WorldWideScience
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Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups)  

Science.gov (United States)

... Lung Diseases > Quick-Relief Medications > Oral Steroids Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups) How are steroid pills and ... Want to learn more about steroids? How are steroid pills and syrups used? Steroid pills and syrups ...

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Maple Syrup  

Science.gov (United States)

The Spring Thaw is upon us, maple trees are experiencing below freezing temperatures by night and above freezing temperatures by day, signaling a time to cook up some pancakes because maple syrup is on its way! The following websites cover many aspects of the longstanding North American maple syrup tradition. The first site (1) presents Cornell University's Sugar Maple Research and Extension Program. This website is informative and extensive with activities for students and teachers, great photos, and a wealth of information about syrup production, research, and more. The second site (2) from the University of Vermont introduces the Proctor Maple Research Center and includes information about various research projects. The third website (3) hosted by The Ohio State University Extension, features an online copy of the _North American Maple Syrup Producers Manual_, an important and comprehensive text authored by a host of experts in the field. The fourth site, (4) from The Australian National University, provides a concise overview of maple syrup including sections on Origin and History, Collecting and Boiling the Sap, and more. The fifth site, (5) from the Wisconsin DNR's Environmental Education for Kids! (EEK!) electronic magazine for 4th-8th graders and teachers, contains a short history of maple syrup with a link to maple syrup recipes. The last three websites are all from regional maple syrup producers associations in North America, and they include recipes, information about maple syrup history and production, and more. The sixth site (6) is hosted by the Massachusetts Maple Producers Association, the seventh site (7) is hosted by the Michigan Maple Syrup Association, and the final site (8) is hosted by the Qu'bec Maple Syrup Producers Federation.

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TOPICAL HYALURONIC ACID IN THE MANAGEMENT OF ORAL ULCERS  

OpenAIRE

Hyaluronic acid is a hygroscopic macromolecule formed by the polymerisation of glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine disaccharide. It is a primary component of the extracellular matrix in various body tissues. Ihe use of topical Hyaluronic acid in the treatment of oral ulcers has been recently reported. This article reviews the mechanism of action, indications and efficacy of topical Hyaluronic acid gel in the management of oral ulcers.

Kapoor, Pranav; Sachdeva, Shabina; Sachdeva, Silonie

2011-01-01

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Accumulation of Topical Naproxen by Cultured Oral Epithelium  

OpenAIRE

Topically administered non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit periodontal bone loss, but little is known about the mechanism by which they penetrate oral epithelium. Active transporters could potentially play a role in this process. In this study, we used a cell line derived from oral epithelium to investigate a role for transporters and to characterize conditions that enhance epithelial penetration. Using fluorescence to monitor uptake, we demonstrated that SCC-25 cell monola...

Fitzgerald, R. R.; Walters, J. D.

2007-01-01

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Topical tacrolimus and oral diseases: a short literature review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Tacrolimus is the generic name forthe macrolide immunosupressant previously known by its experimental name, FK506. This new name is derived from Tsukuba, the location of its discovery; macrolide, its chemical class; and immune suppressant, its primary activity in humans. Recent reports suggest thattopical tacrolimus may be used forthe treatment of mucosal diseases, including oral psoriasis, Crohn’s disease, exfoliative cheilitis, oral lichen planus, graft versus host disease, paraneoplastic pemphigus, bullous pemphigoid and cicatricial pemphigoid. Topical tacrolimus treatment seems to be effective, but this must be proven by well designed randomized controlled studies.

Jacek Szepietowski

2007-12-01

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Oral isotretinoin is as effective as a combination of oral isotretinoin and topical anti-acne agents in nodulocystic acne  

OpenAIRE

Background: Due to the late introduction of oral isotretinoin, there is only a single report of the use of this drug from India. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy, acceptability and side effects of oral isotretinoin in Indian conditions and to compare the efficacy of oral isotretinoin monotherapy with that of a combination of oral isotretinoin and topical anti-acne agents. Methods: Sixty clinically diagnosed patients of nodulocystic acne were divided into two groups of 30 ea...

Dhir Rajeev; Gehi Neetu; Agarwal Reetu; More Yuvraj

2008-01-01

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Topical use of miconazole antifungal oral gel on warfarinized patients: a word of caution.  

OpenAIRE

Oral candidosis is common, particularly in elderly patients who wear dentures. Many of these patients also have systemic diseases, including conditions for which they have to take oral anticoagulants, most commonly warfarin. Although the effect of parenterally administered miconazole on anticoagulant control is well known, the fact that small amounts of topically applied miconazole oral gel can have a similar effect is poorly recognized.

Ezsia?s, A.; Wojnarowska, F.; Juniper, R.

1997-01-01

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Efficacy of combined treatment with oral and topical acyclovir in first episode genital herpes.  

OpenAIRE

Fifty patients presenting with first episode genital herpes were randomly allocated to seven day treatment with either oral acyclovir plus 5% acyclovir cream or oral acyclovir plus matching placebo cream. Combined treatment with oral and topical acyclovir was associated with a shorter duration of itching in women alone (p = 0.04) but gave no clinical relief of other symptoms, the time to healing of lesions, or the subsequent recurrence rate. Concomitant topical treatment with 5% acyclovir cre...

Kinghorn, G. R.; Abeywickreme, I.; Jeavons, M.; Barton, I.; Potter, C. W.; Jones, D.; Hickmott, E.

1986-01-01

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Dramatic Improvement of Long Lasting Post-Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation by Oral and Topical Tranexamic Acid  

OpenAIRE

Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation is common problem, but its treatment still remains challenging. Tranexamic acid has been used to treat or prevent excessive bleeding loss in various medical conditions. There have been some reports of the effect of oral and topical tranexamic acid for treatment of pigmented disorder. Herein we report on a case of female patient who showed improvement of PIH after oral and topical tranexamic acid administration.

Kee Chan Moon; Jee Ho Choi; Mi Woo Lee; Chong Hyun Won; Sung Eun Chang; Jae Kyung Kim

2012-01-01

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Dramatic Improvement of Long Lasting Post-Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation by Oral and Topical Tranexamic Acid  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation is common problem, but its treatment still remains challenging. Tranexamic acid has been used to treat or prevent excessive bleeding loss in various medical conditions. There have been some reports of the effect of oral and topical tranexamic acid for treatment of pigmented disorder. Herein we report on a case of female patient who showed improvement of PIH after oral and topical tranexamic acid administration.

Kee Chan Moon

2012-06-01

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Comparison of Topical Nifedipine With Oral Nifedipine for Treatment of Anal Fissure: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Medical sphincterotomy has gained popularity as a treatment for anal fissure. Calcium channel blockers in topical forms could also be appropriate with low adverse effects. Objectives: This was a prospective randomized controlled trial to compare topical and oral nifedipine in the treatment of chronic anal fissure. Patients and Methods: A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted at two centers of Shahed University. One hundred and thirty patients with chronic anal fissure aged 18 to 60 years managed in our clinics were included in this study. The patients were randomly divided into two groups. Sixty-five patients received topical nifedipine (TN) and the same number received oral nifedipine (ON). Results: Ulcer healing occurred in 43 (73.33%) of topical nifedipine group compared to 29 (49.5%) patients in oral nifedipine, which was significantly different (P anal fissure, topical nifedipine has a superior role for anal fissure treatment with higher healing rate and lower side effects. PMID:25389477

Golfam, Farzaneh; Golfam, Parisa; Golfam, Babak; Pahlevani, Puyan

2014-01-01

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Oral isotretinoin is as effective as a combination of oral isotretinoin and topical anti-acne agents in nodulocystic acne  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Due to the late introduction of oral isotretinoin, there is only a single report of the use of this drug from India. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy, acceptability and side effects of oral isotretinoin in Indian conditions and to compare the efficacy of oral isotretinoin monotherapy with that of a combination of oral isotretinoin and topical anti-acne agents. Methods: Sixty clinically diagnosed patients of nodulocystic acne were divided into two groups of 30 each. Patients in group A were administered oral isotretinoin 20 mg twice a day along with topical clindamycin (1% and adapalene (0.1% for 24 weeks. Patients in group B were given only oral isotretinoin. An objective clinical scoring was repeated every four weeks and patients were followed up for six months on completion of treatment. Results: Out of the 60 patients, 50 completed the treatment and 35 completed the follow-up at six months. The mean pretreatment score in group A came down from 12.8 to 1.24 and in group B from 12.4 to 1.48, thus showing a 90.55% and 88% reduction in pretreatment scores respectively. There was no statistical difference in the results obtained from the two groups. Side effects were common but minor in nature. Conclusion: Isotretinoin produces gratifying results in patients of nodulocystic acne in Indian conditions. Addition of topical antiacne agents does not alter the final outcome. This addition is well tolerated but requires careful monitoring.

Dhir Rajeev

2008-01-01

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Topical tacrolimus in the management of oral lichen planus: literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tacrolimus is an immunosuppressive property approved for the treatment of atopic dermatitis. Studies have shown that topical tacrolimus is effective for a broad spectrum of mucocutaneous diseases, including oral lichen planus. The objective of this article is to review the pharmacology of tacrolimus, its usage in oral lichen planus, adverse effects and advantages of tacrolimus over other conventional drugs, thus making it a popular and alternative drug for the treatment of lichen planus. PMID:25080722

Shilpa, P S; Kaul, Rachna; Bhat, Suraksha; Sanjay, C J; Sultana, Nishat

2014-03-01

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Diclofenac topical solution compared with oral diclofenac: a pooled safety analysis  

OpenAIRE

Sanford H Roth1, Philip Fuller21Arizona Research and Education, Arthritis Laboratory, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA; 2Medical Affairs, Covidien, Hazelwood, MO, USABackground: Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) formulations, which produce less systemic exposure compared with oral formulations, are an option for the management of osteoarthritis (OA). However, the overall safety and efficacy of these agents compared with oral or systemic therapy remains controversia...

Sh, Roth; Fuller P

2011-01-01

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Comparative Study of Efficacy of Oral Ivermectin Versus Some Topical Antiscabies Drugs in the Treatment of Scabies  

OpenAIRE

Background: The conventionally used topical antiscabetics have poor compliance. Ivermectin, an oral antiparasitic drug, has been shown to be an effective scabicide and could be a useful substitute. This study was designed to compare efficacy of oral ivermectin with commonly used topical antiscabies drugs.

Manjhi, Pramod Kumar; Sinha, Rani Indira; Kumar, Manish; Sinha, Kumari Indu

2014-01-01

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Comparative study of oral and topical ketoconazole therapy in pityriasis versicolor  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Both topical and systemic ketoconazole are reported to be effective against pityriasis versicolor. Material and Methods: Forty patients suffering from pityriasis versicolor were treated either with oral ketoconazole 200 mg per day or 2% ketoconazole cream topically once daily for 2 weeks. Results: On global assessment, after 2 weeks of start of therapy, 18 (90% out of 20 patients treated with oral ketoconazole were cured while 2 patients had considerable residual disease. In the ketoconazole cream group, 16 (80% out of 20 patients were cured and 4 patients had considerable residual disease. Conclusion: No significant difference was observed in the response rates in the two groups. Relapse occurred in two patients of the systemic ketoconazole group and six patients of the topical ketoconazole group during the follow-up period of three months.

Nagpal V

2003-07-01

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The Chemical Composition of Maple Syrup  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup is one of several high-sugar liquids that humans consume. However, maple syrup is more than just a concentrated sugar solution. Here, we review the chemical composition of maple syrup. (Contains 4 tables and 1 figure.)

Ball, David W.

2007-01-01

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Genetics Home Reference: Maple syrup urine disease  

Science.gov (United States)

... PubMed Recent literature OMIM Genetic disorder catalog Conditions > Maple syrup urine disease On this page: Description Genetic ... names Glossary definitions Reviewed December 2013 What is maple syrup urine disease? Maple syrup urine disease is ...

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21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or enzymes. It...

2010-04-01

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Diclofenac topical solution compared with oral diclofenac: a pooled safety analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sanford H Roth1, Philip Fuller21Arizona Research and Education, Arthritis Laboratory, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA; 2Medical Affairs, Covidien, Hazelwood, MO, USABackground: Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID formulations, which produce less systemic exposure compared with oral formulations, are an option for the management of osteoarthritis (OA. However, the overall safety and efficacy of these agents compared with oral or systemic therapy remains controversial.Methods: Two 12-week, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, controlled, multicenter studies compared the safety and efficacy profiles of diclofenac topical solution (TDiclo with oral diclofenac (ODiclo. Each study independently showed that TDiclo had similar efficacy to ODiclo. To compare the safety profiles of TDiclo and ODiclo, a pooled safety analysis was performed for 927 total patients who had radiologically confirmed symptomatic OA of the knee. This pooled analysis included patients treated with TDiclo, containing 45.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, and those treated with ODiclo. Safety assessments included monitoring of adverse events (AEs, recording of vital signs, dermatologic evaluation of the study knee, and clinical laboratory evaluation.Results: AEs occurred in 312 (67.1% patients using TDiclo versus 298 (64.5% of those taking ODiclo. The most common AE with TDiclo was dry skin at the application site (24.1% vs 1.9% with ODiclo; P < 0.0001. Fewer gastrointestinal (25.4% vs 39.0%; P < 0.0001 and cardiovascular (1.5% vs 3.5%; P = 0.055 AEs occurred with TDiclo compared with ODiclo. ODiclo was associated with significantly greater increases in liver enzymes and creatinine, and greater decreases in creatinine clearance and hemoglobin (P < 0.001 for all.Conclusions: These findings suggest that TDiclo represents a useful alternative to oral NSAID therapy in the management of OA, with a more favorable safety profile.Keywords: diclofenac, gastropathy, oral NSAIDs, osteoarthritis, topical NSAIDs

Roth SH

2011-06-01

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Safety evaluation of topical applications of ethanol on the skin and inside the oral cavity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Ethanol is widely used in all kinds of products with direct exposure to the human skin (e.g. medicinal products like hand disinfectants in occupational settings, cosmetics like hairsprays or mouthwashes, pharmaceutical preparations, and many household products. Contradictory evidence about the safety of such topical applications of the alcohol can be found in the scientific literature, yet an up-to-date risk assessment of ethanol application on the skin and inside the oral cavity is currently lacking. The first and foremost concerns of topical ethanol applications for public health are its carcinogenic effects, as there is unambiguous evidence for the carcinogenicity of ethanol orally consumed in the form of alcoholic beverages. So far there is a lack of evidence to associate topical ethanol use with an increased risk of skin cancer. Limited and conflicting epidemiological evidence is available on the link between the use of ethanol in the oral cavity in the form of mouthwashes or mouthrinses and oral cancer. Some studies pointed to an increased risk of oral cancer due to locally produced acetaldehyde, operating via a similar mechanism to that found after alcoholic beverage ingestion. In addition, topically applied ethanol acts as a skin penetration enhancer and may facilitate the transdermal absorption of xenobiotics (e.g. carcinogenic contaminants in cosmetic formulations. Ethanol use is associated with skin irritation or contact dermatitis, especially in humans with an aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH deficiency. After regular application of ethanol on the skin (e.g. in the form of hand disinfectants relatively low but measurable blood concentrations of ethanol and its metabolite acetaldehyde may occur, which are, however, below acute toxic levels. Only in children, especially through lacerated skin, can percutaneous toxicity occur. As there might be industry bias in many studies about the safety of topical ethanol applications, as well as a general lack of scientific research on the long-term effects, there is a requirement for independent studies on this topic. The research focus should be set on the chronic toxic effects of ethanol and acetaldehyde at the point of impact, with special regard to children and individuals with genetic deficiencies in ethanol metabolism.

Lachenmeier Dirk W

2008-11-01

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Faster onset of action with topical levocabastine than with oral cetirizine  

OpenAIRE

This international multicentre, open-label, parallel-group trial was undertaken to compare the therapeutic efficacy and tolerability of topical levocabastine and oral cetirizine in patients with perennial allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, with particular reference to the comparative onset of action of the two drugs. A total of 207 patients were randomized to receive either levocabastine nasal spray (0.5 mg/ml, two sprays in each nostril twice daily) plus levocabastine eye drops as required (0.5 m...

Drouin, Michel A.; Yang, William H.; Frederick Horak

1995-01-01

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To study cost effectiveness of topical permethrin versus oral ivermectin in patients of uncomplicated scabies  

OpenAIRE

Background: The objective of this study was to compare the cost and effectiveness of topical permethrin and oral ivermectin in the treatment of uncomplicated scabies. Methods: This was an open label randomized comparative study conducted in 210 patients, randomly allocated to two groups. First group received permethrin 5% cream as single application, second group received tablet ivermectin 200mcg/kg as single dose. All the patients received antihistaminic for pruritus. The patients were fo...

Chhaiya, Sunita B.; Patel, Varsha J.; Dave, Jayendra N.; Mehta, Dimple S.

2013-01-01

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Topical tacrolimus and periodontal therapy in the management of a case of oral chronic GVHD characterized by specific gingival localization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. Chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD) is a complication following bone marrow transplantation. The oral lesions are difficult to control with a systemic pharmacological therapy. Case Description. A 63-year-old female patient, who underwent an allogeniec transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia, developed a chronic oral and cutaneous GVHD. The patient was treated with topical tacrolimus 0.1%, twice daily for two months, and underwent a protocol of oral hygiene characterized by 3 appointments of scaling, root planning, and daily oral hygiene instructions. The patient showed marked resolution of gingival lesions and a significant improvement of related pain and gingival inflammatory indexes. Clinical Implications. This case report suggests that treatment with topical tacrolimus and professional oral hygiene may be helpful in the management of chronic oral GVHD with severe gingival involvement. PMID:24639902

Conrotto, Davide; Broccoletti, Roberto; Carcieri, Paola; Giaccone, Luisa; Arduino, Paolo G

2014-01-01

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Comparative Study of Efficacy of Oral Ivermectin Versus Some Topical Antiscabies Drugs in the Treatment of Scabies  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: The conventionally used topical antiscabetics have poor compliance. Ivermectin, an oral antiparasitic drug, has been shown to be an effective scabicide and could be a useful substitute. This study was designed to compare efficacy of oral ivermectin with commonly used topical antiscabies drugs. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on four groups including 60 patients in each group by simple random sampling. Treatment given in each group was: Group 1: Ivermectin (200 ?g/kg body weight) oral in a single dose, Group 2: Topical Permethrin 5% cream single application, Group 3: Topical gamma benzene hexachloride (GBHC) lotion 1% single application and Group 4: Topical Benzyl benzoate (BB) lotion 25% single application. All of the patients were followed for improvement in terms of severity of disease and severity of pruritus at the end of 1st wk and 6th wk. Results: Efficacy of ivermectin, permethrin, GBHC and BB lotion considering improvement in severity of pruritus as parameter were 85%, 90%, 75% and 68.33% respectively at 2nd follow-up. Similarly considering improvement in severity of lesion as parameter, results were 80%, 88.33%, 71.66% and 65% respectively at 2nd follow up. Topical Permethrin (5%) was more effective as compared to topical BB lotion and topical GBHC lotion (pIvermectin was non-significant (p>0.05). Conclusion: The results suggested that oral Ivermectin and topical Permethrin (5%) were equally efficacious. Oral Ivermectin is well tolerated, non irritant to skin, does not show central nervous system side effects because it does not cross blood brain barrier. So, the good therapeutic response with few side effects seen with oral Ivermectin can be useful in those patients for whom topical treatment is potentially irritant and less well-tolerated. PMID:25386453

Sinha, Rani Indira; Kumar, Manish; Sinha, Kumari Indu

2014-01-01

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To study cost effectiveness of topical permethrin versus oral ivermectin in patients of uncomplicated scabies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Methods: This was an open label randomized comparative study conducted in 210 patients, randomly allocated to two groups. First group received permethrin 5% cream as single application, second group received tablet ivermectin 200mcg/kg as single dose. All the patients received antihistaminic for pruritus. The patients were followed up at intervals of one, two, three and four weeks. If there were no signs of cure, the same intervention was repeated at each follow up. The cost effectiveness was calculated on the basis of total expenditure incurred on therapy. Results: At the end of first week cure rate was 74.8% in permethrin group, 30% in oral ivermectin group. At the end of second week cure rate was 99% in permethrin group, 60% in oral ivermectin group. At the end of third week 100% cure rate was observed in permethrin while 99% in oral ivermectin group. The total cost of treatment shows that cost of tab. ivermectin was less compared to permethrin 5% but the cost to relieve itching and cost of transport was higher than permethrin 5%. Conclusions: Topical permethrin is more cost effective than oral ivermectin in treatment of uncomplicated scabies. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 799-803

Sunita B. Chhaiya

2013-12-01

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Topical levocabastine—a review of therapeutic efficacy compared with topical sodium cromoglycate and oral terfenadine on days with high pollen counts  

OpenAIRE

Levocabastine is a new H1-receptor antagonist specifically developed for the topical treatment of seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Clinical experience to date clearly demonstrates that levocabastine eye drops and nasal spray are effective and well tolerated for the treatment of this allergic disorder. Analysis of data from a number of comparative trials reveals that topical levocabastine is at least as effective as sodium cromoglycate and the oral antihistamine terfenadine, even on days...

Azevedo, Marianela

1995-01-01

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[Influence of cefroxadine dry syrup on intestinal bacterial flora].  

Science.gov (United States)

Influence of cefroxadine (CXD) dry syrup on intestinal bacterial flora was studied in mice infected with 4 species of bacteria, namely, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacteroides fragilis and Bifidobacterium breve, and in pediatric patients having infections in the respiratory tract and cutaneous/soft tissues. The results were summarized as follows: CXD dry syrup was administered for 5 consecutive days to mice infected with the 4 species. No considerable changes were observed in levels of bacteria in the feces and in different parts of digestive tracts. Eleven pediatric patients were orally administered with 30-54 mg/kg of CXD dry syrup a day for 7-15 consecutive days. Symptom of diarrhea was noted in 2 patients. Dominant species of the intestinal flora such as E. coli, Bifidobacterium, and Bacteroides sometimes decreased in patients treated with CXD dry syrup. In general, however, decreases in numbers of these bacteria were insignificant. Changes of intestinal flora in patients treated with CXD dry syrup were apparently smaller than those treated with ampicillin and were similar to those treated with cephalexin or amoxicillin. PMID:3540337

Iwata, S; Yokota, T; Kusumoto, Y; Shiro, H; Sato, Y; Akita, H; Nanri, S; Oikawa, T; Kusano, S; Sunakawa, K

1986-08-01

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New lidocaine lozenge as topical anesthesia compared to lidocaine viscous oral solution before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy  

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Full Text Available Stine Mogensen,1 Charlotte Treldal,1 Erik Feldager,2 Sylvia Pulis,1 Jette Jacobsen,3 Ove Andersen,1 Mette Rasmussen,41Clinical Research Centre, Hvidovre University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2Department of Gastroenterology, Hvidovre University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Department of Pharmaceutics and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark; 4Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DenmarkObjective: To evaluate the effect and acceptance of a new lidocaine lozenge compared with a lidocaine viscous oral solution as a pharyngeal anesthetic before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE, a diagnostic procedure commonly performed worldwide during which many patients experience severe discomfort mostly because of the gag reflex.Participants: The single-blinded, randomized, controlled study involved 110 adult patients undergoing diagnostic UGE at the Department of Gastroenterology, Hvidovre University Hospital, Denmark.Methods: The patients were randomized to receive either 100 mg lidocaine as a lozenge or 5 mL lidocaine viscous oral solution 2%. Intravenous midazolam was administered if needed. The effect of a lidocaine lozenge in reducing patient discomfort, including the gag reflex, during UGE compared with a lidocaine oral solution was assessed.Results: Questionnaires from the patients showed that the gag reflex was acceptable for 64% in the lozenge group compared with 33% in the oral solution group (P = 0.0072. UGE was evaluated as acceptable by 69% in the lozenge group compared with 39% in the oral solution group (P = 0.0092. The taste was evaluated as good by 78% in the lozenge group (P < 0.0001, and 82% found the lozenge to have good texture (P < 0.0001.Conclusion: The lozenge reduced the gag reflex, diminished patients’ discomfort during UGE, and was evaluated as having a good taste and texture. The lozenge improved patients’ acceptance of UGE.Keywords: upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, topical pharyngeal anesthetic, lidocaine lozenge

Mogensen S

2012-05-01

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Comparison of topical glyceryl trinitrate ointment and oral nifedipine in the treatment of chronic anal fissure.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study was designed to compare the effect of topical glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) and oral nifedipine treatments on maximal anal resting pressure (MARP) and subsequently to assess their effectiveness in healing of chronic anal fissure (CAF). Patients were allocated randomly to receive either oral nifedipine retard (10 patients) 20 mg twice daily or instructed to apply glyceryl trinitrate (0.2 percent) ointment (10 patients) into the lower half of the anal canal twice daily. They were reviewed and assessed at the first visit and every fortnight for measurement of MARP, pain scores, blood pressure, pulse rate, healing of the fissure and adverse effects. Treatment were continued until healing had occurred or for up to 8 weeks. MARP values before and after application of the GTN ointment was 113.2 cm H2O and 72.5 cm H2O respectively (P MARP from 105.2 to 74.0 cm H2O (P MARP and pain score, healing of the fissure and incidence of early recurrence and side effects of treatments. We conclude that GTN ointment and oral nifedipine are equally effective in the treatment of chronic anal fissure. PMID:16612915

Mustafa, N A; Cengiz, S; Türkyilmaz, S; Yücel, Y

2006-01-01

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Oral versus topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors in ocular hypertension after scleral tunnel cataract surgery  

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Full Text Available Abdulmoghni Al-Barrag1, Motaher Al-Shaer1, Nabil Al-Matary2, Mahfoud Bamashmous11Ophthalmic Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University, Sana’a, Republic of Yemen; 2Ophthalmic Department, Military Hospital, Sana’a, Republic of YemenPurpose: To compare the effect of oral acetazolamide and topical 2% dorzolamide in prevention of ocular hypertension after scleral tunnel cataract surgery.Setting: Ophthalmic department, Sana’a University, Yemen Sana’a from March 2007 to October 2007.Methods: This prospective double-blind, randomized study included 150 eyes undergoing scleral tunnel cataract surgery with hard posterior chamber intraocular implantation. Methylcellulose was used as the viscoelastic in all surgery cases. Patients were assigned to one of three groups: group 1: topical gentamicin eye drops (control; n = 52; group 2: systemic acetazolamide 250 mg (n = 45; and group 3: topical 2% dorzolamide (n = 53. Acetazolamide patients received one 250 mg tablet, one hour before surgery, then half a tablet every eight hours. A topical dorzolamide 2% or gentamicin was applied in one drop one hour before surgery then every eight hours, for three days postoperatively. Intraocular pressures (IOP were measured by Goldman applanation tonometry one hour preoperatively and 16, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively. Results: At 16 hours, IOP between the three groups increased significantly with a statistically significant p-value of 0.008, but the mean IOP of acetazolamide patients was less than other groups. IOP nearly returned to the normal level 24 and 48 hours postoperatively, but this was not statistically significant (p = 0.452 and 0.138, respectively.Conclusion: Acetazolamide offers better IOP control than topical dorzolamide 2% in preventing ocular hypertension after scleral tunnel cataract surgery. Keywords: cataract surgery, ocular hypertension, viscoelastic, dorzolamide, intraocular pressure

Abdulmoghni Al-Barrag

2009-06-01

32

Oral Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

... of physical, mental, and behavioral challenges common in patients with developmental disabilities and offers strategies for providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Oral ...

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The Comparison of Efficacy of Adcortyl Ointment and Topical Tacrolimus in Treatment of Erosive Oral Lichen Planus  

OpenAIRE

Background and aims. Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a common chronic mucocutaneous disease. Patients with atrophic and erosive lichen planus often have symptoms of soreness and need proper treatment. The main therapy of OLP has been the administration of topical or systemic corticosteroids. Potent topical corticosteroids have been increasingly prescribed in the treatment of erosive lichen planus. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of adcor...

Arash Azizi; Shirin Lawaf

2007-01-01

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Clinical effects of a novel topical composition on persistent redness observed in patients who had been successfully treated with topical or oral therapy for papulopustular rosacea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rosacea is a condition most commonly characterized by central facial erythema and pupulopustules. There are highly effective drugs, both oral and topical, for papulopustular disease. At the present time, consistently effective pharmacologic therapy for erythematotelangiectatic rosacea is lacking. Patients whose papulopustular disease has been adequately treated are often still bothered by central facial erythema for which there is no adequate treatment short of laser and light. We present a study utilizing a novel topical composition evaluated for its ability to reduce background erythema remaining after adequate care of papulopustular disease. Patient, investigator and photographic evidence of erythema reduction was seen in 24/25 patients in this 8-week study. PMID:24595579

Baldwin, Hilary; Berson, Diane; Vitale, Maria; Yatskayer, Margarita; Chen, Nannan; Oresajo, Christian

2014-03-01

35

Development of hydrocortisone succinic acid/and 5-fluorouracil/chitosan microcapsules for oral and topical drug deliveries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, we demonstrated the safety use of calendula oil/chitosan microcapsules as a carrier for both oral and topical deliveries. We also reported the improved biological activity towards skin cells and Staphylococcus aureus of phyllanthin containing chitosan microcapsules. However, the possibility of both oral and topical applications was still necessary to be further studied. Here we investigated that both oral and topical applications of chitosan-based microcapsules were tested using hydrocortisone succinic acid (HSA) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), respectively. The drug loading efficiency, particle size, surface morphology and chemical compositions of both drug loaded microcapsules were confirmed by UV-vis spectrophotometer, particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The in vitro release studies revealed that both HSA and 5-FU could be released form chitosan microcapsules. The mean adrenocorticotropic hormone concentration in HSA loaded microcapsule mice plasma was detected to be lower than that of water control. One hundred micrograms per milliliter of 5-FU containing microcapsules exhibited a stronger growth inhibition towards skin keratinocytes than that of free 5-FU. In vitro drug delivery model demonstrated the delivery of 5-FU from microcapsule treated textiles into nude mice skin. Further uses of the drug loaded microcapsules may provide an efficiency deliverable tool for both oral and topical applications. PMID:22460032

Lam, Pik-Ling; Lee, Kenneth Ka-Ho; Wong, Raymond Siu-Ming; Cheng, Gregory Yin Ming; Cheng, Shuk Yan; Yuen, Marcus Chun-Wah; Lam, Kim-Hung; Gambari, Roberto; Kok, Stanton Hon-Lung; Chui, Chung-Hin

2012-05-01

36

21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn syrup. 184.1865 Section 184.1865 Food and...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or...

2010-04-01

37

The Comparison of Efficacy of Adcortyl Ointment and Topical Tacrolimus in Treatment of Erosive Oral Lichen Planus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Background and aims. Oral lichen planus (OLP is a common chronic mucocutaneous disease. Patients with atrophic and erosive lichen planus often have symptoms of soreness and need proper treatment. The main therapy of OLP has been the administration of topical or systemic corticosteroids. Potent topical corticosteroids have been increasingly prescribed in the treatment of erosive lichen planus. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of adcortyl ointment (triamcinolone in orabase with topical tacrolimus for the treatment of erosive oral lichen planus.

Materials and methods. Sixty Patients with histopathologically confirmed oral lichen planus were enrolled in the study. The severity of lesions was scored from 0 to 5 according to the criteria described in a previous study. Patients were randomly given adcortyl (group A and topical tacrolimus ointment (group B and asked to apply the medication on dried lesions 4 times a day. The lesions were evaluated after 4 weeks of treatment. Visual analogue scale was used to assess the severity of pain before and after treatment. The severity scores were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis k-sample test.

Results. The average score of lesions improved from 3.4 to 1.5 in patients who received adcortyl ointment and from 3.2 to 1.2 in patients who received topical tacrolimus ointment. The differences between the improvements in scores were not statistically significant in the two groups. The average pain severity in A and B groups was 8.2 and 7.8 at the beginning of treatment, and 3.5 and 3.2 at the end of treatment, respectively. There was a statistically significant reduction in pain severity in both groups.

Conclusion. Topical tacrolimus is a safe and effective alternative therapy in the treatment of oral lichen planus.

Arash Azizi

2007-12-01

38

Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma in an infant: improvement after treatment with oral tranilast and topical pimecrolimus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma (AEGCG) is a rare granulomatous skin disease of unknown origin that is characterized clinically by annular patches with erythematous borders and hypopigmented centers and histologically by loss of elastic fibers and elastophagocytosis. We report a case of AEGCG in an 8-month-old boy that was successfully treated with oral tranilast and topical pimecrolimus (Elidel 1.0% cream). PMID:16227100

Lee, Hae-Woong; Lee, Mi-Woo; Choi, Jee-Ho; Moon, Kee-Chan; Koh, Jai-Kyoung

2005-11-01

39

21 CFR 573.530 - Hydrogenated corn syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Hydrogenated corn syrup. 573.530 Section 573.530...Listing § 573.530 Hydrogenated corn syrup. (a) Identity. The product is produced by hydrogenation of corn syrup over a nickel catalyst....

2010-04-01

40

Neuroradiological findings in maple syrup urine disease  

OpenAIRE

Maple syrup urine disease is a rare inborn error of amino acid metabolism involving catabolic pathway of the branched-chain amino acids. This disease, if left untreated, may cause damage to the brain and may even cause death. These patients typically present with distinctive maple syrup odour of sweat and urine. Patients typically present with skin and urine smelling like maple syrup. Here we describe a case with relevant magnetic resonance imaging findings and confirmatory biochemical findings.

Indiran, Venkatraman; Gunaseelan, R. Emmanuel

2013-01-01

41

[Anaphylaxis Due to Ingestion of Ivy Syrup (Hedera hÈlix). Report of two Cases].  

Science.gov (United States)

Common ivy is an ornamental plant, that is ubiquitous in Mexico. Its allergens can cause contact dermatitis, asthma and allergic rhinitis. We describe two cases of anaphylaxis related to common ivy syrup ingestion. We performed skin prick test with Hedera helix syrup, and using a dialized and ultrafiltered of common ivy syrup commercial presentation (dry common ivy extract: 7mg/ml), as well as using Hedera helix pollen extract. We describe two cases of anaphylaxis related to ingestion of Hedera helix syrup. Skin prick test with the commercial presentation and with the pollen extract were positive in both patients. In this study we confirmed the causal relationship of anaphylaxis due to the ingestion of ivy syrup in two patients through skin prick tests with ivy syrup and ivy pollen extract. Common ivy can cause contact dermatitis, asthma and allergic rhinitis, but we do not know the allergens that could be related to systemic and respiratory reactions, then, more studies in this topic are requiered. PMID:24007931

Morfin-Maciel, Blanca María; Rosas-Alvarado, Alejandro; Velázquez-Sámano, Guillermo

2012-01-01

42

Diclofenac sodium topical solution with dimethyl sulfoxide, a viable alternative to oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories in osteoarthritis: review of current evidence  

OpenAIRE

Philip Fuller¹, Sanford Roth²¹Covidien, Hazelwood, MO; ²Arizona Research and Education, Arthritis Research Laboratory, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USAAbstract: Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may offer a safer alternative to their oral counterparts for the management of osteoarthritis. Diclofenac sodium topical solution with dimethyl sulfoxide (TDiclo) was evaluated in five randomized, controlled trials and is indicated for ...

Fuller P; Sh, Roth

2011-01-01

43

The case for advanced physics topics in oral and maxillofacial surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research in oral and maxillofacial surgery has focused mainly on principles founded in the biological and chemical sciences, which have provided excellent answers to many questions. However, recent technologic advances have begun to gain prominence in many of the medical sciences, providing clinicians with more effective tools for diagnosis and treatment. The era of modern physics has led to the development of diagnostic techniques that could provide information at a more basic level than many of the current biochemical methods used. The goal of this report is to introduce 2 of these methods and describe how they can be applied to oral and maxillofacial surgery. PMID:25234523

Tandon, Rahul; Herford, Alan S

2014-10-01

44

New lidocaine lozenge as topical anesthesia compared to lidocaine viscous oral solution before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To evaluate the effect and acceptance of a new lidocaine lozenge compared with a lidocaine viscous oral solution as a pharyngeal anesthetic before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE), a diagnostic procedure commonly performed worldwide during which many patients experience severe discomfort mostly because of the gag reflex.

Mogensen, Stine; Treldal, Charlotte

2012-01-01

45

Use of compounded dispersing media for extemporaneous pediatric syrups with candesartan cilexetil and valsartan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Available tablets or capsules for adults are often used to prepare extemporaneously formulated medicines appropriate for children. The most acceptable drug forms in pediatric population are oral liquids and pharmacists use commercial dispersing media to compound syrups from an active substance or from tablets available on the market. In many countries ready-to-use dispersing media are not available or refunded, but pharmacists can use other compounded media, providing their compatibility and stability are proven. The aim of this study was to formulate and evaluate the stability of syrups with candesartan cilexetil (1 mg mL-1) and valsartan (4 mg mL-1) extemporaneously prepared using commercial tablets (Diovan® and Atacand®). The following three different suspending media, which could be easily made in a pharmacy, were investigated: V1 - with xanthan gum (0.5 %), V2 - the USP/NF vehicle for oral solution and V3 - the medium based on a simple sucrose syrup. The stability of preparations was studied during 35 days of storage in a dark place at controlled temperature of 25 and 4 °C. During the study, microscopic observation was carried out and pH, viscosity, and concentration of candesartan cilexetil and valsartan were analyzed. Syrups with valsartan prepared with V2 and V3 media were stable for 3 or 4 weeks when stored at 25 °C, while syrups with candesartan were stable for as long as 35 days. For syrups prepared using V1 medium, the 14-day expiry date was not achieved because of microbial deterioration. PMID:25531786

Musko, Monika; Sznitowska, Malgorzata

2014-12-01

46

Improvement in oral chronic graft-versus-host disease with the administration of effervescent tablets of topical budesonide-an open, randomized, multicenter study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) frequently involves oral tissues. Although the mucosal changes may be painful and impair oral function, there is currently no topical therapy available for oral cGVHD that has been proven to work in an evidence-based manner. The aims of this study were to (1) assess the response of patients with oral cGVHD to various doses of a new topical budesonide formulation; (2) evaluate the efficacy and safety of the new topical budesonide formulation in these patients. An open, randomized, multicenter phase II pilot study with 4 treatment arms differing in application frequency and duration was performed. Response to treatment was scored by the clinician and patient using several scales. Oral cGVHD improved in all patients, with a median reduction of 70%. Pain reduction was similar in all study arms. The rate of objective improvement (defined as ?50%) was not significantly different among the 4 study arms. The safety profile was satisfactory. Topical budesonide mouthwash (3 mg/10 mL) improved oral cGVHD in all patients when applied for 5 or 10 minutes, 2 or 3 times daily. The response was similar in all treatment arms. Safety analysis supported a dosing schedule of 3 mg of budesonide 3 times a day for 10 minutes. PMID:21703973

Elad, Sharon; Zeevi, Itai; Finke, Jürgen; Koldehoff, Michael; Schwerdtfeger, Rainer; Wolff, Daniel; Mohrbacher, Ralf; Levitt, Michael; Greinwald, Roland; Shapira, Michael Y

2012-01-01

47

Efficacy of laser phototherapy in comparison to topical clobetasol for the treatment of oral lichen planus: a randomized controlled trial  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a relatively common chronic mucocutaneous inflammatory disease and a search for novel therapeutic options has been performed. We sought to compare the efficacy of laser phototherapy (LPT) to topical clobetasol propionate 0.05% for the treatment of atrophic and erosive OLP. Forty-two patients with atrophic/erosive OLP were randomly allocated to two groups: clobetasol group (n=21): application of topical clobetasol propionate gel (0.05%) three times a day; LPT group (n=21): application of laser irradiation using InGaAlP diode laser three times a week. Evaluations were performed once a week during treatment (Days 7, 14, 21, and 30) and in four weeks (Day 60) and eight weeks (Day 90) after treatment. At the end of treatment (Day 30), significant reductions in all variables were found in both groups. The LPT group had a higher percentage of complete lesion resolution. At follow-up periods (Days 60 and 90), the LPT group maintained the clinical pattern seen at Day 30, with no recurrence of the lesions, whereas the clobetasol group exhibited worsening for all variables analyzed. These findings suggest that the LPT proved more effective than topical clobetasol 0.05% for the treatment of OLP.

Dillenburg, Caroline Siviero; Martins, Marco Antonio Trevizani; Munerato, Maria Cristina; Marques, Márcia Martins; Carrard, Vinícius Coelho; Filho, Manoel Sant'Ana; Castilho, Rogério Moraes; Martins, Manoela Domingues

2014-06-01

48

Oral Mucosal Ulceration Caused by the Topical Application of a Concentrated Propolis Extract  

OpenAIRE

Propolis is a resinous mixture that is collected by honey bees from tree buds, sap flow, and other botanical sources. Propolis has been extensively used in medicine, dentistry, and cosmetics; however, unwanted effects have been reported. This paper reports a case of oral mucosal burn in a 50-year-old patient, who used an overnight application of concentrated propolis to overcome a throbbing pain in the right upper posterior mucosa. The patient was otherwise healthy and was not receiving any m...

Yuniardini Septorini Wimardhani; Anandina Irmagita Soegyanto

2014-01-01

49

Oral Mucosal Ulceration Caused by the Topical Application of a Concentrated Propolis Extract  

Science.gov (United States)

Propolis is a resinous mixture that is collected by honey bees from tree buds, sap flow, and other botanical sources. Propolis has been extensively used in medicine, dentistry, and cosmetics; however, unwanted effects have been reported. This paper reports a case of oral mucosal burn in a 50-year-old patient, who used an overnight application of concentrated propolis to overcome a throbbing pain in the right upper posterior mucosa. The patient was otherwise healthy and was not receiving any medication. She presented with painful shallow multiple irregular ulcers measuring 0.3–1?cm in diameter that were located on the right buccal mucosa and hard palate mucosa, in addition to the gingival mucosa surrounding tooth 17. Propolis-induced oral mucosal burn was diagnosed. The ulcer cleared after the prescription of tetracycline mouthwash, accompanied with Doloneurobion. The patient was further treated with carbamazepine to address the persistent throbbing pain in the affected area, which was suspected to be trigeminal neuralgia. This report provides another alert to clinicians about the potential adverse effects of propolis use for the treatment of oral diseases, despite its natural origin. PMID:25276439

Wimardhani, Yuniardini Septorini

2014-01-01

50

Efficacy of topical phenytoin on chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis; a pilot study  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available "nBackground and the Purpose of the Study: Oral mucositis is one of the most common complications of malignancy chemotherapy. As yet, no absolute treatment has been demonstrated to be effective for chemotherapy- induced oral mucositis. This study evaluates the effectiveness of phenytoin mouthwash as a wound healing agent, on the basis of stimulating effects on fibroblast proliferation. "nMaterials and Methods: In this multicenter, randomized, placebo- controlled clinical trial; twelve patients received phenytoin mouthwash (0.5% or placebo for about two weeks. Oral pain severity was scored on the daily basis using a VAS (visual analogue scale of 10 centimeters. National Cancer Institute (NCI scale was used to grade the intensity of mucositis. To determine the effect of treatment, a quality of life questionnaire, consisting of 35 queries, was filled out for all patients. Statistical analyses of data was performed using Mann- Whitney test. "nResults: The average time for complete remission of mucositis in phenytoin- treated group was less than that of the placebo group. The quality of life improved dramatically in the phenytoin group with the healing process being more evident in the first week. Furthermore, reduction in the wound area was greater in the phenytoin group than controls at the end of the first week of treatment. Both groups eventually demonstrated reduction in pain intensity; however no statistically significant difference was observed between two groups. "nConclusion: Phenytoin mouthwash accelerated wound healing and resolution of mucositis and improved life quality impressively.

M Baharvand

2010-03-01

51

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities ... OralHealth > Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens ...

52

An open randomized comparative study to test the efficacy and safety of oral terbinafine pulse as a monotherapy and in combination with topical ciclopirox olamine 8% or topical amorolfine hydrochloride 5% in the treatment of onychomycosis  

OpenAIRE

Background: Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of nails caused by dermatophytes, yeasts and molds. Aims: To study the efficacy and safety of oral terbinafine pulse as a monotherapy and in combination with topical ciclopirox olamine 8% or topical amorolfine hydrochloride 5% in onychomycosis. Methods: A clinical comparative study was undertaken on 96 Patients of onychomycosis during the period between August 2005 to July 2006. Forty-eight patients were r...

Jaiswal Amit; Sharma R.; Garg A

2007-01-01

53

Ultrasonic flotational separation of syrup with polyacrylamide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 60 degrees Bx solution of Australian raw sugar was treated at 80 degrees C with 300 ppm phosphoric acid and neutralized to pH 7 with Ca(OH)2. The resulting syrup (as model cane syrup rather than phosphatated liquor?) was subjected to flotational separation with and without ultrasonic vibration (16.5-33 kHz, 20-300 W) and/or addition of polyacrylamide (PAM; dose not stated)

54

Adherence and acceptability in MTN 001: A randomized cross-over trial of daily oral and topical tenofovir for HIV prevention in women  

OpenAIRE

We compared adherence to and acceptability of daily topical and oral formulations of tenofovir (TFV) used as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention among women in South Africa, Uganda and the United States. 144 sexually active, HIV-uninfected women participated in a cross-over study of three regimens: oral tablet, vaginal gel, or both. We tested for differences in adherence and evaluated product acceptability. Self-reported adherence for all regimens was high (94%), but serum TFV ...

Minnis, Alexandra M.; Gandham, Sharavi; Richardson, Barbra A.; Guddera, Vijayanand; Chen, Beatrice A.; Salata, Robert; Nakabiito, Clemensia; Hoesley, Craig; Justman, Jessica; Soto-torres, Lydia; Patterson, Karen; Gomez, Kailazarid; Hendrix, Craig

2013-01-01

55

An open randomized comparative study to test the efficacy and safety of oral terbinafine pulse as a monotherapy and in combination with topical ciclopirox olamine 8% or topical amorolfine hydrochloride 5% in the treatment of onychomycosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of nails caused by dermatophytes, yeasts and molds. Aims: To study the efficacy and safety of oral terbinafine pulse as a monotherapy and in combination with topical ciclopirox olamine 8% or topical amorolfine hydrochloride 5% in onychomycosis. Methods: A clinical comparative study was undertaken on 96 Patients of onychomycosis during the period between August 2005 to July 2006. Forty-eight patients were randomly assigned in group A to receive oral terbinafine 250 mg, one tablet twice daily for seven days every month (pulse therapy; 24 patients in group B to receive oral terbinafine pulse therapy plus topical ciclopirox olamine 8% to be applied once daily at night on all affected nails; and 24 patients in group C to receive oral terbinafine pulse therapy plus topical amorolfine hydrochloride 5% to be applied once weekly at night on all the affected nails. The treatment was continued for four months. The patients were evaluated at four weekly intervals till sixteen weeks and then at 24 and 36 weeks. Results: We observed clinical cure in 71.73, 82.60 and 73.91% patients in groups A, B and C, respectively; Mycological cure rates against dematophytes were 88.9, 88.9 and 85.7 in groups A, B and C, respectively. The yeast mycological cure rates were 66.7, 100 and 50 in groups A, B and C, respectively. In the case of nondermatophytes, the overall response was poor: one out of two cases (50% responded in group A, while one case each in group B and group C did not respond at all. Conclusion: Terbinafine pulse therapy is effective and safe alternative in treatment of onychomycosis due to dermatophytes; and combination therapy with topical ciclopirox or amorolfine do not show any significant difference in efficacy in comparison to monotherapy with oral terbinafine.

Jaiswal Amit

2007-01-01

56

Efficacy and safety of topical or oral methoxsalen plus ultraviolet A in the treatment of vitiligo  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aim: Vitiligo is a common skin disorder that presents as depigmented patchs and associated with psychosocial morbidity. Photochemotherapy with methoxsalen plus ultraviolet A (PUVA is an effective and commonly used modality in treatment of vitiligo and is available in Khorasan Province since more than ten years ago."n"nMethods: This uncontrolled clinical trial included patients with vitiligo referred to phototherapy center in Emam Reza Hospital in Mashhad during 1998-1999. Treatment was done topically on patients with involvement less than 2% of the body area and systemic in cases with involvement more than that. Data including improvement rate and side effects were analyzed by SPSS software version 11.5."n"nResults: One-hundred and thirty-five patients, 79 female and 56 male, were enrolled.  One-hundred and twenty-six patients were treated systemically and 9 patients underwent topical therapy. Complete (100% repigmentation was observed in one patient. Repigmentation of 80-99%, 60-79%, 40-59%, 20-39% and less than 20% were observed in 53, 43, 12, 6 and 20 patients; respectively. Results were significantly better in generalized vitiligo, face involvement, and cases whom recieved more than 200 treatment sessions, but there was not significant relationship between improvement and patients' age, family history, the first involved area, beginning time of repigmentation, the observed interval between initiation of treatment and disorder appearance, and skin type. Common side effects were pruritus (69.6%, erythema (52.6%, nausea and vomiting (28.9%, and headache (17.8%."n"nConclusion: PUVA therapy is an effective and safe treatment in patients with vitiligo, and has good results in nonsegmental vitiligo and facial involvement.

Mohammad Ebrahimirad

2011-03-01

57

21 CFR 184.1866 - High fructose corn syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1866 High fructose corn syrup. (a) High fructose corn syrup, a sweet, nutritive saccharide mixture...aqueous solution from high dextrose-equivalent corn starch hydrolysate by partial enzymatic...

2010-04-01

58

Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup)  

Science.gov (United States)

... site Citation Site Map Drug Facts Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup) Home / Drug Facts / Cough ... and Codeine Syrup) Print What Are Cough and Cold Medicines? Also known as: robotripping, robo, tussin, triple c, ...

59

21 CFR 520.622b - Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. 520.622b Section 520.622b...DRUGS § 520.622b Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. (a)(1) Specifications...contains 60 milligrams of diethylcarbamazine citrate. (2) Sponsor. See No....

