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1

Nifedipine in compounded oral and topical preparations.  

Science.gov (United States)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate nifedipine oral and topical compounding formulas and procedures. Topical preparations were compounded in Plastibase 50 W, using combinations of two drug sources and four types of light exposure. Oral preparations were compounded using combinations of two drug sources, two types of light exposure, and four suspending vehicles. Drug sources consisted of the contents of commercial nifedipine soft-gelatin capsules and nifedipine powder USP. Light exposures were ambient, red-shaded, gold-shaded fluorescent light. Topical formulations were assessed for potency, uniformity, and usability characteristics such as acceptable look and feel of the preparation. Oral formulations were assessed for potency, uniformity, and usability characteristics, such as acceptable look and taste of the preparation. Preparations which were compounded, in entirety, under gold-shaded fluorescent light with nifedipine powder USP as the drug source resulted in a potency of 90% to 110% of intended value. Preparations that were exposed to ambient or red-shaded fluorescent light at any time in the compounding procedure resulted in sub potent preparations. Nifedipine is sensitive to certain wavelengths of light resulting in rapid degradation. When exposed to fluorescent room light, significant degradation may occur in a time frame less than what may be required to compound a preparation, necessitating the need for compounding to take place under a spectrum of light that will not degrade the drug. Gold fluorescent lighting appears to prevent nifedipine degradation during compounding procedures. Concerning the drug source, the use of commercial nifedipine soft-gelatin capsules was problematic, while nifedipine powder USP is a suitable choice for the active pharmaceutical ingredient. PMID:23696085

McCluskey, Susan V; Brunn, Gregory J

2011-01-01

2

Maple Syrup  

Science.gov (United States)

The Spring Thaw is upon us, maple trees are experiencing below freezing temperatures by night and above freezing temperatures by day, signaling a time to cook up some pancakes because maple syrup is on its way! The following websites cover many aspects of the longstanding North American maple syrup tradition. The first site (1) presents Cornell University's Sugar Maple Research and Extension Program. This website is informative and extensive with activities for students and teachers, great photos, and a wealth of information about syrup production, research, and more. The second site (2) from the University of Vermont introduces the Proctor Maple Research Center and includes information about various research projects. The third website (3) hosted by The Ohio State University Extension, features an online copy of the _North American Maple Syrup Producers Manual_, an important and comprehensive text authored by a host of experts in the field. The fourth site, (4) from The Australian National University, provides a concise overview of maple syrup including sections on Origin and History, Collecting and Boiling the Sap, and more. The fifth site, (5) from the Wisconsin DNR's Environmental Education for Kids! (EEK!) electronic magazine for 4th-8th graders and teachers, contains a short history of maple syrup with a link to maple syrup recipes. The last three websites are all from regional maple syrup producers associations in North America, and they include recipes, information about maple syrup history and production, and more. The sixth site (6) is hosted by the Massachusetts Maple Producers Association, the seventh site (7) is hosted by the Michigan Maple Syrup Association, and the final site (8) is hosted by the Qu'bec Maple Syrup Producers Federation.

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Accumulation of Topical Naproxen by Cultured Oral Epithelium  

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Topically administered non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit periodontal bone loss, but little is known about the mechanism by which they penetrate oral epithelium. Active transporters could potentially play a role in this process. In this study, we used a cell line derived from oral epithelium to investigate a role for transporters and to characterize conditions that enhance epithelial penetration. Using fluorescence to monitor uptake, we demonstrated that SCC-25 cell monola...

Fitzgerald, R. R.; Walters, J. D.

2007-01-01

4

Interviewers’ Gender and Interview Topic in Oral Exams  

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Nowadays, language schools tend to include more of oral exams as part of their course completion assessment instruments in addition to traditional written exams. The major purpose of this study was accordingly to investigate the relationship between interviewers' gender, interview topic and oral performance. Thirty female upper-intermediate students were selected. All the participants were interviewed twice, once by a female and once by a male interviewer and each time they were required to t...

2011-01-01

5

Interviewers’ Gender and Interview Topic in Oral Exams  

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Full Text Available Nowadays, language schools tend to include more of oral exams as part of their course completion assessment instruments in addition to traditional written exams. The major purpose of this study was accordingly to investigate the relationship between interviewers' gender, interview topic and oral performance. Thirty female upper-intermediate students were selected. All the participants were interviewed twice, once by a female and once by a male interviewer and each time they were required to talk about two topics, one gender-neutral and another gender-biased. All the performances were scored twice with an inter-rater reliability of +.88 and +.89 for two interviews respectively. A comparative analysis of the interview scores indicated that students achieved higher scores when interviewed by a female interviewer. With respect to interview topic, students performed better on gender-neutral topic.

Sanaz Nozad

2011-10-01

6

Topical tacrolimus and oral diseases: a short literature review  

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Full Text Available Tacrolimus is the generic name forthe macrolide immunosupressant previously known by its experimental name, FK506. This new name is derived from Tsukuba, the location of its discovery; macrolide, its chemical class; and immune suppressant, its primary activity in humans. Recent reports suggest thattopical tacrolimus may be used forthe treatment of mucosal diseases, including oral psoriasis, Crohn’s disease, exfoliative cheilitis, oral lichen planus, graft versus host disease, paraneoplastic pemphigus, bullous pemphigoid and cicatricial pemphigoid. Topical tacrolimus treatment seems to be effective, but this must be proven by well designed randomized controlled studies.

Jacek Szepietowski

2007-12-01

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Oral isotretinoin is as effective as a combination of oral isotretinoin and topical anti-acne agents in nodulocystic acne  

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Background: Due to the late introduction of oral isotretinoin, there is only a single report of the use of this drug from India. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy, acceptability and side effects of oral isotretinoin in Indian conditions and to compare the efficacy of oral isotretinoin monotherapy with that of a combination of oral isotretinoin and topical anti-acne agents. Methods: Sixty clinically diagnosed patients of nodulocystic acne were divided into two groups of 30 ea...

2008-01-01

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Topical Ankaferd hemostat application for the management of oral cavity bleedings in children with hemorrhagic diathesis.  

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Ankaferd blood stopper (ABS) is a hemostatic agent used topically for controlling bleedings of skin or mucosal surfaces in Turkey. It is currently topically used in bleedings of body injuries, traumas, and minor or major surgical interventions. Here we have evaluated 12 pediatric patients with hemorrhagic diathesis on whom Ankaferd was used for oral bleedings. Topical Ankaferd was administered for hemorrhages of oral cavity during 15 bleeding attacks. ABS administrations successfully stopped the bleedings, except for one patient with oral hemorrhage who did not respond to ABS application. Ankaferd is effective for oral bleedings of children with bleeding diathesis especially when other measures have failed. PMID:22576286

Leblebisatan, Goksel; Bay, Ali; Karakus, Suleyman C; Kekilli, Murat; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim C

2012-09-01

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Role of topical drugs in treatment of oral mucosal diseases. A literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Few topical formulations have been designed specifically to treat oral mucosal diseases. Local drug delivery may provide a more targeted and efficient option than systemic delivery for diseases of the oral mucosa. The permeability to the topical drugs differs according to the thickness of the epithelium and the extent of keratinization. The loss of the permeability barrier in the oral mucosa, due to ulceration or erosion, leads to rapid diffusion of the drug into tissues as compared to the intact areas of the mucosa. Oral mucosal delivery has the potential to treat many different conditions and diseases, such as oral cancer, mucositis, lichen planus, herpes simplex, candidiasis, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, vesiculo-bullous diseases, neuropathic pain and salivary dysfunction. Each therapy requires distinct penetration and drug retention profiles in order to optimize treatment and minimize side effects. In this paper, topical medications are discussed, as these are advantageous for the treatment of oral mucosal lesions with fewer side effects. PMID:24600767

Sheikh, Soheyl; Gupta, Deepak; Pallagatti, Shambulingappa; Singla, Isha; Gupta, Rajesh; Goel, Varun

2013-11-01

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The Effect of Topical Sucralfate Suspension on Oral Aphthae  

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Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of oral sucralfate suspension (1gr/10ml) in the treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS).Materials and Methods: Fifty-five patients with oral aphthae were included in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted in the Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. In thefirst part of the study, all subjects were instructed to rinse with a 10% su...

2007-01-01

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"EFFICACY OF TOPICAL RETINOIC ACID COMPARED WITH TOPICAL TRIAMCINOLONE ACETONIDE IN THE TREATMENT OF ORAL LICHEN PLANUS"  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of retinoic acid 0.05% with triamcinolone acetonide 0.1%, both in an oral base, in the treatment of atrophic and erosive oral lichen planus. Thirty patients with clinically proven oral lichen planus were asked to participate in the study. The severity of lesions was scored from 0 (no lesion to 5 (large erosion, and symptoms were scored ranging from 100 (asymptomatic to 0 (impossible to live with symptoms. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either triamcinolone acetonide or retinoic acid. They were instructed to apply the medication on dried lesions four times a day. The signs and symptoms were evaluated after 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks of treatment. The scores were analyzed by the Wilcoxon rank sum test. The stage of lesions in patients receiving topical triamcinolone acetonide (n=18 improved from an average score of 3.22 to 1.05 after 4 weeks of treatment, whereas patients receiving topical retinoic acid (n=12 showed nonsignificant improvement (average score 3.41 improved to 3.25. The keratotic areas in 4 patients (22.2% receiving triamcinolone acetonide and one patient (8.3% in the retinoic acid group were completely resolved. After 4 weeks of treatment all patients in triamcinolone acetonide group, and 50% of retinoic acid group were asymptomatic. Improvement in symptoms and signs was significantly different in the two groups (p? 0.003, p? 0.0001 respectively. The results suggest that in non-keratotic and even keratotic oral lichen planus, topical triamcinolone acetonide 0.1% in oral base reduces the severity of atrophic and erosive oral lesions more effectively than topical retionoic acid 0.05% in oral base.

M. Sahebjamee

2004-06-01

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Topical tacrolimus and oral diseases: a short literature review  

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Tacrolimus is the generic name forthe macrolide immunosupressant previously known by its experimental name, FK506. This new name is derived from Tsukuba, the location of its discovery; macrolide, its chemical class; and immune suppressant, its primary activity in humans. Recent reports suggest thattopical tacrolimus may be used forthe treatment of mucosal diseases, including oral psoriasis, Crohn’s disease, exfoliative cheilitis, oral lichen planus, graft versus host disease, paraneopla...

Mohamed Mahmoud Anees; Jacek Szepietowski

2007-01-01

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Penetration of topical, oral, and combined administered ofloxacin into the subretinal fluid  

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AIMS—To assess the subretinal fluid (SRF) levels of ofloxacin following topical, oral or combined administration.?METHODS—31 patients undergoing conventional retinal reattachment surgery were randomly assigned to three groups. Nine patients received topical ofloxacin, 11 patients received oral ofloxacin, and the other 11 patients received combined administration. Collected SRF samples were analysed for drug level by using high performance liquid chromatography.?RESULTS—SRF...

Cekic, O.; Batman, C.; Yasar, U.; Totan, Y.; Basci, N.; Bozkurt, A.; Zilelioglu, O.; Kayaalp, S.

1999-01-01

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Dramatic Improvement of Long Lasting Post-Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation by Oral and Topical Tranexamic Acid  

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Full Text Available Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation is common problem, but its treatment still remains challenging. Tranexamic acid has been used to treat or prevent excessive bleeding loss in various medical conditions. There have been some reports of the effect of oral and topical tranexamic acid for treatment of pigmented disorder. Herein we report on a case of female patient who showed improvement of PIH after oral and topical tranexamic acid administration.

Kee Chan Moon

2012-06-01

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Pharmacoeconomic assessment of ciclopirox topical solution, 8%, oral terbinafine, and oral itraconazole for onychomycosis.  

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Most pharmacoeconomic data available for antifungal agents are based on US or European cost parameters. Similar data have not been reported in a Canadian health care system. A pharmacoeconomic analysis was performed considering the costs of drug acquisition and medical management, which were representative of the Canadian health care system, for each of the therapies approved for use in toenail onychomycosis in Canada: continuous oral terbinafine, oral pulse itraconazole, and topical ciclopirox 8% nail lacquer. A survey of provincial fee schedules was conducted to determine the representative costs of parameters relating to onychomycosis treatment, such as consultation visit cost, return visit cost, mycology testing, liver function testing, and complete blood count analysis. Manufacturers' costs were used to calculate representative drug acquisition costs. Meta-analysis was used to determine the average mycologic cure rates of each therapy, and the medical literature was consulted to determine the relapse rates for each therapy. Ciclopirox nail lacquer had the lowest drug acquisition costs compared with continuous terbinafine and pulse itraconazole ($197.89 vs $311.39 and $323.40, respectively). Using the pharmacoeconomic model with three 1-year treatment phases, in which failures or relapses were re-treated with the primary drug, the expected cost per patient was $601.52 with ciclopirox nail lacquer, $746.72 with oral terbinafine, and $938.42 with itraconazole. The main analysis assumed that two bottles of ciclopirox nail lacquer were required per treatment. The cost for the ciclopirox lacquer exceeded continuous terbinafine but remained lower than pulse itraconazole when three bottles of ciclopirox nail lacquer were considered in the calculation of cost per mycological cure. A variety of relapse rates were tested, and ciclopirox using two or fewer bottles remained cost-effective compared with continuous terbinafine or pulse itraconazole, regardless of the relapse rate. Where three bottles are required, the cost-effectiveness of ciclopirox nail lacquer is less than that of continuous terbinafine but more cost-effective than that of pulse itraconazole. PMID:17204234

Gupta, Aditya K; Lynde, Charles W; Barber, Kirk

2006-12-01

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Oral isotretinoin is as effective as a combination of oral isotretinoin and topical anti-acne agents in nodulocystic acne  

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Full Text Available Background: Due to the late introduction of oral isotretinoin, there is only a single report of the use of this drug from India. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy, acceptability and side effects of oral isotretinoin in Indian conditions and to compare the efficacy of oral isotretinoin monotherapy with that of a combination of oral isotretinoin and topical anti-acne agents. Methods: Sixty clinically diagnosed patients of nodulocystic acne were divided into two groups of 30 each. Patients in group A were administered oral isotretinoin 20 mg twice a day along with topical clindamycin (1% and adapalene (0.1% for 24 weeks. Patients in group B were given only oral isotretinoin. An objective clinical scoring was repeated every four weeks and patients were followed up for six months on completion of treatment. Results: Out of the 60 patients, 50 completed the treatment and 35 completed the follow-up at six months. The mean pretreatment score in group A came down from 12.8 to 1.24 and in group B from 12.4 to 1.48, thus showing a 90.55% and 88% reduction in pretreatment scores respectively. There was no statistical difference in the results obtained from the two groups. Side effects were common but minor in nature. Conclusion: Isotretinoin produces gratifying results in patients of nodulocystic acne in Indian conditions. Addition of topical antiacne agents does not alter the final outcome. This addition is well tolerated but requires careful monitoring.

Dhir Rajeev

2008-01-01

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CHILDHOOD VITILIGO: RESPONSE TO METHYLPREDNISOLONE ORAL MINIPULSE THERAPY AND TOPICAL FLUTICASONE COMBINATION  

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Background: Childhood vitiligo is always a challenge to treat, especially when the disease is progressing rapidly in such a patient. Oral minipulse with betamethasone has been tried in childhood vitiligo and also in some other immune mediated skin disorders with good results. Aims: The aim of the present study was to see the overall efficacy of methylprednisolone oral minipulse therapy in combination with topical fluticasone in progressive childhood vitiligo. The combination ...

Majid Imran; Masood Qazi; Hassan Iffat; Khan Dilshad; Chisti Muzammil

2009-01-01

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Childhood vitiligo : Response to methylprednisolone oral minipulse therapy and topical fluticasone combination  

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Background: Childhood vitiligo is always a challenge to treat, especially when the disease is progressing rapidly in such a patient. Oral minipulse with betamethasone has been tried in childhood vitiligo and also in some other immune mediated skin disorders with good results. Aims: The aim of the present study was to see the overall efficacy of methylprednisolone oral minipulse therapy in combination with topical fluticasone in progressive childhood vitiligo. The combination ...

Majid Imran; Masood Qazi; Hassan Iffat; Khan Dilshad; Chisti Muzammil

2009-01-01

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Sugarcane Culture and Syrup Production.  

Science.gov (United States)

The publication gives the basic information needed by growers of syrup sugarcane. It includes descriptions of the sugarcane plant characteristics needed in syrup varieties, the best varieties, cultural requirements and practices, and the diseases and inse...

D. M. Broadhead N. Zummo

1988-01-01

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Plasma concentrations of betamethasone after topical application of betamethasone 17-valerate: comparison with oral administration.  

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Plasma concentrations of betamethasone were measured by r.i.a. after oral administration of 0.6 mg betamethasone and topical application of betamethasone 17-valerate in the same five healthy subjects. Betamethasone 17-valerate was prepared as a suspension in medical grade pressure sensitive adhesive and applied to a 100 cm2 area on the back for 28 h. Mean maximum plasma concentrations were 5.0 and 0.24 ng ml-1 and mean AUC values were 75.4 and 7.74 ng ml-1 h after oral and topical administrat...

Kubota, K.; Lo, E. S.; Huttinot, G.; Andersen, P. H.; Maibach, H. I.

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Adrenal insufficiency secondary to inappropriate oral administration of topical exogenous steroids presenting with hypercalcaemia.  

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A 59-year-old Caucasian gentleman presented with malaise, fatigue and proximal muscle weakness. He had history of long-standing roseate psoriasis treated with topical clobetasol propionate (dermovate). On admission, he had significant postural hypotension, and hypercalcaemia. Endocrinological investigation revealed hypercalcaemia, a serum cortisol of synacthen test and undetectable adrenocorticotropic hormone. He was treated with hydrocortisone. The abrupt withdrawal of the topical steroids by the patient precipitated the addisonian crisis. Further enquiry documented inappropriate oral administration of clobetasol for more than 10 years in addition to prescribed topical usage. PMID:22729340

Bhatti, Rahila Sarwar; Flynn, Michael D

2012-01-01

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Oral ivermectin in scabies patients: a comparison with 1% topical lindane lotion.  

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Scabies. which constitutes a significant proportion of the outpatient attendance in tropical dermatology clinics, has so far been treated with lindane, crotamiton, sulphur, permethrin, etc. Ivermectin, an orally administered drug, was tried in scabies patients and compared with 1% topical lindane lotion to evaluate its effects and toxicity profile. Two hundred scabies patients were randomly allocated to one of two groups. One group received oral invermectin in a single dose of 200 micrograms/kg body weight. The other received 1% lindane lotion for topical application overnight. Patients were assessed after 48 hours, two weeks and four weeks. After a period of four weeks, 82.6% of the patients in the ivermectin group showed marked improvement; only 44.44% of the patients in the lindance group showed a similar response. A side effects in the form of severe headache were noted in one patient in group A. Oral ivermectin is an easy drug to administer. It is given as a single oral dose, unlike lindane, which has to be applied topically. The compliance is accordingly increased. Moreover, ivermectin induces an early and effective improvement in signs and symptoms. Thus, it may be a better option for scabies than the traditional topical linlane lotion. PMID:11603388

Madan, V; Jaskiran, K; Gupta, U; Gupta, D K

2001-09-01

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Childhood vitiligo : Response to methylprednisolone oral minipulse therapy and topical fluticasone combination  

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Full Text Available Background: Childhood vitiligo is always a challenge to treat, especially when the disease is progressing rapidly in such a patient. Oral minipulse with betamethasone has been tried in childhood vitiligo and also in some other immune mediated skin disorders with good results. Aims: The aim of the present study was to see the overall efficacy of methylprednisolone oral minipulse therapy in combination with topical fluticasone in progressive childhood vitiligo. The combination was tried to achieve a significant amount of repigmentation of vitiligo lesions already present at the initial visit. Materials and Methods: Four hundred children with progressive vitiligo were enrolled for this study and were prescribed oral methylprednisolone on two consecutive days every week in a minipulse form for a period of six months. In addition, the patients were instructed to apply fluticasone ointment topically once a day on their vitiligo lesions. The patients were assessed for the remission achieved as well as the extent of repigmentation of their already existent lesions. Results: More than 90% of patients went into complete remission after the start of the therapy. Moreover, about 65% (two-thirds of patients achieved good to excellent repigmentation of lesions at the end of six months of therapy. The therapy was also well tolerated and the side effects seen were almost negligible. Conclusions: Oral minipulse treatment with methylprednisolone is an effective treatment option for controlling the disease spread in childhood vitiligo and with the addition of topical fluticasone the extent of repigmentation achieved is also quite significant.

Majid Imran

2009-01-01

24

The Chemical Composition of Maple Syrup  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup is one of several high-sugar liquids that humans consume. However, maple syrup is more than just a concentrated sugar solution. Here, we review the chemical composition of maple syrup. (Contains 4 tables and 1 figure.)

Ball, David W.

2007-01-01

25

Genetics Home Reference: Maple syrup urine disease  

Science.gov (United States)

... Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Maple syrup urine disease On this page: Description Genetic changes ... Glossary definitions Reviewed December 2013 What is maple syrup urine disease? Maple syrup urine disease is an ...

26

Safety evaluation of topical applications of ethanol on the skin and inside the oral cavity  

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Full Text Available Abstract Ethanol is widely used in all kinds of products with direct exposure to the human skin (e.g. medicinal products like hand disinfectants in occupational settings, cosmetics like hairsprays or mouthwashes, pharmaceutical preparations, and many household products. Contradictory evidence about the safety of such topical applications of the alcohol can be found in the scientific literature, yet an up-to-date risk assessment of ethanol application on the skin and inside the oral cavity is currently lacking. The first and foremost concerns of topical ethanol applications for public health are its carcinogenic effects, as there is unambiguous evidence for the carcinogenicity of ethanol orally consumed in the form of alcoholic beverages. So far there is a lack of evidence to associate topical ethanol use with an increased risk of skin cancer. Limited and conflicting epidemiological evidence is available on the link between the use of ethanol in the oral cavity in the form of mouthwashes or mouthrinses and oral cancer. Some studies pointed to an increased risk of oral cancer due to locally produced acetaldehyde, operating via a similar mechanism to that found after alcoholic beverage ingestion. In addition, topically applied ethanol acts as a skin penetration enhancer and may facilitate the transdermal absorption of xenobiotics (e.g. carcinogenic contaminants in cosmetic formulations. Ethanol use is associated with skin irritation or contact dermatitis, especially in humans with an aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH deficiency. After regular application of ethanol on the skin (e.g. in the form of hand disinfectants relatively low but measurable blood concentrations of ethanol and its metabolite acetaldehyde may occur, which are, however, below acute toxic levels. Only in children, especially through lacerated skin, can percutaneous toxicity occur. As there might be industry bias in many studies about the safety of topical ethanol applications, as well as a general lack of scientific research on the long-term effects, there is a requirement for independent studies on this topic. The research focus should be set on the chronic toxic effects of ethanol and acetaldehyde at the point of impact, with special regard to children and individuals with genetic deficiencies in ethanol metabolism.

Lachenmeier Dirk W

2008-11-01

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Topical tacrolimus may be effective in the treatment of oral and perineal Crohn's disease  

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BACKGROUND—Crohn's disease of the mouth or perineum is more common in young people, and notably resistant to treatment. However, there is increasing evidence that topical therapy with tacrolimus (FK506) may be effective in skin diseases resistant to cyclosporin because of its high uptake in inflamed skin and subsequent reduction in keratinocyte chemokine production.?PATIENTS AND METHODS—Tacrolimus ointment was made up inhouse from the intravenous or oral formulation and suspended in...

Casson, D.; Eltumi, M.; Tomlin, S.; Walker-smith, J.; Murch, S.

2000-01-01

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Family-based suppressive intermittent therapy of hyperendemic trachoma with topical oxytetracycline or oral doxycycline.  

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A controlled double-blind stratified trial was carried out in a village in Southern Iran to assess the efficacy of family-based intermittent therapy of hyperendemic trachoma with topical oxytetracycline oily suspension twice daily for 7 days each month, or oral doxycycline 5 mg per kilogram of body weight once a month, in comparison with a control group which received vitamin pills once a month. In addition all other members of the selected children's families were also treated with the same ...

Darougar, S.; Jones, B. R.; Viswalingam, N.; Poirier, R. H.; Allami, J.; Houshmand, A.; Farahmandian, M. A.; Gibson, J. A.

1980-01-01

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PREVENTION OF CUTANEOUS SIDE EFFECTS OF TOPICAL TRETINOIN: USE OF ORAL VITAMINE E  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous folicles. Tretinoin is used as one of the topical treatments for acne vulgaris. It has different cutaneous side effects such as erythema, scaling, irritation and photosensitivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral Vitamine E in preventing the cutaneous side effects of topical tretinoin in acne patients.
Methods: A clinical trial was performed in AI-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan for six months in 2000. 80 patients with mild to moderate facial acne were randomized into 2 groups. Group 1 (controls received topical solution of tretinoin 0.05 percent nightly and group 2 (cases received daily oral 100mg of Vit. E in addition. All patients were followed at 1, 4 and 6 weeks after initiation of treatment. Children under 12 years old, pregnant or lactating women were excluded.
Results: At the end of one week, no cutaneous side effects were observed in 25 percent (10 of group 1 and 15 percent (6 of group 2 (P > 0.05. At the end of 4 weeks, 25 percent (10 of group 1 and 60 percent (24 of group 2 were without any cutaneous complications, while at the end of 6 weeks, 35 percent (14 of group 1 in comparison to 75 percent (30 of group 2 were free of any cutaneous side effects (P < 0.05. The most common side effect in both groups was exfoliation.
Discussion: Daily oral 100 mg of Vit. E has been effective in preventing cutaneous complications of topical tretinoin in acne management, but there is a delay of one week in its onset of action. Meanwhile, Vitamine E is a safe modality with no undesirable effects in acne patients.

G FAGHIHI

2001-03-01

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Comparison between Topical and Oral Tranexamic Acid in Management of Traumatic Hyphema.  

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Background: We sought to determine the efficacy of topical tranexamic acid (5%) in the management of traumatic hyphema. Methods: Thirty eyes with gross traumatic hyphema were enrolled in this study. The patients were treated with tranexamic acid (5%) eye drop every 6 hours for 5 days. The main outcome measures were best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), Intra-ocular pressure (IOP), day of clot absorption, and rate of rebleeding. These parameters were evaluated daily for 4 days and thereafter at the 8(th) and 14(th) days after treatment. The patients were also compared with two historical control groups of patients (80 eyes) with traumatic hyphema; the first control group was treated with oral placebo and the other group was treated with oral tranexamic acid at our department. Result: Prior to treatment, the mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) BCVA was 0.59±0.62. BCVA was increased to 0.08±0.14 at day 14 (PTopical tranexamic acid seems promising in the management of traumatic hyphema. However, the small sample size of the present study precludes the conclusion that topical tranexamic acid can replace the oral tranexamic acid. PMID:24753640

Jahadi Hosseini, Seyed Hamid Reza; Khalili, Mohammad Reza; Motallebi, Mahmoud

2014-03-01

31

Topical tacrolimus and periodontal therapy in the management of a case of oral chronic GVHD characterized by specific gingival localization.  

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Background. Chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD) is a complication following bone marrow transplantation. The oral lesions are difficult to control with a systemic pharmacological therapy. Case Description. A 63-year-old female patient, who underwent an allogeniec transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia, developed a chronic oral and cutaneous GVHD. The patient was treated with topical tacrolimus 0.1%, twice daily for two months, and underwent a protocol of oral hygiene characterized by 3 appointments of scaling, root planning, and daily oral hygiene instructions. The patient showed marked resolution of gingival lesions and a significant improvement of related pain and gingival inflammatory indexes. Clinical Implications. This case report suggests that treatment with topical tacrolimus and professional oral hygiene may be helpful in the management of chronic oral GVHD with severe gingival involvement. PMID:24639902

Conrotto, Davide; Broccoletti, Roberto; Carcieri, Paola; Giaccone, Luisa; Arduino, Paolo G

2014-01-01

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Topical Tacrolimus and Periodontal Therapy in the Management of a Case of Oral Chronic GVHD Characterized by Specific Gingival Localization  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD) is a complication following bone marrow transplantation. The oral lesions are difficult to control with a systemic pharmacological therapy. Case Description. A 63-year-old female patient, who underwent an allogeniec transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia, developed a chronic oral and cutaneous GVHD. The patient was treated with topical tacrolimus 0.1%, twice daily for two months, and underwent a protocol of oral hygiene characterized by 3 appointments of scaling, root planning, and daily oral hygiene instructions. The patient showed marked resolution of gingival lesions and a significant improvement of related pain and gingival inflammatory indexes. Clinical Implications. This case report suggests that treatment with topical tacrolimus and professional oral hygiene may be helpful in the management of chronic oral GVHD with severe gingival involvement.

Conrotto, Davide; Broccoletti, Roberto; Carcieri, Paola; Giaccone, Luisa; Arduino, Paolo G.

2014-01-01

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To study cost effectiveness of topical permethrin versus oral ivermectin in patients of uncomplicated scabies  

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Methods: This was an open label randomized comparative study conducted in 210 patients, randomly allocated to two groups. First group received permethrin 5% cream as single application, second group received tablet ivermectin 200mcg/kg as single dose. All the patients received antihistaminic for pruritus. The patients were followed up at intervals of one, two, three and four weeks. If there were no signs of cure, the same intervention was repeated at each follow up. The cost effectiveness was calculated on the basis of total expenditure incurred on therapy. Results: At the end of first week cure rate was 74.8% in permethrin group, 30% in oral ivermectin group. At the end of second week cure rate was 99% in permethrin group, 60% in oral ivermectin group. At the end of third week 100% cure rate was observed in permethrin while 99% in oral ivermectin group. The total cost of treatment shows that cost of tab. ivermectin was less compared to permethrin 5% but the cost to relieve itching and cost of transport was higher than permethrin 5%. Conclusions: Topical permethrin is more cost effective than oral ivermectin in treatment of uncomplicated scabies. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 799-803

Sunita B. Chhaiya

2013-12-01

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Comparative efficacy of orally and topically administered beta blockers for chronic simple glaucoma.  

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This open study of beta blockers in chronic simple glaucoma compared the efficacy of once daily (o.d.) oral nadolol therapy with twice daily (b.d.) topical timolol therapy. Sixty eight patients were randomly assigned to starting doses of either 20, 40, or 80 mg of nadolol o.d. (51 patients) or 0.25% timolol b.d. (17 patients) and were seen at weekly intervals for a four-week (short-term) period. Upward dosage titration (80 mg o.d. maximum, nadolol and 0.5% b.d. maximum, timolol) was permitted...

1985-01-01

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Topical application of drugs used in treatment of oral lichen planus lesions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral lichen planus is a common, chronic mucosal disease associated with a cell-mediated immunological dysfunction. The clinical manifestation is different when various forms, white and red, are considered. Erosive, atrophic, ulcerative lesions require long-term treatment, because of inflammation and severe pain. Since the etiology is still unknown this symptomatic OLP lesions are not curative. The effectiveness of various modalities applied in topical OLP treatment is presented on the basis of the current literature. This treatment in most cases is palliative because of OLP recalcitrant nature. Described agents such: steroids, immunosupressants, aloe vera, hyaluronic acid, antifungal showed beneficial effects. They enhance healing, improve signs and symptoms of lesions and thus improve the quality of patients' life. Topical treatment is recommended mainly because of minimal side-effects. PMID:24431320

Radwan-Oczko, Ma?gorzata

2013-01-01

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Teaching Through Trade Books: From Sap to Syrup  

Science.gov (United States)

Warm days, cold nights, melting snow--signs winter is waning and spring is nearing. Though winter may just be getting started in your area, it's always fun to appreciate the good things about winter, including the special time at the end of winter in New England known as "sugaring time." The sap starts flowing in the sugar maples, and the process of turning sap into syrup begins. These "sugaring time" investigations will connect a familiar product, maple syrup, with properties of matter and can be adapted to introduce or further develop an understanding of this topic. A corresponding activity is included.

Bjork, Janna

2005-11-01

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Efficacy of oral azithromycin versus topical tetracycline in mass treatment of endemic trachoma  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the impact of mass treatment with oral azithromycin and topical tetracycline on the prevalence of active trachoma. METHODS: A total of 1803 inhabitants from 106 households of eight Gambian villages were randomized, in pairs, to receive either three doses of azithromycin at weekly intervals, or daily topical tetracycline over 6 weeks. Ocular examinations were conducted before treatment, and 2, 6 and 12 months after treatment. FINDINGS: Prior to treatment, 16% of the study participants had active trachoma. Two months after treatment, the prevalence of trachoma was 4.6% and 5.1% in the azithromycin and the tetracycline groups, respectively (adjusted odds ratio (OR = 1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.53, 2.02. Subsequently, the prevalence rose to 16% in the tetracycline group, while remaining at 7.7% in the azithromycin group (adjusted OR at 12 months = 0.52; 95% CI = 0.34, 0.80. At 12 months post-treatment, there were fewer new prevalent cases in the azithromycin group, and trachoma resolution was significantly better for this group (adjusted OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.42, 3.50. CONCLUSION: Oral azithromycin therefore appears to offer a means for controlling blinding trachoma. It is easy to administer and higher coverages may be possible than have been achieved hitherto.

Fraser-Hurt Nicole

2001-01-01

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Family-based suppressive intermittent therapy of hyperendemic trachoma with topical oxytetracycline or oral doxycycline.  

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A controlled double-blind stratified trial was carried out in a village in Southern Iran to assess the efficacy of family-based intermittent therapy of hyperendemic trachoma with topical oxytetracycline oily suspension twice daily for 7 days each month, or oral doxycycline 5 mg per kilogram of body weight once a month, in comparison with a control group which received vitamin pills once a month. In addition all other members of the selected children's families were also treated with the same regimen of therapy. The treatment was given for a period of 1 year by 3 field technicians, each responsible for one regimen of therapy. Examining the whole conjunctiva 4 months after the start of therapy, we observed no marked difference in the cure rate or the number of patients with moderate to severe trachoma between the groups treated with antibiotics and the control group. When treatment was continued for 12 months, a marked decrease in the prevalence of trachoma and in the grades of intensity of inflammatory responses as well as the positivity rate for Chlamydia trachomatis was observed in the groups treated with the topical oxytetracycline or oral doxycycline compared with the control group. While there was no marked difference between the efficacy of these 2 regimens of mass chemotherapy, the monthly intermittent therapy with a single dose of doxycycline offers the advantage of being more practical and less expensive for mass control of trachoma by requiring approximately one-tenth of the staff, transport, and other facilities required for the intermittent topical therapy with tetracycline eye ointment. PMID:6992856

Darougar, S; Jones, B R; Viswalingam, N; Poirier, R H; Allami, J; Houshmand, A; Farahmandian, M A; Gibson, J A

1980-04-01

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Comparison of Safety and Efficacy of Oral Azithromycin-Topical Adapalene Versus Oral Doxycycline-Topical Adapalene in the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris and Determination of the Effects of These Treatments on Patients’ Quality of Life  

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Background and Design: Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit. Oral antibiotics and topical retinoids are effective in the treatment of acne.Materials and Methods: In this study, 60 patients with moderate acne vulgaris were evaluated; the patients were randomized into two equal groups. The groups were matched with respect to age, gender and clinical severity of acne. The patients in group 1 received oral azithromycin (500 mg daily on 3 consecutive days per w...

2012-01-01

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"EFFICACY OF TOPICAL RETINOIC ACID COMPARED WITH TOPICAL TRIAMCINOLONE ACETONIDE IN THE TREATMENT OF ORAL LICHEN PLANUS"  

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The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of retinoic acid 0.05% with triamcinolone acetonide 0.1%, both in an oral base, in the treatment of atrophic and erosive oral lichen planus. Thirty patients with clinically proven oral lichen planus were asked to participate in the study. The severity of lesions was scored from 0 (no lesion) to 5 (large erosion), and symptoms were scored ranging from 100 (asymptomatic) to 0 (impossible to live with symptoms). Patients were randomly assigne...

Sahebjamee, M.; Bakhshi, M. Amanlou M.

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Topic tacrolimus, alternative treatment for oral erosive lichen planus resistant to steroids: a case report.  

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The lichen planus is a mucocutaneous disease with unknown etiology and auto-immune pathogenia. There have been three variants of lichen planus: the reticular, the plaque-like and the atrophic-erosive lesions. It s a chronic disease with acute relapses that generally affects more frequently to women from the fourties. The diagnostic is based on the clinic identification of the lesions joined with the histopathologic study (basal cells hidropic degeneration, linfoplasmocitic infiltration and absence of displasy signs). The great number of therapeutic options are explained for its high prevalency (0.5-2%), its recurrence and its risk for malignant transformation. We present a case of oral erosive lichen planus, refractory to numerous treatments, mainly corticosteroids. During 15 days the lesion responded to the administration of a 0.1% tacrolimus in topic application. This article tries to show the new indication of tacrolimus, a calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressor, that it is effective in the erosive lesions treatment. PMID:17072247

Riano Arguelles, Ana; Martino Gorbea, Raúl; Iglesias Zamora, María Eugenia; Garatea Crelgo, Joaquín

2006-01-01

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Hydroxychloroquine niosomes: a new trend in topical management of oral lichen planus.  

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The work aimed at studying a novel topical niosomal gel formulation of hydroxychloroquine for the management of oral lichen planus. Niosomes have been reported as conceivable vesicles to deliver drug molecules to the desired mucous membrane or skin layers. Hydroxychloroquine niosomes were designed using different methods of preparation. Tween 20 and cholesterol in molar ratio (1:0.5) were used. The prepared systems were characterized for entrapment efficiency, particle size and in vitro drug release. Different factors affecting the encapsulation of hydroxychloroquine in niosomes were studied vs. varying the type of surfactant, the cholesterol:surfactant molar ratio and the amount of the drug. The selected noisome formulation was dispersed in different gel formulations and evaluated according to the in vitro drug release and the physical stability. The results showed that the type of surfactant, cholesterol ratio and incorporated amount of drug altered the entrapment efficiency and the in vitro release of hydroxychloroquine from niosomes. The optimum formulation was prepared by reverse phase evaporation technique using Brij 98:cholesterol molar ratio (1:1.5) and containing 20mg of hydroxychloroquine and incorporated in 20% w/v Pluronic F-127 gel. A double-blind, controlled clinical study was performed using two groups of patients. Group A (n=11) who received hydroxychloroquine niosomal gel formulation, one application-a-day over 4 months showed 64.28% reduction in the size of lesions and the average score of pain was reduced from "4" to "1". Compared to placebo group B (n=5), who showed only 3.94% reduction in the lesion size and the average score of pain was remained "3". Our results suggest that these niosomal formulations could constitute a promising approach for the topical treatment of oral lichen planus in short time with less side effects and no recurrence after stopping the treatment. PMID:24184035

Bendas, Ehab R; Abdullah, Hamoud; El-Komy, Mohamed H M; Kassem, Mohamed A A

2013-12-31

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Comparison of Topical Triamcinolone and Oral Atorvastatin in Treatment of Paederus Dermatitis Northern Iran  

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Full Text Available Dermatitis caused by stimulation of beetle paederus, is a common health problem in Northern and some southern parts of Iran. Since by now, traditional medicine and some corticosteroid agents have been used for treatment of dermatitis caused by beetle paederus. Because, there are few researches about classical treatment of the disease at academic level, this study planned to compare the effectiveness of triamcinolone ointment and atorvastatin tablet with placebo in treatment of paederus dermatitis in Northern Iran. A randomized double-blind clinical trial was carried out on 30 patients referred to the hospital and clinics at Sari and Neka countries in Northern Iran during 6 months. Patients were randomly divided into two therapeutic equal groups. The first group was triamcinolone ointment twice a day and a placebo atorvastatin tablet daily. The second group was oral atorvastatin one tablet (20 mg daily and a placebo triamcinolone ointment twice a day. In Seventh day of visits, therapeutic response of the patients in triamcinolone and atorvastatin group were 93.33 and 80%, respectively. No significant differences were found in therapeutic outcome between the two groups (p>0.05. The results showed both of triamcinolone ointment and oral atorvastatin had similar effect on paederus dermatitis. Because the paederus dermatitis is a self-limited disease use of topical therapy for treatment of the disease is recommend.

Seyed Hasan Moosa-Kazemi

2012-01-01

44

Consumer Preference for Graded Maple Syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

The three grades of male syrup and a commercial table syrup containing artificial flavor and 3 percent pure maple syrup were evaluated by 1,018 women in four cities. The results indicate that differences in preference for flavor related to how close the r...

P. E. Sendak

1978-01-01

45

Development of hydrocortisone succinic acid/and 5-fluorouracil/chitosan microcapsules for oral and topical drug deliveries.  

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Recently, we demonstrated the safety use of calendula oil/chitosan microcapsules as a carrier for both oral and topical deliveries. We also reported the improved biological activity towards skin cells and Staphylococcus aureus of phyllanthin containing chitosan microcapsules. However, the possibility of both oral and topical applications was still necessary to be further studied. Here we investigated that both oral and topical applications of chitosan-based microcapsules were tested using hydrocortisone succinic acid (HSA) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), respectively. The drug loading efficiency, particle size, surface morphology and chemical compositions of both drug loaded microcapsules were confirmed by UV-vis spectrophotometer, particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The in vitro release studies revealed that both HSA and 5-FU could be released form chitosan microcapsules. The mean adrenocorticotropic hormone concentration in HSA loaded microcapsule mice plasma was detected to be lower than that of water control. One hundred micrograms per milliliter of 5-FU containing microcapsules exhibited a stronger growth inhibition towards skin keratinocytes than that of free 5-FU. In vitro drug delivery model demonstrated the delivery of 5-FU from microcapsule treated textiles into nude mice skin. Further uses of the drug loaded microcapsules may provide an efficiency deliverable tool for both oral and topical applications. PMID:22460032

Lam, Pik-Ling; Lee, Kenneth Ka-Ho; Wong, Raymond Siu-Ming; Cheng, Gregory Yin Ming; Cheng, Shuk Yan; Yuen, Marcus Chun-Wah; Lam, Kim-Hung; Gambari, Roberto; Kok, Stanton Hon-Lung; Chui, Chung-Hin

2012-05-01

46

Topical and oral toxicity of sulfluramid, a delayed-action insecticide, against the German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae).  

Science.gov (United States)

The LD50 of sulfluramid topically applied to 2-d-old, fifth instars of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), was estimated at 14.5 micrograms/g (95% FL = 13.7-15.4 micrograms/g). Sulfluramid was significantly more toxic than topically applied hydramethylnon (LD50 = 29.2 [19.0-46.5] micrograms/g). Sulfluramid had delayed toxicity but caused mortality significantly faster than hydramethylnon after topical application. The oral LD50 against newly enclosed, fifth instars was estimated to be 4.1 (3.9-4.4) micrograms/g; this toxicity was significantly greater than when sulfluramid was topically applied. Mortality caused by sulfluramid occurred significantly more slowly in the dietary exposures than in the topical applications. Sulfluramid at 1,000 ppm in diets was not a feeding deterrent to nymphal B. germanica. PMID:2324377

Reid, B L; Bennett, G W; Barcay, S J

1990-02-01

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Molecular imaging of glucose uptake in oral neoplasia following topical application of fluorescently labeled deoxy-glucose.  

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The clinical value of assessing tumor glucose metabolism via F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET imaging in oncology is well established; however, the poor spatial resolution of PET is a significant limitation especially for early stage lesions. An alternative technology is optical molecular imaging, which allows for subcellular spatial resolution and can be effectively used with topical contrast agents for imaging epithelial derived cancers. The goal of this study was to evaluate the potential of optical molecular imaging of glucose metabolism to aid in early detection of oral neoplasia. Fluorescently labeled deoxyglucose (2-NBDG (2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose)) was applied topically to tissue phantoms, fresh oral biopsies (n = 32) and resected tumors specimens (n = 2). High-resolution imaging results show that 2-NBDG can be rapidly delivered to oral epithelium using topical application. In normal epithelium, the uptake of 2-NBDG is limited to basal epithelial cells. In contrast, high-grade dysplasia and cancers show uptake of 2-NBDG in neoplastic cells throughout the lesion. Following 2-NBDG labeling, the mean fluorescence intensity of neoplastic tissue averages 3.7 times higher than that of matched nonneoplastic oral biopsies in samples from 20 patients. Widefield fluorescence images of 8-paired oral specimens were obtained pre and postlabeling with 2-NBDG. Prior to labeling, neoplastic samples showed significantly lower autofluorescence than nonneoplastic samples. The fluorescence of neoplastic samples increased dramatically after labeling; the differential increase in fluorescence was on average 30 times higher in neoplastic samples than in normal samples. Topical application of 2-NBDG can therefore provide image contrast in both widefield and high-resolution fluorescence imaging modalities, highlighting its potential in early detection of oral neoplasia. PMID:19173294

Nitin, Nitin; Carlson, Alicia L; Muldoon, Tim; El-Naggar, Adel K; Gillenwater, Ann; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

2009-06-01

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The Comparison of Efficacy of Adcortyl Ointment and Topical Tacrolimus in Treatment of Erosive Oral Lichen Planus  

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Full Text Available

Background and aims. Oral lichen planus (OLP is a common chronic mucocutaneous disease. Patients with atrophic and erosive lichen planus often have symptoms of soreness and need proper treatment. The main therapy of OLP has been the administration of topical or systemic corticosteroids. Potent topical corticosteroids have been increasingly prescribed in the treatment of erosive lichen planus. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of adcortyl ointment (triamcinolone in orabase with topical tacrolimus for the treatment of erosive oral lichen planus.

Materials and methods. Sixty Patients with histopathologically confirmed oral lichen planus were enrolled in the study. The severity of lesions was scored from 0 to 5 according to the criteria described in a previous study. Patients were randomly given adcortyl (group A and topical tacrolimus ointment (group B and asked to apply the medication on dried lesions 4 times a day. The lesions were evaluated after 4 weeks of treatment. Visual analogue scale was used to assess the severity of pain before and after treatment. The severity scores were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis k-sample test.

Results. The average score of lesions improved from 3.4 to 1.5 in patients who received adcortyl ointment and from 3.2 to 1.2 in patients who received topical tacrolimus ointment. The differences between the improvements in scores were not statistically significant in the two groups. The average pain severity in A and B groups was 8.2 and 7.8 at the beginning of treatment, and 3.5 and 3.2 at the end of treatment, respectively. There was a statistically significant reduction in pain severity in both groups.

Conclusion. Topical tacrolimus is a safe and effective alternative therapy in the treatment of oral lichen planus.

Arash Azizi

2007-12-01

49

DISTRIBUTION AND BINDING OF (SUP 14C)ACRYLAMIDE TO MACROMOLECULES IN SENCAR AND BALB/C MICE FOLLOWING ORAL AND TOPICAL ADMINISTRATION  

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To determine if differences in acrylamide distribution or binding to DNA could be responsible for the reported higher incidence of skin papillomas observed after oral administration compared to topical application, 14C-acrylamide was administered by topical application and oral i...

