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Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups)  

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Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups) How are steroid pills and syrups used? What is a steroid burst? What about routine ... Want to learn more about steroids? How are steroid pills and syrups used? Steroid pills and syrups ...

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Improved water and sodium absorption from oral rehydration solutions based on rice syrup in a rat model of osmotic diarrhea.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rice syrup solids, rice protein, and casein hydrolysate were added to experimental oral rehydration solutions in various combinations and tested in a rat intestinal perfusion system. Chronic osmotic diarrhea was induced in juvenile rats by supplying the cathartic agents, magnesium citrate and phenolphthalein, in their drinking water for 1 week. The experimental oral rehydration solutions were compared with standard oral rehydration solutions containing 20 gm/L or 30 gm/L of glucose and with each other to determine if there were significant differences in net water, sodium, or potassium absorption. An oral rehydration solution containing 30 gm/L of rice syrup solids had a net water absorption rate significantly higher than that of the standard 20 gm/L glucose-based oral rehydration solution (2.1 +/- 0.62 versus 1.5 +/- 0.48 microliters/[min x cm], p less than 0.05). Casein hydrolysate did not significantly affect net water absorption. However, combinations of 30 gm/L rice syrup solids and 5 gm/L casein hydrolysate significantly increased (p less than 0.05) net sodium and potassium absorption compared with the 20 gm/L glucose-based oral rehydration solution but not versus rice syrup solids alone. Oral rehydration solutions containing 30 gm/L rice syrup solids plus 5 gm/L rice protein, and 30 gm/L rice syrup solids plus 5 gm/L casein hydrolysate, had net water absorption rates significantly higher than the rate of a 30 gm/L glucose-based oral rehydration solution (2.5 +/- 0.36 and 2.4 +/- 0.38, respectively, versus 0.87 +/- 0.40 microliters/[min x cm], p less than 0.05). Rice protein and casein hydrolysate, however, did not significantly affect net water, sodium, or potassium absorption when added to rice protein glucose-based oral rehydration solutions. An inverse correlation between osmolality and net water absorption was observed (r = -0.653, p less than 0.02). The data suggest that substitution of rice syrup solids for glucose in oral rehydration solutions will improve water absorption and that rice syrup solids in combination with protein hydrolysates may, in addition, promote better sodium and potassium uptake.

Wapnir RA; Litov RE; Zdanowicz MM; Lifshitz F

1991-04-01

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Improved water and sodium absorption from oral rehydration solutions based on rice syrup in a rat model of osmotic diarrhea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rice syrup solids, rice protein, and casein hydrolysate were added to experimental oral rehydration solutions in various combinations and tested in a rat intestinal perfusion system. Chronic osmotic diarrhea was induced in juvenile rats by supplying the cathartic agents, magnesium citrate and phenolphthalein, in their drinking water for 1 week. The experimental oral rehydration solutions were compared with standard oral rehydration solutions containing 20 gm/L or 30 gm/L of glucose and with each other to determine if there were significant differences in net water, sodium, or potassium absorption. An oral rehydration solution containing 30 gm/L of rice syrup solids had a net water absorption rate significantly higher than that of the standard 20 gm/L glucose-based oral rehydration solution (2.1 +/- 0.62 versus 1.5 +/- 0.48 microliters/[min x cm], p less than 0.05). Casein hydrolysate did not significantly affect net water absorption. However, combinations of 30 gm/L rice syrup solids and 5 gm/L casein hydrolysate significantly increased (p less than 0.05) net sodium and potassium absorption compared with the 20 gm/L glucose-based oral rehydration solution but not versus rice syrup solids alone. Oral rehydration solutions containing 30 gm/L rice syrup solids plus 5 gm/L rice protein, and 30 gm/L rice syrup solids plus 5 gm/L casein hydrolysate, had net water absorption rates significantly higher than the rate of a 30 gm/L glucose-based oral rehydration solution (2.5 +/- 0.36 and 2.4 +/- 0.38, respectively, versus 0.87 +/- 0.40 microliters/[min x cm], p less than 0.05). Rice protein and casein hydrolysate, however, did not significantly affect net water, sodium, or potassium absorption when added to rice protein glucose-based oral rehydration solutions. An inverse correlation between osmolality and net water absorption was observed (r = -0.653, p less than 0.02). The data suggest that substitution of rice syrup solids for glucose in oral rehydration solutions will improve water absorption and that rice syrup solids in combination with protein hydrolysates may, in addition, promote better sodium and potassium uptake. PMID:2007957

Wapnir, R A; Litov, R E; Zdanowicz, M M; Lifshitz, F

1991-04-01

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PREPARATIONS FOR ORAL AND/OR TOPICAL APPLICATION  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides preparations for oral and/or topical application, containing (a) carotene compounds, (b) tocopherols, (c) extracts of Passiflora incarnata or active agents thereof and optionally (d) extracts of Vaccinium myrtillus or active agents thereof.

BUCHWALD-WERNER Sybille; CARITE Christophe; BLASQUEZ José. Fernandez; RULL PROUS Santiago; LE HEN FERRENBACH Catherine

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Comparison of topical tretinoin and betamethasone in oral lichen planus  

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Full Text Available Thirty-one patients of oral lichen planus were enrolled in this study and two groups were made. Group 1 consisting of 16 patients who applied topical tretinoin 0.05% and Group 2 comprising of 15 patients who were given topical betamethasone dipropionate 0.05%. The patients applying tretinoin showed statistically significant improvement as compared to patients applying betamethasone.

Kar H; Parsad D; Gautam R; Jain R; Sharma P

1996-01-01

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Comparison of topical tretinoin and betamethasone in oral lichen planus  

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Thirty-one patients of oral lichen planus were enrolled in this study and two groups were made. Group 1 consisting of 16 patients who applied topical tretinoin 0.05% and Group 2 comprising of 15 patients who were given topical betamethasone dipropionate 0.05%. The patients applying tre...

Kar H; Parsad D; Gautam R; Jain R; Sharma P

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Interviewers’ Gender and Interview Topic in Oral Exams  

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Full Text Available Nowadays, language schools tend to include more of oral exams as part of their course completion assessment instruments in addition to traditional written exams. The major purpose of this study was accordingly to investigate the relationship between interviewers' gender, interview topic and oral performance. Thirty female upper-intermediate students were selected. All the participants were interviewed twice, once by a female and once by a male interviewer and each time they were required to talk about two topics, one gender-neutral and another gender-biased. All the performances were scored twice with an inter-rater reliability of +.88 and +.89 for two interviews respectively. A comparative analysis of the interview scores indicated that students achieved higher scores when interviewed by a female interviewer. With respect to interview topic, students performed better on gender-neutral topic.

Javad Gholami; Karim Sadeghi; Sanaz Nozad

2011-01-01

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Oral and topical antibiotic prescriptions for children in general practice.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Most primary care clinical guidelines recommend restrictive antibiotic use for childhood infections. We investigated antibiotic prescription rates over time for oral and topical antibiotics for children (?12 years) in the period 2000-2010. DESIGN, SETTING AND PATIENTS: Longitudinal observational study among children (?12 years) in a large Dutch general practice database in the period 2000-2010. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Oral and topical antibiotic prescribing rates per year and independent factors influencing antibiotic prescriptions. RESULTS: We analysed 108 555 patient-years during 2000-2010. At least one chronic disease was recorded in 15.8% of patient-years, with asthma most commonly registered. In 14.8% of the patient-years at least one antibiotic was prescribed, while 26.3% of these received two or more prescriptions. Young age and chronic disease had a significant effect on antibiotic prescriptions. Prescriptions for oral and topical antibiotics increased 4.9% and 1.8%, respectively, during 2000-2005 (p<0.001). Prescription rates for oral antibiotics decreased 3.3% during 2006-2010 (p<0.001), while topical prescribing rates remained stable. CONCLUSIONS: One in six children received at least one oral antibiotic prescription per year during 2000-2010. While topical prescription rates steadily increased during 2005-2010 and remained stable during 2006-2010, prescription rates for oral antibiotics increased significantly during the period 2000-2005 and then significantly decreased during the period 2006-2010. As clinical guidelines remained the same over this period, the effects could be contributed to the initiation of the Dutch nationwide pneumococcal vaccination campaign in 2006.

de Bont EG; van Loo IH; Dukers-Muijrers NH; Hoebe CJ; Bruggeman CA; Dinant GJ; Cals JW

2013-03-01

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ANTIOXIDANT PREPARATION FOR ORAL AND/OR TOPICAL APPLICATION  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides preparations for oral and/or topical application, containing (a) tocopherols, (b) oligomers of procyanolidine, (c) extracts of Trifolium pratense or active agents thereof, optionally (d) extracts of Passiflora incarnata or active agents thereof and/or (e) carotene compounds.

BUCHWALD-WERNER Sybille; CARITE Christophe; BLASQUEZ José Fernandez; RULL PROUS Santiago; LE HEN FERRENBACH Catherine

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Clinical treatment evaluations of a new topical oral medication.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Clinical symptoms of viral infections, such as herpes labialis (cold sores) and oral ulcers (canker sores), are common in adulthood, affecting approximately 19% of adults aged 25 to 44 years. For some patients, lesions last longer, are more painful, and are more difficult to treat, requiring medications that allow the affected area to heal but do little to alleviate pain. Conventionally, pain caused by oral ulcerations has been addressed with either topical analgesics or systemic pain medications. However, a recently introduced over-the-counter topical medication (ORABASE Soothe.N.Seal) has been shown to be an effective pain-relieving adjunct to healing therapies. This article reviews the characteristics of painful oral ulcerations and details the research findings of a clinical trial of the use of this new medication.

Reznik D; O'Daniels CM

2001-01-01

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Clinical treatment evaluations of a new topical oral medication.  

Science.gov (United States)

Clinical symptoms of viral infections, such as herpes labialis (cold sores) and oral ulcers (canker sores), are common in adulthood, affecting approximately 19% of adults aged 25 to 44 years. For some patients, lesions last longer, are more painful, and are more difficult to treat, requiring medications that allow the affected area to heal but do little to alleviate pain. Conventionally, pain caused by oral ulcerations has been addressed with either topical analgesics or systemic pain medications. However, a recently introduced over-the-counter topical medication (ORABASE Soothe.N.Seal) has been shown to be an effective pain-relieving adjunct to healing therapies. This article reviews the characteristics of painful oral ulcerations and details the research findings of a clinical trial of the use of this new medication. PMID:11915639

Reznik, D; O'Daniels, C M

2001-01-01

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Topical tacrolimus and oral diseases: a short literature review  

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Full Text Available Tacrolimus is the generic name forthe macrolide immunosupressant previously known by its experimental name, FK506. This new name is derived from Tsukuba, the location of its discovery; macrolide, its chemical class; and immune suppressant, its primary activity in humans. Recent reports suggest thattopical tacrolimus may be used forthe treatment of mucosal diseases, including oral psoriasis, Crohn’s disease, exfoliative cheilitis, oral lichen planus, graft versus host disease, paraneoplastic pemphigus, bullous pemphigoid and cicatricial pemphigoid. Topical tacrolimus treatment seems to be effective, but this must be proven by well designed randomized controlled studies.

Mohamed Mahmoud Anees; Jacek Szepietowski

2007-01-01

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Topical retinoids in oral lichen planus treatment: an overview.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Treatment of oral lichen planus (OLP) is a major challenge for clinicians and patients. There is limited scientific evidence about topical treatment with retinoids. We conducted a literature review of data on the effectiveness and safety of topical retinoids in OLP patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched the MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane databases for articles on topical retinoids treatment on OLP patients (searches from 1970 to February 2012). RESULTS: Sixteen studies (280 OLP patients topically treated with different classes of retinoids) met the inclusion criteria. Isotretinoin was the most frequently employed retinoid in the treatment of OLP. The clinical and/or histopathological efficacy of retinoids was recorded in the majority of the selected studies. A transient and moderate burning sensation was the most frequently reported side effect. CONCLUSIONS: Topical retinoids appear as an alternative choice in OLP treatment. Whether keratotic OLP better responds to topical retinoids than erosive OLP is still an open question that deserves further comparative and controlled clinical trials. The benefits and harms of using topical retinoids in people with OLP require thorough evaluation in properly designed controlled studies.

Petruzzi M; Lucchese A; Lajolo C; Campus G; Lauritano D; Serpico R

2013-01-01

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Local irritant effects of topical oral sprays on oral mucosa in mice.  

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Topical oral sprays are frequently used to prevent and manage oropharyngeal inflammation and lesions. This study investigated the histopathologic changes noted in the oral mucosa of mice after topical application of 3 widely prescribed antibacterial products. The 25 animals were divided into 5 groups and treated for 10 days with 2 sprays daily, as follows: group 1-chlorhexidine gluconate 0.12% + benzydamine hydrochloride 0.15%; group 2-benzydamine 0.27 mg/0.18 mL x 30 mL; group 3-chlorhexidine 0.2%; group 4-fusafungine 1%; and group 5 (cohort)-physiologic serum. On day 10 after drug administration, biopsy specimens were taken from the oropharyngeal mucosa of the tongue, the cheek mucosa, and the tongue base; these were examined under a light microscope and were classified as normal or pathologic. All topical oral sprays produced some degree of histopathologic change, such as hyperplasia, fibrosis, low-grade dysplasia, congestion, or edema. The local irritant effects of topical oral sprays should be considered when treatment is selected for patients with oropharyngeal disorder. PMID:16644611

Yuca, Köksal; Cankaya, Hakan; Bayram, Irfan; Ozbek, Hanefi; Kiris, Muzaffer

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Topical photodynamic therapy is very effective for oral verrucous hyperplasia and oral erythroleukoplakia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Oral verrucous hyperplasia (OVH) and oral erythroleukoplakia (OEL) are two oral precancerous lesions with relatively high malignant transformation potential. One of the best cancer prevention strategies is to use a conservative and effective treatment modality to eliminate oral precancers to stop their further malignant transformation. Our previous studies have shown that the topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy (topical ALA-PDT) using the 635-nm light-emitting diode (LED) light is very effective for OVH and OEL lesions. METHODS: Because the laser machine is a more-popular light source than the LED device in PDT clinics, in this study 40 OVH and 40 OEL lesions were treated once a week with the same PDT protocol but using the 635-nm laser light to evaluate whether this laser light-mediated topical ALA-PDT was also effective for OVH and OEL lesions. RESULTS: We found that all the 40 OVH lesions exhibited complete response (CR) after an average of 3.6 PDT treatments. Of the 40 OEL lesions, 38 showed CR after an average of 3.4 PDT treatments and two showed partial response (PR). Better PDT outcomes were significantly associated with OVH and OEL lesions with the smaller size, pink to red color, epithelial dysplasia, or thinner surface keratin layer. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that the laser light-mediated topical ALA-PDT is also very effective for OVH and OEL lesions. Therefore, we suggest that topical ALA-PDT using either the LED or laser light may serve as the first-line treatment of choice for OVH and OEL lesions.

Lin HP; Chen HM; Yu CH; Yang H; Wang YP; Chiang CP

2010-09-01

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CITRUS SYRUP  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Syrup of kg/1000 liters contains: sugar 700-800, citric acid 1,20-1,30 and vanilla 0,01-0,03 and l/1000 liters - citrus infusion 15-30, citrus essential oil 0,2-0,5, or citrus essence 0,5-1,5, color 0,7-1,0, fruit infusion 0,2-1,0, or fruit essence 0,22-0,5.

KUTATELADZE LUARA; GARDAFKHADZE AMIRAN; KAPANADZE TAMAZ; GIGOLASHVILI DAVID

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The Effect of Topical Sucralfate Suspension on Oral Aphthae  

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Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of oral sucralfate suspension (1gr/10ml) in the treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS).Materials and Methods: Fifty-five patients with oral aphthae were included in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted in the Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. In thefirst part of the study, all subjects were instructed to rinse with a 10% suspension of sucralfate or placebo, 4 times a day for 2 weeks. Clinical examination was performed two times a week. The second part consisted of topical use of sucralfate or placebo 2times a day for 4 weeks, followed by biweekly inspections for 6 months.The size and number of the ulcers along with pain severity were assessed in the course of the pretreatment and treatment phases. Recurrence was evaluated during the follow up period. Pearson, ?2, and Fisher’s exact tests were used for statistical analysis.Results: On the fourth day of the study, pain relief was encountered in 59% and 14% of the case and control patients, respectively. Also, 63% of the ulcers in the sucralfate group and 71% in the placebo group showed size-reduction on the first visit. During the first 7 days of treatment, the number of ulcers showed reduction in both groups, which was significantly larger in the case group.Conclusion: A 10% suspension of sucralfate accelerated pain relief in aphthous patients and its use is recommended as an adjunct for the treatment of RAS.

Z. Delavarian; H. Orafai; L. Molashahi; A. Pakfetrat

2007-01-01

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Comparative Study of Wound Healing Activity of Topical and Oral Ocimum Sanctum Linn in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Ocimum sanctum, when given orally in one of the studies showed wound healing property. Since majority of the agents tried for wound healing are topical, the present study was planned to compare the oral and topical Ocimum sanctum for wound healing property. Methods: Excision and incision resutured wound models in albino rats were used to study complete epithelisation time, wound contraction, histopathological study and tensile strength of the wounds. Results: The animals were divided into four groups of oral test, control and topical test, control with 6 animals in each group. The time taken for 50% wound contraction and complete eipthelisation by oral Ocimum sanctum, topical Ocimum sanctum was significantly (p<0.001) less compared to oral and topical controls. Histopathological studies showed early inflammatory changes, dense collagen and neovascularisation in wounds treated with oral and topical Ocimum sanctum, compared to respective controls. Mean tensile strength of oral and topical Ocimum sanctum treated wound was significantly great (p<0.001) compared to controls. Interpretation and Conclusion: Oral and topical Ocimum sanctum promoted better granulation tissue, early and complete epithelisation and better tensile strength compared to both controls.

B. Asha; A. Nagabhushan; G.H. Shashikala

2011-01-01

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Syrup for suppressing cough and preparation method  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a cough syrup and a method for preparing the same, which belong to the field of Chinese traditional medicines. The cough syrup consists of fourteen Chinese traditional medicines including herba ephedrae, apricot kernel, plaster stone, liquorice, semen coicis, herba schizonepetae, aster, radix stemonae, dried orange peel, radix cynanchi, balloon flower, honeysuckle, bark of white mulberry root and loquat leaf which are decocted or soaked with water to obtain a thick juice to be concentrated, are added or not added with honey (or rock candy), and are prepared into syrups. The cough syrup is taken orally to treat respiratory tract infections, and has the efficacies of clearing away heat and toxic material, diminishing inflammation, reducing and expectorating phlegm, and relieving cough and asthma. Compared with the prior similar drugs, the cough syrup has the characteristics of low cost, simple and convenient preparation, shortened treatment period, no toxic side effects, and suitability for both the young and the old.

LEI ZHANG

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Topical immunomodulators for management of oral mucosal conditions, a systematic review; Part II: miscellaneous agents.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Topical immunomodulating preparations have utility in inflammatory/immune-mediated oral mucosal disease resistant to topical steroids, in immunologically mediated systemic disease with primary oral involvement or more severe lesions primarily involving the oral mucosa. AREAS COVERED: This paper is the second part of a systematic review of a variety of topical immunomodulators for management of immune/inflammatory oral mucosal conditions. The literature search revealed studies of azathioprine, benzydamine, GM-CSF and G-CSF, tetracyclines, retinoids, imiquimod, amlexanox, sirolimus and bacillus Calmette-Guerin polysaccharide nucleic acid. Weighted conclusions are provided for the topical use of each of the immunomodulators reviewed in the management of these oral diseases. EXPERT OPINION: Topical immunomodulators may be useful as second line treatment in several oral diseases, particularly oral lichen planus and recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Benzydamine was found to be preventive in radiotherapy-induced mucositis; however, it is unclear if this outcome is related to its immunomodulating effects or other mechanisms of action. Topical application of tetracyclines and retinoic acid also shows potential anti-inflammatory actions.

Elad S; Epstein JB; von Bültzingslöwen I; Drucker S; Tzach R; Yarom N

2011-03-01

 
 
 
 
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Maple syrup urine disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a metabolism disorder passed down through families in which the body cannot break down ... Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is caused by a gene defect. Persons with this condition cannot break down the amino ...

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Dramatic Improvement of Long Lasting Post-Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation by Oral and Topical Tranexamic Acid  

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Full Text Available Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation is common problem, but its treatment still remains challenging. Tranexamic acid has been used to treat or prevent excessive bleeding loss in various medical conditions. There have been some reports of the effect of oral and topical tranexamic acid for treatment of pigmented disorder. Herein we report on a case of female patient who showed improvement of PIH after oral and topical tranexamic acid administration.

Jae Kyung Kim; Sung Eun Chang; Chong Hyun Won; Mi Woo Lee; Jee Ho Choi; Kee Chan Moon

2012-01-01

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Topical tacrolimus with custom trays in the treatment of severe oral chronic graft-versus-host disease refractory to a potent topical steroid therapy: a case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The authors present a case demonstrating the success of topical tacrolimus (TAC) therapy with custom trays in the treatment of oral chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). The 41-year-old male patient initially responded to topical steroid therapy (clobetasol propionate 0.05% ointment) applied both topically and with flexible carrier trays, but later became refractory to this potent topical agent. Topical TAC therapy with flexible carrier trays and systemic prednisone therapy was initiated. RESULTS: The patient responded favorably with the change to topical TAC therapy with custom trays (and oral prednisone). His oral cGVHD lesions resolved within a period of 4 weeks. The improvement has remained stable at 14 months of follow-up. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: This is the first case reported with regard to the successful resolution of steroid recalcitrant cGVHD successfully treated with topical TAC with custom trays.

Brown RS; Edwards D; Walsh-Chocolaad T; Childs RW

2013-04-01

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Using oral tetracycline and topical betamethasone valerate to treat acrodermatitis continua of hallopeau.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Acrodermatitis continua of Hallopeau (ACH) is a rare type of localized pustular psoriasis. We report the case of a 65-year-old alcoholic woman who had severe inflammatory ACH for 10 years. Initial therapy with sulfasalazine was unsuccessful. The patient was then treated with oral tetracycline and topical betamethasone valerate with occlusive dressing. Her condition improved dramatically after one week.

Piquero-Casals J; Fonseca de Mello AP; Dal Coleto C; Fonseca Takahashi MD; Simonsen Nico MM

2002-08-01

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Comparative study of oral and topical ketoconazole therapy in pityriasis versicolor  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Both topical and systemic ketoconazole are reported to be effective against pityriasis versicolor. Material and Methods: Forty patients suffering from pityriasis versicolor were treated either with oral ketoconazole 200 mg per day or 2% ketoconazole cream topically once daily for 2 weeks. Results: On global assessment, after 2 weeks of start of therapy, 18 (90%) out of 20 patients treated with oral ketoconazole were cured while 2 patients had considerable residual disease. In the ketoconazole cream group, 16 (80%) out of 20 patients were cured and 4 patients had considerable residual disease. Conclusion: No significant difference was observed in the response rates in the two groups. Relapse occurred in two patients of the systemic ketoconazole group and six patients of the topical ketoconazole group during the follow-up period of three months.

Nagpal V; Jain V; Aggarwal K

2003-01-01

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CHILDHOOD VITILIGO: RESPONSE TO METHYLPREDNISOLONE ORAL MINIPULSE THERAPY AND TOPICAL FLUTICASONE COMBINATION  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Childhood vitiligo is always a challenge to treat, especially when the disease is progressing rapidly in such a patient. Oral minipulse with betamethasone has been tried in childhood vitiligo and also in some other immune mediated skin disorders with good results. Aims: The aim of the present study was to see the overall efficacy of methylprednisolone oral minipulse therapy in combination with topical fluticasone in progressive childhood vitiligo. The combination was tried to achieve a significant amount of repigmentation of vitiligo lesions already present at the initial visit. Materials and Methods: Four hundred children with progressive vitiligo were enrolled for this study and were prescribed oral methylprednisolone on two consecutive days every week in a minipulse form for a period of six months. In addition, the patients were instructed to apply fluticasone ointment topically once a day on their vitiligo lesions. The patients were assessed for the remission achieved as well as the extent of repigmentation of their already existent lesions. Results: More than 90% of patients went into complete remission after the start of the therapy. Moreover, about 65% (two-thirds) of patients achieved good to excellent repigmentation of lesions at the end of six months of therapy. The therapy was also well tolerated and the side effects seen were almost negligible. Conclusions: Oral minipulse treatment with methylprednisolone is an effective treatment option for controlling the disease spread in childhood vitiligo and with the addition of topical fluticasone the extent of repigmentation achieved is also quite significant.

Majid, Imran; Masood, Qazi; Hassan, Iffat; Khan, Dilshad; Chisti, Muzammil

2009-01-01

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Flurbiprofen concentration in soft tissues is higher after topical application than after oral administration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: To compare tissue concentrations of flurbiprofen resulting from topical application and oral administration according to the regulatory approved dosing guidelines. METHOD: Sixteen patients were included in this study. Each patient was randomly assigned to the topical application or oral administration group. In each group, a pair of tapes or a tablet, containing a total of 40?mg flurbiprofen, was administered twice at 16 and 2?h before the surgery. RESULTS: The flurbiprofen concentration in the fat, tendon, muscle and periosteum tissues was significantly higher (P < 0.0330) after topical application (992?ng?g?¹ [95% CI 482, 1503], 944 [95% CI 481, 1407], 492 [95% CI 248, 735], and 455 [95% CI 153, 756], respectively) than after oral administration (150?ng?g?¹ [95% CI 84, 217], 186 [95% CI 118, 254], 82 [95% CI 49, 116],and 221 [95% CI, 135, 307], respectively). CONCLUSION: Topical application is an effective method to deliver flurbiprofen to the human body, particularly to soft tissues near the body surface.

Kai S; Kondo E; Kawaguchi Y; Kitamura N; Yasuda K

2013-03-01

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Efficient penetration into aqueous humor by administration of oral and topical levofloxacin.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: We investigated whether an optimized combination of oral and topical levofloxacin would lead to higher levofloxacin concentrations in aqueous humor. METHODS: Fifteen patients with cataracts in both eyes began topical treatment at 1 week before the first surgery and oral treatment at 1 day before the first surgery. On the day of surgery, they received oral and topical levofloxacin at 4?h and 1?h before surgery, respectively. Two days after the first operation, we performed cataract surgery on the second eye with the same drug administration protocol. RESULTS: Postsurgery concentrations of levofloxacin in the aqueous humor of the first and second eyes were 2.87±0.89??g/mL (mean±standard deviation, n=15) and 3.76±1.32??g/mL, respectively; the levofloxacin level in the second eye was significantly higher than that in the first eye (P=0.0085). CONCLUSIONS: Our protocol to achieve high aqueous humor concentrations of levofloxacin may be favorable in preventing endophthalmitis after eye surgery.

Ishida M; Kataoka T; Niwa K; Iwaki M; Zako M

2011-06-01

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Topical sucralfate for pain after oral CO2 laser surgery: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of topical sucralfate on postoperative pain scores and other secondary outcomes including the frequency and duration of analgesic use and postoperative bleeding episodes after CO(2) laser treatment of oral leukoplakia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this prospective trial, a total of 80 patients were randomized into the sucralfate group (n = 40) or the control group (n = 40). Postoperative pain scores, the frequency and duration of analgesic requirements, and postoperative wound bleeding episodes were compared between the 2 groups from the operative day to postoperative day 6. RESULTS: Patients in the sucralfate group experienced significantly less postoperative pain on postoperative days 1 and 2. Although there was no significant difference in frequency and duration of analgesic use between the 2 groups, a trend toward lower frequency and fewer days of analgesic use in the sucralfate group was observed. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated the efficacy of topical sucralfate application in diminishing postoperative pain after CO(2) laser therapy for oral leukoplakia. Topical sucralfate can be considered a feasible adjuvant medication for the control of pain after CO(2) laser treatment of oral leukoplakia.

Guo CS; Chuang HC; Chien CY

2012-01-01

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Healing acceleration in hamsters of oral mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil with topical Calendula officinalis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the potential of topical Calendula officinalis extract on the healing of oral mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in hamsters. STUDY DESIGN: Oral mucositis was induced in 60 male hamsters by 5-FU (60 mg/kg) on days 0, 5, and 10 of the study. The cheek pouch was scratched with a sterile needle on days 1 and 2. On days 12-17, 5% and 10% C. officinalis gel and gel base groups were treated and then compared with a control group. Macroscopic and microscopic scores and weights were evaluated. RESULTS: Microscopic and macroscopic scores of mucositis were lower in the 5% and 10% C. officinalis gel groups than in the gel base and control groups (P < .05). Weight gain was noted in the treatment groups compared with the gel base and control groups (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Calendula officinalis extract accelerated the healing of oral mucositis in hamsters.

Tanideh N; Tavakoli P; Saghiri MA; Garcia-Godoy F; Amanat D; Tadbir AA; Samani SM; Tamadon A

2013-03-01

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PREVENTION OF CUTANEOUS SIDE EFFECTS OF TOPICAL TRETINOIN: USE OF ORAL VITAMINE E  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous folicles. Tretinoin is used as one of the topical treatments for acne vulgaris. It has different cutaneous side effects such as erythema, scaling, irritation and photosensitivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral Vitamine E in preventing the cutaneous side effects of topical tretinoin in acne patients. Methods: A clinical trial was performed in AI-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan for six months in 2000. 80 patients with mild to moderate facial acne were randomized into 2 groups. Group 1 (controls) received topical solution of tretinoin 0.05 percent nightly and group 2 (cases) received daily oral 100mg of Vit. E in addition. All patients were followed at 1, 4 and 6 weeks after initiation of treatment. Children under 12 years old, pregnant or lactating women were excluded. Results: At the end of one week, no cutaneous side effects were observed in 25 percent (10) of group 1 and 15 percent (6) of group 2 (P > 0.05). At the end of 4 weeks, 25 percent (10) of group 1 and 60 percent (24) of group 2 were without any cutaneous complications, while at the end of 6 weeks, 35 percent (14) of group 1 in comparison to 75 percent (30) of group 2 were free of any cutaneous side effects (P Discussion: Daily oral 100 mg of Vit. E has been effective in preventing cutaneous complications of topical tretinoin in acne management, but there is a delay of one week in its onset of action. Meanwhile, Vitamine E is a safe modality with no undesirable effects in acne patients.

G FAGHIHI

2001-01-01

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Management of nonsexually acquired genital ulceration using oral and topical corticosteroids followed by doxycycline prophylaxis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Data regarding the treatment of nonsexually acquired genital ulceration (NSAGU) are limited. OBJECTIVE: We sought to provide evidence for the safety and efficacy of topical and systemic corticosteroids followed by doxycycline prophylaxis for acute and recurrent NSAGU. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted of patients with NSAGU treated in a private dermogynecology practice. RESULTS: A total of 26 girls and women with NSAGU were identified and divided into 2 groups: group A = 17 patients with moderate to severe ulceration treated in the acute stage with oral corticosteroid; and group B = 9 patients with mild ulceration treated in the acute stage with topical corticosteroid. Patients in group A, with a mean age of 27.9 years (range, 11-62 years), were treated with oral prednisolone commencing with 15 to 50 mg per day depending on severity. Sixteen (94%) achieved rapid pain relief and complete healing of ulcers within 16 days. Eight (47%) commenced doxycycline prophylaxis. Women in group B, with a mean age of 42.5 years (range, 26-67 years) were treated with topical corticosteroids. Eight (89%) had a history of recurrent ulcers and 6 (66%) commenced doxycycline prophylaxis. Of all 14 patients on doxycycline prophylaxis, none reported any recurrences during a mean follow-up of 18.3 months. There were no adverse effects caused by prednisolone. One patient experienced mild photosensitivity from doxycycline but continued to take it. LIMITATIONS: This was a retrospective case series from a single private practice-based population. CONCLUSION: Topical or oral corticosteroids followed by prophylactic doxycycline can be effective in rapidly resolving acute flareups and preventing recurrences of NSAGU. All patients responded to therapy without treatment-limiting side effects.

Dixit S; Bradford J; Fischer G

2013-05-01

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Oral azithromycin combined with topical anti-inflammatory agents in the treatment of blepharokeratoconjunctivitis in children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report 3 children referred for recurrent blepharokeratoconjunctivitis, despite the application of topical antibiotic and anti-inflammatory treatments. Oral azithromycin combined with anti-inflammatory treatment was effective in controlling the disease.

Choi DS; Djalilian A

2013-02-01

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Topical therapies for oral lichen planus management and their efficacy: a narrative review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory condition implicating T cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and involving oral mucosal surfaces. Several therapeutic regimens have been evaluated to treat OLP and pain related, but often without high level of evidence. Topical formulations are the favourite for the majority of cases; bioadhesive formulations have been considered very useful and practical for local drug delivery in oral mucosa, due to the increased residence time on the oral mucosa of the dosage forms and better therapeutic efficacy. In this narrative review, authors try to illustrate the current topical managements for OLP from the accessible literature on this topic. Steroids are very helpful in discomfort and making better quality of life: they are considered the first-line treatment even if they could cause secondary candidosis, and sometimes bad taste, nausea, dry mouth, sore throat or swollen mouth. Other substances or devices by topical administration are adopted especially when the first line approach is refractory. This is the case when retinol with its synthetic and natural analogues (retinoids), hyaluronic acid, or Aloe Vera are chosen. Recent topical applications for OLP therapy include phototherapy and low/high energy pulsing light; the treatment with extracorporeal photochemotherapy is also reasonable and promising. Finally, calcineurin inhibitors (i.e. cyclosporine, tacrolimus and pimecrolimus), antioxidant and biologics (i.e alefacept, efalizumab, basiliximab, TNF-? inhibitors - infliximab, rituximab) may be alternative approaches when OLP does not respond to the standard protocols. In this scenario, there are several studies on molecules different from glucocorticosteroids, but not sufficient or statistically adequate to justify their evidence-based use in OLP; large randomized placebo controlled trials are required to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of these non conventional therapies. In conclusion, since OLP is a chronic disease and requires long-term management, the dental/medical practitioner, who treats OLP patients, needs to know the natural history of OLP, how to monitor, and how to treat, taking in account all of the available modalities conventional and not, with pros and cons.

Bagan J; Compilato D; Paderni C; Campisi G; Panzarella V; Picciotti M; Lorenzini G; Di Fede O

2012-01-01

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Topical curcumin for the prevention of oral mucositis in pediatric patients: case series.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Oral mucositis is a common complication of cancer therapy. Animal models suggest that curcumin may prevent oral mucositis. To date, no clinical studies have been reported. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this pilot study was to assess the tolerability of a curcumin mouthwash. The secondary aim was to describe oral mucositis in pediatric patients undergoing doxorubicin-containing chemotherapy who were using the curcumin mouthwash. METHOD: The research team had originally designed a placebo-controlled study, but gastrointestinal adverse events (nausea and vomiting) affected the compliance of the first three participants who entered the study. An independent researcher found that all three had received the placebo. Believing it unethical to continue using the study's original design, the research team discontinued the control group, and the resulting study is comparable to a case series. SETTING: The research team performed the study at Hadassah University Medical Center in Jerusalem, Israel. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were seven pediatric and young-adult oncology patients. INTERVENTION: In addition to standard, preventive oral care (chlorhexidine 0.2% mouthwash for 30 s twice per day), participants also used 10 drops of Curcumall twice per day in a mouthwash during treatment with highdose chemotherapy. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Oral mucositis was assessed on days 0, 7, 10, 14, and 21. The World Health Organization (WHO) scale, the Oral Mucositis Assessment Scale (OMAS), and a Visual Analog pain scale (VAS; patient reporting scale of 0-10) were used. Adverse events were tracked. RESULTS: No oral adverse events were documented. No systemic adverse events that possibly could be related to the use of the curcumin mouthwash were observed. In the four patients who fulfilled the compliance criteria, the WHO, OMAS and VAS scores were lower than the severity of oral mucositis previously reported in the literature. Four out of the five participants developed OM, but the values were low, reflecting a relatively mild case. CONCLUSION: In this study, the research team suggested that curcumin mouthwash was safe and well-tolerated. More research is warranted about the efficacy of topical curcumin in the prevention of oral mucositis.

Elad S; Meidan I; Sellam G; Simaan S; Zeevi I; Waldman E; Weintraub M; Revel-Vilk S

2013-05-01

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Glycopyrronium prolongs topical anaesthesia of oral mucosa and enhances absorption of lignocaine.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have studied the effect of glycopyrronium on the anaesthetic action and absorption of topical lignocaine in 10 healthy, non-smoking volunteers. Lignocaine 100 mg was sprayed on the oral mucosa 15 min after random administration of glycopyrronium 4 micrograms kg-1 or normal saline i.v. Glycopyrronium decreased the mean analgesia score from 2 to 0.1 (2 = baseline; 0 = anaesthesia) at 4 min compared with a change from 2 to 0.5 after normal saline (P glycopyrronium and control groups, respectively. The mean (SD) peak plasma lignocaine concentration was 0.57 (0.29) microgram ml-1 after glycopyrronium and 0.31 (0.10) microgram ml-1 after saline (P glycopyrronium enhanced absorption and prolonged the analgesic action of topically administered lignocaine. PMID:8431344

Watanabe, H; Lindgren, L; Rosenberg, P; Randell, T

1993-01-01

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Orally and topically administered Sparassis crispa (Hanabiratake) improved healing of skin wounds in mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sparassis crispa (SC) contains significant concentrations of ?-glucan, which can accelerate wound healing, but the dose dependence for oral administration and the effects of topical administration are unknown. In streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, dietary SC promoted dose-dependent effective wound healing. Similar wound healing activity was observed when purified SC ?-glucan was topically applied to wounds of diabetic mice.

Yamamoto K; Kimura T

2013-01-01

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New lidocaine lozenge as topical anesthesia compared to lidocaine viscous oral solution before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy  

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Full Text Available Stine Mogensen,1 Charlotte Treldal,1 Erik Feldager,2 Sylvia Pulis,1 Jette Jacobsen,3 Ove Andersen,1 Mette Rasmussen,41Clinical Research Centre, Hvidovre University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2Department of Gastroenterology, Hvidovre University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Department of Pharmaceutics and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark; 4Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DenmarkObjective: To evaluate the effect and acceptance of a new lidocaine lozenge compared with a lidocaine viscous oral solution as a pharyngeal anesthetic before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE), a diagnostic procedure commonly performed worldwide during which many patients experience severe discomfort mostly because of the gag reflex.Participants: The single-blinded, randomized, controlled study involved 110 adult patients undergoing diagnostic UGE at the Department of Gastroenterology, Hvidovre University Hospital, Denmark.Methods: The patients were randomized to receive either 100 mg lidocaine as a lozenge or 5 mL lidocaine viscous oral solution 2%. Intravenous midazolam was administered if needed. The effect of a lidocaine lozenge in reducing patient discomfort, including the gag reflex, during UGE compared with a lidocaine oral solution was assessed.Results: Questionnaires from the patients showed that the gag reflex was acceptable for 64% in the lozenge group compared with 33% in the oral solution group (P = 0.0072). UGE was evaluated as acceptable by 69% in the lozenge group compared with 39% in the oral solution group (P = 0.0092). The taste was evaluated as good by 78% in the lozenge group (P < 0.0001), and 82% found the lozenge to have good texture (P < 0.0001).Conclusion: The lozenge reduced the gag reflex, diminished patients’ discomfort during UGE, and was evaluated as having a good taste and texture. The lozenge improved patients’ acceptance of UGE.Keywords: upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, topical pharyngeal anesthetic, lidocaine lozenge

Mogensen S; Treldal C; Feldager E; Pulis S; Jacobsen J; Andersen O; Rasmussen M

2012-01-01

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Efficacy of oral azithromycin versus topical tetracycline in mass treatment of endemic trachoma  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the impact of mass treatment with oral azithromycin and topical tetracycline on the prevalence of active trachoma. METHODS: A total of 1803 inhabitants from 106 households of eight Gambian villages were randomized, in pairs, to receive either three doses of azithromycin at weekly intervals, or daily topical tetracycline over 6 weeks. Ocular examinations were conducted before treatment, and 2, 6 and 12 months after treatment. FINDINGS: Prior to treatment, 16% of the study participants had active trachoma. Two months after treatment, the prevalence of trachoma was 4.6% and 5.1% in the azithromycin and the tetracycline groups, respectively (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.53, 2.02). Subsequently, the prevalence rose to 16% in the tetracycline group, while remaining at 7.7% in the azithromycin group (adjusted OR at 12 months = 0.52; 95% CI = 0.34, 0.80). At 12 months post-treatment, there were fewer new prevalent cases in the azithromycin group, and trachoma resolution was significantly better for this group (adjusted OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.42, 3.50). CONCLUSION: Oral azithromycin therefore appears to offer a means for controlling blinding trachoma. It is easy to administer and higher coverages may be possible than have been achieved hitherto.

Fraser-Hurt Nicole; Bailey Robin L.; Cousens Simon; Mabey Denise; Faal Hannah; Mabey David C.W.

2001-01-01

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Topical application of royal jelly has a healing effect for 5-fluorouracil-induced experimental oral mucositis in hamsters.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of bee products such as honey, royal jelly and propolis on 5-fluorouracil-induced experimental oral mucositis in hamsters. Oral mucositis was induced in hamsters through a combination of 5-fluorouracil and mild abrasions that were made on the cheek pouch. Honey, royal jelly and propolis were thereafter topically administered to the oral mucosa, and then the healing process was examined by measuring the size of the mucositis. Honey (1%, 10% and 100%) and propolis (0.3%, 1% and 3%) ointments did not reduce the size of the mucositis in comparison to the vaseline-treated control group. However, the royal jelly (3%, 10% and 30%) ointments significantly improved the recovery from 5-fluorouracil-induced damage in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest the possibility that the topical application of royal jelly has a healing effect on severe oral mucositis induced by chemotherapy. PMID:18560624

Suemaru, K; Cui, R; Li, B; Watanabe, S; Okihara, K; Hashimoto, K; Yamada, H; Araki, H

2008-03-01

 
 
 
 
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Topical application of royal jelly has a healing effect for 5-fluorouracil-induced experimental oral mucositis in hamsters.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of bee products such as honey, royal jelly and propolis on 5-fluorouracil-induced experimental oral mucositis in hamsters. Oral mucositis was induced in hamsters through a combination of 5-fluorouracil and mild abrasions that were made on the cheek pouch. Honey, royal jelly and propolis were thereafter topically administered to the oral mucosa, and then the healing process was examined by measuring the size of the mucositis. Honey (1%, 10% and 100%) and propolis (0.3%, 1% and 3%) ointments did not reduce the size of the mucositis in comparison to the vaseline-treated control group. However, the royal jelly (3%, 10% and 30%) ointments significantly improved the recovery from 5-fluorouracil-induced damage in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest the possibility that the topical application of royal jelly has a healing effect on severe oral mucositis induced by chemotherapy.

Suemaru K; Cui R; Li B; Watanabe S; Okihara K; Hashimoto K; Yamada H; Araki H

2008-03-01

42

Efficacy of topical benzydamine hydrochloride gel on oral mucosal ulcers: an in vivo animal study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of benzydamine hydrochloride bioadhesive gel on healing of oral mucosal ulceration in an animal model. For in vivo determination of the effects of the bioadhesive gel, 36 rabbits were separated into three groups: the first group was treated with the gel formulation without active agent, the second group with the gel formulation containing benzydamine, and the third group received no treatment. Clinical healing was established by measuring the area of the ulcer in each test group on days 3, 6, 9 and 12. Histological healing was determined on the same days. Benzydamine containing gel applications resulted in a decrease in the ulcer area in 12 days (p=0.000). Histological evaluation showed that the benzydamine group had a higher mean histological score than the base and the control groups during the whole test period, and the difference between the benzydamine group and the control group was significant (p=0.04). The bioadhesive gel formulation of benzydamine hydrochloride showed a statistically significant increased rate of mucosal repair in this experimental standard mucosal wound animal study. It is a candidate for the topical treatment of oral mucosal ulcerative lesions.

Karavana Hizarcio?lu SY; Sezer B; Güneri P; Veral A; Boyacio?lu H; Ertan G; Epstein JB

2011-09-01

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Efficacy of topical benzydamine hydrochloride gel on oral mucosal ulcers: an in vivo animal study.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of benzydamine hydrochloride bioadhesive gel on healing of oral mucosal ulceration in an animal model. For in vivo determination of the effects of the bioadhesive gel, 36 rabbits were separated into three groups: the first group was treated with the gel formulation without active agent, the second group with the gel formulation containing benzydamine, and the third group received no treatment. Clinical healing was established by measuring the area of the ulcer in each test group on days 3, 6, 9 and 12. Histological healing was determined on the same days. Benzydamine containing gel applications resulted in a decrease in the ulcer area in 12 days (p=0.000). Histological evaluation showed that the benzydamine group had a higher mean histological score than the base and the control groups during the whole test period, and the difference between the benzydamine group and the control group was significant (p=0.04). The bioadhesive gel formulation of benzydamine hydrochloride showed a statistically significant increased rate of mucosal repair in this experimental standard mucosal wound animal study. It is a candidate for the topical treatment of oral mucosal ulcerative lesions. PMID:21549562

Karavana Hizarcio?lu, S Y; Sezer, B; Güneri, P; Veral, A; Boyacio?lu, H; Ertan, G; Epstein, J B

2011-05-05

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Glycopyrronium prolongs topical anaesthesia of oral mucosa and enhances absorption of lignocaine.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We have studied the effect of glycopyrronium on the anaesthetic action and absorption of topical lignocaine in 10 healthy, non-smoking volunteers. Lignocaine 100 mg was sprayed on the oral mucosa 15 min after random administration of glycopyrronium 4 micrograms kg-1 or normal saline i.v. Glycopyrronium decreased the mean analgesia score from 2 to 0.1 (2 = baseline; 0 = anaesthesia) at 4 min compared with a change from 2 to 0.5 after normal saline (P < 0.05). All scores returned to baseline by 40 min and 20 min in the glycopyrronium and control groups, respectively. The mean (SD) peak plasma lignocaine concentration was 0.57 (0.29) microgram ml-1 after glycopyrronium and 0.31 (0.10) microgram ml-1 after saline (P < 0.05) and were attained in 17 min (range 10-40 min) and 29 min (range 8-40 min), respectively. Pretreatment with glycopyrronium enhanced absorption and prolonged the analgesic action of topically administered lignocaine.

Watanabe H; Lindgren L; Rosenberg P; Randell T

1993-01-01

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Pharmacokinetics of selamectin following intravenous, oral and topical administration in cats and dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pharmacokinetics of selamectin were evaluated in cats and dogs, following intravenous (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg), topical (24 mg/kg) and oral (24 mg/kg) administration. Following selamectin administration, serial blood samples were collected and plasma concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After intravenous administration of selamectin to cats and dogs, the mean maximum plasma concentrations and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) were linearly related to the dose, and mean systemic clearance (Clb) and steady-state volume of distribution (Vd(ss)) were independent of dose. Plasma concentrations after intravenous administration declined polyexponentially in cats and biphasically in dogs, with mean terminal phase half-lives (t(1/2)) of approximately 69 h in cats and 14 h in dogs. In cats, overall Clb was 0.470 +/- 0.039 mL/min/kg (+/-SD) and overall Vd(ss) was 2.19 +/- 0.05 L/kg, compared with values of 1.18 +/- 0.31 mL/min/kg and 1.24 +/- 0.26 L/kg, respectively, in dogs. After topical administration, the mean C(max) in cats was 5513 +/- 2173 ng/mL reached at a time (T(max)) of 15 +/- 12 h postadministration; in dogs, C(max) was 86.5 +/- 34.0 ng/mL at T(max) of 72 +/- 48 h. Bioavailability was 74% in cats and 4.4% in dogs. Following oral administration to cats, mean C(max) was 11,929 +/- 5922 ng/mL at T(max) of 7 +/- 6 h and bioavailability was 109%. In dogs, mean C(max) was 7630 +/- 3140 ng/mL at T(max) of 8 +/- 5 h and bioavailability was 62%. There were no selamectin-related adverse effects and no sex differences in pharmacokinetic parameters. Linearity was established in cats and dogs for plasma concentrations up to 874 and 636 ng/mL, respectively. Pharmacokinetic evaluations for selamectin following intravenous administration indicated a slower elimination from the central compartment in cats than in dogs. This was reflected in slower clearance and longer t(1/2) in cats, probably as a result of species-related differences in metabolism and excretion. Inter-species differences in pharmacokinetic profiles were also observed following topical administration where differences in transdermal flux rates may have contributed to the overall differences in systemic bioavailability. PMID:12213114

Sarasola, P; Jernigan, A D; Walker, D K; Castledine, J; Smith, D G; Rowan, T G

2002-08-01

46

Pharmacokinetics of selamectin following intravenous, oral and topical administration in cats and dogs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The pharmacokinetics of selamectin were evaluated in cats and dogs, following intravenous (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg), topical (24 mg/kg) and oral (24 mg/kg) administration. Following selamectin administration, serial blood samples were collected and plasma concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After intravenous administration of selamectin to cats and dogs, the mean maximum plasma concentrations and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) were linearly related to the dose, and mean systemic clearance (Clb) and steady-state volume of distribution (Vd(ss)) were independent of dose. Plasma concentrations after intravenous administration declined polyexponentially in cats and biphasically in dogs, with mean terminal phase half-lives (t(1/2)) of approximately 69 h in cats and 14 h in dogs. In cats, overall Clb was 0.470 +/- 0.039 mL/min/kg (+/-SD) and overall Vd(ss) was 2.19 +/- 0.05 L/kg, compared with values of 1.18 +/- 0.31 mL/min/kg and 1.24 +/- 0.26 L/kg, respectively, in dogs. After topical administration, the mean C(max) in cats was 5513 +/- 2173 ng/mL reached at a time (T(max)) of 15 +/- 12 h postadministration; in dogs, C(max) was 86.5 +/- 34.0 ng/mL at T(max) of 72 +/- 48 h. Bioavailability was 74% in cats and 4.4% in dogs. Following oral administration to cats, mean C(max) was 11,929 +/- 5922 ng/mL at T(max) of 7 +/- 6 h and bioavailability was 109%. In dogs, mean C(max) was 7630 +/- 3140 ng/mL at T(max) of 8 +/- 5 h and bioavailability was 62%. There were no selamectin-related adverse effects and no sex differences in pharmacokinetic parameters. Linearity was established in cats and dogs for plasma concentrations up to 874 and 636 ng/mL, respectively. Pharmacokinetic evaluations for selamectin following intravenous administration indicated a slower elimination from the central compartment in cats than in dogs. This was reflected in slower clearance and longer t(1/2) in cats, probably as a result of species-related differences in metabolism and excretion. Inter-species differences in pharmacokinetic profiles were also observed following topical administration where differences in transdermal flux rates may have contributed to the overall differences in systemic bioavailability.