2010-04-01

60

Decontamination of sugar syrup by pulsed light.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pulsed light produced by xenon flash lamps was applied to 65 to 67 °Brix sugar syrups artificially contaminated with suspensions of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and with spores of Bacillus subtilis, Geobacillus stearothermophilus, Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris, and Aspergillus niger. The emitted pulsed light contained 18.5 % UV radiation. At least 3-log reductions of S. cerevisiae, B. subtilis, G. stearothermophilus, and A. acidoterrestris suspended in 3-mm-deep volumes of sugar syrup were obtained with a fluence of the incident pulsed light equal to or less than 1.8 J/cm(2), and the same results were obtained for B. subtilis and A. acidoterrestris suspended in 10-mm-deep volumes of sugar syrup. A. niger spores would require a more intense treatment; for instance, the maximal log reduction was close to 1 with a fluence of the incident pulsed light of 1.2 J/cm(2). A flowthrough reactor with a flow rate of 320 ml/min and a flow gap of 2.15 mm was designed for pulsed light treatment of sugar syrup. Using this device, a 3-log reduction of A. acidoterrestris spores was obtained with 3 to 4 pulses of incident pulsed light at 0.91 J/cm(2) per sugar syrup volume. PMID:22564941

Chaine, Aline; Levy, Caroline; Lacour, Bernard; Riedel, Christophe; Carlin, Frédéric

2012-05-01

61

Bronchodilating Activity of Formulated Syrup of Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Moraceae) Root Extract in Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) root extract, with a bronchodilating agent, is traditionally used for treating asthma. To provide a scientific basis for such claim, this study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the formulated syrup of such extract by determining its acute oral toxicity level, approximate effective dose, the significant difference in the total leukocyte count (TLC), total eosinophil count (TEC) and histopathologic evaluation of lung tissue. Female Swiss ...

Bersabal, Kathleen G.; Alaza, Angeli B.; Claro, Charlotte Grace D.; Licatan, Bianca Karla P.

2012-01-01

62

Comparative efficacy of oral rifampin and topical chloramphenicol in eradicating conjunctival carriage of Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius. Brazilian Purpuric Fever Study Group.  

Science.gov (United States)

Persistent conjunctival carriage of the Haemophilus influenzae biogroup aegyptius (Hae) strain (BPF clone) responsible for Brazilian purpuric fever (BPF) has been documented. Topical chloramphenicol is routinely used to treat conjunctivitis in areas affected by BPF in Brazil. Although the BPF clone is susceptible to chloramphenicol, we observed a number of children treated with topical chloramphenicol for conjunctivitis who still developed BPF. During an investigation of an outbreak of BPF in Mato Grosso State, Brazil, we compared oral rifampin (20 mg/kg/day for 4 days) with topical chloramphenicol for eradication of conjunctival carriage of H. influenzae biogroup aegyptius among children with presumed BPF clone conjunctivitis. Conjunctival samples were taken for culture on the day treatment was initiated and a mean of 8 and 21 days later. At 8 days the eradication rates for oral rifampin and topical chloramphenicol were 100 and 44%, respectively (P = 0.003); at 21 days they were 100 and 50% (P = 0.01). Oral rifampin was more effective than topical chloramphenicol for eradication of the BPF clone and may be useful in prevention of BPF. PMID:1448311

Perkins, B A; Tondella, M L; Bortolotto, I M; Takano, O A; da Silva, G A; Irino, K; Brandileone, M C; Harrison, L H; Wenger, J D; Broome, C V

1992-09-01

63

21 CFR 184.1866 - High fructose corn syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true High fructose corn syrup. 184.1866 Section 184.1866 Food...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1866 High fructose corn syrup. (a) High fructose corn syrup, a sweet, nutritive saccharide...

2010-04-01

64

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... of physical, mental, and behavioral challenges common in patients with developmental disabilities and offers strategies for providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam ...

65

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect ...

66

Clinical application of oral form of ANGIPARSTM and in combination with topical form as a new treatment for diabetic foot ulcers: A randomized clinical trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available ANGIPARSTM is a new herbal extract which has been produced in oral, topical, and intravenous forms. The present article contains preliminary results of the study which was planned to evaluate the efficacy and safety of orally applied ANGIPARSTM and to compare it with the combination of oral and topical forms and also with conventional therapy in patients with diabetic ulcers of the lower extremities."nTwenty one patients with diabetic foot ulcers were divided into 3 groups. The first group received 100 mg of oral ANGIPARSTM twice a day for 6 weeks in addition to conventional therapies. In the second group, ANGIPARSTM gel 3% was added to the oral form of the same product besides the conventional therapies for the same period of time. Finally, in the third group which was considered as control, only conventional therapies were performed. The patients were followed for 6 weeks. Parameters such as granulation tissue formation, skin epithelization, and wound surface areas changes were analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the compound in wounds healing. Furthermore, drug safety was assessed by monitoring adverse events and by clinical and laboratory evaluations."nThe study data showed significant differences between the intervention and control groups with respect to efficacy and tolerability. In each intervention group, primary wound healings occurred following 2 weeks. Complete wound healing which was greater than 70% improvement in wounds surface areas was achieved in 83% and 100% of group 1 and group 2 participants, respectively after 6 weeks. On the other hand, at the same period of time, only 22.2% of patients in control group revealed complete healing. Therefore, ANGIPARSTM had significant positive effect in increasing the incidence of complete wound closure compared with control group (p = 0.042. However, our evaluations indicated that adding topical treatment with 3% gel once a day to the oral therapy with the same product did not make significant difference in healing outcomes statistically (p = 0.769. Clinical and paraclinical evaluations did not show any adverse events during the study."nThis study showed that in diabetic foot ulcers, either treatment with oral ANGIPARSTM capsules (100mg twice a day or combination therapy with oral and topical forms, in conjunction with good wound care significantly increased the incidence of complete wound closure. In addition, the application of this product was safe and did not make any unexpected adverse event.

Bahrami A

2008-04-01

67

EVALUATION OF ANTITUSSIVE ACTIVITY OF VASU COUGH SYRUP IN SULPHUR DIOXIDE (SO2 INDUCED COUGH MODEL IN MICE  

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Full Text Available Cough is the most common symptom of respiratory diseases. When cough becomes serious, opioid drugs are effective, but they have side effects like sedation, delirium, constipation etc.. Therefore, there is a need to search out effective anti-tussive agents that are free from previously mentioned side effects. The present study was carried out to evaluate acute oral toxicity study and anti-tussive activity of Vasu Cough Syrup in sulphur dioxide (SO2-induced cough model in mice. Albino mice of either sex, weighing 25-30 g were divided into four groups (n = 6. Group I served as Disease control, Group II received standard drug i.e. Codeine phosphate (10 mg/kg, p.o., group III to IV were given Vasu Cough Syrup 0.25mL/kg and 0.5mL/kg body wt. p.o., dose. After 30 minutes, the mice were exposed to Sulphur dioxide for 30 sec. The mice were then placed in an observation chamber for counting of cough bouts for five minutes. Vasu Cough Syrup showed 63.91% and 70.64% inhibition in frequency of cough at 0.25mL/kg and 0.5mL/kg dose level respectively. It proves significant anti-tussive activity of Vasu Cough Syrup in Sulphur dioxide induced cough model. Thus, Vasu Cough Syrup can be useful as an alternative medicine for cough.

Patel Hirenjal

2013-06-01

68

Comparative efficacy on dogs of a single topical treatment with the pioneer fipronil/(S)-methoprene and an oral treatment with spinosad against Ctenocephalides felis  

OpenAIRE

In the study reported here, the pioneer fipronil/(S)-methoprene topical product (FRONTLINE® PLUS, Merial Limited, Duluth, GA) was compared to the oral spinosad product (COMFORTIS® Elanco, Greenfield, IN) for efficacy against adult fleas and preventing egg production. The product presentations, doses and labelling were the one applicable in the USA. Using a standard protocol, 200 cat fleas of mixed sex were applied to dogs on Days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42. Dogs were combed to remove flea...

Beugnet, F.; Doyle, V.; Murray, M.; Chalvet-monfray, K.

2011-01-01

69

Diclofenac sodium topical solution with dimethyl sulfoxide, a viable alternative to oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories in osteoarthritis: review of current evidence  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Philip Fuller¹, Sanford Roth²¹Covidien, Hazelwood, MO; ²Arizona Research and Education, Arthritis Research Laboratory, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USAAbstract: Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs may offer a safer alternative to their oral counterparts for the management of osteoarthritis. Diclofenac sodium topical solution with dimethyl sulfoxide (TDiclo was evaluated in five randomized, controlled trials and is indicated for treatment of the signs and symptoms associated with osteoarthritis of the knee. Three studies showed that TDiclo is superior to placebo and vehicle control with respect to pain, physical function, and perception of osteoarthritis symptoms. Two studies showed that benefits are similar to those of oral diclofenac, with one study demonstrating statistical equivalence. The most common adverse event associated with TDiclo in these studies was dry skin. Incidences of gastrointestinal adverse events and abnormal levels of liver enzymes were lower with TDiclo compared with oral diclofenac in active-controlled studies. Based on these studies, TDiclo represents a practical, evidence-based option for the management of osteoarthritis of the knee.Keywords: osteoarthritis, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, diclofenac, topical analgesic

Fuller P

2011-07-01

70

Bronchodilating Activity of Formulated Syrup of Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Moraceae Root Extract in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus root extract, with a bronchodilating agent, is traditionally used for treating asthma. To provide a scientific basis for such claim, this study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the formulated syrup of such extract by determining its acute oral toxicity level, approximate effective dose, the significant difference in the total leukocyte count (TLC, total eosinophil count (TEC and histopathologic evaluation of lung tissue. Female Swiss mice were used to determine the toxicity at selected fixed dose levels of 5, 50, 300 and 2000 mg/kg. Approximate Effective Dose (AED determination was conducted using female albino rats with a logarithmic increase by 0.6 intervals. Animals were administered with alumovalbumin and desired dose of root extract, respectively. Blood samples were collected for leukocyte and eosinophil counts. It was found that acute oral toxicity was at 2000mg/kg and 5000 mg/kg. AED has significant influence on TLC and TEC at dose levels of 15.85, 251.19, 1000 and 3981.07 mg/ kg. Analysis of Variance showed a significant difference in the mean of the decrease in the total leukocyte count due to the formulated syrup of root extract, Salbutamol (positive control and plain syrup (negative control. Tukey's multiple comparison tests, t-test and histopathologic evaluation on the group treated with Salbutamol and root extract formulation showed no significant difference on the TLC and TEC. Salbutamol was not significantly different from the formulated syrup. Hence, both treatments were effective as bronchodilating agents.

Kathleen G. Bersabal

2012-10-01

71

Liposomal lidocaine gel for topical use at the oral mucosa: characterization, in vitro assays and in vivo anesthetic efficacy in humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Objective: To characterize liposomal-lidocaine formulations for topical use on oral mucosa and to compare their in vitro permeation and in vivo anesthetic efficacy with commercially available lidocaine formulations. Materials and methods: Large unilamellar liposomes (400?nm) containing lidocaine were prepared using phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol, and ?-tocoferol (4:3:0.07, w:w:w) and were characterized in terms of membrane/water partition coefficient, encapsulation efficiency, size, polydispersity, zeta potential, and in vitro release. In vitro permeation across pig palatal mucosa and in vivo topical anesthetic efficacy on the palatal mucosa in healthy volunteers (double-blinded cross-over, placebo controlled study) were performed. The following formulations were tested: liposome-encapsulated 5% lidocaine (Liposome-Lido5); liposome-encapsulated 2.5% lidocaine (Liposome-Lido2.5); 5% lidocaine ointment (Xylocaina®), and eutectic mixture of lidocaine and prilocaine 2.5% (EMLA®). Results: The Liposome-Lido5 and EMLA showed the best in vitro permeation parameters (flux and permeability coefficient) in comparison with Xylocaina and placebo groups, as well as the best in vivo topical anesthetic efficacy. Conclusion: We successfully developed and characterized a liposome encapsulated 5% lidocaine gel. It could be considered an option to other topical anesthetic agents for oral mucosa. PMID:24807821

Franz-Montan, Michelle; Baroni, Daniela; Brunetto, Giovana; Sobral, Viviane Roberta Vieira; da Silva, Camila Morais Gonçalves; Venâncio, Paulo; Zago, Patricia Wiziack; Cereda, Cintia Maria Saia; Volpato, Maria Cristina; de Araújo, Daniele Ribeiro; de Paula, Eneida; Groppo, Francisco Carlos

2014-05-01

72

Placebo controlled, crossover validation study of oral ibuprofen and topical hydrocortisone-21-acetate for a model of ultraviolet B radiation (UVR-induced pain and inflammation  

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Full Text Available Matthias Rother, Ilka RotherDepartment of Clinical Operations, X-pert Med GmbH, Graefelfing, GermanyBackground: Pain related to ultraviolet B radiation (UVR induced sunburn is an established, simple, acute pain model. One of the major criticisms is related to the potential dermal adverse events caused by the UVR exposure. This study tried to validate the model for oral and topical drugs and to define the minimum required UVR exposure.Methods: This subject- and observer-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study evaluated 600 mg oral ibuprofen (IB and topical hydrocortisone-21-acetate (HC twice daily (bid in 24 healthy volunteers. Treatment started immediately after irradiation and again at 12 hours, 24 hours, and 36 hours post-UVR. Assessment of hyperalgesia to heat and signs of inflammation (erythema, skin temperature for all areas was performed after UVR and again at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours. Subjects returned within 4–11 days to the study site for the second period of the study. As in the first period, subjects received HC at one side and topical placebo on the other side, but oral treatment was crossed-over.Results: The primary analysis failed to show the expected superiority of the IB-group vs the placebo group in period 1 of the study. Evaluating period 2 alone clearly showed the expected treatment effects of IB for erythema and heat pain threshold. The results were less pronounced for skin temperature. In contrast to IB vs oral placebo, there were no differences in treatment response between HC and topical placebo. UVR at all dosages induced profound erythema and reduction of heat pain threshold without causing blisters or other unexpected discomfort to the subjects. The changes were almost linear between 1 and 2 minimal erythema doses (MED, whereas the change from 2 to 3 MED was less pronounced.Conclusion: Use of 2 MED in upcoming studies seems to be reasonable to limit subjects' UVB exposure. The following procedural changes are suggested:• Intensified training sessions before randomization to treatment• Increase in sample size if they are crossover studies• Simplification in design (either oral or topical treatmentKeywords: ibuprofen, hydrocortisone-21-acetate, pain, inflammation, UV radiation, validation

Rother M

2011-10-01

73

Molecular Models of Compounds in Maple Syrup  

Science.gov (United States)

This month's issue of J. Chem. Educ. includes articles by David Ball dealing with the chemical composition of honey (1) and maple syrup (2). The JCE Featured Molecules for this month are drawn from those papers. In prior months we have included sucrose, glucose, and fructose (3), and all of the naturally occurring amino acids (4) in the molecule collection. This month we add the molecules identified in Table 4 of ref 2 as probable contributors to the taste of maple syrup. This group of molecules could serve easily as a starting point for a variety of student activities in the area of taste. Students in non-majors courses could be asked to identify structural similarities and differences among the various molecules and could be introduced to functional groups. Students could look for other foods in which some of these molecules are found, and could begin to develop a list of molecules contributing to flavor. In the penultimate paragraph of the maple syrup paper there is a list of substances used as flavoring agents in artificial (maple) syrup. What molecules are in fenugreek and lovage that might be important in flavoring? What are the structures of the other molecules in that paragraph and what, if any, structural features do they have in common with the featured molecules? Students in organic or biochemistry courses could begin to explore the chemistry of taste in more detail. Good starting points for this work are The Chemistry of Taste: Mechanisms, Behaviors, and Mimics by Peter Given and Dulce Paredes (5) and the Chemical and Engineering News Web site (6), which includes a number of articles on this subject.

74

Anthelmintic Evaluation of Formulated Polyherbal Syrup  

OpenAIRE

Helminthiasis is an infection of the human body with parasitic worm such as roundworms, earthworms, hookworms, flukes, tapeworms and pinworms. The worms usually only involve the intestinal tract but sometimes they may invade other organs. The present study was done with the aim to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of formulated polyherbal syrup containing traditionally used herbs like Neolamarckia cadamba and Alstonia scholaris using adult earthworms Eisenia foetida against albendazole as st...

Da, Patel; Ul, Patel; Pb, Shah; Hk, Kadikar

2012-01-01

75

Randomized double-blind clinical trial comparing clobetasol and dexamethasone for the topical treatment of symptomatic oral chronic graft-versus-host disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients who undergo allogeneic stem cell transplantation frequently develop an immunologic disease caused by the reactivation of the graft to the host tissues. This disease is called graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and it is usually a systemic disorder. In a large proportion of cases, oral disorders that are related to a chronic phase of GVHD (cGVHD) occur, and their treatment involves the use of topical immunosuppressive drugs. Several medications have been studied for this purpose, but only a small number of clinical trials have been published. The present study is a randomized, double-blind clinical trial that compares topical clobetasol and dexamethasone for the treatment of symptomatic oral cGVHD. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment with clobetasol propionate .05% or dexamethasone .1 mg/mL for 28 days. In both arms, nystatin 100,000 IU/mL was administered with the corticosteroid. Oral lesions were evaluated by the modified oral mucositis rating scale (mOMRS) and symptoms were registered using a visual analogue scale. Thirty-five patients were recruited, and 32 patients were randomized into the study groups: 18 patients (56.3%) to the dexamethasone group and 14 patients (43.8%) to the clobetasol group. The use of clobetasol resulted in a significant reduction in mOMRS total score (P = .04) and in the score for ulcers (P = .03). In both groups, there was significant symptomatic improvement but the response was significantly greater in the clobetasol group (P = .02). In conclusion, clobetasol was significantly more effective than dexamethasone for the amelioration of symptoms and clinical aspects of oral lesions in cGVHD. PMID:24727333

Noce, Cesar W; Gomes, Alessandra; Shcaira, Vanessa; Corrêa, Maria Elvira P; Moreira, Maria Cláudia R; Silva Júnior, Arley; Gonçalves, Lúcio Souza; Garnica, Marcia; Maiolino, Angelo; Torres, Sandra R

2014-08-01

76

Effects of systemic or topical administration of sodium selenite on early radiation effects in mouse oral mucosa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: to quantify the effect of sodium selenite (selenium) on radiation-induced oral mucositis (mouse) after subcutaneous or topical administration. Material and methods: mucosal ulceration of the lower epithelium of mouse tongue was analyzed. Selenium (5 ?g) was applied subcutaneously (s.c.) or locally, 60 min or 30 min prior to irradiation, respectively. In combination with single-dose irradiation, a single selenium application was given. With daily fractionated irradiation (3 Gy/fraction) for 1 week (days 0-4), selenium was administered at all 5 days of irradiation. With ten fractions over 2 weeks, selenium was applied in week 1, week 2, or both. All fractionation protocols were terminated by graded test doses to generate full dose-effect curves. Results: in a single-dose control experiment, the ED50 (dose after which ulcer induction is expected in 50% of the mice) was 12.9 ± 1.6 Gy. Selenium increased the ED50 to 17.7 ± 2.6 Gy (s.c.; p = 0.0003) and 16.3 ± 3.0 Gy (local; p = 0.0104). The ED50 for test irradiation after 5 x 3 Gy was 7.4 ± 2.2 Gy. Subcutaneous administration of selenium resulted in an ED50 of 11.5 ± 2.0 Gy (p = 0.0015), local application yielded an ED50 of 10.0 ± 2.1 Gy (p = 0.0284). The ED50 for test irradiation after 10 x 3 Gy/2 weeks was 8.0 ± 1.7 Gy. Subcutaneous or local administration of selenium in week 1 yielded a significant increase in ED50 to 10.5 ± 1se in ED50 to 10.5 ± 1.0 Gy (p = 0.0069) and 10.7 ± 1.0 Gy (p = 0.0039), respectively. By clear contrast, selenium administration in week 2 had no significant effect. Administration in both weeks resulted in an ED50 of 9.1 ± 2.0 Gy (s.c.; p = 0.2747) and 9.7 ± 1.4 Gy (local; p = 0.0541). Conclusion: administration of sodium selenite during clinically relevant fractionated irradiation protocols has a significant effect during the initial treatment phase, i.e., week 1 in the mouse. Therefore, in clinical radiotherapy, the latent time to manifestation of confluent mucositis may be significantly prolonged, and hence the burden for the patient clearly reduced by selenium. (orig.)

77

Effects of systemic or topical administration of sodium selenite on early radiation effects in mouse oral mucosa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: to quantify the effect of sodium selenite (selenium) on radiation-induced oral mucositis (mouse) after subcutaneous or topical administration. Material and methods: mucosal ulceration of the lower epithelium of mouse tongue was analyzed. Selenium (5 {mu}g) was applied subcutaneously (s.c.) or locally, 60 min or 30 min prior to irradiation, respectively. In combination with single-dose irradiation, a single selenium application was given. With daily fractionated irradiation (3 Gy/fraction) for 1 week (days 0-4), selenium was administered at all 5 days of irradiation. With ten fractions over 2 weeks, selenium was applied in week 1, week 2, or both. All fractionation protocols were terminated by graded test doses to generate full dose-effect curves. Results: in a single-dose control experiment, the ED{sub 50} (dose after which ulcer induction is expected in 50% of the mice) was 12.9 {+-} 1.6 Gy. Selenium increased the ED{sub 50} to 17.7 {+-} 2.6 Gy (s.c.; p = 0.0003) and 16.3 {+-} 3.0 Gy (local; p = 0.0104). The ED{sub 50} for test irradiation after 5 x 3 Gy was 7.4 {+-} 2.2 Gy. Subcutaneous administration of selenium resulted in an ED{sub 50} of 11.5 {+-} 2.0 Gy (p = 0.0015), local application yielded an ED{sub 50} of 10.0 {+-} 2.1 Gy (p = 0.0284). The ED{sub 50} for test irradiation after 10 x 3 Gy/2 weeks was 8.0 {+-} 1.7 Gy. Subcutaneous or local administration of selenium in week 1 yielded a significant increase in ED{sub 50} to 10.5 {+-} 1.0 Gy (p = 0.0069) and 10.7 {+-} 1.0 Gy (p = 0.0039), respectively. By clear contrast, selenium administration in week 2 had no significant effect. Administration in both weeks resulted in an ED{sub 50} of 9.1 {+-} 2.0 Gy (s.c.; p = 0.2747) and 9.7 {+-} 1.4 Gy (local; p = 0.0541). Conclusion: administration of sodium selenite during clinically relevant fractionated irradiation protocols has a significant effect during the initial treatment phase, i.e., week 1 in the mouse. Therefore, in clinical radiotherapy, the latent time to manifestation of confluent mucositis may be significantly prolonged, and hence the burden for the patient clearly reduced by selenium. (orig.)

Gehrisch, A. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Technical Univ. of Dresden (Germany); Doerr, W. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Technical Univ. of Dresden (Germany); Experimental Center, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Technical Univ. of Dresden (Germany)

2007-01-15

78

Utilization of date syrup as a tablet binder, comparative study  

OpenAIRE

The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using dates syrup as a tablet binder. Dates syrup (40%, 50%, 60% w/w dates syrup:water) was utilized for the granulation of sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate as examples for water-soluble and water-insoluble materials; correspondingly. Those two materials represent examples of bulky drugs as well. Starch paste (10% w/w starch in water) and sucrose syrup (50% w/w sucrose in water), the well-known tablet binders, were used in th...

Alanazi, Fars Kaed

2010-01-01

79

Acceptability of oral and topical HIV chemoprophylaxis in India: implications for at-risk women and men who have sex with men.  

Science.gov (United States)

With reducing HIV prevalence, India has made gains in containing the epidemic. Yet, unprotected sex and commercial sex work, unprotected anal sex between men and needle sharing among intravenous drug users continue to drive the epidemic. Development of effective, safe and acceptable topical (microbicides) and oral (pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)) chemoprophylaxis could augment the already available tools for HIV prevention. This paper reviews the acceptability of topical microbicides and oral PrEP, in the context of the nature of the HIV epidemic, the sociocultural norms and the acceptability data obtained from studies carried out in India. Overall, men and women have a positive attitude towards the concept and use of microbicide products. Self-perceptions of HIV risk, product attributes, ease and convenience of use during sex, gender norms, the sociocultural context and the potential for undisclosed use were important factors influencing acceptability. A multipurpose product that would simultaneously address women's contraceptive and disease prevention needs would be devoid of the stigma attached to an anti-HIV product and may be more acceptable. Limited information on the acceptability of oral PrEP amongst high-risk groups merits further research, including carrying out demonstration projects for program introduction. PMID:24119324

Chandhiok, Nomita; Joshi, Smita N; Gangakhedkar, Raman

2014-07-01

80

Oral Cancer Exam  

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Full Text Available ... Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents an overview of physical, mental, and behavioral challenges common in patients with developmental disabilities and offers strategies for providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Oral ...

81

TASTE MASKING IN SYRUP CONTAINING HERBAL BITTER DRUGS: FORMULATION, STANDARDIZATION AND STABILITY STUDIES  

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Full Text Available Taste masking of bitter drugs has been challenge to scientists as taste is an important parameter governing patient compliance. Several oral pharmaceuticals, numerous food and beverage products and bulking agents have unpleasant bitter taste. In order to ensure patient compliance bitterness masking becomes essential. The desire of improving the palatability has prompted the development of numerous formulations with improved performance and acceptability. Several approaches namely sensory, barrier, chemical and complexation have been tried to mask the unpleasant taste of formulation. The purpose of the present was to evaluate the bitterness of the prepared syrup formulation by using human taste sensor.

T. P. Nimbekar

2011-04-01

82

Pharmacokinetics of potassium chloride in wax-based and syrup formulations.  

OpenAIRE

The effect on plasma potassium of 64 mmol potassium chloride (KCl) in two oral formulations was compared against placebo in five healthy men, and their bioavailability was calculated from urinary data. Mean plasma potassium varied between 4.0-4.6 mmol/l during the placebo phase and mean (s.d.) urinary potassium excretion was 84.4 (18.5) mmol over 36 h. KCl syrup produced a significant change in plasma potassium over 24 h (P less than 0.02) with a marked elevation in the first 3 h after dosing...

Toner, J. M.; Ramsay, L. E.

1985-01-01

83

Anthelmintic Evaluation of Formulated Polyherbal Syrup  

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Full Text Available Helminthiasis is an infection of the human body with parasitic worm such as roundworms, earthworms, hookworms, flukes, tapeworms and pinworms. The worms usually only involve the intestinal tract but sometimes they may invade other organs. The present study was done with the aim to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of formulated polyherbal syrup containing traditionally used herbs like Neolamarckia cadamba and Alstonia scholaris using adult earthworms Eisenia foetida against albendazole as standard reference and normal saline as control. The time to achieve paralysis of the worms was determined.

Patel DA

2012-10-01

84

Oral beclomethasone dipropionate: a topically active corticosteroid for the treatment of gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) is a topically active anti-inflammatory corticosteroid. Oral BDP is metabolized in the intestine to a potent metabolite, 17-beclomethasone monopropionate (17-BMP). An oral formulation (orBec; DOR BioPharma), consisting of a gastric release and an enteric-coated pill, was studied in patients with acute gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease, an inflammatory disorder that is common after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Randomized trials demonstrated that orBec is safe and effective in treating acute gastrointestinal graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) when used with a short induction course of prednisone, reducing the risk of GVHD treatment failure by > 60% and reducing mortality 1 year after randomization by 45%, with fewer deaths due to infection and recurrent malignancy. The type of conditioning and the type of donor had no effect on the frequency of GVHD treatment failure during the 80-day study period; the greatest benefit in terms of survival was among patients who had received reduced-intensity conditioning therapy and among those who received a graft from other than a human leukocyte antigen-matched sibling. orBec controls the intestinal inflammatory process of GVHD and avoids prolonged exposure to prednisone, which is the present standard of care. Oral BDP is the only therapy to be studied in the last 30 years to effectively treat acute GVHD and reduce mortality. PMID:17922633

McDonald, George B

2007-10-01

85

Topical or oral administration with an extract of Polypodium leucotomos prevents acute sunburn and psoralen-induced phototoxic reactions as well as depletion of Langerhans cells in human skin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sunburn, immune suppression, photo-aging, and skin cancers result from uncontrolled overexposure of human skin to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Preventive measures, including photo-protection, are helpful and can be achieved by topical sun-screening agents. Polypodium leucotomos (PL) has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and has shown some in vitro and in vivo immunomodulating properties. Its beneficial photo-protective effects in the treatment of vitiligo and its antioxidant properties encouraged us to evaluate in vivo the potentially useful photo-protective property of natural extract of PL after topical application or oral ingestion. Twenty-one healthy volunteers [either untreated or treated with oral psoralens (8-MOP or 5-MOP)] were enrolled in this study and exposed to solar radiation for evaluation of the following clinical parameters: immediate pigment darkening (IPD), minimal erythema dose (MED), minimal melanogenic dose (MMD), and minimal phototoxic dose (MPD) before and after topical or oral administration of PL. Immunohistochemical assessment of CD1a-expressing epidermal cells were also performed. PL was found to be photo-protective after topical application as well as oral administration. PL increased UV dose required for IPD (P<0.01), MED (P<0.001) and MPD (P<0.001). After oral administration of PL, MED increased 2.,8±0.59 times and MPD increased 2.75±0.5 and 6.8±1.3 times depending upon the type of psoralen used. Immunohistochee type of psoralen used. Immunohistochemical study revealed photo-protection of Langherhans cells by oral as well as topical PL. The observed photo-protective activities of oral or topical PL reveal a new avenue in examining the potentially useful field of systemic photo-protection and suggests that PL can be used as adjunct treatment and can make photochemotherapy and phototherapy possibly safe and effective when the control of cutaneous phototoxicity to PUVA or UVB is a limiting factor in such photo-therapies. (au)

86

Topical or oral administration with an extract of Polypodium leucotomos prevents acute sunburn and psoralen-induced phototoxic reactions as well as depletion of Langerhans cells in human skin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sunburn, immune suppression, photo-aging, and skin cancers result from uncontrolled overexposure of human skin to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Preventive measures, including photo-protection, are helpful and can be achieved by topical sun-screening agents. Polypodium leucotomos (PL) has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and has shown some in vitro and in vivo immunomodulating properties. Its beneficial photo-protective effects in the treatment of vitiligo and its antioxidant properties encouraged us to evaluate in vivo the potentially useful photo-protective property of natural extract of PL after topical application or oral ingestion. Twenty-one healthy volunteers [either untreated or treated with oral psoralens (8-MOP or 5-MOP)] were enrolled in this study and exposed to solar radiation for evaluation of the following clinical parameters: immediate pigment darkening (IPD), minimal erythema dose (MED), minimal melanogenic dose (MMD), and minimal phototoxic dose (MPD) before and after topical or oral administration of PL. Immunohistochemical assessment of CD1a-expressing epidermal cells were also performed. PL was found to be photo-protective after topical application as well as oral administration. PL increased UV dose required for IPD (P<0.01), MED (P<0.001) and MPD (P<0.001). After oral administration of PL, MED increased 2.,8{+-}0.59 times and MPD increased 2.75{+-}0.5 and 6.8{+-}1.3 times depending upon the type of psoralen used. Immunohistochemical study revealed photo-protection of Langherhans cells by oral as well as topical PL. The observed photo-protective activities of oral or topical PL reveal a new avenue in examining the potentially useful field of systemic photo-protection and suggests that PL can be used as adjunct treatment and can make photochemotherapy and phototherapy possibly safe and effective when the control of cutaneous phototoxicity to PUVA or UVB is a limiting factor in such photo-therapies. (au). 50 refs.

Gonzalez, S.; Pathak, M.A.; Fitzpatrick, T.B. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Dept. of Dermatology, Boston, MA (United States); Cuevas, J. [Hospital Universitario de Guadalajara, Dept. of Pathology, Guadalajara (Spain); Villarrubia, V.G. [I.F. Cantabria SA, Medical Dept., Immunology Sect., Madrid (Spain)

1997-12-31

87

TOIB Study. Are topical or oral ibuprofen equally effective for the treatment of chronic knee pain presenting in primary care: a randomised controlled trial with patient preference study. [ISRCTN79353052  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Many older people have chronic knee pain. Both topical and oral non- steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are commonly used to treat this. Oral NSAIDS are effective, at least in the short term, but can have severe adverse effects. Topical NSAIDs also appear to be effective, at least in the short term. One might expect topical NSAIDs both to be less effective and to have fewer adverse effects than oral NSAIDs. If topical NSAIDs have fewer adverse effects this may outweigh both the reduction in effectiveness and the higher cost of topical compared to oral treatment. Patient preferences may influence the comparative effectiveness of drugs delivered via different routes. Methods TOIB is a randomised trial comparing topical and oral ibuprofen, with a parallel patient preference study. We are recruiting people aged 50 or over with chronic knee pain, from 27 MRC General Practice Research Framework practices across the UK. We are seeking to recruit 283 participants to the RCT and 379 to the PPS. Participants will be followed up for up to two years (with the majority reaching one year. Outcomes will be assessed by postal questionnaire, nurse examination, laboratory tests and medical record searches at one and two years or the end of the study. Discussion This study will provide new evidence on the overall costs and benefits of treating chronic knee pain with either oral or topical ibuprofen. The use of a patient preference design is unusual, but will allow us to explore how preference influences response to a medication. In addition, it will provide more information on adverse events. This study will provide evidence to inform primary care practitioners, and possibly influence practice.

Parsons Suzanne

2005-11-01

88

Oral Cancer Exam  

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Full Text Available ... in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents ... with developmental disabilities and offers strategies for providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam ...

89

Molecular imaging of glucose uptake in oral neoplasia following topical application of fluorescently labeled deoxy-glucose  

OpenAIRE

The clinical value of assessing tumor glucose metabolism via F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET imaging in oncology is well established; however, the poor spatial resolution of PET is a significant limitation especially for early stage lesions. An alternative technology is optical molecular imaging, which allows for subcellular spatial resolution and can be effectively used with topical contrast agents for imaging epithelial derived cancers. The goal of this study was to evaluate the potential...

Nitin, N.; Carlson, Alicia L.; Muldoon, Tim; El-naggar, Adel K.; Gillenwater, Ann; Richards-kortum, Rebecca

2009-01-01

90

ANTITUSSIVE EVALUATION OF FORMULATED POLYHERBAL COUGH SYRUP  

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Full Text Available Ethanolic extracts of fruits of Terminalia chebula (Combretaceae, leaves of Mentha piperita (Labiate, leaves of Adhatoda vasica (Acanthaceae, leaves of Ocimum sanctum (Labiateae, rhizomes of Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae, fruits of Piper longum (Piperaceae, roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Leguminosae and roots of Withenia somnifera (Solanaceae were investigated for their antitussive effect on citric acid induced cough model in guinea pig. The results showed that the formulated cough syrup exhibited significant antitussive activity in a dose dependent manner the activity was compared with the prototype antitussive agent diphenhydramine HCl. It has been observed that the extract has produced 54%, 70%, 75% reduction in cough bouts at the dose level of 1, 2, 3 ml respectively after 1hr of drug administration. It is evident from the data the highest dose of 3 ml was found to be more effective. It is found that antitussive activity produced by the herbal formulation in the minimum dose was much better than the standard drug.  

Ashutosh Meher

2012-09-01

91

Replication of Holograms with Corn Syrup by Rubbing  

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Full Text Available Corn syrup films are used to replicate holograms in order to fabricate micro-structural patterns without the toxins commonly found in photosensitive salts and dyes. We use amplitude and relief masks with lithographic techniques and rubbing techniques in order to transfer holographic information to corn syrup material. Holographic diffraction patterns from holographic gratings and computer Fourier holograms fabricated with corn syrup are shown. We measured the diffraction efficiency parameter in order to characterize the film. The versatility of this material for storage information is promising. Holographic gratings achieved a diffraction efficiency of around 8.4% with an amplitude mask and 36% for a relief mask technique. Preliminary results using corn syrup as an emulsion for replicating holograms are also shown in this work.

Arturo Olivares-Pérez

2012-08-01

92

Oral zinc sulphate vs. topical application of salicylic (16.7%) and lactic acid (16.7%) combination in the treatment of plantar warts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Warts are commonly acquired viral tumors, caused by Human apilloma Virus (HPV). This virus can infect and cause disease at any site in the stratified squamous epithelium either keratinizing or non-keratinizing. A plantar wart (also called verruca plantaris) is a lesion that appears on the plantar surface of foot as a small, shining, sago-grain papule which soon assumes the typical appearance of a sharply-defined rounded lesion with a rough keratotic surface, surrounded by a smooth collar of thickened horn. Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of oral zinc sulphate versus topical application of salicylic (16.7%) and lactic acid (16.7%) combination, in the treatment of plantar warts. Study Design: Comparative interventional study. Setting and Duration of Study: Department of Dermatology Unit-I, King Edward Medical University, Mayo Hospital Lahore, from 15 February, 2009 till 14 February, 2010. Methodology: After informed consent, one hundred patients of plantar warts were selected from the outpatient Department of Dermatology, Mayo Hospital, Lahore. The patients were divided into two equal groups; in group A, 50 patients were given oral zinc sulphate (10 mg/kg/day) in two or three divided doses and in group B, 50 patients were advised to apply a combination of salicylic (16.7%) and lactic acid (16.7%) once at night daily. In group A, using oral zinc sulphate, the treatment was given for two months and follow up continued for next 4 months. In group B, the topical preparation was also continued for 2 months or till the complete removal of wart (if before two months) and follow up was extended up to 4 months after treatment. Results:The mean age of patients in group A was 26.2 +- 8.1 years and in group B 26.3 +- 7.3 years. The mean number of warts in group A was 7.9 +- 3.5 and in group B 5.7 +- 2.6. The mean duration of disease in group A was 6.9 +- 4.1 months and in group B 6.0 +- 3.9 months. On follow up at 2nd month, in group A, 41 (82%) patients showed an excellent efficacy while 9 (18%) patients observed poor efficacy. In group B, 31 (62%) cases experienced an excellent response, 2 (4%) had a good efficacy and 17 (34%) patients showed a poor efficacy. At 4th month of follow-up, no recurrence of warts was seen in both groups in complete responders. On follow up of the non responders no further clearance of warts was observed. Conclusions: It was concluded from this study that oral zinc sulphate is significantly more effective (p-value <0.05) than topical application of salicylic (16.7%) and lactic acid (16.7%) combination in the treatment of plantar warts. (author)

93

Efficacy of topical azelaic acid (AzA) gel 15% plus oral doxycycline 40 mg versus metronidazole gel 1% plus oral doxycycline 40 mg in mild-to-moderate papulopustular rosacea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Rosacea is a leading reason why people seek the care of a dermatologist, accounting for nearly 7 million office visits annually. Pharmacologic treatments include both topical and oral medications, which are increasingly being used in combination, especially at the outset of therapy. This exploratory study assesses the safety, effectiveness and speed of onset of two common topical agents for the treatment of rosacea--azelaic acid gel (AzA) 15% and metronidazole gel 1%--used in conjunction with anti-inflammatory dose doxycycline (40 mg once daily). Men and women (n = 207) with mild-to-moderate papulopustular rosacea were enrolled and randomized to receive either AzA gel 15% twice daily plus doxycycline 40 mg once daily (AzA group) or metronidazole gel 1% once daily plus doxycycline 40 mg once daily (Metro group) for 12 weeks. Both regimens were safe, efficacious and well tolerated. Efficacy parameters revealed a possible trend toward greater and earlier benefit with the AzA-based regimen than with the metronidazole-based regimen. These findings warrant further investigation in a sufficiently powered study. PMID:20645521

Del Rosso, James Q; Bruce, Suzanne; Jarratt, Michael; Menter, Alan; Staedtler, Gerald

2010-06-01

94

Simulation Tool for Teaching Multivariate Experimental Design on Paracetamol Syrup Formulation  

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Full Text Available Computer simulation is one of effective tools for instructors to illustrate effects of experimental design in its entire complexity since the students can be exposed to a large variety of experimental designs within a relative short period of time. In this study, the syrup formulation of paracetamol was used as a model topic. The program written as a Visual Basic module within Microsoft AccessTM was used to simulate the formulation behavior. The 23 forth-year pharmacy students in Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Prince of Songkhla University used this program to have direct experience in ‘EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN’ topic. The efficiency of the generated computer simulation program on the students’ learning was determined by the evaluation of the satisfaction of the students using a questionnaire. The results suggested that this tool was useful and satisfactory for the students’ self-studying.

Wibul Wongpoowarak

2008-06-01

95

Oral and topical pharmacokinetic studies of a novel TRPV1 antagonist, PAC-14028 in rats and minipigs using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric method.  

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PAC-14028 ((E)-N-((R)-1-(3,5-difluoro-4-methanesulfonylamino-phenyl)-ethyl)-3-(2-propyl-6-trifluoromethyl-pyridine-3-yl)-acrylamide) is a novel and potent transient receptor potential vanilloid type I (TRPV1) antagonist. We developed and validated a rapid, sensitive and selective liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric method for determination of PAC-14028 in rat and minipig plasma. After protein precipitation PAC-14028 and internal standard (methylated analog, PAC-14026) were separated on a Symmetry C(18) column (4.6 mm × 75 mm, 3.5 ?m) with an isocratic mobile phase, acetonitrile: water (8:2, v/v) containing 0.2% formic acid and monitored by electrospray positive ionization with multiple reaction monitoring mode (PAC-14028, 492?156; IS, 506?156, m/z). The calibration curve was linear over the range of 1.0-500 ng/ml (r(2)>0.999) and lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) was 1 ng/ml. The precision and accuracy were within ± 15% and the stability was acceptable during bench-top, auto-sampler, 3 freeze-thaw cycles and 4-week storage in a freezer at -80°C. This method was successfully applied to the intravenous, oral and topical pharmacokinetic studies of PAC-14028 in rats and minipigs, which showed comparable pharmacokinetic parameters (T1/2, 2.1h and 3.8h; F%, 52.7% and 64.2% for rats and minipigs, respectively). Percutaneous absorption of PAC-14028 was negligible after topical application (F% 0.2-1.7%). PMID:22169466

Park, Yang-Hui; Joo, Kyung-Mi; Woo, Byoung-Young; Son, Eui Dong; Byun, Sang Yo; Shin, Hong-Ju; Lee, Ki-Wha; Park, Young-Ho; Lim, Kyung-Min

2012-03-01

96

Effects of air injection during sap processing on maple syrup color, chemical composition and flavor volatiles.  

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Air injection (AI) is a maple sap processing technology reported to increase the efficiency of maple syrup production by increasing production of more economically valuable light-colored maple syrup, and reducing development of loose scale mineral precipitates in syrup, and scale deposits on evapora...

97

Economic and environmental assessment of syrup production. Colombian case.  

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This work presents a techno-economic and environmental assessment of the glucose syrups production from sugarcane bagasse, plantain husk, cassava husk, mango peel, rice husk and corncobs. According to the economic analysis, the corncob had both, the lowest production cost (2.48USD/kg syrup) and the highest yield (0.61kgofsugars/kg of wet agroindustrial waste) due to its high content in cellulose and hemicellulose. This analysis also revealed that a heat integration strategy is necessary since the utilities consumption represent an important factor in the production cost. According to the results, the pretreatment section requires more energy in the syrup production in comparison with the requirements of other sections such as production and sugar concentration. The environmental assessment revealed that the solid wastes such as furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural affected the environmental development of the process for all the agroindustrial wastes, being the rice husk the residue with the lowest environmental impact. PMID:24686375

Dávila, Javier A; Hernández, Valentina; Castro, Eulogio; Cardona, Carlos A

2014-06-01

98

Comparative efficacy of a proprietary topical ibuprofen gel and oral ibuprofen in acute soft tissue injuries: a randomized, double-blind study.  

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The efficacy of a novel, proprietary topical formulation of ibuprofen 5% gel (Ibugel) and ibuprofen 400 mg tablets (1200 mg daily) was compared in a double-blind, double-dummy, parallel group study in patients with acute soft tissue injuries. Patients received either active gel plus placebo tablets (n = 50) or active tablets plus placebo gel (n = 50) for at least 7 days. The gel was applied and one tablet was taken three times daily. The two treatments showed similar efficacy. There were no significant differences between the groups for either the primary efficacy endpoint, the median time for the injury to be rated as 'completely better' by the patients (>14 days active gel, 13.5 days active tablets; P = 0.59), or for other efficacy measures including the times to clinically significant relief from pain at rest or on movement and swelling. In summary, ibuprofen gel shows similar efficacy to oral ibuprofen 400 mg and may offer improved tolerability. PMID:12472980

Whitefield, M; O'Kane, C J A; Anderson, S

2002-12-01

99

The negligible effects of the antifungal natamycin on cholesterol-dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine monolayers may explain its low oral and topical toxicity for mammals.  

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Natamycin is an effective, broad spectrum antifungal with no reported resistance, in contrast to most antimicrobials. It also exhibits reduced (oral and topical) toxicity to humans, which is probably associated with the lack of effects on mammalian cell membranes. In this paper we employ Langmuir monolayers to mimic a cell membrane, whose properties are interrogated with various techniques. We found that natamycin has negligible effects on Langmuir monolayers of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), but it strongly affects cholesterol monolayers. Natamycin causes the surface pressure isotherm of a cholesterol monolayer to expand even at high surface pressures since it penetrates into the hydrophobic chains. It also reduces the compressibility modulus, probably because natamycin disturbs the organization of the cholesterol molecules, as inferred with polarization-modulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS). In mixed cholesterol/DPPC monolayers, strong effects from natamycin were only observed when the cholesterol concentration was 50mol% or higher, well above its concentration in a mammalian cell membrane. For a sterol concentration that mimics a real cell membrane in mammals, i.e. with 25mol% of cholesterol, the effects were negligible, which may explain why natamycin has low toxicity when ingested and/or employed to treat superficial fungal infections. PMID:25048356

Arima, Anderson A; Pavinatto, Felippe J; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Gonzales, Eduardo R P

2014-10-01

100

Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Properties of the Fir Buds Syrup  

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Full Text Available The fir buds as well as the fir buds extracts (such as fir buds syrup are used in traditional medicine and phytotheraphy for the alleviation of light to medium forms of respiratory diseases and for the prophylaxis or treatment of some childhood disorders. The antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the two types fir buds syrups (cold pressed and boiled taken into study were demonstrated by its content in vitamin C, flavonoids and by the inhibitory effect on E.coli, B. cereus, S.aureus, L. monocytogenes, Salmonella thypi.

Liana Mariana Deac

2014-05-01

101

Studies on dehydration of figs using different sugar syrup treatments  

OpenAIRE

The ripe fig (Ficus carica L) fruits of cultivar cv., ‘Deanna’ were steam treated at 90°C and 10 psi for 5 min in autoclave. Steamed fruits were dipped in sucrose, glucose, fructose and invert sugar syrups at 50°Brix for 24 h for getting desired total soluble solids content. The treated fruits were further dried to 20% moisture in a cabinet dryer at 50–55°C. Good quality and acceptable dried figs could be prepared by using invert sugar syrup treatment. Dried figs prepared using inver...

Naikwadi, P. M.; Chavan, U. D.; Pawar, V. D.; Amarowicz, R.

2010-01-01

102

TOPICAL TREATMENT OF MELASMA  

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Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment. Multiple options for topical treatment are available, of which hydroquinone (HQ) is the most commonly prescribed agent. Besides HQ, other topical ...

Bandyopadhyay Debabrata

2009-01-01

103

Determination of Microbial Load in Multivitamin and Cough Syrups Sold in Dhaka City  

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Full Text Available The production of substandard drugs and use of inappropriate methods in manufacturing medical products in pharmaceutical industries may cause non-therapeutic effect in patients particularly in children. Hence this study was conducted to determine the microbiological quality of multivitamin and cough syrups of different brands sold in local pharmacy in Dhaka city. Microbiological analysis was carried out using spread plate technique on different culture media including nutrient agar, mannitol salt agar, MacConkey agar, mFC agar, TCBS agar and SS agar for the determination of total viable bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, total coliforms, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. respectively from eleven multivitamin and twelve cough syrups. The results revealed that 50% of the cough syrup and 91% of the multivitamin syrup showed compliance with the official requirement of microbiological quality as they did not show any growth or their microbiological count is within the USP permissible limit (<102 cfu/ml. While the major contaminants in cough syrup were Staphylococcus aureus (75%, Escherichia coli (17% and total coliforms (42%, multivitamin syrup (9% contained only Staphylococcus aureus. Other pathogens like Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. could not be detected in both cough and multivitamin syrups. Although most of the multivitamin syrup (91% samples are free from potential microbial threat, some of the cough syrup (75% samples are contaminated with pathogenic bacteria. Hence potential safety measurement should be taken during the production and use of cough syrups to maintain the microbiological quality.

Abdullah Al Mamun

2014-07-01

104

Efficacy and tolerability of a topical NSAID patch (local action transcutaneous flurbiprofen) and oral diclofenac in the treatment of soft-tissue rheumatism.  