50

Original article title: "Comparison of therapeutic efficacy of topical corticosteroid and oral zinc sulfate-topical corticosteroid combination in the treatment of vitiligo patients: a clinical trial"  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitiligo is the most prevalent pigmentary disorder which occurs worldwide, with an incidence rate between 0.1-4 percent. It is anticipated that the discovery of biological pathways of vitiligo pathogenesis will provide novel therapeutic and prophylactic targets for future approaches to the treatment and prevention of vitiligo. The purposes of this study were evaluating the efficacy of supplemental zinc on the treatment of vitiligo. Methods This randomized clinical trial was conducted for a period of one year. Thirty five patients among 86 participants were eligible to entrance to the study. The patients in two equal randomized groups took topical corticosteroid and combination of oral zinc sulfate-topical corticosteroid. Results The mean of responses in the corticosteroid group and the zinc sulfate-corticosteroid combination group were 21.43% and 24.7%, respectively. Conclusion Although, the response to corticosteroid plus zinc sulfate was more than corticosteroid, there was no statistically significant difference between them. It appeared that more robust long-term randomized controlled trials on more patients, maybe with higher doses of zinc sulfate, are needed to fully establish the efficacy of oral zinc in management of vitiligo. Trial Registration chiCTRTRC10000930

Omidian Mohammad

2011-03-01

51

Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma in an infant: improvement after treatment with oral tranilast and topical pimecrolimus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma (AEGCG) is a rare granulomatous skin disease of unknown origin that is characterized clinically by annular patches with erythematous borders and hypopigmented centers and histologically by loss of elastic fibers and elastophagocytosis. We report a case of AEGCG in an 8-month-old boy that was successfully treated with oral tranilast and topical pimecrolimus (Elidel 1.0% cream). PMID:16227100

Lee, Hae-Woong; Lee, Mi-Woo; Choi, Jee-Ho; Moon, Kee-Chan; Koh, Jai-Kyoung

2005-11-01

52

Comparison of the efficacy and safety of oral fluconazole and topical clotrimazole in patients with candida balanitis.  

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One hundred fifty seven men with candidal balanitis were entered in a randomised, open-label parallel-group multicentre study comparing efficacy and safety of a single oral 150-mg fluconazole-dose with clotrimazole applied topically twice daily for 7 days. Of 64 fluconazole and 68 clotrimazole treated patients who were evaluable at short term follow up, 92% and 91% respectively were clinically cured or improved. Candida albicans was eradicated in 78% and 83% of patients respectively. Median t...

Stary, A.; Soeltz-szoets, J.; Ziegler, C.; Kinghorn, G. R.; Roy, R. B.

1996-01-01

53

Efficacy of oral and topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors in controlling early period postoperative intraocular pressure elevation after phacoemulsification surgery  

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Objective: To compare the effectiveness of oral acetazolamide 250 mg, topical brinzolamide 1% and dorzolamide 2% on intraocular pressure (IOP) during the early period after phacoemulsification surgery. Material and Methods: The study was planned prospectively in our clinic under the same technique and operation conditions, applying uncomplicated phacoemulsification surgery in 80 eyes of 68 patients without another pathology. When 38 patients were men, 30 patients were women. Patients were ran...

Ulviye Yi?it; Banu Arslan

2011-01-01

54

Systemic and topical corticosteroid treatment of oral lichen planus: a comparative study with long-term follow-up  

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BACKGROUND: Topical corticosteroids are the mainstay treatment for oral lichen planus (OLP), but some authors suggest that systemic corticosteroid therapy is the only way to control acute presentation of OLP. METHODS: Forty-nine patients with histologically proven atrophic-erosive OLP were divided into two groups matched for age and sex. The test group (26 patients) was treated systemically with prednisone (50 mg/day), and afterwards with clobetasol ointment in an adhesive medium plus antimic...

Gandolfo, Sergio; Broccoletti, Roberto

2003-01-01

55

21 CFR 520.622b - Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. 520.622b Section 520.622b Food...520.622b Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of syrup contains 60 milligrams of...

2009-04-01

56

Neuroradiological findings in maple syrup urine disease  

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Maple syrup urine disease is a rare inborn error of amino acid metabolism involving catabolic pathway of the branched-chain amino acids. This disease, if left untreated, may cause damage to the brain and may even cause death. These patients typically present with distinctive maple syrup odour of sweat and urine. Patients typically present with skin and urine smelling like maple syrup. Here we describe a case with relevant magnetic resonance imaging findings and confirmatory biochemical findings.

Indiran, Venkatraman; Gunaseelan, R. Emmanuel

2013-01-01

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Bioequivalence assessment of zidovudine (Retrovir) syrup, solution, and capsule formulations in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus.  

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The objectives of this open-labeled, multiple-dose, three-way-crossover trial were to evaluate the safety and tolerance of zidovudine (Retrovir) oral syrup and to assess the bioequivalence of this formulation relative to zidovudine solution and capsule formulations in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Over the 7-day study, 12 adult male subjects received 12 administrations each of the capsule, solution, and syrup formulations every 4 h (six times daily) in a randomized sequence....

Drew, R. H.; Weller, S.; Gallis, H. A.; Walmer, K. A.; Bartlett, J. A.; Blum, M. R.

1989-01-01

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Evaluation of a topical gel containing a novel combination of essential oils and antioxidants for reducing oral malodor in dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective-To evaluate the effectiveness of a topically applied gel containing essential oils (menthol and thymol) and polyphenolic antioxidants (phloretin and ferulic acid) for reducing halitosis in dogs. Animals-20 dogs. Procedures-A blinded crossover clinical trial was conducted. Dogs received a dental cleaning and examination (periodontal examination including periodontal probing and assessments of plaque, calculus, and gingivitis). Owners then applied a gel (active or placebo) to oral soft tissues twice daily for a 4-week period. Teeth of the dogs were cleaned again, and owners applied the other gel for a 4-week period. Clinicians scored halitosis immediately after the initial cleaning and at 4 and 8 weeks, and owners scored halitosis weekly. Results-Halitosis assessment by clinicians revealed that both groups had improvement in halitosis scores. Two dogs were removed because of owner noncompliance. In the active-to-placebo group (n = 9), halitosis was significantly reduced during application of the active gel but increased during application of the placebo. Seven of 9 owners reported increased halitosis when treatment was changed from the active gel to the placebo. In the placebo-to-active group (n = 9), halitosis decreased during application of the placebo and continued to decrease during application of the active gel. Seven of 9 owners reported a decrease in halitosis with the active gel. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-An oral topically applied gel with essential oils and polyphenolic antioxidants applied daily after an initial professional dental cleaning decreased oral malodor in dogs. PMID:24959732

Low, Samuel B; Peak, R Michael; Smithson, Christopher W; Perrone, Jeanne; Gaddis, Bert; Kontogiorgos, Elias

2014-07-01

59

Efficacy of topical phenytoin on chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis; a pilot study  

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"nBackground and the Purpose of the Study: Oral mucositis is one of the most common complications of malignancy chemotherapy. As yet, no absolute treatment has been demonstrated to be effective for chemotherapy- induced oral mucositis. This study evaluates the effectiveness of phenytoin mouthwash as a wound healing agent, on the basis of stimulating effects on fibroblast proliferation. "nMaterials and Methods: In this multicenter, randomized, placebo- controlled clinical trial; twel...

Baharvand, M.; Sarrafi, M.; Alavi, K.; Jalali Moghaddam, E.

2010-01-01

60

A Cost Analysis: Processing Maple Syrup Products.  

Science.gov (United States)

A cost analysis of processing maple sap to syrup for three fuel types, oil-, wood-, and LP gas-fired evaporators, indicates that: (1) fuel, capital, and labor are the major cost components of processing sap to syrup; (2) wood-fired evaporators show a slig...

N. K. Huyler L. D. Garrett

1979-01-01

 
 
 
 
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A comparison of the effects of oral nadolol and topical timolol on intraocular pressure, blood pressure, and heart rate.  

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We compared the effects of oral nadolol 20 mg once daily and topical timolol 0.25% twice daily on the intraocular pressures of 22 glaucoma suspects, in a 12 week double-masked crossover study. Both nadolol and timolol reduced intraocular pressure (p less than 0.001). The reductions in intraocular pressure did not differ significantly after two weeks and four weeks of treatment. Nine of these subjects underwent treadmill exercise tests in order to compare the effects of nadolol and timolol on ...

1987-01-01

62

Sustained clinical resolution of acquired epidermodysplasia verruciformis in an immunocompromised patient after discontinuation of oral acitretin with topical imiquimod.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased cases of acquired epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EDV) have been reported in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). With regard to management, there are no randomized controlled trials in either immunocompetent or immunocompromised patients, and only a limited number of anecdotal treatment options. Systemic retinoids, either independently or in combination with other treatment modalities, have been used with limited success, demonstrating transient clinical response and recurrence of lesions after cessation of therapy. We report a case of an HIV-positive patient with acquired EDV who achieved sustained clinical resolution even after discontinuation of oral acitretin by applying topical imiquimod to prevent recurrence of his lesions. PMID:23545921

Nijhawan, Rajiv I; Osei-Tutu, Achiamah; Hugh, Jeremy M

2013-03-01

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Diclofenac sodium topical solution with dimethyl sulfoxide, a viable alternative to oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories in osteoarthritis: review of current evidence  

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Philip Fuller¹, Sanford Roth²¹Covidien, Hazelwood, MO; ²Arizona Research and Education, Arthritis Research Laboratory, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USAAbstract: Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may offer a safer alternative to their oral counterparts for the management of osteoarthritis. Diclofenac sodium topical solution with dimethyl sulfoxide (TDiclo) was evaluated in five randomized, controlled trials and is indicated for treatment of the...

Fuller P; Sh, Roth

2011-01-01

64

A Self-controlled Single Blinded Clinical Trial to Evaluate Oral Lichen Planus after Topical Treatment with Aloe Vera  

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Full Text Available AIM: The object of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a selfcontrolledsingle blinded clinical trial of the topical application ofAloe vera in oral lichen planus (OLP.METHODS: Twenty patients (15 male and 5 female aged at least18 years recruited from the outpatients. In all cases the diagnosisnet currently accepted criteria. Each patient was instructed tomanually apply Aloe vera (AV high molecular weight fractions(AHM on the affected side oral mucosa three times daily andexamined at the beginning of treatment and then after 4 and 8 weeksof therapy. AHM were obtained from water-washed gel part of AVand processed by the patented hyper-dry system in combinationof freeze-dry technique with micro wave and far infrared rayirradiations. The macromolecular aloe ointment is a mixture of thehydrophilic ointment and AHM at 0.1% by weight.RESULTS: A self-controlled single blind protocol to assessmentclinical improvement and pain response was used in this study. Theclinical results showed a rapid subjective and objective improvementwith topical AHM treatment. Fifteen patients (75% had completeremission at treated side and two patients (10% had partialremission, while one patient showed no response to treatment (5%,and placebo sides showed partial remission responded in two casesonly (10% and no responded in other sides.CONCLUSION: The effect of AHM ointment on OLP wassignificantly effective than that of placebo. The results showeddecrease both in clinical signs and in pain scores. AHM ointmentshowed well tolerated, safe and effective treatment to OLP.

Kareman El-Soudany

2013-04-01

65

Histatin 5-spermidine conjugates have enhanced fungicidal activity and efficacy as a topical therapeutic for oral candidiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is caused by the opportunistic fungi Candida albicans and is prevalent in immunocompromised patients, individuals with dry mouth, or patients with prolonged antibiotic therapies that reduce oral commensal bacteria. Human salivary histatins, including histatin 5 (Hst 5), are small cationic proteins that are the major source of fungicidal activity of saliva. However, Hsts are rapidly degraded in vivo, limiting their usefulness as therapeutic agents despite their lack of toxicity. We constructed a conjugate peptide using spermidine (Spd) linked to the active fragment of Hst 5 (Hst 54-15), based upon our findings that C. albicans spermidine transporters are required for Hst 5 uptake and fungicidal activity. We found that Hst 54-15-Spd was significantly more effective in killing C. albicans and Candida glabrata than Hst 5 alone in both planktonic and biofilm growth and that Hst 54-15-Spd retained high activity in both serum and saliva. Hst 54-15-Spd was not bactericidal against streptococcal oral commensal bacteria and had no hemolytic activity. We tested the effectiveness of Hst 54-15-Spd in vivo by topical application to tongue surfaces of immunocompromised mice with OPC. Mice treated with Hst 54-15-Spd had significant clearance of candidal tongue lesions macroscopically, which was confirmed by a 3- to 5-log fold reduction of C. albicans colonies recovered from tongue tissues. Hst 54-15-Spd conjugates are a new class of peptide-based drugs with high selectivity for fungi and potential as topical therapeutic agents for oral candidiasis. PMID:24247141

Tati, Swetha; Li, Rui; Puri, Sumant; Kumar, Rohitashw; Davidow, Peter; Edgerton, Mira

2014-02-01

66

Evaluation of the efficacy of oral lufenuron combined with topical enilconazole for the management of dermatophytosis in catteries.  

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The efficacy of oral lufenuron, a chitin synthetase inhibitor, combined with topical enilconazole, was evaluated for the management of Microsporum canis infection in 100 cats housed in two catteries in France. The cats were treated with weekly rinses with enilconazole (0.2 per cent) for four weeks and, in each cattery, one group (A) was also treated with micronised griseofulvin (25 mg/kg administered orally twice a day for five weeks) and a second group (B) was treated with 60 mg/kg lufenuron administered orally once on day 0 and again after 30 days. All the cats were examined individually for cutaneous lesions and mycological cultures were made when the treatment began and after 15, 30, 60 and 90 days. In the first cattery, the cats' clinical scores after 30 and 60 days were significantly lower in group B than in group A. In both catteries and both treatment groups, the mean number of fungal colonies decreased rapidly during the first 15 days of treatment, remained stable for the following 45 days but increased from day 60 to the end of the experiment on day 90. PMID:12081306

Guillot, J; Malandain, E; Jankowski, F; Rojzner, K; Fournier, C; Touati, F; Chermette, R; Seewald, W; Schenker, R

2002-06-01

67

Efficacy of topical phenytoin on chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis; a pilot study  

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Full Text Available "nBackground and the Purpose of the Study: Oral mucositis is one of the most common complications of malignancy chemotherapy. As yet, no absolute treatment has been demonstrated to be effective for chemotherapy- induced oral mucositis. This study evaluates the effectiveness of phenytoin mouthwash as a wound healing agent, on the basis of stimulating effects on fibroblast proliferation. "nMaterials and Methods: In this multicenter, randomized, placebo- controlled clinical trial; twelve patients received phenytoin mouthwash (0.5% or placebo for about two weeks. Oral pain severity was scored on the daily basis using a VAS (visual analogue scale of 10 centimeters. National Cancer Institute (NCI scale was used to grade the intensity of mucositis. To determine the effect of treatment, a quality of life questionnaire, consisting of 35 queries, was filled out for all patients. Statistical analyses of data was performed using Mann- Whitney test. "nResults: The average time for complete remission of mucositis in phenytoin- treated group was less than that of the placebo group. The quality of life improved dramatically in the phenytoin group with the healing process being more evident in the first week. Furthermore, reduction in the wound area was greater in the phenytoin group than controls at the end of the first week of treatment. Both groups eventually demonstrated reduction in pain intensity; however no statistically significant difference was observed between two groups. "nConclusion: Phenytoin mouthwash accelerated wound healing and resolution of mucositis and improved life quality impressively.

M Baharvand

2010-03-01

68

Efficacy of laser phototherapy in comparison to topical clobetasol for the treatment of oral lichen planus: a randomized controlled trial.  

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ABSTRACT. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a relatively common chronic mucocutaneous inflammatory disease and a search for novel therapeutic options has been performed. We sought to compare the efficacy of laser phototherapy (LPT) to topical clobetasol propionate 0.05% for the treatment of atrophic and erosive OLP. Forty-two patients with atrophic/erosive OLP were randomly allocated to two groups: clobetasol group (n=21): application of topical clobetasol propionate gel (0.05%) three times a day; LPT group (n=21): application of laser irradiation using InGaAlP diode laser three times a week. Evaluations were performed once a week during treatment (Days 7, 14, 21, and 30) and in four weeks (Day 60) and eight weeks (Day 90) after treatment. At the end of treatment (Day 30), significant reductions in all variables were found in both groups. The LPT group had a higher percentage of complete lesion resolution. At follow-up periods (Days 60 and 90), the LPT group maintained the clinical pattern seen at Day 30, with no recurrence of the lesions, whereas the clobetasol group exhibited worsening for all variables analyzed. These findings suggest that the LPT proved more effective than topical clobetasol 0.05% for the treatment of OLP. PMID:24887747

Dillenburg, Caroline Siviero; Martins, Marco Antonio Trevizani; Munerato, Maria Cristina; Marques, Márcia Martins; Carrard, Vinícius Coelho; Filho, Manoel Sant'Ana; Castilho, Rogério Moraes; Martins, Manoela Domingues

2014-06-01

69

An open randomized comparative study to test the efficacy and safety of oral terbinafine pulse as a monotherapy and in combination with topical ciclopirox olamine 8% or topical amorolfine hydrochloride 5% in the treatment of onychomycosis  

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Background: Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of nails caused by dermatophytes, yeasts and molds. Aims: To study the efficacy and safety of oral terbinafine pulse as a monotherapy and in combination with topical ciclopirox olamine 8% or topical amorolfine hydrochloride 5% in onychomycosis. Methods: A clinical comparative study was undertaken on 96 Patients of onychomycosis during the period between August 2005 to July 2006. Forty-eight patients were r...

Jaiswal Amit; Sharma R; Garg A

2007-01-01

70

Distribution and binding of ["1"4C]acrylamide to macromolecules in SENCAR and BALB/c mice following oral and topical administration  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine if differences in acrylamide distribution or its binding to DNA could be responsible for the reported higher incidence of skin papillomas observed after oral administration compared to topical application, ["1"4C]acrylamide was administered by topical application and oral intubation to male SENCAR and BALB/mice. Portions of lung, liver, stomach, testes, and skin were removed, and "1"4C was measured at 15 min, 30 min, 1, 6, 12, 24, and 48 hr. Binding to DNA, RNA, and protein was measured at 6 and 48 hr. Following oral administration, few strain differences in distribution or binding were noted. After topical application, SENCAR mice generally showed higher tissue concentrations than did the BALB/c mice at the early time periods but not at the later ones. Comparing the two routes, comparable concentrations were observed in all tissues except the skin where the amount of ["1"4C]acrylamide after topical application was approximately 100 times that observed after oral administration. At 48 hr, binding to DNA was sevenfold higher after topical than after oral administration. The effect of route on papilloma formation cannot be explained, therefore, on the basis of either a difference in distribution or binding to DNA in the target organ. The binding of acrylamide to DNA in skin was similar in both SENCAR and BALB/c mice indicating that the much greater susceptibility of the SENCAR mice to tumorigenesis cannot be explained simply on the basis of distribution or macromolecular binding

1985-06-30

71

Comparison of Safety and Efficacy of Oral Azithromycin-Topical Adapalene Versus Oral Doxycycline-Topical Adapalene in the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris and Determination of the Effects of These Treatments on Patients’ Quality of Life  

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Full Text Available Background and Design: Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit. Oral antibiotics and topical retinoids are effective in the treatment of acne.Materials and Methods: In this study, 60 patients with moderate acne vulgaris were evaluated; the patients were randomized into two equal groups. The groups were matched with respect to age, gender and clinical severity of acne. The patients in group 1 received oral azithromycin (500 mg daily on 3 consecutive days per week and the patients in group 2 received doxycycline (100 mg daily for 12 weeks. Topical adapalene gel was added to the systemic treatment in both groups. Clinical evaluation was performed at baseline and at the end of first, second and third months. Side effects were recorded. Quality of life in patients was measured with Skindex-29 and Acne Quality of Life Scale before treatment and at the end of third month. Results: At the end of the treatment, the patients in the two treatment groups had clinical improvement of more than 50%. Twenty-one patients in the azithromycin-adapalene group and 23 patients in the doxycycline-adapelene group had more than 80% clinical improvement. There was not any statistically significant difference in the clinical efficacy between the two combinations. Both treatment regimens were safe with minimal side effects. There was statistically significant difference in Skindex-29 and Acne Quality of Life Scale scores at baseline and at the end of the treatment (p0.05. Conclusion: Both treatments were efficient and safe. There was significant improvement in quality of life scale scores in both groups.

Serap Kayhan

2012-09-01

72

Arsenic, Organic Foods, and Brown Rice Syrup  

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Background: Rice can be a major source of inorganic arsenic (Asi) for many sub-populations. Rice products are also used as ingredients in prepared foods, some of which may not be obviously rice based. Organic brown rice syrup (OBRS) is used as a sweetener in organic food products as an alternative to high-fructose corn syrup. We hypothesized that OBRS introduces As into these products.

Jackson, Brian P.; Taylor, Vivien F.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Punshon, Tracy; Cottingham, Kathryn L.

2012-01-01

73

Disposition of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole disulfide in rats dosed intravenously, orally, and topically and in guinea pigs dosed topically  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the metabolic disposition of [14C]-2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) and [14C]-2-mercaptobenzothiazole disulfide (MBTS), male and female rats were dosed topically. Topical doses were 36.1 micrograms/animal for [14C]MBT and 33.6 micrograms/animal for [14C]MBTS. Although more MBT passed through the skin than MBTS and although, relative to rats, guinea pigs absorbed a greater percentage of the dose (33.4% compared to 16.1-17.5% of the MBT and 12.2% compared to 5.94-7.87% for MBTS), the disposition of radioactivity derived from the two compounds was similar. Washing of the skin removed more of the radioactivity from guinea pigs than from rats. For both sexes of rats dosed intravenously with [14C]MBT or [14C]MBTS, disposition of the compounds was similar. In 72 h, 90.9-101% of the dose appeared in the urine and 3.79-15.1% in the feces. At this time, a small portion of the administered radioactivity remained associated with erythrocytes. Oral dosing of rats for 14 d with unlabeled MBT prior to a single dose of [14C]MBT or with unlabeled MBTS prior to a single dose of [14C]MBTS (0.730 mg/kg). For both sexes, disposition of the compounds was similar. At 96 h after dosing, a small portion of the administered radioactivity remained associated with erythrocytes, most of which was bound to the membranes. For both compounds and sexes, 60.8-101% of the radioactivity administered appeared in the urine and 3.46-9.99% in the feces in 96 h. At the time, only trace amounts of radioactivity remained in tissues other than blood. Of these tissues, thyroid contained the highest concentration. In the urine, there was a detectable MBT or MBTS, but there were two metabolites, one of which was identified as a thioglucuronide derivative of MBT. The other was possibly a sulfonic acid derivative of MBT

1989-01-01

74

Disposition of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole disulfide in rats dosed intravenously, orally, and topically and in guinea pigs dosed topically  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

To determine the metabolic disposition of (14C)-2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) and (14C)-2-mercaptobenzothiazole disulfide (MBTS), male and female rats were dosed topically. Topical doses were 36.1 micrograms/animal for (14C)MBT and 33.6 micrograms/animal for (14C)MBTS. Although more MBT passed through the skin than MBTS and although, relative to rats, guinea pigs absorbed a greater percentage of the dose (33.4% compared to 16.1-17.5% of the MBT and 12.2% compared to 5.94-7.87% for MBTS), the disposition of radioactivity derived from the two compounds was similar. Washing of the skin removed more of the radioactivity from guinea pigs than from rats. For both sexes of rats dosed intravenously with (14C)MBT or (14C)MBTS, disposition of the compounds was similar. In 72 h, 90.9-101% of the dose appeared in the urine and 3.79-15.1% in the feces. At this time, a small portion of the administered radioactivity remained associated with erythrocytes. Oral dosing of rats for 14 d with unlabeled MBT prior to a single dose of (14C)MBT or with unlabeled MBTS prior to a single dose of (14C)MBTS (0.730 mg/kg). For both sexes, disposition of the compounds was similar. At 96 h after dosing, a small portion of the administered radioactivity remained associated with erythrocytes, most of which was bound to the membranes. For both compounds and sexes, 60.8-101% of the radioactivity administered appeared in the urine and 3.46-9.99% in the feces in 96 h. At the time, only trace amounts of radioactivity remained in tissues other than blood. Of these tissues, thyroid contained the highest concentration. In the urine, there was a detectable MBT or MBTS, but there were two metabolites, one of which was identified as a thioglucuronide derivative of MBT. The other was possibly a sulfonic acid derivative of MBT.

el Dareer, S.M.; Kalin, J.R.; Tillery, K.F.; Hill, D.L.; Barnett, J.W. Jr. (Southern Research Institute, Birmingham, AL (USA))

1989-01-01

75

The clinical effects of zinc as a topical or oral agent on the clinical response and pathophysiologic mechanisms of acne: a systematic review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

This article reviews the published literature about the efficacy of oral and topical zinc as treatments for acne vulgaris. The medical literature was systematically reviewed to identify relevant articles. Each published study was assessed for pathophysiologic results and the quality of the clinical evidence the study provided based on Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT) criteria. Finally, the body of evidence for using oral or topical zinc in the treatment of acne was assessed, again using SORT criteria. A SORT strength of recommendation of B (inconsistent or limited-quality patient-oriented evidence) appears to be appropriate for both oral and topical zinc. The preponderance of evidence suggests zinc has antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects and that it may decrease sebum production. PMID:23652948

Brandt, Staci

2013-05-01

76

Reductions in Skin and Systemic Parasite Burdens as a Combined Effect of Topical Paromomycin and Oral Miltefosine Treatment of Mice Experimentally Infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis?  

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This study aimed to investigate the activity of a combination of topical paromomycin gel and oral miltefosine for the treatment of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. The efficacy of the combination, evaluated by measuring lesion size and parasite burden in the skin and spleen, was assessed in BALB/c mice infected by L. (L.) amazonensis. The miltefosine was administered orally at 10 mg/kg of body weight/day for 10 days, while 10% paromomycin gel...

Aguiar, Marta Gontijo; Pereira, Aline Ma?rcia Machado; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Ferreira, Lucas Antonio Miranda

2010-01-01

77

Efficacy and safety of topical or oral methoxsalen plus ultraviolet A in the treatment of vitiligo  

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Full Text Available Background and Aim: Vitiligo is a common skin disorder that presents as depigmented patchs and associated with psychosocial morbidity. Photochemotherapy with methoxsalen plus ultraviolet A (PUVA is an effective and commonly used modality in treatment of vitiligo and is available in Khorasan Province since more than ten years ago."n"nMethods: This uncontrolled clinical trial included patients with vitiligo referred to phototherapy center in Emam Reza Hospital in Mashhad during 1998-1999. Treatment was done topically on patients with involvement less than 2% of the body area and systemic in cases with involvement more than that. Data including improvement rate and side effects were analyzed by SPSS software version 11.5."n"nResults: One-hundred and thirty-five patients, 79 female and 56 male, were enrolled.  One-hundred and twenty-six patients were treated systemically and 9 patients underwent topical therapy. Complete (100% repigmentation was observed in one patient. Repigmentation of 80-99%, 60-79%, 40-59%, 20-39% and less than 20% were observed in 53, 43, 12, 6 and 20 patients; respectively. Results were significantly better in generalized vitiligo, face involvement, and cases whom recieved more than 200 treatment sessions, but there was not significant relationship between improvement and patients' age, family history, the first involved area, beginning time of repigmentation, the observed interval between initiation of treatment and disorder appearance, and skin type. Common side effects were pruritus (69.6%, erythema (52.6%, nausea and vomiting (28.9%, and headache (17.8%."n"nConclusion: PUVA therapy is an effective and safe treatment in patients with vitiligo, and has good results in nonsegmental vitiligo and facial involvement.

Mohammad Ebrahimirad

2011-03-01

78

An open randomized comparative study to test the efficacy and safety of oral terbinafine pulse as a monotherapy and in combination with topical ciclopirox olamine 8% or topical amorolfine hydrochloride 5% in the treatment of onychomycosis  

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Full Text Available Background: Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of nails caused by dermatophytes, yeasts and molds. Aims: To study the efficacy and safety of oral terbinafine pulse as a monotherapy and in combination with topical ciclopirox olamine 8% or topical amorolfine hydrochloride 5% in onychomycosis. Methods: A clinical comparative study was undertaken on 96 Patients of onychomycosis during the period between August 2005 to July 2006. Forty-eight patients were randomly assigned in group A to receive oral terbinafine 250 mg, one tablet twice daily for seven days every month (pulse therapy; 24 patients in group B to receive oral terbinafine pulse therapy plus topical ciclopirox olamine 8% to be applied once daily at night on all affected nails; and 24 patients in group C to receive oral terbinafine pulse therapy plus topical amorolfine hydrochloride 5% to be applied once weekly at night on all the affected nails. The treatment was continued for four months. The patients were evaluated at four weekly intervals till sixteen weeks and then at 24 and 36 weeks. Results: We observed clinical cure in 71.73, 82.60 and 73.91% patients in groups A, B and C, respectively; Mycological cure rates against dematophytes were 88.9, 88.9 and 85.7 in groups A, B and C, respectively. The yeast mycological cure rates were 66.7, 100 and 50 in groups A, B and C, respectively. In the case of nondermatophytes, the overall response was poor: one out of two cases (50% responded in group A, while one case each in group B and group C did not respond at all. Conclusion: Terbinafine pulse therapy is effective and safe alternative in treatment of onychomycosis due to dermatophytes; and combination therapy with topical ciclopirox or amorolfine do not show any significant difference in efficacy in comparison to monotherapy with oral terbinafine.

Jaiswal Amit

2007-01-01

79

Comparative study of mupirocin and oral co-trimoxazole plus topical fusidic acid in eradication of nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.  

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Mupirocin is a topically applied drug that is very active in the eradication of nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However, studies designed to compare mupirocin treatment with other antimicrobial regimens are lacking. We therefore conducted an open, prospective, randomized, controlled trial to compare the efficacy and safety of mupirocin versus those of oral co-trimoxazole plus topical fusidic acid (both regimens with a clorhexidine scrub bath) for the erad...

Parras, F.; Guerrero, M. C.; Bouza, E.; Bla?zquez, M. J.; Moreno, S.; Menarguez, M. C.; Cercenado, E.

1995-01-01

80

DISTRIBUTION AND MACROMOLECULAR BINDING OF BENZO(A)PYRENE IN SENCAR AND BALB/C MICE FOLLOWING TOPICAL AND ORAL ADMINISTRATION  

Science.gov (United States)

When benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) is used as the initiator in initiation-promotion assays, the topical route of administration has been shown to produce a greater epidermal tumor incidence than do other routes of administration, particularly the oral route. In addition, different strains...

 
 
 
 
81

21 CFR 184.1445 - Malt syrup (malt extract).  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-04-01 2009-04-01 false Malt syrup (malt extract). 184.1445 Section...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1445 Malt syrup (malt extract). (a) Malt is the...germinated under controlled conditions. Malt syrup and malt extract are...

2009-04-01

82

Oral, topical, and inhalation of Calcarea carbonica derivative complex (M8 to treat inflammatory mammary carcinoma in dogs  

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Full Text Available Background: Inflammatory mammary carcinoma (IMC is locally aggressive, fast growing, highly malignant tumor that affects humans and dogs. Affected dogs usually are presented with generalized edema, pain, erythema, and skin ulceration in mammary glands. Surgery is not recommended and an effective treatment has not been established [1]. Calcarea carbonica derivative complex (M8 has demonstrated anticancer properties in a murine model, by improving innate immune response against tumor cells [2]. M8 is a complex high diluted medication comprised of Calcarea carbonica 16x, Aconitum napellus 20x, Arsenicum album 18x, Asa foetida 20x, Conium maculatum 17x, Ipecacuanha 13x, Phosphorus 20x, Rhus toxicodendron 17x, Silicea 20x, Sulphur 24x, and Thuya occidentalis 19x, dilution procedures have followed standard methodology described at the Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia. Aims: To describe different routes of M8 administration associated with oral pyroxican (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug to treat dogs with IMC. Methodology: Three female dogs with 10 years old median age were presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Federal University of Parana, Curitiba (HV-UFPR with cytological and clinical diagnosis of IMC. Patients were treated with oral (0.5 mL,q12h, topical (q12h and inhalatory (2 mL, q24h, through an ultrasonic inhalation device M8, and oral pyroxican (0.3mg/kg, q24h.Thoracic radiographs showed pulmonary metastasis in all dogs. Results: 7 days after initiating treatment all patients had clinical improvement. It was observed reduction on mammary glands inflammation and decreased pain sensitivity. One patient had 8 month of complete remission. The other two patients died 1 and 2 month after initial treatment. However none of the patients had pulmonary progressive disease, showed by radiographic examinations. Owners revealed treatment satisfaction in regards to quality of life improvement, easy M8 administration, good M8 palatability for dogs, and inflammation reduction. Conclusion: The present report suggests that M8 influenced positively the anti -inflammatory treatment. Keywords: Calcarea carbonica complex; inflammatory mammary carcinoma; routes of administration References [1] Sorenmo K. Canine mammary gland tumors. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice. 2003 33(3:573-96. [2] Oliveira CC, Abud APR, Oliveira SM, Guimarães FSF, Andrade LF, Di Bernardi RP, Coletto ELO, Kuczera D, Da Lozzo EJ, Gonçalves JP, Trindade ES, Buchi DF. Developments on drug discovery and on new therapeutics: highly diluted tinctures act as biological response modifiers. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2011, 11(101: 2-11.

Carolina de Oliveira

2012-09-01

83

Prepolymer Syrup for Encapsulating Solar Cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Clear polymer syrup, made by disolving n-butyl acrylate prepolymer in monomer, used to encapsulate solar cells by any of three standard processes (dipping, multiple coating, or automated machine coating). Use of cyclohexane instead of methanol/water solvent during initial polymerization stage maintains high molecular weight and raises yield of linear polymer to essentially 100 percent.

Gupta, A.; Ingham, J. D.; Yavrouian, A. H.

1982-01-01

84

Plastic Tubing and Maple Syrup Quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup made from sap collected using improperly or carelessly installed plastic pipelines varied more in color from day to day, and was more often darker in color, than sap collected from either the properly installed pipeline or clean, frequently em...

R. S. Walters H. W. Yawney

1978-01-01

85

Clinical application of oral form of ANGIPARSTM and in combination with topical form as a new treatment for diabetic foot ulcers: A randomized clinical trial  

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Full Text Available ANGIPARSTM is a new herbal extract which has been produced in oral, topical, and intravenous forms. The present article contains preliminary results of the study which was planned to evaluate the efficacy and safety of orally applied ANGIPARSTM and to compare it with the combination of oral and topical forms and also with conventional therapy in patients with diabetic ulcers of the lower extremities."nTwenty one patients with diabetic foot ulcers were divided into 3 groups. The first group received 100 mg of oral ANGIPARSTM twice a day for 6 weeks in addition to conventional therapies. In the second group, ANGIPARSTM gel 3% was added to the oral form of the same product besides the conventional therapies for the same period of time. Finally, in the third group which was considered as control, only conventional therapies were performed. The patients were followed for 6 weeks. Parameters such as granulation tissue formation, skin epithelization, and wound surface areas changes were analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the compound in wounds healing. Furthermore, drug safety was assessed by monitoring adverse events and by clinical and laboratory evaluations."nThe study data showed significant differences between the intervention and control groups with respect to efficacy and tolerability. In each intervention group, primary wound healings occurred following 2 weeks. Complete wound healing which was greater than 70% improvement in wounds surface areas was achieved in 83% and 100% of group 1 and group 2 participants, respectively after 6 weeks. On the other hand, at the same period of time, only 22.2% of patients in control group revealed complete healing. Therefore, ANGIPARSTM had significant positive effect in increasing the incidence of complete wound closure compared with control group (p = 0.042. However, our evaluations indicated that adding topical treatment with 3% gel once a day to the oral therapy with the same product did not make significant difference in healing outcomes statistically (p = 0.769. Clinical and paraclinical evaluations did not show any adverse events during the study."nThis study showed that in diabetic foot ulcers, either treatment with oral ANGIPARSTM capsules (100mg twice a day or combination therapy with oral and topical forms, in conjunction with good wound care significantly increased the incidence of complete wound closure. In addition, the application of this product was safe and did not make any unexpected adverse event.

Bahrami A

2008-04-01

86

EVALUATION OF ANTITUSSIVE ACTIVITY OF VASU COUGH SYRUP IN SULPHUR DIOXIDE (SO2 INDUCED COUGH MODEL IN MICE  

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Full Text Available Cough is the most common symptom of respiratory diseases. When cough becomes serious, opioid drugs are effective, but they have side effects like sedation, delirium, constipation etc.. Therefore, there is a need to search out effective anti-tussive agents that are free from previously mentioned side effects. The present study was carried out to evaluate acute oral toxicity study and anti-tussive activity of Vasu Cough Syrup in sulphur dioxide (SO2-induced cough model in mice. Albino mice of either sex, weighing 25-30 g were divided into four groups (n = 6. Group I served as Disease control, Group II received standard drug i.e. Codeine phosphate (10 mg/kg, p.o., group III to IV were given Vasu Cough Syrup 0.25mL/kg and 0.5mL/kg body wt. p.o., dose. After 30 minutes, the mice were exposed to Sulphur dioxide for 30 sec. The mice were then placed in an observation chamber for counting of cough bouts for five minutes. Vasu Cough Syrup showed 63.91% and 70.64% inhibition in frequency of cough at 0.25mL/kg and 0.5mL/kg dose level respectively. It proves significant anti-tussive activity of Vasu Cough Syrup in Sulphur dioxide induced cough model. Thus, Vasu Cough Syrup can be useful as an alternative medicine for cough.

Patel Hirenjal

2013-06-01

87

Ciclopirox topical solution, 8% combined with oral terbinafine to treat onychomycosis: a randomized, evaluator-blinded study.  

Science.gov (United States)

This randomized, evaluator-blind, 3-arm parallel, comparator controlled, multicenter pilot study evaluated the safety and efficacy of ciclopirox nail lacquer topical solution, 8% in combination with oral terbinafine for the treatment of moderate to severe toenail onychomycosis (> or =60% disease involvement of target nail and/or lunula/matrix involvement) (N = 73). Patients were randomized to 1 of 3 treatment arms: ciclopirox nail lacquer once daily for 48 weeks plus 4 weeks of terbinafine 250 mg/day, followed by 4 weeks of rest (no terbinafine), then another 4 weeks of terbinafine 250 mg/day (PLs); ciclopirox nail lacquer once daily for 48 weeks plus terbinafine 250 mg/day for 12 weeks (PL12); or terbinafine 250 mg/day for 12 weeks (L12). At week 48, mycological cure (negative microscopy and culture) occurred in 66.7% (14/21) (PL8), 70.4% (19/27) (PL12), and 56.0% (14/25) (L12) of patients confirmed dermatophyte positive, respectively (P: not significant). At this time point, effective cure (simultaneous mycological cure and > or =90% reduction in the disease area) was observed in 40.0% (8/20), 33.3% (8/24), and 34.8% (8/23) of patients, respectively (P: not significant). The PLs regimen was well-tolerated and had high compliance. The data suggest that combination therapy (PL8) may be an alternative regimen to continuous terbinafine (L12) in the treatment of moderate to severe dermatophyte toenail onychomycosis. PMID:16004022

Gupta, Aditya K

2005-01-01

88

Ciclosporin vs. clobetasol in the topical management of atrophic and erosive oral lichen planus: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial  

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BACKGROUND: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease that can be painful, especially in the atrophic and erosive forms. Several drugs have been used with varying results, but most treatments are empirical, and do not have adequate control groups or correct study designs. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness of clobetasol and ciclosporin in the topical management of OLP and to evaluate which is more cost-effective and which gives the longest remission from signs and sympt...

Gandolfo, Sergio; Pentenero, Monica; Broccoletti, Roberto; Arduino, Paolo Giacomo

2006-01-01

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Topical clobetasol in the treatment of atrophic-erosive oral lichen planus: a randomized controlled trial to compare two preparations with different concentrations  

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Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease that can be painful, mainly in the atrophic and erosive forms. Numerous drugs have been used with dissimilar results, but most treatments are empirical and do not have adequate control groups or correct study designs. However, to date, the most commonly employed and useful agents for the treatment of LP are topical corticosteroids. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial has been designed to compare the efficacy and safet...

Gandolfo, Sergio; Broccoletti, Roberto; Arduino, Paolo Giacomo

2009-01-01

90

Diclofenac sodium topical solution with dimethyl sulfoxide, a viable alternative to oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories in osteoarthritis: review of current evidence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Philip Fuller¹, Sanford Roth²¹Covidien, Hazelwood, MO; ²Arizona Research and Education, Arthritis Research Laboratory, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USAAbstract: Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs may offer a safer alternative to their oral counterparts for the management of osteoarthritis. Diclofenac sodium topical solution with dimethyl sulfoxide (TDiclo was evaluated in five randomized, controlled trials and is indicated for treatment of the signs and symptoms associated with osteoarthritis of the knee. Three studies showed that TDiclo is superior to placebo and vehicle control with respect to pain, physical function, and perception of osteoarthritis symptoms. Two studies showed that benefits are similar to those of oral diclofenac, with one study demonstrating statistical equivalence. The most common adverse event associated with TDiclo in these studies was dry skin. Incidences of gastrointestinal adverse events and abnormal levels of liver enzymes were lower with TDiclo compared with oral diclofenac in active-controlled studies. Based on these studies, TDiclo represents a practical, evidence-based option for the management of osteoarthritis of the knee.Keywords: osteoarthritis, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, diclofenac, topical analgesic

Fuller P

2011-07-01

91

Placebo controlled, crossover validation study of oral ibuprofen and topical hydrocortisone-21-acetate for a model of ultraviolet B radiation (UVR-induced pain and inflammation  

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Full Text Available Matthias Rother, Ilka RotherDepartment of Clinical Operations, X-pert Med GmbH, Graefelfing, GermanyBackground: Pain related to ultraviolet B radiation (UVR induced sunburn is an established, simple, acute pain model. One of the major criticisms is related to the potential dermal adverse events caused by the UVR exposure. This study tried to validate the model for oral and topical drugs and to define the minimum required UVR exposure.Methods: This subject- and observer-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study evaluated 600 mg oral ibuprofen (IB and topical hydrocortisone-21-acetate (HC twice daily (bid in 24 healthy volunteers. Treatment started immediately after irradiation and again at 12 hours, 24 hours, and 36 hours post-UVR. Assessment of hyperalgesia to heat and signs of inflammation (erythema, skin temperature for all areas was performed after UVR and again at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours. Subjects returned within 4–11 days to the study site for the second period of the study. As in the first period, subjects received HC at one side and topical placebo on the other side, but oral treatment was crossed-over.Results: The primary analysis failed to show the expected superiority of the IB-group vs the placebo group in period 1 of the study. Evaluating period 2 alone clearly showed the expected treatment effects of IB for erythema and heat pain threshold. The results were less pronounced for skin temperature. In contrast to IB vs oral placebo, there were no differences in treatment response between HC and topical placebo. UVR at all dosages induced profound erythema and reduction of heat pain threshold without causing blisters or other unexpected discomfort to the subjects. The changes were almost linear between 1 and 2 minimal erythema doses (MED, whereas the change from 2 to 3 MED was less pronounced.Conclusion: Use of 2 MED in upcoming studies seems to be reasonable to limit subjects' UVB exposure. The following procedural changes are suggested:• Intensified training sessions before randomization to treatment• Increase in sample size if they are crossover studies• Simplification in design (either oral or topical treatmentKeywords: ibuprofen, hydrocortisone-21-acetate, pain, inflammation, UV radiation, validation

Rother M

2011-10-01

92

Effects of systemic or topical administration of sodium selenite on early radiation effects in mouse oral mucosa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: to quantify the effect of sodium selenite (selenium) on radiation-induced oral mucositis (mouse) after subcutaneous or topical administration. Material and methods: mucosal ulceration of the lower epithelium of mouse tongue was analyzed. Selenium (5 ?g) was applied subcutaneously (s.c.) or locally, 60 min or 30 min prior to irradiation, respectively. In combination with single-dose irradiation, a single selenium application was given. With daily fractionated irradiation (3 Gy/fraction) for 1 week (days 0-4), selenium was administered at all 5 days of irradiation. With ten fractions over 2 weeks, selenium was applied in week 1, week 2, or both. All fractionation protocols were terminated by graded test doses to generate full dose-effect curves. Results: in a single-dose control experiment, the ED50 (dose after which ulcer induction is expected in 50% of the mice) was 12.9 ± 1.6 Gy. Selenium increased the ED50 to 17.7 ± 2.6 Gy (s.c.; p = 0.0003) and 16.3 ± 3.0 Gy (local; p = 0.0104). The ED50 for test irradiation after 5 x 3 Gy was 7.4 ± 2.2 Gy. Subcutaneous administration of selenium resulted in an ED50 of 11.5 ± 2.0 Gy (p = 0.0015), local application yielded an ED50 of 10.0 ± 2.1 Gy (p = 0.0284). The ED50 for test irradiation after 10 x 3 Gy/2 weeks was 8.0 ± 1.7 Gy. Subcutaneous or local administration of selenium in week 1 yielded a significant increase in ED50 to 10.5 ± 1.0 Gy (p = 0.0069) and 10.7 ± 1.0 Gy (p = 0.0039), respectively. By clear contrast, selenium administration in week 2 had no significant effect. Administration in both weeks resulted in an ED50 of 9.1 ± 2.0 Gy (s.c.; p = 0.2747) and 9.7 ± 1.4 Gy (local; p = 0.0541). Conclusion: administration of sodium selenite during clinically relevant fractionated irradiation protocols has a significant effect during the initial treatment phase, i.e., week 1 in the mouse. Therefore, in clinical radiotherapy, the latent time to manifestation of confluent mucositis may be significantly prolonged, and hence the burden for the patient clearly reduced by selenium. (orig.)

2007-01-01

93

Effects of systemic or topical administration of sodium selenite on early radiation effects in mouse oral mucosa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: to quantify the effect of sodium selenite (selenium) on radiation-induced oral mucositis (mouse) after subcutaneous or topical administration. Material and methods: mucosal ulceration of the lower epithelium of mouse tongue was analyzed. Selenium (5 {mu}g) was applied subcutaneously (s.c.) or locally, 60 min or 30 min prior to irradiation, respectively. In combination with single-dose irradiation, a single selenium application was given. With daily fractionated irradiation (3 Gy/fraction) for 1 week (days 0-4), selenium was administered at all 5 days of irradiation. With ten fractions over 2 weeks, selenium was applied in week 1, week 2, or both. All fractionation protocols were terminated by graded test doses to generate full dose-effect curves. Results: in a single-dose control experiment, the ED{sub 50} (dose after which ulcer induction is expected in 50% of the mice) was 12.9 {+-} 1.6 Gy. Selenium increased the ED{sub 50} to 17.7 {+-} 2.6 Gy (s.c.; p = 0.0003) and 16.3 {+-} 3.0 Gy (local; p = 0.0104). The ED{sub 50} for test irradiation after 5 x 3 Gy was 7.4 {+-} 2.2 Gy. Subcutaneous administration of selenium resulted in an ED{sub 50} of 11.5 {+-} 2.0 Gy (p = 0.0015), local application yielded an ED{sub 50} of 10.0 {+-} 2.1 Gy (p = 0.0284). The ED{sub 50} for test irradiation after 10 x 3 Gy/2 weeks was 8.0 {+-} 1.7 Gy. Subcutaneous or local administration of selenium in week 1 yielded a significant increase in ED{sub 50} to 10.5 {+-} 1.0 Gy (p = 0.0069) and 10.7 {+-} 1.0 Gy (p = 0.0039), respectively. By clear contrast, selenium administration in week 2 had no significant effect. Administration in both weeks resulted in an ED{sub 50} of 9.1 {+-} 2.0 Gy (s.c.; p = 0.2747) and 9.7 {+-} 1.4 Gy (local; p = 0.0541). Conclusion: administration of sodium selenite during clinically relevant fractionated irradiation protocols has a significant effect during the initial treatment phase, i.e., week 1 in the mouse. Therefore, in clinical radiotherapy, the latent time to manifestation of confluent mucositis may be significantly prolonged, and hence the burden for the patient clearly reduced by selenium. (orig.)

