients with Hollenhorst plaques the aortic arch can be a potential source of emboli. Transesophageal echocardiography should be considered in these patients when the initial evaluation does not identify a cardiac or carotid lesion. PMID:9858002

Romano, J G; Babikian, V L; Wijman, C A; Hedges, T R

1998-12-01

143

Retinal Detachment  

OpenAIRE

Detachment of the retina is a serious event, which may result in complete blindness. The outer segments of the photoreceptors receive oxygen and nutrition from the choroid. If the retina is detached from the choroid, the photoreceptors will fail. The fovea has no retinal blood vessels and depends wholly on the choroid for its oxygen, so detachment of the macula leads to permanent damage to the cones and rods at the posterior pole, and loss of vision. If the macula is not detached, then good v...

Subhadra Jalali.

2003-01-01

144

Atypical twin renal arteries with altered hilar anatomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Twin renal arteries (superior and inferior were encountered on the left side in a 58-year-old male Indian cadaver. Both the renal arteries took a tortuous course to the hilum. The inferior renal artery, labeled as the accessory renal artery travelled sinuously and anteriorly over the left renal vein to enter the inferior most part of the hilum. The superior artery, labeled as main renal artery bifurcated before the hilum and its two branches were placed anterior to the vein. Thus the normal anteroposterior disposition of structures viz. renal vein, renal artery and the renal pelvis was not seen. Such renal arteries having sinuous course with atypical sequence of structures at the hilum are of worth concern to the urologists performing renal angiography and to surgeons performing laparoscopies or renal transplantation.

Loh HK

2009-10-01

145

Association of retinal vessel attenuation with visual function in eyes with retinitis pigmentosa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Satoko Nakagawa, Akio Oishi, Ken Ogino, Yukiko Makiyama, Masafumi Kurimoto, Nagahisa Yoshimura Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan Purpose: To investigate the association between visual changes and retinal vessel attenuation in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP.Design: A retrospective, longitudinal, observational cohort study.Methods: We analyzed 45 eyes from 45 subjects who were followed-up for ?3 years at our clinic. Using the computer-based Interactive Vessel Analysis program, central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE and central retinal vein equivalent (CRVE were determined. Age- and sex-matched controls from normal subjects were selected from our archived fundus photograph library. Visual acuity, visual field area (Goldmann perimetry, V4e white test light, mean deviation (Humphrey perimetry, central 10-2 program, and central macular thickness (optical coherence tomography were analyzed for correlations with CRAE and CRVE.Results: Both CRAE and CRVE were significantly decreased in RP eyes (94.9±13.5 µm and 155.6±20.0 µm, respectively compared with control eyes (138.1±14.7 µm and 215.0±20.4 µm, respectively, both P<0.001. After 3 years of follow-up, visual field area was associated with both CRAE (r=0.584, P<0.01 and CRVE (r=0.500, P=0.008. A significant association was also observed between mean deviation and CRAE (r=0.298, P=0.047. In eyes with RP, a narrower vessel caliber at baseline was associated with a larger decline in visual acuity over the 3-year follow-up interval (CRAE: r=-0.344, P=0.021; CRVE: r=-0.314, P=0.035.Conclusion: Retinal vessel caliber is associated with some visual functions in patients with RP. Keywords: retinitis pigmentosa, retinal vascular caliber, central retinal artery equivalent, central retinal vein equivalent

Nakagawa S

2014-08-01

146

Relationship between carotid artery stenosis and ischemic ocular diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the relationship between carotid artery stenosis and ischemic ocular diseases.METHODS: The clinical data of 30 cases(37 eyesof patients with ischemic eye diseases were collected from November 2010 to May 2014, and they were accepted the fundus fluorescein angiography(FFA, transcranial Doppler(TCDultrasonic blood vessels of the eye, neck vascular color Doppler flow imaging(CDFI, the neck CT angiography(CTAand carotid artery digital subtraction angiography(DSAexamination, and then the ischemic eye disease patients with ocular symptoms were analyzed. The peak systolic velocity(PSVand resistance index(RIof ophthalmic artery and central retinal artery were compared. Correlation between the internal carotid artery intima-media thickness(IMTand ophthalmic artery, central retinal artery PSV and RI correlation risk; ipsilateral internal carotid artery plaque and ophthalmic artery PSV and RI; PSV and RI associated ipsilateral internal carotid artery plaque and central retinal artery were analyzed. RESULTS: Eye symptoms: a black dim, reduced vision, the eyes flash, and around the eye pain were 75.7%, 83.8%, 51.4% and 32.4%; The eye signs: the dilatation of retinal vein, retinal hemorrhage, arterial stenosis and cotton spot and the contralateral side were regarded as main signs. Ophthalmic artery PSV and RI value of the differences were statistically significant(PPP>0.05; The ipsilateral internal carotid artery plaque and ophthalmic artery PSV had no correlation with RI values(P>0.05; PSV and RI and the ipsilateral internal carotid artery plaque and central retinal artery had no correlation(P>0.05.CONCLUSION: The incidence of ischemic eye diseases and internal carotid artery stenosis is associated with very close, the clinical can regard the degree of internal carotid artery stenosis as an important basis for diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases.

Qian Chen

2015-01-01

147

Atherosclerotic aneurysm of the right subclavian artery: report of a case.  

Science.gov (United States)

Subclavian artery aneurysms are uncommon. The most common causes of these aneurysms are atherosclerosis and traumatic pseudoaneurysm. We report on a case of an atherosclerotic aneurysm of the right subclavian artery. The aneurysm was resected with a combined supra-infraclavicular approach, and a primary end-to-end anastomosis was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful. In arteriosclerotic cases, the axillobrachial artery is frequently tortuous, and the proximal axillary artery can be mobilized. If possible, a direct end-to-end anastomosis is recommended for the aneurysm of the distal part of the subclavian artery. PMID:17505426

Tabata, Shigeki; Saito, Hiroshi; Takizawa, Masaya; Imagawa, Takehisa

2007-04-01

148

Interventional therapy of complications after liver transplantation: hepatic artery stricture  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Hepatic artery stricture (HAS) after liver transplantation can lead directly to transplanted liver function exhaustion and complications of biliary system. The early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for better prognosis. Doppler ultrasound is the first method of choice, and angiography can give further clear dignosis. The balloon dilatation is still effective for hepatic arterial stenosis. With the more adaptable usage of oronary stent, if possible, would reveal more promising result especially for tortuous stenotic hepatic artery. The vascular reconstruction or repeated liver transplantation is still the effective therapeutic methods. (authors)

149

Retinal Tears and Detachments  

Science.gov (United States)

... have diabetes What are the symptoms of a retinal detachment? If part of the retina detaches, it will ... and prevent permanent vision loss. How is a retinal detachment diagnosed? A detached retina cannot be seen from ...

150

Retinal Tear and Detachment  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... layer of tissue in the back of the eye that is responsible for vision. It is attached ... retinal tear develops. Retinal detachment is a serious eye condition. If it is not treated, it can ...

151

Retinal Tear and Detachment  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... tear or break is usually treated with a laser. Some retinal tears do not need treatment. However, ... history of eye trauma and prior cataract surgery. Laser and cryoprobe treatments for retinal tears are very ...

152

Regional retinal blood flow reduction following half fundus photocoagulation treatment.  

OpenAIRE

Regional changes in retinal blood flow following inferior and subsequent superior argon laser half fundus photocoagulation treatment were measured in six diabetic patients with advanced retinopathy. Centreline blood velocity, vessel diameter, and blood flow in major inferior and superior temporal retinal arteries were measured at baseline and following each treatment using the bidirectional laser Doppler technique and monochromatic fundus photography. Inferior fundus laser treatment produced ...

Fujio, N.; Feke, G. T.; Goger, D. G.; Mcmeel, J. W.

1994-01-01

153

Diagnosis of Incidental Coronary-to-Bronchial Artery Fistula with CT Angiography: A Case Report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report the case of a 64-year-old man with coronary-to-bronchial artery fistula (CBF) that was detected incidentally; the patient presented with the clinical manifestations of aortic dissection. Coronary CT angiography demonstrated tortuous vessels originating from the left circumflex coronary artery that were in communication with the bronchial arteries. CBF is a rare coronary artery anomaly and CBFs are asymptomatic in most cases. Familiarity with CT findings of CBF may help diagnose the incidental finding of CBF through the use of CT angiography undertaken for a different diagnostic purpose.

Kang, Eun Ju; Lee, Ki Nam; Kim, Woo Jeong; Le, Jin Hwa; Oh, Jong Young [Dept. of Radiology, Dong A University Hospital, Dong A University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

2012-04-15

154

Ophthalmodynamometric determination of the central retinal vessel collapse pressure correlated with systemic blood pressure  

OpenAIRE

Aims: To evaluate whether determination of the central retinal artery and vein collapse pressure correlate with systemic blood pressure measurements, using a new Goldmann contact lens associated ophthalmodynamometric device

Jonas, J. B.

2004-01-01

155

Genetics Home Reference: Retinitis pigmentosa  

Science.gov (United States)

... only one mutated copy of the gene develop retinal degeneration and associated vision loss. In most cases, males ... do people use for retinitis pigmentosa? cone-rod retinal dystrophy pigmentary ... degeneration For more information about naming genetic conditions, see ...

156

Retinal oximetry using ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography  

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Full Text Available Yufeng Ye,1,2 Hong Jiang,2,3 Meixiao Shen,4 Byron L Lam,2 Delia Cabrera DeBuc,2 Lili Ge,2,4 Mitra Sehi,2 Jianhua Wang21Hangzhou First People’s Hospital, Hangzhou, China; 2Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, 3Neurology, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA; 4School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Wenzhou Medical College, Wenzhou, Zhejiang, ChinaBackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the repeatability of retinal oximetry using slit-lamp adapted ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (SL-UHR-OCT.Methods: SL-UHR-OCT was developed and fringe patterns were obtained for a major retinal artery and a major retinal vein. A-scans at the central wavelengths of 805 nm and 855 nm were analyzed for calculating optical density ratios (ODRs, from which the percentage oxygen saturation was calculated. Measurements were made on two occasions for each person. Repeatability and coefficients of repeatability were calculated.Results: The mean ODRs of the artery were 0.79 ± 0.86 and 0.88 ± 0.97 in sessions 1 and 2, respectively. The mean ODRs of the vein were ?0.08 ± 0.69 and 0.14 ± 0.77 between the two sessions, and were significantly lower than that of the artery (P < 0.05. The coefficients of repeatability were 1.44 and 1.81 for the artery and vein, respectively. The mean oxygen saturation of the major retinal artery was 94% ± 45% and 98% ± 51% in sessions 1 and 2, respectively, and the mean oxygen saturation of the major retinal vein was 48% ± 36% and 60% ± 40% between sessions.Conclusion: Optical coherence tomographic oximetry for evaluating retinal oxygen saturation was subject to variation, although the averaged measurements in repeated sessions were matched. Further work on reducing variation will be needed.Keywords: ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography, oximetry

Ye Y

2012-12-01

157

Cytomegalovirus retinitis in AIDS.  

OpenAIRE

Cytomegalovirus retinitis is common in adults with AIDS but has been reported infrequently in children with perinatally acquired HIV infection. The cases are presented of two infants with vertically acquired HIV infection who developed disseminated cytomegalovirus infection and retinitis, and who posed difficult management issues.

Peters, M. J.; Moeller, H. U.; Russell-eggitt, I.; Novelli, V.

1995-01-01

158

Learning about Retinitis Pigmentosa  

Science.gov (United States)

... the individual's life. The pattern and degree of visual loss are variable. Top of page What causes retinitis ... genetic trait but do not experience serious vision loss. Top of page NHGRI Clinical Research ... Usher Syndrome [ghr.nlm.nih.gov] The syndrome for Retinitis ...

159

Transient tractional retinal detachment in an eye with retinitis pigmentosa  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Shuichiro Hirahara, Yoshio Hirano, Tsutomu Yasukawa, Yuichiro OguraDepartment of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, JapanAbstract: We present a case of retinitis pigmentosa with vitreoretinal traction-associated retinal detachment. The retinal detachment was detected in the nasal periphery. No retinal breaks and no active vascular leakage were observed by fundus scopy and fluorescein angiography, respectively. However, 8 months later, the tractional retinal detachment was spontaneously resolved with posterior vitreous detachment.Keywords: retinitis pigmentosa, vitreoretinal traction, retinal detachment

Shuichiro Hirahara

2010-09-01

160

Quantitative analysis of retinal changes in hypertension  

Science.gov (United States)

Arterial hypertension is a high prevalence disease in Western countries and it is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular accidents. Retinal vessel changes are common findings in patients suffering from long-standing hypertensive disease. Morphological evaluations of the fundus oculi represent a fundamental tool for the clinical approach to the patient with hypertension. A qualitative analysis of the retinal lesions is usually performed and this implies severe limitations both in the classification of the different degrees of the pathology and in the follow-up of the disease. A diagnostic system based on a quantitative analysis of the retinal changes could overcome these problems. Our computerized approach was intended for this scope. The paper concentrates on the results and the implications of a computerized approach to the automatic extraction of numerical indexes describing morphological details of the fundus oculi. A previously developed image processing and recognition system, documented elsewhere and briefly described here, was successfully tested in pre-clinical experiments and applied in the evaluation of normal as well as of pathological fundus. The software system was developed to extract indexes such as caliber and path of vessels, local tortuosity of arteries and arterioles, positions and angles of crossings between two vessels. The reliability of the results, justified by their low variability, makes feasible the standardization of quantitative parameters to be used both in the diagnosis and in the prognosis of hypertension, and also allows prospective studies based upon them.

Giansanti, Roberto; Boemi, Massimo; Fumelli, Paolo; Passerini, Giorgio; Zingaretti, Primo

1995-05-01

161

Thrombophilia and retinal vascular occlusion  

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Full Text Available Charles J Glueck,1 Robert K Hutchins,2,3 Joel Jurantee,1 Zia Khan,1 Ping Wang11Cholesterol Center, Jewish Hospital of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA; 3Cincinnati Eye Institute, Cincinnati, OH, USAPurpose: The purpose of this research was to assess associations of thrombophilia with central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO, central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO, and amaurosis fugax (AF; to evaluate outcomes of normalizing high homocysteine; and to study CRVO, CRAO, and AF developing in estrogens/estrogen agonists in women subsequently shown to have thrombophilia.Methods: Measures of thrombophilia–hypofibrinolysis were obtained in 132 CRVO cases, 15 CRAO cases, and 17 AF cases. Cases were compared to 105 healthy control subjects who did not differ by race or sex and were free of any ophthalmologic disorders. All cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors were compared to healthy general populations.Main outcome measures: The main outcome measure of this study was thrombophilia.Results: CRVO cases were more likely than controls to have high homocysteine (odds ratio [OR] 8.64, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.96–38, high anticardiolipin immunoglobulin M (IgM; OR 6.26, 95% CI: 1.4–28.2, and high Factor VIII (OR 2.47, 95% CI: 1.31–7.9. CRAO-AF cases were more likely than controls to have high homocysteine (OR 14, 95% CI: 2.7–71.6 or the lupus anticoagulant (OR 4.1, 95% CI: 1.3–13.2. In four of 77 women with CRVO (two found to have high homocysteine, two with inherited high Factor XI, CRVO occurred after starting estrogen–progestins, estrogen–testosterone, or estrogen agonists. In one of eight women with CRAO found to have high anticardiolipin antibody IgG, CRAO occurred after starting conjugated estrogens, and AF occurred after starting conjugated estrogens in one of eleven women with AF (inherited protein S deficiency. Therapy for medians of 21 months (CRVO and 6 months (CRAO-AF was 5 mg folic acid, 100 mg B6, and 2000 mcg/day B12 normalized homocysteine in 13 of 16 (81% CRVO cases and all five CRAO-AF cases with pretreatment hyperhomocysteinemia. The CRVO cases had an excess of hypertension; CRAO-AF cases had an excess of type 2 diabetes and hypertension.Conclusion: Treatable thrombophilia, hyperhomocysteinemia in particular, is more common in RVO cases than in normal controls. RVO occurs after estrogens or estrogen agonists were administered in women subsequently shown to have thrombophilia.Keywords: central retinal vein occlusion, central retinal artery occlusion, amaurosis fugax, retinal vascular occlusion, thrombophilia, estrogen, estrogen agonist

Glueck CJ

2012-08-01

162

A case of iliac artery injury treated by covered stent during carotid artery stenting.  

Science.gov (United States)

Here we describe a case of iliac artery injury during carotid artery stenting (CAS) treated by covered stent. A 74-year-old man underwent CAS for asymptomatic right carotid artery stenosis. Under local anesthesia, the right common femoral artery was punctured and an 8 Fr long sheath introducer was placed. However, the sheath kinked because the iliac artery was tortuous. We introduced the stylet to the sheath again and tried to extend the kinking. It failed, and the arterial dissection was identified at the lateral iliac artery. The kink was extended with triple coaxial system, i.e. guidewire, coaxial catheter, and a guiding catheter; CAS was performed with distal filter protection. Before removal of the sheath, the right iliac artery was examined, and extraversation of the contrast medium was observed. The balloon catheter was placed to the lesion and dilated for the hemostasis. However, it failed, and the covered stent was placed subsequently. Although blood tests revealed anemia and CT showed retroperitoneal hematoma after the treatment, further complication did not occur. Treatment with covered stent for the vessel injury was effective. PMID:24366482

Hayashi, Kentaro; Horie, Nobutaka; Sakamoto, Ichiro; Morikawa, Minoru; Nagata, Izumi

2014-03-01

163

Resolution of vitreomacular traction following intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide injection in an eye with branch retinal vein occlusion  

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Full Text Available Göktu? Seymeno?lu,1 Özcan Kayikçio?lu,1 Bilge Öztürk ?ahin21Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Akhisar State Hospital, Akhisar, Manisa, TurkeyAbstract: A 60-year-old woman with a past medical history of branch retinal vein occlusion presented with decreased vision and metamorphopsia in her left eye. A fundus examination revealed a tortuous retinal vein with a few retinal hemorrhages in the inferotemporal quadrant. Optical coherence tomography revealed a partially separated posterior vitreous membrane pulling up the fovea. The patient refused surgical treatment so intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (4 mg/0.1 mL was administered. The patient reported resolution of symptoms in her left eye following this treatment, but her visual acuity did not show any improvement. Optical coherence tomography scanning revealed a complete detachment of the posterior hyaloid with release of the vitreomacular traction. In patients with vitreomacular traction and branch retinal vein occlusion, the combination of the possible vitreous liquefaction and mechanical increase of vitreous volume caused by an intravitreal injection with a degree of reduction in retinal thickness may play a role in the resolution of vitreomacular traction.Keywords: macular edema, vitreomacular traction syndrome, intravitreal injection, posterior vitreous detachment

Seymeno?lu G

2012-08-01

164

Kyrieleis´ vasculitis in acute retinal necrosis  

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Full Text Available Ester Francés-Muñoz1, Roberto Gallego-Pinazo1, Ruth López-Lizcano1, Salvador García-Delpech1, J Luis Mullor3, Manuel Díaz-Llopis1,21Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital La Fe, Valencia, Spain; 2University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain; 3Unit of Experimental Ophthalmology. Fundación para la Investigación del Hospital Universitario La Fe. Valencia, Valencia, SpainAbstract: We report the first case in the literature of Kyrieleis´ vasculitis related to acute retinal necrosis by Varicella zoster virus in a 76-year-old woman with bilateral involvement. In our patient the arterial lesions appeared 15 days after the initial presentation.Keywords: Kyrieleis´ vasculitis, retinal necrosis, herpes virus

Ester Francés-Muñoz

2010-07-01

165

Novel Neuroprotective Strategies in Ischemic Retinal Lesions  

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Full Text Available Retinal ischemia can be effectively modeled by permanent bilateral common carotid artery occlusion, which leads to chronic hypoperfusion-induced degeneration in the entire rat retina. The complex pathways leading to retinal cell death offer a complex approach of neuroprotective strategies. In the present review we summarize recent findings with different neuroprotective candidate molecules. We describe the protective effects of intravitreal treatment with: (i urocortin 2; (ii a mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ channel opener, diazoxide; (iii a neurotrophic factor, pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide; and (iv a novel poly(ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitor (HO3089. The retinoprotective effects are demonstrated with morphological description and effects on apoptotic pathways using molecular biological techniques.

Robert Gabriel

2010-02-01

166

Retropharyngeal internal carotid artery: case report  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Variations to the course of carotid arteries may lead to abnormal pharyngeal protrusions, to which the otorhinolaryngologist should always attentive. Objective: To report a case of abnormal pharyngeal protrusion due to vascular anomaly in the course of the internal carotid artery, with literature review. Case Report: A 73- year-old woman complained of globus pharyngeus and intermittent dysphonia. A pulsating convexity was observed at the right part of the oropharynx, associated to laryngoscopic signals of pharyngo-laryngeal reflux. The pharyngeal computed tomography scan showed an abnormal tortuous internal carotid in the retropharyngeal space. The patient was sent to the vascular surgeon, who, after a normal blood flow finding at the Doppler, opted for an expectation conduct. The pharyngeal symptoms improved with the antireflux treatment. Final Comments: Internal carotid vascular anomalies must always be recalled in the pharyngeal wall convexity differential diagnosis.

Figueiredo, Ricardo Rodrigues

2009-03-01

167

Retinal and choroidal intravascular spectral-domain optical coherence tomography  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose:? To examine retinal and choroidal blood vessels using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methods:? Retrospective case series. Results:? Scans through retinal blood vessels in healthy subjects demonstrated vessel wall reflexes and a tri-layer profile of the blood column on longitudinal scans and a figure-of-eight configuration on cross-sectional scans. Intravascular reflectivity decreased with increasingly oblique angles of observation and was absent when blood flow was parallel to the line of sight. The high blood flow in the choroidal vessels in healthy subjects and the low flow in the retinal vessels in patients with ocular ischaemic syndrome and central retinal artery occlusion were both associated with lower reflectivity of the blood and an unstructured intravascular SD-OCT profile. Discussion:? This qualitative in vivo study found a characteristically structured SD-OCT profile of the blood column in retinal vessels with normal blood flow. Both structure and total reflectivityfaded when blood flow was lower or higher than normal or at oblique angles to the line of sight. In conclusion, SD-OCT scans of the vessels in the posterior pole of the eye may assist the clinical assessment of gross abnormalities of ocular blood flow, e.g. in carotid artery stenosis.

Willerslev, Anne; Li, Xiao Q

2013-01-01

168

Retinal Detachment: Torn or Detached Retina Treatment  

Science.gov (United States)

... Eyes & the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Retinal Detachment: Torn or Detached Retina Treatment Tweet A retinal ... Detached Retina Diagnosis Torn Or Detached Retina Treatment Retinal Detachment Vision Simulator Torn retina surgery Most retinal tears ...

169

Retinal Tear and Detachment  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... to recognize the parts of the eye before learning about retinal tears and detachments. This section reviews ... professional or a recommendation for any particular treatment plan. Like any printed material, it may become out ...

170

Retinal Tear and Detachment  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... to recognize the parts of the eye before learning about retinal tears and detachments. This section reviews ... with one or both of these procedures Visual results mostly depend on the health of the retina ...

171

Retinal Tear and Detachment  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... way. It is necessary for a thorough retinal examination. Scleral depression may be a little bit uncomfortable. ... a tear is discovered and treated, follow-up examination is important. This document is for informational purposes ...

172

Retinal Tear and Detachment  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... This causes it to pull away from the retina. The detachment is called posterior vitreous detachment or PVD. Debris ... the retina to detach. This is known as retinal detachment. If the retina detaches from the back of ...

173

Retinal Tear and Detachment  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... discusses their symptoms, causes, diagnosis and treatment options. Anatomy It is important to recognize the parts of ... retinal tears and detachments. This section reviews the anatomy of the eye. Lens Cornea Iris Vitreous Retina ...

174

Retinal Tear and Detachment  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... with one or both of these procedures Visual results mostly depend on the health of the retina ... it can lead to blindness. Most retinal tears result from the vitreous pulling on the retina. The ...

175

Retinal Tear and Detachment  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... may be recommended. High risk factors include family history, very near-sightedness, retinal detachment in the other eye, history of eye trauma and prior cataract surgery. Laser ...

176

Retinal Tear and Detachment  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... tissue underneath that nourishes and supports it. Retinal cells become weak and start to die if they ... or the center of vision. This causes macular cells to not work correctly. When macular cells do ...

177

Other Retinal Diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

... basliyorlar erotik hikayeler grup porno videosunda En azgin Turk ciftler diyorum ama beni porno destekleyeceksinizdir bu videoyu ... Diagnosed FFB in Your Area Stories of Hope Videos Resources Low Vision Specialists Retinal Physicians Become an ...

178

Retinal Tear and Detachment  

Science.gov (United States)

... may have retinal tears. Floaters are small, moving spots or specks that people see in their field ... Then small instruments are inserted into the vitreous cavity, the middle of the eyeball, through the incisions. ...

179

Retinal Tear and Detachment  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... may have retinal tears. Floaters are small, moving spots or specks that people see in their field ... Then small instruments are inserted into the vitreous cavity, the middle of the eyeball, through the incisions. ...

180

Retinal Tear and Detachment  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... compared to a scleral buckle Fortunately, more than 90% of retinal detachments can be repaired with 1 ... Last reviewed: 12/20/2012 ot070104 9 About 90% of detachments caused by PVD are repaired with ...

181

Retinal Tear and Detachment  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... like flashing strobe lights, arcs of light, or lightning streaks, even though no light is actually flashing. ... of these 3 procedures. Depending on the size, location, and complexity of the retinal detachment, the surgeon ...

182

Retinal Tear and Detachment  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... treating retinal detachment before it affects the macula. Diagnosis Patients who have floaters, flashes or decreased vision ... test, eye pressure test or eye ultrasound to diagnose the cause of your symptoms. If the doctor ...

183

Retinal Detachment in Preeclampsia  

OpenAIRE

Preeclampsia is an obstetric disease of unknown cause that affects approximately 5% of pregnant women. The visual system may be affected with variable intensity, being the retinal detachment a rare complication. The retinal detachment in preeclampsia is usually bilateral and serous, and its pathogenesis is related to the choroidal ischemia secondary to an intense arteriolar vasospasm. The majority of patients have complete recovery of vision with clinical management, and surgery is unnecessar...

Prado Renata Silva do; Figueiredo Estêvão Lanna; Magalhães Télcia Vasconcelos Barros

2002-01-01

184

Management of massive hemoptysis in pulmonary tuberculosis and bronchiectasis by bronchial arterial embolization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To probe into the angiographic signs and the variations of bronchial arteries for pulmonary tuberculosis or bronchiectasis with massive hemoptysis. Methods: 25 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 15 patients suffered from bronchiectasis accompanied by massive hemoptysis were undertaken bronchial arterial embolization (BAE). All patients were embolized with gelfoam including 32 with spring coils in addition. Results: 63 arteries demonstrated angiographic signs of hemoptysis in 40 patients. The immediate stanching rate was 92.5%(37/40). The bronchopulmonary shunt formation sign shown by angiograph was the major feature of tuberculosis (P=0.0528) and the enlarged tortuous arteries in bronchiectasis were more to be demonstrated than in tuberculosis (P<0.05). Conclusions: The BAE for patients with tuberculosis ought to be performed in the smaller arteries. BAE for patients with bronchiectasis should to be taken in the trunk of arteries. (authors)

185

Transient tractional retinal detachment in an eye with retinitis pigmentosa  

OpenAIRE

Shuichiro Hirahara, Yoshio Hirano, Tsutomu Yasukawa, Yuichiro OguraDepartment of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Nagoya, JapanAbstract: We present a case of retinitis pigmentosa with vitreoretinal traction-associated retinal detachment. The retinal detachment was detected in the nasal periphery. No retinal breaks and no active vascular leakage were observed by fundus scopy and fluorescein angiography, respectively. However, 8 month...

Shuichiro Hirahara; Yoshio Hirano; Tsutomu Yasukawa; et al.

2010-01-01

186

Retinal vessel diameter changes induced by transient high perfusion pressure  

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Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the effects of transient high perfusion pressure on the retinal vessel diameter and retinal ganglion cells. METHODS: The animals were divided into four groups according to different infusion pressure and infusion time (60 mm Hg-3min, 60 mm Hg-5min, 100 mm Hg-3min, 100 mm Hg-5min. Each group consisted of six rabbits. The left eye was used as the experimental eye and the right as a control. Retinal vascular diameters were evaluated before, during infusion, immediately after infusion, 5min, 10min and 30min after infusion based on the fundus photographs. Blood pressure was monitored during infusion. The eyes were removed after 24h. Damage to retinal ganglion cell (RGC was analyzed by histology. RESULTS:Retina became whiten and papilla optic was pale during perfusion. Measurements showed signi?cant decrease in retinal artery and vein diameter during perfusion in all of the four groups at the proximal of the edge of the optic disc. The changes were significant in the 100 mm Hg-3min group and 100 mm Hg-5min group compared with 60 mm Hg-3min group (P1=0.025, P2=0.000. The diameters in all the groups recovered completely after 30min of reperfusion. The number of RGC showed no signi?cant changes at the IOP in 100 mm Hg with 5min compared with contralateral untreated eye (P?0.05. CONCLUSION: Transient fluctuations during infusion lead to temporal changes of retinal vessels, which could affect the retinal blood circulation. The RGCs were not affected by this transient fluctuation. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the effect of pressure during real-time phacoemusification on retinal blood circulation.

Yin-Ying Zhao

2014-08-01

187

A technique to retrieve stents dislodged in the coronary artery followed by fixation in the iliac artery by means of balloon angioplasty and peripheral stent deployment.  

Science.gov (United States)

An unwelcome complication of the increasingly applied technique of coronary stenting is stent dislodgment, which may cause arterial occlusion or distal embolization, both with potentially adverse sequel. Stent dislodgment tends to occur when negotiating a tortuous artery with a balloon-mounted stent, especially if the artery is irregularly calcified or when applying a rigid stent. We have successfully applied in several patients at our laboratory a technique to retrieve a dislodged stent from the coronary artery, tow it to the iliac artery, and then deploy it locally by a peripheral balloon when retrieval through the vascular sheath seems impossible. Finally, the retrieved stent is secured by local anchoring with a peripheral stent. This technique was found to be useful and may prevent further complications and more costly interventions and hence result in a more benign clinical course. Cathet. Cardiovasc. Intervent. 49:77-81, 2000. PMID:10627373

Meisel, S R; DiLeo, J; Rajakaruna, M; Pace, B; Frankel, R; Shani, J

2000-01-01

188

If I Had - Retinitis Pigmentosa  

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Full Text Available ... that are known to ultimately result in one form or another of retinitis pigmentosa. What is noticed ... is very good. I know adults with various forms of retinitis pigmentosa who have what is called ...

189

If I Had - Retinitis Pigmentosa  

Science.gov (United States)

... as Alternative MS Treatment VIDEO: If I Had - Retinitis Pigmentosa - Dr. Gerry Chader, MD, PhD, University of ... Back to Home Page VIDEO: If I Had - Retinitis Pigmentosa - Dr. Gerry Chader, MD, PhD, University of ...

190

Retinal detachment repair - series (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

Retinal detachments are associated with a tear or hole in the retina through which the internal fluids of ... often caused by trauma, and the risk of retinal detachment after minor trauma, such a blow to the ...

191

Apoptosis in human retinal degenerations.  

OpenAIRE

PURPOSE: This paper examined the role of apoptosis in human retinal degenerations including pathologic myopia, age-related macular degeneration, serous retinal detachment, retinal lattice, and paving stone degenerations. METHOD: Thirty-seven enucleated human eyes with 1 of the above-mentioned retinal degenerations were studied by histopathology and by TdT-mediated biotin-dUTP nicked-end labelling (TUNEL) technique. RESULTS: Tunnel labelling characteristic DNA fragmentation of apoptosis was ob...

Xu, G. Z.; Li, W. W.; Tso, M. O.

1996-01-01

192

Accuracy of visible retinal emboli for the detection of cardioembolic lesions requiring anticoagulation or cardiac surgery  

OpenAIRE

AIM—To determine the accuracy of visible retinal emboli as a diagnostic "test" for the likelihood of receiving anticoagulation or cardiac surgery based on the results of transthoracic echocardiography, in the setting of acute retinal arterial occlusion.?METHODS—A multicentre retrospective diagnostic study at Kingston Eye Centre, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario; Wills Eye Hospital, Philadelphia; Ottawa Eye Institute, Ottawa, Ontario; and the Halifax Infirmary, Halifax, Nova Scotia ...