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The efficacy and safety of local action transcutaneous flurbiprofen 40 mg [flurbiprofen LAT] patches and diclofenac sodium tablets, 50 mg b.d., were compared in an open, multicentre, randomized, parallel-group study in patients with soft-tissue rheumatism. Patches were replaced at 12-hourly intervals. Clinical assessments were performed after 7 and 14 days of treatment. Fifty-six patients were treated with flurbiprofen LAT and 53 with diclofenac. Six withdrawals (three from each group) occurred during the treatment period. A statistically significant difference was observed in favour of flurbiprofen LAT for the principal measure, namely the investigator's opinion of overall change in clinical condition: 49/53 (92%) patients treated with flurbiprofen LAT had improved by day 14 compared with 36/49 (73%) patients receiving diclofenac sodium (p = 0.03; eligible dataset). There were also statistically significant differences in favour of flurbiprofen LAT for the investigator's assessments of the overall severity of the clinical condition (p = 0.03; eligible dataset), for the severity of pain at the region treated (p = 0.04; intent-to-treat), and for the severity of tenderness (p flurbiprofen LAT group and by eight diclofenac-treated patients. The difference in favour of flurbiprofen LAT in the average daily consumption of paracetamol was significant (p = 0.04). The patients' assessment of severity of pain on movement also favoured flurbiprofen LAT (p = 0.049; eligible dataset), but there were no statistically significant differences in day or night pain or quality of sleep. For the patients' opinion of treatment there was, however, a statistically significant difference in favour of flurbiprofen LAT (p = 0.02). Of the patients receiving flurbiprofen LAT, 94% regarded it as a convenient form of treatment. With respect to tolerability 8/56 (14%) patients applying flurbiprofen patches reported a total of nine adverse effects (AEs) (mainly local, mild skin irritations), vs 9/52 (17%) patients receiving diclofenac, who reported 12 AEs. Most AEs in the enteric-coated diclofenac group were of a gastrointestinal nature (one of which was severe). In terms of the proportion of patients reporting AEs related to the digestive system, there was a statistically significant difference in favour of flurbiprofen LAT (p = 0.011). In conclusion, local treatment of soft-tissue rheumatism with flurbiprofen LAT was demonstrably superior to benchmark oral therapy with diclofenac sodium over a 2-week period in terms of both efficacy and gastrointestinal tolerability. Flurbiprofen LAT provided both an effective and convenient form of topical SAID treatment. PMID:9132322

Martens, M

1997-01-01

105

Comparison of the transfer of coumaphos from beeswax into syrup and honey  

OpenAIRE

The organophosphate insecticide coumaphos has recently received emergency approval in the United States for control of fluvalinate-resistant Varroa destructor and the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray. We investigated the transfer of coumaphos from wax into syrup and honey, using adsorption of coumaphos from diluted syrup or honey onto a solid-phase extraction cartridge, elution, and subsequent analysis. Coumaphos in syrup was quantitated using HPLC with UV detection, and we found that...

Kochansky, Jan; Wilzer, Kenneth; Feldlaufer, Mark

2001-01-01

106

Optimization of Enzymatic Production of Fructooligosaccharides from Longan Syrup  

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Full Text Available Fructooligosaccharides (FOS are nutritive and low calorie sweeteners. They have been attracted and attributed to the expansion of healthy-sugar market due to prebiotic function. Longan is one of the traditional and economic fruits in the Northern of Thailand. In addition to its typical taste and floral flavor, it is a good source of sugars. In some years, over supply of longan is reported, consequently the extra produce was discarded. This research aimed to produce FOS from longan syrup and to optimize the yield of FOS using two enzymes of Pectinex Ultra SP-L and glucose oxidase from 60°Bx of the syrup. The sugar contents of the syrup consisted of sucrose (222.2±3.6 g L-1, glucose (120.3±0.8 g L-1 and fructose (104.7±1.7 g L-1, respectively. Response surface methodology using central composite design was applied to optimize three parameters of FOS production, including pectinase (2.7-7.2 U g-1 sucrose, glucose oxidase (1022-4022 U g-1 sucrose and reaction time (7-25 h. Results showed that Pectinex Ultra SP-L concentration had a significant effect (p-1 sucrose and 8 h 41 min, respectively which resulted in the highest amount of nystose (30.27 g L-1 and 1-kestose (123.36 g L-1.

P. Thakeow

2012-01-01

107

Topical Application of a Bioadhesive Black Raspberry Gel Modulates Gene Expression and Reduces Cyclooxygenase 2 Protein in Human Premalignant Oral Lesions  

OpenAIRE

Reduced expression of proapoptotic and terminal differentiation genes in conjunction with increased levels of the proinflammatory and angiogenesis-inducing enzymes, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), correlate with malignant transformation of oral intraepithelial neoplasia (IEN). Accordingly, this study investigated the effects of a 10% (w/w) freeze-dried black raspberry gel on oral IEN histopathology, gene expression profiles, intraepithelial COX-2 and iNOS ...

Mallery, Susan R.; Zwick, Jared C.; Pei, Ping; Tong, Meng; Larsen, Peter E.; Shumway, Brian S.; Lu, Bo; Fields, Henry W.; Mumper, Russell J.; Stoner, Gary D.

2008-01-01

108

Are You at Risk for Oral Cancer? (African American Men)  

Science.gov (United States)

... of physical, mental, and behavioral challenges common in patients with developmental disabilities and offers strategies for providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer: What ...

109

Lactoferrin dampens high-fructose corn syrup-induced hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome in a murine model.  

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Hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome are related obesity, type 2 diabetes/insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Here we investigated how the anti-inflammatory properties of lactoferrin can protect against the onset of hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome by using a murine model administered with high-fructose corn syrup. Our results show that a high-fructose diet stimulates intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increases intestinal permeability, leading to the introduction of endotoxin into blood circulation and liver. Immunohistochemical staining of Toll-like receptor-4 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin indicated that lactoferrin can modulate lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammatory cascade. The important regulatory roles are played by adipokines including interleukin-1?, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-?, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and adiponectin, ultimately reducing hepatitis and decreasing serum alanine aminotransferase release. These beneficial effects of lactoferrin related to the downregulation of the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cascade in the liver. Furthermore, lactoferrin reduced serum and hepatic triglycerides to prevent lipid accumulation in the liver, and reduced lipid peroxidation, resulting in 4-hydroxynonenal accumulation. Lactoferrin reduced oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance. Lactoferrin administration thus significantly lowered liver weight, resulting from a decrease in the triglyceride and cholesterol synthesis that activates hepatic steatosis. Taken together, these results suggest that lactoferrin protected against high-fructose corn syrup induced hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:24816278

Li, Yi-Chieh; Hsieh, Chang-Chi

2014-01-01

110

[Pharmacokinetic and clinical studies on cefpodoxime proxetil dry syrup in the field of pediatrics].  

Science.gov (United States)

Cefpodoxime proxetil (CPDX-PR, CS-807) is a new oral cephem derivative drug in which carboxylic acid was esterified to the 4-position of CPDX (oxime type cephem antibiotic). CPDX-PR is hydrolyzed mainly with esterase in intestinal wall and CPDX exists as an active form in body fluid. While there are numerous study reports using CPDX-PR in tablet forms in Japan, the dry syrup formula for pediatric use was newly developed. The dry syrup of CPDX-PR was orally administered 20 minutes after meal to the 6 boys of ages from 8 years and 1 month to 10 years and 10 months, with doses of 3 and 6 mg/kg, respectively, for 3 cases each. Serum concentrations and urinary concentrations and recovery rate of the drug were investigated. In addition to the above, the clinical and bacteriological studies were performed in a total of 105 cases consisting of children with ages ranging from 2 months to 11 years and 8 months, upon administering an average dose of 3.4 mg/kg, 3 to 4 times per day (96 cases of 3 times and 9 cases of 4 times). The 105 cases included 13 cases of pharyngitis, 21 cases of tonsillitis, 4 cases of acute bronchitis, 6 cases of pneumonia, 1 case of pleurisy, 13 cases of scarlet fever, 41 cases of urinary tract infection, 3 cases of posthitis and 3 cases of bacillary dysentery. Drug sensitivity test was performed for the following strains: (i) Strains retained by our department; 52 strains of Streptococcus pyogenes, 18 strains of Streptococcus agalactiae, and 11 strains of Bordetella pertussis, and (ii) strains isolated from cases to which CPDX-PR was administered; 2 strains of Staphylococcus aureus, 8 strains of S. pyogenes, 2 strains of Haemophilus influenzae, 10 strains of Escherichia coli, and 1 strain of Proteus mirabilis. Drug sensitivities of the strains retained by our department were tested with the inoculum sizes of 10(8) and 10(6) cfu/ml for R-3746 (Na-salt of CPDX), cefaclor (CCL), cephalexin (CEX), amoxicillin (AMPC), and methicillin (DMPPC), and those against strains separated from the cases to which CPDX-PR was administered were tested with the same inoculum sizes for R-3746, CCL, CEX, cefadroxil, ampicillin (ABPC), DMPPC and cloxacillin (MCIPC). Adverse reactions and abnormal clinical laboratory test results were also examined.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2681864

Motohiro, T; Oda, K; Aramaki, M; Kawakami, A; Tanaka, K; Koga, T; Sakata, Y; Fujimoto, T; Yokochi, K; Yamashita, F

1989-07-01

111

Lead and cadmium levels of commonly administered pediatric syrups in Nigeria: A public health concern?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fifty different pediatric syrups were randomly sampled from patent medicine stores and pharmaceutical shops within Awka, in Anambra State between November 2007 and May 2008. Syrups were ashed before digestion using conc. aqua regia, HCl:HNO{sub 3} (3:1) and lead and cadmium were assayed with AAS 205A. Results revealed that 60 and 98% of the sample size had lead and cadmium respectively. The lead levels ranged from 0.01 in chloroquine to 1.08 mg/l in magcid suspension. The highest level of cadmium was seen in magcid suspension with concentration of 2.45 mg/l while lowest concentration of 0.01 in emzolyn and colipan. About 41.2% of the locally made syrup had none detectable levels of lead while all the syrup had detectable levels of cadmium. Lead levels ranged from 0.01 mg/l in cadiphen manufactured in Dholka, India to 0.09 in maxiquine made in England. About 68.8% of the imported syrups of the imported syrups had non detectable levels of lead. Chloramphenicol and zentel albendazole syrups had 0.60 and 0.88 mg/l of cadmium respectively. Bellis cough syrup showed the lowest level (0.01 mg/l) of cadmium. Only erythromycin suspension representing 6.3% had non detectable level of cadmium of the imported syrups. Due to the Cd and Pb levels found, we suggest that the behaviour scenario (here, self administration without medical assistance) should be properly taken under control. Along with this, contamination sources or vulnerable practices during syrups preparation should be also assessed in a tiered approach, towards the minimization of noxious presence in syrups and the promotion of quality of Nigerian-made products.

Orisakwe, Orish Ebere, E-mail: eorish@aol.com [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology,College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University,Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Nduka, John Kanayochukwu [Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology Research Unit, Pure and Industrial Chemistry Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B. 5025, Awka Anambra State (Nigeria)

2009-11-15

112

Evaluation of Preserving Efficacy for Different Cough Syrups Manufactured by Different Pharmaceutical Companies  

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Full Text Available The aim of the current investigation is to assess the efficacy of different preservatives ingredients of different expectorant cough syrups manufactured by different pharmaceutical companies by comparing the growth of five microorganisms of known quanta of S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. The microorganisms were inoculated into syrup A (glycerol and propylene glycol, syrup B (propylene glycol and glycerin, syrup C (glycerin, propylene glycol and butyl paraben, syrup D (methyl paraben and probylparaben and normal saline as a control. All microorganisms were taken from standard stock cultures and incubated for 24 h. Growth of microorganisms into syrup was compared by counting the CFUs from a subculture of inoculated syrup at zero, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h intervals. The data showed that all the combinations of the preservatives in the four studied cough syrups behaved similarly in term of antimicrobial efficiency. The findings suggested that the preservatives mixtures of propylene glycol with glycerol or with glycerin or with butyl paraben preservatives as well as methyl paraben with probylparaben are acceptable clinically and have considerably antimicrobial activity against infectious bacteria during the 48 h studied period.

M. Khanfar

2009-01-01

113

Effect of extraction and concentration processes on properties of longan syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) syrup is a novel liquid sweetener produced from longan, one of the traditional and economic fruits in the Northern of Thailand. In this research, the effect of extraction and concentration processes on properties of longan syrup was investigated. There were two extraction methods (juice extractor and hydraulic press) and three concentration methods (direct heating, steam heating and vacuum evaporation). Results overall showed that the extraction method had no significant (p???0.05) effect on longan syrup properties, while concentration resulted in the quality changes of longan syrup. Concentration using direct heating of longan juice caused reduction of sucrose content, and longan syrup dark in color. The headspace volatile compounds of longan syrup were sampled using direct headspace technique and further characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The identified volatile compounds could be divided into two groups of aroma characteristics which were (1) floral aroma: 3-methybutyl acetate, (?)-ocimene and 2-phenylethyl alcohol and (2) caramel aroma: butyraldehyde, furfural and benzaldehyde. 2-Phenylethyl alcohol, contributing to floral odor, was retained using vacuum evaporation as a concentration method. Result revealed that the optimal concentration process for longan syrup production was vacuum evaporation, providing the highest floral volatile and lowest caramel volatile. Sensory tests confirmed that longan flavor of the syrup produced from the vacuum evaporation process had significantly higher hedonic scores than other processes. PMID:25190864

Surin, Siriluck; Thakeow, Prodpran; Seesuriyachan, Phisit; Angeli, Sergio; Phimolsiripol, Yuthana

2014-09-01

114

MICROBIAL ASSESSMENT OF SOME SYRUP SOLD IN PATENT MEDICINE STORES IN MINNA METROPOLIS, NIGERIA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The microbiological quality of eighteen different brands of syrups comprising of Paracetamol, Chloroquine phosphate and Vitamin C syrups purchased from different patent medicine stores in Minna metropolis was assessed. The microbial load was determined using the viable cell count method; the resulting contaminant microorganisms were isolated and characterized by standard methods. The results revealed the contamination in four of six; five of six and four of six, Vitamin C. Paracetamol and Chloroquine phosphate syrups respectively exceeding the tolerance limit of permissible microorganisms specified officially for syrups. The contaminant organisms isolated from analyzed syrups include bacteria: Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and fungal isolates include: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillum notatum, Aspergillus flavus and Mucor specie. Bacilus subtilis were found to be most predominant bacterial isolates while Aspergillus niger was the predominant fungal isolate. The pH values of the analyzed syrups ranged from 2.71-3.94 with the exception of Paracetamol syrups,brands of Vitamin C and Chloroquine phosphate syrups which had pH range of 5.28-7.11, 5.30-5.32 and 4.83-4.88 respectively. The susceptibility patterns of each bacterial isolates to antimicrobial agents showed resistance to Nalixidic acid,Ampicillin,Rocephin,Ampiclox and Amoxacillin, with high sensitivity to Pefloxacin,Ciprofloxacin, Streptomycin and Septrin.

Daniyan S.Y.

2011-08-01

115

The use of botulinum toxin and epidural analgesia for the treatment of spasticity and pain in a patient with maple syrup urine disease  

OpenAIRE

A 7-year-old boy, weighing 18 kg, was diagnosed with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). He suffered from spasticity of the lower limbs and pain that did not respond to oral medications. Injections of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) at 10 sites and epidural analgesia with 0.125% bupivacaine were used to treat spasticity with good results. We conclude that BTX-A combined with epidural analgesia may be a useful treatment option for incapacitating, painful spasticity related to MSUD. This treatment moda...

Kaki, Abdullah M.; Arab, Abeer A.

2012-01-01

116

Oral fluoride retention after professional topical application in children with caries activity: comparison between 1.23% fluoride foam and fluoride gel  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated fluoride retention in the saliva of children with caries activity after topical fluoride application in the form of gel and foam. Methods: A cross-sectional, blind and randomized study, conducted with ten caries-active children aged between 8 and 10 years, in two stage, with a washout interval of two weeks between them. The treatments consisted of: a application of 2mL acidulated phosphate fluoride of the gel type in a mold and b application of 2mL acidulated phosphate fluoride of the foam type in a mold. After the washout, the treatments were inverted. Non-stimulated saliva was collected from the children at the times of 5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes after topical fluoride application. For statistical analysis the Student’s-t test was used, with a level of significance of 5%. Results: Saliva analysis was performed using a fluoride-specific electrode (ISE25F/ Radiometer, Copenhagen, Denmark at the Aquatic Science Center of the Federal University of Marana, which revealed differences after 5 minutes (p=0.0055 and 15 minutes (p=0.0208. The topical application of fluoride in the gel form revealed a higher concentration of fluoride in the saliva. Conclusion: There were differences in the retention of fluoride in the saliva of children with caries activity after the topical application of fluoride gel and the topical application of fluoride foam after 5 and 15 minutes of their application. The topical application of fluoride foam is recommended, on the basis of the lower probability of toxicity during its use.

Cecília Claudia Costa Ribeiro

2008-01-01

117

Oral Herpes  

Science.gov (United States)

... of physical, mental, and behavioral challenges common in patients with developmental disabilities and offers strategies for providing oral care. NIDCR > Image Gallery > Oral Health > Oral Herpes Oral ...

118

Oral Warts  

Science.gov (United States)

... of physical, mental, and behavioral challenges common in patients with developmental disabilities and offers strategies for providing oral care. NIDCR > Image Gallery > Oral Health > Oral Warts Oral ...

119

Bexarotene Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

Targretin® Topical Gel ... Topical bexarotene is used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL, a type of skin cancer) that ... Topical bexarotene comes as a gel to apply to the skin. It is usually applied once every ...

120

Laboratory scale production of maltodextrins and glucose syrup from banana starch.  

Science.gov (United States)

Banana starch was isolated to obtain maltodextrin by enzymatic hydrolysis with a heat-stable alpha-amylase. The maltodextrin obtained had a dextrose equivalent (DE) between 7-11 and showed suitable chemical characteristics for food application. Additionally, banana maltodextrin had a greater white color value and total color difference (delta E) than a sample of commercial maltodextrin. Further saccharification of the maltodextrins was carried out with amyloglucosidase and pullulanase at 60 degrees C during 24 h obtaining a glucose syrup. Chemical characteristics of banana glucose syrup were compared with those of a commercial syrup obtaining similar results. Nevertheless, the color of banana glucose syrup was clearer than the one of a sample of commercial syrup. However, it showed lower color stability than the commercial sample, i.e., the color of banana glucose syrup changed as a function of storage time. Banana starch may be used to obtain maltodextrins and glucose syrups with similar chemical characteristics of those obtained from maize starch. Particularly, the color of banana maltodextrin is adequate for its use in food products. PMID:12216499

Bello-Pérez, Luis Arturo; Sánchez-Hernández, Laura; Moreno-Damían, Esther; Toro-Vazquez, Jorge F

2002-01-01

121

Detection of honey adulteration with starch syrup by high performance liquid chromatography.  

Science.gov (United States)

According to saccharide profile comparison between starch syrups and pure honeys analysed through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), a characteristic peak was found at 15.25 min retention time in HPLC chromatogram of syrup, but no peak was observed at the same retention time in chromatogram of pure honeys. This characteristic peak for syrup was identified as an overlapping peak of oligosaccharides with more than 5 degree of polymerisation (DP) based on HPLC chromatogram comparison between starch syrup and a series of standard mono-, di- and oligosaccharides of 3-7 DP. Additionally syrup content correlated linearly with the height of the characteristic peak of syrup under different slope in two ranges 2.5-7.5% and 10-100%, respectively. Therefore, the characteristic peak at 15.25 min retention time can serve as a syrup indicator in HPLC analysis of the adulterated honeys. This new HPLC method for honey adulteration detection was further applied in an authenticity inspection on more than 100 commercial honeys. In addition to the improved accuracy of honey adulteration detection, the proposed HPLC method was simple, low cost and easy practice for honey product quality control by government department considering the popularity of HPLC device and technology. PMID:25442605

Wang, Shaoqing; Guo, Qilei; Wang, Linlin; Lin, Li; Shi, Hailiang; Cao, Hong; Cao, Baosen

2015-04-01

122

Fed-batch production of concentrated fructose syrup and ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 36859  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A fed-batch process is used for the production of concentrated pure fructose syrup and ethanol from various glucose/fructose mixtures by S.cerevisiae ATCC 36859. Applying this technique, glucose-free fructose syrups with over 250 g/l of this sugar were obtained using High Fructose Corn Syrup and hydrolyzed Jerusalem artichoke juice. Bey encouraging ethanol evaporation from the reactor and condensing it, a separate ethanol product with a concentration of up to 350 g/l was also produced. The rates of glucose consumption and ethanol production were higher than in classical batch ethanol fermentation processes. (orig.).

Koren, D.W. (CANMET, Ottawa, ON (Canada)); Duvnjak, Z. (Univ. of Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1992-01-01

123

Oral fluoride retention after professional topical application in children with caries activity: comparison between 1.23% fluoride foam and fluoride gel  

OpenAIRE

Objective: This study evaluated fluoride retention in the saliva of children with caries activity after topical fluoride application in the form of gel and foam. Methods: A cross-sectional, blind and randomized study, conducted with ten caries-active children aged between 8 and 10 years, in two stage, with a washout interval of two weeks between them. The treatments consisted of: a) application of 2mL acidulated phosphate fluoride of the gel type in a mold and b) application of 2mL acidulated...

Cecília Claudia Costa Ribeiro; Ana Emília Figueiredo Oliveira; Fernanda Ferreira Lopes; Lívia de Almeida Barros

2008-01-01

124

Diffusion-weighted MRI of maple syrup urine disease encephalopathy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report the case of a newborn child with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), diagnosed at 10 days of life. Diffusion-weighted echoplanar MRI showed marked hyperintensity of the cerebellar white matter, the brainstem, the cerebral peduncles, the thalami, the dorsal limb of the internal capsule and the centrum semiovale, while conventional dual-echo sequence evidenced only a weak diffuse T2 hyperintensity in the cerebellar white matter and in the dorsal brainstem. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of these regions was markedly (>80%) decreased. Therefore, in agreement with current hypotheses on MSUD pathogenesis, MSUD oedema proves to be a cytotoxic oedema. Diffusion-weighted MRI may be a valuable tool, more sensitive than conventional spin-echo techniques, to assess the extent and progression of cytotoxicity in MSUD, as well as the effectiveness of the therapeutic interventions. (orig.)

125

Cranial computed tomography in maple syrup urine disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cranial computed tomography in the initial stage of the intermediate phenotype of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) demonstrates diffuse, symmetric hypodensities in white and grey matter, which show a complete return to normal after early introduction of an adequate protein-restrictive diet. If diagnosis of this disease is missed or delayed, progressive global (end-stage) atrophy will take place over several years. A decrease in density values correlates well with the total cerebral lipid and water content (closely related to myelinisation), whereas progression and grade of atrophy show a relationship with the severity of pathological white and grey matter changes that are not demonstrable with computed tomography but can be proven histologically. Analysis of both morphological parameters corresponds well with clinical-neurological outcome and therapeutic success. (orig.)

126

Effect of concentration temperature on some bioactive compounds and antioxidant proprieties of date syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of the concentration temperature on the antioxidant activity, carotenoid and phenolic compounds of date syrup was investigated. Date juice was concentrated at 100? and at "60? in vacuum". After concentration, total phenolic, tannin, non-tannin, flavonoid and carotenoid content were determined spectrophotometrically and high-performance liquid chromatography was used for determination of 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde content. The antioxidant activity of date syrup was evaluated by various antioxidant methods including total antioxidant, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging test, ferric reducing antioxidant power and ?-carotene bleaching. All date syrups showed strong antioxidant activity accompanied by high total phenolic contents. Results showed that concentration at 100? significantly enhanced the antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents of date syrups compared to vacuum concentration at 60?. A good correlation between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content and flavonoid was observed. PMID:23729415

Abbès, Fatma; Besbes, Souhail; Brahim, Bchir; Kchaou, Wissal; Attia, Hamadi; Blecker, Christophe

2013-08-01

127

Effect of Glycerol and Glucose Syrup on Sugar Crystallization in Figs  

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Full Text Available Crystallization is an important phenomenon that affects some quality attributes such as appearance, texture and shelf life in many food materials. Sugar crystallization is a major challenge for dried fruits such as figs with low moisture levels and high sugar contents. In this study, the effect of glycerol and glucose syrup (DE = 38 on the amount of sugar crystallization in figs with different moisture contents was investigated using X-ray diffraction. The addition of glycerol and glucose syrup increased equilibrium moisture content and reduced sugar crystallization significantly. In the presence of glycerol, sugar crystallization was one third of the control. Glycerol also had greater effect compared to glucose syrup. Changes observed due to the presence of glycerol and glucose syrup could be attrinuted to the hygroscopic behavior of these additives and their ability to keep more water at a specific water activity.

A Farahnaki

2009-07-01

128

Stability of dantrolene oral suspension prepared from capsules.  

Science.gov (United States)

The chemical stability of an extemporaneously compounded dantrolene oral suspension (5 mg/ml dantrolene sodium) in Syrup BP containing citric acid with and without methyl hydroxybenzoate preservative was studied on storage at 5, 25 and 40 degrees C for 150 days in high density polyethylene dispensing bottles. The amount of dantrolene free acid in suspension was monitored by a stability indicating HPLC assay. There was no significant decomposition of dantrolene under all storage conditions irrespective of the presence of preservative. The results show that the formulation of dantrolene oral suspension provides a convenient and stable dosage form for use in pediatric patients and in those unable to swallow capsules. It is recommended that the formulation be stored at room temperature and in the absence of microbiological testing a shelf-life of 30 days is proposed for the product prepared with preserved syrup. PMID:7876365

Fawcett, J P; Stark, G; Tucker, I G; Woods, D J

1994-12-01

129

Cough syrup addiction and rampant caries: a report of two cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugar-containing syrups such as cough medications have been recognised as potentially cariogenic, especially for chronically sick children suffering from otitis media, seizure disorder, congenital cardiac diseases and asthma. Unfortunately, an increasing number of juveniles are addicted to cough syrups containing centrally-acting drugs and these individuals not only end up with medical and social problems, but also with dental manifestations. This paper addresses the latter problem with the help of two illustrative cases. PMID:11901787

Siu, Adam S C; Chu, Frederick C S; Yip, Hak Kong

2002-01-01

130

MICROBIAL ASSESSMENT OF SOME SYRUP SOLD IN PATENT MEDICINE STORES IN MINNA METROPOLIS, NIGERIA  

OpenAIRE

The microbiological quality of eighteen different brands of syrups comprising of Paracetamol, Chloroquine phosphate and Vitamin C syrups purchased from different patent medicine stores in Minna metropolis was assessed. The microbial load was determined using the viable cell count method; the resulting contaminant microorganisms were isolated and characterized by standard methods. The results revealed the contamination in four of six; five of six and four of six, Vitamin C. Paracetamol and Chl...

Daniyan S .Y.; Sangodere T.A.

2011-01-01

131

CLINICAL EFFICACY OF CRUX SYRUP IN THE MANAGEMENT OF COUGH DUE TO VARIOUS ETIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS  

OpenAIRE

Cough associated with acute and chronic respiratory conditions is common in patients of all ages. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical efficacy of CRUX syrup, a proprietary mixture of herbal ingredients in the management of cough of various etiological conditions in open label, uncontrolled, prospective cohort study. 55 Patients aged 9 - 64 years with cough of more than 1 day but less than 14 days duration was recruited. They were prescribed dose of CRUX syrup according t...

Patel Girish; Maniar Chintan

2013-01-01

132

Are You at Risk for Oral Cancer? (African American Men)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents an overview of physical, mental, and behavioral challenges common in patients with developmental disabilities and offers strategies for providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Oral ...

133

Utilization of waste syrup for production of polyunsaturated fatty acids and xanthophylls by Aurantiochytrium.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the food industry, syrups containing a high concentration of sugar used for fruit preservation is abundantly discharged as a food processing waste and disposed by incineration, resulting in the rise of the manufacturing cost and environmental pollution. This study demonstrates how waste syrup can be utilized as carbon source for production of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and astaxanthin by the thraustochytrid strain, Aurantiochytrium sp. KH105. The strain could grow in culture medium containing 3-50% waste syrup, and the maximum yields of DHA and astaxanthin were 207.6 mg/L (at 50%) and 1.1 mg/L (at 25%), respectively. After the optimization of culture medium composition by response surface method, DHA and astaxanthin yields increased by 2.1 and 1.5 fold, respectively. When the waste syrup was treated with activated charcoal, citrate concentration in the syrup was reduced and the astaxanthin yield increased by 2.3 fold. This study shows that the waste syrup can be effectively used for the functional lipid production by the thraustochytrid. PMID:24005017

Iwasaka, Hiroaki; Aki, Tsunehiro; Adachi, Hirofumi; Watanabe, Kenshi; Kawamoto, Seiji; Ono, Kazuhisa

2013-01-01

134

Relatos orais de famílias de imigrantes japoneses: elementos para a história da educação brasileira Japanese families oral history: topics for the history of Brazilian education  

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Full Text Available Este artigo dá continuidade a uma reflexão que vimos realizando há muitos anos sobre a estruturação do campo educacional paulista e as diferentes formas pelas quais a procura pela escolarização tem se configurado para diferentes setores da população rural e urbana no estado de São Paulo. Focalizamos aqui o segmento representado pelas famílias de imigrantes japoneses que vieram para São Paulo a partir de 1908. Apresentamos os resultados obtidos em estudo sobre as famílias de imigrantes japoneses na cidade de São Paulo, sendo que os relatos orais foram a fonte privilegiada que permitiu, de um lado, apreender as visões e vivências educacionais desse grupo, e, de outro, obter informações valiosas sobre a ainda desconhecida rede de escolas "japonesas" criadas por esse grupo na sociedade paulistana.This paper continues a long lasting research that analyses the educational field in São Paulo and the different forms assumed by the need of instruction of different sectors of the rural and urban population. We focus on the segment represented by the Japanese immigrants' families which came to São Paulo from 1908. We present the results obtained by means of oral reports, a privileged source for collecting data. It allowed, on the one hand, to seize the educational representations and practices of these Japanese groups and, on the other hand, to obtain valuable information about the still unknown Japanese school-net created by this group within São Paulo society.

Zeila de Brito Fabri Demartini

2000-08-01

135

Fluorouracil Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluorouracil cream and topical solution are used to treat actinic or solar keratoses (scaly or crusted lesions [skin areas] caused by years of too much exposure to sunlight). Fluorouracil cream and topical solution are also used to treat a type ...

136

Oxybutynin Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxybutynin topical gel is used to treat overactive bladder (a condition in which the bladder muscles contract uncontrollably and ... Topical oxybutynin comes as a gel to apply to the skin. It is usually applied once a ...

137

Tavaborole Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

Tavaborole topical solution is used to treat fungal toenail infections (infections that may cause nail discoloration, splitting, or pain). Tavaborole topical solution is in a class of medications called ...

138

Efinaconazole Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

Efinaconazole topical solution is used to treat fungal toenail infections (infections that may cause nail discoloration, splitting, or pain). Efinaconazole topical solution is in a class of medications called ...

139

Tretinoin Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

Tretinoin comes in topical liquid, cream, and gel. Tretinoin usually is used daily at bedtime or once every 2 or 3 days. Follow ... nonmedicated cosmetics on cleansed skin. Do not use topical preparations with a lot of alcohol, menthol, spices, ...

140

Bimatoprost Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

Topical bimatoprost is used to treat hypotrichosis (less than the normal amount of hair) of the eyelashes ... the growth of longer, thicker, and darker lashes. Topical bimatoprost is in a class of medications called ...

141

Topical anesthesia.  

OpenAIRE

OBJECTIVE: To consider topical anesthetic options available to primary care physicians, indications for their use, and efficacy and safety of these agents as supported by the literature. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Five randomized controlled trials were retrieved that compared various topical anesthetics as well as topical anesthetics versus infiltrative anesthesia. MAIN FINDINGS: A combination of lidocaine, epinephrine, and tetracaine (LET) is currently the topical anesthetic of choice for repair o...

Keyes, P. D.; Tallon, J. M.; Rizos, J.

1998-01-01

142

Identification, classification, and discrimination of agave syrups from natural sweeteners by infrared spectroscopy and HPAEC-PAD.  

Science.gov (United States)

Agave syrups are gaining popularity as new natural sweeteners. Identification, classification and discrimination by infrared spectroscopy coupled to chemometrics (NIR-MIR-SIMCA-PCA) and HPAEC-PAD of agave syrups from natural sweeteners were achieved. MIR-SIMCA-PCA allowed us to classify the natural sweeteners according to their natural source. Natural syrups exhibited differences in the MIR spectra region 1500-900 cm(-1). The agave syrups displayed strong absorption in the MIR spectra region 1061-1,063 cm(-1), in agreement with their high fructose content. Additionally, MIR-SIMCA-PCA allowed us to differentiate among syrups from different Agave species (Agavetequilana and Agavesalmiana). Thin-layer chromatography and HPAEC-PAD revealed glucose, fructose, and sucrose as the principal carbohydrates in all of the syrups. Oligosaccharide profiles showed that A. tequilana syrups are mainly composed of fructose (>60%) and fructooligosaccharides, while A. salmiana syrups contain more sucrose (28-32%). We conclude that MIR-SIMCA-PCA and HPAEC-PAD can be used to unequivocally identify and classified agave syrups. PMID:25148997

Mellado-Mojica, Erika; López, Mercedes G

2015-01-15

143

Erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp successfully treated with oral prednisone and topical tacrolimus / Dermatose pustular erosiva do couro cabeludo tratada com sucesso com prednisona oral e tacrolimus topico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A dermatose pustular erosiva do couro cabeludo é uma doença inflamatória rara do couro cabeludo, de ocorrência preferencial em pacientes idosos após trauma local e com evolução para alopecia cicatricial. O caso relatado é de uma paciente idosa feminina que iniciou com pústulas dolorosas em região pa [...] rietal bilateral com aumento das lesões e exulceração local. Após o diagnóstico histológico de dermatose pustular erosiva do couro cabeludo, foi iniciada prednisona 40 mg/dia e tacrolimus 0,1% tópico. Após 10 semanas evoluiu com cicatrização completa das áreas erosadas e alopecia cicatricial. Abstract in english Erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp is a rare inflammatory disorder of the scalp, affecting elderly patients after local trauma and leading to scarring or cicatricial alopecia. Case Report: An elderly female patient complained of painful pustules on the parietal region bilaterally with progress [...] ive enlargement and ulceration. A biopsy suggested erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp and the patient was treated with prednisone 40 mg/day and 0.1% topical tacrolimus. After 10 weeks complete closure of the eroded areas was observed and a stable scarring alopecia developed.

Mariana Ribas, Zahdi; Gabriela Bestani, Seidel; Vanessa Cristina, Soares; Camila Fernanda Novak Pinheiro de, Freitas; Fabiane Andrade, Mulinari-Brenner.

2013-10-01

144

Topical treatment of melasma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment. Multiple options for topical treatment are available, of which hydroquinone (HQ is the most commonly prescribed agent. Besides HQ, other topical agents for which varying degrees of evidence for clinical efficacy exist include azelaic acid, kojic acid, retinoids, topical steroids, glycolic acid, mequinol, and arbutin. Topical medications modify various stages of melanogenesis, the most common mode of action being inhibition of the enzyme, tyrosinase. Combination therapy is the preferred mode of treatment for the synergism and reduction of untoward effects. The most popular combination consists of HQ, a topical steroid, and retinoic acid. Prolonged HQ usage may lead to untoward effects like depigmentation and exogenous ochronosis. The search for safer alternatives has given rise to the development of many newer agents, several of them from natural sources. Well-designed controlled clinical trials are needed to clarify their role in the routine management of melasma.

Bandyopadhyay Debabrata

2009-01-01

145

Maple Syrup Urine Disease Complicated with Kyphoscoliosis and Myelopathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive aminoacidopathy secondary to an enzyme defect in the catabolic pathway of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs: leucine, isoleucine, and valine). Accumulation of their corresponding keto-acids leads to encephalopathy if not treated in time. A newborn male patient was suspected to have MSUD after tandem mass study when he presented symptoms and signs suggestive neonatal sepsis, anemia, and diarrhea. Food restriction of BCAAs was started; however, acrodermatitis enteropathica-like skin eruptions occurred at age 2 months. The skin rashes resolved after adding BCAAs and adjusting the infant formula. At age 7 months, he suffered from recurrent skin lesions, zinc deficiency, osteoporosis, and kyphosis of the thoracic spine with acute angulation over the T11-T12 level associated with spinal compression and myelopathy. After supplementation of zinc products and pamidronate, skin lesions and osteopenia improved gradually. Direct sequencing of the DBT gene showed a compound heterozygous mutation [4.7 kb deletion and c.650-651insT (L217F or L217fsX223)]. It is unusual that neurodegeneration still developed in this patient despite diet restriction. Additionally, brain and spinal magnetic resonance imaging, bone mineral density study, and monitoring of zinc status are suggested in MSUD patients. PMID:24486081

Hou, Jia-Woei

2014-01-29

146

Liquen Plano Oral / Oral Lichen Planus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El Liquen Plano Oral es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica con fisiopatología inmune. Afecta piel, mucosa oral y genital, cuero cabelludo y uñas. Al agrupar diversas características clínicas e histopatológicas se puede clasificar como: reticular, papular, en placa, erosivo, atrófico y bulloso. Su t [...] ratamiento está orientado al alivio de la sintomatología, a la eliminación de factores locales traumáticos y a la administración de diversos agentes como: esteroides tópicos, sistémicos, retinoides e incluso sustancias naturales como la cúrcuma. Abstract in english Oral lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory disease with immune pathophysiology It affects skin, oral and genital mucosa, scalp and nails. By grouping various clinical and histopathologic features can distinguish different clinical presentations: reticular, papular, plaque, erosive, atrophic and bu [...] llous. Treatment is aimed at relief of symptoms, removal of local traumatic factors and administration of various agents such as topical and systemic steroids, retinoids and even natural substances like turmeric.

Adriana, Colonia; Luis Fernando, Vélez.

2011-07-01

147

Are You at Risk for Oral Cancer? (African American Men)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... of physical, mental, and behavioral challenges common in patients with developmental disabilities and offers strategies for providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer: What African American Men Need to Know > Are You at Risk for Oral Cancer? Are You at Risk ...

148

Are You at Risk for Oral Cancer? (African American Men)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents ... with developmental disabilities and offers strategies for providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer: What ...

149

The optimal conditions for nata production from sugar palm syrup by Acetobacter xylinum TISTR 107  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The optimal conditions of nata production from the fermentation of sugar palm syrup by Acetobacter xylinum TISTR 107 was studied. The results showed that optimized production for a litre of sugar palm syrup medium should compose 15 ºBrix concentration, 7.0 g NH4H2PO4 and 0.7 g MgSO4. 7 H2O at pH 4.25 and incubation at room temperature. The thickness of nata production reached 1.15 cm in 9 days. Sensory evaluation showed that there were no significant difference in odor and acceptability between the nata from sugar palm syrup and the traditional nata production from coconut juice whereas there were significant differences in color and texture. However, the nata from sugar palm syrup gave a better texture. Chemical analysis of the nata produced under these optimal culture conditions revealed 0.13% protein, 0.012% fat, 2.74% fiber, 0.378% nitrogen-free extract, 0.11% ash and 96.63% moisture content. The results suggest that nata produced from sugar palm syrup can be used in food and confectionery.

Laochareonsuk, T.

2005-11-01

150

Synthesis and characterization of gold glyconanoparticles functionalized with sugars of sweet Sorghum syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

Gold glyconanoparticles were synthesized by a simple, rapid, and eco-friendly method by using sweet Sorghum syrup for application in biomedicine and biotechnology. The nanostructures of the prepared gold nanoparticles were confirmed by using UV-visible absorbance, TEM, SAED, FTIR, EDAX, XRD, and photoluminescence analyses. The formation of gold nanoparticles at both room and boiling temperatures and kinetics of the reaction were monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy and TEM studies. TEM analysis revealed that the obtained nanoparticles were mono-dispersed and spherical in shape with an average particle size of 7 nm. The size of the nanoparticles was influenced by the concentration of Sorghum syrup. The presence of elemental gold was confirmed by EDAX analysis. Based on the FTIR analysis, it was observed that the sugars present in the Sorghum syrup possibly acts as capping agents. The zeta potential analysis revealed that the glyconanoparticles were negatively charged with a potential of -25 mV. The XRD and SAED patterns also suggest that the nanoparticles were crystalline in nature and these particles were found to exhibit visible photoluminescence. Fructose and glucose present in sweet Sorghum syrup were demonstrated as responsible sugars for the reduction of gold ions, and sucrose stabilized the formed nanoparticles. The proposed mechanism for the formation and stabilization of gold glyconanoparticles is based on the phenomenon of "macromolecular crowding." This is the first report on the use of sweet Sorghum syrup for the green synthesis of gold glyconanoparticles at both room and boiling temperatures. PMID:21674818

Kumar, C Ganesh; Mamidyala, Suman Kumar; Sreedhar, Bojja; Reddy, Belum V S

2011-01-01

151

ADHA Oral Health Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Provided by the American Dental Hygienists' Association, this site's resources are valuable for both dental patients and hygienists to help understand "the importance of oral health to total health." Patients will find informative fact sheets describing potential oral health problems as well as tips for preventing them. Hygienists will find the free posters useful as well as the instructions included for proper brushing and flossing techniques in order to educate and support their patients. The site underscores dental hygienists' roles in tobacco cessation efforts, a major topic of concern in the allied health professions. Providing free "life-saving advice", the ADHA hopes to promote overall heath beginning with oral care.

152

Comprehensive review on oral disintegrating films.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fast-dissolving drug-delivery systems were first developed in the late 1970s as an alternative to tablets, capsules, and syrups for pediatric and geriatric patients who experience difficulties swallowing traditional oral solid dosage forms. In response to this need, a variety of orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) formats were commercialized, which disintegrate within 1 min when placed in the mouth without drinking water or chewing. Oral drug delivery technology has improved from conventional dosage forms to modified release dosage forms to ODT to the recent oral disintegrating films (ODF). Oral disintegrating film or strip that employs a water dissolving polymer which allows the dosage form to quickly hydrate by saliva, adhere to mucosa, and disintegrate within a few seconds, dissolve and releases medication for oromucosal absorption when placed on the tongue or oral cavity. Oral strip technology provides an alternate route for drugs with first pass metabolism. This review give details of materials used in ODF, manufacturing aspects, technologies, evaluation tests and marketed products. PMID:22920576

Nagaraju, T; Gowthami, R; Rajashekar, M; Sandeep, S; Mallesham, M; Sathish, D; Kumar, Y Shravan

2013-02-01

153

Protein and leucine metabolism in maple syrup urine disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Constant infusions of [13C]leucine and [2H5]phenylalanine were used to trace leucine and protein kinetics, respectively, in seven children with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) and eleven controls matched for age and dietary protein intake. Despite significant elevations of plasma leucine (mean 351 mumol/l, range 224-477) in MSUD subjects, mean whole body protein synthesis [3.78 +/- 0.42 (SD) g.kg-1. 24 h-1] and catabolism (4.07 +/- 0.46) were similar to control values (3.69 +/- 0.50 and 4.09 +/- 0.50, respectively). The relationship between phenylalanine and leucine fluxes was also similar in MSUD subjects (mean phenylalanine-leucine flux ratio 0.35 +/- 0.07) and previously reported adult controls (0.33 +/- 0.02). Leucine oxidation was undetectable in four of the MSUD subjects and very low in the other three (less than 4 mumol.kg-1.h-1; controls 13-20). These results show that persistent elevation in leucine concentration has no effect on protein synthesis. The marked disturbance in leucine metabolism in MSUD did not alter the relationship between rates of catabolism of protein to phenylalanine and leucine, which provides further support for the validity of the use of a single amino acid to trace whole body protein metabolism. The minimal leucine oxidation in MSUD differs from findings in other inborn metabolic errors and indicates that in patients with classical MSUD there is no significant route of leucine disposal other than through protein synthesisan through protein synthesis

154

FTIR characterization of Mexican honey and its adulteration with sugar syrups by using chemometric methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A chemometric analysis of adulteration of Mexican honey by sugar syrups such as corn syrup and cane sugar syrup was realized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to measure the absorption of a group of bee honey samples from central region of Mexico. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to process FTIR spectra to determine the adulteration of bee honey. In addition to that, the content of individual sugars from honey samples: glucose, fructose, sucrose and monosaccharides was determined by using PLS-FTIR analysis validated by HPLC measurements. This analytical methodology which is based in infrared spectroscopy and chemometry can be an alternative technique to characterize and also to determine the purity and authenticity of nutritional products as bee honey and other natural products.

155

FTIR characterization of Mexican honey and its adulteration with sugar syrups by using chemometric methods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A chemometric analysis of adulteration of Mexican honey by sugar syrups such as corn syrup and cane sugar syrup was realized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to measure the absorption of a group of bee honey samples from central region of Mexico. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to process FTIR spectra to determine the adulteration of bee honey. In addition to that, the content of individual sugars from honey samples: glucose, fructose, sucrose and monosaccharides was determined by using PLS-FTIR analysis validated by HPLC measurements. This analytical methodology which is based in infrared spectroscopy and chemometry can be an alternative technique to characterize and also to determine the purity and authenticity of nutritional products as bee honey and other natural products.

Rios-Corripio, M A; Rojas-Lopez, M; Delgado-Macuil, R [CIBA-Tlaxcala, IPN, Tlaxcala, Tlax. (Mexico); Rios-Leal, E, E-mail: marlonrl@yahoo.com.mx [CINVESTAV, Zacatenco, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

2011-01-01

156

A review of the management of oral drug overdose in the Accident and Emergency Department of the Royal Brisbane Hospital.  

OpenAIRE

Two-hundred and eighty-nine patients who made a total of 323 presentations to the Royal Brisbane Hospital Accident and Emergency Department with a known or suspected oral drug overdose were reviewed. The majority of patients (76%) could be managed in a 24 h Accident and Emergency observation unit. Activated charcoal given orally or via a nasogastric tube was the recommended method of preventing further absorption of an ingested drug. The use of syrup of ipecac was not encouraged and orogastri...

Hodgkinson, D. W.; Jellett, L. B.; Ashby, R. H.

1991-01-01

157

Topic tacrolimus, alternative treatment for oral erosive lichen planus resistant to steroids: A case report / Tacrolimus tópico, tratamiento alternativo para liquen plano erosivo de mucosa resistente a corticoides: A propósito de un caso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish El liquen plano es una enfermedad mucocutánea de etiología desconocida y patogenia autoinmune. Existen tres variantes de liquen plano: la forma reticular, la forma en placas y la forma atrófico-erosiva. El curso es crónico con frecuentes reactivaciones. Afecta con más frecuencia a mujeres en la 4ª d [...] écada de la vida y superiores. El diagnóstico se basa en la identificación clínica de las lesiones junto a el estudio histopatológico (degeneración hidrópica de la capa basal, infiltrado de linfo-plasmocitario y ausencia de signos de displasia). Su alta prevalencia (0,5-2%), su carácter recurrente y el potencial riesgo de transformación maligna explican el gran número de opciones terapéuticas disponibles. Presentamos un caso de liquen plano erosivo, de mucosa oral, resistente a múltiples tratamientos, fundamentalmente corticoideos. En el plazo de 15 días respondió a la administración de tacrolimus al 0,1% en aplicación tópica. El artículo pretende señalar la indicación novedosa del principio activo tacrolimus, un inmunosupresor inhibidor de la calcineurina, que se ha demostrado eficaz en la solución de las lesiones erosivas. Abstract in english The lichen planus is a mucocutaneous disease with unknown etiology and auto-immune pathogenia. There have been three variants of lichen planus: the reticular, the plaque-like and the atrophic-erosive lesions. It’s a chronic disease with acute relapses that generally affects more frecuently to women [...] from the fourties. The diagnostic is based on the clinic identification of the lesions joined with the histopathologic study (basal cells hidropic degeneration, linfoplasmocitic infiltration and absence of displasy signs). The great number of therapeutic options are explained for its high prevalency (0.5-2%), its recurrence and its risk for malignant transformation. We present a case of oral erosive lichen planus, refractory to numerous treatments, mainly corticosteroids. During 15 days the lesion responded to the administration of a 0.1% tacrolimus in topic application. This article tries to show the new indication of tacrolimus, a calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressor, that it is effective in the erosive lesions treatment.

Ana, Riaño Argüelles; Raúl, Martino Gorbea; María Eugenia, Iglesias Zamora; Joaquín, Garatea Crelgo.

2006-12-01

158

A New Approach of Syrup Manufacturing Using Fuzzy Time Control Discrete Event System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pharmaceutical industries of world are manufacturing their most of the goods in syrup form. The proposed study relates with the designing of medicated syrup manufacturing using the fuzzy time control discrete event system. The system is designed with three inputs; viscosity, specific gravity, and chemical selection. And eight outputs temperature, temperature time, mixing speed, mixing time, valve, valve opening time, PH at current liquid temperature, and PH time. System is controlled by controlling the four parameters; valve selection, temperature monitoring unit, mixing motor, and PH control unit. System takes feed back from four sensors and time control rules are formulated and simulated using MATLAB tool box.

Syed Fazil Bin Farukh

2013-04-01

159

The optimal conditions for nata production from sugar palm syrup by Acetobacter xylinum TISTR 107  

OpenAIRE

The optimal conditions of nata production from the fermentation of sugar palm syrup by Acetobacter xylinum TISTR 107 was studied. The results showed that optimized production for a litre of sugar palm syrup medium should compose 15 ºBrix concentration, 7.0 g NH4H2PO4 and 0.7 g MgSO4. 7 H2O at pH 4.25 and incubation at room temperature. The thickness of nata production reached 1.15 cm in 9 days. Sensory evaluation showed that there were no significant difference in odor and acceptability betw...

Laochareonsuk, T.; Kaewtaro, S.

2005-01-01

160

Comparison Effects of Sucrose and Date Palm Syrup on Somatic Embryogenesis of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of different concentration of date palm syrup (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% and sucrose at concentration of 30 and 60 g/l in addition to the control (without carbon source on the micro propagation of date palm "cv. Suckary" were investigated. The results indicated that date syrup was taken up from the media as shown by the increase in total dry weight of culture. Addition of sucrose at 60 g/l produced the highest number of somatic embryos and longest shoot equal to that produced by date syrup at concentration of 6% without significant differences. On the other side, sucrose at 30 g/l improved the germination of somatic embryos followed by date syrup at 6%. Regarding fresh and dry weights, adding 6% date palm syrup was superior in this respect. Tissues grown on medium supplement with 10% of date syrup caused severe reduction in number of somatic embryo possibly due to the osmotic stress. In addition, tissues grown on medium containing 2% of date syrup had the lowest number of embryos. Date palm tissues are capable of utilizing date syrup as the sole carbon source for vegetative growth. It can be concluded that, adding date syrup locally known as 'Dibs'to the culture medium of date palm at concentration of 6% can be used totally as a replacement of sucrose which was the normally sugar used in most of plant tissue culture medium. This is the first report on the use of date syrup on somatic embryogenesis of date palm cv. Suckary.

Abdullatif Alkhateeb

2008-01-01

161

Ciclopirox Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

Ciclopirox topical solution is used along with regular nail trimming to treat fungal infections of the fingernails ... that may cause nail discoloration, splitting and pain). Ciclopirox is in a class of medications called antifungals. ...