Sarasola P; Jernigan AD; Walker DK; Castledine J; Smith DG; Rowan TG

2002-08-01

47

The Comparison of Efficacy of Adcortyl Ointment and Topical Tacrolimus in Treatment of Erosive Oral Lichen Planus  

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Full Text Available Background and aims. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a common chronic mucocutaneous disease. Patients with atrophic and erosive lichen planus often have symptoms of soreness and need proper treatment. The main therapy of OLP has been the administration of topical or systemic corticosteroids. Potent topical corticosteroids have been increasingly prescribed in the treatment of erosive lichen planus. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of adcortyl ointment (triamcinolone in orabase) with topical tacrolimus for the treatment of erosive oral lichen planus. Materials and methods. Sixty Patients with histopathologically confirmed oral lichen planus were enrolled in the study. The severity of lesions was scored from 0 to 5 according to the criteria described in a previous study. Patients were randomly given adcortyl (group A) and topical tacrolimus ointment (group B) and asked to apply the medication on dried lesions 4 times a day. The lesions were evaluated after 4 weeks of treatment. Visual analogue scale was used to assess the severity of pain before and after treatment. The severity scores were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis k-sample test. Results. The average score of lesions improved from 3.4 to 1.5 in patients who received adcortyl ointment and from 3.2 to 1.2 in patients who received topical tacrolimus ointment. The differences between the improvements in scores were not statistically significant in the two groups. The average pain severity in A and B groups was 8.2 and 7.8 at the beginning of treatment, and 3.5 and 3.2 at the end of treatment, respectively. There was a statistically significant reduction in pain severity in both groups. Conclusion. Topical tacrolimus is a safe and effective alternative therapy in the treatment of oral lichen planus.

Arash Azizi; Shirin Lawaf

2007-01-01

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Oral topical decontamination for preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Oral decontamination is proposed to be an effective prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). AIM: The objective of this paper was to evaluate the effectiveness of oral decontamination in adult patients undergoing ventilation for more than 48h. METHODS: We included all randomized controlled trials that used oral topical decontamination in adult patients from any population requiring mechanical ventilation for more than 48h, versus placebo, normal saline, or standard oral care. FINDINGS: Sixteen trials involving 2399 participants were included. Meta-analysis showed that oral topical antiseptics significantly reduced the incidence of VAP [risk ratio (RR): 0.66; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49-0.88]. There was a significant reduction of VAP in studies which investigated decontamination with antibiotic agents other than iseganan (RR: 0.27; 95% CI: 0.18-0.42). Neither antiseptics nor antibiotics affected all-cause mortality, duration of ventilation, or duration of intensive care unit (ICU) stay. CONCLUSION: Oral decontamination reduced the incidence of VAP in adults undergoing ventilation, but did not affect all-cause mortality, duration of ventilation, or duration of ICU stay in ventilated patients. Further evidence from higher quality trials is necessary.

Li J; Xie D; Li A; Yue J

2013-08-01

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Successful treatment of oral lichen planus-like chronic graft-versus-host disease with topical tacrolimus: a case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a common treatment used for deficiencies of host marrow or in the control of blood malignancies. Post-allogeneic BMT complications include graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). GVHD occurs when immunologically active T lymphocytes are transplanted into an immunosuppressed recipient who is genetically disparate from the donor. In this case report we describe the occurrence of oral lichen planus-like lesions as the first manifestation of chronic GVHD (c-GVHD) and the subsequent management of this disease with topical tacrolimus. METHODS: Diagnostic aids included routine histology and direct immunofluorescence studies to rule out immunobullous diseases and to confirm the c-GVHD. Treatment consisted of topical application of 0.1% tacrolimus ointment three times a day. RESULTS: Routine histology confirmed the clinical diagnosis of oral lichen planus-like c-GVHD. Treatment with tacrolimus ointment completely resolved the oral lesions after 2 months of therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Topical tacrolimus at low concentrations (0.1%) shows promise in the management of oral lichen planus-like c-GVHD. Controlled studies are necessary to assess the efficacy, the duration of therapy required for effective results, and the safety of this treatment over the long-term.

Sánchez AR; Sheridan PJ; Rogers RS

2004-04-01

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Clinical application of oral form of ANGIPARSTM and in combination with topical form as a new treatment for diabetic foot ulcers: A randomized clinical trial  

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ANGIPARSTM is a new herbal extract which has been produced in oral, topical, and intravenous forms. The present article contains preliminary results of the study which was planned to evaluate the efficacy and safety of orally applied ANGIPARSTM and to compare it with the combination of oral and topi...

Bahrami A; Kamali K; Ali-Asgharzadeh A; Hosseini P; Heshmat R; Khorram Khorshid HR; Gharibdoust F; Madani SH; Larijani B

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Original article title: "Comparison of therapeutic efficacy of topical corticosteroid and oral zinc sulfate-topical corticosteroid combination in the treatment of vitiligo patients: a clinical trial".  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Vitiligo is the most prevalent pigmentary disorder which occurs worldwide, with an incidence rate between 0.1-4 percent. It is anticipated that the discovery of biological pathways of vitiligo pathogenesis will provide novel therapeutic and prophylactic targets for future approaches to the treatment and prevention of vitiligo. The purposes of this study were evaluating the efficacy of supplemental zinc on the treatment of vitiligo. METHODS: This randomized clinical trial was conducted for a period of one year. Thirty five patients among 86 participants were eligible to entrance to the study. The patients in two equal randomized groups took topical corticosteroid and combination of oral zinc sulfate-topical corticosteroid. RESULTS: The mean of responses in the corticosteroid group and the zinc sulfate-corticosteroid combination group were 21.43% and 24.7%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Although, the response to corticosteroid plus zinc sulfate was more than corticosteroid, there was no statistically significant difference between them. It appeared that more robust long-term randomized controlled trials on more patients, maybe with higher doses of zinc sulfate, are needed to fully establish the efficacy of oral zinc in management of vitiligo. TRIAL REGISTRATION: chiCTRTRC10000930.

Yaghoobi R; Omidian M; Bagherani N

2011-01-01

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Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma in an infant: improvement after treatment with oral tranilast and topical pimecrolimus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma (AEGCG) is a rare granulomatous skin disease of unknown origin that is characterized clinically by annular patches with erythematous borders and hypopigmented centers and histologically by loss of elastic fibers and elastophagocytosis. We report a case of AEGCG in an 8-month-old boy that was successfully treated with oral tranilast and topical pimecrolimus (Elidel 1.0% cream).

Lee HW; Lee MW; Choi JH; Moon KC; Koh JK

2005-11-01

53

Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma in an infant: improvement after treatment with oral tranilast and topical pimecrolimus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma (AEGCG) is a rare granulomatous skin disease of unknown origin that is characterized clinically by annular patches with erythematous borders and hypopigmented centers and histologically by loss of elastic fibers and elastophagocytosis. We report a case of AEGCG in an 8-month-old boy that was successfully treated with oral tranilast and topical pimecrolimus (Elidel 1.0% cream). PMID:16227100

Lee, Hae-Woong; Lee, Mi-Woo; Choi, Jee-Ho; Moon, Kee-Chan; Koh, Jai-Kyoung

2005-11-01

54

Efficacy of oral and topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors in controlling early period postoperative intraocular pressure elevation after phacoemulsification surgery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To compare the effectiveness of oral acetazolamide 250 mg, topical brinzolamide 1% and dorzolamide 2% on intraocular pressure (IOP) during the early period after phacoemulsification surgery. Material and Methods: The study was planned prospectively in our clinic under the same technique and operation conditions, applying uncomplicated phacoemulsification surgery in 80 eyes of 68 patients without another pathology. When 38 patients were men, 30 patients were women. Patients were randomly divided in four groups without thinking their right or left eyes, age, and sex. It was applied dorzolamide 2% for first group, brinzolamide 1% for second group, oral asetazolamide 250 mg for third group after operation immediately, then in 12th hour and 24th hour. It was not applied treatment for fourth group that was controlling group. IOP of patients were measured using Goldmann applanation tonometer preoperatively and 4th hour and 24th hour postoperatively. Results: When before and after surgery 4th hour and 24th hour IOP measurement values compared, group 1 and 2 was found no significantly different (p>0.05), but group 3 and 4 were significant statistically ( p0.05), but they were significant statistically postoperative 4th hour (p0.05). Conclusion: When topical brinzolamide and dorzolamide was more effective than acetazolamide IOP control 4 hours after phacoemulsification, it was found similar effects at 24 hours. Topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors were preferred especially for patients that had sistemical illnesses and risky oral asetazolamide treatment.

Ulviye Yi?it; Banu Arslan

2011-01-01

55

Randomized controlled pilot trial of nifedipine as oral therapy vs topical application in the treatment of fissure-in-ano.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Fissure-in-ano is a common condition that leads to pain and affects quality of life. Sphincterotomy remains the gold standard, but it may lead to troublesome incontinence in some patients. To overcome this problem, numerous pharmacologic therapies have been tested with varying outcomes. The investigators compared the effect of the addition of oral and topical nifedipine to conservative measures in the treatment of patients with fissure-in-ano. METHODS: Ninety patients with fissure-in-ano, randomized into 3 groups of 30 each, were included in the study. Group I received conventional treatment, group II received oral nifedipine and conventional treatment, and group III received topical nifedipine along with conventional treatment. Patients were followed for 8 weeks for pain relief (assessed using a visual analogue scale) and healing to evaluate the effect of treatment. RESULTS: Pain relief was significantly better in the group III at 3 weeks and 2 months compared with group I (P < .05). Groups II and III were comparable in terms of pain relief. Healing rates were significantly better in group II (P = .03) and group III (P = .00) compared with group I, but groups II and III were found to be comparable. Adverse effects were most commonly reported by group II patients, but these were not significantly higher than in other 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend the addition of either oral or topical nifedipine to conservative measures to significantly improve pain relief and healing rates in patients with fissure-in-ano.

Agrawal V; Kaushal G; Gupta R

2013-09-01

56

Sand, Syrup and Supervolcanoes  

Science.gov (United States)

Supervolcanic eruptions are amongst the most awesome events in the history of the Earth. A supervolcano can erupt thousands of cubic kilometers of ash devastating entire countries and changing the climate for decades. During the eruption, the magma chamber partially empties and collapses. As the chamber collapses at depth, a massive subsidence pit develops at the surface, called a caldera, some calderas can be the size of the entire San Francisco Bay Area. Fortunately, a supervolcano of this size has not erupted since the development of modern man. Due to the infrequency and massive scale of these eruptions, volcanologists do not yet fully understand how calderas form and how the eruption is affected by the roof collapse and vice versa. Therefore, simple analogue experiments are amongst the best ways to understand these eruptions. We present two of these experiments that can be fun, cheap, and helpful to high school and university instructors to demonstrate caldera formation. The first experiment illustrates how magma chamber roofs collapse to produce different style calderas, the second experiment demonstrates how the magma in the chamber affects the collapse style and magma mixing during a supervolcanic eruption. The collapse of a magma chamber can be demonstrated in a simple sandbox containing a buried balloon filled with air connected to a tube that leads out of the sandbox. At this small scale the buried balloon is a good analogue for a magma chamber and sand has an appropriate strength to represent the earths crust. Faults propagate through the sand in a similar way to faults propagating through the crust on a larger scale. To form a caldera just let the air erupt out of the balloon. This experiment can be used to investigate what controls the shape and structure of calderas. Different shaped balloons, and different burial depths all produce sand calderas with different sizes and structures. Additionally, experiments can be done that erupt only part of the volume of the balloon. These sandbox experiments can be compared to natural calderas and help us understand their internal structure. The second experiment helps us understand how magma behaves during collapse. For this experiment we allowed dense cylindrical blocks to sink into syrup solutions filled with poppy seeds. We mix the syrup with warm water to reduce its viscosity. A series of sinking experiments can be done at different viscosities to investigate different regimes of fluid flow. A key parameter used to the character of the flow of magma is the Reynolds number, the ratio between inertial and viscous forces. The experiments show how the Reynolds number of the magma affects the speed and the style that the block sinks, and also how the magma behaves in the chamber. Fast subsidence in low viscosity fluid (high Reynolds numbers) produces seed vortices in the syrup, indicating mixing. This experiment helps us understand the interplay between eruption and collapse and why mixed magma frequently erupts from calderas. These two simple experiments not only demonstrate caldera formation, but also can be used to get quantative information about the processes governing caldera formation.

Kennedy, B.; Jellinek, M.; Stix, J.

2006-12-01

57

An open randomized comparative study to test the efficacy and safety of oral terbinafine pulse as a monotherapy and in combination with topical ciclopirox olamine 8% or topical amorolfine hydrochloride 5% in the treatment of onychomycosis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of nails caused by dermatophytes, yeasts and molds. Aims: To study the efficacy and safety of oral terbinafine pulse as a monotherapy and in combination with topical ciclopirox olamine 8% or topical amorolfine hydrochloride 5&#x...

Jaiswal Amit; Sharma R; Garg A

58

Unidad temática y variedad textual: un tópico social en tres relatos orales Thematic unity and textual variety: A social topic in three oral narratives  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Desde el punto de vista de la lingüística del texto y la concepción del lenguaje como semiótica social, se analizan e interpretan aquí tres relatos recogidos de la tradición oral del sur de Chile. Estos relatos son estructuralmente muy distintos entre sí; pero, en un nivel profundo, se descubre en ellos una gran unidad temática, un tópico común relativo a la circunstancia sociocultural y étnica en que transcurre la vida de los propios narradores.Three short narratives picked up from the oral tradition present in the south of Chile are analized both from the perspective of the text linguistic and of language as social semiotics. Structurally the narratives are quite different from each other, but at a deeper level they show not only thematic unity but also a common topic dealing with ethnic and sociocultural circumstances proper of the contextual reality of the narratives.

Constantino Contreras

2000-01-01

59

Oral Candidiasis  

Science.gov (United States)

... page: About CDC.gov . Oral Candidiasis Oropharyngeal / Esophageal Candidiasis ("Thrush") Candidiasis that develops in the mouth or ... other Fungal topics, visit the Fungal Homepage. Oral Candidiasis Topics Definition What is oral candidiasis? Symptoms Redness ...

60

Diclofenac topical solution compared with oral diclofenac: a pooled safety analysis  

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Sanford H Roth1, Philip Fuller21Arizona Research and Education, Arthritis Laboratory, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA; 2Medical Affairs, Covidien, Hazelwood, MO, USABackground: Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) formulations, which produce less systemic exposure compared...

Roth SH; Fuller P

 
 
 
 
61

Evaluation of the effect of topical cefadroxil on bacterial load of pathogenic staphylococci in anterior nares in human volunteers, comparative study between oral vs. topical cefadroxil and evaluation of effect of combination of oral plus topical cefadroxil in patients with staphylococcal superficial skin infections  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Cefadroxil has good tissue penetration & exerts more sustained action at the site of infection after oral absorption. Our aim of the study was to check topical cefadroxil has any efficacy over staphylococcal superficial skin infection or not. Methods: Pre-treatment nasal swabs were obtai...

Tanvi B. Shah; Dimple S. Mehta; Hiral A. Shah; Sanjay J. Mehta; Jayendra N. Dave

62

Childhood vitiligo : Response to methylprednisolone oral minipulse therapy and topical fluticasone combination  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Childhood vitiligo is always a challenge to treat, especially when the disease is progressing rapidly in such a patient. Oral minipulse with betamethasone has been tried in childhood vitiligo and also in some other immune mediated skin disorders with good results. Aims: ...

Majid Imran; Masood Qazi; Hassan Iffat; Khan Dilshad; Chisti Muzammil

63

New lidocaine lozenge as topical anesthesia compared to lidocaine viscous oral solution before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To evaluate the effect and acceptance of a new lidocaine lozenge compared with a lidocaine viscous oral solution as a pharyngeal anesthetic before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE), a diagnostic procedure commonly performed worldwide during which many patients experience severe discomfort mostly because of the gag reflex.

Mogensen, Stine; Treldal, Charlotte

2012-01-01

64

A Self-controlled Single Blinded Clinical Trial to Evaluate Oral Lichen Planus after Topical Treatment with Aloe Vera  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available AIM: The object of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a selfcontrolledsingle blinded clinical trial of the topical application ofAloe vera in oral lichen planus (OLP).METHODS: Twenty patients (15 male and 5 female) aged at least18 years recruited from the outpatients. In all cases the diagnosisnet currently accepted criteria. Each patient was instructed tomanually apply Aloe vera (AV) high molecular weight fractions(AHM) on the affected side oral mucosa three times daily andexamined at the beginning of treatment and then after 4 and 8 weeksof therapy. AHM were obtained from water-washed gel part of AVand processed by the patented hyper-dry system in combinationof freeze-dry technique with micro wave and far infrared rayirradiations. The macromolecular aloe ointment is a mixture of thehydrophilic ointment and AHM at 0.1% by weight.RESULTS: A self-controlled single blind protocol to assessmentclinical improvement and pain response was used in this study. Theclinical results showed a rapid subjective and objective improvementwith topical AHM treatment. Fifteen patients (75%) had completeremission at treated side and two patients (10%) had partialremission, while one patient showed no response to treatment (5%),and placebo sides showed partial remission responded in two casesonly (10%) and no responded in other sides.CONCLUSION: The effect of AHM ointment on OLP wassignificantly effective than that of placebo. The results showeddecrease both in clinical signs and in pain scores. AHM ointmentshowed well tolerated, safe and effective treatment to OLP.

Kareman El-Soudany; Akira Yagi; Amal Kabbash

2013-01-01

65

A comparison of oral and topical vitamin A supplementation in African foam-nesting frogs (Chiromantis xerampelina).  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Vitamin A is essential for a variety of functions, including cellular differentiation, morphogenesis, growth, vision, immune response, and reproduction. A captive population of African foam-nesting frogs (Chiromantis xerampelina) with a known history of vitamin A deficiency had higher than expected incidence of sudden death, bacterial osteomyelitis, and stunted growth. Due to the high prevalence and untreatable nature of the diseases in the population, euthanasia of the population was recommended. Before euthanasia, the population was entered into a study to compare oral dietary supplementation of vitamin A to topical treatment with water-miscible vitamin A palmitate (AQUASOL A Parenteral, Mayne Pharma Inc., Paramus, New Jersey 07652, U.S.A.). Eighty-four frogs, weighing 2-7 g, were divided into a control and three treatment groups of 21 frogs per group, with normalized weight distribution. The control group received standard daily nutrition of crickets dusted with a supplement containing 342,000 international units (IU) vitamin A/kg. The treatment groups consisted of oral supplementation with crickets dusted with a fortified supplement containing 822,510 IU vitamin A/kg; topical vitamin A palmitate 50 IU every other day; and topical vitamin A palmitate 50 IU once a week. After 30 days, all frogs were euthanized, and 12 frogs from each group were analyzed for whole-body vitamin A levels. The control and treatment groups 1, 2, and 3 had average whole-body vitamin A levels of 1371.4 IU/kg (SE 284.4), 908.7 IU/kg (SE 186.5), 6385.9 IU/kg (SE 675.9), and 3521.8 IU/kg (SE 575.1), respectively. These results suggest that oral supplementation using a product high in vitamin A may be ineffective at raising whole-body vitamin A levels above those achieved with standard nutrition. Topical administration of vitamin A on an every other day and once a week dosing schedule achieved levels 4.5- and 2.5-fold higher than standard nutrition, respectively.

Sim RR; Sullivan KE; Valdes EV; Fleming GJ; Terrell SP

2010-09-01

66

PREVENTION OF CUTANEOUS SIDE EFFECTS OF TOPICAL TRETINOIN: USE OF ORAL VITAMINE E  

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Introduction: Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous folicles. Tretinoin is used as one of the topical treatments for acne vulgaris. It has different cutaneous side effects such as ery...

G FAGHIHI

67

Evaluation of the efficacy of oral lufenuron combined with topical enilconazole for the management of dermatophytosis in catteries.  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficacy of oral lufenuron, a chitin synthetase inhibitor, combined with topical enilconazole, was evaluated for the management of Microsporum canis infection in 100 cats housed in two catteries in France. The cats were treated with weekly rinses with enilconazole (0.2 per cent) for four weeks and, in each cattery, one group (A) was also treated with micronised griseofulvin (25 mg/kg administered orally twice a day for five weeks) and a second group (B) was treated with 60 mg/kg lufenuron administered orally once on day 0 and again after 30 days. All the cats were examined individually for cutaneous lesions and mycological cultures were made when the treatment began and after 15, 30, 60 and 90 days. In the first cattery, the cats' clinical scores after 30 and 60 days were significantly lower in group B than in group A. In both catteries and both treatment groups, the mean number of fungal colonies decreased rapidly during the first 15 days of treatment, remained stable for the following 45 days but increased from day 60 to the end of the experiment on day 90. PMID:12081306

Guillot, J; Malandain, E; Jankowski, F; Rojzner, K; Fournier, C; Touati, F; Chermette, R; Seewald, W; Schenker, R

2002-06-01

68

Distribution and binding of (/sup 14/C)acrylamide to macromolecules in SENCAR and BALB/c mice following oral and topical administration  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To determine if differences in acrylamide distribution or its binding to DNA could be responsible for the reported higher incidence of skin papillomas observed after oral administration compared to topical application, (/sup 14/C)acrylamide was administered by topical application and oral intubation to male SENCAR and BALB/mice. Portions of lung, liver, stomach, testes, and skin were removed, and /sup 14/C was measured at 15 min, 30 min, 1, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hr. Binding to DNA, RNA, and protein was measured at 6 and 48 hr. Following oral administration, few strain differences in distribution or binding were noted. After topical application, SENCAR mice generally showed higher tissue concentrations than did the BALB/c mice at the early time periods but not at the later ones. Comparing the two routes, comparable concentrations were observed in all tissues except the skin where the amount of (/sup 14/C)acrylamide after topical application was approximately 100 times that observed after oral administration. At 48 hr, binding to DNA was sevenfold higher after topical than after oral administration. The effect of route on papilloma formation cannot be explained, therefore, on the basis of either a difference in distribution or binding to DNA in the target organ. The binding of acrylamide to DNA in skin was similar in both SENCAR and BALB/c mice indicating that the much greater susceptibility of the SENCAR mice to tumorigenesis cannot be explained simply on the basis of distribution or macromolecular binding.

Carlson, G.P.; Weaver, P.M.

1985-06-30

69

Comparison of Safety and Efficacy of Oral Azithromycin-Topical Adapalene Versus Oral Doxycycline-Topical Adapalene in the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris and Determination of the Effects of These Treatments on Patients’ Quality of Life  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Design: Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit. Oral antibiotics and topical retinoids are effective in the treatment of acne.Materials and Methods: In this study, 60 patients with moderate acne vulgaris were evaluated; the patients were randomized into two equal groups. The groups were matched with respect to age, gender and clinical severity of acne. The patients in group 1 received oral azithromycin (500 mg daily on 3 consecutive days per week) and the patients in group 2 received doxycycline (100 mg daily) for 12 weeks. Topical adapalene gel was added to the systemic treatment in both groups. Clinical evaluation was performed at baseline and at the end of first, second and third months. Side effects were recorded. Quality of life in patients was measured with Skindex-29 and Acne Quality of Life Scale before treatment and at the end of third month. Results: At the end of the treatment, the patients in the two treatment groups had clinical improvement of more than 50%. Twenty-one patients in the azithromycin-adapalene group and 23 patients in the doxycycline-adapelene group had more than 80% clinical improvement. There was not any statistically significant difference in the clinical efficacy between the two combinations. Both treatment regimens were safe with minimal side effects. There was statistically significant difference in Skindex-29 and Acne Quality of Life Scale scores at baseline and at the end of the treatment (p0.05). Conclusion: Both treatments were efficient and safe. There was significant improvement in quality of life scale scores in both groups.

Serap Kayhan; ?lham Sabuncu; Zeynep Nurhan Saraço?lu; Ay?e Esra Koku Aksu; Mustafa Tozun

2012-01-01

70

Disposition of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole disulfide in rats dosed intravenously, orally, and topically and in guinea pigs dosed topically  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] To determine the metabolic disposition of [14C]-2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) and [14C]-2-mercaptobenzothiazole disulfide (MBTS), male and female rats were dosed topically. Topical doses were 36.1 micrograms/animal for [14C]MBT and 33.6 micrograms/animal for [14C]MBTS. Although more MBT passed through the skin than MBTS and although, relative to rats, guinea pigs absorbed a greater percentage of the dose (33.4% compared to 16.1-17.5% of the MBT and 12.2% compared to 5.94-7.87% for MBTS), the disposition of radioactivity derived from the two compounds was similar. Washing of the skin removed more of the radioactivity from guinea pigs than from rats. For both sexes of rats dosed intravenously with [14C]MBT or [14C]MBTS, disposition of the compounds was similar. In 72 h, 90.9-101% of the dose appeared in the urine and 3.79-15.1% in the feces. At this time, a small portion of the administered radioactivity remained associated with erythrocytes. Oral dosing of rats for 14 d with unlabeled MBT prior to a single dose of [14C]MBT or with unlabeled MBTS prior to a single dose of [14C]MBTS (0.730 mg/kg). For both sexes, disposition of the compounds was similar. At 96 h after dosing, a small portion of the administered radioactivity remained associated with erythrocytes, most of which was bound to the membranes. For both compounds and sexes, 60.8-101% of the radioactivity administered appeared in the urine and 3.46-9.99% in the feces in 96 h. At the time, only trace amounts of radioactivity remained in tissues other than blood. Of these tissues, thyroid contained the highest concentration. In the urine, there was a detectable MBT or MBTS, but there were two metabolites, one of which was identified as a thioglucuronide derivative of MBT. The other was possibly a sulfonic acid derivative of MBT

1989-01-01

71

The clinical effects of zinc as a topical or oral agent on the clinical response and pathophysiologic mechanisms of acne: a systematic review of the literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This article reviews the published literature about the efficacy of oral and topical zinc as treatments for acne vulgaris. The medical literature was systematically reviewed to identify relevant articles. Each published study was assessed for pathophysiologic results and the quality of the clinical evidence the study provided based on Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT) criteria. Finally, the body of evidence for using oral or topical zinc in the treatment of acne was assessed, again using SORT criteria. A SORT strength of recommendation of B (inconsistent or limited-quality patient-oriented evidence) appears to be appropriate for both oral and topical zinc. The preponderance of evidence suggests zinc has antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects and that it may decrease sebum production.

Brandt S

2013-05-01

72

SYRUP AND SUGAR PREPARED FROM MAPLE SAP OR MAPLE SYRUP AND PROCESS FOR PREPARATION THEREOF  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Natural maple saps and maple syrups are contacted with an immobilized isomaltulose-forming microorganism to convert at least 20% of the sucrose contained in the sap or syrup to isomaltulose. The microorganism may be immobilized on calcium alginate and prepared as a column through which sap or syrup flows. The resultant isomaltulose-containing solutions are concentrated to produce reduced or low glycemic index sugar syrups, semi--solid and solid sugar products.

HAN NAM FONG; ZOU WEI; ZHAO BINJUN; FLEMING LLOYD PERRY; DUAN ZHIZHONG

73

SYRUP AND SUGAR PREPARED FROM MAPLE SAP OR MAPLE SYRUP AND PROCESS FOR PREPARATION THEREOF  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Natural maple saps and maple syrups are contacted with an immobilized isomaltulose-forming microorganism to convert at least 20% of the sucrose contained in the sap or syrup to isomaltulose. The microorganism may be immobilized on calcium alginate and prepared as a column through which sap or syrup flows. The resultant isomaltulose-containing solutions are concentrated to produce reduced or low glycemic index sugar syrups, semi-solid and solid sugar products.

HAN NAM FONG; ZOU WEI; ZHAO BINJUN; FLEMING LLOYD PERRY; DUAN ZHIZHONG

74

SYRUP FROM VEGETATIVE RAW MATERIAL  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Syrup of kg/1000 liters contains: sugar 700-800, citric acid 1,2-1,4, vanilla 0,01-0,04, and l/1000 liters contains: infusion of mint, estragon or bay leaf 15-20, essential oils of mint, estragon or bay leaf 0,03-0,05 or an essence of mint, estragon or bay leaf 1,2-1,5, green food dye 0,03-0,04.

KUTATELADZE LUARA; GARDAFKHADZE AMIRAN; KAPANADZE TAMAZ; GIGOLASHVILI DAVID

75

Neuroradiological findings in maple syrup urine disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease is a rare inborn error of amino acid metabolism involving catabolic pathway of the branched-chain amino acids. This disease, if left untreated, may cause damage to the brain and may even cause death. These patients typically present with distinctive maple syrup odour of sweat and urine. Patients typically present with skin and urine smelling like maple syrup. Here we describe a case with relevant magnetic resonance imaging findings and confirmatory biochemical findings. PMID:23772241

Indiran, Venkatraman; Gunaseelan, R Emmanuel

2013-01-01

76

Neuroradiological findings in maple syrup urine disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maple syrup urine disease is a rare inborn error of amino acid metabolism involving catabolic pathway of the branched-chain amino acids. This disease, if left untreated, may cause damage to the brain and may even cause death. These patients typically present with distinctive maple syrup odour of sweat and urine. Patients typically present with skin and urine smelling like maple syrup. Here we describe a case with relevant magnetic resonance imaging findings and confirmatory biochemical findings.

Indiran V; Gunaseelan RE

2013-01-01

77

An open randomized comparative study to test the efficacy and safety of oral terbinafine pulse as a monotherapy and in combination with topical ciclopirox olamine 8% or topical amorolfine hydrochloride 5% in the treatment of onychomycosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of nails caused by dermatophytes, yeasts and molds. Aims: To study the efficacy and safety of oral terbinafine pulse as a monotherapy and in combination with topical ciclopirox olamine 8% or topical amorolfine hydrochloride 5% in onychomycosis. Methods: A clinical comparative study was undertaken on 96 Patients of onychomycosis during the period between August 2005 to July 2006. Forty-eight patients were randomly assigned in group A to receive oral terbinafine 250 mg, one tablet twice daily for seven days every month (pulse therapy); 24 patients in group B to receive oral terbinafine pulse therapy plus topical ciclopirox olamine 8% to be applied once daily at night on all affected nails; and 24 patients in group C to receive oral terbinafine pulse therapy plus topical amorolfine hydrochloride 5% to be applied once weekly at night on all the affected nails. The treatment was continued for four months. The patients were evaluated at four weekly intervals till sixteen weeks and then at 24 and 36 weeks. Results: We observed clinical cure in 71.73, 82.60 and 73.91% patients in groups A, B and C, respectively; Mycological cure rates against dematophytes were 88.9, 88.9 and 85.7 in groups A, B and C, respectively. The yeast mycological cure rates were 66.7, 100 and 50 in groups A, B and C, respectively. In the case of nondermatophytes, the overall response was poor: one out of two cases (50%) responded in group A, while one case each in group B and group C did not respond at all. Conclusion: Terbinafine pulse therapy is effective and safe alternative in treatment of onychomycosis due to dermatophytes; and combination therapy with topical ciclopirox or amorolfine do not show any significant difference in efficacy in comparison to monotherapy with oral terbinafine.

Jaiswal Amit; Sharma R; Garg A

2007-01-01

78

[Anaphylaxis Due to Ingestion of Ivy Syrup (Hedera hÈlix). Report of two Cases].  

Science.gov (United States)

Common ivy is an ornamental plant, that is ubiquitous in Mexico. Its allergens can cause contact dermatitis, asthma and allergic rhinitis. We describe two cases of anaphylaxis related to common ivy syrup ingestion. We performed skin prick test with Hedera helix syrup, and using a dialized and ultrafiltered of common ivy syrup commercial presentation (dry common ivy extract: 7mg/ml), as well as using Hedera helix pollen extract. We describe two cases of anaphylaxis related to ingestion of Hedera helix syrup. Skin prick test with the commercial presentation and with the pollen extract were positive in both patients. In this study we confirmed the causal relationship of anaphylaxis due to the ingestion of ivy syrup in two patients through skin prick tests with ivy syrup and ivy pollen extract. Common ivy can cause contact dermatitis, asthma and allergic rhinitis, but we do not know the allergens that could be related to systemic and respiratory reactions, then, more studies in this topic are requiered. PMID:24007931

Morfin-Maciel, Blanca María; Rosas-Alvarado, Alejandro; Velázquez-Sámano, Guillermo

79

[Anaphylaxis Due to Ingestion of Ivy Syrup (Hedera hElix). Report of two Cases].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Common ivy is an ornamental plant, that is ubiquitous in Mexico. Its allergens can cause contact dermatitis, asthma and allergic rhinitis. We describe two cases of anaphylaxis related to common ivy syrup ingestion. We performed skin prick test with Hedera helix syrup, and using a dialized and ultrafiltered of common ivy syrup commercial presentation (dry common ivy extract: 7mg/ml), as well as using Hedera helix pollen extract. We describe two cases of anaphylaxis related to ingestion of Hedera helix syrup. Skin prick test with the commercial presentation and with the pollen extract were positive in both patients. In this study we confirmed the causal relationship of anaphylaxis due to the ingestion of ivy syrup in two patients through skin prick tests with ivy syrup and ivy pollen extract. Common ivy can cause contact dermatitis, asthma and allergic rhinitis, but we do not know the allergens that could be related to systemic and respiratory reactions, then, more studies in this topic are requiered.

Morfin-Maciel BM; Rosas-Alvarado A; Vel Zquez-S Mano G

2012-01-01

80

A comparison of the effectiveness of topical tetracycline, benzoyl-peroxide gel and oral oxytetracycline in the treatment of acne.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A proprietary topical tetracycline preparation (Topicycline) was compared with an alcohol-based 5% benzoyl-peroxide gel and with oral oxytetracycline (250 mg twice daily) using a randomized group-comparative double-blind study in 69 patients with mild to moderate acne. Facial acne grades improved significantly in all three treatment groups over the 12-week study period but chest acne grades did not change significantly and only oxytetracycline produced a significant improvement in back grade. All three treatment groups produced a significant reduction in facial inflamed and non-inflamed lesions apart from oxytetracycline which failed to produce a significant reduction in inflamed lesions. However, there were no overall significant differences between the three treatment groups either in improvement of acne grade or in reduction of inflamed and non-inflamed lesions. We conclude that topical tetracycline is as effective as either 5% benzoyl-peroxide gel or 250 mg oxytetracycline twice daily in the treatment of mild to moderate acne.

Norris JF; Hughes BR; Basey AJ; Cunliffe WJ

1991-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Topical azithromycin and oral doxycycline therapy of meibomian gland dysfunction: a comparative clinical and spectroscopic pilot study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is a common clinical problem that is often associated with evaporative dry eye disease. Alterations of the lipids of the meibomian glands have been identified in several studies of MGD. This prospective, observational, open-label clinical trial documents the improvement in both clinical signs and symptoms of disease as well as spectroscopic characteristics of the meibomian gland lipids after therapy with topical azithromycin ophthalmic solution and oral doxycycline treatment. METHODS: Subjects with symptomatic MGD were recruited. Signs of MGD were evaluated with a slit lamp. Symptoms of MGD were measured by the response of subjects to a questionnaire. Meibum lipid-lipid interaction strength, conformation, and phase transition parameters, and meibum protein content were measured using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and principal component analysis. Terpenoids, short-chain CH3 moieties, lipid oxidation, wax, cholesterylesters and glycerides were measured with a proton nuclear magnetic resonance (H-NMR) spectrometer. RESULTS: Topical therapy with azithromycin and oral therapy with doxycycline relieved signs and symptoms and restored the lipid properties of the meibomian gland secretion toward normal. Compared with 4 weeks of azithromycin treatment reported in our previous study, oral doxycycline treatment was slightly less effective in improving foreign body sensation and the signs of plugging and secretion. In subjects with clinical evidence of MGD, changes in ordering of the lipids and phase transition temperature were brought closer to normal with azithromycin treatment than doxycycline treatment. Treatment with doxycycline but not azithromycin restored the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-principal component analysis scores and relative area of the H-NMR resonance at 1.26 ppm. Both doxycycline and azithromycin treatment restored the levels of the relative areas of the H-NMR resonance at 5.2 and 7.9 ppm to normal levels. The levels of meibum protein and meibum lipid oxidation were not influenced by azithromycin or doxycycline treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The mechanism of action of doxycycline may be different from that of azithromycin in therapy of MGD. It is notable that when carotenoids in meibum are low, as in MGD, the tear film is unstable and patients have the signs and symptoms of dry eyes. When carotenoids are restored with azithromycin and doxycycline treatment, tear film stability is restored and patients no longer have the signs and symptoms of dry eyes.

Foulks GN; Borchman D; Yappert M; Kakar S

2013-01-01

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A comparison of topical budesonide and oral montelukast in seasonal allergic rhinitis and asthma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Allergic rhinitis and asthma commonly coexist and are both mediated by similar inflammatory mechanisms. Leukotriene antagonists may therefore be an alternative to corticosteroid therapy. OBJECTIVE: To compare oral montelukast with inhaled plus intranasal budesonide in patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis and asthma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A single-blind double-dummy placebo-controlled crossover study was performed comparing once daily 10 mg oral montelukast with 400 microg inhaled plus 200 microg intranasal budesonide in 12 patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma: mean (S.E.) age 34.0 years (2.7), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) 91.2 (3.8)% predicted. Each treatment was for 2 weeks with a 1-week placebo run-in and washout. Measurements were made after each active treatment and placebo for: adenosine monophosphate bronchial challenge, exhaled and nasal nitric oxide. Patients also recorded their domiciliary peak expiratory flow, nasal peak inspiratory flow, asthma and seasonal allergic rhinitis symptoms. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between the placebos for any measurement. For adenosine monophosphate PC20, geometric mean fold differences (95% confidence interval (CI) for difference) were 6.4 (2.2-18.6) for placebo vs. budesonide, 2.9 (1.0-8.4) for placebo vs. montelukast, and 2.1 (1.1-4.5) for budesonide vs. montelukast. For exhaled nitric oxide (p.p.b.) there was significant (P < 0.05) suppression with both montelukast (10.9) and budesonide (10.1) compared with placebo (18.8). For nasal nitric oxide and nasal peak flow there were only significant differences with budesonide compared with placebo. Both treatments reduced total seasonal allergic rhinitis symptoms but only budesonide had a significant effect on nasal symptoms. CONCLUSION: Once-daily inhaled plus intranasal budesonide and once daily montelukast showed comparable efficacy on lower airway, but only the budesonide had significant efficacy on upper airway inflammatory markers. Both treatments significantly reduced allergic rhinitis symptoms.

Wilson AM; Dempsey OJ; Sims EJ; Lipworth BJ

2001-04-01

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DISTRIBUTION AND MACROMOLECULAR BINDING OF BENZO(A)PYRENE IN SENCAR AND BALB/C MICE FOLLOWING TOPICAL AND ORAL ADMINISTRATION  

Science.gov (United States)

When benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is used as the initiator in initiation-promotion assays, the topical route of administration has been shown to produce a greater epidermal tumor incidence than do other routes of administration, particularly the oral route. In addition, different strains...

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The remarkable beneficial effect of adding oral simvastatin to topical betamethasone for treatment of psoriasis: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory disease with unpredictable prognosis. Given the immunomodulatory effects of statins, the present study was conducted to determine whether the addition of orally administered simvastatin to the topical betamethasone, a standard antipsoriatic treatment, can produce a more powerful therapeutic response against this clinical conundrum. METHOD: In a double-blind study, 30 patients with plaque type psoriasis were randomly divided into two equal treatment groups. Group 1 received oral simvastatin (40 mg/d) plus topical steroid (50% betamethasone in petrolatum) for 8 weeks and group 2 received oral placebo plus the same topical steroid for the same time period. Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score was checked before and at the end of the treatment period. RESULTS: PASI score decreased significantly in both groups, but the decline of PASI score was more significant in patients who received simvastatin (Mann-Whitney test; P-value = 0.001). No side effect or any laboratory abnormality was detected in patients. CONCLUSION: Our work, which is the first double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study on this subject, shows that oral simvastatin enhances the therapeutic effect of topical steroids against psoriasis. The increased risk of cardiovascular accidents in psoriatic patients and the protective effect of statins against cardiovascular disease further encourages their use in the treatment of this clinical conundrum.

Naseri M; Hadipour A; Sepaskhah M; Namazi MR

2010-01-01

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Topical polyethylene glycol as a novel chemopreventive agent for oral cancer via targeting of epidermal growth factor response.  

Science.gov (United States)

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality underscoring the need for safe and effective chemopreventive strategies. Targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is attractive in that it is an early critical event in HNSCC pathogenesis. However, current agents lack efficacy or have unacceptable toxicity. Several groups have demonstrated that the over-the-counter medication, polyethylene glycol (PEG) has remarkable chemopreventive efficacy against colon carcinogenesis. Importantly, we reported that this effect is mediated through EGFR internalization/degradation. In the current study, we investigated the chemopreventive efficacy of this agent against HNSCC, using both the well validated animal model 4-NQO (4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide) rat model and cell culture with the human HNSCC cell line SCC-25. We demonstrated that daily topical application of 10% PEG-8000 in the oral cavity (tongue and cavity wall) post 4NQO initiation resulted in a significant reduction in tumor burden (both, tumor size and tumors/tumor bearing rat) without any evidence of toxicity. Immunohistochemical studies depicted decreased proliferation (number of Ki67-positive cells) and reduced expression of EGFR and its downstream effectors cyclin D1 in the tongue mucosa of 4NQO-rats treated with PEG. We showed that EGFR was also markedly downregulated in SCC-25 cells by PEG-8000 with a concomitant induction of G1-S phase cell-cycle arrest, which was potentially mediated through upregulated p21(cip1/waf1). In conclusion, we demonstrate, for the first time, that PEG has promising efficacy and safety as a chemopreventive efficacy against oral carcinogenesis. PMID:22675506

Wali, Ramesh K; Kunte, Dhananjay P; De La Cruz, Mart; Tiwari, Ashish K; Brasky, Jeffrey; Weber, Christopher R; Gibson, Tina P; Patel, Amir; Savkovic, Suzana D; Brockstein, Bruce E; Roy, Hemant K

2012-06-04

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Topical polyethylene glycol as a novel chemopreventive agent for oral cancer via targeting of epidermal growth factor response.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality underscoring the need for safe and effective chemopreventive strategies. Targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is attractive in that it is an early critical event in HNSCC pathogenesis. However, current agents lack efficacy or have unacceptable toxicity. Several groups have demonstrated that the over-the-counter medication, polyethylene glycol (PEG) has remarkable chemopreventive efficacy against colon carcinogenesis. Importantly, we reported that this effect is mediated through EGFR internalization/degradation. In the current study, we investigated the chemopreventive efficacy of this agent against HNSCC, using both the well validated animal model 4-NQO (4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide) rat model and cell culture with the human HNSCC cell line SCC-25. We demonstrated that daily topical application of 10% PEG-8000 in the oral cavity (tongue and cavity wall) post 4NQO initiation resulted in a significant reduction in tumor burden (both, tumor size and tumors/tumor bearing rat) without any evidence of toxicity. Immunohistochemical studies depicted decreased proliferation (number of Ki67-positive cells) and reduced expression of EGFR and its downstream effectors cyclin D1 in the tongue mucosa of 4NQO-rats treated with PEG. We showed that EGFR was also markedly downregulated in SCC-25 cells by PEG-8000 with a concomitant induction of G1-S phase cell-cycle arrest, which was potentially mediated through upregulated p21(cip1/waf1). In conclusion, we demonstrate, for the first time, that PEG has promising efficacy and safety as a chemopreventive efficacy against oral carcinogenesis.

Wali RK; Kunte DP; De La Cruz M; Tiwari AK; Brasky J; Weber CR; Gibson TP; Patel A; Savkovic SD; Brockstein BE; Roy HK

2012-01-01

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[Topical tretinoin in the treatment of lichen planus and leukoplakia of the oral mucosa. A biochemical evaluation of the keratinization].  

Science.gov (United States)

In earlier work, we demonstrated that 0.1 p. 100 topical tretinoin is clinically effective and well tolerated compared with placebo for the treatment of oral leukoplakia and oral keratosic or erythematous lichen planus. Here we aimed to complete this clinical protocol with histological and biochemical analyses comparing the biopsy specimens collected at inclusion and those collected after 4 months of treatment. Histological results were based on changes in keratinization observed between onset of treatment and 4 months treatment. Biochemical studies included the use of antibodies (anti-cytokeratins 10-11, anti-filaggrine) for the immunohistochemical evaluation of keratinization and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis for measuring cytokeratins. In patients with lichen planus, histological changes during treatment showed that, in the 10 patients in the tretinoin group, keratinization disappeared in 6 and decreased significantly in 3. Immunohistochemistry revealed that cytokeratins 10-11 and filaggrin disappeared in 57 p. 100 of the patients treated with tretinoin versus 25 p. 100 in the patients given placebo. Bidimensional gel electrophoresis showed that cytokeratins 1, 2, 10 and 11 disappeared only in the tretinoin group (60 p. 100 of the cases). In patients with leukoplakia, histological changes during treatment showed that, in the tretinoin group, keratinization disappeared in 5 cases and decreased in 5 others. Immunohistochemistry revealed that cytokeratins 10-11 disappeared in 30 p. 100 of the patients treated with tretinoin versus 25 p. 100 in the placebo group. Bidimensional electrophoresis demonstrated that cytokeratins 1, 2, 10 and 11 disappeared in 43 p. 100 of the patients treated with tretinoin. PMID:7535512

Branchet, M C; Boisnic, S; Pascal, F; Ben Slama, L; Rostin, M; Szpirglas, H

1994-01-01

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[Topical tretinoin in the treatment of lichen planus and leukoplakia of the oral mucosa. A biochemical evaluation of the keratinization  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In earlier work, we demonstrated that 0.1 p. 100 topical tretinoin is clinically effective and well tolerated compared with placebo for the treatment of oral leukoplakia and oral keratosic or erythematous lichen planus. Here we aimed to complete this clinical protocol with histological and biochemical analyses comparing the biopsy specimens collected at inclusion and those collected after 4 months of treatment. Histological results were based on changes in keratinization observed between onset of treatment and 4 months treatment. Biochemical studies included the use of antibodies (anti-cytokeratins 10-11, anti-filaggrine) for the immunohistochemical evaluation of keratinization and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis for measuring cytokeratins. In patients with lichen planus, histological changes during treatment showed that, in the 10 patients in the tretinoin group, keratinization disappeared in 6 and decreased significantly in 3. Immunohistochemistry revealed that cytokeratins 10-11 and filaggrin disappeared in 57 p. 100 of the patients treated with tretinoin versus 25 p. 100 in the patients given placebo. Bidimensional gel electrophoresis showed that cytokeratins 1, 2, 10 and 11 disappeared only in the tretinoin group (60 p. 100 of the cases). In patients with leukoplakia, histological changes during treatment showed that, in the tretinoin group, keratinization disappeared in 5 cases and decreased in 5 others. Immunohistochemistry revealed that cytokeratins 10-11 disappeared in 30 p. 100 of the patients treated with tretinoin versus 25 p. 100 in the placebo group. Bidimensional electrophoresis demonstrated that cytokeratins 1, 2, 10 and 11 disappeared in 43 p. 100 of the patients treated with tretinoin.

Branchet MC; Boisnic S; Pascal F; Ben Slama L; Rostin M; Szpirglas H

1994-01-01

89

Oral, topical, and inhalation of Calcarea carbonica derivative complex (M8) to treat inflammatory mammary carcinoma in dogs  

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Full Text Available Background: Inflammatory mammary carcinoma (IMC) is locally aggressive, fast growing, highly malignant tumor that affects humans and dogs. Affected dogs usually are presented with generalized edema, pain, erythema, and skin ulceration in mammary glands. Surgery is not recommended and an effective treatment has not been established [1]. Calcarea carbonica derivative complex (M8) has demonstrated anticancer properties in a murine model, by improving innate immune response against tumor cells [2]. M8 is a complex high diluted medication comprised of Calcarea carbonica 16x, Aconitum napellus 20x, Arsenicum album 18x, Asa foetida 20x, Conium maculatum 17x, Ipecacuanha 13x, Phosphorus 20x, Rhus toxicodendron 17x, Silicea 20x, Sulphur 24x, and Thuya occidentalis 19x, dilution procedures have followed standard methodology described at the Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia. Aims: To describe different routes of M8 administration associated with oral pyroxican (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug) to treat dogs with IMC. Methodology: Three female dogs with 10 years old median age were presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Federal University of Parana, Curitiba (HV-UFPR) with cytological and clinical diagnosis of IMC. Patients were treated with oral (0.5 mL,q12h), topical (q12h) and inhalatory (2 mL, q24h, through an ultrasonic inhalation device) M8, and oral pyroxican (0.3mg/kg, q24h).Thoracic radiographs showed pulmonary metastasis in all dogs. Results: 7 days after initiating treatment all patients had clinical improvement. It was observed reduction on mammary glands inflammation and decreased pain sensitivity. One patient had 8 month of complete remission. The other two patients died 1 and 2 month after initial treatment. However none of the patients had pulmonary progressive disease, showed by radiographic examinations. Owners revealed treatment satisfaction in regards to quality of life improvement, easy M8 administration, good M8 palatability for dogs, and inflammation reduction. Conclusion: The present report suggests that M8 influenced positively the anti -inflammatory treatment. Keywords: Calcarea carbonica complex; inflammatory mammary carcinoma; routes of administration References [1] Sorenmo K. Canine mammary gland tumors. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice. 2003 33(3):573-96. [2] Oliveira CC, Abud APR, Oliveira SM, Guimarães FSF, Andrade LF, Di Bernardi RP, Coletto ELO, Kuczera D, Da Lozzo EJ, Gonçalves JP, Trindade ES, Buchi DF. Developments on drug discovery and on new therapeutics: highly diluted tinctures act as biological response modifiers. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2011, 11(101): 2-11.

Daniella Matos da Silva; Eneida Janiscki Da Lozzo; Dorly de Freitas Buchi; Carolina de Oliveira; Simone Domit Guérios

2012-01-01

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Flea blood feeding patterns in cats treated with oral nitenpyram and the topical insecticides imidacloprid, fipronil and selamectin.  