Sharma, S.; Brown, G.; Cruess, A.

1998-01-01

193

JAMA Patient Page: Retinal Detachment  

Science.gov (United States)

JAMA PATIENT PAGE Retinal Detachment CROSS SECTION V I T R E O U S Optic nerve Retinal vessel Pupil Iris Lens Cornea Retina (detached) ... the nerve connecting the eye to the brain). Retinal detachment is the separation of the retina from the ...

194

Empirical description of bronchial and nonbronchial arteries with MDCT  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: We aimed to retrospectively evaluate bronchial and nonbronchial systemic arteries using multi-detector row helical computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography in patients with pulmonary disorders. Materials and Methods: Thirty-nine patients (24 men, 15 women; mean age, 63.4 years; range, 20-82 years) with congenital and acquired pulmonary disorders of the bronchial and nonbronchial systemic arteries underwent multi-detector row helical computed tomographic angiography of the thorax using a 16-detector row scanner. Each of these patients had experienced an episode of hemoptysis. Computed tomographic angiogram data, which included maximum intensity projections, multiplanar reconstruction, and three-dimensional volume-rendered images, were used to retrospectively analyse the characteristics of the bronchial and nonbronchial systemic arteries. Results: We identified a total of 128 bronchial arteries (76 on the right side and 52 on the left) in 39 patients. We detected 42 nonbronchial systemic artery branches, including 19 internal mammary artery branches, 8 subclavian artery branches, 8 inferior phrenic artery branches, 5 intercostal artery branches, 1 thyrocervical trunk branch, and 1 celiac trunk branch. Thirty-five dilated and tortuous nonbronchial systemic arteries entered into the lung parenchyma and extended down to the lesions. Every case, except the one case of sequestration, was associated with pleural thickening where the vascular structures passed through the extrapleural fat. Conclusions: The variations in both the bronchial artery anatomy and the location and type of the nonbronchial arteries were great. Nonbronchial arteries may be a significant source of hemoptysis. MDCT angiography can be used to detect detailed anatomical information about the origins and courses of bronchial and nonbronchial systemic arteries and their pathophysiologic features.

Yu Hong, E-mail: yuhong.2002@hotmail.co [Department of Imageology, Changzheng hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Liu Shiyuan, E-mail: cjr.liushiyuan@vip.163.co [Department of Imageology, Changzheng hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Li Huimin, E-mail: yuhongphd@163.co [Department of Imageology, Changzheng hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Xiao Xiangsheng, E-mail: cjr.xxsh@vip.163.co [Department of Imageology, Changzheng hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Dong Weihua, E-mail: dongweihua2000@163.co [Department of Imageology, Changzheng hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China)

2010-08-15

195

Retinal Detachment in Preeclampsia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Preeclampsia is an obstetric disease of unknown cause that affects approximately 5% of pregnant women. The visual system may be affected with variable intensity, being the retinal detachment a rare complication. The retinal detachment in preeclampsia is usually bilateral and serous, and its pathogenesis is related to the choroidal ischemia secondary to an intense arteriolar vasospasm. The majority of patients have complete recovery of vision with clinical management, and surgery is unnecessary. This is a case report of a 27 year old patient who developed the severe form of preeclampsia on her first pregnancy. She had progressive blurred vision, until she could see only shadows. Ophthalmic examination diagnosed spread and bilateral retinal detachment. With blood pressure control at postpartum, the patient had her retina reattached, and recovery of vision.

Renata Silva do Prado

2002-08-01

196

Automated measurement of retinal blood vessel tortuosity  

Science.gov (United States)

Abnormalities in the vascular pattern of the retina are associated with retinal diseases and are also risk factors for systemic diseases, especially cardiovascular diseases. The three-dimensional retinal vascular pattern is mostly formed congenitally, but is then modified over life, in response to aging, vessel wall dystrophies and long term changes in blood flow and pressure. A characteristic of the vascular pattern that is appreciated by clinicians is vascular tortuosity, i.e. how curved or kinked a blood vessel, either vein or artery, appears along its course. We developed a new quantitative metric for vascular tortuosity, based on the vessel's angle of curvature, length of the curved vessel over its chord length (arc to chord ratio), number of curvature sign changes, and combined these into a unidimensional metric, Tortuosity Index (TI). In comparison to other published methods this method can estimate appropriate TI for vessels with constant curvature sign and vessels with equal arc to chord ratios, as well. We applied this method to a dataset of 15 digital fundus images of 8 patients with Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), and to the other publically available dataset of 60 fundus images of normal cases and patients with hypertensive retinopathy, of which the arterial and venous tortuosities have also been graded by masked experts (ophthalmologists). The method produced exactly the same rank-ordered list of vessel tortuosity (TI) values as obtained by averaging the tortuosity grading given by 3 ophthalmologists for FSHD dataset and a list of TI values with high ranking correlation with the ophthalmologist's grading for the other dataset. Our results show that TI has potential to detect and evaluate abnormal retinal vascular structure in early diagnosis and prognosis of retinopathies.

Joshi, Vinayak; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Abramoff, Michael D.

2010-03-01

197

Clinical and immunological features of retinal vasculitis in systemic diseases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background/Aim. Vasculitis is a clinical, pathologic process characterized by inflammation and necrosis of blood vessel occurring anywhere in the body. The aim of the study was to present some clinical and immunologic features of retinal vasculitis in systemic diseases: systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, sarcoidosis, Behcet's diseases, and others. Methods. A total of 1 254 patients with uveitis were included in the study. The immunochemical diagnostic methods were used to determine the pathogenesis of ocular manifestations. Ocular manifestations were examined using biomicroscope, direct or indirect ophtalmoscopy. Results. Primary retinal vasculitis was diagnosed in 85/1254 (6.8% of total uveitis. In more than half of the cases of vasculitis (58.8%, both arteries and veins were involved in inflammatory process. Periphlebitis was diagnosed far more commonly (36.5% than periarteritis (4.7%. Retinal vasculitis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus was characterized by microinfarctions and the consequent foci of inflammatory cells or diseases of large arteries manifesting in vasospasm and occlusions. Cotton wool spots occurred in 38.3% and retinal hemorrhages in 34% of the cases. In this study periphlebitis of the retina was one of the less frequent ocular manifestations of multiple sclerosis. Comparing with the other changes of the retinal blood vessels, venous sheating occurred in 25.1% and occlusion and vein trombosis in 43.75% of the cases. Retinal vasculitis associated with chronic sarcoidosis occured in 37.5% of patients with sarcoidosis. The most frequent manifestation of ocular sarcoidosis was intermediary uveitis (43.75%. Anterior granulomatous uveitis occured in 37.5% of patients with sarcoidoses. Immune complexes occurred in 13/20 (65% of the patients. Antiretinal anti-S antibody in the serum occurred in 73% of the patients with retinal detachment as a complication of primary disease and in 25% those with vasculitis. Conclusion. Systemic diseases such as Behcet's syndrome, collagen vascular diseases, systemic granulomatous diseases (sarcoidosis and tuberculosis were the main causes of retinal vasculitis. Knowledge of the symptomatology and pathogenesis of retinal vasculitis is of the major significance for the diagnosis and therapy of the disease.

Paovi? Jelena

2009-01-01

198

Multi-slice spiral CT diagnosis of arterial sequestration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: The purpose of this study was to present the characteristic features on MSCT angiography of arterial sequestration. Methods: The MSCT images of 5 patients with arterial sequestration were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent MSCT contrast-enhanced angiography. 3D rendering was made to evaluate the lung parenchyma, bronchial system, and vascular anatomy. Results: All 5 cases demonstrated the anomalous systemic artery (ASA) as an isolated and tortuous artery arising from the descending thoracic aorta, taking a sigmoid course and running along with airway, entering the basal segments of the left lowed lobe. The inferior pulmonary vein (IPV) was significantly engorged. The typical AS was diagnosed in 4 patients. Its ASA intercrossed with the IPV and two branches entering segments 7 and 8 over the IPV, and two branches entering segments 9 and 10 under the IPV. The volume of involved lung shrunk with the artery markedly engorged. A characteristic avascular section was found between the pulmonary artery supplying area and the ASA supplying area, and the bronchi did not accompany the arteries. One was diagnosed atypical AS because of coexistence with bronchial atresia. Conclusion: The arterial sequestration had characteristic MSCT findings. The typical type can be definitely diagnosed, but the atypical type needs further three-dimensional analysis. (authors)

199

Identifying All True Vessels from Segmented Retinal Images  

OpenAIRE

Measurements of retinal blood vessel morphology have been shown to be related to the risk of cardiovascular diseases. The wrong identification of vessels may result in a large variation of these measurements, leading to a wrong clinical diagnosis Both the arteries and veins of the retina are generally binary trees, whose properties can be considered either locally or globally. Measurable geometrical changes in diameter, branching angle, length, or tortuosity, as a result of di...

Delucta Mary, G.

2014-01-01

200

Retinal Tear and Detachment  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... eye, history of eye trauma and prior cataract surgery. Laser and cryoprobe treatments for retinal tears are very ... detachment has developed that is too big for laser or cryo treatment, several treatment options are available ... Scleral buckle: surgery to place a band around the eye Scleral ...

201

Retinal Tear and Detachment  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... may do additional eye tests, such as a vision test, eye pressure test or eye ultrasound to diagnose the cause of your symptoms. If the doctor finds no retinal tears at the first exam, it is ... Visual results mostly depend on the health of the ...

202

Blood Flow and Anatomical MRI in a Mouse Model of Retinitis Pigmentosa  

OpenAIRE

This study tested the sensitivity of an arterial spin labeling MRI method to image changes in retinal and choroidal blood flow (BF) and anatomical thickness of the retina in the rd10 mouse model of retinitis pigmentosa. High-resolution (42×42?m) MRI was performed on rd10 mice and age-matched controls at 25, 35, and 60 days of age (n=6 each group) on a 7-Tesla scanner. Anatomical MRI was acquired and quantitative BF was imaged using arterial spin labeling MRI with a separate cardiac labeling...

Muir, Eric R.; La Garza, Bryan; Duong, Timothy Q.

2012-01-01

203

Influence of cataract surgery and blood pressure changes caused by sodium restriction on retinal vascular diameter  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Takatoshi Tano1, Yoshimune Hiratsuka2, Koichi Ono1, Akira Murakami11Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo; 2National Institute of Public Health, Tokyo, JapanPurpose: To investigate the impact of cataract surgery and blood pressure changes induced by one week of sodium restriction on retinal vascular diameter.Methods: Fundus photographs of 200 patients were obtained before and one week after cataract surgery. For one week after admission, 100 patients received sodium restriction and 100 patients (ie, the control group did not receive sodium restriction. The diameter of the retinal vessels and blood pressure were compared between the sodium restriction group and the control group. The vascular diameter was measured using an objective computer-based method.Results: Neither group had a significant change in the diameter of the retinal vessels after cataract surgery. Although there was no significant change in retinal arterial and venular diameter in the sodium restriction group, one-week sodium restriction significantly reduced mean blood pressure. However, multiple linear regression analyses indicated that an increase in retinal arteriolar diameter was significantly associated with diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and alcohol intake.Conclusion: Cataract surgery and blood pressure reduction induced by one week of sodium restriction resulted in no significant change in retinal arteriolar diameter.Keywords: cataract surgery, hypertension, retinal blood vessel diameter, retinal fundus camera, sodium restriction.

Takatoshi Tano

2010-11-01

204

Cilostazol prevents retinal ischemic damage partly via inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-?-induced nuclear factor-kappa B/activator protein-1 signaling pathway  

OpenAIRE

Cilostazol is a specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase III and is widely used to treat ischemic symptoms of peripheral vascular disease. We evaluated the protective effects of cilostazol in a murine model of ocular ischemic syndrome in which retinal ischemia was induced by 5-h unilateral ligation of both the pterygopalatine artery (PPA) and the external carotid artery (ECA) in anesthetized mice. The effects of cilostazol (30 mg/kg, p.o.) on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced retinal damage w...

Ishizuka, Fumiya; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Egashira, Yusuke; Ogishima, Hiromi; Nakamura, Shinsuke; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Hara, Hideaki

2013-01-01

205

Retinal Detachment: Torn or Detached Retina Diagnosis  

Science.gov (United States)

... Eyes & the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Retinal Detachment: Torn or Detached Retina Diagnosis Tweet Your ophthalmologist can diagnose retinal tear or retinal detachment during an eye examination where he or she ...

206

Retinal Detachment: Torn or Detached Retina Symptoms  

Science.gov (United States)

... Eyes & the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts Retinal Detachment: Torn or Detached Retina Symptoms Tweet Symptoms of a retinal tear and a retinal detachment can include the following: • A sudden increase in ...

207

Automatic localization of retinal landmarks.  

Science.gov (United States)

Retinal landmark detection is a key step in retinal screening and computer-aided diagnosis for different types of eye diseases, such as glaucomma, age-related macular degeneration(AMD) and diabetic retinopathy. In this paper, we propose a semantic image transformation(SIT) approach for retinal representation and automatic landmark detection. The proposed SIT characterizes the local statistics of a fundus image and boosts the intrinsic retinal structures, such as optic disc(OD), macula. We propose our salient OD and macular models based on SIT for retinal landmark detection. Experiments on 5928 images show that our method achieves an accuracy of 99.44% in the detection of OD and an accuracy of 93.49% in the detection of macula, while having an accuracy of 97.33% for left and right eye classification. The proposed SIT can automatically detect the retinal landmarks and be useful for further eye-disease screening and diagnosis. PMID:23367039

Cheng, Xiangang; Wong, Damon Wing Kee; Liu, Jiang; Lee, Beng-Hai; Tan, Ngan Meng; Zhang, Jielin; Cheng, Ching Yu; Cheung, Gemmy; Wong, Tien Yin

2012-01-01

208

Solar retinitis after minimal exposure.  

Science.gov (United States)

Solar retinitis after prolonged or purposeful exposure to the sun has been reported many times. In this study, three patients were seen with the clinical diagnosis of solar retinitis but without an initial compatible history. Previously, such persons have frequently been categorized as having foveomacular retinitis. In this study, careful follow-up history was obtained in an attempt to find an origin for the condition of the patients. Evidence for very brief, high-intensity, and long-term low-intensity exposure to the sun's radiant energy was substantiated. Theoretical consideration was made of the mechanisms by which this type of exposure produced retinal damage. PMID:678173

Gladstone, G J; Tasman, W

1978-08-01

209

Late retinal reattachment.  

OpenAIRE

Six cases are described in which late reattachment of detached retina occurred 9-16 months after what had been considered to be failed retinal detachment surgery. In all cases reattachment had been associated with partial restoration of vision. No cause for such reattachment can be clearly established, but it is felt that spontaneous separation of the posterior vitreous face with subsequent release of traction from the surface of the retina may be a contributory factor.

Kokolakis, S. N.; Bravo, L.; Chignell, A. H.

1981-01-01

210

Bilateral Carotid and Vertebral Rete Mirabile Presenting with a Prominent Anterior Spinal Artery Mimicking a Spinal Dural AV Fistula at MRI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Bilateral carotid and vertebral rete mirabile (CVRM) is a very rare condition. We report a new case of CVRM initially detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the cervical spine. MRI demonstrated tortuous vascular signal voids limited to the anterior cerebrospinal fluid space mimicking spinal dural arteriovenous fistula. A diagnosis of CVRM was confirmed on the basis of angiographic findings of rete formation associated with bilateral aplasia of the cavernous internal carotid and vertebral arteries without abnormal arteriovenous connection.

Lee, Seung Young; Cha, Sang Hoon [Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

2011-11-15

211

Descolamento de retina seroso em paraganglioma: relato de caso Serous retinal detachment in paraganglioma: case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os autores descrevem um caso de uma paciente gestante com hipertensão arterial resistente ao tratamento e descolamento seroso bilateral de retina. Confirmou-se, pelo exame anátomo-patológico, ser um paraganglioma.The authors describe a case of a pregnant patient with arterial hypertension that resists to the treatment and retinal bilateral serous detachment. It was confirmed to be a paraganglioma by anatomicopathological examination.

Oscar Villas Boas

2008-02-01

212

Descolamento de retina seroso em paraganglioma: relato de caso / Serous retinal detachment in paraganglioma: case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Os autores descrevem um caso de uma paciente gestante com hipertensão arterial resistente ao tratamento e descolamento seroso bilateral de retina. Confirmou-se, pelo exame anátomo-patológico, ser um paraganglioma. [...] Abstract in english The authors describe a case of a pregnant patient with arterial hypertension that resists to the treatment and retinal bilateral serous detachment. It was confirmed to be a paraganglioma by anatomicopathological examination. [...

Oscar, Villas Boas; André Moura, Bastos; Alexandre Campelo, Ramiro; Roberto Alexandre, Fonseca.

2008-02-01

213

Descolamento de retina seroso em paraganglioma: relato de caso Serous retinal detachment in paraganglioma: case report  

OpenAIRE

Os autores descrevem um caso de uma paciente gestante com hipertensão arterial resistente ao tratamento e descolamento seroso bilateral de retina. Confirmou-se, pelo exame anátomo-patológico, ser um paraganglioma.The authors describe a case of a pregnant patient with arterial hypertension that resists to the treatment and retinal bilateral serous detachment. It was confirmed to be a paraganglioma by anatomicopathological examination.

Oscar Villas Boas; André Moura Bastos; Alexandre Campelo Ramiro; Roberto Alexandre Fonseca

2008-01-01

214

Bromovinyldeoxyurdine treatment of outer retinal necrosis due to varicella-zoster virus: a case-report.  

Science.gov (United States)

In December 1995, a 70-years old male was referred to us because of rapid visual loss in the right eye, one month after a central retinal artery occlusion in the left eye. This renal transplant patient, with limited renal function, was on immunosuppressive therapy. The diagnosis of bilateral progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) due to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of VZV DNA in the aqueous fluid. As retinitis progressed despite of intravenous acyclovir administration, the antiviral therapy was switched to oral bromovinyldeoxyuridine (BVDU). This case-report demonstrates that oral BVDU can be a good alternative to acyclovir for the treatment of VZV retinal infections. PMID:9339038

Dullaert, H; Maudgal, P C; Leys, A; Dralands, L; Clercq, E

1996-01-01

215

Pharmacotherapy of Retinal Diseases with Ranibizumab  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The development of new, abnormal and leaky blood vessels, termed choroidal neovascularization, causes loss of vision and quality of life as a result of many ocular diseases. A current therapy for a leading cause of irreversible blindness in older people in the United States, age-related macular degeneration, is intravitreal injection of ranibizumab. However, ranibizumab has also been used off-label to successfully treat a number of other ocular diseases causing significant ocular morbidity, including retinal vascular occlusion and diabetic macular edema. Despite its efficacy, the association of detectable serum levels of ranibizumab and arterial thromboembolic events in major follow-up studies since its approval by the United States Food and Drug Administration as well as its high cost relative to the possible existence of cheaper, equally efficacious alternatives has underscored the importance of understanding the mode of action and clinical utility of this novel pharmacotherapy.

Daniel F. Kiernan

2009-01-01

216

Comorbidity in patients with branch retinal vein occlusion : case-control study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To evaluate comorbidity before and after the diagnosis of branch retinal vein occlusion to determine whether it is a consequence of arterial thickening and therefore could serve as a diagnostic marker for other comorbidities and to evaluate the risk factors for the development of such occlusion.

Bertelsen, Mette; Linneberg, Allan

2012-01-01

217

Acute hyperinsulinemia increases the contraction of retinal arterioles induced by elevated blood pressure  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Diabetic retinopathy is accompanied by disturbances in retinal blood flow, which is assumed to be related to the diabetic metabolic dysregulation. It has previously been shown that normoinsulinemic hyperglycemia has no effect on the diameter of retinal arterioles at rest and during an increase in the arterial blood pressure induced by isometric exercise. However, the influence of hyperinsulinemia on this response has not been studied in detail. In seven normal persons, the diameter response of retinal arterioles to an increased blood pressure induced by isometric exercise, to stimulation with flickering light, and to the combination of these stimuli was studied during euglycemic normoinsulinemia (protocol N) on one examination day, and euglycemic hyperinsulinemia (protocol H) on another examination day. Isometric exercise induced significant contraction of retinal arterioles at all examinations, but during a repeated examination the diameter response was significantly reduced in the test persons following theN protocol and increased in the persons following the H protocol. Flicker stimulation induced a significant dilatation of retinal arterioles at all examinations, and the response was significantly higher during a repeated examination, irrespective of the insulin level. Repeated exposure to isometric exercise reduces contraction, whereas repeated exposure to flickering light increases dilatation of retinal arterioles in vivo. Hyperinsulinemia increases contraction of retinal arterioles induced by isometric exercise.

Jeppesen, Peter; Knudsen, SØren Tang

2013-01-01

218

Perceptual Fading without Retinal Adaptation  

Science.gov (United States)

A retinally stabilized object readily undergoes perceptual fading and disappears from consciousness. This startling phenomenon is commonly believed to arise from local bottom-up sensory adaptation to edge information that occurs early in the visual pathway, such as in the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus or retinal ganglion cells. Here…

Hsieh, Po-Jang; Colas, Jaron T.

2012-01-01

219

If I Had - Retinitis Pigmentosa  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... as Alternative MS Treatment VIDEO: If I Had - Retinitis Pigmentosa - Dr. Gerry Chader, MD, PhD, University of ... Back to Home Page VIDEO: If I Had - Retinitis Pigmentosa - Dr. Gerry Chader, MD, PhD, University of ...

220

Retinal detachment surgery without cryotherapy.  

OpenAIRE

A series of cases of retinal detachment treated without the application of cryotherapy at the time of surgery has been studied. The omission of cryotherapy while not interfering with retinal reattachment, carries the risk of redetachment at a later date. Macular pucker may still occur in spite of the absence of cryotherapy.

Chignell, A. H.; Markham, R. H.

1981-01-01

221

Predetection of diseases by retinal diagnosis using Digital image processing.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This paper presents linguistic process for detecting the risk of future heart strokes and various diseases using the retinal image. For patients, it can be reduced the need for travel and provide the access to a doctor. Ophthalmology lends itself easily to telemedicine as it’s a largely image based diagnosis to know the disease of a person earlier. The main goal of the proposed system is to diagnose the type of disease by the retinal image and to automatically detect and segment retinal diseases/various diseases in human beings without human supervision or interaction. The eyes are one place in the body through which we can actually see veins and arteries without surgery and without X-rays. The eyes also reveal the disease present in the human body like high blood pressure, diabetes and future risk of heart strokes. Hence a retina scan can provide sufficient results to predict risk of heart attack and other diseases. So we can use retinal image analysis to analyze whether a person is having high blood pressure,diabetes,crop disease by detecting crossovers and diameter of blood vessels in retina and this can be processed by the digital image processing

Vamsi Krishna Reddy Munnangi#1 , Hemanth yadav Aradhyula#2 , Riyan Mohammed

2013-08-01

222

Pathogenesis and Risk Factors In Retinal Vein Occlusions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Retinal vein occlusions (RVO are by far the most common cause of retinal vascular occlusive diseases especially in middle-aged and older individuals. Basically, there are two forms of RVO, namely, branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO. Even though mechanisms resulting in venous occlusion may differ, there are also similarities in the etiopathogenesis of these two types. Like other vascular occlusive diseases elsewhere in the body, it is very crucial to find out if there is an underlying cause and / or predisposing factor for RVO. Most researches show that the pathogenesis of RVO is multifactorial and the most common associated disease is arterial hypertension. Moreover, recent investigations have determined that numerous genetic and acquired disorders may predispose to RVO and thereby affect visual prognosis. In this review, it was aimed to consider the pathogenesis of RVO along with its local, systemic and haemostasis-related risk factors and to discuss well-known as well as new predisposing factors for thrombosis.

Koray Gümü?

2007-08-01

223

Selective inner retinal layer involvement in early syphilitic retinitis as evidenced by spectral domain OCT  

OpenAIRE

Retinitis as a feature of syphilitic uveitis in immunocompromised individuals is a common finding. We present spectral domain OCT images of early syphilitic retinitis pre and post treatment with penicillin. This case suggests that the inner retinal layers may be selectively involved with early syphilitic retinitis. Early treatment is important to avoid outer layer retinal involvement and to decrease ocular morbidity.

Klemencic, Stephanie A.; Newman, Tricia L.; Messner, Leonard V.

2011-01-01

224

Gelatine and hydroxyl ethyl starch hypervolemic hemodilution – Effect on hemorheology and retinal circulation in a pig model  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present study was designed to determine the effects of hemodilution with gelatine (GEL and hydroxyethyl starch (HES on hematocrit, blood viscosity, systemic hemodynamics, and central retinal arterial blood flow in anaesthetized pigs. 20 pigs were studied. Hypervolemic hemodilution was induced by 30 ml kg-1h-1 GEL (n=10 or HES (n=10 infused over 30 min. The hematocrit decreased comparably in both groups. Plasma viscosity was higher after HES than after GEL. Systolic central retinal blood flow and resistance index increased and were higher after HES than after GEL. Despite a greater plasma viscosity HES increases retinal microcirculation during hypervolemic hemodilution.

M. Grossherr

2008-04-01

225

Acute retinal necrosis.  

OpenAIRE

Purpose: Clinical features in a case of acute retinal necrosis are described as well as its diagnostic approach and response to early treatment.Methods: This is a descriptive and retrospective study case report of a 26 year old male patient who arrived to the emergency room with a three day history of sudden visual loss in the right eye (RE). At initial evaluation a visual acuity of hand movements in the RE, 20/15 in the left eye (LE) and a right relative afferent pupillary defect were found....

Hugo Hernán Ocampo; Alexánder Maximiliano Martínez

1991-01-01

226

Arterial embolism  

OpenAIRE

Surgical and intensive care patients are at a heightened risk for arterial embolization due to pre-existing conditions such as age, hypercoagulability, cardiac abnormalities and atherosclerotic disease. Most arterial emboli are clots that originate in the heart and travel to distant vascular beds where they cause arterial occlusion, ischemia, and potentially infarction. Other emboli form on the surface of eroded arterial plaque or within its lipid core. Thromboemboli are large clots that disl...

Melville, R. M.

2013-01-01

227

Congenital retinal disinsertion syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

The congenital retinal disinsertion (CRD) syndrome refers to cases of retinal detachment with disinsertion and may be divided into two groups. Group 1 reported by Hovland and co-workers includes healthy children with bilateral detachments and giant tears nasally, lens coloboma, and center anterior and posterior cortical lens opacities. Group 2 includes healthy children with a unilateral detachment often associated with microphthalmos and catatract. The opposite eye may show a combination of changes including small central anterior and posterior cortical lens opacities, lens colobomas, and paving-stone degeneration. The patients may have an increased risk of developing a detachment in the second eye, and some of these eyes have been treated with cryopexy. Seven patients belonging to group 2 have been described and four of these had unilateral cataract and microphthalmos. Two other patients had some degree of unilateral microphthalmos. Small central anterior or posterior cortical lens opacities were found in five eyes, and lens colobomas were found in two eyes. Six out of seven patients had varying degrees of paving-stone degeneration temporally in the nondetached eye. The CRD syndrome was familial in two patients who were sisters. Pathologic studies were done in the eyes of three patients. PMID:813347

Boniuk, M; Hittner, H M

1975-01-01

228

Acute retinal necrosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: Clinical features in a case of acute retinal necrosis are described as well as its diagnostic approach and response to early treatment.Methods: This is a descriptive and retrospective study case report of a 26 year old male patient who arrived to the emergency room with a three day history of sudden visual loss in the right eye (RE. At initial evaluation a visual acuity of hand movements in the RE, 20/15 in the left eye (LE and a right relative afferent pupillary defect were found. Fundoscopy revealed profuse soft exudates and hemorrhages involving posterior pole, inferior hemiretina and superotemporal periphery. Infectious workup and fluoresceinic angiography were made and positive serologies for herpes virus types 1 and 2, without HIV, were found. A diagnosis of acute retinal necrosis was made and treatment with intravenous valgancyclovir for two weeks and intra-vitreous triamcinolone for severe vasculitis, was given. Then a 3 months treatment with oral antiviral agents was prescribed.Results: Patient’s evolution showed improvement with treatment and at two and a half months of follow up, visual acuity was 20/50 in the right eye, normal slit lamp examination, tonometry of 12 mm Hg and fundoscopy improved when compared to initial pictures.Conclusions: A high index of suspicion is needed for diagnosing ARN taking into account clinical findings. Prompt intravenous and intra-vitreous treatments are needed to achieve good clinical and functional outcomes and to avoid central nervous system complications.

Hugo Hernán Ocampo

2009-09-01

229

Internal Carotid Artery Ectasia: The Value of Imaging Studies Prior to Biopsy of a Retropharyngeal Mass  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The presence of retropharyngeal tissue mass often raises the suspicion of malignancy, especially in elderly patients. This prompts urgent biopsy to investigate tissue histology. We discuss a case where this is contraindicated as the retropharyngeal mass was illustrated by CT scanning and confirmed with MRI to be a tortuous coursing internal carotid artery. An awareness of this unusual anatomical variation and a careful interpretation of imaging studies both at the stage of differential diagnosis and pre-operative screening are essential to avoid damage to important structures, causing unnecessary complications.

Kenneth Chan

2010-11-01

230

Airway obstruction due to tracheomalacia caused by innominate artery compression and a kyphotic cervical spine.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tracheomalacia can cause variable degrees of intrathoracic airway obstruction and is an easily overlooked cause of respiratory distress in adults. Here, we report a case of acute respiratory failure in which subglottic stenosis was accidentally identified during endotracheal intubation. Subsequent bronchoscopy and computed tomography of the thorax and neck revealed tracheal compression with tracheomalacia caused by a tortuous innominate artery and a kyphotic cervical spine. The patient underwent rigid bronchoscopy with metal stent implantation, and her symptoms were alleviated. These findings outline the importance of precise diagnosis and interventions for preventing recurrent life-threatening respiratory failure in such cases. PMID:25639407

Liu, Chia-Hsin; Huang, Wen-Sheng; Wang, Hong-Hau; Wu, Chin-Pyng; Chian, Chih-Feng; Perng, Wann-Cherng; Tsai, Chen-Liang

2015-02-01

231

A pain in the throat: a 19-year history of symptoms relating to the carotid artery.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 38-year-old man presented with a 19-year history of sore throat and an ache radiating from the centre of the anterior neck to the both ears and the occiput. Computed tomography angiography revealed a tortuous submucosal right internal carotid artery, which was causing tonsillar displacement. The diagnosis of carotidynia has a controversial history within the literature and is currently not accepted as a distinct pathological entity by the International Headache Society. In this patient, the clinical and imaging features, in addition to the absence of any other pathology confers support to the diagnosis of carotidynia. PMID:25398291

Elkins, Ashleigh; Barakate, Michael; Henderson, Jasmine; Grieve, Stuart

2014-11-15

232

[Diagnostic methods in retinal detachment].  

Science.gov (United States)

Important diagnosis methods are anamnesis, visual acuity determination, visual field determination, anterior segment biomicroscopy, tonometry, gonioscopy. Great attention must be paid to the ophthalmoscopy with scleral indentation. The paper compare the advantages and disadvantages of direct ophthalmoscopy using Goldmann contact lens. A great importance has the graphical representation of the eye fundus pathology, and also applying Lincoff rules in the localisation of the retinal breaks in retinal detachment. As special methods in examination are revealed the diaphanoscopy, the angiofluorography, the computerized tomography, the tomography in magnetic resonance field, and also the utilization of the electrophysiological and echographic exams in retinal detachment diagnosis. PMID:8155619

Huttmann, G

1994-01-01

233

Diagnosis of arterial sequestration using multidetector CT angiography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background: Arterial sequestration is a rare congenital disorder. The diagnostic evaluation of this condition using multidetector computerized tomography (MDCT) has not been described previously. The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristic features of this disorder and to assess the use of MDCT in visualizing the characteristic anatomic features. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of seven patients with anomalous systemic blood supply to left lower lobe of the lung. All the patients had undergone MDCT angiography. To evaluate the lung parenchyma, bronchial branching pattern, and vascular anatomy, four series of images were systematically reconstructed as follows: contiguous transverse CT scans viewed at mediastinal and pulmonary window settings, oblique coronal and sagittal maximum intensity projections (MIP), multiplanar reconstruction (MPR), and three-dimensional volume-rendered images (VR) of airway and thoracic vascular structures. Results: All 7 cases had isolated and tortuous arterial anatomy from the descending thoracic aorta to the basal segment of the left lower lobe; however, variable distribution of branches was observed. Characteristic findings of anomalous systemic arterial (ASA) supply were distinct from those seen in other pulmonary sequestration syndromes and were well visualized by the use of noninvasive MDCT. Conclusion: Complex CT findings allow clear imaging of arterial sequestration and the ASA blood supply; MDCT angiography has demonstrated its value and accuracy in diagnosing this condition, obviating the use of digital subtraction angiography and magnetic resonance angiography for the diagnosis of arterial sequestration.