162

Tacrolimus Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

Tacrolimus ointment is used to treat the symptoms of eczema (atopic dermatitis; a skin disease that causes ... whose eczema has not responded to another medication. Tacrolimus is in a class of medications called topical ...

163

Oral Medication  

Science.gov (United States)

... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Oral Medication The first treatment for type 2 diabetes ... anything new — even over-the-counter items. Explore: Oral Medication How Much Do Oral Medications Cost? Save ...

164

Topical cholesterol in clofazimine induced ichthyosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Topical application of 10% cholesterol in petrolatum significantly (P< 0.05 controlled the development of ichthyosis in 62 patients taking 100 mg clofazimine daily for a period of 3 months. However, topical cholesterol application did not affect the lowering of serum cholesterol induced by oral clofazimine. Probable mechanism of action is being discussed.

Pandey S

1994-01-01

165

Topical cholesterol in clofazimine induced ichthyosis  

OpenAIRE

Topical application of 10% cholesterol in petrolatum significantly (P< 0.05) controlled the development of ichthyosis in 62 patients taking 100 mg clofazimine daily for a period of 3 months. However, topical cholesterol application did not affect the lowering of serum cholesterol induced by oral clofazimine. Probable mechanism of action is being discussed.

Pandey S; Kushwaha S; Dubey S; Singh Sanjay

1994-01-01

166

Dual Mechanism of Brain Injury and Novel Treatment Strategy in Maple Syrup Urine Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism presenting with life-threatening cerebral oedema and dysmyelination in affected individuals. Treatment requires life-long dietary restriction and monitoring of branched-chain amino acids to avoid brain injury. Despite careful management, children…

Zinnanti, William J.; Lazovic, Jelena; Griffin, Kathleen; Skvorak, Kristen J.; Paul, Harbhajan S.; Homanics, Gregg E.; Bewley, Maria C.; Cheng, Keith C.; LaNoue, Kathryn F.; Flanagan, John M.

2009-01-01

167

AI Topics  

OpenAIRE

The items in this collage were selected from the AI TOPICS Web site's "AI in the News" collection that can be found -- complete with links to the item's source and related AI TOPICS pages -- at www. aaai.org/aitopics/html/current.php. Please note that: (1) an excerpt may not reflect the overall tenor of the item, nor contain all of the relevant information; and, (2) all items are offered "as is" and the fact that an item has been selected does not imply any endorsement whatsoever.

Glick, Jonathan

2007-01-01

168

Effect of aronia berry honey syrup used for sweetening jams on their quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of sweetening agents on the quality of low sweetened jams were compared with respect to blackcurrant, raspberry, sour cherry, strawberry, and bilberry jams. The sweetening agents were sucrose, aronia berry honey syrup, and sucrose + honey syrup at a ratio of 1:1. The level of physicochemical indices, especially the content of vitamin C and anthocyanins determined directly after production and after 3- and 6-month storage, was used as the quality criterion for the evaluation of jams. Moreover, after 6-month storage the products were subjected to sensorial analysis. According to the accepted method of the investigation the produced jams were characterized by a 32-33% content of extract. During the production and 6-month storage the content of acids slightly and that of pectin considerably (from 26 to 46%) decreased, although the consistency of the jams was not affected thereby. In the case of vitamin C, its pronounced losses concerned raspberry (62-67% of the initial value), strawberry (57-61%), and sour cherry (57-58%), being distinctly smaller in blackcurrant (13-16%) and bilberry (15-35%) jams. With respect to anthocyanins a similar regularity was observed, the losses reaching 49-63% in strawberry jam, 40-56% in raspberry, 33-39% in sour cherry, 30-36% in blackcurrant, and 28-36% in bilberries. In almost all the products the losses of vitamin C and anthocyanins were higher when sweetening agent was aronia berry honey syrup. The organoleptic evaluation showed that the addition of aronia berry honey syrup to raspberry and strawberry jams slightly spoiled their colour but improved the aroma and taste. In the final score the significant differentiation in favour of the addition of aronia berry honey syrup concerned only blackcurrant, sour cherry, and bilberry jams. PMID:11534468

Kmiecik, W; Lisiewska, Z; Jaworska, G

2001-08-01

169

Topical therapies in inflammatory bowel disease  

OpenAIRE

Due to misunderstandings about their effectiveness and feasibility, topical (or rectal) therapies with aminosalicylates (5-aminosalicylic acid, 5-ASA) and steroids are often underused in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). However, many of these patients could be treated solely with rectal/topical therapies, or could benefit from them in combination with oral therapies. We review the evidence for topical therapies containing 5-ASA and budesonide in UC and discuss how these therapies can be...

Frei, Pascal; Biedermann, Luc; Manser, Christine N.; Wilk, Maike; Manz, Michael; Vavricka, Stephan R.; Rogler, Gerhard

2012-01-01

170

Fate of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) following the oral route: design, pharmacokinetics and biodistribution.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to develop a nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) formulation containing spironolactone (SPN-NLCs), and to investigate its potential for the oral delivery of poorly water-soluble compounds. SPN-NLCs were orally administered to rabbits and the pharmacokinetics of spironolactone and its metabolites was evaluated. As reference formulation, we administered syrup. Spironolactone was only detected in a few plasma samples; hence, metabolite levels were employed for the pharmacokinetic analysis. The absolute bioavailability of 7?-TMS was significantly higher with the syrup than those obtained with the SPN-NLCs (0.7 versus 0.4, p?NLCs were mainly detected in the small intestine. These results suggest the retention of the nanocarriers in the underlying epithelium and further uptake by the epithelial cells. PMID:23631381

Beloqui, Ana; Solinís, María Ángeles; Delgado, Araceli; Evora, Carmen; Isla, Arantxazu; Rodríguez-Gascón, Alicia

2014-01-01

171

Development of orally disintegrating tablets comprising controlled-release multiparticulate beads  

OpenAIRE

Melperone is an atypical antipsychotic agent that has shown a wide spectrum of neuroleptic properties, particularly effective in the treatment of senile dementia and Parkinson’s-associated psychosis, and is marketed in Europe as an immediate-release (IR) tablet and syrup. An orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) dosage form would be advantageous for patients who experience difficulty in swallowing large tablets or capsules or those who experience dysphagia. Controlled-release (CR) capsule and ...

Venkatesh, Gopi M.; Stevens, Phillip J.; Lai, Jin-wang

2012-01-01

172

Oral voriconazole and miconazole oral gel produce comparable effects on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of etoricoxib  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Purpose The effect of topical miconazole oral gel and systemic oral voriconazole on the pharmacokinetics of oral etoricoxib was studied in 12 healthy volunteers. Methods Plasma concentrations of etoricoxib, miconazole, voriconazole, and thromboxane B2 generation were followed after ingestion of 60 mg et...

Hynninen, Ville V.; Olkkola, Klaus T.; Neuvonen, Pertti J.; Laine, Kari

2008-01-01

173

Topical phenytoin for wound healing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral phenytoin is used widely for the treatment of convulsive disorders and about half the patients treated develop gingival overgrowth as a side effect. The apparent stimulatory effect has prompted its assessment in wound healing. Studies have shown topical phenytoin to promote healing of decubitus ulcers, venous stasis ulcers, diabetic ulcers, traumatic wounds, burns, and leprosy trophic ulcers. The mechanism of action has been postulated to be multifactorial. The present literature indicates that topical phenytoin deserves further investigation as a wound-healing agent in controlled dose-finding clinical trials. PMID:15347487

Bhatia, Ashima; Prakash, Surya

2004-01-01

174

Topical antibiotic treatment of impetigo with tetracycline.  

Science.gov (United States)

Forty-nine children aged 0.2-13 years with bullous and eroded lesions, from which Staphylococcus aureus was isolated, were diagnosed with impetigo and entered into a randomized, open-labeled trial of topical oxytetracycline hydrochloride (tetracycline) compared with a combination of topical tetracycline and oral antibiotics. After one week of topical tetracycline treatment, 22 of the 28 patients were clinically cured, and the remaining six patients had improved. In the other treatment group, 14 patients of 21 were clinically cured and 7 patients improved by the combination of topical tetracycline and oral antibiotics. There were no significant differences between the two groups. Therefore, the present study suggests that topical tetracycline treatment is effective for the treatment of impetigo. PMID:16361729

Kuniyuki, Shuichi; Nakano, Kazuhito; Maekawa, Naoki; Suzuki, Shinsuke

2005-10-01

175

Chemoprevention of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced oral carcinogenesis in hamster cheek pouch by topical application of resveratrol complexed with 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin  

OpenAIRE

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) develops slowly and it is usually preceded by identifiable oral preneoplastic lesions (OPLs): chemoprevention could be a promising approach. Resveratrol (RV) is a plant-based agent characterized by a strong in vitro antineoplastic action, but this effect has not been clinically confirmed owing to its metabolic inactivation. In order to circumvent this limitation and to improve RV efficacy, it was locally applied and complexed with a protective and solubilis...

Di Carlo, Francesco; Carlotti, Maria Eugenia; Sapino, Simona; Cavalli, Roberta; Salamone, Paolina; Di Scipio, Federica; Berta, Giovanni Nicolao; Sprio, Andrea Elio

2010-01-01

176

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy reflects metabolic decompensation in maple syrup urine disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), accumulation of branchedchain amino acids (BCAA) and their corresponding 2-oxo acids (BCOA) could be non-invasively demonstrated in the brain of a 9-year-old girl suffering from classical maple syrup urine disease. During acute metabolic decompensation, the compounds caused a signal at a chemical shift of 0.9 ppm which was assigned by in vitro experiments. The brain tissue concentration of the sum of BCAA and BCOA could be estimated as 0.9 mmol/l. Localized 1H-MRS of the brain appears to be suitable for examining patients suffering from maple syrup urine disease in different metabolic states. (orig.)

177

[Ion-pair HPLC analysis of B vitamins in syrup products in Indonesia].  

Science.gov (United States)

A training course for analysis of B vitamins in syrup products was undertaken at the National Agency of Drug and Food Control at Jakarta as part of the project to deliver safe drugs to people in Indonesia by Japan International Cooperation Agency. Analytical methods have been developed for quantitative determination of B vitamins by ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography using 1-hexanesulfonic acid sodium salt. Measurements were performed for two syrup products removed from a drug store in Jakarta to determine the amount of each vitamin B. The measured values of riboflavin 5'-phosphate sodium, nicotinamide and pyridoxine hydrochloride were almost the same with those of nominal content for both products. While the measured values of thiamine hydrochloride, pantothenol and cyanocobalamin were approximately twice the amount of nominal contents. PMID:24340671

Miyazaki, Tamaki; Horisaki, Tadafumi; Aso, Yukio; Okuda, Haruhiro

2013-01-01

178

CLINICAL EFFICACY OF CRUX SYRUP IN THE MANAGEMENT OF COUGH DUE TO VARIOUS ETIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cough associated with acute and chronic respiratory conditions is common in patients of all ages. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical efficacy of CRUX syrup, a proprietary mixture of herbal ingredients in the management of cough of various etiological conditions in open label, uncontrolled, prospective cohort study. 55 Patients aged 9 - 64 years with cough of more than 1 day but less than 14 days duration was recruited. They were prescribed dose of CRUX syrup according to severity of cough for three days. Treatment results were assessed on the basis of Investigator’s evaluation. At the end of three days prescribed treatment, evaluator’s assessment shown that 29 % patient gave excellent, 55 % patient gave good, 11 % patient gave fair and 5 % patient gave poor response to treatment. The results demonstrate that CRUX treatment has significant decrease in the frequency and severity of cough without any significant side effect in patients of all ages.

Patel Girish

2013-10-01

179

Oral Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

... and alcohol substantially increase the risk of developing oral cancer. Quitting tobacco and limiting alcohol use significantly lower the risk ... factors • Tobacco use and alcohol Most people with oral cancers use tobacco. The risk of developing these cancers increases with ...

180

Comparison of breath testing with fructose and high fructose corn syrups in health and IBS  

OpenAIRE

Although incomplete fructose absorption has been implicated to cause gastrointestinal symptoms, foods containing high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) contain glucose. Glucose increases fructose absorption in healthy subjects. Our hypothesis was that fructose intolerance is less prevalent after HFCS consumption compared to fructose alone in healthy subjects and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Breath hydrogen levels and gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed after 40 g of fructose (12% solution) pr...

Skoog, S. M.; Bharucha, A. E.; Zinsmeister, A. R.

2008-01-01

181

Production and characterization of murine models of classic and intermediate maple syrup urine disease  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of metabolism caused by a deficiency of branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase. MSUD has several clinical phenotypes depending on the degree of enzyme deficiency. Current treatments are not satisfactory and require new approaches to combat this disease. A major hurdle in developing new treatments has been the lack of a suitable animal model. Methods To create a murine model of classic MSUD, ...

Watkins Simon; Ferguson Carolyn; Skvorak Kristen; Homanics Gregg E; Paul Harbhajan S

2006-01-01

182

Classical maple syrup urine disease and brain development: Principles of management and formula design  

OpenAIRE

Branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase deficiency results in complex and volatile metabolic derangements that threaten brain development. Treatment for classical maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) should address this underlying physiology while also protecting children from nutrient deficiencies. Based on a 20-year experience managing 79 patients, we designed a study formula to (1) optimize transport of seven amino acids (Tyr, Trp, His, Met, Thr, Gln, Phe) that compete with branched-chain amino ...

Strauss, Kevin A.; Wardley, Bridget; Robinson, Donna; Hendrickson, Christine; Rider, Nicholas L.; Puffenberger, Erik G.; Shelmer, Diana; Moser, Ann B.; Morton, D. Holmes

2010-01-01

183

Clinical and Biochemical Profiles of Maple Syrup Urine Disease in Malaysian Children  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defects in the branched-chain ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex resulting in accumulation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and corresponding branched-chain ketoacids (BCKAs) in tissues and plasma, which are neurotoxic. Early diagnosis and subsequent nutritional modification management can reduce the morbidity and mortality. Prior to 1990s, the diagnosis of MSUD and other inborn errors of metabolis...

Yunus, Z. Md; Kamaludin, Dp Abg; Mamat, M.; Choy, Y. S.; Ngu, Lh

2012-01-01

184

Potential Toxic Levels of Cyanide in Almonds (Prunus amygdalus), Apricot Kernels (Prunus armeniaca), and Almond Syrup  

OpenAIRE

Under normal environmental conditions, many plants synthesize cyanogenic glycosides, which are able to release hydrogen cyanide upon hydrolysis. Each year, there are frequent livestock and occasional human victims of cyanogenic plants consumption. The present work aims to determine the hydrocyanic acid content in different samples of cyanogenic plants, selected from the Tunisian flora, and in the almond syrup. In order to evaluate their toxicity and their impact on the consumer health in the ...

Nadia Chaouali; Ines Gana; Amira Dorra; Fathia Khelifi; Anouer Nouioui; Wafa Masri; Ines Belwaer; Hayet Ghorbel; Abderazzek Hedhili

2013-01-01

185

A novel probiotic fermented beverage based on soymilk and sea buckthorn syrup  

OpenAIRE

In the last decade, there is an increasing interest in using nondairyingredients as substrates for certain strains of bifidobacteria to deliver the benefits of probiotics to a wider group of consumers. This research aimed to explore the use of soymilk and sea buckthorn syrup as substrates for bifidobacteria fermentation. Microbial population, pH, and titratable acidity were measured during the fermentation period while the viability, pH, titratable acidity and water holding capacity were dete...

Nicoleta Maricica Maftei; Rodica Dinica; Gabriela Bahrim

2012-01-01

186

Consumer study and sensorial evaluation of a newly developed spicy strawberry syrup  

OpenAIRE

The potential beneficial effects of strawberry allied to those of chilly in many aspects of human health lead to the development of a spicy strawberry syrup. The work included the development of the product, including formulation, processing and industrialization aspects, chemical and sensorial analyses as well as a consumer study, of which some will be analysed in the present manuscript. The sensorial evaluation was performed with a panel of 25 tasters, of which 17 were women and 8 men. T...

Guine?, Raquel; Lima, Maria Joa?o; Pato, Lu?cia; Correia, Ana Cristina; Gonc?alves, Fernando; Costa, Elisa; Santos, Sandra

2010-01-01

187

Oral malodour  

OpenAIRE

Oral malodour may affect up to three billion people worldwide, with millions of dollars spent on treatment. Halitosis is often used synonymously, but oral malodour is the preferred term for any bad breath emanating from the mouth. Oral causes account for the majority of bad breath cases. It is the objective of this article to review the causes, classification and treatment of oral malodour for health care workers.

Zyl, Andre W.; Fourie, Jeanine; Heerden, W. F. P.

2011-01-01

188

Pediatric drugs--a review of commercially available oral formulations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pediatric oral formulations can be quite scientifically challenging to develop and the prerequisites for both a measurable dosage form to administer based upon bodyweight, and also taste-masking are two of the challenges unique for pediatric oral formulations. The physicochemical and organoleptic properties of the active drug substance such as solubility, chemical stability, and taste along with the intended dose can determine which formulations are feasible to develop. Oral pediatric formulations are available in 17 different varieties and can be either a ready-to-use formulation such as a solution, syrup, suspension, tablet, scored tablet, chewable tablet, orally disintegrating tablet, or thin strip, or can also be a formulation that requires manipulation such as a powder for constitution to a suspension, tablet for constitution to a suspension, powder for constitution to a solution, drops for reconstitution to a suspension, concentrated solution for dilution, effervescent tablet, bulk oral granules, bulk oral powder, or solid in a capsule to mix with food or drink. Recently there has been an increase in pediatric formulation development inspired by increased regulatory incentives. The intent of this review is to educate the reader on the various types of formulations administered orally to pediatrics, the rationale in deciding which type of formulation to develop, the excipients used, development challenges, the in-use handling of oral pediatric formulations, and the regulatory incentives. PMID:17823956

Strickley, Robert G; Iwata, Quynh; Wu, Sylvia; Dahl, Terrence C

2008-05-01

189

Oral Insulin  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Oral insulin is an exciting area of research and development in the field of diabetology. This brief review covers the various approaches used in the development of oral insulin, and highlights some of the recent data related to novel oral insulin preparation.

Kalra Sanjay; Kalra Bharti; Agrawal Navneet

2010-01-01

190

Alternatives for clarifying glucose syrup obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of starch  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper studies some routes for separating and purifying glucose syrup obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of potato starch. The clarifying process is done in three stages. The first one (solids remotion is done by applying conventional solid-liquid separation techniiques such as sedimentation, centrifugation and filtration, as well as studying the effect of using flocculant and coagulant agents, prior to the already mentioned operations. Purification is done by adding decolouring agents, followed by ultrafiltration of the syrup. The last step (concentration is done by vacuum evaporation. The results showed that separation, centrifuging and sedimation reached 50% yield whilst filtration and ultrafiltration achieved 78% and 98% respectively. It was found that adsorbent agents such as activated carbon and diatomaceous earth were effective in removing colour during the purification stage. The most suitable alternative for separation can be suggested from the foregoing, allowing a syrup to be obtained having similar characteristics and propierties to the commercial product. The most appropriate technological module for carrying out the operation is also represented.

Gloria Teresa Cruz Guerrero

2010-03-01

191

Development and Validation of HPTLC Method for Determination of Vasicine in Polyherbal Cough Syrup  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new and simple HPTLC method was developed and validated for the quantitative estimation of biologically active compound vasicine in polyherbal Cough Syrup. TLC aluminium plates precoated with silica gel 60F-254 (0.2 mm thickness were used. The linear ascending development was carried out in twin trough glass chamber saturated with mobile phase Ethyl acetate: methanol: ammonia (8.0 : 2.0 : 0.2 v/v/v and densitometric determination  was carried out by TLC scanner (CAMAG at 254 nm in reflectance/absorbance mode. The Rf value of vasicine was found to be 0.54 ± 0.03. Linearity was found to be in the concentration range of 200 ng to 1600 ng. The linear regression data for the calibration plots showed a good linear relationship with r2=0.99 for vasicine. According to the ICH guideline the method was validate for accuracy, precision, recovery, robustness and ruggedness. The vasicine content quantified from polyherbal formulation (Cough Syrup was found well within limits. The proposed method is accurate, precise, reproducible, and can be adopted for routine analysis of vasicine from polyherbal cough syrup by HPTLC

Unmesh Keshwar

2014-05-01

192

Oral Melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Melanoma is a malignant tumor that originates from melanocyte cells. Its oral type is rare. The goal of this investigation was to determine the prevalence of oral malignant melanoma in Iran, as determined by age, sex and location. This research reviewed 623 cases of oral and non-oral malignant melanoma in Immam-Khomeini hospital, Mearaj cancer institute and department of oral pathology of dental faculty, Tehran University of Medical Sciences in a period of 19 years from 1981-1999. The results showed that 54 cases of biopsy lesions were melanoma of oral cavity that included 7.8% of these lesions. The mean age incidence of oral melanoma was 55.5(between 26-86 years. The most prevalent sites were palate (37.1% and alveolar mucosa (20.4% and less common sites included floor of mouth. buccal mucosa and tongue.

A Forouzandeh

2002-02-01

193

[Use of fibrin glue in oral surgery].  

Science.gov (United States)

Patients with progressive thromboembolic diseases usually are administered a daily therapy with anticoagulants-antiaggregants drugs: oral surgical procedures may be performed in these conditions without reduction of the systemic therapy, using topically fibrin glue. PMID:2534911

Rota, L; Pignanelli, C; Pignanelli, M

1989-11-30

194

Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine : guidelines for oral pathology and oral medicine in the dental curriculum  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In Scandinavia, as in many European countries, most patients consult their general dentist once a year or more. This gives the dentist a unique opportunity and an obligation to make an early diagnosis of oral diseases, which is beneficial for both the patient and the society. Thus, the dentist must have knowledge of clinical symptoms, local and systemic signs and clinical differential diagnoses to make an accurate diagnosis. The dentist must be competent in selecting appropriate diagnostic tests, for example, tissue biopsy and microbiological samples, and conducting them correctly, as well as in interpreting test results and taking appropriate action accordingly. Furthermore, the dentist must be aware of diseases demanding multidisciplinary cooperation and be able to recognise his/her professional limitation, and to refer to other specialists when required. The dental curriculum changes over time as new approaches, treatments and diagnostic possibilities develop. Likewise, the role of the dentist in the community changes and may vary in different countries. As members of the Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine and subject representatives of oral pathology and oral medicine, we feel obliged to contribute to the discussion of how the guidelines of the dental curriculum support the highest possible standards of dental education. This article is meant to delineate a reasonable standard of oral pathology and oral medicine in the European dental curriculum and to guide subject representatives in curriculum development and planning. We have created an advisory topic list in oral pathology and oral medicine.

Kragelund, Camilla; Reibel, J

2012-01-01

195

Discourse Variation in Oral Proficiency Interviews.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study of the discourse structure of oral language proficiency interviews focused on (1) one principal discourse variable, topic, for analyzing contingency and goal orientation in dyadic interactions, and (2) contextual factors (interlocutor, theme, task, participant gender). Data came from 30 dyadic oral interviews in English as a Second…

Young, Richard; Milanovic, Michael

196

Optimization of date syrup for enhancement of the production of citric acid using immobilized cells of Aspergillus niger.  

Science.gov (United States)

Date syrup as an economical source of carbohydrates and immobilized Aspergillus niger J4, which was entrapped in calcium alginate pellets, were employed for enhancing the production of citric acid. Maximum production was achieved by pre-treating date syrup with 1.5% tricalcium phosphate to remove heavy metals. The production of citric acid using a pretreated medium was 38.87% higher than an untreated one that consumed sugar. The appropriate presence of nitrogen, phosphate and magnesium appeared to be important in order for citric acid to accumulate. The production of citric acid and the consumed sugar was higher when using 0.1% ammonium nitrate as the best source of nitrogen. The production of citric acid increased significantly when 0.1 g/l of KH2PO4 was added to the medium of date syrup. The addition of magnesium sulfate at the rate of 0.20 g/l had a stimulating effect on the production of citric acid. Maximum production of citric acid was obtained when calcium chloride was absent. One of the most important benefits of immobilized cells is their ability and stability to produce citric acid under a repeated batch culture. Over four repeated batches, the production of citric acid production was maintained for 24 days when each cycle continued for 144 h. The results obtained in the repeated batch cultivation using date syrup confirmed that date syrup could be used as a medium for the industrial production of citric acid. PMID:23961184

Mostafa, Yasser S; Alamri, Saad A

2012-04-01

197

Oral Communication across the Curriculum  

Science.gov (United States)

Proficiency in oral communication is necessary in school and in society. To do well in the different curriculum areas, pupils must speak with clarity and understanding. For example, in a discussion group in the social studies involving the topic "the pros and cons of raising taxes," pupils need to express knowledgeable ideas with appropriate voice…

Ediger, Marlow

2011-01-01

198

A Comparison of the Efficacy, Adverse Effects, and Patient Compliance of the Sena-Graph®Syrup and Castor Oil Regimens for Bowel Preparation  

OpenAIRE

Sena-Graph syrup has recently been formulated by an Iranian pharmaceutical company for being used in bowel evacuation before radiography, colonoscopy and surgery. This study compares the efficacy, adverse effects and patient compliance of two bowel preparation regimens with castor oil and Sena-Graph syrup in of outpatients for Intravenous Urography (IVU).

Ghazikhanlou Sani, Karim; Jafari, Mahmood-reza; Shams, Safar

2010-01-01

199

Oral tolerance.  

Science.gov (United States)

Multiple mechanisms of tolerance are induced by oral antigen. Low doses favor active suppression, whereas higher doses favor clonal anergy/deletion. Oral antigen induces T-helper 2 [interleukin (IL)-4/IL-10] and Th3 [transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta] T cells plus CD4+CD25+ regulatory cells and latency-associated peptide+ T cells. Induction of oral tolerance is enhanced by IL-4, IL-10, anti-IL-12, TGF-beta, cholera toxin B subunit, Flt-3 ligand, and anti-CD40 ligand. Oral (and nasal) antigen administration suppresses animal models of autoimmune diseases including experimental autoimmune encephalitis, uveitis, thyroiditis, myasthenia, arthritis, and diabetes in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse, plus non-autoimmune diseases such as asthma, atherosclerosis, graft rejection, allergy, colitis, stroke, and models of Alzheimer's disease. Oral tolerance has been tested in human autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS), arthritis, uveitis, and diabetes and in allergy, contact sensitivity to dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), and nickel allergy. Although positive results have been observed in phase II trials, no effect was observed in phase III trials of CII in rheumatoid arthritis or oral myelin and glatiramer acetate (GA) in MS. Large placebo effects were observed, and new trials of oral GA are underway. Oral insulin has recently been shown to delay onset of diabetes in at-risk populations, and confirmatory trials of oral insulin are being planned. Mucosal tolerance is an attractive approach for treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases because of lack of toxicity, ease of administration over time, and antigen-specific mechanisms of action. The successful application of oral tolerance for the treatment of human diseases will depend on dose, developing immune markers to assess immunologic effects, route (nasal versus oral), formulation, mucosal adjuvants, combination therapy, and early therapy. PMID:16048553

Faria, Ana M C; Weiner, Howard L

2005-08-01

200

Evaluation of the Nutritional Value of Functional Yogurt Resulting from Combination of Date Palm Syrup and Skim Milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to use date palm syrup as a part of water (v/v used in reconstituting skim milk powder in processing yogurt with 14% total solids. Physical properties such as sensory characteristics and apparent viscosity were evaluated. To evaluate the nutritional value of yogurt, antioxidant values were monitored during storage and the sample which recorded the highest values would determine its chemical composition. In addition, some micronutrients (HCl-soluble minerals and (folate and C vitamins compared to plain yogurt. Results showed that yogurt enriched with 10% date syrup had a significant sweetness, recorded the highest antioxidant values, higher in HCl-soluble minerals and folate concentration compared to plain yogurt. It could be concluded that numerous health benefits beyond its nutritional value have been associated with consuming yogurt enriched with 10% date palm syrup.

A.F. Sayed

2010-01-01

201

Fast determination of diphenhydramine hydrochloride in reconstitutable syrups by CWT, PLS AND PCR methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (DPH), a histamine H1-receptor antagonist, is widely used as antiallergic, antiemetic and antitussive drug found in many pharmaceutical preparations. In this study, a new reconstitutable syrup formulation of DPH was prepared because it is more stable in solid form than that in liquid form. The quantitative estimation of the DPH content of a reconstitutable syrup formulation in the presence of pharmaceutical excipients, D-sorbitol, sodium citrate, sodium benzoate and sodium EDTA is not possible by the direct absorbance measurement. Therefore, a signal processing approach based on continuous wavelet transform was used to determine the DPH in the reconstitutable syrup formulations and to eliminate the effect of excipients on the analysis. The absorption spectra of DPH in the range of 5.0-40.0 ?g/mL were recorded between 200-300 nm. Various wavelet families were tested and Biorthogonal1.1 continuous wavelet transform (BIOR1.1-CWT) was found to be optimal signal processing family to get fast and desirable determination results and to overcome excipient interference effects. For a comparison of the experimental results obtained by partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR) methods were applied to the quantitative prediction of DPH in the mentioned samples. The validity of the proposed BIOR1.1-CWT, PLS and PCR methods were achieved analyzing the prepared samples containing the mentioned excipients and using standard addition technique. It was observed that the proposed graphical and numerical approaches are suitable for the quantitative analysis of DPH in samples including excipients. PMID:25362800

Devrim, Burcu; Dinç, Erdal; Bozkir, Asuman

2014-01-01

202

Rheology and density of glucose syrup and honey: Determining their suitability for usage in analogue and fluid dynamic models of geological processes  

Science.gov (United States)

Analogue models of lithospheric deformation and fluid dynamic models of mantle flow mostly use some kind of syrup such as honey or glucose syrup to simulate the low-viscosity sub-lithospheric mantle. This paper describes detailed rheological tests and density measurements of three brands of glucose syrup and three brands of honey. Additional tests have been done for one brand of glucose syrup that was diluted with water to various degrees (2%, 5% and 10% by weight). The rheological tests have been done to test the effect of shear strain, shear rate and temperature on the dynamic viscosity of the syrup. The results show that the viscosity of all glucose syrups and honeys is independent of shear strain (i.e. no strain hardening or softening). The viscosity of the glucose syrups is independent of shear rate (??), i.e. linear-viscous or Newtonian, in the range ??=10-4-10 s with stress exponents that are almost identical to one ( n = 0.995-1.004). All the honeys show a very weak, but consistent, decrease in viscosity with increasing shear rate of 7-14% from 10 -3 to 10 0 s -1 and have stress exponents more distinct from one ( n = 1.007-1.026). All syrups have a viscosity that is strongly dependent on temperature in the range 0-50 °C, where viscosity decreases with increasing temperature. Such decrease can be fitted with exponential and Arrhenius functions, with the latter giving the best results. Furthermore, the viscosity of glucose syrup decreases approximately exponentially with increasing water content. Oscillation tests indicate that the rheology of all the syrups is entirely dominated by viscous behaviour and not by elastic behaviour at frequencies of 10 -3-10 2 Hz. Finally, the density investigations show that the density of glucose syrup and honey decreases approximately linearly with increasing temperature in the range 10-70 °C, with coefficients of thermal volumetric expansion at 20 °C of 3.89-3.95 × 10 -4 °C -1 and 4.57-4.81 × 10 -4 °C -1 for glucose syrup and honey, respectively. The new results demonstrate that glucose syrups and (to a lesser degree) honeys are well suited for usage in analogue and fluid dynamic experiments to represent linear-viscous strain independent and shear rate independent rheologies to model geological processes. Glucose syrups have the added advantage of being more transparent than honeys, allowing for accurately resolving and quantifying flow patterns in the fluid during a model run.

Schellart, W. P.

2011-06-01

203

Chemoprevention of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced oral carcinogenesis in hamster cheek pouch by topical application of resveratrol complexed with 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) develops slowly and it is usually preceded by identifiable oral preneoplastic lesions (OPLs): chemoprevention could be a promising approach. Resveratrol (RV) is a plant-based agent characterized by a strong in vitro antineoplastic action, but this effect has not been clinically confirmed owing to its metabolic inactivation. In order to circumvent this limitation and to improve RV efficacy, it was locally applied and complexed with a protective and solubilising vehicle (2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin, HPbetaCD). The experimentation was performed in vitro on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster OSCC cell line (HCPC I) and in vivo in the related animal model, by comparison of two RV-HPbetaCD formulations (cream and mouthwash) and RV alone. Vehicles and RV-formulations were free from toxicity. Antiproliferative action of RV on HCPC I was concentration- and time-dependent, and was improved in HPbetaCD-formulations. In vivo, RV prevented OPL and OSCC appearance and growth. Here, too, HPbetaCD-formulations (mainly mouthwash) demonstrated the best chemopreventive effects in terms of lesions prevalence, multiplicity, dimension, and histological signs of malignancy. HPLC detection of RV corroborated that its action is concentration-correlated and is improved by its inclusion in HPbetaCDs. In summary, our study demonstrates that RV is effective in the chemoprevention of DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis and when it is complexed with HPbetaCDs its efficacy is significantly improved. PMID:19932051

Berta, Giovanni Nicolao; Salamone, Paolina; Sprio, Andrea Elio; Di Scipio, Federica; Marinos, Lucy Marcela; Sapino, Simona; Carlotti, Maria Eugenia; Cavalli, Roberta; Di Carlo, Francesco

2010-01-01

204

Potential Toxic Levels of Cyanide in Almonds (Prunus amygdalus), Apricot Kernels (Prunus armeniaca), and Almond Syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

Under normal environmental conditions, many plants synthesize cyanogenic glycosides, which are able to release hydrogen cyanide upon hydrolysis. Each year, there are frequent livestock and occasional human victims of cyanogenic plants consumption. The present work aims to determine the hydrocyanic acid content in different samples of cyanogenic plants, selected from the Tunisian flora, and in the almond syrup. In order to evaluate their toxicity and their impact on the consumer health in the short term as well as in the long term, using the ISO 2164-1975 NT standard, relating to the determination of cyanogenic heterosides in leguminous plants. PMID:24171123

Chaouali, Nadia; Gana, Ines; Dorra, Amira; Khelifi, Fathia; Nouioui, Anouer; Masri, Wafa; Belwaer, Ines; Ghorbel, Hayet; Hedhili, Abderazzek

2013-01-01

205

Chemical composition and sensory analysis of roasted peanuts coated with prickly pear and algarrobo pod syrups  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this work was to determine the chemical composition, sensory attributes and consumer acceptance of roasted peanuts coated with prickly pear (RP-P) and â??algarroboâ? pod syrups (RP-A). Roasted peanuts (RP) without coating had the highest oil content (50.4%) in comparison with the coated products RP-P and RP-A (45.3% and 46.7%, respectively). RP-P and RP-A showed lower protein percentage and higher carbohydrate content than RP. These results affe...

Grosso, N. R.; Conci, S.; Ryan, L. C.; Olmedo, R. H.; Mestrallet, M. G.; Nepote, V.

2008-01-01

206

Minerais em melados e em caldos de cana / Minerals in sugar cane syrup and cane juice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A cana-de-açúcar está entre as culturas que apresenta larga escala de adaptações às condições climáticas, sendo utilizada para a fabricação de diversos produtos. Dentre os produtos derivados da cana-de-açúcar, o melado é tido popularmente como um alimento rico em ferro. Este trabalho objetivou conhe [...] cer a concentração de alguns minerais em melados comerciais e em melados preparados com equipamentos de aço inoxidável. Ao todo foram 20 amostras, 10 de cada tipo. As amostras foram preparadas para análise por oxidação da matéria orgânica por via úmida e os teores de Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn e Fe foram determinados por espectroscopia de absorção atômica, Na e K por fotometria de chama e P por colorimetria. Concluiu-se, com este trabalho, que os teores médios dos minerais Fe, P, Na e Mg foram significativamente mais elevados nos melados comerciais do que nos melados feitos com equipamentos inox. O contrário foi encontrado para o mineral cálcio, que apresentou teor mais elevado nos melados feitos no laboratório, mas condizentes com os teores encontrados nos caldos de cana. Não houve diferença significativa nos teores dos demais minerais. Abstract in english Sugar cane is an easily adaptable crop to diverse climate conditions, and it is used in the manufacturing of many different products. Among those products is the syrup, which is popularly known to be good sources of iron. In this work, we aimed to measure the concentration of some minerals in commer [...] cial sugar cane syrup brands and syrup prepared in the laboratory using stainless steel equipment. A total of 20 samples were analyzed, 10 of commercial brands and ten prepared in the laboratory. The samples were prepared by wet-air oxidation of organic matter and the contents of Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Fe were determined by atomic absorption. Na and K were determined by photometry and P by colorimetry. It was found that the mean concentration of Fe, P, Na, and Mn were higher in the commercial products than in that prepared in the laboratory using stainless steel equipment. On the other hand, it was found that the calcium content was higher in the laboratory made syrup, which is in agreement with the Ca content found for the sugarcane juice. There was no significant difference in the concentration of the other tested minerals.

Fernanda dos Santos, Nogueira; Karla Silva, Ferreira; Josil de Barros, Carneiro Junior; Luís César, Passoni.

2009-12-01

207

Minerais em melados e em caldos de cana Minerals in sugar cane syrup and cane juice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A cana-de-açúcar está entre as culturas que apresenta larga escala de adaptações às condições climáticas, sendo utilizada para a fabricação de diversos produtos. Dentre os produtos derivados da cana-de-açúcar, o melado é tido popularmente como um alimento rico em ferro. Este trabalho objetivou conhecer a concentração de alguns minerais em melados comerciais e em melados preparados com equipamentos de aço inoxidável. Ao todo foram 20 amostras, 10 de cada tipo. As amostras foram preparadas para análise por oxidação da matéria orgânica por via úmida e os teores de Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn e Fe foram determinados por espectroscopia de absorção atômica, Na e K por fotometria de chama e P por colorimetria. Concluiu-se, com este trabalho, que os teores médios dos minerais Fe, P, Na e Mg foram significativamente mais elevados nos melados comerciais do que nos melados feitos com equipamentos inox. O contrário foi encontrado para o mineral cálcio, que apresentou teor mais elevado nos melados feitos no laboratório, mas condizentes com os teores encontrados nos caldos de cana. Não houve diferença significativa nos teores dos demais minerais.Sugar cane is an easily adaptable crop to diverse climate conditions, and it is used in the manufacturing of many different products. Among those products is the syrup, which is popularly known to be good sources of iron. In this work, we aimed to measure the concentration of some minerals in commercial sugar cane syrup brands and syrup prepared in the laboratory using stainless steel equipment. A total of 20 samples were analyzed, 10 of commercial brands and ten prepared in the laboratory. The samples were prepared by wet-air oxidation of organic matter and the contents of Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Fe were determined by atomic absorption. Na and K were determined by photometry and P by colorimetry. It was found that the mean concentration of Fe, P, Na, and Mn were higher in the commercial products than in that prepared in the laboratory using stainless steel equipment. On the other hand, it was found that the calcium content was higher in the laboratory made syrup, which is in agreement with the Ca content found for the sugarcane juice. There was no significant difference in the concentration of the other tested minerals.

Fernanda dos Santos Nogueira

2009-12-01

208

Management of a Woman With Maple Syrup Urine Disease During Pregnancy, Delivery, and Lactation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of metabolism of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Complications of acute elevation in plasma leucine include ketoacidosis and risk of cerebral edema, which can be fatal. Individuals with MSUD are at risk of metabolic crisis throughout life, especially at times of physiological stress. We present a case of successful management of a woman with MSUD through pregnancy, delivery, postpartum, and lactation, including nutrition therapy using modified parenteral nutrition. PMID:24618664

Wessel, Ann E; Mogensen, Kris M; Rohr, Frances; Erick, Miriam; Neilan, Edward G; Chopra, Sameer; Levy, Harvey L; Gray, Kathryn J; Wilkins-Haug, Louise; Berry, Gerard T

2014-03-11

209

A high performance liquid chromatography method for determination of hydroxyzine hydrochloride in syrup  

OpenAIRE

A simple isocratic method for quantification of hydroxyzine dihydrochloride by HPLC with UV detection at 232 nm in syrup has been developed and validated. Separation was achieved on a C18 column (250 x 4.6 mm, 5 ?m) maintained at 90 ºC with 0.5 mol/L potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer : acetonitrile (1:1, v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 2.0 mL/min. The method was proven to be linear over the range of 80–120 ?g/mL, accurate (recovery = 97.8 %), precise (coefficient o...

Ferreira, Anderson O.; Grossi, Li?via N.; Raposo, Na?dia N. B.; Vaz, Urias P.; Montesano, Gabriela; Fonseca, Roberta G.; Polonini, Hudson C.; Nascimento, Luiz G. B.; Branda?o, Marcos A. F.

2011-01-01

210

Oral Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

... form in any part of the mouth or throat. Most oral cancers begin in the tongue and in the floor of the mouth. Anyone can get oral cancer, but the risk is higher if you are male, over age 40, use tobacco or alcohol or have a history of head or neck cancer. Frequent sun exposure ...

211

Oral History in the Digital Age  

Science.gov (United States)

The Oral History in the Digital Age website connects interested persons and organizations to a range of resources related to crafting a meaningful and dynamic oral history project. Crafted by people at Michigan State University with funds from the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), the site contains critical essays, How-To guides, and an elaborate wiki. The Getting Started area is a good place to begin, as it features helpful playlists about oral history projects. The Essays tab leads to another highly informative section of the site. The short pieces in this section are divided into three topics: Collecting, Curating, and Disseminating. The individual essays include "Enhancing Discovery: Connecting Users to Your Oral History Collections Online" and "Oral History and Social Networks: From Promotion to Relationship Building." Finally, the Ask Doug option features expert responses to key questions on oral history projects from noted oral historian Doug Boyd.

2013-01-01

212

A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial of active manuka honey and standard oral care for radiation-induced oral mucositis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our aim was to investigate the effect of active manuka honey on radiation-induced mucositis. A total of 131 patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer who were having radiotherapy to the oral cavity or oropharyngeal area were recruited into the study, and were randomly allocated to take either manuka honey or placebo (golden syrup) 20 ml 4 times daily for 6 weeks. Mucositis was assessed according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) scale at baseline, weekly during radiotherapy, and twice weekly thereafter until the mucositis resolved. The patient's weight was recorded at the same time as the mucositis was assessed. Throat swabs to identify bacterial or fungal infections were taken at baseline, and during and after radiotherapy. There was no significant difference between honey and golden syrup in their effects on mucositis. Active manuka honey did not improve mucositis, but both the honey and the syrup seemed to be associated with a reduction in bacterial infections. Compliance was a problem after the onset of mucositis, which may have affected the findings. PMID:21636188

Bardy, Joy; Molassiotis, Alex; Ryder, W David; Mais, Kathleen; Sykes, Andrew; Yap, Beng; Lee, Lip; Kaczmarski, Ed; Slevin, Nicholas

2012-04-01

213

Optimization of biohydrogen production from sweet sorghum syrup using statistical methods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study employed statistically based experimental designs to optimize fermentation conditions for hydrogen production from sweet sorghum syrup by anaerobic mixed cultures. Initial screening of important factors influencing hydrogen production, i.e., total sugar, initial pH, nutrient solution, iron (II) sulphate (FeSO{sub 4}), peptone and sodium bicarbonate was conducted by the Plackett-Burman method. Results indicated that only FeSO{sub 4} had statistically significant (P {<=} 0.005) influences on specific hydrogen production (P{sub s}) while total sugar and initial pH had an interdependent effect on P{sub s}. Optimal conditions for the maximal P{sub s} were 25 g/L total sugar, 4.75 initial pH and 1.45 g/L FeSO{sub 4} in which P{sub s} of 6897 mL H{sub 2}/L was estimated. Estimated optimum conditions revealed only 0.04% difference from the actual P{sub s} of 6864 mL H{sub 2}/L which suggested that the optimal conditions obtained can be practically applied to produce hydrogen from sweet sorghum syrup with the least error. (author)

Saraphirom, Piyawadee [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Rajabhat Maha Sarakham University, A.Muang, Maha Sarakham 44000 (Thailand); Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Khon Kaen University, A. Muang, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Reungsang, Alissara [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Khon Kaen University, A. Muang, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Fermentation Research Center for Value Added of Agricultural Products, Faculty of Technology, Khon Kaen University, A. Muang, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)

2010-12-15

214

Pharmacological studies on siculine syrup. II: effects on smooth, skeletal and cardiovascular muscle preparations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Earlier pharmacological screening showed that siculine syrup (a traditional herbal remedy purported to be useful in the prevention and treatment of sickle cell pain - crises, due to sickle cell anaemia - SCA) had antisickling and analgesic activities as well as antimicrobial and diuretic effects. SCA is an important haemoglobinopathy in Africa and many other communities/countries worldwide, with relatively high morbidity and mortality. The present study was to determine the effects of the extract on various isolated muscle preparations - smooth, skeletal and cardiovascular. Siculine (4-20 microg/mL), like acetylcholine (40-400 microg/mL), contracted the isolated rat uterus concentration dependently. Similar effects were observed with the guinea-pig ileum and rabbit jejunum (2-20 microg/mL). In contrast to these effects, the direct (muscle) and indirect (nerve) stimulations of rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm were relaxed by siculine (4 and 8 microg/mL) and d-tubocurarine (0.8 microg/mL). Siculine also concentration-dependently decreased both the rate and force of contraction of guinea-pig atria and rabbit heart and also resulted in a fall in cat blood pressure in a manner similar to those of acetylcholine. The possible therapeutic and/or toxicological consequences of these effects including the hypotensive activity is noteworthy since siculine syrup is used by the local population for the prevention and treatment of sickle cell pain crises. PMID:19003939

Kwanashie, H O; Ejiofor, J I; Abdu-Aguye, I; Nkweteyim, J N; Olanipekun, M R

2009-02-01

215

Determination of ethanol content in medicated syrups by static headspace gas chromatography.  

Science.gov (United States)

Liquid drug preparations are the most convenient for pediatric patients. Unfortunately, these formulations very often contain ethanol, which may have an impact on children development. Moreover, medicines containing alcohol may cause undesirable interactions in conjunction with other drugs. This work reports complete validated method for the quantitation of ethanol in commercial medicated syrups. For determination of ethanol headspace gas chromatography and different methods of quantitative analysis were used. The analyzed samples of commercial medicated syrups available on the home marked contained from 3.37 to 8.65% (v/v) of ethanol. The estimated theoretical values of blood ethanol concentration for children after single recommended dose ingestion were at least twice lower than 0.125 g/mL. The process of validation showed that the applied GC method is selective, sensitive, linear and precise. The use of internal standard makes it accurate. The developed method could be considered as an analytical tool for the quality control of various liquid drug preparations. PMID:23610958

Huzar, El?bieta; Wodnicka, Alicja

2013-01-01

216

Polysaccharides as a marker for detection of corn sugar syrup addition in honey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Honey is a natural product of high quality. However, because of its limited production and of its relatively high price, some beekeepers or unscrupulous traders do not hesitate to modify and falsify this natural product in order to try to increase its market value. Then, these involved falsification practices, for example intentional addition of cheap sugar syrup to honeys, are sometimes difficult to detect. An effective and simple analytical method is proposed in order to detect adulteration in honey by analysis of polysaccharide profiles. Samples were previously treated with reversed-phase solid phase extraction first to remove monosaccharides and small oligosaccharides and second to concentrate simultaneously traces of polysaccharides. A chromatographic separation using anion exchange stationary phase and pulse amperometric detection was further performed. Polysaccharide fingerprints (degree of polymerization from 11 to 17) were shown to be present in laboratory doped samples, and not detectable or present at very low concentrations in the authentic honey samples. Application to acacia, mountain polyfloral and polyfloral honeys enabled readily the detection of fraud resulting from deliberate addition of 1% of corn syrup. PMID:19243098

Megherbi, Mehdi; Herbreteau, Bernard; Faure, René; Salvador, Arnaud

2009-03-25

217

Efinaconazole: a new topical treatment for onychomycosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Efinaconazole is an emerging antifungal therapy for the topical treatment of onychomycosis. Efinaconazole is an inhibitor of sterol 14?-demethylase and is more effective in vitro than terbinafine, itraconazole, ciclopirox and amorolfine against dermatophytes, yeasts and non-dermatophyte molds. Phase II studies indicate that efinaconazole 10% nail solution is more effective than either the 5% strength or 10% solution with semi-occlusion. In duplicate Phase III clinical trials, complete cure rates of 17.8% and 15.2% were demonstrated. The mean mycological cure rate for efinaconazole is similar to the oral antifungal itraconazole and exceeds the efficacy of topical ciclopirox. Efinaconazole showed minimal localized adverse events, which ceased upon stopping treatment. Overall, efinaconazole 10% nail solution is an effective topical monotherapy for distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis (<65% nail involvement, excluding the matrix) that shows further potential use as an adjunct to oral and device-based therapies. PMID:24570290

Gupta, Aditya K; Simpson, Fiona C

2014-01-01

218

Innovative use of topical calcineurin inhibitors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Topical tacrolimus and pimecrolimus are indicated for treatment of atopic dermatitis, but they have been studied in many off-label uses. Double-blind and open studies have shown favorable results with topical tacrolimus and pimecrolimus in oral lichen planus. In 1 study of oral lichen planus, blood tacrolimus was detected in 54% of patients, but there were no signs of systemic toxicity. Double-blind and open studies of vitiligo have shown favorable results with tacrolimus in combination with excimer laser, especially for lesions over bony prominences and on extremities. Similarly, double-blind studies of vitiligo have shown favorable results when pimecrolimus is combined with narrow-band UVB, especially for facial lesions. Double-blind and open studies of psoriasis have shown favorable results for tacrolimus and pimecrolimus, especially for inverse psoriasis. Topical calcineurin inhibitors have been effective in many other cutaneous disorders, and further studies would help clarify their roles. PMID:20510763

Lin, Andrew N

2010-07-01

219

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect oral cancer early—when it can ...