Gehrisch, A. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Technical Univ. of Dresden (Germany); Doerr, W. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Technical Univ. of Dresden (Germany); Experimental Center, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Technical Univ. of Dresden (Germany)

2007-01-15

94

Molecular Models of Compounds in Maple Syrup  

Science.gov (United States)

This month's issue of J. Chem. Educ. includes articles by David Ball dealing with the chemical composition of honey (1) and maple syrup (2). The JCE Featured Molecules for this month are drawn from those papers. In prior months we have included sucrose, glucose, and fructose (3), and all of the naturally occurring amino acids (4) in the molecule collection. This month we add the molecules identified in Table 4 of ref 2 as probable contributors to the taste of maple syrup. This group of molecules could serve easily as a starting point for a variety of student activities in the area of taste. Students in non-majors courses could be asked to identify structural similarities and differences among the various molecules and could be introduced to functional groups. Students could look for other foods in which some of these molecules are found, and could begin to develop a list of molecules contributing to flavor. In the penultimate paragraph of the maple syrup paper there is a list of substances used as flavoring agents in artificial (maple) syrup. What molecules are in fenugreek and lovage that might be important in flavoring? What are the structures of the other molecules in that paragraph and what, if any, structural features do they have in common with the featured molecules? Students in organic or biochemistry courses could begin to explore the chemistry of taste in more detail. Good starting points for this work are The Chemistry of Taste: Mechanisms, Behaviors, and Mimics by Peter Given and Dulce Paredes (5) and the Chemical and Engineering News Web site (6), which includes a number of articles on this subject.

95

Phenylbutyrate therapy for maple syrup urine disease  

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Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate in urea cycle disorder patients has been associated with a selective reduction in branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in spite of adequate dietary protein intake. Based on this clinical observation, we investigated the potential of phenylbutyrate treatment to lower BCAA and their corresponding ?-keto acids (BCKA) in patients with classic and variant late-onset forms of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). We also performed in vit...

Brunetti-pierri, Nicola; Lanpher, Brendan; Erez, Ayelet; Ananieva, Elitsa A.; Islam, Mohammad; Marini, Juan C.; Sun, Qin; Yu, Chunli; Hegde, Madhuri; Li, Jun; Wynn, R. Max; Chuang, David T.; Hutson, Susan; Lee, Brendan

2011-01-01

96

EFFECT OF ADULSA SYRUP ON MILK INDUCED LEUKOCYTOSIS  

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Full Text Available Marketed formulation ‘Adulsa syrup’ is being extensively used since so many years as a part of Ayurvedic treatment for asthma. The multiherbal preparation, Adulsa containing aqueous extracts of plant and covers most of variety of active ingredients that are used in the antiasthmatic therapies. Marketed formulation Adulsa syrup was evaluated on milk induced leukocytosis for antistress activity and found not significant inhibition. From results of present study it was concluded that Adulsa syrup lacks biological activity.

Patel Divyakant A.

2011-06-01

97

Replication of Holograms with Corn Syrup by Rubbing  

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Corn syrup films are used to replicate holograms in order to fabricate micro-structural patterns without the toxins commonly found in photosensitive salts and dyes. We use amplitude and relief masks with lithographic techniques and rubbing techniques in order to transfer holographic information to corn syrup material. Holographic diffraction patterns from holographic gratings and computer Fourier holograms fabricated with corn syrup are shown. We measured the diffraction efficiency parameter ...

Mejias-brizuela, Nildia Y.; Arturo Olivares-Pérez; Mauricio Ortiz-Gutiérrez

2012-01-01

98

Production of fructose-containing syrup with enzymes  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A review on enzymic processes used for production of fructose- high syrup from starch including liquefaction by alpha-amylase, saccharification by amyloglucosidase, and isomerization with glucose isomerase.

Helwiig-Nielsen, B.

1981-01-01

99

HEPATO PROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF HEPASHREY SYRUP  

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Full Text Available Liver is known as a vital organ and play a crucial role in the metabolism and it is causes it to succumb to numerous hepatic diseases. Synthetic drugs exploited in the treatment of liver diseases are incompetent and may sometimes lead to serious side-effects. In this context, herbal therapy has emerged as a proficient approach with good values in treating hepatic diseases. Medicinal plants may serve as a vital source of potentially useful new compounds for the development of effective therapy to combat a variety of liver problems. Many herbs have been proven to be effectual as hepato protective agents while many more are claimed to be hepato protective but lack any such scientific evidence to support such claims. Developing a satisfactory herbal therapy to treat severe liver diseases requires systematic investigation of properties such as antiviral action (Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, anti-hepatotoxicity (antioxidants, stimulation of liver regeneration and choleretic activity. Formulation of herbal medicines with standards of safety and efficacy can revitalize treatment of liver disorders. In the present study, the efficacy of polyherbal herbal formulation Hepashrey Syrup has been studied in human with history of liver disorders twice daily dosage for a period of one month at OPD of JSS Ayurveda Medical College, Mysore. The initial results are reported with encouraging results on liver. We conclude that Hepashrey syrup possess hepato protective effect in patients. This protective effect of Hepashrey syrup can be attributed to the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and hepato protective properties of the component herbs.

Manoj Dash*, Laksmeesh Upadhya, Namrata Joshi, Baidyanath Mishra, Sivani Prashar

2013-04-01

100

Comparing the Effect of Phenytoin Syrup and Triamcinolone Acetonide Ointment on Aphthous Ulcers in Patients with Behcet’s Syndrome  

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Background: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) appears to be the most common type of oral ulcers. Thelesion is usually self limited but its painful presentation results in some difficulties. Therefore, an efficient therapeuticstrategy is required and currently existing therapies seem to be inadequate because of its unclear etiology.Here the therapeutic effect of triamcinolone acetonide ointment as a relatively expensive medication has beencompared with phenytoin syrup on aphthous ulcers in p...

Mm, Fani; Ebrahimi, H.; Pourshahidi, S.; Aflaki, E.; Shafiee Sarvestani, S.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

TASTE MASKING IN SYRUP CONTAINING HERBAL BITTER DRUGS: FORMULATION, STANDARDIZATION AND STABILITY STUDIES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Taste masking of bitter drugs has been challenge to scientists as taste is an important parameter governing patient compliance. Several oral pharmaceuticals, numerous food and beverage products and bulking agents have unpleasant bitter taste. In order to ensure patient compliance bitterness masking becomes essential. The desire of improving the palatability has prompted the development of numerous formulations with improved performance and acceptability. Several approaches namely sensory, barrier, chemical and complexation have been tried to mask the unpleasant taste of formulation. The purpose of the present was to evaluate the bitterness of the prepared syrup formulation by using human taste sensor.

T. P. Nimbekar

2011-04-01

102

Adherence and acceptability in MTN 001: a randomized cross-over trial of daily oral and topical tenofovir for HIV prevention in women.  

Science.gov (United States)

We compared adherence to and acceptability of daily topical and oral formulations of tenofovir (TFV) used as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention among women in South Africa, Uganda and the United States. 144 sexually active, HIV-uninfected women participated in a cross-over study of three regimens: oral tablet, vaginal gel, or both. We tested for differences in adherence and evaluated product acceptability. Self-reported adherence for all regimens was high (94 %), but serum TFV concentrations indicated only 64 % of participants used tablets consistently. Most women in the U.S. (72 %) favored tablets over gel; while preferences varied at the African sites (42 % preferred gel and 40 % tablets). Findings indicate a role for oral and vaginal PrEP formulations and highlight the importance of integrating pharmacokinetics-based adherence assessment in future trials. Biomedical HIV prevention interventions should consider geographic and cultural experience with product formulations, partner involvement, and sexual health benefits that ultimately influence use. PMID:23065145

Minnis, Alexandra M; Gandham, Sharavi; Richardson, Barbra A; Guddera, Vijayanand; Chen, Beatrice A; Salata, Robert; Nakabiito, Clemensia; Hoesley, Craig; Justman, Jessica; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Patterson, Karen; Gomez, Kailazarid; Hendrix, Craig W

2013-02-01

103

Topical coal tar alone and in combination with oral methotrexate in management of psoriasis : a retrospective analysis  

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Full Text Available Thirty five patients admitted with psoriasis were analysed. 16 patients received 20% crude coal tar and 19 patients received 20% crude coal tar along with methotrexate in a weekly oral schedule (15mg/wk. After 4 weeks of therapy there was total clearence in 52.6% of the patients with combination therapy, whereas only 12.5% of the patients with conventional therapy achieved this.

Prasad PVS

1997-01-01

104

Topical coal tar alone and in combination with oral methotrexate in management of psoriasis : a retrospective analysis  

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Thirty five patients admitted with psoriasis were analysed. 16 patients received 20% crude coal tar and 19 patients received 20% crude coal tar along with methotrexate in a weekly oral schedule (15mg/wk). After 4 weeks of therapy there was total clearence in 52.6% of the patients with combination therapy, whereas only 12.5% of the patients with conventional therapy achieved this.

Pvs, Prasad; John Felix

1997-01-01

105

The pasting and gel textural properties of corn starch in glucose, fructose and maltose syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pasting and gel textural properties of corn starch in syrup at different concentrations were investigated by Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA) and Texture profile analysis (TPA) tests. The results showed that the pasting temperatures of corn starch greatly increased, especially at higher sugar concentration. Increasing concentration of syrup caused an increase in peak, trough and final viscosity of corn starch. Peak viscosity and the disintegration rate of starch increased in the following order: fructose syrup> maltose syrup> glucose syrup. Increasing syrup concentration to 13%, 25% and 50% resulted in a lower retrogradation rate than the control. When the maltose syrup concentration increased to 50%, the retrogradation rate decreased to 14.30% from 33.38%. The highest hardness was observed when the syrup concentration was 25%. There was a particular low hardness when the concentration of syrup was 50%. The springiness of starch gels in syrup was similar at different concentrations. PMID:24755772

Sun, Qingjie; Xing, Yan; Qiu, Chao; Xiong, Liu

2014-01-01

106

Molecular imaging of glucose uptake in oral neoplasia following topical application of fluorescently labeled deoxy-glucose  

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The clinical value of assessing tumor glucose metabolism via F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET imaging in oncology is well established; however, the poor spatial resolution of PET is a significant limitation especially for early stage lesions. An alternative technology is optical molecular imaging, which allows for subcellular spatial resolution and can be effectively used with topical contrast agents for imaging epithelial derived cancers. The goal of this study was to evaluate the potential...

Nitin, N.; Carlson, Alicia L.; Muldoon, Tim; El-naggar, Adel K.; Gillenwater, Ann; Richards-kortum, Rebecca

2009-01-01

107

Topical or oral administration with an extract of Polypodium leucotomos prevents acute sunburn and psoralen-induced phototoxic reactions as well as depletion of Langerhans cells in human skin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sunburn, immune suppression, photo-aging, and skin cancers result from uncontrolled overexposure of human skin to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Preventive measures, including photo-protection, are helpful and can be achieved by topical sun-screening agents. Polypodium leucotomos (PL) has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and has shown some in vitro and in vivo immunomodulating properties. Its beneficial photo-protective effects in the treatment of vitiligo and its antioxidant properties encouraged us to evaluate in vivo the potentially useful photo-protective property of natural extract of PL after topical application or oral ingestion. Twenty-one healthy volunteers [either untreated or treated with oral psoralens (8-MOP or 5-MOP)] were enrolled in this study and exposed to solar radiation for evaluation of the following clinical parameters: immediate pigment darkening (IPD), minimal erythema dose (MED), minimal melanogenic dose (MMD), and minimal phototoxic dose (MPD) before and after topical or oral administration of PL. Immunohistochemical assessment of CD1a-expressing epidermal cells were also performed. PL was found to be photo-protective after topical application as well as oral administration. PL increased UV dose required for IPD (P<0.01), MED (P<0.001) and MPD (P<0.001). After oral administration of PL, MED increased 2.,8±0.59 times and MPD increased 2.75±0.5 and 6.8±1.3 times depending upon the type of psoralen used. Immunohistochemical study revealed photo-protection of Langherhans cells by oral as well as topical PL. The observed photo-protective activities of oral or topical PL reveal a new avenue in examining the potentially useful field of systemic photo-protection and suggests that PL can be used as adjunct treatment and can make photochemotherapy and phototherapy possibly safe and effective when the control of cutaneous phototoxicity to PUVA or UVB is a limiting factor in such photo-therapies. (au)

1997-01-01

108

TOIB Study. Are topical or oral ibuprofen equally effective for the treatment of chronic knee pain presenting in primary care: a randomised controlled trial with patient preference study. [ISRCTN79353052  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Many older people have chronic knee pain. Both topical and oral non- steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are commonly used to treat this. Oral NSAIDS are effective, at least in the short term, but can have severe adverse effects. Topical NSAIDs also appear to be effective, at least in the short term. One might expect topical NSAIDs both to be less effective and to have fewer adverse effects than oral NSAIDs. If topical NSAIDs have fewer adverse effects this may outweigh both the reduction in effectiveness and the higher cost of topical compared to oral treatment. Patient preferences may influence the comparative effectiveness of drugs delivered via different routes. Methods TOIB is a randomised trial comparing topical and oral ibuprofen, with a parallel patient preference study. We are recruiting people aged 50 or over with chronic knee pain, from 27 MRC General Practice Research Framework practices across the UK. We are seeking to recruit 283 participants to the RCT and 379 to the PPS. Participants will be followed up for up to two years (with the majority reaching one year. Outcomes will be assessed by postal questionnaire, nurse examination, laboratory tests and medical record searches at one and two years or the end of the study. Discussion This study will provide new evidence on the overall costs and benefits of treating chronic knee pain with either oral or topical ibuprofen. The use of a patient preference design is unusual, but will allow us to explore how preference influences response to a medication. In addition, it will provide more information on adverse events. This study will provide evidence to inform primary care practitioners, and possibly influence practice.

Parsons Suzanne

2005-11-01

109

Confectioner's syrup from tapioca processing waste  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The possibility to produce confectioner's syrup from tapioca processing waste by acid hydrolysis was explored at different substrate as well as acid concentrations, pressures and times. Syrup for confectioner's use can be effectively produced at various combinations of the parameters though severe hydrolysis conditions have to be employed as compared to the commercial starch. Economic considerations demand the use of waste slurry of 20% concentration with 4% sulphuric acid and the hydrolysis at 15 Pa for 15 min. The problem of disposal of the waste could be solved by gainfully utilizing it for the production of syrup meeting required standards.

Ahmed, S.Y.; Ghildyal, N.P.; Kunhi, A.A.M.; Lonsane, B.K.

1983-12-01

110

Antioxidant Activity of a Mediterranean Food Product: “Fig Syrup”  

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Full Text Available In this work, the efficacy of fig syrup, a Mediterranean fig derivative, as a nutraceutical supplement, was demonstrated. Fig syrup is a fruit concentrate used as a common ingredient in the preparation of typical foods, and particularly in cakes. In vitro assays were performed to determine the amount of nutraceutical ingredients, such as phenolic compounds (3.92 mg equivalent of gallic acid per g and flavonoids (0.35 mg equivalent of catechin per g, while HPLC analyses provided specific information about the composition of antioxidants in the syrup. Furthermore, total antioxidant activity, scavenging properties against DPPH and peroxyl radicals, and the anticholinesterase activity, clearly showed the efficacy of the syrup in preventing damage induced by free radicals and, thus, the applicability of this food derivative as a nutraceutical supplement.

Umile G. Spizzirri

2011-02-01

111

Maple syrup urine disease: new insights from a zebrafish model  

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Summary and comment on a recent Disease Models & Mechanisms paper entitled ‘Mutation of zebrafish dihydrolipoamide branched-chain transacylase E2 results in motor dysfunction and models maple syrup urine disease’ (Friedrich et al., 2012).

Roberts, Nathan B.

2012-01-01

112

Antioxidant Activity of a Mediterranean Food Product: “Fig Syrup”  

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In this work, the efficacy of fig syrup, a Mediterranean fig derivative, as a nutraceutical supplement, was demonstrated. Fig syrup is a fruit concentrate used as a common ingredient in the preparation of typical foods, and particularly in cakes. In vitro assays were performed to determine the amount of nutraceutical ingredients, such as phenolic compounds (3.92 mg equivalent of gallic acid per g) and flavonoids (0.35 mg equivalent of catechin per g), while HPLC analyses provided specific inf...

Puoci, Francesco; Iemma, Francesca; Spizzirri, Umile G.; Restuccia, Donatella; Pezzi, Vincenzo; Sirianni, Rosa; Manganaro, Lillo; Curcio, Manuela; Parisi, Ortensia I.; Cirillo, Giuseppe; Picci, Nevio

2011-01-01

113

Antioxidant Activity of a Mediterranean Food Product: “Fig Syrup”  

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In this work, the efficacy of fig syrup, a Mediterranean fig derivative, as a nutraceutical supplement, was demonstrated. Fig syrup is a fruit concentrate used as a common ingredient in the preparation of typical foods, and particularly in cakes. In vitro assays were performed to determine the amount of nutraceutical ingredients, such as phenolic compounds (3.92 mg equivalent of gallic acid per g) and flavonoids (0.35 mg equivalent of catechin per g), while HPLC analyses provided specific inf...

Francesco Puoci; Francesca Iemma; Spizzirri, Umile G.; Donatella Restuccia; Vincenzo Pezzi; Rosa Sirianni; Lillo Manganaro; Manuela Curcio; Parisi, Ortensia I.; Giuseppe Cirillo; Nevio Picci

2011-01-01

114

Comparative study of mupirocin and oral co-trimoxazole plus topical fusidic acid in eradication of nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mupirocin is a topically applied drug that is very active in the eradication of nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However, studies designed to compare mupirocin treatment with other antimicrobial regimens are lacking. We therefore conducted an open, prospective, randomized, controlled trial to compare the efficacy and safety of mupirocin versus those of oral co-trimoxazole plus topical fusidic acid (both regimens with a clorhexidine scrub bath) for the eradication of MRSA from nasal and extranasal carriers of MRSA. The eradication rates with mupirocin and co-trimoxazole plus fusidic acid at 2, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 90 days were 93 and of 93, 100 and 100, 97 and 94, 100 and 92, 96 and 95, and 78 and 71%, respectively, for nasal carriage. At 7, 14, and 28 days the eradication rates for extranasal carriage by the two regimens were 23 and 74, 83 and 76, and 45 and 69%, respectively. The efficacies and safety of both regimens were similar. The MRSA isolates were not resistant to the study drugs either at the baseline or at follow-up. These results suggest that mupirocin and co-trimoxazole plus fusidic acid, both used in conjunction with a chlorhexidine soap bath, are equally effective and safe for the eradication of MRSA from nasal and extranasal MRSA carriers. Mupirocin was easier to use but was more expensive. PMID:7695302

Parras, F; Guerrero, M C; Bouza, E; Blázquez, M J; Moreno, S; Menarguez, M C; Cercenado, E

1995-01-01

115

Topical corticosteroids in association with miconazole and chlorhexidine in the long-term management of atrophic-erosive oral lichen planus: a placebo-controlled and comparative study between clobetasol and fluocinonide.  

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OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of a combination of topical corticosteroids with topical antimycotic drugs in the therapy of atrophic-erosive forms of oral lichen planus (OLP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study population consisted of 60 patients with OLP subdivided into three groups matched for sex and age. The first group (25 patients) and the second group (24 patients) received respectively 0.05% clobetasol propionate ointment or 0.05% fluocinonide ointment in an adhesive medium (4% hydr...

Broccoletti, Roberto; Gandolfo, Sergio

1999-01-01

116

[Comparative pharmacological activity of triamcinolone acetonide and of a new topical steroid: amcinonide, after percutaneous or oral administration (author's transl)].  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was carried out in order to compare the potential anti-inflammatory activity and the level of action of triamcinolone acetonide (Triam. Ac.) and amcinonide (Amc.) after percutaneous administration to animals. Administered per os to rats Amc. is 18 times less active (DI50 1,85 mg . kg-1) on carrageenin plantar edema and 10 times less active (DI50 4,2 mg . kg-1) than Triam Ac. on air pouch granuloma with carrageenin. The potential anti-inflammatory activity at the various levels of tissues under the skin was evaluated with an ointment and a cream containing the two corticosteroïds through three methods: --vasoconstrictor assays on guinea pig showing cutaneous activity; --plantar edema showing subcutaneous activity; --air pouch granuloma showing anti-exsudative activity. The results are as it follows: --vasoconstrictor activity Amc. higher than Triam. Ac.; --plantar edema Amc. equal to Triam Ac.; --air pouch granuloma Am. lesser than Triam. Ac. The two corticoids administered percutaneously show any thymolytic activity on young female rats. Though Amc. is far less active than Triam. Ac. when orally administered, nevertheless it is a powerful dermocorticoïd with a poor systemic activity. Its local effects are less profound than those of Triam. Ac. PMID:7206733

Wepierre, J; Bogaievsky, Y

1980-01-01

117

Psoriasiform eruption and oral ulcerations as adverse effects of topical 5% imiquimod treatment in children: a report of four cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Imiquimod 5% cream is a topical immune-response modifier indicated in the treatment of multiple cutaneous conditions including actinic keratoses, superficial basal cell carcinoma, and condylomata acuminata. In children, it has been approved only for ages 12 and older in the treatment of external genital and perianal warts. It has also been used off label for a variety of pediatric skin disorders, including molluscum contagiosum (MC), trichoepitheliomas, verrucae plana, and verrucae vulgaris. Local and systemic adverse reactions have been reported, with the most frequently reported events being application site reactions including itching, burning, erythema, and erosion. Although these local reactions are well known, other rare local and systemic reactions can occur. There have been multiple case reports in adults of rare adverse cutaneous reactions occurring with imiquimod, but few have been reported in children. We present four cases of rare adverse cutaneous reactions. In all cases, the children were being treated with imiquimod 5% cream for verrucae or MC. Two of these patients developed a localized psoriasiform eruption, and two developed mucosal ulcerations. PMID:22612595

Smith, Wallace A; Siegel, Dawn; Lyon, Valerie B; Holland, Kristen E

2013-01-01

118

Mentha longifolia syrup in secondary amenorrhea: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trials  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Amenorrhea is defined as the cessation of menses. Hormone therapy is the most common treatment. Due to the contraindications and side effects of it and the increasing demand for alternative medicine substitutes, Mentha longifolia L. was used in this study. Mentha longifolia L. is a known medication in Iranian traditional medicine to induce menstrual bleeding in women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. Methods A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study was conducted in 120 women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. Treatment consisted of sequential oral syrup, 45 ml (15 ml three times a day for 2 weeks. If the patients did not have menstruation after 2 weeks of taking the medication, we would wait for two more weeks. If the patients had menstruation at each stage of using the drug, we started it one week after the end of menstruation. But if the patients had not menstruate after four weeks (two-week using of drug and waiting for two more weeks, the previous steps were repeated. The drug and placebo were repeated in three cycles of menstruation. Bleeding was documented by the patient on diary cards. The primary outcome variable was the occurrence (yes/no of bleeding during the first treatment cycle. The secondary efficacy outcome was the regularity of bleeding pattern during the three cycles of the study. Results The number of women with bleeding during the first cycle were higher in the drug group as in the placebo group (68.3% vs. 13.6%; p?Mentha longifolia L. syrup. Conclusion In conclusion, Mentha longifolia L. syrup is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective choice in inducing bleeding and maintaining regular bleeding in women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea.

Mokaberinejad Roshanak

2012-12-01

119

Simulation Tool for Teaching Multivariate Experimental Design on Paracetamol Syrup Formulation  

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Full Text Available Computer simulation is one of effective tools for instructors to illustrate effects of experimental design in its entire complexity since the students can be exposed to a large variety of experimental designs within a relative short period of time. In this study, the syrup formulation of paracetamol was used as a model topic. The program written as a Visual Basic module within Microsoft AccessTM was used to simulate the formulation behavior. The 23 forth-year pharmacy students in Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Prince of Songkhla University used this program to have direct experience in ‘EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN’ topic. The efficiency of the generated computer simulation program on the students’ learning was determined by the evaluation of the satisfaction of the students using a questionnaire. The results suggested that this tool was useful and satisfactory for the students’ self-studying.

Wibul Wongpoowarak

2008-06-01

120

Outcome of maple syrup urine disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

The outcome of 12 children with classical maple syrup urine disease is reviewed. All patients presented in the neonatal period at ages varying from 5 to 21 (median 8) days. The time taken to make the diagnosis ranged from 1 day to longer than 9 months (median 7 days). Each survived his initial illness but 3 died later after apparently mild infections. Three of the 12 patients had a spastic quadriplegia and 6 others abnormal neurological signs without clear cerebral palsy. The single most important factor determining the outcome appears to be the time taken to make the diagnosis after the first symptoms. Two patients were diagnosed within 24 hours of the first symptoms and one is of above average ability. The other is mildly retarded but control of the disease was poor in his first 4 years of life. Outcome is unpredictable if the delay is between 3 and 14 days. Two children are of normal ability but 6 others are retarded. A delay longer than 14 days is invariably associated with mental retardation and cerebral palsy. We conclude that early diagnosis is essential to improve the outcome of this condition. PMID:7181520

Naughten, E R; Jenkins, J; Francis, D E; Leonard, J V

1982-12-01

 
 
 
 
121

Evaluation of Preserving Efficacy for Different Cough Syrups Manufactured by Different Pharmaceutical Companies  

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The aim of the current investigation is to assess the efficacy of different preservatives ingredients of different expectorant cough syrups manufactured by different pharmaceutical companies by comparing the growth of five microorganisms of known quanta of S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. The microorganisms were inoculated into syrup A (glycerol and propylene glycol), syrup B (propylene glycol and glycerin), syrup C (glycerin, propylene glycol and...

2009-01-01

122

29 CFR 780.819 - Production must be of unrefined sugar or syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Production must be of unrefined sugar or syrup. 780.819 Section 780.819 Labor...Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup; Exemption From Overtime Pay Requirements...Production must be of unrefined sugar or syrup. The second part of the section...

2009-07-01

123

Economic and environmental assessment of syrup production. Colombian case.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work presents a techno-economic and environmental assessment of the glucose syrups production from sugarcane bagasse, plantain husk, cassava husk, mango peel, rice husk and corncobs. According to the economic analysis, the corncob had both, the lowest production cost (2.48USD/kg syrup) and the highest yield (0.61kgofsugars/kg of wet agroindustrial waste) due to its high content in cellulose and hemicellulose. This analysis also revealed that a heat integration strategy is necessary since the utilities consumption represent an important factor in the production cost. According to the results, the pretreatment section requires more energy in the syrup production in comparison with the requirements of other sections such as production and sugar concentration. The environmental assessment revealed that the solid wastes such as furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural affected the environmental development of the process for all the agroindustrial wastes, being the rice husk the residue with the lowest environmental impact. PMID:24686375

Dávila, Javier A; Hernández, Valentina; Castro, Eulogio; Cardona, Carlos A

2014-06-01

124

TOPICAL TREATMENT OF MELASMA  

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Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment. Multiple options for topical treatment are available, of which hydroquinone (HQ) is the most commonly prescribed agent. Besides HQ, other topical ...

Bandyopadhyay Debabrata

2009-01-01

125

Studies on dehydration of figs using different sugar syrup treatments  

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The ripe fig (Ficus carica L) fruits of cultivar cv., ‘Deanna’ were steam treated at 90°C and 10 psi for 5 min in autoclave. Steamed fruits were dipped in sucrose, glucose, fructose and invert sugar syrups at 50°Brix for 24 h for getting desired total soluble solids content. The treated fruits were further dried to 20% moisture in a cabinet dryer at 50–55°C. Good quality and acceptable dried figs could be prepared by using invert sugar syrup treatment. Dried figs prepared using inver...

Naikwadi, P. M.; Chavan, U. D.; Pawar, V. D.; Amarowicz, R.

2010-01-01

126

Albuterol syrup in the treatment of the young asthmatic child.  

Science.gov (United States)

Albuterol (salbutamol) syrup was studied in 14 asthmatic children (three to six years of age) in a four-week, double-blind, crossover (with placebo) trial to determine efficacy, safety and tolerance. Albuterol was found to be more effective as evaluated by measurements of symptom scores (p less than .01) daily WPF meter (p less than .01) and need for additional medications. Albuterol provided a significant (p less than .01) increase in FEV1 and FEF 25%-75% over three hours. Clinically unimportant effects on heart rate, personality and tremors were noted in most subjects. The authors conclude that albuterol syrup is effective and safe in the young asthmatic. PMID:7270984

Rachelefsky, G S; Katz, R M; Siegel, S C

1981-09-01

127

Experiences with Pontal syrup in mucositis caused by radiotherapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Pontal syrup was administered at daily dose of 30 ml t. i. d. to 17 patients of mucositis developed due to radiotherapy against malignant tumor. Results were: Remarkably effective-5 cases, effective-8 cases, slightly effective-3 cases, and non-effective-1 case. Certain effects were observed in 16 cases out of 17 cases/94.1%, excluding only one non-effective case. No side-effects were observed in all cases. It is considered that Pontal syrup is a drug useful for mucositis caused by radiotherapy because of its easiness of administration and also of its characteristic of non-stimulant. (author)

1983-01-01

128

Genetical and Clinical Survey of Maple Syrup Urine Disease Patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 54-day old male infant was referred to the hospital because of weakness, lethargy, poor feeding, general hypotonia, nystagmus, pollakisuria and seizures. Blood gas analysis revealed metabolic acidosis. PT and PTT was disturbed. Brain sonography showed possible hemorrhagy in basal ganglia. The patient died in respiratory distress. Urine chromatography showed broad leucine, isoleucine and valine bands. Maple syrup urine disease was diagnosed. We review in brief genetical, biochemical and clinical aspects of maple syrup urine disease and its different types.

MT Haghi Ashtiani

2000-06-01

129

Experiences with Pontal syrup in mucositis caused by radiotherapy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Pontal syrup was administered at daily dose of 30 ml t. i. d. to 17 patients of mucositis developed due to radiotherapy against malignant tumor. Results were: Remarkably effective-5 cases, effective-8 cases, slightly effective-3 cases, and non-effective-1 case. Certain effects were observed in 16 cases out of 17 cases/94.1%, excluding only one non-effective case. No side-effects were observed in all cases. It is considered that Pontal syrup is a drug useful for mucositis caused by radiotherapy because of its easiness of administration and also of its characteristic of non-stimulant.

Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Shoji; Hashimoto, Teisuke; Kunieda, Etsuo; Hashimoto, Shozo (Keio Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

1983-05-01

130

Stability studies on a cough syrup in plastic containers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Packaging of pharmaceuticals is a critical process. Plastics are unanimously used for solid dosage packaging. Due to their numerous advantages over glass, they are now being considered as an alternative to packaging of liquid dosage forms also. Cough syrups are preparations containing antitussive drugs, and are most commonly packaged in glass bottles. The interactive nature of plastics makes it essential that a detailed study be carried out before their use for any pharmaceutical packaging. The present work reports the stability and suitability of packaging antitussive syrup in plastic containers.

Gupta Renuka

2007-01-01

131

Oral ingestion of a topical benzydamine hydrochloride-containing gynaecological preparation in association with television advertising in Italy: analysis of cases managed by a National Poison Control Centre  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To evaluate the impact of a television advertising campaign on the risk of oral ingestion of a topical non-prescription gynaecological preparation containing benzydamine hydrochloride. Design An interrupted time series design with data routinely collected. Setting A National Poison Control Centre. Participants 215 cases of hazardous exposure to the preparation under study occurred in Italy from January 2005 to December 2010. Primary and secondary outcome measures Mean daily rate of cases of exposure by gender in three different periods, that is, pre-advertisement period, before the advertisement was broadcast (from 1 January 2005 to 19 December 2009), advertisement period, when the advertisement was repeatedly launched (from 20 December 2009 to 27 February 2010), post-advertisement period (from 28 February 2010 to 6 March 2010); observed/expected ratios of cases, with expected cases based on data from the pre-advertisement period, adjusted for estimated variations in the number of users. Comparison of the distribution of the main characteristics of cases in the three different periods by means of Pearson's ?2 test or Fisher's exact test. Results The adjusted observed/expected ratio of cases in women was 7.48 (95% CI 5.76 to 9.56) in the advertisement period and 2.97 (95% CI 2.24 to 3.85) in the post-advertisement period. Regarding the characteristics of cases, there was an increased proportion of cases of exposure due to confusion about the correct administration route in the advertisement and post-advertisement periods (81% and 55%, respectively, compared to 16% for the pre-advertisement period.) and of individuals with clinical effects (55%, 52% and 27%, respectively). Conclusions In Italy, an advertisement for a non-prescription medicine seems to have confused consumers regarding the administration route. This effect was observed even after the advertisement had stopped being broadcast. These results highlight the need for the monitoring of medication errors and adverse effects before, during and after advertising.

Davanzo, Franca; Lauria, Laura; Casini, Maria Luisa; Ferrazin, Fernanda

2012-01-01

132

Oral ingestion of a topical benzydamine hydrochloride-containing gynaecological preparation in association with television advertising in Italy: analysis of cases managed by a National Poison Control Centre.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To evaluate the impact of a television advertising campaign on the risk of oral ingestion of a topical non-prescription gynaecological preparation containing benzydamine hydrochloride. Design An interrupted time series design with data routinely collected. Setting A National Poison Control Centre. Participants 215 cases of hazardous exposure to the preparation under study occurred in Italy from January 2005 to December 2010. Primary and secondary outcome measures Mean daily rate of cases of exposure by gender in three different periods, that is, pre-advertisement period, before the advertisement was broadcast (from 1 January 2005 to 19 December 2009), advertisement period, when the advertisement was repeatedly launched (from 20 December 2009 to 27 February 2010), post-advertisement period (from 28 February 2010 to 6 March 2010); observed/expected ratios of cases, with expected cases based on data from the pre-advertisement period, adjusted for estimated variations in the number of users. Comparison of the distribution of the main characteristics of cases in the three different periods by means of Pearson's ?(2) test or Fisher's exact test. Results The adjusted observed/expected ratio of cases in women was 7.48 (95% CI 5.76 to 9.56) in the advertisement period and 2.97 (95% CI 2.24 to 3.85) in the post-advertisement period. Regarding the characteristics of cases, there was an increased proportion of cases of exposure due to confusion about the correct administration route in the advertisement and post-advertisement periods (81% and 55%, respectively, compared to 16% for the pre-advertisement period.) and of individuals with clinical effects (55%, 52% and 27%, respectively). Conclusions In Italy, an advertisement for a non-prescription medicine seems to have confused consumers regarding the administration route. This effect was observed even after the advertisement had stopped being broadcast. These results highlight the need for the monitoring of medication errors and adverse effects before, during and after advertising. PMID:22267708

Settimi, Laura; Davanzo, Franca; Lauria, Laura; Casini, Maria Luisa; Ferrazin, Fernanda

2012-01-01

133

[Non-pharmaceutical measures, topical analgesics and oral administration of glucose in pain management: Austrian interdisciplinary recommendations on pediatric perioperative pain management].  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-pharmaceutical procedures are increasingly being used in pediatric pain therapy in addition to pharmaceutical procedures and have a supporting function. This article describes the non-pharmaceutical procedures which have an influence on perioperative and posttraumatic pain in children and adolescents. Prerequisites for every adequate pain therapy are affection, imparting a feeling of security, distraction and the creation of a child-oriented environment. Topical analgesics are indicated for application to intact skin for surface anesthesia. For a safe use consideration must be given to the duration of application, the dose and the maximum area of skin treated in an age-dependent manner. For simple but painful procedures in premature infants, neonates and infants, pain can be effectively reduced by the oral administration of glucose. The positive effect is guaranteed particularly for the use in a once only pain stimulation. Non-nutritive sucking, swaddling, facilitated tucking and kangaroo mother care, for example can be used as supportive measures during slightly painful procedures. There is insufficient evidence for a pain reducing effect in older infants and small children. Physical therapeutic procedures can be used as accompanying measures for acute pain and are individually adapted. However, the limited amount of currently available data is insufficient to make a critical scientific assessment of the individual measures. The effects can, however, be observed in the daily routine practice. Psychological methods can facilitate coping with pain. In situations with mental and psychiatric comorbidities or psychosocial impairment, a psychologist should be consulted. Acupuncture and hypnosis are also a meaningful addition within the framework of multimodal pain therapy. PMID:24550025

Messerer, B; Krauss-Stoisser, B; Urlesberger, B

2014-02-01

134

Heavy metal hazards of pediatric syrup administration in Nigeria: a look at chromium, nickel and manganese.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fifty different pediatric syrups were randomly sampled from patent medicine stores and pharmaceutical shops within Awka (Anambra State, Nigeria) between November 2007 and May 2008. Syrups were ashed before digestion using conc. aqua regia, HCl: HNO(3) (3:1). Chromium, nickel and manganese were assayed with AAS 205A. The highest levels of nickel were seen in Magcid suspension (4.13 mg/L) and Gaviron (0.79 mg/L) whereas lowest levels were found in Asco-J vitamin and Jawaron Syrup (0.01 mg/L). About 44.1, 73.6 and 20.6% of the sampled syrups made in Nigeria had non detectable levels of nickel, chromium and manganese respectively. Chromium levels ranged from 0.01 mg/L in Magcid suspension to 0.58 mg/L in emvite. Ferobin and Jawaron Syrup plus had 28.23 and 4.37 mg/L manganese, respectively. With the exception of Cephalexin Syrup, all the imported syrups had non detectable levels of chromium. The level of chromium in Cephalexin Syrup was 0.01 mg/L. About 68.8 and 43.7% of these imported syrups had non-detectable levels of nickel and manganese respectively. Nickel levels ranged from 0.01-0.09 mg/L in the imported syrups. Haemoglobin Syrup showed highest level of manganese of 0.36 mg/L whereas the lowest concentration was 0.02 mg/L in Cadiphen. Taken together the Nigerian made syrup samples had higher concentrations of the studied heavy metals. It is feared that ingestion of these syrups may constitute a significant source of heavy metal exposure to the children and should therefore be considered a public health problem. The public health hazards from ingestion of these syrups should be identified and disclosed by in-depth risk assessment studies. PMID:19742165

Nduka, John Kanayochukwu; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

2009-07-01

135

Heavy Metal Hazards of Pediatric Syrup Administration in Nigeria: A Look at Chromium, Nickel and Manganese  

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Full Text Available Fifty different pediatric syrups were randomly sampled from patent medicine stores and pharmaceutical shops within Awka (Anambra State, Nigeria between November 2007 and May 2008. Syrups were ashed before digestion using conc. aqua regia, HCl: HNO3 (3:1. Chromium, nickel and manganese were assayed with AAS 205A. The highest levels of nickel were seen in Magcid suspension (4.13 mg/L and Gaviron (0.79 mg/L whereas lowest levels were found in Asco–J vitamin and Jawaron Syrup (0.01 mg/L. About 44.1, 73.6 and 20.6% of the sampled syrups made in Nigeria had non detectable levels of nickel, chromium and manganese respectively. Chromium levels ranged from 0.01 mg/L in Magcid suspension to 0.58 mg/L in emvite. Ferobin and Jawaron Syrup plus had 28.23 and 4.37 mg/L manganese, respectively. With the exception of Cephalexin Syrup, all the imported syrups had non detectable levels of chromium. The level of chromium in Cephalexin Syrup was 0.01 mg/L. About 68.8 and 43.7% of these imported syrups had non-detectable levels of nickel and manganese respectively. Nickel levels ranged from 0.01-0.09 mg/L in the imported syrups. Haemoglobin Syrup showed highest level of manganese of 0.36 mg/L whereas the lowest concentration was 0.02 mg/L in Cadiphen. Taken together the Nigerian made syrup samples had higher concentrations of the studied heavy metals. It is feared that ingestion of these syrups may constitute a significant source of heavy metal exposure to the children and should therefore be considered a public health problem. The public health hazards from ingestion of these syrups should be identified and disclosed by in-depth risk assessment studies.

Orish Ebere Orisakwe

2009-07-01

136

Assessment of owner-administered monthly treatments with oral spinosad or topical spot-on fipronil/(S)-methoprene in controlling fleas and associated pruritus in dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Monitoring of the performance of flea control products under conditions of natural challenge is valuable in assessing continued effectiveness and determining the ongoing relevance of laboratory studies. A multi-clinic, investigator-blinded study was undertaken in client-owned dogs to investigate and compare the flea control provided by 3 consecutive monthly treatments of oral spinosad (SPN) or fipronil/(S)-methoprene topical (FSM) spot-on. The first household dog meeting enrollment criteria and with at least 10 fleas (whole-body flea count) served as the index dog in a household against which primary objectives were set. Stratification was based on pruritus scores at the enrollment visit and on single or multiple pet household. Index pets were randomized to treatment with either SPN or FSM, dispensed on day 0 for at-home administration by owners. All other household dogs and cats, maximum 4 pets per household, were dispensed the same treatment as the index dog (spinetoram was dispensed for cats in SPN households). Subsequent treatments were dispensed when index dogs were returned for whole-body flea counts and pruritus-scoring at visits on days 30 and 60, with final assessments on day 90 (±5 days on each occasion). Primary endpoints were the number of flea-free index dogs in each group one month after the final treatment, the reduction in owner-reported pruritus, and the reduction from baseline mean flea counts. One hundred twenty eight index dogs were enrolled (65 in the SPN arm; 63 in the FSM arm) at 10 clinics in FL (6), NC (2), LA (1), and TX (1). On day 0, geometric mean flea counts were 57.7 (range: 10-1469) and 44.8 (10-717) for the SPN and FSM groups, respectively. On Day 90, 55 of 58 (95%) and 21 of 55 (38%) index dogs completing the study were flea-free in SPN and FSM groups, respectively; mean SPN pruritus scores declined to 0.92 (6.67 on day 0), and to 3.83 (6.33 on day 0) for FSM; geometric mean flea counts (% control) were 0.08 (99.9%) and 5.19 (88.4%), for SPN and FSM groups, respectively. Between-treatment differences were highly statistically significant (p<0.0001). In conclusion, SPN provided reliable flea control in client-owned dogs, regardless of challenge level. PMID:23021262

Dryden, Michael W; Ryan, William G; Bell, Margie; Rumschlag, Anthony J; Young, Lisa M; Snyder, Daniel E

2013-01-31

137

Mentha Longifolia Syrup in Secondary Amenorrhea: a Double-blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Trials  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Amenorrhea is defined as the cessation of menses. Hormone therapy is the most common treatment. Due to the contraindications and side effects of it and the increasing demand for alternative medicine substitutes, Mentha longifolia L. was used in this study. Mentha longifolia L. is a known medication in Iranian traditional medicine to induce menstrual bleeding in women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea.Methods A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study was conducted in 120 women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. Treatment consisted of sequential oral syrup, 45 ml (15 ml three times a day for 2 weeks. If the patients did not have menstruation after 2 weeks of taking the medication, we would wait for two more weeks. If the patients had menstruation at each stage of using the drug, we started it one week after the end of menstruation. But if the patients had not menstruate after four weeks (two-week using of drug and waiting for two more weeks, the previous steps were repeated. The drug and placebo were repeated in three cycles of menstruation. Bleeding was documented by the patient on diary cards. The primary outcome variable was the occurrence (yes/no of bleeding during the first treatment cycle. The secondary efficacy outcome was the regularity of bleeding pattern during the three cycles of the study.Results The number of women with bleeding during the first cycle were higher in the drug group as in the placebo group (68.3% vs. 13.6%; p?syrup.ConclusionIn conclusion, Mentha longifolia L. syrup is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective choice in inducing bleeding and maintaining regular bleeding in women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea.

Roshanak Mokaberinejad

2012-12-01

138

Optimization of Enzymatic Production of Fructooligosaccharides from Longan Syrup  

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Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) are nutritive and low calorie sweeteners. They have been attracted and attributed to the expansion of healthy-sugar market due to prebiotic function. Longan is one of the traditional and economic fruits in the Northern of Thailand. In addition to its typical taste and floral flavor, it is a good source of sugars. In some years, over supply of longan is reported, consequently the extra produce was discarded. This research aimed to produce FOS from longan syrup and ...

Surin, S.; Seesuriyachan, P.; Thakeow, P.; Phimolsiripol, Y.

2012-01-01

139

Genetical and Clinical Survey of Maple Syrup Urine Disease Patients  

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A 54-day old male infant was referred to the hospital because of weakness, lethargy, poor feeding, general hypotonia, nystagmus, pollakisuria and seizures. Blood gas analysis revealed metabolic acidosis. PT and PTT was disturbed. Brain sonography showed possible hemorrhagy in basal ganglia. The patient died in respiratory distress. Urine chromatography showed broad leucine, isoleucine and valine bands. Maple syrup urine disease was diagnosed. We review in brief genetical, biochemical and clin...

Mt, Haghi Ashtiani; Zh, Soltani

2000-01-01

140

Stability studies on a cough syrup in plastic containers  

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Packaging of pharmaceuticals is a critical process. Plastics are unanimously used for solid dosage packaging. Due to their numerous advantages over glass, they are now being considered as an alternative to packaging of liquid dosage forms also. Cough syrups are preparations containing antitussive drugs, and are most commonly packaged in glass bottles. The interactive nature of plastics makes it essential that a detailed study be carried out before their use for any pharmaceutical packaging. T...

Gupta Renuka; Singh Kamalinder

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Utilization of Labneh Whey Lactose Hydrolyzed Syrup in Baking and Confectionery  

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Hydrolyzed labneh whey lactose syrup was obtained by the action of immobilized Beta-galactosidase enzyme using fluidized bed reactor system. The obtained sweet syrup was used as sugar replacement in three products (French - type bread, Cherry cake and Kunafah syrup). The sensory evaluation results showed that bread made with 25% sugar replacement level was better than the control one. For (Cherry cake and Kunafah) there were no significant differences between the products made with 25% ...

Wail-Alomari; Alsaed, Ali K.; Malik Hadadin

2012-01-01

142

Headache Topics  

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143

Optimization of Enzymatic Production of Fructooligosaccharides from Longan Syrup  

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Full Text Available Fructooligosaccharides (FOS are nutritive and low calorie sweeteners. They have been attracted and attributed to the expansion of healthy-sugar market due to prebiotic function. Longan is one of the traditional and economic fruits in the Northern of Thailand. In addition to its typical taste and floral flavor, it is a good source of sugars. In some years, over supply of longan is reported, consequently the extra produce was discarded. This research aimed to produce FOS from longan syrup and to optimize the yield of FOS using two enzymes of Pectinex Ultra SP-L and glucose oxidase from 60°Bx of the syrup. The sugar contents of the syrup consisted of sucrose (222.2±3.6 g L-1, glucose (120.3±0.8 g L-1 and fructose (104.7±1.7 g L-1, respectively. Response surface methodology using central composite design was applied to optimize three parameters of FOS production, including pectinase (2.7-7.2 U g-1 sucrose, glucose oxidase (1022-4022 U g-1 sucrose and reaction time (7-25 h. Results showed that Pectinex Ultra SP-L concentration had a significant effect (p-1 sucrose and 8 h 41 min, respectively which resulted in the highest amount of nystose (30.27 g L-1 and 1-kestose (123.36 g L-1.

P. Thakeow

2012-01-01

144

Topical Application of a Bioadhesive Black Raspberry Gel Modulates Gene Expression and Reduces Cyclooxygenase 2 Protein in Human Premalignant Oral Lesions  

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Reduced expression of proapoptotic and terminal differentiation genes in conjunction with increased levels of the proinflammatory and angiogenesis-inducing enzymes, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), correlate with malignant transformation of oral intraepithelial neoplasia (IEN). Accordingly, this study investigated the effects of a 10% (w/w) freeze-dried black raspberry gel on oral IEN histopathology, gene expression profiles, intraepithelial COX-2 and iNOS ...

Mallery, Susan R.; Zwick, Jared C.; Pei, Ping; Tong, Meng; Larsen, Peter E.; Shumway, Brian S.; Lu, Bo; Fields, Henry W.; Mumper, Russell J.; Stoner, Gary D.

2008-01-01

145

Corn syrup rapid method fermentables by HPLC. [High-performance liquid chromatography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some breweries using corn syrup adjunct specify fermentable ranges determined by the ASBC rapid fermentation procedure. The present work was undertaken to develop a method of calculating rapid methods fermentables from syrup composition. Two equations were developed, by regression analyses of high-performance liquid chromatographic values for syrup composition and of laboratory data on rapid method fermentables. A third equation was derived from high-performance liquid chromatographic analyses of a series of syrup solutions before and after rapid fermentation. All equations resulted in good approximation of values obtained by laboratory fermentations.

Pomes, A.F.