Yu Hong, E-mail: yuhong.2002@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200003 (China); Li Huimin, E-mail: lihuiminphd@163.com [Department of Radiology, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200003 (China); Liu Shiyuan, E-mail: cjr.liushiyuan@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200003 (China); Xiao Xiangsheng, E-mail: cjr.xxsh@vip.163.com [Department of Radiology, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 200003 (China)

2010-11-15

234

Seasonal variability in spontaneous cervical artery dissection  

OpenAIRE

We examined the seasonal variability of spontaneous cervical artery dissection (sCAD) by analysing prospectively collected data from 352 patients with 380 sCAD (361 symptomatic sCAD; 305 carotid and 75 vertebral artery dissections) admitted to two university hospitals with a catchment area of 2?200?000 inhabitants between 1985 and 2004. Presenting symptoms and signs of the 380 sCAD were ischaemic stroke in 241 (63%), transient ischaemic attack in 40 (11%), retinal ischemia in seven (2%), ...

Paciaroni, M.; Georgiadis, D.; Arnold, M.; Gandjour, J.; Keseru, B.; Fahrni, G.; Caso, V.; Baumgartner, R. W.

2006-01-01

235

If I Had - Retinitis Pigmentosa  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... left field) and secondly that because the rod photo-receptor cells are the main cells affected, and ... the acuity in a RP patient is very good. I know adults with various forms of retinitis ...

236

If I Had - Retinitis Pigmentosa  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... In 60 In Depth In the Spotlight If I Had... Universities and Hospitals By Disease or Symptom ... Shows Potential as Alternative MS Treatment VIDEO: If I Had - Retinitis Pigmentosa - Dr. Gerry Chader, MD, PhD, ...

237

[Gene therapy for retinal dystrophies].  

Science.gov (United States)

Genetic mutations are the cause of inherited retinal dystrophies. The underlying genetic basis of these diseases suggests that a gene therapy approach is logical either to replace or reduce the expression of defective genes. The first proof-of-concept clinical studies in patients with Leber's congenital amaurosis have suggested that retinal gene therapy is safe and potentially effective, at least for specific disease entities. In contrast to pharmacological treatment gene therapy has the advantage of being able to express a protein within specific cell populations and is a potentially definitive therapy. Besides replacing deficient genes in inherited diseases, additional strategies that might broaden the application of retinal gene therapy are also being developed. These include the permanent expression of neuroprotective substances or photosensitive molecules (so-called optogenetics). This overview discusses the current clinical strategies and potential problems of retinal gene therapy. PMID:22350548

Charbel Issa, P; Groppe, M; MacLaren, R E

2012-02-01

238

If I Had - Retinitis Pigmentosa  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation Shows Potential as Alternative MS Treatment VIDEO: If I Had - Retinitis Pigmentosa - Dr. ... coming. OUR TEAM Sanjay Sharma BSc, MD, FRCS, MS (Epid), MBA Susan M. Sharma BSc, MD, CCFP ...

239

If I Had - Retinitis Pigmentosa  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... that are known to ultimately result in one form or another of retinitis pigmentosa. What is noticed is that very often since it strikes very early in life, either at birth or soon thereafter, a parent ...

240

If I Had - Retinitis Pigmentosa  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... a few months after birth. Pretty quickly, these children are taken in to the ophthalmologist. If I had retinitis pigmentosa... Dr. Chader: There is one treatment right now that is thanks to the good research ...

241

Flexible retinal electrode array  

Science.gov (United States)

An electrode array which has applications for neural stimulation and sensing. The electrode array can include a large number of electrodes each of which is flexibly attached to a common substrate using a plurality of springs to allow the electrodes to move independently. The electrode array can be formed from a combination of bulk and surface micromachining, with electrode tips that can include an electroplated metal (e.g. platinum, iridium, gold or titanium) or a metal oxide (e.g. iridium oxide) for biocompatibility. The electrode array can be used to form a part of a neural prosthesis, and is particularly well adapted for use in an implantable retinal prosthesis where the electrodes can be tailored to provide a uniform gentle contact pressure with optional sensing of this contact pressure at one or more of the electrodes.

Okandan, Murat (Albuquerque, NM); Wessendorf, Kurt O. (Albuquerque, NM); Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM)

2006-10-24

242

Building retinal connectomes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Understanding vertebrate vision depends on knowing, in part, the complete network graph of at least one representative retina. Acquiring such graphs is the business of synaptic connectomics, emerging as a practical technology due to improvements in electron imaging platform control, management software for large-scale datasets, and availability of data storage. The optimal strategy for building complete connectomes uses transmission electron imaging with 2 nm or better resolution, molecular tags for cell identification, open-access data volumes for navigation, and annotation with open-source tools to build 3D cell libraries, complete network diagrams and connectivity databases. The first forays into retinal connectomics have shown that even nominally well-studied cells have much richer connection graphs than expected. PMID:22498714

Marc, Robert E; Jones, Bryan W; Lauritzen, J Scott; Watt, Carl B; Anderson, James R

2012-08-01

243

Acute retinal necrosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) is a rare disease that is usually caused by one of the three neurotropic human herpesviruses - herpes simplex virus type 1(HSV-1), HSV-2 and varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Although much is known about the clinical course of the disease and its treatment and about the viruses that cause it, comparatively little is known about its pathogenesis. This article will review the history of ARN, the typical clinical findings, and methods of diagnosis. Information from studies of the mouse model of ARN including development of anterior chamber-associated immune deviation (ACAID) and routes of spread will be reconsidered, and the combined information from human and mouse studies will be discussed to suggest mechanisms that contribute to the pathogenesis of ARN in human patients. Finally, puzzles and questions about the disease will be considered. PMID:17264500

Kezuka, Takeshi; Atherton, Sally S

2007-01-01

244

[New retinal imaging techniques].  

Science.gov (United States)

Retinal imaging techniques progress rapidly. In many cases, the diagnosis of macular diseases can be done by the combination of fundus photography (color, monochromatic or autofluorescence images) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Fluorescein or indocyanine green angiography remains useful when the other exams are not conclusive. Fundus angiography can be coupled with OCT. Other new investigation methods have appeared such as wide-field retinography on the one hand, or adaptive optics on the other hand which allows visualising photoreceptors in a very small field. Screening for diabetic retinopathy is based on color fundus photos. When the diagnostic of diabetic retinopathy is obvious, a more comprehensive fundus examination is warranted to decide on the treatment and follow-up. PMID:23457827

Gaudric, Alain

2013-01-01

245

Ophthalmic artery microembolism in giant cell arteritis.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 70-year-old man presented with a history of headache and sudden loss of vision of the left eye. Funduscopic examination showed sector retinal edema and hemorrhage as well as optic disc swelling consistent with anterior ischemic optic neuropathy. The Westergren sedimentation rate was 66 mm/h. Temporal artery biopsy was consistent with giant cell arteritis. Routine transcranial Doppler testing performed on a Pioneer 2020 instrument (Nicolet Vascular, Inc., Golden, CO) equipped with special software for microembolus detection showed a microembolic signal in the left ophthalmic artery. During a subsequent monitoring study, microembolic signals were detected in the anterior and middle cerebral arteries, bilaterally. Microembolism can occur in giant cell arteritis. Ophthalmic artery microembolism can be detected in vivo by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. This new imaging capability can potentially be useful when evaluating patients with vascular disorders of the eye. PMID:11130757

Schäuble, B; Wijman, C A; Koleini, B; Babikian, V L

2000-12-01

246

An Aneurysmal Left Circumflex Artery-to-Right Atrium Fistula in a Patient with Ischemic Symptoms: Accurate Diagnosis with Dual-Source CT Angiography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In this report, we present a 55-year-old female patient with a left circumflex artery-to-right atrial fistula associated with a huge saccular aneurysm. She had undergone conventional angiography due to ischemic symptoms. In conventional angiography, a very dilated and tortuous vessel originating from the circumflex artery and continuous with a huge saccular aneurysm was visualized but the drainage site could not be demonstrated. With dual-source CT coronary angiography, the exact anatomy of this fistula was demonstrated and surgery was planned.

247

Diplopia after retinal detachment surgery.  

OpenAIRE

Diplopia following retinal detachment usually responds to simple measures. Fifteen out of 311 cases developed diplopia lasting more than three months after conventional retinal detachment surgery. Binocular single vision was restored in 12 of the 15 cases (80%). The mean follow-up was four years. Diplopia was eliminated stepwise. If prisms were ineffective, our first surgical procedure was removal of the scleral buckle. If the retina was flat, we were prepared to remove the buckle early. When...

Fison, P. N.; Chignell, A. H.

1987-01-01

248

Microsystems Technology for Retinal Implants  

Science.gov (United States)

The retinal prosthesis is targeted to treat age-related macular degeneration, retinitis pigmentosa, and other outer retinal degenerations. Simulations of artificial vision have predicted that 600-1000 individual pixels will be needed if a retinal prosthesis is to restore function such as reading large print and face recognition. An implantable device with this many electrode contacts will require microsystems technology as part of its design. An implantable retinal prosthesis will consist of several subsystems including an electrode array and hermetic packaging. Microsystems and microtechnology approaches are being investigated as possible solutions for these design problems. Flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate electrode arrays and silicon micromachined electrode arrays are under development. Inactive PDMS electrodes have been implanted in 3 dogs to assess mechanical biocompatibility. 3 dogs were followed for 6 months. The implanted was securely fastened to the retina with a single retinal tack. No post-operative complications were evident. The array remained within 100 microns of the retinal surface. Histological evaluation showed a well preserved retina underneath the electrode array. A silicon device with electrodes suspended on micromachined springs has been implanted in 4 dogs (2 acute implants, 2 chronic implants). The device, though large, could be inserted into the eye and positioned on the retina. Histological analysis of the retina from the spring electrode implants showed that spring mounted posts penetrated the retina, thus the device will be redesigned to reduce the strength of the springs. These initial implants will provide information for the designers to make the next generation silicon device. We conclude that microsystems technology has the potential to make possible a retinal prosthesis with 1000 individual contacts in close proximity to the retina.

Weiland, James

2005-03-01

249

Adult retinal stem cells revisited.  

OpenAIRE

Recent advances in retinal stem cell research have raised the possibility that these cells have the potential to be used to repair or regenerate diseased retina. Various cell sources for replacement of retinal neurons have been identified, including embryonic stem cells, the adult ciliary epithelium, adult Müller stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS). However, the true stem cell nature of the ciliary epithelium and its possible application in cell therapies has now been questio...

Bhatia, B.; Singhal, S.; Jayaram, H.; Khaw, P. T.; Limb, G. A.

2010-01-01

250

Light and inherited retinal degeneration  

OpenAIRE

Light deprivation has long been considered a potential treatment for patients with inherited retinal degenerative diseases, but no therapeutic benefit has been demonstrated to date. In the few clinical studies that have addressed this issue, the underlying mutations were unknown. Our rapidly expanding knowledge of the genes and mechanisms involved in retinal degeneration have made it possible to reconsider the potential value of light restriction in specific genetic contexts. This review summ...

Paskowitz, D. M.; Lavail, M. M.; Duncan, J. L.

2006-01-01

251

Retinal implants: a systematic review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Retinal implants present an innovative way of restoring sight in degenerative retinal diseases. Previous reviews of research progress were written by groups developing their own devices. This systematic review objectively compares selected models by examining publications describing five representative retinal prostheses: Argus II, Boston Retinal Implant Project, Epi-Ret 3, Intelligent Medical Implants (IMI) and Alpha-IMS (Retina Implant AG). Publications were analysed using three criteria for interim success: clinical availability, vision restoration potential and long-term biocompatibility. Clinical availability: Argus II is the only device with FDA approval. Argus II and Alpha-IMS have both received the European CE Marking. All others are in clinical trials, except the Boston Retinal Implant, which is in animal studies. Vision restoration: resolution theoretically correlates with electrode number. Among devices with external cameras, the Boston Retinal Implant leads with 100 electrodes, followed by Argus II with 60 electrodes and visual acuity of 20/1262. Instead of an external camera, Alpha-IMS uses a photodiode system dependent on natural eye movements and can deliver visual acuity up to 20/546. Long-term compatibility: IMI offers iterative learning; Epi-Ret 3 is a fully intraocular device; Alpha-IMS uses intraocular photosensitive elements. Merging the results of these three criteria, Alpha-IMS is the most likely to achieve long-term success decades later, beyond current clinical availability. PMID:24403565

Chuang, Alice T; Margo, Curtis E; Greenberg, Paul B

2014-07-01

252

The mechanics of retinal detachment  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a model of the mechanical and fluid forces associated with exudative retinal detachments where the retinal photoreceptor cells separate typically from the underlying retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). By computing the total fluid volume flow arising from transretinal, vascular, and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) pump currents, we determine the conditions under which the subretinal fluid pressure exceeds the maximum yield stress holding the retina and RPE together, giving rise to an irreversible, extended retinal delamination. We also investigate localized, blister-like retinal detachments by balancing mechanical tension in the retina with both the retina-RPE adhesion energy and the hydraulic pressure jump across the retina. For detachments induced by traction forces, we find a critical radius beyond which the blister is unstable to growth. Growth of a detached blister can also be driven by inflamed tissue within which e.g., the hydraulic conductivities of the retina or choroid increase, the RPE pumps fail, or the adhesion properties change. We determine the parameter regimes in which the blister either becomes unstable to growth, remains stable and finite-sized, or shrinks, allowing possible healing.

Chou, Tom; Siegel, Michael

2013-03-01

253

Changes in cardiopulmonary values after heartworm removal from pulmonary artery using flexible alligator forceps  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radiograph, arteriograph, echocardiogram, electrocardiogram and cardiopulmonary values were obtained in dogs with dirofilariasis before and after heartworm removal with a flexible alligator forceps. After heartworm removal, the following results were obtained: 1) Dilations of the pulmonary artery, the right ventricle and the right atrium reduced on radiograph and ultrasonic echocardiogram; 2) tortuousness of the pulmonary artery was reduced, and pruning of the peripheral arteries improved on arteriogram: 3) electrocardiographic findings indicated the correction of right axis deviation in mean electric axis in frontal plane and decreases of voltages; 4) pulmonary arterial and right ventricular pressures fell (improvement of pulmonary hypertension); 5) right cardiac output decreased; 6) heart rate tended to decrease; and 7) total pulmonary arterial resistance decreased. These results indicated that pulmonary arterial resistance and blood flow volume might be reduced, thus decreasing the burden on the heart. It was considered that not only lesions of the pulmonary arteries but also heartworms themselves in the pulmonary artery play an important role in affecting right heart hemodynamics

254

[Peripheral arteries].  

Science.gov (United States)

Peripheral arterial disease is a main cause of morbidity in industrialised countries. It chiefly affects older people. The most common causes are atherosclerosis and vasodilatatory abnormalities. In the presence of unexplained leg symptoms, peripheral arterial disease can be diagnosed or ruled out by non-invasive diagnostic methods such as history, clinical examination and the measurement of ankle and brachial artery pressure by Doppler ultrasound, as well as by calculating the ankle brachial index. Colour coded duplex sonography, computer tomography angiography, magnetic resonance angiography and arteriography are the imaging modalities used. Current diagnostic strategies are analysed for the different peripheral artery diseases. PMID:17479237

Vosshenrich, R; Reimer, P; Landwehr, P

2007-06-01

255

Retinal detachment in paediatric patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To assess the causes of retinal detachment in children and the various operative procedures requiring vitreoretinal surgical intervention for the same. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Ophthalmology, Al-Shifa Trust Eye Hospital, Rawalpindi, from January 2006 to May 2009. Methodology: A total of 281 eyes of 258 patients, (aged 0 - 18 years) who underwent vitreo-retinal surgical intervention for retinal detachment were included. Surgical log was searched for the type of retinal detachment and its causes. Frequencies of various interventions done in these patients viz. vitrectomy, scleral buckle, use of tamponading agents, laser photocoagulation and cryotherapy were noted. Results were described as descriptive statistics. Results: Myopia was the cause in 62 (22.1%) and trauma in 51 (18.1%) of the eyes. Total retinal detachment (RD) was treated in 94 (33.5%) eyes, sub total RD in 36 (12.8%), recurrent RD in 32 (11.4%), giant retinal tear in 28 (10%), tractional RD in 15 (5.3%) and exudative RD in 2 (0.7%). Prophylactic laser or cryotherapy was applied in 74 (26.3%) of the eyes. Pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) was carried out in 159 (56.6%) eyes while scleral buckle procedure was done in 129 (45.9%) eyes. Silicon oil was used in 149 (53%), perfluorocarbon liquid in 32 (11.4%) and gas tamponade in 20 (7.1%) eyes. Conclusion: The most common cause of retinal detachment in paediatric patients was myopia, followed by trauma. Total RD was more common as compared to the other types. The most common procedure adopted was pars plana vitrectomy followed by scleral buckle procedure. (author)

256

Vision loss after maxillary artery embolization secondary to compressive optic neuropathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors report a case of no light perception (NLP) vision in a patient with sinonasal melanoma after maxillary artery embolization secondary to presumptive compressive optic neuropathy. Two reports of NLP vision occurring after maxillary artery embolization are reported in the literature,, both occurring secondary to collateral blood flow to the ophthalmic artery resulting in central retinal artery occlusion. In the current case report, the presumed mechanism of vision loss is secondary to compressive optic neuropathy from local edema occurring after maxillary artery embolization. PMID:23503054

Finnerty, Katie N; Mancini, Ronald

2013-01-01

257

Direct cervical arterial access for intracranial endovascular treatment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Tortuous vasculature is a cause of failure of endovascular treatment of intracranial vascular lesions. We report our experience of direct cervical accesses in patients in whom the arterial femoral route was not attainable. In this retrospective study, 42 direct punctures of the carotid or the vertebral arteries at the neck were performed in 38 patients. The vessel harboring the intracranial lesion was punctured at the neck above the main tortuosity, a sheath was then positioned under fluoroscopic control to allow a stable access to the intracranial circulation. After the procedure, the sheath was removed and hemostasis was gained either by manual compression or by an arterial closure device (4 of 42, 9%). The cervical route allowed access to all intracranial lesions in all 42 procedures. A complication was encountered in six procedures (14%) related to the direct puncture. In 2 of the 42 procedures (4%), a transient vasospasm was encountered. A cervical hematoma formed in 3 of the 42 procedures (7%) after sheath withdrawal (one patient in whom an 8F sheath had been used, required surgical evacuation of a hematoma compressing the upper airways; the other patients did well without surgical evacuation). In the remaining patient (1 of 42 procedures, 2%), a small asymptomatic aneurysm at the puncture site was seen on the follow-up angiogram. Direct cervical arterial approaches to accessing the intracranial circulation is effective in patients in whom the femoral route doesin patients in whom the femoral route does not allow the navigation and stabilization of guiding catheters. (orig.)

258

Uterine artery embolization: an effective treatment for intractable obstetric haemorrhage  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

AIM: To present the findings of uterine artery embolization (UAE) in the management of obstetric haemorrhage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From October 1999 to February 2003, 10 women with postpartum haemorrhage (n=7) and post-abortion haemorrhage with placenta accreta (n=3), were referred to our department for pelvic angiography and possible arterial embolization. RESULTS: Angiography revealed engorged and tortuous uterine arteries in all patients; and contrast medium extravasation in three patients. Eight patients (three with and five without detectable active bleeding) then underwent bilateral UAE. Medium-sized (250-355 ?m) polyvinyl alcohol particles were injected via a coaxial catheter into the uterine arteries, followed by gelatin sponge pieces via a 4 F Cobra catheter. Microcoil devascularization was also performed in the two patients with visible, active bleeding. The vaginal bleeding resolved in all patients, without any ischaemic complications. At follow-up, all patients who underwent UAE had normal menstruation; three of them subsequently gave birth to full-term healthy babies. CONCLUSION: Selective UAE by the coaxial method is safe and effective to control obstetric haemorrhage, with the potential to preserve fertility

259

Uterine artery embolization: an effective treatment for intractable obstetric haemorrhage  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

AIM: To present the findings of uterine artery embolization (UAE) in the management of obstetric haemorrhage. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From October 1999 to February 2003, 10 women with postpartum haemorrhage (n=7) and post-abortion haemorrhage with placenta accreta (n=3), were referred to our department for pelvic angiography and possible arterial embolization. RESULTS: Angiography revealed engorged and tortuous uterine arteries in all patients; and contrast medium extravasation in three patients. Eight patients (three with and five without detectable active bleeding) then underwent bilateral UAE. Medium-sized (250-355 {mu}m) polyvinyl alcohol particles were injected via a coaxial catheter into the uterine arteries, followed by gelatin sponge pieces via a 4 F Cobra catheter. Microcoil devascularization was also performed in the two patients with visible, active bleeding. The vaginal bleeding resolved in all patients, without any ischaemic complications. At follow-up, all patients who underwent UAE had normal menstruation; three of them subsequently gave birth to full-term healthy babies. CONCLUSION: Selective UAE by the coaxial method is safe and effective to control obstetric haemorrhage, with the potential to preserve fertility.

Hong, T.-M.; Tseng, H.-S. E-mail: hstseng@vghtpe.gov.tw; Lee, R.-C.; Wang, J.-H.; Chang, C.-Y

2004-01-01

260

Retinal Neovascularization and An Angioma-like Lesion after Demarcation Photocoagulation for Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment  

OpenAIRE

Laser photocoagulation might aggravate the ischemia of an area of retinal detachmentand predispose the retina to formation of neovascularization and an angioma-like lesion. Wepresent a case of retinal neovascularization (RNV) and an angioma-like lesion occurringafter demarcation photocoagulation for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). A 20-year-old woman suffered from a retinal atrophic hole with localized shallow retinal detachmentin the right eye. Laser photocoagulation was performed t...

San-Ni Chen; Yi-Cheng Chen; Chia-Yun Li

2006-01-01

261

Imaging of retinal and choroidal vascular tumours  

OpenAIRE

The most common intraocular vascular tumours are choroidal haemangiomas, vasoproliferative tumours, and retinal haemangioblastomas. Rarer conditions include cavernous retinal angioma and arteriovenous malformations. Options for ablating the tumour include photodynamic therapy, argon laser photocoagulation, trans-scleral diathermy, cryotherapy, anti-angiogenic agents, plaque radiotherapy, and proton beam radiotherapy. Secondary effects are common and include retinal exudates, macular oedema, e...

Heimann, H.; Jmor, F.; Damato, B.

2012-01-01

262

Acute arterial occlusion - kidney  

Science.gov (United States)

Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... back. Blood clots that travel through the bloodstream ( emboli ) can lodge in the renal artery. Pieces of ...

263

Coronary artery spasm  

Science.gov (United States)

Coronary artery spasm is a temporary, sudden narrowing of one of the coronary arteries (the arteries that supply blood to ... with angina (chest pain and pressure) have coronary artery spasm. Coronary artery spasm occurs most commonly in people ...

264

Embolization of a Bleeding Maxillary Arteriovenous Malformation via the Superficial Temporal Artery after External Carotid Artery Ligation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

An arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of the jaw is an uncommon lesion found mainly in children. It can present with massive oral bleeding, resulting in death. The external carotid artery (ECA) is often the feeding artery and can be ligated to control the hemorrhage. As a result, transarterial embolization is difficult or even impossible to perform when re-bleeding occurs. We report a new approach of a successful embolization of a bleeding maxillary AVM via the superficial temporal artery (STA) after a previous ECA ligation. This technique has not yet been reported for endovascular management of a bleeding maxillary AVM. This approach of embolization of a maxillary AVM via the STA is minimally invasive, repeatable and has little effect on the physical appearance of the patient. It may be performed on patients with hyper vascular craniofacial lesions whose feeding arteries have been ligated or are too tortuous to navigate a catheter. It can also be performed urgently during active bleeding, pre-operatively and before trans-venous embolization

265

Application of a modified regularization procedure for estimating oxygen tension in large retinal blood vessels  

Science.gov (United States)

Phosphorescence lifetime measurement based on a frequency domain approach is used to estimate oxygen tension in large retinal blood vessels. The classical least squares (LS) estimation was initially used to determine oxygen tension indirectly from intermediate variables. A spatial regularized least squares (RLS) method was later proposed to reduce the high variance of oxygen tension estimated by LS method. In this paper, we provide a solution using a modified RLS (MRLS) approach that utilizes prior knowledge about retinal vessels oxygenation based on expected oxygen tension values in retinal arteries and veins. The performance of MRLS method was evaluated in simulated and experimental data by determining the bias, variance, and mean absolute error (MAE) of oxygen tension measurements and comparing these parameters with those derived with the use of LS and RLS methods.

Yildirim, Isa; Ansari, Rashid; Samil Yetik, I.; Shahidi, Mahnaz

2010-03-01

266

Human retinal circuitry and physiology  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Every second, in an average daytime light environment, hundreds of millions of photons enter the human eye and arrive at the photoreceptor layer of the retina. All our information about the visible world is contained in this rain of photons. The retina is a complex tissue, literally an extension of [...] the brain, which transforms the rain of photons into bioelectric signals containing all the information available to the brain to interpret and respond to the external visual world. A considerable amount of processing takes place within the retinal tissue itself. Understanding what kind of processing takes place at each retinal stage is crucial for understanding normal vision, vision in the presence of diseases affecting the retina, and, ultimately, for the development of therapies to treat such diseases. This manuscript reviews the relation between structure and function of the different retinal pathways and addresses their possible roles for visual perception.

Christina, Joselevitch.

2008-12-01

267

Human retinal circuitry and physiology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Every second, in an average daytime light environment, hundreds of millions of photons enter the human eye and arrive at the photoreceptor layer of the retina. All our information about the visible world is contained in this rain of photons. The retina is a complex tissue, literally an extension of the brain, which transforms the rain of photons into bioelectric signals containing all the information available to the brain to interpret and respond to the external visual world. A considerable amount of processing takes place within the retinal tissue itself. Understanding what kind of processing takes place at each retinal stage is crucial for understanding normal vision, vision in the presence of diseases affecting the retina, and, ultimately, for the development of therapies to treat such diseases. This manuscript reviews the relation between structure and function of the different retinal pathways and addresses their possible roles for visual perception.

Christina Joselevitch

2008-01-01

268

Crocetin, a carotenoid derivative, inhibits retinal ischemic damage in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Crocetin, an aglycone of crocin, is found both in the saffron crocus (Crocus starus L.) and in gardenia fruit (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis). We evaluated the protective effects of crocetin against the retinal ischemia induced by 5h unilateral ligation of both the pterygopalatine artery (PPA) and the external carotid artery (ECA) in anesthetized mice. The effects of crocetin (20mg/kg, p.o.) on ischemia/reperfusion-induced retinal damage were examined by histological, electrophysiological, and anti-apoptotic analyses. Data for anti-apoptotic analysis was obtained by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining. Using immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting, the protective mechanism mediating the effects of crocetin was evaluated by examining crocetin's effects on the expression of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG; used as a marker of oxidative stress) and on phosphorylations of mitogen-activated protein kinases [MAPK; viz. extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK) and p38], and the redox-sensitive transcription factors nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) and c-Jun. The histological analysis revealed that ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) decreased the cell number in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) and the thickness of inner nuclear layer (INL), and that crocetin inhibited GCL and INL. ERG measurements revealed that crocetin prevented the I/R-induced reductions in a- and b-wave amplitudes seen at 5 days after I/R. In addition, crocetin decreased the numbers of TUNEL-positive cells and 8-OHdG-positive cells, and the phosphorylation levels of p38, JNK, NF-?B, and c-Jun present in the retina after I/R. These findings indicate that crocetin prevented ischemia-induced retinal damage through its inhibition of oxidative stress. PMID:23428630

Ishizuka, Fumiya; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Umigai, Naofumi; Ogishima, Hiromi; Nakamura, Shinsuke; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Hara, Hideaki

2013-03-01

269

Angiographic results of retinal-retinal anastomosis and retinal-choroidal anastomosis after treatments in eyes with retinal angiomatous proliferation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Masaaki Saito,1 Tomohiro Iida,1,2 Mariko Kano,1 Kanako Itagaki11Department of Ophthalmology, Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine, Fukushima, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Women's Medical University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the angiographic results of retinal-retinal anastomosis (RRA and retinal-choroidal anastomosis (RCA for eyes with retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP after treatment with intravitreal bevacizumab injections as monotherapy or intravitreal bevacizumab combined with photodynamic therapy.Methods: In this interventional, consecutive case series, we retrospectively reviewed five naïve eyes from four patients (mean age 80 years treated with three consecutive monthly intravitreal bevacizumab (1.25 mg/0.05 mL injections as initial treatment, and followed up for at least 3 months. In cases with over 3 months of follow-up and having recurrence of RAP or leakage by fluorescein angiography, retreatment was performed with a single intravitreal bevacizumab injection and photodynamic therapy.Results: Indocyanine green angiography showed RRA in three eyes with subretinal neovascularization and RCA in two eyes with choroidal neovascularization at baseline. At 3 months after baseline (month 3, neither the RRA nor RCA was occluded in any eye on indocyanine green angiography. Retreatment with intravitreal bevacizumab plus photodynamic therapy was performed in three eyes at months 3 (persistent leakage on fluorescein angiography, 6, and 7 (recurrence of RAP lesion, which achieved obvious occlusion of the RRA and RCA. Mean best-corrected visual acuity improved from 0.13 to 0.21 at month 3 (P = 0.066. No complications or systemic adverse events were noted.Conclusion: Although intravitreal bevacizumab for RAP was effective in improving visual acuity during short-term follow-up, intravitreal bevacizumab could not achieve complete occlusion of RRA and RCA, which could lead to recurrence of a RAP lesion and exudation. Retreatment with intravitreal bevacizumab plus photodynamic therapy ultimately achieved complete occlusion of the RRA and RCA.Keywords: retinal angiomatous proliferation, retinal-retinal anastomosis, retinal-choroidal anastomosis, bevacizumab, photodynamic therapy, ranibizumab

Saito M

2012-08-01

270

Stem Cells Therapy for Retinal Degeneration  

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Full Text Available Stem cell therapy is widely considered as a therapeutic approach for retinal degeneration. Retinal injury results in permanent visual disturbance or blindness. Repair of such damage by stem cells is one of the most feasible types of central nervous system repair. In this review, we consider how stem cells might be optimized for use as donor cells. We discuss the benefits of stem cells for transplantation in retinal degenerative disease. A wide range of stem cells from different sources is being investigated for the treatment of retinal degeneration. This study reviews the recent and old achievements about stem cells for retinal repair.

M. Safari

2010-01-01

271

MRI study of cerebral, retinal and choroidal blood flow responses to acute hypertension.  