220

Irradiation mucositis and oral flora  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study, which is motivated by the substantial morbidity of local signs of mucositis and generalized symptoms that result from mucositis induced by therapeutic irradiation, has the following objectives: To investigate if it is possible to prevent irradiation mucositis via oral flora elimination, and, if it is true that flora plays a role in irradiation mucositis, what fraction of the oral flora may be involved; to evaluate oral Gram-negative bacillary carriage; to investigate the possibility to eradicate Gram-negative bacilli from the oral cavity; to evaluate oral yeast carriage; to investigate the possibility to eradicate yeasts stomatitis and the 'selectivity' of elimination of flora. Two methods are described for monitoring alterations of mucositis of the oral cavity and changes in oral flora. Chlorhexidine has been tested as the commonly used prophylaxis. The effect of chlorhexidine 0.1% rinses on oral flora and mucositis has been studied in a prospective placebo controlled double blind randomized programme. The results of the influence of saliva on the antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine and the results of selective elimination of oral flora in irradiated patients who have head and neck cancer are reported. Salivary inactivation of the topical antimicrobials used for selective elimination of oral flora has been studied and the results are reported. Finally, the objectives that have been achieved (or not) are delineated. The significance of the results of tated. The significance of the results of the study are discussed in terms of published information and further lines of research are suggested. (author). 559 refs.; 29 figs.; 20 tabs

221

Triamcinolone Oral  

Science.gov (United States)

... the tablets or oral liquid, even if you switch to an inhalation. If these problems occur, call ... weight gain.If your sputum (the matter you cough up during an asthma attack) thickens or changes ...

222

Oral myiasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oral myiasis is a rare disease that is most common in developing countries and is associated with poor oral hygiene, suppurating lesions, severe halitosis and other predisposing conditions. This paper describes a case of oral myiasis in a 22-year-old female patient who presented with acute upper lip swelling with an extensive necrotic area in the anterior region of the maxilla and fetid odor. The diagnosis was based on the typical clinical features and the visual presence of the larvae. The patient's management included surgical exploration to remove the larvae and the necrotic tissue, followed by scaling and oral hygiene instruction. Upon treatment, the larvae were eliminated, and complete lesion healing and remission of symptoms were observed within 21 days.

Leite Cavalcanti Alessandro

2008-01-01

223

Herpes - oral  

Science.gov (United States)

... virus type 2 (HSV-2) most often causes genital herpes . However, sometimes HSV-2 is spread to the ... the virus to the genitals. Both oral and genital herpes viruses can sometimes be spread even when you ...

224

penal oral  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

El objetivo es estudiar los antecedentes y la epistemología de los juicios orales como un nuevo sistema emergente de justicia penal, cuestionándonos principalmente desde los puntos de vista de la teoría del conocimiento e historia jurídica.

Juan de Dios Gonz\\u00E1lez Ibarra

2008-01-01

225

Oral cyclosporine therapy for refractory severe vernal keratoconjunctivitis  

OpenAIRE

We report the success of oral cyclosporine therapy in a patient with severe vision-threatening vernal keratoconjunctivitis. A child presented with severe allergy which was not controlled with topical steroids, cyclosporine and mast cell stabilizers. Oral steroids were required repeatedly to suppress inflammation. Child showed a dramatic improvement and stabilization with oral cyclosporine therapy. Oral cyclosporine therapy can be tried in severe vision-threatening allergy refractory to conven...

Gokhale, Nikhil S.; Samant, Rohini; Sharma, Vishnu

2012-01-01

226

Cultivation and utilization of Jerusalem artichoke for ethanol, single cell protein, and high-fructose syrup production  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Jerusalem artichoke has one of the highest carbohydrate yields of the known agricultural crops and has many distinct advantages over traditional crops. This brief review presents data on the yield and composition of Jerusalem artichoke, techniques of carbohydrate extraction and its utilization for the production of ethanol, single cell protein (SCP), and high-fructose syrup, along with economic considerations. (author).

Bajpai, P.K.; Bajpai, Pratima (Thapar Corporate Research and Development Center, Patiala (IN). Div. of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering)

1991-04-01

227

Cell viability effects and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Tunisian date syrup (Rub El Tamer) polyphenolic extracts.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aqueous-acetone polyphenolic extract of the traditionally derived date syrup, known as "Rub El Tamer", was analyzed using RP-HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS. The phenolic content of the extract was 394.53 ± 1.13 mg per 100 g of syrup with caffeoylsinapylquinic acid as the most abundant compound (72.23%). The extract exhibited strong antioxidant activities as evaluated using the ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) methods. The extract antimicrobial potential against a range of microorganism strains showed that Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Bacillus cereus were the most sensitive bacteria with MBC in the range of 0.5-0.05 mg/mL. Furthermore, in the presence of the syrup extract (8.18-131 ?g/mL), the Human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma and the 3T3 fibroblast cell lines showed dissimilar reduction of viability suggesting a higher cytotoxic effect against tumorigenic cells. Our results provide new insights into date syrup characterization which should stimulate further studies of this hot desert resource. PMID:21155604

Dhaouadi, Karima; Raboudi, Faten; Estevan, Carmen; Barrajón, Enrique; Vilanova, Eugenio; Hamdaoui, Mohamed; Fattouch, Sami

2011-01-12

228

Physiological characterization of brewer's yeast in high-gravity beer fermentations with glucose or maltose syrups as adjuncts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

High-gravity brewing, which can decrease production costs by increasing brewery yields, has become an attractive alternative to traditional brewing methods. However, as higher sugar concentration is required, the yeast is exposed to various stresses during fermentation. We evaluated the influence of high-gravity brewing on the fermentation performance of the brewer’s yeast under model brewing conditions. The lager brewer’s strain Weihenstephan 34/70 strain was characterized at three different gravities by adding either glucose or maltose syrups to the basic wort. We observed that increased gravity resulted in a lower specific growth rate, a longer lag phase before initiation of ethanol production, incomplete sugar utilization, and an increase in the concentrations of ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate in the final beer. Increasing the gravity by adding maltose syrup as opposed to glucose syrup resulted in more balanced fermentation performance in terms of higher cell numbers, respectively, higher wort fermentability and a more favorable flavor profile of the final beer. Our study underlines the effects of the various stress factors on brewer’s yeast metabolism and the influence of the type of sugar syrups on the fermentation performance and the flavor profile of the final beer.

Piddocke, Maya Petrova; kreisz, Stefan

2009-01-01

229

Improvement of effect of water-in-oil microemulsion as an oral delivery system for fexofenadine: in vitro and in vivo studies  

Science.gov (United States)

Fexofenadine (FEX) has high solubility and low permeability (BCS, Class III). In this work, novel FEX loaded water in oil microemulsion (w/o) was designed to improve bioavailability and compared with Fexofen® syrup in in vitro and in vivo studies. In addition, pharmacokinetic parameters in permeability studies were estimated by using WinNonLin software program. w/o microemulsion system was optimized using a pseudoternary phase diagram, composed of span 80/lutrol F 68 (9.5:0.5 w/w), oleic acide, isopropyl alcohol and water as surfactant mixture; oil and cosurfactant was developed for oral drug delivery. w/o microemulsion systems were characterized by phase behavior, particle size, viscosity and solubilization capacity. In vitro studies were studied using Caco-2 cell monolayer. Pharmacokinetic parameters of w/o microemulsion were investigated in rabbits and compared to Fexofen® syrup. Fexofen® syrup and microemulsion were administered by oral gavage at 6 mg/kg of the same concentration. The experimental results indicated that microemulsion (HLB = 5.53) formed nanometer sized droplets (33.29 ± 1.76) and had good physical stability. This microemulsion increased the oral bioavailability of FEX which was highly water-soluble but fairly impermeable. The relative bioavailability of FEX microemulsion was about 376.76% compared with commercial syrup in rabbits. In vitro experiments were further employed for the enhanced effect of the microemulsion for FEX. These results suggest that novel w/o microemulsion plays an important role in enhancing oral bioavailability of low permeability drugs. PMID:21904453

Gundogdu, E; Alvarez, I Gonzalez; Karasulu, E

2011-01-01

230

Oral health in Alzheimer's disease: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

The main data on oral health and dental pathologies affecting Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients were reviewed. Oral health declines and dental pathologies increase with progression of AD. Poor oral hygiene, difficulty in wearing dentures, and the inability to self-care, including carrying out oral hygiene procedures are the most probable cause of impaired oral health in AD. Collection of information on oral/dental conditions from AD patients or their caregivers/relatives is often difficult and scientific literature on the topic is sparse . The majority of data on the subject consist in retrospective studies affected to some extent by subjective views of dental professionals involved. Appropriate dental interventions in adult-onset dementia disorders will decrease pain and oral pathology and consequently could contribute to maintain enough oral and nutritional health in these patients. Dental treatment in early stages of the disease are important and should be finalized at producing a stable oral condition. This could improve the quality of life and contribute to decrease worsening of oral situations in the later stages of the disease when dental treatment may be difficult. The problem of awareness of good oral health for keeping quality of life more acceptable in adult-onset dementia disorders is discussed. PMID:20043813

Mancini, M; Grappasonni, I; Scuri, S; Amenta, F

2010-06-01

231

Actividad antiartrítica del jarabe de Allium sativum L Antiarthritic activity of Allium sativum L syrup  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Allium sativum L. es ampliamente utilizado por la población cubana en la medicina tradicional y natural para aliviar procesos inflamatorios y en especial en la artritis reumatoide; sin embargo, su actividad no ha sido demostrada científicamente como para poder establecer un ensayo clínico para su registro y producción industrial. En el presente trabajo se evaluó la acción de un jarabe de Allium sativum L. sobre la artritis reumatoide experimental, empleando los modelos de edema de la pata y pleuresía en ratas Wistar, basados en la reacción pasiva de Arthus. En los dos modelos, se ensayaron placebo y dosis de 45, 90 y 180 mg/kg de peso corporal, en base a sólidos totales contenido en el jarabe de A. sativum. Como controles positivos se utilizó ibuprofeno y prednisona a las dosis de 200 y 10 mg/kg respectivamente. Tanto los controles positivos, como las dosis de jarabe de Allium sativum L. ensayadas disminuyeron el proceso inflamatorio desencadenado por la reacción antígeno anticuerpo que se logra mediante la reacción pasiva de Arthus, el antisuero de albúmina de huevo y antisuero de albúmina bovina para el edema de la pata y el desarrollo de pleuresía respectivamente.Allium sativum L is widely used by Cuban people in folk and natural medicine to alliviate inflammatory processes and specially in rheumatoid arthritis; however, its activity hasn’t scientifically enough demonstrated to stablish a clinical assay for its registration and industrial production. In present paper, action of a Allium sativum syrup on experimental rheumatoid arthritis was assessed, using models of leg edema and pleurisy in Wistar rats, based on passive reaction of Arthus. In two models, placebo and doses of 45, 90, and 180 mg/kg of body weight were assayed based on total solids in A.sativum syrup. As positive controls Ibuprofen and Prednisone were used at dosis of 200 and 10 mg/kg, respectively. Positive controls and assayed dosis of Allium sativum L syrup decreased inflammatory process triggered by antigen-antibody reaction achieved by means of passive reaction of Arthus, by means of egg albumin antiserum, and bovine albumin antiserum for leg edema and development of pleurisy, recpectively.

Juana I. Tillán Capó

2007-06-01

232

Actividad antiartrítica del jarabe de Allium sativum L / Antiarthritic activity of Allium sativum L syrup  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Allium sativum L. es ampliamente utilizado por la población cubana en la medicina tradicional y natural para aliviar procesos inflamatorios y en especial en la artritis reumatoide; sin embargo, su actividad no ha sido demostrada científicamente como para poder establecer un ensayo clínico para su re [...] gistro y producción industrial. En el presente trabajo se evaluó la acción de un jarabe de Allium sativum L. sobre la artritis reumatoide experimental, empleando los modelos de edema de la pata y pleuresía en ratas Wistar, basados en la reacción pasiva de Arthus. En los dos modelos, se ensayaron placebo y dosis de 45, 90 y 180 mg/kg de peso corporal, en base a sólidos totales contenido en el jarabe de A. sativum. Como controles positivos se utilizó ibuprofeno y prednisona a las dosis de 200 y 10 mg/kg respectivamente. Tanto los controles positivos, como las dosis de jarabe de Allium sativum L. ensayadas disminuyeron el proceso inflamatorio desencadenado por la reacción antígeno anticuerpo que se logra mediante la reacción pasiva de Arthus, el antisuero de albúmina de huevo y antisuero de albúmina bovina para el edema de la pata y el desarrollo de pleuresía respectivamente. Abstract in english Allium sativum L is widely used by Cuban people in folk and natural medicine to alliviate inflammatory processes and specially in rheumatoid arthritis; however, its activity hasn’t scientifically enough demonstrated to stablish a clinical assay for its registration and industrial production. In pres [...] ent paper, action of a Allium sativum syrup on experimental rheumatoid arthritis was assessed, using models of leg edema and pleurisy in Wistar rats, based on passive reaction of Arthus. In two models, placebo and doses of 45, 90, and 180 mg/kg of body weight were assayed based on total solids in A.sativum syrup. As positive controls Ibuprofen and Prednisone were used at dosis of 200 and 10 mg/kg, respectively. Positive controls and assayed dosis of Allium sativum L syrup decreased inflammatory process triggered by antigen-antibody reaction achieved by means of passive reaction of Arthus, by means of egg albumin antiserum, and bovine albumin antiserum for leg edema and development of pleurisy, recpectively.

Juana I., Tillán Capó; Annia, Benítez López; Ivette, Hernández Paderni; Carmen, Carrillo.

2007-06-01

233

Antiemetic efficacy of smoked marijuana: subjective and behavioral effects on nausea induced by syrup of ipecac.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although the public debate about the legalization of marijuana has continued for as long as 25 years, few controlled studies have been conducted to assess its potential medical benefits. The present study examined the antiemetic effect of smoked marijuana cigarettes (8.4 and 16.9 mg Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC]) compared to a highly potent antiemetic drug, ondansetron (8 mg) in 13 healthy volunteers. Nausea and emesis were induced by syrup of ipecac. Marijuana significantly reduced ratings of "queasiness" and slightly reduced the incidence of vomiting compared to placebo. Ondansetron completely eliminated the emetic effects of ipecac. These findings support and extend previous results, indicating that smoked marijuana reduces feelings of nausea and also reduces emesis in this model. However, its effects are very modest relative to ondansetron, and the psychoactive effects of marijuana are likely to limit its clinical usefulness in the general population. PMID:11509190

Söderpalm, A H; Schuster, A; de Wit, H

2001-01-01

234

A novel probiotic fermented beverage based on soymilk and sea buckthorn syrup  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the last decade, there is an increasing interest in using nondairyingredients as substrates for certain strains of bifidobacteria to deliver the benefits of probiotics to a wider group of consumers. This research aimed to explore the use of soymilk and sea buckthorn syrup as substrates for bifidobacteria fermentation. Microbial population, pH, and titratable acidity were measured during the fermentation period while the viability, pH, titratable acidity and water holding capacity were determined during the storage time at 4°C ± 1°C within 14 days. Survival and stability of Bifidobacterium bifidus (Bb-12®, Bb inoculated into a beverage when exposed to simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions, were assessed. TheBb-12® strain exhibited the highest viable cell numbers when exposed to simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions.

Nicoleta Maricica Maftei

2012-08-01

235

Análisis comparativo entre jarabe de agave azul (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul) y otros jarabes naturales / Comparative analysis between blue agave syrup (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul) and other natural syrups  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El jarabe de agave azul (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul) es la sustancia dulce natural producida por hidrólisis de los fructanos almacenados en la planta de maguey. Este endulzante se ha popularizado por su capacidad prebiótica e índice glucémico bajo respecto a otros jarabes y mieles naturales. La [...] s marcas comerciales, distribuidores, producción y comercialización de estos jarabes han incrementado, por ello es conveniente conocer sus características físicas y químicas y contrastarlas con las de otros productos del mismo tipo. En el presente estudio se determinaron el contenido de sólidos solubles totales (SST) y de humedad, pH, perfil de carbohidratos y algunas características sensoriales de 29 muestras de jarabes de agave azul, maíz y caña, y miel de abeja. El jarabe de agave azul, en promedio tuvo SST equivalentes a 76 °Brix, 22 % de humedad (% H) y pH 4; en contraste la miel presentó el contenido mayor de SST (82 °Brix), el menor de humedad (16 % H) y pH (pH 3.7). La cromatografía en capa fina (TLC) y cromatografía de intercambio aniónico de alta resolución, acoplada a un detector de pulso amperométrico (HPAEC-PAD), mostró que el jarabe de agave azul contiene principalmente fructosa y fructooligosacáridos; los de maíz y caña y la miel contienen glucosa, sacarosa y maltooligosacáridos con perfiles diferenciables. Abstract in english The blue agave syrup (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul) is the natural sweet substance produced by hydrolysis of fructans stored in the agave plant. This sweetener has become popular for its prebiotic capacity and low glycemic index compared to other natural syrups and honeys. The trademarks, distrib [...] utors, production and commercialization of these syrups have increased; therefore, it is important to know their physical and chemical characteristics and contrast them with other products of the same type. In this study we determined the content of total soluble solids (TSS) and of humidity, pH, carbohydrate profile and some sensorial characteristics of 29 samples of blue agave and corn, sugarcane syrups, and honey. The blue agave syrup, on average, had TSS equivalent to 76 °Brix, 22 % humidity (% H) and pH 4; in contrast, honey showed the highest TSS content (82 °Brix), the lowest values of humidity (16 % H) and pH (pH 3.7). Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and anion-exchange chromatography with high-performance coupled to a pulsed amperometric detector (HPAEC-PAD), showed that the blue agave syrups contains mainly fructose and fructooligosaccharides; those of corn, sugarcane, and honey contain glucose, sucrose and maltooligosaccharides with differentiated profiles.

Erika, Mellado-Mojica; Mercedes Gpe., López-Pérez.

2013-05-01

236

Contribution of the diffusion-weighted MRI in the diagnosis and follow-up of encephalopathy caused by maple syrup urine disease in a full-term newborn  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this case report is to show conventional MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) findings of the different evolutionary phases in MSUD (Maple syrup urine disease) of a newborn that evolved with brain white matter lesions (author)

237

Contribution of the diffusion-weighted MRI in the diagnosis and follow-up of encephalopathy caused by maple syrup urine disease in a full-term newborn  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this case report is to show conventional MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) findings of the different evolutionary phases in MSUD (Maple syrup urine disease) of a newborn that evolved with brain white matter lesions (author)

Ferraz-Filho, Jose Roberto Lopes; Floriano, Valdeci Helio; Quirici, Marcelo Bianco; Souza, Antonio Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Albuquerque, Regina Pires de [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Pediatria

2009-07-01

238

In vitro evaluation of alternative oral contrast agents for MRI of the gastrointestinal tract  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: In vitro evaluation of different materials as potential alternative oral contrast agents for small bowel MRI. Materials and methods: The T1 and T2 relaxation times of rose hip syrup, black currant extract, cocoa, iron-deferoxamine solution and a commonly used oral contrast material (1 mM Gd-DTPA) were determined in vitro at different concentrations on a 1.0 T clinical MR scanner. T1 values were obtained with an inversion prepared spoiled gradient echo sequence. T2 values were obtained using multiple echo sequences. Finally the materials were visualized on T1-, T2- and T2*-weighted MR images. Results: The relaxation times of the undiluted rose hip syrup (T1 = 110 ± 5 ms, T2 = 86 ± 3 ms), black currant extract (T1 = 55 ± 3 ms, T2 = 39 ± 2 ms) and 5 mM iron-deferoxamine solution (T1 = 104 ± 4 ms, T2 = 87 ± 2 ms) were much shorter than for a 1 mM Gd-DTPA solution (T1 = 180 ± 8 ms, T2 = 168 ± 5 ms). Dilution of black currant extract to 30% or a 3 mM iron-deferoxamine solution conducted to T1 relaxation times which are quite comparable to a 1 mM Gd-DTPA solution. Despite its much lower metal content an aqueous cocoa suspension (100 g/L) produced T2 relaxation times (T1 = 360 ± 21 ms, T2 = 81 ± 3 ms) more or less in the same range like the 5 mM iron-deferoxamine solution. Imaging of our in vitro model using clinical sequences allowed to anticipate the T1-, T2- and T2*-depiction of all used substances. Cocoa differed from all other materials with its low to other materials with its low to moderate signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted sequences. While all substances presented a linear 1/T1 and 1/T2 relationship towards concentration, rose hip syrup broke ranks with a disproportionately high increase of relaxation at higher concentrations. Conclusions: Rose hip syrup, black currant extract and iron-deferoxamine solution due to their positive T1 enhancement characteristics and drinkability appear to be valuable oral contrast agents for T1-weighted small bowel MRI. Cocoa with its differing relaxation and signal enhancement properties is a promising oral contrast agent but needs further clinical evaluation

239

Oral Sex, Oral Health and Orogenital Infections  

OpenAIRE

Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Althou...

Saini Rajiv; Saini Santosh; Sharma Sugandha

2010-01-01

240

Oral Appliances  

Science.gov (United States)

... open during sleep and promoting adequate air intake. Oral appliances may be used alone or in combination with other treatments for sleep-related breathing disorders, such as weight management, surgery or CPAP. Standards of Care Patients with primary snoring or mild OSA who do ...

241

Ampicillin Oral  

Science.gov (United States)

... Tenormin), oral contraceptives, probenecid (Benemid), rifampin, sulfasalazine, and vitamins.tell your doctor if you have or have ever had kidney or liver disease, allergies, asthma, blood disease, colitis, stomach problems, or hay fever.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan ...

242

Iododerma following topical povidone-iodine application.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 43-year-old male patient presented with two well-demarcated, elevated plaques, measuring 4?cm in diameter, with yellow-black crusts over it that appeared 3?d earlier. With the help of history, physical examination and histopathological features, the patient was diagnosed with iododerma secondary to topical povidone-iodine use. Iododerma develops frequently after oral or intravenous but rarely after topical use of iodine. Its pathogenesis is not well-known though it is widely believed that it is a delayed hypersensitivity reaction. PMID:23560395

Aliagaoglu, Cihangir; Turan, Hakan; Uslu, Esma; Albayrak, Hulya; Yazici, Serkan; Kaya, Ertugrul

2013-10-01

243

Diclofenac Topical (osteoarthritis pain)  

Science.gov (United States)

Diclofenac topical gel (Voltaren) is used to relieve pain from osteoarthritis (arthritis caused by a breakdown of ... the knees, ankles, feet, elbows, wrists, and hands. Diclofenac topical liquid (Pennsaid) is used to relieve osteoarthritis ...

244

Oral health promotion interventions on oral yeast in hospitalised and medically compromised patients: a systematic review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Yeast are major aetiological agents of localised oral mucosal lesions, and are also leading causes of nosocomial bloodstream infections. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the effectiveness of oral health promotion interventions on the prevalence and incidence of these opportunistic oral pathogens in hospitalised and medically compromised patients. The PubMed, ISI Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases were searched for clinical trials assessing the effect of oral health promotion interventions on oral yeast. Chlorhexidine delivered in a variety of oral hygiene products appeared to have some effect on oral yeast, although some studies found equivocal effects. Although a wide array of other compounds have also been investigated, their clinical effectiveness remains to be substantiated. Likewise, the utility of mechanical oral hygiene interventions and other oral health promotion measures such as topical application of salivary substitute, remains unsettled. Although many chemical agents contained in oral hygiene products have proven in vitro activity against oral yeast, their clinical effectiveness and potential role as adjuncts or alternative therapies to conventional treatment remains to be confirmed by further high-quality randomised controlled trials. This is pertinent, given the recent emergence of yeast resistance to conventional antifungal agents. PMID:21749481

Lam, Otto L T; Bandara, H M H N; Samaranayake, Lakshman P; McGrath, Colman; Li, Leonard S W

2012-03-01

245

Hepatocyte Transplantation Improves Phenotype and Extends Survival in a Murine Model of Intermediate Maple Syrup Urine Disease  

OpenAIRE

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD; OMIM 248600) is an inborn error of metabolism of the branched chain ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex that is treated primarily by dietary manipulation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). Dietary restriction is lifelong and compliance is difficult. Liver transplantation significantly improves outcomes; however, alternative therapies are needed. To test novel therapies such as hepatocyte transplantation (HTx), we previously created a murine model of i...

Skvorak, Kristen J.; Paul, Harbhajan S.; Dorko, Kenneth; Marongiu, Fabio; Ellis, Ewa; Chace, Donald; Ferguson, Carolyn; Gibson, K. Michael; Homanics, Gregg E.; Strom, Stephen C.

2009-01-01

246

Maple syrup urine disease encephalopathy: a follow-up study in the acute stage using diffusion-weighted MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neonatal maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is associated with diffuse oedema and characteristic MSUD oedema. We present a newborn infant with two coexisting different types of oedema. The myelinated white matter showed a marked decrease in the water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) compatible with cytotoxic oedema. The unmyelinated white matter showed an increase in ADC, consistent with vasogenic-interstitial oedema. On follow-up studies, the cytotoxic oedema showed improvement, but the vasogenic-interstitial oedema progressed into brain atrophy. (orig.)

247

Comparison of productivity of colonies of honey bees, Apis mellifera, supplemented with sucrose or high fructose corn syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

Honey bee colony feeding trials were conducted to determine whether differential effects of carbohydrate feeding (sucrose syrup (SS) vs. high fructose corn syrup, or HFCS) could be measured between colonies fed exclusively on these syrups. In one experiment, there was a significant difference in mean wax production between the treatment groups and a significant interaction between time and treatment for the colonies confined in a flight arena. On average, the colonies supplied with SS built 7916.7 cm(2) ± 1015.25 cm(2) honeycomb, while the colonies supplied with HFCS built 4571.63 cm(2) ± 786.45 cm(2). The mean mass of bees supplied with HFCS was 4.65 kg (± 0.97 kg), while those supplied with sucrose had a mean of 8.27 kg (± 1.26). There was no significant difference between treatment groups in terms of brood rearing. Differences in brood production were complicated due to possible nutritional deficiencies experienced by both treatment groups. In the second experiment, colonies supplemented with SS through the winter months at a remote field site exhibited increased spring brood production when compared to colonies fed with HFCS. The differences in adult bee populations were significant, having an overall average of 10.0 ± 1.3 frames of bees fed the sucrose syrup between November 2008 and April 2009, compared to 7.5 ± 1.6 frames of bees fed exclusively on HFCS. For commercial queen beekeepers, feeding the right supplementary carbohydrates could be especially important, given the findings of this study. PMID:23886010

Sammataro, Diana; Weiss, Milagra

2013-01-01

248

A Validated RP HPLC-PAD Method for the Determination of Hederacoside C in Ivy-Thyme Cough Syrup  

OpenAIRE

A simple reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method coupled with a photodiode array detector (PAD) has been developed and validated for the analysis of hederacoside C, the marker of ivy plant, in Ivy-Thyme cough syrup. Separation of hederacoside C was achieved using a Phenomenex-Gemini C18 column isothermally at 40°C. A mobile phase system constituted of solvent A (water: acetonitrile: orthophosphoric acid (85%), 860?:?140?:...

Ayman Khdair; Mohammad, Mohammad K.; Khaled Tawaha; Eman Al-Hamarsheh; Alkhatib, Hatim S.; Bashar Al-khalidi; Yasser Bustanji; Samer Najjar; Mohammad Hudaib

2010-01-01

249

The Pharmacokinetics and Acceptability of Lopinavir/Ritonavir Minitab Sprinkles, Tablets, and Syrups in African HIV-Infected Children  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) as first- and second-line therapy for young and older HIV-infected children, respectively. Available formulations have limitations making their widespread use complex. METHODS: An open-label comparative bioavailability (randomized crossover) study compared a novel twice-daily minitab sprinkle formulation (40 mg/10 mg, Cipla Pharmaceuticals) versus innovator syrup in HIV-infected Ugandan infants aged 3 to <12 months (cohort A) and ch...

Musiime, V.; Fillekes, Q.; Kekitiinwa, A.; Kendall, L.; Keishanyu, R.; Namuddu, R.; Young, N.; Opilo, W.; Lallemant, M.; Walker, As; Burger, D.; Gibb, Dm

2014-01-01

250

Maple syrup analysis for 137Cs, K, and B, using a low-background counting system and PGAA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fifteen maple syrups were analyzed for 137Cs and K (via 40K) by using a low-background ?-ray counting system, and for B and K by using neutron capture prompt ?-ray activation analysis (PGAA). For low-background ?-ray counting, 3 ? limits of detection (24-hour counts) were 0.03 Bq 137Cs/kg and 10 mg K/kg for 3.5-L portions and 0.08 Bq 137Cs/kg and 20 mg K/kg for 1.0-L portions. K concentrations determined by the two methods (using 2-g portions for PGAA) were in excellent agreement. The products were obtained in 1991, with one produced in Maryland, three in New York, four in Pennsylvania, two in New Hampshire, and five in Canada. The average activity concentration for Canadian syrups (2.8 Bq 137Cs/kg) was nearly a factor 20 greater than the average (0.15 Bq 137Cs/kg) for the other syrups, but all 137Cs activity concentrations were at least 100 times lower than those for which controls would be recommended according to Federal Radiation Council guidance. The data exhibited distinct groupings related to the sources of the products when the ratios 137Cs activity to K content (BqCs/mgK) were plotted vs. B concentrations. (author). 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

251

An abrupt outgassing revealed by a slow decompression experiment of cristal-bearing syrup foam  

Science.gov (United States)

Distribution of volcanic gasses in a conduit determines eruption style. Outgassing changes the distribution of volcanic gasses in a conduit.We here simulated the outgassing from ascending magma by slow decompression experiments. As molten magma ascends in a conduit, surrounding pressure becomes low and bubbles in magma expand. In our previous work, we found that the bubble expansion causes film rupturing and makes paths for outgassing. The crystals in magma may affect this newly found outgassing style. Accordingly, we slowly decompressed syrup foam including solid particles as a magma analogue. Experiments are conducted in an acrylic tank. We observed the expansion of three-phase magma analog from the front of the tank using a digital video camera. From the images and pressure measurements, we calculated time evolution of the syrup volume and permeability. We consider that there is no bubble segregation by the ascent of individual bubbles from the Stoke's velocity. We conducted our experiments with a viscosity range of 10-20 Pa s which is the same orders of magnitude of that of basaltic magma, 10-103 Pa s. At the beginning of the decompression, the volume change of the syrup foam is well explained by isothermal expansion. When the gas fractions reached to the 85-90%, we observed that deformations of bubble films caused film rupturing so that bubbles coalesce vertically to clear a path. As time elapsed, the measured gas volume in the foam becomes smaller than that estimated by the isothermal expansion, indicating the occurrence of outgassing. In the experiments with high volume fraction of solid particles (>30 vol.% for bubble-free liquid), we observed another new style of outgassing. Several large voids (> 10 mm in radius) appear at a middle height of the foam and connect each other to make a horizontally elongated cavity. The roof of the cavity collapses, and then massive outgassing occurs. At the beginning of the decompression until the foam collapses, outgassing occurs intermittently. We calculated the apparent permeability of the foam before the collapse occurs assuming the Darcy's law. Calculated permeability observed for the experiments with large volume fraction of solid particles has temporal variation and they varies from 10-7 -10-9. This value is quite larger than those measured for natural pumices and scoriae. From our experiments, we infer that there is a skin depth of the outgassing. At the beginning, the upper most part of the foam has a high apparent permeability to cause outgassing energetically. However, the gas within this region decreases eventually to be impermeable. Beneath the impermeable layer, the gas transported from a depth accumulates to make a cavity. The cavity is gravitationally unstable and collapses at the end. It has been widely recognized that the Vulcanian eruption occurs by a sudden expansion of the accumulated gas beneath an impermeable plug. Our experimental results may explain the mechanism generating an impermeable plug.

Kanno, Y.; Namiki, A.

2013-12-01

252

Oral myiasis: A case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in english Oral Myiasis is a rare pathology in humans and is associated with poor oral hygiene, alcoholism, senility, supuranting lesions, severe halitosis and others conditions. The treatment is a mechanical removal of the maggots one by one but a systemic treatment with Ivermectin, a semi-synthetic macrolide [...] antibiotic, have been used for treatment for oral myiasis. We present a case report of a 32-year-old man indigent, alcohol-dependent with an extensive necrotic area and acute swelling in upper lip and fetid odor. The patient’s manegement included topic use of gencian violet, oral therapy with ivermectin (6 mg orally), surgical exploration to remove the larvae and necrotic tissue. After the complete larvae removal the swelling and the wounds were healing normally, the patients was referred to plastic surgery to repair tissue damage. The prevention of human myiasis is by education, but unfortunately in the developing countries some people live in low social condition, predisposing the occurrence of the infestation.

Evandro Neves, Abdo; Ausgusto César, Sette-Dias; Cláudio Rômulo, Comunian; Carlos Eduardo Assis, Dutra; Evandro Guimarães de, Aguiar.

2006-04-01

253

Direct enzymatic extraction of starch from corn as an energy-saving alternative to production of high-fructose syrup. Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1981-September 30, 1981  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Progress is reported on the project to extract starch from corn efficiently. The procedure for removing organic impurities from corn syrup is described. Data are graphically shown of the ultraviolet scan of the dirty and clean syrup. Impurity in the glucose syrup could be reduced from 0.51 gm/ml level using the sedimental method down to 0.23 mg/ml by filtering the syrup through diatomic earth filter. The industrial products contain about 0.37 mg/ml (industrial product also filtered through diatomic earth filter). (MCW)

1981-01-01

254

Chemical composition and sensory analysis of roasted peanuts coated with prickly pear and algarrobo pod syrups  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the chemical composition, sensory attributes and consumer acceptance of roasted peanuts coated with prickly pear (RP-P and â??algarroboâ? pod syrups (RP-A. Roasted peanuts (RP without coating had the highest oil content (50.4% in comparison with the coated products RP-P and RP-A (45.3% and 46.7%, respectively. RP-P and RP-A showed lower protein percentage and higher carbohydrate content than RP. These results affected the energy values of the products: 6.14 kcal/g in RP-P, 6.24 kcal/g in RP-A and 6.42 kcal/g in RP. In the consumer test, RP and RP-P had higher consumer acceptance for the attributes of color, texture and flavor than RP-A. In the descriptive analysis, RP-P and RPA showed higher intensity ratings in brown color, roughness, glossy, powdery, sweetness, and salty sensory attributes and lower intensity ratings in raw/beany flavor than in RP. The intensity of roasted peanutty flavor and the texture attributes in the descriptive analysis were not affected for the pod syrup coating.El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la composición química, atributos sensoriales y la aceptabilidad del maní tostado cubierto con arrope de tuna (RP-P y de Algarrobo (RP-A. El maní tostado sin cobertura presentó el mayor contenido de aceite (50,4% en comparación con los maníes cubiertos, RPP y RP-A (45,3% y 46,7%, respectivamente. RP-P y RP-A mostraron menor porcentaje de proteína y mayor contenido de hidratos de carbonos que RP. Estos resultados afectaron los valores energéticos de los productos: 6,14 kcal/g in RP-P, 6,24 kcal/g in RP-A y 6,42 kcal/g in RP. En la prueba de consumidores, RP y RP-P tuvieron mayor aceptabilidad para los atributos color, textura y sabor que en RP-A. En la prueba descriptiva, RP-P y RP-A mostraron mayores intensidades en los atributos sensoriales de color marrón, rugosidad, brillo, pulverulencia, dulzor y salado y menor intensidad en sabor crudo/ poroto que en RP. Las intensidades del sabor a maní tostado y de los atributos de texturas en el análisis descriptivo no fueron afectadas por la presencia de la cobertura de arrope.

Grosso, N. R.

2008-06-01

255

Topical therapies in the management of chronic pain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic pain, whether localized or generalized, is a widespread, often debilitating condition affecting > 25% of adults in the United States. Oral agents are the cornerstone of chronic pain treatment, but their use may be limited in certain patients, particularly the elderly. Topical therapies offer advantages over systemically administered medications, including the requirement of a lower total systemic daily dose for patients to achieve pain relief, site-specific drug delivery, and avoidance of first-pass metabolism, major drug interactions, infections, and systemic side effects. Several types of topical agents have been shown to be useful in the treatment of patients with chronic pain. Both capsaicin and topical diclofenac have been shown to be effective in the treatment of patients with chronic soft-tissue pain. In patients with hand and knee osteoarthritis (OA), the American College of Rheumatology generally recommends oral treatments (acetaminophen, oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs], tramadol, and intra-articular corticosteroids) and topical NSAIDs equally, favoring topical agents only for patients who have pre-existing gastrointestinal risk or are aged ? 75 years. Topical NSAIDs have been shown to provide relief superior to that of placebo and comparable to that of oral ibuprofen. Similarly, ketoprofen gel has been shown to be superior to placebo and similar to oral celecoxib in reducing pain in patients with knee OA. Different formulations of topical diclofenac (including the diclofenac hydroxyethyl pyrrolidine patch, diclofenac sodium gel, and diclofenac sodium topical solution 1.5% w/w with dimethyl sulfoxide USP) have been shown to be superior to placebo and comparable to oral diclofenac in the treatment of patients with pain due to knee OA, with a lower incidence of gastrointestinal complaints than with the oral formulation. In patients with neuropathic pain, topical forms of both capsaicin and lidocaine have been shown to be useful in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia and diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain. Lidocaine has also demonstrated efficacy in relieving patient pain due to complex regional pain syndrome and may be useful in the treatment of patients with neuropathic pain who have cancer, although clinical trial results have not been consistent. Data suggest that topical therapies may offer a safe, well-tolerated, and effective alternative to systemic therapies in the treatment of patients with chronic, localized musculoskeletal and neuropathic pain. PMID:24547601

Stanos, Steven P; Galluzzi, Katherine E

2013-07-01

256

Use of Oral Isotretinoin in the Management of Rosacea  

OpenAIRE

Rosacea is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting roughly 16 million Americans. Topical and oral antibiotic/anti-inflammatory agents are currently the mainstay of therapy and are often used in combination. In this article, the authors discuss the use of oral isotretinoin in the management of rosacea, exploring dosage, comparable efficacy, safety, and cost.

Park, Hyunhee; Del Rosso, James Q.

2011-01-01

257

Production of high fructose syrup from Asparagus inulin using immobilized exoinulinase from Kluyveromyces marxianus YS-1.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracellular exoinulinase from Kluyveromyces marxianus YS-1, which hydrolyzes inulin into fructose, was immobilized on Duolite A568 after partial purification by ethanol precipitation and gel exclusion chromatography on Sephadex G-100. Optimum temperature of immobilized enzyme was 55 degrees C, which was 5 degrees C higher than the free enzyme and optimal pH was 5.5. Immobilized biocatalyst retained more than 90% of its original activity after incubation at 60 degrees C for 3 h, whereas in free form its activity was reduced to 10% under same conditions, showing a significant improvement in the thermal stability of the biocatalyst after immobilization. Apparent K (m) values for inulin, raffinose and sucrose were found to be 3.75, 28.5 and 30.7 mM, respectively. Activation energy (E (a)) of the immobilized biocatalyst was found to be 46.8 kJ/mol. Metal ions like Co(2+) and Mn(2+) enhanced the activity, whereas Hg(2+) and Ag(2+) were found to be potent inhibitors even at lower concentrations of 1 mM. Immobilized biocatalyst was effectively used in batch preparation of high fructose syrup from Asparagus racemosus raw inulin and pure inulin, which yielded 39.2 and 40.2 g/L of fructose in 4 h; it was 85.5 and 92.6% of total reducing sugars produced, respectively. PMID:17665236

Singh, Ram Sarup; Dhaliwal, Rajesh; Puri, Munish

2007-10-01

258

Comparative evaluation of the antitussive activity of butamirate citrate linctus versus clobutinol syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a double-blind randomized study 60 patients with either irritative cough due to seasonal respiratory disorders or chronic cough of any etiology were treated with either butamirate citrate linctus (Sinecod, Zyma) or with clobutinol syrup (Silomat, Boehringer, Ingelheim) for a period of 5 days at a dose regimen of 3 tablespoons daily. Efficacy was assessed based on the reduction of the severity as well as frequency of the cough and on the global opinion of the physician. Both groups showed highly significant improvements for the severity and frequency parameters (p less than 0.001), thus demonstrating the effectiveness of both treatments. No significant differences between groups were detected globally for the whole collective. For cough due to carcinomas (n = 14), however, a significantly better effect of butamirate on the frequency of cough (p = 0.026) was found which originated other significant differences in the global scores (p = 0.013) and in the physician's opinion (p = 0.026). Seven patients in both groups complained about side effects (mainly nausea and drowsiness). PMID:2095610

Charpin, J; Weibel, M A

1990-01-01

259

Highly efficient production of inverted syrup in an analytical column with immobilized invertase.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a procedure by which a simple and economical analytical column containing immobilized invertase was developed. This column has high efficiency of converting sucrose into inverted syrup rapidly. Gelatine beads were used for the immobilization of invertase. The enzyme was entrapped efficiently and was found to be stable and retained its activity over a period of 3 months. Immobilization parameters for maximum enzyme activity were estimated as temperature optima at 60 °C, pH optima 7.0 and 30 mg/mL enzyme concentration was found to give maximum immobilization (72 %). The reusability of the gelatine immobilized invertase was found to be seven times with a time interval of 24 h. The immobilized invertase presented a KM of 51.28 mM and Vmax of 0.334 mM/min. The time required to hydrolyse 50 % sucrose solution by a column of length 10 cm and diameter of 1.5 cm was found to be 15 min at room temperature. The column was found effective for inversion of biological samples like sugar cane juice. PMID:25477691

Upadhyay, Lata Sheo Bachan; Verma, Nishant

2014-12-01

260

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... stages. The Oral Cancer Exam Step-by-step description of the oral cancer examination so patients know what to expect. What You Need to Know About Oral Cancer For people who have been diagnosed with oral cancer, this brochure includes information on symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, ...

261

Topical report review status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Topical Report Review Status is scheduled to be published semi-annually. The primary purpose of this document is to provide periodic progress reports of on-going topical report reviews, to identify those topical reports for which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff review has been completed and, to the extent practicable, to provide NRC management with sufficient information regarding the conduct of the topical report program to permit taking whatever actions deemed necessary or appropriate. This document is also intended to be a source of information to NRC Licensing Project Managers and other NRC personnel regarding the status of topical reports which may be referenced in applications for which they have responsibility. This status report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the topical report program, but is also used by NRC to advise the industry of report review status

262

Sparse Topical Coding  

OpenAIRE

We present sparse topical coding (STC), a non-probabilistic formulation of topic models for discovering latent representations of large collections of data. Unlike probabilistic topic models, STC relaxes the normalization constraint of admixture proportions and the constraint of defining a normalized likelihood function. Such relaxations make STC amenable to: 1) directly control the sparsity of inferred representations by using sparsity-inducing regularizers; 2) be seamlessl...

Zhu, Jun; Xing, Eric P.

2012-01-01

263

[Topical therapy of rosacea].  

Science.gov (United States)

Metronidazole and azelaic acid are the only topical medications approved for rosacea. All other topical treatments for rosacea and its special forms are used off-label. Topical steroids are not indicated in rosacea, because of their side effects (induction of steroid rosacea, high risk of facial skin atrophy, and high risk of rebound after cessation of therapy). Topical as well as systemic steroids are allowed only as initial and short term therapy for acute forms of rosacea (e.g. rosacea fulminans). Papular and pustular rosacea is the major indication for topical therapy. Sebaceous gland and connective tissue hyperplasia in glandular-hypertrophic rosacea as well as erythema in erythematous rosacea do not respond well to topical measures. A new active substance, the alpha-2-adrenoreceptor agonist brimonidine, will be approved soon for the topical treatment of erythema in rosacea. All severe forms of rosacea should initially be treated with a combination of topical and systemic agents. After improvement of the clinical symptoms, topical treatment alone is usually adequate to maintain the control. PMID:23780475

Schöfer, H

2013-07-01

264

Topical Application of Imiquimod as a Treatment for Chromoblastomycosis  

OpenAIRE

Chromoblastomycosis is a subcutaneous mycosis that remains a therapeutic challenge, with no standard treatment and high rates of relapse. On the basis of our recent discoveries in mouse models, we tested the efficacy of topical applications of imiquimod to treat patients afflicted with this chronic fungal infection. We report results of treatment for the first 4 recipients of topical imiquimod, all of whom displayed a marked improvement of their lesions, both with and without concurrent oral ...

Sousa, Maria Da Glo?ria Teixeira; Belda, Walter; Spina, Ricardo; Lota, Priscila Ramos; Valente, Neusa Sakai; Brown, Gordon D.; Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Benard, Gil

2014-01-01

265

Topical application of imiquimod as a treatment for chromoblastomycosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Chromoblastomycosis is a subcutaneous mycosis that remains a therapeutic challenge, with no standard treatment and high rates of relapse. On the basis of our recent discoveries in mouse models, we tested the efficacy of topical applications of imiquimod to treat patients afflicted with this chronic fungal infection. We report results of treatment for the first 4 recipients of topical imiquimod, all of whom displayed a marked improvement of their lesions, both with and without concurrent oral antifungal therapy. PMID:24633683

de Sousa, Maria da Glória Teixeira; Belda, Walter; Spina, Ricardo; Lota, Priscila Ramos; Valente, Neusa Sakai; Brown, Gordon D; Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Benard, Gil

2014-06-01

266

Oral sex, oral health and orogenital infections  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection and safer sex precautions. There are various methods of preventing infection during oral sex such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues and oral hygiene and dental issues. The lesions or unhealthy periodontal status of oral cavity accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex.

Saini Rajiv

2010-01-01

267

Desenvolvimento de forma farmacêutica líquida de uso oral, isenta de substâncias glicogênicas, com extrato fluido de Mikania glomerata Sprengel - Asteraceae (guaco)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Mikania glomerata Sprengel, Asteraceae (guaco) é tradicionalmente empregado como expectorante na forma de infusão, extrato fluido, tintura e xarope. Este trabalho teve como objetivo o desenvolvimento de uma forma farmacêutica líquida, isenta de substâncias glicogênicas, veiculando o extrato fluido d [...] esta, como substituto do xarope de guaco para pessoas, que por alguma restrição não possam ingerir sacarose ou açúcar invertido, componente dos xaropes em geral. Desenvolveu-se uma formulação líquida, definindo-se as concentrações de conservantes, agentes umectantes, edulcorantes e flavorizantes, testaram-se polímeros, espessantes usuais em processos tecnológicos, para reproduzir a viscosidade fornecida pelos xaropes. Analisou-se o comportamento reológico e uma avaliação preliminar das características físicas do produto. Dos polímeros testados, o alginato de sódio (1%) foi o que apresentou melhores resultados frente aos parâmetros analisados, com comportamento reológico semelhante ao dos fluidos Newtonianos, e pH adequado ao uso oral, além da compatibilidade frente ao extrato fluido de guaco. Abstract in english Mikania glomerata Sprengel, Asteraceae (guaco), is traditionally used against cough as an infusion, a fluid-extract, a tincture or a syrup. The present investigation had as objective the development of a sugarless pharmaceutical liquid form to carry the guaco fluid extract, a substitute to the guaco [...] syrup, it would specially help those who cannot ingest the glycogenic substances found in syrups. Liquid formulation was developed, in which the preservants concentration, the humectants agents, and sweeteners and flavors were defined, thickening polymers commonly used in technological processes in order to reduce the syrups viscosity were tested. The rheological behavior was analyzed and the preliminary evaluation of physical characteristic was done. Of all the tested polymers, the sodium alginate (1%) showed itself the most stable, regarding the analyzed parameters. It had a rheological behavior similar to the Newtonian fluids and has adequate pH of oral use, as well as compatibility to the fluid guaco extract.

N.C., Lubi; M.E.O., Sato; F., Gaensly.

268

Oral hypoglycemics overdose  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral hypoglycemic pills are a class of prescription medications used to control diabetes. Oral means "taken by mouth." There are many different types of oral hypoglycemics. This article focuses on a class called sulfonylureas. ...

269

Oral Cancer Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... of cancer. The following are risk factors for oral cancer: Tobacco use Using tobacco is the leading cause of ... tobacco, including cigarettes, pipes, cigars, and chewing (smokeless) tobacco, can cause oral cancer. For cigarette smokers, the risk of oral cancer ...

270

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect oral ... Step-by-step description of the oral cancer examination so patients know what to expect. What You ...

271

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See All Order Publications English and ... Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral ...

272

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the mouth for signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes ... step description of the oral cancer examination so patients know what to expect. What You Need to ...

273

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral Health National Institutes of Health Español Staff Directory A– ... Index Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral ...

274

Tratamiento del liquen plano oral: una revisión Treatment of oral lichen planus: a review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue realizar una revisión sobre los actuales tratamientos del liquen plano oral (LPO. Antes de iniciar el tratamiento al paciente, debe de realizarse una biopsia para establecer el correcto diagnóstico. Dado que para el LPO no hay tratamiento curativo, el primer objetivo en los pacientes sintomáticos es el efecto paliativo. Entre las alternativas terapéuticas se incluyen: corticosteroides tópicos, sistémicos e intralesionales; retinoides tópicos o sistémicos; ciclosporina tópica, tacrolimus tópico, azatioprina, fototerapia y tratamiento quirúrgico.The aim of the present study was to review about the current treatment of oral lichen planus (OLP. Before a patients is started on therapy a biopsy must be done to establish an accurate diagnosis. Because there is no curative therapy for OLP, the primary goal for symtomatic patients is palliative. Treatment modalities include the use of: topical, systemic and intralesional corticosteroids; topical and systemic retinoids, topical cyclosoporine; topical tacrolimus; azathioprine; phototherapy and surgical procedures.