Science.gov (United States)

A series of studies was conducted to determine the effect of systemically and topically active insecticides on blood consumption by fleas (Ctenocephalides felis). Infestations were conducted by placing fleas into plexi-glass chambers attached to the lateral rib cage of domestic short-hair cats. After pre-defined periods, fleas and flea feces were extracted using vacuum aspiration and spectrophotometrically analyzed for hemoglobin using Drabkin's reagent. To determine how rapidly nitenpyram kills actively feeding fleas, a single oral treatment was administered 24h after infestation. To determine the effect of nitenpyram on blood consumption of newly acquired fleas, cats were infested with fleas 1h post-treatment and fleas and flea feces from both studies were extracted at 15, 30, 60, 120, 240 and 480min post-treatment or post-infestation. To compare the effects of topically versus systemically active insecticides, 20 cats each with 2 chambers attached, were randomly allocated among groups and were infested with fleas 1h after each of 4 nitenpyram treatments, or at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after a single application of commercial spot-on formulations of fipronil, imidacloprid or selamectin. Infestations were also completed for untreated (control) cats. Twenty-four hours after infestation, fleas and flea feces were removed for host blood quantification. If at any time, flea blood consumption in a treated group did not significantly differ from that of fleas infesting controls, that treatment group was withdrawn from the study. Nitenpyram effects on actively feeding fleas were first observed at 60min post-dosing when 38% of fleas were dead or moribund, and at 240min 100% were dead or moribund. Nitenpyram produced a significant reduction in flea blood consumption (pselamectin groups. Only on nitenpyram- or selamectin-treated cats were there significant reductions (p0.05) between these two groups on day 28. In this study systemically acting insecticides such as nitenpyram, and the topically applied but systemically active insecticide selamectin, were more effective in interfering with flea blood feeding than were imidacloprid and fipronil. PMID:18619735

McCoy, C; Broce, A B; Dryden, M W

2008-05-23

91

Clinical application of oral form of ANGIPARSTM and in combination with topical form as a new treatment for diabetic foot ulcers: A randomized clinical trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ANGIPARSTM is a new herbal extract which has been produced in oral, topical, and intravenous forms. The present article contains preliminary results of the study which was planned to evaluate the efficacy and safety of orally applied ANGIPARSTM and to compare it with the combination of oral and topical forms and also with conventional therapy in patients with diabetic ulcers of the lower extremities."nTwenty one patients with diabetic foot ulcers were divided into 3 groups. The first group received 100 mg of oral ANGIPARSTM twice a day for 6 weeks in addition to conventional therapies. In the second group, ANGIPARSTM gel 3% was added to the oral form of the same product besides the conventional therapies for the same period of time. Finally, in the third group which was considered as control, only conventional therapies were performed. The patients were followed for 6 weeks. Parameters such as granulation tissue formation, skin epithelization, and wound surface areas changes were analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the compound in wounds healing. Furthermore, drug safety was assessed by monitoring adverse events and by clinical and laboratory evaluations."nThe study data showed significant differences between the intervention and control groups with respect to efficacy and tolerability. In each intervention group, primary wound healings occurred following 2 weeks. Complete wound healing which was greater than 70% improvement in wounds surface areas was achieved in 83% and 100% of group 1 and group 2 participants, respectively after 6 weeks. On the other hand, at the same period of time, only 22.2% of patients in control group revealed complete healing. Therefore, ANGIPARSTM had significant positive effect in increasing the incidence of complete wound closure compared with control group (p = 0.042). However, our evaluations indicated that adding topical treatment with 3% gel once a day to the oral therapy with the same product did not make significant difference in healing outcomes statistically (p = 0.769). Clinical and paraclinical evaluations did not show any adverse events during the study."nThis study showed that in diabetic foot ulcers, either treatment with oral ANGIPARSTM capsules (100mg) twice a day or combination therapy with oral and topical forms, in conjunction with good wound care significantly increased the incidence of complete wound closure. In addition, the application of this product was safe and did not make any unexpected adverse event.

Bahrami A; Kamali K; Ali-Asgharzadeh A; Hosseini P; Heshmat R; Khorram Khorshid HR; Gharibdoust F; Madani SH; Larijani B

2008-01-01

92

ABSORBABLE TABLET BASED ON MUCUS-PRODUCING MEDICINAL PLANTS INTENDED FOR TOPICAL TREATMENT OF INFLAMMATORY DISEASES OF ORAL CAVITY AND PHARYNX  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to the medicine, in particular to the pharmaceutical composition representing the absorbable tablet intended for the topical treatment of the inflammatory diseases of the oral cavity and the pharynx. The composition comprises at least one component of plant origin derived from the mucus-producing plants such as Icelandic moss (Lichen islandicus), the marsh-mallow (Althaea officinalis L.), the ribwort (Plantago lanceolata L), Malva sylvestris L. and M. neglecta WALLR., Trigonella foenum-graecum L., and Cydonia oblonga MILL, and at least one topical anesthetic based on the ester or amide of the acid.

93

Topical analgesics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Historically, analgesics were applied by the topical route of administration. With the advent of oral formulations of drugs, topical application became less popular among physicians, although patients still rated this method of drug delivery as efficacious and practical. We now appreciate that peripheral mechanisms of actions of a variety of preparations rationalizes their topical application and gives further opportunity to target peripheral receptors and neural pathways that previously required systemic administration to achieve therapeutic effect. Therefore, a peripheral effect can be generated by using locally applied drug and, consequently, systemic concentrations of that drug may not reach the level at which systemic side effects can occur.

McCleane G

2007-12-01

94

Placebo controlled, crossover validation study of oral ibuprofen and topical hydrocortisone-21-acetate for a model of ultraviolet B radiation (UVR)-induced pain and inflammation  

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Full Text Available Matthias Rother, Ilka RotherDepartment of Clinical Operations, X-pert Med GmbH, Graefelfing, GermanyBackground: Pain related to ultraviolet B radiation (UVR) induced sunburn is an established, simple, acute pain model. One of the major criticisms is related to the potential dermal adverse events caused by the UVR exposure. This study tried to validate the model for oral and topical drugs and to define the minimum required UVR exposure.Methods: This subject- and observer-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study evaluated 600 mg oral ibuprofen (IB) and topical hydrocortisone-21-acetate (HC) twice daily (bid) in 24 healthy volunteers. Treatment started immediately after irradiation and again at 12 hours, 24 hours, and 36 hours post-UVR. Assessment of hyperalgesia to heat and signs of inflammation (erythema, skin temperature) for all areas was performed after UVR and again at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours. Subjects returned within 4–11 days to the study site for the second period of the study. As in the first period, subjects received HC at one side and topical placebo on the other side, but oral treatment was crossed-over.Results: The primary analysis failed to show the expected superiority of the IB-group vs the placebo group in period 1 of the study. Evaluating period 2 alone clearly showed the expected treatment effects of IB for erythema and heat pain threshold. The results were less pronounced for skin temperature. In contrast to IB vs oral placebo, there were no differences in treatment response between HC and topical placebo. UVR at all dosages induced profound erythema and reduction of heat pain threshold without causing blisters or other unexpected discomfort to the subjects. The changes were almost linear between 1 and 2 minimal erythema doses (MED), whereas the change from 2 to 3 MED was less pronounced.Conclusion: Use of 2 MED in upcoming studies seems to be reasonable to limit subjects' UVB exposure. The following procedural changes are suggested:• Intensified training sessions before randomization to treatment• Increase in sample size if they are crossover studies• Simplification in design (either oral or topical treatment)Keywords: ibuprofen, hydrocortisone-21-acetate, pain, inflammation, UV radiation, validation

Rother M; Rother I

2011-01-01

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PRODUCTION OF CRUST PIZZA COATED WITH SWEET SYRUP BY APPLYING SWEET SYRUPS TO BAKED PIZZA CRUST  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: A method of producing crust pizza coated with sweet syrups by applying sweet syrup containing glucose syrup to the surface of the baked pizza crust is provided. The pizza has various tastes and flavors without a greasy taste. CONSTITUTION: The crust pizza is prepared by the steps of: kneading dough for pizza crust placing the dough on a pizza plate while applying a little pressure thereto applying pizza sauce to the center of the dough and placing cheese, ham, onion, Agaricus bisporus, olive, pimentos, chili, Caper(Capparis spinosa), sausage and chopped meat on the pizza sauce baking the pizza crust at 230 to 350deg.C for 5 to 10min in an oven preheating glucose syrup at 160 to 260deg.C for 30sec to 4min and uniformly applying the preheated syrup to the pizza crust.

KANG WON MUK

96

Oral acetaminophen (paracetamol) for additional analgesia in phacoemulsification cataract surgery performed using topical anesthesia Randomized double-masked placebo-controlled trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical analgesic efficacy of 1.0 g oral acetaminophen (paracetamol) given in addition to topical anesthesia before phacoemulsification cataract surgery. SETTING: Inpatient and outpatient ophthalmology clinics, Bydgoszcz, Poland. METHODS: Consecutive patients with age-related cataract having phacoemulsification under topical anesthesia (tetracaine 0.5%) were enrolled in a prospective double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study. Patients were randomly assigned to preoperative oral administration of a placebo medication or to oral administration of 1.0 g acetaminophen. The main outcome measure was intensity of pain during and after surgery. Pain intensity was measured using a 10 cm baseline visual analog scale and a discrete 5-category verbal rating scale. RESULTS: The study comprised 160 consecutive patients (80 in each group). Intraoperatively, the mean visual analog scale pain intensity score was 2.17 +/- 1.81 in the placebo group and 1.45 +/- 1.17 in the acetaminophen group and the mean verbal rating scale score, 1.11 +/- 0.73 and 0.67 +/- 0.66, respectively (P<.01). Postoperatively, the mean visual analog scale score for pain was 1.47 +/- 1.39 in the placebo group and 0.56 +/- 0.61 in the acetaminophen group and the mean verbal rating scale score, 0.94 +/- 0.79 and 0.28 +/- 0.41, respectively (P<.01). There was no significant difference in patient behavior during surgery and no significant adverse effects of acetaminophen use. CONCLUSION: Preoperative oral administration of acetaminophen 1.0 g was effective, convenient, safe, and cost effective in reducing intraoperative and postoperative pain in phacoemulsification performed using topical anesthesia.

Kaluzny BJ; Kazmierczak K; Laudencka A; Eliks I; Kaluzny JJ

2010-03-01

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Topical Application of Green Tea Polyphenol (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) for Prevention of Recurrent Oral Neoplastic Lesions  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective A preliminary study was conducted to investigate feasibility of using an oral cancer chemopreventive agent (?)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most biologically active component in the green tea extract, in a form of ‘swish-and-spit’ mouthwash. Such application of EGCG is beneficial as it maximizes exposure of the oral mucosa to the agent but minimizes systemic side effect. Study design The study was conducted on individuals suspected to have oral field cancerization who are at a high risk for developing recurrent oral precancerous and carcinomatous lesions. EGCG was used as a daily mouthwash for 7 days. EGCG’s ability to modulate target molecules implicated in oral carcinogenesis was assessed by measuring the change in expression level of biomarkers. Results Immunohistochemical expression of phosphoactivated epidermal growth factor receptor (pEGFR), cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2) and ki-67 were evaluated at baseline and at the endpoint (day 8). Although not statistically significant, overall decrease in expression levels of pEGFR (27.5%), cox-2 (15.9%) and ki-67 positive cells (51.8%) were observed following EGCG treatment. Moreover, a detectable level of EGCG was found in saliva but not in plasma after the one-week treatment regime, demonstrating local availability of EGCG in oral mucosa without significant systemic absorption. Conclusion To best of our knowledge this is the first study to explore use of oral cancer chemopreventive agent in a form of mouthwash in patients with oral field cancerization. Although a definitive conclusion was not reached due to limited sample size, if proven effective, EGCG therapy may offer a non-invasive preventive modality for oral field cancerization.

Yoon, Angela J.; Shen, Jing; Santella, Regina M.; Philipone, Elizabeth M.; Wu, Hui-Chen; Eisig, Sidney B.; Blitzer, Andrew; Close, Lanny G.; Zegarelli, David J.

2013-01-01

98

Decontamination of sugar syrup by pulsed light.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pulsed light produced by xenon flash lamps was applied to 65 to 67 °Brix sugar syrups artificially contaminated with suspensions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and with spores of Bacillus subtilis, Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, and Aspergillus niger. The emitted pulsed light contained 18.5 % UV radiation. At least 3-log reductions of S. cerevisiae, B. subtilis, G. stearothermophilus, and A. acidoterrestris suspended in 3-mm-deep volumes of sugar syrup were obtained with a fluence of the incident pulsed light equal to or less than 1.8 J/cm(2), and the same results were obtained for B. subtilis and A. acidoterrestris suspended in 10-mm-deep volumes of sugar syrup. A. niger spores would require a more intense treatment; for instance, the maximal log reduction was close to 1 with a fluence of the incident pulsed light of 1.2 J/cm(2). A flowthrough reactor with a flow rate of 320 ml/min and a flow gap of 2.15 mm was designed for pulsed light treatment of sugar syrup. Using this device, a 3-log reduction of A. acidoterrestris spores was obtained with 3 to 4 pulses of incident pulsed light at 0.91 J/cm(2) per sugar syrup volume. PMID:22564941

Chaine, Aline; Levy, Caroline; Lacour, Bernard; Riedel, Christophe; Carlin, Frédéric

2012-05-01

99

Decontamination of sugar syrup by pulsed light.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The pulsed light produced by xenon flash lamps was applied to 65 to 67 °Brix sugar syrups artificially contaminated with suspensions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and with spores of Bacillus subtilis, Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, and Aspergillus niger. The emitted pulsed light contained 18.5 % UV radiation. At least 3-log reductions of S. cerevisiae, B. subtilis, G. stearothermophilus, and A. acidoterrestris suspended in 3-mm-deep volumes of sugar syrup were obtained with a fluence of the incident pulsed light equal to or less than 1.8 J/cm(2), and the same results were obtained for B. subtilis and A. acidoterrestris suspended in 10-mm-deep volumes of sugar syrup. A. niger spores would require a more intense treatment; for instance, the maximal log reduction was close to 1 with a fluence of the incident pulsed light of 1.2 J/cm(2). A flowthrough reactor with a flow rate of 320 ml/min and a flow gap of 2.15 mm was designed for pulsed light treatment of sugar syrup. Using this device, a 3-log reduction of A. acidoterrestris spores was obtained with 3 to 4 pulses of incident pulsed light at 0.91 J/cm(2) per sugar syrup volume.

Chaine A; Levy C; Lacour B; Riedel C; Carlin F

2012-05-01

100

PROCESS FOR PRODUCING SYRUP FROM A FROZEN FRUIT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A process for the production of syrup from an at least partially frozen fruit is described. The process involves the pressing of a frozen fruit in an environment with a temperature below freezing. Dissolved soluble solids from the juice extracted from the pressing are concentrated to generate a syrup. The syrup can be used in the food and beverage industry.

MURDZA STEVEN

 
 
 
 
101

Pimecrolimus vs. tacrolimus for the topical treatment of unresponsive oral erosive lichen planus: a 8 week randomized double-blind controlled study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease, affecting nearly 1-2% of the population; Proposed therapies are usually symptomatic and numerous drugs have been used, but recently, it has been published that there is insufficient evidence to support the effectiveness of any specific treatment as being superior. To the best of our knowledge, direct evaluation of the efficacy of topically applied pimecrolimus and tacrolimus in the treatment of atrophic-erosive OLP, refractory to topical steroids, is still lacking. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of topical calcineurin inhibitors for unresponsive OLP. An 8 week randomized, double-blind controlled trial, followed by a 6 month follow-up period. Patients were treated with either pimecrolimus 1% cream or tacrolimus 0.1% ointment, both mixed with an equivalent amount of 4% hydroxyethyl cellulose gel. The medications were to be applied twice daily for 2 months. Each patient was examined at the beginning of therapy, and then every 2 weeks during the treatment and every 3 months of follow-up. Main outcome measures were: (i) to compare the effectiveness of topically applied pimecrolimus and tacrolimus; (ii) to evaluate which is more cost-effective; (iii) to determine which drug is faster in reducing signs and symptoms and (iv) which gives the longest remission. RESULTS: Thirty patients were involved in the study. Both drugs were effective at inducing clinical improvement, with no statistical difference. Pimecrolimus creams revealed a significantly better stability of the therapeutic effectiveness (P = 0.031). CONCLUSION: Both medications would currently appear to be a treatment of choice for patients with unresponsive atrophic-erosive OLP. Pimecrolimus seemed to be more effective in providing long-term resolution of signs and symptoms. Future efforts are however needed to obtain more objective evidence of the benefit of these medications in the treatment of immunologically mediated oral mucosal lesion.

Arduino PG; Carbone M; Della Ferrera F; Elia A; Conrotto D; Gambino A; Comba A; Calogiuri PL; Broccoletti R

2013-03-01

102

Pimecrolimus vs. tacrolimus for the topical treatment of unresponsive oral erosive lichen planus: a 8 week randomized double-blind controlled study.  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease, affecting nearly 1-2% of the population; Proposed therapies are usually symptomatic and numerous drugs have been used, but recently, it has been published that there is insufficient evidence to support the effectiveness of any specific treatment as being superior. To the best of our knowledge, direct evaluation of the efficacy of topically applied pimecrolimus and tacrolimus in the treatment of atrophic-erosive OLP, refractory to topical steroids, is still lacking. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of topical calcineurin inhibitors for unresponsive OLP. An 8 week randomized, double-blind controlled trial, followed by a 6 month follow-up period. Patients were treated with either pimecrolimus 1% cream or tacrolimus 0.1% ointment, both mixed with an equivalent amount of 4% hydroxyethyl cellulose gel. The medications were to be applied twice daily for 2 months. Each patient was examined at the beginning of therapy, and then every 2 weeks during the treatment and every 3 months of follow-up. Main outcome measures were: (i) to compare the effectiveness of topically applied pimecrolimus and tacrolimus; (ii) to evaluate which is more cost-effective; (iii) to determine which drug is faster in reducing signs and symptoms and (iv) which gives the longest remission. RESULTS: Thirty patients were involved in the study. Both drugs were effective at inducing clinical improvement, with no statistical difference. Pimecrolimus creams revealed a significantly better stability of the therapeutic effectiveness (P = 0.031). CONCLUSION: Both medications would currently appear to be a treatment of choice for patients with unresponsive atrophic-erosive OLP. Pimecrolimus seemed to be more effective in providing long-term resolution of signs and symptoms. Future efforts are however needed to obtain more objective evidence of the benefit of these medications in the treatment of immunologically mediated oral mucosal lesion. PMID:23451852

Arduino, P G; Carbone, M; Della Ferrera, F; Elia, A; Conrotto, D; Gambino, A; Comba, A; Calogiuri, P L; Broccoletti, R

2013-03-01

103

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Programs NIDCR Home > Oral Health > Topics > Oral Cancer Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect ...

104

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... NIDCR Home > Oral Health > Topics > Oral Cancer Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect ...

105

Topical coal tar alone and in combination with oral methotrexate in management of psoriasis : a retrospective analysis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thirty five patients admitted with psoriasis were analysed. 16 patients received 20% crude coal tar and 19 patients received 20% crude coal tar along with methotrexate in a weekly oral schedule (15mg/wk). After 4 weeks of therapy there was total clearence in 52.6% of the patient...

Prasad PVS; John Felix

106

Arsenic, Organic Foods, and Brown Rice Syrup  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Rice can be a major source of inorganic arsenic (Asi) for many sub-populations. Rice products are also used as ingredients in prepared foods, some of which may not be obviously rice based. Organic brown rice syrup (OBRS) is used as a sweetener in organic food products as an alternative t...

Jackson, Brian P.; Taylor, Vivien F.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Punshon, Tracy; Cottingham, Kathryn L.

107

Ophthalmoplegia in Maple Syrup Urine Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Reported is the case of a female infant whose early symptom of ophthalmoplegia (paralysis of one or more motor nerves in the eye) led to eventual diagnosis and treatment for maple syrup urine disease, a condition in which early dietary restrictions can prevent severe mental retardation and neurologic disability. (DB)

Zee, David S.; And Others

1974-01-01

108

Topical xylitol administration by parents for the promotion of oral health in infants: a caries prevention experiment at a Finnish Public Health Centre.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: This demonstration programme tested topical use of xylitol as a possible oral health promoting regimen in infants at a Finnish Public Health Centre in 2002-2011. METHODS: Parents (usually mothers) began once- or twice-daily administration of a 45% solution of xylitol (2.96 m) onto all available deciduous teeth of their children at the age of approximately 6-8 months. The treatment (xylitol swabbing), which continued till the age of approximately 36 months (total duration 26-28 months), was carried out using cotton swabs or a children's toothbrush; the approximate daily xylitol usage was 13.5 mg per each deciduous tooth. RESULTS: At the age of 7 years, caries data on the deciduous dentition of 80 children were compared with those obtained from similar, untreated children (n = 90). Xylitol swabbing resulted in a significant (P < 0.001) reduction in the incidence of enamel and dentine caries compared with the comparison subjects (relative risk 2.1 and 4.0, respectively; 95% confidence intervals 1.42-3.09 and 2.01-7.98, respectively). Similar findings were obtained when the children were 5 or 6 years old. The treatment reduced the need of tooth filling relative risk and 95% confidence intervals at 7 years: 11.86 and 6.36-22.10, respectively; P < 0.001). Compared with untreated subjects, the oral counts of mutans streptococci were reduced significantly (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Considerable improvement in dental health was accomplished in infants participating in a topical at-home xylitol administration experiment, which was offered to families in the area by the Public Health Centre as a supplement to standard oral health care. Caregiver assessment of the programme was mostly rated as high or satisfactory.

Mäkinen KK; Järvinen KL; Anttila CH; Luntamo LM; Vahlberg T

2013-08-01

109

EVALUATION OF ANTITUSSIVE ACTIVITY OF VASU COUGH SYRUP IN SULPHUR DIOXIDE (SO2) INDUCED COUGH MODEL IN MICE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cough is the most common symptom of respiratory diseases. When cough becomes serious, opioid drugs are effective, but they have side effects like sedation, delirium, constipation etc.. Therefore, there is a need to search out effective anti-tussive agents that are free from previously mentioned side effects. The present study was carried out to evaluate acute oral toxicity study and anti-tussive activity of Vasu Cough Syrup in sulphur dioxide (SO2)-induced cough model in mice. Albino mice of either sex, weighing 25-30 g were divided into four groups (n = 6). Group I served as Disease control, Group II received standard drug i.e. Codeine phosphate (10 mg/kg), p.o., group III to IV were given Vasu Cough Syrup 0.25mL/kg and 0.5mL/kg body wt. p.o., dose. After 30 minutes, the mice were exposed to Sulphur dioxide for 30 sec. The mice were then placed in an observation chamber for counting of cough bouts for five minutes. Vasu Cough Syrup showed 63.91% and 70.64% inhibition in frequency of cough at 0.25mL/kg and 0.5mL/kg dose level respectively. It proves significant anti-tussive activity of Vasu Cough Syrup in Sulphur dioxide induced cough model. Thus, Vasu Cough Syrup can be useful as an alternative medicine for cough.

Patel Hirenjal; Upadhyay Umesh; Upadhyay Siddhi; Soni Hardik; Patel Prateek

2013-01-01

110

Effect of topical 5-ALA mediated photodynamic therapy on proliferation index of keratinocytes in 4-NQO-induced potentially malignant oral lesions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fractionation can improve photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficacy for potentially malignant oral lesion treatment. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the apoptosis/proliferation index of oral keratinocytes after two sessions of topical 5-ALA-mediated PDT in 4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide-induced potentially malignant oral lesion, and to suggest the ideal interval between PDT sessions. Immuno-histochemical tests for proliferating cell nuclear antigen and caspase-3, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay were performed at 6h, 24h, 48h, and 72h time intervals after PDT. The number of positive cells showing caspase-3 expression was significantly higher, mainly at 6h after PDT. In the first cycle of PDT, the highest frequency of positive cells for TUNEL was found at 24h. At 72h after PDT, proliferating cell nuclear antigen positive cells increased significantly, indicating that there was an epithelial response in direction towards DNA repair and cell proliferation at this time. Because cell proliferation increases and cell death index decreases at 72h after PDT, it is recommended that the interval between the PDT sessions must not be longer than 2days up to total lesion remission. PMID:23892188

Barcessat, Ana Rita; Huang, Isaac; Rosin, Flávia Perillo; Dos Santos Pinto, Décio; Maria Zezell, Denise; Corrêa, Luciana

2013-07-02

111

Effect of topical 5-ALA mediated photodynamic therapy on proliferation index of keratinocytes in 4-NQO-induced potentially malignant oral lesions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fractionation can improve photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficacy for potentially malignant oral lesion treatment. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the apoptosis/proliferation index of oral keratinocytes after two sessions of topical 5-ALA-mediated PDT in 4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide-induced potentially malignant oral lesion, and to suggest the ideal interval between PDT sessions. Immuno-histochemical tests for proliferating cell nuclear antigen and caspase-3, and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay were performed at 6h, 24h, 48h, and 72h time intervals after PDT. The number of positive cells showing caspase-3 expression was significantly higher, mainly at 6h after PDT. In the first cycle of PDT, the highest frequency of positive cells for TUNEL was found at 24h. At 72h after PDT, proliferating cell nuclear antigen positive cells increased significantly, indicating that there was an epithelial response in direction towards DNA repair and cell proliferation at this time. Because cell proliferation increases and cell death index decreases at 72h after PDT, it is recommended that the interval between the PDT sessions must not be longer than 2days up to total lesion remission.

Barcessat AR; Huang I; Rosin FP; Dos Santos Pinto D Jr; Maria Zezell D; Corrêa L

2013-09-01

112

Topical coal tar alone and in combination with oral methotrexate in management of psoriasis : a retrospective analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thirty five patients admitted with psoriasis were analysed. 16 patients received 20% crude coal tar and 19 patients received 20% crude coal tar along with methotrexate in a weekly oral schedule (15mg/wk). After 4 weeks of therapy there was total clearence in 52.6% of the patients with combination therapy, whereas only 12.5% of the patients with conventional therapy achieved this.

Prasad PVS; John Felix

1997-01-01

113

TOIB Study. Are topical or oral ibuprofen equally effective for the treatment of chronic knee pain presenting in primary care: a randomised controlled trial with patient preference study. [ISRCTN79353052  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Many older people have chronic knee pain. Both topical and oral non- steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used to treat this. Oral NSAIDS are effective, at least in the short term, but can have severe adverse effects. Topical NSAIDs also appear to be effective, at least in the short term. One might expect topical NSAIDs both to be less effective and to have fewer adverse effects than oral NSAIDs. If topical NSAIDs have fewer adverse effects this may outweigh both the reduction in effectiveness and the higher cost of topical compared to oral treatment. Patient preferences may influence the comparative effectiveness of drugs delivered via different routes. Methods TOIB is a randomised trial comparing topical and oral ibuprofen, with a parallel patient preference study. We are recruiting people aged 50 or over with chronic knee pain, from 27 MRC General Practice Research Framework practices across the UK. We are seeking to recruit 283 participants to the RCT and 379 to the PPS. Participants will be followed up for up to two years (with the majority reaching one year). Outcomes will be assessed by postal questionnaire, nurse examination, laboratory tests and medical record searches at one and two years or the end of the study. Discussion This study will provide new evidence on the overall costs and benefits of treating chronic knee pain with either oral or topical ibuprofen. The use of a patient preference design is unusual, but will allow us to explore how preference influences response to a medication. In addition, it will provide more information on adverse events. This study will provide evidence to inform primary care practitioners, and possibly influence practice.

Cross Pamela L; Ashby Deborah; Harding Geoff; Hennessy Enid M; Letley Louise; Parsons Suzanne; Spencer Anne E; Underwood Martin

2005-01-01

114

Effect of the topical use of the antioxidant taurine on the two basement membrane proteins of regenerating oral gingival epithelium.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The essential amino acid taurine has important physiologic and pathologic roles, and has been shown to have osmoregulatory, antioxidative, antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and antilipid activities. However, the response of oral gingival epithelium to taurine during wound healing remains unclear. The goal of this study is to evaluate the expression of laminin 5 and Type IV collagen histologically in regenerating gingival epithelium after direct application of taurine on incised human gingival samples. METHODS: The study was conducted on 16 gingival samples obtained from gingivectomy specimens of eight adult patients with generalized gingival overgrowth. The samples were divided into two groups: gingiva with 1% taurine-hydrated collagen membrane (n = 8) and saline-hydrated collagen membrane (n = 8) applied specimens. The length of the newly formed epithelium on the wound surface and inflammation was assessed on hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. Basement membrane formation was evaluated by detection of laminin 5 and Type IV collagen expressions on immunohistochemically stained samples. RESULTS: Complete new epithelial formation was observed in 1% taurine-treated gingivectomy specimens, whereas incomplete regeneration of the epithelium was observed in control gingivectomy specimens (P <0.05). The length of the newly formed epithelium showed a negative correlation with inflammation in the taurine group (P = -0.712; P <0.05). Immunoreactivity for both laminin 5 and Type IV collagen did not show any significant difference between groups. CONCLUSION: The local application of taurine-hydrated collagen membrane on human gingival wounds demonstrated the histologic evidence of rapid reepithelization with taurine.

Gültekin SE; Sengüven B; Sofuo?lu A; Taner L; Koch M

2012-01-01

115

Arsenic, organic foods, and brown rice syrup.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Rice can be a major source of inorganic arsenic (Asi) for many sub-populations. Rice products are also used as ingredients in prepared foods, some of which may not be obviously rice based. Organic brown rice syrup (OBRS) is used as a sweetener in organic food products as an alternative to high-fructose corn syrup. We hypothesized that OBRS introduces As into these products. OBJECTIVE: We determined the concentration and speciation of As in commercially available brown rice syrups and in products containing OBRS, including toddler formula, cereal/energy bars, and high-energy foods used by endurance athletes. METHODS: We used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography coupled to ICP-MS to determine total As (Astotal) concentrations and As speciation in products purchased via the Internet or in stores in the Hanover, New Hampshire, area.Discussion: We found that OBRS can contain high concentrations of Asi and dimethyl-arsenate (DMA). An "organic" toddler milk formula containing OBRS as the primary ingredient had Astotal concentrations up to six times the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency safe drinking water limit. Cereal bars and high-energy foods containing OBRS also had higher As concentrations than equivalent products that did not contain OBRS. Asi was the main As species in most food products tested in this study. CONCLUSIONS: There are currently no U.S. regulations applicable to As in food, but our findings suggest that the OBRS products we evaluated may introduce significant concentrations of Asi into an individual's diet. Thus, we conclude that there is an urgent need for regulatory limits on As in food.

Jackson BP; Taylor VF; Karagas MR; Punshon T; Cottingham KL

2012-05-01

116

Arsenic, Organic Foods, and Brown Rice Syrup  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Rice can be a major source of inorganic arsenic (Asi) for many sub-populations. Rice products are also used as ingredients in prepared foods, some of which may not be obviously rice based. Organic brown rice syrup (OBRS) is used as a sweetener in organic food products as an alternative to high-fructose corn syrup. We hypothesized that OBRS introduces As into these products. Objective: We determined the concentration and speciation of As in commercially available brown rice syrups and in products containing OBRS, including toddler formula, cereal/energy bars, and high-energy foods used by endurance athletes. Methods: We used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography coupled to ICP-MS to determine total As (Astotal) concentrations and As speciation in products purchased via the Internet or in stores in the Hanover, New Hampshire, area. Discussion: We found that OBRS can contain high concentrations of Asi and dimethyl-arsenate (DMA). An “organic” toddler milk formula containing OBRS as the primary ingredient had Astotal concentrations up to six times the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency safe drinking water limit. Cereal bars and high-energy foods containing OBRS also had higher As concentrations than equivalent products that did not contain OBRS. Asi was the main As species in most food products tested in this study. Conclusions: There are currently no U.S. regulations applicable to As in food, but our findings suggest that the OBRS products we evaluated may introduce significant concentrations of Asi into an individual’s diet. Thus, we conclude that there is an urgent need for regulatory limits on As in food.

Taylor, Vivien F.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Punshon, Tracy; Cottingham, Kathryn L.

2012-01-01

117

HEPATO PROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF HEPASHREY SYRUP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Liver is known as a vital organ and play a crucial role in the metabolism and it is causes it to succumb to numerous hepatic diseases. Synthetic drugs exploited in the treatment of liver diseases are incompetent and may sometimes lead to serious side-effects. In this context, herbal therapy has emerged as a proficient approach with good values in treating hepatic diseases. Medicinal plants may serve as a vital source of potentially useful new compounds for the development of effective therapy to combat a variety of liver problems. Many herbs have been proven to be effectual as hepato protective agents while many more are claimed to be hepato protective but lack any such scientific evidence to support such claims. Developing a satisfactory herbal therapy to treat severe liver diseases requires systematic investigation of properties such as antiviral action (Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C), anti-hepatotoxicity (antioxidants), stimulation of liver regeneration and choleretic activity. Formulation of herbal medicines with standards of safety and efficacy can revitalize treatment of liver disorders. In the present study, the efficacy of polyherbal herbal formulation Hepashrey Syrup has been studied in human with history of liver disorders twice daily dosage for a period of one month at OPD of JSS Ayurveda Medical College, Mysore. The initial results are reported with encouraging results on liver. We conclude that Hepashrey syrup possess hepato protective effect in patients. This protective effect of Hepashrey syrup can be attributed to the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and hepato protective properties of the component herbs.

Manoj Dash*, Laksmeesh Upadhya, Namrata Joshi, Baidyanath Mishra, Sivani Prashar

2013-01-01

118

TASTE MASKING IN SYRUP CONTAINING HERBAL BITTER DRUGS: FORMULATION, STANDARDIZATION AND STABILITY STUDIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Taste masking of bitter drugs has been challenge to scientists as taste is an important parameter governing patient compliance. Several oral pharmaceuticals, numerous food and beverage products and bulking agents have unpleasant bitter taste. In order to ensure patient compliance bitterness masking becomes essential. The desire of improving the palatability has prompted the development of numerous formulations with improved performance and acceptability. Several approaches namely sensory, barrier, chemical and complexation have been tried to mask the unpleasant taste of formulation. The purpose of the present was to evaluate the bitterness of the prepared syrup formulation by using human taste sensor.

M. V. Nema; T. P. Nimbekar; B. E. Wanjari; A. S. Dongarwar .

2011-01-01

119

The suitability of some preservatives in chloroquine phosphate syrup.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In Third World countries chloroquine phosphate syrup is frequently prepared with chloroform as a preservative. Because of the toxic side effects of chloroform the suitability of a number of possible alternatives were investigated. If the chloroquine phosphate syrup is prepared as such, the combination of sorbic acid (1.5 g/l) and citric acid (2 g/l) is preferred. If, however, the chloroquine phosphate syrup is prepared from a stock solution of simple syrup, the relatively low pH may be undesirable, because it may negatively affect the stability or solubility of other medicinal compounds. For a stock solution of simple syrup the combination of methyl paraben (1.8 g/l) and propyl paraben (0.2 g/l) is preferred. Good care must be taken that a layer of condense water cannot be formed.

Van Doorne H; Wieringa NF; Bosch EH; De Meijer R

1988-08-01

120

Determination of D-pinitol in carob syrup.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Carob syrup is a traditional product native to the Mediterranean region, containing a high concentration of sugar, phenolic compounds and minerals. d-pinitol is a bioactive component extracted from legumes and has some beneficial effects on human metabolism. In this research, the d-pinitol content and sugar profile of 10 different carob syrup samples purchased from Turkish markets were determined. Mean d-pinitol, sucrose, glucose and fructose contents of samples were found to be 84.63 ± 10.73, 385.90 ± 45.07, 152.44 ± 21.72 and 162.03 ± 21.45 g/kg dry weight, respectively. Carob syrup has a considerable amount of d-pinitol compared with the other d-pinitol-including legumes. Consequently, this study showed that carob syrup may be a suitable source of d-pinitol for medical use and d-pinitol may be an indicator for the detection of any adulteration in carob syrup.

Tetik N; Turhan I; Oziyci HR; Karhan M

2011-09-01

 
 
 
 
121

Microbial production of glucose/fructose syrups  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the ever-increasing demand for sugar and the trend in rising price, rapid progress in research on new and/or alternative sweeteners has been inevitable during the past decade or so. Pure glucose, glucose/fructose, glucose/maltose syrups are often called isosyrups. Isosyrups have been recognized as a good alternative sources of sugar. These are used today in the manufacture of soft drinks, jams and jellies, confectionary, baking fermentation, dietetic and infant food, ice-cream, pharmaceutical processes, etc. Isosyrups are produced by hydrolysis of starch and cellulocis raw materials have been utilized for the production of isosyrups.

Matur, A.; Saglam, N.

1982-04-01

122

Position paper update: ipecac syrup for gastrointestinal decontamination.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONTEXT: An update of the first position paper on ipecac syrup from 1997 was published by the American Academy of Clinical Toxicology and the European Association of Poison Centres and Clinical Toxicologists in 2004. The aims of this paper are to briefly summarize the content of the 2004 Position Paper and to present any new data. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature from the year 2003 forward. RESULTS: The literature search yielded a limited number of meaningful articles, and there remains no convincing evidence from clinical studies that ipecac improves the outcome of poisoned patients. Furthermore, the availability of ipecac is rapidly diminishing. CONCLUSIONS: The routine administration of ipecac at the site of ingestion or in the emergency department should definitely be avoided. Ipecac may delay the administration or reduce the effectiveness of activated charcoal, oral antidotes, and whole bowel irrigation. There is not sufficient evidence to warrant any change in the previous ipecac position papers. There are, however, insufficient data to support or exclude ipecac administration soon after ingestion of some specific poisons in rare situations.

Höjer J; Troutman WG; Hoppu K; Erdman A; Benson BE; Mégarbane B; Thanacoody R; Bedry R; Caravati EM

2013-03-01

123

A multicentre, randomized, placebo- and active-controlled trial comparing the efficacy and safety of topical ketoprofen in Transfersome gel (IDEA-033) with ketoprofen-free vehicle (TDT 064) and oral celecoxib for knee pain associated with osteoarthritis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of 12-week treatment with ketoprofen in ultradeformable phospholipid vesicles in patients with OA knee pain and to compare the efficacy with that of ketoprofen-free vehicle and celecoxib. METHODS; A multicentre, double-blind controlled study in which patients with knee OA and moderate pain were randomized to one of the six arms: topical ketoprofen 50 or 100 mg in ultradeformable vesicles (IDEA-033), 2.2 or 4.4 g ketoprofen-free vehicle (TDT 064), oral celecoxib 100 mg or matching oral placebo, all bd. The primary outcome was change from baseline in the WOMAC pain subscale at week 12. RESULTS: A total of 1395 patients received treatment. Baseline mean WOMAC pain scores ranged from 4.7 to 4.8 across groups. The mean reduction in WOMAC pain score at week 12 was -1.9 (-40.8%) for ketoprofen 50 mg, -1.9 (-40.9%) for ketoprofen 100 mg, -1.9 (-39.8%) for 2.2 g TDT 064, -1.8 (-37.8%) for 4.4 g TDT 064, -1.9 (-40.4%) for celecoxib and -1.4 (-29.3%) for oral placebo. IDEA-033 was not statistically superior to TDT 064. All topical treatments were statistically superior to oral placebo and non-inferior to celecoxib. The most frequent types of treatment-related adverse events reported were gastrointestinal for oral (15.9% for celecoxib) and dermal for topical applications (12.2% for ketoprofen 100 mg). CONCLUSION: IDEA-033 was not superior to ketoprofen-free vehicle, but both formulations were superior to oral placebo and non-inferior to celecoxib in reducing OA knee pain. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, http://clinicaltrials.gov/, NCT00716547.

Conaghan PG; Dickson J; Bolten W; Cevc G; Rother M

2013-07-01

124

ANTITUSSIVE EVALUATION OF FORMULATED POLYHERBAL COUGH SYRUP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ethanolic extracts of fruits of Terminalia chebula (Combretaceae), leaves of Mentha piperita (Labiate), leaves of Adhatoda vasica (Acanthaceae), leaves of Ocimum sanctum (Labiateae), rhizomes of Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae), fruits of Piper longum (Piperaceae), roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Leguminosae) and roots of Withenia somnifera (Solanaceae) were investigated for their antitussive effect on citric acid induced cough model in guinea pig. The results showed that the formulated cough syrup exhibited significant antitussive activity in a dose dependent manner the activity was compared with the prototype antitussive agent diphenhydramine HCl. It has been observed that the extract has produced 54%, 70%, 75% reduction in cough bouts at the dose level of 1, 2, 3 ml respectively after 1hr of drug administration. It is evident from the data the highest dose of 3 ml was found to be more effective. It is found that antitussive activity produced by the herbal formulation in the minimum dose was much better than the standard drug.  

Ashutosh Meher

2012-01-01

125

Animal models of maple syrup urine disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited aminoacidopathy resulting from dysfunction of the branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex. This disease is currently treated primarily by dietary restriction of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). However, dietary compliance is often challenging. Conversely, liver transplantation significantly improves outcomes, but donor organs are scarce and there are high costs and potential risks associated with this invasive procedure. Therefore, improved treatment options for MSUD are needed. Development of novel treatments could be facilitated by animal models that accurately mimic the human disease. Animal models provide a useful system in which to explore disease mechanisms and new preclinical therapies. Here we review MSUD and currently available animal models and their corresponding relevance to the human disorder. Using animal models to gain a more complete understanding of the pathophysiology behind the human disease may lead to new or improved therapies to treat or potentially cure the disorder. PMID:19263237

Skvorak, K J

2009-03-09

126

Animal models of maple syrup urine disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited aminoacidopathy resulting from dysfunction of the branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex. This disease is currently treated primarily by dietary restriction of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). However, dietary compliance is often challenging. Conversely, liver transplantation significantly improves outcomes, but donor organs are scarce and there are high costs and potential risks associated with this invasive procedure. Therefore, improved treatment options for MSUD are needed. Development of novel treatments could be facilitated by animal models that accurately mimic the human disease. Animal models provide a useful system in which to explore disease mechanisms and new preclinical therapies. Here we review MSUD and currently available animal models and their corresponding relevance to the human disorder. Using animal models to gain a more complete understanding of the pathophysiology behind the human disease may lead to new or improved therapies to treat or potentially cure the disorder.

Skvorak KJ

2009-04-01

127

Tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and bioequivalence of the tablet and syrup formulations of lacosamide in plasma, saliva, and urine: saliva as a surrogate of pharmacokinetics in the central compartment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To test for bioequivalence of 200 mg lacosamide oral tablet and syrup formulations. Additional objectives were to compare the pharmacokinetic profile of lacosamide in saliva and plasma, and to evaluate its tolerability. METHODS: This open-label, randomized, two-way crossover trial was conducted in 16 healthy Caucasian male participants in Germany. The bioequivalence of 200 mg lacosamide tablet and syrup was evaluated using plasma to determine maximum measured concentration (C(max)) and area under the curve from zero to the last time point (AUC)(0-tz). Plasma and saliva samples for evaluation of pharmacokinetic parameters of lacosamide and the major metabolite O-desmethyl lacosamide (SPM 12809) were taken over 15 time points (0.5-72 h) and used to statistically compare bioavailability of the two. Urine samples were collected predose and over five time points (0-48 h) to evaluate the cumulative amount of unchanged drug and metabolite. KEY FINDINGS: Lacosamide median time to reach C(max) (t(max)) was 1 h for tablet and 0.5 h for syrup in plasma and saliva. Mean terminal half life (t(½)) for tablet and syrup was 12.5 and 12.4 h in plasma, and 13.1 and 13.3 h in saliva, respectively. Tablet and syrup mean plasma AUC(0-tz) was 84.5 and 83.3 ?g/mL*h, respectively. Mean AUC(0-tz) in saliva was 93.2 ?g/mL*h for tablet and syrup. Mean C(max) for tablet was 5.26 ?g/mL in plasma and 5.63 ?g/mL in saliva. Syrup mean C(max) was 5.14 and 8.32 ?g/mL in plasma and saliva, respectively. Within 2 h of syrup administration, elevated lacosamide concentration in saliva compared to plasma was observed. The ratio of lacosamide syrup to tablet was 0.98 for C(max) and 0.99 for AUC(0-tz) in plasma, and 1.00 for AUC((0-tz)) in saliva; the 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for these parameters were within the range of 0.80-1.25, which meets accepted bioequivalence criteria. The syrup-to-tablet ratio for C(max) in saliva was 1.48, and the 90% CIs exceeded the accepted upper boundary for bioequivalence (1.32-1.66). Both formulations were well tolerated. Metabolite concentration versus time profiles for saliva were similar to plasma following tablet and syrup administration. SIGNIFICANCE: The tablet and syrup formulations of lacosamide 200 mg were bioequivalent and well tolerated. Saliva samples were demonstrated to be a suitable surrogate to evaluate lacosamide tablet pharmacokinetics in the central compartment. Due to residual syrup in the buccal cavity, limitations exist when using saliva to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of lacosamide syrup <2 h after administration.

Cawello W; Bökens H; Nickel B; Andreas JO; Halabi A

2013-01-01

128

Oral ingestion of a topical benzydamine hydrochloride-containing gynaecological preparation in association with television advertising in Italy: analysis of cases managed by a National Poison Control Centre.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To evaluate the impact of a television advertising campaign on the risk of oral ingestion of a topical non-prescription gynaecological preparation containing benzydamine hydrochloride. Design An interrupted time series design with data routinely collected. Setting A National Poison Control Centre. Participants 215 cases of hazardous exposure to the preparation under study occurred in Italy from January 2005 to December 2010. Primary and secondary outcome measures Mean daily rate of cases of exposure by gender in three different periods, that is, pre-advertisement period, before the advertisement was broadcast (from 1 January 2005 to 19 December 2009), advertisement period, when the advertisement was repeatedly launched (from 20 December 2009 to 27 February 2010), post-advertisement period (from 28 February 2010 to 6 March 2010); observed/expected ratios of cases, with expected cases based on data from the pre-advertisement period, adjusted for estimated variations in the number of users. Comparison of the distribution of the main characteristics of cases in the three different periods by means of Pearson's ?(2) test or Fisher's exact test. Results The adjusted observed/expected ratio of cases in women was 7.48 (95% CI 5.76 to 9.56) in the advertisement period and 2.97 (95% CI 2.24 to 3.85) in the post-advertisement period. Regarding the characteristics of cases, there was an increased proportion of cases of exposure due to confusion about the correct administration route in the advertisement and post-advertisement periods (81% and 55%, respectively, compared to 16% for the pre-advertisement period.) and of individuals with clinical effects (55%, 52% and 27%, respectively). Conclusions In Italy, an advertisement for a non-prescription medicine seems to have confused consumers regarding the administration route. This effect was observed even after the advertisement had stopped being broadcast. These results highlight the need for the monitoring of medication errors and adverse effects before, during and after advertising. PMID:22267708

Settimi, Laura; Davanzo, Franca; Lauria, Laura; Casini, Maria Luisa; Ferrazin, Fernanda

2012-01-21

129

Oral ingestion of a topical benzydamine hydrochloride-containing gynaecological preparation in association with television advertising in Italy: analysis of cases managed by a National Poison Control Centre.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objective To evaluate the impact of a television advertising campaign on the risk of oral ingestion of a topical non-prescription gynaecological preparation containing benzydamine hydrochloride. Design An interrupted time series design with data routinely collected. Setting A National Poison Control Centre. Participants 215 cases of hazardous exposure to the preparation under study occurred in Italy from January 2005 to December 2010. Primary and secondary outcome measures Mean daily rate of cases of exposure by gender in three different periods, that is, pre-advertisement period, before the advertisement was broadcast (from 1 January 2005 to 19 December 2009), advertisement period, when the advertisement was repeatedly launched (from 20 December 2009 to 27 February 2010), post-advertisement period (from 28 February 2010 to 6 March 2010); observed/expected ratios of cases, with expected cases based on data from the pre-advertisement period, adjusted for estimated variations in the number of users. Comparison of the distribution of the main characteristics of cases in the three different periods by means of Pearson's ?(2) test or Fisher's exact test. Results The adjusted observed/expected ratio of cases in women was 7.48 (95% CI 5.76 to 9.56) in the advertisement period and 2.97 (95% CI 2.24 to 3.85) in the post-advertisement period. Regarding the characteristics of cases, there was an increased proportion of cases of exposure due to confusion about the correct administration route in the advertisement and post-advertisement periods (81% and 55%, respectively, compared to 16% for the pre-advertisement period.) and of individuals with clinical effects (55%, 52% and 27%, respectively). Conclusions In Italy, an advertisement for a non-prescription medicine seems to have confused consumers regarding the administration route. This effect was observed even after the advertisement had stopped being broadcast. These results highlight the need for the monitoring of medication errors and adverse effects before, during and after advertising.

Settimi L; Davanzo F; Lauria L; Casini ML; Ferrazin F

2012-01-01

130

Replication of Holograms with Corn Syrup by Rubbing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Corn syrup films are used to replicate holograms in order to fabricate micro-structural patterns without the toxins commonly found in photosensitive salts and dyes. We use amplitude and relief masks with lithographic techniques and rubbing techniques in order to transfer holographic information to corn syrup material. Holographic diffraction patterns from holographic gratings and computer Fourier holograms fabricated with corn syrup are shown. We measured the diffraction efficiency parameter in order to characterize the film. The versatility of this material for storage information is promising. Holographic gratings achieved a diffraction efficiency of around 8.4% with an amplitude mask and 36% for a relief mask technique. Preliminary results using corn syrup as an emulsion for replicating holograms are also shown in this work.

Nildia Y. Mejias-Brizuela; Arturo Olivares-Pérez; Mauricio Ortiz-Gutiérrez

2012-01-01

131

Antioxidant Activity of a Mediterranean Food Product: “Fig Syrup  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this work, the efficacy of fig syrup, a Mediterranean fig derivative, as a nutraceutical supplement, was demonstrated. Fig syrup is a fruit concentrate used as a common ingredient in the preparation of typical foods, and particularly in cakes. In vitro assays were performed to determine the amount of nutraceutical ingredients, such as phenolic compounds (3.92 mg equivalent of gallic acid per g) and flavonoids (0.35 mg equivalent of catechin per g), while HPLC analyses provided specific information about the composition of antioxidants in the syrup. Furthermore, total antioxidant activity, scavenging properties against DPPH and peroxyl radicals, and the anticholinesterase activity, clearly showed the efficacy of the syrup in preventing damage induced by free radicals and, thus, the applicability of this food derivative as a nutraceutical supplement.

Francesco Puoci; Francesca Iemma; Umile G. Spizzirri; Donatella Restuccia; Vincenzo Pezzi; Rosa Sirianni; Lillo Manganaro; Manuela Curcio; Ortensia I. Parisi; Giuseppe Cirillo; Nevio Picci

2011-01-01

132

ORGANIC SPORTS DRINK CONTAINING RICE SYRUP AND AGAVE NECTAR  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An organic beverage comprised of rice syrup, agave nectar, fruit juice and electrolytes. The beverage is useful for rapid hydration and replenishment of lost carbohydrates and electrolytes after exercise, physical exertion, or exposure to heat.

DINCE NANCY

133

SPORTS DRINK CONTAINING RICE SYRUP AND AGAVE NECTAR  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An all natural beverage comprised of rice syrup, agave nectar, fruit juice and electrolytes. The beverage is useful for rapid hydration and replenishment of lost carbohydrates and electrolytes after exercise, physical exertion, or exposure to heat.