Science.gov (United States)

Blood flow (BF) in many tissues is stable during significant fluctuations in systemic arterial blood pressure or perfusion pressure under normal conditions. The regulatory mechanisms responsible for this non-passive BF behavior include both local and neural control mechanisms. This study evaluated cerebral BF (CBF), retinal BF (RBF) and choroidal BF (ChBF) responses to acute blood pressure increases in rats using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A transient increase in blood pressure inside the MRI scanner was achieved by mechanically inflating a balloon catheter to occlude the descending aorta near the diaphragm. We verified the rat model of mechanical occlusion and MRI approach by first measuring blood-flow regulatory responses to changing BP in the brain under normoxia and hypercapnia where the phenomenon is well documented. Retinal and choroidal blood-flow responses to transient increased arterial pressure were then investigated. In response to an acute increase in blood pressure, RBF exhibited autoregulatory behavior and ChBF exhibited baroregulation similar to that seen in the cerebral circulation. This approach may prove useful to investigate retinal and choroidal vascular dysregulation in rat models of retinal diseases with suspected vascular etiology. PMID:23623996

Li, Guang; Shih, Yen-Yu Ian; Kiel, Jeffrey W; De La Garza, Bryan H; Du, Fang; Duong, Timothy Q

2013-07-01

272

Retinal vessel diameters in relation to hematocrit variation during acclimatization of highlanders to sea level altitude  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

PURPOSE: To examine variations in retinal vessel diameters during acclimatization of native highlanders to normobaric normoxia at sea level. METHODS: Fifteen healthy residents of the greater La Paz region in Bolivia (3600 m above sea level) were examined thrice over a 72-day period, after having traveled by airplane to Copenhagen, Denmark, near sea level. RESULTS: In the study subjects, hematocrit decreased from 49.6% (day 2) to 45.9% (P = 0.0066, day 23) and 41.7% (P <0.0001, day 72); from days 2 to 23, retinal vein diameter increased by 2.68% (P = 0.0079); whereas retinal artery and vein diameters were indistinguishable from baseline after 72 days. No funduscopic signs of retinopathy were observed. Arterial blood pressure remained stable throughout the study. CONCLUSIONS: Although a 16% reduction in hematocrit occurred between days 2 and 72 after arrival at sea level, the only significant excursion observed was that the diameter of the veins was larger at day 23 than at days 2 and 72. Retinal vessel diameters demonstrated a wide homeostatic range during acclimatization-driven hematocrit variation.

Kofoed, Peter Kristian; Sander, Birgit

2009-01-01

273

Suppression and retinal correspondence in intermittent exotropia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Suppression scotomas and retinal projection (retinal correspondence) were measured in six intermittent exotropes during deviation. Measurements used red-green anaglyph stimuli presented on a black background which could be varied from 3.4 minutes of arc to 3 degrees 24'. Results showed non-suppression of all points between the fovea and the diplopia point. Harmonious anomalous retinal correspondence was usually observed. Two subjects had spontaneous changes from anomalous retinal correspondence to normal retinal correspondence without a concurrent change in ocular position. Conventional testing resulted in more variable results in regard to retinal correspondence and suppression, suggesting that non-suppression and anomalous retinal correspondence occur when black backgrounds are used for testing. PMID:3756124

Cooper, J; Record, C D

1986-01-01

274

Clinical application of uterine arterial embolization for treatment of placenta praevia with hemorrhage in advanced stage of pregnancy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To investigate the value of the uterine arterial embolization for the placenta praevia and hemorrhage in late stage of pregnancy. Methods: 16 patients of placenta praevia with hemorrhage in late stage of pregnancy were treated with uterine arterial embolization (UAE)and simultaneously with Lee Rivanol intra-amniotic membrane injection for artificial laboring. Results: During late stage of pregnancy, uterine arteries appeared to be elongated and enlarged with numerous dilated tortuous branches with positive proportion to gestalional age, and rich in blood supply of the placenta. 15 cases passed successfully through the induced abortion. The procedure completed with an average of 4.5 h afterwards, without postpartum hemorrhage. The other ease failed due to complicated reasons and cured by caesarean section. Conclusion: UAE is a safe and effective method for late stage placenta praevia with hemaorrhage and also provides the reservation of fertility and together with promotion of induced abortion. (authors)

275

Dorzolamide increases retinal oxygen tension after branch retinal vein occlusion  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

PURPOSE: To study the effect of dorzolamide on the preretinal oxygen tension (RPO(2)) in retinal areas affected by experimental branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) in pigs. METHODS: Experimental BRVO was induced by diathermy close to the optic disc. RPO(2) was measured with an oxygen-sensitive electrode 0.5 mm above the BRVO-affected area, which was compared to the retinal areas not affected by BRVO. In one group of five pigs, RPO(2) was measured at baseline, 1 and 3 hours after BRVO, and after intravenous injection of 500 mg dorzolamide. In a second group of five pigs, RPO(2) was measured 1 week after the BRVO, both before and after intravenous injection of 500 mg dorzolamide. RESULTS: The average baseline RPO(2) was 2.64 +/- 0.09 kPa (mean +/- SD). In the BRVO-affected areas, RPO(2) decreased significantly (by 0.67 +/- 0.29 and 0.94 +/- 0.13 kPa) at 1 hour and 3 hours after BRVO induction. In the non-BRVO areas RPO(2) increased significantly (by 0.51 +/- 0.14 kPa) 1 hour after BRVO induction, but subsequently decreased and reached baseline 3 hours after BRVO induction. One week after BRVO induction, RPO(2) was 0.67 +/- 0.29 kPa lower in affected areas when compared with the non-BRVO areas. In the BRVO-affected areas, dorzolamide increased RPO(2) significantly (by 0.36 +/- 0.21 kPa at 3 to 4 hours and by 0.67 +/- 0.40 kPa) 1 week after BRVO induction. CONCLUSIONS: Retinal hypoxia induced by experimental BRVO remained significant 1 week after BRVO. Dorzolamide increased retinal oxygen tension in the BRVO-affected areas both at 4 hours and 1 week after experimental BRVO in pigs Udgivelsesdato: 2008/3

Noergaard, Michael Hove; Bach-Holm, Daniella

2008-01-01

276

Erythropoietin administration protects retinal neurons from acute ischemia-reperfusion injury  

OpenAIRE

Erythropoietin (EPO) plays an important role in the brain's response to neuronal injury. Systemic administration of recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) protects neurons from injury after middle cerebral artery occlusion, traumatic brain injury, neuroinflammation, and excitotoxicity. Protection is in part mediated by antiapoptotic mechanisms. We conducted parallel studies of rhEPO in a model of transient global retinal ischemia induced by raising intraocular pressure, which is a clinically relevant ...

Junk, Anna K.; Mammis, Antonios; Savitz, Sean I.; Singh, Manjeet; Roth, Steven; Malhotra, Samit; Rosenbaum, Pearl S.; Cerami, Anthony; Brines, Michael; Rosenbaum, Daniel M.

2002-01-01

277

Pattern of retinal diseases in hilly terrain of Himachal Pradesh, India  

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Full Text Available AIM: To study the pattern/distribution of retinal vascular diseases in the hilly terrain of Himachal Pradesh(altitude ranging from 500-4500m above sea level.METHODS: It is a retro/prospective study of patients with retinal diseases attending the general ophthalmology clinic of a tertiary care facility at Shimla from August 2008 to April 2013. Out of 5600 subjects, 4323 were taken as a sample. The data were taken from the hospital records and thereafter analyzed to determine their age, sex distribution and diagnosis. All patients underwent visual acuity, refraction, slit lamp examination and fundus evaluation. The diagnosis was confirmed from fundus clinic records and evaluation of fundus photographic records retro/prospectively. The photographs were taken on the fundus camera(Kowa Fundus Camera VX-10and fundus fluorescein angiography done where ever indicated.RESULTS:Out of the 4323 patients, there were more males 2563(59.29%than females 1760(40.71%with retinal diseases. Out of the 525(12.14%diabetic retinopathy(DRsubjects, mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy was present in 133(3.08%, moderate non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy in 156(3.60%, severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy in 120(2.78%and proliferative diabetic retinopathy in 116(2.68%subjects. Amongst the 393(9.10%subjects of hypertensive retinopathy, hypertensive retinopathy-grade 1(was present in 130(3.01%, hypertensive retinopathy-grade 2 in 111(2.57%, hypertensive retinopathy-grade 3 in 131(3.03%and hypertensive retinopathy-grade 4 in 21(0.49%subjects. Of all the 660(15.27%subjects of other retinal vascular disorders, branch retinal vein occlusion(BRVOwas present in 229(5.30%, central retinal vein occlusion(CRVOin 55(1.27%, hemi central vein occlusion in 8(0.19%, central retinal artery occlusion(CRAOin 20(0.46%, branch retinal artery occlusion in 4(0.09%, ocular ischaemic syndrome in 1(0.02%, retinopathy of prematurity in 9(0.21%, retinal artery macroaneurysm in 5(0.12%, juxtafoveal telangiectasia in 6(0.14%, anaemic retinopathy in 16(0.37%, leukemic retinopathy in 10(0.23%, preretinal haemorrhage in 52(1.20%, Coats disease in 8(0.19%, cilioretinal artery occlusion in 1(0.02%, Eales disease in 10(0.23%, vasculitis in 17(0.39%and clinically significant macular edema in 209(4.83%subjects.CONCLUSION: DR was the most common retinal vascular disorder. Retinal disorders appear to be a major public health problem in India. The present study shall help us in planning the management of such disorders in the hilly state of Himachal Pradesh to reduce the visual morbidity arising out of such disorders.

Anubhav Chauhan

2014-12-01

278

If I Had - Retinitis Pigmentosa  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Levels Linked to Lower Cognitive Function, Common Chemicals Affect Fertility, Kidney Donors Lead Long and Healthy Lives ... pigmentosa? Dr. Chader: Retinitis pigmentosa is really a family ... it strikes very early in life, either at birth or soon thereafter, a parent ...

279

Automatic temperature controlled retinal photocoagulation  

Science.gov (United States)

Laser coagulation is a treatment method for many retinal diseases. Due to variations in fundus pigmentation and light scattering inside the eye globe, different lesion strengths are often achieved. The aim of this work is to realize an automatic feedback algorithm to generate desired lesion strengths by controlling the retinal temperature increase with the irradiation time. Optoacoustics afford non-invasive retinal temperature monitoring during laser treatment. A 75 ns/523 nm Q-switched Nd:YLF laser was used to excite the temperature-dependent pressure amplitudes, which were detected at the cornea by an ultrasonic transducer embedded in a contact lens. A 532 nm continuous wave Nd:YAG laser served for photocoagulation. The ED50 temperatures, for which the probability of ophthalmoscopically visible lesions after one hour in vivo in rabbits was 50%, varied from 63°C for 20 ms to 49°C for 400 ms. Arrhenius parameters were extracted as ?E=273 J mol-1 and A=3.1044 s-1. Control algorithms for mild and strong lesions were developed, which led to average lesion diameters of 162+/-34 ?m and 189+/-34 ?m, respectively. It could be demonstrated that the sizes of the automatically controlled lesions were widely independent of the treatment laser power and the retinal pigmentation.

Schlott, Kerstin; Koinzer, Stefan; Ptaszynski, Lars; Bever, Marco; Baade, Alex; Roider, Johann; Birngruber, Reginald; Brinkmann, Ralf

2012-06-01

280

[Surgical Managment of Retinal Detachment.  

Science.gov (United States)

The detachment of the neurosensory retina from the underlying retinal pigment epithelium can be related to breaks of the retina allowing vitreous fluid to gain access to the subretinal space, to exudative changes of the choroid such as tumours or inflammatory diseases or to excessive tractional forces exerted by interactions of the collagenous vitreous and the retina. Tractional retinal detachment is usually treated by vitrectomy and exudative detachment can be addressed by treatment of the underlying condition in many cases. In rhegmatogenous retinal detachment two different surgical procedures, vitrectomy and scleral buckling, can be applied for functional and anatomic rehabilitation of our patients. The choice of the surgical procedure is not really standardised and often depends on the experience of the surgeon and other more ocular factors including lens status, the number of retinal breaks, the extent of the detachment and the amount of preexisting PVR. Using both techniques, anatomic success rates of over 90?% can be achieved. Especially in young phakic patients scleral buckling offers the true advantage to prevent the progression of cataract formation requiring cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation. Therefore, scleral buckling should be considered in selected cases as an alternative surgical option in spite of the very important technical refinements in modern vitrectomy techniques. PMID:25393439

Haritoglou, C; Wolf, A

2014-11-13

281

If I Had - Retinitis Pigmentosa  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... In Depth In the Spotlight If I Had... Universities and Hospitals By Disease or Symptom View QuickTime ... Had - Retinitis Pigmentosa - Dr. Gerry Chader, MD, PhD, University of Southern California Medical School Back to Home ...

282

Retinal projections in gymnotid fishes  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Retinal projections were studied in four species of gymnotid fishes, Gymnotus carapo, Hypopomus artedi, Eigenmannia virescens and Sternopygus sp. with the aid of cobalt or horseradish peroxidase labelling and autoradiographic techniques. The optic tract gives off a small branch, the axial optic tract and then, after crossing in the midline, splits into a dorsomedial, dorsal and ventral fascicle. E. virescens and Sternopygys sp. display in addition an accessory optic tract. In all four species retinal projections are bilateral; ipsilateral projections, however, are extremely sparse. In all four species, the retinal fibres terminate bilaterally in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, dorsolateral optic nucleus of the thalamus and the optic nucleus of the posterior commissure; a bilateral retinotectal projection was only found in E. virescens and G. carapo. Retinal projections are only contralateral to the ventromedical nucleus of the thalamus, the central pretectal nucleus and the accessory optic nucleus. The contralateral retinotectal fibres terminate in the stratum fibrosum and griseum superficiale, and in the stratum album centrale and stratum periventriculare. A small accessory optic tract and nucleus were detected in E. virescens and Sternopygys sp. but not in G. carapo and H. artedi. The results indicate that the visual system of gymnotid fish is as simple as that of mormyrids. The poor visibility in the environment where these animals live and the additional sensory systimals live and the additional sensory system which these animals possess may explain the poor development of the visual system. (author)

283

Prostatic Artery Embolization for Enlarged Prostates Due to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. How I Do It  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Prostatic artery embolization (PAE) has emerged as an alternative to surgical treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Patient selection and refined technique are essential for good results. Urodynamic evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging are very important and technical limitations are related to elderly patients with tortuous and atherosclerotic vessels, anatomical variations, difficulty visualizing and catheterizing small diameter arteries feeding the prostate, and the potential risk of bladder and rectum ischemia. The use of small-diameter hydrophilic microcatheters is mandatory. Patients can be treated safely by PAE with low rates of side effects, reducing prostate volume with clinical symptoms and quality of life improvement without urinary incontinence, ejaculatory disorders, or erectile dysfunction. A multidisciplinary approach with urologists and interventional radiologists is essential to achieve better results

284

Prostatic Artery Embolization for Enlarged Prostates Due to Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. How I Do It  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Prostatic artery embolization (PAE) has emerged as an alternative to surgical treatments for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Patient selection and refined technique are essential for good results. Urodynamic evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging are very important and technical limitations are related to elderly patients with tortuous and atherosclerotic vessels, anatomical variations, difficulty visualizing and catheterizing small diameter arteries feeding the prostate, and the potential risk of bladder and rectum ischemia. The use of small-diameter hydrophilic microcatheters is mandatory. Patients can be treated safely by PAE with low rates of side effects, reducing prostate volume with clinical symptoms and quality of life improvement without urinary incontinence, ejaculatory disorders, or erectile dysfunction. A multidisciplinary approach with urologists and interventional radiologists is essential to achieve better results.

Carnevale, Francisco C., E-mail: fcarnevale@uol.com.br [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Interventional Radiology Unit (Brazil); Antunes, Alberto A., E-mail: antunesuro@uol.com.br [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Division of Urology (Brazil)

2013-12-15

285

Bilateral retinal cyst accompanying with renal and thyroidal multiorgan cyst  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Although retinal cysts are commonly seen in von Hippel Lindau syndrome, bilateral retinal cysts can occasionally appear unrelated to this syndrome. Retinal cysts can be confused with retinal tumours and infectious diseases of retina. In this report we represent a patient demonstrating bilateral retinal cyst accompanying with renal and thyroidal multiorgan cysts without Von-Hippel Lindau syndrome.

Amber ?enel

2011-01-01

286

Manifestaciones oftalmológicas de la hipertensión arterial Ophthalmological manifestations of arterial hypertension  

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Full Text Available La hipertensión arterial sistémica (HTA es una de las enfermedades más frecuentes en los países industrializados, llegando su incidencia hasta un 30%, cifra que va en aumento por la mayor esperanza de vida de la población. Esta elevación de la presión arterial ocasiona o acelera los cambios en la pared vascular de los órganos diana como el riñón, cerebro, corazón y ojo. A nivel ocular, la HTA produce lesiones en la retina, la coroides y cabeza del nervio óptico, pudiendo abarcar un amplio rango de lesiones, desde un estrechamiento vascular leve hasta una pérdida visual severa por neuropatía óptica isquémica. La respuesta primaria de las arterias retinianas a la hipertensión arterial sistémica es un estrechamiento vascular y los signos que aparecen en el fondo de ojo en la retinopatía hipertensiva son la vasoconstricción difusa o focal, la extravasación por permeabilidad vascular aumentada y la arteriolosclerosis con engrosamiento de la pared de los vasos. Estas tres entidades son las responsables de la aparición de diferentes lesiones que van a caracterizar los estadíos de la enfermedad retiniana como son: los cruces arteriovenosos, exudados duros y algodonosos, trombosis, embolias, hemorragias en el parénquima retiniano, desprendimiento seroso de retina, edema de papila y neuropatía óptica isquémica en los casos más severos como el caso de la hipertensión arterial maligna.Systemic Arterial hypertension (AHT is one of the most frequent diseases in the industrialised countries, with an incidence reaching 30%, a figure that is rising due to the greater life expectancy of the population. This rise in arterial tension causes, or accelerates, changes in the vascular wall of the target organs such as the kidney, brain, heart and eye. At the ocular level, AHT produces lesions in the retina, the choroids and optic nerve head; this can include a wide range of lesions, from slight vascular narrowing to severe visual loss due to ischaemic optical neuropathy. The primary response of the retinal arteries to systemic arterial hypertension is vascular narrowing and the manifestations that appear at the back of the eye in hypertensive retinopathy are diffuse or focal vasoconstriction, extravasation due to increased vascular permeability and arteriosclerosis with swelling of the wall of the vessels. These three entities are responsible for the appearance of different lesions that characterise the stages of the retinal disease, which are: arteriovenous crossings, hard and cotton-like exudates, thrombosis, embolisms, haemorrhages in the retinal parenchyma, vitreous detachment from the retina, papilla edema and ischaemic optical neuropathy in the more severe cases, such as in case malign arterial hypertension.

N. A. Rodríguez

2008-01-01

287

Manifestaciones oftalmológicas de la hipertensión arterial / Ophthalmological manifestations of arterial hypertension  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La hipertensión arterial sistémica (HTA) es una de las enfermedades más frecuentes en los países industrializados, llegando su incidencia hasta un 30%, cifra que va en aumento por la mayor esperanza de vida de la población. Esta elevación de la presión arterial ocasiona o acelera los cambios en la p [...] ared vascular de los órganos diana como el riñón, cerebro, corazón y ojo. A nivel ocular, la HTA produce lesiones en la retina, la coroides y cabeza del nervio óptico, pudiendo abarcar un amplio rango de lesiones, desde un estrechamiento vascular leve hasta una pérdida visual severa por neuropatía óptica isquémica. La respuesta primaria de las arterias retinianas a la hipertensión arterial sistémica es un estrechamiento vascular y los signos que aparecen en el fondo de ojo en la retinopatía hipertensiva son la vasoconstricción difusa o focal, la extravasación por permeabilidad vascular aumentada y la arteriolosclerosis con engrosamiento de la pared de los vasos. Estas tres entidades son las responsables de la aparición de diferentes lesiones que van a caracterizar los estadíos de la enfermedad retiniana como son: los cruces arteriovenosos, exudados duros y algodonosos, trombosis, embolias, hemorragias en el parénquima retiniano, desprendimiento seroso de retina, edema de papila y neuropatía óptica isquémica en los casos más severos como el caso de la hipertensión arterial maligna. Abstract in english Systemic Arterial hypertension (AHT) is one of the most frequent diseases in the industrialised countries, with an incidence reaching 30%, a figure that is rising due to the greater life expectancy of the population. This rise in arterial tension causes, or accelerates, changes in the vascular wall [...] of the target organs such as the kidney, brain, heart and eye. At the ocular level, AHT produces lesions in the retina, the choroids and optic nerve head; this can include a wide range of lesions, from slight vascular narrowing to severe visual loss due to ischaemic optical neuropathy. The primary response of the retinal arteries to systemic arterial hypertension is vascular narrowing and the manifestations that appear at the back of the eye in hypertensive retinopathy are diffuse or focal vasoconstriction, extravasation due to increased vascular permeability and arteriosclerosis with swelling of the wall of the vessels. These three entities are responsible for the appearance of different lesions that characterise the stages of the retinal disease, which are: arteriovenous crossings, hard and cotton-like exudates, thrombosis, embolisms, haemorrhages in the retinal parenchyma, vitreous detachment from the retina, papilla edema and ischaemic optical neuropathy in the more severe cases, such as in case malign arterial hypertension.

N. A., Rodríguez; A., Zurutuza.

288

Embolization of internal carotid artery for carotid-cavernous fistula with laminaria  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The advanced method for treatment of carotid-cavernous fistula, is selective occlusion of fistula by detachable balloon catheter, with maintaining blood flow in ipsilateral internal carotid artery. But some disadvantages are in this method, such as high cost for balloon catheter, and difficulty in the technique. Laminaria, root of sea plant, has a character, which is expanded in humidity, about 3-4 times than in dry condition. Lim et al suggested that laminaria made thrombus in a artery without adversed reaction in animal study. Laminaria, as embolus, has some advantages, which are low cost, easy modelling, and it's specific character. So authors made it small club shape for occlusion of internal carotid artery at fistula level, just likely trapping method in surgery. Tail portion of the club was inserted into the tip of guiding catheter (7F multipurpose, Cordis), and advanced to cavernous portion of internal carotid artery via catheter introducing sheath from femoral artery or from common carotid artery. And then at the portion of fistula, embolus was detached with guide wire. For 10 months, we have tried the embolization at 4 cases of traumatic CCF. 3 cases were succeeded, and one was failed and in death. He had very tortuous vessels, so that laminaria could not be reached at the fistula level, only petrous portion. And now we suggested a new method and a embolic material for treatment of carotid-cavernous fistula, which has low cost and simple technique low cost and simple technique

289

Hemobilia associated with a giant thrombosed aneurysm of the hepatic artery requiring hepatectomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hemobilia is an unusual and potentially catastrophic cause of gastrointestinal bleeding. Although hepatic artery aneurysm is a cause of hemobilia, nontraumatic cases are infrequently reported. Herein, we describe the case of a giant hepatic artery aneurysm requiring hepatectomy because of repeated hemobilia in a patient with Marfan syndrome. A 53-year-old man presented to our hospital with sudden epigastric pain and jaundice. Abdominal computed tomography showed a giant hepatic arterial aneurysm in the porta hepatis, and emergency endoscopic retrograde cholangiography revealed hemobilia. Assuming that the aneurysm caused the hemobilia, we performed an abdominal angiogram for treatment. The study revealed a thrombosed aneurysm along with tortuous abnormal vessels in the periphery of the left hepatic artery, which appeared to surround the aneurysm. Therefore, we embolized the left hepatic artery, and immediate hemostasis was achieved. Rebleeding occurred 3 times thereafter, and each time, transarterial embolization was performed, resulting in prompt but only temporary hemostasis. Then, emergency left hemihepatectomy and resection of the aneurysm were performed. Pathologic examination of the resected specimen revealed that the aneurysm was completely thrombosed and organized; however, abnormal arterioles proliferated between the aneurysmal wall and the bile duct. The unique feature of this case was that the abnormal arterioles induced by the organized hepatic artery aneurysm, not the aneurysm itself, caused the hemobilia. PMID:25017773

Komatsu, Shohei; Iwasaki, Takeshi; Nishioka, Naritomo; Toyokawa, Akihiro; Teramura, Kazuhiro

2014-11-01

290

Embolization of internal carotid artery for carotid-cavernous fistula with laminaria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The advanced method for treatment of carotid-cavernous fistula, is selective occlusion of fistula by detachable balloon catheter, with maintaining blood flow in ipsilateral internal carotid artery. But some disadvantages are in this method, such as high cost for balloon catheter, and difficulty in the technique. Laminaria, root of sea plant, has a character, which is expanded in humidity, about 3-4 times than in dry condition. Lim et al suggested that laminaria made thrombus in a artery without adversed reaction in animal study. Laminaria, as embolus, has some advantages, which are low cost, easy modelling, and it's specific character. So authors made it small club shape for occlusion of internal carotid artery at fistula level, just likely trapping method in surgery. Tail portion of the club was inserted into the tip of guiding catheter (7F multipurpose, Cordis), and advanced to cavernous portion of internal carotid artery via catheter introducing sheath from femoral artery or from common carotid artery. And then at the portion of fistula, embolus was detached with guide wire. For 10 months, we have tried the embolization at 4 cases of traumatic CCF. 3 cases were succeeded, and one was failed and in death. He had very tortuous vessels, so that laminaria could not be reached at the fistula level, only petrous portion. And now we suggested a new method and a embolic material for treatment of carotid-cavernous fistula, which has low cost and simple technique.

Cha, S. J.; Jeon, H. J.; Kim, J. H.; Cha, I. H.; Suh, W. H.; Chu, J. H.; Lee, K. C.; Lim, C. S. [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1985-12-15

291

The effect of intravitreal bevacizumab on ocular blood flow in diabetic retinopathy and branch retinal vein occlusion as measured by laser speckle flowgraphy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fumihiko Nitta,1 Hiroshi Kunikata,1,2 Naoko Aizawa,1 Kazuko Omodaka,1 Yukihiro Shiga,1 Masayuki Yasuda,1 Toru Nakazawa1–31Department of Ophthalmology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; 2Department of Retinal Disease Control, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, Japan; 3Department of Advanced Ophthalmic Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai, JapanBackground: This study evaluated the effect of intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (IVB on macular edema associated with diabetic retinopathy (DME or branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVOME using laser speckle flowgraphy.Methods: A comparative interventional study of 25 eyes from 22 patients with macular edema (DME group: 12 eyes; BRVOME group: 13 eyes who underwent IVB. Mean blur rate (MBR was measured in the retinal artery, retinal vein, optic nerve head (ONH, and choroid before and after IVB. Results: In the BRVOME group, there was no significant change in MBR in the retinal artery, retinal vein or ONH, but choroidal MBR decreased significantly (P=0.04. In the DME group, the MBR in the retinal artery, retinal vein, ONH, and choroid decreased significantly (P=0.02, P=0.04, P<0.001, and P=0.04, respectively. In the DME group, pre-IVB MBR in the ONH was significantly correlated with post-IVB foveal thickness (R= -0.71, P=0.002. There was no such correlation in the BRVOME group in the ONH.Conclusion: IVB had a suppressive effect on circulation in eyes with DME but not in those with BRVOME. This suggests that this noninvasive and objective biomarker may be a useful part of pre-IVB evaluations and decision-making in DME.Keywords: macular edema, mean blur rate, optic nerve head, biomarker, ocular circulation

Nitta F

2014-06-01

292

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft  

Science.gov (United States)

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Introduction Sometimes people have serious problems with their heart and the arteries that go into it. Coronary artery bypass graft surgery, or CABG, bypasses clogged arteries in the ...

293

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Introduction Sometimes people have serious problems with their heart and the arteries that go into it. Coronary artery bypass graft surgery, or CABG, bypasses clogged arteries in the ...

294

Gender-Dependent Effects of Enriched Environment and Social Isolation in Ischemic Retinal Lesion in Adult Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Exposure to an enriched environment has been shown to have many positive effects on brain structure and function. Numerous studies have proven that enriched environment can reduce the lesion induced by toxic and traumatic injuries. Impoverished environment, on the other hand, can have deleterious effects on the outcome of neuronal injuries. We have previously shown that enriched conditions have protective effects in retinal injury in newborn rats. It is well-known that the efficacy of neuroprotective strategies can depend on age and gender. The aim of the present study, therefore, was to examine the effects of environmental enrichment and social isolation in retinal ischemia. We used bilateral common carotid artery occlusion to induce retinal hypoperfusion in adult Wistar rats of both genders. Groups were housed in standard, enriched or impoverished conditions. Impoverished environment was induced by social isolation. Retinas were processed for histological analysis after two weeks of survival. In the present study, we show that (1 enriched environment has protective effects in adult ischemic retinal lesion, while (2 impoverished environment further increases the degree of ischemic injury, and (3 that these environmental effects are gender-dependent: females are less responsive to the positive effects of environmental enrichment and more vulnerable to retinal ischemia in social isolation. In summary, our present study shows that the effects of both positive and negative environmental stimuli are gender-dependent in ischemic retinal lesions.

Dora Reglodi

2013-08-01

295

Cytomegalovirus Retinitis After Intravitreous Triamcinolone Injection in a Patient with Central Retinal Vein Occlusion  

OpenAIRE

To report a case of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis after intravitreal injection of triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA). A 77-year-old woman with macular edema due to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) developed peripheral retinitis 4 months after IVTA. A diagnostic anterior chamber paracentesis was performed to obtain DNA for a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test for viral retinitis. The PCR test was positive for CMV DNA. Other tests for infective uveitis and immune competence were negative. ...

Park, Yong-sik; Byeon, Suk Ho

2008-01-01

296

The genomic response of the retinal pigment epithelium to light damage and retinal detachment  

OpenAIRE

The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) plays an essential role in maintaining the health of the retina. The RPE is also the site of pathologic processes in a wide variety of retinal disorders including monogenic retinal dystrophies, age-related macular degeneration, and retinal detachment. Despite intense interest in the RPE, little is known about its molecular response to ocular damage or disease. We have conducted a comprehensive analysis of changes in transcript abundance (the “genomic res...

Rattner, Amir; Toulabi, Leila; Williams, John; Yu, Huimin; Nathans, Jeremy

2008-01-01

297

Retinal Ganglion Cells are Resistant to Photoreceptor Loss in Retinal Degeneration  

OpenAIRE

The rapid and massive degeneration of photoreceptors in retinal degeneration might have a dramatic negative effect on retinal circuits downstream of photoreceptors. However, the impact of photoreceptor loss on the morphology and function of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is not fully understood, precluding the rational design of therapeutic interventions that can reverse the progressive loss of retinal function. The present study investigated the morphological changes in several identified RGC...

Lin, Bin; Peng, Edward Bo

2013-01-01

298

Role of retinal metabolism in methanol-induced retinal toxicity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Methanol is a toxicant that causes systemic and ocular toxicity after acute exposure. The folate-reduced (FR) rat is an excellent animal model that mimics characteristic human methanol toxic responses. The present study examines the role of the methanol metabolites formaldehyde and formate in the initiation of methanol-induced retinal toxicity. After a single oral dose of 3.0 g/kg methanol, blood methanol concentrations were not significantly different in FR rats compared with folate-sufficient (FS) (control) rats. However, FR rats treated with 3.0 g/kg methanol displayed elevated blood (14.6 mM) and vitreous humor (19.5 mM) formate levels and abnormal electroretinograms (loss of b-wave) 48 h postdose. FR rats pretreated with disulfiram (DSF) prior to 3.0 g/kg methanol treatment failed to display these symptoms. Formaldehyde was not detected in blood or vitreous humor with or without DSF treatment, suggesting that formate is the toxic metabolite in methanol-induced retinal toxicity. Additionally, creating a blood formate profile (14.2 mM at 48 h) similar to that observed in methanol-treated rats by iv infusion of pH-buffered formate does not alter the electroretinogram as is observed with methanol treatment. These data suggest that intraretinal metabolism of methanol is necessary for the formate-mediated initiation of methanol-induced retinal toxicity. 31 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Garner, C.D. [General Motors Corp., Warren, MI (United States)]|[Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); Lee, E.W.; Terzo, T.S. [General Motors Corp., Warren, MI (United States); Louis-Ferdinand, R.T. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States)

1995-08-01

299

Differential diameter responses in macular and peripheral retinal arterioles may contribute to the regional distribution of diabetic retinopathy lesions  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

BACKGROUND: Diabetic retinopathy is assumed to be due to impaired retinal autoregulation, involving both pressure autoregulation and metabolic autoregulation. The disease displays regional differences, with signs of hyperperfusion in the macular area and capillary occlusion with retinal ischemia in the peripheral retinal areas. It can be hypothesized that these regional differences in the occurrence of retinopathy lesions may reflect differences in the capacity of retinal arterioles to autoregulate the diameter of retinal arterioles. METHODS: Seventeen normal persons and two matched groups of patients with respectively diabetic maculopathy and proliferative diabetic retinopathy were examined. The diameter change of a macular and a peripheral retinal arteriole during an increase in the arterial blood pressure induced by isometric exercise, during an increase in retinal metabolism induced by flicker stimulation, and during both stimulus paradigms simultaneously were studied using the dynamic vessel analyzer (DVA). RESULTS: During isometric exercise, the diameter response was reduced in both macular and peripheral retinal arterioles in the two groups of patients with diabetes mellitus. During flicker stimulation, the diameter response was significantly reduced in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy, but there was no significant difference between the responses of macular and peripheral arterioles. During simultaneous isometric exercise and flicker stimulation, there was no difference between the diameter response of macular arterioles in the three groups, whereas the diameter response of macular arterioles was significantly lower in normal persons and significantly higher in persons with proliferative diabetic retinopathy as compared to peripheral arterioles. CONCLUSIONS: Regional differences in the disturbances of the diameter response to increased blood pressure may contribute to the regional differences in the distribution of diabetic retinopathy lesions. In the central retinal areas, the diameter response to increased blood pressure and retinal metabolism interacted in a way that may potentially protect this area from ischaemia, whereas this protective mechanism was absent in the peripheral retinal arterioles. An elucidation of the mechanisms underlying diameter regulation to increased blood pressure and retinal metabolism, and the interaction between these two mechanisms, may help in understanding the pathophysiology of diabetic retinopathy.