1980-01-01

146

Corn syrup rapid method fermentables by HPLC. [High performance liquid chromatography  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Some breweries using corn syrup adjunct specify fermentable ranges determined by the ASBC rapid fermentation procedure. The present work was undertaken to develop a method of calculating rapid methods fermentables from syrup composition. Two equations were developed, by regression analyses of high-performance liquid chromatogrphic values for syrup composition and of laboratory data on rapid method fermentables. A third equation was derived from high-performance liquid chromatographic analyses of a series of syrup solutions before and after rapid fermentation. All equations resulted in good approximation of values obtained by laboratory fermentations.

Pomes, A.F.

1980-01-01

147

Lead and cadmium levels of commonly administered pediatric syrups in Nigeria: A public health concern?  

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Fifty different pediatric syrups were randomly sampled from patent medicine stores and pharmaceutical shops within Awka, in Anambra State between November 2007 and May 2008. Syrups were ashed before digestion using conc. aqua regia, HCl:HNO{sub 3} (3:1) and lead and cadmium were assayed with AAS 205A. Results revealed that 60 and 98% of the sample size had lead and cadmium respectively. The lead levels ranged from 0.01 in chloroquine to 1.08 mg/l in magcid suspension. The highest level of cadmium was seen in magcid suspension with concentration of 2.45 mg/l while lowest concentration of 0.01 in emzolyn and colipan. About 41.2% of the locally made syrup had none detectable levels of lead while all the syrup had detectable levels of cadmium. Lead levels ranged from 0.01 mg/l in cadiphen manufactured in Dholka, India to 0.09 in maxiquine made in England. About 68.8% of the imported syrups of the imported syrups had non detectable levels of lead. Chloramphenicol and zentel albendazole syrups had 0.60 and 0.88 mg/l of cadmium respectively. Bellis cough syrup showed the lowest level (0.01 mg/l) of cadmium. Only erythromycin suspension representing 6.3% had non detectable level of cadmium of the imported syrups. Due to the Cd and Pb levels found, we suggest that the behaviour scenario (here, self administration without medical assistance) should be properly taken under control. Along with this, contamination sources or vulnerable practices during syrups preparation should be also assessed in a tiered approach, towards the minimization of noxious presence in syrups and the promotion of quality of Nigerian-made products.

Orisakwe, Orish Ebere, E-mail: eorish@aol.com [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology,College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University,Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Nduka, John Kanayochukwu [Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology Research Unit, Pure and Industrial Chemistry Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B. 5025, Awka Anambra State (Nigeria)

2009-11-15

148

Lead and cadmium levels of commonly administered pediatric syrups in Nigeria: A public health concern?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fifty different pediatric syrups were randomly sampled from patent medicine stores and pharmaceutical shops within Awka, in Anambra State between November 2007 and May 2008. Syrups were ashed before digestion using conc. aqua regia, HCl:HNO3 (3:1) and lead and cadmium were assayed with AAS 205A. Results revealed that 60 and 98% of the sample size had lead and cadmium respectively. The lead levels ranged from 0.01 in chloroquine to 1.08 mg/l in magcid suspension. The highest level of cadmium was seen in magcid suspension with concentration of 2.45 mg/l while lowest concentration of 0.01 in emzolyn and colipan. About 41.2% of the locally made syrup had none detectable levels of lead while all the syrup had detectable levels of cadmium. Lead levels ranged from 0.01 mg/l in cadiphen manufactured in Dholka, India to 0.09 in maxiquine made in England. About 68.8% of the imported syrups of the imported syrups had non detectable levels of lead. Chloramphenicol and zentel albendazole syrups had 0.60 and 0.88 mg/l of cadmium respectively. Bellis cough syrup showed the lowest level (0.01 mg/l) of cadmium. Only erythromycin suspension representing 6.3% had non detectable level of cadmium of the imported syrups. Due to the Cd and Pb levels found, we suggest that the behaviour scenario (here, self administration without medical assistance) should be properly taken under control. Along with this, contamination sources or vulnerable practices during syrups preparation should be also assessed in a tiered approach, towards the minimization of noxious presence in syrups and the promotion of quality of Nigerian-made products.

2009-11-15

149

Lead and cadmium levels of commonly administered pediatric syrups in Nigeria: a public health concern?  

Science.gov (United States)

Fifty different pediatric syrups were randomly sampled from patent medicine stores and pharmaceutical shops within Awka, in Anambra State between November 2007 and May 2008. Syrups were ashed before digestion using conc. aqua regia, HCl:HNO(3) (3:1) and lead and cadmium were assayed with AAS 205A. Results revealed that 60 and 98% of the sample size had lead and cadmium respectively. The lead levels ranged from 0.01 in chloroquine to 1.08 mg/l in magcid suspension. The highest level of cadmium was seen in magcid suspension with concentration of 2.45 mg/l while lowest concentration of 0.01 in emzolyn and colipan. About 41.2% of the locally made syrup had none detectable levels of lead while all the syrup had detectable levels of cadmium. Lead levels ranged from 0.01 mg/l in cadiphen manufactured in Dholka, India to 0.09 in maxiquine made in England. About 68.8% of the imported syrups of the imported syrups had non detectable levels of lead. Chloramphenicol and zentel albendazole syrups had 0.60 and 0.88 mg/l of cadmium respectively. Bellis cough syrup showed the lowest level (0.01 mg/l) of cadmium. Only erythromycin suspension representing 6.3% had non detectable level of cadmium of the imported syrups. Due to the Cd and Pb levels found, we suggest that the behaviour scenario (here, self administration without medical assistance) should be properly taken under control. Along with this, contamination sources or vulnerable practices during syrups preparation should be also assessed in a tiered approach, towards the minimization of noxious presence in syrups and the promotion of quality of Nigerian-made products. PMID:19765804

Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Nduka, John Kanayochukwu

2009-11-15

150

Lactoferrin Dampens High-Fructose Corn Syrup-Induced Hepatic Manifestations of the Metabolic Syndrome in a Murine Model  

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Hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome are related obesity, type 2 diabetes/insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Here we investigated how the anti-inflammatory properties of lactoferrin can protect against the onset of hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome by using a murine model administered with high-fructose corn syrup. Our results show that a high-fructose diet stimulates intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increases intestinal permeability, leading to the introduction of endotoxin into blood circulation and liver. Immunohistochemical staining of Toll-like receptor-4 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin indicated that lactoferrin can modulate lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammatory cascade. The important regulatory roles are played by adipokines including interleukin-1?, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-?, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and adiponectin, ultimately reducing hepatitis and decreasing serum alanine aminotransferase release. These beneficial effects of lactoferrin related to the downregulation of the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cascade in the liver. Furthermore, lactoferrin reduced serum and hepatic triglycerides to prevent lipid accumulation in the liver, and reduced lipid peroxidation, resulting in 4-hydroxynonenal accumulation. Lactoferrin reduced oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance. Lactoferrin administration thus significantly lowered liver weight, resulting from a decrease in the triglyceride and cholesterol synthesis that activates hepatic steatosis. Taken together, these results suggest that lactoferrin protected against high-fructose corn syrup induced hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome.

Li, Yi-Chieh; Hsieh, Chang-Chi

2014-01-01

151

Evaluation of Preserving Efficacy for Different Cough Syrups Manufactured by Different Pharmaceutical Companies  

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Full Text Available The aim of the current investigation is to assess the efficacy of different preservatives ingredients of different expectorant cough syrups manufactured by different pharmaceutical companies by comparing the growth of five microorganisms of known quanta of S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. The microorganisms were inoculated into syrup A (glycerol and propylene glycol, syrup B (propylene glycol and glycerin, syrup C (glycerin, propylene glycol and butyl paraben, syrup D (methyl paraben and probylparaben and normal saline as a control. All microorganisms were taken from standard stock cultures and incubated for 24 h. Growth of microorganisms into syrup was compared by counting the CFUs from a subculture of inoculated syrup at zero, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h intervals. The data showed that all the combinations of the preservatives in the four studied cough syrups behaved similarly in term of antimicrobial efficiency. The findings suggested that the preservatives mixtures of propylene glycol with glycerol or with glycerin or with butyl paraben preservatives as well as methyl paraben with probylparaben are acceptable clinically and have considerably antimicrobial activity against infectious bacteria during the 48 h studied period.

M. Khanfar

2009-01-01

152

75 FR 77042 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar Containing Products of...  

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...Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar Containing Products of...the trade surplus in certain sugar and syrup goods and sugar-containing products of...goods relates to the quantity of sugar and syrup goods and sugar-containing products...

2010-12-10

153

21 CFR 201.308 - Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for over-the-counter sale.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for...Specific Drug Products § 201.308 Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for over-the-counter...treatment of these poisonings, ipecac syrup is considered the emetic of...

2010-04-01

154

78 FR 146 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...  

Science.gov (United States)

...Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...the trade surplus in certain sugar and syrup goods and sugar containing products of...Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products...

2013-01-02

155

[Isotachophoretic determination of desloratadine in tablets and syrup].  

Science.gov (United States)

Desloratadine was determined in two dosage forms (tablets and syrup) with the use of the method of capillary isotachophoresis. Several electrolyte systems of varying composition and varying pH were tested. Two electrolyte systems were selected for the validation of the method and determination of desloratadine in real samples. In both electrolyte systems, the precision, correctness, linearity, robustness, and selectivity of the ITP method were evaluated. The pre-treatment of the sample prior to analysis consisted in dissolving and diluting the pertinent desloratadine-containing dosage form with demineralized water to the required concentration. This pre-treated sample was fed directly to the apparatus. PMID:16383190

Kubacák, P; Mikus, P; Valásková, I; Havránek, E

2005-11-01

156

A double blind, randomised placebo controlled trial of topical 2% viscous lidocaine in improving oral intake in children with painful infectious mouth conditions  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Painful infectious mouth conditions are a common presentation to emergency departments. Although self limiting, painful ulcerative lesions and inflamed mucosa can decrease oral intake and can lead to dehydration. Oral analgesia is of limited efficacy and is often refused by the patient. Despite widespread use of oral 2% viscous lidocaine for many years, there is little evidence for its efficacy as an analgesic and in aiding oral intake in children with painful infectious mouth conditions. This study aims to establish the effectiveness of 2% viscous lidocaine in increasing oral intake in these children by comparing it with placebo. Methods/Design This study is a randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial of children between 6 months and 8 years of age with painful infectious mouth conditions defined as gingivostomatitis (herpetic or non herpetic, ulcerative pharyngitis, herpangina and hand foot and mouth disease as assessed by the treating clinician in association with a history of poor oral fluid intake. It will be conducted at a single tertiary paediatric emergency department in Melbourne Australia. 20 patients have already been randomised to receive 2% lidocaine or placebo in a pilot study to determine the sample size in a preplanned adaptive design. A further 80 patients will be randomised to receive either 2% lidocaine or placebo. The placebo agent is identical to lidocaine in terms of appearance, flavour and smell. All clinical and research staff involved, patients and their parents will be blinded to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint is the amount of fluid ingested by each child, expressed in ml/kg, within 60 minutes from the time of administration of the study mixture. Secondary endpoints are the proportion of patients ingesting 5 ml/kg and 10 ml/kg at 30 and 60 minutes after drug administration and the incidence of adverse events. Longer term outcomes will include the proportion of patients requiring hospital admission and length of emergency department stay. Discussion This trial will define the role of 2% lidocaine in the treatment of painful infectious mouth conditions Trial registration The trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry - ACTRN12609000566235.

Hopper Sandy M

2011-11-01

157

Fluorouracil Topical  

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Fluorouracil cream and topical solution are used to treat actinic or solar keratoses (scaly or crusted lesions [ ... by years of too much exposure to sunlight). Fluorouracil cream and topical solution are also used to ...

158

The use of botulinum toxin and epidural analgesia for the treatment of spasticity and pain in a patient with maple syrup urine disease  

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A 7-year-old boy, weighing 18 kg, was diagnosed with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). He suffered from spasticity of the lower limbs and pain that did not respond to oral medications. Injections of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) at 10 sites and epidural analgesia with 0.125% bupivacaine were used to treat spasticity with good results. We conclude that BTX-A combined with epidural analgesia may be a useful treatment option for incapacitating, painful spasticity related to MSUD. This treatment moda...

Kaki, Abdullah M.; Arab, Abeer A.

2012-01-01

159

The use of botulinum toxin and epidural analgesia for the treatment of spasticity and pain in a patient with maple syrup urine disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 7-year-old boy, weighing 18 kg, was diagnosed with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). He suffered from spasticity of the lower limbs and pain that did not respond to oral medications. Injections of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) at 10 sites and epidural analgesia with 0.125% bupivacaine were used to treat spasticity with good results. We conclude that BTX-A combined with epidural analgesia may be a useful treatment option for incapacitating, painful spasticity related to MSUD. This treatment modality allowed a comprehensive rehabilitation program to be completed and it lasted longer than 9 months. PMID:22754448

Kaki, Abdullah M; Arab, Abeer A

2012-04-01

160

The use of botulinum toxin and epidural analgesia for the treatment of spasticity and pain in a patient with maple syrup urine disease  

Science.gov (United States)

A 7-year-old boy, weighing 18 kg, was diagnosed with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). He suffered from spasticity of the lower limbs and pain that did not respond to oral medications. Injections of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) at 10 sites and epidural analgesia with 0.125% bupivacaine were used to treat spasticity with good results. We conclude that BTX-A combined with epidural analgesia may be a useful treatment option for incapacitating, painful spasticity related to MSUD. This treatment modality allowed a comprehensive rehabilitation program to be completed and it lasted longer than 9 months.

Kaki, Abdullah M.; Arab, Abeer A.

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Efficacy of oral azithromycin versus topical tetracycline in mass treatment of endemic trachoma / Efficacité comparée de l'azithromycine par voie orale et de la tétracycline en application locale dans le traitement de masse du trachome endémique / Eficacia de la azitromicina oral frente a la tetraciclina tópica en el tratamiento masivo del tracoma endémico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Comparar los efectos del tratamiento masivo con azitromicina oral y con tetraciclina tópica en la prevalencia del tracoma activo. MÉTODOS: Un total de 1803 habitantes de 106 hogares de ocho aldeas de Gambia fueron distribuidos al azar por pares para que recibieran ya fuera tres dosis de az [...] itromicina a intervalos semanales o tetraciclina tópica diaria a lo largo de seis semanas. Se realizaron exámenes oftalmológicos antes del tratamiento y a los 2, 6 y 12 meses del tratamiento. RESULTADOS: Antes del tratamiento, el 16% de los participantes en el estudio presentaban tracoma activo. Dos meses después del tratamiento la prevalencia de tracoma era del 4,6% y del 5,1% en los grupos tratados con azitromicina y tetraciclina, respectivamente (razón de posibilidades (OR) ajustada = 1,09; intervalo de confianza (IC) del 95% = 0,53, 2,02). Posteriormente la prevalencia aumentó al 16% en el grupo tratado con tetraciclina, mientras que permaneció en el 7,7% en el grupo tratado con azitromicina (OR ajustada a los 12 meses = 0,52; IC95% = 0,34, 0,80). A los 12 meses de acabado el tratamiento, la prevalencia de casos nuevos en el grupo tratado con azitromicina fue menor, y la resolución del tracoma fue significativamente mejor en este grupo (OR ajustada = 2,02; IC95% = 1,42, 3,50). CONCLUSIÓN: La azitromicina oral constituye una alternativa para combatir el tracoma causante de ceguera. Es fácil de administrar, y se pueden conseguir coberturas más altas que las logradas hasta ahora. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To compare the impact of mass treatment with oral azithromycin and topical tetracycline on the prevalence of active trachoma. METHODS: A total of 1803 inhabitants from 106 households of eight Gambian villages were randomized, in pairs, to receive either three doses of azithromycin at week [...] ly intervals, or daily topical tetracycline over 6 weeks. Ocular examinations were conducted before treatment, and 2, 6 and 12 months after treatment. FINDINGS: Prior to treatment, 16% of the study participants had active trachoma. Two months after treatment, the prevalence of trachoma was 4.6% and 5.1% in the azithromycin and the tetracycline groups, respectively (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.53, 2.02). Subsequently, the prevalence rose to 16% in the tetracycline group, while remaining at 7.7% in the azithromycin group (adjusted OR at 12 months = 0.52; 95% CI = 0.34, 0.80). At 12 months post-treatment, there were fewer new prevalent cases in the azithromycin group, and trachoma resolution was significantly better for this group (adjusted OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.42, 3.50). CONCLUSION: Oral azithromycin therefore appears to offer a means for controlling blinding trachoma. It is easy to administer and higher coverages may be possible than have been achieved hitherto.

Fraser-Hurt, Nicole; Bailey, Robin L.; Cousens, Simon; Mabey, Denise; Faal, Hannah; Mabey, David C.W..

162

Stability of ondansetron hydrochloride injection in extemporaneously prepared oral solutions.  

Science.gov (United States)

The stability of ondansetron hydrochloride in extemporaneously prepared oral solutions containing orange juice, cola, or cherry syrup was determined. Solutions were prepared by adding ondansetron hydrochloride to orange juice, cola, or cherry syrup to produce ondansetron concentrations of 0.267 and 0.067 mg/mL in orange juice or cola and 0.533 mg/mL in cherry syrup. The ondansetron concentration in orange juice and cola solutions was assayed at the time of preparation and at 30 minutes and one hour. The cherry syrup solution was stored at both 3-5 and 25-27 degrees C, with the ondansetron concentration being determined at the time of preparation and daily for seven days. All the solutions were prepared in triplicate. Ondansetron concentrations were measured by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography. At each time interval, the mean ondansetron concentration remained > or = 97% of the initial measurement for all solutions. The appearance and color of the solutions did not change. Ondansetron hydrochloride was stable for at least one hour in orange juice or cola and at least seven days in cherry syrup. PMID:8427264

Graham, C L; Dukes, G E; Fox, J L; Kao, C F; Hak, L J

1993-01-01

163

Atomization of corn syrup using splash plate nozzles  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Black liquor is sprayed and burned in recovery boilers to recover pulping chemical and to generate high pressure steam and electricity for various processes in the pulp industry. However, the efficiency of the process depends on how black liquor is sprayed through a spray gun into the boiler. This paper investigated spray distribution size obtained from splash plate nozzles with various nozzle diameters for a range of liquid viscosities. The experiment was conducted using corn syrup as a modelling fluid. Viscosity was measured using a mechanical spectrometer. Density of the corn syrup was calculated based on mass conservation. Surface tension was measured using a tensiometer. Particle sizing was performed using interferometric particle imaging (IPI) based on out-of-focus images of the particles illuminated by a laser light sheet of finite width. Droplet size distributions for 3 different liquid viscosities and for 3 different nozzle diameters were presented. Results indicated that at low viscosity, the liquid sheet was highly perturbed, and breakup occurred due to turbulent edge instability. At higher viscosity levels, the liquid sheet was smooth, stable, and broke up due to aerodynamic surface waves. Increases in velocity resulted in an increased mass median diameter. However, the number mean size of the droplets actually decreased with increases in viscosity. It was concluded that increasing the nozzle diameter greatly increased the average droplet size. 9 refs., 1 tab., 8 figs.

Ahmed, M.; Amighi, A.; Ashgriz, N. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering; Tran, H. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry

2006-07-01

164

EVALUATION OF ACUTE TOXICITY STUDY AND DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF URAL SYRUP  

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There are considerable amount of scientific evidences available for diuretic activity of individual ingredients of a polyherbal formulation Ural Syrup however no evidence has been found which proves overall safety and efficacy of the formulation. The present study was undertaken to investigate safety as well as Diuretic activity of this polyherbal formulation- Ural Syrup. Acute toxicity study was carried out as per OECD Guideline 420. The Ural syrup (1.8mL/kg and 3.6mL/kg) was tested for its ...

2013-01-01

165

Fed-batch production of concentrated fructose syrup and ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 36859  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fed-batch process is used for the production of concentrated pure fructose syrup and ethanol from various glucose/fructose mixtures by S.cerevisiae ATCC 36859. Applying this technique, glucose-free fructose syrups with over 250 g/l of this sugar were obtained using High Fructose Corn Syrup and hydrolyzed Jerusalem artichoke juice. Bey encouraging ethanol evaporation from the reactor and condensing it, a separate ethanol product with a concentration of up to 350 g/l was also produced. The rates of glucose consumption and ethanol production were higher than in classical batch ethanol fermentation processes. (orig.).

Koren, D.W. (CANMET, Ottawa, ON (Canada)); Duvnjak, Z. (Univ. of Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1992-01-01

166

Effect of Wheat Germ Addition on Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Date Syrup  

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Wheat germ was utilized for improvement in quality and nutritive value of date syrup in the present study. Some physicochemical (total soluble solids, water activity, pH, consistency, color) and antioxidant properties of different date syrup/wheat germ blends (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% wheat germ) were investigated. Total soluble solids and pH of date syrup were slightly affected by addition of wheat germ. The consistency values of blends were increased by increasing wheat germ addition, while, w...

Ammar, Abdalla S. M.

2012-01-01

167

Heavy Metal Hazards of Pediatric Syrup Administration in Nigeria: A Look at Chromium, Nickel and Manganese  

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Fifty different pediatric syrups were randomly sampled from patent medicine stores and pharmaceutical shops within Awka (Anambra State, Nigeria) between November 2007 and May 2008. Syrups were ashed before digestion using conc. aqua regia, HCl: HNO3 (3:1). Chromium, nickel and manganese were assayed with AAS 205A. The highest levels of nickel were seen in Magcid suspension (4.13 mg/L) and Gaviron (0.79 mg/L) whereas lowest levels were found in Asco–J vitamin and Jawaron Syrup (0.01 mg/L). A...

2009-01-01

168

Topical treatment of melasma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment. Multiple options for topical treatment are available, of which hydroquinone (HQ is the most commonly prescribed agent. Besides HQ, other topical agents for which varying degrees of evidence for clinical efficacy exist include azelaic acid, kojic acid, retinoids, topical steroids, glycolic acid, mequinol, and arbutin. Topical medications modify various stages of melanogenesis, the most common mode of action being inhibition of the enzyme, tyrosinase. Combination therapy is the preferred mode of treatment for the synergism and reduction of untoward effects. The most popular combination consists of HQ, a topical steroid, and retinoic acid. Prolonged HQ usage may lead to untoward effects like depigmentation and exogenous ochronosis. The search for safer alternatives has given rise to the development of many newer agents, several of them from natural sources. Well-designed controlled clinical trials are needed to clarify their role in the routine management of melasma.

Bandyopadhyay Debabrata

2009-01-01

169

Molecular characterization of maple syrup urine disease patients from Tunisia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare disorder of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) metabolism caused by the defective function of branched-chain ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCKD). The disease causal mutations can occur either in BCKDHA, BCKDHB or DBT genes encoding respectively the E1?, E1? and E2 subunits of the complex. In this study we report the molecular characterization of 3 Tunisian patients with the classic form of MSUD. Two novel putative mutations have been identified: the alteration c.716A>G (p.Glu239Gly) in BCKDHB and a small deletion (c.1333_1336delAATG; p.Asn445X) detected in DBT gene. PMID:23313820

Jaafar, N; Moleirinho, A; Kerkeni, E; Monastiri, K; Seboui, H; Amorim, A; Prata, M J; Quental, S

2013-03-15

170

Diffusion-weighted MRI of maple syrup urine disease encephalopathy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report the case of a newborn child with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), diagnosed at 10 days of life. Diffusion-weighted echoplanar MRI showed marked hyperintensity of the cerebellar white matter, the brainstem, the cerebral peduncles, the thalami, the dorsal limb of the internal capsule and the centrum semiovale, while conventional dual-echo sequence evidenced only a weak diffuse T2 hyperintensity in the cerebellar white matter and in the dorsal brainstem. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of these regions was markedly (>80%) decreased. Therefore, in agreement with current hypotheses on MSUD pathogenesis, MSUD oedema proves to be a cytotoxic oedema. Diffusion-weighted MRI may be a valuable tool, more sensitive than conventional spin-echo techniques, to assess the extent and progression of cytotoxicity in MSUD, as well as the effectiveness of the therapeutic interventions. (orig.)

2002-06-01

171

Cranial computed tomography in maple syrup urine disease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cranial computed tomography in the initial stage of the intermediate phenotype of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) demonstrates diffuse, symmetric hypodensities in white and grey matter, which show a complete return to normal after early introduction of an adequate protein-restrictive diet. If diagnosis of this disease is missed or delayed, progressive global (end-stage) atrophy will take place over several years. A decrease in density values correlates well with the total cerebral lipid and water content (closely related to myelinisation), whereas progression and grade of atrophy show a relationship with the severity of pathological white and grey matter changes that are not demonstrable with computed tomography but can be proven histologically. Analysis of both morphological parameters corresponds well with clinical-neurological outcome and therapeutic success.

Irnberger, T.; Ploechl, E.; Rittinger, O.; Bachmann, C.; Pilz, P.; Walter, G.F.; Wendel, U.

1986-04-01

172

Cranial computed tomography in maple syrup urine disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cranial computed tomography in the initial stage of the intermediate phenotype of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) demonstrates diffuse, symmetric hypodensities in white and grey matter, which show a complete return to normal after early introduction of an adequate protein-restrictive diet. If diagnosis of this disease is missed or delayed, progressive global (end-stage) atrophy will take place over several years. A decrease in density values correlates well with the total cerebral lipid and water content (closely related to myelinisation), whereas progression and grade of atrophy show a relationship with the severity of pathological white and grey matter changes that are not demonstrable with computed tomography but can be proven histologically. Analysis of both morphological parameters corresponds well with clinical-neurological outcome and therapeutic success. (orig.)

1986-01-01

173

Intermittent maple syrup urine disease: two case reports.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presenting symptoms and clinical course of 2 cases of intermittent maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) are described. Intermittent MSUD is a potentially life-threatening metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of branched-chain ?-keto acid dehydrogenase, the enzyme complex that decarboxylates the 3 branched-chain amino acids. In contrast to classic MSUD, children with the intermittent form show normal development with normal intelligence and, when asymptomatic, normal levels of branched-chain amino acids. Symptoms usually appear between 5 months and 2 years of age, when a trivial infection such as otitis media or viral gastroenteritis triggers catabolism of muscle protein. Intermittent MSUD should be suspected in cases of common infections with a clinically atypical course, especially in children displaying ataxia or marked drowsiness. PMID:24394677

Axler, Olof; Holmquist, Peter

2014-02-01

174

Effect of concentration temperature on some bioactive compounds and antioxidant proprieties of date syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of the concentration temperature on the antioxidant activity, carotenoid and phenolic compounds of date syrup was investigated. Date juice was concentrated at 100? and at "60? in vacuum". After concentration, total phenolic, tannin, non-tannin, flavonoid and carotenoid content were determined spectrophotometrically and high-performance liquid chromatography was used for determination of 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde content. The antioxidant activity of date syrup was evaluated by various antioxidant methods including total antioxidant, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging test, ferric reducing antioxidant power and ?-carotene bleaching. All date syrups showed strong antioxidant activity accompanied by high total phenolic contents. Results showed that concentration at 100? significantly enhanced the antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents of date syrups compared to vacuum concentration at 60?. A good correlation between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content and flavonoid was observed. PMID:23729415

Abbès, Fatma; Besbes, Souhail; Brahim, Bchir; Kchaou, Wissal; Attia, Hamadi; Blecker, Christophe

2013-08-01

175

29 CFR 780.819 - Production must be of unrefined sugar or syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2009-07-01 false Production must be of unrefined sugar or syrup. 780.819 Section 780.819 Labor... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into...

2009-07-01

176

Effect of Glycerol and Glucose Syrup on Sugar Crystallization in Figs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Crystallization is an important phenomenon that affects some quality attributes such as appearance, texture and shelf life in many food materials. Sugar crystallization is a major challenge for dried fruits such as figs with low moisture levels and high sugar contents. In this study, the effect of glycerol and glucose syrup (DE = 38 on the amount of sugar crystallization in figs with different moisture contents was investigated using X-ray diffraction. The addition of glycerol and glucose syrup increased equilibrium moisture content and reduced sugar crystallization significantly. In the presence of glycerol, sugar crystallization was one third of the control. Glycerol also had greater effect compared to glucose syrup. Changes observed due to the presence of glycerol and glucose syrup could be attrinuted to the hygroscopic behavior of these additives and their ability to keep more water at a specific water activity.

A Farahnaki

2009-07-01

177

A New Way of Producing Isomalto-Oligosaccharide Syrup by Using the Transglycosylation Reaction of Neopullulanase  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A new way of producing isomalto-oligosaccharide syrup from starch was developed. Isomalto-oligosaccharides contain one or more ?-(1?6)-glucosidic linkages with or without ?-(1?4)-glucosidic linkages. The isomalto-oligosaccharide syrups are receiving increased attention as food additives because it is thought that they help prevent dental caries and improve human intestinal microflora, acting as a growth factor for bifidobacteria. The new system for production of isomalto-oligosaccharide...

Kuriki, Takashi; Yanase, Michiyo; Takata, Hiroki; Takesada, Yoshiaki; Imanaka, Tadayuki; Okada, Shigetaka

1993-01-01

178

Maple syrup urine disease: An uncommon cause for neonatal metabolic distress  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Maple Syrup Urine Disease is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency in the activity of the branched-chain ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. This rare disorder represents one of the causes of acute neonatal illness which results in devastating disturbances of neurological development. On investigation of 1750 infants with neurological impairment for inborn errors of amino acid metabolism, 4 neonates with classical maple syrup urine disease were detected. These otherwise normal...

Christopher, Rita; Babu, S. V. Suresh; Nirmala, L.; Rangaswamy, G. R.; Narayan, C. P.; Shetty, K. Taranath

1999-01-01

179

DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF HERBAL SYRUP FROM NEOLAMARCKIA CADAMBA (ROXB. BOSSER LEAVES  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The bark of Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb. Bosser Family Rubiaceae is reported to have good medicinal values in traditional system of medicines. In present investigation, the herbal syrup from leaves of Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb. Bosser was developed. Developed herbal syrup then subjected to evaluation of production quality by different methods stated as per official compendia. Such evaluation has unique position in development of new formulations.

Patel Divyakant A

2012-09-01

180

Standard manufacturing procedure for syrup and tablet forms of Jwarahara Dashemani  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Jwarahara Dashemani (JHD) is mentioned by Acharya Charaka under the different categories of Mahakashayas (groups of drugs having similar pharmacological actions). For the present study, syrup and tablet forms of JHDs were prepared and analyzed. The formulations were prepared in various batches by following the standard manufacturing procedure (SMP). JHD Kwatha (2200 ml) and 1430 g sugar candy powder were heated (80–90°C) together for 3.10 hours and 2200 ml syrup was obtained, whereas an av...

Kalsariya, Bharat D.; Patgiri, B. J.; Prajapati, P. K.

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Investigating the Suitability of Butea monosperma flower extract as Colouring agent for Paediatric syrup  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Objective: To investigate the suitability of Butea monosprrma flower extract as colouring agent for paediatrics syrup.Method and Materials: The plant parts which are used in experimental work for investigating the suitability of Butea monosperma flower extract as colouring for paediatric syrup .1kg of dried Butea Monosperma flowers were weighed out and spread out in a thin layer. After authentication, a 1kg sample of Butea monosperma was washed for ten seconds in water (to avoid losing colour...

2012-01-01

182

Oxybutynin Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxybutynin topical gel is used to treat overactive bladder (a condition in which the bladder muscles contract ... the bladder even when it is not full). Oxybutynin gel is in a class of medications called ...

183

Tacrolimus Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

Tacrolimus ointment is used to treat the symptoms of eczema (atopic dermatitis; a skin disease that causes ... whose eczema has not responded to another medication. Tacrolimus is in a class of medications called topical ...

184

Mometasone Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

Mometasone is used to relieve the itching and inflammation of numerous skin conditions.This medication is sometimes ... Mometasone comes as a topical cream, ointment, and lotion. It usually is applied externally once a day. ...

185

Effect of Wheat Germ Addition on Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Date Syrup  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wheat germ was utilized for improvement in quality and nutritive value of date syrup in the present study. Some physicochemical (total soluble solids, water activity, pH, consistency, color and antioxidant properties of different date syrup/wheat germ blends (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% wheat germ were investigated. Total soluble solids and pH of date syrup were slightly affected by addition of wheat germ. The consistency values of blends were increased by increasing wheat germ addition, while, water activity values were gradually decreased (0.677-0.655. Significant differences (p<0.05 in the CIE L* a* b* color values for date syrup/wheat germ blends were noticed. The phenolic content of blends was slightly affected by wheat germ addition. Non significant differences (p<0.05 were observed in the antioxidant activity (192-200 TEAC ?mol/100 g sample among the date syrup/wheat germ blends. Results showed that blends containing 2, 4 and 6% wheat germ presented a higher overall acceptability. The obtained results suggest that wheat germ could be used for improvement in quality and nutritive value of date syrup.

Abdalla S.M. Ammar

2012-01-01

186

Variation and correlation of properties in different grades of maple syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty five commercial maple syrups from twelve producers in Southern Ontario were evaluated for properties including light transmittance, autofluorescence, density, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), glucose and fructose content, total phenol content, antioxidant potential and mineral content (Mg, Mn, P, Zn, Ca, K, Fe and Pb). A high degree of variability was found in many characteristics, often exceeding an order of magnitude. Syrups were categorized based on light transmission at 560 nm into amber (12), dark (13) and very dark (10) using International Maple Syrup Institute (IMSI) guidelines. No statistical differences were found among grades of syrup for density, pH, TSS, glucose, fructose, total reducing sugars, glucose:fructose ratio, magnesium, manganese or potassium. Darker syrups showed significantly higher autofluorescence, total phenol content, antioxidant potential, phosphorous, calcium and total mineral content. Significant negative correlations of percent transmission with total phenol content, antioxidant potential and total mineral content are reported. Significant positive correlations among total phenol content, antioxidant potential and total mineral content are also described. The results from this study suggest that darker syrups tend to contain more beneficial traits and may be applied in developing functional foods and value added products. PMID:24408861

Singh, Amritpal S; Jones, A Maxwell P; Saxena, Praveen K

2014-03-01

187

Palm tree syrup: nutritional composition of a natural edulcorant Miel de palma: composición nutricional de un edulcorante natural  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Palm syrup is a typical product from the Canary Islands, traditionally produced from the sap of the tropical palm tree Phoenix canariensis. Its high caloric content has led to its increasing use as a health food supplement for athletes, children and elderly. Furthermore, demand for this natural syrup is continuously increasing due also to its medicinal uses in homeopathic medicine. Objective: Palm Tree syrup samples prepared with palm sap from primary producers in La Gomera isla...

Luis, G.; Rubio, C.; Gutie?rrez, A. J.; Herna?ndez, C.; Gonza?lez-weller, D.; Revert, C.; Castilla, A.; Abreu, P.; Hardisson, A.

2012-01-01

188

Erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp successfully treated with oral prednisone and topical tacrolimus / Dermatose pustular erosiva do couro cabeludo tratada com sucesso com prednisona oral e tacrolimus topico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A dermatose pustular erosiva do couro cabeludo é uma doença inflamatória rara do couro cabeludo, de ocorrência preferencial em pacientes idosos após trauma local e com evolução para alopecia cicatricial. O caso relatado é de uma paciente idosa feminina que ini [...] ciou com pústulas dolorosas em região parietal bilateral com aumento das lesões e exulceração local. Após o diagnóstico histológico de dermatose pustular erosiva do couro cabeludo, foi iniciada prednisona 40 mg/dia e tacrolimus 0,1% tópico. Após 10 semanas evoluiu com cicatrização completa das áreas erosadas e alopecia cicatricial. Abstract in english Erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp is a rare inflammatory disorder of the scalp, affecting elderly patients after local trauma and leading to scarring or cicatricial alopecia. Case Report: An elderly female patient complained of painful pustules on the parietal region bilaterally with progress [...] ive enlargement and ulceration. A biopsy suggested erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp and the patient was treated with prednisone 40 mg/day and 0.1% topical tacrolimus. After 10 weeks complete closure of the eroded areas was observed and a stable scarring alopecia developed.

Zahdi, Mariana Ribas; Seidel, Gabriela Bestani; Soares, Vanessa Cristina; Freitas, Camila Fernanda Novak Pinheiro de; Mulinari-Brenner, Fabiane Andrade.

2013-10-01

189

The effects of sucralfate suspension and diphenhydramine syrup plus kaolin-pectin on radiotherapy-induced mucositis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A prospective, double-blind study compared the effectiveness of sucralfate suspension with diphenhydramine syrup plus kaolin-pectin in reducing severity and pain of radiation-induced oropharyngeal mucositis. Fourteen patients who received at least 4600 cGy to the oral cavity used one of the mouth rinses four times a day, beginning at 1600 cGy. Data were collected on daily perceived pain and helpfulness of mouth rinse, weekly mucositis grade, weight change, and interruption of therapy. Analysis of data revealed no statistically significant differences between the two groups in any parameter. A retrospective review of 15 patients who had received at least 4600 cGy radiation to the oropharynx but had not used a daily mouth-coating rinse, was compared with the study group. Comparison of the two groups suggested that consistent daily oral hygiene and use of a mouth-coating agent will result in less pain and may reduce weight loss and interruption of radiation because of severe mucositis

1991-01-01

190

The effects of sucralfate suspension and diphenhydramine syrup plus kaolin-pectin on radiotherapy-induced mucositis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A prospective, double-blind study compared the effectiveness of sucralfate suspension with diphenhydramine syrup plus kaolin-pectin in reducing severity and pain of radiation-induced oropharyngeal mucositis. Fourteen patients who received at least 4600 cGy to the oral cavity used one of the mouth rinses four times a day, beginning at 1600 cGy. Data were collected on daily perceived pain and helpfulness of mouth rinse, weekly mucositis grade, weight change, and interruption of therapy. Analysis of data revealed no statistically significant differences between the two groups in any parameter. A retrospective review of 15 patients who had received at least 4600 cGy radiation to the oropharynx but had not used a daily mouth-coating rinse, was compared with the study group. Comparison of the two groups suggested that consistent daily oral hygiene and use of a mouth-coating agent will result in less pain and may reduce weight loss and interruption of radiation because of severe mucositis.

Barker, G.; Loftus, L.; Cuddy, P.; Barker, B. (Univ. of Missouri, Kansas City (USA))

1991-03-01

191

EVALUATION OF ACUTE TOXICITY STUDY AND DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF URAL SYRUP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are considerable amount of scientific evidences available for diuretic activity of individual ingredients of a polyherbal formulation Ural Syrup however no evidence has been found which proves overall safety and efficacy of the formulation. The present study was undertaken to investigate safety as well as Diuretic activity of this polyherbal formulation- Ural Syrup. Acute toxicity study was carried out as per OECD Guideline 420. The Ural syrup (1.8mL/kg and 3.6mL/kg was tested for its diuretic activity on rat model. Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ (10mg/kg was used as positive control in study. The diuretic effect of the Ural syrup was evaluated by measuring urine volume, pH and excretion of sodium and potassium content. In result, significant increase in urine volume was observed at both dosage levels of Ural syrup in comparison to normal control group. There was no significant change observed in pH of urine. The excretion of Sodium was also found significantly increased at both dosage levels but more in TEDx2 group with respect to TED group. Potassium excretion was found increased only at TEDx2 group as compared to normal control group. It can be concluded that Ural syrup produced considerable diuretic effect which appeared to be comparable to that produced by the reference diuretic HCTZ. There was no lethality and toxic reaction found among the tested animals. The present study provides scientific support that Ural syrup can be employed as a safe and effective diuretic drug.

Thakkar Tejas

2013-08-01

192

Continuous drying of syrup by application of vacuum after temperature adjustment to below of syrup at atmospheric pressure. Fremgangsmaade til kontinuerlig toerring af et materiale  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Continuous drying of a material comprises adjusting the temperature of the material to a value below its boiling point; moving the material through a vacuum chamber without heating it so as to dry the material; and removing the dried material through an air lock. A particle free syrup from syrups of carbohydrate and syrups of sugar alcohol is to be dried. The first step comprises adjusting the temperature of syrup to a value below its boiling point at atmosphere pressure but sufficiently high for the material to be dried to an amorphous, solid product such that a phase shift of the material occurs from a liquid state to a solid state. Preferably the temperature of the material in the first step is maintained at less than 30 deg. C below its boiling point. The vacuum used is preferably between 10-60 mm Hg. The dried material is preferably gross-ground before removal from the vacuum chamber. Use/advantage - The method and assembly are useful for drying materials which are sensitive and/or difficult to solidify especially sugars, sugar alcohols and similar hygroscopic products. (AB)

Hansen, O.C.; Andersen, T.

1992-11-09

193

Stability of dantrolene oral suspension prepared from capsules.  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemical stability of an extemporaneously compounded dantrolene oral suspension (5 mg/ml dantrolene sodium) in Syrup BP containing citric acid with and without methyl hydroxybenzoate preservative was studied on storage at 5, 25 and 40 degrees C for 150 days in high density polyethylene dispensing bottles. The amount of dantrolene free acid in suspension was monitored by a stability indicating HPLC assay. There was no significant decomposition of dantrolene under all storage conditions irrespective of the presence of preservative. The results show that the formulation of dantrolene oral suspension provides a convenient and stable dosage form for use in pediatric patients and in those unable to swallow capsules. It is recommended that the formulation be stored at room temperature and in the absence of microbiological testing a shelf-life of 30 days is proposed for the product prepared with preserved syrup. PMID:7876365

Fawcett, J P; Stark, G; Tucker, I G; Woods, D J

1994-12-01

194

Development of a more efficient maple syrup evaporator. Final report  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The goal of this project was to retrofit a traditional wood-fired maple syrup evaporator to make more efficient use of the wood fuel. A sap preheater was constructed that used waste heat from the steam to preheat the incoming sap. The preheater was tested on the evaporator and 8% more water was processed. There were some problems that will be discussed in the body of the report. A sap pan with fins incorporated into the bottom (described in the 1st and 2nd quarterly reports) was built but was not tested because the fins could not be properly sealed at the ends. Put more simply, it leaked. The bulk of time and energy was spent designing, building, and installing the forced draft and heat exchanger system (refer to 3rd quarterly report). A squirrel cage blower forced fresh air through twelve pipes that were arranged in the stack to the firebox and a draft inducer was mounted on top of the stack. With this arrangement plus the preheater 27% more water was processed than the original rig with the same amount of wood.

Parsons, D.

1982-11-30

195

Utilization of Labneh Whey Lactose Hydrolyzed Syrup in Baking and Confectionery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hydrolyzed labneh whey lactose syrup was obtained by the action of immobilized Beta-galactosidase enzyme using fluidized bed reactor system. The obtained sweet syrup was used as sugar replacement in three products (French - type bread, Cherry cake and Kunafah syrup. The sensory evaluation results showed that bread made with 25% sugar replacement level was better than the control one. For (Cherry cake and Kunafah there were no significant differences between the products made with 25% sugar replacement level and the control samples. The bread dough mad with 25% sugar replacement had a better rheological properties with regards to stability, rate of absorption and mechanical tolerance indication. The nutritional value of the newly developed product was improved with regards to high amount of protein content compared to control products. No microbial growth was detected in both control and new developed bread products during storage.

Malik Hadadin

2012-01-01

196

FTIR characterization of Mexican honey and its adulteration with sugar syrups by using chemometric methods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A chemometric analysis of adulteration of Mexican honey by sugar syrups such as corn syrup and cane sugar syrup was realized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to measure the absorption of a group of bee honey samples from central region of Mexico. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to process FTIR spectra to determine the adulteration of bee honey. In addition to that, the content of individual sugars from honey samples: glucose, fructose, sucrose and monosaccharides was determined by using PLS-FTIR analysis validated by HPLC measurements. This analytical methodology which is based in infrared spectroscopy and chemometry can be an alternative technique to characterize and also to determine the purity and authenticity of nutritional products as bee honey and other natural products.

Rios-Corripio, M A; Rojas-Lopez, M; Delgado-Macuil, R [CIBA-Tlaxcala, IPN, Tlaxcala, Tlax. (Mexico); Rios-Leal, E, E-mail: marlonrl@yahoo.com.mx [CINVESTAV, Zacatenco, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

2011-01-01

197

Evaluation of Clinical Efficacy and Tolerance of Khasceeze –SF Cough Syrup  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Fifty patients of either sex aged 15 - 65 years entered the study to test the efficacy and tolerability of a herbal preparation known as Khasceeze-SF Cough Syrup. They were studied for cough and related symptoms such as sore throat, sneezing, breathlessness and fever. Substantial improvement, i.e., excellent to good response, in relief of cough and other symptoms was noted over 84% out of 50 patients and fair response in 11.64%. Only 4.10% patients showed poor relief in symptoms hence suggested Khasceeze-SF Cough Syrup facilitated a healing touch to the diseased bronchial tree and helps alleviate the cough of any aetiology. No drowsiness, irritability, or dryness in mouth was seen with Khasceeze-SF Cough Syrup.

S Satam

2011-01-01

198

Protein and leucine metabolism in maple syrup urine disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Constant infusions of [13C]leucine and [2H5]phenylalanine were used to trace leucine and protein kinetics, respectively, in seven children with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) and eleven controls matched for age and dietary protein intake. Despite significant elevations of plasma leucine (mean 351 mumol/l, range 224-477) in MSUD subjects, mean whole body protein synthesis [3.78 +/- 0.42 (SD) g.kg-1. 24 h-1] and catabolism (4.07 +/- 0.46) were similar to control values (3.69 +/- 0.50 and 4.09 +/- 0.50, respectively). The relationship between phenylalanine and leucine fluxes was also similar in MSUD subjects (mean phenylalanine-leucine flux ratio 0.35 +/- 0.07) and previously reported adult controls (0.33 +/- 0.02). Leucine oxidation was undetectable in four of the MSUD subjects and very low in the other three (less than 4 mumol.kg-1.h-1; controls 13-20). These results show that persistent elevation in leucine concentration has no effect on protein synthesis. The marked disturbance in leucine metabolism in MSUD did not alter the relationship between rates of catabolism of protein to phenylalanine and leucine, which provides further support for the validity of the use of a single amino acid to trace whole body protein metabolism. The minimal leucine oxidation in MSUD differs from findings in other inborn metabolic errors and indicates that in patients with classical MSUD there is no significant route of leucine disposal other than through protein synthesis

1990-01-01

199

Protein and leucine metabolism in maple syrup urine disease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Constant infusions of (13C)leucine and (2H5)phenylalanine were used to trace leucine and protein kinetics, respectively, in seven children with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) and eleven controls matched for age and dietary protein intake. Despite significant elevations of plasma leucine (mean 351 mumol/l, range 224-477) in MSUD subjects, mean whole body protein synthesis (3.78 +/- 0.42 (SD) g.kg-1. 24 h-1) and catabolism (4.07 +/- 0.46) were similar to control values (3.69 +/- 0.50 and 4.09 +/- 0.50, respectively). The relationship between phenylalanine and leucine fluxes was also similar in MSUD subjects (mean phenylalanine-leucine flux ratio 0.35 +/- 0.07) and previously reported adult controls (0.33 +/- 0.02). Leucine oxidation was undetectable in four of the MSUD subjects and very low in the other three (less than 4 mumol.kg-1.h-1; controls 13-20). These results show that persistent elevation in leucine concentration has no effect on protein synthesis. The marked disturbance in leucine metabolism in MSUD did not alter the relationship between rates of catabolism of protein to phenylalanine and leucine, which provides further support for the validity of the use of a single amino acid to trace whole body protein metabolism. The minimal leucine oxidation in MSUD differs from findings in other inborn metabolic errors and indicates that in patients with classical MSUD there is no significant route of leucine disposal other than through protein synthesis.

