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Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups)  

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... and are not the same as the anabolic steroids used illegally by some athletes for bodybuilding. Corticosteroids do not affect the liver or cause sterility Available as pills and syrups. Often necessary ... disease, routine daily steroid pills may be required. Because long-term treatment ...

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Evaluation of Date Syrup as an Oral Negative Contrast Agent for MRCP.  

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OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to compare the in vitro effects of date syrup with those of other contrast agents by qualitative and quantitative analysis and in vivo evaluation of the use of date syrup to improve the quality of MRCP images. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Phantoms containing date syrup, ferumoxsil, pineapple juice, and water were imaged by 1.5-T MRI with T2-weighted and MRCP sequences, and signal-to-noise ratios were calculated. Biochemical analysis of date syrup was performed to find the nature of iron in it, and the iron content was quantified by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Sixty patients underwent MRCP before and 30 minutes after ingestion of 100 mL of date syrup. Unenhanced and contrast-enhanced images were scored for gastrointestinal tract signal suppression and visualization of various pancreaticobiliary structures. RESULTS. In vitro evaluation showed that images obtained with date syrup had a signal-to-noise ratio comparable to that of images obtained with ferumoxsil in T2-weighted and MRCP sequences. The iron concentration in date syrup was 2.6 mg/dL, and it was in ferric form. Images obtained after oral contrast administration had statistically significant improvement in gastrointestinal tract signal suppression (p gastrointestinal tract signal suppression during MRCP and for improving visualization of various pancreaticobiliary structures. PMID:25341137

Govindarajan, Arunkumar; Lakshmanan, Prakash Manikka; Sarawagi, Radha; Prabhakaran, Velu

2014-11-01

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TOPICAL HYALURONIC ACID IN THE MANAGEMENT OF ORAL ULCERS  

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Hyaluronic acid is a hygroscopic macromolecule formed by the polymerisation of glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine disaccharide. It is a primary component of the extracellular matrix in various body tissues. Ihe use of topical Hyaluronic acid in the treatment of oral ulcers has been recently reported. This article reviews the mechanism of action, indications and efficacy of topical Hyaluronic acid gel in the management of oral ulcers.

Kapoor, Pranav; Sachdeva, Shabina; Sachdeva, Silonie

2011-01-01

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Comparison of topical tretinoin and betamethasone in oral lichen planus  

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Full Text Available Thirty-one patients of oral lichen planus were enrolled in this study and two groups were made. Group 1 consisting of 16 patients who applied topical tretinoin 0.05% and Group 2 comprising of 15 patients who were given topical betamethasone dipropionate 0.05%. The patients applying tretinoin showed statistically significant improvement as compared to patients applying betamethasone.

Kar H

1996-01-01

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Interviewers’ Gender and Interview Topic in Oral Exams  

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Full Text Available Nowadays, language schools tend to include more of oral exams as part of their course completion assessment instruments in addition to traditional written exams. The major purpose of this study was accordingly to investigate the relationship between interviewers' gender, interview topic and oral performance. Thirty female upper-intermediate students were selected. All the participants were interviewed twice, once by a female and once by a male interviewer and each time they were required to talk about two topics, one gender-neutral and another gender-biased. All the performances were scored twice with an inter-rater reliability of +.88 and +.89 for two interviews respectively. A comparative analysis of the interview scores indicated that students achieved higher scores when interviewed by a female interviewer. With respect to interview topic, students performed better on gender-neutral topic.

Javad Gholami

2011-10-01

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Topical tacrolimus and oral diseases: a short literature review  

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Full Text Available Tacrolimus is the generic name forthe macrolide immunosupressant previously known by its experimental name, FK506. This new name is derived from Tsukuba, the location of its discovery; macrolide, its chemical class; and immune suppressant, its primary activity in humans. Recent reports suggest thattopical tacrolimus may be used forthe treatment of mucosal diseases, including oral psoriasis, Crohn’s disease, exfoliative cheilitis, oral lichen planus, graft versus host disease, paraneoplastic pemphigus, bullous pemphigoid and cicatricial pemphigoid. Topical tacrolimus treatment seems to be effective, but this must be proven by well designed randomized controlled studies.

Jacek Szepietowski

2007-12-01

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Critical review of topical management of oral hairy leukoplakia.  

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Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is a disease associated with Epstein-Barr virus and human immunodeficiency virus infections. OHL is usually an asymptomatic lesion, but in some cases treatment is recommended to reestablish the normal characteristics of the tongue, to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms, to improve patient comfort and for cosmetic reasons. Proposed treatments for this condition include surgery, systemic antiviral treatment and topical management. Topical treatment is an inexpensive and safe therapy that is easy to apply, noninvasive, free of systemic adverse effects and effective over a long period of time. The aim of this study was to present a review of the literature for topical therapy for OHL. Gentian violet, retinoids, podophyllin, acyclovir and podophyllin associated with topical antiviral drugs were used to treat OHL. Reports with this focus are limited, and since 2010, no new studies have been published that discuss the efficacy of topical treatments for OHL. Podophyllin with acyclovir cream was found to be effective, causing regression of lesions with no recurrences. Additional searches are necessary to provide clinical evidence of topical management effectiveness. PMID:25032199

Brasileiro, Cláudia B; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Ng; Mesquita, Ricardo A

2014-07-16

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Comparative Study of Wound Healing Activity of Topical and Oral Ocimum Sanctum Linn in Albino Rats  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Ocimum sanctum, when given orally in one of the studies showed wound healing property. Since majority of the agents tried for wound healing are topical, the present study was planned to compare the oral and topical Ocimum sanctum for wound healing property. Methods: Excision and incision resutured wound models in albino rats were used to study complete epithelisation time, wound contraction, histopathological study and tensile strength of the wounds. Results: The animals were divided into four groups of oral test, control and topical test, control with 6 animals in each group. The time taken for 50% wound contraction and complete eipthelisation by oral Ocimum sanctum, topical Ocimum sanctum was significantly (p<0.001 less compared to oral and topical controls. Histopathological studies showed early inflammatory changes, dense collagen and neovascularisation in wounds treated with oral and topical Ocimum sanctum, compared to respective controls. Mean tensile strength of oral and topical Ocimum sanctum treated wound was significantly great (p<0.001 compared to controls. Interpretation and Conclusion: Oral and topical Ocimum sanctum promoted better granulation tissue, early and complete epithelisation and better tensile strength compared to both controls.

B. Asha

2011-10-01

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Assessment of topical versus oral ivermectin as a treatment for head lice.  

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Many medications are available for treatment of pediculosis capitis including ivermectin. Our aim is to compare the efficacy and safety of topical versus oral ivermectin in treatment of pediculosis capitis. Sixty-two patients with proved head lice infestation were included and divided into group I (31 patients; received single topical application of 1% ivermectin) and group II (31 patients; received single dose of oral ivermectin). Treatment was repeated after 1 week for nonresponders. At 1 week after treatment, the eradication rates and improvement of pruritus were significantly higher among patients who received topical than oral ivermectin. When a second treatment, topical or oral, was given to nonresponders, the cure rates of infestation and pruritus was 100% and 97% among patients treated with topical and oral ivermectin, respectively with no significant difference between the two groups. This study suggests that both topical and oral ivermectin demonstrate high efficacy and tolerability in treatment of pediculosis capitis. However, a single treatment with topical ivermectin provides significantly higher cure of infestation and faster relief of pruritus than oral ivermectin. In addition, whether topical or oral ivermectin is used to treat head lice, a second dose is required in some cases to ensure complete eradication. PMID:25041547

Ahmad, Hesham M; Abdel-Azim, Eman S; Abdel-Aziz, Rasha T

2014-09-01

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"EFFICACY OF TOPICAL RETINOIC ACID COMPARED WITH TOPICAL TRIAMCINOLONE ACETONIDE IN THE TREATMENT OF ORAL LICHEN PLANUS"  

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Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of retinoic acid 0.05% with triamcinolone acetonide 0.1%, both in an oral base, in the treatment of atrophic and erosive oral lichen planus. Thirty patients with clinically proven oral lichen planus were asked to participate in the study. The severity of lesions was scored from 0 (no lesion to 5 (large erosion, and symptoms were scored ranging from 100 (asymptomatic to 0 (impossible to live with symptoms. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either triamcinolone acetonide or retinoic acid. They were instructed to apply the medication on dried lesions four times a day. The signs and symptoms were evaluated after 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks of treatment. The scores were analyzed by the Wilcoxon rank sum test. The stage of lesions in patients receiving topical triamcinolone acetonide (n=18 improved from an average score of 3.22 to 1.05 after 4 weeks of treatment, whereas patients receiving topical retinoic acid (n=12 showed nonsignificant improvement (average score 3.41 improved to 3.25. The keratotic areas in 4 patients (22.2% receiving triamcinolone acetonide and one patient (8.3% in the retinoic acid group were completely resolved. After 4 weeks of treatment all patients in triamcinolone acetonide group, and 50% of retinoic acid group were asymptomatic. Improvement in symptoms and signs was significantly different in the two groups (p? 0.003, p? 0.0001 respectively. The results suggest that in non-keratotic and even keratotic oral lichen planus, topical triamcinolone acetonide 0.1% in oral base reduces the severity of atrophic and erosive oral lesions more effectively than topical retionoic acid 0.05% in oral base.

M. Sahebjamee

2004-06-01

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Oral and topical spironolactone therapies in skin androgenization.  

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The most important clinical studies using spironolactone as an antiandrogen drug either per os or topically are referred. Menstrual disturbances very often occur during SP treatments thus limiting its systemic use. As far as the topical use is concerned SP seems to be highly effective with absence of systemic effects. Local mild side effects were present in a small number of patients.

Manieri, Chiara; Messina, Michele

1990-01-01

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Comparative study of oral and topical ketoconazole therapy in pityriasis versicolor  

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Introduction: Both topical and systemic ketoconazole are reported to be effective against pityriasis versicolor. Material and Methods: Forty patients suffering from pityriasis versicolor were treated either with oral ketoconazole 200 mg per day or 2% ketoconazole cream topically once daily for 2 weeks. Results: On global assessment, after 2 weeks of start of therapy, 18 (90%) out of 20 patients treated with oral ketoconazole were cured while 2 patients had considerable residual ...

Nagpal V; Jain V; Aggarwal K

2003-01-01

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Trachoma therapy with topical tetracycline and oral erythromycin: a comparative trial*  

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Because topical antibiotic treatment has had a limited effect in previous controlled trials against trachoma, treatment with oral erythromycin was compared with topical tetracycline in 6-8-year-old children in southern Tunisia who had potentially blinding active trachoma. A total of 169 children were divided into two groups that were carefully matched for age, sex, locality, and intensity of disease. Oral erythromycin ethyl succinate in a paediatric dosage form was administered to one group a...

Dawson, C. R.; Daghfous, T.; Hoshiwara, I.; Ramdhane, K.; Kamoun, M.; Yoneda, C.; Schachter, J.

1982-01-01

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Dramatic Improvement of Long Lasting Post-Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation by Oral and Topical Tranexamic Acid  

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Full Text Available Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation is common problem, but its treatment still remains challenging. Tranexamic acid has been used to treat or prevent excessive bleeding loss in various medical conditions. There have been some reports of the effect of oral and topical tranexamic acid for treatment of pigmented disorder. Herein we report on a case of female patient who showed improvement of PIH after oral and topical tranexamic acid administration.

Kee Chan Moon

2012-06-01

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Dramatic Improvement of Long Lasting Post-Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation by Oral and Topical Tranexamic Acid  

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Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation is common problem, but its treatment still remains challenging. Tranexamic acid has been used to treat or prevent excessive bleeding loss in various medical conditions. There have been some reports of the effect of oral and topical tranexamic acid for treatment of pigmented disorder. Herein we report on a case of female patient who showed improvement of PIH after oral and topical tranexamic acid administration.

Kee Chan Moon; Jee Ho Choi; Mi Woo Lee; Chong Hyun Won; Sung Eun Chang; Jae Kyung Kim

2012-01-01

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An Interactive Video Program: TOPIC (Training for Oral Proficiency Interviewing Competence).  