Skov Jensen, Peter; Jeppesen, Peter

2011-01-01

300

Fluorosilicone oil in the treatment of retinal detachment.  

OpenAIRE

We evaluated the use of a heavier-than-water fluorinated silicone oil in the treatment of 30 selected cases of complicated retinal detachment from January 1988 to July 1989. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy grade C-2 or greater accounted for 19 cases, proliferative diabetic retinopathy with traction detachment for two cases, giant retinal tears five, ruptured globe with retinal detachment two, massive choroidal effusion with retinal detachment one, and acute retinal necrosis with retinal detac...

Gremillion, C. M.; Peyman, G. A.; Liu, K. R.; Naguib, K. S.

1990-01-01

301

Stem cell-based therapeutic applications in retinal degenerative diseases  

OpenAIRE

Retinal degenerative diseases that target photoreceptors or the adjacent retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) affect millions of people worldwide. Retinal degeneration (RD) is found in many different forms of retinal diseases including retinitis pigmentosa (RP), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy, cataracts, and glaucoma. Effective treatment for retinal degeneration has been widely investigated. Gene-replacement therapy has been shown to improve visual function in inheri...

Huang, Yiming; Enzmann, Volker; Ildstad, Suzanne T.

2011-01-01

302

Retinal detachment following cataract surgery with capsulorhexis.  

OpenAIRE

PURPOSE: To estimate the incidence of retinal detachment after cataract surgery with capsulorhexis. METHODS: A consecutive series of 2,150 cataract operations were followed for incidence of retinal detachment. A series of 1,000 patients from this group were analyzed for high risk factors: myopia, age, sex, operative complications and capsulotomy. RESULTS: With minimum one year follow up in 90% of patients the incidence of retinal detachment was 0.25% (5 cases). CONCLUSION: The true incidence ...

Kelley, J. S.; Doxanas, M. T.

1995-01-01

303

Antigenicity and immunogenicity of allogeneic retinal transplants  

OpenAIRE

The transplantation of neuronal cells and tissues represents a promising approach for the treatment of incurable neurodegenerative diseases. Indeed, it has been reported recently that retinal transplantation can rescue photoreceptor cells and delay age-related changes in various retinal layers in rodents. However, retinal grafts deteriorate progressively after placement in recipients’ eyes. Here we investigated whether a host’s immune response elicited toward the graft contributes to its ...

Anosova, Natalie G.; Illigens, Ben; Boisge?rault, Florence; Fedoseyeva, Eugenia V.; Young, Michael J.; Benichou, Gilles

2001-01-01

304

Stem Cells Therapy for Retinal Degeneration  

OpenAIRE

Stem cell therapy is widely considered as a therapeutic approach for retinal degeneration. Retinal injury results in permanent visual disturbance or blindness. Repair of such damage by stem cells is one of the most feasible types of central nervous system repair. In this review, we consider how stem cells might be optimized for use as donor cells. We discuss the benefits of stem cells for transplantation in retinal degenerative disease. A wide range of stem cells from different sources is bei...

Safari, M.

2010-01-01

305

Diabetic ketoacidosis with retinal tear.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 59-year-old women with no previous history of diabetes mellitus was admitted in diabetic ketoacidosis. Ultrasonic biometry was used to measure axial vitreous length during therapy. Vitreous length increased from 14.09 mm shortly after admission to 14.26 mm (p less than 0.05) when the episode of diabetic ketoacidosis cleared. An interesting finding was the presence of a horseshoe-shaped retinal tear after the patient was discharged. Severe dehydration with resultant shrinkage of the vitreous compartment may provide sufficient vitreoretinal traction to cause a retinal tear. In addition, an estimate of volume change showed a comparable decrease in vitreous volume seen with therapy using osmotic agents measured in rabbits. PMID:415655

Chang, S; Abramson, D H; Coleman, D J

1977-12-01

306

Surgery of aphakic retinal detachment.  

OpenAIRE

In a prospective study 84 patients with aphakic retinal detachment were treated either by local scleral buckling alone or combined with an encirclement. The rate of surgical reattachment of the retina was found to be similar with either technique over a minimum follow-up period of one year. Simplicity and a low incidence of serious complications of the local procedure merit its application as the initial method of repairing aphakic detachments.

Singh, M.

1988-01-01

307

Role of Bedside Ultrasound in CMV Retinitis: A Case Report  

OpenAIRE

We present a case of retinal detachment diagnosed by emergency department bedside ultrasonography in a patient with CMV retinitis. The indications and findings of ocular ultrasonography are discussed.

Lauren Westafer; Connor Nickels, L.; Eike Flach; Giuliano De Portu; Latha Ganti Stead

2012-01-01

308

Automated localization of retinal features.  

Science.gov (United States)

Retinal fundus images are widely used in the diagnosis and treatment of various eye diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma. A computer-aided retinal fundus image analysis could provide an immediate detection and characterization of retinal features prior to specialist inspection. This paper proposes an approach to automatically localize the main features in fundus images, such as blood vessels, optic disc, and fovea by exploiting the spatial and geometric relations that govern their distribution within the fundus image. The blood vessels are segmented by scale-space analysis. The average thickness of these blood vessels is then computed using the vessels centerlines and orientations from a Hessian matrix. The optic disc is localized using the circular Hough transform, the parabolic Hough transform fitting, and the localization of the fovea. The proposed method can be extended to establish a foveal coordinate system to facilitate grading lesions based on the spatial relationships between lesions and landmark features. The proposed method was evaluated on publicly available image databases, and the results have demonstrated a significant improvement over the current state-of-the-art methods. PMID:21743504

Sekhar, Sribalamurugan; Abd El-Samie, Fathi E; Yu, Pan; Al-Nuaimy, Waleed; Nandi, Asoke K

2011-07-01

309

Arterial embolism  

Science.gov (United States)

... arm or leg. There may be signs of tissue death or gangrene. Tests to diagnose arterial embolism or reveal the source of emboli may include: Angiography of the affected extremity or organ Doppler ultrasound exam of an extremity Duplex Doppler ultrasound ...

310

Retinal arterioles have impaired reactivity to hyperoxia in type 1 diabetes  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

PURPOSE: Diabetes has adverse effects on the retinal microvasculature. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of inhalation of hypoxic, hyperoxic and normoxic-hypercapnic gas mixtures on retinal vessel diameter in people with and without diabetes. METHODS: Sixty-one participants (aged 24-50 years) 29 with (male : female ratio 2.6 : 1) and 32 without (male : female ratio 0.7 : 1) diabetes, inhaled hypoxic, hyperoxic and normoxic-hypercapnic gas mixtures for 3-5 mins. The diameters of arterioles and venules were measured using digital retinal images taken before and after gas inhalation. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the diameters of arterioles and venules prior to gas inhalation in people with and without diabetes. Inhalation of the hyperoxic gas mixture caused a statistically significant decrease in arteriolar and venular diameters without altering mean arterial pressure significantly. Arteriolar vasoconstriction in response to the hyperoxic gas mixture was significantly reduced in people with diabetes (3.95% versus 7.75%; p = 0.04), but venular vasoconstriction did not differ significantly. A hypoxic gas mixture caused increased arteriolar and venular diameter and a normoxic-hypercapnic gas mixture had no significant effect on vessel diameter. Responses to hypoxic and normoxic-hypercapnic gas did not differ significantly between diabetes and non-diabetes subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Type 1 diabetes impairs retinal arteriolar responses to hyperoxia. Abnormalities in retinal arteriolar reactivity in response to oxygen may play a role in the development of diabetic retinopathy and this technique may represent a simple means of identifying early abnormalities in the reactivity of retinal arterioles in diabetes.

Justesen, Birgitte L; Mistry, Paresh

2010-01-01

311

Accordion effect during carotid artery stenting. Report of two cases and review of the literature  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The term ''accordion effect'' is used to describe a mechanical distortion of tortuous arteries mimicking spasm or dissection. This phenomenon has been reported in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of the accordion effect during carotid artery intervention. Two patients who developed the accordion effect during carotid artery stenting (CAS) are described. Angiograms obtained just after CAS showed a stenosing lesion with wall irregularity at the distal part of the stent. This lesion disappeared and tortuosity of the internal carotid artery developed after withdrawing the guidewire until its floppy segment rested equally on the lesion. In another patient, the lesion did not disappear completely until the guiding catheter had been withdrawn to the proximal portion of the common carotid artery. We conclude that these stenosing lesions reflected the accordion effect. It is essential to differentiate the accordion effect from dissection, spasm, and thrombosis because the management is importantly different. We report our findings and present a review of the literature. (orig.)

312

Endovascular Therapy of Bronchial Artery Aneurysm: Five Cases With Six Aneurysms  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with N-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA)–Lipiodol mixture in patients with bronchial artery aneurysm (BAA). From January 2005 to January 2010, five patients presenting hemoptysis with six BAAs were treated with NBCA–Lipiodol mixture, including intra-aneurysm embolization (IAE) in one patient. Adjuvant embolization with spherical polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) embolic microparticles or NBCA was first performed to embolize the distal engorged bronchiectatic arteries. Bronchial arterial angiography showed six BAAs (four in the right lobe and two in the left lobe) and some engorged, tortuous bronchial arteries. TAE through microcatheter was successful in all cases. Postembolization angiogram demonstrated the NBCA cast and total occlusion of BAAs and bronchiectatic engorged vessels. After these procedures, hemoptysis completely disappeared in all patients. Follow-up computed tomography (CT) scan was performed at an average of 3 months (range 2 to 6), which showed no enhancement of BAAs and accumulation of NBCA. TAE is a minimally invasive, effective, and reliable approach for treatment for patients with BAA. NBCA–Lipiodol mixture provides a good choice for treatment of BAA, especially when catheterization of the efferent branches is impossible.

313

Cone pathway function in relation to asymmetric carotid artery stenosis : correlation to blood pressure  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Purpose:  To examine retinal function in relation to retinal perfusion pressure in patients with carotid artery stenosis. Methods:  Thirteen patients with carotid artery stenosis without clinical eye disease underwent assessment of ophthalmic artery systolic blood pressure (OSP) by ocular pneumoplethysmography, carotid artery obstructive disease by ultrasonography, intraocular pressure by applanation tonometry, retinal perfusion by fluorescein angiography and retinal function by multifocal electroretinography (mfERG). Data analysis compared the eye on the most stenotic side with the fellow eye in the same patient. Results:  Ophthalmic systolic pressure was 95.8?±?13.1?mmHg on the side with the highest degree of carotid artery stenosis (mean 94.0%) and 111.7?±?10.3?mmHg in the fellow eyes on the side with the lesser degree of stenosis (mean 33.9%). Summed mfERG implicit times (N1 and P1) were 3.4% and 2.0% longer (p?=?0.013 and 0.021), and N1 and P1 amplitudes were 18.0% and 16.0% (p?=?0.0041 and 0.020) lower in eyes on the side with the higher stenosis compared with the contralateral eyes. Shorter implicit times and higher amplitudes were correlated with higher brachial systolic arterial blood pressure (p?=?0.0028, 0.011, 0.041 for N1, P1, N2 implicit times, respectively, and p?=?0.0086, 0.016, 0.040 for N1, P1, N2 for amplitudes, respectively, corrected for OSP). Conclusion:  Cone function deviation was observed in clinically healthy eyes on the side with highest degree of carotid artery stenosis and was found correlated to arterial blood pressure.

Kofoed, Peter Kristian; Munch, Inger Christine

2013-01-01

314

Retinal vein occlusion: pathophysiology and treatment options  

OpenAIRE

Niral KariaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Southend Hospital, Prittlewell Chase, Westcliff on Sea, Essex, United KingdomAbstract: This paper reviews the current thinking about retinal vein occlusion. It gives an overview of its pathophysiology and discusses the evidence behind the various established and emerging treatment paradigms.Keywords: central, hemispheric, branch, retinal vein occlusion, visual loss

Niral Karia

2010-01-01

315

Retinal vein occlusion: pathophysiology and treatment options  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Niral KariaDepartment of Ophthalmology, Southend Hospital, Prittlewell Chase, Westcliff on Sea, Essex, United KingdomAbstract: This paper reviews the current thinking about retinal vein occlusion. It gives an overview of its pathophysiology and discusses the evidence behind the various established and emerging treatment paradigms.Keywords: central, hemispheric, branch, retinal vein occlusion, visual loss

Niral Karia

2010-07-01

316

Retinal deimination in aging and disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Deimination is a posttranslational modification and refers to the conversion of protein bound arginine into citrulline. In the retina, deimination is predominantly catalyzed by Peptidylarginine deiminase type 2 (PAD2). PAD2 expression and deimination are found in many different retinal layers: choroid, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), photoreceptors, inner plexiform layer, inner nuclear layer, and retinal ganglion cell (RGC) layer. Although decreased retinal deimination and PAD2 expression have been found during normal aging, elevated PAD2 expression and deimination have been observed in age-related neurodegenerative diseases. The role of deimination in normal physiology and in late-onset and progressive ocular or retinal degenerative diseases, such as glaucoma and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis remains to be elucidated. PMID:19391158

Bhattacharya, Sanjoy K

2009-05-01

317

Sildenafil alters retinal function in mouse carriers of Retinitis Pigmentosa.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sildenafil, the active ingredient in Viagra(®), has been reported to cause transient visual disturbance from inhibition of phosphodiesterase 6 (PDE6), a key enzyme in the visual phototransduction pathway. This study investigated the effects of sildenafil on the rd1(+/-) mouse, a model for carriers of Retinitis Pigmentosa which exhibit normal vision but may have a lower threshold for cellular stress caused by sildenafil due to a heterozygous mutation in PDE6. Sildenafil caused a dose-dependent decrease in electroretinogram (ERG) responses of normal mice which mostly recovered two days post administration. In contrast, rd1(+/-) mice exhibited a significantly reduced photoreceptor and a supernormal bipolar cell response to sildenafil within 1 h of treatment. Carrier mice retinae took two weeks to return to baseline levels suggesting sildenafil has direct effects on both the inner and outer retina and these effects differ significantly between normal and carrier mice. Anatomically, an increase in expression of the early apoptotic marker, cytochrome C in rd1(+/-) mice indicated that the effects of sildenafil on visual function may lead to degeneration. The results of this study are significant considering approximately 1 in 50 people are likely to be carriers of recessive traits leading to retinal degeneration. PMID:25239397

Nivison-Smith, Lisa; Zhu, Yuan; Whatham, Andrew; Bui, Bang V; Fletcher, Erica L; Acosta, Monica L; Kalloniatis, Michael

2014-11-01

318

Variable retinal presentations in nanophthalmos  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Nanophthalmos is an uncommon developmental ocular disorder characterized by a small eye with short axial length, high hyperopia and high lens/eye volume ratio due to arrested development of the globe in all directions. Different types of fundus changes can rarely occur with nanophthalmos. We describe five cases of nanophthalmos, each of them presenting with a different fundus appearance. Our case series highlights variability of pigmentary changes from retinal flecks to bone spicules and bull's eye maculopathy, which are rare in the combinations described here. (author)

319

Renal artery stenting via brachial artery approach  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To assess the effectiveness and safety of brachial artery access for percutaneous renal artery stenting. Methods: From January 2002 to January 2005, transbrachial artery renal angioplasty and stenting(RAS) was performed in 8 patients(7 males, 1 female)with severe renal artery stenosis. Imaging assessment of the target renal artery was performed before all procedures, which precluded the possibility of femoral approach. Either long guiding sheath or otherwise pigtail methods were selected according to patients' status for evaluation of the target renal artery during the procedure. Monitoring the blood pressure and renal function was followed up of 6 months after the procedure. Results: The technical success was 100% with no procedure-related complication and good outcome follow up to 6 months. Conclusion: Brachial artery access for renal artery stenting is a safe and technically feasible for renal artery stenosis, providing an alternative for unsuitable femoral approach. (authors)

320

Review: Retinal degeneration: Focus on the unfolded protein response  

OpenAIRE

Recently published literature has provided evidence that the unfolded protein response (UPR) is involved in the development of retinal degeneration. The scope of these studies encompassed diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity, glaucoma, retinal detachment, light-induced retinal degeneration, age-related macular degeneration, and inherited retinal degeneration. Subsequent studies investigating the role of individual UPR markers in retinal pathogenesis and examining the therapeutic p...

Gorbatyuk, Marina; Gorbatyuk, Oleg

2013-01-01

321

A mechanical model of retinal detachment  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a model of the mechanical and fluid forces associated with exudative retinal detachments where the retinal photoreceptor cells separate, typically from the underlying retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). By computing the total fluid volume flow arising from transretinal, vascular and RPE pump currents, we determine the conditions under which the subretinal fluid pressure exceeds the maximum yield stress holding the retina and RPE together, giving rise to an irreversible, extended retinal delamination. We also investigate localized, blister-like retinal detachments by balancing mechanical tension in the retina with both the retina-RPE adhesion energy and the hydraulic pressure jump across the retina. For detachments induced by traction forces, we find a critical radius beyond which the blister is unstable to growth. Growth of a detached blister can also be driven by inflamed lesions in which the tissue has a higher choroidal hydraulic conductivity, has insufficient RPE pump activity, or has defective adhesion bonds. We determine the parameter regimes in which the blister either becomes unstable to growth, remains stable and finite-sized, or shrinks, allowing possible healing. The corresponding stable blister radius and shape are calculated. Our analysis provides a quantitative description of the physical mechanisms involved in exudative retinal detachments and can help guide the development of retinal reattachment protocols or preventative procedures.

Chou, Tom; Siegel, Michael

2012-08-01

322

Bilateral acute retinal necrosis after herpetic meningitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Keisho Hirota1,2, Masayuki Akimoto1,3, Toshiaki Katsura21Department of Ophthalmology, Kyoto Medical Center, National Hospital Organization, 2Internal Medicine, Kyoto Medical Center, 3Clinical Research Center, Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto, JapanPurpose: The report of a case of bilateral acute retinal necrosis after herpetic meningitis.Case report: A 47-year-old man was admitted with the chief complaint of persistent high fever and transient loss of consciousness. Although his general condition improved after intravenous acyclovir administration, the patient presented with visual loss in both eyes 4 days after admission. Visual acuity in his right eye was 20/200 and his left eye had light perception alone. Both eyes showed panretinal arteritis diagnosed as acute retinal necrosis. Panretinal photocoagulation was performed for both eyes. Progression of retinal detachment was prevented in both eyes; however, visual acuity of the left eye was totally lost because of neovascular glaucoma. Visual acuity of the right eye recovered to 20/20.Conclusion: Although cases of bilateral acute retinal necrosis have been reported after herpetic encephalitis, this condition is rare after herpetic meningitis. Prophylactic acyclovir therapy and early panretinal photocoagulation may prevent retinal detachment and improve the prognosis. Neurologists and ophthalmologists should be aware that not only herpetic encephalitis but also herpetic meningitis can lead to acute retinal necrosis within a very short interval.Keywords: acute retinal necrosis, herpetic meningitis, herpes simplex, varicella zoster virus

Katsura T

2012-04-01

323

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... known as coronary arteries. Symptoms and Their Causes Cholesterol deposits accumulate in the coronary arteries, forming “plaques” ... Healthy diet and medications that lower your blood cholesterol can help slow the process that clogs arteries. ...

324

Management of inferior retinal breaks during pars plana vitrectomy for retinal detachment  

OpenAIRE

AIMS—To determine whether it is necessary to support inferior retinal breaks with a scleral explant during pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RD).?METHODS—A prospective study was carried out on nine eyes of nine consecutive patients undergoing PPV for primary RD with associated inferior retinal breaks and no significant proliferative vitreoretinopathy.?RESULTS—Eight eyes were successfully reattached with a single operation. No cases presented with red...

Tanner, V.; Minihan, M.; Williamson, T.

2001-01-01

325

Computational molecular phenotyping of retinal sheet transplants to rats with retinal degeneration  

OpenAIRE

Retinal progenitor sheet transplants have been shown to extend neuronal processes into a degenerating host retina and to restore visual responses in the brain. The aim of this study was the first attempt to identify cells involved in transplant signals to retinal degenerate hosts using computational molecular phenotyping (CMP). - S334ter line 3 rats received fetal retinal sheet transplants at the age of 24-40d. Donor tissues were incubated with slow-releasing microspheres containing BDNF or G...

Seiler, M. J.; Jones, B. W.; Aramant, R. B.; Yang, P. B.; Keirstead, H. S.; Marc, R. E.

2012-01-01

326

Surgical management of retinal detachment associated with the acute retinal necrosis syndrome.  

OpenAIRE

We operated on nine eyes in eight patients with retinal detachment associated with acute retinal necrosis (ARN) syndrome. The patients were treated with scleral buckling, vitreoretinal surgery, or a combination of these treatments. Vitrectomised eyes underwent combinations of lensectomy, membrane dissection, scleral buckling, air-fluid exchange, endolaser photocoagulation, cryotherapy, and retinal tamponade with C3F8 gas or SF6 gas. Macular attachment was achieved in eight (89%) eyes. Vision ...

Mcdonald, H. R.; Lewis, H.; Kreiger, A. E.; Sidikaro, Y.; Heckenlively, J.

1991-01-01

327

Retinal thickness variation in the diabetic patient measured by the retinal thickness analyser  

OpenAIRE

AIM—To evaluate the potential of the retinal thickness analyser (RTA) as an objective tool for assessment and follow up of diabetic macular oedema.?METHODS—A prototype of the RTA that operates on the principle of laser slit biomicroscopy was used. Retinal thickness was obtained in 41 eyes of 41 diabetic patients. The clinical diagnosis was cystoid macular oedema (CMO) in 10 eyes, clinically significant macular oedema (CSMO) without retinal cysts in 21 eyes, and "dry" macula followin...

Weinberger, D.; Axer-siegel, R.; Landau, D.; Yassur, Y.

1998-01-01

328

Retinal Remodeling in the Tg P347L Rabbit, a Large-Eye Model of Retinal Degeneration  

OpenAIRE

Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is an inherited blinding disease characterized by progressive loss of retinal photo-receptors. There are numerous rodent models of retinal degeneration, but most are poor platforms for interventions that will translate into clinical practice. The rabbit possesses a number of desirable qualities for a model of retinal disease including a large eye and an existing and substantial knowledge base in retinal circuitry, anatomy, and ophthalmology. We have analyzed degenera...

Jones, Bryan William; Kondo, Mineo; Terasaki, Hiroko; Watt, Carl Brock; Rapp, Kevin; Anderson, James; Lin, Yanhua; Shaw, Marguerite Victoria; Yang, Jia-hui; Marc, Robert Edward

2011-01-01

329

[The impact of hemodialysis on retinal circulation].  

Science.gov (United States)

In patients with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis were recorded and studied by various authors multiple eye damage with time. Studying the literature we conducted a study to assess the impact of intradialitic-interdialitic and postdialitic volemic game above the retinal circulation. By measuring diameters of retinal circulation after processing the digital fundus, we found that, 30 minutes after hemodialysis session takes a degree of dilatation of retinal vessels, permanent vascular insult that can be responsible for stroke and ischamic eye and coronary diseases of these patients. PMID:21774395

Ciocalteu, Alina Mihaela; Dumitrache, Marieta

2011-01-01

330

[Effect of hemodialysis in retinal circulations].  

Science.gov (United States)

In patients with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis were recorded and studied by various authors multiple eye damage with time. Studying the literature we conducted a study to assess the impact of intradialitic-interdialitic and postdialitic volemic game above the retinal circulation. By measuring diameters of retinal circulation after processing the digital fundus, we found that, 30 minutes after hemodialysis session takes a degree of dilatation of retinal vessels, permanent vascular insult that can be responsible for stroke and ischamic eye and coronary diseases of these patients. PMID:21888079

Ciocalteu, Alina Mihaela; Dumitrache, Marieta

2011-01-01

331

Photostress Testing Device for Diagnosing Retinal Disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Retinal diseases such as Age-Related Macular Degeneration (ARMD affect nearly one in three elderly patients. ARMD damages the central vision photoreceptors in the fovea. The Photostress Test is a simple technique for testing for the early effects of ARMD. Here, the illumination sources in a novel self-administered Photostress Testing device were modeled for safety and distribution in illumination software. After satisfying the design constraints in the model, a prototype of the illumination system was fabricated and tested to confirm the modeling results. The resultant prototype can be used to aid in the diagnosis of retinal disease and is well within retinal safety levels.

Elizabeth Swan

2014-08-01

332

Chickenpox-associated acute retinal necrosis syndrome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Acute retinal necrosis (ARN) syndrome usually occurs as the result of secondary reactivation of latent, previously acquired, varicella-zoster or herpes simplex virus. The authors report four patients who developed a mild form of ARN within 1 month (5 to 28 days) after the onset of chickenpox. In contrast to typical cases of ARN, these cases were less severe, with retinitis limited to two quadrants or less (three patients), no retinal detachment (four patients), minimal vitreitis (four patients), and no loss of visual acuity (four patients). Thus, ARN may occur during the course of primary varicella-zoster infection. PMID:1666176

Culbertson, W W; Brod, R D; Flynn, H W; Taylor, B C; Brod, B A; Lightman, D A; Gordon, G

1991-11-01

333

Automatic diagnosis of retinal diseases from color retinal images  

CERN Document Server

Teleophthalmology holds a great potential to improve the quality, access, and affordability in health care. For patients, it can reduce the need for travel and provide the access to a superspecialist. Ophthalmology lends itself easily to telemedicine as it is a largely image based diagnosis. The main goal of the proposed system is to diagnose the type of disease in the retina and to automatically detect and segment retinal diseases without human supervision or interaction. The proposed system will diagnose the disease present in the retina using a neural network based classifier.The extent of the disease spread in the retina can be identified by extracting the textural features of the retina. This system will diagnose the following type of diseases: Diabetic Retinopathy and Drusen.

Jayanthi, D; SwarnaParvathi, S

2010-01-01

334

A sciatic nerve with three roots and its perforation by the enlarged ischiadic artery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Knowledge about the variations of the sciatic nerve (SN) is important for many medical science disciplines. Its compression, entrapment or injury of any kind can result in loss of sensation, pain or motor disabilities in the lower limbs. We observed concurrent neurovascular variations in the gluteal region of an adult female cadaver. The SN had three roots as it emerged out of the greater sciatic foramen. The upper root passed above the piriformis; the middle and lower roots passed below the piriformis. The three roots joined to form the SN in the gluteal region. The inferior gluteal artery (IGA) was large, and it passed below the piriformis, between the middle and lower root of the SN. After a tortuous course, this artery continued down as the sciatic/ischiadic artery. The ischiadic artery (IA) was large in size and pierced the SN in the thigh. After piercing the nerve, it terminated by dividing into muscular branches. The inferior gluteal nerve emerged out from the pelvis through the greater sciatic foramen, above the level of the piriformis. The SN in this case was highly predisposed to compression by the piriformis, IGA or IA, which in turn may lead to altered cutaneous sensation or weakness of the muscles. PMID:23959929

Nayak, Satheesha B; George, Bincy M; Mishra, Snigdha

2014-03-01

335

Dolicomegarterias ilíacas.: Presentación de un caso. Iliac mega-dolicho arteries: Presentation of a case  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Las anomalías del árbol vascular son comunes. Los aneurismas aislados de las arterias ilíacas son de observación bastante rara. Representan un porcentaje escaso de las distintas estadísticas y a menudo se resalta su aislamiento, precisamente para recordar su rareza. Reportamos un caso masculino, de 74 años de edad, que asistió a consulta por presentar síntomas urinarios. Se le realizó un ultrasonido de abdomen, observándose hidronefrosis renal bilateral moderada, además masas complejas una en cada fosa ilíaca. Se le indicó Tomografía Axial Computarizada de abdomen, donde se confirmó la hidronefrosis renal bilateral y aneurismas de ambas arterias ilíacas. Se completó el estudio con un Angiotac, y se demostró que ambas ilíacas estaban tortuosas y dilatadas (DOLICOMEGARTERIAS.Vascular tree anomalies are common. Iliac arteries isolated aneurisms are very unusual. They represent an scarce percent of the different statistics and their isolation is frequently highlighted, precisely to recollect their rareness.We report the case of a male, 74-years-old patient, assisting the consultation with urinary symptoms. An abdominal ultrasound was made, showing moderated bilateral renal hydronephrosis and also complex masses in each iliac fosse. An abdomen computed axial tomography was indicated, confirming the bilateral renal hydronephrosis and aneurisms in both iliac arteries. The study was completed with an Angiotac and it was demonstrated that both iliac arteries were tortuous and dilated ( Mega-dolicho arteries .

Yariana Martínez Sánchez

2010-02-01

336

Uterine artery embolization with Pingyangmycin lipiodol emulsion for treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness and side effects of uterine arterial embolization with Pingyangmycin(a homogenous bleomycin) lipiodol emulsion(PLE) for symptomatic uterine fibroids. Methods: Uterine arterial embolization with PLE was performed in 25 patients. The improvement of symptoms and uterine size changes were followed up in 3-18 months(mean 6 months) after the procedure. Results: All but 2 cases were successfully treated bilaterally. Super-selective angiography showed enlargement of uterine artery, accompanied by tortuous branches. The uterine size was increased. The uterus itself was significantly stained and emptied slowly. Coagulation necrosis was found in resected fibroids after embolization in 3 patients. One month after the procedure, a mean 40% reduction of uterine volume was obtained in 18 followed-up cases. The clinical symptoms were relieved significantly. The main side effects were hypogastric pain(13/25),which was intense in 6 cases. Conclusion: Uterine arterial embolization with PLE is a good non-surgical therapy in symptomatic uterine fibroids with mild side effects

337

Retinal vein occlusion: genetic predisposition and systemic risk factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The role of systemic risk factors (age, smoking, diabetes, arterial hypertension) in the development of retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is well established. However, the association of RVO with genetic predisposition to thrombosis remains poorly understood. The aim of the study was to assess any possible additional effect of genetic predisposition to the already well known 'classical' risk factors of RVO in a cohort of elderly Greek patients. Fifty-one elderly patients with RVO and 51 healthy individuals matched for age and sex were evaluated for systemic risk factors (smoking, diabetes, dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension) and coagulation defects (lupus anticoagulant, natural inhibitors of coagulation). Additionally, genotyping was performed for mutations/polymorphisms involved in haemostasis such as: FV G1691A, FV G4070A, FIIG 20210A, MTHFR C677T and A1298C, PAI-1-675 4G/5G, F XIII exon 2G/T, EPCR A4600G and G4678C. We identified systemic risk factors in the majority of the patients Hypertension (P=0.001), dyslipidemia (P=0.029) and diabetes (P=0.01) are associated with RVO in the majority of the patients. The prevalence of prothrombotic risk factors was not significantly different in the patients with RVO compared to controls. Apart from systemic risk factors, genetic predisposition to thrombosis does not seem to have an important association with RVO in this group of elderly patients. PMID:23337712

Giannaki, Kassiani; Politou, Marianna; Rouvas, Alexandros; Merkouri, Efrossyni; Travlou, Anthi; Theodosiadis, Panayiotis; Gialeraki, Argyri

2013-04-01

338

Massive hemoptysis due to pulmonary tuberculosis: management with bronchial artery embolization  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate the clinical effects of interventional bronchial artery embolization in the management of massive hemoptysis as a complication of pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: Interventional bronchial arterial embolization was performed in 26 cases with secondary pulmonary tuberculosis and massive hemoptysis. Tuberculosis was found in bilateral lung in 20 cases out of 26. Unilateral lung was evolved in the rest 6. The dose of hemoptysis was 200 ml/d-1200 ml/d. Bronchial arteriography was undertaken and the target blood vessel was confirmed in all patients. Then PVA grain or silk segment (1-2 mm) were injected into bronchial artery until blood flow was blocked. The procedures were guided under the fluoroscopy. Gelfoam particles were used in 2 cases when tortuous feeding arteries were revealed in angiogram. Results: Bleeding was demonstrated in 58 branches of bronchial artery in all cases. 19 cases were bilateral and 7 unilateral. After the primary intervention, hemoptysis was controlled completely in 23 patients, slight hemoptysis was noted in 2 patients, and no improvement was obtained in one patient. The short term efficiency was 96.1%. No serious complication occurred. In a post-interventional follow up of 6 months to 6 years, 3 patients had relapse after 6 months and reembolization with silk segments was done. The other 23 patients were in stable condition. Long-term efficiency was 88.4%. Conclusion: Embolization of bronchial artery with PVA grain or withof bronchial artery with PVA grain or with silk segments is an effective and safe method in the management of hemoptysis as a complication of pulmonary tuberculosis, especially in patients with severe hemoptysis. The anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy is helpful in preventing the relapse. (authors)

339

New Device Offers Hope to People Blinded Due to Incurable Eye Disorders (Retinitis Pigmentosa)  

Science.gov (United States)

... first FDA-approved retinal implant for adults with retinitis pigmentosa. Retinitis pigmentosa is a group of genetic disorders that ... Up to one-quarter of all patients with retinitis pigmentosa will become legally blind in both eyes. [ ...