ST. PHARD DIMITRI; DINCE NANCY

134

Culture medium syrup from yeast fermentation spent liquor  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A method of preparing a syrup comprising reducing, preferably to below 1 wt.%, the suspended solids content of the spent liquor from a yeast fermentation process - preferably of (e.g. whisky) distillery waste - and removing water from the resulting liquor by means of at least one evaporator until the total solids content of the resulting syrup is more than 40 wt.% and preferably at least 50 wt.%. The product syrup not only contains useful vitamins, oils, and minerals which are not present in corn steep liquor but also can be produced in consistent quality and so is useful as, or as the basis of, a deep fermentation culture medium. The syrup can be dried to solid form and then reconstituted with water.

135

21 CFR 573.530 - Hydrogenated corn syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

... (b) Specifications. The product contains 70 percent hydrogenated corn syrup and a maximum of 0.5 percent reducing sugars. (c) Uses. The product is used as a humectant and plasticizer in preparation of soft-moist dog and cat...

2010-04-01

136

Simulation Tool for Teaching Multivariate Experimental Design on Paracetamol Syrup Formulation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Computer simulation is one of effective tools for instructors to illustrate effects of experimental design in its entire complexity since the students can be exposed to a large variety of experimental designs within a relative short period of time. In this study, the syrup formulation of paracetamol was used as a model topic. The program written as a Visual Basic module within Microsoft AccessTM was used to simulate the formulation behavior. The 23 forth-year pharmacy students in Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Prince of Songkhla University used this program to have direct experience in ‘EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN’ topic. The efficiency of the generated computer simulation program on the students’ learning was determined by the evaluation of the satisfaction of the students using a questionnaire. The results suggested that this tool was useful and satisfactory for the students’ self-studying.

Wibul Wongpoowarak; Payom Wongpoowarak; Prapaporn Boonme

2008-01-01

137

Acyclovir Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

local topical ... Topical acyclovir comes as a cream and an ointment to apply to the skin. Acyclovir cream is ... explain any part you do not understand. Use topical acyclovir exactly as directed. Do not use more ...

138

Bexarotene Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

Targretin® Topical Gel ... Topical bexarotene is used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL, a type of skin cancer) that ... Topical bexarotene comes as a gel to apply to the skin. It is usually applied once every ...

139

Comparative efficacy on dogs of a single topical treatment with the pioneer fipronil/(S)-methoprene and an oral treatment with spinosad against Ctenocephalides felis  

Science.gov (United States)

In the study reported here, the pioneer fipronil/(S)-methoprene topical product (FRONTLINE® PLUS, Merial Limited, Duluth, GA) was compared to the oral spinosad product (COMFORTIS® Elanco, Greenfield, IN) for efficacy against adult fleas and preventing egg production. The product presentations, doses and labelling were the one applicable in the USA. Using a standard protocol, 200 cat fleas of mixed sex were applied to dogs on Days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42. Dogs were combed to remove fleas 24 hours post-infestation, the fleas were counted, collected, and then reapplied to each dog following completion of their respective count. At 48 hours post-infestation, comb counts were performed and fleas were removed. No fleas were collected from any dog in the fipronil/(S)-methoprene group at any 24 or 48 hours post-infestation assessment throughout the six weeks study, yielding a preventive efficacy of 100%. For the spinosad treatment, efficacy was 100% at 24 hours and 48 hours through Day 16, and thereafter declined. The results observed in the spinosad-treated dogs were highly variable between animals. At the 24 and 48 hours counts following the Day 21 infestation, only five of eight spinosad-treated dogs (62.5%) were flea-free. Following the Day 28 infestation, spinosad efficacy fell to 85% and 89%, for the 24 hours and 48 hours counts, and only two dogs (25%) were flea free, compared to 100% flea-free dogs in the fipronil/(S)-methoprene group. No fleas were collected from the fipronil/(S)- methoprene treated dogs throughout the entire study, therefore, no eggs were collected at any time from any dog in the group. However, in the spinosad group adult fleas were found on dogs starting on Day 21 and by Day 30, 42 eggs were collected from one dog that had 107 adult fleas counted at 48 hours. At Day 37 and Day 49, more than 100 eggs were collected from each dog in the spinosad-treated and control groups.

Beugnet, F.; Doyle, V.; Murray, M.; Chalvet-Monfray, K.

2011-01-01

140

Comparative efficacy on dogs of a single topical treatment with the pioneer fipronil/(S)-methoprene and an oral treatment with spinosad against Ctenocephalides felis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the study reported here, the pioneer fipronil/(S)-methoprene topical product (Frontline® Plus, Merial Limited, Duluth, GA) was compared to the oral spinosad product (Comfortis® Elanco, Greenfield, IN) for efficacy against adult fleas and preventing egg production. The product presentations, doses and labelling were the one applicable in the USA. Using a standard protocol, 200 cat fleas of mixed sex were applied to dogs on Days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42. Dogs were combed to remove fleas 24 hours post-infestation, the fleas were counted, collected, and then reapplied to each dog following completion of their respective count. At 48 hours post-infestation, comb counts were performed and fleas were removed. No fleas were collected from any dog in the fipronil/(S)-methoprene group at any 24 or 48 hours post-infestation assessment throughout the six weeks study, yielding a preventive efficacy of 100%. For the spinosad treatment, efficacy was 100% at 24 hours and 48 hours through Day 16, and thereafter declined. The results observed in the spinosad-treated dogs were highly variable between animals. At the 24 and 48 hours counts following the Day 21 infestation, only five of eight spinosad-treated dogs (62.5%) were flea-free. Following the Day  28 infestation, spinosad efficacy fell to 85% and 89%, for the 24 hours and 48 hours counts, and only two dogs (25%) were flea free, compared to 100% flea-free dogs in the fipronil/(S)-methoprene group. No fleas were collected from the fipronil/(S)-methoprene treated dogs throughout the entire study, therefore, no eggs were collected at any time from any dog in the group. However, in the spinosad group adult fleas were found on dogs starting on Day 21 and by Day 30, 42 eggs were collected from one dog that had 107 adult fleas counted at 48 hours. At Day 37 and Day 49, more than 100 eggs were collected from each dog in the spinosad-treated and control groups.

Beugnet F; Doyle V; Murray M; Chalvet-Monfray K

2011-11-01

 
 
 
 
141

Maple syrup urine disease in Thai infants.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare inborn error of metabolism, caused by a deficiency in activity of the branched chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase impairing the degradation of the branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and valine). Classic MSUD usually manifests in the neonatal period with poor feeding, vomiting, lethargy, muscular hypertonicity, seizure, coma and death. Thirteen cases of classic MSUD were diagnosed from 1997-2007 at the Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health. All cases presented in the neonatal period. The onset of symptoms ranged from 3 to 20 days (median 8 days). The time taken to make the diagnosis ranged from 18 to 356 days (median 55 days). The diagnosis was accomplished by clinical diagnosis and confirmed by detecting abnormal levels of amino acids in the blood and organic acids in the urine. Clinical manifestations were non-specific such as poor suck, weak cry, drowsiness and seizures. Majority of cases were initially diagnosed as sepsis and/or meningitis. All patients had neurological sequelae and psychomotor retardation. This results show the need for increase awareness of metabolic disorder such as MSUD and the requirement for early detection and treatment to ensure a better outcome.

Pangkanon S; Charoensiriwatana W; Sangtawesin V

2008-10-01

142

Maple syrup urine disease in Thai infants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare inborn error of metabolism, caused by a deficiency in activity of the branched chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase impairing the degradation of the branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and valine). Classic MSUD usually manifests in the neonatal period with poor feeding, vomiting, lethargy, muscular hypertonicity, seizure, coma and death. Thirteen cases of classic MSUD were diagnosed from 1997-2007 at the Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health. All cases presented in the neonatal period. The onset of symptoms ranged from 3 to 20 days (median 8 days). The time taken to make the diagnosis ranged from 18 to 356 days (median 55 days). The diagnosis was accomplished by clinical diagnosis and confirmed by detecting abnormal levels of amino acids in the blood and organic acids in the urine. Clinical manifestations were non-specific such as poor suck, weak cry, drowsiness and seizures. Majority of cases were initially diagnosed as sepsis and/or meningitis. All patients had neurological sequelae and psychomotor retardation. This results show the need for increase awareness of metabolic disorder such as MSUD and the requirement for early detection and treatment to ensure a better outcome. PMID:19255991

Pangkanon, Suthipong; Charoensiriwatana, Wiyada; Sangtawesin, Varaporn

2008-10-01

143

TOPICAL TREATMENT OF MELASMA  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topic...

Bandyopadhyay, Debabrata

144

Topical treatment of melasma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topic...

Bandyopadhyay Debabrata

145

Determination of D-pinitol in carob syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carob syrup is a traditional product native to the Mediterranean region, containing a high concentration of sugar, phenolic compounds and minerals. d-pinitol is a bioactive component extracted from legumes and has some beneficial effects on human metabolism. In this research, the d-pinitol content and sugar profile of 10 different carob syrup samples purchased from Turkish markets were determined. Mean d-pinitol, sucrose, glucose and fructose contents of samples were found to be 84.63 ± 10.73, 385.90 ± 45.07, 152.44 ± 21.72 and 162.03 ± 21.45 g/kg dry weight, respectively. Carob syrup has a considerable amount of d-pinitol compared with the other d-pinitol-including legumes. Consequently, this study showed that carob syrup may be a suitable source of d-pinitol for medical use and d-pinitol may be an indicator for the detection of any adulteration in carob syrup. PMID:21466274

Tetik, Nedim; Turhan, Irfan; Oziyci, Hatice R; Karhan, Mustafa

2011-04-05

146

Effects of a single topical doxycycline administration adjunctive to mechanical debridement in patients with persistent/recurrent periodontitis but acceptable oral hygiene during supportive periodontal therapy.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To evaluate the efficacy of a slow release doxycycline gel (SRD) adjunctively administered to non-surgical therapy in subjects with recurrent or persistent periodontitis but acceptable oral hygiene during supportive periodontal care.

Tonetti, MS; Lang, NP; Cortellini, P; Suvan, JE; Eickholz, P; Fourmousis, I; Topoll, H; Vangsted, T; Wallkamm, B

147

Phenylbutyrate therapy for maple syrup urine disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate in urea cycle disorder patients has been associated with a selective reduction in branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in spite of adequate dietary protein intake. Based on this clinical observation, we investigated the potential of phenylbutyrate treatment to lower BCAA and their corresponding ?-keto acids (BCKA) in patients with classic and variant late-onset forms of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). We also performed in vitro and in vivo experiments to elucidate the mechanism for this effect. We found that BCAA and BCKA are both significantly reduced following phenylbutyrate therapy in control subjects and in patients with late-onset, intermediate MSUD. In vitro treatment with phenylbutyrate of control fibroblasts and lymphoblasts resulted in an increase in the residual enzyme activity, while treatment of MSUD cells resulted in the variable response which did not simply predict the biochemical response in the patients. In vivo phenylbutyrate increases the proportion of active hepatic enzyme and unphosphorylated form over the inactive phosphorylated form of the E1? subunit of the branched-chain ?-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC). Using recombinant enzymes, we show that phenylbutyrate prevents phosphorylation of E1? by inhibition of the BCKDC kinase to activate BCKDC overall activity, providing a molecular explanation for the effect of phenylbutyrate in a subset of MSUD patients. Phenylbutyrate treatment may be a valuable treatment for reducing the plasma levels of neurotoxic BCAA and their corresponding BCKA in a subset of MSUD patients and studies of its long-term efficacy are indicated.

Brunetti-Pierri N; Lanpher B; Erez A; Ananieva EA; Islam M; Marini JC; Sun Q; Yu C; Hegde M; Li J; Wynn RM; Chuang DT; Hutson S; Lee B

2011-02-01

148

Genetical and Clinical Survey of Maple Syrup Urine Disease Patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 54-day old male infant was referred to the hospital because of weakness, lethargy, poor feeding, general hypotonia, nystagmus, pollakisuria and seizures. Blood gas analysis revealed metabolic acidosis. PT and PTT was disturbed. Brain sonography showed possible hemorrhagy in basal ganglia. The patient died in respiratory distress. Urine chromatography showed broad leucine, isoleucine and valine bands. Maple syrup urine disease was diagnosed. We review in brief genetical, biochemical and clinical aspects of maple syrup urine disease and its different types.

MT Haghi Ashtiani; ZH Soltani

2000-01-01

149

Stability studies on a cough syrup in plastic containers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Packaging of pharmaceuticals is a critical process. Plastics are unanimously used for solid dosage packaging. Due to their numerous advantages over glass, they are now being considered as an alternative to packaging of liquid dosage forms also. Cough syrups are preparations containing antitussive drugs, and are most commonly packaged in glass bottles. The interactive nature of plastics makes it essential that a detailed study be carried out before their use for any pharmaceutical packaging. The present work reports the stability and suitability of packaging antitussive syrup in plastic containers.

Gupta Renuka; Singh Kamalinder

2007-01-01

150

The first use of N-carbamylglutamate in a patient with decompensated maple syrup urine disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a defect in the catabolism of the branched-chain amino acids; leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Affected patients may also develop hyperammonaemia of unknown etiology. This report describes a four-year-old girl with MSUD, who presented with decompensated hyperleucinaemia with hyperammonaemia. The oral administration of the N-acetylglutamate analogue, N-carbamylglutamate (NCG), 200 mg/kg/day as a loading dose, and 100 mg/kg/day as a maintenance dose, in combination with standard therapy resulted in a significant decrease of plasma ammonia levels. This observation suggests that NCG may be an important adjunct to standard therapy in the management of decompensated MSUD patients with high leucine and ammonia levels. Supportive evidence from either randomized controlled trials or a large prospective cohort study is needed to confirm this interesting finding. PMID:19688253

Kalkan Ucar, Sema; Coker, Mahmut; Habif, Sara; Saz, Eylem Ulas; Karapinar, Bulent; Ucar, Hakan; Kitis, Omer; Duran, Marinus

2009-08-18

151

The first use of N-carbamylglutamate in a patient with decompensated maple syrup urine disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a defect in the catabolism of the branched-chain amino acids; leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Affected patients may also develop hyperammonaemia of unknown etiology. This report describes a four-year-old girl with MSUD, who presented with decompensated hyperleucinaemia with hyperammonaemia. The oral administration of the N-acetylglutamate analogue, N-carbamylglutamate (NCG), 200 mg/kg/day as a loading dose, and 100 mg/kg/day as a maintenance dose, in combination with standard therapy resulted in a significant decrease of plasma ammonia levels. This observation suggests that NCG may be an important adjunct to standard therapy in the management of decompensated MSUD patients with high leucine and ammonia levels. Supportive evidence from either randomized controlled trials or a large prospective cohort study is needed to confirm this interesting finding.

Kalkan Ucar S; Coker M; Habif S; Saz EU; Karapinar B; Ucar H; Kitis O; Duran M

2009-09-01

152

Bimatoprost Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

Topical bimatoprost is used to treat hypotrichosis (less than the normal amount of hair) of the eyelashes ... the growth of longer, thicker, and darker lashes. Topical bimatoprost is in a class of medications called ...

153

Clindamycin Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

Topical clindamycin is used to treat acne. Clindamycin is in a class of medications called lincomycin antibiotics. ... Topical clindamycin comes as a foam, a gel, a solution (liquid), a lotion, and a pledget (swab) ...

154

Estradiol Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

Estradiol topical gel and emulsion (lotion type mixture) are used to treat and prevent hot flushes (hot flashes; sudden ... life; the end of monthly menstrual periods). Estradiol topical gel is also used to treat vaginal dryness, ...

155

Testosterone Topical  

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Testosterone topical gel is used to treat the symptoms of low testosterone in men who do not produce enough ... Topical testosterone comes as a gel to apply to the skin. It is usually applied once a ...

156

Oxybutynin Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxybutynin topical gel is used to control frequent urination, urgent need to urinate, and urge urinary incontinence (sudden strong ... Topical oxybutynin comes as a gel to apply to the skin. It is usually applied once a ...

157

Fluorouracil Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluorouracil cream and topical solution are used to treat actinic or solar keratoses (scaly or crusted lesions [ ... by years of too much exposure to sunlight). Fluorouracil cream and topical solution are also used to ...

158

Tretinoin Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

local topical ... Tretinoin comes in topical liquid, cream, and gel. Tretinoin usually is used daily at bedtime or once every 2 or 3 days. Follow ... nonmedicated cosmetics on cleansed skin. Do not use topical preparations with a lot of alcohol, menthol, spices, ...

159

Oral fluoride retention after professional topical application in children with caries activity: comparison between 1.23% fluoride foam and fluoride gel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated fluoride retention in the saliva of children with caries activity after topical fluoride application in the form of gel and foam. Methods: A cross-sectional, blind and randomized study, conducted with ten caries-active children aged between 8 and 10 years, in two stage, with a washout interval of two weeks between them. The treatments consisted of: a) application of 2mL acidulated phosphate fluoride of the gel type in a mold and b) application of 2mL acidulated phosphate fluoride of the foam type in a mold. After the washout, the treatments were inverted. Non-stimulated saliva was collected from the children at the times of 5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes after topical fluoride application. For statistical analysis the Student’s-t test was used, with a level of significance of 5%. Results: Saliva analysis was performed using a fluoride-specific electrode (ISE25F/ Radiometer, Copenhagen, Denmark) at the Aquatic Science Center of the Federal University of Marana, which revealed differences after 5 minutes (p=0.0055) and 15 minutes (p=0.0208). The topical application of fluoride in the gel form revealed a higher concentration of fluoride in the saliva. Conclusion: There were differences in the retention of fluoride in the saliva of children with caries activity after the topical application of fluoride gel and the topical application of fluoride foam after 5 and 15 minutes of their application. The topical application of fluoride foam is recommended, on the basis of the lower probability of toxicity during its use.

Lívia de Almeida Barros; Fernanda Ferreira Lopes; Ana Emília Figueiredo de Oliveira; Cecília Claudia Costa Ribeiro

2008-01-01

160

21 CFR 520.452 - Clenbuterol syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

. Administer orally twice a day (b.i.d.). Initial dose is 0.5 milliliter per 100 pounds body weight (0.8 micrograms per kilogram) for 3 days (6 treatments). If no improvement, administer 1 milliliter per 100 pounds (1.6 micrograms per kilogram) for 3 days (6...

2010-04-01

 
 
 
 
161

Effects of a single topical doxycycline administration adjunctive to mechanical debridement in patients with persistent/recurrent periodontitis but acceptable oral hygiene during supportive periodontal therapy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of a slow release doxycycline gel (SRD) adjunctively administered to non-surgical therapy in subjects with recurrent or persistent periodontitis but acceptable oral hygiene during supportive periodontal care. MATERIAL and METHODS: In this single blind, parallel g...

Tonetti, MS; Lang, NP; Cortellini, P; Suvan, JE; Eickholz, P; Fourmousis, I; Topoll, H; Vangsted, T; Wallkamm, B

162

Quantitative determination of piperazine citrate in piperazine citrate syrup USP.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An assay for piperazine citrate in Piperazine Citrate Syrup USP is described. The assay method is based on the formation of a complex of piperazine with an acid dye, bromothymol blue. The complex can be extracted with chloroform and measured spectrophotometrically. The method is accurate and requires only 15 minutes for analysis, compared to four to five hours by the USP method.

Das Gupta V

1976-03-01

163

A double blind, randomised placebo controlled trial of topical 2% viscous lidocaine in improving oral intake in children with painful infectious mouth conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Painful infectious mouth conditions are a common presentation to emergency departments. Although self limiting, painful ulcerative lesions and inflamed mucosa can decrease oral intake and can lead to dehydration. Oral analgesia is of limited efficacy and is often refused by the patient. Despite widespread use of oral 2% viscous lidocaine for many years, there is little evidence for its efficacy as an analgesic and in aiding oral intake in children with painful infectious mouth conditions. This study aims to establish the effectiveness of 2% viscous lidocaine in increasing oral intake in these children by comparing it with placebo. Methods/Design This study is a randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial of children between 6 months and 8 years of age with painful infectious mouth conditions defined as gingivostomatitis (herpetic or non herpetic), ulcerative pharyngitis, herpangina and hand foot and mouth disease as assessed by the treating clinician in association with a history of poor oral fluid intake. It will be conducted at a single tertiary paediatric emergency department in Melbourne Australia. 20 patients have already been randomised to receive 2% lidocaine or placebo in a pilot study to determine the sample size in a preplanned adaptive design. A further 80 patients will be randomised to receive either 2% lidocaine or placebo. The placebo agent is identical to lidocaine in terms of appearance, flavour and smell. All clinical and research staff involved, patients and their parents will be blinded to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint is the amount of fluid ingested by each child, expressed in ml/kg, within 60 minutes from the time of administration of the study mixture. Secondary endpoints are the proportion of patients ingesting 5 ml/kg and 10 ml/kg at 30 and 60 minutes after drug administration and the incidence of adverse events. Longer term outcomes will include the proportion of patients requiring hospital admission and length of emergency department stay. Discussion This trial will define the role of 2% lidocaine in the treatment of painful infectious mouth conditions Trial registration The trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry - ACTRN12609000566235.

Hopper Sandy M; Babl Franz E; McCarthy Michelle; Tancharoen Chasari; Lee Katherine J; Oakley Ed

2011-01-01

164

Laser phototherapy as topical prophylaxis against head and neck cancer radiotherapy-induced oral mucositis: comparison between low and high/low power lasers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Oral mucositis is a dose-limiting and painful side effect of radiotherapy (RT) and/or chemotherapy in cancer patients. The purpose of the present study was to analyze the effect of different protocols of laser phototherapy (LPT) on the grade of mucositis and degree of pain in patients under RT. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-nine patients were divided into three groups: G1, where the irradiations were done three times a week using low power laser; G2, where combined high and low power lasers were used three time a week; and G3, where patients received low power laser irradiation once a week. The low power LPT was done using an InGaAlP laser (660 nm/40 mW/6 J cm(-2)/0.24 J per point). In the combined protocol, the high power LPT was done using a GaAlAs laser (808 nm, 1 W/cm(2)). Oral mucositis was assessed at each LPT session in accordance to the oral-mucositis scale of the National Institute of the Cancer-Common Toxicity criteria (NIC-CTC). The patient self-assessed pain was measured by means of the visual analogue scale. RESULTS: All protocols of LPT led to the maintenance of oral mucositis scores in the same levels until the last RT session. Moreover, LPT three times a week also maintained the pain levels. However, the patients submitted to the once a week LPT had significant pain increase; and the association of low/high LPT led to increased healing time. CONCLUSIONS: These findings are desired when dealing with oncologic patients under RT avoiding unplanned radiation treatment breaks and additional hospital costs.

Simões A; Eduardo FP; Luiz AC; Campos L; Sá PH; Cristófaro M; Marques MM; Eduardo CP

2009-04-01

165

Efficacy of oral azithromycin versus topical tetracycline in mass treatment of endemic trachoma/ Efficacité comparée de l'azithromycine par voie orale et de la tétracycline en application locale dans le traitement de masse du trachome endémique/ Eficacia de la azitromicina oral frente a la tetraciclina tópica en el tratamiento masivo del tracoma endémico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Comparar los efectos del tratamiento masivo con azitromicina oral y con tetraciclina tópica en la prevalencia del tracoma activo. MÉTODOS: Un total de 1803 habitantes de 106 hogares de ocho aldeas de Gambia fueron distribuidos al azar por pares para que recibieran ya fuera tres dosis de azitromicina a intervalos semanales o tetraciclina tópica diaria a lo largo de seis semanas. Se realizaron exámenes oftalmológicos antes del tratamiento y a los 2, 6 y 12 me (more) ses del tratamiento. RESULTADOS: Antes del tratamiento, el 16% de los participantes en el estudio presentaban tracoma activo. Dos meses después del tratamiento la prevalencia de tracoma era del 4,6% y del 5,1% en los grupos tratados con azitromicina y tetraciclina, respectivamente (razón de posibilidades (OR) ajustada = 1,09; intervalo de confianza (IC) del 95% = 0,53, 2,02). Posteriormente la prevalencia aumentó al 16% en el grupo tratado con tetraciclina, mientras que permaneció en el 7,7% en el grupo tratado con azitromicina (OR ajustada a los 12 meses = 0,52; IC95% = 0,34, 0,80). A los 12 meses de acabado el tratamiento, la prevalencia de casos nuevos en el grupo tratado con azitromicina fue menor, y la resolución del tracoma fue significativamente mejor en este grupo (OR ajustada = 2,02; IC95% = 1,42, 3,50). CONCLUSIÓN: La azitromicina oral constituye una alternativa para combatir el tracoma causante de ceguera. Es fácil de administrar, y se pueden conseguir coberturas más altas que las logradas hasta ahora. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To compare the impact of mass treatment with oral azithromycin and topical tetracycline on the prevalence of active trachoma. METHODS: A total of 1803 inhabitants from 106 households of eight Gambian villages were randomized, in pairs, to receive either three doses of azithromycin at weekly intervals, or daily topical tetracycline over 6 weeks. Ocular examinations were conducted before treatment, and 2, 6 and 12 months after treatment. FINDINGS: Prior to treatm (more) ent, 16% of the study participants had active trachoma. Two months after treatment, the prevalence of trachoma was 4.6% and 5.1% in the azithromycin and the tetracycline groups, respectively (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.53, 2.02). Subsequently, the prevalence rose to 16% in the tetracycline group, while remaining at 7.7% in the azithromycin group (adjusted OR at 12 months = 0.52; 95% CI = 0.34, 0.80). At 12 months post-treatment, there were fewer new prevalent cases in the azithromycin group, and trachoma resolution was significantly better for this group (adjusted OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.42, 3.50). CONCLUSION: Oral azithromycin therefore appears to offer a means for controlling blinding trachoma. It is easy to administer and higher coverages may be possible than have been achieved hitherto.

Fraser-Hurt, Nicole; Bailey, Robin L.; Cousens, Simon; Mabey, Denise; Faal, Hannah; Mabey, David C.W.

2001-07-01

166

Topical product  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A topical product is provided, which contains supercritical birch bark extract as an active component. The supercritical birch bark extract contains betulin and lupeol as main components. The topical product may further include auxiliary active components, such as tea tree oil, olive oil, camomile oil, allantoin and lanolin. It has a strong antiseptic, healing and regeneration effects.

SAREK JAN; VLK MARTIN

167

AI Topics  

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The items in this collage were selected from the AI TOPICS Web site's "AI in the News" collection that can be found -- complete with links to the item's source and related AI TOPICS pages -- at www. aaai.org/aitopics/html/current.php. Please note that: (1) an excerpt may not reflect the overall teno...

Glick, Jonathan

168

AI Topics  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The debut of the AI in the News column elsewhere in this issue of AI Magazine created a good opportunity to introduce the professional community to the AI Topics web site, home of the AI in the news virtual page. Although AI Topics is designed for the lay public, it serves a much larger audience.

Buchanan, Bruce G.; Glick, Jonathan

169

Topical treatment of melasma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment. Multiple options for topical treatment are available, of which hydroquinone (HQ) is the most commonly prescribed agent. Besides HQ, other topical agents for which varying degrees of evidence for clinical efficacy exist include azelaic acid, kojic acid, retinoids, topical steroids, glycolic acid, mequinol, and arbutin. Topical medications modify various stages of melanogenesis, the most common mode of action being inhibition of the enzyme, tyrosinase. Combination therapy is the preferred mode of treatment for the synergism and reduction of untoward effects. The most popular combination consists of HQ, a topical steroid, and retinoic acid. Prolonged HQ usage may lead to untoward effects like depigmentation and exogenous ochronosis. The search for safer alternatives has given rise to the development of many newer agents, several of them from natural sources. Well-designed controlled clinical trials are needed to clarify their role in the routine management of melasma.

Bandyopadhyay Debabrata

2009-01-01

170

Studies on dehydration of figs using different sugar syrup treatments.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ripe fig (Ficus carica L) fruits of cultivar cv., 'Deanna' were steam treated at 90°C and 10 psi for 5 min in autoclave. Steamed fruits were dipped in sucrose, glucose, fructose and invert sugar syrups at 50°Brix for 24 h for getting desired total soluble solids content. The treated fruits were further dried to 20% moisture in a cabinet dryer at 50-55°C. Good quality and acceptable dried figs could be prepared by using invert sugar syrup treatment. Dried figs prepared using invert sugar and packed in aluminum foil pouch and stored at ambient (27 ± 2°C) as well as refrigerated (10 ± 2°C) temperature remained in excellent condition up to 6 months. PMID:23572667

Naikwadi, P M; Chavan, U D; Pawar, V D; Amarowicz, R

2010-09-08

171

Studies on dehydration of figs using different sugar syrup treatments.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The ripe fig (Ficus carica L) fruits of cultivar cv., 'Deanna' were steam treated at 90°C and 10 psi for 5 min in autoclave. Steamed fruits were dipped in sucrose, glucose, fructose and invert sugar syrups at 50°Brix for 24 h for getting desired total soluble solids content. The treated fruits were further dried to 20% moisture in a cabinet dryer at 50-55°C. Good quality and acceptable dried figs could be prepared by using invert sugar syrup treatment. Dried figs prepared using invert sugar and packed in aluminum foil pouch and stored at ambient (27 ± 2°C) as well as refrigerated (10 ± 2°C) temperature remained in excellent condition up to 6 months.

Naikwadi PM; Chavan UD; Pawar VD; Amarowicz R

2010-08-01

172

Difference spectrophotometric assay of 5-hydroxymethylfurfuraldehyde in hydrolysed pharmaceutical syrups--I. Sodium borohydride reagent.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A rapid difference spectrophotometric procedure is described for the assay of 5-hydroxymethylfurfuraldehyde (5-HMF) in hydrolysed pharmaceutical syrups. The assay involves measurement of the difference absorbance at 283 nm (DeltaA(283)) of a solution of 5-HMF at pH 8 relative to that of an equimolar solution in which the absorption of the 5-HMF has been destroyed by reduction of the carbonyl group by sodium borohydride. The DeltaA(283) is proportional to the concentration of 5-HMF and is unaffected by the presence of sucrose (the sugar component of syrup) or of dextrose or laevulose (the principal sugars of invert syrup). The accuracy, precision and selectivity of the method are discussed. The limits of detection and determination are 0.78 microg ml(-1) and 9.6 microg ml(-1) respectively. The assay has been applied successfully to samples of syrup containing hydroxybenzoate (paraben) preservatives, invert syrup, simple linctus, ephedrine elixir and raspberry syrup.

Davidson AG; Dawodu TO

1987-01-01

173

Method for the production of isomalto-oligosaccharide rich syrups  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention describes a method for the production of isomalio-oligosaccharides syrups. The method comprises the use of enzymes immobilized on a reusable carrier. The carrier is preferably an anion exchanger. The enzymes used for the conversion of starch hydrolysates are transglucosidase and pullulanase preferably these enzymes are co-immobilized. The carrier/enzyme conjugate is further reinforced by cross-linking.

Vercauteren Ronny Leontina Marcel; van Nguyen Sau; Röper Harald Wilhelm Walter

174

Incidence of maple syrup urine disease in Portugal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease is an autosomal recessive disorder of branched-chain amino acids metabolism with a worldwide frequency of 1/185,000 live newborns. In Portugal, the incidence of the disease has not been assessed. Based on the review of the cases diagnosed by tandem mass spectrometry an incidence of 1/86,800 live newborns was estimated in Portugal, indicating that the disease is more frequent in this country than reported in most populations. PMID:20466570

Quental, Sofia; Vilarinho, Laura; Martins, Esmeralda; Teles, Elisa Leão; Rodrigues, Esmeralda; Diogo, Luísa; Garcia, Paula; Eusébio, Filomena; Gaspar, Ana; Sequeira, Sílvia; Amorim, António; Prata, Maria João

2010-04-22

175

Incidence of maple syrup urine disease in Portugal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maple syrup urine disease is an autosomal recessive disorder of branched-chain amino acids metabolism with a worldwide frequency of 1/185,000 live newborns. In Portugal, the incidence of the disease has not been assessed. Based on the review of the cases diagnosed by tandem mass spectrometry an incidence of 1/86,800 live newborns was estimated in Portugal, indicating that the disease is more frequent in this country than reported in most populations.

Quental S; Vilarinho L; Martins E; Teles EL; Rodrigues E; Diogo L; Garcia P; Eusébio F; Gaspar A; Sequeira S; Amorim A; Prata MJ

2010-08-01

176

Optimization of Enzymatic Production of Fructooligosaccharides from Longan Syrup  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are nutritive and low calorie sweeteners. They have been attracted and attributed to the expansion of healthy-sugar market due to prebiotic function. Longan is one of the traditional and economic fruits in the Northern of Thailand. In addition to its typical taste and floral flavor, it is a good source of sugars. In some years, over supply of longan is reported, consequently the extra produce was discarded. This research aimed to produce FOS from longan syrup and to optimize the yield of FOS using two enzymes of Pectinex Ultra SP-L and glucose oxidase from 60°Bx of the syrup. The sugar contents of the syrup consisted of sucrose (222.2±3.6 g L-1), glucose (120.3±0.8 g L-1) and fructose (104.7±1.7 g L-1), respectively. Response surface methodology using central composite design was applied to optimize three parameters of FOS production, including pectinase (2.7-7.2 U g-1 sucrose), glucose oxidase (1022-4022 U g-1 sucrose) and reaction time (7-25 h). Results showed that Pectinex Ultra SP-L concentration had a significant effect (p-1 sucrose and 8 h 41 min, respectively which resulted in the highest amount of nystose (30.27 g L-1) and 1-kestose (123.36 g L-1).

S. Surin; P. Seesuriyachan; P. Thakeow; Y. Phimolsiripol

2012-01-01

177

Method for extracting natural watermelon syrup from watermelon  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a method of extracting natural syrup from watermelons, comprising extracting juice after crushing watermelons, filtering the juice to obtain watermelon juice filtrate separating the watermelon juice filtrate for two times by a microfiltration membrane and then by an ultrafiltration membrane to obtain ultrafiltration clear liquid concentrating and de-watering the ultrafiltration clear liquid by a reverse osmosis membrane, and then filtering in cross current by nanofiltration membrane adjusting the pH value of the permeable liquid of the nanofiltration membrane, pouring into a cation exchange resin column, collecting the permeable liquid of the resin column rinsing the resin column after the exchange adsorption is finished, collecting the rinsed liquid of the resin column sequentially pouring the permeable liquid of the resin column and the rinsed liquid into a macro-alkalescent anion exchange resin column, collecting the permeable liquid concentrating the watermelon sugar solution by the reverse osmosis membrane, and further concentrating to a sugar degree of Brix%60-70 to obtain watermelon syrup products. The natural syrup prepared by the method has high concentration, high purity, good and fresh mouthfeel, and good safety and can be directly used as an additive of beverage and sweet foods.

LI ZHAO

178

Tacrolimus Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

Tacrolimus ointment is used to treat the symptoms of eczema (atopic dermatitis; a skin disease that causes ... whose eczema has not responded to another medication. Tacrolimus is in a class of medications called topical ...

179

An open-label, three-arm pilot study of the safety and efficacy of topical Microcyn Rx wound care versus oral levofloxacin versus combined therapy for mild diabetic foot infections.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: This randomized, prospective, multicenter, open-label study was designed to test whether a topical, electrolyzed, superoxidized solution (Microcyn Rx) is a safe and effective treatment for mildly infected diabetic foot ulcers. METHODS: Sixty-seven patients with ulcers were randomized into three groups. Patients with wounds irrigated with Microcyn Rx alone were compared with patients treated with oral levofloxacin plus normal saline wound irrigation and with patients treated with oral levofloxacin plus Microcyn Rx wound irrigation. Patients were evaluated on day 3, at the end of treatment on day 10 (visit 3), and 14 days after completion of therapy for test of cure (visit 4). RESULTS: In the intention-to-treat sample at visit 3, the clinical success rate was higher in the Microcyn Rx alone group (75.0%) than in the saline plus levofloxacin group (57.1%) or in the Microcyn Rx plus levofloxacin group (64.0%). Results at visit 4 were similar. In the clinically evaluable population, the clinical success rate at visit 3 (end of treatment) for patients treated with Microcyn Rx alone was 77.8% versus 61.1% for the levofloxacin group. The clinical success rate at visit 4 (test of cure) for patients treated with Microcyn Rx alone was 93.3% versus 56.3% for levofloxacin plus saline-treated patients. This study was not statistically powered, but the high clinical success rate (93.3%) and the P value (P = .033) suggest that the difference is meaningfully positive for Microcyn Rx-treated patients. CONCLUSIONS: Microcyn Rx is safe and at least as effective as oral levofloxacin for mild diabetic foot infections.

Landsman A; Blume PA; Jordan DA Jr; Vayser D; Gutierrez A

2011-11-01

180

Topical analgesics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Our knowledge and understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of pain is increasing; however, we should not lose sight of the simple opportunities that exist for intercepting pain at peripheral targets. Although systemic medication often has peripheral and central modes of action, the appeal for provision of medication close to where these peripheral targets exist should be high. If these sites can be attacked with relatively high concentrations of active drug while keeping systemic levels of that drug below the level at which systemic side effects become apparent, then this should lead to desirable outcomes. Even though the number of true topical agents with an indication for this use is small, a number of other topical agents are available that evidence suggests have the possibility of being effective. Given the increased understanding of pain, the likelihood of further topical agents becoming available is high.

McCleane G

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Topical analgesics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pain treatment involves the usage of common and opioid analgesics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and adjuvant analgesics. Traditionally, these drugs are administered systemically or into the neuraxis. However, when analgesics are applied through these pathways, they are associated with significant side effects, which can hinder its use. Topical administration of analgesics is an alternative. The objective of this paper is to discuss topical analgesics, the mechanisms of action and clinical efficacy. CONTENT: This is a review paper addressing the usage of the topical local anesthetics: capsaicin, clonidine, tricyclic antidepressants, ketamine, opioids and cannabinoids, discussing mechanism of action and effectiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Topical analgesics are promising as a strategy for pain treatment, as they are associated with lower incidence of side effects. The benefit of local anesthetics, NSAID's and capsaicin is well established. However, the efficacy of clonidine, tricyclic antidepressants, ketamine, opioids and cannabinoids is still questionable. Studies have shown that the multimodal approach is an alternative, but studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis.

Flores MP; Castro AP; Nascimento Jdos S

2012-03-01

182

MICROBIAL ASSESSMENT OF SOME SYRUP SOLD IN PATENT MEDICINE STORES IN MINNA METROPOLIS, NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The microbiological quality of eighteen different brands of syrups comprising of Paracetamol, Chloroquine phosphate and Vitamin C syrups purchased from different patent medicine stores in Minna metropolis was assessed. The microbial load was determined using the viable cell count method; the resulting contaminant microorganisms were isolated and characterized by standard methods. The results revealed the contamination in four of six; five of six and four of six, Vitamin C. Paracetamol and Chloroquine phosphate syrups respectively exceeding the tolerance limit of permissible microorganisms specified officially for syrups. The contaminant organisms isolated from analyzed syrups include bacteria: Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and fungal isolates include: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillum notatum, Aspergillus flavus and Mucor specie. Bacilus subtilis were found to be most predominant bacterial isolates while Aspergillus niger was the predominant fungal isolate. The pH values of the analyzed syrups ranged from 2.71-3.94 with the exception of Paracetamol syrups,brands of Vitamin C and Chloroquine phosphate syrups which had pH range of 5.28-7.11, 5.30-5.32 and 4.83-4.88 respectively. The susceptibility patterns of each bacterial isolates to antimicrobial agents showed resistance to Nalixidic acid,Ampicillin,Rocephin,Ampiclox and Amoxacillin, with high sensitivity to Pefloxacin,Ciprofloxacin, Streptomycin and Septrin.

Daniyan S.Y.; Sangodere T.A.

2011-01-01

183

Evaluation of Preserving Efficacy for Different Cough Syrups Manufactured by Different Pharmaceutical Companies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the current investigation is to assess the efficacy of different preservatives ingredients of different expectorant cough syrups manufactured by different pharmaceutical companies by comparing the growth of five microorganisms of known quanta of S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. The microorganisms were inoculated into syrup A (glycerol and propylene glycol), syrup B (propylene glycol and glycerin), syrup C (glycerin, propylene glycol and butyl paraben), syrup D (methyl paraben and probylparaben) and normal saline as a control. All microorganisms were taken from standard stock cultures and incubated for 24 h. Growth of microorganisms into syrup was compared by counting the CFUs from a subculture of inoculated syrup at zero, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h intervals. The data showed that all the combinations of the preservatives in the four studied cough syrups behaved similarly in term of antimicrobial efficiency. The findings suggested that the preservatives mixtures of propylene glycol with glycerol or with glycerin or with butyl paraben preservatives as well as methyl paraben with probylparaben are acceptable clinically and have considerably antimicrobial activity against infectious bacteria during the 48 h studied period.

M. Khanfar; R. Khalil; A. AbuJafal

2009-01-01

184

A New Way of Producing Isomalto-Oligosaccharide Syrup by Using the Transglycosylation Reaction of Neopullulanase  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new way of producing isomalto-oligosaccharide syrup from starch was developed. Isomalto-oligosaccharides contain one or more ?-(1?6)-glucosidic linkages with or without ?-(1?4)-glucosidic linkages. The isomalto-oligosaccharide syrups are receiving increased attention as food additives because it i...

Kuriki, Takashi; Yanase, Michiyo; Takata, Hiroki; Takesada, Yoshiaki; Imanaka, Tadayuki; Okada, Shigetaka

185

Analysis of Dextromethorphan in Cough Drops and Syrups: A Medicinal Chemistry Laboratory  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluorescence spectroscopy is used to determine the quantity of dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DM) in over-the-counter (OTC) cough drops and syrups. This experiment is appropriate for an undergraduate medicinal chemistry laboratory course when studying OTC medicines and active ingredients. Students prepare the cough drops and syrups for analysis,…

Hamilton, Todd M.; Wiseman, Frank L., Jr.

2009-01-01

186

Erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp successfully treated with oral prednisone and topical tacrolimus/ Dermatose pustular erosiva do couro cabeludo tratada com sucesso com prednisona oral e tacrolimus topico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A dermatose pustular erosiva do couro cabeludo é uma doença inflamatória rara do couro cabeludo, de ocorrência preferencial em pacientes idosos após trauma local e com evolução para alopecia cicatricial. O caso relatado é de uma paciente idosa feminina que iniciou com pústulas dolorosas em região parietal bilateral com aumento das lesões e exulceração local. Após o diagnóstico histológico de d (more) ermatose pustular erosiva do couro cabeludo, foi iniciada prednisona 40 mg/dia e tacrolimus 0,1% tópico. Após 10 semanas evoluiu com cicatrização completa das áreas erosadas e alopecia cicatricial. Abstract in english Erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp is a rare inflammatory disorder of the scalp, affecting elderly patients after local trauma and leading to scarring or cicatricial alopecia. Case Report: An elderly female patient complained of painful pustules on the parietal region bilaterally with progressive enlargement and ulceration. A biopsy suggested erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp and the patient was treated with prednisone 40 mg/day and 0.1% topical tacrolimus. After 10 weeks complete closure of the eroded areas was observed and a stable scarring alopecia developed.

Zahdi, Mariana Ribas; Seidel, Gabriela Bestani; Soares, Vanessa Cristina; Freitas, Camila Fernanda Novak Pinheiro de; Mulinari-Brenner, Fabiane Andrade

2013-10-01

187

The use of botulinum toxin and epidural analgesia for the treatment of spasticity and pain in a patient with maple syrup urine disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 7-year-old boy, weighing 18 kg, was diagnosed with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). He suffered from spasticity of the lower limbs and pain that did not respond to oral medications. Injections of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) at 10 sites and epidural analgesia with 0.125% bupivacaine were used to treat spasticity with good results. We conclude that BTX-A combined with epidural analgesia may be a useful treatment option for incapacitating, painful spasticity related to MSUD. This treatment modality allowed a comprehensive rehabilitation program to be completed and it lasted longer than 9 months. PMID:22754448

Kaki, Abdullah M; Arab, Abeer A

2012-04-01

188

The use of botulinum toxin and epidural analgesia for the treatment of spasticity and pain in a patient with maple syrup urine disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 7-year-old boy, weighing 18 kg, was diagnosed with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). He suffered from spasticity of the lower limbs and pain that did not respond to oral medications. Injections of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) at 10 sites and epidural analgesia with 0.125% bupivacaine were used to treat spasticity with good results. We conclude that BTX-A combined with epidural analgesia may be a useful treatment option for incapacitating, painful spasticity related to MSUD. This treatment modality allowed a comprehensive rehabilitation program to be completed and it lasted longer than 9 months.

Kaki AM; Arab AA

2012-04-01

189

Some compositional properties and mineral contents of carob (Ceratonia siliqua) fruit, flour and syrup.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The approximate composition and mineral contents of carob fruit (Ceratonia siliqua), and the traditional foods produced from this fruit, carob flour and carob syrup, were studied. Protein, crude fiber and ash content and energy values of carob syrup were lower than the values of both carob fruit and carob flour. According to the results, the total sugar content, the most important constituents of carob products, were 48.35%, 41.55% and 63.88% for fruit, flour and syrup, respectively. These products contained high amounts of calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium and phosphorus, which were the most abundant elements in carob fruits (P < 0.05). Among the samples, potassium, phosphorus and calcium had the highest values in carob syrup, respectively. Carob flour also contained these elements in high amounts, with the addition of sodium. We extended the notion that carob fruit, flour and syrup were rich sources of carbohydrates, proteins and minerals.

Ozcan MM; Arslan D; Gökçalik H

2007-12-01

190

Some compositional properties and mineral contents of carob (Ceratonia siliqua) fruit, flour and syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

The approximate composition and mineral contents of carob fruit (Ceratonia siliqua), and the traditional foods produced from this fruit, carob flour and carob syrup, were studied. Protein, crude fiber and ash content and energy values of carob syrup were lower than the values of both carob fruit and carob flour. According to the results, the total sugar content, the most important constituents of carob products, were 48.35%, 41.55% and 63.88% for fruit, flour and syrup, respectively. These products contained high amounts of calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium and phosphorus, which were the most abundant elements in carob fruits (P carob syrup, respectively. Carob flour also contained these elements in high amounts, with the addition of sodium. We extended the notion that carob fruit, flour and syrup were rich sources of carbohydrates, proteins and minerals. PMID:17852490

Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Arslan, Derya; Gökçalik, Harun

2007-12-01

191

Citric Acid Sweet Potato Extraction Beverages Containing Grape Juice and Fermented Glutinous Rice Syrup  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Beverages were developed from three cultivars of sweet potato, with orange-purple-and yellow-colored flesh that were mixed with grape juice and with two cultivars of fermented rice beverage (white and black glutinous rice). The beverage with the optimum formula consisted of 44.98% purple-colored flesh of sweet potato juice extraction (extracted with 0.5% citric acid solution), 40% red grape juice, 6% white fermented glutinous rice syrup, 9% sucrose and 0.02% sodium chloride. The product was a pinkish-purple color and cloudy. The total soluble solids, pH, L*, a*, b*,% titratable acidity (as citric acid) and anthocyanin were 16.95°Brix, 3.60, 4.82, 9.08, 6.56, 0.42% and 4.82 unit/g, respectively. The average score from sensory evaluation produced a moderate result. The product was placed in glass bottles at 80-90°C, tightly closed and then steamed with gas stove for 5 min. After storage for 3 month at room temperature, the sensory test of overall liking of the products decreased to little liked. The product was found to be microbiologically safe, but the color and total anthocyanins content had decreased. The product was found to have no measurable anticancer properties on human breast adenocarcinoma, lung carcinoma and epidermoid carcinoma of the oral cavity and had a noncytotoxic effect on the Vero cell line.

C. Teangpook; W. Panthavee; W. Puminat; V.N. Thalang

2012-01-01

192

Potable water recovery and fluid preheater for syrup evaporator  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A preheater-potable water condenser for sap concentrating boiler-evaporators. A housing which contains a dual manifolded multitubular heat exchanger is fixed to, but removable from, the vertical vent stack of a hooded syrup concentrator-boiler. The preheater-condenser is an improvement over the state of the art because its vertical positioning, in conjunction with an inclined, ganged and multitubular heat exchanging array, presents a greater heat exchanger surface area to be exposed directly to the boiler exhaust, thus enhancing heat exchange efficiency. In addition to preheating the liquid which is to be concentrated to syrup, positioning above the hood (and away from the boiling and spattering base fluid) facilitates the use of the tubular array as a condenser by which to accumulate distilled water. An oblique (inclined) disposition of the tubular array aids the condensation and accumulation process, the latter being acquired in specially compartmented areas of the housing. During the operation, base fluid is preheated for subsequent introduction to the boiler, while potable water is drawn off from the accumulation areas.

CAPEN DAVID A

193

Topical cholesterol in clofazimine induced ichthyosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Topical application of 10% cholesterol in petrolatum significantly (P< 0.05) controlled the development of ichthyosis in 62 patients taking 100 mg clofazimine daily for a period of 3 months. However, topical cholesterol application did not affect the lowering of serum cholesterol induced by oral clofazimine. Probable mechanism of action is being discussed.

Pandey S; Kushwaha S; Dubey S; Singh Sanjay

1994-01-01

194

Elemental Impurities in Nigerian Pediatric Syrups: Mercury in Violation of Standard Guidelines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Studies on the human exposure to elemental impurities like antimony, tin, and mercury pharmaceutical products in the African environment are scarce and limited. In this study, we determined the concentrations of these elemental impurities in 28 different brands of commonly used pediatric syrups, purchased randomly from patent medicine retail outlets in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. The aim of this study was to compare the antimony, tin, and mercury levels in these pediatric syrups with the recommended limits of United States Pharmacopeia. Twenty-eight different pediatric syrups were randomly sampled and purchased using the market basket protocol from pharmacy shops in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria in December 2010. Syrups were ashed before digestion using concentrated aqua regia, HCl: HNO3 (3:1), and antimony, tin, and mercury were analyzed using Unicam Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) Model 929. The ranges of heavy metal content in these pediatric syrups were 0.54-1.27, 0.86-2.56, and 0.97-5.13 ?g/g for antimony, tin, and mercury, respectively. About 75% of the syrups exceeded the United States Pharmacopeia mercury limit of 1.5 ?g/g. The estimated or calculated amounts of antimony, tin, and mercury in the 3 most likely administered syrups were 17.15, 64.20, and 34.60 ?g of antimony, tin, and mercury, respectively. The daily intake or estimated amount from the ingestion of syrups excluding background exposure (?g metal·kg body weight·d) for a 15-kg child were 1.17, 2.31, and 4.28 for antimony, tin, and mercury, respectively. Mercury content in pediatric syrups may constitute a significant source of heavy metal exposure to children and may be of public health importance in Nigeria.