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Discusses the development and production of TOPIC (Training for Oral Proficiency Interviewing Competence), an interactive video refresher training program that teaches interviewing and evaluation skills to German oral proficiency testers. The program can be used as a prototype for the development of refresher training programs in other languages.…

West, Gaby

1989-01-01

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Topical treatment of oral lichen planus with anthocyanins  

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Background: Oxidative stress is involved in oral lichen planus (OLP) pathogenesis; meanwhile anthocyanins are natural antioxidants present in grapes skin. Objectives: The aim of this research was to verify the utility of anthocyanins, extracted from grapes skin, for the local treatment of oral lichen planus and to compare it with clobetasol propionate- neomycin -nystatin cream (CP-NN). Study Design: Prospective, non-randomized study, with control group. Fifty-two patients with OLP were included. We divided patients into two categories: erosive oral lichen planus (EOLP) and non erosive oral lichen planus (NEOLP). 38 had EOLP (17 cases and 21 controls) and 14 presented NEOLP types (9 cases and 5 controls).Cases received local treatment with anthocyanins from grapes and controls, were treated with CP-NN. The clinical evolution of patients was followed up during six months. Results: The patients had a therapeutic response with anthocyanins. This was better than CP-NN treatment for patients with EOLP, in improving the involvement score of the oral mucosa and in the morphometric study of the affected areas. In EOLP there were no statistically significant differences in: therapeutic response time, the evolution of pain, or the relapse rate between the two groups. With respect to the treatment of NEOLP there was improved pain relief in the group treated with anthocyanins. This was not observed with CP-NN. The resting analized variables showed no significant difference with both treatments. Conclusions: OLP has a favorable response to local treatment with anthocyanins from grapes. We found an equal to or better response than with CP-NN treatment. Many of our patients have systemic diseases, which may contraindicate the use of steroids. With regard to this particular group, the use of this natural antioxidant present in the diet is considered advantageous. Key words:Anthocyanins, antioxidants, chemoprevention, morphometry, oral lichen, oxidative stress. PMID:24880442

Di Fabio, Amanda; Salomon, Susana; Lanfranchi, Hector

2014-01-01

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Oral isotretinoin is as effective as a combination of oral isotretinoin and topical anti-acne agents in nodulocystic acne  

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Full Text Available Background: Due to the late introduction of oral isotretinoin, there is only a single report of the use of this drug from India. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy, acceptability and side effects of oral isotretinoin in Indian conditions and to compare the efficacy of oral isotretinoin monotherapy with that of a combination of oral isotretinoin and topical anti-acne agents. Methods: Sixty clinically diagnosed patients of nodulocystic acne were divided into two groups of 30 each. Patients in group A were administered oral isotretinoin 20 mg twice a day along with topical clindamycin (1% and adapalene (0.1% for 24 weeks. Patients in group B were given only oral isotretinoin. An objective clinical scoring was repeated every four weeks and patients were followed up for six months on completion of treatment. Results: Out of the 60 patients, 50 completed the treatment and 35 completed the follow-up at six months. The mean pretreatment score in group A came down from 12.8 to 1.24 and in group B from 12.4 to 1.48, thus showing a 90.55% and 88% reduction in pretreatment scores respectively. There was no statistical difference in the results obtained from the two groups. Side effects were common but minor in nature. Conclusion: Isotretinoin produces gratifying results in patients of nodulocystic acne in Indian conditions. Addition of topical antiacne agents does not alter the final outcome. This addition is well tolerated but requires careful monitoring.

Dhir Rajeev

2008-01-01

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Diclofenac topical solution compared with oral diclofenac: a pooled safety analysis  

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Sanford H Roth1, Philip Fuller21Arizona Research and Education, Arthritis Laboratory, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA; 2Medical Affairs, Covidien, Hazelwood, MO, USABackground: Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) formulations, which produce less systemic exposure compared with oral formulations, are an option for the management of osteoarthritis (OA). However, the overall safety and efficacy of these agents compared with oral or systemic therapy remains controversia...

Sh, Roth; Fuller P

2011-01-01

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Absorption and adverse effects following topical and oral administration of three transdermal nicotine products to dogs.  

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To evaluate potential adverse effects from inadvertent exposure to a nicotine transdermal system or "patch", three marketed products were administered topically and orally to dogs: Nicoderm (nicotine transdermal system), with a drug reservoir and a rate-controlling membrane; Nicotinell, with a nicotine solution dispersed in a cotton gauze pad between layers of adhesive; and Niconil, with a nicotine gel matrix. Nicotine doses during topical administration ranged from 1 to 2 mg/kg/24 h for all three products, with plasma nicotine concentrations as high as 43 ng/mL. Two of the 12 topical exposures (with Nicotinell and Niconil) were associated with clinical signs (excess salivation or emesis). The oral doses from the products ranged from 2.8 mg/kg (one patch) to 13.4 mg/kg (two patches) over 25-57 h, with mean maximal plasma levels of 73 ng/mL for two patches (mean maximal level 36 ng/mL). These doses are 2-9-fold higher than oral doses reported to produce severe toxicity in children and, at the highest dose, within the known lethal range for dogs. Oral dosing of Nicotinell and Niconil (two patches per dog) produced vomiting in 2 of 12 exposures. No clinical signs were observed with either topical or oral dosing of Nicodem. These data suggest that nicotine toxicity in dogs from nicotine transdermal patches may not be as severe as might be anticipated based on nicotine content alone. PMID:7616379

Matsushima, D; Prevo, M E; Gorsline, J

1995-03-01

 
 
 
 
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Plasma concentrations of betamethasone after topical application of betamethasone 17-valerate: comparison with oral administration.  

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Plasma concentrations of betamethasone were measured by r.i.a. after oral administration of 0.6 mg betamethasone and topical application of betamethasone 17-valerate in the same five healthy subjects. Betamethasone 17-valerate was prepared as a suspension in medical grade pressure sensitive adhesive and applied to a 100 cm2 area on the back for 28 h. Mean maximum plasma concentrations were 5.0 and 0.24 ng ml-1 and mean AUC values were 75.4 and 7.74 ng ml-1 h after oral and topical administrat...

Kubota, K.; Lo, E. S.; Huttinot, G.; Andersen, P. H.; Maibach, H. I.

1994-01-01

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Comparative study of oral and topical ketoconazole therapy in pityriasis versicolor  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Both topical and systemic ketoconazole are reported to be effective against pityriasis versicolor. Material and Methods: Forty patients suffering from pityriasis versicolor were treated either with oral ketoconazole 200 mg per day or 2% ketoconazole cream topically once daily for 2 weeks. Results: On global assessment, after 2 weeks of start of therapy, 18 (90% out of 20 patients treated with oral ketoconazole were cured while 2 patients had considerable residual disease. In the ketoconazole cream group, 16 (80% out of 20 patients were cured and 4 patients had considerable residual disease. Conclusion: No significant difference was observed in the response rates in the two groups. Relapse occurred in two patients of the systemic ketoconazole group and six patients of the topical ketoconazole group during the follow-up period of three months.

Nagpal V

2003-07-01

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Childhood vitiligo : Response to methylprednisolone oral minipulse therapy and topical fluticasone combination  

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Full Text Available Background: Childhood vitiligo is always a challenge to treat, especially when the disease is progressing rapidly in such a patient. Oral minipulse with betamethasone has been tried in childhood vitiligo and also in some other immune mediated skin disorders with good results. Aims: The aim of the present study was to see the overall efficacy of methylprednisolone oral minipulse therapy in combination with topical fluticasone in progressive childhood vitiligo. The combination was tried to achieve a significant amount of repigmentation of vitiligo lesions already present at the initial visit. Materials and Methods: Four hundred children with progressive vitiligo were enrolled for this study and were prescribed oral methylprednisolone on two consecutive days every week in a minipulse form for a period of six months. In addition, the patients were instructed to apply fluticasone ointment topically once a day on their vitiligo lesions. The patients were assessed for the remission achieved as well as the extent of repigmentation of their already existent lesions. Results: More than 90% of patients went into complete remission after the start of the therapy. Moreover, about 65% (two-thirds of patients achieved good to excellent repigmentation of lesions at the end of six months of therapy. The therapy was also well tolerated and the side effects seen were almost negligible. Conclusions: Oral minipulse treatment with methylprednisolone is an effective treatment option for controlling the disease spread in childhood vitiligo and with the addition of topical fluticasone the extent of repigmentation achieved is also quite significant.

Majid Imran

2009-01-01

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Safety evaluation of topical applications of ethanol on the skin and inside the oral cavity  

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Full Text Available Abstract Ethanol is widely used in all kinds of products with direct exposure to the human skin (e.g. medicinal products like hand disinfectants in occupational settings, cosmetics like hairsprays or mouthwashes, pharmaceutical preparations, and many household products. Contradictory evidence about the safety of such topical applications of the alcohol can be found in the scientific literature, yet an up-to-date risk assessment of ethanol application on the skin and inside the oral cavity is currently lacking. The first and foremost concerns of topical ethanol applications for public health are its carcinogenic effects, as there is unambiguous evidence for the carcinogenicity of ethanol orally consumed in the form of alcoholic beverages. So far there is a lack of evidence to associate topical ethanol use with an increased risk of skin cancer. Limited and conflicting epidemiological evidence is available on the link between the use of ethanol in the oral cavity in the form of mouthwashes or mouthrinses and oral cancer. Some studies pointed to an increased risk of oral cancer due to locally produced acetaldehyde, operating via a similar mechanism to that found after alcoholic beverage ingestion. In addition, topically applied ethanol acts as a skin penetration enhancer and may facilitate the transdermal absorption of xenobiotics (e.g. carcinogenic contaminants in cosmetic formulations. Ethanol use is associated with skin irritation or contact dermatitis, especially in humans with an aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH deficiency. After regular application of ethanol on the skin (e.g. in the form of hand disinfectants relatively low but measurable blood concentrations of ethanol and its metabolite acetaldehyde may occur, which are, however, below acute toxic levels. Only in children, especially through lacerated skin, can percutaneous toxicity occur. As there might be industry bias in many studies about the safety of topical ethanol applications, as well as a general lack of scientific research on the long-term effects, there is a requirement for independent studies on this topic. The research focus should be set on the chronic toxic effects of ethanol and acetaldehyde at the point of impact, with special regard to children and individuals with genetic deficiencies in ethanol metabolism.

Lachenmeier Dirk W

2008-11-01

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Safety evaluation of topical applications of ethanol on the skin and inside the oral cavity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ethanol is widely used in all kinds of products with direct exposure to the human skin (e.g. medicinal products like hand disinfectants in occupational settings, cosmetics like hairsprays or mouthwashes, pharmaceutical preparations, and many household products). Contradictory evidence about the safety of such topical applications of the alcohol can be found in the scientific literature, yet an up-to-date risk assessment of ethanol application on the skin and inside the oral cavity is currently lacking.The first and foremost concerns of topical ethanol applications for public health are its carcinogenic effects, as there is unambiguous evidence for the carcinogenicity of ethanol orally consumed in the form of alcoholic beverages. So far there is a lack of evidence to associate topical ethanol use with an increased risk of skin cancer. Limited and conflicting epidemiological evidence is available on the link between the use of ethanol in the oral cavity in the form of mouthwashes or mouthrinses and oral cancer. Some studies pointed to an increased risk of oral cancer due to locally produced acetaldehyde, operating via a similar mechanism to that found after alcoholic beverage ingestion.In addition, topically applied ethanol acts as a skin penetration enhancer and may facilitate the transdermal absorption of xenobiotics (e.g. carcinogenic contaminants in cosmetic formulations). Ethanol use is associated with skin irritation or contact dermatitis, especially in humans with an aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) deficiency.After regular application of ethanol on the skin (e.g. in the form of hand disinfectants) relatively low but measurable blood concentrations of ethanol and its metabolite acetaldehyde may occur, which are, however, below acute toxic levels. Only in children, especially through lacerated skin, can percutaneous toxicity occur.As there might be industry bias in many studies about the safety of topical ethanol applications, as well as a general lack of scientific research on the long-term effects, there is a requirement for independent studies on this topic. The research focus should be set on the chronic toxic effects of ethanol and acetaldehyde at the point of impact, with special regard to children and individuals with genetic deficiencies in ethanol metabolism. PMID:19014531

Lachenmeier, Dirk W

2008-01-01

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Diclofenac topical solution compared with oral diclofenac: a pooled safety analysis  

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Full Text Available Sanford H Roth1, Philip Fuller21Arizona Research and Education, Arthritis Laboratory, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA; 2Medical Affairs, Covidien, Hazelwood, MO, USABackground: Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID formulations, which produce less systemic exposure compared with oral formulations, are an option for the management of osteoarthritis (OA. However, the overall safety and efficacy of these agents compared with oral or systemic therapy remains controversial.Methods: Two 12-week, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, controlled, multicenter studies compared the safety and efficacy profiles of diclofenac topical solution (TDiclo with oral diclofenac (ODiclo. Each study independently showed that TDiclo had similar efficacy to ODiclo. To compare the safety profiles of TDiclo and ODiclo, a pooled safety analysis was performed for 927 total patients who had radiologically confirmed symptomatic OA of the knee. This pooled analysis included patients treated with TDiclo, containing 45.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, and those treated with ODiclo. Safety assessments included monitoring of adverse events (AEs, recording of vital signs, dermatologic evaluation of the study knee, and clinical laboratory evaluation.Results: AEs occurred in 312 (67.1% patients using TDiclo versus 298 (64.5% of those taking ODiclo. The most common AE with TDiclo was dry skin at the application site (24.1% vs 1.9% with ODiclo; P < 0.0001. Fewer gastrointestinal (25.4% vs 39.0%; P < 0.0001 and cardiovascular (1.5% vs 3.5%; P = 0.055 AEs occurred with TDiclo compared with ODiclo. ODiclo was associated with significantly greater increases in liver enzymes and creatinine, and greater decreases in creatinine clearance and hemoglobin (P < 0.001 for all.Conclusions: These findings suggest that TDiclo represents a useful alternative to oral NSAID therapy in the management of OA, with a more favorable safety profile.Keywords: diclofenac, gastropathy, oral NSAIDs, osteoarthritis, topical NSAIDs

Roth SH

2011-06-01

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Family-based suppressive intermittent therapy of hyperendemic trachoma with topical oxytetracycline or oral doxycycline.  