340

[Ocular hypertension after surgery for retinal detachment].  

Science.gov (United States)

This papers presents a case of a patient with retinal detachement, 3 days ago operated (posterior vitrectomy internal tamponament with silicon oil 1000) who develop increased ocular pressure following silicon oil output in the anterior chamber. PMID:23424762

Mu?at, O; Cristescu, R; Coman, Corina; Asandi, R

2012-01-01

341

[Intraocular hypertension after retinal detachment surgery].  

Science.gov (United States)

This papers presents a case of a patient with retinal detachment, 3 days ago operated (posterior vitrectomy, internal tamponament with silicon oil 1000) who developed increased ocular pressure following silicon oil output in the anterior chamber. PMID:23755521

Mu?at, O; Cristescu, R; Coman, Corina; Asandi, R

2012-01-01

342

Retinal breaks due to intravitreal ocriplasmin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ruwan A Silva, Darius M Moshfeghi, Theodore Leng Byers Eye Institute at Stanford, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USA Abstract: Ocriplasmin represents a new treatment option for numerous vitreoretinopathies involving an abnormal vitreomacular interface. While the drug may circumvent the traditional risks of surgical treatment, pharmacologic vitreolysis is not devoid of risk itself. This report presents two cases, one of vitreomacular traction syndrome and the other of a full-thickness macular hole, both of which were treated with an intravitreal injection of ocriplasmin. Notably, in both cases, vitreomacular traction of the macula appears to have been alleviated; however, failure to completely relieve vitreoretinal traction from the peripheral retina generated retinal breaks with one patient eventually developing a macula-involving retinal detachment. Thus, even in instances of ‘successful’ pharmacologic treatment of vitreomacular traction, continued follow-up evaluation is essential. Keywords: posterior vitreous detachment, retinal detachment, vitreomacular traction, ocriplasmin, retinal break, macular hole, laser retinopexy

Silva RA

2014-08-01

343

Unusual retinal manifestations of cat scratch disease  

OpenAIRE

We report on 2 patients with unusual retinal manifestations of cat scratch disease (CSD), caused by Bartonella henselae. Case 1. A 42-year-old farmer presented with a 5-day history of blurred vision in his right eye. Right visual acuity was 20/25. Fundus examination of the right eye revealed mild vitreous hemorrhage and diffuse retinal hemorrhages in the mid-peripheral retina. Fluorescein angiography showed multiple vasculitic occlusions in the same area. A blood sample taken on the da...

Pinna, Antonio -.; Puglia, Ester; Dore, Stefano

2011-01-01

344

Endocytosis in the retinal and choroidal microcirculation.  

OpenAIRE

The endocytosis of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) by the vascular cells of retinal and choroidal blood vessels was compared in immersion and perfusion fixed eyes from individual rats. The mechanisms of endocytosis of HRP appeared identical in both retinal and choroidal vessels. The bulk of internalised tracer occurred in macropinosomes 300-400 nm in diameter. Tracer was localised to a 20-30 nm layer on the internal aspect of the limiting membrane. This layer was coincident with the glycocalyx o...

Gardiner, T. A.; Archer, D. B.

1986-01-01

345

Retinitis pigmentosa and ocular blood flow  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Is the concept of integrative, preventive and personalised medicine applicable to the relationship between retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and ocular blood flow (OBF)? RP encompasses a group of hereditary diseases of the posterior segment of the eye characterised by degeneration, atrophy and finally loss of photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelium, leading to progressive visual loss. Many different mutations affecting different genes can lead to the clinical picture of RP. E...

Konieczka Katarzyna; Flammer Andreas, J.; Todorova Margarita; Meyer Peter; Flammer Josef

2012-01-01

346

Retinal iron homeostasis in health and disease  

OpenAIRE

Iron is essential for life, but excess iron can be toxic. As a potent free radical creator, iron generates hydroxyl radicals leading to significant oxidative stress. Since iron is not excreted from the body, it accumulates with age in tissues, including the retina, predisposing to age-related oxidative insult. Both hereditary and acquired retinal diseases are associated with increased iron levels. For example, retinal degenerations have been found in hereditary iron overload disorders, like a...

DeluSong; JoshuaL.Dunaief

2013-01-01

347

Marfan Syndrome Presenting with Bilateral Retinal Detachment  

OpenAIRE

Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant systemic disorder of the connective tissue. Marfan syndrome affects most organs and tissues, especially the skeleton, lungs, eyes, heart, and the large blood vessels. Eye involvement may be in the form of retinal detachment which is a potentially dangerous manifestation for its sight threatening nature .We report a case where a 17 year old male developed sudden blindness due to spontaneous bilateral retinal detachment. Examination revealed features...

Subrata Chakrabarti; Koushik Pan

2014-01-01

348

Low frequency maintenance ganciclovir for cytomegalovirus retinitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

45 patients on maintenance ganciclovir for treated cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis were reviewed retrospectively. Treatment was given at 30 mg/kg/week in 3 divided doses: Monday, Wednesday, Friday. The median time to clinical relapse was 5.4 months. This is similar to that reported with higher frequency maintenance regimens. The high degree of immunodeficiency (median CD4 count 16 cells/microliters) and poor prognosis (median survival 8.2 months) associated with CMV retinitis were confirmed. PMID:1851324

Hall, A J; Jennens, I D; Lucas, C R; MacLean, H; Sandland, A M

1991-01-01

349

Retinal blood flow in diabetic retinopathy.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVES--(a) To report on the basic parameters of retinal blood flow in a population of diabetic patients with and without retinopathy and non-diabetic controls; (b) to formulate a haemodynamic model for the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy from this and other studies. DESIGN--Laser-Doppler velocimetry and computerised image analysis to determine retinal blood flow in a large cross sectional study. SETTING--Diabetic retinopathy outpatient clinic. SUBJECTS--24 non-diabetic controls and ...

Patel, V.; Rassam, S.; Newsom, R.; Wiek, J.; Kohner, E.

1992-01-01

350

Bilateral Exudative Retinal Detachment in HELLP Syndrome  

OpenAIRE

The HELLP syndrome is a pregnancy complication, life-threatening for mother and child, characterized by hypertension, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets. Blurred vision is the most common visual complaint. A rare case of bilateral exudative retinal detachment associated with the HELLP syndrome is described in a 30-year-old Caucasian woman at 33 weeks' gestation. The retinal detachment did reattach with good improvement in vision under steroid therapy. The case highlights the importance ...

Scho?nfeld, C. -l

2012-01-01

351

Retinal iron homeostasis in health and disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Iron is essential for life, but excess iron can be toxic. As a potent free radical creator, iron generates hydroxyl radicals leading to significant oxidative stress. Since iron is not excreted from the body, it accumulates with age in tissues, including the retina, predisposing to age-related oxidative insult. Both hereditary and acquired retinal diseases are associated with increased iron levels. For example, retinal degenerations have been found in hereditary iron overload disorders, like aceruloplasminemia, Friedreich’s ataxia, and pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. Similarly, mice with targeted mutation of the iron exporter ceruloplasmin and its homolog hephaestin showed age-related retinal iron accumulation and retinal degeneration with features resembling human age-related macular degeneration (AMD. Post mortem AMD eyes have increased levels of iron in retina compared to age-matched healthy donors. Iron accumulation in AMD is likely to result, in part, from inflammation, hypoxia, and oxidative stress, all of which can cause iron dysregulation. Fortunately, it has been demonstrated by in vitro and in vivo studies that iron in the retinal pigment epithelium and retina is chelatable. Iron chelation protects photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE in a variety of mouse models. This has therapeutic potential for diminishing iron-induced oxidative damage to prevent or treat AMD.

DeluSong

2013-06-01

352

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... arteries, forming “plaques” that narrow the arteries. Narrowed arteries do not let enough blood go through. This causes blood flow to decrease, ... of the body and grafting them to coronary arteries. These grafts bypass clogged blood vessels and allow increased blood flow to the ...

353

Radial Artery Aneurysm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Upper limb aneurysms are less frequently seen than the other aneurysm. Radial arterial aneurysm is usually associated with the trauma. Interventional procedures can cause pseudoaneurysm at the radial artery puncture sites. Radial artery aneurysm may cause the thromboembolic events at the fingers and the hand. We present a case of isolated radial arterial aneurysm with idiopathic origin.

Ali Fedakar

2011-04-01

354

Stent impact on the geometry of the carotid bifurcation and the course of the internal carotid artery  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A measurement system is proposed to evaluate reconstructive effects of carotid stents on the geometry of the carotid bifurcation and the course of the internal carotid artery. To describe deviations of the stenotic internal carotid artery (ICA) from the extended axis of the common carotid artery (CCA) the CCA-ICA angle is measured between the CCA midaxis and the midaxis of the stenotic ICA segment. Maximal extensions of ICA tortuosities perpendicular to the course of the CCA axis are defined as ICA offset. The measurements were applied to DSA images of 224 carotid stenoses to evaluate variation and correlation between the two parameters. Comparative pre- and post-stent evaluation was performed in two series of 55 and 31 carotid stenoses treated with Wallstents and in a historic control group of 35 stenoses treated with Strecker stents. Straight course of the ICA was associated with low angle and low offset values, whereas tortuous course of the ICA showed larger angle and offset. A moderate linear correlation between the two parameters was found. Corresponding to a straightening of the stented segment, Wallstents reduced mean angle and offset values significantly. In five cases of the second series of Wallstents, transferrals of curves above the distal stent end associated with kinks were observed, and offset remained constant or increased. Strecker stent implantation caused no significant changes of bifurcational geometry. The proposed parameters corresponded to visue proposed parameters corresponded to visual aspects of ICA tortuosity and detected reconstructive effects of self-expanding Wallstents on the ICA course. The measurement system may provide a basis for geometric evaluation of different stent types or implantation concepts with the aim: to optimize anatomic recanalization results in tortuous high angle-high offset bifurcations. (orig.)

355

Cone dysfunctions in retinitis pigmentosa with retinal nerve fiber layer thickening  

OpenAIRE

Güngör Sobaci, Gökhan Özge, Fatih Ç Gündo?anDepartment of Ophthalmology, Gülhane Military Medical Academy and Medical School, Etlik, Ankara, TurkeyPurpose: To investigate whether or not thicker retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) patients relates to functional abnormalities of the photoreceptors.Methods: Optical coherence tomography-based RNFL thickness was measured by Stratus-3™ (Zeiss, Base...

Sobaci G; Özge G; Amp Ccedil, G. Amp Uuml Ndog?an F.

2012-01-01

356

Regulation of retinal progenitor expansion by Frizzled receptors: implications for microphthalmia and retinal coloboma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nineteen Wnt ligands and 10 Frizzled (Fz) receptors mediate multiple distinct cellular events during neuronal development. However, their precise roles in cell-type specification and organogenesis are poorly delineated because of overlapping functions and expression profiles. Here, we have explored the role of two closely related Frizzled receptors, Fz5 and Fz8, in mouse retinal development. We previously showed that Fz5(-/-) mice exhibit mild coloboma and microphthalmia at ~50% penetrance. Fz8 expression overlaps with Fz5 in the neural retina and optic fissure/disc. Mice lacking Fz8 show minimal eye and retinal defects. The embryos lacking both Fz5 and Fz8 die early in development, but a majority of triallelic Fz5(-/-);Fz8(+/-) mutants survive until birth. The triallelic mutant develops severe retinal coloboma and microphthalmia with full penetrance. At the cellular level, impaired neurogenesis is indicated by increased early-born retinal neurons that result from accelerated cell cycle exit of progenitors. Deficiency of apical retinal neuroepithelium is indicated by altered localization of apical junction markers, such as atypical protein kinase C, RhoA and ?-catenin. Hes1 expression, which is critical for retinal progenitor expansion, is down-regulated in the triallelic mutant mouse. Furthermore, blocking Frizzled receptors in cultured retinal explants led to basally shifted divisions of retinal progenitors. Together, our studies suggest a dose-dependent regulation of signaling by Fz5 and Fz8 in optic fissure/disc formation and progenitor expansion. PMID:22228100

Liu, Chunqiao; Bakeri, Hirva; Li, Tiansen; Swaroop, Anand

2012-04-15

357

Regulation of Taurine transporter activity in cultured rat retinal ganglion cells and rat retinal Muller Cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Diabetic retinopathy is one of the most common complications of diabetes. The amino acid taurine is believed to play an antioxidant protective role in diabetic retinopathy through the scavenging of the reactive species. It is not well established whether taurine uptake is altered in retina cells during diabetic conditions. Thus, the present study was designed to investigate the changes in taurine transport in cultures of rat retinal Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells under conditions associated with diabetes. Taurine was abundantly taken up by retinal Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells under normal glycemic condition. Taurine was actively transported to rat Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells in a Na and Cl dependant manner. Taurine uptake further significantly elevated in both type of cells after the incubation with high glucose concentration. This effect could be attributed to the increase in osmolarity. Because Nitric Oxide (NO) is a molecule implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetes, we also determined the activity of taurine transporter in cultured rat retinal Muller cells and rat retinal ganglion cells in the presence of the NO donors, SIN-1 and SNAP. Taurine uptake was elevated above control value after 24-h incubation with low concentration of NO donors. We finally investigated the ability of neurotoxic glutamate to change taurine transporter activity in both types of cells. Uptake of taurine was significantly increased in rat retina was significantly increased in rat retinal ganglion cells when only incubated with high concentration of glutamate. Our data provide evidence that taurine transporter is present in cultured rat retinal ganglion and Muller cells and is regulated by hyperosmolarity. The data are relevant to disease such as diabetes and neuronal degeneration where retinal cell volume may dramatically change. (author)

358

Comprehensive automatic assessment of retinal vascular abnormalities for computer-assisted retinopathy grading.  

Science.gov (United States)

One of the most important signs of systemic disease that presents on the retina is vascular abnormalities such as in hypertensive retinopathy. Manual analysis of fundus images by human readers is qualitative and lacks in accuracy, consistency and repeatability. Present semi-automatic methods for vascular evaluation are reported to increase accuracy and reduce reader variability, but require extensive reader interaction; thus limiting the software-aided efficiency. Automation thus holds a twofold promise. First, decrease variability while increasing accuracy, and second, increasing the efficiency. In this paper we propose fully automated software as a second reader system for comprehensive assessment of retinal vasculature; which aids the readers in the quantitative characterization of vessel abnormalities in fundus images. This system provides the reader with objective measures of vascular morphology such as tortuosity, branching angles, as well as highlights of areas with abnormalities such as artery-venous nicking, copper and silver wiring, and retinal emboli; in order for the reader to make a final screening decision. To test the efficacy of our system, we evaluated the change in performance of a newly certified retinal reader when grading a set of 40 color fundus images with and without the assistance of the software. The results demonstrated an improvement in reader's performance with the software assistance, in terms of accuracy of detection of vessel abnormalities, determination of retinopathy, and reading time. This system enables the reader in making computer-assisted vasculature assessment with high accuracy and consistency, at a reduced reading time. PMID:25571442

Joshi, Vinayak; Agurto, Carla; VanNess, Richard; Nemeth, Sheila; Soliz, Peter; Barriga, Simon

2014-08-01

359

Maximizing Functional Photoreceptor Differentiation From Adult Human Retinal Stem Cells  

OpenAIRE

Retinal stem cells (RSCs) are present in the ciliary margin of the adult human eye and can give rise to all retinal cell types. Here we show that modulation of retinal transcription factor gene expression in human RSCs greatly enriches photoreceptor progeny, and that strong enrichment was obtained with the combined transduction of OTX2 and CRX together with the modulation of CHX10. When these genetically modified human RSC progeny are transplanted into mouse eyes, their retinal integration an...

Inoue, Tomoyuki; Coles, Brenda L. K.; Dorval, Kim; Bremner, Rod; Bessho, Yasumasa; Kageyama, Ryoichiro; Hino, Shinjiro; Matsuoka, Masao; Craft, Cheryl M.; Mcinnes, Roderick R.; Tremblay, Francois; Prusky, Glen T.; Kooy, Derek

2010-01-01

360

Partial rescue of retinal function in chronically hypoglycemic mice  

OpenAIRE

Purpose. Mice rendered hypoglycemic by a null mutation in the glucagon receptor gene Gcgr display late-onset retinal degeneration and loss of retinal sensitivity. Acute hyperglycemia induced by dextrose ingestion does not restore their retinal function, which is consistent with irreversible loss of vision. The goal of this study was to establish whether long-term administration of high dietary glucose rescues retinal function and circuit connectivity in aged Gcgr?/? mice. Methods. Gcgr?...

Umino, Yumiko; Cuenca, Nicolas; Everhart, Drew; Fernandez-sanchez, Laura; Barlow, Robert B.; Solessio, Eduardo

2012-01-01

361

Optimal management of cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients with AIDS  

OpenAIRE

Michael W StewartDepartment of Ophthalmology, Mayo School of Medicine, Jacksonville, FL, USAAbstract: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is the most common cause of vision loss in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). CMV retinitis afflicted 25% to 42% of AIDS patients in the pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era, with most vision loss due to macula-involving retinitis or retinal detachment. The introduction of HAART significantly decreased the incidence and sev...

Stewart, Michael W.

2010-01-01

362

Retinal detachment secondary to ocular perforation during retrobulbar Anaesthesia  

OpenAIRE

The clinical characteristics and the retinal breaks associated with rhegmatogenous retinal detachments secondary to accidental globe perforation during local infiltration anaesthesia in five highly myopic eyes are presented. Retinal detachment was total with variable proliferative vitreoretinopathy. The pattern of retinal breaks was rather typical and predictable. Management involved vitreous surgery with internal tamponade by silicone oil in four eyes and perfluoropropane gas in one eye. At ...

Gopal Lingam; Badrinath S.; Parikh Sunil; Chawla Gajendra

1995-01-01

363

Ocular Tuberculosis Initially Presenting as Central Retinal Vein Occlusion  

OpenAIRE

A 23-year-old man presented with central retinal vein occlusion. The retinal haemorrhages worsened and signs of retinal vasculitis appeared later as vision dropped from 6/60 to Counting Fingers. No signs of systemic disease were observed. Routine Mantoux test and chest radiograph were negative for tuberculosis. Fundus flourescein angiogram confirmed presence of retinal vasculitis. Both systemic and topical corticosteroid therapy were ineffective. Polymerase chain reaction analysis of vitreous...

Mahyudin, Muiz; Choo, May May; Ramli, Norlina Mohd; Omar, Sharifah S.

2010-01-01

364

Retinal haemorrhages in vacuum extraction deliveries  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two hundred and thirty eight newly born infants were subjected to fundus examination in the first 5 hours of labour then daily till discharge from the hospital then weekly till complete absorption of retinal haemorrhages The 238 infants were 23 delivered by caesarean section, 90 with spontaneous vaginal delivery,45 babies (over3.5 kgm delivered vaginallyand80 delivered by vacuum extraction. It was found that 37.39% of the newborns had retinal haemorrhages. The incidence, type and severity of retinal haemorrhages were related to the extent of obstetric trauma during birth. They were least with caesarean section. (4.35%, more in babies with spontaneous vaginal delivery (20%, more higher in infants over 3.5 kgm birth weight (33.33% and maximum in vacuum extraction deliveries (68.75%. A good correlation was made between the site and duration of cup application, level and rate of increase of negative pressure, the presence and size of cephalhematoma and the incidence and severity of retinal haemorrhages A good choice of cases as well as good control of the technique of vacuum extraction will minimize the incidence and severity of retinal haemorrhages in the new born.

Bahgat Mostafa

1987-01-01

365

Bilateral intraocular calcification in necrotizing cytomegalovirus retinitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a unique case of bilateral intraocular calcification due to necrotizing cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis associated with congenital CMV infection. A 7-month-old boy with a history of congenital CMV infection showed bilateral intraocular calcific plaques on computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography. We reviewed the patient's medical files for the purpose of this report. The patient had a prior medical history of hospitalization for fever and swelling in the neck at 3 months of age. Systemic findings (anemia, neutropenia, hepatosplenomegaly, and reactive lymphadenomegaly) in association with a low CD4 count, high blood CMV viral load, and positivity for urine CMV DNA by polymerase chain reaction led to the diagnosis of bone marrow suppression and congenital CMV infection. At 7 months, he developed horizontal nystagmus and bilateral leukocoria over 20 days. Cranial CT and ultrasonography revealed bilateral intraocular calcific plaques and the patient was referred to rule out retinoblastoma. Fundoscopy was consistent with bilateral hemorrhagic, necrotizing CMV retinitis. Significant resolution of the retinal infiltrations occurred 2 weeks after initiation of systemic treatment with ganciclovir. Intraocular calcification may be a sign of active CMV retinitis. To our knowledge this is the first report of bilateral intraocular calcification serving as the presenting clinical manifestation of necrotizing CMV retinitis. PMID:24550055

Tuncer, Samuray; Oray, Merih; Yildirim, Yeliz; Camcioglu, Yildiz; Tugal-Tutkun, Ilknur

2014-10-01

366

Optical coherence tomography changes in macular CMV retinitis  

OpenAIRE

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis characteristically causes peripheral retinitis with associated vasculitis. It rarely begins in the macula or causes macular necrosis exclusively. We report a case of unilateral macular CMV retinitis in a 65-year-old immunosuppressed patient and document changes in the macula during treatment through optical coherence tomography (OCT).

Sun, Lisa L.; Goodwin, Todd; Park, Joseph J.

2012-01-01

367

Generation and characterization of immortalized rat retinal microglial cell lines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Retinal microglia play an important role as resident immunocompetent and phagocytic cells in the event of injury and disease. Retinal microglia and microglia precursor transplantation show a rescue effect in ischemic retina and retinal degeneration. However, studies of retinal microglia have been hampered by the difficulty of obtaining sufficient numbers of microglia. One way to circumvent this difficulty is to establish permanent retinal microglia cell lines. In the present study, we report the generation of immortalized retinal microglia, T-MG cells, from postnatal day 3 rat retinal tissue using a lentiviral vector encoding SV40 large T antigen. The T-MG cells exhibited cell-type-specific antigens for monocyte/macrophage lineage cells, including CD11b (OX42), ED1 (OX6), and Iba1, and actively phagocytosed latex beads. In addition to primary retinal microglia, T-MG cells also have the ability to recruit into chemokines. Treatment of T-MG cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) led to increased levels of tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-1?, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Genome-wide microarray analysis showed a less than 1% difference in the genes between the T-MG cells and the control primary retinal microglia. The T-MG cells exhibited properties similar to those of the primary retinal microglia and should have considerable utility as an in vitro model for the study of retinal microglia in health and as a curative therapy and an in vivo model for the study of retinal microglia in disease. PMID:24452530

Jiang, Xiao-shuang; Ni, Ying-qin; Liu, Tian-jin; Zhang, Meng; Jiang, Rui; Xu, Ge-zhi

2014-04-01

368

Reflective afocal adaptive optics: optical coherence tomography retinal imaging system  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a new design for a reflective afocal AO-OCT retinal imaging system. The optical performance of this instrument is compared to our previous multimodal AO-OCT/AO-SLO retinal imaging system. The feasibility of new instrumentation for improved visualization of microscopic retinal structures will be discussed. Examples of images acquired with this new AO-OCT instrument will be presented.

Lee, Sang Hyuck; Werner, John S.; Zawadzki, Robert J.

2013-03-01

369

Repetitive magnetic stimulation improves retinal function in a rat model of retinal dystrophy  

Science.gov (United States)

Vision incapacitation and blindness associated with retinal dystrophies affect millions of people worldwide. Retinal degeneration is characterized by photoreceptor cell death and concomitant remodeling of remaining retinal cells. Repetitive Magnetic Stimulation (RMS) is a non-invasive technique that creates alternating magnetic fields by brief electric currents transmitted through an insulated coil. These magnetic field generate action potentials in neurons, and modulate the expression of neurotransmitter receptors, growth factors and transcription factors which mediate plasticity. This technology has been proven effective and safe in various psychiatric disorders. Here we determined the effect of RMS on retinal function in Royal College of Surgeons (RCS) rats, a model for retinal dystrophy. Four week-old RCS and control Spargue Dawley (SD) rats received sham or RMS treatment over the right eye (12 sessions on 4 weeks). RMS treatment at intensity of at 40% of the maximal output of a Rapid2 stimulator significantly increased the electroretinogram (ERG) b-wave responses by up to 6- or 10-fold in the left and right eye respectively, 3-5 weeks following end of treatment. RMS treatment at intensity of 25% of the maximal output did not significant effect b-wave responses following end of treatment with no adverse effect on ERG response or retinal structure of SD rats. Our findings suggest that RMS treatment induces delayed improvement of retinal functions and may induce plasticity in the retinal tissue. Furthermore, this non-invasive treatment may possibly be used in the future as a primary or adjuvant treatment for retinal dystrophy.

Rotenstreich, Ygal; Tzameret, Adi; Levi, Nir; Kalish, Sapir; Sher, Ifat; Zangen, Avraham; Belkin, Michael

2014-02-01

370

Transplantation of Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived 3D Retinal Sheets into Retinal Degenerative Mice  

OpenAIRE

In this article, we show that mouse embryonic stem cell- or induced pluripotent stem cell-derived 3D retinal tissue developed a structured outer nuclear layer (ONL) with complete inner and outer segments even in an advanced retinal degeneration model (rd1) that lacked ONL. We also observed host-graft synaptic connections by immunohistochemistry. This study provides a “proof of concept” for retinal sheet transplantation therapy for advanced retinal degenerative diseases.

Assawachananont, Juthaporn; Mandai, Michiko; Okamoto, Satoshi; Yamada, Chikako; Eiraku, Mototsugu; Yonemura, Shigenobu; Sasai, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Masayo

2014-01-01

371

Risk factors for central and branch retinal vein occlusion: a meta-analysis of published clinical data.  

Science.gov (United States)

Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is a major cause of vision loss. Of the two main types of RVO, branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) is 4 to 6 times more prevalent than central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). A basic risk factor for RVO is advancing age. Further risk factors include systemic conditions like hypertension, arteriosclerosis, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, vascular cerebral stroke, blood hyperviscosity, and thrombophilia. A strong risk factor for RVO is the metabolic syndrome (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia). Individuals with end-organ damage caused by diabetes mellitus and hypertension have greatly increased risk for RVO. Socioeconomic status seems to be a risk factor too. American blacks are more often diagnosed with RVO than non-Hispanic whites. Females are, according to some studies, at lower risk than men. The role of thrombophilic risk factors in RVO is still controversial. Congenital thrombophilic diseases like factor V Leiden mutation, hyperhomocysteinemia and anticardiolipin antibodies increase the risk of RVO. Cigarette smoking also increases the risk of RVO as do systemic inflammatory conditions like vasculitis and Behcet disease. Ophthalmic risk factors for RVO are ocular hypertension and glaucoma, higher ocular perfusion pressure, and changes in the retinal arteries. PMID:25009743

Kolar, Petr

2014-01-01

372

Determinación de factores trombofílicos en pacientes con trombosis venosas retinianas Markers of thrombophilia in patients with retinal vein thrombosis  

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Full Text Available Background: Thrombophilia is an alteration of hemostasis that increases the risk to venous or arterial thrombosis. This condition may be the underlying cause of retinal vein thrombosis. Aim: To study the presence of thrombophilia in patients with retinal vein thrombosis. Patients and methods: Prospective study of 55 patients aged 22 to 86 years, with retinal vein thrombosis (central or branch. Antithrombin III, coagulant protein C, functional protein S, resistance to activated C protein, homocysteine, prothrombin G20210A gene, lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibodies were measured in all. Results: Seventeen patients had thrombophilic markers (antiphospholipid syndrome in seven, hyperhomocysteinemia in six and resistance to protein C in three. Of these 17 patients, 53% had high blood pressure, 35% an abnormal serum lipid profile and 23% a personal history of thrombosis. The thrombosis was central in 12 (ischemic in four and of a branch in five (ischemic in two. Conclusions: Thrombophilic markers must be assessed in patients with retinal vein thrombosis (Rev Méd Chile 2005; 133: 167-74

Leonidas Traipe C

2005-02-01

373

Determinación de factores trombofílicos en pacientes con trombosis venosas retinianas / Markers of thrombophilia in patients with retinal vein thrombosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish [...] Abstract in english Background: Thrombophilia is an alteration of hemostasis that increases the risk to venous or arterial thrombosis. This condition may be the underlying cause of retinal vein thrombosis. Aim: To study the presence of thrombophilia in patients with retinal vein thrombosis. Patients and methods: Prospe [...] ctive study of 55 patients aged 22 to 86 years, with retinal vein thrombosis (central or branch). Antithrombin III, coagulant protein C, functional protein S, resistance to activated C protein, homocysteine, prothrombin G20210A gene, lupus anticoagulant and anticardiolipin antibodies were measured in all. Results: Seventeen patients had thrombophilic markers (antiphospholipid syndrome in seven, hyperhomocysteinemia in six and resistance to protein C in three). Of these 17 patients, 53% had high blood pressure, 35% an abnormal serum lipid profile and 23% a personal history of thrombosis. The thrombosis was central in 12 (ischemic in four) and of a branch in five (ischemic in two). Conclusions: Thrombophilic markers must be assessed in patients with retinal vein thrombosis (Rev Méd Chile 2005; 133: 167-74)

Leonidas, Traipe C; Guillermo, Conte L; Francisco J, Conte S; Santiago, Ibáñez L; Patricio, Meza R; Basilio, Rojas U; Marianela, Cuneo V; Juan, Verdaguer T.

2005-02-01

374

Retinal Fiber Tracing by In Ovo Electroporation  

Science.gov (United States)

Axonal tracing techniques are the fundamentals for the investigation of neural circuit formation. In ovo electroporation system allows us to transfect a gene of interest to the desired place in chick embryos (Odani et al., 2008). Recently, Tol2 transposase element, which was originally found in medaka fish (Koga et al., 1996), has been adapted to an in ovo electroporation system (Niwa et al., 1991; Kawakami et al., 1998, 2000, 2004a, 2004b; Kawakami & Noda, 2004; Kawakami, 2005, 2007; Sato et al., 2007). This system assures the integration of the transgene into the genome by electroporation (Niwa et al., 1991; Sato et al., 2007). We applied this system for tracing retinal fibers (Harada et al., 2008). In this chapter, we demonstrate the method of tracing retinal fibers from both small and large groups of the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) with transposon-mediated gene transfer by in ovo electroporation to chick embryos.