Orisakwe OE; Roberts II; Bagbi BM

2013-05-01

195

SYRUP FOR THE TREATMENT OF RESPIRATORY DISEASES, INTENDED FOR PERORAL ADMINISTRATION, COMPRISING PRIMULA ROOT EXTRACT  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to a syrup for the treatment of respiratory diseases, intended for peroral administration, comprising primula root extract, which contains either a) primula saponin I in the amount that is more than 20 mg per 100 g of the syrup, preferably more than 35 mg per 100 g of the syrup, or b) primula saponins I and II with a mass ratio between them more than 10, preferably more than 12, and the content of primula saponin I corresponds to the content specified in the subparagraph (a).

KASTELIC MARIJA; BERUS PIJA; SHTRANCAR POLONA; MANCHEC BRONJA

196

Production of dextrose and maltose syrups using an enzyme derived from rice  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A sugar syrup is prepared by saccharifying a liquefied starch hydrolyzate at a pH of about 4 to about 5.5 and a temperature above 55 DEG C. with a heat stable, aciduric, pullulanase obtained from rice and an alpha -1,4 carbohydrase. The pullulanase employed is substantially free of maltase and transglucosidase activity. In one embodiment, a dextrose syrup is prepared by saccharifying a thinned starch hydrolyzate with glucoamylase and the rice pullulanase. Maltose syrup is prepared using the rice pullulanase and a maltogenic enzyme.

LINE WILLIAM F; CHAUDHARY VINOD K; CHICOYE ETZER; MIZERAK ROBERT J

197

Production of dextrose and maltose syrups using an enzyme derived from rice  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A sugar syrup is prepared by saccharifying a thinned starch hydrolyzate at a pH of about 4.5 to about 7 and a temperature above about 45°C with a heat-stable pullulanase obtained from rice, and an -1,4 carbohydrase. The pullulanase employed is free of maltase and transglucosidase activities. In a preferred embodiment, a dextrose syrup is prepared by saccharifying the thinned starch hydrolyzate with glucoamylase and the rice debranching enzyme at a pH of about 5 and at a temperature of about 55°C. A method of preparing a maltose syrup using the rice debranching enzyme is also disclosed.

Line William F.; Chaudhary Vinod K.; Chicoye Etzer; Mizerak Robert J.

198

Fed-batch production of concentrated fructose syrup and ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 36859  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fed-batch process is used for the production of concentrated pure fructose syrup and ethanol from various glucose/fructose mixtures by S.cerevisiae ATCC 36859. Applying this technique, glucose-free fructose syrups with over 250 g/l of this sugar were obtained using High Fructose Corn Syrup and hydrolyzed Jerusalem artichoke juice. Bey encouraging ethanol evaporation from the reactor and condensing it, a separate ethanol product with a concentration of up to 350 g/l was also produced. The rates of glucose consumption and ethanol production were higher than in classical batch ethanol fermentation processes. (orig.).

Koren, D.W. (CANMET, Ottawa, ON (Canada)); Duvnjak, Z. (Univ. of Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1992-01-01

199

Topic tacrolimus, alternative treatment for oral erosive lichen planus resistant to steroids: A case report/ Tacrolimus tópico, tratamiento alternativo para liquen plano erosivo de mucosa resistente a corticoides: A propósito de un caso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El liquen plano es una enfermedad mucocutánea de etiología desconocida y patogenia autoinmune. Existen tres variantes de liquen plano: la forma reticular, la forma en placas y la forma atrófico-erosiva. El curso es crónico con frecuentes reactivaciones. Afecta con más frecuencia a mujeres en la 4ª década de la vida y superiores. El diagnóstico se basa en la identificación clínica de las lesiones junto a el estudio histopatológico (degeneración hidrópica de la (more) capa basal, infiltrado de linfo-plasmocitario y ausencia de signos de displasia). Su alta prevalencia (0,5-2%), su carácter recurrente y el potencial riesgo de transformación maligna explican el gran número de opciones terapéuticas disponibles. Presentamos un caso de liquen plano erosivo, de mucosa oral, resistente a múltiples tratamientos, fundamentalmente corticoideos. En el plazo de 15 días respondió a la administración de tacrolimus al 0,1% en aplicación tópica. El artículo pretende señalar la indicación novedosa del principio activo tacrolimus, un inmunosupresor inhibidor de la calcineurina, que se ha demostrado eficaz en la solución de las lesiones erosivas. Abstract in english The lichen planus is a mucocutaneous disease with unknown etiology and auto-immune pathogenia. There have been three variants of lichen planus: the reticular, the plaque-like and the atrophic-erosive lesions. It?s a chronic disease with acute relapses that generally affects more frecuently to women from the fourties. The diagnostic is based on the clinic identification of the lesions joined with the histopathologic study (basal cells hidropic degeneration, linfoplasmocit (more) ic infiltration and absence of displasy signs). The great number of therapeutic options are explained for its high prevalency (0.5-2%), its recurrence and its risk for malignant transformation. We present a case of oral erosive lichen planus, refractory to numerous treatments, mainly corticosteroids. During 15 days the lesion responded to the administration of a 0.1% tacrolimus in topic application. This article tries to show the new indication of tacrolimus, a calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressor, that it is effective in the erosive lesions treatment.

Riaño Argüelles, Ana; Martino Gorbea, Raúl; Iglesias Zamora, María Eugenia; Garatea Crelgo, Joaquín

2006-12-01

200

Diffusion-weighted MRI of maple syrup urine disease encephalopathy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] We report the case of a newborn child with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), diagnosed at 10 days of life. Diffusion-weighted echoplanar MRI showed marked hyperintensity of the cerebellar white matter, the brainstem, the cerebral peduncles, the thalami, the dorsal limb of the internal capsule and the centrum semiovale, while conventional dual-echo sequence evidenced only a weak diffuse T2 hyperintensity in the cerebellar white matter and in the dorsal brainstem. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of these regions was markedly (>80%) decreased. Therefore, in agreement with current hypotheses on MSUD pathogenesis, MSUD oedema proves to be a cytotoxic oedema. Diffusion-weighted MRI may be a valuable tool, more sensitive than conventional spin-echo techniques, to assess the extent and progression of cytotoxicity in MSUD, as well as the effectiveness of the therapeutic interventions. (orig.)

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Cranial computed tomography in maple syrup urine disease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cranial computed tomography in the initial stage of the intermediate phenotype of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) demonstrates diffuse, symmetric hypodensities in white and grey matter, which show a complete return to normal after early introduction of an adequate protein-restrictive diet. If diagnosis of this disease is missed or delayed, progressive global (end-stage) atrophy will take place over several years. A decrease in density values correlates well with the total cerebral lipid and water content (closely related to myelinisation), whereas progression and grade of atrophy show a relationship with the severity of pathological white and grey matter changes that are not demonstrable with computed tomography but can be proven histologically. Analysis of both morphological parameters corresponds well with clinical-neurological outcome and therapeutic success.

Irnberger, T.; Ploechl, E.; Rittinger, O.; Bachmann, C.; Pilz, P.; Walter, G.F.; Wendel, U.

1986-04-01

202

Molecular characterization of maple syrup urine disease patients from Tunisia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare disorder of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) metabolism caused by the defective function of branched-chain ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCKD). The disease causal mutations can occur either in BCKDHA, BCKDHB or DBT genes encoding respectively the E1?, E1? and E2 subunits of the complex. In this study we report the molecular characterization of 3 Tunisian patients with the classic form of MSUD. Two novel putative mutations have been identified: the alteration c.716A>G (p.Glu239Gly) in BCKDHB and a small deletion (c.1333_1336delAATG; p.Asn445X) detected in DBT gene.

Jaafar N; Moleirinho A; Kerkeni E; Monastiri K; Seboui H; Amorim A; Prata MJ; Quental S

2013-03-01

203

Neurocognitive profile in a case of maple syrup urine disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is a metabolic disease with associated enzyme deficiency and an inability to break down amino acids. Neurotoxic levels can occur resulting in neurological sequelae. Information regarding cognitive functions has suggested greater verbal than visuospatial abilities. Specific neuropsychological functions have not been studied. The objective of this study is to examine the neuropsychological profile in a case of MSUD. We present a case study of a 7-year-old female who has a history of late diagnosis (7 days of age) and poor metabolic control. Consistent with existing literature, a profile of stronger verbal reasoning and memory skills compared with visual-perceptual and nonverbal memory was revealed. Additional weaknesses were demonstrated with attention, emerging executive functions, and fine motor control. The results suggest that while previously described nonverbal reasoning and visuospatial impairments are present, there is likely a more complex pattern of neuropsychological impairments in children with MSUD, especially those with poor metabolic control.

Walsh KS; Scott MN

2010-05-01

204

Molecular characterization of maple syrup urine disease patients from Tunisia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare disorder of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) metabolism caused by the defective function of branched-chain ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCKD). The disease causal mutations can occur either in BCKDHA, BCKDHB or DBT genes encoding respectively the E1?, E1? and E2 subunits of the complex. In this study we report the molecular characterization of 3 Tunisian patients with the classic form of MSUD. Two novel putative mutations have been identified: the alteration c.716A>G (p.Glu239Gly) in BCKDHB and a small deletion (c.1333_1336delAATG; p.Asn445X) detected in DBT gene. PMID:23313820

Jaafar, N; Moleirinho, A; Kerkeni, E; Monastiri, K; Seboui, H; Amorim, A; Prata, M J; Quental, S

2013-01-09

205

Diffusion-weighted MRI of maple syrup urine disease encephalopathy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report the case of a newborn child with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), diagnosed at 10 days of life. Diffusion-weighted echoplanar MRI showed marked hyperintensity of the cerebellar white matter, the brainstem, the cerebral peduncles, the thalami, the dorsal limb of the internal capsule and the centrum semiovale, while conventional dual-echo sequence evidenced only a weak diffuse T2 hyperintensity in the cerebellar white matter and in the dorsal brainstem. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of these regions was markedly (>80%) decreased. Therefore, in agreement with current hypotheses on MSUD pathogenesis, MSUD oedema proves to be a cytotoxic oedema. Diffusion-weighted MRI may be a valuable tool, more sensitive than conventional spin-echo techniques, to assess the extent and progression of cytotoxicity in MSUD, as well as the effectiveness of the therapeutic interventions. (orig.)

Cavalleri, F.; Mavilla, L. [Servizio di Neuroradiologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico, Modena (Italy); Berardi, A.; Ferrari, F. [Servizio di Neonatologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico, Modena (Italy); Burlina, A.B. [Dipartimento di Pediatria, Azienda Ospedaliera, Universita di Padova, Padua (Italy)

2002-06-01

206

Neurocognitive profile in a case of maple syrup urine disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is a metabolic disease with associated enzyme deficiency and an inability to break down amino acids. Neurotoxic levels can occur resulting in neurological sequelae. Information regarding cognitive functions has suggested greater verbal than visuospatial abilities. Specific neuropsychological functions have not been studied. The objective of this study is to examine the neuropsychological profile in a case of MSUD. We present a case study of a 7-year-old female who has a history of late diagnosis (7 days of age) and poor metabolic control. Consistent with existing literature, a profile of stronger verbal reasoning and memory skills compared with visual-perceptual and nonverbal memory was revealed. Additional weaknesses were demonstrated with attention, emerging executive functions, and fine motor control. The results suggest that while previously described nonverbal reasoning and visuospatial impairments are present, there is likely a more complex pattern of neuropsychological impairments in children with MSUD, especially those with poor metabolic control. PMID:20204917

Walsh, Karin S; Scott, Megan N

2010-03-02

207

Effect of concentration temperature on some bioactive compounds and antioxidant proprieties of date syrup.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effect of the concentration temperature on the antioxidant activity, carotenoid and phenolic compounds of date syrup was investigated. Date juice was concentrated at 100? and at "60? in vacuum". After concentration, total phenolic, tannin, non-tannin, flavonoid and carotenoid content were determined spectrophotometrically and high-performance liquid chromatography was used for determination of 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde content. The antioxidant activity of date syrup was evaluated by various antioxidant methods including total antioxidant, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging test, ferric reducing antioxidant power and ?-carotene bleaching. All date syrups showed strong antioxidant activity accompanied by high total phenolic contents. Results showed that concentration at 100? significantly enhanced the antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents of date syrups compared to vacuum concentration at 60?. A good correlation between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content and flavonoid was observed.

Abbès F; Besbes S; Brahim B; Kchaou W; Attia H; Blecker C

2013-08-01

208

Effect of concentration temperature on some bioactive compounds and antioxidant proprieties of date syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of the concentration temperature on the antioxidant activity, carotenoid and phenolic compounds of date syrup was investigated. Date juice was concentrated at 100? and at "60? in vacuum". After concentration, total phenolic, tannin, non-tannin, flavonoid and carotenoid content were determined spectrophotometrically and high-performance liquid chromatography was used for determination of 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde content. The antioxidant activity of date syrup was evaluated by various antioxidant methods including total antioxidant, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging test, ferric reducing antioxidant power and ?-carotene bleaching. All date syrups showed strong antioxidant activity accompanied by high total phenolic contents. Results showed that concentration at 100? significantly enhanced the antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents of date syrups compared to vacuum concentration at 60?. A good correlation between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content and flavonoid was observed. PMID:23729415

Abbès, Fatma; Besbes, Souhail; Brahim, Bchir; Kchaou, Wissal; Attia, Hamadi; Blecker, Christophe

2013-05-31

209

Diet Therapy for MSUD (Maple Syrup Urine Disease) and Organic Acidurias.  

Science.gov (United States)

The 1976 document provides guidelines on dietary management of children with certain inborn errors of amino acid metabolism, based on knowledge up to that time. Three separate sections discuss treatment of branched-chain ketoacidemia (maple syrup urine di...

A. E. Ernest W. L. Nyhan J. G. Thoene P. Justice S. E. Snyderman

1976-01-01

210

Dual mechanism of brain injury and novel treatment strategy in maple syrup urine disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism presenting with life-threatening cerebral oedema and dysmyelination in affected individuals. Treatment requires life-long dietary restriction and monitoring of branched-chain amino acids to avoid brain injury. Despite careful management, children commonly suffer metabolic decompensation in the context of catabolic stress associated with non-specific illness. The mechanisms underlying this decompensation and brain injury are poorly understood. Using recently developed mouse models of classic and intermediate maple syrup urine disease, we assessed biochemical, behavioural and neuropathological changes that occurred during encephalopathy in these mice. Here, we show that rapid brain leucine accumulation displaces other essential amino acids resulting in neurotransmitter depletion and disruption of normal brain growth and development. A novel approach of administering norleucine to heterozygous mothers of classic maple syrup urine disease pups reduced branched-chain amino acid accumulation in milk as well as blood and brain of these pups to enhance survival. Similarly, norleucine substantially delayed encephalopathy in intermediate maple syrup urine disease mice placed on a high protein diet that mimics the catabolic stress shown to cause encephalopathy in human maple syrup urine disease. Current findings suggest two converging mechanisms of brain injury in maple syrup urine disease including: (i) neurotransmitter deficiencies and growth restriction associated with branched-chain amino acid accumulation and (ii) energy deprivation through Krebs cycle disruption associated with branched-chain ketoacid accumulation. Both classic and intermediate models appear to be useful to study the mechanism of brain injury and potential treatment strategies for maple syrup urine disease. Norleucine should be further tested as a potential treatment to prevent encephalopathy in children with maple syrup urine disease during catabolic stress.

Zinnanti WJ; Lazovic J; Griffin K; Skvorak KJ; Paul HS; Homanics GE; Bewley MC; Cheng KC; Lanoue KF; Flanagan JM

2009-04-01

211

Utilization of waste syrup for production of polyunsaturated Fatty acids and xanthophylls by aurantiochytrium.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the food industry, syrups containing a high concentration of sugar used for fruit preservation is abundantly discharged as a food processing waste and disposed by incineration, resulting in the rise of the manufacturing cost and environmental pollution. This study demonstrates how waste syrup can be utilized as carbon source for production of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and astaxanthin by the thraustochytrid strain, Aurantiochytrium sp. KH105. The strain could grow in culture medium containing 3-50% waste syrup, and the maximum yields of DHA and astaxanthin were 207.6 mg/L (at 50%) and 1.1 mg/L (at 25%), respectively. After the optimization of culture medium composition by response surface method, DHA and astaxanthin yields increased by 2.1 and 1.5 fold, respectively. When the waste syrup was treated with activated charcoal, citrate concentration in the syrup was reduced and the astaxanthin yield increased by 2.3 fold. This study shows that the waste syrup can be effectively used for the functional lipid production by the thraustochytrid.

Iwasaka H; Aki T; Adachi H; Watanabe K; Kawamoto S; Ono K

2013-01-01

212

Method for co-producing high-purity rice protein and malt syrup by rice  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides a method for co-producing high-purity rice protein and malt syrup by rice, which comprises the following steps: soaking rice in sodium hydroxide solution, grinding the rice into thick liquid and extracting the rice to obtain supernate, precipitating the supernate to obtain protein glue, washing and drying the protein glue to obtain 80-90 percent of rice protein soaking the rice in sodium hydroxide, extracting to obtain rice meal, and processing the rice meal by the steps of liquefying, filter-pressing, desalting and ion exchange to obtain the malt syrup. In the production process of the malt syrup, the liquefaction time is 20-60 min shorter than that of the traditional process, the liquefied enzyme using amount is reduced, and a membrane filteration and desalting process is added. The invention takes two products of the malt syrup and the high-purity rice protein with more than 80 percent of protein content as targeted products simultaneously, also improves the preparation process of the malt syrup and ensures the preparation of the malt syrup to achieve the aims of saving the energy and reducing the consumption.

CUIPING YI; YONGLE LIU; YUNHUI CHENG; XIANGHONG LI; DING XIE

213

Utilization of waste syrup for production of polyunsaturated Fatty acids and xanthophylls by aurantiochytrium.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the food industry, syrups containing a high concentration of sugar used for fruit preservation is abundantly discharged as a food processing waste and disposed by incineration, resulting in the rise of the manufacturing cost and environmental pollution. This study demonstrates how waste syrup can be utilized as carbon source for production of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and astaxanthin by the thraustochytrid strain, Aurantiochytrium sp. KH105. The strain could grow in culture medium containing 3-50% waste syrup, and the maximum yields of DHA and astaxanthin were 207.6 mg/L (at 50%) and 1.1 mg/L (at 25%), respectively. After the optimization of culture medium composition by response surface method, DHA and astaxanthin yields increased by 2.1 and 1.5 fold, respectively. When the waste syrup was treated with activated charcoal, citrate concentration in the syrup was reduced and the astaxanthin yield increased by 2.3 fold. This study shows that the waste syrup can be effectively used for the functional lipid production by the thraustochytrid. PMID:24005017

Iwasaka, Hiroaki; Aki, Tsunehiro; Adachi, Hirofumi; Watanabe, Kenshi; Kawamoto, Seiji; Ono, Kazuhisa

2013-01-01

214

Effect of Wheat Germ Addition on Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Date Syrup  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wheat germ was utilized for improvement in quality and nutritive value of date syrup in the present study. Some physicochemical (total soluble solids, water activity, pH, consistency, color) and antioxidant properties of different date syrup/wheat germ blends (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% wheat germ) were investigated. Total soluble solids and pH of date syrup were slightly affected by addition of wheat germ. The consistency values of blends were increased by increasing wheat germ addition, while, water activity values were gradually decreased (0.677-0.655). Significant differences (p<0.05) in the CIE L* a* b* color values for date syrup/wheat germ blends were noticed. The phenolic content of blends was slightly affected by wheat germ addition. Non significant differences (p<0.05) were observed in the antioxidant activity (192-200 TEAC ?mol/100 g sample) among the date syrup/wheat germ blends. Results showed that blends containing 2, 4 and 6% wheat germ presented a higher overall acceptability. The obtained results suggest that wheat germ could be used for improvement in quality and nutritive value of date syrup.

Abdalla S.M. Ammar

2012-01-01

215

2-Acetylfuran-3-Glucopyranoside as a Novel Marker for the Detection of Honey Adulterated with Rice Syrup.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The determination of honey authenticity is of importance to ensure its quality and safety. There is an urgent need of effective methods to detect adulterated honey. A simple, rapid, and effective HPLC-DAD method was developed to detect honey adulteration by rice syrup, using a characteristic compound from rice syrup, which is presently difficult to detect by current analytical methods. The characteristic compound was identified as 2-acetylfuran-3-glucopyranoside (AFGP) by MS and NMR. Based on HPLC analyses, the average concentration of AFGP was 92 ± 60 mg/kg in rice syrup. However, AFGP was not detected in any of the natural honey samples, so it could be used as a maker for the detection of honey adulteration by rice syrup. The developed HPLC-DAD method enabled a rapid detection of honey samples adulterated with 10% rice syrup. Using the developed method, 16 out of 186 honey samples from different markets were found to be adulterated with rice syrup.

Xue X; Wang Q; Li Y; Wu L; Zhao J; Chen L; Liu F

2013-07-01

216

Nitric oxide topical technology  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This invention with a new compound enables application of L-Arginine made with arginine alpha-ketoglutarate, arginine pyroglutamate, arginine ketoisocaproate and ornithine alpha-ketoglutarate to work together and separately along with other ingredients, topically. It is intended to improve the process by which these compounds work in the human organism.The invention is based on the facts that L-Arginine is: known to be the immediate precursor of the endogenous vasodilator substance found in the arterial blood vessels called "Endothelium-Derived Relaxing Factor" (EDRF) required for protein synthesis and, depending on the organism's needs, can either be metabolized to support glucose synthesis or catabolized to produce energy This simplified "noninvasive" application surpasses gastrointestinal digestion so the compounds will not degrade and favoring absorption into the circulatory system thus enhancing the compounds' effects and at much lower dosage levels than oral or parenteral administration. A composition comprising L-Arginine to be used topically that creates increases in muscle size, strength, endurance and power output.

LEITMAN LORN; BARNI GUSTAVO

217

Knowledge of using acetaminophen syrup and comprehension of written medication instruction among caregivers with febrile children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIM: This article aims to explore caregivers' knowledge of acetaminophen and comprehension of written medication instructions about acetaminophen syrup when administered to febrile children. BACKGROUND: Fever is one of the most common problems about which primary caregivers seek medical advice for their children. Administration of acetaminophen is the most common form of treatment for febrile children. Medication safety is of the upmost importance for medication administration in this patient group. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study design was used. METHODS: The study included 102 caregivers with febrile children under six years old. A self-designed questionnaire was used to solicit participants' responses concerning: (1) approaches to fever management prior to hospital admission; and (2) knowledge and comprehension of antipyretic medication administration. Caregivers were asked to answer specific questions about the instructions provided with the medication. Results.? Antipyretic by oral (66%) and antipyretic suppository (60%) were the most commonly used forms of fever management in febrile children. After reading the written medication instructions, one-third of the participants had more than one misunderstanding of the instructions for medication with timing, time interval of administration and/or medication dosage. Almost two-thirds of the participants misunderstood the side effects of acetaminophen. Participants with a poorer academic background were associated with poorer comprehension of the provided instructions. CONCLUSION: Administration of antipyretic medication is the most common approach taken to reduce children's temperature. A significant percentage of primary caregivers appear to lack a thorough understanding of the instructions provided with antipyrexial medication. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Written medication instruction is a major source of information for primary caregivers. Clinical nurses have a potentially important role to play to provide caregivers with legible and understandable medication instructions and to ensure that caregivers fully comprehend this information.

Chang MC; Chen YC; Chang SC; Smith GD

2012-01-01

218

Significance of L-alloisoleucine in plasma for diagnosis of maple syrup urine disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The significance of plasma L-alloisoleucine, which is derived from L-isoleucine in vivo, for diagnosis of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) was examined. METHODS: Branched-chain L-amino acids were measured by automatic amino acid analysis. RESULTS: Alloisoleucine reference values in plasma were established in healthy adults [1.9 +/- 0.6 micromol/L (mean +/- SD); n = 35], children 3-11 years (1.6 +/- 0.4 micromol/L; n = 17), and infants <3 years (1.3 +/- 0.5 micromol/L; n = 37). The effect of dietary isoleucine was assessed in oral loading tests. In controls receiving 38 micromol (n = 6; low dose) and 1527 micromol (n = 3; high dose) of L-isoleucine per kilogram of body weight, peak increases of plasma isoleucine were 78 +/- 24 and 1763 +/- 133 micromol/L, respectively; the peak increase of alloisoleucine, however, was negligible for low-dose (<0.3 micromol/L) and minor for high-dose (5. 5 +/- 2.1 micromol/L) load. In patients with diabetes mellitus, ketotic hypoglycemia, phenylketonuria, and obligate heterozygous parents of MSUD patients, alloisoleucine was not significantly different from healthy subjects. Therefore, a plasma concentration of 5 micromol/L was used as a cutoff value. In patients with classical MSUD (n = 7), alloisoleucine was beyond the cutoff value in 2451 of 2453 unselected samples. In patients with variant MSUD (n = 9), alloisoleucine was >5 micromol/L in all samples taken for establishment of diagnosis and in 94% of the samples taken for treatment control (n = 624). With the other branched-chain amino acids, the frequency of diagnostically significant increases was <45%. CONCLUSIONS: The present findings indicate that plasma L-alloisoleucine above the cutoff value of 5 micromol/L is the most specific and most sensitive diagnostic marker for all forms of MSUD.

Schadewaldt P; Bodner-Leidecker A; Hammen HW; Wendel U

1999-10-01

219

Antioxidant activity, inhibition of nitric oxide overproduction, and in vitro antiproliferative effect of maple sap and syrup from Acer saccharum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Antioxidant activity, inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) overproduction, and antiproliferative effect of ethyl acetate extracts of maple sap and syrup from 30 producers were evaluated in regard to the period of harvest in three different regions of Québec, Canada. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values of maple sap and syrup extracts are, respectively, 12 +/- 6 and 15 +/- 5 micromol of Trolox equivalents (TE)/mg. The antioxidant activity was also confirmed by a cell-based assay. The period of harvest has no statistically significant incidence on the antioxidant activity of both extracts. The antioxidant activity of pure maple syrup was also determined using the ORAC assay. Results indicate that the ORAC value of pure maple syrup (8 +/- 2 micromol of TE/mL) is lower than the ORAC value of blueberry juice (24 +/- 1 micromol of TE/mL) but comparable to the ORAC values of strawberry (10.7 +/- 0.4 micromol of TE/mL) and orange (10.8 +/- 0.5 micromol of TE/mL) juices. Maple sap and syrup extracts showed to significantly inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced NO overproduction in RAW264.7 murine macrophages. Maple syrup extract was significantly more active than maple sap extract, suggesting that the transformation of maple sap into syrup increases NO inhibition activity. The highest NO inhibition induced by the maple syrup extracts was observed at the end of the season. Moreover, darker maple syrup was found to be more active than clear maple syrup, suggesting that some colored oxidized compounds could be responsible in part for the activity. Finally, maple syrup extracts (50% inhibitory concentration = 42 +/- 6 microg/mL) and pure maple syrup possess a selective in vitro antiproliferative activity against cancer cells.

Legault J; Girard-Lalancette K; Grenon C; Dussault C; Pichette A

2010-04-01

220

The effects of sucralfate suspension and diphenhydramine syrup plus kaolin-pectin on radiotherapy-induced mucositis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A prospective, double-blind study compared the effectiveness of sucralfate suspension with diphenhydramine syrup plus kaolin-pectin in reducing severity and pain of radiation-induced oropharyngeal mucositis. Fourteen patients who received at least 4600 cGy to the oral cavity used one of the mouth rinses four times a day, beginning at 1600 cGy. Data were collected on daily perceived pain and helpfulness of mouth rinse, weekly mucositis grade, weight change, and interruption of therapy. Analysis of data revealed no statistically significant differences between the two groups in any parameter. A retrospective review of 15 patients who had received at least 4600 cGy radiation to the oropharynx but had not used a daily mouth-coating rinse, was compared with the study group. Comparison of the two groups suggested that consistent daily oral hygiene and use of a mouth-coating agent will result in less pain and may reduce weight loss and interruption of radiation because of severe mucositis.

Barker, G.; Loftus, L.; Cuddy, P.; Barker, B. (Univ. of Missouri, Kansas City (USA))

1991-03-01

 
 
 
 
221

The effects of sucralfate suspension and diphenhydramine syrup plus kaolin-pectin on radiotherapy-induced mucositis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A prospective, double-blind study compared the effectiveness of sucralfate suspension with diphenhydramine syrup plus kaolin-pectin in reducing severity and pain of radiation-induced oropharyngeal mucositis. Fourteen patients who received at least 4600 cGy to the oral cavity used one of the mouth rinses four times a day, beginning at 1600 cGy. Data were collected on daily perceived pain and helpfulness of mouth rinse, weekly mucositis grade, weight change, and interruption of therapy. Analysis of data revealed no statistically significant differences between the two groups in any parameter. A retrospective review of 15 patients who had received at least 4600 cGy radiation to the oropharynx but had not used a daily mouth-coating rinse, was compared with the study group. Comparison of the two groups suggested that consistent daily oral hygiene and use of a mouth-coating agent will result in less pain and may reduce weight loss and interruption of radiation because of severe mucositis.

1991-01-01

222

Effect of prickly pear and algarrobo pod syrup coatings on consumer acceptance and stability of roasted almonds  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the oxidative stability of roasted almonds coated with prickly pear and 'algarrobo' pod syrups and the effect of these coatings on consumer acceptance.RESULTS: Prickly pear syrup had higher moisture, proteins, ashes and lipids, and lower carbohydrate content, than algarrobo pod syrup. Phenolics and antioxidant activity such as inhibition percentages of diphenyl picryl hydrazyl radical were higher in prickly pear syrup than algarrobo pod syrup. Roasted almonds had higher protein and lipid contents and lower total carbohydrates than coated almonds. Three main fatty acids detected in all almond products were palmitic (63.2 g kg?¹), oleic (727.0 g kg?¹) and linoleic (208.0 g kg?¹) acids. The overall acceptance means in roasted almonds, roasted almonds coated with prickle pear syrup and roasted almonds coated with algarrobo pod syrup were 6.83, 6.65 and 6.70, respectively, on a 9-point hedonic scale. The peroxide and anisidine values increased in all products. The increase was higher in roasted almonds without coating.CONCLUSION: These results indicated that the syrup coatings provided protection against lipid oxidation in almond products. Prickly pear syrup showed better protection against lipid oxidation.

Gayol Mari?aF; Soliani Soledad; Quiroga PatriciaR; Nepote Valeria; Grosso NelsonR

2009-11-01

223

EVALUATION OF ACUTE TOXICITY STUDY AND DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF URAL SYRUP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are considerable amount of scientific evidences available for diuretic activity of individual ingredients of a polyherbal formulation Ural Syrup however no evidence has been found which proves overall safety and efficacy of the formulation. The present study was undertaken to investigate safety as well as Diuretic activity of this polyherbal formulation- Ural Syrup. Acute toxicity study was carried out as per OECD Guideline 420. The Ural syrup (1.8mL/kg and 3.6mL/kg) was tested for its diuretic activity on rat model. Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) (10mg/kg) was used as positive control in study. The diuretic effect of the Ural syrup was evaluated by measuring urine volume, pH and excretion of sodium and potassium content. In result, significant increase in urine volume was observed at both dosage levels of Ural syrup in comparison to normal control group. There was no significant change observed in pH of urine. The excretion of Sodium was also found significantly increased at both dosage levels but more in TEDx2 group with respect to TED group. Potassium excretion was found increased only at TEDx2 group as compared to normal control group. It can be concluded that Ural syrup produced considerable diuretic effect which appeared to be comparable to that produced by the reference diuretic HCTZ. There was no lethality and toxic reaction found among the tested animals. The present study provides scientific support that Ural syrup can be employed as a safe and effective diuretic drug.

Thakkar Tejas; Patel Rakesh; Soni Hardik; Patel Ghanshyam

2013-01-01

224

Biochemical correlates of neuropsychiatric illness in maple syrup urine disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of branched chain amino acid metabolism presenting with neonatal encephalopathy, episodic metabolic decompensation, and chronic amino acid imbalances. Dietary management enables survival and reduces risk of acute crises. Liver transplantation has emerged as an effective way to eliminate acute decompensation risk. Psychiatric illness is a reported MSUD complication, but has not been well characterized and remains poorly understood. We report the prevalence and characteristics of neuropsychiatric problems among 37 classical MSUD patients (ages 5-35 years, 26 on dietary therapy, 11 after liver transplantation) and explore their underlying mechanisms. Compared with 26 age-matched controls, MSUD patients were at higher risk for disorders of cognition, attention, and mood. Using quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we found lower brain glutamate, N-acetylaspartate (NAA), and creatine concentrations in MSUD patients, which correlated with specific neuropsychiatric outcomes. Asymptomatic neonatal course and stringent longitudinal biochemical control proved fundamental to optimizing long-term mental health. Neuropsychiatric morbidity and neurochemistry were similar among transplanted and nontransplanted MSUD patients. In conclusion, amino acid dysregulation results in aberrant neural networks with neurochemical deficiencies that persist after transplant and correlate with neuropsychiatric morbidities. These findings may provide insight into general mechanisms of psychiatric illness.

Muelly ER; Moore GJ; Bunce SC; Mack J; Bigler DC; Morton DH; Strauss KA

2013-04-01

225

Biochemical correlates of neuropsychiatric illness in maple syrup urine disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of branched chain amino acid metabolism presenting with neonatal encephalopathy, episodic metabolic decompensation, and chronic amino acid imbalances. Dietary management enables survival and reduces risk of acute crises. Liver transplantation has emerged as an effective way to eliminate acute decompensation risk. Psychiatric illness is a reported MSUD complication, but has not been well characterized and remains poorly understood. We report the prevalence and characteristics of neuropsychiatric problems among 37 classical MSUD patients (ages 5-35 years, 26 on dietary therapy, 11 after liver transplantation) and explore their underlying mechanisms. Compared with 26 age-matched controls, MSUD patients were at higher risk for disorders of cognition, attention, and mood. Using quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we found lower brain glutamate, N-acetylaspartate (NAA), and creatine concentrations in MSUD patients, which correlated with specific neuropsychiatric outcomes. Asymptomatic neonatal course and stringent longitudinal biochemical control proved fundamental to optimizing long-term mental health. Neuropsychiatric morbidity and neurochemistry were similar among transplanted and nontransplanted MSUD patients. In conclusion, amino acid dysregulation results in aberrant neural networks with neurochemical deficiencies that persist after transplant and correlate with neuropsychiatric morbidities. These findings may provide insight into general mechanisms of psychiatric illness. PMID:23478409

Muelly, Emilie R; Moore, Gregory J; Bunce, Scott C; Mack, Julie; Bigler, Don C; Morton, D Holmes; Strauss, Kevin A

2013-03-08

226

Intellectual outcome in children with maple syrup urine disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report a controlled study of intellectual outcome in 16 children with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) that compares the outcome of MSUD diagnosed after symptoms became apparent with that of MSUD diagnosed prospectively and in unaffected siblings and parents. The mean IQ (+/- SD) score in the children with classic MSUD was 78 +/- 24; however, there were two discrete groups: one with normal IQ (greater than 84) whose MSUD had been diagnosed at a mean age of 3.5 days and a second group, with IQ below normal, whose MSUD was diagnosed at a mean of 10 days of age. Affected children treated presymptomatically had higher IQ scores than their affected siblings treated when their disease was symptomatic. Multiple regression analysis indicated that the important influences on IQ were age at the time of diagnosis and long-term metabolic control; control at the time of testing also might have affected performance. The mean score of unaffected siblings was 92 +/- 5 and the mean parental IQ was 83 +/- 9. The mean IQ scores of children with variant MSUD, 97 +/- 4, was similar to that of their parents, 103 +/- 6. This study was not longitudinal and thus could not identify subtle developmental learning problems. We conclude that early and meticulous treatment of MSUD can result in intellectually normal children.

Kaplan P; Mazur A; Field M; Berlin JA; Berry GT; Heidenreich R; Yudkoff M; Segal S

1991-07-01

227

Variant maple syrup urine disease (MSUD)--the entire spectrum.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: In the rare inborn autosomal recessive disorder maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) the accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and their metabolic products results in acute and chronic brain dysfunction. About 20% of the patients suffer from non-classic variant forms of MSUD of different clinical severity. Aim: Up to now variant cases have mostly been published as individual case reports; the aim of this study was to give a comparative description of 16 individuals (aged 6-30 years) with different forms of variant MSUD. METHODS: Laboratory data, information on clinical course and treatment as well as aspects of developmental, intellectual and social outcome were obtained retrospectively. Data from in vitro and in vivo methods measuring the degree of enzyme deficiency were included. RESULTS: In addition to a mild phenotype, which fits well into the so-called intermittent variant, and a more severe phenotype with a wider range from a mild variant to an almost classic form, which fits well into the so-called intermediate variant, we assume the existence of an asymptomatic, non-disease variant of MSUD. These clinical phenotypes are not unambiguously differentiable on the basis of biochemical parameters. CONCLUSION: A continuum of clinical severity from asymptomatic to very severe (border to classic) exists in variant MSUD. Apart from newborns with classic MSUD, also those with variant forms benefit from early diagnosis and start of adequate treatment.

Simon E; Flaschker N; Schadewaldt P; Langenbeck U; Wendel U

2006-12-01

228

Cranial computed tomography in maple syrup urine disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Cranial computed tomography in the initial stage of the intermediate phenotype of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) demonstrates diffuse, symmetric hypodensities in white and grey matter, which show a complete return to normal after early introduction of an adequate protein-restrictive diet. If diagnosis of this disease is missed or delayed, progressive global (end-stage) atrophy will take place over several years. A decrease in density values correlates well with the total cerebral lipid and water content (closely related to myelinisation), whereas progression and grade of atrophy show a relationship with the severity of pathological white and grey matter changes that are not demonstrable with computed tomography but can be proven histologically. Analysis of both morphological parameters corresponds well with clinical-neurological outcome and therapeutic success. (orig.)[de] Intermediaere Phaenotypen der Ahornsiruperkrankung (Leuzinose) manifestieren sich computertomographisch ausschliesslich in ihrer Initialphase sowohl als weisse als auch graue Hirnsubstanz involvierende diffuse Dichteerniedrigungen ohne marginales Kontrastmittelenhancement, die bei fruehzeitig einsetzender adaequater eiweissrestriktiver Diaet nach einigen Wochen bis Monaten zur Gaenze reversibel sind. Wird die Erkrankung jedoch nicht diagnostiziert, geht sie bereits nach wenigen Lebensjahren in das Finalstadium einer globalen Atrophie ueber. Die Dichteerniedrigungen korrelieren dabei mit dem Gehalt an Gesamtlipiden und Wasser im Zerebrum, waehrend Ausmass und Progredienz der Atrophie vom Schweregrad der nur histologisch/elektronenoptisch fassbaren Veraenderungen im Marklager abhaengig sind. Die Beruecksichtigung von beiden morphologischen Parametern laesst computertomographisch eine Korrelation von klinisch-neurologischem Verlauf und Therapieerfolg zu. (orig.)

1986-01-01

229

Oral Appliances  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral Appliances Oral appliances (OA) are a front-line treatment for patients with mild to moderate Obstructive Sleep Apnea ( ... tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy, cranofacial operations, or tracheostomy. Oral Appliance Therapy Oral appliance therapy involves the selection, fitting ...

230

The optimal conditions for nata production from sugar palm syrup by Acetobacter xylinum TISTR 107  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The optimal conditions of nata production from the fermentation of sugar palm syrup by Acetobacter xylinum TISTR 107 was studied. The results showed that optimized production for a litre of sugar palm syrup medium should compose 15 ºBrix concentration, 7.0 g NH4H2PO4 and 0.7 g MgSO4. 7 H2O at pH 4.25 and incubation at room temperature. The thickness of nata production reached 1.15 cm in 9 days. Sensory evaluation showed that there were no significant difference in odor and acceptability between the nata from sugar palm syrup and the traditional nata production from coconut juice whereas there were significant differences in color and texture. However, the nata from sugar palm syrup gave a better texture. Chemical analysis of the nata produced under these optimal culture conditions revealed 0.13% protein, 0.012% fat, 2.74% fiber, 0.378% nitrogen-free extract, 0.11% ash and 96.63% moisture content. The results suggest that nata produced from sugar palm syrup can be used in food and confectionery.

Laochareonsuk, T.; Kaewtaro, S.

2005-01-01

231

Production of isomalto-oligosaccharide syrup from rice starch using an one-step conversion method  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO) belong to a group of prebiotics that can significantly increase the number of protective gut microflora. A one-step method using neopullulanase (NPN) in conjunction with saccharifying ?-amylase (SAA) for the bioconversion of rice starch into IMO was investigated. Purified rice starch slurry (30% w/w) was mixed with NPN (3.5 U g?¹ starch substrate) and SAA (6.5 U g?¹ starch substrate) and the slurry was incubated at 57 °C for 92 h under constant stirring. The carbohydrate composition of the resulting syrup was analysed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the dextrose equivalent (DE) determined by titration. The amount of IMO in the syrup reached maximum (59.2%, dry basis) after 72 h of bioconversion. The concentration of glucose and maltose, which were the main carbohydrate residues of the IMO syrup, was 25.5% while the concentration of other oligosaccharide residues was about 1.0%. The results demonstrate that rice starch is a suitable matrix for producing IMO syrup and the one-step conversion procedure appears to be an efficient method for converting starch into IMO syrup.

Lin Q; Xiao H; Zhao J; Li L; Yu Fe; Liu X; Cheng X

2011-06-01

232

Maple sap predominant microbial contaminants are correlated with the physicochemical and sensorial properties of maple syrup.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maple sap processing and microbial contamination are significant aspects that affect maple syrup quality. In this study, two sample sets from 2005 and 2008 were used to assess the maple syrup quality variation and its relationship to microbial populations, with respect to processing, production site and harvesting period. The abundance of maple sap predominant bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens group and two subgroups, Rahnella spp., Janthinobacterium spp., Leuconostoc mesenteroides) and yeast (Mrakia spp., Mrakiella spp.,Guehomyces pullulans) was assessed by quantitative PCR. Maple syrup properties were analyzed by physicochemical and sensorial methods. Results indicate that P. fluorescens, Mrakia spp., Mrakiella spp. G. pullulans and Rahnella spp. are stable contaminants of maple sap, as they were found for every production site throughout the flow period. Multiple factor analysis reports a link between the relative abundance of P. fluorescens group and Mrakia spp. in maple sap with maple and vanilla odor as well as flavor of maple syrup. This evidence supports the contribution of these microorganisms or a consortium of predominant microbial contaminants to the characteristic properties of maple syrup.

Filteau M; Lagacé L; Lapointe G; Roy D

2012-03-01

233

Acceptability of different oral formulations in infants and preschool children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: Liquid medicines are easy to swallow. However, they may have disadvantages, such as a bad taste or refrigerated storage conditions. These disadvantages may be avoided by the use of oral solid medicines, such as powders or tablets. The aim of this study was to investigate the acceptability of and preference among four oral formulations in domiciliary infants and preschool children in The Netherlands. METHODS: Parents administered four oral placebo dosage forms that were aimed at a neutral taste, at home, to their child (1-4 years of age) twice on one day following a randomised cross-over design: small (4 mm) tablet, powder, suspension and syrup. They were asked to report the child's acceptability by a score on a 10 cm visual analogue scale (VAS score) and by the result of the intake. At the end of the study, they were asked to report the preference of the child and themselves. RESULTS: 183 children were included and 148 children were evaluated. The data revealed a period/cross-over effect. The estimate of the mean VAS score was significantly higher for the tablet than for the suspension (tablet 9.39/9.01; powder 8.84/8.20, suspension 8.26/7.90, syrup 8.35/8.19; data day 1/all days). The estimate of the mean number of intakes fully swallowed was significantly higher for the tablet than for the other formulations (all p values <0.05). Children and parents preferred the tablet and syrup over the suspension and the suspension over the powder (all p values <0.05). CONCLUSIONS: All formulations were well accepted. The tablets were the best accepted formulation; the tablets and syrup the most preferred. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN63138435.

van Riet-Nales DA; de Neef BJ; Schobben AF; Ferreira JA; Egberts TC; Rademaker CM

2013-09-01

234

Treatment of pediculosis capitis with topical albendazole.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pediculosis capitis, or head lice infestation, caused by Pediculus humanus capitis, is a common and ubiquitous health concern. Increasing resistance and treatment failures are reported with available topical pediculicides and may prove challenging to manage. Recent data indicate that the oral anti-helmintic agents thiabendazole and albendazole could represent new therapeutic options against pediculosis capitis. We report a novel treatment modality in four patients with head lice who were successfully treated with a topical application of albendazole.

Ayoub N; Maatouk I; Merhy M; Tomb R

2012-02-01

235

Topical Anesthetics - Full Version  

Science.gov (United States)

... Topical Anesthetics - Full Version. ... Without this supervision, patients may apply large amounts of topical anesthetics to their skin. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/drugsafetypodcasts

236

Protein and leucine metabolism in maple syrup urine disease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Constant infusions of (13C)leucine and (2H5)phenylalanine were used to trace leucine and protein kinetics, respectively, in seven children with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) and eleven controls matched for age and dietary protein intake. Despite significant elevations of plasma leucine (mean 351 mumol/l, range 224-477) in MSUD subjects, mean whole body protein synthesis (3.78 +/- 0.42 (SD) g.kg-1. 24 h-1) and catabolism (4.07 +/- 0.46) were similar to control values (3.69 +/- 0.50 and 4.09 +/- 0.50, respectively). The relationship between phenylalanine and leucine fluxes was also similar in MSUD subjects (mean phenylalanine-leucine flux ratio 0.35 +/- 0.07) and previously reported adult controls (0.33 +/- 0.02). Leucine oxidation was undetectable in four of the MSUD subjects and very low in the other three (less than 4 mumol.kg-1.h-1; controls 13-20). These results show that persistent elevation in leucine concentration has no effect on protein synthesis. The marked disturbance in leucine metabolism in MSUD did not alter the relationship between rates of catabolism of protein to phenylalanine and leucine, which provides further support for the validity of the use of a single amino acid to trace whole body protein metabolism. The minimal leucine oxidation in MSUD differs from findings in other inborn metabolic errors and indicates that in patients with classical MSUD there is no significant route of leucine disposal other than through protein synthesis.

Thompson, G.N.; Bresson, J.L.; Pacy, P.J.; Bonnefont, J.P.; Walter, J.H.; Leonard, J.V.; Saudubray, J.M.; Halliday, D. (Clinical Research Centre, Harrow (England))

1990-04-01

237

Protein and leucine metabolism in maple syrup urine disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Constant infusions of [13C]leucine and [2H5]phenylalanine were used to trace leucine and protein kinetics, respectively, in seven children with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) and eleven controls matched for age and dietary protein intake. Despite significant elevations of plasma leucine (mean 351 mumol/l, range 224-477) in MSUD subjects, mean whole body protein synthesis [3.78 +/- 0.42 (SD) g.kg-1. 24 h-1] and catabolism (4.07 +/- 0.46) were similar to control values (3.69 +/- 0.50 and 4.09 +/- 0.50, respectively). The relationship between phenylalanine and leucine fluxes was also similar in MSUD subjects (mean phenylalanine-leucine flux ratio 0.35 +/- 0.07) and previously reported adult controls (0.33 +/- 0.02). Leucine oxidation was undetectable in four of the MSUD subjects and very low in the other three (less than 4 mumol.kg-1.h-1; controls 13-20). These results show that persistent elevation in leucine concentration has no effect on protein synthesis. The marked disturbance in leucine metabolism in MSUD did not alter the relationship between rates of catabolism of protein to phenylalanine and leucine, which provides further support for the validity of the use of a single amino acid to trace whole body protein metabolism. The minimal leucine oxidation in MSUD differs from findings in other inborn metabolic errors and indicates that in patients with classical MSUD there is no significant route of leucine disposal other than through protein synthesis

1990-01-01

238

Protein and leucine metabolism in maple syrup urine disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Constant infusions of [13C]leucine and [2H5]phenylalanine were used to trace leucine and protein kinetics, respectively, in seven children with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) and eleven controls matched for age and dietary protein intake. Despite significant elevations of plasma leucine (mean 351 mumol/l, range 224-477) in MSUD subjects, mean whole body protein synthesis [3.78 +/- 0.42 (SD) g.kg-1. 24 h-1] and catabolism (4.07 +/- 0.46) were similar to control values (3.69 +/- 0.50 and 4.09 +/- 0.50, respectively). The relationship between phenylalanine and leucine fluxes was also similar in MSUD subjects (mean phenylalanine-leucine flux ratio 0.35 +/- 0.07) and previously reported adult controls (0.33 +/- 0.02). Leucine oxidation was undetectable in four of the MSUD subjects and very low in the other three (less than 4 mumol.kg-1.h-1; controls 13-20). These results show that persistent elevation in leucine concentration has no effect on protein synthesis. The marked disturbance in leucine metabolism in MSUD did not alter the relationship between rates of catabolism of protein to phenylalanine and leucine, which provides further support for the validity of the use of a single amino acid to trace whole body protein metabolism. The minimal leucine oxidation in MSUD differs from findings in other inborn metabolic errors and indicates that in patients with classical MSUD there is no significant route of leucine disposal other than through protein synthesis.