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A controlled double-blind stratified trial was carried out in a village in Southern Iran to assess the efficacy of family-based intermittent therapy of hyperendemic trachoma with topical oxytetracycline oily suspension twice daily for 7 days each month, or oral doxycycline 5 mg per kilogram of body weight once a month, in comparison with a control group which received vitamin pills once a month. In addition all other members of the selected children's families were also treated with the same ...

Darougar, S.; Jones, B. R.; Viswalingam, N.; Poirier, R. H.; Allami, J.; Houshmand, A.; Farahmandian, M. A.; Gibson, J. A.

1980-01-01

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Oral versus topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors in ocular hypertension after scleral tunnel cataract surgery  

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Abdulmoghni Al-Barrag1, Motaher Al-Shaer1, Nabil Al-Matary2, Mahfoud Bamashmous11Ophthalmic Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University, Sana’a, Republic of Yemen; 2Ophthalmic Department, Military Hospital, Sana’a, Republic of YemenPurpose: To compare the effect of oral acetazolamide and topical 2% dorzolamide in prevention of ocular hypertension after scleral tunnel cataract surgery.Setting: Ophthalmic department, Sana’a Univ...

Motaher Al-Shaer; Mahfoud Bamashmous

2009-01-01

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PREVENTION OF CUTANEOUS SIDE EFFECTS OF TOPICAL TRETINOIN: USE OF ORAL VITAMINE E  

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Full Text Available Introduction: Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous folicles. Tretinoin is used as one of the topical treatments for acne vulgaris. It has different cutaneous side effects such as erythema, scaling, irritation and photosensitivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral Vitamine E in preventing the cutaneous side effects of topical tretinoin in acne patients.
Methods: A clinical trial was performed in AI-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan for six months in 2000. 80 patients with mild to moderate facial acne were randomized into 2 groups. Group 1 (controls received topical solution of tretinoin 0.05 percent nightly and group 2 (cases received daily oral 100mg of Vit. E in addition. All patients were followed at 1, 4 and 6 weeks after initiation of treatment. Children under 12 years old, pregnant or lactating women were excluded.
Results: At the end of one week, no cutaneous side effects were observed in 25 percent (10 of group 1 and 15 percent (6 of group 2 (P > 0.05. At the end of 4 weeks, 25 percent (10 of group 1 and 60 percent (24 of group 2 were without any cutaneous complications, while at the end of 6 weeks, 35 percent (14 of group 1 in comparison to 75 percent (30 of group 2 were free of any cutaneous side effects (P < 0.05. The most common side effect in both groups was exfoliation.
Discussion: Daily oral 100 mg of Vit. E has been effective in preventing cutaneous complications of topical tretinoin in acne management, but there is a delay of one week in its onset of action. Meanwhile, Vitamine E is a safe modality with no undesirable effects in acne patients.

G FAGHIHI

2001-03-01

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Topical application of drugs used in treatment of oral lichen planus lesions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral lichen planus is a common, chronic mucosal disease associated with a cell-mediated immunological dysfunction. The clinical manifestation is different when various forms, white and red, are considered. Erosive, atrophic, ulcerative lesions require long-term treatment, because of inflammation and severe pain. Since the etiology is still unknown this symptomatic OLP lesions are not curative. The effectiveness of various modalities applied in topical OLP treatment is presented on the basis of the current literature. This treatment in most cases is palliative because of OLP recalcitrant nature. Described agents such: steroids, immunosupressants, aloe vera, hyaluronic acid, antifungal showed beneficial effects. They enhance healing, improve signs and symptoms of lesions and thus improve the quality of patients' life. Topical treatment is recommended mainly because of minimal side-effects. PMID:24431320

Radwan-Oczko, Ma?gorzata

2013-01-01

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New lidocaine lozenge as topical anesthesia compared to lidocaine viscous oral solution before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy  

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Full Text Available Stine Mogensen,1 Charlotte Treldal,1 Erik Feldager,2 Sylvia Pulis,1 Jette Jacobsen,3 Ove Andersen,1 Mette Rasmussen,41Clinical Research Centre, Hvidovre University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; 2Department of Gastroenterology, Hvidovre University Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Department of Pharmaceutics and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark; 4Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, DenmarkObjective: To evaluate the effect and acceptance of a new lidocaine lozenge compared with a lidocaine viscous oral solution as a pharyngeal anesthetic before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE, a diagnostic procedure commonly performed worldwide during which many patients experience severe discomfort mostly because of the gag reflex.Participants: The single-blinded, randomized, controlled study involved 110 adult patients undergoing diagnostic UGE at the Department of Gastroenterology, Hvidovre University Hospital, Denmark.Methods: The patients were randomized to receive either 100 mg lidocaine as a lozenge or 5 mL lidocaine viscous oral solution 2%. Intravenous midazolam was administered if needed. The effect of a lidocaine lozenge in reducing patient discomfort, including the gag reflex, during UGE compared with a lidocaine oral solution was assessed.Results: Questionnaires from the patients showed that the gag reflex was acceptable for 64% in the lozenge group compared with 33% in the oral solution group (P = 0.0072. UGE was evaluated as acceptable by 69% in the lozenge group compared with 39% in the oral solution group (P = 0.0092. The taste was evaluated as good by 78% in the lozenge group (P < 0.0001, and 82% found the lozenge to have good texture (P < 0.0001.Conclusion: The lozenge reduced the gag reflex, diminished patients’ discomfort during UGE, and was evaluated as having a good taste and texture. The lozenge improved patients’ acceptance of UGE.Keywords: upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, topical pharyngeal anesthetic, lidocaine lozenge

Mogensen S

2012-05-01

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Oral versus topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors in ocular hypertension after scleral tunnel cataract surgery  

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Full Text Available Abdulmoghni Al-Barrag1, Motaher Al-Shaer1, Nabil Al-Matary2, Mahfoud Bamashmous11Ophthalmic Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University, Sana’a, Republic of Yemen; 2Ophthalmic Department, Military Hospital, Sana’a, Republic of YemenPurpose: To compare the effect of oral acetazolamide and topical 2% dorzolamide in prevention of ocular hypertension after scleral tunnel cataract surgery.Setting: Ophthalmic department, Sana’a University, Yemen Sana’a from March 2007 to October 2007.Methods: This prospective double-blind, randomized study included 150 eyes undergoing scleral tunnel cataract surgery with hard posterior chamber intraocular implantation. Methylcellulose was used as the viscoelastic in all surgery cases. Patients were assigned to one of three groups: group 1: topical gentamicin eye drops (control; n = 52; group 2: systemic acetazolamide 250 mg (n = 45; and group 3: topical 2% dorzolamide (n = 53. Acetazolamide patients received one 250 mg tablet, one hour before surgery, then half a tablet every eight hours. A topical dorzolamide 2% or gentamicin was applied in one drop one hour before surgery then every eight hours, for three days postoperatively. Intraocular pressures (IOP were measured by Goldman applanation tonometry one hour preoperatively and 16, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively. Results: At 16 hours, IOP between the three groups increased significantly with a statistically significant p-value of 0.008, but the mean IOP of acetazolamide patients was less than other groups. IOP nearly returned to the normal level 24 and 48 hours postoperatively, but this was not statistically significant (p = 0.452 and 0.138, respectively.Conclusion: Acetazolamide offers better IOP control than topical dorzolamide 2% in preventing ocular hypertension after scleral tunnel cataract surgery. Keywords: cataract surgery, ocular hypertension, viscoelastic, dorzolamide, intraocular pressure

Abdulmoghni Al-Barrag

2009-06-01

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[Topical treatment of atrophic-erosive oral lichen planus with clobetasol in bioadhesive gel as well as chlorhexidine and miconazole in oral gel].  

Science.gov (United States)

The study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of the combination of a topical corticosteroid with topical antimicrobic drugs in the therapy of the atrophic-erosive forms of oral lichen planus. Clobetasol propionate, a very potent corticosteroid in the Miller and Munro classification, was used in a 4% hydroxy ethylcellulose bioadhesive gel and applied twice daily for the first four months and once daily for the last two months. Because of the high frequency of candidal infections during corticosteroid therapy, chlorhexidine 0.12%, 3 mouthwashes daily, and miconazole gel, once daily, were added for the whole period of the treatment. Twenty-five patients (17 female, 8 male) participated in the study; 20 concluded the six months of therapy and the six months of follow-up. All 20 patients (100%) had an improvement, while 75% had a complete remission of oral signs. No cases of oral candidiasis were seen. After six months from therapy suspension, 65% of patients were stable in their oral conditions. Our study confirms the efficacy of the combination of a topical corticosteroid with topical antimicrobic drugs in the therapy of the atrophic-erosive forms of oral lichen planus. The stability of our results suggests that, extending the therapy, control of the disease is better. PMID:9297078

Carbone, M; Carrozzo, M; Conrotto, D; Garzino Demo, P; Broccoletti, R; Gandolfo, S

1997-01-01

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Comparison of Safety and Efficacy of Oral Azithromycin-Topical Adapalene Versus Oral Doxycycline-Topical Adapalene in the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris and Determination of the Effects of These Treatments on Patients’ Quality of Life  

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Background and Design: Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit. Oral antibiotics and topical retinoids are effective in the treatment of acne.Materials and Methods: In this study, 60 patients with moderate acne vulgaris were evaluated; the patients were randomized into two equal groups. The groups were matched with respect to age, gender and clinical severity of acne. The patients in group 1 received oral azithromycin (500 mg daily on 3 consecutive days per w...

Serap Kayhan; ?lham Sabuncu; Zeynep Nurhan Saraço?lu; Ay?e Esra Koku Aksu; Mustafa Tozun

2012-01-01

35

[Topical treatment of atrophic-erosive oral lichen planus with clobetasol in bioadhesive gel as well as chlorhexidine and miconazole in oral gel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of the combination of a topical corticosteroid with topical antimicrobic drugs in the therapy of the atrophic-erosive forms of oral lichen planus. Clobetasol propionate, a very potent corticosteroid in the Miller and Munro classification, was used in a 4% hydroxy ethylcellulose bioadhesive gel and applied twice daily for the first four months and once daily for the last two months. Because of the high frequency of candidal infections during cor...