Thompson, G.N.; Bresson, J.L.; Pacy, P.J.; Bonnefont, J.P.; Walter, J.H.; Leonard, J.V.; Saudubray, J.M.; Halliday, D. (Clinical Research Centre, Harrow (England))

1990-04-01

200

Topic tacrolimus, alternative treatment for oral erosive lichen planus resistant to steroids: A case report / Tacrolimus tópico, tratamiento alternativo para liquen plano erosivo de mucosa resistente a corticoides: A propósito de un caso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish El liquen plano es una enfermedad mucocutánea de etiología desconocida y patogenia autoinmune. Existen tres variantes de liquen plano: la forma reticular, la forma en placas y la forma atrófico-erosiva. El curso es crónico con frecuentes reactivaciones. Afecta con más frecuencia a mujeres en la 4ª d [...] écada de la vida y superiores. El diagnóstico se basa en la identificación clínica de las lesiones junto a el estudio histopatológico (degeneración hidrópica de la capa basal, infiltrado de linfo-plasmocitario y ausencia de signos de displasia). Su alta prevalencia (0,5-2%), su carácter recurrente y el potencial riesgo de transformación maligna explican el gran número de opciones terapéuticas disponibles. Presentamos un caso de liquen plano erosivo, de mucosa oral, resistente a múltiples tratamientos, fundamentalmente corticoideos. En el plazo de 15 días respondió a la administración de tacrolimus al 0,1% en aplicación tópica. El artículo pretende señalar la indicación novedosa del principio activo tacrolimus, un inmunosupresor inhibidor de la calcineurina, que se ha demostrado eficaz en la solución de las lesiones erosivas. Abstract in english The lichen planus is a mucocutaneous disease with unknown etiology and auto-immune pathogenia. There have been three variants of lichen planus: the reticular, the plaque-like and the atrophic-erosive lesions. It’s a chronic disease with acute relapses that generally affects more frecuently to women [...] from the fourties. The diagnostic is based on the clinic identification of the lesions joined with the histopathologic study (basal cells hidropic degeneration, linfoplasmocitic infiltration and absence of displasy signs). The great number of therapeutic options are explained for its high prevalency (0.5-2%), its recurrence and its risk for malignant transformation. We present a case of oral erosive lichen planus, refractory to numerous treatments, mainly corticosteroids. During 15 days the lesion responded to the administration of a 0.1% tacrolimus in topic application. This article tries to show the new indication of tacrolimus, a calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressor, that it is effective in the erosive lesions treatment.

Ana, Riaño Argüelles; Raúl, Martino Gorbea; María Eugenia, Iglesias Zamora; Joaquín, Garatea Crelgo.

 
 
 
 
201

Herpes - oral  

Science.gov (United States)

... HSV-2 is spread to the mouth during oral sex, causing oral herpes. Herpes viruses spread easily. You ... if someone has oral herpes. Do not have oral sex if you have oral herpes, especially if you ...

202

Comparison Effects of Sucrose and Date Palm Syrup on Somatic Embryogenesis of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of different concentration of date palm syrup (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% and sucrose at concentration of 30 and 60 g/l in addition to the control (without carbon source on the micro propagation of date palm "cv. Suckary" were investigated. The results indicated that date syrup was taken up from the media as shown by the increase in total dry weight of culture. Addition of sucrose at 60 g/l produced the highest number of somatic embryos and longest shoot equal to that produced by date syrup at concentration of 6% without significant differences. On the other side, sucrose at 30 g/l improved the germination of somatic embryos followed by date syrup at 6%. Regarding fresh and dry weights, adding 6% date palm syrup was superior in this respect. Tissues grown on medium supplement with 10% of date syrup caused severe reduction in number of somatic embryo possibly due to the osmotic stress. In addition, tissues grown on medium containing 2% of date syrup had the lowest number of embryos. Date palm tissues are capable of utilizing date syrup as the sole carbon source for vegetative growth. It can be concluded that, adding date syrup locally known as 'Dibs'to the culture medium of date palm at concentration of 6% can be used totally as a replacement of sucrose which was the normally sugar used in most of plant tissue culture medium. This is the first report on the use of date syrup on somatic embryogenesis of date palm cv. Suckary.

Abdullatif Alkhateeb

2008-01-01

203

The effects of 90-day feeding of D-psicose syrup in male wistar rats  

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D-Psicose is a rare sugar present in small quantities in natural products. In a previous study, we showed that D-psicose suppresses increase in plasma glucose and reduces body fat accumulation in rats. Based on acute and chronic toxicity testing in rats, D-psicose is classified as an ordinary and safe substance. Recently, we developed a high D-psicose syrup (PS) made from high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) by the alkaline isomerization method. However, the safety of PS as a food additive has not...

Tatsuhiro Matsuo; Reika Ishii; Yoko Shirai

2011-01-01

204

A New Approach of Syrup Manufacturing Using Fuzzy Time Control Discrete Event System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pharmaceutical industries of world are manufacturing their most of the goods in syrup form. The proposed study relates with the designing of medicated syrup manufacturing using the fuzzy time control discrete event system. The system is designed with three inputs; viscosity, specific gravity, and chemical selection. And eight outputs temperature, temperature time, mixing speed, mixing time, valve, valve opening time, PH at current liquid temperature, and PH time. System is controlled by controlling the four parameters; valve selection, temperature monitoring unit, mixing motor, and PH control unit. System takes feed back from four sensors and time control rules are formulated and simulated using MATLAB tool box.

Syed Fazil Bin Farukh

2013-04-01

205

Clinical trial of adhatoda vasica syrup (vasa) in the patients of non-ulcer dyspepsia (amlapitta).  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficacy of Vasa (Adhatoda vasica) in the form of syrup against Non-ulcer Dyspepsia (Amiapitta) through a clinical trial is attempted here. This trial showed hopeful results. The drug has reduced the total and free HCL in the patients of hyperacidity and hyperchlorhydria. PMID:22557371

Chaturvedi, G N; Rai, N P; Dhani, R; Tiwari, S K

1983-07-01

206

Consumer study and sensorial evaluation of a newly developed spicy strawberry syrup  

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The potential beneficial effects of strawberry allied to those of chilly in many aspects of human health lead to the development of a spicy strawberry syrup. The work included the development of the product, including formulation, processing and industrialization aspects, chemical and sensorial analyses as well as a consumer study, of which some will be analysed in the present manuscript.

Guine?, Raquel; Lima, Maria Joa?o; Pato, Lu?cia; Correia, Ana Cristina; Gonc?alves, Fernando; Costa, Elisa; Santos, Sandra

2010-01-01

207

Dual Mechanism of Brain Injury and Novel Treatment Strategy in Maple Syrup Urine Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism presenting with life-threatening cerebral oedema and dysmyelination in affected individuals. Treatment requires life-long dietary restriction and monitoring of branched-chain amino acids to avoid brain injury. Despite careful management, children…

Zinnanti, William J.; Lazovic, Jelena; Griffin, Kathleen; Skvorak, Kristen J.; Paul, Harbhajan S.; Homanics, Gregg E.; Bewley, Maria C.; Cheng, Keith C.; LaNoue, Kathryn F.; Flanagan, John M.

2009-01-01

208

CLINICAL TRIAL OF ADHATODA VASICA SYRUP (VASA) IN THE PATIENTS OF NON-ULCER DYSPEPSIA (AMLAPITTA)  

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The efficacy of Vasa (Adhatoda vasica) in the form of syrup against Non-ulcer Dyspepsia (Amiapitta) through a clinical trial is attempted here. This trial showed hopeful results. The drug has reduced the total and free HCL in the patients of hyperacidity and hyperchlorhydria.

Chaturvedi, G. N.; Rai, N. P.; Dhani, Ram; Tiwari, S. K.

1983-01-01

209

21 CFR 520.622b - Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

...per pound of body weight daily, orally or in food, in heartworm endemic areas, from the beginning of mosquito activity, during the mosquito season, and for 2 months following the end thereof. (iii) Dogs older than 8 months of age may...

2012-04-01

210

Beet sugar syrup and molasses as low-cost feedstock for the enzymatic production of fructo-oligosaccharides  

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Sugar syrup and molasses from beet processing containing 620 and 570 mg/ml sucrose, respectively, were assayed as low-cost and available substrates for the enzymatic synthesis of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). A commercial pectinase (Pectinex Ultra SP-L, from Aspergillus aculeatus) characterised by the presence of a transfructosylating activity, was used as biocatalyst. The FOS production increased when lowering the initial pH value of syrup (7.5) and molasses (8.9) to 5.5. Sugar syrup and mo...

Ghazi, Iraj; Ferna?ndez Arrojo, Luci?a; Go?mez Segura, Mari?a Ara?nzazu; Alcalde Galeote, Miguel; Plou Gasca, Francisco Jose?; Ballesteros, Antonio

2009-01-01

211

Further Investigation Into Maple Syrup Yields Three New Lignans, a New Phenylpropanoid, and Twenty-Six Other Phytochemicals  

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Maple syrup is made by boiling the sap collected from certain maple (Acer) species. During this process, phytochemicals naturally present in tree sap are concentrated in maple syrup. We previously reported 23 phytochemicals from a butanol extract of Canadian maple syrup (MS-BuOH). Here we report the isolation and identification of 30 additional compounds (1–30) from its ethyl acetate extract (MS-EtOAc) not previously reported from MS-BuOH. Of these, 4 compounds are new (1–3, 18) and 20 co...

Li, Liya; Seeram, Navindra P.

2011-01-01

212

Evaluation of diluents and media for enumerating Zygosaccharomyces rouxii in blueberry syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

Combinations of diluents and enumeration media were evaluated for their efficacy in enumerating Zygosaccharomyces rouxii in blueberry syrup (aw 0.818, 0.870 and 0.921). Diluents consisted of deionized water containing 0.1% peptone, 20%, 30%, 40% or 50% glucose, 50% glucose plus 0.05% Tween 80, and 12%, 18%, 26% or 35% glycerol, all calculated on a w/w basis. Enumeration media were dichloran rose bengal chloramphenicol (DRBC) agar, tryptone glucose yeast extract (TGY) agar, dichloran 18% glycerol (DG18) agar, plate count agar containing 52% sucrose (PCA52S) and malt extract yeast extract 50% glucose (MY50G) agar. Two test strains of Z. rouxii grown in blueberry syrup for 7 or 14 days responded similarly to diluent/enumeration medium combinations. The use of 0.1% peptone diluent or DRBC agar in combination with other enumeration media or diluents was inferior for recovering Z. rouxii. As the aw of the blueberry syrup decreased, the sensitivity of Z. rouxii to diluent containing decreased concentrations of glucose increased. The use of glycerol as a solute in diluent did not result in a similar trend, indicating that the protective effect of glycerol against osmotic stress to Z. rouxii cells is greater than that of glucose at high aw and that cells adapted to low aw in blueberry syrup are more sensitive to high aw in diluents. The addition of 0.05% Tween 80 to 50% glucose diluent did not influence performance. Overall, diluents containing 50% glucose (aw 0.898), 18% glycerol (aw 0.956) or 26% glycerol (0.934), in combination with TGY agar (aw 0.982), resulted in the highest recovery of Z. rouxii from blueberry syrup at aw 0.818 to 0.921. PMID:7599027

Hernandez, P; Beuchat, L R

1995-03-01

213

Liquen Plano Oral / Oral Lichen Planus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El Liquen Plano Oral es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica con fisiopatología inmune. Afecta piel, mucosa oral y genital, cuero cabelludo y uñas. Al agrupar diversas características clínicas e histopatológicas se puede clasificar como: reticular, papular, en placa, erosivo, atrófico y bulloso. Su t [...] ratamiento está orientado al alivio de la sintomatología, a la eliminación de factores locales traumáticos y a la administración de diversos agentes como: esteroides tópicos, sistémicos, retinoides e incluso sustancias naturales como la cúrcuma. Abstract in english Oral lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory disease with immune pathophysiology It affects skin, oral and genital mucosa, scalp and nails. By grouping various clinical and histopathologic features can distinguish different clinical presentations: reticular, papular, plaque, erosive, atrophic and bu [...] llous. Treatment is aimed at relief of symptoms, removal of local traumatic factors and administration of various agents such as topical and systemic steroids, retinoids and even natural substances like turmeric.

Colonia, Adriana; Vélez, Luis Fernando.

214

78 FR 73234 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...  

Science.gov (United States)

...OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing...and Panama AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION:...

2013-12-05

215

Development of a pilot system for converting sweet potato starch into glucose syrup  

Science.gov (United States)

Sweet potato has been chosen as one of NASA's crops to support human beings in future space missions. One of the possible uses is to make syrup that can be used as a general sweetener. In this work a simple engineering system for converting sweet potato starch into glucose syrup was studied on a laboratory scale. The system comprises the following main units: a blender, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), centrifugal and vacuum filters, deionization column and vacuum evaporator. The system was tested by carrying out conversion processes from fresh sweet potato roots. The roots were pealed, sliced, homogenized, heated and hydrolyzed by diastase of malt and Dextrozyme C (Novo Nordisk BioChem, North America, Inc.) enzymes in the CSTR. After hydrolysis the slurry was filtered, de-ionized and concentrated to get glucose syrup. The performance of the system was evaluated based on the quality of the conversion. The main factor was the level of reducing sugars except for the deionization where ash content and color were the main factors. Through careful control of the system units, good heating performance in the CSTR was obtained and the hydrolysis process attained sufficient conversion. The filtration process that incorporated the centrifuge was faster than when it was by-passed to the vacuum filter but losses in sugars were higher. Deionization removed more than 90% of the ash and reduced pigmentation, with probable insignificant losses in sugars during the deionization process. Recovery levels when the centrifuge was used and when it was by-passed could reach about 65% and 78%, respectively. These correspond to reducing sugar concentration of 259 and 310 mg/ml in 150-ml syrups from 300 g of sweet potatoes in each process. However, from concentration trials, syrups with volumes of 100 and 70 ml with the respective dextrose equivalence of 281 and 213 mg/ml were obtained. The syrups obtained were brownish in color and the process that employed centrifugal filtration gave a product with color that resembled the original color of the sweet potatoes. Further work is required to improve the overall system performance.

Silayo, Valerian C K.; Lu, John Y.; Aglan, Heshmat A.; Bovell-Benjamin, A. C. (Principal Investigator)

2003-01-01

216

Chemoprevention of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced oral carcinogenesis in hamster cheek pouch by topical application of resveratrol complexed with 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin  

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Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) develops slowly and it is usually preceded by identifiable oral preneoplastic lesions (OPLs): chemoprevention could be a promising approach. Resveratrol (RV) is a plant-based agent characterized by a strong in vitro antineoplastic action, but this effect has not been clinically confirmed owing to its metabolic inactivation. In order to circumvent this limitation and to improve RV efficacy, it was locally applied and complexed with a protective and solubilis...

Di Carlo, Francesco; Carlotti, Maria Eugenia; Sapino, Simona; Cavalli, Roberta; Salamone, Paolina; Di Scipio, Federica; Berta, Giovanni Nicolao; Sprio, Andrea Elio

2010-01-01

217

CLINICAL EFFICACY OF CRUX SYRUP IN THE MANAGEMENT OF COUGH DUE TO VARIOUS ETIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cough associated with acute and chronic respiratory conditions is common in patients of all ages. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical efficacy of CRUX syrup, a proprietary mixture of herbal ingredients in the management of cough of various etiological conditions in open label, uncontrolled, prospective cohort study. 55 Patients aged 9 - 64 years with cough of more than 1 day but less than 14 days duration was recruited. They were prescribed dose of CRUX syrup according to severity of cough for three days. Treatment results were assessed on the basis of Investigator’s evaluation. At the end of three days prescribed treatment, evaluator’s assessment shown that 29 % patient gave excellent, 55 % patient gave good, 11 % patient gave fair and 5 % patient gave poor response to treatment. The results demonstrate that CRUX treatment has significant decrease in the frequency and severity of cough without any significant side effect in patients of all ages.

Patel Girish

2013-10-01

218

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy reflects metabolic decompensation in maple syrup urine disease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS), accumulation of branchedchain amino acids (BCAA) and their corresponding 2-oxo acids (BCOA) could be non-invasively demonstrated in the brain of a 9-year-old girl suffering from classical maple syrup urine disease. During acute metabolic decompensation, the compounds caused a signal at a chemical shift of 0.9 ppm which was assigned by in vitro experiments. The brain tissue concentration of the sum of BCAA and BCOA could be estimated as 0.9 mmol/l. Localized {sup 1}H-MRS of the brain appears to be suitable for examining patients suffering from maple syrup urine disease in different metabolic states. (orig.)

Heindel, W. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Koeln (Germany); Kugel, H. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Koeln (Germany); Wendel, U. [Children`s Hospital, Univ. Duesseldorf (Germany); Roth, B. [Children`s Hospital, Univ. Koeln (Germany); Benz-Bohm, G. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Koeln (Germany)

1995-06-01

219

Alternative technology for corn milling and high fructose corn syrup production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The production of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) by the process of corn wet milling requires large volumes of water for the steeping and milling operations. The water, incorporated into various process streams, creates extensive requirements for dewatering, drying, and evaporation, resulting in an energy-intensive process. In order to reduce the overall energy requirements of HFCS production, an alternative process has been developed combining initial dry milling of corn with subsequent solvent extraction of protein and conversion of starch to syrup. Based on laboratory studies of the alternative process, the water removal load is less than half of that for wet milling and a full scale plant using the alternative technology should require 30% less energy than a corresponding wet milling facility. Further developmental work is in progress on a pilot plant scale to allow process optimization and to afford more accurate evaluations of the energy requirements of the proposed process.

Russell, M.H.; Tsao, G.T.

1981-01-01

220

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy reflects metabolic decompensation in maple syrup urine disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), accumulation of branchedchain amino acids (BCAA) and their corresponding 2-oxo acids (BCOA) could be non-invasively demonstrated in the brain of a 9-year-old girl suffering from classical maple syrup urine disease. During acute metabolic decompensation, the compounds caused a signal at a chemical shift of 0.9 ppm which was assigned by in vitro experiments. The brain tissue concentration of the sum of BCAA and BCOA could be estimated as 0.9 mmol/l. Localized 1H-MRS of the brain appears to be suitable for examining patients suffering from maple syrup urine disease in different metabolic states. (orig.)

1995-06-01

 
 
 
 
221

The Case of the Missing Bees High Fructose Corn Syrup and Colony Collapse Disorder  

Science.gov (United States)

Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) has claimed approximately one-third of the commercial honeybee population in recent years. A number of causes have been suggested for this phenomenon, including the consumption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) by the bees. This directed case investigates the issues and chemistry that might be involved in CCD related to HFCS. The case was developed for use in an undergraduate organic chemistry or food chemistry course.

Bohlscheid, Jeffri C.; Dinan, Frank J.

2011-01-01

222

Production and characterization of murine models of classic and intermediate maple syrup urine disease  

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Abstract Background Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of metabolism caused by a deficiency of branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase. MSUD has several clinical phenotypes depending on the degree of enzyme deficiency. Current treatments are not satisfactory and require new approaches to combat this disease. A major hurdle in developing new treatments has been the lack of a suitable animal model. Methods To create a murine model of classic MSUD, ...

Homanics Gregg E; Skvorak Kristen; Ferguson Carolyn; Watkins Simon; Paul Harbhajan S

2006-01-01

223

Identification of a founder mutation for maple syrup urine disease in hutterites.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an organic acidemia detected on newborn screening. The condition has been reported with increased frequency in certain founder populations including Hutterites. We present a case of MSUD in a Hutterite boy. Mutation analysis was completed and identified a candidate founder mutation in the BCKDHB gene, specifically c.595_596delAG. Further testing of other Hutterites with MSUD is needed to determine whether additional mutations may exist. PMID:24791375

Mroch, Amelia; Davis-Keppen, Laura; Matthes, Cindy; Stein, Quinn

2014-04-01

224

Dual mechanism of brain injury and novel treatment strategy in maple syrup urine disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism presenting with life-threatening cerebral oedema and dysmyelination in affected individuals. Treatment requires life-long dietary restriction and monitoring of branched-chain amino acids to avoid brain injury. Despite careful management, children commonly suffer metabolic decompensation in the context of catabolic stress associated with non-specific illness. The mechanisms underlying this decompe...

Zinnanti, William J.; Lazovic, Jelena; Griffin, Kathleen; Skvorak, Kristen J.; Paul, Harbhajan S.; Homanics, Gregg E.; Bewley, Maria C.; Cheng, Keith C.; Lanoue, Kathryn F.; Flanagan, John M.

2009-01-01

225

Citric Acid Production from Date Syrup using Immobilized Cells of Aspergillus niger  

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A total of 14 isolates of Aspergillus niger were obtained from soil samples of two different locations in Saudi Arabia. These cultures were screened for their ability to produce citric acid in date syrup medium under free and immobilized cells systems. Maximum productivity was about 1.44 times higher in the immobilized system compared to free cells. A. niger j4 isolated from Jazan region was selected as a good producer for optimization of the citric acid fermentation in immobili...

Al-shehri, Abdulrahman M.; Mostafa, Yasser S.

2006-01-01

226

Ethanol fermentation of blackstrap molasses and sugar cane syrup by Zymomonas (preliminary experiments)  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Et0H production by Zymomonas and by Saccharomyces cerevisiae was measured in fermentation experiments using blackstrap molasses and sugarcane syrup as raw materials. S. cerevisiae led to fermentation yields 19-39% higher than those obtained when Zymomonas was used. The relatively high sugar contents in the mashes fermented with Zymomonas indicate that sugar was not the limiting substrate. The method used to prepare the inoculum seems to have a considerable influence on EtOH production by the bacteria.

Regina de Melo Cruz, M.; Borgani, W.

1980-01-01

227

Rats’ preferences for high fructose corn syrup vs. sucrose and sugar mixtures  

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High fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has replaced sucrose in many food products, which has prompted research comparing these two sweeteners in rodents. The present study examined the relative palatability of HFCS and sucrose for rats, offering 11% carbohydrate solutions to match the content of common beverages for human consumption. The animals initially preferred HFCS to sucrose but after separate experience with each solution they switched to sucrose preference. Approximating the composition of ...

Ackroff, Karen; Sclafani, Anthony

2011-01-01

228

Cerebral Edema in Maple Syrup Urine Disease Despite Newborn Screening Diagnosis and Early Initiation of Treatment  

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A 7-day-old girl had an elevated leucine level on newborn screen drawn at 2 days of age and was suspected of having maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). When reported, the patient was immediately admitted to hospital, and started on a modified diet involving high calories with reduced branched chain amino acid (BCAA) formula. Clinical exam was normal at initial assessment. Despite rapid initiation of treatment, the baby became lethargic and somnolent over the next day. Diet was stopped and infus...

Myers, Kenneth A.; Reeves, Melanie; Wei, Xing-chang; Khan, Aneal

2012-01-01

229

Acetaminophen determination in low-dose pharmaceutical syrup by NIR spectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of the present study was first to develop a robust near infrared (NIR) calibration model able to determine the acetaminophen content of a low-dose syrup formulation (2%, w/v). Therefore, variability sources such as production campaigns, batches, API concentration, syrup basis, operators and sample temperatures were introduced in the calibration set. A prediction model was then built using partial least square (PLS) regression. First derivative followed by standard normal variate (SNV) were chosen as signal pre-processing. Based on the random subsets cross-validation, 4 PLS factors were selected for the prediction model. The method was then validated for an API concentration ranging from 16 to 24 mg/mL (1.6-2.4%, w/v) using an external validation set. The 0.26 mg/mL RMSEP suggested the global accuracy of the model. The accuracy profile obtained from the validation results, based on tolerance intervals, confirmed the adequate accuracy of the results generated by the method all over the investigated API concentration range. Finally, the NIR model was used to monitor in real time the API concentration while mixing syrups containing various amounts of API, a good agreement was found between the NIR method and the theoretical concentrations. PMID:20609544

Ziémons, E; Mantanus, J; Lebrun, P; Rozet, E; Evrard, B; Hubert, Ph

2010-11-01

230

Use of syrup/diesel oil emulsions as an alternative diesel fuel  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

During the period 1979 to 1984 there has been carried out a program concerning the use of an alternative diesel fuel subsidized by the Ministry of Energy. Emulsion of syrup (invert- or glucose syrup) and diesel oil were investigated as a diesel fuel possibility. The background of this project was especially the wish to avoid the energy-expensive production of ethanol from carbohydrates (by production of biomass fuel). It was possible to make rather stable emulsions from syrup in diesel oil by using a certain emulsifier. The combustion of these emulsions was just as good in diesel engines as pure diesel oil (the utilization of the calorific value was the same). However, different problems with the fuel equipment proved that it is impossible to use standard injection equipment (nozzles and pumps). Therefore, various modifications of the injection equipment were made in order to solve these problems. Some problems however proved to be insoluble, and this is one of the reasons why the project was stopped in 1984.

Hansen, O.

1984-10-01

231

Development of orally disintegrating tablets comprising controlled-release multiparticulate beads  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Melperone is an atypical antipsychotic agent that has shown a wide spectrum of neuroleptic properties, particularly effective in the treatment of senile dementia and Parkinson’s-associated psychosis, and is marketed in Europe as an immediate-release (IR) tablet and syrup. An orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) dosage form would be advantageous for patients who experience difficulty in swallowing large tablets or capsules or those who experience dysphagia. Controlled-release (CR) capsule and ...

2012-01-01

232

Women's Health Topics  

Science.gov (United States)

... Women's Health Topics ? - Resources for You Women's Health Topics Take Time to Care about Your Health . Women ... Health Mammograms Menopause Pregnancy Safe Medication Use Other Topics like cosmetics, nutrition, and HPV - Other Resources womenshealth. ...

233

Chemoprevention of 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced oral carcinogenesis in hamster cheek pouch by topical application of a dual inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ErbB2 tyrosine kinases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Oral cancer is a common neoplasm worldwide with tobacco and alcohol being the major etiological factors contributing to its pathogenesis. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ErbB2 are known to be involved in the development of oral cancer with the former up-regulated in up to 90% human cases. The goal of this study was to evaluate the chemopreventive effects of a dual inhibitor of EGFR and ErbB2 tyrosine kinases, GW2974, in the 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster ch...

Sun, Zheng; Sood, Sandeep; Li, Ning; Yang, Peiying; Newman, Robert A.; Yang, Chung S.; Chen, Xiaoxin

2008-01-01

234

??????: Mycoplasma orale  

Full Text Available Bacteria Mycoplasmataceae Mycoplasma orale Mycoplasma orale (scientific name) NCBI 2121 Mycoplas Clyde 1964 (synonym) NCBI 2121 Schizoplasma orale (Taylor -Robinson et al. 1964) Furness 1968 (synonym) NCBI 2121 Mycoplasma orale Taylor -Robinson et al. 1964 (synonym) NCBI 2121 Mycoplasm

235

Topic: A Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a wide discussion for Chinese topic structure and topic-sentence acquisition in Second Language Acquisition since Li & Thompson (1976. This paper reviews the contribution made by Li & Thompson on topic and later researches on the basis of them. The relationship between subject and topic also is concentrated.

Dandan Zhang

2009-08-01

236

Topic: A Literature Review  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

There is a wide discussion for Chinese topic structure and topic-sentence acquisition in Second Language Acquisition since Li & Thompson (1976). This paper reviews the contribution made by Li & Thompson on topic and later researches on the basis of them. The relationship between subject and topic also is concentrated.

Dandan Zhang

2009-01-01

237

Oral voriconazole and miconazole oral gel produce comparable effects on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of etoricoxib  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Abstract Purpose The effect of topical miconazole oral gel and systemic oral voriconazole on the pharmacokinetics of oral etoricoxib was studied in 12 healthy volunteers. Methods Plasma concentrations of etoricoxib, miconazole, voriconazole, and thromboxane B2 generation were followed after ingestion of 60 mg et...

2008-01-01

238

Topical report review status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides industry with procedures for submitting topical reports, guidance on how the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) processes and responds to topical report submittals, and an accounting, with review schedules, of all topical reports currently accepted for review schedules, of all topical reports currently accepted for review by the NRC. This report will be published annually. Each sponsoring organization with one or more topical reports accepted for review copies

1997-01-01

239

Topical report review status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides industry with procedures for submitting topical reports, guidance on how the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) processes and responds to topical report submittals, and an accounting, with review schedules, of all topical reports currently accepted for review schedules, of all topical reports currently accepted for review by the NRC. This report will be published annually. Each sponsoring organization with one or more topical reports accepted for review copies.

NONE

1997-08-01

240

Efinaconazole: a new topical treatment for onychomycosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Efinaconazole is an emerging antifungal therapy for the topical treatment of onychomycosis. Efinaconazole is an inhibitor of sterol 14?-demethylase and is more effective in vitro than terbinafine, itraconazole, ciclopirox and amorolfine against dermatophytes, yeasts and non-dermatophyte molds. Phase II studies indicate that efinaconazole 10% nail solution is more effective than either the 5% strength or 10% solution with semi-occlusion. In duplicate Phase III clinical trials, complete cure rates of 17.8% and 15.2% were demonstrated. The mean mycological cure rate for efinaconazole is similar to the oral antifungal itraconazole and exceeds the efficacy of topical ciclopirox. Efinaconazole showed minimal localized adverse events, which ceased upon stopping treatment. Overall, efinaconazole 10% nail solution is an effective topical monotherapy for distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis (<65% nail involvement, excluding the matrix) that shows further potential use as an adjunct to oral and device-based therapies. PMID:24570290

Gupta, Aditya K; Simpson, Fiona C

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
241

Rheology and density of glucose syrup and honey: Determining their suitability for usage in analogue and fluid dynamic models of geological processes  

Science.gov (United States)

Analogue models of lithospheric deformation and fluid dynamic models of mantle flow mostly use some kind of syrup such as honey or glucose syrup to simulate the low-viscosity sub-lithospheric mantle. This paper describes detailed rheological tests and density measurements of three brands of glucose syrup and three brands of honey. Additional tests have been done for one brand of glucose syrup that was diluted with water to various degrees (2%, 5% and 10% by weight). The rheological tests have been done to test the effect of shear strain, shear rate and temperature on the dynamic viscosity of the syrup. The results show that the viscosity of all glucose syrups and honeys is independent of shear strain (i.e. no strain hardening or softening). The viscosity of the glucose syrups is independent of shear rate (??), i.e. linear-viscous or Newtonian, in the range ??=10-4-10 s with stress exponents that are almost identical to one ( n = 0.995-1.004). All the honeys show a very weak, but consistent, decrease in viscosity with increasing shear rate of 7-14% from 10 -3 to 10 0 s -1 and have stress exponents more distinct from one ( n = 1.007-1.026). All syrups have a viscosity that is strongly dependent on temperature in the range 0-50 °C, where viscosity decreases with increasing temperature. Such decrease can be fitted with exponential and Arrhenius functions, with the latter giving the best results. Furthermore, the viscosity of glucose syrup decreases approximately exponentially with increasing water content. Oscillation tests indicate that the rheology of all the syrups is entirely dominated by viscous behaviour and not by elastic behaviour at frequencies of 10 -3-10 2 Hz. Finally, the density investigations show that the density of glucose syrup and honey decreases approximately linearly with increasing temperature in the range 10-70 °C, with coefficients of thermal volumetric expansion at 20 °C of 3.89-3.95 × 10 -4 °C -1 and 4.57-4.81 × 10 -4 °C -1 for glucose syrup and honey, respectively. The new results demonstrate that glucose syrups and (to a lesser degree) honeys are well suited for usage in analogue and fluid dynamic experiments to represent linear-viscous strain independent and shear rate independent rheologies to model geological processes. Glucose syrups have the added advantage of being more transparent than honeys, allowing for accurately resolving and quantifying flow patterns in the fluid during a model run.

Schellart, W. P.

2011-06-01

242

Evaluation of the Nutritional Value of Functional Yogurt Resulting from Combination of Date Palm Syrup and Skim Milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to use date palm syrup as a part of water (v/v used in reconstituting skim milk powder in processing yogurt with 14% total solids. Physical properties such as sensory characteristics and apparent viscosity were evaluated. To evaluate the nutritional value of yogurt, antioxidant values were monitored during storage and the sample which recorded the highest values would determine its chemical composition. In addition, some micronutrients (HCl-soluble minerals and (folate and C vitamins compared to plain yogurt. Results showed that yogurt enriched with 10% date syrup had a significant sweetness, recorded the highest antioxidant values, higher in HCl-soluble minerals and folate concentration compared to plain yogurt. It could be concluded that numerous health benefits beyond its nutritional value have been associated with consuming yogurt enriched with 10% date palm syrup.

A.F. Sayed

2010-01-01

243

Biological hydrogen production from corn-syrup waste using a novel system  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The reported patent-pending system comprises a novel biohydrogen reactor with a gravity settler for decoupling of SRT from HRT. The biohydrogenator was operated for 100 days at 37 {sup o}C, hydraulic retention time 8 h and solids retention time ranging from 2.2-2.5 days. The feed was a corn-syrup waste generated as a byproduct from an industrial facility for bioethanol production located in southwestern Ontario, Canada. The system was initially started up with a synthetic feed containing glucose at concentration of 8 g/L and other essential inorganics. Anaerobically-digested sludge from the St. Mary's wastewater treatment plant (St. Mary, Ontario, Canada) was used as the seed, and was heat treated at 70 {sup o}C for 30 min to inhibit methanogenesis. After 10 days, when the hydrogen production was steady, the corn-syrup waste was introduced to the system. Glucose was the main constituent in the corn-syrup; its concentration was varied over a period of 90 days from 8 to 25 g/L. The change in glucose concentration was used to study the impact of variable organic loading on the stability of hydrogen production in the biohydrogenator. Hydrogen production rate increased from 10 L H{sub 2}/L{center_dot}d to 34 L H{sub 2}/L{center_dot}d with the increase of organic loading rate (OLR) from 26 to 81 gCOD/L{center_dot}d, while a maximum hydrogen yield of 430 mL H{sub 2}/gCOD was achieved in the system with an overall average of 385 mL H{sub 2}/gCOD. (author)

Hafez, H.; Nakhla, G.; El Naggar, H. [Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada)

2009-07-01

244

Biological Hydrogen Production from Corn-Syrup Waste Using a Novel System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The reported patent-pending system comprises a novel biohydrogen reactor with a gravity settler for decoupling of SRT from HRT. The biohydrogenator was operated for 100 days at 37 °C, hydraulic retention time 8 h and solids retention time ranging from 2.2–2.5 days. The feed was a corn-syrup waste generated as a byproduct from an industrial facility for bioethanol production located in southwestern Ontario, Canada. The system was initially started up with a synthetic feed containing glucose at concentration of 8 g/L and other essential inorganics. Anaerobicaly-digested sludge from the St. Mary’s wastewater treatment plant (St. Mary, Ontario, Canada was used as the seed, and was heat treated at 70 °C for 30 min to inhibit methanogens. After 10 days, when the hydrogen production was steady, the corn-syrup waste was introduced to the system. Glucose was the main constituent in the corn-syrup; its concentration was varied over a period of 90 days from 8 to 25 g/L. The change in glucose concentration was used to study the impact of variable organic loading on the stability of hydrogen production in the biohydrogenator. Hydrogen production rate increased from 10 L H2/L·d to 34 L H2/L·d with the increase of organic loading rate (OLR from 26 to 81 gCOD/L·d, while a maximum hydrogen yield of 430 mL H2/gCOD was achieved in the system with an overall average of 385 mL H2/gCOD.

George Nakhla

2009-06-01

245

4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2[5H]-furanone (sotolone)--the odour of maple syrup urine disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism due to deficiency of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex. The disease was originally named after the characteristic sweet aroma, reminiscent of maple syrup, present in the body fluids of affected patients. Until now, the substance responsible for the odour has not been positively identified. Using enantioselective multidimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (enantio-MDGC-MS), we could demonstrate that 4,5-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-2[5H]-furanone (sotolone), a well-known flavour impact compound present in fenugreek and lovage, was present in urine from seven patients with maple syrup urine disease. Urine samples from healthy control persons lacked sotolone. We have shown that sotolone is responsible for the characteristic odour of maple syrup urine disease and, since maple syrup also contains sotolone, the naming of this disease appears to be correct. PMID:10234605

Podebrad, F; Heil, M; Reichert, S; Mosandl, A; Sewell, A C; Böhles, H

1999-04-01

246

Anticoagulación oral / Oral anticoagulation  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En los últimos años ha aumentado considerablemente la utilización de anticoagulantes orales en la prevención de procesos tromboembólicos. Además de un mayor número de pacientes en tratamiento anticoagulante, actualmente se dispone de una amplísima experiencia sobre las consecuencias médicas y social [...] es que implica este tratamiento lo que ha originado una visión mucho mas pragmática del manejo cotidiano del paciente anticoagulado. En este artículo se realiza una revisión sobre anticoagulación oral en base a las recomendaciones actuales existentes en la literatura médica. Abstract in english The use of oral anticoagulants in the prevention of thrombotics processes, has experienced a considerable increase. In addition, there are a growing experience on the medical and socials consequences of the use of this drug. This has originated a much more pragmatic vision of the daily handling of t [...] he anticoagulated patient. In this article, we made a revision about the indications and the practical use, including some useful advices and criteria for the concomitant drug selection.

C., Durán Parrondo; C., Rodríguez Moreno; F., Tato Herrero; N., Alonso Vence; F. L., Lado Lado.

247

Citric Acid Sweet Potato Extraction Beverages Containing Grape Juice and Fermented Glutinous Rice Syrup  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Beverages were developed from three cultivars of sweet potato, with orange-purple-and yellow-colored flesh that were mixed with grape juice and with two cultivars of fermented rice beverage (white and black glutinous rice). The beverage with the optimum formula consisted of 44.98% purple-colored flesh of sweet potato juice extraction (extracted with 0.5% citric acid solution), 40% red grape juice, 6% white fermented glutinous rice syrup, 9% sucrose and 0.02% sodium chloride. The product was a...

Teangpook, C.; Panthavee, W.; Puminat, W.; Thalang, V. N.

2012-01-01

248

Minerais em melados e em caldos de cana Minerals in sugar cane syrup and cane juice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A cana-de-açúcar está entre as culturas que apresenta larga escala de adaptações às condições climáticas, sendo utilizada para a fabricação de diversos produtos. Dentre os produtos derivados da cana-de-açúcar, o melado é tido popularmente como um alimento rico em ferro. Este trabalho objetivou conhecer a concentração de alguns minerais em melados comerciais e em melados preparados com equipamentos de aço inoxidável. Ao todo foram 20 amostras, 10 de cada tipo. As amostras foram preparadas para análise por oxidação da matéria orgânica por via úmida e os teores de Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn e Fe foram determinados por espectroscopia de absorção atômica, Na e K por fotometria de chama e P por colorimetria. Concluiu-se, com este trabalho, que os teores médios dos minerais Fe, P, Na e Mg foram significativamente mais elevados nos melados comerciais do que nos melados feitos com equipamentos inox. O contrário foi encontrado para o mineral cálcio, que apresentou teor mais elevado nos melados feitos no laboratório, mas condizentes com os teores encontrados nos caldos de cana. Não houve diferença significativa nos teores dos demais minerais.Sugar cane is an easily adaptable crop to diverse climate conditions, and it is used in the manufacturing of many different products. Among those products is the syrup, which is popularly known to be good sources of iron. In this work, we aimed to measure the concentration of some minerals in commercial sugar cane syrup brands and syrup prepared in the laboratory using stainless steel equipment. A total of 20 samples were analyzed, 10 of commercial brands and ten prepared in the laboratory. The samples were prepared by wet-air oxidation of organic matter and the contents of Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Fe were determined by atomic absorption. Na and K were determined by photometry and P by colorimetry. It was found that the mean concentration of Fe, P, Na, and Mn were higher in the commercial products than in that prepared in the laboratory using stainless steel equipment. On the other hand, it was found that the calcium content was higher in the laboratory made syrup, which is in agreement with the Ca content found for the sugarcane juice. There was no significant difference in the concentration of the other tested minerals.

Fernanda dos Santos Nogueira

2009-12-01

249

Chemical composition and sensory analysis of roasted peanuts coated with prickly pear and algarrobo pod syrups  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this work was to determine the chemical composition, sensory attributes and consumer acceptance of roasted peanuts coated with prickly pear (RP-P) and â??algarroboâ? pod syrups (RP-A). Roasted peanuts (RP) without coating had the highest oil content (50.4%) in comparison with the coated products RP-P and RP-A (45.3% and 46.7%, respectively). RP-P and RP-A showed lower protein percentage and higher carbohydrate content than RP. These results affe...

Nepote, V.; Mestrallet, M. G.; Olmedo, R. H.; Ryan, L. C.; Conci, S.; Grosso, N. R.

2008-01-01

250

Conversion of mango kernel starch to glucose syrups by enzymatic hydrolysis  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In the present investigation, the possibility of utilizing the starch present in mango seed (which are thrown away as waste) kernels for the production of glucose syrups by enzyme-enzyme hydrolysis has been studied. Under the conditions of operation, particles less than 90 microns in size showed maximum conversion at (i) {alpha}-amylase concentration = 0.06% (v/v), pH = 6.5 and temperature 95 C and (ii) glucoamylase concentration = 0.8% (v/v), pH = 4.5 and temperature = 60 C. (orig.)

Velan, M. [Anna Univ., Alagappa Coll. of Technology, Madras (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Krishnan, M.R.V. [Anna Univ., Alagappa Coll. of Technology, Madras (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Lakshmanan, C.M. [Anna Univ., Alagappa Coll. of Technology, Madras (India). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1995-05-01

251

Potential Toxic Levels of Cyanide in Almonds (Prunus amygdalus), Apricot Kernels (Prunus armeniaca), and Almond Syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

Under normal environmental conditions, many plants synthesize cyanogenic glycosides, which are able to release hydrogen cyanide upon hydrolysis. Each year, there are frequent livestock and occasional human victims of cyanogenic plants consumption. The present work aims to determine the hydrocyanic acid content in different samples of cyanogenic plants, selected from the Tunisian flora, and in the almond syrup. In order to evaluate their toxicity and their impact on the consumer health in the short term as well as in the long term, using the ISO 2164-1975 NT standard, relating to the determination of cyanogenic heterosides in leguminous plants. PMID:24171123

Chaouali, Nadia; Gana, Ines; Dorra, Amira; Khelifi, Fathia; Nouioui, Anouer; Masri, Wafa; Belwaer, Ines; Ghorbel, Hayet; Hedhili, Abderazzek

2013-01-01

252

Application of loofa sponge (Luffa cylindrica as carrier for invertase immobilization for invert sugar syrup production  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Invertase immobilization in loofa sponge (Luffa cylindrica for invert sugar syrup production has been carried out. Loofa sponge was treated with NaIO4 followed by the use of diamine compound, glutaraldehyde and enzyme immobilization. The best results obtained were: invertase immobilized activity: 4.510 (mmols/g matrix x min x mL; enzyme coupling efficiency: 0.428%, recovered activity: 1.5% and the extent of hydrolysis was of 2.6x10-3%.h-1.

Doumit Camilios Neto

2004-01-01

253

Biological Hydrogen Production from Corn-Syrup Waste Using a Novel System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The reported patent-pending system comprises a novel biohydrogen reactor with a gravity settler for decoupling of SRT from HRT. The biohydrogenator was operated for 100 days at 37 °C, hydraulic retention time 8 h and solids retention time ranging from 2.2–2.5 days. The feed was a corn-syrup waste generated as a byproduct from an industrial facility for bioethanol production located in southwestern Ontario, Canada. The system was initially started up with a synthetic feed containing glucose...

Hisham Hafez; George Nakhla; Hesham El Naggar

2009-01-01

254

Minerais em melados e em caldos de cana / Minerals in sugar cane syrup and cane juice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A cana-de-açúcar está entre as culturas que apresenta larga escala de adaptações às condições climáticas, sendo utilizada para a fabricação de diversos produtos. Dentre os produtos derivados da cana-de-açúcar, o melado é tido popularmente como um alimento rico em ferro. Este trabalho objetivou conhe [...] cer a concentração de alguns minerais em melados comerciais e em melados preparados com equipamentos de aço inoxidável. Ao todo foram 20 amostras, 10 de cada tipo. As amostras foram preparadas para análise por oxidação da matéria orgânica por via úmida e os teores de Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn e Fe foram determinados por espectroscopia de absorção atômica, Na e K por fotometria de chama e P por colorimetria. Concluiu-se, com este trabalho, que os teores médios dos minerais Fe, P, Na e Mg foram significativamente mais elevados nos melados comerciais do que nos melados feitos com equipamentos inox. O contrário foi encontrado para o mineral cálcio, que apresentou teor mais elevado nos melados feitos no laboratório, mas condizentes com os teores encontrados nos caldos de cana. Não houve diferença significativa nos teores dos demais minerais. Abstract in english Sugar cane is an easily adaptable crop to diverse climate conditions, and it is used in the manufacturing of many different products. Among those products is the syrup, which is popularly known to be good sources of iron. In this work, we aimed to measure the concentration of some minerals in commer [...] cial sugar cane syrup brands and syrup prepared in the laboratory using stainless steel equipment. A total of 20 samples were analyzed, 10 of commercial brands and ten prepared in the laboratory. The samples were prepared by wet-air oxidation of organic matter and the contents of Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Fe were determined by atomic absorption. Na and K were determined by photometry and P by colorimetry. It was found that the mean concentration of Fe, P, Na, and Mn were higher in the commercial products than in that prepared in the laboratory using stainless steel equipment. On the other hand, it was found that the calcium content was higher in the laboratory made syrup, which is in agreement with the Ca content found for the sugarcane juice. There was no significant difference in the concentration of the other tested minerals.

Fernanda dos Santos, Nogueira; Karla Silva, Ferreira; Josil de Barros, Carneiro Junior; Luís César, Passoni.

255

Oral lichen planus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Lichen Planus is a mucosal disorder of established immune-mediated pathogenesis, that affects skin and/or mucosa. In general, studies disclose that the prevalence varies of 0,02 to 1,2.% of the population.Case report and conclusion: A case report of oral lichen planus diagnosed and treated in the Dental School Clinic of São Lucas College will be presented, showing the clinical results after topical corticosteroid therapy.

Hanny Paula Rodrigues MARTINS

2008-08-01

256

Oral cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

... include: Chronic irritation (such as from rough teeth, dentures, or fillings) Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection Taking medications that weaken the immune system (immunosuppressants) Poor dental and oral hygiene Some oral cancers begin as a white plaque ( ...

257

Oral Mucocele  

Science.gov (United States)

newsletter | contact Share | Oral Mucocele Information for adults A A A This image displays a mucocele inside the lip. Overview An oral mucocele is a harmless, fluid-containing (cyst-like) swelling ...

258

Irradiation mucositis and oral flora  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study, which is motivated by the substantial morbidity of local signs of mucositis and generalized symptoms that result from mucositis induced by therapeutic irradiation, has the following objectives: To investigate if it is possible to prevent irradiation mucositis via oral flora elimination, and, if it is true that flora plays a role in irradiation mucositis, what fraction of the oral flora may be involved; to evaluate oral Gram-negative bacillary carriage; to investigate the possibility to eradicate Gram-negative bacilli from the oral cavity; to evaluate oral yeast carriage; to investigate the possibility to eradicate yeasts stomatitis and the 'selectivity' of elimination of flora. Two methods are described for monitoring alterations of mucositis of the oral cavity and changes in oral flora. Chlorhexidine has been tested as the commonly used prophylaxis. The effect of chlorhexidine 0.1% rinses on oral flora and mucositis has been studied in a prospective placebo controlled double blind randomized programme. The results of the influence of saliva on the antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine and the results of selective elimination of oral flora in irradiated patients who have head and neck cancer are reported. Salivary inactivation of the topical antimicrobials used for selective elimination of oral flora has been studied and the results are reported. Finally, the objectives that have been achieved (or not) are delineated. The significance of the results of the study are discussed in terms of published information and further lines of research are suggested. (author). 559 refs.; 29 figs.; 20 tabs

1989-01-01

259

Oral malodour  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Oral malodour may affect up to three billion people worldwide, with millions of dollars spent on treatment. Halitosis is often used synonymously, but oral malodour is the preferred term for any bad breath emanating from the mouth. Oral causes account for the majority of bad breath cases. It is the objective of this article to review the causes, classification and treatment of oral malodour for health care workers.