Harada, Hidekiyo; Nakamura, Harukazu

375

Identification system by eye retinal pattern  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Identification system by eye retinal pattern is introduced from the view-point of history of R and D, measurement, apparatus, evaluation tests, safety and application. According to our evaluation tests, enrolling time is approximately less than 1 min, verification time is a few seconds and false accept rate is 0 %. Evaluation tests at Sandia National Laboratories in USA show the comparison data of false accept rates such as 0 % for eye retinal pattern, 10.5 % for finger-print, 5.8 % for signature dynamics and 17.7 % for speaker voice. The identification system by eye retinal pattern has only three applications in Japan, but there has been a number of experience in USA. This fact suggests that the system will become an important means for physical protections not only in nuclear field but also in other industrial fields in Japan. (author)

376

Automated retinal layer segmentation and characterization  

Science.gov (United States)

Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) is a valuable diagnostic tool in both clinical and research settings. The depth-resolved intensity profiles generated by light backscattered from discrete layers of the retina provide a non-invasive method of investigating progressive diseases and injury within the eye. This study demonstrates the application of steerable convolution filters capable of automatically separating gradient orientations to identify edges and delineate tissue boundaries. The edge maps were recombined to measure thickness of individual retinal layers. This technique was successfully applied to longitudinally monitor changes in retinal morphology in a mouse model of laser-induced choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and human data from age-related macular degeneration patients. The steerable filters allow for direct segmentation of noisy images, while novel recombination of weaker segmentations allow for denoising post-segmentation. The segmentation before denoising strategy allows the rapid detection of thin retinal layers even under suboptimal imaging conditions.

Luisi, Jonathan; Briley, David; Boretsky, Adam; Motamedi, Massoud

2014-05-01

377

Marfan Syndrome Presenting with Bilateral Retinal Detachment  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant systemic disorder of the connective tissue. Marfan syndrome affects most organs and tissues, especially the skeleton, lungs, eyes, heart, and the large blood vessels. Eye involvement may be in the form of retinal detachment which is a potentially dangerous manifestation for its sight threatening nature .We report a case where a 17 year old male developed sudden blindness due to spontaneous bilateral retinal detachment. Examination revealed features of Marfan syndrome and was stamped as a case of Marfan syndrome by Ghent criteria . The point to stress upon is that a young male developing spontaneous retinal detachment, a diagnosis of underlying Marfan syndrome should be kept in mind if appropriate clinical stigmata are present. [Natl J Med Res 2014; 4(1.000: 104-105

Subrata Chakrabarti

2014-02-01

378

Enhancing retinal images by nonlinear registration  

CERN Document Server

Being able to image the human retina in high resolution opens a new era in many important fields, such as pharmacological research for retinal diseases, researches in human cognition, nervous system, metabolism and blood stream, to name a few. In this paper, we propose to share the knowledge acquired in the fields of optics and imaging in solar astrophysics in order to improve the retinal imaging at very high spatial resolution in the perspective to perform a medical diagnosis. The main purpose would be to assist health care practitioners by enhancing retinal images and detect abnormal features. We apply a nonlinear registration method using local correlation tracking to increase the field of view and follow structure evolutions using correlation techniques borrowed from solar astronomy technique expertise. Another purpose is to define the tracer of movements after analyzing local correlations to follow the proper motions of an image from one moment to another, such as changes in optical flows that would be o...

Molodij, Guillaume; Glanc, Marie; Chenegros, Guillaume

2014-01-01

379

Shedding New Light on Retinal Protein Photochemistry  

Science.gov (United States)

The ultrafast spectroscopic investigation of novel retinal proteins challenges existing notions concerning the course of primary events in these natural photoreceptors. We review two illustrations here. The first demonstrates that changes in the initial retinal configuration can alter the duration of photochemistry by nearly an order of magnitude in Anabaena sensory rhodopsin, making it as rapid as the ballistic photoisomerization in visual pigments. This prompted a reinvestigation of the much studied bacteriorhodopsin, leading to a similar trend as well, contrary to earlier reports. The second involves the study of xanthorhodopsin, an archaeal proton pump that includes an attached light-harvesting carotenoid. Pump-probe experiments demonstrate the efficient transfer of energy from carotenoid to retinal, providing a first glimpse at a cooperative multichromophore function, which is probably characteristic of many other proteins as well. Finally, we discuss measures required to advance our knowledge from kinetics to mode-specific dynamics concerning this expanding family of biological photoreceptors.

Wand, Amir; Gdor, Itay; Zhu, Jingyi; Sheves, Mordechai; Ruhman, Sanford

2013-04-01

380

Cooperative robot assistant for retinal microsurgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper describes the development and results of initial testing of a cooperative robot assistant for retinal microsurgery. In the cooperative control paradigm, the surgeon and the robot share control of a tool attached to the robot through a force sensor. The system senses forces exerted by the operator on the tool and uses this information in various control modes to provide smooth, tremor-free, precise positional control and force scaling. The robot manipulator is specifically designed with retinal microsurgery in mind, having high efficacy, flexibility and ergonomics while meeting the accuracy and safety requirements of microsurgery. We have tested this robot on a biological model and we report the results for reliably cannulating approximately 80 microm diameter veins (equivalent in size to human retinal veins). We also describe improvements to the robot and the experimental setup facilitating more advanced set of experiments. PMID:18982647

Fleming, Ioana; Balicki, Marcin; Koo, John; Iordachita, Iulian; Mitchell, Ben; Handa, James; Hager, Gregory; Taylor, Russell

2008-01-01

381

Traumatic Axillary Artery Dissection with Radial Artery Embolism  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report describes a case of pathologically proven traumatic arterial dissection, presenting as complete occlusion of the axillary artery with radial artery embolism. Occlusion of the axillary artery by traumatic dissection mimicked transection and radial artery embolism mimicked congenital absence of the radial artery on the initial angiogram, but these were correctly diagnosed with the following sonogram

382

Reading visual Braille with a retinal prosthesis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Retinal prostheses, which restore partial vision to patients blinded by outer retinal degeneration, are currently in clinical trial. The Argus II retinal prosthesis system was recently awarded CE approval for commercial use in Europe. While retinal prosthesis users have achieved remarkable visual improvement to the point of reading letters and short sentences, the reading process is still fairly cumbersome. This study investigates the possibility of using an epiretinal prosthesis to stimulate visual Braille as a sensory substitution for reading written letters and words. The Argus II retinal prosthesis system, used in this study, includes a 10 x 6 electrode array implanted epiretinally, a tiny video camera mounted on a pair of glasses, and a wearable computer that processes the video and determines the stimulation current of each electrode in real time. In the Braille reading system, individual letters are created by a subset of dots from a 3 by 2 array of six dots. For the visual Braille experiment, a grid of six electrodes was chosen out of the 10 x 6 Argus II array. Groups of these electrodes were then directly stimulated (bypassing the camera to create visual percepts of individual Braille letters. Experiments were performed in a single subject. Single letters were stimulated in an alternative forced choice (AFC paradigm, and short 2-4-letter words were stimulated (one letter at a time in an open-choice reading paradigm. The subject correctly identified 89% of single letters, 80% of 2-letter, 60% of 3-letter, and 70% of 4-letter words. This work suggests that text can successfully be stimulated and read as visual Braille in retinal prosthesis patients.

ThomasZaccarinLauritzen

2012-11-01

383

Nicotine Accelerates Diabetes-Induced Retinal Changes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effects of nicotine on retinal alterations in early-stage diabetes in an established rodent model. Materials and Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were examined using a combination of confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and spectral domain optical coherence tomography to determine changes in retinal structure in response to nicotine exposure, diabetes and the combined effects of nicotine and diabetes. Diabetes was induced by a single injection of 65?mg/kg streptozotocin and nicotine injections were administered subcutaneously daily. Retinal thickness in the superior, inferior, nasal and temporal quadrants were determined based on the spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) volume scans (20°?×?20°) centered on the optic disc. Segmentation of discrete retinal layers was performed on a subset of SD-OCT cross-sections to further examine changes in each treatment group. Survival of neurons within the ganglion cell layer (GCL) was assessed by confocal morphometric imaging. Results: The control group did not experience any significant change throughout the study. The nicotine treatment group experienced an average decrease in total retinal thickness (TRT) of 9.4?µm with the majority of the loss localized within the outer nuclear layer (ONL) as determined by segmentation analysis (p?TRT while segmentation analysis of the diabetic retinopathy (DR) group revealed significant thinning within the ONL (p?TRT (p?retinal morphology in response to nicotine exposure, diabetes and with the combined effects of nicotine and diabetes. These findings may have implications in determining treatment strategies for diabetic patients using products containing nicotine, such as cigarettes, smokeless tobacco, electronic cigarettes or smoking cessation products. PMID:24911405

Boretsky, Adam; Gupta, Praveena; Tirgan, Nima; Liu, Rong; Godley, Bernard F; Zhang, Wenbo; Tilton, Ronald G; Motamedi, Massoud

2014-06-01

384

Bilateral cystoid macular edema with giant retinal achromic patch in a patient with tuberous sclerosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Retinal astrocytic hamartoma is the most common retinal finding in tuberous sclerosis and has been reported in association with cystoid macular edema. A retinal achromic patch is the second most common retinal finding in tuberous sclerosis. The authors report the first case of bilateral cystoid macular edema in which one the eyes does not have an identifiable retinal astrocytic hamartoma. They also describe a new retinal finding in tuberous sclerosis termed giant retinal achromic patch. PMID:25423644

Andrews, Laura; Lally, David R; Baumal, Caroline R

2014-01-01

385

Radial Artery Catheterization  

Science.gov (United States)

... condition. There are, however, risks unique to radial artery catheterization. Though rare, spasm of the muscles lining the wall of the radial artery may be experienced by some patients. This can ...

386

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... time, special tubes are attached to the biggest veins and arteries of the body, close to the ... and loaded with oxygen by the bypass machine. Veins taken from the legs, or arteries going to ...

387

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Introduction Sometimes people have serious problems with their heart and the arteries that go into it. Coronary ... surgery, or CABG, bypasses clogged arteries in the heart to improve blood flow to the heart and ...

388

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... to the chest wall or arteries from the arm (radial artery) are then used to bypass the ... where they will cause shortness of breath, chest pain, and possibly even death. Sometimes the shortness of ...

389

Carotid Artery Screening  

Science.gov (United States)

... on the severity of blockage in your arteries. Treatments for carotid artery disease may include medication to reduce cholesterol levels and high blood pressure, lifestyle changes (including healthy diet, exercise, and no smoking) and interventional procedures such ...

390

Retinal image analysis: preprocessing and feature extraction  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Image processing, analysis and computer vision techniques are found today in all fields of medical science. These techniques are especially relevant to modern ophthalmology, a field heavily dependent on visual data. Retinal images are widely used for diagnostic purposes by ophthalmologists. However, these images often need visual enhancement prior to apply a digital analysis for pathological risk or damage detection. In this work we propose the use of an image enhancement technique for the compensation of non-uniform contrast and luminosity distribution in retinal images. We also explore optic nerve head segmentation by means of color mathematical morphology and the use of active contours.

391

MEMS conformal electrode array for retinal implant.  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Retinal prosthesis projects around the world have been pursuing a functional replacement system for patients with retinal degeneration. In this paper, the concept for a micromachined conformal electrode array is outlined. Individual electrodes are designed to float on micromachined springs on a substrate that will enable the adjustment of spring constants-and therefore contact force-by adjusting the dimensions of the springs at each electrode. This also allows the accommodation of the varying curvature/topography of the retina. We believe that this approach provides several advantages by improving the electrode/tissue interface as well as generating some new options for in-situ measurements and overall system design.

Wessendorf, Kurt O.; Christenson, Todd R.; Myers, Ramona Lynn; Lemp, Thomas; Okandan, Murat; James, Conrad D.; Shul, Randy John; Stein, David J.; Baker, Michael Sean

2003-03-01

392

Vertebral artery aneurysms.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Vertebral artery (VA aneurysms are rare. We present our experience with three cases of VA aneurysms. Two aneurysms were located close to the origin of basilar artery while the third patient had a giant posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm. These aneurysms were operated by the far lateral inferior suboccipital approach with good results.

Ravi Kumar C

2000-04-01

393

Probing how initial retinal configuration controls photochemical dynamics in retinal proteins  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of the initial retinal configuration and the active isomerization coordinate on the photochemistry of retinal proteins (RPs are assessed by comparing photochemical dynamics of two stable retinal ground state configurations (all-trans,15-anti vs. 13-cis,15-syn, within two RPs: Bacteriorhodopsin (BR and Anabaena Sensory Rhodopsin (ASR. Hyperspectral pump-probe spectroscopy shows that photochemistry starting from 13-cis retinal in both proteins is 3-10 times faster than when started in the all-trans state, suggesting that the hastening is ubiquitous to microbial RPs, regardless of their different biological functions and origin. This may also relate to the known disparity of photochemical rates between microbial RPs and visual pigments. Importance and possible underlying mechanisms are discussed as well.

Sheves M.

2013-03-01

394

Current Concepts in the Treatment of Retinitis Pigmentosa  

Science.gov (United States)

Inherited retinal degenerations, including retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), affect 1 in 4000 individuals in the general population. A majority of the genes which are mutated in these conditions are expressed in either photoreceptors or the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). There is considerable variation in the clinical severity of these conditions; the most severe being autosomal recessive LCA, a heterogeneous retinal degenerative disease and the commonest cause of congenital blindness in children. Here, we discuss all the potential treatments that are now available for retinal degeneration. A number of therapeutic avenues are being explored based on our knowledge of the pathophysiology of retinal degeneration derived from research on animal models, including: gene therapy, antiapoptosis agents, neurotrophic factors, and dietary supplementation. Technological advances in retinal implant devices continue to provide the promise of vision for patients with end-stage disease. PMID:21048997

Musarella, Maria A.; MacDonald, Ian M.

2011-01-01

395

Cytomegalovirus retinitis after central retinal vein occlusion in a patient on systemic immunosuppression: does venooclusive disease predispose to cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients already at risk?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available John D Welling, Ahmad B Tarabishy, John ChristoforidisDepartment of Ophthalmology, Havener Eye Institute, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Cytomegalovirus (CMV retinitis remains the most common opportunistic ocular infection in immunocompromised patients. Patients with immunocompromising diseases, such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, inherited immunodeficiency states, malignancies, and those on systemic immunosuppressive therapy, are known to be at risk. Recently, it has been suggested that patients undergoing intravitreal injection of immunosuppressive agents may also be predisposed. One previous case report speculated that there may be an additional risk for CMV retinitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with venoocclusive disease. This case study presents a case of CMV retinitis following central retinal vein occlusion in a patient on systemic immunosuppressants.Keywords: cytomegalovirus retinitis, central retinal vein occlusion, immunosuppression, solid organ transplant, venous stasis, risk factor

Welling JD

2012-04-01

396

Histopathological findings after retinal endovascular lysis in central retinal vein occlusion  

OpenAIRE

This case study explores the histopathological findings 9 months after retinal endovascular lysis (REVL) in a 62-year-old woman having a 7-week-old, highly ischaemic central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) with hand movement vision. Angiographic examination 3 days postoperatively did not show improved arteriovenous passage time. In addition, the patient’s postoperative vision did not change, and despite intensive photocoagulation and cryotherapy in the early postoperative period, the globe ha...

Feltgen, Nicolas; Agostini, Hansjuergen; Auw-haedrich, Claudia; Hansen, Lutz L.

2009-01-01

397

Extended retinal tamponade in the treatment of retinal detachment with proliferative vitreoretinopathy.  

OpenAIRE

We have used intraocular sulphur hexafluoride or liquid silicone as an adjunct to vitreous surgery in the treatment of a non-randomised sequential series of 19 eyes with retinal detachment complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy. We have studied the surgical results and complications of these two tamponades and drawn preliminary conclusions on their use in retinal reattachment surgery. After a seven-month minimum follow-up 13 (68%) of the eyes have reattached retinas. Six (60%) of 10 e...

Stern, W. H.; Johnson, R. N.; Irvine, A. R.; Barricks, M. E.; Boyden, B. S.; Hilton, G. F.; Lonn, L. I.; Schwartz, A.

1986-01-01

398

Comparison of non-mydriatic retinal photography with ophthalmoscopy in 2159 patients: mobile retinal camera study.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE--To determine whether non-mydriatic Polaroid retinal photography was comparable to ophthalmoscopy with mydriasis in routine clinic screening for early, treatable diabetic retinopathy. DESIGN--Prospective study of ophthalmoscopic findings according to retinal camera screening and ophthalmoscopy and outcome of referral to ophthalmologist. SETTING--Outpatient diabetic clinics of three teaching hospitals and three district general hospitals. PATIENTS--2159 Adults selected randomly from ...

Taylor, R.; Lovelock, L.; Tunbridge, W. M.; Alberti, K. G.; Brackenridge, R. G.; Stephenson, P.; Young, E.

1990-01-01

399

Outer retinal abnormalities associated with inner retinal pathology in nonglaucomatous and glaucomatous optic neuropathies  

OpenAIRE

Inner and outer retinal morphology were quantified in vivo for 6 nonglaucomatous and 10 glaucomatous optic neuropathy patients. Custom, ultrahigh-resolution imaging modalities were used to evaluate segmented retinal layer thickness in 3D volumes (Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography), cone photoreceptor density (adaptive optics fundus camera), and the length of inner and outer segments of cone photoreceptors (adaptive optics–optical coherence tomography). Quantitative comparisons wer...

Werner, J. S.; Keltner, J. L.; Zawadzki, R. J.; Choi, S. S.

2011-01-01

400

Human retinal gene therapy for Leber congenital amaurosis shows advancing retinal degeneration despite enduring visual improvement  

OpenAIRE

The first retinal gene therapy in human blindness from RPE65 mutations has focused on safety and efficacy, as defined by improved vision. The disease component not studied, however, has been the fate of photoreceptors in this progressive retinal degeneration. We show that gene therapy improves vision for at least 3 y, but photoreceptor degeneration progresses unabated in humans. In the canine model, the same result occurs when treatment is at the disease stage equivalent to humans. The study ...

Cideciyan, Artur V.; Jacobson, Samuel G.; Beltran, William A.; Sumaroka, Alexander; Swider, Malgorzata; Iwabe, Simone; Roman, Alejandro J.; Olivares, Melani B.; Schwartz, Sharon B.; Koma?romy, Andra?s M.; Hauswirth, William W.; Aguirre, Gustavo D.

2013-01-01

401

Optimal management of cytomegalovirus retinitis in patients with AIDS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Michael W StewartDepartment of Ophthalmology, Mayo School of Medicine, Jacksonville, FL, USAAbstract: Cytomegalovirus (CMV retinitis is the most common cause of vision loss in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS. CMV retinitis afflicted 25% to 42% of AIDS patients in the pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART era, with most vision loss due to macula-involving retinitis or retinal detachment. The introduction of HAART significantly decreased the incidence and severity of CMV retinitis. Optimal treatment of CMV retinitis requires a thorough evaluation of the patient’s immune status and an accurate classification of the retinal lesions. When retinitis is diagnosed, HAART therapy should be started or improved, and anti-CMV therapy with oral valganciclovir, intravenous ganciclovir, foscarnet, or cidofovir should be administered. Selected patients, especially those with zone 1 retinitis, may receive intravitreal drug injections or surgical implantation of a sustained-release ganciclovir reservoir. Effective anti-CMV therapy coupled with HAART significantly decreases the incidence of vision loss and improves patient survival. Immune recovery uveitis and retinal detachments are important causes of moderate to severe loss of vision. Compared with the early years of the AIDS epidemic, the treatment emphasis in the post-HAART era has changed from short-term control of retinitis to long-term preservation of vision. Developing countries face shortages of health care professionals and inadequate supplies of anti-CMV and anti-HIV medications. Intravitreal ganciclovir injections may be the most cost effective strategy to treat CMV retinitis in these areas.Keywords: cytomegalovirus, AIDS, retinitis, immune recovery uveitis, retinal detachment, treatment

Michael W Stewart

2010-04-01

402

Reactive retinal microglia, neuronal survival, and the formation of retinal folds and detachments.  

Science.gov (United States)

Reactive microglia and macrophages are prevalent in damaged retinas. Accordingly, we investigate how the activation or ablation of microglia/macrophages influences the survival of neurons in the chick retina in vivo. We applied intraocular injections of interleukin 6 (IL6) to stimulate the reactivity of microglia/macrophages and clodronate-liposomes to ablate microglia/macrophages. Activation of the microglia/macrophages with IL6 delays the death of retinal neurons from N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) -induced excitotoxicity. In addition, activation of microglia/macrophages combined with colchicine-mediated retinal damage diminished the survival of ganglion cells. Application of IL6 after an excitotoxic insult greatly exacerbates the damage, and causes widespread retinal detachments and folds, accompanied by accumulation of microglia/macrophages in the subretinal space. Damage-induced retinal folds and detachments were significantly reduced by the ablation of microglia/macrophages. We conclude that microglial reactivity is detrimental to the survival of ganglion cells in colchicine-damaged retinas and detrimental to the survival of photoreceptors in retinal folds. In addition, we conclude that IL6-treatment transiently protects amacrine and bipolar cells against an excitotoxic insult. We propose that suppressing reactivity of microglia/macrophages may be an effective means to lessen the damage and vision loss resulting from damage, in particular during retinal detachment injuries. PMID:25231952

Fischer, Andy J; Zelinka, Christopher; Milani-Nejad, Nima

2015-02-01

403

[Retinal detachment with retinoschisis--case report].  

Science.gov (United States)

We present the case of a 43 year old patient diagnosed with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and retinoschizis, a rare case of disease association. Surgery is recommended and we practice 23 gauge vitrectomy, laser retinopexy, criopexy in the periphery and internal heavy oil tamponade. Postoperatory evolution was favorable. PMID:24844032

Cristescu, R; Mu?at, O; Toma, Oana; Coma, Corina; Gabej, Ioana; Burcea, M

2013-01-01

404

Fundus autofluorescence changes in cytomegalovirus retinitis  

OpenAIRE

A retrospective case series was undertaken to evaluate nine eyes of six patients with active CMV retinitis. Patients were evaluated with a comprehensive ophthalmic examination, fundus autofluorescence imaging, and fundus photography. Oral valganciclovir, intravitreal ganciclovir, intravitreal foscarnet, or a ganciclovir implant was administered as clinically indicated.

Yeh, Steven; Forooghian, Farzin; Faia, Lisa J.; Weichel, Eric D.; Wong, Wai T.; Sen, H. Nida; Chan-kai, Brian; Witherspoon, S. Robert; Lauer, Andreas K.; Chew, Emily Y.; Nussenblatt, Robert B.

2010-01-01

405

Vitreous Mediators in Retinal Hypoxic Diseases  

OpenAIRE

The causes of retinal hypoxia are many and varied. Under hypoxic conditions, a variety of soluble factors are secreted into the vitreous cavity including growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines. Cytokines, which usually serve as signals between neighboring cells, are involved in essentially every important biological process, including cell proliferation, inflammation, immunity, migration, fibrosis, tissue repair, and angiogenesis. Cytokines and chemokines are multifunctional mediators that...

Roberto dell'Omo; Francesco Semeraro; Giulio Bamonte; Francesco Cifariello; Romano, Mario R.; Ciro Costagliola

2013-01-01

406

CERKL knockdown causes retinal degeneration in zebrafish.  

Science.gov (United States)

The human CERKL gene is responsible for common and severe forms of retinal dystrophies. Despite intense in vitro studies at the molecular and cellular level and in vivo analyses of the retina of murine knockout models, CERKL function remains unknown. In this study, we aimed to approach the developmental and functional features of cerkl in Danio rerio within an Evo-Devo framework. We show that gene expression increases from early developmental stages until the formation of the retina in the optic cup. Unlike the high mRNA-CERKL isoform multiplicity shown in mammals, the moderate transcriptional complexity in fish facilitates phenotypic studies derived from gene silencing. Moreover, of relevance to pathogenicity, teleost CERKL shares the two main human protein isoforms. Morpholino injection has been used to generate a cerkl knockdown zebrafish model. The morphant phenotype results in abnormal eye development with lamination defects, failure to develop photoreceptor outer segments, increased apoptosis of retinal cells and small eyes. Our data support that zebrafish Cerkl does not interfere with proliferation and neural differentiation during early developmental stages but is relevant for survival and protection of the retinal tissue. Overall, we propose that this zebrafish model is a powerful tool to unveil CERKL contribution to human retinal degeneration. PMID:23671706

Riera, Marina; Burguera, Demian; Garcia-Fernàndez, Jordi; Gonzàlez-Duarte, Roser

2013-01-01

407

A Psychophysical Test for Retinitis Pigmentosa.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new test designed to detect an hereditary eye disease called retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is described. This condition is revealed by pigmentation in the retina, but early diagnosis is difficult because the symptoms are subtle, and since it is genetically recessive it frequently occurs in families with no history of early blindness. In many cases…

Corwin, Thomas R; Mancini, Michael

408

A continuum model of retinal electrical stimulation.  

Science.gov (United States)

A continuum mathematical model of retinal electrical stimulation is described. The model is represented by a passive vitreous domain, a thin layer of active retinal ganglion cell (RGC) tissue adjacent to deeper passive neural layers of the retina, the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) and choroid thus ending at the sclera. To validate the model, in vitro epiretinal responses to stimuli from 50 µm disk electrodes, arranged in a hexagonal mosaic, were recorded from rabbit retinas. 100 µs/phase anodic-first biphasic current pulses were delivered to the retinal surface in both the mathematical model and experiments. RGC responses were simulated and recorded using extracellular microelectrodes. The model's epiretinal thresholds compared favorably with the in vitro data. In addition, simulations showed that single-return bipolar electrodes recruited a larger area of the retina than twin-return or six-return electrodes arranged in a hexagonal layout in which a central stimulating electrode is surrounded by six, eqi-spaced returns. Simulations were also undertaken to investigate the patterns of RGC activation in an anatomically-accurate model of the retina, as well as RGC activation patterns for subretinal and suprachoroidal bipolar stimulation. PMID:22027346

Joarder, Saiful A; Abramian, Miganoosh; Suaning, Gregg J; Lovell, Nigel H; Dokos, Socrates

2011-12-01

409

Photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density  

Science.gov (United States)

Retinal degenerative diseases lead to blindness due to loss of the `image capturing' photoreceptors, while neurons in the `image-processing' inner retinal layers are relatively well preserved. Electronic retinal prostheses seek to restore sight by electrically stimulating the surviving neurons. Most implants are powered through inductive coils, requiring complex surgical methods to implant the coil-decoder-cable-array systems that deliver energy to stimulating electrodes via intraocular cables. We present a photovoltaic subretinal prosthesis, in which silicon photodiodes in each pixel receive power and data directly through pulsed near-infrared illumination and electrically stimulate neurons. Stimulation is produced in normal and degenerate rat retinas, with pulse durations of 0.5-4 ms, and threshold peak irradiances of 0.2-10 mW mm-2, two orders of magnitude below the ocular safety limit. Neural responses were elicited by illuminating a single 70 µm bipolar pixel, demonstrating the possibility of a fully integrated photovoltaic retinal prosthesis with high pixel density.

Mathieson, Keith; Loudin, James; Goetz, Georges; Huie, Philip; Wang, Lele; Kamins, Theodore I.; Galambos, Ludwig; Smith, Richard; Harris, James S.; Sher, Alexander; Palanker, Daniel

2012-06-01

410

Stem cell therapy for retinal diseases.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this review, we discuss about current knowledge about stem cell (SC) therapy in the treatment of retinal degeneration. Both human embryonic stem cell and induced pluripotent stem cell has been growth in culture for a long time, and started to be explored in the treatment of blinding conditions. The Food and Drug Administration, recently, has granted clinical trials using SC retinal therapy to treat complex disorders, as Stargardt's dystrophy, and patients with geographic atrophy, providing good outcomes. This study's intent is to overview the critical regeneration of the subretinal anatomy through retinal pigment epithelium transplantation, with the goal of reestablish important pathways from the retina to the occipital cortex of the brain, as well as the differentiation from pluripotent quiescent SC to adult retina, and its relationship with a primary retinal injury, different techniques of transplantation, management of immune rejection and tumorigenicity, its potential application in improving patients' vision, and, finally, approaching future directions and challenges for the treatment of several conditions. PMID:25621115

Garcia, José Mauricio; Mendonça, Luisa; Brant, Rodrigo; Abud, Murilo; Regatieri, Caio; Diniz, Bruno

2015-01-26

411

Stem cell therapy for retinal diseases  

Science.gov (United States)

In this review, we discuss about current knowledge about stem cell (SC) therapy in the treatment of retinal degeneration. Both human embryonic stem cell and induced pluripotent stem cell has been growth in culture for a long time, and started to be explored in the treatment of blinding conditions. The Food and Drug Administration, recently, has granted clinical trials using SC retinal therapy to treat complex disorders, as Stargardt’s dystrophy, and patients with geographic atrophy, providing good outcomes. This study’s intent is to overview the critical regeneration of the subretinal anatomy through retinal pigment epithelium transplantation, with the goal of reestablish important pathways from the retina to the occipital cortex of the brain, as well as the differentiation from pluripotent quiescent SC to adult retina, and its relationship with a primary retinal injury, different techniques of transplantation, management of immune rejection and tumorigenicity, its potential application in improving patients’ vision, and, finally, approaching future directions and challenges for the treatment of several conditions. PMID:25621115

Garcia, José Mauricio; Mendonça, Luisa; Brant, Rodrigo; Abud, Murilo; Regatieri, Caio; Diniz, Bruno

2015-01-01

412

Retinal oscillations carry visual information to cortex  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thalamic relay cells fire action potentials that transmit information from retina to cortex. The amount of information that spike trains encode is usually estimated from the precision of spike timing with respect to the stimulus. Sensory input, however, is only one factor that influences neural activity. For example, intrinsic dynamics, such as oscillations of networks of neurons, also modulate firing pattern. Here, we asked if retinal oscillations might help to convey information to neurons downstream. Specifically, we made whole-cell recordings from relay cells to reveal retinal inputs (EPSPs and thalamic outputs (spikes and then analyzed these events with information theory. Our results show that thalamic spike trains operate as two multiplexed channels. One channel, which occupies a low frequency band (<30 Hz, is encoded by average firing rate with respect to the stimulus and carries information about local changes in the visual field over time. The other operates in the gamma frequency band (40-80 Hz and is encoded by spike timing relative to retinal oscillations. At times, the second channel conveyed even more information than the first. Because retinal oscillations involve extensive networks of ganglion cells, it is likely that the second channel transmits information about global features of the visual scene.

KilianKoepsell

2009-04-01

413

Idiopathic juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasis: A current review  

OpenAIRE

Idiopathic juxtafoveolar retinal telangiectasis (IJFT), also known as parafoveal telangiectasis or idiopathic macular telangiectasia, refers to a heterogeneous group of well-recognized clinical entities characterized by telangiectatic alterations of the juxtafoveolar capillary network of one or both eyes, but which differ in appearance, presumed pathogenesis, and management strategies. Classically, three groups of IJFT are identified. Group I is unilateral easily visible telangiectasis occurr...

Nowilaty Sawsan; Al-Shamsi Hanan; Al-Khars Wajeeha

2010-01-01

414

Duplication of hepatic artery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: The hepatic arterial anatomy is aberrant in almost 33-41% of individuals. The variant arterial anatomy recognized during routine cadaveric dissection offers great learning potential. Such findings provide an alternative perspective to view common morphology and its structural and functional importance. These impart the concept of patient individuality and subsequent individualization of medical and surgical therapies. Adequate knowledge of normal and abnormal arterial anatomy is essential for peripancreatic surgery and liver transplantation. Aims of the study: To report on hepatic artery variations observed in the dissecting room and to find out the macroscopic pattern of varied human hepatic arterial vascularization by cadaveric dissection. Patients and Methods: Twenty human cadavers of caucasian origin were dissected to study the source and topographic pattern of hepatic arterial supply. Results: Nineteen cadavers exhibited typical hepatic arterial supply from the celiac axis. Only one female body out of twenty cadavers exhibited a dual arterial supply to all parts of liver and gallbladder. One artery originated from the celiac axis whereas the other was given off by the superior mesenteric artery. Conclusion: No doubt, aberrant hepatic vascularization should be assessed preoperatively by invasive and noninvasive techniques to avoid fatal complications, but we favour careful dissection over angiography as a means of defining the arterial anatomy.