Gandolfo, Sergio; Garzino Demo, Paolo

1997-01-01

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Toxicity in three dogs from accidental oral administration of a topical endectocide containing moxidectin and imidacloprid.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three dogs were presented with a history of oral administration of a topical endectocide containing imidacloprid and moxidectin. They were diagnosed with imidacloprid and moxidectin intoxication, having ingested doses ranging from 7.5 to 1.4 mg/kg of imidacloprid and 1.9 to 2.8 mg/kg of moxidectin. The three dogs were affected to different degrees of severity, but all displayed signs of ataxia, generalised muscle tremors, paresis, hypersalivation and disorientation. Temporary blindness occurred in two cases. The three dogs were tested for the presence of the multi-drug resistance 1 gene deletion, which can cause an increased sensitivity to the toxic effects of moxidectin, and were found to be negative. Treatment included gastrointestinal decontamination, intravenous fluid therapy and benzodiazepines to control muscle tremors. All three dogs made a complete recovery within 48 h of ingestion. PMID:19673850

See, A M; McGill, S E; Raisis, A L; Swindells, K L

2009-08-01

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Topical application of royal jelly has a healing effect for 5-fluorouracil-induced experimental oral mucositis in hamsters.  

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of bee products such as honey, royal jelly and propolis on 5-fluorouracil-induced experimental oral mucositis in hamsters. Oral mucositis was induced in hamsters through a combination of 5-fluorouracil and mild abrasions that were made on the cheek pouch. Honey, royal jelly and propolis were thereafter topically administered to the oral mucosa, and then the healing process was examined by measuring the size of the mucositis. Honey (1%, 10% and 100%) and propolis (0.3%, 1% and 3%) ointments did not reduce the size of the mucositis in comparison to the vaseline-treated control group. However, the royal jelly (3%, 10% and 30%) ointments significantly improved the recovery from 5-fluorouracil-induced damage in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest the possibility that the topical application of royal jelly has a healing effect on severe oral mucositis induced by chemotherapy. PMID:18560624

Suemaru, K; Cui, R; Li, B; Watanabe, S; Okihara, K; Hashimoto, K; Yamada, H; Araki, H

2008-03-01

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Disposition of 9-aminoacridine in rats dosed orally or intravenously and in monkeys dosed topically  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Following administration of [14C]-labeled 9-aminoacridine ([14C]9AA) hydrochloride either orally or intravenously to rats, the excretion of radioactivity was similar, with 20-26% of the dose appearing in the urine and 57-68% in the feces. The pattern of tissue distribution was also similar for the two routes. This information suggests that absorption of the oral doses was extensive and that, for both routes of administration, biliary excretion accounted for most of the radioactivity in the feces. Biliary excretion of radioactivity derived from [14C]9AA was confirmed in an experiment involving rats with inserted biliary cannulas. For these rats, 49.5% of the dose administered appeared in the bile in 4 h. The major urinary and biliary metabolite of [14C]9AA of rats was identified as an O-beta-glucuronide of hydroxylated 9AA. Absorption of 9AA through the skin could not be conclusively demonstrated. For monkeys dosed topically with [14C]9AA, only small amounts of radioactivity appeared in the urine and various tissues in 24 h

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Comparison of topical triamcinolone and oral atorvastatin in treatment of paederus dermatitis Northern Iran.  

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Dermatitis caused by stimulation of beetle paederus, is a common health problem in Northern and some southern parts of Iran. Since by now, traditional medicine and some corticosteroid agents have been used for treatment of dermatitis caused by beetle paederus. Because, there are few researches about classical treatment of the disease at academic level, this study planned to compare the effectiveness of triamcinolone ointment and atorvastatin tablet with placebo in treatment ofpaederus dermatitis in Northern Iran. A randomized double-blind clinical trial was carried out on 30 patients referred to the hospital and clinics at Sari and Neka countries in Northern Iran during 6 months. Patients were randomly divided into two therapeutic equal groups. The first group was triamcinolone ointment twice a day and a placebo atorvastatin tablet daily. The second group was oral atorvastatin one tablet (20 mg) daily and a placebo triamcinolone ointment twice a day. In Seventh day of visits, therapeutic response of the patients in triamcinolone and atorvastatin group were 93.33 and 80%, respectively. No significant differences were found in therapeutic outcome between the two groups (p > 0.05). The results showed both oftriamcinolone ointment and oral atorvastatin had similar effect on paederus dermatitis. Because the paederus dermatitis is a self-limited disease use of topical therapy for treatment of the disease is recommend. PMID:22545364

Nikookar, Seyed Hasan; Hajheydari, Zohreh; Moosa-Kazemi, Seyed Hasan; Mahmoudi, Mitra; Shahmohammadi, Soheila

2012-01-15

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Comparison of Topical Triamcinolone and Oral Atorvastatin in Treatment of Paederus Dermatitis Northern Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dermatitis caused by stimulation of beetle paederus, is a common health problem in Northern and some southern parts of Iran. Since by now, traditional medicine and some corticosteroid agents have been used for treatment of dermatitis caused by beetle paederus. Because, there are few researches about classical treatment of the disease at academic level, this study planned to compare the effectiveness of triamcinolone ointment and atorvastatin tablet with placebo in treatment of paederus dermatitis in Northern Iran. A randomized double-blind clinical trial was carried out on 30 patients referred to the hospital and clinics at Sari and Neka countries in Northern Iran during 6 months. Patients were randomly divided into two therapeutic equal groups. The first group was triamcinolone ointment twice a day and a placebo atorvastatin tablet daily. The second group was oral atorvastatin one tablet (20 mg daily and a placebo triamcinolone ointment twice a day. In Seventh day of visits, therapeutic response of the patients in triamcinolone and atorvastatin group were 93.33 and 80%, respectively. No significant differences were found in therapeutic outcome between the two groups (p>0.05. The results showed both of triamcinolone ointment and oral atorvastatin had similar effect on paederus dermatitis. Because the paederus dermatitis is a self-limited disease use of topical therapy for treatment of the disease is recommend.

Seyed Hasan Moosa-Kazemi

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Efficacy of a New Cream Formulation of Mupirocin: Comparison with Oral and Topical Agents in Experimental Skin Infections  

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A new cream formulation of mupirocin developed to improve patient compliance was compared with systemic and topical antibiotics commonly used to treat primary and secondary skin infections. A mouse surgical wound model infected with Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes was used. Topical treatment was applied at 4 and 10 h postinfection or oral treatment at a clinically relevant dose was administered 4, 8, and 12 h postinfection; treatments were continued three times daily for a fur...

Gisby, John; Bryant, Joanna

2000-01-01

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Pharmacokinetics of selamectin following intravenous, oral and topical administration in cats and dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pharmacokinetics of selamectin were evaluated in cats and dogs, following intravenous (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg), topical (24 mg/kg) and oral (24 mg/kg) administration. Following selamectin administration, serial blood samples were collected and plasma concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). After intravenous administration of selamectin to cats and dogs, the mean maximum plasma concentrations and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) were linearly related to the dose, and mean systemic clearance (Clb) and steady-state volume of distribution (Vd(ss)) were independent of dose. Plasma concentrations after intravenous administration declined polyexponentially in cats and biphasically in dogs, with mean terminal phase half-lives (t(1/2)) of approximately 69 h in cats and 14 h in dogs. In cats, overall Clb was 0.470 +/- 0.039 mL/min/kg (+/-SD) and overall Vd(ss) was 2.19 +/- 0.05 L/kg, compared with values of 1.18 +/- 0.31 mL/min/kg and 1.24 +/- 0.26 L/kg, respectively, in dogs. After topical administration, the mean C(max) in cats was 5513 +/- 2173 ng/mL reached at a time (T(max)) of 15 +/- 12 h postadministration; in dogs, C(max) was 86.5 +/- 34.0 ng/mL at T(max) of 72 +/- 48 h. Bioavailability was 74% in cats and 4.4% in dogs. Following oral administration to cats, mean C(max) was 11,929 +/- 5922 ng/mL at T(max) of 7 +/- 6 h and bioavailability was 109%. In dogs, mean C(max) was 7630 +/- 3140 ng/mL at T(max) of 8 +/- 5 h and bioavailability was 62%. There were no selamectin-related adverse effects and no sex differences in pharmacokinetic parameters. Linearity was established in cats and dogs for plasma concentrations up to 874 and 636 ng/mL, respectively. Pharmacokinetic evaluations for selamectin following intravenous administration indicated a slower elimination from the central compartment in cats than in dogs. This was reflected in slower clearance and longer t(1/2) in cats, probably as a result of species-related differences in metabolism and excretion. Inter-species differences in pharmacokinetic profiles were also observed following topical administration where differences in transdermal flux rates may have contributed to the overall differences in systemic bioavailability. PMID:12213114

Sarasola, P; Jernigan, A D; Walker, D K; Castledine, J; Smith, D G; Rowan, T G

2002-08-01

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Combination treatment of oral terbinafine with topical terbinafine and 10% urea ointment in hyperkeratotic type tinea pedis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hyperkeratotic-type tinea pedis is chronic and recalcitrant to topical antifungal agents. Some topical antifungal agents are effective; however, long duration of therapy is required, which often reduce the treatment compliance of patients. To seek for short period therapy of hyperkeratotic type tinea pedis, in this study, we observed the efficacy and safety of treatment of topical terbinafine and 10% urea ointment combined oral terbinafine. Participants with hyperkeratotic type tinea pedis were randomly assigned to two groups. Patients in group I were treated with oral terbinafine for 2 weeks and topical terbinafine and 10% urea ointment for 4 weeks, whereas in group II, only the above topical agents were applied for 12 weeks. Clinical improvement rates and fungal eradication rates were compared between the two groups at 24 weeks after the initiation of treatment. The group I had stopped the topical therapy 8 weeks earlier than group II. There were no significant differences in mycological eradication rates and clinical improvement rates between the two groups, besides, no major side effects were noted in both groups. The short combination therapy with oral terbinafine was effective and safe; it should be a valuable option for patients with hyperkeratotic type tinea pedis. PMID:24697872

Shi, Tian-Wei; Zhang, Jiang-An; Zhang, Xian-Wei; Yu, Hong-Xing; Tang, Yong-Bo; Yu, Jian-Bin

2014-09-01

44

Development of hydrocortisone succinic acid/and 5-fluorouracil/chitosan microcapsules for oral and topical drug deliveries.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recently, we demonstrated the safety use of calendula oil/chitosan microcapsules as a carrier for both oral and topical deliveries. We also reported the improved biological activity towards skin cells and Staphylococcus aureus of phyllanthin containing chitosan microcapsules. However, the possibility of both oral and topical applications was still necessary to be further studied. Here we investigated that both oral and topical applications of chitosan-based microcapsules were tested using hydrocortisone succinic acid (HSA) and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), respectively. The drug loading efficiency, particle size, surface morphology and chemical compositions of both drug loaded microcapsules were confirmed by UV-vis spectrophotometer, particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The in vitro release studies revealed that both HSA and 5-FU could be released form chitosan microcapsules. The mean adrenocorticotropic hormone concentration in HSA loaded microcapsule mice plasma was detected to be lower than that of water control. One hundred micrograms per milliliter of 5-FU containing microcapsules exhibited a stronger growth inhibition towards skin keratinocytes than that of free 5-FU. In vitro drug delivery model demonstrated the delivery of 5-FU from microcapsule treated textiles into nude mice skin. Further uses of the drug loaded microcapsules may provide an efficiency deliverable tool for both oral and topical applications. PMID:22460032

Lam, Pik-Ling; Lee, Kenneth Ka-Ho; Wong, Raymond Siu-Ming; Cheng, Gregory Yin Ming; Cheng, Shuk Yan; Yuen, Marcus Chun-Wah; Lam, Kim-Hung; Gambari, Roberto; Kok, Stanton Hon-Lung; Chui, Chung-Hin

2012-05-01

45

Teaching Through Trade Books: From Sap to Syrup  

Science.gov (United States)

Warm days, cold nights, melting snow--signs winter is waning and spring is nearing. Though winter may just be getting started in your area, it's always fun to appreciate the good things about winter, including the special time at the end of winter in New England known as "sugaring time." The sap starts flowing in the sugar maples, and the process of turning sap into syrup begins. These "sugaring time" investigations will connect a familiar product, maple syrup, with properties of matter and can be adapted to introduce or further develop an understanding of this topic. A corresponding activity is included.

Bjork, Janna

2005-11-01

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The Comparison of Efficacy of Adcortyl Ointment and Topical Tacrolimus in Treatment of Erosive Oral Lichen Planus  

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Full Text Available

Background and aims. Oral lichen planus (OLP is a common chronic mucocutaneous disease. Patients with atrophic and erosive lichen planus often have symptoms of soreness and need proper treatment. The main therapy of OLP has been the administration of topical or systemic corticosteroids. Potent topical corticosteroids have been increasingly prescribed in the treatment of erosive lichen planus. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of adcortyl ointment (triamcinolone in orabase with topical tacrolimus for the treatment of erosive oral lichen planus.