Zyl, Andre W.; Fourie, Jeanine; Heerden, W. F. P.

2011-01-01

260

Optimization of biohydrogen production from sweet sorghum syrup using statistical methods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study employed statistically based experimental designs to optimize fermentation conditions for hydrogen production from sweet sorghum syrup by anaerobic mixed cultures. Initial screening of important factors influencing hydrogen production, i.e., total sugar, initial pH, nutrient solution, iron (II) sulphate (FeSO{sub 4}), peptone and sodium bicarbonate was conducted by the Plackett-Burman method. Results indicated that only FeSO{sub 4} had statistically significant (P {<=} 0.005) influences on specific hydrogen production (P{sub s}) while total sugar and initial pH had an interdependent effect on P{sub s}. Optimal conditions for the maximal P{sub s} were 25 g/L total sugar, 4.75 initial pH and 1.45 g/L FeSO{sub 4} in which P{sub s} of 6897 mL H{sub 2}/L was estimated. Estimated optimum conditions revealed only 0.04% difference from the actual P{sub s} of 6864 mL H{sub 2}/L which suggested that the optimal conditions obtained can be practically applied to produce hydrogen from sweet sorghum syrup with the least error. (author)

Saraphirom, Piyawadee [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Rajabhat Maha Sarakham University, A.Muang, Maha Sarakham 44000 (Thailand); Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Khon Kaen University, A. Muang, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Reungsang, Alissara [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Khon Kaen University, A. Muang, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Fermentation Research Center for Value Added of Agricultural Products, Faculty of Technology, Khon Kaen University, A. Muang, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)

2010-12-15

 
 
 
 
261

Polysaccharides as a marker for detection of corn sugar syrup addition in honey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Honey is a natural product of high quality. However, because of its limited production and of its relatively high price, some beekeepers or unscrupulous traders do not hesitate to modify and falsify this natural product in order to try to increase its market value. Then, these involved falsification practices, for example intentional addition of cheap sugar syrup to honeys, are sometimes difficult to detect. An effective and simple analytical method is proposed in order to detect adulteration in honey by analysis of polysaccharide profiles. Samples were previously treated with reversed-phase solid phase extraction first to remove monosaccharides and small oligosaccharides and second to concentrate simultaneously traces of polysaccharides. A chromatographic separation using anion exchange stationary phase and pulse amperometric detection was further performed. Polysaccharide fingerprints (degree of polymerization from 11 to 17) were shown to be present in laboratory doped samples, and not detectable or present at very low concentrations in the authentic honey samples. Application to acacia, mountain polyfloral and polyfloral honeys enabled readily the detection of fraud resulting from deliberate addition of 1% of corn syrup. PMID:19243098

Megherbi, Mehdi; Herbreteau, Bernard; Faure, René; Salvador, Arnaud

2009-03-25

262

Simultaneous determination of phenylephrine hydrochloride, guaifenesin, and chlorpheniramine maleate in cough syrup by gradient liquid chromatography.  

Science.gov (United States)

A simple and reliable high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of mixture of phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHENYL), guaifenesin (GUAIF), and chlorpheniramine maleate (CHLO) either in pure form or in the presence of methylparaben and propylparaben in a commercial cough syrup dosage form. Separation was achieved on a C8 column using 0.005 M heptane sulfonic acid sodium salt (pH 3.4 +/- 0.1) and acetonitrile as a mobile phase by gradient elution at different flow rates, and detection was done spectrophotometrically at 210 nm. A linear relationship in the range of 30-180, 120-1800, and 10-60 microg/mL was obtained for PHENYL, GUAIF, and CHLO, respectively. The results were statistically analyzed and compared with those obtained by applying the British Pharmacopoeia (2002) method and showed that the proposed method is precise, accurate, and can be easily applied for the determination of the drugs under investigation in pure form and in cough syrup formulations. PMID:18476338

Amer, Sawsan M; Abbas, Samah S; Shehata, Mostafa A; Ali, Nahed M

2008-01-01

263

Overliming detoxification of pyrolytic sugar syrup for direct fermentation of levoglucosan to ethanol.  

Science.gov (United States)

The application of pyrolytic sugars for biofuel production through fermentation is challenged by inhibitory contaminant compounds. Inhibition is so severe that only 0.25% sugar syrup can be used. In this study, overliming was tested as a simple detoxification method, using the Escherichia coli KO11+ lgk to directly convert levoglucosan into ethanol. After treatment with at least 14.8 g/L of Ca(OH)2, fermentation with 2% (w/v) pyrolytic sugar syrup was observed with no inhibition of ethanol production. Further investigation of treatment time and temperature showed that 8-16 h of treatment at 20°C, and 1-4 h of treatment at 60°C are necessary to obtain consistent ethanol production. The samples treated with 18.5 g/L Ca(OH)2 at 60°C for 4 h showed no inhibition at 2.5%. Multiple contaminants removed by the overliming treatment were identified. This study demonstrates that overliming is a promising method for detoxification of pyrolytic sugars for fermentation. PMID:24177154

Chi, Zhanyou; Rover, Marjorie; Jun, Erin; Deaton, Mark; Johnston, Patrick; Brown, Robert C; Wen, Zhiyou; Jarboe, Laura R

2013-12-01

264

Efficient use of heat and energy resources in the starch and syrup industry  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using the standard heat plan of the VNIIK, for saccharification of starch milk, it is suggested that the wash water be thickened on individual evaporator heated by secondary steam of the I and II housings of the main evaporation unit. It is suggested that the heaters and surface collector used be plate he; the plan for removal of condensate was nonautomatic, with installation of hydraulic columns of the system of VNIISP. With reverse system of water supply, the total quantity of fresh water fed to the syrup plant will be 1.2-1.4 T per one T of syrup instead of the available 15-20 T/T. The possibility is studied of preventing deposits of corn extract in the evaporator units. The solution to this task will make it possible to conserve a large quantity of steam used for preventive chemical treatment and to reduce the labor outlays for mechanical treatment of the heating pipes of the evaporator units. The experiments indicated the promising nature of thermal processing of starches by infrared radiation. The obtained effect from the line of continuous dextrinazion on a heat-radiation unit introduced at the Muromskiy starch-dextrin plant was R 27000 in ten months of operation.

Mikhaylenko, A.A.; Korobkov, V.N.

1980-01-01

265

The effects of 90-day feeding of D-psicose syrup in male wistar rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available D-Psicose is a rare sugar present in small quantities in natural products. In a previous study, we showed that D-psicose suppresses increase in plasma glucose and reduces body fat accumulation in rats. Based on acute and chronic toxicity testing in rats, D-psicose is classified as an ordinary and safe substance. Recently, we developed a high D-psicose syrup (PS made from high fructose corn syrup (HFCS by the alkaline isomerization method. However, the safety of PS as a food additive has not been demonstrated. In this study, we investigated the effects of 90-day feeding of PS in male Wistar rats. The rats were fed diets containing 3% D-psicose (control or 4.3% PS for 90 days. The body weight gain and intra-abdominal adipose tissue weight did not differ between the control and PS group. The weights of the tissues did not differ between the two dietary groups. In clinical chemistry and hematological analyses, no differences were found between the control and PS groups. No gross pathological findings were evident at dietary doses of 4.3% PS. Therefore, the present study found no adverse effects of PS in rats fed a diet containing 4.3% PS for 90 days.

Tatsuhiro Matsuo

2011-08-01

266

Freshman Health Topics  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines a cluster of health topics that are frequently selected by students in lower division classes. Topics address issues relating to addictive substances, including alcohol and tobacco, eating disorders, obesity, and dieting. Analysis of the topics examines their interrelationships and organization in the reference literature.…

Hovde, Karen

2011-01-01

267

Cancer Topic Searches  

Science.gov (United States)

Cancer Topic Searches are prepared literature searches of the National Library of Medicine's PubMed database. Literature citations on more than 100 different topics can be obtained. All citations on a specific topic can be retrieved, or the results can be limited by selecting one of three date ranges.

268

Oral Melanoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Melanoma is a malignant tumor that originates from melanocyte cells. Its oral type is rare. The goal of this investigation was to determine the prevalence of oral malignant melanoma in Iran, as determined by age, sex and location. This research reviewed 623 cases of oral and non-oral malignant melanoma in Immam-Khomeini hospital, Mearaj cancer institute and department of oral pathology of dental faculty, Tehran University of Medical Sciences in a period of 19 years from 1981-1999. The results...

Forouzandeh, A.; Rostamali, G.

2002-01-01

269

Efficacy of Clobetasol, Ketoconazole and Amitryptiline Mouthwash on Oral Lichen Planus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oral Lichen Planus (OLP is a chronic inflammatory disease of oral mucosa, with an immunological origin. Atrophic/erosive OLP needs appropriate treatment, due to the pain and malignancy potential. Topical corticosteroids are the most effective drug therapy and mouthwashes are more effective topical dosage forms for this purpose. However, at present there are no corticosteroid mouthwashes available in Iran. In this study, the efficacy of a new mouthwash containing clobetasol, ketoconasole and amitriptyline was evaluated in comparison to the common treatment.In this double blind randomized clinical trial study, 50 patients who had inclusion criteria were grouped randomly, with no difference in demographic data. The experimental group was treated using 5ml of mouthwash four times a day for 5 min, while the control group was treated by dexamethasone tablet, nystatin drop and diphenhydramine syrup. Severity of the lesions and pain were followed as the chief complain and recorded in the initial, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks intervals. All the collected data were analyzed with the Chi-Square, Mann-Whitney, student T-test and Mantel-Cox statistical tests, using the SPSS version 13 softwares.There were significant differences in the pain reduction in the 1st (P<0.001, 2nd (P=0.01 and 12th (P=0.025 weeks between the two groups, but the difference in weeks 4 (P=0.058 and 8 (P=0.131 were not significant. The lesion reduction was significantly higher in the experimental group (P<0.001. Complete resolution of lesions occurred on average after 2.65 and 10.75 weeks for the experimental and control groups, respectively. Also most patients in the experimental group (70.6% had complete subjective satisfaction (75-100% of treatment but most patients (43.8% were mildly satisfied (0-25% in the control group. Survival analysis showed that the possibility of existence of lesions after 3 months in the experimental group and control groups were 0% and 100% (P<0.001, respectively.In conclusion, it seems that the new mouthwash is more effective in short term, with greater convenience for the patients.

Abbas Javadzadeh

2008-01-01

270

Cultivation and utilization of Jerusalem artichoke for ethanol, single cell protein, and high-fructose syrup production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Jerusalem artichoke has one of the highest carbohydrate yields of the known agricultural crops and has many distinct advantages over traditional crops. This brief review presents data on the yield and composition of Jerusalem artichoke, techniques of carbohydrate extraction and its utilization for the production of ethanol, single cell protein (SCP), and high-fructose syrup, along with economic considerations. (author).

Bajpai, P.K.; Bajpai, Pratima (Thapar Corporate Research and Development Center, Patiala (IN). Div. of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering)

1991-04-01

271

Physiological characterization of brewer's yeast in high-gravity beer fermentations with glucose or maltose syrups as adjuncts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

High-gravity brewing, which can decrease production costs by increasing brewery yields, has become an attractive alternative to traditional brewing methods. However, as higher sugar concentration is required, the yeast is exposed to various stresses during fermentation. We evaluated the influence of high-gravity brewing on the fermentation performance of the brewerâ??s yeast under model brewing conditions. The lager brewerâ??s strain Weihenstephan 34/70 strain was characterized at three different gravities by adding either glucose or maltose syrups to the basic wort. We observed that increased gravity resulted in a lower specific growth rate, a longer lag phase before initiation of ethanol production, incomplete sugar utilization, and an increase in the concentrations of ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate in the final beer. Increasing the gravity by adding maltose syrup as opposed to glucose syrup resulted in more balanced fermentation performance in terms of higher cell numbers, respectively, higher wort fermentability and a more favorable flavor profile of the final beer. Our study underlines the effects of the various stress factors on brewerâ??s yeast metabolism and the influence of the type of sugar syrups on the fermentation performance and the flavor profile of the final beer.

Piddocke, Maya Petrova; kreisz, Stefan

2009-01-01

272

Oral Melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Melanoma is a malignant tumor that originates from melanocyte cells. Its oral type is rare. The goal of this investigation was to determine the prevalence of oral malignant melanoma in Iran, as determined by age, sex and location. This research reviewed 623 cases of oral and non-oral malignant melanoma in Immam-Khomeini hospital, Mearaj cancer institute and department of oral pathology of dental faculty, Tehran University of Medical Sciences in a period of 19 years from 1981-1999. The results showed that 54 cases of biopsy lesions were melanoma of oral cavity that included 7.8% of these lesions. The mean age incidence of oral melanoma was 55.5(between 26-86 years. The most prevalent sites were palate (37.1% and alveolar mucosa (20.4% and less common sites included floor of mouth. buccal mucosa and tongue.

A Forouzandeh

2002-02-01

273

Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine : guidelines for oral pathology and oral medicine in the dental curriculum  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In Scandinavia, as in many European countries, most patients consult their general dentist once a year or more. This gives the dentist a unique opportunity and an obligation to make an early diagnosis of oral diseases, which is beneficial for both the patient and the society. Thus, the dentist must have knowledge of clinical symptoms, local and systemic signs and clinical differential diagnoses to make an accurate diagnosis. The dentist must be competent in selecting appropriate diagnostic tests, for example, tissue biopsy and microbiological samples, and conducting them correctly, as well as in interpreting test results and taking appropriate action accordingly. Furthermore, the dentist must be aware of diseases demanding multidisciplinary cooperation and be able to recognise his/her professional limitation, and to refer to other specialists when required. The dental curriculum changes over time as new approaches, treatments and diagnostic possibilities develop. Likewise, the role of the dentist in the community changes and may vary in different countries. As members of the Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine and subject representatives of oral pathology and oral medicine, we feel obliged to contribute to the discussion of how the guidelines of the dental curriculum support the highest possible standards of dental education. This article is meant to delineate a reasonable standard of oral pathology and oral medicine in the European dental curriculum and to guide subject representatives in curriculum development and planning. We have created an advisory topic list in oral pathology and oral medicine.

Kragelund, Camilla; Reibel, J

2012-01-01

274

Actividad antiartrítica del jarabe de Allium sativum L Antiarthritic activity of Allium sativum L syrup  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Allium sativum L. es ampliamente utilizado por la población cubana en la medicina tradicional y natural para aliviar procesos inflamatorios y en especial en la artritis reumatoide; sin embargo, su actividad no ha sido demostrada científicamente como para poder establecer un ensayo clínico para su registro y producción industrial. En el presente trabajo se evaluó la acción de un jarabe de Allium sativum L. sobre la artritis reumatoide experimental, empleando los modelos de edema de la pata y pleuresía en ratas Wistar, basados en la reacción pasiva de Arthus. En los dos modelos, se ensayaron placebo y dosis de 45, 90 y 180 mg/kg de peso corporal, en base a sólidos totales contenido en el jarabe de A. sativum. Como controles positivos se utilizó ibuprofeno y prednisona a las dosis de 200 y 10 mg/kg respectivamente. Tanto los controles positivos, como las dosis de jarabe de Allium sativum L. ensayadas disminuyeron el proceso inflamatorio desencadenado por la reacción antígeno anticuerpo que se logra mediante la reacción pasiva de Arthus, el antisuero de albúmina de huevo y antisuero de albúmina bovina para el edema de la pata y el desarrollo de pleuresía respectivamente.Allium sativum L is widely used by Cuban people in folk and natural medicine to alliviate inflammatory processes and specially in rheumatoid arthritis; however, its activity hasn’t scientifically enough demonstrated to stablish a clinical assay for its registration and industrial production. In present paper, action of a Allium sativum syrup on experimental rheumatoid arthritis was assessed, using models of leg edema and pleurisy in Wistar rats, based on passive reaction of Arthus. In two models, placebo and doses of 45, 90, and 180 mg/kg of body weight were assayed based on total solids in A.sativum syrup. As positive controls Ibuprofen and Prednisone were used at dosis of 200 and 10 mg/kg, respectively. Positive controls and assayed dosis of Allium sativum L syrup decreased inflammatory process triggered by antigen-antibody reaction achieved by means of passive reaction of Arthus, by means of egg albumin antiserum, and bovine albumin antiserum for leg edema and development of pleurisy, recpectively.

Juana I. Tillán Capó

2007-06-01

275

A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial of active manuka honey and standard oral care for radiation-induced oral mucositis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our aim was to investigate the effect of active manuka honey on radiation-induced mucositis. A total of 131 patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer who were having radiotherapy to the oral cavity or oropharyngeal area were recruited into the study, and were randomly allocated to take either manuka honey or placebo (golden syrup) 20 ml 4 times daily for 6 weeks. Mucositis was assessed according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) scale at baseline, weekly during radiotherapy, and twice weekly thereafter until the mucositis resolved. The patient's weight was recorded at the same time as the mucositis was assessed. Throat swabs to identify bacterial or fungal infections were taken at baseline, and during and after radiotherapy. There was no significant difference between honey and golden syrup in their effects on mucositis. Active manuka honey did not improve mucositis, but both the honey and the syrup seemed to be associated with a reduction in bacterial infections. Compliance was a problem after the onset of mucositis, which may have affected the findings. PMID:21636188

Bardy, Joy; Molassiotis, Alex; Ryder, W David; Mais, Kathleen; Sykes, Andrew; Yap, Beng; Lee, Lip; Kaczmarski, Ed; Slevin, Nicholas

2012-04-01

276

Topical report review status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Topical Report Review Status is scheduled to be published semi-annually. The primary purpose of this document is to provide periodic progress reports of on-going topical report reviews, to identify those topical reports for which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff review has been completed and, to the extent practicable, to provide NRC management with sufficient information regarding the conduct of the topical report program to permit taking whatever actions deemed necessary or appropriate. This document is also intended to be a source of information to NRC Licensing Project Managers and other NRC personnel regarding the status of topical reports which may be referenced in applications for which they have responsibility. This status report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the topical report program, but is also used by NRC to advise the industry of report review status

1983-01-01

277

Topical report review status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Topical Report Review Status is scheduled to be published semi-annually. The primary purpose of this document is to provide periodic progress reports of on-going topical report reviews, to identify those topical reports for which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff review has been completed and, to the extent practicable, to provide NRC management with sufficient information regarding the conduct of the topical report program to permit taking whatever actions deemed necessary or appropriate. This document is also intended to be a source of information to NRC Licensing Project Managers and other NRC personnel regarding the status of topical reports which may be referenced in applications for which they have responsibility. This status report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the topical report program, but is also used by NRC to advise the industry of report review status

1982-01-01

278

Myocardial Topical Negative Pressure  

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The aim of this research was to find out if it is possible to increase myocardial microvasular blood flow by applying a topical negative pressure source directly onto the myocardium. Topical negative pressure is a relatively new wound healing technique. When used in wound therapy, topical negative pressure has been shown to increase microvascular blood flow, to stimulate granulation tissue formation, and to stimulate angiogenesis in the underlying tissue, mainly subcutaneous tissue and skele...

Lindstedt, Sandra

2008-01-01

279

Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection following Topical Hormone Replacement Therapy  

Science.gov (United States)

Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare condition, usually presenting as an acute coronary syndrome, and is often seen in states associated with high systemic estrogen levels such as pregnancy or oral contraceptive use. While topical hormonal replacement therapy may result in increased estrogen levels similar to those documented with oral contraceptive use, there are no reported cases of spontaneous coronary dissection with topical hormonal replacement therapy. We describe a 53-year-old female who developed two spontaneous coronary dissections while on topical hormonal replacement therapy. The patient had no other risk factors for coronary dissection. After withdrawal from topical hormonal therapy, our patient has done well and has not had recurrent coronary artery dissections over a one-year follow-up period. The potential contributory role of topical hormonal therapy as a cause of spontaneous coronary dissection should be recognized.

Pan, Alexander L.; Fergusson, David; Hong, Robert; Badawi, Ramy A.

2012-01-01

280

Oral Communication across the Curriculum  

Science.gov (United States)

Proficiency in oral communication is necessary in school and in society. To do well in the different curriculum areas, pupils must speak with clarity and understanding. For example, in a discussion group in the social studies involving the topic "the pros and cons of raising taxes," pupils need to express knowledgeable ideas with appropriate voice…

Ediger, Marlow

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Purple drank prevalence and characteristics of misusers of codeine cough syrup mixtures.  

Science.gov (United States)

A mixture of codeine cough syrup with alcohol and/or a soft drink known as "purple drank" has gained media attention in recent years as a drug associated with professional athletes and southern rap music. The existing research on purple drank consumption has primarily utilized samples of African Americans residing in the Houston, Texas area. This is the first scholarly study of purple drank use outside of the Houston, Texas area among a general population of young adults, and indicates that purple drank use is not limited to African American males. The findings depict higher odds of the use of purple drank among other racial and ethnic groups, males, and homosexual, bisexual, and transgender college students from urban areas. PMID:23688907

Agnich, Laura E; Stogner, John M; Miller, Bryan Lee; Marcum, Catherine D

2013-09-01

282

Imaging in classic form of maple syrup urine disease: a rare metabolic central nervous system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism. The condition gets its name from the distinctive sweet odour of affected infants' urine. MSUD is caused by a deficiency of the branched-chain ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase enzyme complex, leading to accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, and valine) and their toxic by-products (ketoacids) in the blood and urine. Imaging is characterestized by MSUD oedema affecting the myelinated white matter. We present a neonate with classic type of MSUD and its imaging features on computed tomography, conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. PMID:24049754

Jain, Aditi; Jagdeesh, K; Mane, Ranoji; Singla, Saurabh

2013-04-01

283

Antiemetic efficacy of smoked marijuana: subjective and behavioral effects on nausea induced by syrup of ipecac.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the public debate about the legalization of marijuana has continued for as long as 25 years, few controlled studies have been conducted to assess its potential medical benefits. The present study examined the antiemetic effect of smoked marijuana cigarettes (8.4 and 16.9 mg Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC]) compared to a highly potent antiemetic drug, ondansetron (8 mg) in 13 healthy volunteers. Nausea and emesis were induced by syrup of ipecac. Marijuana significantly reduced ratings of "queasiness" and slightly reduced the incidence of vomiting compared to placebo. Ondansetron completely eliminated the emetic effects of ipecac. These findings support and extend previous results, indicating that smoked marijuana reduces feelings of nausea and also reduces emesis in this model. However, its effects are very modest relative to ondansetron, and the psychoactive effects of marijuana are likely to limit its clinical usefulness in the general population. PMID:11509190

Söderpalm, A H; Schuster, A; de Wit, H

2001-01-01

284

The management of pregnancy in maple syrup urine disease: experience with two patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe the management and outcomes of pregnancy in two women affected with Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). Both patients had classical disease diagnosed in the newborn period and were managed with low-protein diets and supplements, although compliance was moderately poor throughout life. Both pregnancies were complicated by poor compliance and one patient had a metabolic decompensation, which included seizures and profound encephalopathy, at the end of the first trimester. Peri-partum management required a coordinated team approach including a high-calorie and low-protein diet. Both patients had elevated leucine levels in the post-partum period - one due to mastitis and the other due to poor dietary and supplement compliance combined with uterine involution. On later review, leucine had returned to pre-pregnancy levels. Both infants were unaffected and have made normal developmental progress in the subsequent 1 to 2 years. PMID:23430812

Tchan, Michel; Westbrook, M; Wilcox, G; Cutler, R; Smith, N; Penman, R; Strauss, B J G; Wilcken, B

2013-01-01

285

Diet-dependent gene expression in honey bees: honey vs. sucrose or high fructose corn syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

Severe declines in honey bee populations have made it imperative to understand key factors impacting honey bee health. Of major concern is nutrition, as malnutrition in honey bees is associated with immune system impairment and increased pesticide susceptibility. Beekeepers often feed high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or sucrose after harvesting honey or during periods of nectar dearth. We report that, relative to honey, chronic feeding of either of these two alternative carbohydrate sources elicited hundreds of differences in gene expression in the fat body, a peripheral nutrient-sensing tissue analogous to vertebrate liver and adipose tissues. These expression differences included genes involved in protein metabolism and oxidation-reduction, including some involved in tyrosine and phenylalanine metabolism. Differences between HFCS and sucrose diets were much more subtle and included a few genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Our results suggest that bees receive nutritional components from honey that are not provided by alternative food sources widely used in apiculture. PMID:25034029

Wheeler, Marsha M; Robinson, Gene E

2014-01-01

286

Hypokalemic paralysis and respiratory failure due to excessive intake of licorice syrup  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Licorice is the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra, which has a herbal ingredient, glycyrrhizic acid. Excessive intake of licorice may cause a hypermineralocorticoidism-like syndrome characterized by sodium and water retention, hypokalemia, hypertension, metabolic alkalosis, low-renin activity, and hypoaldosteronism. In this paper, an 34 years old man who admitted to the emergency department with respiratory failure and marked muscle weakness of all extremities that progressed to paralysis after excessive intake of licorice syrup was presented. It was aimed to draw attention to the necessity of questioning whether there is excessive intake of licorice or not in patients who admitted to emergency department with paralysis and dyspnea. Plasma potassium concentration of the patient was 1.4 mmol/L. The patient\\'s respiratory distress and loss of muscle strength recovered completely after potassium replacement. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(2.000: 387-391

Mehmet Oguzhan Ay

2014-04-01

287

Contribution of the diffusion-weighted MRI in the diagnosis and follow-up of encephalopathy caused by maple syrup urine disease in a full-term newborn  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this case report is to show conventional MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) findings of the different evolutionary phases in MSUD (Maple syrup urine disease) of a newborn that evolved with brain white matter lesions (author)

2009-01-01

288

Contribution of the diffusion-weighted MRI in the diagnosis and follow-up of encephalopathy caused by maple syrup urine disease in a full-term newborn  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this case report is to show conventional MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) findings of the different evolutionary phases in MSUD (Maple syrup urine disease) of a newborn that evolved with brain white matter lesions (author)

Ferraz-Filho, Jose Roberto Lopes; Floriano, Valdeci Helio; Quirici, Marcelo Bianco; Souza, Antonio Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Albuquerque, Regina Pires de [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Pediatria

2009-07-01

289

Oral ketamine for deep sedation of difficult-to-manage children who are mentally handicapped: case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

For a small subset of mentally handicapped individuals, the medical and dental setting can be so threatening that they react violently to health care providers. Deep sedation can be administered enterally using oral ketamine, 6-8 mg/kg, combined with glycopyrrolate mixed in simple syrup and preceded by a dose of an oral benzodiazepine and sodium citrate. A case utilizing this technique to sedate an extremely combative mentally handicapped female requiring dental treatment planning in an ambulatory surgical center is described. A review of this use of ketamine and caveats concerning its use are covered. PMID:1832219

Rosenberg, M

1991-01-01

290

Choosing a Research Topic  

Science.gov (United States)

This website from the Chronicle of Higher Education features tips for graduate students on choosing a research topic. The author explains a variety of ways that a topic should be matched to the individual. A good choice can help lead to long-term career success.

Reis, Richard M.; Education, The C.

291

Mapping topics and topic bursts in PNAS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Scientific research is highly dynamic. New areas of science continually evolve; others gain or lose importance, merge, or split. Due to the steady increase in the number of scientific publications, it is hard to keep an overview of the structure and dynamic development of one's own field of science, much less all scientific domains. However, knowledge of “hot” topics, emergent research frontiers, or change of focus in certain areas is a critical component of resource allocation decisions ...

2004-01-01

292

Improvement of effect of water-in-oil microemulsion as an oral delivery system for fexofenadine: in vitro and in vivo studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available E Gundogdu1,2, I Gonzalez Alvarez3, E Karasulu1,21Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics, 2Center For Drug Research and Development and Pharmacokinetic Applications, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey; 3Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Engineering, Pharmaceutical Technical Section, Research Group on Drug Absorption, Universidad Miguel Hernández, Alicante, SpainAbstract: Fexofenadine (FEX has high solubility and low permeability (BCS, Class III. In this work, novel FEX loaded water in oil microemulsion (w/o was designed to improve bioavailability and compared with Fexofen® syrup in in vitro and in vivo studies. In addition, pharmacokinetic parameters in permeability studies were estimated by using WinNonLin software program. w/o microemulsion system was optimized using a pseudoternary phase diagram, composed of span 80/lutrol F 68 (9.5:0.5 w/w, oleic acide, isopropyl alcohol and water as surfactant mixture; oil and cosurfactant was developed for oral drug delivery. w/o microemulsion systems were characterized by phase behavior, particle size, viscosity and solubilization capacity. In vitro studies were studied using Caco-2 cell monolayer. Pharmacokinetic parameters of w/o microemulsion were investigated in rabbits and compared to Fexofen® syrup. Fexofen® syrup and microemulsion were administered by oral gavage at 6 mg/kg of the same concentration. The experimental results indicated that microemulsion (HLB = 5.53 formed nanometer sized droplets (33.29 ± 1.76 and had good physical stability. This microemulsion increased the oral bioavailability of FEX which was highly water-soluble but fairly impermeable. The relative bioavailability of FEX microemulsion was about 376.76% compared with commercial syrup in rabbits. In vitro experiments were further employed for the enhanced effect of the microemulsion for FEX. These results suggest that novel w/o microemulsion plays an important role in enhancing oral bioavailability of low permeability drugs.Keywords: pharmacokinetic, bioavailability, permeability, oleic acid

Gundogdu E

2011-08-01

293

Improvement of effect of water-in-oil microemulsion as an oral delivery system for fexofenadine: in vitro and in vivo studies.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fexofenadine (FEX) has high solubility and low permeability (BCS, Class III). In this work, novel FEX loaded water in oil microemulsion (w/o) was designed to improve bioavailability and compared with Fexofen(®) syrup in in vitro and in vivo studies. In addition, pharmacokinetic parameters in permeability studies were estimated by using WinNonLin software program. w/o microemulsion system was optimized using a pseudoternary phase diagram, composed of span 80/lutrol F 68 (9.5:0.5 w/w), oleic acide, isopropyl alcohol and water as surfactant mixture; oil and cosurfactant was developed for oral drug delivery. w/o microemulsion systems were characterized by phase behavior, particle size, viscosity and solubilization capacity. In vitro studies were studied using Caco-2 cell monolayer. Pharmacokinetic parameters of w/o microemulsion were investigated in rabbits and compared to Fexofen(®) syrup. Fexofen(®) syrup and microemulsion were administered by oral gavage at 6 mg/kg of the same concentration. The experimental results indicated that microemulsion (HLB = 5.53) formed nanometer sized droplets (33.29 ± 1.76) and had good physical stability. This microemulsion increased the oral bioavailability of FEX which was highly water-soluble but fairly impermeable. The relative bioavailability of FEX microemulsion was about 376.76% compared with commercial syrup in rabbits. In vitro experiments were further employed for the enhanced effect of the microemulsion for FEX. These results suggest that novel w/o microemulsion plays an important role in enhancing oral bioavailability of low permeability drugs. PMID:21904453

Gundogdu, E; Alvarez, I Gonzalez; Karasulu, E

2011-01-01

294

Implicit stage topics  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Il a souvent été proposé que les éléments spatio-temporels en position initiale de phrase spécifient le cadre de l’événement dénoté par la proposition et ont une interprétation thématique ou topicale. Alors que les topiques spatio-temporels explicites ont souvent été étudiés, Erteschik-Schir (1997, 1999 propose l’idée que les topiques spatio-temporels, ou topiques scéniques (stage topics peuvent aussi être implicites.Dans cet article, nous offrons des arguments en faveur de la notion de topique scénique implicite. Nous montrons qu’un certain nombre de cas d’inversion nominale en français, une configuration syntaxique qui est favorisée par la présence d’un topique scénique explicite, s’expliquent par la présence d’un topique scénique implicite. Le fait que les topiques scéniques implicites interagissent avec la structure syntaxique de la même façon que les topiques scéniques explicites constitue un argument empirique en faveur de leur existence.It has often been proposed that sentence-initial spatio-temporal elements specify the frame in which the whole proposition takes place and are topical (i.e. thematic. Whereas considerable attention has been paid to explicit spatio-temporal topics, Erteschik-Shir (1997, 1999 argues that spatio-temporal topics, or stage topics, can also be implicit.In this article we provide evidence in favour of the notion of implicit stage topic. We show that a certain number of nominal inversion cases in French, a syntactic configuration which is triggered by the presence of an explicit stage topic, are explained by the presence of an implicit stage topic. The fact that implicit stage topics interact with syntactic structure the same way explicit stage topics do constitutes a strong empirical argument in favour of their existence.

Karen Lahousse

2008-04-01

295

Prevention & Detection Topics  

Science.gov (United States)

Links to information on prevention and detection of specific cancers, including breast, cervical, colorectal, endometrial, esophageal, lung, oral, ovarian, prostate, skin, and stomach. Links within DCP and throughout NCI offer details on genetic factors, causes, screening, key trials and contacts.

296

Evaluation of the Nutritional Value of Functional Yogurt Resulting from Combination of Date Palm Syrup and Skim Milk  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The objective of this study was to use date palm syrup as a part of water (v/v) used in reconstituting skim milk powder in processing yogurt with 14% total solids. Physical properties such as sensory characteristics and apparent viscosity were evaluated. To evaluate the nutritional value of yogurt, antioxidant values were monitored during storage and the sample which recorded the highest values would determine its chemical composition. In addition, some micronutrients (HCl-soluble minerals) a...

Sayed, A. F.; Kholif, A. M.; Gad, A. S.

2010-01-01

297

Comparison of productivity of colonies of honey bees, Apis mellifera, supplemented with sucrose or high fructose corn syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

Honey bee colony feeding trials were conducted to determine whether differential effects of carbohydrate feeding (sucrose syrup (SS) vs. high fructose corn syrup, or HFCS) could be measured between colonies fed exclusively on these syrups. In one experiment, there was a significant difference in mean wax production between the treatment groups and a significant interaction between time and treatment for the colonies confined in a flight arena. On average, the colonies supplied with SS built 7916.7 cm(2) ± 1015.25 cm(2) honeycomb, while the colonies supplied with HFCS built 4571.63 cm(2) ± 786.45 cm(2). The mean mass of bees supplied with HFCS was 4.65 kg (± 0.97 kg), while those supplied with sucrose had a mean of 8.27 kg (± 1.26). There was no significant difference between treatment groups in terms of brood rearing. Differences in brood production were complicated due to possible nutritional deficiencies experienced by both treatment groups. In the second experiment, colonies supplemented with SS through the winter months at a remote field site exhibited increased spring brood production when compared to colonies fed with HFCS. The differences in adult bee populations were significant, having an overall average of 10.0 ± 1.3 frames of bees fed the sucrose syrup between November 2008 and April 2009, compared to 7.5 ± 1.6 frames of bees fed exclusively on HFCS. For commercial queen beekeepers, feeding the right supplementary carbohydrates could be especially important, given the findings of this study. PMID:23886010

Sammataro, Diana; Weiss, Milagra

2013-01-01

298

A Validated RP HPLC-PAD Method for the Determination of Hederacoside C in Ivy-Thyme Cough Syrup  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A simple reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method coupled with a photodiode array detector (PAD) has been developed and validated for the analysis of hederacoside C, the marker of ivy plant, in Ivy-Thyme cough syrup. Separation of hederacoside C was achieved using a Phenomenex-Gemini C18 column isothermally at 40°C. A mobile phase system constituted of solvent A (water: acetonitrile: orthophosphoric acid (85%), 860?:?140?:...

Ayman Khdair; Mohammad, Mohammad K.; Khaled Tawaha; Eman Al-Hamarsheh; Alkhatib, Hatim S.; Bashar Al-khalidi; Yasser Bustanji; Samer Najjar; Mohammad Hudaib

2010-01-01

299

Maple syrup urine disease encephalopathy: a follow-up study in the acute stage using diffusion-weighted MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neonatal maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is associated with diffuse oedema and characteristic MSUD oedema. We present a newborn infant with two coexisting different types of oedema. The myelinated white matter showed a marked decrease in the water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) compatible with cytotoxic oedema. The unmyelinated white matter showed an increase in ADC, consistent with vasogenic-interstitial oedema. On follow-up studies, the cytotoxic oedema showed improvement, but the vasogenic-interstitial oedema progressed into brain atrophy. (orig.)

2004-02-01

300

ENU mutagenesis identifies mice with mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase deficiency resembling human maple syrup urine disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tandem mass spectrometry was applied to detect derangements in the pathways of amino acid and fatty acid metabolism in N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea–treated (ENU-treated) mice. We identified mice with marked elevation of blood branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), ketoaciduria, and clinical features resembling human maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), a severe genetic metabolic disorder caused by the deficiency of branched-chain ?-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD) complex. However, the BCKD genes and enz...

Wu, Jer-yuarn; Kao, Hsiao-jung; Li, Sing-chung; Stevens, Robert; Hillman, Steven; Millington, David; Chen, Yuan-tsong

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Hepatocyte Transplantation Improves Phenotype and Extends Survival in a Murine Model of Intermediate Maple Syrup Urine Disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD; OMIM 248600) is an inborn error of metabolism of the branched chain ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex that is treated primarily by dietary manipulation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). Dietary restriction is lifelong and compliance is difficult. Liver transplantation significantly improves outcomes; however, alternative therapies are needed. To test novel therapies such as hepatocyte transplantation (HTx), we previously created a murine model of i...

Skvorak, Kristen J.; Paul, Harbhajan S.; Dorko, Kenneth; Marongiu, Fabio; Ellis, Ewa; Chace, Donald; Ferguson, Carolyn; Gibson, K. Michael; Homanics, Gregg E.; Strom, Stephen C.

2009-01-01

302

Malignización del liquen plano oral / Oral lichen planus malignancy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La complicación más importante del Liquen Plano Oral (LPO), es el desarrollo de un carcinoma oral de células escamosas (COCE). Desde 1910 en que se comunicó el primer caso en una paciente con LP, se han publicado numerosos casos, y series de casos de malignización, que nos aportan cifras que varían [...] entre el 0 y el 12,5% de LPO malignizados, con periodos de seguimiento también muy variables, que oscilan entre 0,5 y 20 años. Pero estos estudios han sido refutados por un grupo de autores, que se cuestionan los criterios diagnósticos utilizados. Por todo ello, el potencial maligno del liquen plano oral, es un tema actualmente muy controvertido en Medicina Oral. Se realiza una revisión crítica de la literatura más actual sobre los conceptos clave, implicados en esta controversia. Abstract in english The most important complication of oral lichen planus (OLP), is the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). From 1910 when was reported the first case in a woman suffered OLP, many cases and cases series have been reported with values from 0 to 12,5%, and with follow-up ranking from 0,5 [...] to 20 years. But many of this cases not had been accepted by some authors who disagree with the diagnostic criteria employed. By all previously cited, the cancerization of OLP is a very controversial topic in Oral Medicine. It has been performed a critical review of the recent literature about it.

Cerero-Lapiedra, R..

303

Oral myiasis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Oral myiasis is a rare disease that is most common in developing countries and is associated with poor oral hygiene, suppurating lesions, severe halitosis and other predisposing conditions. This paper describes a case of oral myiasis in a 22-year-old female patient who presented with acute upper lip swelling with an extensive necrotic area in the anterior region of the maxilla and fetid odor. The diagnosis was based on the typical clinical features and the visual presence of the larvae. The p...

Leite Cavalcanti Alessandro; Lucas Neto Alfredo; de Farias Aires Júnior Fernando Antonio; Morais Lucas João; de Castro Cardoso Lucas Rilva Suely

2008-01-01

304

Topics in Nuclear Astrophysics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some topics in nuclear astrophysics are discussed, e.g.: highly evolved stellar cores, stellar evolution (through the temperature analysis of stellar surface), nucleosynthesis and finally the solar neutrino problem. (L.C.)

1982-01-01

305

Sparse Topical Coding  

CERN Document Server

We present sparse topical coding (STC), a non-probabilistic formulation of topic models for discovering latent representations of large collections of data. Unlike probabilistic topic models, STC relaxes the normalization constraint of admixture proportions and the constraint of defining a normalized likelihood function. Such relaxations make STC amenable to: 1) directly control the sparsity of inferred representations by using sparsity-inducing regularizers; 2) be seamlessly integrated with a convex error function (e.g., SVM hinge loss) for supervised learning; and 3) be efficiently learned with a simply structured coordinate descent algorithm. Our results demonstrate the advantages of STC and supervised MedSTC on identifying topical meanings of words and improving classification accuracy and time efficiency.

Zhu, Jun

2012-01-01

306

Related Topics and News  

Science.gov (United States)

Related Topics and News Harold Varmus Appointed to President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology Harold Varmus Attends White House Signing Harold Varmus Awarded Henry G. Friesen International Prize in Health Research Harold Varmus Featured

307

Medicaid Information by Topic  

Science.gov (United States)

... State Resources Affordable Care Act About Us Medicaid Information by Topic Eligibility Medicaid and CHIP provide health ... cover other population groups (optional eligibility groups). More information is available in the Eligibility section . Benefits States ...

308

Salicylic Acid Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

... to the skin that you are treating with topical salicylic acid unless your doctor tells you that you should: abrasive soaps or cleansers; skin care products that contain alcohol; other medications that are ...

309

Topical photodynamic therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Topical photodynamic therapy is a therapeutic modality in development, thus arises grate interest among dermatologists worldwide. It is an effective therapy for actinic keratosis, superficial BCC and Bowenos disease. Treatment efficacy, good cosmetics, low risk of skin cancer, low invasiveness, low rate of adverse events, facility for treating multiple or large lesions, especially in poor healing sites and, for penile, digital and facial involvement, low general toxicity and possibility of repeating the treatments with the same efficiency, enable topical photodynamic therapy to become increasingly practiced treatment modality. Researching aimed topical photodynamic therapy to prove as a treatment modality for clinical use in other dermatoses, is in experimental phase. To answer the question when dermatologist should consider using topical photodynamic therapy treatment modatility, we are present available date.

Polja?ki Mirjana

2006-01-01

310

Maple syrup analysis for 137Cs, K, and B, using a low-background counting system and PGAA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fifteen maple syrups were analyzed for 137Cs and K (via 40K) by using a low-background ?-ray counting system, and for B and K by using neutron capture prompt ?-ray activation analysis (PGAA). For low-background ?-ray counting, 3 ? limits of detection (24-hour counts) were 0.03 Bq 137Cs/kg and 10 mg K/kg for 3.5-L portions and 0.08 Bq 137Cs/kg and 20 mg K/kg for 1.0-L portions. K concentrations determined by the two methods (using 2-g portions for PGAA) were in excellent agreement. The products were obtained in 1991, with one produced in Maryland, three in New York, four in Pennsylvania, two in New Hampshire, and five in Canada. The average activity concentration for Canadian syrups (2.8 Bq 137Cs/kg) was nearly a factor 20 greater than the average (0.15 Bq 137Cs/kg) for the other syrups, but all 137Cs activity concentrations were at least 100 times lower than those for which controls would be recommended according to Federal Radiation Council guidance. The data exhibited distinct groupings related to the sources of the products when the ratios 137Cs activity to K content (BqCs/mgK) were plotted vs. B concentrations. (author). 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

1994-07-01

311

Penile pyoderma gangrenosum successfully treated with topical Imiquimod  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pyoderma gangrenosum(PG) is a rare ulcerating inflammatory neutrophilic dermatosis. Genital involvement has been rarely reported. We report such a case of 24- year- old, male patient living with HIV/AIDS(PLHIV) who presented with progressive genital ulceration, not responding to oral antibiotics and aciclovir, gradually increasing in size over 15-18 months. Repeated biopsies showed acute on chronic inflammation. The lesion partially responded to oral and topical corticosteroids but soon incre...

Rathod, Santosh P.; Padhiar, Bela B.; Karia, Umesh K.; Shah, Bela J.

2011-01-01

312

Towards Big Topic Modeling  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

To solve the big topic modeling problem, we need to reduce both time and space complexities of batch latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) algorithms. Although parallel LDA algorithms on the multi-processor architecture have low time and space complexities, their communication costs among processors often scale linearly with the vocabulary size and the number of topics, leading to a serious scalability problem. To reduce the communication complexity among processors for a better...

Yan, Jian-feng; Zeng, Jia; Liu, Zhi-qiang; Gao, Yang

2013-01-01

313

An abrupt outgassing revealed by a slow decompression experiment of cristal-bearing syrup foam  

Science.gov (United States)

Distribution of volcanic gasses in a conduit determines eruption style. Outgassing changes the distribution of volcanic gasses in a conduit.We here simulated the outgassing from ascending magma by slow decompression experiments. As molten magma ascends in a conduit, surrounding pressure becomes low and bubbles in magma expand. In our previous work, we found that the bubble expansion causes film rupturing and makes paths for outgassing. The crystals in magma may affect this newly found outgassing style. Accordingly, we slowly decompressed syrup foam including solid particles as a magma analogue. Experiments are conducted in an acrylic tank. We observed the expansion of three-phase magma analog from the front of the tank using a digital video camera. From the images and pressure measurements, we calculated time evolution of the syrup volume and permeability. We consider that there is no bubble segregation by the ascent of individual bubbles from the Stoke's velocity. We conducted our experiments with a viscosity range of 10-20 Pa s which is the same orders of magnitude of that of basaltic magma, 10-103 Pa s. At the beginning of the decompression, the volume change of the syrup foam is well explained by isothermal expansion. When the gas fractions reached to the 85-90%, we observed that deformations of bubble films caused film rupturing so that bubbles coalesce vertically to clear a path. As time elapsed, the measured gas volume in the foam becomes smaller than that estimated by the isothermal expansion, indicating the occurrence of outgassing. In the experiments with high volume fraction of solid particles (>30 vol.% for bubble-free liquid), we observed another new style of outgassing. Several large voids (> 10 mm in radius) appear at a middle height of the foam and connect each other to make a horizontally elongated cavity. The roof of the cavity collapses, and then massive outgassing occurs. At the beginning of the decompression until the foam collapses, outgassing occurs intermittently. We calculated the apparent permeability of the foam before the collapse occurs assuming the Darcy's law. Calculated permeability observed for the experiments with large volume fraction of solid particles has temporal variation and they varies from 10-7 -10-9. This value is quite larger than those measured for natural pumices and scoriae. From our experiments, we infer that there is a skin depth of the outgassing. At the beginning, the upper most part of the foam has a high apparent permeability to cause outgassing energetically. However, the gas within this region decreases eventually to be impermeable. Beneath the impermeable layer, the gas transported from a depth accumulates to make a cavity. The cavity is gravitationally unstable and collapses at the end. It has been widely recognized that the Vulcanian eruption occurs by a sudden expansion of the accumulated gas beneath an impermeable plug. Our experimental results may explain the mechanism generating an impermeable plug.

Kanno, Y.; Namiki, A.

2013-12-01

314

Mapping topics and topic bursts in PNAS.  

Science.gov (United States)

Scientific research is highly dynamic. New areas of science continually evolve; others gain or lose importance, merge, or split. Due to the steady increase in the number of scientific publications, it is hard to keep an overview of the structure and dynamic development of one's own field of science, much less all scientific domains. However, knowledge of "hot" topics, emergent research frontiers, or change of focus in certain areas is a critical component of resource allocation decisions in research laboratories, governmental institutions, and corporations. This paper demonstrates the utilization of Kleinberg's burst detection algorithm, co-word occurrence analysis, and graph layout techniques to generate maps that support the identification of major research topics and trends. The approach was applied to analyze and map the complete set of papers published in PNAS in the years 1982-2001. Six domain experts examined and commented on the resulting maps in an attempt to reconstruct the evolution of major research areas covered by PNAS. PMID:14978278

Mane, Ketan K; Börner, Katy

2004-04-01

315

Treatment of diabetic gustatory sweating with topical glycopyrrolate cream.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 42-year-old insulin-dependent diabetic man presented with severe bilateral gustatory sweating associated with a deterioration in his glycaemic control. Conventional oral antimuscarinic medication was contraindicated because of his cardiac insufficiency. Topical 0.5% glycopyrrolate cream was tried and applied on alternate days to his face, which resulted in the complete cessation of his gustatory sweating without side-effects. Topical glycopyrrolate cream is an effective treatment of diabetic gustatory sweating without the adverse effects commonly found with oral anti-muscarinic medication. PMID:8737034

Atkin, S L; Brown, P M

1996-05-01

316

Oral cyclosporine therapy for refractory severe vernal keratoconjunctivitis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report the success of oral cyclosporine therapy in a patient with severe vision-threatening vernal keratoconjunctivitis. A child presented with severe allergy which was not controlled with topical steroids, cyclosporine and mast cell stabilizers. Oral steroids were required repeatedly to suppress inflammation. Child showed a dramatic improvement and stabilization with oral cyclosporine therapy. Oral cyclosporine therapy can be tried in severe vision-threatening allergy refractory to conven...