Thompson GN; Bresson JL; Pacy PJ; Bonnefont JP; Walter JH; Leonard JV; Saudubray JM; Halliday D

1990-04-01

239

[Gene analysis of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), an autosomal recessive hereditary metabolic disorder, is due to defective oxidative decarboxylation of the branched-chain alpha-ketoacids (BCKAs) derived from transamination of the three branched-chain amino acids, valine, leucine and isoleucine. The oxidative decarboxylation of three BCKAs is catalysed by the branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex. BCKDH consists of three catalytic components: E1, E2 and E3. The E1 component is further composed of two subunits, E1 alpha and E1 beta. To clarify the mechanisms involved in MSUD, measurements of the enzyme activity in cultured cells, measurements of the generation time in cultured cells, complementation analysis and immunoblot analysis were performed. To further elucidate the molecular mechanisms of MSUD, we and others isolated and characterized cDNAs encoding BCKDH-E1 alpha, E1 beta, E2 and E3. The human genome structures of BCKDH -E1 alpha, E1 beta and E2 were also characterized. Gene mutations in E1 alpha, E1 beta and E2, respectively, were identified at the molecular level in three cases of classical MSUD. It became clear that the molecular mechanisms of MSUD involved not only the function of each subunit but also the protein-protein interactions between each subunit. In an attempt to further analyse the molecular basis of MSUD, we carried out complementation analyses by somatic cell hybridization, and identified the affected component of BCKDH complex in the MSUD patient. Furthermore, to rapidly screen for gene mutations, we used PCR-SSCP analysis. Seventeen patients with MSUD were examined using these methods. Defects of E1 alpha, E1 beta and E2 subunits were suspected in 8, 5, and 4 patients, respectively, by complementation analysis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Mitsubuchi H; Nobukuni Y; Hayashida Y; Ohta K; Indo Y; Akaboshi I; Endo F; Matsuda I

1993-05-01

240

[Gene analysis of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD)].  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), an autosomal recessive hereditary metabolic disorder, is due to defective oxidative decarboxylation of the branched-chain alpha-ketoacids (BCKAs) derived from transamination of the three branched-chain amino acids, valine, leucine and isoleucine. The oxidative decarboxylation of three BCKAs is catalysed by the branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex. BCKDH consists of three catalytic components: E1, E2 and E3. The E1 component is further composed of two subunits, E1 alpha and E1 beta. To clarify the mechanisms involved in MSUD, measurements of the enzyme activity in cultured cells, measurements of the generation time in cultured cells, complementation analysis and immunoblot analysis were performed. To further elucidate the molecular mechanisms of MSUD, we and others isolated and characterized cDNAs encoding BCKDH-E1 alpha, E1 beta, E2 and E3. The human genome structures of BCKDH -E1 alpha, E1 beta and E2 were also characterized. Gene mutations in E1 alpha, E1 beta and E2, respectively, were identified at the molecular level in three cases of classical MSUD. It became clear that the molecular mechanisms of MSUD involved not only the function of each subunit but also the protein-protein interactions between each subunit. In an attempt to further analyse the molecular basis of MSUD, we carried out complementation analyses by somatic cell hybridization, and identified the affected component of BCKDH complex in the MSUD patient. Furthermore, to rapidly screen for gene mutations, we used PCR-SSCP analysis. Seventeen patients with MSUD were examined using these methods. Defects of E1 alpha, E1 beta and E2 subunits were suspected in 8, 5, and 4 patients, respectively, by complementation analysis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8350511

Mitsubuchi, H; Nobukuni, Y; Hayashida, Y; Ohta, K; Indo, Y; Akaboshi, I; Endo, F; Matsuda, I

1993-05-01

 
 
 
 
241

Utilization of Labneh Whey Lactose Hydrolyzed Syrup in Baking and Confectionery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydrolyzed labneh whey lactose syrup was obtained by the action of immobilized Beta-galactosidase enzyme using fluidized bed reactor system. The obtained sweet syrup was used as sugar replacement in three products (French - type bread, Cherry cake and Kunafah syrup). The sensory evaluation results showed that bread made with 25% sugar replacement level was better than the control one. For (Cherry cake and Kunafah) there were no significant differences between the products made with 25% sugar replacement level and the control samples. The bread dough mad with 25% sugar replacement had a better rheological properties with regards to stability, rate of absorption and mechanical tolerance indication. The nutritional value of the newly developed product was improved with regards to high amount of protein content compared to control products. No microbial growth was detected in both control and new developed bread products during storage.

Wail-Alomari; Ali K. Alsaed; Malik Hadadin

2012-01-01

242

Difference spectrophotometric assay of 5-hydroxymethylfurfuraldehyde in hydrolysed pharmaceutical syrups-II. Isoniazid reagent.  

Science.gov (United States)

A rapid difference spectrophotometric assay of 5-hydroxymethylfurfuraldehyde (5-HMF) in certain degraded syrups is described. The method involves the measurement of the difference absorbance at 340 nm of the isonicotinoyl hydrazone of 5-HMF, formed at room temperature in an acidic solution of isoniazid, relative to an equimolar solution of 5-HMF, which has been reduced by sodium borohydride, and isoniazid reagent. The procedure is accurate, precise and selective for 5-HMF in the syrups examined. The limits of detection and determination are 0.91 mug ml(-1) and 12.4 mug ml(-1), respectively. The method has been applied to codeine linctus, paracetamol elixir (paediatric) opiate squill linctus, ipecacuanha and squill linctus, Phensedyl Linctus and invert syrup. PMID:16867440

Davidson, A G; Dawodu, T O

1988-01-01

243

A new way of producing isomalto-oligosaccharide syrup by using the transglycosylation reaction of neopullulanase.  

Science.gov (United States)

A new way of producing isomalto-oligosaccharide syrup from starch was developed. Isomalto-oligosaccharides contain one or more alpha-(1-->6)-glucosidic linkages with or without alpha-(1-->4)-glucosidic linkages. The isomalto-oligosaccharide syrups are receiving increased attention as food additives because it is thought that they help prevent dental caries and improve human intestinal microflora, acting as a growth factor for bifidobacteria. The new system for production of isomalto-oligosaccharide syrup is based on the strong alpha-(1-->6)-transglycosylation reaction of neopullulanase. Bacillus subtilis saccharifying alpha-amylase was simultaneously used with neopullulanase to improve the yield of isomalto-oligosaccharides. The yield of isomalto-oligosaccharides was increased to more than 60%, compared with a yield of 45.0% obtained by the conventional system. To reduce the costs, the use of immobilized neopullulanase was investigated. Almost the same yield of isomalto-oligosaccharides was obtained by using immobilized neopullulanase. PMID:16348919

Kuriki, T; Yanase, M; Takata, H; Takesada, Y; Imanaka, T; Okada, S

1993-04-01

244

A new way of producing isomalto-oligosaccharide syrup by using the transglycosylation reaction of neopullulanase.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A new way of producing isomalto-oligosaccharide syrup from starch was developed. Isomalto-oligosaccharides contain one or more alpha-(1-->6)-glucosidic linkages with or without alpha-(1-->4)-glucosidic linkages. The isomalto-oligosaccharide syrups are receiving increased attention as food additives because it is thought that they help prevent dental caries and improve human intestinal microflora, acting as a growth factor for bifidobacteria. The new system for production of isomalto-oligosaccharide syrup is based on the strong alpha-(1-->6)-transglycosylation reaction of neopullulanase. Bacillus subtilis saccharifying alpha-amylase was simultaneously used with neopullulanase to improve the yield of isomalto-oligosaccharides. The yield of isomalto-oligosaccharides was increased to more than 60%, compared with a yield of 45.0% obtained by the conventional system. To reduce the costs, the use of immobilized neopullulanase was investigated. Almost the same yield of isomalto-oligosaccharides was obtained by using immobilized neopullulanase.

Kuriki T; Yanase M; Takata H; Takesada Y; Imanaka T; Okada S

1993-04-01

245

FTIR characterization of Mexican honey and its adulteration with sugar syrups by using chemometric methods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A chemometric analysis of adulteration of Mexican honey by sugar syrups such as corn syrup and cane sugar syrup was realized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to measure the absorption of a group of bee honey samples from central region of Mexico. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to process FTIR spectra to determine the adulteration of bee honey. In addition to that, the content of individual sugars from honey samples: glucose, fructose, sucrose and monosaccharides was determined by using PLS-FTIR analysis validated by HPLC measurements. This analytical methodology which is based in infrared spectroscopy and chemometry can be an alternative technique to characterize and also to determine the purity and authenticity of nutritional products as bee honey and other natural products.

Rios-Corripio, M A; Rojas-Lopez, M; Delgado-Macuil, R [CIBA-Tlaxcala, IPN, Tlaxcala, Tlax. (Mexico); Rios-Leal, E, E-mail: marlonrl@yahoo.com.mx [CINVESTAV, Zacatenco, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

2011-01-01

246

Difference spectrophotometric assay of 5-hydroxymethylfurfuraldehyde in hydrolysed pharmaceutical syrups-II. Isoniazid reagent.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A rapid difference spectrophotometric assay of 5-hydroxymethylfurfuraldehyde (5-HMF) in certain degraded syrups is described. The method involves the measurement of the difference absorbance at 340 nm of the isonicotinoyl hydrazone of 5-HMF, formed at room temperature in an acidic solution of isoniazid, relative to an equimolar solution of 5-HMF, which has been reduced by sodium borohydride, and isoniazid reagent. The procedure is accurate, precise and selective for 5-HMF in the syrups examined. The limits of detection and determination are 0.91 mug ml(-1) and 12.4 mug ml(-1), respectively. The method has been applied to codeine linctus, paracetamol elixir (paediatric) opiate squill linctus, ipecacuanha and squill linctus, Phensedyl Linctus and invert syrup.

Davidson AG; Dawodu TO

1988-01-01

247

Yunnan and Guangxi Einar sweet syrup preparing method and detective method thereof  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention provides a Yunnan and Guangxi blumea balsamifera syrup, which is a new treatment option for clinical medication, simultaneously, the invention can solve the problems of the prior dosage form that the taste is bad and is not easy to be accepted by patients. The Yunnan and Guangxi blumea balsamifera syrup can be prepared in conventional methods by taking Yunnan and Guangxi blumea balsamifera extract as the active ingredient with auxiliary sucrose. The invention also provides a test method for the Yunnan and Guangxi blumea balsamifera syrup. Compared with the prior art, the method has the advantages that: when in content measurement, water is adopted to instead of aether for the preparation of test materials the operation is simple, safe and reliable with more practicability.

HONGGUAN WEI; LIQUN MU; DENAN LI; GUIFANG YANG; GUANYU HUANG

248

Topical cannabinoid enhances topical morphine antinociception.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Opioids and cannabinoids produce antinociception through both spinal and supraspinal action. Both opioids and cannabinoids also have important peripheral action. Many previous studies indicate that systemically administered cannabinoids enhance antinociceptive properties of opioids. Experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that topical cannabinoids would enhance the topical antinociceptive effects of morphine. Antinociception was measured in the radiant tail-flick test after immersion of the tail of mice into a solution of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) containing WIN 55, 212-2, a cannabinoid agonist and morphine, an opioid agonist. Morphine and WIN 55, 212-2 produce time dependent topical analgesic effects limited to the portion of the tail exposed to drugs. WIN 55, 212-2 had a potency lower than that of morphine. The topical antinociceptive effects of WIN 55, 212-2 were blocked by systemic pretreatment of cannabinoid CB1 receptor selective antagonist, AM 251. This suggests that topical antinociceptive effects of WIN 55, 212-2 involve CB1 receptors. Combination of topical WIN 55, 212-2 with topical morphine yielded significantly greater analgesic effects than that of topical morphine alone. The ability of the CB1 receptor antagonist AM 251 to antagonize the enhancement of antinociception of morphine by WIN 55, 212-2 indicates that WIN 55, 212-2 acts through a CB1 receptor to enhance the potency of topical morphine. Additionally, spinally administered ineffective doses of WIN 55, 212-2 potentiated the antinociceptive effects of topical morphine. These results demonstrate an antinociceptive interaction between topical opioids with topical, and spinal cannabinoids. These observations are significant in using of topical combination of cannabinoid and morphine in the management of pain.

Yesilyurt O; Dogrul A; Gul H; Seyrek M; Kusmez O; Ozkan Y; Yildiz O

2003-09-01

249

Topical cannabinoid enhances topical morphine antinociception.  

Science.gov (United States)

Opioids and cannabinoids produce antinociception through both spinal and supraspinal action. Both opioids and cannabinoids also have important peripheral action. Many previous studies indicate that systemically administered cannabinoids enhance antinociceptive properties of opioids. Experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that topical cannabinoids would enhance the topical antinociceptive effects of morphine. Antinociception was measured in the radiant tail-flick test after immersion of the tail of mice into a solution of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) containing WIN 55, 212-2, a cannabinoid agonist and morphine, an opioid agonist. Morphine and WIN 55, 212-2 produce time dependent topical analgesic effects limited to the portion of the tail exposed to drugs. WIN 55, 212-2 had a potency lower than that of morphine. The topical antinociceptive effects of WIN 55, 212-2 were blocked by systemic pretreatment of cannabinoid CB1 receptor selective antagonist, AM 251. This suggests that topical antinociceptive effects of WIN 55, 212-2 involve CB1 receptors. Combination of topical WIN 55, 212-2 with topical morphine yielded significantly greater analgesic effects than that of topical morphine alone. The ability of the CB1 receptor antagonist AM 251 to antagonize the enhancement of antinociception of morphine by WIN 55, 212-2 indicates that WIN 55, 212-2 acts through a CB1 receptor to enhance the potency of topical morphine. Additionally, spinally administered ineffective doses of WIN 55, 212-2 potentiated the antinociceptive effects of topical morphine. These results demonstrate an antinociceptive interaction between topical opioids with topical, and spinal cannabinoids. These observations are significant in using of topical combination of cannabinoid and morphine in the management of pain. PMID:14499448

Yesilyurt, Ozgur; Dogrul, Ahmet; Gul, Husamettin; Seyrek, Melik; Kusmez, Ozkan; Ozkan, Yalcin; Yildiz, Oguzhan

2003-09-01

250

[Anaesthesia in patients with maple syrup urine disease. Case report and perioperative anaesthetic management].  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease is a rare autosomal-recessive metabolic disorder caused by a deficit of oxidative decarboxylation of branched-chain amino acids. First symptoms appear in the neonatal period. Without treatment the disease is characterized by rapid progression of neurological symptoms. During stressful situations, such as infection or surgery, patients may experience severe ketoacidosis, rapid neurological deterioration and hypoglycemia. The perioperative management of a 26-year-old man with maple syrup urine disease is described, a review of the disease is given and anaesthesia-related implications are discussed. PMID:20827453

Haberstich, P; Kindler, C H; Schürch, M

2010-09-09

251

[Anaesthesia in patients with maple syrup urine disease. Case report and perioperative anaesthetic management].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maple syrup urine disease is a rare autosomal-recessive metabolic disorder caused by a deficit of oxidative decarboxylation of branched-chain amino acids. First symptoms appear in the neonatal period. Without treatment the disease is characterized by rapid progression of neurological symptoms. During stressful situations, such as infection or surgery, patients may experience severe ketoacidosis, rapid neurological deterioration and hypoglycemia. The perioperative management of a 26-year-old man with maple syrup urine disease is described, a review of the disease is given and anaesthesia-related implications are discussed.

Haberstich P; Kindler CH; Schürch M

2010-10-01

252

Comparison Effects of Sucrose and Date Palm Syrup on Somatic Embryogenesis of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L )  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of different concentration of date palm syrup (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10%) and sucrose at concentration of 30 and 60 g/l in addition to the control (without carbon source) on the micro propagation of date palm "cv. Suckary" were investigated. The results indicated that date syrup was taken up from the media as shown by the increase in total dry weight of culture. Addition of sucrose at 60 g/l produced the highest number of somatic embryos and longest shoot equal to that produced by date syrup at concentration of 6% without significant differences. On the other side, sucrose at 30 g/l improved the germination of somatic embryos followed by date syrup at 6%. Regarding fresh and dry weights, adding 6% date palm syrup was superior in this respect. Tissues grown on medium supplement with 10% of date syrup caused severe reduction in number of somatic embryo possibly due to the osmotic stress. In addition, tissues grown on medium containing 2% of date syrup had the lowest number of embryos. Date palm tissues are capable of utilizing date syrup as the sole carbon source for vegetative growth. It can be concluded that, adding date syrup locally known as 'Dibs'to the culture medium of date palm at concentration of 6% can be used totally as a replacement of sucrose which was the normally sugar used in most of plant tissue culture medium. This is the first report on the use of date syrup on somatic embryogenesis of date palm cv. Suckary.

Abdullatif Alkhateeb

2008-01-01

253

Stability of ursodiol in an extemporaneously compounded oral liquid.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The stability of ursodiol in an extemporaneous oral liquid formulation refrigerated at 4 degrees C for 35 days was studied. A suspension was prepared by opening commercially available 300-mg capsules of ursodiol, adding Glycerin, USP, to form a paste, and then adding Simple Syrup, NF. A control solution was prepared from analytical-grade ursodiol powder in simple syrup. The final concentration of ursodiol in both formulations was 60 mg/mL. Three samples of each preparation were stored in 2-oz, amber glass prescription bottles in the dark at 4 degrees C. Immediately after preparation and at 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days, samples were visually inspected, tested for pH, and assayed in duplicate by high-performance liquid chromatography. Stability was defined as the retention of more than 90% of the initial concentration. On day 35, the mean percentage of the initial ursodiol concentration remaining was 96.5% in the suspension made from powder-filled capsules, and 100.6% in the suspension made from analytical-grade powder. The color, odor, and pH of the samples did not change appreciably over the study period. An extemporaneously compounded oral liquid preparation of ursodiol in simple syrup was stable under the conditions studied for up to 35 days.

Johnson CE; Nesbitt J

1995-08-01

254

Stability of ursodiol in an extemporaneously compounded oral liquid.  

Science.gov (United States)

The stability of ursodiol in an extemporaneous oral liquid formulation refrigerated at 4 degrees C for 35 days was studied. A suspension was prepared by opening commercially available 300-mg capsules of ursodiol, adding Glycerin, USP, to form a paste, and then adding Simple Syrup, NF. A control solution was prepared from analytical-grade ursodiol powder in simple syrup. The final concentration of ursodiol in both formulations was 60 mg/mL. Three samples of each preparation were stored in 2-oz, amber glass prescription bottles in the dark at 4 degrees C. Immediately after preparation and at 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days, samples were visually inspected, tested for pH, and assayed in duplicate by high-performance liquid chromatography. Stability was defined as the retention of more than 90% of the initial concentration. On day 35, the mean percentage of the initial ursodiol concentration remaining was 96.5% in the suspension made from powder-filled capsules, and 100.6% in the suspension made from analytical-grade powder. The color, odor, and pH of the samples did not change appreciably over the study period. An extemporaneously compounded oral liquid preparation of ursodiol in simple syrup was stable under the conditions studied for up to 35 days. PMID:8528836

Johnson, C E; Nesbitt, J

1995-08-15

255

Topic: A Literature Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is a wide discussion for Chinese topic structure and topic-sentence acquisition in Second Language Acquisition since Li & Thompson (1976). This paper reviews the contribution made by Li & Thompson on topic and later researches on the basis of them. The relationship between subject and topic al...

Dandan Zhang

256

Topic: A Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a wide discussion for Chinese topic structure and topic-sentence acquisition in Second Language Acquisition since Li & Thompson (1976). This paper reviews the contribution made by Li & Thompson on topic and later researches on the basis of them. The relationship between subject and topic also is concentrated.

Dandan Zhang

2009-01-01

257

Position statement: ipecac syrup. American Academy of Clinical Toxicology; European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists.  

Science.gov (United States)

In preparing this Position Statement, all relevant scientific literature was identified and reviewed critically by acknowledged experts using agreed criteria. Well-conducted clinical and experimental studies were given precedence over anecdotal case reports and abstracts were not usually considered. A draft Position Statement was then produced and subjected to detailed peer review by an international group of clinical toxicologists chosen by the American Academy of Clinical Toxicology and the European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists. The Position Statement went through multiple drafts before being approved by the boards of the two societies and being endorsed by other societies. The Position Statement includes a summary statement for ease of use and is supported by detailed documentation which describes the scientific evidence on which the Statement is based. Syrup of ipecac should not be administered routinely in the management of poisoned patients. In experimental studies the amount of marker removed by ipecac was highly variable and diminished with time. There is no evidence from clinical studies that ipecac improves the outcome of poisoned patients and its routine administration in the emergency department should be abandoned. There are insufficient data to support or exclude ipecac administration soon after poison ingestion. Ipecac may delay the administration or reduce the effectiveness of activated charcoal, oral antidotes, and whole bowel irrigation. Ipecac should not be administered to a patient who has a decreased level or impending loss of consciousness or who has ingested a corrosive substance or hydrocarbon with high aspiration potential. PMID:9482425

Krenzelok, E P; McGuigan, M; Lheur, P

1997-01-01

258

Position statement: ipecac syrup. American Academy of Clinical Toxicology; European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In preparing this Position Statement, all relevant scientific literature was identified and reviewed critically by acknowledged experts using agreed criteria. Well-conducted clinical and experimental studies were given precedence over anecdotal case reports and abstracts were not usually considered. A draft Position Statement was then produced and subjected to detailed peer review by an international group of clinical toxicologists chosen by the American Academy of Clinical Toxicology and the European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists. The Position Statement went through multiple drafts before being approved by the boards of the two societies and being endorsed by other societies. The Position Statement includes a summary statement for ease of use and is supported by detailed documentation which describes the scientific evidence on which the Statement is based. Syrup of ipecac should not be administered routinely in the management of poisoned patients. In experimental studies the amount of marker removed by ipecac was highly variable and diminished with time. There is no evidence from clinical studies that ipecac improves the outcome of poisoned patients and its routine administration in the emergency department should be abandoned. There are insufficient data to support or exclude ipecac administration soon after poison ingestion. Ipecac may delay the administration or reduce the effectiveness of activated charcoal, oral antidotes, and whole bowel irrigation. Ipecac should not be administered to a patient who has a decreased level or impending loss of consciousness or who has ingested a corrosive substance or hydrocarbon with high aspiration potential.

Krenzelok EP; McGuigan M; Lheur P

1997-01-01

259

Topical report review status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides industry with procedures for submitting topical reports, guidance on how the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) processes and responds to topical report submittals, and an accounting, with review schedules, of all topical reports currently accepted for review schedules, of all topical reports currently accepted for review by the NRC. This report will be published annually. Each sponsoring organization with one or more topical reports accepted for review copies.

NONE

1997-08-01

260

Topical report review status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides industry with procedures for submitting topical reports, guidance on how the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) processes and responds to topical report submittals, and an accounting, with review schedules, of all topical reports currently accepted for review schedules, of all topical reports currently accepted for review by the NRC. This report will be published annually. Each sponsoring organization with one or more topical reports accepted for review copies.

1997-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Study of glass transition and enthalpy relaxation of mixtures of amorphous sucrose and amorphous tapioca starch syrup solid by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Glass transition and enthalpy relaxation of sucrose, glucose syrup solid (GSS) prepared from tapioca starch syrup, and their mixtures (75/25, 50/50, 25/75 sucrose/GSS) have been investigated in terms of Couchman-Karasz equation and Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts model parameters using differential scanning calorimetry data. Addition of glucose syrup solid up to 50% did not significantly increase the mixture's glass transition temperature compared to the sucrose's glass transition temperature. Addition of glucose syrup solid into sucrose increased the mean relaxation time ? dramatically at all aging temperatures. In general, the more glucose syrup solid added, the longer the mean relaxation time of the mixture, at the aging temperature that has the same level below its glass transition temperature. Addition of glucose syrup solid into sucrose up to 50% did not change the relaxation susceptibility significantly. Addition of glucose syrup solid into sucrose increased the relaxation time distribution spectrum and generally decreased the ? values.

Liu Y; Bhandari B; Zhou W

2007-08-01

262

Cerebral Edema in Maple Syrup Urine Disease Despite Newborn Screening Diagnosis and Early Initiation of Treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A 7-day-old girl had an elevated leucine level on newborn screen drawn at 2 days of age and was suspected of having maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). When reported, the patient was immediately admitted to hospital, and started on a modified diet involving high calories with reduced branched chain am...

Myers, Kenneth A.; Reeves, Melanie; Wei, Xing-Chang; Khan, Aneal

263

Are agrochemicals present in high fructose corn syrup fed to honey bees (Apis mellifera L.)?  

Science.gov (United States)

Honey bee colonies are commonly fed high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as a nectar substitute. Many agrochemicals are applied to corn during cultivation including systemic neonicotinoids. Whether agrochemicals are present in HFCS fed to bees is unknown. Samples from the major manufacturers and distri...

264

Effect of corn steep liquor on ethanol fermentation of sugarcane molasses and syrup  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The addition of corn steep liquor at concentrations of 1-20 L/100 cubic metres and with total solid content of 32.0% increased ethanol production from 16-19 to 22-25 g/L/hour when sugarcane syrup was fermented. However, fermentation of sugarcane molasses was not significantly enhanced by corn steep liquor.

Rainho, R.; Vairo, M.L.R.; Borzani, W.

1982-01-01

265

A critical examination of the evidence relating high fructose corn syrup and weight gain  

Science.gov (United States)

The use of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has increased over the past several decades in the United States while overweight and obesity rates have risen dramatically. Some scientists hypothesize that HFCS consumption has uniquely contributed to the increasing mean body mass index (BMI) of the U.S....

266

Movement disorders in adult surviving patients with maple syrup urine disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maple syrup urine disease is a rare metabolic disorder caused by mutations in the branched-chain ?-keto acid dehydrogenase complex gene. Patients generally present early in life with a toxic encephalopathy because of the accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine and the corresponding ketoacids. Movement disorders in maple syrup urine disease have typically been described during decompensation episodes or at presentation in the context of a toxic encephalopathy, with complete resolution after appropriate dietary treatment. Movement disorders in patients surviving childhood are not well documented. We assessed 17 adult patients with maple syrup urine disease (mean age, 27.5 years) with a special focus on movement disorders. Twelve (70.6%) had a movement disorder on clinical examination, mainly tremor and dystonia or a combination of both. Parkinsonism and simple motor tics were also observed. Pyramidal signs were present in 11 patients (64.7%), and a spastic-dystonic gait was observed in 6 patients (35.2%). In summary, movement disorders are common in treated adult patients with maple syrup urine disease, and careful neurological examination is advisable to identify those who may benefit from specific therapy. © 2011 Movement Disorder Society.

Carecchio M; Schneider SA; Chan H; Lachmann R; Lee PJ; Murphy E; Bhatia KP

2011-06-01

267

Dual Mechanism of Brain Injury and Novel Treatment Strategy in Maple Syrup Urine Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism presenting with life-threatening cerebral oedema and dysmyelination in affected individuals. Treatment requires life-long dietary restriction and monitoring of branched-chain amino acids to avoid brain injury. Despite careful management, children…

Zinnanti, William J.; Lazovic, Jelena; Griffin, Kathleen; Skvorak, Kristen J.; Paul, Harbhajan S.; Homanics, Gregg E.; Bewley, Maria C.; Cheng, Keith C.; LaNoue, Kathryn F.; Flanagan, John M.

2009-01-01

268

Movement disorders in adult surviving patients with maple syrup urine disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease is a rare metabolic disorder caused by mutations in the branched-chain ?-keto acid dehydrogenase complex gene. Patients generally present early in life with a toxic encephalopathy because of the accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine and the corresponding ketoacids. Movement disorders in maple syrup urine disease have typically been described during decompensation episodes or at presentation in the context of a toxic encephalopathy, with complete resolution after appropriate dietary treatment. Movement disorders in patients surviving childhood are not well documented. We assessed 17 adult patients with maple syrup urine disease (mean age, 27.5 years) with a special focus on movement disorders. Twelve (70.6%) had a movement disorder on clinical examination, mainly tremor and dystonia or a combination of both. Parkinsonism and simple motor tics were also observed. Pyramidal signs were present in 11 patients (64.7%), and a spastic-dystonic gait was observed in 6 patients (35.2%). In summary, movement disorders are common in treated adult patients with maple syrup urine disease, and careful neurological examination is advisable to identify those who may benefit from specific therapy. © 2011 Movement Disorder Society. PMID:21484869

Carecchio, Miryam; Schneider, Susanne A; Chan, Heidi; Lachmann, Robin; Lee, Philip J; Murphy, Elaine; Bhatia, Kailash P

2011-04-11

269

Dual Mechanism of Brain Injury and Novel Treatment Strategy in Maple Syrup Urine Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

|Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism presenting with life-threatening cerebral oedema and dysmyelination in affected individuals. Treatment requires life-long dietary restriction and monitoring of branched-chain amino acids to avoid brain injury. Despite careful management, children…

Zinnanti, William J.; Lazovic, Jelena; Griffin, Kathleen; Skvorak, Kristen J.; Paul, Harbhajan S.; Homanics, Gregg E.; Bewley, Maria C.; Cheng, Keith C.; LaNoue, Kathryn F.; Flanagan, John M.

2009-01-01

270

The electroencephalogram in neonatal maple syrup urine disease: a case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Untreated maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) leads to encephalopathy in neonates and causes abnormalities on the electroencephalogram (EEG). A case is presented of MSUD with unique features consisting of a comb-like rhythm before the therapy and its disappearance with therapy is presented. This case illustrates the potential use of the EEG in the identification of this specific cause of a neonatal encephalopathy.

Agadi S; Sutton VR; Quach MM; Riviello JJ Jr

2012-01-01

271

Absence of branched chain acyl-transferase as a cause of maple syrup urine disease.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Decreased function of human mitochondrial branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex results in branched chain ketoacidemia or maple syrup urine disease. Activity of this multienzyme complex varies from 0 to approximately 15% of wild type branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex ...

Danner, D J; Armstrong, N; Heffelfinger, S C; Sewell, E T; Priest, J H; Elsas, L J

272

Detection of adulteration in honey samples added various sugar syrups with 13C/12C isotope ratio analysis method.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Honey can be adulterated in various ways. One of the adulteration methods is the addition of different sugar syrups during or after honey production. Starch-based sugar syrups, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), glucose syrup (GS) and saccharose syrups (SS), which are produced from beet or canes, can be used for adulterating honey. In this study, adulterated honey samples were prepared with the addition of HFCS, GS and SS (beet sugar) at a ratio of 0%, 10%, 20%, 40% and 50% by weight. (13)C/(12)C analysis was conducted on these adulterated honey samples using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer in combination with an elemental analyser (EA-IRMS). As a result, adulteration using C(4) sugar syrups (HFCS and GS) could be detected to a certain extent while adulteration of honey using C(3) sugar syrups (beet sugar) could not be detected. Adulteration by using SS (beet sugar) still has a serious detection problem, especially in countries in which beet is used in manufacturing sugar. For this reason, practice and analysis methods are needed to meet this deficit and to detect the adulterations precisely in the studies that will be conducted.

Tosun M

2013-06-01

273

Detection of adulteration in honey samples added various sugar syrups with 13C/12C isotope ratio analysis method.  

Science.gov (United States)

Honey can be adulterated in various ways. One of the adulteration methods is the addition of different sugar syrups during or after honey production. Starch-based sugar syrups, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), glucose syrup (GS) and saccharose syrups (SS), which are produced from beet or canes, can be used for adulterating honey. In this study, adulterated honey samples were prepared with the addition of HFCS, GS and SS (beet sugar) at a ratio of 0%, 10%, 20%, 40% and 50% by weight. (13)C/(12)C analysis was conducted on these adulterated honey samples using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer in combination with an elemental analyser (EA-IRMS). As a result, adulteration using C(4) sugar syrups (HFCS and GS) could be detected to a certain extent while adulteration of honey using C(3) sugar syrups (beet sugar) could not be detected. Adulteration by using SS (beet sugar) still has a serious detection problem, especially in countries in which beet is used in manufacturing sugar. For this reason, practice and analysis methods are needed to meet this deficit and to detect the adulterations precisely in the studies that will be conducted. PMID:23411291

Tosun, Murat

2012-11-24

274

DISTRIBUTION, COVALENT BINDING, AND DNA ADDUCT FORMATION OF 7,12-DIMETHYLBENZ(A)ANTHRACENE IN SENCAR AND BALB/C MICE FOLLOWING TOPICAL AND ORAL ADMINISTRATION (JOURNAL VERSION)  

Science.gov (United States)

The distribution and macromolecular binding of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) were examined in SENCAR and Balb/c mice to determine if these factors could account for the greater susceptibility in initiation-promotion assays following topical application in comparison to or...

275

Effect of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) and algarrobo (Prosopis spp.) pod syrup coatings on the sensory and chemical stability in roasted peanut products  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of this work was to determine the oxidative stability of roasted peanuts coated with prickly pear and algarrobo pod syrups. General composition, total phenolic compounds and radical scavenging activity were determined on prickly pear and algarrobo pod syrups. Chemical (peroxide value) and descriptive analyses were performed on samples of roasted peanuts, roasted peanuts with prickly pear syrup and roasted peanuts with algarrobo pod syrup stored at 23C for 112 days to determine protective effect of the syrup coating on the product stability. Prickly pear syrup showed higher moisture, protein, ash, lipid, phenolic compound content and lower carbohydrate content than algarrobo pod syrup. Prickly pear syrup also showed higher antioxidant activity (diphenyl picryl hydrazyl inhibition). Peroxide value, oxidized and cardboard intensity flavors increased and roasted peanutty intensity attribute decreased across the storage time for all studied products. Therefore, the addition of syrup coating provided protection against lipid oxidation. Peroxide value reached 10 meqO?/kg after 8.5 days in roasted peanuts, 20.7 days in roasted peanuts coated with prickly pear syrup and 29.5 days in roasted peanuts coated with algarrobo pod syrup at 23C. In consequence, algarrobo pod syrup had the highest protective effect in the roasted peanut product stored at room temperature. The results of this work show advantages for using coatings that improve the stability of peanut products by making it more resistant to lipid oxidation and the development of rancid flavor. In this case, the edible coatings are elaborated using prickly pear and algarrobo pod syrups. These syrups could be applied on other similar food products with high lipid content to increase their shelf life and improve their stability, thus preventing loss of their sensory and nutritional quality.

Mestrallet MG; Nepote V; Quiroga PR; Grosso NR

2009-06-01

276

Topical treatments for pain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Topical analgesics exert their analgesic benefit locally and without significant systemic absorption. The mechanism of the topical analgesic is unique to the specific medication. Key differences between topical and transdermal analgesics are discussed in this article. A new term, targeted peripheral analgesics, has been suggested to replace the term topical analgesics, but is not in widespread use. Topical analgesics have been studied in an increasing number of painful clinical conditions; the results of many of these studies are summarized in this review. Recent data suggest that at least one topical analgesic, although applied peripherally, may result in central nervous system alterations of pain processing. PMID:15228883

Argoff, Charles E

2004-08-01

277

Topical treatments for pain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Topical analgesics exert their analgesic benefit locally and without significant systemic absorption. The mechanism of the topical analgesic is unique to the specific medication. Key differences between topical and transdermal analgesics are discussed in this article. A new term, targeted peripheral analgesics, has been suggested to replace the term topical analgesics, but is not in widespread use. Topical analgesics have been studied in an increasing number of painful clinical conditions; the results of many of these studies are summarized in this review. Recent data suggest that at least one topical analgesic, although applied peripherally, may result in central nervous system alterations of pain processing.

Argoff CE

2004-08-01

278

Effect of aronia berry honey syrup used for sweetening jams on their quality.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The effects of sweetening agents on the quality of low sweetened jams were compared with respect to blackcurrant, raspberry, sour cherry, strawberry, and bilberry jams. The sweetening agents were sucrose, aronia berry honey syrup, and sucrose + honey syrup at a ratio of 1:1. The level of physicochemical indices, especially the content of vitamin C and anthocyanins determined directly after production and after 3- and 6-month storage, was used as the quality criterion for the evaluation of jams. Moreover, after 6-month storage the products were subjected to sensorial analysis. According to the accepted method of the investigation the produced jams were characterized by a 32-33% content of extract. During the production and 6-month storage the content of acids slightly and that of pectin considerably (from 26 to 46%) decreased, although the consistency of the jams was not affected thereby. In the case of vitamin C, its pronounced losses concerned raspberry (62-67% of the initial value), strawberry (57-61%), and sour cherry (57-58%), being distinctly smaller in blackcurrant (13-16%) and bilberry (15-35%) jams. With respect to anthocyanins a similar regularity was observed, the losses reaching 49-63% in strawberry jam, 40-56% in raspberry, 33-39% in sour cherry, 30-36% in blackcurrant, and 28-36% in bilberries. In almost all the products the losses of vitamin C and anthocyanins were higher when sweetening agent was aronia berry honey syrup. The organoleptic evaluation showed that the addition of aronia berry honey syrup to raspberry and strawberry jams slightly spoiled their colour but improved the aroma and taste. In the final score the significant differentiation in favour of the addition of aronia berry honey syrup concerned only blackcurrant, sour cherry, and bilberry jams.

Kmiecik W; Lisiewska Z; Jaworska G

2001-08-01

279

Topical anesthesia in phacoemulsification  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose : To evaluate the efficacy of topical anesthesia; topical Benoxinate 0.4% (Oxybuprocaine) and Xylocaine (Lidocaine) gel, in selected cataract patients as an alternative to peribulbar or retrobulbar block anesthesia during cataract surgery. Materials and Methods : Prospe...

Waheeb Saad

280

Ciclopirox Topical Solution  

Science.gov (United States)

Ciclopirox topical solution is used along with regular nail trimming to treat fungal infections of the fingernails and toenails ( ... using ciclopirox without talking to your doctor.Ciclopirox topical solution will work best if you trim your ...

 
 
 
 
281

Myocardial Topical Negative Pressure  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The aim of this research was to find out if it is possible to increase myocardial microvasular blood flow by applying a topical negative pressure source directly onto the myocardium. Topical negative pressure is a relatively new wound healing technique. When used in wound therapy, topical negative ...

Lindstedt, Sandra

282

Oral mucositis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mucositis and xerostomia are the most common oral complications of the non-surgical therapy of cancer. Mucositis, a common sequel of radio- (DXR), chemo-(CXR) and radiochemo-therapy in patients with cancer, or patients requiring haemopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT), has a direct and significant impact on the quality of life and cost of care, and also affects survival--because of the risk of infection. Apart from dose reduction, preventive and treatment options for mucositis are scarce, although multiple agents have been tested. Evidence suggests that cryotherapy, topical benzydamine and amifostine might provide some benefit in specific situations. The recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor Palifermin (Kepivance) was recently approved as a mucositis intervention in patients receiving conditioning regimens before HSCT for the treatment of haematological malignancies. A number of mechanistically based interventions are in various stages of development. Unfortunately, many other approaches have not been rigorously tested. This paper reviews the clinical features, prevalence, diagnosis, complications, pathogenesis, prophylaxis and management of mucositis. PMID:16700732

Scully, C; Sonis, S; Diz, P D

2006-05-01

283

Topical treatment of ichthyoses.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Management of ichthyoses is a complex and continuously dynamic process. Primary treatments of ichthyosis are by means of topical moisturizers and topical medications. Patients and families need to have reasonable and realistic expectations when it comes to topical therapy. Topical medications cannot cure the scaling, but can gradually reduce it and thus improve their condition. No one treatment regimen works for everyone, and the best topical therapy for each patient may be the result of months (or years) of painstaking effort on both the physician's and the patient's behalf. As patients get older and their activities and lifestyles change, so should their topical treatment regimen. Bear in mind that the more complex the skin care regimen and costly the topical treatments, the less likely a patient and their family will be compliant.

Fleckman P; Newell BD; van Steensel MA; Yan AC

2013-01-01

284

Lactic acid production using two food processing wastes, canned pineapple syrup and grape invertase, as substrate and enzyme.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Canned pineapple syrup, a food processing waste, was utilized as a substrate for lactic acid production by Lactococcus lactis. To improve the utilization of sucrose from the syrup, grape invertase from grape juice derived from wine production was used for sucrose hydrolysis. The highest lactic acid concentrations achieved were 20 and 92 g l-1 from 20 and 100 g total sugars l-1, respectively, without a lag period for sucrose consumption.

Ueno T; Ozawa Y; Ishikawa M; Nakanishi K; Kimura T

2003-04-01

285

Oral lichen planus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Lichen Planus is a mucosal disorder of established immune-mediated pathogenesis, that affects skin and/or mucosa. In general, studies disclose that the prevalence varies of 0,02 to 1,2.% of the population.Case report and conclusion: A case report of oral lichen planus diagnosed and treated in the Dental School Clinic of São Lucas College will be presented, showing the clinical results after topical corticosteroid therapy.

Hanny Paula Rodrigues MARTINS; Gabriele Apoluceno de SOUZA; Elídio RODRIGUES NETO; Roberta Francisca Martins CASTRO

2008-01-01

286

Anticoagulación oral/ Oral anticoagulation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish En los últimos años ha aumentado considerablemente la utilización de anticoagulantes orales en la prevención de procesos tromboembólicos. Además de un mayor número de pacientes en tratamiento anticoagulante, actualmente se dispone de una amplísima experiencia sobre las consecuencias médicas y sociales que implica este tratamiento lo que ha originado una visión mucho mas pragmática del manejo cotidiano del paciente anticoagulado. En este artículo se realiza una (more) revisión sobre anticoagulación oral en base a las recomendaciones actuales existentes en la literatura médica. Abstract in english The use of oral anticoagulants in the prevention of thrombotics processes, has experienced a considerable increase. In addition, there are a growing experience on the medical and socials consequences of the use of this drug. This has originated a much more pragmatic vision of the daily handling of the anticoagulated patient. In this article, we made a revision about the indications and the practical use, including some useful advices and criteria for the concomitant drug selection.

Durán Parrondo, C.; Rodríguez Moreno, C.; Tato Herrero, F.; Alonso Vence, N.; Lado Lado, F. L.

2003-07-01

287

Iododerma following topical povidone-iodine application.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract A 43-year-old male patient presented with two well-demarcated, elevated plaques, measuring 4?cm in diameter, with yellow-black crusts over it that appeared 3?d earlier. With the help of history, physical examination and histopathological features, the patient was diagnosed with iododerma secondary to topical povidone-iodine use. Iododerma develops frequently after oral or intravenous but rarely after topical use of iodine. Its pathogenesis is not well-known though it is widely believed that it is a delayed hypersensitivity reaction.

Aliagaoglu C; Turan H; Uslu E; Albayrak H; Yazici S; Kaya E

2013-10-01

288

Iododerma following topical povidone-iodine application.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract A 43-year-old male patient presented with two well-demarcated, elevated plaques, measuring 4?cm in diameter, with yellow-black crusts over it that appeared 3?d earlier. With the help of history, physical examination and histopathological features, the patient was diagnosed with iododerma secondary to topical povidone-iodine use. Iododerma develops frequently after oral or intravenous but rarely after topical use of iodine. Its pathogenesis is not well-known though it is widely believed that it is a delayed hypersensitivity reaction. PMID:23560395

Aliagaoglu, Cihangir; Turan, Hakan; Uslu, Esma; Albayrak, Hulya; Yazici, Serkan; Kaya, Ertugrul

2013-04-08

289

[Oral ulcers].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ulcers commonly occur in the oral cavity, their main symptom being pain. There are different ways to classify oral ulcers. The most widely accepted form divides them into acute ulcers--sudden onset and short lasting--and chronic ulcers--insidious onset and long lasting. Commonest acute oral ulcers include traumatic ulcer, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, viral and bacterial infections and necrotizing sialometaplasia. On the other hand, oral lichen planus, oral cancer, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus and drug-induced ulcers belong to the group of chronic oral ulcers. It is very important to make a proper differential diagnosis in order to establish the appropriate treatment for each pathology.

Bascones-Martínez A; Figuero-Ruiz E; Esparza-Gómez GC

2005-10-01

290

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy reflects metabolic decompensation in maple syrup urine disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), accumulation of branchedchain amino acids (BCAA) and their corresponding 2-oxo acids (BCOA) could be non-invasively demonstrated in the brain of a 9-year-old girl suffering from classical maple syrup urine disease. During acute metabolic decompensation, the compounds caused a signal at a chemical shift of 0.9 ppm which was assigned by in vitro experiments. The brain tissue concentration of the sum of BCAA and BCOA could be estimated as 0.9 mmol/l. Localized 1H-MRS of the brain appears to be suitable for examining patients suffering from maple syrup urine disease in different metabolic states. (orig.).

1995-01-01

291

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy reflects metabolic decompensation in maple syrup urine disease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS), accumulation of branchedchain amino acids (BCAA) and their corresponding 2-oxo acids (BCOA) could be non-invasively demonstrated in the brain of a 9-year-old girl suffering from classical maple syrup urine disease. During acute metabolic decompensation, the compounds caused a signal at a chemical shift of 0.9 ppm which was assigned by in vitro experiments. The brain tissue concentration of the sum of BCAA and BCOA could be estimated as 0.9 mmol/l. Localized {sup 1}H-MRS of the brain appears to be suitable for examining patients suffering from maple syrup urine disease in different metabolic states. (orig.)

Heindel, W. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Koeln (Germany); Kugel, H. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Koeln (Germany); Wendel, U. [Children`s Hospital, Univ. Duesseldorf (Germany); Roth, B. [Children`s Hospital, Univ. Koeln (Germany); Benz-Bohm, G. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Koeln (Germany)

1995-06-01

292

Optimization of the production of maltose syrups by different enzyme combinations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Maltose syrups are of importance for the production of many sweets and baking goods. These starch hydrolysates show reduced browning capacity, retarded crystallization phenomena, and are less sweet, less viscous and less hygroscopic in comparison with syrups of higher glucose content. Enzymatic preparation of such products with regard to the influence of substrate and enzyme concentration, reaction time and added calcium on maltose formation by fungal-..cap alpha..-amylase or barley-..beta..-amylase was investigated. For increasing the maltose content pullulanase as a debranching enzyme was applied. Commercial maltodextrin was used as substrate. The maltogenic enzymes showed different substrate tolerances. High amounts of enzyme did not lead to the expected high amounts of maltose. On the other hand, low enzyme concentrations could not be compensated by extended reaction times. Different substrate tolerances also appeared when mixtures of maltogenic and debranching enzymes came into use.

Tegge, G.; Richter, G.; Richter, G.

1986-02-01

293

Malignant tumors of the oral cavity  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book discusses carcinomas of the oral cavity including the lymph nodes and salivary glands. Topics include; Epidemiology and etiology; Immunolgical and virological aspects; Basic principles of management; Surgery; Radiotherapy; Chemotherapy; and Cryosurgery.

Henk, J.M.; Langdon, J.D.

1985-01-01

294

Topical report review status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] A Topical Report Review Status is scheduled to be published semi-annually. The primary purpose of this document is to provide periodic progress reports of on-going topical report reviews, to identify those topical reports for which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff review has been completed and, to the extent practicable, to provide NRC management with sufficient information regarding the conduct of the topical report program to permit taking whatever actions deemed necessary or appropriate. This document is also intended to be a source of information to NRC Licensing Project Managers and other NRC personnel regarding the status of topical reports which may be referenced in applications for which they have responsibility. This status report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the topical report program, but is also used by NRC to advise the industry of report review status

1982-01-01

295

Preparation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfuraldehyde from high fructose corn syrup and other carbohydrates  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

5-Hydroxymethylfurfuraldehyde (HMF) was prepared from high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), or crystalline D-fructose, in high yield and purity. A 95%-97% conversion of fructose to HMF was achieved using 25 mol% (based on fructose) boron trifluoride etherate catalyst in dimethyl sulphoxide, under a nitrogen atmosphere, a reaction temperature of 273 K, and 30 minutes reaction time. Inferior yields of HMF were obtained from glucose and starch.

Szmant, H.H.; Chundury, D.D.

1981-01-01

296

The Case of the Missing Bees High Fructose Corn Syrup and Colony Collapse Disorder  

Science.gov (United States)

Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) has claimed approximately one-third of the commercial honeybee population in recent years. A number of causes have been suggested for this phenomenon, including the consumption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) by the bees. This directed case investigates the issues and chemistry that might be involved in CCD related to HFCS. The case was developed for use in an undergraduate organic chemistry or food chemistry course.

Bohlscheid, Jeffri C.; Dinan, Frank J.

2011-01-01

297

The electroencephalogram in neonatal maple syrup urine disease: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Untreated maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) leads to encephalopathy in neonates and causes abnormalities on the electroencephalogram (EEG). A case is presented of MSUD with unique features consisting of a comb-like rhythm before the therapy and its disappearance with therapy is presented. This case illustrates the potential use of the EEG in the identification of this specific cause of a neonatal encephalopathy. PMID:22423553

Agadi, Satish; Sutton, Vernon R; Quach, Michael M; Riviello, James J

2012-01-01

298

Wernicke-like encephalopathy during classic maple syrup urine disease decompensation.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We describe a new neuroradiologic picture observed during metabolic decompensation in two maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) patients that resembles Wernicke encephalopathy (WE). Clinical observations and the review of the literature regarding WE and MSUD pathophysiology prompted us to hypothesize a pathogenic link between these two disorders. Based on these findings, clinicians and neuroradiologists should be aware of MSUD as a possible predisposing factor of WE in children.

Manara R; Del Rizzo M; Burlina AP; Bordugo A; Citton V; Rodriguez-Pombo P; Ugarte M; Burlina AB

2012-05-01

299

Wernicke-like encephalopathy during classic maple syrup urine disease decompensation.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe a new neuroradiologic picture observed during metabolic decompensation in two maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) patients that resembles Wernicke encephalopathy (WE). Clinical observations and the review of the literature regarding WE and MSUD pathophysiology prompted us to hypothesize a pathogenic link between these two disorders. Based on these findings, clinicians and neuroradiologists should be aware of MSUD as a possible predisposing factor of WE in children. PMID:22350544

Manara, R; Del Rizzo, M; Burlina, A P; Bordugo, A; Citton, V; Rodriguez-Pombo, P; Ugarte, M; Burlina, A B

2012-02-18

300

Topical Dosage Form Questions  

Science.gov (United States)

... Topical Dosage Form Questions. Introduction: ANDA Number. Date of Submission. Applicant's Name. Established Name of the Drug Product. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/developmentapprovalprocess/howdrugsaredevelopedandapproved

 
 
 
 
301

Production of high fruit-sugar syrup from sweet kaoliang stalks  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sorgo is a kind of high photosynthetic efficiency C4 vegetable and one of the crops with the highest output of biography. It has a long planting history in China and can be planted massively in both southern and northern part of our country due to its strong resistance and excellent adaptability. Since the sweetness of high fructose syrup is higher than sucrose, the former is a perfect natural sweetener. Corn is the main raw material of high fructose syrup in China, and the producing process includes such steps like braising and cooking, glycosylation and isomerization. Since the price of corn is relatively high and the price of sucrose is low, the production cost is relatively high, which has a certain influence with its development. However, if crushing and squeezing the culms of Sorgo, the product includes mainly the sucrose and glucose with the sugar brix of 18%-28%. Because it neední t such complex steps as adding water and size mixing, braising and cooking and glycosylation, applying this method in the production of high fructose syrup can predigest the producing technics, shorten the producing process, reduce the investment on facilities and reduce the producing cost, and thus this method has some practical value.

JI QIAOLING MA

302

Major carbohydrate, polyol, and oligosaccharide profiles of agave syrup. Application of this data to authenticity analysis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nineteen pure agave syrups representing the three major production regions and four processing facilities in Mexico were analyzed for their major carbohydrate, polyol, and oligosaccharide profiles, as well as their physicochemical properties (pH, °Brix, total acidity, percent total titratable acidity, and color). Additionally, the detection of intentional debasing of agave syrup with four commercial nutritive sweeteners (HFCS 55 and 90, DE 42 and sucrose) was afforded by oligosaccharide profiling employing both high performance anion exchange liquid chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAE-PAD) and capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (CGC-FID). Results showed that the major carbohydrate and polyol in agave syrups were fructose and inositol with mean concentrations of 84.29% and 0.38%, respectively. Oligosaccharide profiling was extremely successful for adulteration detection with detection limits ranging from 0.5 to 2.0% for the aforementioned debasing agents. Also, all four of these possible adulterants could be detected within a single chromatographic analysis.