Materials and methods. Sixty Patients with histopathologically confirmed oral lichen planus were enrolled in the study. The severity of lesions was scored from 0 to 5 according to the criteria described in a previous study. Patients were randomly given adcortyl (group A and topical tacrolimus ointment (group B and asked to apply the medication on dried lesions 4 times a day. The lesions were evaluated after 4 weeks of treatment. Visual analogue scale was used to assess the severity of pain before and after treatment. The severity scores were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis k-sample test.

Results. The average score of lesions improved from 3.4 to 1.5 in patients who received adcortyl ointment and from 3.2 to 1.2 in patients who received topical tacrolimus ointment. The differences between the improvements in scores were not statistically significant in the two groups. The average pain severity in A and B groups was 8.2 and 7.8 at the beginning of treatment, and 3.5 and 3.2 at the end of treatment, respectively. There was a statistically significant reduction in pain severity in both groups.

Conclusion. Topical tacrolimus is a safe and effective alternative therapy in the treatment of oral lichen planus.

Arash Azizi

2007-12-01

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Evaluation of the effect of topical cefadroxil on bacterial load of pathogenic staphylococci in anterior nares in human volunteers, comparative study between oral vs. topical cefadroxil and evaluation of effect of combination of oral plus topical cefadroxil in patients with staphylococcal superficial skin infections  

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Full Text Available Background: Cefadroxil has good tissue penetration & exerts more sustained action at the site of infection after oral absorption. Our aim of the study was to check topical cefadroxil has any efficacy over staphylococcal superficial skin infection or not. Methods: Pre-treatment nasal swabs were obtained from 25 healthy human volunteers and bacterial load was recorded. After single application of topical cefadroxil 3% in left anterior nare and placebo (vehicle in right anterior nare nasal swabs were obtained and results were compared. 150 patients with staphylococcal superficial skin infections were distributed in 4 groups: Group A - oral cefadroxil 500 mg twice daily for 5 days, Group B - topical cefadroxil (0.5 % to 5% twice daily, Group C - cefadroxil 500 mg orally plus placebo (vehicle topically twice daily and Group D -cefadroxil 500 mg orally plus cefadroxil preparation topically twice daily. Bacterial load was measured before treatment, on follow up &after clinical cure and results were compared. Results: Topical cefadroxil significantly reduced bacterial load after single application in anterior nare. Topical cefadroxil cured and significantly reduced bacterial load in staphylococcal superficial skin infections within 3 days of treatment. Oral plus topical cefadroxil combination therapy significantly reduced bacterial load and cured infection within 3 days of treatment in patients with moderate to heavy bacterial growth. No any adverse effect was observed during entire study period in any of groups. Conclusions: Topical preparation of cefadroxil is safe and effective in treating staphylococcal superficial skin infections. Combination of oral plus topical cefadroxil showed synergistic effect in infections with moderate to heavy growth. This study is registered at CTRI [REG ID: CTRI/2013/02/003433 REF: REF/2013/02/004576]. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(3.000: 264-271

Dimple S. Mehta

2013-06-01

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Original article title: "Comparison of therapeutic efficacy of topical corticosteroid and oral zinc sulfate-topical corticosteroid combination in the treatment of vitiligo patients: a clinical trial"  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitiligo is the most prevalent pigmentary disorder which occurs worldwide, with an incidence rate between 0.1-4 percent. It is anticipated that the discovery of biological pathways of vitiligo pathogenesis will provide novel therapeutic and prophylactic targets for future approaches to the treatment and prevention of vitiligo. The purposes of this study were evaluating the efficacy of supplemental zinc on the treatment of vitiligo. Methods This randomized clinical trial was conducted for a period of one year. Thirty five patients among 86 participants were eligible to entrance to the study. The patients in two equal randomized groups took topical corticosteroid and combination of oral zinc sulfate-topical corticosteroid. Results The mean of responses in the corticosteroid group and the zinc sulfate-corticosteroid combination group were 21.43% and 24.7%, respectively. Conclusion Although, the response to corticosteroid plus zinc sulfate was more than corticosteroid, there was no statistically significant difference between them. It appeared that more robust long-term randomized controlled trials on more patients, maybe with higher doses of zinc sulfate, are needed to fully establish the efficacy of oral zinc in management of vitiligo. Trial Registration chiCTRTRC10000930

Omidian Mohammad

2011-03-01

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Comparison of the efficacy and safety of oral fluconazole and topical clotrimazole in patients with candida balanitis.  

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One hundred fifty seven men with candidal balanitis were entered in a randomised, open-label parallel-group multicentre study comparing efficacy and safety of a single oral 150-mg fluconazole-dose with clotrimazole applied topically twice daily for 7 days. Of 64 fluconazole and 68 clotrimazole treated patients who were evaluable at short term follow up, 92% and 91% respectively were clinically cured or improved. Candida albicans was eradicated in 78% and 83% of patients respectively. Median t...

Stary, A.; Soeltz-szoets, J.; Ziegler, C.; Kinghorn, G. R.; Roy, R. B.

1996-01-01

50

Benefits of oral and topical administration of ROQUETTE Chlorella sp. on skin inflammation and wound healing in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The human body is constantly exposed to the risk of traumatic lesions. Chlorella is a green microalgae enriched with nutrients, vitamins, minerals and chlorophyll. In some communities, Chlorella is a traditional medicinal plant used for the management of inflammation-related diseases. ROQUETTE Chlorella sp. (RCs) was investigated by oral administration (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg) and cutaneous application (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0%) to evaluate its impact in two dermatological disorder models in mice: skin inflammation and wound healing. For skin inflammation, it was administered during 14 days starting one week before the induction of chronic skin inflammation by repeated cutaneous application of 12-Otetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). For wound healing the microalgae was administered by topical application after scarification of the skin until complete wound healing. Results indicated that oral and topical administrations of the two higher doses of RCs had significant effects on macroscopic score of skin inflammation with an efficient effect on microscopic score with cutaneous application. The microalgae had also efficient effect on healing process and duration of wound healing for both administration routes and particularly at the two highest doses of RCs. These findings suggest that administration of RCs by both oral and topical routes appeared to have beneficial effects on skin lesions. PMID:24965517

Hidalgo-Lucas, Sophie; Bisson, Jean-Francois; Duffaud, Anais; Nejdi, Amine; Guerin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Baert, Blandine; Saniez-Degrave, Marie-Helene; Rozan, Pascale

2014-01-01

51

Genetics Home Reference: Maple syrup urine disease  

Science.gov (United States)

... urine disease? Mutations in the BCKDHA , BCKDHB , and DBT genes can cause maple syrup urine disease. These ... disease. Read more about the BCKDHA , BCKDHB , and DBT genes. How do people inherit maple syrup urine ...

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The effectiveness of topical anesthesia and vibration in alleviating the pain of oral injections.  

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The goal of the research was to compare the effectiveness of vibration with that of a topical anesthetic in reducing the pain of local anesthetic injections. Injections were given adjacent to maxillary premolars in four locations in 61 patients. Before injection, sites received either placebo or topical anesthetic with or without vibration. Patients rated the injection pain on a five-point scale. The topical anesthetic caused a statistically significant decrease in pain values; however, the a...

Hutchins, H. S.; Young, F. A.; Lackland, D. T.; Fishburne, C. P.

1997-01-01

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Commonly used topical oral wound dressing materials in dental and surgical practice--a literature review.  

Science.gov (United States)

A small number of medicaments are used in oral and maxillofacial surgery to dress wounds, relieve pain, prevent infection and promote healing. While these materials are routinely used, their constituents, uses and effects on oral tissues are rarely discussed. This literature review provides an overview of the constituents, uses and effects of the common materials--oxidised regenerated cellulose, Whitehead's varnish, Carnoy's solution, bismuth iodoform paraffin paste (BIPP), zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE) and Alvogyl. PMID:24156211

Freedman, Michael; Stassen, Leo F A

2013-01-01

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The case for advanced physics topics in oral and maxillofacial surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research in oral and maxillofacial surgery has focused mainly on principles founded in the biological and chemical sciences, which have provided excellent answers to many questions. However, recent technologic advances have begun to gain prominence in many of the medical sciences, providing clinicians with more effective tools for diagnosis and treatment. The era of modern physics has led to the development of diagnostic techniques that could provide information at a more basic level than many of the current biochemical methods used. The goal of this report is to introduce 2 of these methods and describe how they can be applied to oral and maxillofacial surgery. PMID:25234523

Tandon, Rahul; Herford, Alan S

2014-10-01

55

New lidocaine lozenge as topical anesthesia compared to lidocaine viscous oral solution before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To evaluate the effect and acceptance of a new lidocaine lozenge compared with a lidocaine viscous oral solution as a pharyngeal anesthetic before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE), a diagnostic procedure commonly performed worldwide during which many patients experience severe discomfort mostly because of the gag reflex.

Mogensen, Stine; Treldal, Charlotte

2012-01-01

56

Comparative assessment of the therapeutic effects of the topical and systemic forms of Hypericum perforatum extract on induced oral mucositis in golden hamsters.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral mucositis is a common and irritating complication of chemotherapy and radiotherapy for malignancies. Current treatments have failed to achieve complete remission of this complication. The St. John's wort plant (Hypericum perforatum) has long been known for its anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects. The current study was designed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of the topical and systemic administration of H. perforatum extract on oral mucositis. Oral mucositis was induced in 72 male golden hamsters by administration of 5-fluorouracil (60mg/kg), on days 0, 5, and 10 of the study. The cheek pouch was scratched with a sterile needle on days 1 and 2. On days 12-17, H. perforatum extract topical gel 10%, oral H. perforatum extract (300mg/kg), and gel base groups were treated and then compared with a control group. Weights and blood samples were evaluated, biopsies from buccal lesions were examined histopathologically, and tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured. Both of the H. perforatum extract treatment groups saw a significant relief in oral mucositis compared to the control and base gel groups; the systemic form was superior to the topical form. H. perforatum extract, administered orally or topically, expedited the healing of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in hamsters. PMID:24948410

Tanideh, N; Namazi, F; Andisheh Tadbir, A; Ebrahimi, H; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, O

2014-10-01

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A Self-controlled Single Blinded Clinical Trial to Evaluate Oral Lichen Planus after Topical Treatment with Aloe Vera  

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Full Text Available AIM: The object of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a selfcontrolledsingle blinded clinical trial of the topical application ofAloe vera in oral lichen planus (OLP.METHODS: Twenty patients (15 male and 5 female aged at least18 years recruited from the outpatients. In all cases the diagnosisnet currently accepted criteria. Each patient was instructed tomanually apply Aloe vera (AV high molecular weight fractions(AHM on the affected side oral mucosa three times daily andexamined at the beginning of treatment and then after 4 and 8 weeksof therapy. AHM were obtained from water-washed gel part of AVand processed by the patented hyper-dry system in combinationof freeze-dry technique with micro wave and far infrared rayirradiations. The macromolecular aloe ointment is a mixture of thehydrophilic ointment and AHM at 0.1% by weight.RESULTS: A self-controlled single blind protocol to assessmentclinical improvement and pain response was used in this study. Theclinical results showed a rapid subjective and objective improvementwith topical AHM treatment. Fifteen patients (75% had completeremission at treated side and two patients (10% had partialremission, while one patient showed no response to treatment (5%,and placebo sides showed partial remission responded in two casesonly (10% and no responded in other sides.CONCLUSION: The effect of AHM ointment on OLP wassignificantly effective than that of placebo. The results showeddecrease both in clinical signs and in pain scores. AHM ointmentshowed well tolerated, safe and effective treatment to OLP.