Gokhale, Nikhil S.; Samant, Rohini; Sharma, Vishnu

2012-01-01

317

Oral Probiotics  

Science.gov (United States)

... Read our disclaimer about external links Menu Oral Probiotics: An Introduction On this page: Introduction Key Points ... will help ensure coordinated and safe care. Top Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics Probiotics are not the same ...

318

Oral myiasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oral myiasis is a rare disease that is most common in developing countries and is associated with poor oral hygiene, suppurating lesions, severe halitosis and other predisposing conditions. This paper describes a case of oral myiasis in a 22-year-old female patient who presented with acute upper lip swelling with an extensive necrotic area in the anterior region of the maxilla and fetid odor. The diagnosis was based on the typical clinical features and the visual presence of the larvae. The patient's management included surgical exploration to remove the larvae and the necrotic tissue, followed by scaling and oral hygiene instruction. Upon treatment, the larvae were eliminated, and complete lesion healing and remission of symptoms were observed within 21 days.

Leite Cavalcanti Alessandro

2008-01-01

319

Chemical composition and sensory analysis of roasted peanuts coated with prickly pear and algarrobo pod syrups  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the chemical composition, sensory attributes and consumer acceptance of roasted peanuts coated with prickly pear (RP-P and â??algarroboâ? pod syrups (RP-A. Roasted peanuts (RP without coating had the highest oil content (50.4% in comparison with the coated products RP-P and RP-A (45.3% and 46.7%, respectively. RP-P and RP-A showed lower protein percentage and higher carbohydrate content than RP. These results affected the energy values of the products: 6.14 kcal/g in RP-P, 6.24 kcal/g in RP-A and 6.42 kcal/g in RP. In the consumer test, RP and RP-P had higher consumer acceptance for the attributes of color, texture and flavor than RP-A. In the descriptive analysis, RP-P and RPA showed higher intensity ratings in brown color, roughness, glossy, powdery, sweetness, and salty sensory attributes and lower intensity ratings in raw/beany flavor than in RP. The intensity of roasted peanutty flavor and the texture attributes in the descriptive analysis were not affected for the pod syrup coating.El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la composición química, atributos sensoriales y la aceptabilidad del maní tostado cubierto con arrope de tuna (RP-P y de Algarrobo (RP-A. El maní tostado sin cobertura presentó el mayor contenido de aceite (50,4% en comparación con los maníes cubiertos, RPP y RP-A (45,3% y 46,7%, respectivamente. RP-P y RP-A mostraron menor porcentaje de proteína y mayor contenido de hidratos de carbonos que RP. Estos resultados afectaron los valores energéticos de los productos: 6,14 kcal/g in RP-P, 6,24 kcal/g in RP-A y 6,42 kcal/g in RP. En la prueba de consumidores, RP y RP-P tuvieron mayor aceptabilidad para los atributos color, textura y sabor que en RP-A. En la prueba descriptiva, RP-P y RP-A mostraron mayores intensidades en los atributos sensoriales de color marrón, rugosidad, brillo, pulverulencia, dulzor y salado y menor intensidad en sabor crudo/ poroto que en RP. Las intensidades del sabor a maní tostado y de los atributos de texturas en el análisis descriptivo no fueron afectadas por la presencia de la cobertura de arrope.

Grosso, N. R.

2008-06-01

320

Stability of compounded thioguanine oral suspensions.  

Science.gov (United States)

PURPOSE. Updated information on the stability of compounded thioguanine oral suspensions prepared with currently available ingredients, as well as results of testing to determine if the addition of an antioxidant could extend shelf life by inhibiting formation of guanine, are presented. METHODS. Using triturated thioguanine tablets, three compounded suspensions were prepared: (1) a reference formulation containing methylcellulose and simple syrup, (2) an equivalent formulation using Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet, and (3) an antioxidant-containing formulation prepared by adding ascorbic acid to the equivalent formulation. The compounded batches were stored at room temperature (19-23 °C). The chemical stability of the suspensions was evaluated immediately after compounding and at weekly intervals by a validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS) assay method; physical stability was evaluated by regular visual checks and weekly pH testing. RESULTS. As demonstrated by serial LCMS testing, mean thioguanine levels in sampled batches of all three suspensions remained above accepted standards and mean guanine formation remained within acceptable limits for up to 63 days. The addition of ascorbic acid appeared to slow guanine formation but did not significantly extend the shelf life of the suspension. CONCLUSION. Compounded oral suspensions of thioguanine 20 mg/mL exhibited acceptable chemical and physical stability for up to nine weeks at 19-23 °C. The addition of ascorbic acid at a concentration of 0.1% to the suspension was not effective in consistently increasing the shelf life of the thioguanine suspensions. PMID:21546641

Aliabadi, Hamidreza Montazeri; Romanick, Marcel; Somayaji, Vishwa; Mahdipoor, Parvin; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh

2011-05-15

 
 
 
 
321

In vitro evaluation of alternative oral contrast agents for MRI of the gastrointestinal tract  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: In vitro evaluation of different materials as potential alternative oral contrast agents for small bowel MRI. Materials and methods: The T1 and T2 relaxation times of rose hip syrup, black currant extract, cocoa, iron-deferoxamine solution and a commonly used oral contrast material (1 mM Gd-DTPA) were determined in vitro at different concentrations on a 1.0 T clinical MR scanner. T1 values were obtained with an inversion prepared spoiled gradient echo sequence. T2 values were obtained using multiple echo sequences. Finally the materials were visualized on T1-, T2- and T2*-weighted MR images. Results: The relaxation times of the undiluted rose hip syrup (T1 = 110 {+-} 5 ms, T2 = 86 {+-} 3 ms), black currant extract (T1 = 55 {+-} 3 ms, T2 = 39 {+-} 2 ms) and 5 mM iron-deferoxamine solution (T1 = 104 {+-} 4 ms, T2 = 87 {+-} 2 ms) were much shorter than for a 1 mM Gd-DTPA solution (T1 = 180 {+-} 8 ms, T2 = 168 {+-} 5 ms). Dilution of black currant extract to 30% or a 3 mM iron-deferoxamine solution conducted to T1 relaxation times which are quite comparable to a 1 mM Gd-DTPA solution. Despite its much lower metal content an aqueous cocoa suspension (100 g/L) produced T2 relaxation times (T1 = 360 {+-} 21 ms, T2 = 81 {+-} 3 ms) more or less in the same range like the 5 mM iron-deferoxamine solution. Imaging of our in vitro model using clinical sequences allowed to anticipate the T1-, T2- and T2*-depiction of all used substances. Cocoa differed from all other materials with its low to moderate signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted sequences. While all substances presented a linear 1/T1 and 1/T2 relationship towards concentration, rose hip syrup broke ranks with a disproportionately high increase of relaxation at higher concentrations. Conclusions: Rose hip syrup, black currant extract and iron-deferoxamine solution due to their positive T1 enhancement characteristics and drinkability appear to be valuable oral contrast agents for T1-weighted small bowel MRI. Cocoa with its differing relaxation and signal enhancement properties is a promising oral contrast agent but needs further clinical evaluation.

Babos, Magor [University of Szeged, Faculty of Science (Hungary); Euromedic Diagnostics Szeged, 6720 Szeged, Semmelweiss u. 6 (Hungary)], E-mail: babosmagor@yahoo.com; Schwarcz, Attila [University of Pecs, Department of Neurosurgery, Pecs Diagnostic Institute, 7624 Pecs, Retu. 2 (Hungary)], E-mail: attila.schwarcz@aok.pte.hu; Randhawa, Manjit Singh [University of Szeged, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 6720 Szeged, Semmelweiss u. 6 (Hungary)], E-mail: majyaal@hotmail.com; Marton, Balazs [University of Szeged, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 6720 Szeged, Semmelweiss u. 6 (Hungary)], E-mail: balazsmarton@freemail.hu; Kardos, Lilla [Euromedic Diagnostics Szeged, 6720 Szeged, Semmelweiss u. 6 (Hungary)], E-mail: medlis@tiszanet.hu; Palko, Andras [Euromedic Diagnostics Szeged, 6720 Szeged, Semmelweiss u. 6 (Hungary); University of Szeged, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, 6720 Szeged, Semmelweiss u. 6 (Hungary)], E-mail: palko@radio.szote.u-szeged.hu

2008-01-15

322

In vitro evaluation of alternative oral contrast agents for MRI of the gastrointestinal tract  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: In vitro evaluation of different materials as potential alternative oral contrast agents for small bowel MRI. Materials and methods: The T1 and T2 relaxation times of rose hip syrup, black currant extract, cocoa, iron-deferoxamine solution and a commonly used oral contrast material (1 mM Gd-DTPA) were determined in vitro at different concentrations on a 1.0 T clinical MR scanner. T1 values were obtained with an inversion prepared spoiled gradient echo sequence. T2 values were obtained using multiple echo sequences. Finally the materials were visualized on T1-, T2- and T2*-weighted MR images. Results: The relaxation times of the undiluted rose hip syrup (T1 = 110 ± 5 ms, T2 = 86 ± 3 ms), black currant extract (T1 = 55 ± 3 ms, T2 = 39 ± 2 ms) and 5 mM iron-deferoxamine solution (T1 = 104 ± 4 ms, T2 = 87 ± 2 ms) were much shorter than for a 1 mM Gd-DTPA solution (T1 = 180 ± 8 ms, T2 = 168 ± 5 ms). Dilution of black currant extract to 30% or a 3 mM iron-deferoxamine solution conducted to T1 relaxation times which are quite comparable to a 1 mM Gd-DTPA solution. Despite its much lower metal content an aqueous cocoa suspension (100 g/L) produced T2 relaxation times (T1 = 360 ± 21 ms, T2 = 81 ± 3 ms) more or less in the same range like the 5 mM iron-deferoxamine solution. Imaging of our in vitro model using clinical sequences allowed to anticipate the T1-, T2- and T2*-depiction of all used substances. Cocoa differed from all other materials with its low to moderate signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted sequences. While all substances presented a linear 1/T1 and 1/T2 relationship towards concentration, rose hip syrup broke ranks with a disproportionately high increase of relaxation at higher concentrations. Conclusions: Rose hip syrup, black currant extract and iron-deferoxamine solution due to their positive T1 enhancement characteristics and drinkability appear to be valuable oral contrast agents for T1-weighted small bowel MRI. Cocoa with its differing relaxation and signal enhancement properties is a promising oral contrast agent but needs further clinical evaluation

2008-01-01

323

Health Topic XML File Description  

Science.gov (United States)

... topic URL. The URL for the corresponding health topic page on MedlinePlus. Example: url="http://www.nlm.nih. ... related topics shown on the left sidebar of topic pages and other pages. Example: topic title="Abdominal ...

324

IP Internal Movement and Topicalization  

Science.gov (United States)

In this dissertation, I investigate the phenomenon of internal topicalization cross-linguistically, using Chinese as a starting point. Internal topicalization refers to constructions in which a topic phrase is placed between the subject and the verb (in contrast to external topicalization, which involves a topic in the CP domain). I argue that…

Kuo, Pei-Jung

2009-01-01

325

Fate of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) following the oral route: design, pharmacokinetics and biodistribution.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to develop a nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) formulation containing spironolactone (SPN-NLCs), and to investigate its potential for the oral delivery of poorly water-soluble compounds. SPN-NLCs were orally administered to rabbits and the pharmacokinetics of spironolactone and its metabolites was evaluated. As reference formulation, we administered syrup. Spironolactone was only detected in a few plasma samples; hence, metabolite levels were employed for the pharmacokinetic analysis. The absolute bioavailability of 7?-TMS was significantly higher with the syrup than those obtained with the SPN-NLCs (0.7 versus 0.4, p?Orally administered (99m)Tc-radiolabeled SPN-NLCs were mainly detected in the small intestine. These results suggest the retention of the nanocarriers in the underlying epithelium and further uptake by the epithelial cells. PMID:23631381

Beloqui, Ana; Solinís, María Ángeles; Delgado, Araceli; Evora, Carmen; Isla, Arantxazu; Rodríguez-Gascón, Alicia

2014-01-01

326

Excipient foods: designing food matrices that improve the oral bioavailability of pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals.  

Science.gov (United States)

The oral bioavailability of many lipophilic bioactive agents (pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals) is limited due to various physicochemical and physiological processes: poor release from food or drug matrices; low solubility in gastrointestinal fluids; metabolism or chemical transformation within the gastrointestinal tract; low epithelium cell permeability. The bioavailability of these agents can be improved by specifically designing food matrices that control their release, solubilization, transport, metabolism, and absorption within the gastrointestinal tract. This article discusses the impact of food composition and structure on oral bioavailability, and how this knowledge can be used to design excipient foods for improving the oral bioavailability of lipophilic bioactives. Excipient foods contain ingredients or structures that may have no bioactivity themselves, but that are able to promote the bioactivity of co-ingested bioactives. These bioactives may be lipophilic drugs in pharmaceutical preparations (such as capsules, pills, or syrups) or nutraceuticals present within food matrices (such as natural or processed foods and beverages). PMID:24760211

McClements, David Julian; Xiao, Hang

2014-06-25

327

Nutrition management guideline for maple syrup urine disease: An evidence- and consensus-based approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an effort to increase harmonization of care and enable outcome studies, the Genetic Metabolic Dietitians International (GMDI) and the Southeast Regional Newborn Screening and Genetics Collaborative (SERC) are partnering to develop nutrition management guidelines for inherited metabolic disorders (IMD) using a model combining both evidence- and consensus-based methodology. The first guideline to be completed is for maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). This report describes the methodology used in its development: formulation of five research questions; review, critical appraisal and abstraction of peer-reviewed studies and unpublished practice literature; and expert input through Delphi surveys and a nominal group process. This report includes the summary statements for each research question and the nutrition management recommendations they generated. Each recommendation is followed by a standardized rating based on the strength of the evidence and consensus used. The application of technology to build the infrastructure for this project allowed transparency during development of this guideline and will be a foundation for future guidelines. Online open access of the full, published guideline allows utilization by health care providers, researchers, and collaborators who advise, advocate and care for individuals with MSUD and their families. There will be future updates as warranted by developments in research and clinical practice. PMID:24881969

Frazier, Dianne M; Allgeier, Courtney; Homer, Caroline; Marriage, Barbara J; Ogata, Beth; Rohr, Frances; Splett, Patricia L; Stembridge, Adrya; Singh, Rani H

2014-07-01

328

Heterogeneity in maple syrup urine disease: aspects of cofactor requirement and complementation in cultured fibroblasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fibroblast strains derived from six patients with maple syrup urine disease have been investigated for their requirements of the cofactors NAD, CoASH, Mg++ and TPP in comparison with 10 normal control strains. The reconstitution of the decarboxylase function of branched chain alpha-keto acid (BCKA) dehydrogenase complex in lysed cells was studied with respect to the substrates alpha-keto-isocaproic acid, alpha-keto-isovaleric acid, and alpha-keto-beta-methylvaleric acid (KIC, KIVA, MEVA). The enzyme activity of all normal control strains for the substrates KIC and KIVA was not reconstituted by TPP + Mg++ alone, but CoASH + NAD could reconstitute the enzyme activity with KIC and KIVA in different degrees. Only two control strains were tested with MEVA as substrate, and these showed in contrast that TPP + Mg++ could partly reconstitute the enzyme activity. In contrast to the relative homogeneity in the reconstitution profiles of normal strains, the five classical and one intermittent MSUD strains showed heterogeneity in cofactor requirements. Complementation analysis using heterokaryons prepared from fibroblasts of four patients with classical MSUD and one patient with intermittent MSUD showed, in contrast to experiments with normal controls, a partial amelioration of the defect in two combinations; it is suggested that the defect in these strains is located at different functional subunits of the multienzyme complex. PMID:192504

Singh, S; Willers, I; Goedde, H W

1977-04-01

329

Successful domino liver transplantation in maple syrup urine disease using a related living donor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive disease associated with high levels of branched-chain amino acids. Children with MSUD can present severe neurological damage, but liver transplantation (LT) allows the patient to resume a normal diet and avoid further neurological damage. The use of living related donors has been controversial because parents are obligatory heterozygotes. We report a case of a 2-year-old child with MSUD who underwent a living donor LT. The donor was the patient's mother, and his liver was then used as a domino graft. The postoperative course was uneventful in all three subjects. DNA analysis performed after the transplantation (sequencing of the coding regions of BCKDHA, BCKDHB, and DBT genes) showed that the MSUD patient was heterozygous for a pathogenic mutation in the BCKDHB gene. This mutation was not found in his mother, who is an obligatory carrier for MSUD according to the family history and, as expected, presented both normal clinical phenotype and levels of branched-chain amino acids. In conclusion, our data suggest that the use of a related donor in LT for MSUD was effective, and the liver of the MSUD patient was successfully used in domino transplantation. Routine donor genotyping may not be feasible, because the test is not widely available, and, most importantly, the disease is associated with both the presence of allelic and locus heterogeneity. Further studies with this population of patients are required to expand the use of related donors in MSUD. PMID:24770567

Feier, F H; Miura, I K; Fonseca, E A; Porta, G; Pugliese, R; Porta, A; Schwartz, I V D; Margutti, A V B; Camelo, J S; Yamaguchi, S N; Taveira, A T; Candido, H; Benavides, M; Danesi, V; Guimaraes, T; Kondo, M; Chapchap, P; Neto, J Seda

2014-06-01

330

Cranial computed tomography in a patient with a variant form of maple syrup urine disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A male infant, who was suspected to be a case of variant form of maple syrup urine disease has been given dietary treatment since the age of 9 months. Prior to the treatment, computed tomography showed abnormally high lucidity in the cerebral white matter area with the marked narrowness in size of the frontal horn of lateral ventricles. As the treatment proceeded, clinical symptoms alleviated, and CT findings have gradually changed with the result of improved density of the white matter. 2 months after starting the treatment, however, the patient suddenly developed a hyperaminoacidemic crisis that lasted 4-5 days. Despite this hyperaminoacidemia, CT scan taken during the crisis have revealed unexpectedly normal lucidity of the white matter as well as the normal width of the frontal horn. From these findings it was concluded that markedly lucent area in CT findings prior to the treatment was not due to an acute change in serum aminoacid concentration, but rather to chronic brain edema which had insidiously and gradually developed. (orig.)

1983-01-01

331

Cranial computed tomography in a patient with a variant form of maple syrup urine disease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A male infant, who was suspected to be a case of variant form of maple syrup urine disease has been given dietary treatment since the age of 9 months. Prior to the treatment, computed tomography showed abnormally high lucidity in the cerebral white matter area with the marked narrowness in size of the frontal horn of lateral ventricles. As the treatment proceeded, clinical symptoms alleviated, and CT findings have gradually changed with the result of improved density of the white matter. Two months after starting the treatment, however, the patient suddenly developed a hyperaminoacidemic crisis that lasted 4-5 days. Despite this hyperaminoacidemia, CT scan taken during the crisis have revealed unexpectedly normal lucidity of the white matter as well as the normal width of the frontal horn. From these findings it was concluded that markedly lucent area in CT findings prior to the treatment was not due to an acute change in serum aminoacid concentration, but rather to chronic brain edema which had insidiously and gradually developed.

Suzuki, S.; Naito, H.; Abe, T.; Nihei, K.

1983-05-01

332

MR diffusion imaging and MR spectroscopy of maple syrup urine disease during acute metabolic decompensation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of amino acid metabolism, which affects the brain tissue resulting in impairment or death if untreated. Imaging studies have shown reversible brain edema during acute metabolic decompensation. The purpose of this paper is to describe the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and spectroscopy findings during metabolic decompensation and to assess the value of these findings in the prediction of patient outcome. Six patients with the diagnosis of MSUD underwent conventional MR imaging with DWI during acute presentation with metabolic decompensation. Spectroscopy with long TE was performed in four of the six patients. Follow-up examinations were performed after clinical and metabolic recovery. DWI demonstrated marked restriction of proton diffusion compatible with cytotoxic or intramyelinic sheath edema in the brainstem, basal ganglia, thalami, cerebellar and periventricular white matter and the cerebral cortex. This was accompanied by the presence of an abnormal branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and branched-chain alpha-keto acids (BCKA) peak at 0.9 ppm as well as elevated lactate on proton spectroscopy in all four patients. The changes in all six patients were reversed with treatment without evidence of volume loss or persistent tissue damage. The presence of cytotoxic or intramyelinic edema as evidenced by restricted water diffusion on DWI, with the presence of lactate on spectroscopy, could imply imminent cell death. However, in the context of metabolic decompensation in MSUD, it appears that changes in cell osmolarity and metabolism can reverse completely after metabolic correction. (orig.)

2003-06-01

333

Comparative evaluation of the antitussive activity of butamirate citrate linctus versus clobutinol syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a double-blind randomized study 60 patients with either irritative cough due to seasonal respiratory disorders or chronic cough of any etiology were treated with either butamirate citrate linctus (Sinecod, Zyma) or with clobutinol syrup (Silomat, Boehringer, Ingelheim) for a period of 5 days at a dose regimen of 3 tablespoons daily. Efficacy was assessed based on the reduction of the severity as well as frequency of the cough and on the global opinion of the physician. Both groups showed highly significant improvements for the severity and frequency parameters (p less than 0.001), thus demonstrating the effectiveness of both treatments. No significant differences between groups were detected globally for the whole collective. For cough due to carcinomas (n = 14), however, a significantly better effect of butamirate on the frequency of cough (p = 0.026) was found which originated other significant differences in the global scores (p = 0.013) and in the physician's opinion (p = 0.026). Seven patients in both groups complained about side effects (mainly nausea and drowsiness). PMID:2095610

Charpin, J; Weibel, M A

1990-01-01

334

The Topic-Prominence Parameter  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This article aims to recast the properties of topic-prominent languages and their differences from subject-prominent languages as documented in the functionalist literature into the framework of the Principle-and-Parameter approach. It provides a configurational definition of the topic construction called Topic Phrase (TP), with the topic marker as its head. The availablity of TP enables topic prominent languages to develop various topic structures with properties such as morphological markin...

Xu, Liejiong

2000-01-01

335

Topic Identification in Discourse  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This paper proposes a corpus-based language model for topic identification. We analyze the association of noun-noun and noun-verb pairs in LOB Corpus. The word association norms are based on three factors: 1) word importance, 2) pair co-occurrence, and 3) distance. They are trained on the paragraph and sentence levels for noun-noun and noun-verb pairs, respectively. Under the topic coherence postulation, the nouns that have the strongest connectivities with the other nouns a...

Chen, Kuang-hua

1995-01-01

336

Conventional topical delivery systems.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effective dermatologic therapy depends on both the active drug and the properties of the delivery system. A topical delivery system, or vehicle, is defined as the substance that carries a specific drug into contact with and through the skin. The challenge to topical drug delivery is the transport across the skin barrier. Depending on the delivery system, penetration of the active drug can be quite variable and this is largely due to the physiochemical properties of the constituent components of that vehicle. Selection of the appropriate drug delivery system will depend on the active, anatomic site of disease and patient preferences. PMID:22353153

Weiss, Stefan C

2011-01-01

337

Topics in Physical Mathematics  

CERN Multimedia

This title adopts the view that physics is the primary driving force behind a number of developments in mathematics. Previously, science and mathematics were part of natural philosophy and many mathematical theories arose as a result of trying to understand natural phenomena. This situation changed at the beginning of last century as science and mathematics diverged. These two fields are collaborating once again; 'Topics in Mathematical Physics' takes the reader through this journey. The author discusses topics where the interaction of physical and mathematical theories has led to new points o

Marathe, Kishore

2010-01-01

338

A Review of Topical Diclofenac Use in Musculoskeletal Disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are commonly prescribed medications for the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis in humans and its prevalence rises with age. Oral NSAIDs have potential associated toxicities that must be monitored for and can limit the use of these drugs in certain populations including people of older age. Topical NSAIDs are now being recognized as an option for the treatment strategy of osteoarthritis. We review the efficacy and safety of one of the most common topical NSAIDS, topical diclofenac, for the treatment of osteoarthritis.

Bindu Nair

2010-06-01

339

Topical negative pressure therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Topical negative pressure therapy (TNP) has been available for clinical use in wound management since the late 1990s. It has been shown to be of particular benefit for the treatment of chronic nonhealing wounds and has also recently been positively linked to wound bed preparation. PMID:12640796

Collier, Mark

340

Selected topics in magnetism  

CERN Document Server

Part of the ""Frontiers in Solid State Sciences"" series, this volume presents essays on such topics as spin fluctuations in Heisenberg magnets, quenching of spin fluctuations by high magnetic fields, and kondo effect and heavy fermions in rare earths amongst others.

Gupta, L C

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Topical anesthesia in phacoemulsification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose : To evaluate the efficacy of topical anesthesia; topical Benoxinate 0.4% (Oxybuprocaine and Xylocaine (Lidocaine gel, in selected cataract patients as an alternative to peribulbar or retrobulbar block anesthesia during cataract surgery. Materials and Methods : Prospective non-comparative evaluation of patients? and surgeon?s satisfaction at the end of the procedure. Three hundred patients (300 eyes were included in the study. The procedure was explained to patients with details regarding what will happen and what to expect during surgery. All patients received topical anesthesia with Benoxinate 0.4% eye drops and Xylocaine gel 2%. All surgeries were done by the same surgeon using the same machine (updated LEGACY phacoemulsifier, Alcon and approach (clear corneal incision and followed by a foldable intraocular lens (IOL implantation. Results : None of the patients had severe pain during the procedure; only 2% (six of 300 required use of intravenous sedation (Propofol, both the surgeon?s and the patients? satisfaction were high. Eye movements and blepharospasm were not significant problems, and no serious complications occurred. Rate of vitreous loss due to posterior capsule tear/rupture was within literature reported range and not different from our previous experience. Conclusion : Topical anesthesia is a satisfactory and safe alternative to retrobulbar and peribulbar anesthesia for clear corneal phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation in selected cataract patients in the hands of experienced cataract surgeon.

Waheeb Saad

2010-01-01

342

Topics in quantum theory  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Topics in the Yang-Mills theories of strong interactions and the quantum theories of gravity are examined, using the path integral approach, including; Yang-Mills instantons in curved spacetimes, Israel-Wilson metrics, Kaehler spacetimes, instantons and anti-instantons. (U.K.)

1980-01-01

343

Current Topics in Photovoltaics  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The first volume of 'Current Topics in Photovoltaics' contains five chapters which review different types of solar cells. These include heterojunction solar cells, Cu-ternary chalcopyrite solar cells, amorphous silicon solar cells, advanced concentrator solar cells and cadmium sulphide - copper sulphide solar cells. All five chapters were selected and indexed separately.

Coutts, T.J.; Meakin, J.D. (eds.)

1985-01-01

344

Ciclopirox Topical Solution  

Science.gov (United States)

Ciclopirox topical solution is used along with regular nail trimming to treat fungal infections of the fingernails and toenails (an infection ... Ciclopirox comes as a solution to apply to nails and the skin immediately surrounding and under the nails. It is usually applied once a day. ...

345

LD Topics: Math & Dyscalculia  

Science.gov (United States)

This collection of articles for parents and educators addresses learning disabilities in the area of mathematics. The articles address a variety of topics, including strategies for working with children with dyscalculia, parent-teacher collaboration, identification of disabilities, use of technology, and developing number sense.

2011-01-01

346

Workshop on beam cooling and related topics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sessions of the Workshop on Beam Cooling and Related Topics, held in Montreux from 4-8 October 1993, are reported in these Proceedings. This meeting brought together international experts in the field of accelerator beam cooling. Its purpose was to discuss the status of the different cooling techniques currently in use (stochastic, electron, ionization, heavy-ion, and laser) and their actual performances, technological implications, and future prospects. Certain theoretical principles (muon cooling, cyclotron maser cooling) were discussed and are reported on in these Proceedings. Also of interest in this Workshop was the possibility of beam crystallization in accelerators using ultimate cooling. In the first part of these Proceedings, overview talks on the various cooling techniques, their implications, present performance, and future prospects are presented. More detailed reports on all the topics are then given in the form of oral presentations or poster sessions. Finally, the chairmen and/or convenors then present summary talks. (orig.)

1993-10-04

347

Craniofacial hyperhidrosis successfully treated with topical glycopyrrolate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Treatment of craniofacial hyperhidrosis currently consists of thoracic sympathectomy, which is not widely available. Oral anticholinergic agents and beta-blockers may be effective but also carry significant side effects. We describe a healthy, active 27-year-old male resident physician who had excessive facial sweating with minimal exertion or stress. The sweating was especially pronounced on the forehead, nose, and upper lip. Daily topical application of a 0.5% glycopyrrolate solution to the face and forehead was offered. After the first treatment, facial sweating was significantly reduced and was well controlled under stressful situations, without any discomfort to the skin. No loss of efficacy was seen after multiple face washings. Facial hyperhidrosis recurred after withdrawal of the glycopyrrolate for 2 days, confirming its therapeutic effect. Two years later, he continues to use glycopyrrolate as needed. We conclude that topical glycopyrrolate is effective in treating craniofacial hyperhidrosis and is associated with few adverse effects. PMID:12144084

Luh, Join Y; Blackwell, Thomas A

2002-07-01

348

Effects of Temperature, Water Activity, and Syrup Film Composition on the Growth of Wallemia sebi: Development and Assessment of a Model Predicting Growth Lags in Syrup Agar and Crystalline Sugar  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We investigated the effects of temperature, water activity (aw), and syrup film composition on the CFU growth of Wallemia sebi in crystalline sugar. At a high aw (0.82) at both high (20°C) and low (10°C) temperatures, the CFU growth of W. sebi in both white and extrawhite sugar could be described using a modified Gompertz model. At a low aw (0.76), however, the modified Gompertz model could not be fitted to the CFU data obtained with the two sugars due to long CFU growth lags and low maximu...

Vindeløv, Jannik; Arneborg, Nils

2002-01-01

349

Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome and topical steroid therapy: case series and review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Topical corticosteroids are considered first-line therapy in patients with chronic inflammatory oral mucosal diseases; among them, clobetasol propionate is one of the most widely used in oral medicine. Under physiological conditions, the transmucosal application is characterized by a significantly greater absorption than the skin application. Contrary to many publications about the side effects of topical corticosteroids in dermatology, few studies have investigated the systemic effects due to local application of these drugs on oral mucosa. Although topical steroid therapy for the management of oral diseases is generally associated with local adverse effects (candidiasis, stomatopyrosis, and hypogeusia), these drugs can also lead to systemic side effects, such as suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and Cushing's syndrome. This review reports five cases of systemic adverse effects caused by clobetasol propionate topical treatment. PMID:23210698

Decani, Sem; Federighi, Veronica; Baruzzi, Elisa; Sardella, Andrea; Lodi, Giovanni

2014-12-01

350

Oral Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

... t heal Bleeding in your mouth Loose teeth Problems or pain with swallowing A lump in your neck An earache Oral cancer treatments may include surgery, radiation therapy or chemotherapy. Some patients have a combination of treatments. NIH: National Cancer Institute

351

Oral myiasis: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Myiasis is a condition caused by the invasion of tissues by larvae of Diptera flies. This phenomenon is well documented in the skin especially among animals and people in tropical and subtropical areas. The condition causes extensive tissue destruction as the larvae, at least for a certain period, feed on the host's dead or living tissue, liquid body substances, or ingested food. Mouth breathing during sleep, poor oral hygiene, alcoholism, senility, mental disability, cerebral palsy, and hemiplegia may facilitate the development of myiasis. We present a case report of oral myiasis in a 22-year-old male with cerebral palsy and severe mental retardation treated successfully by manual removal of the larvae by topical application of turpentine oil and oral systemic therapy with ivermectin. PMID:24382372

Zachariah, Jane Emily; Sehgal, Khushboo; Dixit, Uma B; Bhatia, Rupinder

2014-01-01

352

Assessment of a low dose of IV midazolam used orally for conscious sedation in pediatric dentistry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Midazolam is preferably used in pediatric dentistry for quick onset of action and recovery. The aim of this prospective, observer-blind and placebo-controlled study was to assess the efficacy of a low dose of oral midazolam in modification of  the behavior of young pediatric dental patients. Methods: Forty children aged 3 to 5 years who displayed ratings 1 or 2 on the Frankl Scale and  were healthy by the American Society of Anesthesiologists-I status were randomly divided into two experimental and control groups of 20 each. All children required pulpotomy and restoration of D and E teeth and received either 0.25mg/kg of a 15mg/3ml IV midazolam mixed in black cherry syrup or the syrup alone. Subjects were continuously observed and monitored with pulse oximetry. Houpt's Behavioral Ratings was used to determine the overall behavior, the degree of crying and movement during treatment. Mann-Whitney U test was used for statistical analysis. Results and major conclusion: Patients who received 0.25mg/kg of the prepared oral midazolam significantly behaved better during treatment than the placebo controls (P<0.05. In comparison with the placebo group, reduced movement and crying were observed in the midazolam group (P<0.05. No adverse effects were observed and treatments were completed successfully. A low dose of 0.25mg/kg of a 15mg/3ml IV midazolam mixed in black cherry syrup was found to be effective in conscious sedation of young pediatric dental patients.

M Mortazavi

2009-08-01

353

Oral sex, oral health and orogenital infections  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Althou...

Saini Rajiv; Saini Santosh; Sharma Sugandha

2010-01-01

354

Oral Sex, Oral Health and Orogenital Infections  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Althou...

Saini, Rajiv; Saini, Santosh; Sharma, Sugandha

2010-01-01

355

Successful domino liver transplantation in maple syrup urine disease using a related living donor  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive disease associated with high levels of branched-chain amino acids. Children with MSUD can present severe neurological damage, but liver transplantation (LT) allows the patient to resume a normal diet and avoid further neurological damage. Th [...] e use of living related donors has been controversial because parents are obligatory heterozygotes. We report a case of a 2-year-old child with MSUD who underwent a living donor LT. The donor was the patient's mother, and his liver was then used as a domino graft. The postoperative course was uneventful in all three subjects. DNA analysis performed after the transplantation (sequencing of the coding regions of BCKDHA, BCKDHB, and DBT genes) showed that the MSUD patient was heterozygous for a pathogenic mutation in the BCKDHB gene. This mutation was not found in his mother, who is an obligatory carrier for MSUD according to the family history and, as expected, presented both normal clinical phenotype and levels of branched-chain amino acids. In conclusion, our data suggest that the use of a related donor in LT for MSUD was effective, and the liver of the MSUD patient was successfully used in domino transplantation. Routine donor genotyping may not be feasible, because the test is not widely available, and, most importantly, the disease is associated with both the presence of allelic and locus heterogeneity. Further studies with this population of patients are required to expand the use of related donors in MSUD.

Feier, F.H.; Miura, I.K.; Fonseca, E.A.; Porta, G.; Pugliese, R.; Porta, A.; Schwartz, I.V.D.; Margutti, A.V.B.; Camelo Jr, J.S.; Yamaguchi, S.N.; Taveira, A.T.; Candido, H.; Benavides, M.; Danesi, V.; Guimaraes, T.; Kondo, M.; Chapchap, P.; Neto, J. Seda.

2014-04-25

356

Evaluation of acetylcholinesterase in an animal model of maple syrup urine disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease is an inherited metabolic disease predominantly characterized by neurological dysfunction. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuropathology of this disease are still not defined. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of acute and chronic administration of a branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) pool (leucine, isoleucine, and valine) on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and gene expression in the brain and serum of rats and to assess if antioxidant treatment prevented the alterations induced by BCAA administration. Our results show that the acute administration of a BCAA pool in 10- and 30-day-old rats increases AChE activity in the cerebral cortex, striatum, hippocampus, and serum. Moreover, chronic administration of the BCAA pool also increases AChE activity in the structures studied, and antioxidant treatment prevents this increase. In addition, we show a significant decrease in the mRNA expression of AChE in the hippocampus following acute administration in 10- and 30-day-old rats. On the other hand, AChE expression increased significantly after chronic administration of the BCAA pool. Interestingly, the antioxidant treatment was able to prevent the increased AChE activity without altering AChE expression. In conclusion, the results from the present study demonstrate a marked increase in AChE activity in all brain structures following the administration of a BCAA pool. Moreover, the increased AChE activity is prevented by the coadministration of N-acetylcysteine and deferoxamine as antioxidants. PMID:22328136

Scaini, Giselli; de Rochi, Natália; Jeremias, Isabela C; Deroza, Pedro F; Zugno, Alexandra I; Pereira, Talita C B; Oliveira, Giovanna M T; Kist, Luiza W; Bogo, Maurício R; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Streck, Emilio L

2012-04-01

357

Brain-blood amino acid correlates following protein restriction in murine maple syrup urine disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Conventional therapy for patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) entails restriction of protein intake to maintain acceptable levels of the branched chain amino acid, leucine (LEU), monitored in blood. However, no data exists on the correlation between brain and blood LEU with protein restriction, and whether correction in blood is reflected in brain. Methods To address this question, we fed intermediate MSUD mice diets of 19% (standard) and 6% protein, with collection of sera (SE), striata (STR), cerebellum (CE) and cortex (CTX) for quantitative amino acid analyses. Results LEU and valine (VAL) levels in all brain regions improved on average 28% when shifting from 19% to 6% protein, whereas the same improvements in SE were on average 60%. Isoleucine (ILE) in brain regions did not improve, while the SE level improved 24% with low-protein consumption. Blood-branched chain amino acids (LEU, ILE, and VAL in sera (SE)) were 362-434 ?M, consistent with human values considered within control. Nonetheless, numerous amino acids in brain regions remained abnormal despite protein restriction, including glutamine (GLN), aspartate (ASP), glutamate (GLU), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), asparagine (ASN), citrulline (CIT) and serine (SER). To assess the specificity of these anomalies, we piloted preliminary studies in hyperphenylalaninemic mice, modeling another large neutral aminoacidopathy. Employing an identical dietary regimen, we found remarkably consistent abnormalities in GLN, ASP, and GLU. Conclusions Our results suggest that blood amino acid analysis may be a poor surrogate for assessing the outcomes of protein restriction in the large neutral amino acidopathies, and further indicate that chronic neurotransmitter disruptions (GLU, GABA, ASP) may contribute to long-term neurocognitive dysfunction in these disorders.

2014-01-01

358

Successful domino liver transplantation in maple syrup urine disease using a related living donor  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive disease associated with high levels of branched-chain amino acids. Children with MSUD can present severe neurological damage, but liver transplantation (LT) allows the patient to resume a normal diet and avoid further neurological damage. Th [...] e use of living related donors has been controversial because parents are obligatory heterozygotes. We report a case of a 2-year-old child with MSUD who underwent a living donor LT. The donor was the patient's mother, and his liver was then used as a domino graft. The postoperative course was uneventful in all three subjects. DNA analysis performed after the transplantation (sequencing of the coding regions of BCKDHA, BCKDHB, and DBT genes) showed that the MSUD patient was heterozygous for a pathogenic mutation in the BCKDHB gene. This mutation was not found in his mother, who is an obligatory carrier for MSUD according to the family history and, as expected, presented both normal clinical phenotype and levels of branched-chain amino acids. In conclusion, our data suggest that the use of a related donor in LT for MSUD was effective, and the liver of the MSUD patient was successfully used in domino transplantation. Routine donor genotyping may not be feasible, because the test is not widely available, and, most importantly, the disease is associated with both the presence of allelic and locus heterogeneity. Further studies with this population of patients are required to expand the use of related donors in MSUD.

F.H., Feier; I.K., Miura; E.A., Fonseca; G., Porta; R., Pugliese; A., Porta; I.V.D., Schwartz; A.V.B., Margutti; J.S., Camelo Jr; S.N., Yamaguchi; A.T., Taveira; H., Candido; M., Benavides; V., Danesi; T., Guimaraes; M., Kondo; P., Chapchap; J. Seda, Neto.

359

Topical Curcumin-Based Cream Is Equivalent to Dietary Curcumin in a Skin Cancer Model  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), the most common cancer in the USA, is a growing problem with the use of tanning booths causing sun-damaged skin. Antiproliferative effects of curcumin were demonstrated in an aggressive skin cancer cell line SRB12-p9 (P < 0.05 compared to control). Topical formulation was as effective as oral curcumin at suppressing tumor growth in a mouse skin cancer model. Curcumin at 15?mg administered by oral, topical, or combined formulation significantly reduced tum...

Sonavane, Kunal; Phillips, Jeffrey; Ekshyyan, Oleksandr; Moore-medlin, Tara; Roberts Gill, Jennifer; Rong, Xiaohua; Lakshmaiah, Raghunatha Reddy; Abreo, Fleurette; Boudreaux, Douglas; Clifford, John L.; Nathan, Cherie-ann O.

2012-01-01

360

New topical antifungal drugs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The new antifungal drugs used for topical treatment of superficial, skin and mucosal mycoses are reviewed. Amorolfine and allylamines (naftifine and terbinafine) are promising original molecules with new and different modes of action against fungi. Rilopirox is a new pyridone derivative under study. A great number of azole derivatives, such as oxiconazole, isoconazole, sulconazole, and terconazole, are used as topical antifungals. Three of them are synthesized in Barcelona by pharmaceutical laboratories: sertaconazole, flutrimazole and eberconazole. All of them are now in the register process for commercialization. The combination of antifungals with active products, such as keratoplastics, is used mainly for the treatment of onychomycoses; 40% urea associated with 1% bifonazole has shown high efficacy for this indication. PMID:8118161

Torres-Rodríguez, J M

1993-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Kernel Topic Models  

CERN Document Server

Latent Dirichlet Allocation models discrete data as a mixture of discrete distributions, using Dirichlet beliefs over the mixture weights. We study a variation of this concept, in which the documents' mixture weight beliefs are replaced with squashed Gaussian distributions. This allows documents to be associated with elements of a Hilbert space, admitting kernel topic models (KTM), modelling temporal, spatial, hierarchical, social and other structure between documents. The main challenge is efficient approximate inference on the latent Gaussian. We present an approximate algorithm cast around a Laplace approximation in a transformed basis. The KTM can also be interpreted as a type of Gaussian process latent variable model, or as a topic model conditional on document features, uncovering links between earlier work in these areas.

Hennig, Philipp; Herbrich, Ralf; Graepel, Thore

2011-01-01

362

Topics in molecular interactions  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This volume deals with a variety of problems in intermolecular interactions. These fall into two groups. The first contains important topics which have not recently been dealt with in an authoritative fashion, such as the information given by studying hindered internal rotation. The second group contains contributions based largely on nuclear magnetic resonance work. Nuclear spin relaxation studies have led to intimate knowledge concerning association effects. The approach developed principally at the Karlsruhe laboratory is described. Also included is a second experimental chapter devoted to the way in which light scattering studies provide information on multipole forces in molecular interactions. Other topics based on NMR studies show how this technique yields valuable information on molecular and ion-molecule interactions respectively. (Auth.)

1985-01-01

363

A Validated RP HPLC-PAD Method for the Determination of Hederacoside C in Ivy-Thyme Cough Syrup  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A simple reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method coupled with a photodiode array detector (PAD) has been developed and validated for the analysis of hederacoside C, the marker of ivy plant, in Ivy-Thyme cough syrup. Separation of hederacoside C was achieved using a Phenomenex-Gemini C18 column isothermally at 40°C. A mobile phase system constituted of solvent A (water: acetonitrile: orthophosphoric acid (85%), 860?:?140?:?2?v/v) and solvent B (aceton...

Khdair, Ayman; Mohammad, Mohammad K.; Tawaha, Khaled; Al-hamarsheh, Eman; Alkhatib, Hatim S.; Al-khalidi, Bashar; Bustanji, Yasser; Najjar, Samer; Hudaib, Mohammad

2010-01-01

364

Cranberry syrup vs trimethoprim in the prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections among children: a controlled trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jose Uberos,1 Mercedes Nogueras-Ocana,2 Verónica Fernandez-Puentes,1 Rocio Rodriguez-Belmonte,1 Eduardo Narbona-López,1 Antonio Molina-Carballo,1 Antonio Munoz-Hoyos11Paediatric Clinical Management Unit, San Cecilio University Clinical Hospital, Avda de Madrid s/n, Granada, Spain; 2Paediatric Urology, San Cecilio University Clinical Hospital, Avda de Madrid s/n, Granada, SpainObjectives: The present study forms part of the ISRCTN16968287 clinical assay. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of cranberry syrup in the prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI.Design: Phase III randomized clinical trial.Setting: The study was conducted at the San Cecilio Clinical Hospital (Granada, Spain.Participants: A total of 192 patients were recruited. The subjects were aged between 1 month and 13 years. Criteria for inclusion were a background of recurrent UTI (more than two episodes of infection in the last 6 months, associated or otherwise with vesicoureteral reflux of any degree, or renal pelvic dilatation associated with UTI. Criteria for exclusion from recruitment to the study included the co-existence of UTI with other infectious diseases or with metabolic diseases, chronic renal insufficiency, and the presence of allergy or intolerance to any of the components of cranberry syrup or trimethoprim.Primary outcome measures: The primary objective was to determine the risk of UTI associated with each intervention.Results: Of the 198 patients initially eligible, 192 were finally included in the study to receive either cranberry syrup or trimethoprim. UTI was observed in 47 patients, 17 of whom were males and 30 females. We recruited 95 patients diagnosed with recurrent UTI on entry; during follow-up, 26 patients had a UTI (27.4%, 95% CI: 18.4%–36.3%. Six patients (6.3% were male and 20 (21.1% were female. Eighteen patients (18.9% of the total, 95% CI: 11%–26.3% receiving trimethoprim had a UTI and eight patients (8.4% of the total, 95% CI: 2.8%–13.9% were given cranberry. Sixty-six percent of the episodes of UTI recurrence were caused by Escherichia coli, with no significant differences being found between the two treatment branches. No differences were observed between the two treatment branches in the rate of resistance to antibiotics.Conclusion: Our study confirms that cranberry syrup is a safe treatment for the pediatric population. Cranberry prophylaxis has noninferiority with respect to trimethoprim in recurrent UTI. (European Clinical Trials Registry EuDract 2007-004397-62 (ISRCTN16968287.Keywords: cranberry, urinary tract infections, trimethoprim, vesicoureteral reflux, antibiotic prophylaxis 

Uberos J

2012-05-01

365

Topical Therapies for Pruritus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Itch, or pruritus, is the predominant symptom associated with acute and chronic cutaneous disease and in some cases, may be debilitating. To date, there is no single universally effective anti-itch treatment. As the pathophysiology of itch in most cutaneous or systemic disorders remains unclear, anti-pruritic therapy is often directed against a variety of targets, including the epidermal barrier, immune system, or the nervous system. Topical therapy is the mainstay of dermatologic management ...

Elmariah, Sarina B.; Lerner, Ethan A.

2011-01-01

366

Comparison Effects of Sucrose and Date Palm Syrup on Somatic Embryogenesis of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L )  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of different concentration of date palm syrup (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10%) and sucrose at concentration of 30 and 60 g/l in addition to the control (without carbon source) on the micro propagation of date palm "cv. Suckary" were investigated. The results indicated that date syrup was taken up from the media as shown by the increase in total dry weight of culture. Addition of sucrose at 60 g/l produced the highest number of somatic embryos and longest shoot equal to that produced by date sy...