M.J. García-Pola Vallejo

2008-02-01

275

Desmame precoce: implicações para o desenvolvimento motor-oral Early weaning: implications to oral motor development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo: revisar as estreitas relações entre o desmame precoce e seus reflexos no desenvolvimento motor-oral, enfocando as conseqüências na oclusão, respiração e aspectos motores orais da criança. Fonte de dados: foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica relacionada às áreas de pediatria, odontologia e fonoaudiologia, através do Medline, entre o ano de 1960 e o ano 2001. Síntese dos dados: a partir da literatura levantada, pode-se observar que o desmame precoce pode levar à ruptura do desenvolvimento motor-oral adequado, podendo prejudicar as funções de mastigação, deglutição, respiração e articulação dos sons da fala, ocasionar má-oclusão, respiração oral e alteração motora oral. Conclusões: pode-se concluir que além dos inúmeros benefícios do aleitamento materno, este contribui para o desenvolvimento motor-oral adequado e previne alterações fonoaudiológicas, no que se refere ao sistema motor-oral.Objective: this article aims at reviewing the relationship between early weaning and its consequences to oral motor development, focusing on the consequences to occlusion, breathing and children's oral motor aspects. Sources: a literature review based on Medline database from the early 60's up to 2001 was performed taking into consideration the following topics: pediatrics, dentistry and speech language pathology. Summary of the findings: based on this review of literature, we could verified that early weaning may lead to a proper oral motor development rupture, which may cause negative consequences to swallowing, breathing and speaking activities as well as malocclusion, oral breathing and oral motor disorders. Conclusions: in addition to several benefits of breastfeeding, it contributes to a proper oral motor development and also avoids speech-language disorders, regarding oral motor system.

Flávia Cristina Brisque Neiva

2003-02-01

276

Desmame precoce: implicações para o desenvolvimento motor-oral / Early weaning: implications to oral motor development  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivo: revisar as estreitas relações entre o desmame precoce e seus reflexos no desenvolvimento motor-oral, enfocando as conseqüências na oclusão, respiração e aspectos motores orais da criança. Fonte de dados: foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica relacionada às áreas de pediatria, odontologi [...] a e fonoaudiologia, através do Medline, entre o ano de 1960 e o ano 2001. Síntese dos dados: a partir da literatura levantada, pode-se observar que o desmame precoce pode levar à ruptura do desenvolvimento motor-oral adequado, podendo prejudicar as funções de mastigação, deglutição, respiração e articulação dos sons da fala, ocasionar má-oclusão, respiração oral e alteração motora oral. Conclusões: pode-se concluir que além dos inúmeros benefícios do aleitamento materno, este contribui para o desenvolvimento motor-oral adequado e previne alterações fonoaudiológicas, no que se refere ao sistema motor-oral. Abstract in english Objective: this article aims at reviewing the relationship between early weaning and its consequences to oral motor development, focusing on the consequences to occlusion, breathing and children's oral motor aspects. Sources: a literature review based on Medline database from the early 60's up to 20 [...] 01 was performed taking into consideration the following topics: pediatrics, dentistry and speech language pathology. Summary of the findings: based on this review of literature, we could verified that early weaning may lead to a proper oral motor development rupture, which may cause negative consequences to swallowing, breathing and speaking activities as well as malocclusion, oral breathing and oral motor disorders. Conclusions: in addition to several benefits of breastfeeding, it contributes to a proper oral motor development and also avoids speech-language disorders, regarding oral motor system.

Flávia Cristina Brisque, Neiva; Débora Martins, Cattoni; José Lauro de Araújo, Ramos; Hugo, Issler.

2003-02-01

277

Topical anaesthesia for venepuncture.  

OpenAIRE

A topical anaesthetic cream was tested in a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial of 15 children. The severity of pain experienced during venepuncture was assessed, using visual analogue and verbal rating scales. The topical anaesthetic cream was found to be significantly superior to placebo using each form of assessment.

Clarke, S.; Radford, M.

1986-01-01

278

Topics in meson spectroscopy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

In this mini-review I discuss three topics in meson spectroscopy. The production of heavy quarkonium states, S-wave scattering below 1 GeV, and exotic hybrid meson production. This is not intended to be a comprehensive review, just an overview of several topics of current interest. (orig.)

Godfrey, S. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics]|[Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

2002-10-01

279

Comparison of breath testing with fructose and high fructose corn syrups in health and IBS  

Science.gov (United States)

Although incomplete fructose absorption has been implicated to cause gastrointestinal symptoms, foods containing high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) contain glucose. Glucose increases fructose absorption in healthy subjects. Our hypothesis was that fructose intolerance is less prevalent after HFCS consumption compared to fructose alone in healthy subjects and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Breath hydrogen levels and gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed after 40 g of fructose (12% solution) prepared either in water or as HFCS, administered in double-blind randomized order on 2 days in 20 healthy subjects and 30 patients with IBS. Gastrointestinal symptoms were recorded on 100-mm Visual Analogue Scales. Breath hydrogen excretion was more frequently abnormal (P < 0.01) after fructose (68%) than HFCS (26%) in controls and patients. Fructose intolerance (i.e. abnormal breath test and symptoms) was more prevalent after fructose than HFCS in healthy subjects (25% vs 0%, P = 0.002) and patients (40% vs 7%, P = 0.062). Scores for several symptoms (e.g. bloating r = 0.35) were correlated (P ? 0.01) to peak breath hydrogen excretion after fructose but not HFCS; in the fructose group, this association did not differ between healthy subjects and patients. Symptoms were not significantly different after fructose compared to HFCS. Fructose intolerance is more prevalent with fructose alone than with HFCS in health and in IBS. The prevalence of fructose intolerance is not significantly different between health and IBS. Current methods for identifying fructose intolerance should be modified to more closely reproduce fructose ingestion in daily life. PMID:18221251

Skoog, S. M.; Bharucha, A. E.; Zinsmeister, A. R.

2008-01-01

280

MR diffusion imaging and MR spectroscopy of maple syrup urine disease during acute metabolic decompensation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of amino acid metabolism, which affects the brain tissue resulting in impairment or death if untreated. Imaging studies have shown reversible brain edema during acute metabolic decompensation. The purpose of this paper is to describe the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and spectroscopy findings during metabolic decompensation and to assess the value of these findings in the prediction of patient outcome. Six patients with the diagnosis of MSUD underwent conventional MR imaging with DWI during acute presentation with metabolic decompensation. Spectroscopy with long TE was performed in four of the six patients. Follow-up examinations were performed after clinical and metabolic recovery. DWI demonstrated marked restriction of proton diffusion compatible with cytotoxic or intramyelinic sheath edema in the brainstem, basal ganglia, thalami, cerebellar and periventricular white matter and the cerebral cortex. This was accompanied by the presence of an abnormal branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and branched-chain alpha-keto acids (BCKA) peak at 0.9 ppm as well as elevated lactate on proton spectroscopy in all four patients. The changes in all six patients were reversed with treatment without evidence of volume loss or persistent tissue damage. The presence of cytotoxic or intramyelinic edema as evidenced by restricted water diffusion on DWI, with the presence of lactate on spectroscopy, could imply imminent cell death. Howcopy, could imply imminent cell death. However, in the context of metabolic decompensation in MSUD, it appears that changes in cell osmolarity and metabolism can reverse completely after metabolic correction. (orig.)

281

The role of natural supplement of apple vinegar and syrup in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: The increased risk of coronary artery disease in diabetics could be explained by the lipoprotein irregularities associated with diabetes mellitus. The primary aim of this study is to examine the role of apple vinegar and syrup in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.Methods: The interventional study included 500 participants (195 men and 305 women with dyslipidemia and prediabetes or type 2 diabetes mellitus, aged 50-70 years, living in Sarajevo area. Patients were recruited from 5 outpatient diabetes counselling departments and treated with natural apple vinegar and syrup supplementation over a period of five weeks. The patients have been evaluated before treatment and 5 weeks after the treatment. During the study, dosage of drugs for diabetes or prediabetes was not changed.Results: After 5 weeks of supplementation with apple vinegar and syrup waist circumference (p=0.016, total cholesterol (p=0.01, low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol (p=0.008 and triglycerides (p=0.019 were significantly reduced, as well as blood pressure (-14%. Study results show decrease of mean fasting blood levels of glucose, but statistically not significant (p=0.058. The body mass index also decreased insignificantly (p=0.089. The high density lipoprotein cholesterol level was not increased significantly after supplementation (p=0.26.Conclusion: According to our results, apple vinegar has important role in reduction of total cholesterol levels, triglycerides, LDL cholesterol and waist circumference in patients with type 2 diabetes. Also, it has positive effect on blood pressure.

Zelija Velija-Ašimi

2014-12-01

282

The effects of oral Acyclovir in the treatment of necrotizing Herpetic keratouveitis  

OpenAIRE

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of administering oral acyclovir in conjunction with topical acyclovir and steroids in the treatment of necrotizing herpetic keratouveitis. All patients with necrotizing herpetic keratouveits who have been consulted during 1996-1997 at the farbi Eye Hospital were studied . the patients were randomly assigned to two groups. In the first group, topical acyclovir ointment and topical steroids were administered, while the second group took oral acyc...

"Hosseini Tehrani M;Poormostadam B;Vallaei N;Raiszadeh F "

2000-01-01

283

The bioequivalence of nizatidine (Axid) in two extemporaneously and one commercially prepared oral liquid formulations compared with capsule.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nizatidine (Axid) is an H2-receptor antagonist used for the treatment of acid-related gastrointestinal disorders. Given the frequency of these conditions in children and the potential for pediatric use of nizatidine, an oral liquid dosage formulation would provide an alternative treatment option for patients unable to swallow solid oral dosage forms. This study was designed as an open-label, single-dose, four-way crossover trial to investigate the bioequivalence of 150 mg nizatidine administered in three oral liquid formulations (a commercially prepared oral syrup, an extemporaneous solution in apple juice, and an extemporaneous suspension in infant formula) relative to the marketed capsule formulation. Twenty-four adult subjects (ages 31.2 +/- 7.5 years; weight 71.1 +/- 11.8 kg) were enrolled, and blood samples for determination of plasma nizatidine concentrations were collected prior to drug administration and at 19 discrete intervals over a 24-hour postdose interval. Nizatidine was quantitated from plasma using a validated HPLC-MS assay, and a noncompartmental approach was used to describe nizatidine biodisposition in all subjects. Significant treatment effects were observed for log-normalized Cmax, AUC0-n, and AUC0-infinity (p nizatidine prepared in apple juice was markedly less bioavailable than the reference capsule, with 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of 0.518-0.626, 0.682-0.751, and 0.696-0.763 for Cmax, AUC0-n, and AUC0-infinity, respectively. The remaining two oral formulations demonstrated 90% CI within the guidelines established by the Food and Drug Administration (e.g., 0.80-1.25). Thus, nizatidine in infant formula and the commercially prepared oral syrup can be considered bioequivalent to the reference capsule. PMID:12616667

Abdel-Rahman, Susan M; Johnson, Franklin K; Gauthier-Dubois, Ginette; Weston, Irving E; Kearns, Gregory L

2003-02-01

284

SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF CHLORPHINERAMINE MALEATE, DEXTROMETHORPHAN HBR AND PHENYLEPHRIN HCL IN CODILAR SYRUP USING HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY  

OpenAIRE

A simple, selective, sensitive and precise, simultaneous high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of syrup containing Chlorphineramine Maleate, Dextromethorphan HBr and Phenylephrin HCl was described. Good chromatographic separation was achieved using a Zorbax C18 (4.6 cm x 250 mm, 5 µm) and a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-phosphate buffer pH 3.5 (15:85, v/v) at a flow rate 0.9 mL/min. The ultraviolet detector was set at wavelength 280 nm. Chlorphineramine Maleate, dextrome...

Al-shaalan, Nora H.

2012-01-01

285

Cranberry syrup vs trimethoprim in the prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections among children: a controlled trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jose Uberos,1 Mercedes Nogueras-Ocana,2 Verónica Fernandez-Puentes,1 Rocio Rodriguez-Belmonte,1 Eduardo Narbona-López,1 Antonio Molina-Carballo,1 Antonio Munoz-Hoyos11Paediatric Clinical Management Unit, San Cecilio University Clinical Hospital, Avda de Madrid s/n, Granada, Spain; 2Paediatric Urology, San Cecilio University Clinical Hospital, Avda de Madrid s/n, Granada, SpainObjectives: The present study forms part of the ISRCTN16968287 clinical assay. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of cranberry syrup in the prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI.Design: Phase III randomized clinical trial.Setting: The study was conducted at the San Cecilio Clinical Hospital (Granada, Spain.Participants: A total of 192 patients were recruited. The subjects were aged between 1 month and 13 years. Criteria for inclusion were a background of recurrent UTI (more than two episodes of infection in the last 6 months, associated or otherwise with vesicoureteral reflux of any degree, or renal pelvic dilatation associated with UTI. Criteria for exclusion from recruitment to the study included the co-existence of UTI with other infectious diseases or with metabolic diseases, chronic renal insufficiency, and the presence of allergy or intolerance to any of the components of cranberry syrup or trimethoprim.Primary outcome measures: The primary objective was to determine the risk of UTI associated with each intervention.Results: Of the 198 patients initially eligible, 192 were finally included in the study to receive either cranberry syrup or trimethoprim. UTI was observed in 47 patients, 17 of whom were males and 30 females. We recruited 95 patients diagnosed with recurrent UTI on entry; during follow-up, 26 patients had a UTI (27.4%, 95% CI: 18.4%–36.3%. Six patients (6.3% were male and 20 (21.1% were female. Eighteen patients (18.9% of the total, 95% CI: 11%–26.3% receiving trimethoprim had a UTI and eight patients (8.4% of the total, 95% CI: 2.8%–13.9% were given cranberry. Sixty-six percent of the episodes of UTI recurrence were caused by Escherichia coli, with no significant differences being found between the two treatment branches. No differences were observed between the two treatment branches in the rate of resistance to antibiotics.Conclusion: Our study confirms that cranberry syrup is a safe treatment for the pediatric population. Cranberry prophylaxis has noninferiority with respect to trimethoprim in recurrent UTI. (European Clinical Trials Registry EuDract 2007-004397-62 (ISRCTN16968287.Keywords: cranberry, urinary tract infections, trimethoprim, vesicoureteral reflux, antibiotic prophylaxis 

Uberos J

2012-05-01

286

Topical Curcumin-Based Cream Is Equivalent to Dietary Curcumin in a Skin Cancer Model  

OpenAIRE

Skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), the most common cancer in the USA, is a growing problem with the use of tanning booths causing sun-damaged skin. Antiproliferative effects of curcumin were demonstrated in an aggressive skin cancer cell line SRB12-p9 (P < 0.05 compared to control). Topical formulation was as effective as oral curcumin at suppressing tumor growth in a mouse skin cancer model. Curcumin at 15?mg administered by oral, topical, or combined formulation significantly reduced tum...

Kunal Sonavane; Jeffrey Phillips; Oleksandr Ekshyyan; Tara Moore-Medlin; Jennifer Roberts Gill; Xiaohua Rong; Raghunatha Reddy Lakshmaiah; Fleurette Abreo; Douglas Boudreaux; Clifford, John L.; Nathan, Cherie-ann O.

2012-01-01

287

A Review of Topical Diclofenac Use in Musculoskeletal Disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are commonly prescribed medications for the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis in humans and its prevalence rises with age. Oral NSAIDs have potential associated toxicities that must be monitored for and can limit the use of these drugs in certain populations including people of older age. Topical NSAIDs are now being recognized as an option for the treatment strategy of osteoarthritis. We review the efficacy and safety of one of the most common topical NSAIDS, topical diclofenac, for the treatment of osteoarthritis.

Bindu Nair

2010-06-01

288

Nonstandard Topics for Student Presentations in Differential Equations  

Science.gov (United States)

An interesting and effective way to showcase the wide variety of fields to which differential equations can be applied is to have students give short oral presentations on a specific application. These talks, which have been presented by 30-40 students per year in our differential equations classes, provide exposure to a diverse array of topics…

LeMasurier, Michelle

2006-01-01

289

[ASBMR 2006 Report. ASBMR topics on basic research].  

Science.gov (United States)

This overview summarizes topics from the 28th Annual Meeting of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR) held at Pennsylvania Convention Center on September 15-19, 2006. Out of the 288 orally presented papers, I picked up a couple of basic studies from each category of osteoblast, chondrocyte, osteoclast, cytokines and hormones. PMID:17211099

Inoue, Daisuke

2007-01-01

290

Comparison Effects of Sucrose and Date Palm Syrup on Somatic Embryogenesis of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L )  

OpenAIRE

The effect of different concentration of date palm syrup (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10%) and sucrose at concentration of 30 and 60 g/l in addition to the control (without carbon source) on the micro propagation of date palm "cv. Suckary" were investigated. The results indicated that date syrup was taken up from the media as shown by the increase in total dry weight of culture. Addition of sucrose at 60 g/l produced the highest number of somatic embryos and longest shoot equal to that produced by date sy...

Abdullatif Alkhateeb

2008-01-01

291

Understanding Oral Learners  

Science.gov (United States)

A five-year research project of seminary students from various cultural backgrounds revealed that the slight majority of contemporary seminary students studied are oral learners. Oral learners learn best and have their lives most transformed when professors utilize oral teaching and assessment methods. After explaining several preferences of oral…

Moon, W. Jay

2012-01-01

292

Socio-Economic Inequalities in Oral Health: The Case of Greece  

OpenAIRE

Background: The literature on the socioeconomic determinants of oral health inequalities is rather limited. Since oral health is an integral part of general health, the investigation of oral and general health inequalities becomes an important research topic. The recent economic crisis has aggravated the level of general and oral health in Greece and evidence on inequalities is interesting for policy guidelines. Objective: The purpose of the present study is to measure the magnitude of self r...

John Yfantopoulos; Oulis, Constantine J.; Platon Yfantopoulos; William Papaioannou

2014-01-01

293

Miconazole buccal gel and risk for systemic bleeding: How certain topical formula can interfere with anticoagulants.  

Science.gov (United States)

The association of miconazole and oral anticoagulants should be carried out with great caution because of potentially serious side effects. This phenomenon is well known in the case of systemic administration of miconazole, but there is limited awareness that also topical oral administration of miconazole can provoke these effects. In this paper we describe four patients followed at the Cardiology Department of the Ghent University Hospital, who used an oral mucosal miconazole preparation, and who developed an increased international normalized ratio. PMID:25331621

De Pauw, A; De Backer, T

2014-10-21

294

Sparse Topical Coding  

CERN Document Server

We present sparse topical coding (STC), a non-probabilistic formulation of topic models for discovering latent representations of large collections of data. Unlike probabilistic topic models, STC relaxes the normalization constraint of admixture proportions and the constraint of defining a normalized likelihood function. Such relaxations make STC amenable to: 1) directly control the sparsity of inferred representations by using sparsity-inducing regularizers; 2) be seamlessly integrated with a convex error function (e.g., SVM hinge loss) for supervised learning; and 3) be efficiently learned with a simply structured coordinate descent algorithm. Our results demonstrate the advantages of STC and supervised MedSTC on identifying topical meanings of words and improving classification accuracy and time efficiency.

Zhu, Jun

2012-01-01

295

Topics in Calculus  

Science.gov (United States)

E. Lee Lady, a professor in the Department of Mathematics at the University of Hawaii, authored these notes to help students learn how to use, not just understand, the concepts of calculus. A total of fifteen topics are covered and include max-min problems, exponential growth, and the derivation of Kepler's second law. The materials are available in DVI, .pdf, or Java versions. Each topic can be obtained as a separate file.

Lady, E. Lee.

1998-01-01

296

Selective fermentation of pitted dates by S. cerevisiae for the production of concentrated fructose syrups and ethanol  

Science.gov (United States)

About half of worldwide production of dates is unconsumed. Dates contain over 75 % reduced sugars (mostly glucose and fructose with nearly equal amount). Compared to the commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild strain, the strains ATCC 36858 and 36859 could produce high concentration fructose syrups. The fructose fractions obtained were 95.9 and 97.4% for ATCC 36858 and 86.5 and 91.4% for ATCC 36859 at 30 and 33°C, respectively. Fructose yields higher than 90% were obtained using ATCC 36858 compared to those obtained using ATCC 36859 which were 87.3 and 66.1% at 30 and 33°C, respectively. The ethanol yield using ATCC 36858 was higher than that using ATCC 36859 by 16 and 9% at 30 and 33°C, respectively. Through this finding, the production of fructose and ethanol from date extract is a promising process. Moreover, the fructose fractions obtained here (about 90%) are much higher than those obtained with the commercial process, i.e. 55 % fructose syrups.

Dharma Putra, Meilana; Abasaeed, Ahmed E.; Zeinelabdeen, Mohamed A.; Gaily, Mohamed H.; Sulieman, Ashraf K.

2014-04-01

297

Workshop on beam cooling and related topics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sessions of the Workshop on Beam Cooling and Related Topics, held in Montreux from 4-8 October 1993, are reported in these Proceedings. This meeting brought together international experts in the field of accelerator beam cooling. Its purpose was to discuss the status of the different cooling techniques currently in use (stochastic, electron, ionization, heavy-ion, and laser) and their actual performances, technological implications, and future prospects. Certain theoretical principles (muon cooling, cyclotron maser cooling) were discussed and are reported on in these Proceedings. Also of interest in this Workshop was the possibility of beam crystallization in accelerators using ultimate cooling. In the first part of these Proceedings, overview talks on the various cooling techniques, their implications, present performance, and future prospects are presented. More detailed reports on all the topics are then given in the form of oral presentations or poster sessions. Finally, the chairmen and/or convenors then present summary talks. (orig.)

298

Palm tree syrup: nutritional composition of a natural edulcorant / Miel de palma: composición nutricional de un edulcorante natural  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish Introducción: La miel de palma es un producto típico de las Islas Canarias, tradicionalmente producido a partir de la savia de la palmera Phoenix canariensis. El alto contenido calórico lo convierte en un producto cada vez más utilizado como suplemento alimenticio para atletas, niños y mayores. Adem [...] ás, la demanda de este sirope natural, está en constante crecimiento debido también a sus usos medicinales en la medicina homeopática. Objetivo: Analizar la composición nutricional (humedad, cenizas, azúcares, grasa, vitaminas y minerales) de las muestras de miel de palma preparadas con la savia de las palmeras de los productores de la isla de La Gomera (Islas Canarias, España). Métodos: 35 muestras de miel de palma procedentes de cinco regiones productoras de la isla de La Gomera fueron analizadas. Los azúcares y las vitaminas fueron medidos mediante cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (CLAR) y la espectrofotometría de absorción atómica por llama (FAAS) se usó para determinar los minerales. Resultados: Los hidratos de carbono mayoritarios fueron sacarosa (37,8%), glucosa (9,50%) y fructosa (4,80%), respectivamente. La presencia de arabinosa no pudo ser confirmada. La niacina es la vitamina hidrosoluble con la mayor concentración con un contenido promedio de 0,003%. Los contenidos en grasas se encontraron por debajo de 0,20%. El potasio era el macroelemento con los contenidos más altos (0,45%). Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren que la miel de palma puede jugar un papel importante como una fuente de azúcar y minerales en la nutrición humana y se pueden desarrollar futuras aplicaciones para este producto. Abstract in english Introduction: Palm syrup is a typical product from the Canary Islands, traditionally produced from the sap of the tropical palm tree Phoenix canariensis. Its high caloric content has led to its increasing use as a health food supplement for athletes, children and elderly. Furthermore, demand for thi [...] s natural syrup is continuously increasing due also to its medicinal uses in homeopathic medicine. Objective: Palm Tree syrup samples prepared with palm sap from primary producers in La Gomera island (Canary Islands, Spain) were analyzed for their nutritional composition (moisture, ash, sugars, fat, vitamins and minerals). Methods: 35 syrup samples from five different producing regions in La Gomera island were analyzed. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine sugars and vitamins and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (FAAS) was used to analyze the minerals. Results: Major carbohydrates were sucrose (37.8%), glucose (9.50%) and fructose (4.80%), respectively. The presence of arabinose could not be confirmed. Niacin was the water-soluble vitamin with the highest concentration with an average content of 0.003%. Fat content was found to be under 0.20%. Potassium was the mineral with highest contents (0.45%). Conclusions: Results suggest that palm tree syrup can play an important role as a sugar and mineral source in human nutrition, suggesting that future applications for this product could be developed.

G., Luis; C., Rubio; A. J., Gutiérrez; C., Hernández; D., González-Weller; C., Revert; A., Castilla; P., Abreu; A., Hardisson.

2012-04-01

299

Aproveitamento industrial do umbu: processamento de geléia e compota Industrial use of umbu: jelly and fruit-in-syrup processing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O umbu (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam. é uma fruta nativa da Região Nordeste do Brasil. Ainda não devidamente caracterizado, particularmente no que se refere ao seu potencial para industrialização, o umbu demanda pesquisas. Atualmente, esses frutos são consumidos restritamente na região Nordeste, principalmente na forma in natura, preparados como refresco, sorvete ou "umbuzada" (polpa do umbu cozida com leite e açúcar. Objetivou-se com este trabalho adequar a tecnologia convencional de processamento de geléia e compota para o umbu, avaliando a aceitação sensorial e as características físico-químicas desses produtos. Para o processamento de geléia, utilizaram-se duas proporções polpa/açúcar: 50:50 e 40:60, e três concentrações de sólidos insolúveis da polpa: 0%, 50% e 100% do teor de sólidos original da polpa. Para a compota, elaboraram-se produtos com diferentes teores de sólidos solúveis finais, 25°Brix, 30°Brix e 35°Brix, adicionados de 1% de cloreto de cálcio. As polpas, geléias e compotas dos diferentes tratamentos foram submetidas a análises físicas, físico-químicas, químicas e sensoriais. No processamento da geléia de umbu, os produtos obtidos apresentaram valores de acidez total titulável entre 0,60% e 0,90% e de sólidos soúveis totais entre 66,3°Brix e 68,6°Brix. Os tratamentos com proporção polpa:açúcar 50:50 foram significativamente (p The umbu (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam. is a native fruit of the Brazilian Northeast region.. The umbu demands research as it is not adequately characterized, particularly considering its potential for industrialization. Nowadays, these fruits are consumed, at the Northeast region, mainly in natura, prepared as juice, ice cream or "umbuzada" (pulp of the umbu cooked with milk and sugar. The objective of this work was to adapt conventional technology to process umbu jelly and fruit-in-syrup, by evaluating the sensorial acceptance and the physicochemical characteristics of these products. For the jelly processing, it was used two pulp:sugar proportions, 50:50 and 40:60, and three concentrations of insoluble solids of the pulp, 0%, 50% and 100% of the original insoluble solids pulp content. For the umbu-in-syrup, the products were elaborated with different concentration of final soluble solids, 25°Brix, 30°Brix and 35°Brix, added of 1% calcium chloride. The pulps, jellies and fruits-in-syrup of the different treatments were submitted to physical, physicochemical, chemical and sensorial analyses. In the processing of the umbu jelly, the end products presented values of total titratable acidity between 0.60% and 0.90% and soluble solid contents between 66.3°Brix and 68.6°Brix. The treatments with proportion pulp:sugar 50:50 had significantly (p < 0,05 highest sensorial acceptance in relation to the attributes appearance, color and texture. The global acceptance of the umbu fruit-in-syrup was highest for the treatments with 30°Brix and 35°Brix. The use of the umbu fruit as jelly or fruit-in-syrup is possible as these products presented good sensorial acceptance.

Marília I. S. Folegatti

2003-12-01

300

Identification and characterisation of organisms associated with chocolate pralines and sugar syrups used for their production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spoilage of chocolate pralines, due to growth of microorganisms tolerating low water activity, causes problems in the confectionary industry. Therefore, an increased knowledge on which organisms are present in the chocolate fillings and their tolerance towards low aw, pH, ethanol and other preservatives is needed. Using media containing 40-50% glucose (aw 0.872-0.925) bacteria, yeasts and moulds were isolated from chocolate pralines (aw 0.70-0.898) of nine manufactures and sugar syrups (aw 0.854) used as ingredient in chocolate praline production by one of the manufacturers. Isolates were identified by conventional microbiological analyses and by sequencing of their 16S rRNA, 26S rRNA (D1/D2-region) or calmodulin genes. Further, for several species the identity was confirmed by amplification and sequencing of additional genes. In total 677 isolates were identified as belonging to ten different bacteria species, six yeast species and ten mould species with yeast being the most frequently isolated. Bacteria and moulds were found in low numbers, whereas yeast were found in numbers up to 10(7)CFU/g. The most frequently isolated yeast, bacteria and moulds belonged to the species of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus terreus, respectively. Fifteen isolates were screened for their ability to grow in presence of low aw (0.65-0.90), low pH (pH=2.0-7.0), ethanol (0-15%), sorbic acid (0-1,500 ppm) and different temperatures (15°C-25°C) relevant for chocolate manufacturing. Z. rouxii was overall the most tolerant organism to the stress factors and grew within the same range of environmental conditions as found in chocolate pralines. It was able to grow at water activities down to 0.70, ethanol concentrations up to 6.0%, pH down to pH2.0, sorbic acid concentrations up to 1,500 ppm and at all temperatures tested. Eurotium amstelodami also showed high tolerance towards all the stress factors except for ethanol. None of the bacteria were able to grow at the conditions tested. However, B. subtilis survived the 60 day incubation period. PMID:24997272

Marvig, Cecilie L; Kristiansen, Rikke M; Madsen, Mikkel G; Nielsen, Dennis S

2014-08-18

301

[Clinical studies of rokitamycin dry syrup on skin and soft tissue infections in the pediatric fields].  

Science.gov (United States)

Rokitamycin (RKM) dry syrup, a newly developed macrolide antibiotic, was administered to children with ages between 6 months and 15 years and 10 months suffering from skin and soft tissue infections including 41 cases of impetigo, one case of staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) and 2 cases of subcutaneous abscess totalling 44 cases. The average daily dose level used was 31.3 mg/kg divided into 3 or 4 doses, for an average of 6 days of treatment. MICs of 4 different macrolide antibiotics including RKM, erythromycin (EM), josamycin (JM) and midecamycin acetate (MDM acetate) were determined against 32 bacterial strains isolated from these cases including 30 strains of Staphylococcus aureus and 2 strains of Streptococcus pyogenes. The inoculum level used was 10(6) cells/ml. Among these strains of bacteria, 20 strains of S. aureus and 1 strain of S. pyogenes were also used, at the same inoculum size, for the determination of MICs of 4 beta-lactam antibiotics including 3 different penicillins such as ampicillin (ABPC), methicillin (DMPPC) and cloxacillin (MCIPC) and cefaclor (CCL), a cephem antibiotic. RKM was then evaluated through the above treatment for its clinical efficacy, bacteriological effects, side effects and effects on laboratory test values. Obtained results are summarized as follows. 1. Activities of drugs tested were compared to each other. MIC90 of RKM against S. aureus averaged 0.39 microgram/ml, and against no strains of S. aureus showed MIC values of higher than 25 micrograms/ml, thus, the antibacterial activity of RKM against S. aureus was the highest among the 8 drugs tested. The activity of MCIPC was next highest followed by that of DMPPC, MIC determination was done on only 2 strains, or, for some drugs, only one strain, of S. pyogenes, and RKM showed activities somewhat lower than ABPC and EM, and similar to JM and CCL within the limited testing. 2. Clinical efficacies of RKM determined by doctors in charge were 97.6% in the 41 cases of impetigo, with good or excellent efficacies were observed, 100% in the single case of SSSS and the 2 cases of subcutaneous abscess. Thus an overall efficacy on the 44 cases was rated very high, at 97.7%. 3. Clinical efficacy rating according to accumulated scores was determinable in 37 cases including all the 3 diseases on the third day of treatment with an efficacy rate of 89.2%. Ratings were determinable on the fifth and the seventh days of treatment in 24 and 21 cases, respectively, with all the cases judged good or excellent.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3204657

Motohiro, T; Aramaki, M; Oda, K; Kawakami, A; Tanaka, K; Koga, T; Fujimoto, T; Sakata, Y; Nishiyama, T; Yamashita, F

1988-10-01

302

Identification and characterisation of organisms associated with chocolate pralines and sugar syrups used for their production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Spoilage of chocolate pralines, due to growth of microorganisms tolerating low water activity, causes problems in the confectionary industry. Therefore, an increased knowledge on which organisms are present in the chocolate fillings and their tolerance towards low aw, pH, ethanol and other preservatives is needed. Using media containing 40-50% glucose (aw 0.872-0.925) bacteria, yeasts and moulds were isolated from chocolate pralines (aw 0.70-0.898) of nine manufactures and sugar syrups (aw 0.854) used as ingredient in chocolate praline production by one of the manufacturers. Isolates were identified by conventional microbiological analyses and by sequencing of their 16S rRNA, 26S rRNA (D1/D2-region) or calmodulin genes. Further, for several species the identity was confirmed by amplification and sequencing of additional genes. In total 677 isolates were identified as belonging to ten different bacteria species, six yeast species and ten mould species with yeast being the most frequently isolated. Bacteria andmoulds were found in low numbers, whereas yeast were found in numbers up to 107CFU/g. The most frequently isolated yeast, bacteria and moulds belonged to the species of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus terreus, respectively.Fifteen isolates were screened for their ability to grow in presence of low aw (0.65-0.90), low pH (pH=2.0-7.0), ethanol (0-15%), sorbic acid (0-1500ppm) and different temperatures (15°C-25°C) relevant for chocolate manufacturing. Z. rouxii was overall the most tolerant organism to the stress factors and grew within the same range of environmental conditions as found in chocolate pralines. It was able to grow at water activities down to 0.70, ethanol concentrations up to 6.0%, pH down to pH2.0, sorbic acid concentrations up to 1500ppm and at all temperatures tested. Eurotium amstelodami also showed high tolerance towards all the stress factors except for ethanol. None of the bacteria were able to grow at the conditions tested. However, B. subtilis survived the 60day incubation period. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Nielsen, Cecilie Lykke Marvig; Kristiansen, Rikke M.

2014-01-01

303

Oral contraceptives.  

Science.gov (United States)

4 kinds of progestin only oral contraceptives (OCs) and numerous combined OCs containing ethinyl estradiol (EE) or occasionally mestranol and either norgestrel or norethindrone are currently available in Australia. All progestins except norgestrel are effective in vivo after metabolism to norethindrone. Mestranol is effective in the human after demethylation to EE. The main side effects of OCs, including menstrual disturbances and changes in weight and mood, are primarily of nuisance value. Menstrual blood loss with OCs is almost invariably less than during spontaneous menses, but breakthrough bleeding and midcycle spotting may cause concern in patients. Amenorrhea and weight gain are rare with low dose pills. Approximately 6 in 1000 women remain anovulatory for 12 months or more after discontinuing OCs, but it is not yet know whether the amenorrhea is related to pill use and it is usually corrected by induction of ovulation. Cardiovascular side effects including venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism are seen less frequently with new lower dose pills. The effects of OCs on the cardiovascular system are complex and depend on the interaction of estrogen and progestin. Amounts of estrogen and progestin should be the lowest possible to prevent ovulation, and routine monitoring should be provided for all women using pills. Older high dose formulations altered lipid metabolism in the direction of greater risk of coronary heart disease. Although research suggests the lowest dose triphasic pills have no significant effect, not enough large studies have been done with matched controls. Any effects on carbohydrate metabolism of the low dose pills are apparently minor and of little clinical significance. Insulin dependent diabetics with adequate supervision may safely use low dose pills. Combined OCs reduce the incidence of endometrial and ovarian malignancy. No relationship between OCs and the risk of breast cancer has been demonstrated except possibly in women under 35 when the cancer developed. The risk of intraepithelial neoplasia may be increased in women taking OCs for more than 8 years. Data on drug interactions are inconclusive, but women on rifampicin should use some other method. Absolute contraindications to OCs include breast cancer, history of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism, active liver disease, use of rifampicin, familial hyperlipidemia, previous arterial thrombosis, and pregnancy, while relative contraindications include smoking, age over 35, hypertension, breastfeeding, and irregular spontaneous menstruation. Progestin only OCs have a higher rate of failure and irregular bleeding than combined pills and their main use is for breastfeeding women and those with contraindications to estrogen. The pill of 1st choice should be a triphasic low-dose formulation. PMID:6508652

Shearman, R P

1984-09-01

304

Urban legends series: oral leukoplakia.  

Science.gov (United States)

To date, the term oral leukoplakia (OL) should be used to recognize 'predominantly white plaques of questionable risk, having excluded (other) known diseases or disorders that carry no increased risk of cancer'. In this review, we addressed four controversial topics regarding oral leukoplakias (OLs): (i) Do tobacco and alcohol cause OLs?, (ii) What percentage of OLs transform into oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)?, (iii) Can we distinguish between premalignant and innocent OLs?, and (iv) Is proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL) a specific entity or just a form of multifocal leukoplakia? Results of extensive literature search suggest that (i) no definitive evidence for direct causal relationship between smoked tobacco and alcohol as causative factors of OLs, (ii and iii) the vast majority of OLs follow a benign course and do not progress into a cancer, and no widely accepted and/or validated clinical and/or biological factors can predict malignant transformation, and (iv) the distinction between multifocal/multiple leukoplakias and PVL in their early presentation is impossible; the temporal clinical progression and the high rate of recurrences and development of cancer of PVL are the most reliable features for diagnosis. PMID:23379968

Arduino, P G; Bagan, J; El-Naggar, A K; Carrozzo, M

2013-10-01

305

Topic Tracking with Dynamic Topic Model and Topic-based Weighting Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In topic tracking, a topic is usually described by several stories. How to represent a topic is always an issue and a difficult problem in the research on topic tracking. To emphasis the topic in stories, we provide an improved topic-based tf*idf weighting method to measure the topical importance of the features in the representation model. To overcome the topic drift problem and filter the noise existed in the tracked topic description, a dynamic topic model is proposed based on the static model. It extends the initial topic model with the information from the incoming related stories and filters the noise using the latest unrelated story. The topic tracking systems are implemented on the TDT4 Chinese corpus. The experimental results indicate that both the new weighting method and the dynamic model can improve the tracking performance.

Xiaoyan Zhang

2010-05-01

306

Método espectroscópico para determinação de cumarina em xarope de Mikania glomerata Sprengel / Ultraviolet spectroscopy method for coumarin quantification in Mikania glomerata Sprengel syrup  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver uma metodologia analítica por espectroscopia UV, para doseamento de cumarina em xaropes de Mikania glomerata. A técnica foi baseada na extração da cumarina utilizando solventes como o clorofórmio e hexano. Após a seleção do solvente, o comprimento de onda [...] foi definido através da sobreposição dos espectros da cumarina, metil parabeno, diluição do xarope e solução extrativa do xarope. Foram preparadas curvas analíticas de cinco soluções de cumarina com concentração variando de 0,002 a 0,03 mg/mL. Para análise da exatidão do método, foram preparados três lotes de xarope de Mikania glomerata Sprengel e o teor de cumarina determinado pela técnica espectrofotométrica foi comparado a técnica por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. O solvente selecionado para extração foi o clorofórmio, o comprimento de onda 320 nm. A curva analítica apresentou R² de 0,99978, demonstrando linearidade. A comparação estatística do doseamento da cumarina pela técnica espectrofotométrica estudada com a técnica cromatográfica desenvolvida por Celeghini et al. (2001) demonstrou não existir diferenças significativas, indicativo de exatidão da técnica. Abstract in english A spectrophotometric procedure for coumarin determination in Mikania glomerata Sprengel (guaco) syrup is described in this work. Due to the high number of constituents in guaco syrups, the coumarin was extracted with apolar extractors (chloroform and hexane), in which chloroform was selected, becaus [...] e of its higher capacity of extraction. After the solvent choice, the wavelength at 320 nm, region where there is the lower interference of syrup constituents, was selected. The calibration curve showed linearity, R² of 0.99978. The spectrophotometric assay of coumarin in three samples of Mikania glomerata Sprengel syrup showed accuracy compared with the HPLC method. The results presented suggest that the spectrophotometric method may be useful for the quantitative analysis of coumarin in Mikania glomerata Sprengel syrup.

Cleinils R. da, Silva; Víctor S., Gomes; Irene C., Kulkamp; Luiz A., Kanis.

2008-12-01

307

PREFACE: CEWQO Topical Issue CEWQO Topical Issue  

Science.gov (United States)

This topical issue of Physica Scripta collects selected peer-reviewed contributions based on invited and contributed talks and posters presented at the 15th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics (CEWQO) which took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http://cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole community took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http://cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu, cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole community of the workshop, we thank the referees for their careful reading and useful suggestions which helped to improve all of the submitted papers. A brief description of CEWQO The Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics is a series of conferences started informally in Budapest in 1992. Sometimes small events transform into important conferences, as in the case of CEWQO. Professor Jozsef Janszky, from the Research Institute of Solid State Physics and Optics, is the founder of this series. Margarita Man'ko obtained the following information from Jozsef Janszky during her visit to Budapest, within the framework of cooperation between the Russian and Hungarian Academies of Sciences in 2005. He organized a small workshop on quantum optics in Budapest in 1992 with John Klauder as a main speaker. Then, bearing in mind that a year before Janszky himself was invited by Vladimir Buzek to give a seminar on the same topic in Bratislava, he decided to assign the name 'Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics', considering the seminar in Bratislava to be the first workshop and the one in Budapest the second. The third formal workshop took place in Bratislava in 1993 organized by Vladimir Buzek, then in 1994 (Budapest, by Jozsef Janszky), 1995 and 1996 (Budmerice, Slovakia, by Vladimir Buzek), 1997 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 1999 (Olomouc, Czech Republic, by Zdenek Hradil), 2000 (Balatonfüred, Hungary, by Jozsef Janszky ), 2001 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 2002 (Szeged, Hungary, by Mihaly Benedict), 2003 (Rostock,Germany, by Werner Vogel and Sascha Wallentowitz), 2004 (Trieste, Italy, by Naseem Rahman and Sascha Wallentowitz), 2005 (Bilkent, Ankara, by Alexander Shumovsky), 2006 (Vienna, by Helmut Rauch), 2007 (Palermo, Italy, by Antonino Messina) and 2008 (Belgrade, by Mirjana Bozic). The CEWQO series developed in two directions following the rapid development of quantum optics and the transitional development of the scientific collaboration of Central European researchers with researchers from old and new emerging Central European countries, and from all over the world. The topics discussed at CEWQO 08 were divided into ten groups that aimed to cover the broad scope of modern quantum optics: Fundamental aspects of quantum optics and quantum mechanics Single photons and photon pairs Cavity and circuit QED Atoms in intense fields Neutron, atom and molecular quantum optics Quantum gases and fluids Coherence, entanglement and decoherence Optical properties of condensed matter and nanostructures Open quantum systems and chaos Quantum information processing Central European Workshops on Quantum Optics realize and are consistent with a wider idea, and a social, economical, cultural and political program promoted since 1989 by the Central European Initiative (CEI), the main goal of which was to help transition countries in Central Europe to become closer to the EU. The resulting support of the CEI, first obtained thanks to the scientific reputation, organizing activities, and efforts of Helmut Rauch, has been very important for the organization of the CEWQO in recent years, particularly in 2008. The support of the Sixth and Seventh Framework Programs of the European Commission was also very important. A short review of papers in this topical issue A principal role in this topical issue is played by the photon. Vuletic et al describe the mapping of the photon-polarization state onto a single collective-spin excitation (magnon) shared between two atomic ensembles. A heralded quantum memory based on this mapping is demonstrated. Dodonov derives a formula which predicts a photon generation rate in a cavity due to

Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita

2009-09-01

308

Efficacy of adding topical simvastatin to topical calcipotriol on improvement of cutaneous plaque psoriasis  

Science.gov (United States)

Background: Psoriasis is a common dermatologic disorder, with fluctuating response to treatment. Considering the proven immunomodulatory effects of oral simvastatin in psoriasis, this trial study was enrolled to determine whether the topical form has also antipsoriatic effects. Vitamin D analogs known to be effective and are considered the first line of therapy in mild to moderate cases. In this study, the efficacy of topical calcipotriol 0.005% ointment (as a standard method of treatment for psoriasis) versus combination of calcipotriol plus topical simvastatin is compared in the treatment of psoriasis. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects with symmetric psoriasis who had body surface involvement up to 20% were divided randomly into 2 groups. Group A were treated with calcipotriol 0.005% ointment twice daily and Group B with calcipotriol 0.005% ointment twice daily and simvastatin 3% ointment twice daily for 12 weeks. The results were evaluated by a Blind Dermatologist using psoriasis area severity index (PASI) score at baseline, 4th, 8th and 12th week of treatment. In a similar way, a subjective assessment performed by patients based on photo-evaluation at the end of the study. Results: Despite a continuous reduction in PASI score in both groups, according to both physician (P = 0.603) and patient (P = 0.243) assessment topical simvastatin was not statistically more effective than conventional treatment of psoriasis at the end of the study. Conclusion: This study indicates that topical simvastatin is not associated with significant impacts in the treatment of psoriasis as compared to oral form. This study indicates that psoriasis is a systemic disorder with variable skin manifestations. PMID:24592364

Iraji, Fariba; Tajmirriahi, Nabet; Siadat, Amir Hossein; Momeni, Iman; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali

2014-01-01

309

Development of orally disintegrating tablets comprising controlled-release multiparticulate beads.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melperone is an atypical antipsychotic agent that has shown a wide spectrum of neuroleptic properties, particularly effective in the treatment of senile dementia and Parkinson's-associated psychosis, and is marketed in Europe as an immediate-release (IR) tablet and syrup. An orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) dosage form would be advantageous for patients who experience difficulty in swallowing large tablets or capsules or those who experience dysphagia. Controlled-release (CR) capsule and ODT formulations containing melperone HCl were developed with target in vitro release profiles suitable for a once-daily dosing regimen. Both dosage forms allow for the convenient production of dose-proportional multiple strengths. Two ODT formulations exhibiting fast and medium release profiles and one medium release profile capsule formulation (each 50?mg) were tested in vivo using IR syrup as the reference. The two medium release formulations were shown to be bioequivalent to each other and are suitable for once-daily dosing. Based on the analytical and organoleptic test results, as well as the blend uniformity and in-process compression data at various compression forces using coated beads produced at one-tenth (1/10) commercial scale, both formulations in the form of CR capsules and CR ODTs have shown suitability for progression into further clinical development. PMID:22356215

Venkatesh, Gopi M; Stevens, Phillip J; Lai, Jin-Wang

2012-12-01

310

Discovering Health Topics in Social Media Using Topic Models  

OpenAIRE

By aggregating self-reported health statuses across millions of users, we seek to characterize the variety of health information discussed in Twitter. We describe a topic modeling framework for discovering health topics in Twitter, a social media website. This is an exploratory approach with the goal of understanding what health topics are commonly discussed in social media. This paper describes in detail a statistical topic model created for this purpose, the Ailment Topic Aspect Model (ATAM...

Paul, Michael J.; Dredze, Mark

2014-01-01

311

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... and painless, the exam can detect oral cancer early—when it can be treated more successfully. Publications? For Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide for Health Care ...

312

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – ... and painless, the exam can detect oral cancer early—when it can be treated more successfully. Publications? ...

313

Oral Thrush (For Parents)  

Science.gov (United States)

... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Keeping Portions Under Control Recipe: Fruity ... Expect Ebola: What to Know Oral Thrush KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Skin Infections & Rashes > Oral Thrush Print A ...

314

Oral Cancer Facts  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral Cancer Facts Rates of occurrence in the United States Close to 43,250 Americans will be ... different specialties. More about biopsy and diagnosis How oral cancer develops We know that all cancers (neoplastic ...

315

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... presents an overview of physical, mental, and behavioral challenges common in patients with developmental disabilities and offers ... detection and treatment of oral cancers. Note: For materials specific to African American men, please see: Oral ...

316

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... nidcrinfo@mail.nih.gov . Order Now Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? About Clinical Trials Information for ... Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and ...

317

Nicotine Oral Inhalation  

Science.gov (United States)

Nicotine oral inhalation is used to help people stop smoking. Nicotine oral inhalation should be used together with a ... support groups, counseling, or specific behavioral change techniques. Nicotine inhalation is in a class of medications called ...

318

Topic in Depth - Telematics  

Science.gov (United States)

Often used in mobile telephony, vehicle tracking, online navigation, and emergency assistance, the design of wireless systems for the collection and dissemination of data is known as telematics. This Topic in Depth offers definitions, research information, and the uses of the technology in industry.

2010-09-16

319

Topical anesthesia in phacoemulsification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose : To evaluate the efficacy of topical anesthesia; topical Benoxinate 0.4% (Oxybuprocaine and Xylocaine (Lidocaine gel, in selected cataract patients as an alternative to peribulbar or retrobulbar block anesthesia during cataract surgery. Materials and Methods : Prospective non-comparative evaluation of patients? and surgeon?s satisfaction at the end of the procedure. Three hundred patients (300 eyes were included in the study. The procedure was explained to patients with details regarding what will happen and what to expect during surgery. All patients received topical anesthesia with Benoxinate 0.4% eye drops and Xylocaine gel 2%. All surgeries were done by the same surgeon using the same machine (updated LEGACY phacoemulsifier, Alcon and approach (clear corneal incision and followed by a foldable intraocular lens (IOL implantation. Results : None of the patients had severe pain during the procedure; only 2% (six of 300 required use of intravenous sedation (Propofol, both the surgeon?s and the patients? satisfaction were high. Eye movements and blepharospasm were not significant problems, and no serious complications occurred. Rate of vitreous loss due to posterior capsule tear/rupture was within literature reported range and not different from our previous experience. Conclusion : Topical anesthesia is a satisfactory and safe alternative to retrobulbar and peribulbar anesthesia for clear corneal phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation in selected cataract patients in the hands of experienced cataract surgeon.

Waheeb Saad

2010-01-01

320

LD Topics: Math & Dyscalculia  

Science.gov (United States)

This collection of articles for parents and educators addresses learning disabilities in the area of mathematics. The articles address a variety of topics, including strategies for working with children with dyscalculia, parent-teacher collaboration, identification of disabilities, use of technology, and developing number sense.

2011-01-01

321

Topical immunomodulators in dermatology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Topical immunomodulators are agents that regulate the local immune response of the skin. They are now emerging as the therapy of choice for several immune-mediated dermatoses such as atopic dermatitis, contact allergic dermatitis, alopecia areata, psoriasis, vitiligo, connective tissue disorders such as morphea and lupus erythematosus, disorders of keratinization and several benign and malignant skin tumours, because of their comparable efficacy, ease of application and greater safety than their systemic counterparts. They can be used on a domiciliary basis for longer periods without aggressive monitoring. In this article, we have discussed the mechanism of action, common indications and side-effects of the commonly used topical immunomodulators, excluding topical steroids. Moreover, newer agents, which are still in the experimental stages, have also been described. A MEDLINE search was undertaken using the key words "topical immunomodulators, dermatology" and related articles were also searched. In addition, a manual search for many Indian articles, which are not indexed, was also carried out. Wherever possible, the full article was reviewed. If the full article could not be traced, the abstract was used.