Saeed Muhammad

2001-01-01

415

Retinal arteriolar responses to acute severe elevation in systemic blood pressure in cats: role of endothelium-derived factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to investigate the roles of endothelium-derived factors in the retinal arteriolar responses to acute severe elevation in systemic blood pressure (BP) in cats. Acute elevation of mean arterial BP by 60% for 5 min was achieved by inflating a balloon-tipped catheter in the descending aorta. The retinal arteriolar diameter, flow velocity, wall shear rate (WSR) and blood flow (RBF) changes during BP elevation were assessed with laser Doppler velocimetry 2 h after intravitreal injections of nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor l-NAME, cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, endothelin-1 receptor antagonists (BQ-123 for type A and BQ-788 for type B), or Rho kinase inhibitor fasudil. BP elevation caused a marked increase in retinal arteriolar flow velocity and WSR with slight vasoconstriction, resulting in an increase in RBF. The increases in velocity, WSR and RBF, but not diameter, were correlated with the increase in ocular perfusion pressure. With l-NAME or indomethacin, the increase in RBF upon BP elevation was significantly attenuated due to enhanced retinal arteriolar vasoconstriction. In contrast, BQ-123 and fasudil potentiated the increased RBF. BQ-788 had no effect on arteriolar diameter and hemodynamics. Our data suggest that acute elevation of BP by 60% leads to an increase in RBF due to the release of NO and prostanoids probably through a shear stress-induced vasodilation mechanism. The release of endothelin-1 and Rho kinase activation help to limit RBF augmentation by counteracting the vasodilation. It appears that the retinal endothelium, by releasing vasoactive substances, contributes to RBF regulation during acute severe elevation of systemic blood pressure. PMID:22940370

Nakabayashi, Seigo; Nagaoka, Taiji; Tani, Tomofumi; Sogawa, Kenji; Hein, Travis W; Kuo, Lih; Yoshida, Akitoshi

2012-10-01

416

Examination of postmortem retinal folds: A non-invasive study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The postmortem retinal fold has been previously documented, but its mechanism of formation is not known. All previous studies of the fold involved invasive techniques and the postmortem ocular fundus has yet to be non-invasively examined. Our study used the non-invasive techniques of monocular indirect ophthalmoscopy and ocular echography to examine 79 postmortem eyes of 42 bodies. We examined whether the postmortem retinal fold was associated with postmortem time, position, and/or age. Age was significantly associated with postmortem retinal fold formation (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.013), which led us to examine the effect of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) on retinal folds. The absence of a PVD was statistically associated with the presence of a retinal fold (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.0001). Interestingly, the presence of a PVD was also significantly correlated with retinal fold height (Mann-Whitney U test, P < 0.0001). Therefore, we hypothesized that retinal folds result from postmortem vitreoretinal traction caused by eyeball flaccidity. We also believe that the loss of retinochoroidal hydrostatic pressure plays a role. It is important that forensic pathologists not confuse a postmortem retinal fold with traumatic retinal detachment or perimacular retinal folds caused by child abuse. When child abuse is suspected, forensic pathologists should perform enucleation and a subsequent histological examination for confirmation. PMID:25623189

Oshima, Toru; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi; Ohtani, Maki; Mimasaka, Sohtaro

2015-02-01

417

Regional morphology and pathophysiology of retinal vascular disease  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Disturbances in the retinal vascular supply are involved in the pathophysiology of the most frequent diseases causing visual impairment and blindness in the Western World. These diseases are diagnosed by noting how morphological lesions in the retina vary in shape, size, location and dynamics, and subsequently concluding the presence of a specific disease entity. This diagnostic approach can be used to identify the site of a retinal vascular occlusion, to assess whether retinal diseases are primarily due to changes in the larger retinal vessels or the microcirculation, and to differentiate the relative involvement of the choroidal and the retinal vascular systems. However, a number of morphological manifestations of retinal vascular disease cannot presently be related to the underlying pathophysiology. The review concludes that there is a need for developing new methods for assessing vascular structure and function in the ciliary vascular system supplying the choroid and the optic nerve head. Presently, the study of these structures relies on imaging techniques with limited penetration and resolution into the tissue. Secondly, there is a need for studying oscillations in retinal vascular function occurring within days to weeks, and for studying regional manifestations of retinal vascular disease. This may constitute the basis for future research in retinal vascular pathophysiology and for the development of new treatment modalities to reduce blindness secondary to retinal vascular disease.

Bek, Toke

2013-01-01

418

N -methyl- N -nitrosourea-induced retinal degeneration in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mouse retinal degeneration models have been investigated for many years in the hope of understanding the mechanism of photoreceptor cell death. N -methyl- N -nitrosourea (MNU) has been previously shown to induce outer retinal degeneration in mice. After MNU was intraperitoneally injected in C57/BL mice, we observed a gradual decrease in the outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness associated with photoreceptor outer segment loss, bipolar cell dendritic retraction and reactive gliosis. Reactive gliosis was confirmed by increased GFAP protein levels. More serious damage to the central retina as opposed to the peripheral retina was found in the MNU-induced retinal degeneration model. Retinal ganglion cells (RGC) appear to be spared for at least two months after MNU treatment. Following retinal vessel labelling, we observed vascular complexes in the distal vessels, indicating retinal vessel damage. In the remnant retinal photoreceptor of the MNU-treated mouse, concentrated colouring nuclei were detected by electron microscopy, together with the loss of mitochondria and displaced remnant synaptic ribbons in the photoreceptor. We also observed decreased mitochondrial protein levels and increased amounts of nitrosylation/nitration in the photoreceptors. The mechanism of MNU-induced apoptosis may result from oxidative stress or the loss of retinal blood supply. MNU-induced mouse retinal degeneration in the outer retina is a useful animal model for photoreceptor degeneration diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). PMID:24509257

Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Liu, Shi-Liang; Hu, Dan-Ping; Xing, Yi-Qiao; Shen, Yin

2014-04-01

419

23-Gauge Sutureless Vitreo-Retinal Surgery for Superior Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To determine the results of 23-gauge sutureless vitreo-retinal surgery for superior/supero-temporal rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Study Design: Quasi experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: LRBT, Free Base Eye Hospital, Karachi, from January 2010 to December 2011. Methodology: Adult patients who underwent 23-gauge sutureless vitreo-retinal surgery along with use of Perfluoropropane (C3F8) gas as internal tamponading agent for fresh (upto 3 weeks) superior/supero-temporal RRD was reviewed. Major outcome measures were anatomical success, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) with Log Mar and complications during and after surgery. Postoperative follow-up was done on 1st day and at 1st, 4th, 8th and finally at 12th week. Results: Sixty eyes of 60 patients, age between 30 - 60 years including 37 (61.67%) males and 23 (38.33%) females having superior or superatemporal RRD underwent 23-guage sutureless vitreo-retinal surgery with the use of perfluoropropane (C3 F8) gas as internal temponade at the end of procedure. Anatomical success rate was 81.66% (49 out of 60 eyes) with first surgery and raised to 90% (54 cases) with second surgery. Log Mar BCVA significantly improved from mean baseline 0.93 to 0.49 with mean difference of 0.43 (p < 0.001), 95% confidence interval. Postoperative complications were sub-conjunctival haemorrhage in 11 eyes (18.33%), wound leak in 7 eyes (11.66%), anterior chamber became shallow in 6 eyes (10%), cataract developed in 5 eyes (8.33%), re-retinal detachment in 4 eyes (6.66%), ocular hypotony and sterile inflammatory reaction in 3 eyes (5%) each, while iatrogenic breaks developed in 2 eyes (3.33%). Conclusion: The 23-gauge sutureless vitreo-retinal surgery for superior rhegmatogenous retinal detachment achieved high anatomical success and significant visual improvement. Sub-conjunctival haemorrhage was the most frequent procedural complication. (author)

420

Unilateral Double Axillary and Double Brachial Arteries: Embryological Basis and Clinical Implications / Arterias Axilar y Braquial Dobles Unilaterales: Bases Embriológicas e Implicaciones Clínicas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish Este reporte describe la presencia de las arterias axilar y braquial duplicadas en el lado derecho de un cadáver adulto de sexo masculino. La arteria axilar derecha se bifurcó en arterias axilares I y II, localizadas posteriormente al músculo pectoral menor. Ambas arterias, con sus respectivas ramas [...] atravesaron bajo el músculo redondo mayor y continuaron como arterias braquiales I y II, respectivamente. La arteria axilar I, que se continuó como arteria braquial I, tuvo un trayecto superficial y tortuoso, mientras que la arteria axilar II fue de poco calibre y de localización profunda. Las arterias toracoacromial, torácica lateral y subescapular se originaron de la arteria axilar I. La arteria torácica superior se originó de la arteria toracoacromial. Las arterias circunflejas humerales anterior y posterior se originaron desde la arteria axilar II. La arteria braquial profundase originó de la arteria braquial II, mientras que a nivel de la línea intercondílea, la arteria ulnar se originó de la arteria braquial I. En la fosa cubital, la arteria braquial I se dividió en arterias radial e interósea común, mientras que la arteria braquial II terminó anastomosándose con la arteria braquial I. Las arterias ulnar, radial e interóseas común continuaron como arterias independientes y tuvieron un trayecto y distribución normales en el antebrazo. La persistencia de arterias axilar y braquial dobles tiene una base embriológica, pudiendo ser de interés para la embriología experimental. El conocimiento de estas variaciones arteriales múltiples, como el presente caso, es de importancia fundamental durante la medición de flujo en los vasos sanguíneos a través de Doppler, para el diagnóstico clínico y manejo quirúrgico de enfermedades que afectan al miembro superior Abstract in english This report presents double axillary and double brachial arteries on the right side of an adult male cadaver. In this case, the right axillary artery bifurcated into axillary artery I and axillary artery II posterior to the pectoralis minor muscle. Both the axillary arteries with their branches trav [...] ersed upto lower border of teres major muscle and continued further as seperate entities into the cubital fossa as brachial artery I and brachial artery II respectively. The axillary artery I which continued as brachial artery I was superficial and tortuous in its course, while the axillary artery II was slender and deeply situated. The thoraco-acromial, lateral thoracic and subscapular arteries took origin from axillary artery I. The superior thoracic artery was seen arising from the thoraco-acromial artery. The anterior and posterior circumflex humeral arteries arose from axillary artery II.The profunda brachii artery was given off by the brachial artery II, while at the level of intercondylar line, the ulnar artery was given off by brachial artery I. In the cubital fossa, the brachial artery divided into radial and common interosseous artery, while the brachial artery II ended by anastomosis with brachial artery I. The ulnar, radial and common interosseous arteries continued as separate entities and exhibited a normal course and distribution in the forearm.The hypothesis for the embryological basis of persistence of double axillary and double brachical arteries may be useful for experimental embryology. The knowledge of such multiple arterial variations as in the present case is of immense significance during Doppler scanning of blood vessels for clinical diagnosis and surgical management of diseases of superior extremity

S, Jayakumari; Gayatri, Rath; Jyoti, Arora.

2006-09-01

421

Variable involvement of the perivascular retinal tissue in carbonic anhydrase inhibitor induced relaxation of porcine retinal arterioles in vitro.  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

PURPOSE: Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase in the eye is an important treatment modality for reducing the intraocular pressure in glaucoma. However, evidence suggests that carbonic anhydrase inhibition also exerts a relaxing effect on the vessels in the optic nerve, and it has been suggested that this vasorelaxing effect is a result of an interplay between the perivascular tissue and constituents in the retinal vascular wall. However, the exact nature of this interplay is unknown. METHODS: Isolated porcine retinal arterioles and arterioles with preserved perivascular retinal tissue were mounted in a myograph. After precontraction with the prostaglandin analogue U46619, the vasorelaxing effect of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitors methyl bromopyruvate, ethyl bromopyruvate, acetazolamide, and dorzolamide were studied. RESULTS: All the examined carbonic anhydrase inhibitors induced a significant relaxation of retinal arterioles. There was no significant difference between the effect of the different carbonic anhydrase inhibitors in the presence of perivascular retinal tissue. However, in the isolated retinal arterioles the vasodilating effect of dorzolamide was significantly lower, and the vasodilating effect of acetazolamide almost disappeared. CONCLUSIONS: A further elucidation of the mechanisms of action of carbonic anhydrase-induced dilation of retinal arterioles may contribute to a better understanding of the regulation of retinal blood flow. The perivascular retinal tissue may play a significant role in diameter control of retinal arterioles. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Oct

Kehler, Anne Katrine; Holmgaard, Kim

2007-01-01

422

Intralobar pulmonary sequestration with aberrant systemic artery-pulmonary vein fistula -a case report-  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Intralobar pulmonary sequestration combined with aberrant systemic a tery-pulmonary vein fistula is rare congenital malformation. Authors experienced a case of intralobar pulmonary sequestration combined with arteriovenous fistula in left lower lung. The patient was 8 year-old male whose complaint was dyspnea on exertion. The continuous murmur was heard over the left posterior chest wall. The chest film showed multiple tortuous branching tubular shadows in the left lower lung field and dilated pulmonary vein at the infrahilar area. Thoracic aortogram showed that aberrant systemic artery originated from lower thoracic aorta and the arterial blood drained into left atrium directly through dilated left lower pulmonary vein. Left pulmonary arteriogram revealed that there was no vascular supply in the posterior basal segment of left lower lobe. At the time of operation, pulmonary sequestration was located in the posterior basal segment of left lower lobe and enveloped by the same visceral pleura. A segmentectomy of left lower lobe with ligation of aberrant vessels was performed

423

Intralobar pulmonary sequestration with aberrant systemic artery-pulmonary vein fistula -a case report-  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Intralobar pulmonary sequestration combined with aberrant systemic a tery-pulmonary vein fistula is rare congenital malformation. Authors experienced a case of intralobar pulmonary sequestration combined with arteriovenous fistula in left lower lung. The patient was 8 year-old male whose complaint was dyspnea on exertion. The continuous murmur was heard over the left posterior chest wall. The chest film showed multiple tortuous branching tubular shadows in the left lower lung field and dilated pulmonary vein at the infrahilar area. Thoracic aortogram showed that aberrant systemic artery originated from lower thoracic aorta and the arterial blood drained into left atrium directly through dilated left lower pulmonary vein. Left pulmonary arteriogram revealed that there was no vascular supply in the posterior basal segment of left lower lobe. At the time of operation, pulmonary sequestration was located in the posterior basal segment of left lower lobe and enveloped by the same visceral pleura. A segmentectomy of left lower lobe with ligation of aberrant vessels was performed.

Lee, Young Chun; Lee, Eun Hee; Nam, Myung Hyun; Jeon, Suk Cheol; Seo, Heung Suk; Hahm, Chang Kok; Lee, Kyu Hwan [College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

1987-04-15

424

Unexplained postoperative retinal hemorrhage after 23-gauge sutureless vitrectomy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hisato Ohno, Kenji InoueInouye Eye Hospital, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: We report five cases of unexplained retinal hemorrhage after 23-gauge sutureless vitrectomy. A 23-gauge sutureless vitrectomy was performed for four cases of macular holes (MH and one case of macular hole retinal detachment (MHRD. Retinal hemorrhages were observed on the first day after surgery and disappeared within several months without leaving any recognizable damage. We speculate that the retinal hemorrhages might have resulted from repeated collapse of the globe through a cannula under air perfusion, but other causes such as retinal vein congestion by face-down positioning are also possible.Keywords: retinal hemorrhage, vitrectomy, postoperative, macular hole, sutureless surgery

Ohno H

2011-07-01

425

The influences of age, retinal topography, and gender on retinal degeneration in the Fischer 344 rat.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Fischer 344 (F344) rat is presently the animal of choice for age-related research. The existence of an age-related retinal degeneration was reported previously in the males of this strain, but a gender comparison has not been performed. In this study, histological and morphometric measurements of the retina related to age, retinal topography, and gender were made on 3- to 24-month-old animals. The thicknesses of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) and the photoreceptor layer (PRL) were measured from sagittal sections at six loci. Retinas of both sexes showed steady decline with age in the thicknesses of the ONL and PRL at all locations. An important finding was the presence, after 12 months of age, of a drastically accelerated rate of peripheral retinal degeneration seen only in male subjects. Females showed a less dramatic rate of peripheral degeneration which did not begin until after 18 months of age. In addition, two other forms of retinal degeneration were found--cystoid degeneration was found earlier and more frequently in the male, while a paving-stone type of degeneration was found in both sexes. These two types of lesions were preferentially, but not exclusively found in the peripheral retina. In conclusion, the F344 rat offers a convenient model to study a pattern of retinal degeneration affected by the combination of gender, regional and age-related factors. PMID:7922494

DiLoreto, D; Cox, C; Grover, D A; Lazar, E; del Cerro, C; del Cerro, M

1994-06-01

426

Effects of pyruvate on retinal oxidative damage and retinal ultrastructure in diabetic rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM:To investigate the changes of retinal histology and oxidative stress in diabetic retinopathy and its reversal by pyruvate in diabetic rats. METHODS:Eighty Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups: control group(20 rats, model group(30 ratsand treatment group(30 rats. After streptozotocin(STZinduced diabetes mellitus in the model group and the treatment group, the treatment group received 2% pyruvate in diet and drinking. The changes of body weight and blood glucose were observed and the changes of glutathione peroxidase(GSH-PX, malonie dialdehyde(MDA, and Na+-K+-ATPase levels of retinal tissue and retinal ultrastructure were investigated in three groups at 12wk after occurrence of diabetes. RESULTS:Compared with control group, the body weight of the model group were significantly decreased, the activities of GSH-PX and ATP in the retina of diabetic rats were significantly lower, the MDA was signigicantly higher and significant changes occurred in retinal ultrastructure. Compared with model group, the blood glucose of the treatment group had no significant changes. However, the activities of GSH and ATP in the retina of diabetic rats were higher, the MDA was lower and the retinal ultrastructure was comparatively mild. CONCLUSION:Pyruvate can alleviate oxidatie stress reaction, improve the energy metabolism of retina, and delay the development of retinopathy.

Yan-Xiu Qi

2014-12-01

427

Scleral buckling with a noncontact wide-angle viewing system in the management of retinal detachment with undetected retinal break: a case report  

OpenAIRE

Mihori Kita, Yukiko Fujii, Naoaki Kawagoe, Sachiyo HamaDepartment of Ophthalmology, National Hospital Organization Kyoto Medical Center, Kyoto, JapanAbstract: A young patient who showed rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with preoperatively undetected retinal break was successfully treated by scleral buckling using a noncontact wide-angle viewing system.Keywords: retinal detachment, retinal breaks, scleral buckling, noncontact wide-angle viewing system

Kita M; Fujii Y; Kawagoe N; Hama S

2013-01-01

428

Celiac Artery Compression Syndrome  

OpenAIRE

Celiac artery compression syndrome is a rare disorder characterized by episodic abdominal pain and weight loss. It is the result of external compression of celiac artery by the median arcuate ligament. We present a case of celiac artery compression syndrome in a 57-year-old male with severe postprandial abdominal pain and 30-pound weight loss. The patient eventually responded well to surgical division of the median arcuate ligament by laparoscopy.

Mohammed Muqeetadnan; Syed Amer; Ambreen Rahman; Salman Nusrat; Syed Hassan

2013-01-01

429

Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome is a rare abnormality of the anatomical relationship between the popliteal artery and adjacent muscles or fibrous bands in the popliteal fossa. The following is a case report of a 19 year old female, in whom popliteal artery entrapment syndrome was diagnosed, and successfully treated surgically. A review of literature is also presented and provides details on how PAES is classified, diagnosed both clinically and radiologically, and treated surgically.

O'Leary, D P

2010-01-01

430

Retinal angiographic blood flowmetry is reduced in the ocular ischaemic syndrome  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to examine the use of quantitative fluorescein angiographic analysis as a means of estimating rates of perfusion of the retina in eyes with a circulatory deficit secondary to carotid artery stenosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 21 eyes with ocular ischaemic syndrome (OIS) and 20 control eyes from subjects with carotid artery stenosis but without signs of ocular ischaemia. Analyses of video fluorescein angiograms extracting time intervals for the time delay between specific phases of the angiogram were performed. Time delay was compared between groups and in relation to degree of carotid artery stenosis and ocular systolic blood pressure. RESULTS: Among the three flow indices of retinal perfusion (arteriovenous passage time 1 (AVP1), arteriovenous passage time 2 (AVP2) and venous filling time (VP)), those including the venous filling phase were significantly prolonged in the OIS group. Furthermore, AVP2 was delayed by 3 sec. in OIS eyes (16.6 sec. versus 13.6 sec. in controls). VP was 2.4 sec. longer in OIS eyes (11.5 sec. versus 9.1 sec.). We found a significant correlation between AVP2 and ocular perfusion pressure, but no correlation between the degree of carotid artery stenosis and any of the flow indices. CONCLUSION: In a patient population spanning a wide ocular systolic blood pressure range, angiography-based quantitative flowmetry demonstrated a difference between carotid artery stenosis patients with and without OIS and a correlation between flow and ocular perfusion pressure. While angiographic flowmetry proved effective in discriminating between groups of individuals, it can only be used to support the diagnosis of the ocular ischaemic syndrome in patients with extreme flow reduction.

Hansen, Grith Lssrkholm; Kofoed, Peter Kristian

2013-01-01

431

Interventions for prevention of giant retinal tear in the fellow eye  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: A giant retinal tear is a full-thickness retinal break that extends circumferentially around the retina for 90 degrees or more in the presence of a posteriorly detached vitreous. It causes significant visual morbidity from retinal detachment and proliferative vitreoretinopathy. The fellow eye of patients who have had a spontaneous giant retinal tear has an increased risk of developing a giant retinal tear, a retinal detachment or both. Interventions such as 360-degree encircling s...

Ang, Gs; Townend, J.; Lois, N.

2009-01-01

432

Retinal detachment in identical twins with Stickler syndrome type 1.  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: The high incidence of retinal detachment and its poor surgical prognosis in patients with Stickler syndrome are well known. However, the vitreoretinal relation to retinal detachment in this syndrome is uncertain. METHODS: Vitreoretinal examination with a binocular indirect ophthalmoscope and a Goldmann three mirror contact lens was performed on identical twin boys with Stickler syndrome. Each had retinal detachment in the left eye, and many aspects of their fundus findings were si...

Watanabe, Y.; Ueda, M.; Adachi-usami, E.

1996-01-01

433

Alterations in Retinal Microvascular Geometry in Young Type 1 Diabetes  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE - To describe retinal microvascular geometric parameters in young patients with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Patients with type 1 diabetes (aged 12-20 years) had clinical assessments and retinal photography following standardized protocol at a tertiary-care hospital in Sydney. Retinal microvascular geometry, including arteriolar and venular tortuosity, branching angles, optimality deviation, and length-to-diameter ratio (LDR), were measured from digitized photograp...

Sasongko, Muhammad Bayu; Wang, Jie Jin; Donaghue, Kim C.; Cheung, Ning; Benitez-aguirre, Paul; Jenkins, Alicia; Hsu, Wynne; Lee, Mong-li; Wong, Tien Y.

2010-01-01

434

Rat adult stem cell differentiation into immature retinal cells  

OpenAIRE

Cell therapy has been proposed as an alternative treatment for retinal diseases. Applications involving stem cells have shown that undifferentiated cells fail to engraft and cannot convert to retinal cells. However, positive results have been reported for retinal precursor cells, suggesting that this approach is the best option. Unfortunately, the source of this cell type is controversial. Predifferentiated adult stem cells may provide an alternative source of cells. The present study propose...

Moreno-cuevas, Jorge E.; Ma Teresa González-Garza

2012-01-01

435

Retinal oximeter for the blue-green oximetry technique  

OpenAIRE

Retinal oximetry offers potential for noninvasive assessment of central venous oxyhemoglobin saturation (SO2) via the retinal vessels but requires a calibrated accuracy of ±3% saturation in order to be clinically useful. Prior oximeter designs have been hampered by poor saturation calibration accuracy. We demonstrate that the blue-green oximetry (BGO) technique can provide accuracy within ±3% in swine when multiply scattered light from blood within a retinal vessel is isolated. A noninvasiv...

Denninghoff, Kurt R.; Sieluzycka, Katarzyna B.; Hendryx, Jennifer K.; Ririe, Tyson J.; Deluca, Lawrence; Chipman, Russell A.

2011-01-01

436

CMV retinitis in China and SE Asia: the way forward  

OpenAIRE

Abstract AIDS-related CMV retinitis is a common clinical problem in patients with advanced HIV/AIDS in China and Southeast Asia. The disease is causing blindness, and current clinical management, commonly characterized by delayed diagnosis and inadequate treatment, results in poor clinical outcomes: 21% - 36% of eyes with CMV retinitis are already blind at the time the diagnosis is first established by an ophthalmologist. CMV retinitis also identifies a group of patients at extraord...

Heiden David; Saranchuk Peter

2011-01-01

437

Treatment of macular edema due to retinal vein occlusions  

OpenAIRE

Roomasa Channa, Michael Smith, Peter A CampochiaroDepartments of Ophthalmology and Neuroscience, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Retinal vein occlusion (RVO) is a prevalent retinal vascular disease, second only to diabetic retinopathy. Previously there was no treatment for central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) and patients were simply observed for the development of severe complications, generally resulting in poor visual outcomes. The only treatm...

Channa R; Smith M; Campochiaro P

2011-01-01

438

Management of varicella zoster virus retinitis in AIDS  

OpenAIRE

AIMS/BACKGROUND—Varicella zoster virus retinitis (VZVR) in patients with AIDS, also called progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN), is a necrotising viral retinitis which has resulted in blindness in most patients. The purposes of this study were to investigate the clinical course and visual outcome, and to determine if the choice of a systemic antiviral therapy affected the final visual outcome in patients with VZVR and AIDS.?METHODS—A review of the clinical records of 20 patients w...

Moorthy, R.; Weinberg, D.; Teich, S.; Berger, B.; Minturn, J.; Kumar, S.; Rao, N.; Fowell, S.; Loose, I.; Jampol, L.

1997-01-01

439

Retinal Dehydrogenase 12 (RDH12) Mutations in Leber Congenital Amaurosis  

OpenAIRE

Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), the most early-onset and severe form of all inherited retinal dystrophies, is responsible for congenital blindness. Ten LCA genes have been mapped, and seven of these have been identified. Because some of these genes are involved in the visual cycle, we regarded the retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptor-specific retinal dehydrogenase (RDH) genes as candidate genes in LCA. Studying a series of 110 unrelated patients with LCA, we found mutations in the p...

Perrault, Isabelle; Hanein, Sylvain; Gerber, Sylvie; Barbet, Fabienne; Ducroq, Dominique; Dollfus, Helene; Hamel, Christian; Dufier, Jean-louis; Munnich, Arnold; Kaplan, Josseline; Rozet, Jean-michel

2004-01-01

440

Effect of preoperative posture and binocular occlusion on retinal detachment.  

OpenAIRE

In an unselected series of retinal detachments a 24-hour period of binocular occlusion and posture with a retinal hole dependent produces some resolution of subretinal fluid in 13% of cases. If only patients with acute, freely mobile detachments and retinal holes above the horizontal meridian were selected the proportion of detachments showing some resolution rose to 30%. In 8% of cases a paradoxical response occurred, the detachment increasing in depth or extending to involve an additional a...

Lean, J. S.; Mahmood, M.; Manna, R.; Chignell, A. H.

1980-01-01

441

Scleral buckling for retinal detachment in patients with retinoblastoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Three children (two girls and one boy) with bilateral retinoblastoma each developed a presumed rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in one eye. All three eyes had previously received radiation and cryotherapy. In each case the retinal detachment responded promptly to conventional surgical methods via scleral buckling in the area of treated retinoblastoma and presumed retinal break. All three eyes have retained useful vision for follow-up periods of 3.5 to 12 years.

Buzney, S.M.; Pruett, R.C.; Regan, C.D.; Walton, D.S.; Smith, T.R.

1984-10-15

442

Case of Bilateral Retinal Neovascularization Associated with Chronic Idiopathic Myelofibrosis  

OpenAIRE

We report a case of bilateral peripheral retinal neovascularization and chronic idiopathic myelofibrosis in a 69-year-old man. Ophthalmic examination revealed peripheral retinal nonperfusion with retinal neovascularization in both eyes and vitreous hemorrhage in the right eye. Fluorescein angiography of both eyes showed a marked midperipheral and peripheral avascular retina temporally with arteriovenous anastomosis and sea-fan neovascularizations. Blood tests showed pancytopenia and teardrop-...

Kim, Moon Jung; Yu, Hyeong Gon

2010-01-01

443

Retinal Proliferation Response in the Buphthalmic Zebrafish, bugeye  

OpenAIRE

The zebrafish retina regenerates in response to acute retinal lesions, replacing damaged neurons with new neurons. In this study we test the hypothesis that chronic stress to inner retinal neurons also triggers a retinal regeneration response in the bugeye zebrafish. Mutations in the lrp2 gene in zebrafish are associated with a progressive eye phenotype (bugeye) that models several risk factors for human glaucoma including buphthalmos (enlarged eyes), elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), and ...

Sherpa, Tshering; Hunter, Samuel S.; Frey, Ruth A.; Robison, Barrie D.; Stenkamp, Deborah L.

2011-01-01

444

Regularized Estimation of Retinal Vascular Oxygen Tension From Phosphorescence Images  

OpenAIRE

The level of retinal oxygenation is potentially an important cue to the onset or presence of some common retinal diseases. An improved method for assessing oxygen tension in retinal blood vessels from phosphorescence lifetime imaging data is reported in this paper. The optimum estimate for phosphorescence lifetime and oxygen tension is obtained by regularizing the least-squares (LS) method. The estimation method is implemented with an iterative algorithm to minimize a regularized LS cost func...

Yildirim, Isa; Ansari, Rashid; Wanek, Justin; Yetik, Imam Samil; Shahidi, Mahnaz

2009-01-01

445

An Active Retinal Tracker for Clinical Optical Coherence Tomography Systems  

OpenAIRE

An active, hardware-based retinal tracker was built into a clinical optical coherence tomography (OCT) system for stabilization of high-resolution retinal sections. The retinal tracker locks onto common fundus features, detects transverse eye motion via changes in feature reflectance, and positions the OCT diagnostic beam to fixed coordinates on the retina with mirrors driven by a feedback control loop. The system was tested in a full clinical protocol on subjects with normal and glaucomatous...

Hammer, Daniel X.; Ferguson, R. Daniel; Paunescu, Lelia Adelina; Beaton, Siobahn; Schuman, Joel S.

2005-01-01

446

Retinal Fundus Image Registration via Vascular Structure Graph Matching  

OpenAIRE

Motivated by the observation that a retinal fundus image may contain some unique geometric structures within its vascular trees which can be utilized for feature matching, in this paper, we proposed a graph-based registration framework called GM-ICP to align pairwise retinal images. First, the retinal vessels are automatically detected and represented as vascular structure graphs. A graph matching is then performed to find global correspondences between vascular bifurcations. Fina...

Kexin Deng; Jie Tian; Jian De Zheng; Xing Zhang; Xiaoqian Dai; Min Xu

2010-01-01

447

Progressive Outer Retinal Necrosis and Immunosuppressive Therapy in Myasthenia Gravis  

Science.gov (United States)

Introduction Progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) is a rare but devastating infectious retinitis associated with varicella zoster virus (VZV) and responsible for severe visual loss. Case Report A 59-year-old man treated for generalized myasthenia with oral azathioprine and prednisone presented with severe unilateral necrotizing retinitis. Polymerase chain reaction of the aqueous and vitreous humors was diagnostic for VZV PORN. Conclusion VZV PORN is a severe potential ocular complication of immunosuppression, prompting urgent diagnosis and appropriate treatment. PMID:24926266

Coisy, Solène; Ebran, Jean-Marc; Milea, Dan

2014-01-01

448

Identification of diabetic retinopathy stages in human retinal image  

OpenAIRE

A novel method to identify the Diabetic retinopathy stages in human retinal image is proposed. Diabetic retinopathy is the dangerous eye disease cause the blindness in worldwide. The first manifestation of diabetic retinopathy is microaneurysms. They are appearing as small reddish dot in human retinal image. The number of microaneurysms is the important parameter used to identify the severity of the diabetic retinopathy. Hence the detection of microaneurysms in human retinal image is the majo...

A Alaimahal, Dr S. Vasuki

2013-01-01

449

Rapid glutamate receptor 2 trafficking during retinal degeneration  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Retinal degenerations, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and retinitis pigmentosa (RP), are characterized by photoreceptor loss and anomalous remodeling of the surviving retina that corrupts visual processing and poses a barrier to late-stage therapeutic interventions in particular. However, the molecular events associated with retinal remodeling remain largely unknown. Given our prior evidence of ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) reprogra...

Lin Yanhua; Jones Bryan W; Liu Aihua; Vazquéz-Chona Félix R; Scott, Lauritzen J.; Drew, Ferrell W.; Marc Robert E

2012-01-01