Abdullatif Alkhateeb

2008-01-01

367

Maple Syrup Urine Disease in Cypriot Families: Identification of Three Novel Mutations and Biochemical Characterization of the p.Thr211Met Mutation in the E1? Subunit  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We report five mutations, three of them novel, responsible for maple syrup urine disease in four unrelated Cypriot families. The five children studied are the first cases of classic maple syrup urine disease to be reported among Cypriots. The first novel mutation identified is a single-base deletion in exon 6 of the El? gene (c.718delG), which leads to a frameshift after Ala240 and to a stop codon 89 residues further downstream. The other two novel mutations identified are in the El? subuni...

Georgiou, Theodoros; Chuang, Jacinta L.; Wynn, R. Max; Stylianidou, Goula; Korson, Mark; Chuang, David T.; Drousiotou, Anthi

2009-01-01

368

Oral Leucoplakia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oral leucoplakia was predominantly seen in elderly age group. Addiction to tobacco was observed in majority of patients (80.8%. Clinically commonest site of involvement was buccal mucosa (67.33%, followed by labial mucosa (13.86%. Majority of patients (57.35% were having homogenous type of leucoplakia, followed by verrucous variety (25%. 26-48% cases were also having oral submucous fibrosis. Histologically various combinations of hyperkeratosis, hyperorthokeratosis and acanthosis were observed in 77.93% of cases. Dysplastic lesions were reported in 17.65% cases. In 80% of dysplastic lesions, band like infiltrate of mononuclear cells in subepithelial zone was seen. Malignant transformation was noticed in 2.94% cases. Excellent therapeutic results were obtained by cryosurgery. In resistant cases good results were observed with high dosage of vitamin A.

Jain R

1995-01-01

369

Efficacy of adding topical simvastatin to topical calcipotriol on improvement of cutaneous plaque psoriasis  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Psoriasis is a common dermatologic disorder, with fluctuating response to treatment. Considering the proven immunomodulatory effects of oral simvastatin in psoriasis, this trial study was enrolled to determine whether the topical form has also antipsoriatic effects. Vitamin D analogs known to be effective and are considered the first line of therapy in mild to moderate cases. In this study, the efficacy of topical calcipotriol 0.005% ointment (as a standard method of treatment for psoriasis) versus combination of calcipotriol plus topical simvastatin is compared in the treatment of psoriasis. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects with symmetric psoriasis who had body surface involvement up to 20% were divided randomly into 2 groups. Group A were treated with calcipotriol 0.005% ointment twice daily and Group B with calcipotriol 0.005% ointment twice daily and simvastatin 3% ointment twice daily for 12 weeks. The results were evaluated by a Blind Dermatologist using psoriasis area severity index (PASI) score at baseline, 4th, 8th and 12th week of treatment. In a similar way, a subjective assessment performed by patients based on photo-evaluation at the end of the study. Results: Despite a continuous reduction in PASI score in both groups, according to both physician (P = 0.603) and patient (P = 0.243) assessment topical simvastatin was not statistically more effective than conventional treatment of psoriasis at the end of the study. Conclusion: This study indicates that topical simvastatin is not associated with significant impacts in the treatment of psoriasis as compared to oral form. This study indicates that psoriasis is a systemic disorder with variable skin manifestations.

Iraji, Fariba; Tajmirriahi, Nabet; Siadat, Amir Hossein; Momeni, Iman; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali

2014-01-01

370

Biologics in oral medicine: ulcerative disorders.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inflammatory ulcerative diseases of the oral mucosa are wide ranging but include especially aphthous and aphthous-like ulceration, vesiculobullous disorders and erosive lichen planus (LP). While most patients with these conditions respond to conventional topical and/or systemic immunosuppressive agents, treatment-resistant cases remain challenging. In these, the use of biologics such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) inhibitors or rituximab may be of benefit. This article reviews the use of biologics in ulcerative oral conditions, highlighting potential benefits, adverse effects and principles of use and future developments. TNF-? inhibitors such as infliximab can be effective in inducing resolution in oral aphthous and aphthous-like ulcers and may be an appropriate therapy in those patients in which disease is severe and refractory to, or patients are intolerant of, traditional immunomodulatory regimens. There would also seem support and rationale for use of biologics (mainly rituximab) in pemphigus but not in oral LP or other oral ulcerative conditions. PMID:22471882

O'Neill, I D; Scully, C

2013-01-01

371

Local immune response to repeated topical antigen application in the simian labial mucosa.  

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Minor salivary glands of the oral mucosa in healthy monkeys (Macaca fascicularis and Macaca mulatta) contain organized structural units suitable for recognizing and processing antigens. A previous study of M. fascicularis monkeys provided experimental evidence of retrograde access of oral antigens deep into the minor salivary glands. The present study aimed at exploring the possible immune response of simian oral mucosa to repeated topical application of a chemically defined antigenic solutio...

Nair, P. N.; Schroeder, H. E.

1983-01-01

372

Oral myiasis: A case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in english Oral Myiasis is a rare pathology in humans and is associated with poor oral hygiene, alcoholism, senility, supuranting lesions, severe halitosis and others conditions. The treatment is a mechanical removal of the maggots one by one but a systemic treatment with Ivermectin, a semi-synthetic macrolide [...] antibiotic, have been used for treatment for oral myiasis. We present a case report of a 32-year-old man indigent, alcohol-dependent with an extensive necrotic area and acute swelling in upper lip and fetid odor. The patient?s manegement included topic use of gencian violet, oral therapy with ivermectin (6 mg orally), surgical exploration to remove the larvae and necrotic tissue. After the complete larvae removal the swelling and the wounds were healing normally, the patients was referred to plastic surgery to repair tissue damage. The prevention of human myiasis is by education, but unfortunately in the developing countries some people live in low social condition, predisposing the occurrence of the infestation.

Abdo, Evandro Neves; Sette-Dias, Ausgusto César; Comunian, Cláudio Rômulo; Dutra, Carlos Eduardo Assis; Aguiar, Evandro Guimarães de.

373

Topics in Operator Theory  

CERN Document Server

This is the first volume of a collection of original and review articles on recent advances and new directions in a multifaceted and interconnected area of mathematics and its applications. It encompasses many topics in theoretical developments in operator theory and its diverse applications in applied mathematics, physics, engineering, and other disciplines. The purpose is to bring in one volume many important original results of cutting edge research as well as authoritative review of recent achievements, challenges, and future directions in the area of operator theory and its applications.

Ball, Joseph A; Helton, JWilliam; Rodman, Leiba; Spitkovsky, Iiya

2010-01-01

374

Topics in circular statistics  

CERN Document Server

This research monograph on circular data analysis covers some recent advances in the field, besides providing a brief introduction to, and a review of, existing methods and models. The primary focus is on recent research into topics such as change-point problems, predictive distributions, circular correlation and regression, etc. An important feature of this work is the S-plus subroutines provided for analyzing actual data sets. Coupled with the discussion of new theoretical research, the book should benefit both the researcher and the practitioner. Contents: Circular Probability Distributions

Jammalamadaka, S Rao

2001-01-01

375

Topics in CP violation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Given the varied backgrounds of the members of this audience this talk will be a grab bag of topics related to the general theme of CP Violation. I do not have time to dwell in detail on any of them. First, for the astronomers and astrophysicists among you, I want to begin by reviewing the experimental status of evidence for CP violation in particle processes. There is only one system where this has been observed, and that is in the decays of neutral K mesons

1992-12-13

376

Neonatal case of classic maple syrup urine disease: usefulness of (1) H-MRS in early diagnosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe a male neonate with classic maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) in metabolic crisis. On day 7 of life, he was referred to hospital because of coma and metabolic acidosis with maple syrup odor. On day 4 after admission, brain magnetic resonance imaging findings were consistent with encephalopathy due to MSUD. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS) showed a large methyl resonance peak at 0.9?p.p.m. The diagnosis of MSUD was confirmed on low branched-chain ?-keto acid dehydrogenase complex activity in lymphocyte. (1) H-MR spectra were obtained in 10?min, while it took at least several days to obtain the results of other diagnostic examinations. In convalescence, the peak at 0.9?p.p.m. decreased. The large methyl resonance peak at 0.9?p.p.m. in brain (1) H-MRS would be one of the earliest clues to the diagnosis of classic MSUD in the neonatal period, especially in metabolic crisis. PMID:24548198

Sato, Takeshi; Muroya, Koji; Hanakawa, Junko; Asakura, Yumi; Aida, Noriko; Tomiyasu, Moyoko; Tajima, Go; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Adachi, Masanori

2014-02-01

377

Selective fermentation of pitted dates by S. cerevisiae for the production of concentrated fructose syrups and ethanol  

Science.gov (United States)

About half of worldwide production of dates is unconsumed. Dates contain over 75 % reduced sugars (mostly glucose and fructose with nearly equal amount). Compared to the commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild strain, the strains ATCC 36858 and 36859 could produce high concentration fructose syrups. The fructose fractions obtained were 95.9 and 97.4% for ATCC 36858 and 86.5 and 91.4% for ATCC 36859 at 30 and 33°C, respectively. Fructose yields higher than 90% were obtained using ATCC 36858 compared to those obtained using ATCC 36859 which were 87.3 and 66.1% at 30 and 33°C, respectively. The ethanol yield using ATCC 36858 was higher than that using ATCC 36859 by 16 and 9% at 30 and 33°C, respectively. Through this finding, the production of fructose and ethanol from date extract is a promising process. Moreover, the fructose fractions obtained here (about 90%) are much higher than those obtained with the commercial process, i.e. 55 % fructose syrups.

Dharma Putra, Meilana; Abasaeed, Ahmed E.; Zeinelabdeen, Mohamed A.; Gaily, Mohamed H.; Sulieman, Ashraf K.

2014-04-01

378

In-depth proteomic analysis of non-alcoholic beverages with peptide ligand libraries. I: Almond milk and orgeat syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

Combinatorial peptide ligand libraries, both commercial and home-made, have been adopted to investigate the proteome of non-alcoholic beverages, in order to assess their genuineness and detect also trace proteins, in search of potential allergens. Two such beverages have been studied: almond milk and orgeat syrup. In the first product we have been able to identify 132 unique protein species, the deepest investigation so far of the almond proteome. In the second beverage, a handful of proteins (just 14) have been detected, belonging to a bitter almond extract. In both cases, the genuineness of such products has been verified, as well as the fact that almond milk, judging on the total protein and fat content, must have been produced with 100g ground almonds per litre of beverage, as required by authorities. On the contrary, cheap orgeat syrups produced by local supermarkets and sold as their own brands, where found not to contain any residual proteins, suggesting that they contained only synthetic aromas and no natural plant extracts. This could be the starting point for investigating the myriad of beverages that in the last decades have invaded the shelves of supermarkets the world over, whose genuineness and natural origin have never been properly assessed. PMID:21440098

Fasoli, Elisa; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Kravchuk, Alexander V; Citterio, Attilio; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

2011-06-10

379

Immobilization of inulinase on concanavalin A-attached super macroporous cryogel for production of high-fructose syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, concanavalin A (Con A)-attached poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) [poly(EGDMA)] cryogels were used for immobilization of Aspergillus niger inulinase. For this purposes, the monolithic cryogel column was prepared by radical cryocopolymerization of EGDMA as a monomer and N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide as a crosslinker. Then, Con A was attached by covalent binding onto amino-activated poly(EGDMA) cryogel via glutaraldehyde activation. Characterization of cryogels was performed by FTIR, EDX, and SEM studies. Poly(EGDMA) cryogels were highly porous and pore size was found to be approximately 50-100 ?m. Con A-attached poly(EGDMA) cryogels was used in the adsorption of inulinase from aqueous solutions. Adsorption of inulinase on the Con A-attached poly(EGDMA) cryogel was performed in continuous system and the effects of pH, inulinase concentration, and flow rate on adsorption were investigated. The maximum amount of inulinase adsorption was calculated to be 27.85 mg/g cryogel at 1.0 mg/mL inulinase concentration and in acetate buffer at pH 4.0. Immobilized inulinase was effectively used in continuous preparation of high-fructose syrup. Inulin was converted to fructose in a continuous system and released fructose concentration was found to be 0.23 mg/mL at the end of 5 min of hydrolysis. High-fructose content of the syrup was demonstrated by thin layer chromatography. PMID:23780342

Altunba?, Canan; Uygun, Murat; Uygun, Deniz Akta?; Akgöl, Sinan; Denizli, Adil

2013-08-01

380

Comparison of response between food supplemented with powdered iron and iron in syrup form for iron deficiency anemia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate and compare the response between food supplemented with iron in powdered and iron in syrup forms for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in children aged 1-5 years. Results: Over half (51 %) of the patients were between 1-2 years of age. One hundred thirty-two were males and 68 females. Most of the patients belonged to poor socioeconomic class. The iron in powder form was better tolerated than iron syrup as this group witnessed fewer episodes of gastrointestinal disturbances. The rise in mean Hb level after 6 weeks of treatment in group A and B was 1.6 g/dl and 1.9 g/dl respectively. Hemoglobin rise in group B was more than group A but this was statistically non-significant (p>0.05). There was small but significant (p<0.05) rise in serum ferritin in both the groups. There was no significant difference between the two groups for response to the two forms of iron administration. Conclusion: The powdered form of iron is a cost-effective and better tolerated method of iron administration in children and can be considered as an alternate option for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in children. (author)

2003-07-01

 
 
 
 
381

Quality of breast and thigh meats when broilers are fed rations containing graded levels of sugar syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dietary energy for broiler chicken is provided through the inclusion of cereal grains and vegetable oil in the ration. The cost of corn is increasing exponentially, whereas sugar syrup (SS) is available with reasonable cost. Sugar syrup can be used as a substitute for starch/grains and vegetable oil. No research has been reported on the effect of SS on broiler meat quality. In this study, Hubbard commercial broiler chicks were fed a control basal diet (corn-soy basal diet on an ad libitum basis) alone or with graded levels of SS. A completely randomized design with 3 replications (n = 3, treatments = 4 with 4 subsamples per treatment) were used to investigate the effect of replacing part of the corn and oil in broiler chicken rations with graded levels of SS (5, 10, and 15%) on breast and thigh meat quality (proximate analysis, cooking loss, instrumental color, and texture and sensory properties). Rations containing up to 15% SS had a slight effect on proximate composition of raw and cooked broiler breast and thigh meats. Cooking loss of thigh meat decreased significantly with increasing SS but increased significantly for breast meats. No significant differences were detected (P > 0.05) among breast or thigh meats fed rations with a different level of SS on all sensory properties, except that cooked thigh meat had a slightly harder texture. Overall, results suggest that feeding broilers with SS rations (up to 15%) produced high-quality breast and thigh meats with minimal differences. PMID:23873569

Hashim, I B; Hussein, A S; Afifi, H S

2013-08-01

382

Effect of gum tragacanth on rheological and physical properties of a flavored milk drink made with date syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

Date syrup as a nutritional additive and safe alternative to added sugar is one of the best choices for milk flavoring. In this study, a flavored milk beverage was formulated using date syrup for flavoring the product and gum tragacanth to obtain an acceptable mouth feel. Steady shear and dynamic oscillatory rheological properties of the samples contained 3 concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3%, wt/wt) of 2 types of gum tragacanth (Astragalus gossypinus and Astragalus rahensis) which at 3°C, were studied. Particle size distribution and colorimetric assays were determined by laser diffractometry and using reflection spectrometer, respectively. Sensory analysis was performed with 25 semitrained panelists, using a 5-point hedonic scale. The results showed that viscoelastic properties, flow behavior parameters, particle size, and color parameters (L*, a*, and b*, where L* represents lightness, a* represents the redness/greenness quality of the color, and b* represents the yellowness and blueness quality of the colors) were significantly affected by the concentration of the gum tragacanth and the severity of this effect was influenced by the type of gum. The use of appropriate type and concentration of gum tragacanth in date milk formulation can improve the texture and mouth feel by affecting on particle size and the flow behavior of this product. PMID:23746580

Keshtkaran, Maryam; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Asadi, Gholam Hassan; Nejad, Reza Azizi; Balaghi, Sima

2013-08-01

383

Use of Oral Isotretinoin in the Management of Rosacea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting roughly 16 million Americans. Topical and oral antibiotic/anti-inflammatory agents are currently the mainstay of therapy and are often used in combination. In this article, the authors discuss the use of oral isotretinoin in the management of rosacea, exploring dosage, comparable efficacy, safety, and cost.

Park, Hyunhee; Del Rosso, James Q.

2011-01-01

384

Palm tree syrup: nutritional composition of a natural edulcorant / Miel de palma: composición nutricional de un edulcorante natural  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish Introducción: La miel de palma es un producto típico de las Islas Canarias, tradicionalmente producido a partir de la savia de la palmera Phoenix canariensis. El alto contenido calórico lo convierte en un producto cada vez más utilizado como suplemento alimenticio para atletas, niños y mayores. Adem [...] ás, la demanda de este sirope natural, está en constante crecimiento debido también a sus usos medicinales en la medicina homeopática. Objetivo: Analizar la composición nutricional (humedad, cenizas, azúcares, grasa, vitaminas y minerales) de las muestras de miel de palma preparadas con la savia de las palmeras de los productores de la isla de La Gomera (Islas Canarias, España). Métodos: 35 muestras de miel de palma procedentes de cinco regiones productoras de la isla de La Gomera fueron analizadas. Los azúcares y las vitaminas fueron medidos mediante cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (CLAR) y la espectrofotometría de absorción atómica por llama (FAAS) se usó para determinar los minerales. Resultados: Los hidratos de carbono mayoritarios fueron sacarosa (37,8%), glucosa (9,50%) y fructosa (4,80%), respectivamente. La presencia de arabinosa no pudo ser confirmada. La niacina es la vitamina hidrosoluble con la mayor concentración con un contenido promedio de 0,003%. Los contenidos en grasas se encontraron por debajo de 0,20%. El potasio era el macroelemento con los contenidos más altos (0,45%). Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren que la miel de palma puede jugar un papel importante como una fuente de azúcar y minerales en la nutrición humana y se pueden desarrollar futuras aplicaciones para este producto. Abstract in english Introduction: Palm syrup is a typical product from the Canary Islands, traditionally produced from the sap of the tropical palm tree Phoenix canariensis. Its high caloric content has led to its increasing use as a health food supplement for athletes, children and elderly. Furthermore, demand for thi [...] s natural syrup is continuously increasing due also to its medicinal uses in homeopathic medicine. Objective: Palm Tree syrup samples prepared with palm sap from primary producers in La Gomera island (Canary Islands, Spain) were analyzed for their nutritional composition (moisture, ash, sugars, fat, vitamins and minerals). Methods: 35 syrup samples from five different producing regions in La Gomera island were analyzed. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine sugars and vitamins and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (FAAS) was used to analyze the minerals. Results: Major carbohydrates were sucrose (37.8%), glucose (9.50%) and fructose (4.80%), respectively. The presence of arabinose could not be confirmed. Niacin was the water-soluble vitamin with the highest concentration with an average content of 0.003%. Fat content was found to be under 0.20%. Potassium was the mineral with highest contents (0.45%). Conclusions: Results suggest that palm tree syrup can play an important role as a sugar and mineral source in human nutrition, suggesting that future applications for this product could be developed.

Luis, G.; Rubio, C.; Gutiérrez, A. J.; Hernández, C.; González-Weller, D.; Revert, C.; Castilla, A.; Abreu, P.; Hardisson, A..

385

Palm tree syrup: nutritional composition of a natural edulcorant Miel de palma: composición nutricional de un edulcorante natural  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Palm syrup is a typical product from the Canary Islands, traditionally produced from the sap of the tropical palm tree Phoenix canariensis. Its high caloric content has led to its increasing use as a health food supplement for athletes, children and elderly. Furthermore, demand for this natural syrup is continuously increasing due also to its medicinal uses in homeopathic medicine. Objective: Palm Tree syrup samples prepared with palm sap from primary producers in La Gomera island (Canary Islands, Spain were analyzed for their nutritional composition (moisture, ash, sugars, fat, vitamins and minerals. Methods: 35 syrup samples from five different producing regions in La Gomera island were analyzed. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to determine sugars and vitamins and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (FAAS was used to analyze the minerals. Results: Major carbohydrates were sucrose (37.8%, glucose (9.50% and fructose (4.80%, respectively. The presence of arabinose could not be confirmed. Niacin was the water-soluble vitamin with the highest concentration with an average content of 0.003%. Fat content was found to be under 0.20%. Potassium was the mineral with highest contents (0.45%. Conclusions: Results suggest that palm tree syrup can play an important role as a sugar and mineral source in human nutrition, suggesting that future applications for this product could be developed.Introducción: La miel de palma es un producto típico de las Islas Canarias, tradicionalmente producido a partir de la savia de la palmera Phoenix canariensis. El alto contenido calórico lo convierte en un producto cada vez más utilizado como suplemento alimenticio para atletas, niños y mayores. Además, la demanda de este sirope natural, está en constante crecimiento debido también a sus usos medicinales en la medicina homeopática. Objetivo: Analizar la composición nutricional (humedad, cenizas, azúcares, grasa, vitaminas y minerales de las muestras de miel de palma preparadas con la savia de las palmeras de los productores de la isla de La Gomera (Islas Canarias, España. Métodos: 35 muestras de miel de palma procedentes de cinco regiones productoras de la isla de La Gomera fueron analizadas. Los azúcares y las vitaminas fueron medidos mediante cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (CLAR y la espectrofotometría de absorción atómica por llama (FAAS se usó para determinar los minerales. Resultados: Los hidratos de carbono mayoritarios fueron sacarosa (37,8%, glucosa (9,50% y fructosa (4,80%, respectivamente. La presencia de arabinosa no pudo ser confirmada. La niacina es la vitamina hidrosoluble con la mayor concentración con un contenido promedio de 0,003%. Los contenidos en grasas se encontraron por debajo de 0,20%. El potasio era el macroelemento con los contenidos más altos (0,45%. Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren que la miel de palma puede jugar un papel importante como una fuente de azúcar y minerales en la nutrición humana y se pueden desarrollar futuras aplicaciones para este producto.

G. Luis

2012-04-01

386

Identification and characterisation of organisms associated with chocolate pralines and sugar syrups used for their production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spoilage of chocolate pralines, due to growth of microorganisms tolerating low water activity, causes problems in the confectionary industry. Therefore, an increased knowledge on which organisms are present in the chocolate fillings and their tolerance towards low aw, pH, ethanol and other preservatives is needed. Using media containing 40-50% glucose (aw 0.872-0.925) bacteria, yeasts and moulds were isolated from chocolate pralines (aw 0.70-0.898) of nine manufactures and sugar syrups (aw 0.854) used as ingredient in chocolate praline production by one of the manufacturers. Isolates were identified by conventional microbiological analyses and by sequencing of their 16S rRNA, 26S rRNA (D1/D2-region) or calmodulin genes. Further, for several species the identity was confirmed by amplification and sequencing of additional genes. In total 677 isolates were identified as belonging to ten different bacteria species, six yeast species and ten mould species with yeast being the most frequently isolated. Bacteria and moulds were found in low numbers, whereas yeast were found in numbers up to 10(7)CFU/g. The most frequently isolated yeast, bacteria and moulds belonged to the species of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus terreus, respectively. Fifteen isolates were screened for their ability to grow in presence of low aw (0.65-0.90), low pH (pH=2.0-7.0), ethanol (0-15%), sorbic acid (0-1500ppm) and different temperatures (15°C-25°C) relevant for chocolate manufacturing. Z. rouxii was overall the most tolerant organism to the stress factors and grew within the same range of environmental conditions as found in chocolate pralines. It was able to grow at water activities down to 0.70, ethanol concentrations up to 6.0%, pH down to pH2.0, sorbic acid concentrations up to 1500ppm and at all temperatures tested. Eurotium amstelodami also showed high tolerance towards all the stress factors except for ethanol. None of the bacteria were able to grow at the conditions tested. However, B. subtilis survived the 60day incubation period. PMID:24997272

Marvig, Cecilie L; Kristiansen, Rikke M; Madsen, Mikkel G; Nielsen, Dennis S

2014-08-18

387

Identification and quantification of six major ?-dicarbonyl process contaminants in high-fructose corn syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is a widely used liquid sweetener produced from corn starch by hydrolysis and partial isomerization of glucose to fructose. During these processing steps, sugars can be considerably degraded, leading, for example, to the formation of reactive ?-dicarbonyl compounds (?-DCs). The present study performed targeted screening to identify the major ?-DCs in HFCS. For this purpose, ?-DCs were selectively converted with o-phenylendiamine to the corresponding quinoxaline derivatives, which were analyzed by liquid chromatography with hyphenated diode array-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-MS/MS) detection. 3-Deoxy-D-erythro-hexos-2-ulose (3-deoxyglucosone), D-lyxo-hexos-2-ulose (glucosone), 3-deoxy-D-threo-hexos-2-ulose (3-deoxygalactosone), 1-deoxy-D-erythro-hexos-2,3-diulose (1-deoxyglucosone), 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene, methylglyoxal, and glyoxal were identified by enhanced mass spectra as well as MS/MS product ion spectra using the synthesized standards as reference. Addition of diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid and adjustment of the derivatization conditions ensured complete derivatization without de novo formation for all identified ?-DCs in HFCS matrix except for glyoxal. Subsequently, a ultra-high performance LC-DAD-MS/MS method was established to quantify 3-deoxyglucosone, glucosone, 3-deoxygalactosone, 1-deoxyglucosone, 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene, and methylglyoxal in HFCS. Depending on the ?-DC compound and concentration, the recovery ranged between 89.2% and 105.8% with a relative standard deviation between 1.9% and 6.5%. Subsequently, the ?-DC profiles of 14 commercial HFCS samples were recorded. 3-Deoxyglucosone was identified as the major ?-DC with concentrations up to 730 ?g/mL HFCS. The total ?-DC content ranged from 293 ?g/mL to 1,130 ?g/mL HFCS. Significantly different ?-DC levels were not detected between different HFCS specifications, but between samples of various manufacturers indicating that the ?-DC load is influenced by the production procedures. PMID:22382856

Gensberger, Sabrina; Mittelmaier, Stefan; Glomb, Marcus A; Pischetsrieder, Monika

2012-07-01

388

Health Topics: MedlinePlus  

Science.gov (United States)

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Health Topics Read about symptoms, causes, treatment and prevention for ... illnesses, health conditions and wellness issues. MedlinePlus health topics are regularly reviewed, and links are updated daily. ...

389

Symbiosis: Rich, Exciting, Neglected Topic  

Science.gov (United States)

Argues that the topic of symbiosis has been greatly neglected and underemphasized in general-biology textbooks. Discusses many types and examples of symbiosis, and provides an extensive bibliography of the literature related to this topic. (JR)

Rowland, Jane Thomas

1974-01-01

390

Topical Acne Treatments and Pregnancy  

Science.gov (United States)

... of medical care and advice from your health care provider. What are topical acne treatments? Topical acne treatments are medications applied directly on the skin that are used in the treatment of acne ...

391

Oral composition  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Oral care composition comprising a polymer obtainable by copolymerising a mixture of comonomers, from 5 to 95 mol % of the mixture of comonomers is constituted by a como no mer having the formula (I): (I) in which R is hydrogen or a methyl group, L is a divalent organic linking group incorporating a benzylor a carboxyl functionality, n is an integer of from 1 to 4 and Y is an amine, quaternized amine or quaternary ammonium group; and in which the balance of the mixture of co monomers is const...

2005-01-01

392

Growth kinetics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in batch and fed-batch cultivation using sugarcane molasses and glucose syrup from cassava starch.  

Science.gov (United States)

Growth kinetics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in glucose syrup from cassava starch and sugarcane molasses were studied using batch and fed-batch cultivation. The optimum temperature and pH required for growth were 30 degrees C and pH 5.5, respectively. In batch culture the productivity and overall cell yield were 0.31 g L-1 h-1 and 0.23 g cells g-1 sugar, respectively, on glucose syrup and 0.22 g L-1 h-1 and 0.18 g cells g-1 sugar, respectively, on molasses. In fed-batch cultivation, a productivity of 3.12 g L-1 h-1 and an overall cell yield of 0.52 g cells g-1 sugar were achieved in glucose syrup cultivation and a productivity of 2.33 g L-1 h-1 and an overall cell yield of 0.46 g cells g-1 sugar were achieved in molasses cultivation by controlling the reducing sugar concentration at its optimum level obtained from the fermentation model. By using an on-line ethanol sensor combined with a porous Teflon tubing method in automating the feeding of substrate in the fed-batch culture, a productivity of 2.15 g L-1 h-1 with a yield of 0.47 g cells g-1 sugar was achieved using glucose syrup as substrate when ethanol concentration was kept at a constant level by automatic control. PMID:8730575

Win, S S; Impoolsup, A; Noomhorm, A

1996-02-01

393

[The effect of various types of dry starch syrup on the rate of glucose utilization in lipid, carbohydrate, and protein components of rat liver].  

Science.gov (United States)

Effect of a diet, containing dextran maltose and dry starch syrup, on some patterns of liver tissue metabolism were studied in young Wistar rats within 30 days. The animals of Control Group 1 were kept on a diet containing corn starch as a source of carbohydrates; in Group 2 the starch was replaced by the dry starch syrup enriched with disaccharides and especially with maltose; the dry starch syrup added into the Group 3 diet containing mainly oligosaccharides and polymers with high levels of glucose residues. The label mixtures of 6-3N- and 6-14C-glucose as well as of 6-3H- and I-14C-glucose were administered into the animals on the day of death. Analysis of the findings has shown that the products of starch hydrolysis may the specific parameters of glucose metabolism. Incorporation of the label into liver tissue lipids was similar to the control values in the group of animals kept on a diet enriched with maltose as compared with group 3. The glycolytic pathway of glucose utilization was more activated than the pentosephosphate pathway after substituting starch for dry starch syrup as shown by differences in the rates of carbon incorporation at positions 1 and 6 of a glucose molecule. PMID:7839667

Antonova, Zh V; Virovets, O A; Gapparov, M M

1994-01-01

394

Energetic evaluation of substitution of broken rice for maltose syrup in brewery; Avaliacao energetica da substituicao do arroz partido por xarope de maltose em cervejaria  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Brazilian breweries are following the technological changes that occur at the beer producer countries by gradually substituting the amylaceous adjuncts by the syrup ones. For this reason, this work was carried out to compare energetically two processes of brewing wort producing, using as study pattern a million liters of beer daily production brewery. The processes differ from the adjunct.The first utilized broken rice and the second utilized maltose syrup. both used as malt adjunct. Energetic evaluation was based on thermal energy and electric consumption of equipment used in wort production from silo sector to brew house. Upon using broken rice in the mashing the consumption of electric energy in silo sector during raw material transport was 75,064.40 Kcal (86.93 k W.h) and upon using maltose syrup was 52,288.00 Kcal (60.77 k W,h). Thus, reduction of electric energy of 30,34% corresponding to 22,776.40 Kcal (26.16 k W.) was obtained due to elimination of broken rice transport. Electric energy consumed at the brew house with broken rice was 166,809.96 Kcal (193.85 k W.h) and with the maltose syrup was 109,764.05 Kcal (127.57 k W.h). The difference between the two processes regarding electric energy, was 57.045.91 Kcal (66.28 k W.h) which is equivalent to 34,20% of reduction. Reduction was obtained through the elimination of broken rice boiling cereal and also through reduction in the time of use of motors of others equipment. Upon using broken rice thermal energy consumption at the brew house was 10,386,270.50 Kcal and 9,950,545.10 Kcal upon using maltose syrup. Reduction of thermal energy consumption was of 7,66% corresponding to 795, 725.40 Kcal due to elimination of the use of broken rice boiling cereal and reduction in the time of wort boiling. Reduction of total energy between two processes was of 8,24% corresponding to 875,547.76 Kcal. It was concluded that the process that uses maltose syrup requires less thermal and electric energy in comparison to the process which uses broken rice as malt adjunct in this large-sized industry contributing to the substitution of amylaceous adjuncts by sugar syrup in the future. (author)

Limoni Filho, Gilberto [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas; Venturini Filho, Waldemar G. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Tecnologia dos Produtos Agropecuarios

1998-12-01

395

Superconcentration and related topics  

CERN Multimedia

A certain curious feature of random objects, introduced by the author as “super concentration,” and two related topics, “chaos” and “multiple valleys,” are highlighted in this book. Although super concentration has established itself as a recognized feature in a number of areas of probability theory in the last twenty years (under a variety of names), the author was the first to discover and explore its connections with chaos and multiple valleys. He achieves a substantial degree of simplification and clarity in the presentation of these findings by using the spectral approach. Understanding the fluctuations of random objects is one of the major goals of probability theory and a whole subfield of probability and analysis, called concentration of measure, is devoted to understanding these fluctuations. This subfield offers a range of tools for computing upper bounds on the orders of fluctuations of very complicated random variables. Usually, concentration of measure is useful when more direct prob...

Chatterjee, Sourav

2014-01-01

396

Topics in orbit equivalence  

CERN Multimedia

This volume provides a self-contained introduction to some topics in orbit equivalence theory, a branch of ergodic theory. The first two chapters focus on hyperfiniteness and amenability. Included here are proofs of Dye's theorem that probability measure-preserving, ergodic actions of the integers are orbit equivalent and of the theorem of Connes-Feldman-Weiss identifying amenability and hyperfiniteness for non-singular equivalence relations. The presentation here is often influenced by descriptive set theory, and Borel and generic analogs of various results are discussed. The final chapter is a detailed account of Gaboriau's recent results on the theory of costs for equivalence relations and groups and its applications to proving rigidity theorems for actions of free groups.

Kechris, Alexander S

2004-01-01

397

Perspective and research topics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the preceding chapters various aspects of the theory of turbulent reacting flows are discussed in detail. The fundamental features of such flows, some of the relevant practical problems connected with turbulent combustion, approaches appropriate for the limiting cases of nonpremixed and premixed reactants, and the direct probability-density approach to the description of such flows are treated in successive chapters. There results a relatively complete view of the present status of the fundamental theory and its application to somewhat idealized flows. In this chapter we attempt to provide an overview and perspective of the field and call attention to research topics of greatest interest from both practical and fundamental points of view. (orig.)

1980-01-01

398

Topics on String Phenomenology  

CERN Document Server

These lectures present some topics of string phenomenology and contain two parts. In the first part, I review the possibility of lowering the string scale in the TeV region, that provides a theoretical framework for solving the mass hierarchy problem and unifying all interactions. The apparent weakness of gravity can then be accounted by the existence of large internal dimensions, in the submillimeter region, and transverse to a braneworld where our universe must be confined. I review the main properties of this scenario and its implications for observations at both particle colliders, and in non-accelerator gravity experiments. In the second part, I discuss a simple framework of toroidal string models with magnetized branes, that offers an interesting self-consistent setup for string phenomenology. I will present an algorithm for fixing the geometric parameters of the compactification, build calculable particle physics models such as a supersymmetric SU(5) Grand Unified Theory with three generations of quark...

Antoniadis, Ignatios

2008-01-01

399

Tratamiento del liquen plano oral: una revisión Treatment of oral lichen planus: a review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue realizar una revisión sobre los actuales tratamientos del liquen plano oral (LPO. Antes de iniciar el tratamiento al paciente, debe de realizarse una biopsia para establecer el correcto diagnóstico. Dado que para el LPO no hay tratamiento curativo, el primer objetivo en los pacientes sintomáticos es el efecto paliativo. Entre las alternativas terapéuticas se incluyen: corticosteroides tópicos, sistémicos e intralesionales; retinoides tópicos o sistémicos; ciclosporina tópica, tacrolimus tópico, azatioprina, fototerapia y tratamiento quirúrgico.The aim of the present study was to review about the current treatment of oral lichen planus (OLP. Before a patients is started on therapy a biopsy must be done to establish an accurate diagnosis. Because there is no curative therapy for OLP, the primary goal for symtomatic patients is palliative. Treatment modalities include the use of: topical, systemic and intralesional corticosteroids; topical and systemic retinoids, topical cyclosoporine; topical tacrolimus; azathioprine; phototherapy and surgical procedures.

M.J. García-Pola Vallejo

2008-02-01

400

The use of oral pentobarbital sodium (Nembutal) versus oral chloral hydrate in infants undergoing CT and MR imaging - a pilot study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background. Chloral hydrate, a commonly used oral sedative for infants undergoing imaging examinations, has a bitter taste and requires relatively large volume, provoking unpleasant reactions from the infants. Experience with an alternative sedative, oral pentobarbital (Nembutal), has not been reported for infants Objective. To compare patient acceptance of oral Nembutal and oral chloral hydrate for sedation of infants up to 12 months of age. Methods and materials. Fifty-four infants (mean age: 7 months) were prospectively enrolled. Parents chose Nembutal, chloral hydrate, or no preference. Thirty-eight infants received Nembutal (4-6 mg/kg) mixed with cherry syrup and 16 received chloral hydrate (50-100 mg/kg). We recorded infant's acceptance of sedative, parental impression of infant's acceptance, time to sedation, time to discharge, adverse effects, parental preference of future sedative. Results. Infant acceptance and parental impression were better for Nembutal (P < 0.0001). Fewer parents in the Nembutal group preferred another sedative (P = 0.05). There was a trend toward shorter time to discharge with Nembutal (P = 0.03). There were no adverse effects in either group. One infant failed to sedate with Nembutal. Conclusions. Compared with chloral hydrate, oral Nembutal has significantly better acceptance by infants and parents, equal effectiveness, and may result in a shorter time to discharge. (orig.)

2000-05-01

 
 
 
 
401

Influence of process parameters on the color and texture of passion fruit albedo preserved in syrup Influência de parâmetros do processo sobre a cor e textura de doces de albedo de maracujá em calda  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The industrialization of passion fruit in the form of juice produces considerable amounts of residue that could be used as food. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of the volume of passion fruit juice added to the syrup and the cooking time on the color and texture of passion fruit albedo preserved in syrup. Multi-linear models were well fit to describe the value for a* (for the albedo) the values for b* (for the albedo and syrup), which exhibited high correlation...

Luisa Pereira Figueiredo; Marali Vilela Dias; Wanderson Alexandre Valente; Soraia Vilela Borges; Anirene Galvão Tavares Pereira; Patrícia Aparecida Pimenta Pereira; Fabiana Queiroz

2013-01-01

402

Immunomodulatory drugs: Oral and systemic adverse effects  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: The main objectives are to present the different adverses effects of the immunomodulatory drugs that can impair the quality of life of the immunosupressed patients and study the impact of immunomodualtion on oral diseases. Immunomodulatory drugs have changed the treatment protocols of many diseases where immune functions play a central role, such as rheumatic diseases. Their effect on oral health has not been systematically investigated, however. Study Design: We review current data on the new immunomodulatory drugs from the oral health perspective based on open literature search of the topic. Results: These target specific drugs appear to have less drug interactions than earlier immunomodulating medicines but have nevertheless potential side effects such as activating latent infections. There are some data showing that the new immunomodulatory drugs may also have a role in the treatment of certain oral diseases such as lichen planus or ameliorating symptoms in Sjögren´s syndrome, but the results have not been overly promising. Conclusions: In general, data are sparse of the effect of these new drugs vs. oral diseases and there are no properly powered randomized controlled trials published on this topic. Key words:Immunomodulatory drugs, oral diseases, adverse effects, therapeutic action.

Mattila, Riikka; Gomez-Font, Rafael; Meurman, Jukka H.

2014-01-01

403

Topical Cyclosporine A in Corneal Graft Rejection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Corneal graft rejection is now the most common cause of graft failure after penetrating keratoplasty. This study was designed to determine whether, addition of 2% topical cyclosporine (CSA to local and systemic steroids in treatment of endothelial corneal allograft rejection, would improve the outcome. A prospective randomized treatment trial was carried out on 40 consecutive corneal graft recipients, presenting with the first episode of endothelial graft rejection in two groups. Group one (20 patients received topical steroids eye drops and systemic prednisolone (1 mg/kg by oral route plus placebo. Group two (20 patients received the same topical and systemic steroid therapy plus 2% cyclosporine A (CSA eye drop. The patients were followed up for three months and their clinical outcomes were evaluated by the rates and time of rejection reversal. In group one, 14 (70% cases had total reversal of graft rejection episode but in CSA group, it occurred in 18 (90% cases (P=0.21 .Improvement were started within a mean period of 3 and 1.5 days respectively (P value<0.001. Among patients who sought treatment early (<6 days, the survival rates were 85% and 100% respectively (P=0.2. In high risk patients the rejection reversal rate was 66% in CSA group and 25% in the control group (P=0.5. Our study indicates addition of 2% CSA eye drop to topical and systemic steroids in graft rejection decreases the interval between treatment intervention and improvement of clinical signs. In high risk patients it may improve the reversal rate, however it needs further studies.

Mahmood Nejabat

2006-01-01

404

Topical steroids to treat granulomatous mastitis: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare and chronic benign disease of the breast. Histologically, the disease presents as an intense inflammatory reaction with non-caseated granulomas that are the characteristic symptom of the disease. No consensus exists on the best treatment modality for this disease. In this report, we present a patient with granulomatous mastitis who was treated successfully with low-dose oral and topical steroids. Our aim here is to discuss various approaches for IGM in view of the literature and present treatment with topical steroids, which has not been reported. PMID:22016598

Altintoprak, Fatih

2011-09-01

405

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, signs and symptoms of oral cancer, and the importance of detecting the disease in ...

406

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the mouth for signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes ... step description of the oral cancer examination so patients know what to expect. What You Need to ...

407

Desmame precoce: implicações para o desenvolvimento motor-oral Early weaning: implications to oral motor development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo: revisar as estreitas relações entre o desmame precoce e seus reflexos no desenvolvimento motor-oral, enfocando as conseqüências na oclusão, respiração e aspectos motores orais da criança. Fonte de dados: foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica relacionada às áreas de pediatria, odontologia e fonoaudiologia, através do Medline, entre o ano de 1960 e o ano 2001. Síntese dos dados: a partir da literatura levantada, pode-se observar que o desmame precoce pode levar à ruptura do desenvolvimento motor-oral adequado, podendo prejudicar as funções de mastigação, deglutição, respiração e articulação dos sons da fala, ocasionar má-oclusão, respiração oral e alteração motora oral. Conclusões: pode-se concluir que além dos inúmeros benefícios do aleitamento materno, este contribui para o desenvolvimento motor-oral adequado e previne alterações fonoaudiológicas, no que se refere ao sistema motor-oral.Objective: this article aims at reviewing the relationship between early weaning and its consequences to oral motor development, focusing on the consequences to occlusion, breathing and children's oral motor aspects. Sources: a literature review based on Medline database from the early 60's up to 2001 was performed taking into consideration the following topics: pediatrics, dentistry and speech language pathology. Summary of the findings: based on this review of literature, we could verified that early weaning may lead to a proper oral motor development rupture, which may cause negative consequences to swallowing, breathing and speaking activities as well as malocclusion, oral breathing and oral motor disorders. Conclusions: in addition to several benefits of breastfeeding, it contributes to a proper oral motor development and also avoids speech-language disorders, regarding oral motor system.

Flávia Cristina Brisque Neiva

2003-02-01

408

[Timolol topical ophthalmic combination].  

Science.gov (United States)

The primary standard therapy in patients with open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension is carried out by means of monotherapy with synthetic prostaglandin analogues. Most of the glaucoma patients need more than one medication for adequate intraocular pressure control. Timolol represents the basic component of these combinations. Timolol topical ophthalmic combinations with dorzolamide (Cosopt), pilocarpine, latanoprost (Xalacom), travoprost and unoprostone are thoroughly described. Most antiglaucoma medications achieve on one side directly baroprotection by decreasing intraocular pressure and on the other side they produce indirectly vasoprotection, that is secondary to intraocular pressure lowering. The Cosopt, due to its Dorzolamide component, makes an exception since it produces directly both baroprotection by aqueous humor flow suppression and vasoprotection by increasing the blood flow within the retina, choroid, optic nerve head and retrobulbar area. Given these considerations as well as the fact that the ocular hypotensive effect of both the Cosopt and the latanoprost are equally potent, a question seems reasonable according to accepted standard i.e. Cosopt or latanoprost as primary glaucoma therapy? PMID:15279411

C?lug?ru, M; C?lug?ru, D

2004-01-01

409

Topics in Quantum Gravity  

Science.gov (United States)

We study some aspects of conformal field theory, wormhole physics and two-dimensional random surfaces. In spite of being rather different, these topics serve as examples of the issues that are involved, both at high and low energy scales, in formulating a quantum theory of gravity. In conformal field theory we show that fusion and braiding properties can be used to determine the operator product coefficients of the non-diagonal Wess-Zumino-Witten models. In wormhole physics we show how Coleman's proposed probability distribution would result in wormholes determining the value of theta_{rm QCD}. We attempt such a calculation and find the most probable value of theta_ {rm QCD} to be pi . This hints at a potential conflict with nature. In random surfaces we explore the behaviour of conformal field theories coupled to gravity and calculate some partition functions and correlation functions. Our results throw some light on the transition that is believed to occur when the central charge of the matter theory gets larger than one.

Trivedi, Sandip P.

410

Combination topical therapy in the treatment of acne.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many medications are available for the management of acne. The armamentarium includes topical retinoids (ie, adapalene, tazarotene, tretinoin), antimicrobial and antibacterial agents (ie, benzoyl peroxide, clindamycin, erythromycin, sulfacetamide with or without sulfur), oral antibiotics (ie, doxycycline, minocycline, tetracycline), hormonal agents (ie, oral contraceptives, spironolactone), and systemic retinoids (ie, isotretinoin). Acne usually is treated with combination therapy to address its multifactorial pathophysiology. The combination of clindamycin 1%-benzoyl peroxide 5% gel, available as a stable formulation in a single tube, is efficacious and well-tolerated. The product's excipients, glycerin and dimethicone, minimize treatment-related irritation, thereby increasing patient compliance. Clindamycin-benzoyl peroxide may be well-tolerated when applied with topical retinoids, creating a more targeted and complete treatment strategy. PMID:17966494

Del Rosso, James Q

2006-08-01

411

INDUCTION OF ENZYME COCKTAILS BY LOW COST CARBON SOURCES FOR PRODUCTION OF MONOSACCHARIDE-RICH SYRUPS FROM PLANT MATERIALS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The production of cellulases, hemicellulases, and starch-degrading enzymes by the thermophilic aerobic fungus Talaromyces emersonii under liquid state culture on various food wastes was investigated. A comprehensive enzyme screening was conducted, which resulted in the identification of spent tea leaves as a potential substrate for hydrolytic enzyme production. The potent, polysaccharide-degrading enzyme-rich cocktail produced when tea leaves were utilised as sole carbon source was analysed at a protein and mRNA level and shown to exhibit high level production of key cellulose and hemicellulose degrading enzymes. As presented in this paper, the crude enzyme preparation produced after 120 h growth of Talaromyces emersonii on used tea leaves is capable of hydrolysing other lignocellulosic materials into their component monosaccharides, generating high value sugar syrups with a host of industrial applications including conversion to fuels and chemicals.

Caroline T. Gilleran

2010-05-01

412

Influence of the ageing phenomenon on the low-frequency electrical impedance behavior of naphazoline hydrochloride solutions and paracetamol syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of the ageing process on the low frequency behavior of some electrical parameters of naphazoline hydrochloride solutions at 0.5% and 1% in concentration and of 2% paracetamol syrup, is studied. The impedance measurements were performed, in the range between 200 Hz and 1 MHz, using an impedance analyzer and a cell for liquids with plane parallel electrodes whose separation can be changed by using a set of spacers, provided by the manufacturer, in order to get better control of the influence of electrodes polarization effect. The ageing state was artificially generated by dilution and/or heating separated procedures. The results show that this dielectric technique can be used as a good quality complementary control technique. PMID:18781632

Brito, Pedro C; Mechetti, Magdalena; Gotter, Carlos M; Merep, David J

2009-05-01