Kareman El-Soudany

2013-04-01

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Oral Mucosal Ulceration Caused by the Topical Application of a Concentrated Propolis Extract  

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Propolis is a resinous mixture that is collected by honey bees from tree buds, sap flow, and other botanical sources. Propolis has been extensively used in medicine, dentistry, and cosmetics; however, unwanted effects have been reported. This paper reports a case of oral mucosal burn in a 50-year-old patient, who used an overnight application of concentrated propolis to overcome a throbbing pain in the right upper posterior mucosa. The patient was otherwise healthy and was not receiving any medication. She presented with painful shallow multiple irregular ulcers measuring 0.3–1?cm in diameter that were located on the right buccal mucosa and hard palate mucosa, in addition to the gingival mucosa surrounding tooth 17. Propolis-induced oral mucosal burn was diagnosed. The ulcer cleared after the prescription of tetracycline mouthwash, accompanied with Doloneurobion. The patient was further treated with carbamazepine to address the persistent throbbing pain in the affected area, which was suspected to be trigeminal neuralgia. This report provides another alert to clinicians about the potential adverse effects of propolis use for the treatment of oral diseases, despite its natural origin. PMID:25276439

Wimardhani, Yuniardini Septorini

2014-01-01

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Efficacy of laser phototherapy in comparison to topical clobetasol for the treatment of oral lichen planus: a randomized controlled trial  

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Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a relatively common chronic mucocutaneous inflammatory disease and a search for novel therapeutic options has been performed. We sought to compare the efficacy of laser phototherapy (LPT) to topical clobetasol propionate 0.05% for the treatment of atrophic and erosive OLP. Forty-two patients with atrophic/erosive OLP were randomly allocated to two groups: clobetasol group (n=21): application of topical clobetasol propionate gel (0.05%) three times a day; LPT group (n=21): application of laser irradiation using InGaAlP diode laser three times a week. Evaluations were performed once a week during treatment (Days 7, 14, 21, and 30) and in four weeks (Day 60) and eight weeks (Day 90) after treatment. At the end of treatment (Day 30), significant reductions in all variables were found in both groups. The LPT group had a higher percentage of complete lesion resolution. At follow-up periods (Days 60 and 90), the LPT group maintained the clinical pattern seen at Day 30, with no recurrence of the lesions, whereas the clobetasol group exhibited worsening for all variables analyzed. These findings suggest that the LPT proved more effective than topical clobetasol 0.05% for the treatment of OLP.

Dillenburg, Caroline Siviero; Martins, Marco Antonio Trevizani; Munerato, Maria Cristina; Marques, Márcia Martins; Carrard, Vinícius Coelho; Filho, Manoel Sant'Ana; Castilho, Rogério Moraes; Martins, Manoela Domingues

2014-06-01

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Oral or topical nasal steroids for hearing loss associated with otitis media with effusion in children.  

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BACKGROUND: OME is common and may cause hearing loss with associated developmental delay. Treatment remains controversial. The effect of both systemic and intra-nasal steroids on effusions has been assessed by randomised controlled trials. OBJECTIVES: To examine evidence for or against treating children with hearing loss associated with OME with systemic or topical nasal steroids. SEARCH STRATEGY: Searches were conducted in February 2000. We searched the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register us...

Butler, Cc

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Oral or topical nasal steroids for hearing loss associated with otitis media with effusion in children.  

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BACKGROUND: Otitis media with effusion (OME) is common and may cause hearing loss with associated developmental delay. Treatment remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: To examine evidence for or against treating children with hearing loss associated with OME with systemic or topical intranasal steroids. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in The Cochrane Library Issue 4 20...

Thomas, Cl; Simpson, S.; Butler, Cc; Voort, Jh

2006-01-01

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Oral or topical nasal steroids for hearing loss associated with otitis media with effusion in children.  

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BACKGROUND: Otitis media with effusion (OME) is common and may cause hearing loss with associated developmental delay. Treatment remains controversial. OBJECTIVES: To examine the evidence for treating children with hearing loss associated with OME with systemic or topical intranasal steroids. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane ENT Group Trials Register; CENTRAL; PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; BIOSIS Previews; Cambridge Scientific Abstracts; mRCT and additional sources for publ...

Simpson, Sa; Lewis, R.; Voort, J.; Butler, Cc

2011-01-01

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Comparison of Safety and Efficacy of Oral Azithromycin-Topical Adapalene Versus Oral Doxycycline-Topical Adapalene in the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris and Determination of the Effects of These Treatments on Patients’ Quality of Life  

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Full Text Available Background and Design: Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit. Oral antibiotics and topical retinoids are effective in the treatment of acne.Materials and Methods: In this study, 60 patients with moderate acne vulgaris were evaluated; the patients were randomized into two equal groups. The groups were matched with respect to age, gender and clinical severity of acne. The patients in group 1 received oral azithromycin (500 mg daily on 3 consecutive days per week and the patients in group 2 received doxycycline (100 mg daily for 12 weeks. Topical adapalene gel was added to the systemic treatment in both groups. Clinical evaluation was performed at baseline and at the end of first, second and third months. Side effects were recorded. Quality of life in patients was measured with Skindex-29 and Acne Quality of Life Scale before treatment and at the end of third month. Results: At the end of the treatment, the patients in the two treatment groups had clinical improvement of more than 50%. Twenty-one patients in the azithromycin-adapalene group and 23 patients in the doxycycline-adapelene group had more than 80% clinical improvement. There was not any statistically significant difference in the clinical efficacy between the two combinations. Both treatment regimens were safe with minimal side effects. There was statistically significant difference in Skindex-29 and Acne Quality of Life Scale scores at baseline and at the end of the treatment (p0.05. Conclusion: Both treatments were efficient and safe. There was significant improvement in quality of life scale scores in both groups.

Serap Kayhan

2012-09-01

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Disposition of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole disulfide in rats dosed intravenously, orally, and topically and in guinea pigs dosed topically  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the metabolic disposition of [14C]-2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) and [14C]-2-mercaptobenzothiazole disulfide (MBTS), male and female rats were dosed topically. Topical doses were 36.1 micrograms/animal for [14C]MBT and 33.6 micrograms/animal for [14C]MBTS. Although more MBT passed through the skin than MBTS and although, relative to rats, guinea pigs absorbed a greater percentage of the dose (33.4% compared to 16.1-17.5% of the MBT and 12.2% compared to 5.94-7.87% for MBTS), the disposition of radioactivity derived from the two compounds was similar. Washing of the skin removed more of the radioactivity from guinea pigs than from rats. For both sexes of rats dosed intravenously with [14C]MBT or [14C]MBTS, disposition of the compounds was similar. In 72 h, 90.9-101% of the dose appeared in the urine and 3.79-15.1% in the feces. At this time, a small portion of the administered radioactivity remained associated with erythrocytes. Oral dosing of rats for 14 d with unlabeled MBT prior to a single dose of [14C]MBT or with unlabeled MBTS prior to a single dose of [14C]MBTS (0.730 mg/kg). For both sexes, disposition of the compounds was similar. At 96 h after dosing, a small portion of the administered radioactivity remained associated with erythrocytes, most of which was bound to the membranes. For both compounds and sexes, 60.8-101% of the radioactivity administered appeared in the urine and 3.46-9.99% in the feces in 96 h. At the time, only trace amounts of r96 h. At the time, only trace amounts of radioactivity remained in tissues other than blood. Of these tissues, thyroid contained the highest concentration. In the urine, there was a detectable MBT or MBTS, but there were two metabolites, one of which was identified as a thioglucuronide derivative of MBT. The other was possibly a sulfonic acid derivative of MBT

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Efficacy and safety of topical or oral methoxsalen plus ultraviolet A in the treatment of vitiligo  

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Full Text Available Background and Aim: Vitiligo is a common skin disorder that presents as depigmented patchs and associated with psychosocial morbidity. Photochemotherapy with methoxsalen plus ultraviolet A (PUVA is an effective and commonly used modality in treatment of vitiligo and is available in Khorasan Province since more than ten years ago."n"nMethods: This uncontrolled clinical trial included patients with vitiligo referred to phototherapy center in Emam Reza Hospital in Mashhad during 1998-1999. Treatment was done topically on patients with involvement less than 2% of the body area and systemic in cases with involvement more than that. Data including improvement rate and side effects were analyzed by SPSS software version 11.5."n"nResults: One-hundred and thirty-five patients, 79 female and 56 male, were enrolled.  One-hundred and twenty-six patients were treated systemically and 9 patients underwent topical therapy. Complete (100% repigmentation was observed in one patient. Repigmentation of 80-99%, 60-79%, 40-59%, 20-39% and less than 20% were observed in 53, 43, 12, 6 and 20 patients; respectively. Results were significantly better in generalized vitiligo, face involvement, and cases whom recieved more than 200 treatment sessions, but there was not significant relationship between improvement and patients' age, family history, the first involved area, beginning time of repigmentation, the observed interval between initiation of treatment and disorder appearance, and skin type. Common side effects were pruritus (69.6%, erythema (52.6%, nausea and vomiting (28.9%, and headache (17.8%."n"nConclusion: PUVA therapy is an effective and safe treatment in patients with vitiligo, and has good results in nonsegmental vitiligo and facial involvement.

Mohammad Ebrahimirad

2011-03-01

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An open randomized comparative study to test the efficacy and safety of oral terbinafine pulse as a monotherapy and in combination with topical ciclopirox olamine 8% or topical amorolfine hydrochloride 5% in the treatment of onychomycosis  

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Full Text Available Background: Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of nails caused by dermatophytes, yeasts and molds. Aims: To study the efficacy and safety of oral terbinafine pulse as a monotherapy and in combination with topical ciclopirox olamine 8% or topical amorolfine hydrochloride 5% in onychomycosis. Methods: A clinical comparative study was undertaken on 96 Patients of onychomycosis during the period between August 2005 to July 2006. Forty-eight patients were randomly assigned in group A to receive oral terbinafine 250 mg, one tablet twice daily for seven days every month (pulse therapy; 24 patients in group B to receive oral terbinafine pulse therapy plus topical ciclopirox olamine 8% to be applied once daily at night on all affected nails; and 24 patients in group C to receive oral terbinafine pulse therapy plus topical amorolfine hydrochloride 5% to be applied once weekly at night on all the affected nails. The treatment was continued for four months. The patients were evaluated at four weekly intervals till sixteen weeks and then at 24 and 36 weeks. Results: We observed clinical cure in 71.73, 82.60 and 73.91% patients in groups A, B and C, respectively; Mycological cure rates against dematophytes were 88.9, 88.9 and 85.7 in groups A, B and C, respectively. The yeast mycological cure rates were 66.7, 100 and 50 in groups A, B and C, respectively. In the case of nondermatophytes, the overall response was poor: one out of two cases (50% responded in group A, while one case each in group B and group C did not respond at all. Conclusion: Terbinafine pulse therapy is effective and safe alternative in treatment of onychomycosis due to dermatophytes; and combination therapy with topical ciclopirox or amorolfine do not show any significant difference in efficacy in comparison to monotherapy with oral terbinafine.

Jaiswal Amit

2007-01-01

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Design, Development & Evaluation of a Poly herbal Syrup from some herbs used as Energy booster  

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Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Ayurvedic formulations are preferentially administered by oral route, and most of the orally administered Ayurvedic formulations belong to liquid form of drug or drug combination. However herbal medicinal products have to fulfill the legal requirements with regard to quality including stability testing. Designing as well as shelf-life determination of oral herbal formulations is till date a challenge in modern pharmaceutics. A locally used polyherbal formulation from Withania somnifera Dunal, Asparagus racemosos Wild, Bombax malabaricum, Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. Elettaria cardamomum Maton Var., Cinnamomum zelylanicum Nees, is used as energy booster. In present study the formulation was selected for designing developing and evaluation of a polyherbal syrup from it. The prepared poly herbal syrup was evaluated immediately after preparation and all the tested parameter along with turbidity/homogeneity were compared with the changes in accelerated stability testing. The final syrup was found to have pH 4.25 and specific gravity 1.2054 g/ml. The results of stability study of the final syrup reveal that no changes were noticed in all the tested physicochemical parameter as well as turbidity/homogeneity during 24 hr, 48 hr and 72 hr.