Willems JL; Low NH

2012-09-01

303

Process for the obtention of fructose and fructose-rich syrups from xerophyte plants  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A process for the obtention of fructose and fructose-rich syrups from xerophyte plants, particularly of the genus Amarillidaceae, such as Agave, comprises separately collecting the plant material consisting of the leaf portions and the core portions of the plant; admixing and washing with water said plant materials; chopping the washed plant material to form small pieces and recovering the juices released by the chopping operation; subjecting the chopped material to an extraction process with an aqueous liquor expressing the residual solid plant material to expel the enriched extractant therefrom; admixing the plant juice and extractant to obtain a mixed juice, settling and clarifying said mixed juice; acidulating the liquid phase of the process at a preselected moment in the sequence, such that the settled and clarified juice will be brought to a pH of from about 3 to about 4; allowing said acidulated liquid phase to stand for a period of time of from about 2 to 3 hours at a temperature of from about 85 DEG C. to the boiling point; neutralizing the acidulated juice, clarifying the filtered and neutralized juice, heating the clarified and filtered juice, concentrating the heated juice by evaporation; pasteurizing the concentrated juice whereby to obtain a fructose-rich syrup; and crystallizing said fructose-rich syrup to recover crystallized fructose therefrom.

ZEPEDA-CASTILLO DECEASED ENRIQ; VDA DE ZEPEDA EXECUTRIX BY ISA

304

[Maple syrup urine disease of neonates: report of two cases and review of literature].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To analyze and summarize clinical manifestation of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) of neonates. METHODS: Data of two cases with neonatal MSUD and the reports of 15 cases seen in the past 15 years in China were reviewed and analyzed. RESULTS: There was an increasing number of reports of cases with neonatal MSUD. All the 17 cases had the symptom of poor feeding between 3 h and 8 d after birth; 7 cases had family history; 14 cases showed progressive neurologic signs. Odor of maple syrup occurred in 8 cases. Blood levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) significantly increased in 13 cases and 6 neonates were diagnosed using tandem mass spectrometry. Urinary levels of BCAA and metabolite elevated in 12 cases and 5 neonates were diagnosed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. MRI/CT demonstrated abnormal signal in 10 cases. Twelve cases died or their parents gave up treatment and one case had cerebral palsy; 4 cases were treated with BCAA-free formula milk and showed improved outcome. CONCLUSION: Newborns with MSUD often had early appeared non-specific symptoms with poor feeding and lethargy, most cases later showed an odor resembling maple syrup and neurologic signs. For patients who were suspected of having MSUD, blood and urine concentrations of BCAA should be tested for early diagnosis. Specific MRI edema signal from brain suggests the possibility of MSUD. Early intervention and treatment after diagnosis, with compliance of parents, would improve the patient's outcome.

Chen Z; Luo F; Wu XJ; Shi LP

2010-09-01

305

Preparation of high-fructose syrup from the tubers of the Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Fructose has recently received much attention due to renewed interest in natural sweeteners. In addition, fructose has some advantages to sucrose in sweetness, solubility, viscosity, and dental health characteristics. Fructose is deposited as storage fructans of the inulin (beta-1,2) type in tubers and rhizomes of the Compositae family. The utilization of the Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) tuber as a source of fructose syrup is discussed. This plant has the potential to produce more sugar per acre than corn or sugar beets. In addition, the artichoke has higher frost resistance and lower heat unit requirements than corn and is somewhat more tolerant to low moisture conditions than sugar beets. A high quality fructose syrup can be produced from artichoke tubers. The extraction step was found to be particularly important since development of adverse colors and flavors must be prevented. The fructans may be acid or enzyme hydrolyzed but the latter method gave a higher quality syrup. Ion-exchange resins and activated charcoal were effective in removing coloring and flavoring materials, and also reduced other noncarbohydrate constituents. Since the enzymatic hydrolysis of the fructans is an attractive alternative to acid hydrolysis, a process was developed for producing and purifying a special beta-fructofuranosidase (inulase) from Saccharomyces fragilis. Inulase has a much higher specificity for fructans than commerically available beta-fructofuranosidase (invertase).

Fleming SE; GrootWassink JW

1979-11-01

306

Oral manifestations of pachyonychia congenita.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Pachyonychia congenita is a rare genetic disorder characterized mainly by hypertrophy of the nails and hyperkeratosis of the skin and mucosae. Fifty percent of all patients have oral leukokeratosis, which is often painful. The case reported here is of a 41-year-old patient who had white lesions in the form of irregular plaques; these affected multiple regions of the oral mucosa and were sensitive to touch. Histological examination revealed acanthosis, parakeratosis and ballooning of the epithelial cells, consistent with oral leukokeratosis. After therapy including topical steroids and prosthetic rehabilitation, the symptoms resolved.

da Silva Santos PS; Mannarino F; Lellis RF; Osório LH

2010-01-01

307

Topics in meson spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this mini-review I discuss three topics in meson spectroscopy. The production of heavy quarkonium states, S-wave scattering below 1 GeV, and exotic hybrid meson production. This is not intended to be a comprehensive review, just an overview of several topics of current interest

2003-01-01

308

Topics in meson spectroscopy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] In this mini-review I discuss three topics in meson spectroscopy. The production of heavy quarkonium states, S-wave scattering below 1 GeV, and exotic hybrid meson production. This is not intended to be a comprehensive review, just an overview of several topics of current interest. (orig.)

2002-01-01

309

Mapping Topics and Topic Bursts in PNAS  

CERN Multimedia

Scientific research is highly dynamic. New areas of science continually evolve;others gain or lose importance, merge or split. Due to the steady increase in the number of scientific publications it is hard to keep an overview of the structure and dynamic development of one's own field of science, much less all scientific domains. However, knowledge of hot topics, emergent research frontiers, or change of focus in certain areas is a critical component of resource allocation decisions in research labs, governmental institutions, and corporations. This paper demonstrates the utilization of Kleinberg's burst detection algorithm, co-word occurrence analysis, and graph layout techniques to generate maps that support the identification of major research topics and trends. The approach was applied to analyze and map the complete set of papers published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) in the years 1982-2001. Six domain experts examined and commented on the resulting maps in an attempt to ...

Mane, K; Mane, Ketan; B\\"orner, Katy

2004-01-01

310

Implicit stage topics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Il a souvent été proposé que les éléments spatio-temporels en position initiale de phrase spécifient le cadre de l’événement dénoté par la proposition et ont une interprétation thématique ou topicale. Alors que les topiques spatio-temporels explicites ont souvent été étudiés, Erteschik-Schir (1997, 1999) propose l’idée que les topiques spatio-temporels, ou topiques scéniques (stage topics) peuvent aussi être implicites.Dans cet article, nous offrons des arguments en faveur de la notion de topique scénique implicite. Nous montrons qu’un certain nombre de cas d’inversion nominale en français, une configuration syntaxique qui est favorisée par la présence d’un topique scénique explicite, s’expliquent par la présence d’un topique scénique implicite. Le fait que les topiques scéniques implicites interagissent avec la structure syntaxique de la même façon que les topiques scéniques explicites constitue un argument empirique en faveur de leur existence.It has often been proposed that sentence-initial spatio-temporal elements specify the frame in which the whole proposition takes place and are topical (i.e. thematic). Whereas considerable attention has been paid to explicit spatio-temporal topics, Erteschik-Shir (1997, 1999) argues that spatio-temporal topics, or stage topics, can also be implicit.In this article we provide evidence in favour of the notion of implicit stage topic. We show that a certain number of nominal inversion cases in French, a syntactic configuration which is triggered by the presence of an explicit stage topic, are explained by the presence of an implicit stage topic. The fact that implicit stage topics interact with syntactic structure the same way explicit stage topics do constitutes a strong empirical argument in favour of their existence.

Karen Lahousse

2008-01-01

311

Oral Melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Melanoma is a malignant tumor that originates from melanocyte cells. Its oral type is rare. The goal of this investigation was to determine the prevalence of oral malignant melanoma in Iran, as determined by age, sex and location. This research reviewed 623 cases of oral and non-oral malignant melanoma in Immam-Khomeini hospital, Mearaj cancer institute and department of oral pathology of dental faculty, Tehran University of Medical Sciences in a period of 19 years from 1981-1999. The results showed that 54 cases of biopsy lesions were melanoma of oral cavity that included 7.8% of these lesions. The mean age incidence of oral melanoma was 55.5(between 26-86 years). The most prevalent sites were palate (37.1%) and alveolar mucosa (20.4%) and less common sites included floor of mouth. buccal mucosa and tongue.

A Forouzandeh; G Rostamali

2002-01-01

312

Efficacy of Clobetasol, Ketoconazole and Amitryptiline Mouthwash on Oral Lichen Planus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of oral mucosa, with an immunological origin. Atrophic/erosive OLP needs appropriate treatment, due to the pain and malignancy potential. Topical corticosteroids are the most effective drug therapy and mouthwashes are more effective topical dosage forms for this purpose. However, at present there are no corticosteroid mouthwashes available in Iran. In this study, the efficacy of a new mouthwash containing clobetasol, ketoconasole and amitriptyline was evaluated in comparison to the common treatment.In this double blind randomized clinical trial study, 50 patients who had inclusion criteria were grouped randomly, with no difference in demographic data. The experimental group was treated using 5ml of mouthwash four times a day for 5 min, while the control group was treated by dexamethasone tablet, nystatin drop and diphenhydramine syrup. Severity of the lesions and pain were followed as the chief complain and recorded in the initial, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks intervals. All the collected data were analyzed with the Chi-Square, Mann-Whitney, student T-test and Mantel-Cox statistical tests, using the SPSS version 13 softwares.There were significant differences in the pain reduction in the 1st (P<0.001), 2nd (P=0.01) and 12th (P=0.025) weeks between the two groups, but the difference in weeks 4 (P=0.058) and 8 (P=0.131) were not significant. The lesion reduction was significantly higher in the experimental group (P<0.001). Complete resolution of lesions occurred on average after 2.65 and 10.75 weeks for the experimental and control groups, respectively. Also most patients in the experimental group (70.6%) had complete subjective satisfaction (75-100%) of treatment but most patients (43.8%) were mildly satisfied (0-25%) in the control group. Survival analysis showed that the possibility of existence of lesions after 3 months in the experimental group and control groups were 0% and 100% (P<0.001), respectively.In conclusion, it seems that the new mouthwash is more effective in short term, with greater convenience for the patients.

Abbas Javadzadeh; Hossein Vatanpour; Zahra Delavarian; Abdollah Momajed; Habibollah Esmaeily; Mehdi Vatanpour; Shiva Shirazian

2008-01-01

313

Methods to Oral English Practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, the people wake up gradually that oral English takes an important position in communication. According to College English Curriculum Requirements, the objective of College English is to develop students’ ability to use English in a well-rounded way, especially in listening and speaking. The basic requirement of oral English is that students should be able to communicate in English in the course of learning, to conduct discussions on a given theme, and to talk about everyday topics in English. They should be able to give, after some preparation, short talks on familiar topics with clear articulation and basically correct pronunciation and intonation. They are expected to be able to use basic conversational strategies in dialogue. In order to improve oral English, the students should use some effective approaches to practice.

Liangguang Huang

2010-01-01

314

TOPICAL GEL COMPOSITION  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Improved topical gel compositions, such as those containing brimonidine for the treatment of skin disorders are described. The gel compositions contain carbomer and paraben, and are substantially free of paraben crystalline particles after an extended period of storage.

BUGE JEAN-CHRISTOPHE; NADAU FOURCADE KARINE; MEUNIER CYRIL

315

Topical photodynamic therapy  

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Full Text Available Topical photodynamic therapy is a therapeutic modality in development, thus arises grate interest among dermatologists worldwide. It is an effective therapy for actinic keratosis, superficial BCC and Bowenos disease. Treatment efficacy, good cosmetics, low risk of skin cancer, low invasiveness, low rate of adverse events, facility for treating multiple or large lesions, especially in poor healing sites and, for penile, digital and facial involvement, low general toxicity and possibility of repeating the treatments with the same efficiency, enable topical photodynamic therapy to become increasingly practiced treatment modality. Researching aimed topical photodynamic therapy to prove as a treatment modality for clinical use in other dermatoses, is in experimental phase. To answer the question when dermatologist should consider using topical photodynamic therapy treatment modatility, we are present available date.

Polja?ki Mirjana; Jovanovi? Marina; Matovi? Ljubinka; Lugonja Branislava; Gaji? Branislava; Roš Tatjana

2006-01-01

316

Topical Gel : A Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Topical drug administration is a localized drug delivery system anywhere in the body through ophthalmic, rectal, vaginal and skin as topical routes. Skin is one of the most readily accessible organs on human body for topical administration and is main route of topical drug delivery system.The skin of an average adult body covers a surface area approximately 2m2 and receives about one third of the blood circulating through the body. An average human skin surface is known to contain, on the average 40-70 hair follicles and 200-300 sweat ducts on every square centimeter of the skin. Although skin has been divided histologically into the stratum corneum, the living epidermis and the dermis, collectively it can be considered a laminate of barrier, permeation of this laminate can occur by diffusion via:

Ms. Rashmi; Mr. Rajeev Garg; Mr. Sandeep Kumar; Dr. G. D.Gupta

2008-01-01

317

Topical Anesthetics - Overview  

Science.gov (United States)

... health advisory to alert you to the potential hazards of using skin-numbing products, also known as topical anesthetics, for cosmetic procedures. ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/drugsafetypodcasts

318

Topics in Elementary Geometry  

CERN Multimedia

Presents classical results from geometry, such as Pythagoras' theorem, the nine-point circle, Morley's triangle, and Poncelet's polygons. This book contains geometric theorems and covers a range of topics in elementary plane Euclidean geometry

Bottema, O

2009-01-01

319

Use of medicated drops and oral tablets in glaucoma treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper addresses the many forms of treatment for glaucoma. We studied particularly the topical drops and oral medications that are most frequently prescribed by ophthalmologists, specifically examining the reasons for the side effects experienced by certain patients taking topical drops and oral medications. Some of the side effects and interactions are discussed, and the importance of proper procedure for application of topical eye drops is stressed. Finally, we emphasize that proper drug usage is critical to the well being of the patient.

Greenwell C; Spillman D

1996-04-01

320

Evaluation of the Nutritional Value of Functional Yogurt Resulting from Combination of Date Palm Syrup and Skim Milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to use date palm syrup as a part of water (v/v) used in reconstituting skim milk powder in processing yogurt with 14% total solids. Physical properties such as sensory characteristics and apparent viscosity were evaluated. To evaluate the nutritional value of yogurt, antioxidant values were monitored during storage and the sample which recorded the highest values would determine its chemical composition. In addition, some micronutrients (HCl-soluble minerals) and (folate and C vitamins) compared to plain yogurt. Results showed that yogurt enriched with 10% date syrup had a significant sweetness, recorded the highest antioxidant values, higher in HCl-soluble minerals and folate concentration compared to plain yogurt. It could be concluded that numerous health benefits beyond its nutritional value have been associated with consuming yogurt enriched with 10% date palm syrup.

A.F. Sayed; A.M. Kholif; A.S. Gad

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

[The use and safety of butamirate containing drops, syrup and depot tablets in Hungary].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Butamirate citrate containing medicines are marketed in Hungary since 1991. Every year several hundred thousands of children and adults are treated with these pharmaceutical products. Aim of the study was to compare the prescription habits with the directions provided in the Summary of Product Characteristics and to get an overview on the safety and efficacy of these products. METHODS: The study results are based on the evaluation of 3215 questionnaires provided by 276 general practitioners and pulmonologists having medical practice in many regions and the capital of Hungary. Responses were included into the evaluation only if the name of the physician, the address and type of the practice, the therapeutic indication could be precisely identified and if the patient returned for at least one control visit. RESULTS: The main therapeutic indication of butamirate was cough due to acute lower respiratory tract infections (tracheitis, laryngitis, bronchitis). The treatment interval was usually 1-2 weeks. Depot tablets were prescribed according to the Summary of Product Characteristics. The doses of syrup and drops were frequently and notoriously below the one proposed in the Summary of Product Characteristics. In 14% of the cases the syrup was prescribed for the treatment of children below 3 years of age. All three products were regarded as effective. Adverse events (nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, skin exanthemas) were reported at 0.5-1% of the patients. CONCLUSIONS: The prescribed average daily doses of drops between the ages 1 month-12 years and the syrup between the ages 6-12 years were 20-30% below the recommended amounts. In Hungary the butamirate citrate containing medicines are regarded to be effective. The adverse events were rare and non-serious.

Mikó P

2005-03-01

322

Biological Hydrogen Production from Corn-Syrup Waste Using a Novel System  

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Full Text Available The reported patent-pending system comprises a novel biohydrogen reactor with a gravity settler for decoupling of SRT from HRT. The biohydrogenator was operated for 100 days at 37 °C, hydraulic retention time 8 h and solids retention time ranging from 2.2–2.5 days. The feed was a corn-syrup waste generated as a byproduct from an industrial facility for bioethanol production located in southwestern Ontario, Canada. The system was initially started up with a synthetic feed containing glucose at concentration of 8 g/L and other essential inorganics. Anaerobicaly-digested sludge from the St. Mary’s wastewater treatment plant (St. Mary, Ontario, Canada) was used as the seed, and was heat treated at 70 °C for 30 min to inhibit methanogens. After 10 days, when the hydrogen production was steady, the corn-syrup waste was introduced to the system. Glucose was the main constituent in the corn-syrup; its concentration was varied over a period of 90 days from 8 to 25 g/L. The change in glucose concentration was used to study the impact of variable organic loading on the stability of hydrogen production in the biohydrogenator. Hydrogen production rate increased from 10 L H2/L·d to 34 L H2/L·d with the increase of organic loading rate (OLR) from 26 to 81 gCOD/L·d, while a maximum hydrogen yield of 430 mL H2/gCOD was achieved in the system with an overall average of 385 mL H2/gCOD.

Hisham Hafez; George Nakhla; Hesham El Naggar

2009-01-01

323

[Acute encephalopathy due to late-onset maple syrup urine disease in a school boy].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maple syrup urine disease is a common amino acids metabolic disease. In most patients, onset occurs in the neonatal period and infancy. In this study, the case of a school boy with acute encephalopathy due to late-onset maple syrup urine disease is summarized. The boy (8.5 years) was admitted because of acute encephalopathy after suffering from infection for two days at the age of eight and a half years. Metabolic acidosis, hyperuricemia and decreased protein level in cerebrospinal fluid were found by general laboratory tests. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed signal intensity abnormalities in the bilateral cerebellum dentate nucleus, brainstem, thalamus, putamen, caudate nucleus and cortex of the cerebral hemispheres. On T1WI and T2WI scanning, hyperintensive signal was found. Blood leucine and valine were significantly elevated. Urinary 2-hydroxy isovaleric acid, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, 2-keto isovaleric acid, and 2-keto acid also increased. Both the blood amino acid and urine organic acid profiles led to the diagnosis of maple syrup urine disease. In the acute period, the patient was treated with a large dose of vitamin B1, glucose, L-carnitine and a protein-restrict diet. The patient's condition improved significantly after five days of treatment, and he recovered completely two days later. Afterwards, treatment with vitamin B1, L-carnitine and a protein-restrict diet (1 g/kg/day) was continued. One and a half months later, blood amino acids and urine organic acids returned to normal. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain also indicated a great improvement. It was concluded that inborn metabolic disease should be considered in the patients with an onset similar to acute encephalopathy. Early diagnosis and proper treatment can prevent brain damage and improve prognosis.

Qu SQ; Yang LC; Luan Z; Du K; Yang H

2012-03-01

324

[Acute encephalopathy due to late-onset maple syrup urine disease in a school boy].  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease is a common amino acids metabolic disease. In most patients, onset occurs in the neonatal period and infancy. In this study, the case of a school boy with acute encephalopathy due to late-onset maple syrup urine disease is summarized. The boy (8.5 years) was admitted because of acute encephalopathy after suffering from infection for two days at the age of eight and a half years. Metabolic acidosis, hyperuricemia and decreased protein level in cerebrospinal fluid were found by general laboratory tests. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed signal intensity abnormalities in the bilateral cerebellum dentate nucleus, brainstem, thalamus, putamen, caudate nucleus and cortex of the cerebral hemispheres. On T1WI and T2WI scanning, hyperintensive signal was found. Blood leucine and valine were significantly elevated. Urinary 2-hydroxy isovaleric acid, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, 2-keto isovaleric acid, and 2-keto acid also increased. Both the blood amino acid and urine organic acid profiles led to the diagnosis of maple syrup urine disease. In the acute period, the patient was treated with a large dose of vitamin B1, glucose, L-carnitine and a protein-restrict diet. The patient's condition improved significantly after five days of treatment, and he recovered completely two days later. Afterwards, treatment with vitamin B1, L-carnitine and a protein-restrict diet (1 g/kg/day) was continued. One and a half months later, blood amino acids and urine organic acids returned to normal. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain also indicated a great improvement. It was concluded that inborn metabolic disease should be considered in the patients with an onset similar to acute encephalopathy. Early diagnosis and proper treatment can prevent brain damage and improve prognosis. PMID:22433398

Qu, Su-Qing; Yang, Li-Cai; Luan, Zuo; Du, Kan; Yang, Hui

2012-03-01

325

Minerais em melados e em caldos de cana Minerals in sugar cane syrup and cane juice  

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Full Text Available A cana-de-açúcar está entre as culturas que apresenta larga escala de adaptações às condições climáticas, sendo utilizada para a fabricação de diversos produtos. Dentre os produtos derivados da cana-de-açúcar, o melado é tido popularmente como um alimento rico em ferro. Este trabalho objetivou conhecer a concentração de alguns minerais em melados comerciais e em melados preparados com equipamentos de aço inoxidável. Ao todo foram 20 amostras, 10 de cada tipo. As amostras foram preparadas para análise por oxidação da matéria orgânica por via úmida e os teores de Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn e Fe foram determinados por espectroscopia de absorção atômica, Na e K por fotometria de chama e P por colorimetria. Concluiu-se, com este trabalho, que os teores médios dos minerais Fe, P, Na e Mg foram significativamente mais elevados nos melados comerciais do que nos melados feitos com equipamentos inox. O contrário foi encontrado para o mineral cálcio, que apresentou teor mais elevado nos melados feitos no laboratório, mas condizentes com os teores encontrados nos caldos de cana. Não houve diferença significativa nos teores dos demais minerais.Sugar cane is an easily adaptable crop to diverse climate conditions, and it is used in the manufacturing of many different products. Among those products is the syrup, which is popularly known to be good sources of iron. In this work, we aimed to measure the concentration of some minerals in commercial sugar cane syrup brands and syrup prepared in the laboratory using stainless steel equipment. A total of 20 samples were analyzed, 10 of commercial brands and ten prepared in the laboratory. The samples were prepared by wet-air oxidation of organic matter and the contents of Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Fe were determined by atomic absorption. Na and K were determined by photometry and P by colorimetry. It was found that the mean concentration of Fe, P, Na, and Mn were higher in the commercial products than in that prepared in the laboratory using stainless steel equipment. On the other hand, it was found that the calcium content was higher in the laboratory made syrup, which is in agreement with the Ca content found for the sugarcane juice. There was no significant difference in the concentration of the other tested minerals.

Fernanda dos Santos Nogueira; Karla Silva Ferreira; Josil de Barros Carneiro Junior; Luís César Passoni

2009-01-01

326

Unusual imaging findings in brain and spinal cord in two siblings with maple syrup urine disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare metabolic disease affecting the neural tissue. While the brain abnormalities present on MRI are well known, spinal imaging features have not been studied. We herewith report an unusual finding of enlarged Virchow Robin spaces in brain and novel spinal cord changes in two biochemically diagnosed cases of MSUD. To the best of our knowledge, spinal MRI findings in cases of MSUD have not been previously reported. Knowledge of spinal MRI findings may be useful in diagnosis of this rare disorder. PMID:23279201

Bhat, Maya; Prasad, Chandrajit; Bindu, Parayil Sankaran; Aziz, Zarina; Christopher, Rita; Saini, Jitender

2012-12-28

327

Unusual imaging findings in brain and spinal cord in two siblings with maple syrup urine disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare metabolic disease affecting the neural tissue. While the brain abnormalities present on MRI are well known, spinal imaging features have not been studied. We herewith report an unusual finding of enlarged Virchow Robin spaces in brain and novel spinal cord changes in two biochemically diagnosed cases of MSUD. To the best of our knowledge, spinal MRI findings in cases of MSUD have not been previously reported. Knowledge of spinal MRI findings may be useful in diagnosis of this rare disorder.

Bhat M; Prasad C; Bindu PS; Aziz Z; Christopher R; Saini J

2013-10-01

328

Imaging in classic form of maple syrup urine disease: a rare metabolic central nervous system.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism. The condition gets its name from the distinctive sweet odour of affected infants' urine. MSUD is caused by a deficiency of the branched-chain ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase enzyme complex, leading to accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, and valine) and their toxic by-products (ketoacids) in the blood and urine. Imaging is characterestized by MSUD oedema affecting the myelinated white matter. We present a neonate with classic type of MSUD and its imaging features on computed tomography, conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

Jain A; Jagdeesh K; Mane R; Singla S

2013-04-01

329

Application of loofa sponge (Luffa cylindrica) as carrier for invertase immobilization for invert sugar syrup production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Invertase immobilization in loofa sponge (Luffa cylindrica) for invert sugar syrup production has been carried out. Loofa sponge was treated with NaIO4 followed by the use of diamine compound, glutaraldehyde and enzyme immobilization. The best results obtained were: invertase immobilized activity: 4.510 (mmols/g matrix x min x mL); enzyme coupling efficiency: 0.428%, recovered activity: 1.5% and the extent of hydrolysis was of 2.6x10-3%.h-1.

Evandro Cesar Poças; João Batista Buzato; Maria Antonia Pedrine Colabone Celligoi; Doumit Camilios Neto

2004-01-01

330

Favorable Acceptance of Mini-Tablets Compared with Syrup: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Infants and Preschool Children.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate acceptability of 2 mm solid dosage forms (mini-tablets) as an alternative administration modality in young children in comparison with syrup. STUDY DESIGN: Three hundred six pediatric in- and outpatients aged 6 months-5 years (51 in each of 6 age groups) were recruited. An open, randomized cross-over study was conducted to compare acceptability and capability to swallow 2 mm uncoated or coated mini-tablets vs 3 mL syrup. RESULTS: In the overall patient population of 306 children, the acceptability of uncoated mini-tablets was superior to syrup (difference in proportions 14.8%, 95% CI 10.2-19.4; P < .0001). In line with this finding, the level of capability to swallow was higher for uncoated mini-tablets compared with syrup as well (difference in proportions 12.3%, 95% CI 5.4-19.3; P = .0008). All 3 pharmaceutical formulations were well tolerated, and none of the 306 children inhaled or coughed because of the syrup or the uncoated mini-tablet; only 2 of the 306 children (both in age group 0.5-1 year) coughed because of the coated mini-tablet, in both cases without clinical relevance. CONCLUSIONS: Mini-tablets are a valuable alternative to syrup for children 6 months-6 years of age and are more acceptable compared with liquid formulation. Regulatory bodies such as Food and Drug Administration and European Medicine Agency are encouraged to take our data into account for guideline updates and future drug approval processes.

Klingmann V; Spomer N; Lerch C; Stoltenberg I; Frömke C; Bosse HM; Breitkreutz J; Meissner T

2013-08-01

331

Methadone toxicity: comparing tablet and syrup formulations during a decade in an academic poison center of Iran.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract Context. Due to an increase in the number of methadone maintenance clinics in the past decade in Iran, acute methadone overdose has become one of the common poisonings in our society. Objective. To compare the characteristics of methadone poisoning between syrup and tablet formulation as well as to discuss the relative advantages and disadvantages of poisoning from the perspective of toxicity. Material and methods. In a retrospective cross-sectional study from 2000 to 2010, sampled data of all hospitalized methadone-overdosed patients were collected through chart review of hospital records. Concurrently, the total number of methadone sales was gathered. Results. A total of 1426 patients with methadone poisoning had been hospitalized, including 1072 cases who consumed syrup or tablet solely. Mean ± SD milligram ingested dose of syrup and tablet were 153 ± 339 and 88 ± 274, respectively (p < 0.001). The mean time elapsed since ingestion was 9 ± 9 and 7 ± 7 h, respectively. Most of the accidental poisoning cases occurred as a result of syrup formulation, particularly by children under 12 years old after being mistaken for cough mixture or water. Conversely, exposure to methadone tablets was more common in patients with suicidal intent. There was no statistically significant difference between the rates of intubation and death between the two groups. Discussion. Higher doses of methadone in the syrup form appear to exert a similar severity of poisoning and outcomes compared to lesser doses of that in the tablet form. Similarities in outcomes, despite differences in exposure history, may reflect relatively prompt transfer to hospital and adequate provision of clinical care, including supportive care and naloxone. Conclusion. In order to reduce the rate of poisoning, we recommend the use of child-resistant containers for dispensing syrup, reduction in methadone concentration, adding a coloring agent, special flavor, and education of patients on the safe storage of methadone in their home in order to reduce the occurrence of accidental poisonings.

Shadnia S; Rahimi M; Hassanian-Moghaddam H; Soltaninejad K; Noroozi A

2013-09-01

332

ORAL USE  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The invention relates to the use of an oral composition comprising steviol, a steviol precursors or Stevia extract as skin tanning agent. It further relates methods of enhancing the natural skin tan by oral administration of an effective amount of Steviol, a Steviol precursor or Stevia extract.

GORALCZYK REGINA; GRAEUB REMO

333

Oral candidiasis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Oral candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection of the oral cavity caused by an overgrowth of Candida species, the commonest being Candida albicans. The incidence varies depending on age and certain predisposing factors. There are three broad groupings consisting of acute candidiasis, chronic...

Akpan, A; Morgan, R

334

Topics in Physical Mathematics  

CERN Multimedia

This title adopts the view that physics is the primary driving force behind a number of developments in mathematics. Previously, science and mathematics were part of natural philosophy and many mathematical theories arose as a result of trying to understand natural phenomena. This situation changed at the beginning of last century as science and mathematics diverged. These two fields are collaborating once again; 'Topics in Mathematical Physics' takes the reader through this journey. The author discusses topics where the interaction of physical and mathematical theories has led to new points o

Marathe, Kishore

2010-01-01

335

Study of the physicochemical properties of tulobuterol dry syrups using taste and smell sensors.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the taste and smell of Tulobuterol Dry Syrup (TB-DS) in its original form (formulation A) and generic form (formulations B and C) by means of gustatory sensation tests and taste and smell sensors. In addition, the physicochemical properties of the syrups in a solid state were compared. Evaluation of sweetness with a powdered sample revealed significant differences between formulation A and formulation B and between formulation B and formulation C. In contrast, the results of principal component analysis (PCA) with a taste sensor revealed differences in principal component 1 (PC 1) among formulations A, B, and C. Smell sensor measurement of powdered samples revealed differences in products in terms of only PC 1, but these results were not related to the results of gustatory sensation testing with a smell sensor. Measurement of particle size distribution and scanning electron microscopy revealed differences in the particle diameter and particle surface shape for each product. Formulation B had the strongest absorption in the near-infrared spectrum, followed by formulation A and then formulation C. Accordingly, differences in preparations were presumably caused by variations in manufacturing specifications, such as types of additives and their content and coating methods used. In other words, the characteristics of each product were revealed by evaluation of their physical properties, sensing of taste and smell, and human gustatory sensation tests.

Inoue Y; Shimazaki H; Murata I; Kimura M; Kanamoto I

2012-01-01

336

Identification of polyphenols and their metabolites in human urine after cranberry-syrup consumption.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

As the beneficial effects of American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) can be partly attributed to its phenolic composition, the evaluation of the physiological behaviour of this fraction is crucial. A rapid and sensitive method by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) has been used to identify phenolic metabolites in human urine after a single dose of cranberry syrup. Prior to the analysis, metabolites were extracted using an optimised solid-phase extraction procedure. All possible metabolites were investigated based on retention time, accurate mass data and isotope and fragmentation patterns. Free coumaroyl hexose (isomer 1 and 2), dihydroxybenzoic acid, caffeoyl glucose, dihydroferulic acid 4-O-?-d-glucuronide, methoxyquercetin 3-O-galactoside, scopoletin, myricetin and quercetin, together with other 23 phase-I and phase-II metabolites, including various isomers, could be tentatively identified in the urine. Afterwards, the metabolites were simultaneously screened in the urine of different subjects at 0, 2, 4, and 6h after the ingestion of cranberry syrup by Target Analysis(TM) software.

Iswaldi I; Arráez-Román D; Gómez-Caravaca AM; Contreras Mdel M; Uberos J; Segura-Carretero A; Fernández-Gutiérrez A

2013-05-01

337

Identification of polyphenols and their metabolites in human urine after cranberry-syrup consumption.  

Science.gov (United States)

As the beneficial effects of American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) can be partly attributed to its phenolic composition, the evaluation of the physiological behaviour of this fraction is crucial. A rapid and sensitive method by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) has been used to identify phenolic metabolites in human urine after a single dose of cranberry syrup. Prior to the analysis, metabolites were extracted using an optimised solid-phase extraction procedure. All possible metabolites were investigated based on retention time, accurate mass data and isotope and fragmentation patterns. Free coumaroyl hexose (isomer 1 and 2), dihydroxybenzoic acid, caffeoyl glucose, dihydroferulic acid 4-O-?-d-glucuronide, methoxyquercetin 3-O-galactoside, scopoletin, myricetin and quercetin, together with other 23 phase-I and phase-II metabolites, including various isomers, could be tentatively identified in the urine. Afterwards, the metabolites were simultaneously screened in the urine of different subjects at 0, 2, 4, and 6h after the ingestion of cranberry syrup by Target Analysis(TM) software. PMID:23395719

Iswaldi, Ihsan; Arráez-Román, David; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Contreras, María Del Mar; Uberos, José; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

2013-02-05

338

DNA damage in an animal model of maple syrup urine disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease is an inborn error of metabolism caused by a severe deficiency of the branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. Neurological dysfunction is a common finding in patients with maple syrup urine disease. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuropathology of brain damage in this disorder are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether acute or chronic administration of a branched chain amino acid pool (leucine, isoleucine and valine) causes transient DNA damage, as determined by the alkaline comet assay, in the brain and blood of rats during development and whether antioxidant treatment prevented the alterations induced by branched chain amino acids. Our results showed that the acute administration of branched chain amino acids increased the DNA damage frequency and damage index in the hippocampus. However, the chronic administration of branched chain amino acids increased the DNA damage frequency and damage index in both the hippocampus and the striatum, and the antioxidant treatment was able to prevent DNA damage in the hippocampus and striatum. The present study demonstrated that metabolite accumulation in MSUD induces DNA damage in the hippocampus and striatum and that it may be implicated in the neuropathology observed in the affected patients. We demonstrated that the effect of antioxidant treatment (N-acetylcysteine plus deferoxamine) prevented DNA damage, suggesting the involvement of oxidative stress in DNA damage. PMID:22560665

Scaini, Giselli; Jeremias, Isabela C; Morais, Meline O S; Borges, Gabriela D; Munhoz, Bruna P; Leffa, Daniela D; Andrade, Vanessa M; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Streck, Emilio L

2012-04-20

339

Identification of two novel BCKDHA mutations in a Chinese patient with maple syrup urine disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder affecting branched-chain amino acids. Mutations in the BCKDHA, BCKDHB, and DBT gene impair the branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKD) complex, resulting in the accumulation of branched-chain amino acids and branched-chain alpha-ketoacid in tissues and plasma. This leads to mental and physical retardation, feeding problems, and a maple syrup odor in the urine. In this study, we describe the clinical and biochemical manifestations of a sporadic mutation in a neonate with classic MSUD. Analysis of the BCKDHA gene revealed a compound heterozygous mutation consisting of two novel missense mutations (p.L103P and p.R265P). Viewing the protein with PyMOL indicated that the p.L103P and p.R265P mutations were, respectively, located in the helical region and core domains of the BCKD's Ela component. The p.L103P mutation affected the hydrophobic cores and is predicted to shorten the helix; the p.R265P mutation can predictably affect the cofactor binding site by ligating the associated manganese ion. In conclusion, we identified two novel missense mutations in the BCKDHA gene in a Chinese patient with MSUD. PMID:22145486

Wang, Jian; Liu, Hongjing; Chen, Guoqiang; Tsuei, Sian Hsiang-Te; Yu, Tingting; Fu, Qihua

2011-01-01

340

DNA damage in an animal model of maple syrup urine disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maple syrup urine disease is an inborn error of metabolism caused by a severe deficiency of the branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. Neurological dysfunction is a common finding in patients with maple syrup urine disease. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuropathology of brain damage in this disorder are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether acute or chronic administration of a branched chain amino acid pool (leucine, isoleucine and valine) causes transient DNA damage, as determined by the alkaline comet assay, in the brain and blood of rats during development and whether antioxidant treatment prevented the alterations induced by branched chain amino acids. Our results showed that the acute administration of branched chain amino acids increased the DNA damage frequency and damage index in the hippocampus. However, the chronic administration of branched chain amino acids increased the DNA damage frequency and damage index in both the hippocampus and the striatum, and the antioxidant treatment was able to prevent DNA damage in the hippocampus and striatum. The present study demonstrated that metabolite accumulation in MSUD induces DNA damage in the hippocampus and striatum and that it may be implicated in the neuropathology observed in the affected patients. We demonstrated that the effect of antioxidant treatment (N-acetylcysteine plus deferoxamine) prevented DNA damage, suggesting the involvement of oxidative stress in DNA damage.

Scaini G; Jeremias IC; Morais MO; Borges GD; Munhoz BP; Leffa DD; Andrade VM; Schuck PF; Ferreira GC; Streck EL

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
341

Identification of two novel BCKDHA mutations in a Chinese patient with maple syrup urine disease.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder affecting branched-chain amino acids. Mutations in the BCKDHA, BCKDHB, and DBT gene impair the branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKD) complex, resulting in the accumulation of branched-chain amino acids and branched-chain alpha-ketoacid in tissues and plasma. This leads to mental and physical retardation, feeding problems, and a maple syrup odor in the urine. In this study, we describe the clinical and biochemical manifestations of a sporadic mutation in a neonate with classic MSUD. Analysis of the BCKDHA gene revealed a compound heterozygous mutation consisting of two novel missense mutations (p.L103P and p.R265P). Viewing the protein with PyMOL indicated that the p.L103P and p.R265P mutations were, respectively, located in the helical region and core domains of the BCKD's Ela component. The p.L103P mutation affected the hydrophobic cores and is predicted to shorten the helix; the p.R265P mutation can predictably affect the cofactor binding site by ligating the associated manganese ion. In conclusion, we identified two novel missense mutations in the BCKDHA gene in a Chinese patient with MSUD.

Wang J; Liu H; Chen G; Tsuei SH; Yu T; Fu Q

2011-01-01

342

Malignización del liquen plano oral Oral lichen planus malignancy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La complicación más importante del Liquen Plano Oral (LPO), es el desarrollo de un carcinoma oral de células escamosas (COCE). Desde 1910 en que se comunicó el primer caso en una paciente con LP, se han publicado numerosos casos, y series de casos de malignización, que nos aportan cifras que varían entre el 0 y el 12,5% de LPO malignizados, con periodos de seguimiento también muy variables, que oscilan entre 0,5 y 20 años. Pero estos estudios han sido refutados por un grupo de autores, que se cuestionan los criterios diagnósticos utilizados. Por todo ello, el potencial maligno del liquen plano oral, es un tema actualmente muy controvertido en Medicina Oral. Se realiza una revisión crítica de la literatura más actual sobre los conceptos clave, implicados en esta controversia.The most important complication of oral lichen planus (OLP), is the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). From 1910 when was reported the first case in a woman suffered OLP, many cases and cases series have been reported with values from 0 to 12,5%, and with follow-up ranking from 0,5 to 20 years. But many of this cases not had been accepted by some authors who disagree with the diagnostic criteria employed. By all previously cited, the cancerization of OLP is a very controversial topic in Oral Medicine. It has been performed a critical review of the recent literature about it.

R. Cerero-Lapiedra

2008-01-01

343

A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial of active manuka honey and standard oral care for radiation-induced oral mucositis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Our aim was to investigate the effect of active manuka honey on radiation-induced mucositis. A total of 131 patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer who were having radiotherapy to the oral cavity or oropharyngeal area were recruited into the study, and were randomly allocated to take either manuka honey or placebo (golden syrup) 20 ml 4 times daily for 6 weeks. Mucositis was assessed according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) scale at baseline, weekly during radiotherapy, and twice weekly thereafter until the mucositis resolved. The patient's weight was recorded at the same time as the mucositis was assessed. Throat swabs to identify bacterial or fungal infections were taken at baseline, and during and after radiotherapy. There was no significant difference between honey and golden syrup in their effects on mucositis. Active manuka honey did not improve mucositis, but both the honey and the syrup seemed to be associated with a reduction in bacterial infections. Compliance was a problem after the onset of mucositis, which may have affected the findings.

Bardy J; Molassiotis A; Ryder WD; Mais K; Sykes A; Yap B; Lee L; Kaczmarski E; Slevin N

2012-04-01

344

A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial of active manuka honey and standard oral care for radiation-induced oral mucositis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our aim was to investigate the effect of active manuka honey on radiation-induced mucositis. A total of 131 patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer who were having radiotherapy to the oral cavity or oropharyngeal area were recruited into the study, and were randomly allocated to take either manuka honey or placebo (golden syrup) 20 ml 4 times daily for 6 weeks. Mucositis was assessed according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) scale at baseline, weekly during radiotherapy, and twice weekly thereafter until the mucositis resolved. The patient's weight was recorded at the same time as the mucositis was assessed. Throat swabs to identify bacterial or fungal infections were taken at baseline, and during and after radiotherapy. There was no significant difference between honey and golden syrup in their effects on mucositis. Active manuka honey did not improve mucositis, but both the honey and the syrup seemed to be associated with a reduction in bacterial infections. Compliance was a problem after the onset of mucositis, which may have affected the findings. PMID:21636188

Bardy, Joy; Molassiotis, Alex; Ryder, W David; Mais, Kathleen; Sykes, Andrew; Yap, Beng; Lee, Lip; Kaczmarski, Ed; Slevin, Nicholas

2011-06-01

345

Advanced Topics in Aerodynamics  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

"Advanced Topics in Aerodynamics" is a comprehensive electronic guide to aerodynamics,computational fluid dynamics, aeronautics, aerospace propulsion systems, design and relatedtechnology. We report data, tables, graphics, sketches,examples, results, photos, technical andscientific literature, for higher education, learning, reference, research and engineering services.

Filippone, Antonino

1999-01-01

346

Topical Therapeutic Delivery System  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The present invention relates to an oil-in-water emulsion topical delivery system comprising an oil phase an aqueous phase phenoxyethanol an effective exfoliatingamount of a hydrophobic hydroxycarboxylic acid a non-ionic emulsifier having an HLB of from about 7 to about 10 and at least one skin-supporting ordermatopharmaceutically active agent.

MURAD HOWARD

347

TOPICAL SKIN CARE FORMULATIONS  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Disclosed is a topical skin care composition comprising: (a) a combination of the following extracts: Malpighia punicifolia (acerola) extract Argania spinosa (argan) extract Myrciaria dubia (camu camu) extract Punica granatum (pomegrannate) extract Pinus sylvestris extract Terminalia ferdinandiana (kakadu plum) extract Linum usitatissimum (linseed) extract Ribes nigrum (black current) extract Secale cereale (rye) extract algae extract and yeast extract and (b) a dermatologically acceptable vehicle.

HINES MICHELLE; FLORENCE TIFFANY

348

Advances in topical analgesics.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

SUMMARY: This review will allow physicians to understand the role of topical agents in the treatment of intractable pain syndromes. Increasing medical providers' familiarity with these agents will allow their incorporation as part of a complex analgesic regimen for an improved pain management plan benefiting the patient population at large.

Anitescu M; Benzon HT; Argoff CE

2013-08-01

349

Topical immunomodulators in dermatology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Topical immunomodulators are agents that regulate the local immune response of the skin. They are now emerging as the therapy of choice for several immune-mediated dermatoses such as atopic dermatitis, contact allergic dermatitis, alopecia areata, psoriasis, vitiligo, connective tissue disorders such as morphea and lupus erythematosus, disorders of keratinization and several benign and malignant skin tumours, because of their comparable efficacy, ease of application and greater safety than their systemic counterparts. They can be used on a domiciliary basis for longer periods without aggressive monitoring. In this article, we have discussed the mechanism of action, common indications and side-effects of the commonly used topical immunomodulators, excluding topical steroids. Moreover, newer agents, which are still in the experimental stages, have also been described. A MEDLINE search was undertaken using the key words "topical immunomodulators, dermatology" and related articles were also searched. In addition, a manual search for many Indian articles, which are not indexed, was also carried out. Wherever possible, the full article was reviewed. If the full article could not be traced, the abstract was used.

Khandpur Sujay; Sharma V; Sumanth K

2004-01-01

350

Topics in CP violation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] This presentation explores a variety of topics related to the general theme of CP violation. The presentation begins by reviewing the experimental status of evidence for CP violation in particle processes. There is only one system where this has been observed, and that is in the decays of neutral K mesons. 17 refs., 1 tab

1993-01-01

351

Topical anesthesia in phacoemulsification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose : To evaluate the efficacy of topical anesthesia; topical Benoxinate 0.4% (Oxybuprocaine) and Xylocaine (Lidocaine) gel, in selected cataract patients as an alternative to peribulbar or retrobulbar block anesthesia during cataract surgery. Materials and Methods : Prospective non-comparative evaluation of patients? and surgeon?s satisfaction at the end of the procedure. Three hundred patients (300 eyes) were included in the study. The procedure was explained to patients with details regarding what will happen and what to expect during surgery. All patients received topical anesthesia with Benoxinate 0.4% eye drops and Xylocaine gel 2%. All surgeries were done by the same surgeon using the same machine (updated LEGACY phacoemulsifier, Alcon) and approach (clear corneal incision) and followed by a foldable intraocular lens (IOL) implantation. Results : None of the patients had severe pain during the procedure; only 2% (six of 300) required use of intravenous sedation (Propofol), both the surgeon?s and the patients? satisfaction were high. Eye movements and blepharospasm were not significant problems, and no serious complications occurred. Rate of vitreous loss due to posterior capsule tear/rupture was within literature reported range and not different from our previous experience. Conclusion : Topical anesthesia is a satisfactory and safe alternative to retrobulbar and peribulbar anesthesia for clear corneal phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation in selected cataract patients in the hands of experienced cataract surgeon.

Waheeb Saad

2010-01-01

352

Selected topics in magnetism  

CERN Multimedia

Part of the ""Frontiers in Solid State Sciences"" series, this volume presents essays on such topics as spin fluctuations in Heisenberg magnets, quenching of spin fluctuations by high magnetic fields, and kondo effect and heavy fermions in rare earths amongst others.

Gupta, L C

1993-01-01

353

Workshop on beam cooling and related topics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sessions of the Workshop on Beam Cooling and Related Topics, held in Montreux from 4-8 October 1993, are reported in these Proceedings. This meeting brought together international experts in the field of accelerator beam cooling. Its purpose was to discuss the status of the different cooling techniques currently in use (stochastic, electron, ionization, heavy-ion, and laser) and their actual performances, technological implications, and future prospects. Certain theoretical principles (muon cooling, cyclotron maser cooling) were discussed and are reported on in these Proceedings. Also of interest in this Workshop was the possibility of beam crystallization in accelerators using ultimate cooling. In the first part of these Proceedings, overview talks on the various cooling techniques, their implications, present performance, and future prospects are presented. More detailed reports on all the topics are then given in the form of oral presentations or poster sessions. Finally, the chairmen and/or convenors then present summary talks. (orig.).

1994-01-01

354

Topical Treatment of Allergic Rhinitis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Topical medications have dramatically changed the treatment of rhinitis. While systemic treatment is often more potent, topical treatment has fewer side effects. However, topical preparations also have side effects which should be considered when treating rhinitis. Topical steroids are potent anti-i...

Greenbaum, Joseph

355

CONTROL OF NAUSEA AND VOMITING—Observations on the Use of Chlor-Trimeton® (Chlorprophenpyridamine Maleate) Syrup  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chlor-Trimeton (chlorprophenpyridamine maleate) syrup was effective in preventing and controlling nausea and vomiting in 53 of 57 patients. In doses of one to four teaspoonfuls (2 to 8 mg.), it controlled nausea and vomiting following operative procedures, vomiting due to nonspecific causes, hyperem...

Weston, George A.

356

Physiological characterization of brewer's yeast in high-gravity beer fermentations with glucose or maltose syrups as adjuncts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

High-gravity brewing, which can decrease production costs by increasing brewery yields, has become an attractive alternative to traditional brewing methods. However, as higher sugar concentration is required, the yeast is exposed to various stresses during fermentation. We evaluated the influence of high-gravity brewing on the fermentation performance of the brewer’s yeast under model brewing conditions. The lager brewer’s strain Weihenstephan 34/70 strain was characterized at three different gravities by adding either glucose or maltose syrups to the basic wort. We observed that increased gravity resulted in a lower specific growth rate, a longer lag phase before initiation of ethanol production, incomplete sugar utilization, and an increase in the concentrations of ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate in the final beer. Increasing the gravity by adding maltose syrup as opposed to glucose syrup resulted in more balanced fermentation performance in terms of higher cell numbers, respectively, higher wort fermentability and a more favorable flavor profile of the final beer. Our study underlines the effects of the various stress factors on brewer’s yeast metabolism and the influence of the type of sugar syrups on the fermentation performance and the flavor profile of the final beer.

Piddocke, Maya Petrova; kreisz, Stefan

2009-01-01

357

Methadone toxicity: comparing tablet and syrup formulations during a decade in an academic poison center of Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Context. Due to an increase in the number of methadone maintenance clinics in the past decade in Iran, acute methadone overdose has become one of the common poisonings in our society. Objective. To compare the characteristics of methadone poisoning between syrup and tablet formulation as well as to discuss the relative advantages and disadvantages of poisoning from the perspective of toxicity. Material and methods. In a retrospective cross-sectional study from 2000 to 2010, sampled data of all hospitalized methadone-overdosed patients were collected through chart review of hospital records. Concurrently, the total number of methadone sales was gathered. Results. A total of 1426 patients with methadone poisoning had been hospitalized, including 1072 cases who consumed syrup or tablet solely. Mean ± SD milligram ingested dose of syrup and tablet were 153 ± 339 and 88 ± 274, respectively (p naloxone. Conclusion. In order to reduce the rate of poisoning, we recommend the use of child-resistant containers for dispensing syrup, reduction in methadone concentration, adding a coloring agent, special flavor, and education of patients on the safe storage of methadone in their home in order to reduce the occurrence of accidental poisonings. PMID:23972442

Shadnia, S; Rahimi, M; Hassanian-Moghaddam, H; Soltaninejad, K; Noroozi, A

2013-08-23

358

Cultivation and utilization of Jerusalem artichoke for ethanol, single cell protein, and high-fructose syrup production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Jerusalem artichoke has one of the highest carbohydrate yields of the known agricultural crops and has many distinct advantages over traditional crops. This brief review presents data on the yield and composition of Jerusalem artichoke, techniques of carbohydrate extraction and its utilization for the production of ethanol, single cell protein (SCP), and high-fructose syrup, along with economic considerations. (author).