Khandpur Sujay

2004-04-01

322

Response to oral acitretin in lichen amyloidosis  

OpenAIRE

We report the therapeutically challenging case of a patient with severe and extensive lichen amyloidosis (LA) who responded to oral acitretin and topical corticosteroids. Colloid milia and terra firma-forme dermatoses were noted post healing of the lesions of LA. There has been no recurrence of lesions post 8 months of follow-up. We recommend that acitretin should be used more often in severe and recalcitrant cases of LA.

Vasani, Resham J.

2014-01-01

323

Response to oral acitretin in lichen amyloidosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report the therapeutically challenging case of a patient with severe and extensive lichen amyloidosis (LA) who responded to oral acitretin and topical corticosteroids. Colloid milia and terra firma-forme dermatoses were noted post healing of the lesions of LA. There has been no recurrence of lesions post 8 months of follow-up. We recommend that acitretin should be used more often in severe and recalcitrant cases of LA. PMID:25593815

Vasani, Resham J

2014-12-01

324

Oral contraceptives induced hepatotoxicity  

OpenAIRE

Oral Contraceptives are the pharmacological agents used to prevent pregnancy. These are divided as the combined and progestogen methods and are administered orally, transdermally, systemically and via vaginal route. All these methods contain both oestrogen and progestogen. Vigorous usage of oral contraceptives and anabolic steroids as associated with cholestasis, vascular lesions and hepatic neoplasm. Benign hepatic neoplasms are clearly associated with oral contraceptives. In this article we...

Akshaya Srikanth, B.; Manisree, V.

2013-01-01

325

Oral English Learning Strategies  

OpenAIRE

This thesis is concerned about the strategies of learning oral English. In the thesis, I introduce many strategies to help students to improve their oral English. Some of these strategies can directly influence their effectiveness of learning oral English such as cognitive strategies, but some do not have directly influence on oral English. The theory of individual differences is still another important one foe choosing effective strategies, which includes age, gender, learning style prefe...

Xiaoxue Yu

2013-01-01

326

[Bacteriological, pharmacokinetic and clinical studies on a rokitamycin dry syrup in the pediatric field].  

Science.gov (United States)

Bacteriological, pharmacokinetic and clinical studies were done on the effect of rokitamycin (RKM, TMS-19-Q) in the field of pediatrics. The results are summarized below. 1. Antibacterial activities Antibacterial activities of RKM against Staphylococcus aureus (including 50 methicillin-sensitive and 50 methicillin-resistant strains), 18 strains of Haemophilus influenzae and 50 strains of Campylobacter jejuni were studied comparatively with activities of josamycin (JM), midecamycin (MDM), erythromycin (EM) and cefaclor (CCL) or ampicillin. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the 5 antibiotics against methicillin-sensitive S. aureus showed a wide variation but RKM was somewhat superior among them. MIC80 of those antibiotics tested against methicillin-sensitive S. aureus were as follows; RKM 1.56, JM 12.5, MDM 12.5, EM 6.25, and CCL 3.13 micrograms/ml. Among methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), ratios of strains highly resistant to these antibiotics (MIC greater than or equal to 100 micrograms/ml) to total number of strains tested were: 18% to RKM, and 26%, 34% and 48% to JM, MDM and EM, respectively, again showing the superiority of RKM and the proliferation of resistant organisms to EM. MICs of RKM against H. influenzae were distributed in a range between 0.78 and 12.5 micrograms/ml, which were similar to MIC range of CCL, and approximately twice as high as that of EM, but 4 folds lower than those of JM and MDM. Against C. jejuni, the MIC range of RKM was quite broad, 0.10-12.5 micrograms/ml, with a peak value of 0.20 micrograms/ml. The cumulative number of strains vs. MIC curve was similar to that of EM, and RKM was approximately 4 to 8 folds more effective than the other 3 antibiotics. 2. Absorption and excretion The absorption and the excretion of RKM were studied with its dry syrup preparations. Dose levels examined were 5 mg/kg in 2 cases, 10 mg/kg in 7 cases, 15 mg/kg in 2 cases and 20 mg/kg in 1 case. Peak concentrations of RKM in blood were not dose-dependent and were 0.16-0.23, 0.29-0.91, 0.35-0.46 microgram/ml and 0.53 microgram/ml, respectively, for the 4 dose levels. Most of drug levels dropped below the detection limit in 4 hours after the administration when dose levels up to 10 mg/kg were used, and when dose levels were at or above 15 mg/kg, 0.07-0.09 microgram/ml of RKM was detected in blood at 6 hours after the administration. Urinary recovery rates in 6 hours were between 0.19 and 3.31%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3265445

Toyonaga, Y; Sugita, M; Joh, K; Takahashi, T; Watanabe, Y; Hori, M

1988-06-01

327

Oral Transliterating. PEPNet Tipsheet  

Science.gov (United States)

An oral transliterator provides communication access to a person who is deaf or hard of hearing and who uses speechreading and speaking as a means of communicating. The oral transliterator, positioned in front of the speechreader, inaudibly repeats the spoken message, making it as speechreadable as possible. This is called Expressive Oral…

Troiano, Claire A.

2010-01-01

328

Oral Cancer Exam  

Science.gov (United States)

... Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide for Health Care Professionals A step-by-step, illustrated guide for health professionals that provides instruction on examining the mouth for signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes ...

329

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See All Order Publications ...

330

Oral Health and Swallowing Problems  

OpenAIRE

Oral health impacts systemic health. Therefore, oral care is an important consideration in maintaining quality of life (QOL). Previously, maintenance and improvement of oral hygiene was considered essential for achieving oral health. In addition to oral hygiene, oral care in terms of oral function is now considered to maintain QOL. Ingestion of exogenous nutrients via the oral cavity is fundamental to the function of all higher animals, not only human beings. Chewing and swallowing processes ...

Furuta, Michiko; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

2013-01-01

331

Analytical method by high resolution liquid chromatography for the stability study of cloratidine syrup 0.1 %  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A high resolution liquid chromatography method was validated to study the stability of cloratidine syrup 0.1 %. The calibration curve in the range from 13.6 to 3.36 ?g/mL was lineal, with a coefficient of correlation equal to 0.99975. The intercept and slope statistical test was not significant. The recovery obtained was 100.2 % in the concentration range studied, and the Cochran and Student (t) tests results were not important. The variation coefficient in the repeatability study was equal to 0.41 % for 10 replications assayed, whereas in the reproducibility Fischer and Student tests were not remarkable. The method proved to be specific, lineal, accurate, and exact. (Author)

332

A new missense mutation in the BCKDHB gene causes the classic form of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD).  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disease caused by mutations in the BCKDHA, BCKDHB, DBT and DLD genes, which encode the E1?, E1?, E2 and E3 subunits of the branched chain ? ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKD) complex, respectively. This complex is involved in the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids. In this study, we analyzed the DNA sequences of BCKDHA and BCKDHB genes in an infant who suffered from MSUD and died at the age of 6 months. We found a new missense mutation in exon 5 of BCKDHB gene (c.508C>T). The heterozygosity of the parents for the mentioned nucleotide change was confirmed by direct sequence analysis of the corresponding segment. Another missense mutation has been found in the same codon previously and shown by in silico analyses to be deleterious. This report provides further evidence that this amino acid change can cause classic MSUD. PMID:25381949

Miryounesi, Mohammad; Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh; Goodarzi, Hamedreza; Fardaei, Majid

2014-11-01

333

Direct enzymatic extraction of starch from corn as an energy-saving alternative to production of high-fructose syrup  

Science.gov (United States)

The liquefaction of pre-gelatinized starch was studied with various analytical techniques to determine the effects of starch molecular weight, granule structure, granule size, and mechanical depolymerization. Also, improvements were made in the chromatographic system used to characterize starch hydrolysates. Progress is reported on protein removal. The effects of pH, temperature, and ionic strength were examined for the removal of protein from a syrup stream by adsorption on a phenolic resin. Buffered systems, which maintain more stable pH values, were also examined. Mathematical modeling of the results is in progress. The pilot plant facility is complete and in operation. Starch streams containing 1% protein are being produced by the protein extraction process.

334

Topical Methotrexate In Localized Psoriasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A comparative study of topical methotrexate and topical tar in eighteen patients of localized psoriasis with bilateral involvement of both lower legs, equal in area and disease severity was carried out. The patients were asked to apply topical methorexate 0.25% in a hydrophilic gel twice daily on right leg. The test sites were score, before therapy, after one month and after two months. The result with topical methotrexate preparation was promising but was comparable to topical tar formulation.

Rath Namita

2004-01-01

335

Efficacy of IMOD in the treatment of oral lichen planus—Efficacy of IMOD in oral lichen planus  

OpenAIRE

Objectives: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic, immunologically mediated, mucocutaneous disorder. A wide range of topical and systemic therapies have been used in the treatment of OLP. The efficacy of IMOD (an Iranian new immunomodulator drug, con- taining selenium, carotene, and flavonoids) in the management of oral lichen planus was evaluated. Study design: In a before-after clinical trial study, thirty patients (21 women and 9 men; age range 35 - 66 years with 112 lesions) with lichen p...

Neda Akbari-Gillani; Mohammad Abdollahi; Iraj Mirzaii-Dizgah; Farzaneh Agha-Hosseini

2011-01-01

336

Oral contraceptives induced hepatotoxicity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oral Contraceptives are the pharmacological agents used to prevent pregnancy. These are divided as the combined and progestogen methods and are administered orally, transdermally, systemically and via vaginal route. All these methods contain both oestrogen and progestogen. Vigorous usage of oral contraceptives and anabolic steroids as associated with cholestasis, vascular lesions and hepatic neoplasm. Benign hepatic neoplasms are clearly associated with oral contraceptives. In this article we discuss the various hepatocellular complications like cholestasis, benign neoplasm and hepatocellular carcinoma occurred by oral contraceptives. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(1.000: 91-93

B. Akshaya Srikanth

2013-02-01

337

Topical analgesics in the management of acute and chronic pain.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral analgesics are commonly prescribed for the treatment of acute and chronic pain, but these agents often produce adverse systemic effects, which sometimes are severe. Topical analgesics offer the potential to provide the same analgesic relief provided by oral analgesics but with minimal adverse systemic effects. This article describes the results of a systematic review of the efficacy of topical analgesics in the management of acute and chronic pain conditions. A literature search of MEDLINE/PubMed was conducted using the keywords topical analgesic AND chronic pain OR acute pain OR neuropathic pain and focused only on individual clinical trials published in English-language journals. The search identified 92 articles, of which 65 were eligible for inclusion in the review. The most commonly studied topical analgesics were nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (n=27), followed by lidocaine (n=9), capsaicin (n=6), amitriptyline (n=5), glyceryl trinitrate (n=3), opioids (n=2), menthol (n=2), pimecrolimus (n=2), and phenytoin (n=2). The most common indications were acute soft tissue injuries (n=18), followed by neuropathic pain (n=17), experimental pain (n=6), osteoarthritis and other chronic joint-related conditions (n=5), skin or leg ulcers (n=5), and chronic knee pain (n=2). Strong evidence was identified for the use of topical diclofenac and topical ibuprofen in the treatment of acute soft tissue injuries or chronic joint-related conditions, such as osteoarthritis. Evidence also supports the use of topical lidocaine in the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia and diabetic neuropathy. Currently, limited evidence is available to support the use of other topical analgesics in acute and chronic pain. PMID:23374622

Argoff, Charles E

2013-02-01

338

Topic in Depth - Chlorine  

Science.gov (United States)

Chlorine, a chemical element whose name means â??pale green,â? is explored from a number of angles in this informative Topic in Depth.Weâ??ve all heard of chlorine being used in swimming pools and drinking water, but this jack-of-all-trades chemical element is also used in making everything from plastics and dry cleaning products to insecticides and pharmaceuticals.

339

Topics on mathematical crystallography  

OpenAIRE

In July 2012 the General Assembly of the United Nations resolved that 2014 should be the International Year of Crystallography, 100 years since the award of the Nobel Prize for the discovery of X-ray diffraction by crystals. On this special occasion, we address several topics in mathematical crystallography. Especially motivated by the recent development in systematic design of crystal structures by both mathematicians and crystallographers, we discuss interesting relationsh...

Sunada, Toshikazu

2014-01-01

340

Superconductivity elementary topics  

CERN Document Server

This book describes the elementary concepts of superconductivity and discusses the topics of flux-lattice melting, magnetization including the para-Meissner effect, microwave absorption, a.c. resistivity along with the London penetration depth, the Mössbauer effect, levitation, fractals and nuclear magnetic resonance. There are appendices covering superconducting compounds, the isotope effect, symmetries, the pseudogap, relativistic superconductivity, the Cherenkov effect and soft vortices. Also included is an appendix on the quantum Hall effect. In all of the chapters, the theoretical descrip

Shrivastava, KN

2000-01-01

341

Topical immunomodulators in dermatology  

OpenAIRE

Topical immunomodulators are agents that regulate the local immune response of the skin. They are now emerging as the therapy of choice for several immune-mediated dermatoses such as atopic dermatitis, contact allergic dermatitis, alopecia areata, psoriasis, vitiligo, connective tissue disorders such as morphea and lupus erythematosus, disorders of keratinization and several benign and malignant skin tumours, because of their comparable efficacy, ease of application and greater safety than th...

Khandpur Sujay; Sharma V; Sumanth K

2004-01-01

342

Topical photodynamic therapy  

OpenAIRE

Topical photodynamic therapy is a therapeutic modality in development, thus arises grate interest among dermatologists worldwide. It is an effective therapy for actinic keratosis, superficial BCC and Bowenos disease. Treatment efficacy, good cosmetics, low risk of skin cancer, low invasiveness, low rate of adverse events, facility for treating multiple or large lesions, especially in poor healing sites and, for penile, digital and facial involvement, low general toxicity and possibility of re...

Polja?ki Mirjana; Jovanovi? Marina; Matovi? Ljubinka; Lugonja Branislava; Gaji? Branislava; Roš Tatjana

2006-01-01

343

Microbiota and their role in the pathogenesis of oral mucositis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral mucositis in patients undergoing cancer therapy is a significant problem. Its prevalence ranges between 20 and 100%, depending on treatment type and protocols and patient-based variables. Mucositis is self-limiting when uncomplicated by infection. Unfortunately, the incidence of developing a local or systemic infection during the course of the treatment is very high. At this stage, it is unclear which role oral microbiota play in the onset, duration, and severity of oral mucositis. Nevertheless, there is growing interest in this underexplored topic, and new studies are being undertaken to unravel their impact on the pathogenesis of mucositis. PMID:24456144

Vanhoecke, B; De Ryck, T; Stringer, A; Van de Wiele, T; Keefe, D

2015-01-01

344

Oral Health Education: 'delivering Better Oral Health’  

OpenAIRE

Abstract:Health is regarded by World Health Organization (WHO) as a fundamental human right, and correspondingly, all people should have access to basic resources for health. Health education is a process of transmission of knowledge and skills necessary for improvement in quality of life. Oral health education, an important part of oral health promotion, has been considered as essential & basic part of dental health services. The goal is to improve knowledge, which may lead to the adoption o...

Shitanshu Malhotra; Anuradha P.

2013-01-01

345

Penile pyoderma gangrenosum successfully treated with topical Imiquimod  

Science.gov (United States)

Pyoderma gangrenosum(PG) is a rare ulcerating inflammatory neutrophilic dermatosis. Genital involvement has been rarely reported. We report such a case of 24- year- old, male patient living with HIV/AIDS(PLHIV) who presented with progressive genital ulceration, not responding to oral antibiotics and aciclovir, gradually increasing in size over 15-18 months. Repeated biopsies showed acute on chronic inflammation. The lesion partially responded to oral and topical corticosteroids but soon increased in size after tapering the dosage of the steroids.Then patient was given Imiquimod 5% cream to be applied over the lesion once daily for 2-4 weeks. Lesion cleared completely in 4 weeks and is in remission since last 6 months. The case report highlights the successful use of topical Imiquimod 5% cream in the treatment of penile PG. PMID:22021975

Rathod, Santosh P.; Padhiar, Bela B.; Karia, Umesh K.; Shah, Bela J.

2011-01-01

346

Anti-inflammatory Activities of Colocynth Topical Gel  

OpenAIRE

Owing to the purgative effect of Colocynth extract when taken orally, the objective of this investigation was to prepare Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (5%) topical gel formulations containing 3% of colocynth extract, hydrolyzed extract, or acetylated extract and to study their release through cellophane membrane and their permeability through hairless mouse skin. Also, to study the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of the different types of colocynth extract using the carrageenan ind...

Aly, Adel M.; Ahmad Naddaf

2006-01-01

347

Erythromycin and Benzoyl Peroxide Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

... peroxide are in a class of medications called topical antibiotics. The combination of erythromycin and benzoyl peroxide ... you are taking. Be sure to mention other topical medications for acne. Your doctor may need to ...

348

Topical Cyclosporine A in Corneal Graft Rejection  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Corneal graft rejection is now the most common cause of graft failure after penetrating keratoplasty. This study was designed to determine whether, addition of 2% topical cyclosporine (CSA to local and systemic steroids in treatment of endothelial corneal allograft rejection, would improve the outcome. A prospective randomized treatment trial was carried out on 40 consecutive corneal graft recipients, presenting with the first episode of endothelial graft rejection in two groups. Group one (20 patients received topical steroids eye drops and systemic prednisolone (1 mg/kg by oral route plus placebo. Group two (20 patients received the same topical and systemic steroid therapy plus 2% cyclosporine A (CSA eye drop. The patients were followed up for three months and their clinical outcomes were evaluated by the rates and time of rejection reversal. In group one, 14 (70% cases had total reversal of graft rejection episode but in CSA group, it occurred in 18 (90% cases (P=0.21 .Improvement were started within a mean period of 3 and 1.5 days respectively (P value<0.001. Among patients who sought treatment early (<6 days, the survival rates were 85% and 100% respectively (P=0.2. In high risk patients the rejection reversal rate was 66% in CSA group and 25% in the control group (P=0.5. Our study indicates addition of 2% CSA eye drop to topical and systemic steroids in graft rejection decreases the interval between treatment intervention and improvement of clinical signs. In high risk patients it may improve the reversal rate, however it needs further studies.

Mahmood Nejabat

2006-01-01

349

A comparative study of loratadine syrup and cyproheptadine HCL solution for treating perennial allergic rhinitis in Taiwanese children aged 2-12 years.  

Science.gov (United States)

We assessed the efficacy of loratadine syrup compared with cyproheptadine HCl solution for treating children aged from 2 to 12 years with perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR) in Taiwan. Sixty children with mite-induced PAR were enrolled and randomly placed into two treatment groups: loratadine syrup or cyproheptadine HCl solution. Treatment efficacy and symptom changes from baseline to post-treatment were evaluated by total symptom scores and visual analogue scales (VAS) during a 2-week period. There were no differences in age, gender, height, or weight between the two groups. After 2 weeks of treatment, there was a significantly greater reduction in symptom scores in the loratadine group than in the cyproheptadine group (pnasal and non-nasal symptoms of perennial allergic rhinitis in Taiwanese children aged 2-12 years. PMID:22507335

Wu, K G; Li, T H; Wang, T Y; Hsu, C L; Chen, C J

2012-01-01

350

Topics in circular statistics  

CERN Document Server

This research monograph on circular data analysis covers some recent advances in the field, besides providing a brief introduction to, and a review of, existing methods and models. The primary focus is on recent research into topics such as change-point problems, predictive distributions, circular correlation and regression, etc. An important feature of this work is the S-plus subroutines provided for analyzing actual data sets. Coupled with the discussion of new theoretical research, the book should benefit both the researcher and the practitioner. Contents: Circular Probability Distributions

Jammalamadaka, S Rao

2001-01-01

351

Topics in field theory  

CERN Document Server

This monograph gives a systematic account of certain important topics pertaining to field theory, including the central ideas, basic results and fundamental methods.Avoiding excessive technical detail, the book is intended for the student who has completed the equivalent of a standard first-year graduate algebra course. Thus it is assumed that the reader is familiar with basic ring-theoretic and group-theoretic concepts. A chapter on algebraic preliminaries is included, as well as a fairly large bibliography of works which are either directly relevant to the text or offer supplementary material of interest.

Karpilovsky, G

1989-01-01

352

Topic in Depth - Aerodynamics  

Science.gov (United States)

Aerodynamics is the study of what makes things go fast, right? More specifically, itâÂÂs the study of the interaction between bodies and the atmosphere. This topic in depth highlights some fun websites on the science of aerodynamics, for beginners to researchers. If youâÂÂve been watching Wimbeldon lately, you might have been wondering about the aerodynamics of tennis. Or maybe you were riding your bike the other day and wondering how you could pick up a little more speed next time. These sites can help explain.

2010-09-17

353

Topics in Operator Theory  

CERN Document Server

This is the first volume of a collection of original and review articles on recent advances and new directions in a multifaceted and interconnected area of mathematics and its applications. It encompasses many topics in theoretical developments in operator theory and its diverse applications in applied mathematics, physics, engineering, and other disciplines. The purpose is to bring in one volume many important original results of cutting edge research as well as authoritative review of recent achievements, challenges, and future directions in the area of operator theory and its applications.

Ball, Joseph A; Helton, JWilliam; Rodman, Leiba; Spitkovsky, Iiya

2010-01-01

354

Probit Normal Correlated Topic Models  

OpenAIRE

The logistic normal distribution has recently been adapted via the transformation of multivariate Gaus- sian variables to model the topical distribution of documents in the presence of correlations among topics. In this paper, we propose a probit normal alternative approach to modelling correlated topical structures. Our use of the probit model in the context of topic discovery is novel, as many authors have so far con- centrated solely of the logistic model partly due to th...

Yu, Xingchen; Fokoue, Ernest

2014-01-01

355

Estudo de toxicologia clínica de um fitoterápico a base de associações de plantas, mel e própolis / Clinical toxicology study of a phytomedicine syrup composed of plants, honey and propolis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O estudo objetivou avaliar a segurança clínica do uso de uma formulação fitoterápica composta da associação de Mikania glomerata, Mentha piperita, Eucalyptus globulus e Copaifera multijuga, incorporadas à própolis e mel para tratar doenças respiratórias. O ensaio clínico consistiu de um estudo abert [...] o, com 26 voluntários adultos de ambos os sexos, que receberam quatro doses orais de 15 mL de Saratosse®, durante 28 dias ininterruptos. Os voluntários foram incluídos somente se considerados saudáveis, após exames clínico e complementares que antecederam o estudo. A avaliação laboratorial incluía análises hematológicas, bioquímicas e sorológicas. A mesma avaliação foi repetida após cada semana de tratamento e no pós-estudo, sete dias após a última administração. Os resultados foram submetidos à Análise de Variância (teste de Dunnett), obtendo-se, a menor diferença significante (p Abstract in english The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety of the use of a phytomedicine syrup (Saratosse®) composed of several medicinal plants: Mikania glomerata, Mentha piperita, Eucalyptus globulus and Copaifera multijuga, along with honey and propolis to treat respiratory diseases. The clinical trial cons [...] isted of an open study with 26 adult volunteers of both sexes, who were given an oral dose of 15 mL of Saratosse® for 28 consecutive days, four times a day. Only volunteers who were found healthy after a clinical and physical examination were included. The laboratory tests included: hematological, biochemical and serological analysis. This evaluation was repeated after each week of treatment and seven days after the last administration. ANOVA analysis (Dunnett's test) showed a significant difference, albeit at low statistical level (p

Janaina P., Tavares; Ismael L., Martins; Ariane S., Vieira; Francisco A.V., Lima; Fernando A.F., Bezerra; Manoel O., Moraes; Maria E.A., Moraes.

2006-09-01

356

Sequence of the E1 alpha subunit of branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase in two patients with thiamine-responsive maple syrup urine disease.  

OpenAIRE

Some patients with maple syrup urine disease respond to thiamine administration with a reduction in ketoaciduria and increase in activity of branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase. The biochemical mechanism underlying this effect is unknown but may result from decreased affinity of the mutant enzyme for thiamine or from stabilization of the abnormal enzyme by thiamine. The E1 alpha subunit of the complex participates in the thiamine-dependent decarboxylation of branched-chain alpha-ketoa...

Zhang, B.; Wappner, R. S.; Brandt, I. K.; Harris, R. A.; Crabb, D. W.

1990-01-01

357

Determination of the 13C/12C ratio of ethanol derived from fruit juices and maple syrup by isotope ratio mass spectrometry: collaborative study.  

Science.gov (United States)

A collaborative study of the carbon-13 isotope ratio mass spectrometry (13C-IRMS) method based on fermentation ethanol for detecting some sugar additions in fruit juices and maple syrup is reported. This method is complementary to the site-specific natural isotope fractionation by nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) method for detecting added beet sugar in the same products (AOAC Official Methods 995.17 and 2000.19), and uses the same initial steps to recover pure ethanol. The fruit juices or maple syrups are completely fermented with yeast, and the alcohol is distilled with a quantitative yield (>96%). The carbon-13 deviation (delta13C) of ethanol is then determined by IRMS. This parameter becomes less negative when exogenous sugar derived from plants exhibiting a C4 metabolism (e.g., corn or cane) is added to a juice obtained from plants exhibiting a C3 metabolism (most common fruits except pineapple) or to maple syrup. Conversely, the delta13C of ethanol becomes more negative when exogenous sugar derived from C3 plants (e.g., beet, wheat, rice) is added to pineapple products. Twelve laboratories analyzed 2 materials (orange juice and pure cane sugar) in blind duplicate and 4 sugar-adulterated materials (orange juice, maple syrup, pineapple juice, and apple juice) as Youden pairs. The precision of that method for measuring delta13C was similar to that of other methods applied to wine ethanol or extracted sugars in juices. The within-laboratory (Sr) values ranged from 0.06 to 0.16%o (r = 0.17 to 0.46 percent per thousand), and the among-laboratories (SR) values ranged from 0.17 to 0.26 percent per thousand (R = 0.49 to 0.73 percent per thousand). The Study Directors recommend that the method be adopted as First Action by AOAC INTERNATIONAL. PMID:15287660

Jamin, Eric; Martin, Frédérique; Martin, Gilles G

2004-01-01

358

Preference Level Of Bees Apis Mellifera L. To The Supplementary Feed Of Mixed Syrup And Paliasa Leaf Decoction And Physico-Chemical Characteristics Of Produced Honey  

OpenAIRE

Supplementary feeding mixed with paliasa leaves (Kleinhovia hospita Linn.) to the honeybees Apis mellifera L. is expected to produce honey, which have properties of paliasa naturally. Four colonies of honeybees were fed a mixture of syrup and paliasa leaf decoction with four different concentrations, one for each colony, to produce honey essence of paliasa (HEP). In general the bees liked the given supplementary feed. Differences in color and aroma of HEP did not depend on the amount of feed ...

Aliyah; Wahyudin, Elly; Kaelan, Cahyono; Sila, Mappatoba

2013-01-01

359

Working out of structure and technology of a sour-milk product with addition of a celery and a blackberry syrup  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Use of vegetative raw materials in manufacture of sour-milk products is a perspective direction. At the expense of the maintenance in a celery of organic acids, vitamins, amino acids it is possible to raise food and biological value of sour-milk products. The technology of a sour-milk product of functional value with use of a powder from a root of a celery and a blackberry syrup is developed.

Lydmila A. Silanteva

2011-10-01

360

Oral administration of taxanes  

OpenAIRE

Oral treatment with cytotoxic agents is to be preferred as this administration route is convenient to patients, reduces administration costs and facilitates the use of more chronic treatment regimens. For the taxanes paclitaxel and docetaxel, however, low oral bioavailability has limited development of treatment by the oral route. Preclinical studies with mdr1a P-glycoprotein knock-out mice, which lack functional P-glycoprotein activity in the gut, have shown significant bioavailability of or...

Malingre?, M. M.

2001-01-01

361

Oral microbiota and cancer  

OpenAIRE

Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the...

Meurman, Jukka H.

2010-01-01

362

Personality and oral health  

OpenAIRE

We investigated age-26 personality characteristics and age-32 oral health in a prospective study of a complete birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand. Personality was measured using the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ). Oral health was measured using the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14), a global measure, and dental examinations. Personality profiles were constructed for 916 individuals (50.8% men) using standardized MPQ scores, and multivariate analyses exam...

Thomson, W. Murray; Caspi, Avshalom; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Broadbent, Jonathan M.

2011-01-01

363

The Human Oral Microbiome? † ?  

OpenAIRE

The human oral cavity contains a number of different habitats, including the teeth, gingival sulcus, tongue, cheeks, hard and soft palates, and tonsils, which are colonized by bacteria. The oral microbiome is comprised of over 600 prevalent taxa at the species level, with distinct subsets predominating at different habitats. The oral microbiome has been extensively characterized by cultivation and culture-independent molecular methods such as 16S rRNA cloning. Unfortunately, the vast majority...

Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Chen, Tuste; Izard, Jacques; Paster, Bruce J.; Tanner, Anne C. R.; Yu, Wen-han; Lakshmanan, Abirami; Wade, William G.

2010-01-01

364

Topics on continua  

CERN Document Server

Specialized as it might be, continuum theory is one of the most intriguing areas in mathematics. However, despite being popular journal fare, few books have thoroughly explored this interesting aspect of topology. In Topics on Continua, Sergio Macías, one of the field's leading scholars, presents four of his favorite continuum topics: inverse limits, Jones's set function T, homogenous continua, and n-fold hyperspaces, and in doing so, presents the most complete set of theorems and proofs ever contained in a single topology volume. Many of the results presented have previously appeared only in research papers, and some appear here for the first time. After building the requisite background and exploring the inverse limits of continua, the discussions focus on Professor Jones''s set function T and continua for which T is continuous. An introduction to topological groups and group actions lead to a proof of Effros''s Theorem, followed by a presentation of two decomposition theorems. The author then offers an...

Macias, Sergio

2005-01-01

365

Children's Oral Health  

Science.gov (United States)

... Infrastructure Development Tools State-by-State Reports State Oral Health Plans Tips for Writing an Effective Success Story Guidelines & Recommendations Publications Resources Recommended Infection Control Practices for ...

366

Disparities in Oral Health  

Science.gov (United States)

... Infrastructure Development Tools State-by-State Reports State Oral Health Plans Tips for Writing an Effective Success Story Guidelines & Recommendations Publications Resources Recommended Infection Control Practices for ...

367

Assessment of the stability of proanthocyanidins and other phenolic compounds in cranberry syrup after gamma-irradiation treatment and during storage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Shelf life of commercial cranberry syrup irradiated with gamma radiation at a rate of 5kGy and stored for 6months at 25°C and 60% relative humidity (RH) and under accelerated stability conditions was investigated. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS) was used to characterise cranberry syrup. Afterwards, these compounds were quantified by HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS and 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMAC) assay. A significant increase in the content of procyanidin B isomer 1 (from 4.4 to 7.0?g/ml) and procyanidin A2 (from 83 to 93?g/ml) was observed after irradiation and compared with the non-irradiated syrup. Procyanidin B isomers and prodelphinidin were stable at 25°C during the first month of storage, whereas quercetin and some derivatives remained constant for 3months of storage at this temperature. In short, after gamma-irradiation in dose of 5kGy, most compounds were highly stable for a month at 25°C. PMID:25529697

Rodríguez-Pérez, C; Quirantes-Piné, R; Contreras, M Del M; Uberos, J; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A; Segura-Carretero, A

2015-05-01

368

Strategy for biotechnological process design applied to the enzymatic hydrolysis of agave fructo-oligosaccharides to obtain fructose-rich syrups.  

Science.gov (United States)

A strategy to optimize biotechnological process design is illustrated for the production of fructose-rich syrups via enzymatic hydrolysis of agave fructo-oligosaccharides. The optimization process includes ecological studies from natural fermentations leading to the selection of a strain with capacity for inulinase synthesis, and variable optimization for the synthesis, and enzymatic hydrolysis using the response surface methodology. The results lead to the selection of Kluyveromyces marxianus , endogenous strains isolated from aguamiel (natural fermented sugary sap from agave plants), as the main strain with high capacity for enzyme synthesis with inulinase activity. Production optimization at bioreactor level revealed that operation at 30.6 degrees C, 152 rpm, 1.3 VVM of aeration, and pH 6.3 leads to maximum inulinase synthesis, whereas 31 degrees C, 50 rpm, and pH 6.2 leads to maximum hydrolysis of agave fructo-oligosaccharides. HPLC analysis of the fructose-rich syrups obtained at these optimal conditions showed an average composition of 95% of fructose and 5% of glucose and the absence of sucrose. The analysis also revealed that the syrups are free of residues and toxic compounds, an undesirable occurrence often present when traditional methods based on thermal or acid hydrolysis are applied for their obtainment. Therefore, the product may be suitable for use as additive in many applications in the food and beverage industries. PMID:19827764

García-Aguirre, Mauricio; Sáenz-Alvaro, Victor A; Rodríguez-Soto, Mayra A; Vicente-Magueyal, Francisco J; Botello-Alvarez, Enrique; Jimenez-Islas, Hugo; Cárdenas-Manríquez, Marcela; Rico-Martínez, Ramiro; Navarrete-Bolaños, Jose L

2009-11-11

369

Oral psoralens vs injection placental extract plus oral psoralens in vitiligo  

OpenAIRE

One hundred patients with vitiligo were enrolled from out patient department from the year 1990-91 for screening the therapeutic effect of injection placental extract (Placentrex). Patients were divided into two groups of 50 each, age and sex matched and were given two different regimens of treatment. In Regimen- I, patients were given oral psoralens followed by sun exposure after 2 hours and then application of topical betamethasone-17 valerate. In Regimen-ll patients were given treatment as...

Chopra Adarsh; Singh S; Mittal R; Puri Ramesh

1996-01-01

370

Clinical efficacy of farcosolvin syrup (ambroxol–theophylline–guaiphenesin mixture in the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mostafa Yakoot1, Amel Salem2, Abdel-Mohsen Omar31Green Clinics and Research Center, Alexandria, Egypt; 2Al-Mabarah Hospital, 3Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, EgyptBackground: Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB are defined as recurrent attacks of worsening bronchial inflammation that are marked by an increase in the volume of daily sputum produced, a change in color of the expectorated sputum, and worsening dyspnea. Farcosolvin® (Pharco Pharmaceuticals, Alexandria, Egypt is a mixture of ambroxol (15 mg; theophylline (50 mg; and guaiphenesin (30 mg, per 5 mL syrup.Objective: To test the clinical efficacy of Farcosolvin in the treatment of AECB in a randomized, single-blinded, controlled study design.Patients and methods: One hundred patients with AECB were randomized to either Farcosolvin or guaiphenesin treatment groups, in addition to the standard medical treatment for their cases. Baseline clinical symptomatolgy of breathlessness, cough, and sputum severity scoring were compared before and after 3 and 7 days of treatment in both groups and the differences compared between groups. Changes in perceived improvement were also compared between groups using the Clinical Global Impression of Improvement or Change Scale (CGIC.Results: There were statistically significant improvements in breathlessness and cough scores in both groups (pretreatment versus posttreatment at day 3 and at day 7; P < 0.05. There were highly statistically significant differences between groups in improvement in ­breathlessness and cough scores, after 3 and 7 days treatment, in favor of the Farcosolvin ­treatment group (P < 0.001. Out of 50 patients, 48 (96% in the Farcosolvin-treated group rated their ­improvement on the CGIC scale as “much” and “very much” improved, while only 41 patients (82% reported such a degree of improvement in the control group. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05.Conclusion: We concluded from our study that Farcosolvin syrup might be safe and effective in improving symptoms in cases of acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis.Keywords: acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, ambroxol, theophylline

Mostafa Yakoot

2010-07-01

371

Topical analgesics for neuropathic pain: preclinical exploration, clinical validation, future development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Topical analgesics applied locally to skin or to specialized compartments modify pain by actions on sensory nerve endings and/or adjacent cellular elements. With this approach, there are low systemic drug levels, good tolerability and few drug interactions, and combination with oral formulations is feasible. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the potential for topical analgesics to contribute to improved management of neuropathic pain. Mechanistic and preclinical studies indicate much potential for development of novel topical analgesics for neuropathic pain. In humans, two topical analgesics are approved for use in post-herpetic neuralgia (lidocaine 5% medicated plaster, capsaicin 8% patch), and there is evidence for efficacy in other neuropathic pain conditions. Comparative trials indicate similar efficacy between topical and oral analgesics. Not all individuals respond to topical analgesics, and there is interest in determining factors (patient factors, sensory characteristics) which might predict responsiveness to topical analgesics. There is a growing number of controlled trials and case reports of investigational agents (vasodilators, glutamate receptor antagonists, ?2-adrenoreceptor agonists, antidepressants, centrally acting drugs), including combinations of several agents, indicating these produce pain relief in neuropathic pain. There is interest in compounding topical analgesics for neuropathic pain, but several challenges remain for this approach. Topical analgesics have the potential to be a valuable additional approach for the management of neuropathic pain. PMID:24108446

Sawynok, J

2014-04-01

372

Superconcentration and related topics  

CERN Document Server

A certain curious feature of random objects, introduced by the author as “super concentration,” and two related topics, “chaos” and “multiple valleys,” are highlighted in this book. Although super concentration has established itself as a recognized feature in a number of areas of probability theory in the last twenty years (under a variety of names), the author was the first to discover and explore its connections with chaos and multiple valleys. He achieves a substantial degree of simplification and clarity in the presentation of these findings by using the spectral approach. Understanding the fluctuations of random objects is one of the major goals of probability theory and a whole subfield of probability and analysis, called concentration of measure, is devoted to understanding these fluctuations. This subfield offers a range of tools for computing upper bounds on the orders of fluctuations of very complicated random variables. Usually, concentration of measure is useful when more direct prob...

Chatterjee, Sourav

2014-01-01

373

Topics in orbit equivalence  

CERN Document Server

This volume provides a self-contained introduction to some topics in orbit equivalence theory, a branch of ergodic theory. The first two chapters focus on hyperfiniteness and amenability. Included here are proofs of Dye's theorem that probability measure-preserving, ergodic actions of the integers are orbit equivalent and of the theorem of Connes-Feldman-Weiss identifying amenability and hyperfiniteness for non-singular equivalence relations. The presentation here is often influenced by descriptive set theory, and Borel and generic analogs of various results are discussed. The final chapter is a detailed account of Gaboriau's recent results on the theory of costs for equivalence relations and groups and its applications to proving rigidity theorems for actions of free groups.

Kechris, Alexander S

2004-01-01

374

Topics on String Phenomenology  

CERN Document Server

These lectures present some topics of string phenomenology and contain two parts. In the first part, I review the possibility of lowering the string scale in the TeV region, that provides a theoretical framework for solving the mass hierarchy problem and unifying all interactions. The apparent weakness of gravity can then be accounted by the existence of large internal dimensions, in the submillimeter region, and transverse to a braneworld where our universe must be confined. I review the main properties of this scenario and its implications for observations at both particle colliders, and in non-accelerator gravity experiments. In the second part, I discuss a simple framework of toroidal string models with magnetized branes, that offers an interesting self-consistent setup for string phenomenology. I will present an algorithm for fixing the geometric parameters of the compactification, build calculable particle physics models such as a supersymmetric SU(5) Grand Unified Theory with three generations of quark...

Antoniadis, Ignatios

2008-01-01

375

Oral feeding competences of healthy preterm infants: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background. With increasing sophistication and technology, survival rates hugely improved among preterm infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. Nutrition and feeding remain a challenge and preterm infants are at high risk of encountering oral feeding difficulties. Objective. To determine what facts may impact on oral feeding readiness and competence and which kind of interventions should enhance oral feeding performance in preterm infants. Search Strategy. MEDILINE database was explored and articles relevant to this topic were collected starting from 2009 up to 2011. Main Results. Increasingly robust alertness prior to and during feeding does positively impact the infant's feeding Skills. The review found that oral and non-oral sensorimotor interventions, provided singly or in combination, shortened the transition time to independent oral feeding in preterm infants and that preterm infants who received a combined oral and sensorimotor intervention demonstrated more advanced nutritive sucking, suck-swallow and swallow-respiration coordination than those who received an oral or sensorimotor intervention singly. PMID:22675368

Bertoncelli, N; Cuomo, G; Cattani, S; Mazzi, C; Pugliese, M; Coccolini, E; Zagni, P; Mordini, B; Ferrari, F

2012-01-01

376

Options in topical therapies in the management of patients with acute pain.  

Science.gov (United States)

The traditional cornerstones of analgesic therapy for patients with acute pain have been oral therapies; however, all oral agents exhibit a variety of potentially dose-limiting or intolerable adverse effects in patients. Elderly patients and those with concomitant conditions already being managed with multiple systemic drugs may be particularly susceptible to systemic toxicities with oral analgesic therapies. Topical agents offer an alternative to oral modalities and can effectively treat patients with acute pain while offering lower systemic absorption and conferring little risk of systemic toxicity. The objective of this article is to review the therapeutic usefulness of available topical therapies in their most thoroughly investigated applications, the treatment of patients with acute musculoskeletal and herpetic pain. For example, although heating pads/wraps and cold packs are widely used to alleviate pain associated with sprains, strains, and contusions, evidence of the effectiveness of these methods is lacking. However, there are sufficient data supporting the use of various topical formulations of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for these indications (ketoprofen gel or patch, ibuprofen gel or cream, and diclofenac gel or patch), and demonstrating markedly less patient risk of systemic toxicity than is associated with oral NSAID therapy. A ketoprofen patch was shown to be effective and well tolerated in the treatment of patients with tendinopathies. In the treatment of acute neck or low back pain, cold and heat therapies have demonstrated limited effectiveness for patients, and the efficacy of topical NSAIDs has not been established. Use of topical NSAID therapy has been useful in reducing acute-phase herpes zoster pain, and the lidocaine 5% patch has been shown to reduce acute herpetic pain intensity once lesions have healed (the patch cannot be applied to open skin lesions). Topical analgesics represent an alternative treatment modality for patients experiencing acute pain who cannot or choose not to take oral therapies. PMID:24547600

McCarberg, Bill; D'Arcy, Yvonne

2013-07-01

377

Formulation development and in vitro characterization of proliposomes for topical Delivery of aceclofenac  

OpenAIRE

Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs are routinely prescribed for the patients with rheumatic disease and such patients are at increased risk of serious gastrointestinal complications, when non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs administered by oral route. The aim of the present study was to develop and characterized a vesicular drug carrier system (proliposome) for topical delivery of aceclofenac to overcome the problems related with oral route. Aceclofenac proliposome were prepared by the fil...

Gupta Vandana; Barupal Ashok; Ramteke Suman

2008-01-01

378

Formulation Development and in vitro Characterization of Proliposomes for Topical Delivery of Aceclofenac  

OpenAIRE

Non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs are routinely prescribed for the patients with rheumatic disease and such patients are at increased risk of serious gastrointestinal complications, when non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs administered by oral route. The aim of the present study was to develop and characterized a vesicular drug carrier system (proliposome) for topical delivery of aceclofenac to overcome the problems related with oral route. Aceclofenac proliposome were prepared by the fil...

Gupta, Vandana; Barupal, Ashok K.; Ramteke, Suman

2008-01-01

379

Penatalaksanaan Penderita Kandidiasis Oral  

OpenAIRE

Kandidiasis yang sering disebut juga candidosis, trush, dan moniliasis merupakan suatu keadaan patologis yang hanya menginfeksi jaringan kulit dan mukosa. Kandidiasis oral merupakan suatu keadaan klinis dari kandidiasis mukokutaneus di rongga mulut akibat munculnya etiologi dan faktor - faktor predisposisi yang memungkinkan terjadinya infeksi ini. Berdasarkan penelifian, para ahJi menyebutkan bahwa penyebab terjadinya kandidiasis oral yang paling utama adalah kandida albikans, meskipun hubung...

Mikyal Ayya Riefka

2008-01-01

380

Oral Cancer Foundation  

Science.gov (United States)

... The Oral Cancer Foundation. All rights reserved. The Oral Cancer Foundation is a registered IRS 501(c)(3) non-profit public charity and tax-exempt organization. Last modified: January 2015 We comply with the Health On The Net guidelines.

381

Oral amelanotic melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malignant melanomas of the mucosal regions of the head and neck are extremely rare neoplasms accounting for less than 1% of all melanomas. Approximately half of all head and neck melanomas occur in the oral cavity. Less than 2% of all melanomas lack pigmentation, in the oral mucosa however, up to 75% of cases are amelanotic. No etiologic factors or risk factors have been recognized for oral melanomas. Some authors have suggested that oral habits and selfmedication may be of etiological significance. Oral melanoma is rare but it is relatively frequent in countries like Japan, Uganda, and India. It is rarely identified under the age of 20 years. In Australia where cutaneous melanomas are relatively common primary melanoma of the oral mucosa is rare. The surface architecture of oral melanomas ranges from macular to ulcerated and nodular. The lesion is said to be asymptomatic in the early stages but may become ulcerated and painful in advanced lesions. The diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma is more difficult than that of pigmented lesions. The neoplasm consists of spindle-shaped cells with many mitotic figures and no cytoplasmic melanin pigmentation. Immunohistochemistry using S-100, HMB-45, Melan-A and MART-1 will help in establishing the correct diagnosis. Radical surgery with ample margins and adjuvant chemotherapy are appropriate management protocol for malignant melanoma. Oral melanoma is associated with poor prognosis but its amelanotic variant has even worse prognosis because it exhibits a more aggressive biology and because of difficulty in diagnosis which leads to delayed treatment. PMID:25161399

Adisa, A O; Olawole, W O; Sigbeku, O F

2012-06-01

382

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See ... this brochure includes information on symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected medical terms and ...

383

Oral high dose Beclomethasone dipropionate for treatment of active ulcerative colitis  

OpenAIRE

Oral corticosteroids (CS) have been widely used for treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) at the price of systemic side effects. Role of topically active oral beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) in clinical practice is still unclear. The aim of this paper is to investigate efficacy and tolerability of a high dose BDP regimen in mild to moderately active UC. Twenty-five patients (9 males, aged 25-40 years) with mild to moderately active UC, unresponsive to oral and topical 5-ASA (4.8 gr daily) an...

Ennio La Rocca; Laura Di Renzo; Antonino De Lorenzo; Alberto Mariani; Antonio Gasbarrini; Enzo Masci; Simona Di Caro; Dario Raimondo; Benedetto Mangiavillano

2012-01-01

384

American Academy of Oral Medicine  

Science.gov (United States)

... the Date! AAOM: Representing the Discipline of Oral Medicine Oral Medicine is the discipline of dentistry concerned with the ... offers credentialing, resources and professional community for oral medicine practitioners. Our membership provides care to thousands We ...

385

Oral Contraceptive Pill and PCOS  

Science.gov (United States)

PCOS: The Oral Contraceptive Pill Posted under Health Guides . Updated 25 February 2014. +Related Content Key Facts PCOS is a hormone ... hormone levels in girls with PCOS. What are oral contraceptive pills? Oral contraceptive pills contain two types ...

386

Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) in Adults  

Science.gov (United States)

newsletter | contact Share | Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) Information for adults A A A White, slightly elevated lesions on the tongue and lips are typical of oral candidiasis. Overview Thrush (oral candidiasis), also known as ...

387

Older Adults (and Oral Health)  

Science.gov (United States)

... of physical, mental, and behavioral challenges common in patients with developmental disabilities and offers strategies for providing oral care. Older Adults NIDCR > OralHealth > Oral Health Information Sorted ...

388

Discovering health topics in social media using topic models.  

Science.gov (United States)

By aggregating self-reported health statuses across millions of users, we seek to characterize the variety of health information discussed in Twitter. We describe a topic modeling framework for discovering health topics in Twitter, a social media website. This is an exploratory approach with the goal of understanding what health topics are commonly discussed in social media. This paper describes in detail a statistical topic model created for this purpose, the Ailment Topic Aspect Model (ATAM), as well as our system for filtering general Twitter data based on health keywords and supervised classification. We show how ATAM and other topic models can automatically infer health topics in 144 million Twitter messages from 2011 to 2013. ATAM discovered 13 coherent clusters of Twitter messages, some of which correlate with seasonal influenza (r = 0.689) and allergies (r = 0.810) temporal surveillance data, as well as exercise (r = ?.534) and obesity (r = ?-.631) related geographic survey data in the United States. These results demonstrate that it is possible to automatically discover topics that attain statistically significant correlations with ground truth data, despite using minimal human supervision and no historical data to train the model, in contrast to prior work. Additionally, these results demonstrate that a single general-purpose model can identify many different health topics in social media. PMID:25084530

Paul, Michael J; Dredze, Mark

2014-01-01

389

SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF CHLORPHINERAMINE MALEATE, DEXTROMETHORPHAN HBR AND PHENYLEPHRIN HCL IN CODILAR SYRUP USING HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A simple, selective, sensitive and precise, simultaneous high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of syrup containing Chlorphineramine Maleate, Dextromethorphan HBr and Phenylephrin HCl was described. Good chromatographic separation was achieved using a Zorbax C18 (4.6 cm x 250 mm, 5 µm and a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-phosphate buffer pH 3.5 (15:85, v/v at a flow rate 0.9 mL/min. The ultraviolet detector was set at wavelength 280 nm. Chlorphineramine Maleate, dextromethorphan HBr and Phenylephrin HCl were measured at 2.789, 3.645 and 13.521 min, respectively. The linear ranges for chlorphineramine maleate, dextromethorphan HBr and phenylephrin HCl were 10-50, 10-50 and 5-45 µg/mL, respectively. The recoveries of chlorphineramine maleate, dextromethorphan HBr and phenylephrin HCl in pharmaceutical preparation were all greater than 98% and their relative standard deviations were less than 2.0%. The limits of detection were 2.57, 0.19 and 0.003 µg/mL for Chlorphineramine Maleate, Dextromethorphan HBr and Phenylephrin HCl, respectively.