Swain Pramod Kumar

2013-12-01

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Oral, topical, and inhalation of Calcarea carbonica derivative complex (M8 to treat inflammatory mammary carcinoma in dogs  

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Full Text Available Background: Inflammatory mammary carcinoma (IMC is locally aggressive, fast growing, highly malignant tumor that affects humans and dogs. Affected dogs usually are presented with generalized edema, pain, erythema, and skin ulceration in mammary glands. Surgery is not recommended and an effective treatment has not been established [1]. Calcarea carbonica derivative complex (M8 has demonstrated anticancer properties in a murine model, by improving innate immune response against tumor cells [2]. M8 is a complex high diluted medication comprised of Calcarea carbonica 16x, Aconitum napellus 20x, Arsenicum album 18x, Asa foetida 20x, Conium maculatum 17x, Ipecacuanha 13x, Phosphorus 20x, Rhus toxicodendron 17x, Silicea 20x, Sulphur 24x, and Thuya occidentalis 19x, dilution procedures have followed standard methodology described at the Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia. Aims: To describe different routes of M8 administration associated with oral pyroxican (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug to treat dogs with IMC. Methodology: Three female dogs with 10 years old median age were presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Federal University of Parana, Curitiba (HV-UFPR with cytological and clinical diagnosis of IMC. Patients were treated with oral (0.5 mL,q12h, topical (q12h and inhalatory (2 mL, q24h, through an ultrasonic inhalation device M8, and oral pyroxican (0.3mg/kg, q24h.Thoracic radiographs showed pulmonary metastasis in all dogs. Results: 7 days after initiating treatment all patients had clinical improvement. It was observed reduction on mammary glands inflammation and decreased pain sensitivity. One patient had 8 month of complete remission. The other two patients died 1 and 2 month after initial treatment. However none of the patients had pulmonary progressive disease, showed by radiographic examinations. Owners revealed treatment satisfaction in regards to quality of life improvement, easy M8 administration, good M8 palatability for dogs, and inflammation reduction. Conclusion: The present report suggests that M8 influenced positively the anti -inflammatory treatment. Keywords: Calcarea carbonica complex; inflammatory mammary carcinoma; routes of administration References [1] Sorenmo K. Canine mammary gland tumors. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice. 2003 33(3:573-96. [2] Oliveira CC, Abud APR, Oliveira SM, Guimarães FSF, Andrade LF, Di Bernardi RP, Coletto ELO, Kuczera D, Da Lozzo EJ, Gonçalves JP, Trindade ES, Buchi DF. Developments on drug discovery and on new therapeutics: highly diluted tinctures act as biological response modifiers. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2011, 11(101: 2-11.

Carolina de Oliveira

2012-09-01

69

Oral Cancer Exam  

Science.gov (United States)

... NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Oral Cancer The Oral Cancer Exam Main Content See a step-by-step video ... during an oral cancer examination. An oral cancer exam is painless and quick — it takes only a ...

70

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Oral Cancer Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect oral cancer early—when it can ...

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Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Oral Cancer Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect ...

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Decrease of duration and symptoms in chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis by topical GM-CSF: results of a prospective randomised trial.  

Science.gov (United States)

We have conducted a prospective controlled randomised clinical study testing for the efficacy of topical GM-CSF (molgramostim), as compared to the combined topical use of an antiseptic agent (povidone-iodine) and amphotericin B (AA) in patients with chemotherapy-induced mucositis World Health Organization (WHO) grades I-III. 31 patients (17 females, 14 males) developing oral mucositis following the administration of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy were entered into the present trial. 15 patients were randomised to receive GM-CSF mouthwashes, whereas 16 patients were randomised into the control arm to receive AA. Reported history (P=0.6109) and grading of oral mucositis (2.1+/-0.7, respectively; P=0.9867) were balanced and equally distributed between the two groups. The mean size of lesions of oral mucositis was 1.5+/-0.6 cm (range: 0.7-2.5 cm) in the GM-CSF group and 1.2+/-0.5 cm (range: 0.5-2.5 cm) in the AA group (P=0.08), respectively. The mean number of oral mucositis lesions was 1.9+/-1.1 (range: 1-4) in the GM-CSF group and 2.1+/-1.2 (range: 1-4) in the AA group (P=0.63), respectively. None of the patients had previously received colony stimulating factors either topically or systemically. Treatment for oral mucositis was initiated on day 2.7+/-1.2 (range: day 1-8) after onset of symptoms in the GM-CSF group and on day 1.8+/-1.4 (range: day 1-3; P=0.11) in the AA group. The topical application of GM-CSF resulted in a significantly shorter duration and quicker resolution of oral mucositis, as compared to AA including both, pretreatment plus treatment periods (5.3+/-2.5 versus 8.1+/-1.5 days; P=0.0008) as well as the necessary duration of treatment needed until complete remission of lesions (2.8+/-0.7 versus 6.3+/-1.1 days; Psystemic effect of topical GM-CSF upon the number of peripheral blood leukocytes or granulocytes was excluded. We conclude that the topical application of GM-CSF by mouthwash significantly abbreviated the duration and relieved patients from symptoms of chemotherapy-induced mucositis and was superior to the topical application of AA. PMID:11597376

Hejna, M; Köstler, W J; Raderer, M; Steger, G G; Brodowicz, T; Scheithauer, W; Wiltschke, C; Zielinski, C C

2001-11-01

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Efficacy of topical versus oral 5-aminosalicylate for treatment of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats.  

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5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is drug of choice for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). In this study, the efficacy of topical versus oral 5-ASA for the treatment of UC was examined as well as the action mechanism of this medication. A flexible tube was inserted into the rat cecum to establish a topical administration model of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced UC. A total of 60 rats were divided into sham operation group (receiving an enema of 0.9% saline solution instead of the TNBS solution via the tube), model group, topical 5-ASA group, oral Etiasa group (a release agent of mesalazine used as positive control) and oral 5-ASA group (n=12 each). Different treatments were administered 1 day after UC induction. The normal saline (2 mL) was instilled twice a day through the tube in the sham operation group and model group. 5-ASA was given via the tube in the topical 5-ASA group (7.5 g/L, twice per day, 100 mg/kg), and rats in the oral Etiasa group and oral 5-ASA group intragastrically received Etiasa (7.5 g/L, twice per day, 100 mg/kg) and 5-ASA (7.5 g/L, twice per day, 100 mg/kg), respectively. The body weight was recorded every day. After 7 days of treatment, blood samples were drawn from the heart to harvest the sera. Colonic tissues were separated and prepared for pathological and related molecular biological examinations. The concentrations of 5-ASA were detected at different time points in the colonic tissues, feces and sera in different groups by using the high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the symptoms of acute UC, including bloody diarrhea and weight loss, were significantly improved in topical 5-ASA-treated rats. The colonic mucosal damage, both macroscopical and histological, was significantly relieved and the myeloperoxidase activity was markedly decreased in rats topically treated with 5-ASA compared with those treated with oral 5-ASA or Etiasa. The mRNA and protein expression of IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-? was down-regulated in the colonic tissue of rats topically treated with 5-ASA, significantly lower than those from rats treated with oral 5-ASA or Etiasa. The concentrations of 5-ASA in the colonic tissue were significantly higher in the topical 5-ASA group than in the oral 5-ASA and oral Etiasa groups. It was concluded that the topical administration of 5-ASA can effectively increase the concentration of 5-ASA in the colonic tissue, decrease the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, alleviate the colonic pathological damage and improve the symptoms of TNBS-induced acute UC in rats. PMID:24496680

Li, Jin; Chen, Cheng; Cao, Xiao-nian; Wang, Gui-hua; Hu, Jun-bo; Wang, Jing

2014-02-01

74

Clinical application of oral form of ANGIPARSTM and in combination with topical form as a new treatment for diabetic foot ulcers: A randomized clinical trial  

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Full Text Available ANGIPARSTM is a new herbal extract which has been produced in oral, topical, and intravenous forms. The present article contains preliminary results of the study which was planned to evaluate the efficacy and safety of orally applied ANGIPARSTM and to compare it with the combination of oral and topical forms and also with conventional therapy in patients with diabetic ulcers of the lower extremities."nTwenty one patients with diabetic foot ulcers were divided into 3 groups. The first group received 100 mg of oral ANGIPARSTM twice a day for 6 weeks in addition to conventional therapies. In the second group, ANGIPARSTM gel 3% was added to the oral form of the same product besides the conventional therapies for the same period of time. Finally, in the third group which was considered as control, only conventional therapies were performed. The patients were followed for 6 weeks. Parameters such as granulation tissue formation, skin epithelization, and wound surface areas changes were analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the compound in wounds healing. Furthermore, drug safety was assessed by monitoring adverse events and by clinical and laboratory evaluations."nThe study data showed significant differences between the intervention and control groups with respect to efficacy and tolerability. In each intervention group, primary wound healings occurred following 2 weeks. Complete wound healing which was greater than 70% improvement in wounds surface areas was achieved in 83% and 100% of group 1 and group 2 participants, respectively after 6 weeks. On the other hand, at the same period of time, only 22.2% of patients in control group revealed complete healing. Therefore, ANGIPARSTM had significant positive effect in increasing the incidence of complete wound closure compared with control group (p = 0.042. However, our evaluations indicated that adding topical treatment with 3% gel once a day to the oral therapy with the same product did not make significant difference in healing outcomes statistically (p = 0.769. Clinical and paraclinical evaluations did not show any adverse events during the study."nThis study showed that in diabetic foot ulcers, either treatment with oral ANGIPARSTM capsules (100mg twice a day or combination therapy with oral and topical forms, in conjunction with good wound care significantly increased the incidence of complete wound closure. In addition, the application of this product was safe and did not make any unexpected adverse event.

Bahrami A

2008-04-01

75

Ultrasonic flotational separation of syrup with polyacrylamide  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 60 degrees Bx solution of Australian raw sugar was treated at 80 degrees C with 300 ppm phosphoric acid and neutralized to pH 7 with Ca(OH)2. The resulting syrup (as model cane syrup rather than phosphatated liquor?) was subjected to flotational separation with and without ultrasonic vibration (16.5-33 kHz, 20-300 W) and/or addition of polyacrylamide (PAM; dose not stated)

76

Systemic exposure to parabens: pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, excretion balance and plasma metabolites of [14C]-methyl-, propyl- and butylparaben in rats after oral, topical or subcutaneous administration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parabens (PB) are preservatives used in food, drugs and personal care products preventing microbial and fungal contamination. We investigated ADME profiles of [14C]-methyl-, propyl- or butylparaben (MP, PP, BP) following single oral, dermal or subcutaneous (BP) doses at 100 mg/kg to Sprague-Dawley rats. Plasma Cmax and AUC values after oral or subcutaneous doses were 4- to 10-fold higher relative to respective values after dermal administration. tmax ranged from 0.5, 2 or 8 h after oral, subcutaneous or dermal administration, respectively. MP produced higher blood Cmax and AUC levels relative to those after PP or BP. Following oral or subcutaneous administration, urinary excretion was predominant (>70%, mainly during the first 24 h), less than 4% were eliminated in the feces, 2% were retained in the tissues and carcasses. Following dermal application, >50% of the dose was unabsorbed, 14-27% or parabens were well absorbed after oral and subcutaneous, and partially absorbed after dermal administration. All administration routes produced a single peak in the plasma, corresponding to that of para-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA) suggesting that PB produce no significant systemic exposure of mammalian organisms after oral, topical or subcutaneous administration. PMID:22265941

Aubert, Nicolas; Ameller, Thibault; Legrand, Jean-Jacques

2012-03-01

77

Infection prevention in patients with cancer: microbiological evaluation of portable laminar air flow isolation, topical chlorhexidine, and oral non-absorbable antibiotics.  

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The increasing use of intensive cytotoxic chemotherapy for patients with solid tumours enhances the risk of opportunistic infection to levels formerly seen only in patients with acute leukaemia, and prevention of infection is a major concern. A relatively simple regimen of isolation, topical antisepsis, and orally administered non-absorbable antibiotics was studied in 18 patients. Sixteen of 21 studies were performed using portable laminar air flow apparatus and five with isolation only. All ...

Spiers, A. S.; Dias, S. F.; Lopez, J. A.