Bajpai, P.K.; Bajpai, Pratima (Thapar Corporate Research and Development Center, Patiala (IN). Div. of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering)

1991-04-01

359

Oral myiasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oral myiasis is a rare disease that is most common in developing countries and is associated with poor oral hygiene, suppurating lesions, severe halitosis and other predisposing conditions. This paper describes a case of oral myiasis in a 22-year-old female patient who presented with acute upper lip swelling with an extensive necrotic area in the anterior region of the maxilla and fetid odor. The diagnosis was based on the typical clinical features and the visual presence of the larvae. The patient's management included surgical exploration to remove the larvae and the necrotic tissue, followed by scaling and oral hygiene instruction. Upon treatment, the larvae were eliminated, and complete lesion healing and remission of symptoms were observed within 21 days.

Leite Cavalcanti Alessandro; Lucas Neto Alfredo; de Farias Aires Júnior Fernando Antonio; Morais Lucas João; de Castro Cardoso Lucas Rilva Suely

2008-01-01

360

Cyclosporine pharmacokinetics in cats following topical ocular administration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Topical ocular administration of two forms of cyclosporine were studied in the cat. Both forms were able to produce measurable whole-blood levels capable of suppressing in vitro lymphocyte stimulation. The kinetics of cyclosporine following administration of either oral solution or cyclosporine in olive oil were variable, with peak concentrations ranging from 450 to 1033 ng/ml and 288 to 648 ng/ml, respectively. Absorption lag time ranged from 0 to 1.34 hr for oral solution, and 0.27 to 1.2 hr for cyclosporine in olive oil. The half-life of elimination ranged from 2.41 to 10.04 hr, and 3.09 to 15.75 hr, respectively. When compared with the commercially available oral solution, cyclosporine dissolved in olive oil was better tolerated during administration. Topical ocular administration of cyclosporine in cats offers a possible alternative method of treatment for individuals intolerant of oral administration. Topical ocular administration might also replace the need for intravenous administration of cyclosporine during perioperative periods or during periods of vomiting and nausea associated with rejection or other illnesses. Due to individual variation in absorption and elimination of topically applied cyclosporine, dosages in each cat must be determined by monitoring blood, plasma, or serum levels.

Gregory CR; Hietala SK; Pedersen NC; Gregory TA; Floyd-Hawkins KA; Patz JD

1989-03-01

 
 
 
 
361

Cyclosporine pharmacokinetics in cats following topical ocular administration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Topical ocular administration of two forms of cyclosporine were studied in the cat. Both forms were able to produce measurable whole-blood levels capable of suppressing in vitro lymphocyte stimulation. The kinetics of cyclosporine following administration of either oral solution or cyclosporine in olive oil were variable, with peak concentrations ranging from 450 to 1033 ng/ml and 288 to 648 ng/ml, respectively. Absorption lag time ranged from 0 to 1.34 hr for oral solution, and 0.27 to 1.2 hr for cyclosporine in olive oil. The half-life of elimination ranged from 2.41 to 10.04 hr, and 3.09 to 15.75 hr, respectively. When compared with the commercially available oral solution, cyclosporine dissolved in olive oil was better tolerated during administration. Topical ocular administration of cyclosporine in cats offers a possible alternative method of treatment for individuals intolerant of oral administration. Topical ocular administration might also replace the need for intravenous administration of cyclosporine during perioperative periods or during periods of vomiting and nausea associated with rejection or other illnesses. Due to individual variation in absorption and elimination of topically applied cyclosporine, dosages in each cat must be determined by monitoring blood, plasma, or serum levels. PMID:2646782

Gregory, C R; Hietala, S K; Pedersen, N C; Gregory, T A; Floyd-Hawkins, K A; Patz, J D

1989-03-01

362

Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome and topical steroid therapy: case series and review of the literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Topical corticosteroids are considered first-line therapy in patients with chronic inflammatory oral mucosal diseases; among them, clobetasol propionate is one of the most widely used in oral medicine. Under physiological conditions, the transmucosal application is characterized by a significantly greater absorption than the skin application. Contrary to many publications about the side effects of topical corticosteroids in dermatology, few studies have investigated the systemic effects due to local application of these drugs on oral mucosa. Although topical steroid therapy for the management of oral diseases is generally associated with local adverse effects (candidiasis, stomatopyrosis, and hypogeusia), these drugs can also lead to systemic side effects, such as suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and Cushing's syndrome. This review reports five cases of systemic adverse effects caused by clobetasol propionate topical treatment.

Decani S; Federighi V; Baruzzi E; Sardella A; Lodi G

2013-02-01

363

Topical Methotrexate In Localized Psoriasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A comparative study of topical methotrexate and topical tar in eighteen patients of localized psoriasis with bilateral involvement of both lower legs, equal in area and disease severity was carried out. The patients were asked to apply topical methorexate 0.25% in a hydrophilic gel twice daily on right leg. The test sites were score, before therapy, after one month and after two months. The result with topical methotrexate preparation was promising but was comparable to topical tar formulation.

Rath Namita; Kar Hemant Kumar

2004-01-01

364

New topical antifungal drugs.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The new antifungal drugs used for topical treatment of superficial, skin and mucosal mycoses are reviewed. Amorolfine and allylamines (naftifine and terbinafine) are promising original molecules with new and different modes of action against fungi. Rilopirox is a new pyridone derivative under study. A great number of azole derivatives, such as oxiconazole, isoconazole, sulconazole, and terconazole, are used as topical antifungals. Three of them are synthesized in Barcelona by pharmaceutical laboratories: sertaconazole, flutrimazole and eberconazole. All of them are now in the register process for commercialization. The combination of antifungals with active products, such as keratoplastics, is used mainly for the treatment of onychomycoses; 40% urea associated with 1% bifonazole has shown high efficacy for this indication.

Torres-Rodríguez JM

1993-01-01

365

New topical antifungal drugs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The new antifungal drugs used for topical treatment of superficial, skin and mucosal mycoses are reviewed. Amorolfine and allylamines (naftifine and terbinafine) are promising original molecules with new and different modes of action against fungi. Rilopirox is a new pyridone derivative under study. A great number of azole derivatives, such as oxiconazole, isoconazole, sulconazole, and terconazole, are used as topical antifungals. Three of them are synthesized in Barcelona by pharmaceutical laboratories: sertaconazole, flutrimazole and eberconazole. All of them are now in the register process for commercialization. The combination of antifungals with active products, such as keratoplastics, is used mainly for the treatment of onychomycoses; 40% urea associated with 1% bifonazole has shown high efficacy for this indication. PMID:8118161

Torres-Rodríguez, J M

1993-01-01

366

Actividad antiartrítica del jarabe de Allium sativum L Antiarthritic activity of Allium sativum L syrup  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Allium sativum L. es ampliamente utilizado por la población cubana en la medicina tradicional y natural para aliviar procesos inflamatorios y en especial en la artritis reumatoide; sin embargo, su actividad no ha sido demostrada científicamente como para poder establecer un ensayo clínico para su registro y producción industrial. En el presente trabajo se evaluó la acción de un jarabe de Allium sativum L. sobre la artritis reumatoide experimental, empleando los modelos de edema de la pata y pleuresía en ratas Wistar, basados en la reacción pasiva de Arthus. En los dos modelos, se ensayaron placebo y dosis de 45, 90 y 180 mg/kg de peso corporal, en base a sólidos totales contenido en el jarabe de A. sativum. Como controles positivos se utilizó ibuprofeno y prednisona a las dosis de 200 y 10 mg/kg respectivamente. Tanto los controles positivos, como las dosis de jarabe de Allium sativum L. ensayadas disminuyeron el proceso inflamatorio desencadenado por la reacción antígeno anticuerpo que se logra mediante la reacción pasiva de Arthus, el antisuero de albúmina de huevo y antisuero de albúmina bovina para el edema de la pata y el desarrollo de pleuresía respectivamente.Allium sativum L is widely used by Cuban people in folk and natural medicine to alliviate inflammatory processes and specially in rheumatoid arthritis; however, its activity hasn’t scientifically enough demonstrated to stablish a clinical assay for its registration and industrial production. In present paper, action of a Allium sativum syrup on experimental rheumatoid arthritis was assessed, using models of leg edema and pleurisy in Wistar rats, based on passive reaction of Arthus. In two models, placebo and doses of 45, 90, and 180 mg/kg of body weight were assayed based on total solids in A.sativum syrup. As positive controls Ibuprofen and Prednisone were used at dosis of 200 and 10 mg/kg, respectively. Positive controls and assayed dosis of Allium sativum L syrup decreased inflammatory process triggered by antigen-antibody reaction achieved by means of passive reaction of Arthus, by means of egg albumin antiserum, and bovine albumin antiserum for leg edema and development of pleurisy, recpectively.

Juana I. Tillán Capó; Annia Benítez López; Ivette Hernández Paderni; Carmen Carrillo

2007-01-01

367

Actividad antiartrítica del jarabe de Allium sativum L/ Antiarthritic activity of Allium sativum L syrup  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Allium sativum L. es ampliamente utilizado por la población cubana en la medicina tradicional y natural para aliviar procesos inflamatorios y en especial en la artritis reumatoide; sin embargo, su actividad no ha sido demostrada científicamente como para poder establecer un ensayo clínico para su registro y producción industrial. En el presente trabajo se evaluó la acción de un jarabe de Allium sativum L. sobre la artritis reumatoide experimental, empleando los mode (more) los de edema de la pata y pleuresía en ratas Wistar, basados en la reacción pasiva de Arthus. En los dos modelos, se ensayaron placebo y dosis de 45, 90 y 180 mg/kg de peso corporal, en base a sólidos totales contenido en el jarabe de A. sativum. Como controles positivos se utilizó ibuprofeno y prednisona a las dosis de 200 y 10 mg/kg respectivamente. Tanto los controles positivos, como las dosis de jarabe de Allium sativum L. ensayadas disminuyeron el proceso inflamatorio desencadenado por la reacción antígeno anticuerpo que se logra mediante la reacción pasiva de Arthus, el antisuero de albúmina de huevo y antisuero de albúmina bovina para el edema de la pata y el desarrollo de pleuresía respectivamente. Abstract in english Allium sativum L is widely used by Cuban people in folk and natural medicine to alliviate inflammatory processes and specially in rheumatoid arthritis; however, its activity hasn’t scientifically enough demonstrated to stablish a clinical assay for its registration and industrial production. In present paper, action of a Allium sativum syrup on experimental rheumatoid arthritis was assessed, using models of leg edema and pleurisy in Wistar rats, based on passive rea (more) ction of Arthus. In two models, placebo and doses of 45, 90, and 180 mg/kg of body weight were assayed based on total solids in A.sativum syrup. As positive controls Ibuprofen and Prednisone were used at dosis of 200 and 10 mg/kg, respectively. Positive controls and assayed dosis of Allium sativum L syrup decreased inflammatory process triggered by antigen-antibody reaction achieved by means of passive reaction of Arthus, by means of egg albumin antiserum, and bovine albumin antiserum for leg edema and development of pleurisy, recpectively.

Tillán Capó, Juana I.; Benítez López, Annia; Hernández Paderni, Ivette; Carrillo, Carmen

2007-06-01

368

Superconductivity elementary topics  

CERN Document Server

This book describes the elementary concepts of superconductivity and discusses the topics of flux-lattice melting, magnetization including the para-Meissner effect, microwave absorption, a.c. resistivity along with the London penetration depth, the Mössbauer effect, levitation, fractals and nuclear magnetic resonance. There are appendices covering superconducting compounds, the isotope effect, symmetries, the pseudogap, relativistic superconductivity, the Cherenkov effect and soft vortices. Also included is an appendix on the quantum Hall effect. In all of the chapters, the theoretical descrip

Shrivastava, KN

2000-01-01

369

Topic in Depth - Bioinformatics  

Science.gov (United States)

Computational molecular biology, which now is commonly called bioinformatics, draws on mathematics and computer science to inform research in biology. In this folder, you'll find informational and educational sites alike to explore the topic of bioinformatics. This evolving area of research advances our knowledge of biological systems and contributes to medical research, but also raises ethical issues and demands increased collaboration among scientists.

2010-09-10

370

Topical skin care composition  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A topical composition comprising: (a) petroselinic acid and/or derivatives thereof (b) a retinoid and/or a LRAT/ARAT inhibitor and (c) a dermatologically acceptable vehicle. Such skin care compositions are useful for treating and/or preventing normal, but undesirable, skin conditions selected from the group consisting of wrinkling, sagging, photodamaged skin, dry skin and age spots and soothing sensitive skin.

BARRETT KAREN ELIZABETH; GREEN MARTIN RICHARD; RAWLINGS ANTHONY VINCENT

371

Topic in Depth - Chlorine  

Science.gov (United States)

Chlorine, a chemical element whose name means âÂÂpale green,â is explored from a number of angles in this informative Topic in Depth.WeâÂÂve all heard of chlorine being used in swimming pools and drinking water, but this jack-of-all-trades chemical element is also used in making everything from plastics and dry cleaning products to insecticides and pharmaceuticals.

2010-09-15

372

Topics in industrial mathematics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mathematical methods are widely used to solve practical problems arising in modern industry. This article outlines some of the topics relevant to AECL programmes. This covers the applications of transmission and neutron transport tomography to determine density distributions in rocks and two phase flow situations. Another example covered is the use of variational methods to solve the problems of aerosol migration and control theory. (author). 7 refs.

1992-01-01

373

Topical ciprofloxacin is superior to topical saline and systemic antibiotics in the treatment of tympanostomy tube otorrhea in children: the results of a randomized clinical trial.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To compare the clinical failure rates among children with otorrhea through tympanostomy tubes treated with topical or systemic antibiotics versus topical saline. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, controlled patient study. METHODS: A three-armed randomized clinical trial using topical ciprofloxacin or oral amoxicillin or topical saline. The primary outcome was treatment failure defined as presence of otorrhea in at least one ear after 7 days of treatment. RESULTS: The treatment failure rates were 23% and 70% in the group treated with topical ciprofloxacin and oral amoxicillin, respectively. Treatment failures were seen in 58% of children treated with topical saline. Thus, topical ciprofloxacin significantly reduced treatment failures compared to both oral amoxicillin and topical saline. The most frequent bacteria isolated from treatment failures in general were streptococci and Moraxella catarrhalis. CONCLUSIONS: The significant effect of topical ciprofloxacin is probably related to a higher local concentration of antibiotics in the middle ear rather than the result of mechanical rinsing and dissolution of the bacterial load.

Heslop A; Lildholdt T; Gammelgaard N; Ovesen T

2010-12-01

374

Topical tacrolimus and oral diseases: a short literature review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tacrolimus is the generic name forthe macrolide immunosupressant previously known by its experimental name, FK506. This new name is derived from Tsukuba, the location of its discovery; macrolide, its chemical class; and immune suppressant, its primary activity in humans. Recent reports suggest thatt...

Mohamed Mahmoud Anees; Jacek Szepietowski

375

Purple drank prevalence and characteristics of misusers of codeine cough syrup mixtures.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A mixture of codeine cough syrup with alcohol and/or a soft drink known as "purple drank" has gained media attention in recent years as a drug associated with professional athletes and southern rap music. The existing research on purple drank consumption has primarily utilized samples of African Americans residing in the Houston, Texas area. This is the first scholarly study of purple drank use outside of the Houston, Texas area among a general population of young adults, and indicates that purple drank use is not limited to African American males. The findings depict higher odds of the use of purple drank among other racial and ethnic groups, males, and homosexual, bisexual, and transgender college students from urban areas.

Agnich LE; Stogner JM; Miller BL; Marcum CD

2013-09-01

376

A novel probiotic fermented beverage based on soymilk and sea buckthorn syrup  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the last decade, there is an increasing interest in using nondairyingredients as substrates for certain strains of bifidobacteria to deliver the benefits of probiotics to a wider group of consumers. This research aimed to explore the use of soymilk and sea buckthorn syrup as substrates for bifidobacteria fermentation. Microbial population, pH, and titratable acidity were measured during the fermentation period while the viability, pH, titratable acidity and water holding capacity were determined during the storage time at 4°C ± 1°C within 14 days. Survival and stability of Bifidobacterium bifidus (Bb-12®, Bb) inoculated into a beverage when exposed to simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions, were assessed. TheBb-12® strain exhibited the highest viable cell numbers when exposed to simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions.

Nicoleta Maricica Maftei; Rodica Dinica; Gabriela Bahrim

2012-01-01

377

The management of pregnancy in maple syrup urine disease: experience with two patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We describe the management and outcomes of pregnancy in two women affected with Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). Both patients had classical disease diagnosed in the newborn period and were managed with low-protein diets and supplements, although compliance was moderately poor throughout life. Both pregnancies were complicated by poor compliance and one patient had a metabolic decompensation, which included seizures and profound encephalopathy, at the end of the first trimester. Peri-partum management required a coordinated team approach including a high-calorie and low-protein diet. Both patients had elevated leucine levels in the post-partum period - one due to mastitis and the other due to poor dietary and supplement compliance combined with uterine involution. On later review, leucine had returned to pre-pregnancy levels. Both infants were unaffected and have made normal developmental progress in the subsequent 1 to 2 years.

Tchan M; Westbrook M; Wilcox G; Cutler R; Smith N; Penman R; Strauss BJ; Wilcken B

2013-01-01

378

Imaging in classic form of maple syrup urine disease: a rare metabolic central nervous system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism. The condition gets its name from the distinctive sweet odour of affected infants' urine. MSUD is caused by a deficiency of the branched-chain ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase enzyme complex, leading to accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, and valine) and their toxic by-products (ketoacids) in the blood and urine. Imaging is characterestized by MSUD oedema affecting the myelinated white matter. We present a neonate with classic type of MSUD and its imaging features on computed tomography, conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. PMID:24049754

Jain, Aditi; Jagdeesh, K; Mane, Ranoji; Singla, Saurabh

2013-04-01

379

Maple syrup urine disease: diffusion-weighted MRI findings during acute metabolic encephalopathic crisis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is caused by a genetic defect of branched-chain amino acids, which include leucine, isoleucine and valine. We report diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) findings in a newborn child with MSUD who presented with acute metabolic encephalopathic crisis. DWI (b = 1,000 s/mm(2)) showed high signal localized within the myelinated white matter (WM) areas including the cerebellar white matter, pons, bulbus, cerebral peduncles, lentiform nucleus, posterior limbs of the internal capsules, corona radiata and bilateral perirolandic cortex. The apparent diffusion coefficient values of these regions were markedly low in the affected areas. The presence of these findings was considered cytotoxic or intramyelinic edema evidenced by restricted water diffusion. In conclusion, our findings suggest that during the acute phase and early encephalopathic crisis stage of MSUD, DWI can demonstrate the involvement of myelinated WM in newborns.

Kilicarslan R; Alkan A; Demirkol D; Toprak H; Sharifov R

2012-07-01

380

Maple syrup urine disease: diffusion-weighted MRI findings during acute metabolic encephalopathic crisis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is caused by a genetic defect of branched-chain amino acids, which include leucine, isoleucine and valine. We report diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) findings in a newborn child with MSUD who presented with acute metabolic encephalopathic crisis. DWI (b = 1,000 s/mm(2)) showed high signal localized within the myelinated white matter (WM) areas including the cerebellar white matter, pons, bulbus, cerebral peduncles, lentiform nucleus, posterior limbs of the internal capsules, corona radiata and bilateral perirolandic cortex. The apparent diffusion coefficient values of these regions were markedly low in the affected areas. The presence of these findings was considered cytotoxic or intramyelinic edema evidenced by restricted water diffusion. In conclusion, our findings suggest that during the acute phase and early encephalopathic crisis stage of MSUD, DWI can demonstrate the involvement of myelinated WM in newborns. PMID:22476847

Kilicarslan, Rukiye; Alkan, Alpay; Demirkol, Demet; Toprak, Huseyin; Sharifov, Rasul

2012-04-03

 
 
 
 
381

The management of pregnancy in maple syrup urine disease: experience with two patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe the management and outcomes of pregnancy in two women affected with Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). Both patients had classical disease diagnosed in the newborn period and were managed with low-protein diets and supplements, although compliance was moderately poor throughout life. Both pregnancies were complicated by poor compliance and one patient had a metabolic decompensation, which included seizures and profound encephalopathy, at the end of the first trimester. Peri-partum management required a coordinated team approach including a high-calorie and low-protein diet. Both patients had elevated leucine levels in the post-partum period - one due to mastitis and the other due to poor dietary and supplement compliance combined with uterine involution. On later review, leucine had returned to pre-pregnancy levels. Both infants were unaffected and have made normal developmental progress in the subsequent 1 to 2 years. PMID:23430812

Tchan, Michel; Westbrook, M; Wilcox, G; Cutler, R; Smith, N; Penman, R; Strauss, B J G; Wilcken, B

2013-02-14

382

[Identification of acid-stable carmine in imported apple syrup product].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

An unknown red pigment was purified from an apple syrup product imported from Canada, using a DIAION HP-20 column with methanol as the eluent. By spectroscopic means and chemical synthesis, the isolated pigment was identified as 4-aminocarminic acid, which is the major pigment of acid-stable carmine (a red colorant illegal in Japan). In addition, HPLC and TLC methods were proposed to detect this illegal colorant. While the color of carminic acid changed from yellow to red in the pH range of McIlvaine buffer (3.0-7.0), the color of 4-aminocarminic acid was always red, and also the ultraviolet/visible (UV/Vis) spectra did not change. These characteristics are useful to distinguish 4-aminocarminic acid from carminic acid.

Kawasaki Y; Sugimoto N; Sato K; Yamazaki T; Ishiwata H; Maitani T

2002-08-01

383

[Identification of acid-stable carmine in imported apple syrup product].  

Science.gov (United States)

An unknown red pigment was purified from an apple syrup product imported from Canada, using a DIAION HP-20 column with methanol as the eluent. By spectroscopic means and chemical synthesis, the isolated pigment was identified as 4-aminocarminic acid, which is the major pigment of acid-stable carmine (a red colorant illegal in Japan). In addition, HPLC and TLC methods were proposed to detect this illegal colorant. While the color of carminic acid changed from yellow to red in the pH range of McIlvaine buffer (3.0-7.0), the color of 4-aminocarminic acid was always red, and also the ultraviolet/visible (UV/Vis) spectra did not change. These characteristics are useful to distinguish 4-aminocarminic acid from carminic acid. PMID:12436709

Kawasaki, Yoko; Sugimoto, Naoki; Sato, Kyoko; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Ishiwata, Hajimu; Maitani, Tamio

2002-08-01

384

Análisis comparativo entre jarabe de agave azul (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul) y otros jarabes naturales/ Comparative analysis between blue agave syrup (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul) and other natural syrups  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El jarabe de agave azul (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul) es la sustancia dulce natural producida por hidrólisis de los fructanos almacenados en la planta de maguey. Este endulzante se ha popularizado por su capacidad prebiótica e índice glucémico bajo respecto a otros jarabes y mieles naturales. Las marcas comerciales, distribuidores, producción y comercialización de estos jarabes han incrementado, por ello es conveniente conocer sus características físicas y qu? (more) ?micas y contrastarlas con las de otros productos del mismo tipo. En el presente estudio se determinaron el contenido de sólidos solubles totales (SST) y de humedad, pH, perfil de carbohidratos y algunas características sensoriales de 29 muestras de jarabes de agave azul, maíz y caña, y miel de abeja. El jarabe de agave azul, en promedio tuvo SST equivalentes a 76 °Brix, 22 % de humedad (% H) y pH 4; en contraste la miel presentó el contenido mayor de SST (82 °Brix), el menor de humedad (16 % H) y pH (pH 3.7). La cromatografía en capa fina (TLC) y cromatografía de intercambio aniónico de alta resolución, acoplada a un detector de pulso amperométrico (HPAEC-PAD), mostró que el jarabe de agave azul contiene principalmente fructosa y fructooligosacáridos; los de maíz y caña y la miel contienen glucosa, sacarosa y maltooligosacáridos con perfiles diferenciables. Abstract in english The blue agave syrup (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul) is the natural sweet substance produced by hydrolysis of fructans stored in the agave plant. This sweetener has become popular for its prebiotic capacity and low glycemic index compared to other natural syrups and honeys. The trademarks, distributors, production and commercialization of these syrups have increased; therefore, it is important to know their physical and chemical characteristics and contrast them with ot (more) her products of the same type. In this study we determined the content of total soluble solids (TSS) and of humidity, pH, carbohydrate profile and some sensorial characteristics of 29 samples of blue agave and corn, sugarcane syrups, and honey. The blue agave syrup, on average, had TSS equivalent to 76 °Brix, 22 % humidity (% H) and pH 4; in contrast, honey showed the highest TSS content (82 °Brix), the lowest values of humidity (16 % H) and pH (pH 3.7). Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and anion-exchange chromatography with high-performance coupled to a pulsed amperometric detector (HPAEC-PAD), showed that the blue agave syrups contains mainly fructose and fructooligosaccharides; those of corn, sugarcane, and honey contain glucose, sucrose and maltooligosaccharides with differentiated profiles.

Mellado-Mojica, Erika; López-Pérez, Mercedes Gpe.

2013-05-01

385

Novel therapies for oral lichen planus.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic mucocutaneous disorder commonly found in middle-aged women. Despite the progress in research and advance in knowledge on OLP, a successful management is still difficult to achieve. The main aim of OLP treatment is to control the symptoms of the affected patients. Steroids and other immunosuppressive drugs have been recommended and widely used in the treatment of OLP. Topical corticosteroids are the mainstay of OLP treatment, but strong evidence on their effectiveness is lacking. The effectiveness of alternative ways of managing OLP has been recently reported. Topical aloe vera, topical pimecrolimus and oral curcuminoids are the most promising of the new treatment modalities. Other interesting modalities are topically applied thalidomide and amlexanox. Nevertheless, the careful assessment between the risks and benefits of these drugs is crucial and larger and well-conducted trials need to confirm the above encouraging results.

Thongprasom K; Prapinjumrune C; Carrozzo M

2013-05-01

386

Novel therapies for oral lichen planus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic mucocutaneous disorder commonly found in middle-aged women. Despite the progress in research and advance in knowledge on OLP, a successful management is still difficult to achieve. The main aim of OLP treatment is to control the symptoms of the affected patients. Steroids and other immunosuppressive drugs have been recommended and widely used in the treatment of OLP. Topical corticosteroids are the mainstay of OLP treatment, but strong evidence on their effectiveness is lacking. The effectiveness of alternative ways of managing OLP has been recently reported. Topical aloe vera, topical pimecrolimus and oral curcuminoids are the most promising of the new treatment modalities. Other interesting modalities are topically applied thalidomide and amlexanox. Nevertheless, the careful assessment between the risks and benefits of these drugs is crucial and larger and well-conducted trials need to confirm the above encouraging results. PMID:23668304

Thongprasom, Kobkan; Prapinjumrune, Chanwit; Carrozzo, Marco

2013-05-13

387

Topics in CP violation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Given the varied backgrounds of the members of this audience this talk will be a grab bag of topics related to the general theme of CP Violation. I do not have time to dwell in detail on any of them. First, for the astronomers and astrophysicists among you, I want to begin by reviewing the experimental status of evidence for CP violation in particle processes. There is only one system where this has been observed, and that is in the decays of neutral K mesons.

1993-01-01

388

Topics in CP violation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Given the varied backgrounds of the members of this audience this talk will be a grab bag of topics related to the general theme of CP Violation. I do not have time to dwell in detail on any of them. First, for the astronomers and astrophysicists among you, I want to begin by reviewing the experimental status of evidence for CP violation in particle processes. There is only one system where this has been observed, and that is in the decays of neutral K mesons.

Quinn, H.R.

1993-02-01

389

Topics in Operator Theory  

CERN Document Server

This is the first volume of a collection of original and review articles on recent advances and new directions in a multifaceted and interconnected area of mathematics and its applications. It encompasses many topics in theoretical developments in operator theory and its diverse applications in applied mathematics, physics, engineering, and other disciplines. The purpose is to bring in one volume many important original results of cutting edge research as well as authoritative review of recent achievements, challenges, and future directions in the area of operator theory and its applications.

Ball, Joseph A; Helton, JWilliam; Rodman, Leiba; Spitkovsky, Iiya

2010-01-01

390

Contribution of the diffusion-weighted MRI in the diagnosis and follow-up of encephalopathy caused by maple syrup urine disease in a full-term newborn  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this case report is to show conventional MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) findings of the different evolutionary phases in MSUD (Maple syrup urine disease) of a newborn that evolved with brain white matter lesions (author)

Ferraz-Filho, Jose Roberto Lopes; Floriano, Valdeci Helio; Quirici, Marcelo Bianco; Souza, Antonio Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Albuquerque, Regina Pires de [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Pediatria

2009-07-01

391

Diclofenac 1% Topical (osteoarthritis pain)  

Science.gov (United States)

... topical gel is used to relieve pain from osteoarthritis (arthritis caused by a breakdown of the lining ... Diclofenac 1% topical liquid is used to relieve osteoarthritis pain in the knees. Diclofenac is in a ...

392

Topical tretinoin in acanthosis nigricans  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Efficacy of topical tretinoin was assessed in 30 cases of idiopathic acanthosis nigricans which were recalcitrant to conventional modalities of treatment. Topical tretinoin once at night application was found to be very effective both clinically and histologically.

Lahiri Koushik; Malakar Subrata

393

Topical tretinoin in acanthosis nigricans  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Efficacy of topical tretinoin was assessed in 30 cases of idiopathic acanthosis nigricans which were recalcitrant to conventional modalities of treatment. Topical tretinoin once at night application was found to be very effective both clinically and histologically.

Lahiri Koushik; Malakar Subrata

1996-01-01

394

In vitro evaluation of alternative oral contrast agents for MRI of the gastrointestinal tract  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: In vitro evaluation of different materials as potential alternative oral contrast agents for small bowel MRI. Materials and methods: The T1 and T2 relaxation times of rose hip syrup, black currant extract, cocoa, iron-deferoxamine solution and a commonly used oral contrast material (1 mM Gd-DTPA) were determined in vitro at different concentrations on a 1.0 T clinical MR scanner. T1 values were obtained with an inversion prepared spoiled gradient echo sequence. T2 values were obtained using multiple echo sequences. Finally the materials were visualized on T1-, T2- and T2*-weighted MR images. Results: The relaxation times of the undiluted rose hip syrup (T1 = 110 ± 5 ms, T2 = 86 ± 3 ms), black currant extract (T1 = 55 ± 3 ms, T2 = 39 ± 2 ms) and 5 mM iron-deferoxamine solution (T1 = 104 ± 4 ms, T2 = 87 ± 2 ms) were much shorter than for a 1 mM Gd-DTPA solution (T1 = 180 ± 8 ms, T2 = 168 ± 5 ms). Dilution of black currant extract to 30% or a 3 mM iron-deferoxamine solution conducted to T1 relaxation times which are quite comparable to a 1 mM Gd-DTPA solution. Despite its much lower metal content an aqueous cocoa suspension (100 g/L) produced T2 relaxation times (T1 = 360 ± 21 ms, T2 = 81 ± 3 ms) more or less in the same range like the 5 mM iron-deferoxamine solution. Imaging of our in vitro model using clinical sequences allowed to anticipate the T1-, T2- and T2*-depiction of all used substances. Cocoa differed from all other materials with its low to moderate signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted sequences. While all substances presented a linear 1/T1 and 1/T2 relationship towards concentration, rose hip syrup broke ranks with a disproportionately high increase of relaxation at higher concentrations. Conclusions: Rose hip syrup, black currant extract and iron-deferoxamine solution due to their positive T1 enhancement characteristics and drinkability appear to be valuable oral contrast agents for T1-weighted small bowel MRI. Cocoa with its differing relaxation and signal enhancement properties is a promising oral contrast agent but needs further clinical evaluation

2008-01-01

395

In vitro evaluation of alternative oral contrast agents for MRI of the gastrointestinal tract  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: In vitro evaluation of different materials as potential alternative oral contrast agents for small bowel MRI. Materials and methods: The T1 and T2 relaxation times of rose hip syrup, black currant extract, cocoa, iron-deferoxamine solution and a commonly used oral contrast material (1 mM Gd-DTPA) were determined in vitro at different concentrations on a 1.0 T clinical MR scanner. T1 values were obtained with an inversion prepared spoiled gradient echo sequence. T2 values were obtained using multiple echo sequences. Finally the materials were visualized on T1-, T2- and T2*-weighted MR images. Results: The relaxation times of the undiluted rose hip syrup (T1 = 110 {+-} 5 ms, T2 = 86 {+-} 3 ms), black currant extract (T1 = 55 {+-} 3 ms, T2 = 39 {+-} 2 ms) and 5 mM iron-deferoxamine solution (T1 = 104 {+-} 4 ms, T2 = 87 {+-} 2 ms) were much shorter than for a 1 mM Gd-DTPA solution (T1 = 180 {+-} 8 ms, T2 = 168 {+-} 5 ms). Dilution of black currant extract to 30% or a 3 mM iron-deferoxamine solution conducted to T1 relaxation times which are quite comparable to a 1 mM Gd-DTPA solution. Despite its much lower metal content an aqueous cocoa suspension (100 g/L) produced T2 relaxation times (T1 = 360 {+-} 21 ms, T2 = 81 {+-} 3 ms) more or less in the same range like the 5 mM iron-deferoxamine solution. Imaging of our in vitro model using clinical sequences allowed to anticipate the T1-, T2- and T2*-depiction of all used substances. Cocoa differed from all other materials with its low to moderate signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted sequences. While all substances presented a linear 1/T1 and 1/T2 relationship towards concentration, rose hip syrup broke ranks with a disproportionately high increase of relaxation at higher concentrations. Conclusions: Rose hip syrup, black currant extract and iron-deferoxamine solution due to their positive T1 enhancement characteristics and drinkability appear to be valuable oral contrast agents for T1-weighted small bowel MRI. Cocoa with its differing relaxation and signal enhancement properties is a promising oral contrast agent but needs further clinical evaluation.

Babos, Magor [University of Szeged, Faculty of Science (Hungary); Euromedic Diagnostics Szeged, 6720 Szeged, Semmelweiss u. 6 (Hungary)], E-mail: babosmagor@yahoo.com; Schwarcz, Attila [University of Pecs, Department of Neurosurgery, Pecs Diagnostic Institute, 7624 Pecs, Retu. 2 (Hungary)], E-mail: attila.schwarcz@aok.pte.hu; Randhawa, Manjit Singh [University of Szeged, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 6720 Szeged, Semmelweiss u. 6 (Hungary)], E-mail: majyaal@hotmail.com; Marton, Balazs [University of Szeged, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 6720 Szeged, Semmelweiss u. 6 (Hungary)], E-mail: balazsmarton@freemail.hu; Kardos, Lilla [Euromedic Diagnostics Szeged, 6720 Szeged, Semmelweiss u. 6 (Hungary)], E-mail: medlis@tiszanet.hu; Palko, Andras [Euromedic Diagnostics Szeged, 6720 Szeged, Semmelweiss u. 6 (Hungary); University of Szeged, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 6720 Szeged, Semmelweiss u. 6 (Hungary)], E-mail: palko@radio.szote.u-szeged.hu

2008-01-15

396

Oral calcitonin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ronald C Hamdy,1,2 Dane N Daley11Osteoporosis Center, College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, 2Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Johnson City, TN, USAAbstract: Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the C-cells of the thyroid gland in response to elevations of the plasma calcium level. It reduces bone resorption by inhibiting mature active osteoclasts and increases renal calcium excretion. It is used in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget's disease of bone, and malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Synthetic and recombinant calcitonin preparations are available; both have similar pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. As calcitonin is a peptide, the traditional method of administration has been parenteral or intranasal. This hinders its clinical use: adherence with therapy is notoriously low, and withdrawal from clinical trials has been problematic. An oral formulation would be more attractive, practical, and convenient to patients. In addition to its effect on active osteoclasts and renal tubules, calcitonin has an analgesic action, possibly mediated through ?-endorphins and the central modulation of pain perception. It also exerts a protective action on cartilage and may be useful in the management of osteoarthritis and possibly rheumatoid arthritis. Oral formulations of calcitonin have been developed using different techniques. The most studied involves drug-delivery carriers such as Eligen® 8-(N-2hydroxy-5-chloro-benzoyl)-amino-caprylic acid (5-CNAC) (Emisphere Technologies, Cedar Knolls, NJ). Several factors affect the bioavailability and efficacy of orally administered calcitonin, including amount of water used to take the tablet, time of day the tablet is taken, and proximity to intake of a meal. Preliminary results looked promising. Unfortunately, in two Phase III studies, oral calcitonin (0.8 mg with 200 mg 5-CNAC, once a day for postmenopausal osteoporosis and twice a day for osteoarthritis) failed to meet key end points, and in December 2011, Novartis Pharma AG announced that it would not pursue further clinical development of oral calcitonin for postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteoarthritis. A unique feature of calcitonin is that it is able to uncouple bone turnover, reducing bone resorption without affecting bone formation and therefore increasing bone mass and improving bone quality. This effect, however, may be dose-dependent, with higher doses inhibiting both resorption and formation. Because so many factors affect the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of calcitonin, especially orally administered calcitonin, much work remains to be done to explore the full pharmacologic spectrum and potential of calcitonin and determine the optimum dose and timing of administration, as well as water and food intake.Keywords: oral calcitonin, osteoporosis, fractures, arthritis, pain

Hamdy RC; Daley DN

2012-01-01

397

Fate of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) following the oral route: design, pharmacokinetics and biodistribution.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Abstract The aim of this study was to develop a nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) formulation containing spironolactone (SPN-NLCs), and to investigate its potential for the oral delivery of poorly water-soluble compounds. SPN-NLCs were orally administered to rabbits and the pharmacokinetics of spironolactone and its metabolites was evaluated. As reference formulation, we administered syrup. Spironolactone was only detected in a few plasma samples; hence, metabolite levels were employed for the pharmacokinetic analysis. The absolute bioavailability of 7?-TMS was significantly higher with the syrup than those obtained with the SPN-NLCs (0.7 versus 0.4, p?Orally administered (99m)Tc-radiolabeled SPN-NLCs were mainly detected in the small intestine. These results suggest the retention of the nanocarriers in the underlying epithelium and further uptake by the epithelial cells.

Beloqui A; Solinís MA; Delgado A; Evora C; Isla A; Rodríguez-Gascón A

2013-04-01

398

Successful treatment of Fusarium keratitis with cornea transplantation and topical and systemic voriconazole.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A case of invasive Fusarium keratitis in a previously healthy male patient was treated successfully with cornea transplantation and systemic and topical voriconazole after treatment failure with topical amphotericin B and systemic itraconazole. Topical voriconazole was well tolerated, and, in conjunction with the oral administration, it resulted in a high level of the drug in the anterior chamber of the eye (which was 160% of the plasma drug level).

Klont RR; Eggink CA; Rijs AJ; Wesseling P; Verweij PE

2005-06-01

399

Oral care.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable.

Hitz Lindenmüller I; Lambrecht JT

2011-01-01

400

Topical analgesics in the management of acute and chronic pain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral analgesics are commonly prescribed for the treatment of acute and chronic pain, but these agents often produce adverse systemic effects, which sometimes are severe. Topical analgesics offer the potential to provide the same analgesic relief provided by oral analgesics but with minimal adverse systemic effects. This article describes the results of a systematic review of the efficacy of topical analgesics in the management of acute and chronic pain conditions. A literature search of MEDLINE/PubMed was conducted using the keywords topical analgesic AND chronic pain OR acute pain OR neuropathic pain and focused only on individual clinical trials published in English-language journals. The search identified 92 articles, of which 65 were eligible for inclusion in the review. The most commonly studied topical analgesics were nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (n=27), followed by lidocaine (n=9), capsaicin (n=6), amitriptyline (n=5), glyceryl trinitrate (n=3), opioids (n=2), menthol (n=2), pimecrolimus (n=2), and phenytoin (n=2). The most common indications were acute soft tissue injuries (n=18), followed by neuropathic pain (n=17), experimental pain (n=6), osteoarthritis and other chronic joint-related conditions (n=5), skin or leg ulcers (n=5), and chronic knee pain (n=2). Strong evidence was identified for the use of topical diclofenac and topical ibuprofen in the treatment of acute soft tissue injuries or chronic joint-related conditions, such as osteoarthritis. Evidence also supports the use of topical lidocaine in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia and diabetic neuropathy. Currently, limited evidence is available to support the use of other topical analgesics in acute and chronic pain. PMID:23374622

Argoff, Charles E

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
401

Topical analgesics in the management of acute and chronic pain.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Oral analgesics are commonly prescribed for the treatment of acute and chronic pain, but these agents often produce adverse systemic effects, which sometimes are severe. Topical analgesics offer the potential to provide the same analgesic relief provided by oral analgesics but with minimal adverse systemic effects. This article describes the results of a systematic review of the efficacy of topical analgesics in the management of acute and chronic pain conditions. A literature search of MEDLINE/PubMed was conducted using the keywords topical analgesic AND chronic pain OR acute pain OR neuropathic pain and focused only on individual clinical trials published in English-language journals. The search identified 92 articles, of which 65 were eligible for inclusion in the review. The most commonly studied topical analgesics were nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (n=27), followed by lidocaine (n=9), capsaicin (n=6), amitriptyline (n=5), glyceryl trinitrate (n=3), opioids (n=2), menthol (n=2), pimecrolimus (n=2), and phenytoin (n=2). The most common indications were acute soft tissue injuries (n=18), followed by neuropathic pain (n=17), experimental pain (n=6), osteoarthritis and other chronic joint-related conditions (n=5), skin or leg ulcers (n=5), and chronic knee pain (n=2). Strong evidence was identified for the use of topical diclofenac and topical ibuprofen in the treatment of acute soft tissue injuries or chronic joint-related conditions, such as osteoarthritis. Evidence also supports the use of topical lidocaine in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia and diabetic neuropathy. Currently, limited evidence is available to support the use of other topical analgesics in acute and chronic pain.

Argoff CE

2013-02-01

402

A topical ectoparasiticide composition  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A topical ectoparasiticide composition comprising: i) an Insect Growth Regulator (IGR) and/or a phenyl pyrazole insecticide and/or a chloronicotinyl insecticide ii) glycol ether and iii) butanol and/or dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The preferred IGRs include hydroprene, s- hydroprene, kinoprene, s-kinoprene, fenoxycarb, pyriproxifen, cyromazine, dimilin and novaluron, especially methoprene or s-methoprene. The preferred phenyl pyrazole insecticide is fipronil. Preferably, the chloronicotinyl insecticide is imidacloprid and/or thiacloprid. The preferred glycol ether is diethylene glycol monoethyl ether. The composition may also comprise a crystallization inhibitor and/or a surfactant and/or an antioxidant and/or a propellant. The composition is useful for the treatment for the reduction or inhibition of juvenile ectoparasite maturation from the skin of an animal.

O'GORMAN EDDIE; BLAKELY WILLY; CROMIE LILLIAN

403

Dietary behaviors and oral-systemic health in women.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The impact of dietary behaviors and food consumption and their relation to oral health are significant public health issues. Women and men exhibit different dietary behaviors. Understanding the influences of dietary behaviors on oral health from the perspective of gender disparities, however, is limited. This article provides the intersections of dietary factors and oral-systemic health for which women are at greater risk than men. Topics include the effect of dietary choices on oral health disparities seen in female patients. Interventional strategies at the local and community level that are designed to influence the balance between dietary habits and oral-systemic health are discussed.

Kim J; DeBate RD; Daley E

2013-04-01

404

Relative bioavailability of levodropropizine 60 mg capsule and syrup formulations in healthy male Korean volunteers: a singledose, randomized-sequence, open-label, two-way crossover study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Levodropropizine is an oral non-opioid anti-tussive drug used in treatment of cough. A new generic 60 mg capsule formulation of levodropropizine has recently been developed. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics and bioequivalence of the test (capsule) formulation and reference (syrup) formulation of levodropropizine (60 mg) in healthy, fasted, male Korean volunteers. METHODS: This was a single-dose, randomized sequence, open-label, 2-period crossover study conducted in healthy male Korean volunteers in the fasted state at Kyung Hee University Medical Center (Seoul, Republic of Korea). A single oral dose of the test or reference formulation was followed by a 1-week washout period, after which subjects received the alternative formulation. Blood samples were collected at 0 (predose), 0.17, 0.33, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 12 hours after study drug administration. Plasma concentration of levodropropizine was determined using a validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/ MS) method. The formulations were considered bioequivalent if the 90% CIs for C(max), AUC(0-12h) and AUC(0-?) were within the predetermined bioequivalence range (80 - 125%, according to the guidelines of the Korea Food and Drug Administration (Korea FDA)). Tolerability was evaluated throughout the study based on vital sign measurements, laboratory analysis (blood biochemistry, hematology, hepatic function and urinalysis) and subject interviews concerning adverse events (AEs). RESULTS: A total of 36 male Korean subjects (mean (SD) age, 23.9 (2.4) years (range 19 - 30 years); height, 176.2 (6.1) cm (range 161 - 190 cm); weight, 69.8 (9.1) kg (range 54.0 - 92.2 kg); body mass index, 22.4 (2.1) kg/m2 (range 19.1 - 28.3 kg/m2)) was enrolled and completed the study. The mean values for C(max), t(max), AUC(0-12h), and AUC(0-?) with the test formulation of levodropropizine were 331.51 ng/ml, 0.60 hours, 784.32 ng×h/ml, and 825.82 ng×h/ml, respectively; for the reference formulation, the values were 332.81 ng/ml, 0.44 hours, 726.46 ng×h/ml, and 769.46 ng×h/ ml, respectively. The 90% CIs for the logtransformed ratios of C(max) (92.74 - 111.24), AUC(0-12h) (104.31 - 113.67) and AUC(0-?) (103.87 - 113.57) were within the predetermined range for the assumption of bioequivalence. No serious adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS: This single-dose (60 mg) study found that the test (capsule) and reference (syrup) formulations of levodropropizine met the regulatory criterion for assuming bioequivalence in these healthy, fasted, male Korean subjects. Both formulations were well tolerated in the population studied. Korea FDA registration number: BED-1784.

Jang JW; Seo JH; Jo MH; Lee YJ; Cho YW; Yim SV; Lee KT

2013-02-01

405

Comparison of productivity of colonies of honey bees, Apis mellifera, supplemented with sucrose or high fructose corn syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

Honey bee colony feeding trials were conducted to determine whether differential effects of carbohydrate feeding (sucrose syrup (SS) vs. high fructose corn syrup, or HFCS) could be measured between colonies fed exclusively on these syrups. In one experiment, there was a significant difference in mean wax production between the treatment groups and a significant interaction between time and treatment for the colonies confined in a flight arena. On average, the colonies supplied with SS built 7916.7 cm(2) ± 1015.25 cm(2) honeycomb, while the colonies supplied with HFCS built 4571.63 cm(2) ± 786.45 cm(2). The mean mass of bees supplied with HFCS was 4.65 kg (± 0.97 kg), while those supplied with sucrose had a mean of 8.27 kg (± 1.26). There was no significant difference between treatment groups in terms of brood rearing. Differences in brood production were complicated due to possible nutritional deficiencies experienced by both treatment groups. In the second experiment, colonies supplemented with SS through the winter months at a remote field site exhibited increased spring brood production when compared to colonies fed with HFCS. The differences in adult bee populations were significant, having an overall average of 10.0 ± 1.3 frames of bees fed the sucrose syrup between November 2008 and April 2009, compared to 7.5 ± 1.6 frames of bees fed exclusively on HFCS. For commercial queen beekeepers, feeding the right supplementary carbohydrates could be especially important, given the findings of this study. PMID:23886010

Sammataro, Diana; Weiss, Milagra

2013-01-01

406

Maple syrup urine disease encephalopathy: a follow-up study in the acute stage using diffusion-weighted MRI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Neonatal maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is associated with diffuse oedema and characteristic MSUD oedema. We present a newborn infant with two coexisting different types of oedema. The myelinated white matter showed a marked decrease in the water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) compatible with cytotoxic oedema. The unmyelinated white matter showed an increase in ADC, consistent with vasogenic-interstitial oedema. On follow-up studies, the cytotoxic oedema showed improvement, but the vasogenic-interstitial oedema progressed into brain atrophy. (orig.)

Ha, Jong Su; Kim, Taik-Kun; Lee, Ki Yeol; Seol, Hae Young; Cha, Sang Hoon [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan City, Kyungki-Do (Korea); Eun, Baik-Lin; Lee, Hee Sun [Department of Paediatrics, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

2004-02-01

407

Comparison of productivity of colonies of honey bees, Apis mellifera, supplemented with sucrose or high fructose corn syrup.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Honey bee colony feeding trials were conducted to determine whether differential effects of carbohydrate feeding (sucrose syrup (SS) vs. high fructose corn syrup, or HFCS) could be measured between colonies fed exclusively on these syrups. In one experiment, there was a significant difference in mean wax production between the treatment groups and a significant interaction between time and treatment for the colonies confined in a flight arena. On average, the colonies supplied with SS built 7916.7 cm(2) ± 1015.25 cm(2) honeycomb, while the colonies supplied with HFCS built 4571.63 cm(2) ± 786.45 cm(2). The mean mass of bees supplied with HFCS was 4.65 kg (± 0.97 kg), while those supplied with sucrose had a mean of 8.27 kg (± 1.26). There was no significant difference between treatment groups in terms of brood rearing. Differences in brood production were complicated due to possible nutritional deficiencies experienced by both treatment groups. In the second experiment, colonies supplemented with SS through the winter months at a remote field site exhibited increased spring brood production when compared to colonies fed with HFCS. The differences in adult bee populations were significant, having an overall average of 10.0 ± 1.3 frames of bees fed the sucrose syrup between November 2008 and April 2009, compared to 7.5 ± 1.6 frames of bees fed exclusively on HFCS. For commercial queen beekeepers, feeding the right supplementary carbohydrates could be especially important, given the findings of this study.

Sammataro D; Weiss M

2013-01-01

408