Nora H. Al-Shaalan

2012-02-01

390

Hepatocyte Transplantation Improves Phenotype and Extends Survival in a Murine Model of Intermediate Maple Syrup Urine Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD; OMIM 248600) is an inborn error of metabolism of the branched chain ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex that is treated primarily by dietary manipulation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). Dietary restriction is lifelong and compliance is difficult. Liver transplantation significantly improves outcomes; however, alternative therapies are needed. To test novel therapies such as hepatocyte transplantation (HTx), we previously created a murine model of intermediate MSUD (iMSUD), which closely mimics human iMSUD. LacZ-positive murine donor hepatocytes were harvested and directly injected (105 cells/50 µl) into liver of iMSUD mice (two injections at 1–10 days of age). Donor hepatocytes engrafted into iMSUD recipient liver, increased liver BCKDH activity, improved blood total BCAA/alanine ratio, increased body weight at weaning, and extended the lifespan of HTx-treated iMSUD mice compared to phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)–treated and untreated iMSUD mice. Based on these data demonstrating partial metabolic correction of iMSUD in a murine model, coupled to the fact that multiple transplants are possible to enhance these results, we suggest that HTx represents a promising therapeutic intervention for MSUD that warrants further investigation. PMID:19436271

Skvorak, Kristen J; Paul, Harbhajan S; Dorko, Kenneth; Marongiu, Fabio; Ellis, Ewa; Chace, Donald; Ferguson, Carolyn; Gibson, K Michael; Homanics, Gregg E; Strom, Stephen C

2009-01-01

391

Partial purification and characterization of exoinulinase from Kluyveromyces marxianus YS-1 for preparation of high-fructose syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

An extracellular exoinulinase (2,1-beta-D fructan fructanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.7), which catalyzes the hydrolysis of inulin into fructose and glucose, was purified 23.5-fold by ethanol precipitation, followed by Sephadex G-100 gel permeation from a cell-free extract of Kluyveromyces marxianus YS-1. The partially purified enzyme exhibited considerable activity between pH 5 to 6, with an optimum pH of 5.5, while it remained stable (100%) for 3 h at the optimum temperature of 50 degrees C. Mn2+ and Ca2+ produced a 2.4-fold and 1.2-fold enhancement in enzyme activity, whereas Hg2+ and Ag2+ completely inhibited the inulinase. A preparation of the partially purified enzyme effectively hydrolyzed inulin, sucrose, and raffinose, yet no activity was found with starch, lactose, and maltose. The enzyme preparation was then successfully used to hydrolyze pure inulin and raw inulin from Asparagus racemosus for the preparation of a high-fructose syrup. In a batch system, the exoinulinase hydrolyzed 84.8% of the pure inulin and 86.7% of the raw Asparagus racemosus inulin, where fructose represented 43.6 mg/ml and 41.3 mg/ml, respectively. PMID:18051293

Singh, Ram Sarup; Dhaliwal, Rajesh; Puri, Munish

2007-05-01

392

Identification of a novel homozygous mutation (S144I) in a Malay patient with maple syrup urine disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism caused by the defective function of branched-chain ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDH). It is characterised by increased plasma leucine, isoleucine, and valine levels, and mutations can be detected in any one of the BCKDHA, BCKDHB, and DBT genes. In this study, we describe the molecular basis of a novel mutation found in one MSUD Malay patient from consanguineous parents. A homozygous mutation has been detected in this patient whose both parents carried a heterozygous mutation at DNA coding region c.431G>T in exon 4, which resulted in a substitution of serine to isoleucine at codon 144 (p.S144I). In silico analysis predicted S144I to be potentially damaging. The mutation was located on the alpha helical region of the BCKDHA protein, and it is predicted to affect the stability of protein due to the loss of various polar interactions between local secondary structures. Homology analysis revealed that this mutation occurred in a highly conserved region (100%). This result indicates that S144I mutation is likely pathogenic and may contribute to the classic form of MSUD in this patient. PMID:23729548

Ali, Ernie Zuraida; Yunus, Zabedah Md; Desa, Norsiah Md; Hock, Ngu Lock

2013-01-01

393

A Validated RP HPLC-PAD Method for the Determination of Hederacoside C in Ivy-Thyme Cough Syrup  

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Full Text Available A simple reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC method coupled with a photodiode array detector (PAD has been developed and validated for the analysis of hederacoside C, the marker of ivy plant, in Ivy-Thyme cough syrup. Separation of hederacoside C was achieved using a Phenomenex-Gemini C18 column isothermally at 40°C. A mobile phase system constituted of solvent A (water: acetonitrile: orthophosphoric acid (85%, 860?:?140?:?2?v/v and solvent B (acetonitrile: orthophosphoric acid (85%, 998?:?2?v/v was used, at gradient conditions, at a flow rate of 1.5?mL/min. Analysis was performed using UV-detection (205?nm. The method was linear over the range (0.03–0.15?mg/mL of hederacoside C (r=0.9992. Repeatability and intermediate precision were acceptable (RSD <2%. Limits of detection (LOD and quantitation (LOQ were 0.011 and 0.032?mg/mL, respectively. Percentage recovery was found to lie between 99.69% and 100.90% (RSD <2%. The method was also proved to be specific (peak-purity coefficient=0.996.

Ayman Khdair

2010-01-01

394

Selected reaction monitoring as an effective method for reliable quantification of disease-associated proteins in maple syrup urine disease  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry can quantitatively measure proteins by specific targeting of peptide sequences, and allows the determination of multiple proteins in one single analysis. Here, we show the feasibility of simultaneous measurements of multiple proteins in mitochondria-enriched samples from cultured fibroblasts from healthy individuals and patients with mutations in branched-chain ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex. BCKDH is a mitochondrial multienzyme complex and its defective activity causes maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), a rare but severe inherited metabolic disorder. Four different genes encode the catalytic subunits of BCKDH: E1? (BCKDHA), E1? (BCKDHB), E2 (DBT), and E3 (DLD). All four proteins were successfully quantified in healthy individuals. However, the E1? and E1? proteins were not detected in patients carrying mutations in one of those genes, whereas mRNA levels were almost unaltered, indicating instability of E1? and E1? monomers. Using SRM we elucidatedthe protein effects of mutations generating premature termination codons or misfolded proteins. SRM is a complement to transcript level measurements and a valuable tool to shed light on molecular mechanisms and on effects of pharmacological therapies at protein level. SRM is particularly effective for inherited disorders caused by multiple proteins such as defects in multienzyme complexes.

Fernández-Guerra, Paula; Birkler, Rune I D

2014-01-01

395

Selected reaction monitoring as an effective method for reliable quantification of disease-associated proteins in maple syrup urine disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry can quantitatively measure proteins by specific targeting of peptide sequences, and allows the determination of multiple proteins in one single analysis. Here, we show the feasibility of simultaneous measurements of multiple proteins in mitochondria-enriched samples from cultured fibroblasts from healthy individuals and patients with mutations in branched-chain ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex. BCKDH is a mitochondrial multienzyme complex and its defective activity causes maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), a rare but severe inherited metabolic disorder. Four different genes encode the catalytic subunits of BCKDH: E1? (BCKDHA), E1? (BCKDHB), E2 (DBT), and E3 (DLD). All four proteins were successfully quantified in healthy individuals. However, the E1? and E1? proteins were not detected in patients carrying mutations in one of those genes, whereas mRNA levels were almost unaltered, indicating instability of E1? and E1? monomers. Using SRM we elucidated the protein effects of mutations generating premature termination codons or misfolded proteins. SRM is a complement to transcript level measurements and a valuable tool to shed light on molecular mechanisms and on effects of pharmacological therapies at protein level. SRM is particularly effective for inherited disorders caused by multiple proteins such as defects in multienzyme complexes. PMID:25333063

Fernández-Guerra, Paula; Birkler, Rune I D; Merinero, Begoña; Ugarte, Magdalena; Gregersen, Niels; Rodríguez-Pombo, Pilar; Bross, Peter; Palmfeldt, Johan

2014-09-01

396

Production of high fructose syrup from cassava and sweet potato flours and their blends with cereal flours.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite being a rich source of starch, root crops such as cassava and sweet potato have not been widely exploited for the production of high fructose syrup (HFS), which is a highly valued sweetener for the food and beverage industries. The major factors contributing to the cost of production of HFS are the cost and labor-intensive steps in the production of starch, different processing temperatures and pH for the enzyme reactions, poor extractability of starch, etc. With the objective of overcoming the cost associated with the preparation of starch, the feasibility of using native cassava/sweet potato flours and their blends with rice flour and wheat flour, as the raw material for HFS production was investigated. The saccharified slurry from cassava--rice flour blends contained 70-72 g reducing sugars/100 g, which was higher than that released from native cassava flour (~69%). Blends of sweet potato with rice or wheat yielded saccharified mash with lower content of reducing sugars (60-66%). Although the percentage conversion to fructose after isomerization was similar for cassava/sweet potato or their blends with cereal flours (42-43%), fructose yield was higher in native cassava flour and cassava-rice blends (28-29 g/100 g) than the other flour blends. PMID:21339141

Johnson, Regy; Moorthy, S N; Padmaja, G

2010-06-01

397

Maple syrup urine disease: identification and carrier-frequency determination of a novel founder mutation in the Ashkenazi Jewish population.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism. We noted that a large proportion (10 of 34) of families with MSUD that were followed in our clinic were of Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) descent, leading us to search for a common mutation within this group. On the basis of genotyping data suggestive of a conserved haplotype at tightly linked markers on chromosome 6q14, the BCKDHB gene encoding the E1beta subunit was sequenced. Three novel mutations were identified in seven unrelated AJ patients with MSUD. The locations of the affected residues in the crystal structure of the E1beta subunit suggested possible mechanisms for the deleterious effects of these mutations. Large-scale population screening of AJ individuals for R183P, the mutation present in six of seven patients, revealed that the carrier frequency of the mutant allele was approximately 1/113; the patient not carrying R183P had a previously described homozygous mutation in the gene encoding the E2 subunit. These findings suggested that a limited number of mutations might underlie MSUD in the AJ population, potentially facilitating prenatal diagnosis and carrier detection of MSUD in this group. PMID:11509994

Edelmann, L; Wasserstein, M P; Kornreich, R; Sansaricq, C; Snyderman, S E; Diaz, G A

2001-10-01

398

Classic Kaposi's sarcoma treated with topical rapamycin.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is an angioproliferative disorder caused by human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8). Current research efforts have focused on the study of the relative role of KSHV-encoded genes in Kaposi's sarcomagenesis in order to identify novel mechanism-based therapies for patients suffering from this tumor. Although several viral genes have potential for KS pathogenesis, compelling data point to the KSHV-encoded G protein-coupled receptor (vGPCR) as a leading candidate viral gene for the initiation of KS. Interestingly, the oncogenic potential of vGPCR seems to correlate with its capacity to activate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. Rapamycin, the prototypical inhibitor of the mTOR signaling pathway, has recently emerged as an effective treatment for KS when administered orally. In this case report, we present an immunocompetent patient with KS lesions treated with topical rapamycin achieving clinical and histologic healing after 16 weeks of treatment. The topical application of rapamycin could be a novel therapeutic option for the treatment of KS. PMID:25314592

Díaz-Ley, Blanca; Grillo, Emiliano; Ríos-Buceta, Luis; Paoli, John; Moreno, Carmen; Vano-Galván, Sergio; Jaén-Olasolo, Pedro

2014-10-14

399

Novel topical therapies for distal colitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Distal colitis (DC can be effectively treated with topical 5ASA agents. Suppositories target the rectum while enemas can reliably reach the splenic flexure. Used in combination with oral 5ASAs, the control of the inflammation is even more effective. Unfortunately, resistant DC does occur and can be extremely challenging to manage. In these patients, the use of steroids, immunosuppressants and the anti-tumor necrosis factor ? agents are often required. These, however, can be associated with systemic side effects and are not always effective. The investigation of new topical therapeutic agents is thus required as they are rarely associated with significant blood drug levels and side effects are infrequent. Some of the agents that have been proposed for use in resistant distal colitis include butyrate, cyclosporine and nicotine enemas as well as tacrolimus suppositories and tacrolimus, ecabet sodium, arsenic, lidocaine, rebamipide and Ridogrel® enemas. Some of these agents have demonstrated impressive results but the majority of the agents have only been assessed in small open-labelled patient cohorts. Further work is thus required with the investigation of promising agents in the context of randomized double-blinded placebo controlled trials. This review aims to highlight those potentially effective therapies in the management of resistant distal colitis and to promote interest in furthering their investigation.

Ian Craig Lawrance

2010-10-01

400

Tratamiento del liquen plano oral: una revisión / Treatment of oral lichen planus: a review  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente estudio fue realizar una revisión sobre los actuales tratamientos del liquen plano oral (LPO). Antes de iniciar el tratamiento al paciente, debe de realizarse una biopsia para establecer el correcto diagnóstico. Dado que para el LPO no hay tratamiento curativo, el primer obj [...] etivo en los pacientes sintomáticos es el efecto paliativo. Entre las alternativas terapéuticas se incluyen: corticosteroides tópicos, sistémicos e intralesionales; retinoides tópicos o sistémicos; ciclosporina tópica, tacrolimus tópico, azatioprina, fototerapia y tratamiento quirúrgico. Abstract in english The aim of the present study was to review about the current treatment of oral lichen planus (OLP). Before a patients is started on therapy a biopsy must be done to establish an accurate diagnosis. Because there is no curative therapy for OLP, the primary goal for symtomatic patients is palliative. [...] Treatment modalities include the use of: topical, systemic and intralesional corticosteroids; topical and systemic retinoids, topical cyclosoporine; topical tacrolimus; azathioprine; phototherapy and surgical procedures.

M.J., García-Pola Vallejo; J.M., García Martín.

2008-02-01

401

The efficacy of sucralfate suspension in the prevention of oral mucositis due to radiation therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to assess the value of sucralfate suspension in prevention of oral mucositis and for reduction of oral pain in patients who develop mucositis during radiation therapy. The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized prospective trial of a sucralfate suspension in the prevention and management of oral mucositis during radiation therapy. Oral mucositis was assessed using a quantitative scale and symptoms were assessed using visual analogue scales. The statistical model was developed to detect a 40% reduction in mucositis. No statistically significant reduction in mucositis was seen. Early during radiation therapy less oral pain was reported in the sucralfate group, but as treatment progressed all patients experienced pain. Patients in the sucralfate group were prescribed topical and systemic analgesics later in the course of radiation therapy. Prophylactic oral rinsing with sucralfate did not prevent oral ulcerative mucositis. Sucralfate may reduce the experience of pain during radiation therapy. 32 refs., 3 tabs

402

Amiloidosis oral nodular / Oral nodular amyloidosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción. La amiloidosis constituye una entidad marcada por el depósito de amiloide en diferentes tejidos. En la cavidad oral se manifiesta habitualmente en forma de macroglosia, y más raramente, como nódulos dispuestos en la superficie. Caso clínico. Varón afecto de Mieloma Múltiple, que comien [...] za con lesiones nodulares en labio inferior y lengua. A raíz de estas lesiones, mediante estudio histológico, es diagnosticado de Amiloidosis Sistémica. Discusión. Los nódulos amiloideos en la cavidad oral, constituyen una manifestación rara de la amiloidosis sistémica. Su aparición conlleva la necesidad de realizar un diagnostico diferencial con otras entidades y el diagnostico de certeza se obtiene mediante el análisis histológico. Abstract in english Introduction. Amyloidosis is a condition characterized by the deposit of amyloid in different tissues. In the oral cavity it is usually manifested as macroglossia and, more rarely, as nodules on the surface. Clinical case. A man had multiple myeloma that began with nodular lesions of the lower lip a [...] nd tongue. As a result of these lesions, the patient was diagnosed of systemic amyloidosis by histological study. Discussion. Amyloid nodules in the oral cavity are a rare manifestation of systemic amyloidosis. Its appearance entails the necessity to make I diagnose differential with other organizations and I diagnose of certainty is obtained by means of the histological analysis.

P., Martos Díaz; J., Sastre Pérez; M., Mancha de la Plata; T., Reina; S., Rosón Gómez; L., Naval Gías.

2008-02-01

403

Oral History Research Center at UNLV  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral history projects associated with certain places or locales tend to document their own areas quite well, and the Oral History Research Center at the University of Nevada-Las Vegas is definitely no exception. Established in September 2003, the Center is committed to conducting and collecting audiotaped interviews (with the occasional video segment) with persons who can give first-hand reflections and commentary on historical topics that relate the history of Southern Nevada and its environs. To that end, visitors should not be at all surprised to learn that some of their current work includes taping interviews with Las Vegas showgirls and documenting the experiences of tappers working in that same city. The recollections of tap dancers are a real treat, as visitors can learn about the work of Carolyn Freeman, Toby Uriosts, and Marjorie Pierce. As one might hope, this particular area of the site also includes a few video clips of the dancers in action.

404

Oral colchicine in chronic plaque psoriasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Colchicine is well known for its antimitotic and anti-inflammatory effects. This study was designed to evaluate the role of oral colchicine in chronic plaque psoriasis. Fifty adults with chronic plaque psoriasis were randomly allocated into 2 groups of 25 patients each. Group A received oral colchicine 2 mg/day in 2 divided doses, while Group B patients were given placebo tablets. Patients were evaluated every week and the final result compiled after 8 weeks. 90% patients in Group A had gastrointestinal intolerance necessitating a reduction in dose of colchicine to 1 mg/day. After 8 weeks the lesions improved significantly in Group - A patients, compared to Group B (t=2.815, p< 0.01. Apart from gastrointestinal intolerance and nephrotic syndrome, no other significant side effects were encountered. It may be worthwhile trying this drug in chronic plaque psoriasis recalcitrant to conventional topical treatment.

Bassak Prasanta

1993-01-01

405

An Automatic Topic Identification Algorithm  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Problem statement: Topic is a stream of words which stands for the content of a text. Knowing the topic of a document can help people to be aware from its content and facilitate their searching process. Approach: This paper proposes an automatic algorithm to identify the topic for a textual document based on the chunks corresponding to each sentences in the document. Results and conclusion: We achieved 86% matching for both total and partial matching in our experimental data sample.

Hossein S. Baghdadi

2011-01-01

406

Topics in quantum field theory  

OpenAIRE

In this PhD-thesis some topics in quantum field theory are considered. The first chapter gives a background to these topics. The second chapter discusses renormalization. In particular it is shown how loop calculations can be performed when using the axial gauge fixing. Fermion creation and annihilation configurations for the one loop level are obtained and an example calculations was done to check that these lead to gauge invariant amplitudes. The next topic in the second chapter is renormal...

Dams, Christianus Johannes Franciscus

2006-01-01

407

Topics in statistical mechanics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This thesis deals with four independent topics in statistical mechanics: (1) the dimer problem is solved exactly for a hexagonal lattice with general boundary using a known generating function from the theory of partitions. It is shown that the leading term in the entropy depends on the shape of the boundary; (2) continuum models of percolation and self-avoiding walks are introduced with the property that their series expansions are sums over linear graphs with intrinsic combinatorial weights and explicit dimension dependence; (3) a constrained SOS model is used to describe the edge of a simple cubic crystal. Low and high temperature results are derived as well as the detailed behavior near the crystal facet; (4) the microscopic model of the lambda-transition involving atomic permutation cycles is reexamined. In particular, a new derivation of the two-component field theory model of the critical behavior is presented. Results for a lattice model originally proposed by Kikuchi are extended with a high temperature series expansion and Monte Carlo simulation. 30 references

408

Oral health in pregnancy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction Good oral health care during pregnancy is essential but often overlooked factor of dental growth as well as of other structures of oral cavity. Pregnancy is the time when conscious approach to preventive oral care should increase. Preventive measures during pregnancy Preventive measures during pregnancy mean usage of fluorides, special dietary measures and increased oral hygiene habits. Preventive measures in pregnant women have one goal: providing conditions for development of fetal teeth as well as preventing tooth decay in pregnant women. The optimal period for introducing preventive measures is the first trimester of pregnancy. Alterations of oral health during pregnancy Because of hormonal alterations there is an increased incidence of dental diseases: gingivitis and low salivary pH (inflammation and bleeding gums. Impact of nutrition during pregnancy on oral health Eating habits of pregnant women may lead to frequent snacking on candy or other decay-promoting foods, thereby increasing the risk of caries. However, very poor oral health, possible dental complications and their consequences to the health as well as emotional status represent very strong reasons for activation of dental health care in this period.

Blagojevi? Duška

2002-01-01

409

Prevention of relapses in patients previously treated with oral isotretinoin for severe acne. Results of a multicentre, randomized, retrospective, sponsor-free study  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: After a systemic treatment with oral isotretinoin, acne therapy must be continued with topical products in order to avoid possible relapses. The aim of this study was to assess whether a topical retinoid is an effective choice in the prevention of relapses. Methods: Patients who were successfully treated with oral isotretinoin for severe acne, at the end of the therapy were randomized into two groups: the first one was treated with a topical retinoid (0.05% tretinoin or 0....

Veraldi, Stefano; Barbareschi, Mauro

2010-01-01

410

Topical diltiazem and bethanechol decrease anal sphincter pressure without side effects  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND—Topical nitrates lower anal sphincter pressure and heal anal fissures, but a majority of patients experience headache. The internal anal sphincter has a calcium dependent mechanism to maintain tone, and also receives an inhibitory extrinsic cholinergic innervation. It may therefore be possible to lower anal sphincter pressure using calcium channel blockers and cholinergic agonists without side effects.?AIMS—To investigate the effect of oral and topical calcium channel blockad...

Carapeti, E.; Kamm, M.; Evans, B.; Phillips, R.

1999-01-01

411

Safety and Feasibility of Topical Application of Limonene as a Massage Oil to the Breast  

OpenAIRE

Background: Limonene, a major component in citrus oil, has demonstrated anti-cancer effects in preclinical mammary cancer models. However, the effective oral dose translates to a human dose that may not be feasible for chronic dosing. We proposed to evaluate topical application of limonene to the breast as an alternative dosing strategy. Materials and Methods: We conducted a mouse disposition study to determine whether limonene would be bioavailable in the mammary tissue after topical applica...

Miller, Jessica A.; Thompson, Patricia A.; Hakim, Iman A.; Ana Maria Lopez; Thomson, Cynthia A.; Wade Chew; Chiu-Hsieh Hsu; -h Sherry Chow, H.

2012-01-01

412

Chronic Actinic Dermatitis with Leonine Facies and Iatrogenic Adrenal Insufficiency Successfully Treated with Topical Tacrolimus  

OpenAIRE

Chronic actinic dermatitis is a chronic photosensitivity disorder characterized by severe eczematous lesions on sun-exposed skin areas. We report a case of chronic actinic dermatitis presenting with leonine facies and secondary adrenal insufficiency, which was successfully treated with topical tacrolimus. The facial lesions dramatically improved after sun avoidance and topical tacrolimus application. After almost 20 years of oral corticosteroid therapy complicated with secondary adrenal insuf...

Busaracome, Ploysyne; Wattanakrai, Penpun; Rajatanavin, Natta

2011-01-01

413

Oral health and nutrition.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationships between oral health conditions, dietary practices and nutritional status, and general health status in the older American are complex, with many interrelating factors. Just as inadequate nutrition can affect oral health, poor oral health status affects food choices and, thus, nutritional status. It is clearly essential that the primary care practitioner and/or screening health professionals always include an evaluation of oral status in assessment of an elderly person. Effective care for the elderly dental patient requires knowledge about the disease of aging and the impact of those diseases on oral health and nutrition, pharmacology and drug interactions and their impact on oral health status, the biology of aging including sensory changes, the relationship of general medicine and systemic diseases, and psychology and sociology. The attitudes of empathy and understanding, caring and compassion, respect and a positive attitude toward the older patient, and flexibility in treatment planning are also critical elements. The interdisciplinary team of physicians, nurses, nutrition professionals, dentists, and social service professionals must all work together to ensure that good oral health status and adequate nutrition are maintained in older Americans. Recognizing and treating oral health and nutrition problems are important in improving the health and quality of life for the elderly population. Research that can provide more answers to health care problems in this growing group; educating professionals with respect to the relationships between oral health and nutrition; and public policy changes with regard to provision and funding of nutrition services, especially when provided by registered and/or licensed nutrition professionals, contribute to improving the health and quality of life for elders. PMID:8197250

Pla, G W

1994-03-01

414

Topical NSAIDs for acute pain: a meta-analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A previous systematic review reported that topical NSAIDs were effective in relieving pain in acute conditions like sprains and strains, with differences between individual drugs for efficacy. More trials, a better understanding of trial quality and bias, and a reclassification of certain drugs necessitate a new review. Methods Studies were identified by searching electronic databases and writing to manufacturers. We selected randomised double blind trials comparing topical NSAID with either placebo or another active treatment in adults with acute pain, and extracted dichotomous information approximating to a 50% reduction in pain at one week, together with details of adverse events and withdrawals. Relative benefit and number-needed-to-treat (NNT, and relative risk and number-needed-to-harm (NNH were calculated, with sensitivity analyses where appropriate to investigate differences between individual drugs and aspects of trial design. Results Twenty-six double blind placebo controlled trials had information from 2,853 patients for evaluation of efficacy. Topical NSAID was significantly better than placebo in 19 of the 26 trials, with a pooled relative benefit of 1.6 (95% confidence interval 1.4 to 1.7, and NNT of 3.8 (95% confidence interval 3.4 to 4.4 compared with placebo for the outcome of half pain relief at seven days. Results were not affected by outcome reported, or condition treated, but smaller trials yielded a larger estimate of efficacy. Indirect comparisons of individual topical NSAIDs showed that ketoprofen was significantly better than all other topical NSAIDs, while indomethacin was barely distinguished from placebo. Three trials, with 433 patients, compared topical with oral NSAID (two trials compared the same drug, one compared different drugs and found no difference in efficacy. Local adverse events, systemic adverse events, or withdrawals due to an adverse event were rare, and no different between topical NSAID and placebo. Conclusions Topical NSAIDs were effective and safe in treating acute painful conditions for one week.

Derry Sheena

2004-05-01

415

Psoriasis associated Oral Mucositis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The oral involvement of psoriasis is a very rare clinical obser­ vation; even though cutaneous occurrences are more com mon. The diagnosis of oral psoriasis is still a debatable matter. Correlation of all the classical features of psoriasis along with histopathological findings may be helpful in early and definitive diagnosis of these lesions. Here, we are reporting a case of oral involvement in an adolescent boy with cutaneous psoriasis. A detailed clinical and histopathological data are presented along with a brief review of literature.

VT Beena

2015-01-01

416

What Are Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers?  

Science.gov (United States)

... oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers? What are oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancers? Oral cavity cancer, or just ... parts of the mouth and throat. The oral cavity (mouth) and oropharynx (throat) The oral cavity includes ...

417

Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of pain due to soft tissue injury: diclofenac epolamine topical patch  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available David R Lionberger1, Michael J Brennan21Southwest Orthopedic Group, Houston, TX, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Bridgeport Hospital, Bridgeport, CT, USAAbstract: The objective of this article is to review published clinical data on diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% (DETP in the treatment of acute soft tissue injuries, such as strains, sprains, and contusions. Review of published literature on topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, diclofenac, and DETP in patients with acute soft tissue injuries was included. Relevant literature was identified on MEDLINE using the search terms topical NSAIDs, diclofenac, diclofenac epolamine, acute pain, sports injury, soft tissue injury, strain, sprain, and contusion, and from citations in retrieved articles covering the years 1978–2008. Review of published, randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses shows that topical NSAIDs are significantly more effective than placebo in relieving acute pain; the pooled average relative benefit was 1.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.5–1.9. In a limited number of comparisons, topical and oral NSAIDs provided comparable pain relief, but the use of topical agents produced lower plasma drug concentrations and fewer systemic adverse events (AEs. The physical–chemical properties of diclofenac epolamine make it well suited for topical use. In patients with acute soft tissue injuries treated with DETP, clinical data report an analgesic benefit within hours of the first application, and significant pain relief relative to placebo within 3 days. Moreover, DETP displayed tolerability comparable with placebo; the most common AEs were pruritus and other application site reactions. Review of published literature suggests that DETP is generally safe and well tolerated, clinically efficacious, and a rational treatment option for patients experiencing acute pain associated with strains, sprains, and contusions, and other localized painful conditions.Keywords: diclofenac epolamine, topical analgesics, soft tissue injury, strains, sprains, contusions

David R Lionberger

2010-11-01

418

Oral Carcinogenesis and Oral Cancer Chemoprevention: A Review  

OpenAIRE

Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. The development of oral cancer is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are possible to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will yield important adv...

Takahiro Tanaka; Mayu Tanaka; Takuji Tanaka

2011-01-01

419

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide for Health Care Professionals A step-by-step, illustrated guide for health professionals that provides instruction on examining the mouth ...

420

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents an overview of physical, mental, and behavioral challenges common in patients with ...

421

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See All Order Publications English and Spanish brochures available free of charge. ... early—when it can be treated more successfully. Publications? For Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide ...

422

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings Loan Repayment Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for ...

423

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Research Programs (Extramural Research) NIDCR Laboratories (Intramural Research) Science News in Brief Study Takes First Comprehensive Look ... it can be treated more successfully. Publications? For Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide for Health ...

424

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... can be treated more successfully. Publications? For Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide for Health Care Professionals A step-by-step, illustrated guide for health ...

425

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... along with definitions of selected medical terms and resource information. Oral Cancer A fact sheet that describes ... Site Map FOIA Web Policies Privacy Policy National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research National Institutes of ...

426

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Disabilities – This booklet presents an overview of physical, mental, and behavioral challenges common in patients with developmental disabilities and offers ... Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide for Health ...

427

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... it can be treated more successfully. Publications? For Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide for Health Care Professionals A step-by-step, illustrated guide for health professionals that provides instruction on examining the mouth for ...

428

Beclomethasone Oral Inhalation  

Science.gov (United States)

QVAR® Oral Inhaler ... Beclomethasone comes as an aerosol to inhale by mouth. It usually is inhaled three or four times ... as possible through your nose while keeping your mouth shut. Open Mouth Technique: Open your mouth wide, ...

429

Oral Tradition Journal  

Science.gov (United States)

Stretching back thousands of years, the oral traditions that have enriched and documented human existence remain a subject of much fascination. The Oral Tradition Journal was founded in 1986 in order to "serve as an international and interdisciplinary forum for discussion of worldwide oral traditions and related forms." The journal is based at the University of Missouri, and visitors to the site can search the entire run of the journal on this site by keyword or author. Clicking over to the "Browse the Journal" area, visitors can look over back issues that include special issues on the Serbo-Croatian oral tradition, performance literature, and the performance artistry of Bob Dylan. The site is a real treat for anyone interested in the subject, and visitors can also learn how to submit their own work for possible inclusion in a forthcoming volume.

2008-01-01

430

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Main Content National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral Health National Institutes ... show: The Way We Make Progress Against Disease Research NIDCR Strategic Plan Research Results Tools for Researchers ...

431

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Skip to Main Content National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral Health National Institutes of Health Español Staff Directory A–Z Index Search Text size: Website ...

432

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – ... Contact Us Viewers and Players Site Map FOIA Web Policies Privacy Policy National Institute of Dental and ...

433

Hot topics for leadership development.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three areas stand out from a health systems perspective that should be on the development agenda for all leaders. These topics include population health, predictive analytics, and supply chain management. Together, these topics address access, quality, and cost management. PMID:25633301

Bleich, Michael R

2015-02-01

434

Nuevos anticoagulantes orales New oral anticoagulant drugs  

OpenAIRE

Thromboembolic disease (TED) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The hallmark of oral long-term anticoagulant therapy has been the use of vitamin K antagonists, whose anticoagulant effect is exerted inhibiting vitamin K epoxide reductase. Warfarin and acenocoumarol are the most commonly used. In the last five years several new drugs for long term anticoagulation have been developed, which can inhibit single clotting factors with the purpose of i...

Alejandro Berkovits; Andrés Aizman; Pamela Zúñiga; Jaime Pereira; Diego Mezzano

2011-01-01

435

Polyphenols and oral health  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: Polyphenols (PPs) are reactive metabolites abundant in plant derived foods, especially fruits, seeds and leaves. Polyphenols exert preventive activity against infectious and degenerative diseases including oral diseases. Objective: This non-systematic review discusses the preventive activity of PPs in the diet against oral diseases as well as their limitations. Literature review: Relevant references have been used to summarize the beneficial effects of PPs in our diet and to und...

Nikita Lolayekar; Chaitanya Shanbhag

2012-01-01

436

Oral Precancer and Cancer  

OpenAIRE

Oral cancer is a well known disorder causing mortality. Even though many etiological factors have been proposed, but it is mainly due to tobacco (smoking and smokeless form). This tobacco has several carcinogenic substances which results in the formation of cancer. We represent a male patient 60 years of age with Oral cancer in the left vestibule induced due to smokeless tobacco. It was associated with leukoplakia in the left buccal mucosa. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(2.000): 342-344

Ramachandran Sudarshan; Sree Vijayabala, G.

2013-01-01

437

Oral Crohn's disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

'Crohn's disease' is an inflammatory granulomatous disease of the gastrointestinal tract with extra-intestinal manifestations. Oral lesions may precede the intestinal disease and serve as a source for histological diagnosis. We present a case of orofacial Crohn's disease where orofacial symptoms were present for about 13 years and occasional constipation was present, since 6 months. Oral examination plays an important role in early diagnosis of Crohn's disease. PMID:25364165

Padmavathi, Bn; Sharma, Smriti; Astekar, Madhusudan; Rajan, Y; Sowmya, Gv

2014-09-01

438

Oral Crohn's disease  

OpenAIRE

’Crohn's disease’ is an inflammatory granulomatous disease of the gastrointestinal tract with extra-intestinal manifestations. Oral lesions may precede the intestinal disease and serve as a source for histological diagnosis. We present a case of orofacial Crohn's disease where orofacial symptoms were present for about 13 years and occasional constipation was present, since 6 months. Oral examination plays an important role in early diagnosis of Crohn's disease.

Padmavathi, Bn; Sharma, Smriti; Astekar, Madhusudan; Rajan, Y.; Sowmya, Gv

2014-01-01

439

Melatonin and Oral Cavity  

OpenAIRE

While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferatio...

Murat ?nanç Cengiz; Seda Cengiz; Hom-Lay Wang

2012-01-01

440

Topical diclofenac in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Niklas Schuelert, Fiona A Russell, Jason J McDougallDepartment of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, CanadaAbstract: Osteoarthritis (OA is a common disease that affects millions of people worldwide. As there is no cure for OA, drug treatment to relieve symptoms is the main form of management. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs such as diclofenac are the most commonly used drugs to treat knee OA pain. Unfortunately, these agents are associated with gastrointestinal and cardiovascular risks, which limit their chronic use. Topical NSAIDs are emerging as a viable alternative for managing OA pain. Because a pharmacologically effective dose can be restricted to the site of pain, there is superfluous systemic absorption, and the risk of related adverse effects is minimized. This article reviews the currently available preclinical and clinical information on topical diclofenac for the treatment of OA pain, including data from recently published randomized controlled trials regarding the efficacy and safety of topical diclofenac. Most studies confirm topical diclofenac to be as effective as oral diclofenac with significantly reduced side effects; however, the efficacy of NSAIDs is far from optimal, and more research needs to be done to investigate the underlying mechanisms of OA in order to improve treatment options, especially for patients with NSAID-resistant OA pain.Keywords: osteoarthritis, topical diclofenac, NSAID, joint pain 

Niklas Schuelert

2011-02-01

441

In vitro evaluation of topical gel prepared using natural polymer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Nimesulide is a second generation non–steroidal anti–inflammatory agent, which is widely used in the long term therapy of rheumatoid arthritis, in alleviating pain and inflammation. But its short half-life (only 3–4 hr, so its causes more fluctuation. After oral administration Nimesulide causes to produces heart burn, nausea, loose motions, pruritus, etc. The present study based on the preparation of bioadhesive topical gel of Nimesulide, so as to avoid all gastric side effects. For the preparation of bioadhesive topical gel natural polymer aegel marmelos (plant Bale was used. Bioadhesive polymers are the agents which increases the contact between the formulation and biological membrane, so as to avoid the fluctuation of formulation and behave as a sustained release formulation. In the present study, prepared bioadhesive topical gel was evaluated with the help of different parameters like drug content, spreadability, extrudability, swelling index study, in–vitro drug diffusion study, in-vitro drug release kinetic study and ex–vivo bioadhesive measurement. On the basis of in–vitro drug diffusion study and ex–vivo bioadhesive measurement property of gel, we have concluded that natural polymer aegel marmelos is the best polymer for the preparation of sustained release bioadhesive topical gel.

Keywords: Topical gel; Bioadhesion; Natural polymer

Lalit Kumar

2011-04-01

442

Aerodigestive cancers: oral cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Worldwide, approximately 260,000 new cases of oral cancer occur, and more than 125,000 mortalities are attributed to oral cancers each year. Oral cancers most commonly arise in the tongue, followed by the floor of the mouth and the lower gum. Tobacco and alcohol use are the major risk factors, although human papillomavirus has been identified as an etiology in a small percentage of oral squamous cell cancers. Although the evidence to support routine annual screening for oral cancers is inconclusive, family physicians and dental practitioners should be attentive to precursor lesions, such as leukoplakia and erythroplakia, and strongly consider obtaining or referring for biopsy patients with suspicious lesions. Depending on stage, management of oral cancers often involves surgery, with or without postoperative radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Patients who have been treated for these cancers should undergo close surveillance by otolaryngology subspecialists, but their family physicians primarily will be responsible for their long-term care. Complications relating to management, including difficulties with speech, swallowing, and chewing, will need to be addressed. For patients with advanced-stage disease, family physicians also may be responsible for palliative and end-of-life care. PMID:25198382

Haws, Luke; Haws, Bryn Taylor

2014-09-01

443

Melatonin and oral cavity.  

Science.gov (United States)

While initially the oral cavity was considered to be mainly a source of various bacteria, their toxins and antigens, recent studies showed that it may also be a location of oxidative stress and periodontal inflammation. Accordingly, this paper focuses on the involvement of melatonin in oxidative stress diseases of oral cavity as well as on potential therapeutic implications of melatonin in dental disorders. Melatonin has immunomodulatory and antioxidant activities, stimulates the proliferation of collagen and osseous tissue, and acts as a protector against cellular degeneration associated with aging and toxin exposure. Arising out of its antioxidant actions, melatonin protects against inflammatory processes and cellular damage caused by the toxic derivates of oxygen. As a result of these actions, melatonin may be useful as a coadjuvant in the treatment of certain conditions of the oral cavity. However, the most important effect of melatonin seems to result from its potent antioxidant, immunomodulatory, protective, and anticancer properties. Thus, melatonin could be used therapeutically for instance, locally, in the oral cavity damage of mechanical, bacterial, fungal, or viral origin, in postsurgical wounds caused by tooth extractions and other oral surgeries. Additionally, it can help bone formation in various autoimmunological disorders such as Sjorgen syndrome, in periodontal diseases, in toxic effects of dental materials, in dental implants, and in oral cancers. PMID:22792106

Cengiz, Murat ?nanç; Cengiz, Seda; Wang, Hom-Lay

2012-01-01

444

Relative bioavailability of different butamirate citrate preparations after single dose oral administration to 18 healthy volunteers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eighteen volunteers have been treated with different oral formulations of butamirate citrate according to 2 randomized 2-way crossover designs. In the first study (study I) the test preparation was a syrup (Demotussol Hustensirup, Demopharm), and the reference preparation was a syrup already marketed (Sinecod Sirup, Zyma SA). A test preparation (Demotussol Tabletten) was compared to a solution (Demotussol Hustentropfen) in the second study (study II). Within the 2 study periods the volunteers received single 45 mg doses of the test and the reference formulation, respectively. Blood samples have been drawn immediately prior to each administration and at 17 sampling points within 96 h after dosing. A wash-out period of 1 week was maintained between successive drug doses. The plasma concentration of one of the main metabolites, 2-phenylbutyric acid, was determined by a validated reversed-phase HPLC method with UV detection, with a lower limit of quantification of 50 ng/ml. The following mean values have been obtained in study I (syrup preparations) for the test: AUC0-infinity 46.9 micrograms x h/ml, Cmax of 1.77 micrograms/ml at 1.1 h, t1/2 28 h and after administration of the reference: AUC0-infinity 50.4 micrograms x h/ml, Cmax 1.86 micrograms/ml, tmax 1.5 h, t1/2 26 h. In study II the following mean values have been obtained for the test preparation (tablet): AUC0-infinity 54.7 micrograms x h/ml, Cmax of 1.88 micrograms/ml at 1.1 h, t1/2 27 h and for the reference (solution): AUC0-infinity 54.5 micrograms x h/ml, Cmax 1.94 micrograms/ml, tmax 1.1 h, t1/2 26 h. Both preparations have been proven to be bioequivalent to their corresponding references regarding extent and rate of absorption. PMID:9089001

Bohner, H; Janiak, P S; Nitsche, V; Eichinger, A; Schütz, H

1997-03-01

445

Hot topic [editorial  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is strong evidence for the human impact on climate change, but we should not ignore those who think otherwise. Unseasonably warm weather in many parts of Europe and North America last month will probably have added to the impression in many people's minds that climate change is a reality and that humans are guilty of warming our planet. The several hundred members of the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) certainly think that the evidence for anthropogenic climate change is solid. Although Physics World was unable to obtain a copy of the IPCC's latest report on the science of climate change before its release date of 2 February - a clear sign of how sensitive its findings are - hints from those involved in writing the report suggest that the IPCC will have strengthened its conclusions, previously stated in 2001, that humans are heating up the Earth. While most scientists probably share this view, there are some who think otherwise. Many of those are either scientifically ill-informed or have dubious links with the energy industry. But some have genuine doubts. One bona fide sceptic is Richard Lindzen, a climate physicist from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the US, who was involved in preparing the IPCC's 2001 scientific report. While he does not dispute that the Earth is getting hotter, Lindzen thinks that, in all probability, the warming is largely the result of natural variations in the Earth's climate. Lindzen belieions in the Earth's climate. Lindzen believes that climate models, although rooted in physics, contain far too many uncertainties to provide accurate forecasts. Indeed, mainstream climate physicists admit their computer models are far from perfect. Writing in their feature, for example, the chief scientist of the UK's Meteorological Office and colleagues describe how hard it is to incorporate the impact of clouds, which are much smaller than the resolution of the best models. They also warn that if clouds were modelled incorrectly, climate simulations 'would be seriously in error'. One may ask if this magazine should give space to Lindzen or those involved in geoengineering to air their views. Given the uncertainties still present within climate models and the potential costs of dealing with global warming, it would be wrong for Physics World to ignore those outside the mainstream. After all, as Richard Feynman once wrote: 'There is no harm in doubt and scepticism, for it is through these that new discoveries are made'. Physicists should never take anything at face value, not least a topic as important as climate change. (U.K.)

446

Effects of sucrose and high fructose corn syrup consumption on spatial memory function and hippocampal neuroinflammation in adolescent rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Excessive consumption of added sugars negatively impacts metabolic systems; however, effects on cognitive function are poorly understood. Also unknown is whether negative outcomes associated with consumption of different sugars are exacerbated during critical periods of development (e.g., adolescence). Here we examined the effects of sucrose and high fructose corn syrup-55 (HFCS-55) intake during adolescence or adulthood on cognitive and metabolic outcomes. Adolescent or adult male rats were given 30-day access to chow, water, and either (1) 11% sucrose solution, (2) 11% HFCS-55 solution, or (3) an extra bottle of water (control). In adolescent rats, HFCS-55 intake impaired hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and memory in a Barne's maze, with moderate learning impairment also observed for the sucrose group. The learning and memory impairment is unlikely based on nonspecific behavioral effects as adolescent HFCS-55 consumption did not impact anxiety in the zero maze or performance in a non-spatial response learning task using the same mildly aversive stimuli as the Barne's maze. Protein expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6, interleukin 1?) was increased in the dorsal hippocampus for the adolescent HFCS-55 group relative to controls with no significant effect in the sucrose group, whereas liver interleukin 1? and plasma insulin levels were elevated for both adolescent-exposed sugar groups. In contrast, intake of HFCS-55 or sucrose in adults did not impact spatial learning, glucose tolerance, anxiety, or neuroinflammatory markers. These data show that consumption of added sugars, particularly HFCS-55, negatively impacts hippocampal function, metabolic outcomes, and neuroinflammation when consumed in excess during the adolescent period of development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25242636

Hsu, Ted M; Konanur, Vaibhav R; Taing, Lilly; Usui, Ryan; Kayser, Brandon D; Goran, Michael I; Kanoski, Scott E

2015-02-01

447

Desidratação osmótica de frutos de duas cultivares de abacaxi em xarope de açúcar invertido / Osmotic dehydration of sliced pineapple of two cultivars in inverted sugar syrup  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Propôs-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a cinética da desidratação osmótica de fatias de frutos de duas cultivares de abacaxi, Pérola e Smooth Cayenne, em xarope de açúcar líquido invertido sem diluição. Empregaram-se dois níveis de temperatura da solução de desidratação, 40 e 50 ºC, dois níveis de agita [...] ção, zero e 60 min-1, tempo de imersão de 2 h e a relação fruta:xarope de 1:10. Verificou-se que a relação fruta:xarope usada, foi suficiente para manter inalterada a concentração da solução osmótica ao longo da desidratação. Houve aumento de cerca de três vezes no teor de sólidos solúveis totais das fatias de abacaxi, não se observando diferenças em função da cultivar e da temperatura de desidratação; observou-se, também, que a redução de massa, a perda de água e o ganho de sólidos, foram maiores para amostras da cultivar Pérola que para aquelas da cultivar Smooth Cayenne. Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to investigate the kinetics of the osmotic dehydration of sliced pineapple of two cultivars, Pérola and Smooth Cayenne, in undiluted inverted sugar syrup. Osmotic dehydration was carried out using a fruit to syrup weight ratio of 1:10, and employing two levels [...] of temperature of the solutions (40 and 50 ºC), two levels of agitation (zero and 60 min-1) for a total immersion time of 2 h. Results showed that the fruit to syrup ratio employed did not alter the total soluble solids content of the osmotic solution at the end of the dehydration process. A threefold increase in the total soluble solids content in pineapple slices was observed after dehydration, irrespective of cultivar and temperature of the solution. Highest values of mass reduction, water loss and solids gain were observed for fruit slices of cultivar Pérola.

Rafael G., Dionello; Pedro A., Berbert; Marília A. B., Molina; Rozimar C., Pereira; Alexandre P., Viana; Vinicius O., Carlesso.

2009-10-01

448

Oral health policies in Brazil  

OpenAIRE

Since Oral Health policies in Brazil have been constructed according to circumstances and possibilities, they should be understood within a given context. The present analysis contextualizes several issues of the Brazilian Oral Health Policy, called "Smiling Brazil", and describes its present stage of development. Today it involves re-organizing basic oral health care by deploying Oral Health Teams within the Family Health strategy, setting up Centers of Dental Specialists within an Oral Heal...

Gilberto Alfredo Pucca Junior; José Felipe Riani Costa; Luciana de Deus Chagas; Rosa Maria Sivestre

2009-01-01

449

Paracoccidioidomicosis en cavidad oral Oral cavity paracoccidioidomycosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La paracoccidioidomicosis (PCM o blastomicosis suramericana es la micosis sistémica más importante de América latina que es relativamente común en Brasil, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador y Argentina. Los casos esporádicos también pueden verse en algunos otros países, la cual es progresiva y con un infrecuente desenlace fatal si no es tratada a tiempo. Se considera como una enfermedad multifocal, con lesiones orales como la característica prominente. Es causada por un hongo dimórfico, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, que afecta principalmente la piel, los ganglios linfáticos, los pulmones y membranas mucosas oral, nasal y gastrointestinal. Dependiendo de la inmunidad específica del huésped, la infección puede asumir muchas formas y afecta a uno o varios órganos, llegando a ser una enfermedad grave y potencialmente fatal. Es muy importante para los profesionales de la salud de todo el mundo tener conocimiento acerca de la Paracoccidioidomicosis porque a veces la enfermedad sólo se manifiesta muchos años después de que haya abandonado la zona endémica. Para proporcionar información útil sobre el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la enfermedad se presenta caso clínico de un paciente masculino de 48 años de edad procedente de una zona rural de Juramento Brasil, por presentar múltiples úlceras dolorosas en encía y paladar de 3 meses de evolución; refiere antecedentes de fumador crónico, al examen clínico extraoral se descartan lesiones en otros órganos y al examen intraoral se observan múltiples úlceras con fondo necrótico y granulomatoso localizadas en encía y paladar. Se realizó una biopsia incisional de la lesión y el material fue enviado para estudio anatomopatológico. El informe histopatológico confirmó la impresión clínica de Paracoccidioidomicosis. El paciente fue tratado con el uso de sulfametoxazol + trimetoprima - 800/60 mg/día, vía oral, cada 12 horas durante 30 días. Las lesiones bucales desaparecieron completamente y el paciente continúa bajo control en el servicio.Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM or South-american Blastomycosis is the most important systemic mycosis in Latin America, is relatively common in Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and Argentina. Sporadic cases can also be seen in some other countries, which is a rare progressive and fatal if not treated. It has been regarded as a multifocal disease with oral lesions as the prominent feature. It is caused by a dimorphic fungus, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, which mainly affects the skin, lymph nodes, lungs and mucous membranes, oral, nasal and gastrointestinal. Depending on the specific immunity of the host, the infection can take many forms and affects one or more organs, becoming a serious and potentially fatal disease. It is very important for health professionals worldwide have knowledge about Paracoccidioidomycosis because sometimes the disease only manifests itself many years after you have left the endemic area. To provide useful information about the diagnosis and treatment of disease A case report of case of male patient 48 years old from a rural area of Brazil Oath, presenting multiple painful ulcers on the gums and palate of 3 months duration, referred to chronic smoking history, clinical examination extraoral lesions are discarded in other intraoral examination bodies and multiple ulcers were observed necrotic and granulomatous background located on the gums and palate. We performed an incisional biopsy of the lesion and the material was sent for pathologic examination. The pathology report confirmed the clinical impression of Paracoccidioidomycosis. The patient was treated with the use of sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim - 800/60 mg/day, orally every 12 hours for 30 days. The oral lesion