1980-01-01

78

Diclofenac sodium topical solution with dimethyl sulfoxide, a viable alternative to oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories in osteoarthritis: review of current evidence  

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Full Text Available Philip Fuller¹, Sanford Roth²¹Covidien, Hazelwood, MO; ²Arizona Research and Education, Arthritis Research Laboratory, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USAAbstract: Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs may offer a safer alternative to their oral counterparts for the management of osteoarthritis. Diclofenac sodium topical solution with dimethyl sulfoxide (TDiclo was evaluated in five randomized, controlled trials and is indicated for treatment of the signs and symptoms associated with osteoarthritis of the knee. Three studies showed that TDiclo is superior to placebo and vehicle control with respect to pain, physical function, and perception of osteoarthritis symptoms. Two studies showed that benefits are similar to those of oral diclofenac, with one study demonstrating statistical equivalence. The most common adverse event associated with TDiclo in these studies was dry skin. Incidences of gastrointestinal adverse events and abnormal levels of liver enzymes were lower with TDiclo compared with oral diclofenac in active-controlled studies. Based on these studies, TDiclo represents a practical, evidence-based option for the management of osteoarthritis of the knee.Keywords: osteoarthritis, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, diclofenac, topical analgesic

Fuller P

2011-07-01

79

Placebo controlled, crossover validation study of oral ibuprofen and topical hydrocortisone-21-acetate for a model of ultraviolet B radiation (UVR-induced pain and inflammation  

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Full Text Available Matthias Rother, Ilka RotherDepartment of Clinical Operations, X-pert Med GmbH, Graefelfing, GermanyBackground: Pain related to ultraviolet B radiation (UVR induced sunburn is an established, simple, acute pain model. One of the major criticisms is related to the potential dermal adverse events caused by the UVR exposure. This study tried to validate the model for oral and topical drugs and to define the minimum required UVR exposure.Methods: This subject- and observer-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study evaluated 600 mg oral ibuprofen (IB and topical hydrocortisone-21-acetate (HC twice daily (bid in 24 healthy volunteers. Treatment started immediately after irradiation and again at 12 hours, 24 hours, and 36 hours post-UVR. Assessment of hyperalgesia to heat and signs of inflammation (erythema, skin temperature for all areas was performed after UVR and again at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours. Subjects returned within 4–11 days to the study site for the second period of the study. As in the first period, subjects received HC at one side and topical placebo on the other side, but oral treatment was crossed-over.Results: The primary analysis failed to show the expected superiority of the IB-group vs the placebo group in period 1 of the study. Evaluating period 2 alone clearly showed the expected treatment effects of IB for erythema and heat pain threshold. The results were less pronounced for skin temperature. In contrast to IB vs oral placebo, there were no differences in treatment response between HC and topical placebo. UVR at all dosages induced profound erythema and reduction of heat pain threshold without causing blisters or other unexpected discomfort to the subjects. The changes were almost linear between 1 and 2 minimal erythema doses (MED, whereas the change from 2 to 3 MED was less pronounced.Conclusion: Use of 2 MED in upcoming studies seems to be reasonable to limit subjects' UVB exposure. The following procedural changes are suggested:• Intensified training sessions before randomization to treatment• Increase in sample size if they are crossover studies• Simplification in design (either oral or topical treatmentKeywords: ibuprofen, hydrocortisone-21-acetate, pain, inflammation, UV radiation, validation

Rother M

2011-10-01

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Effects of systemic or topical administration of sodium selenite on early radiation effects in mouse oral mucosa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: to quantify the effect of sodium selenite (selenium) on radiation-induced oral mucositis (mouse) after subcutaneous or topical administration. Material and methods: mucosal ulceration of the lower epithelium of mouse tongue was analyzed. Selenium (5 ?g) was applied subcutaneously (s.c.) or locally, 60 min or 30 min prior to irradiation, respectively. In combination with single-dose irradiation, a single selenium application was given. With daily fractionated irradiation (3 Gy/fraction) for 1 week (days 0-4), selenium was administered at all 5 days of irradiation. With ten fractions over 2 weeks, selenium was applied in week 1, week 2, or both. All fractionation protocols were terminated by graded test doses to generate full dose-effect curves. Results: in a single-dose control experiment, the ED50 (dose after which ulcer induction is expected in 50% of the mice) was 12.9 ± 1.6 Gy. Selenium increased the ED50 to 17.7 ± 2.6 Gy (s.c.; p = 0.0003) and 16.3 ± 3.0 Gy (local; p = 0.0104). The ED50 for test irradiation after 5 x 3 Gy was 7.4 ± 2.2 Gy. Subcutaneous administration of selenium resulted in an ED50 of 11.5 ± 2.0 Gy (p = 0.0015), local application yielded an ED50 of 10.0 ± 2.1 Gy (p = 0.0284). The ED50 for test irradiation after 10 x 3 Gy/2 weeks was 8.0 ± 1.7 Gy. Subcutaneous or local administration of selenium in week 1 yielded a significant increase in ED50 to 10.5 ± 1se in ED50 to 10.5 ± 1.0 Gy (p = 0.0069) and 10.7 ± 1.0 Gy (p = 0.0039), respectively. By clear contrast, selenium administration in week 2 had no significant effect. Administration in both weeks resulted in an ED50 of 9.1 ± 2.0 Gy (s.c.; p = 0.2747) and 9.7 ± 1.4 Gy (local; p = 0.0541). Conclusion: administration of sodium selenite during clinically relevant fractionated irradiation protocols has a significant effect during the initial treatment phase, i.e., week 1 in the mouse. Therefore, in clinical radiotherapy, the latent time to manifestation of confluent mucositis may be significantly prolonged, and hence the burden for the patient clearly reduced by selenium. (orig.)

 
 
 
 
81

Topical Application of Green Tea Polyphenol (?)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) for Prevention of Recurrent Oral Neoplastic Lesions  

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Objective A preliminary study was conducted to investigate feasibility of using an oral cancer chemopreventive agent (?)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most biologically active component in the green tea extract, in a form of ‘swish-and-spit’ mouthwash. Such application of EGCG is beneficial as it maximizes exposure of the oral mucosa to the agent but minimizes systemic side effect. Study design The study was conducted on individuals suspected to have oral field cancerization who are at a high risk for developing recurrent oral precancerous and carcinomatous lesions. EGCG was used as a daily mouthwash for 7 days. EGCG’s ability to modulate target molecules implicated in oral carcinogenesis was assessed by measuring the change in expression level of biomarkers. Results Immunohistochemical expression of phosphoactivated epidermal growth factor receptor (pEGFR), cyclooxygenase-2 (cox-2) and ki-67 were evaluated at baseline and at the endpoint (day 8). Although not statistically significant, overall decrease in expression levels of pEGFR (27.5%), cox-2 (15.9%) and ki-67 positive cells (51.8%) were observed following EGCG treatment. Moreover, a detectable level of EGCG was found in saliva but not in plasma after the one-week treatment regime, demonstrating local availability of EGCG in oral mucosa without significant systemic absorption. Conclusion To best of our knowledge this is the first study to explore use of oral cancer chemopreventive agent in a form of mouthwash in patients with oral field cancerization. Although a definitive conclusion was not reached due to limited sample size, if proven effective, EGCG therapy may offer a non-invasive preventive modality for oral field cancerization. PMID:23606799

Yoon, Angela J.; Shen, Jing; Santella, Regina M.; Philipone, Elizabeth M.; Wu, Hui-Chen; Eisig, Sidney B.; Blitzer, Andrew; Close, Lanny G.; Zegarelli, David J.

2013-01-01

82

Oral Cancer Exam  

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Full Text Available ... Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect ...

83

Oral Cancer Exam  

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Full Text Available ... Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during ... it can be treated more successfully. Publications? For Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide for Health ...

84

Acceptability of oral and topical HIV chemoprophylaxis in India: implications for at-risk women and men who have sex with men.  

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With reducing HIV prevalence, India has made gains in containing the epidemic. Yet, unprotected sex and commercial sex work, unprotected anal sex between men and needle sharing among intravenous drug users continue to drive the epidemic. Development of effective, safe and acceptable topical (microbicides) and oral (pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)) chemoprophylaxis could augment the already available tools for HIV prevention. This paper reviews the acceptability of topical microbicides and oral PrEP, in the context of the nature of the HIV epidemic, the sociocultural norms and the acceptability data obtained from studies carried out in India. Overall, men and women have a positive attitude towards the concept and use of microbicide products. Self-perceptions of HIV risk, product attributes, ease and convenience of use during sex, gender norms, the sociocultural context and the potential for undisclosed use were important factors influencing acceptability. A multipurpose product that would simultaneously address women's contraceptive and disease prevention needs would be devoid of the stigma attached to an anti-HIV product and may be more acceptable. Limited information on the acceptability of oral PrEP amongst high-risk groups merits further research, including carrying out demonstration projects for program introduction. PMID:24119324

Chandhiok, Nomita; Joshi, Smita N; Gangakhedkar, Raman

2014-07-01

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EVALUATION OF ANTITUSSIVE ACTIVITY OF VASU COUGH SYRUP IN SULPHUR DIOXIDE (SO2 INDUCED COUGH MODEL IN MICE  

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Full Text Available Cough is the most common symptom of respiratory diseases. When cough becomes serious, opioid drugs are effective, but they have side effects like sedation, delirium, constipation etc.. Therefore, there is a need to search out effective anti-tussive agents that are free from previously mentioned side effects. The present study was carried out to evaluate acute oral toxicity study and anti-tussive activity of Vasu Cough Syrup in sulphur dioxide (SO2-induced cough model in mice. Albino mice of either sex, weighing 25-30 g were divided into four groups (n = 6. Group I served as Disease control, Group II received standard drug i.e. Codeine phosphate (10 mg/kg, p.o., group III to IV were given Vasu Cough Syrup 0.25mL/kg and 0.5mL/kg body wt. p.o., dose. After 30 minutes, the mice were exposed to Sulphur dioxide for 30 sec. The mice were then placed in an observation chamber for counting of cough bouts for five minutes. Vasu Cough Syrup showed 63.91% and 70.64% inhibition in frequency of cough at 0.25mL/kg and 0.5mL/kg dose level respectively. It proves significant anti-tussive activity of Vasu Cough Syrup in Sulphur dioxide induced cough model. Thus, Vasu Cough Syrup can be useful as an alternative medicine for cough.

Patel Hirenjal

2013-06-01

86

Adherence and acceptability in MTN 001: a randomized cross-over trial of daily oral and topical tenofovir for HIV prevention in women.  

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We compared adherence to and acceptability of daily topical and oral formulations of tenofovir (TFV) used as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention among women in South Africa, Uganda and the United States. 144 sexually active, HIV-uninfected women participated in a cross-over study of three regimens: oral tablet, vaginal gel, or both. We tested for differences in adherence and evaluated product acceptability. Self-reported adherence for all regimens was high (94 %), but serum TFV concentrations indicated only 64 % of participants used tablets consistently. Most women in the U.S. (72 %) favored tablets over gel; while preferences varied at the African sites (42 % preferred gel and 40 % tablets). Findings indicate a role for oral and vaginal PrEP formulations and highlight the importance of integrating pharmacokinetics-based adherence assessment in future trials. Biomedical HIV prevention interventions should consider geographic and cultural experience with product formulations, partner involvement, and sexual health benefits that ultimately influence use. PMID:23065145

Minnis, Alexandra M; Gandham, Sharavi; Richardson, Barbra A; Guddera, Vijayanand; Chen, Beatrice A; Salata, Robert; Nakabiito, Clemensia; Hoesley, Craig; Justman, Jessica; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Patterson, Karen; Gomez, Kailazarid; Hendrix, Craig W

2013-02-01

87

Topical or oral administration with an extract of Polypodium leucotomos prevents acute sunburn and psoralen-induced phototoxic reactions as well as depletion of Langerhans cells in human skin  

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Sunburn, immune suppression, photo-aging, and skin cancers result from uncontrolled overexposure of human skin to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Preventive measures, including photo-protection, are helpful and can be achieved by topical sun-screening agents. Polypodium leucotomos (PL) has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and has shown some in vitro and in vivo immunomodulating properties. Its beneficial photo-protective effects in the treatment of vitiligo and its antioxidant properties encouraged us to evaluate in vivo the potentially useful photo-protective property of natural extract of PL after topical application or oral ingestion. Twenty-one healthy volunteers [either untreated or treated with oral psoralens (8-MOP or 5-MOP)] were enrolled in this study and exposed to solar radiation for evaluation of the following clinical parameters: immediate pigment darkening (IPD), minimal erythema dose (MED), minimal melanogenic dose (MMD), and minimal phototoxic dose (MPD) before and after topical or oral administration of PL. Immunohistochemical assessment of CD1a-expressing epidermal cells were also performed. PL was found to be photo-protective after topical application as well as oral administration. PL increased UV dose required for IPD (P<0.01), MED (P<0.001) and MPD (P<0.001). After oral administration of PL, MED increased 2.,8{+-}0.59 times and MPD increased 2.75{+-}0.5 and 6.8{+-}1.3 times depending upon the type of psoralen used. Immunohistochemical study revealed photo-protection of Langherhans cells by oral as well as topical PL. The observed photo-protective activities of oral or topical PL reveal a new avenue in examining the potentially useful field of systemic photo-protection and suggests that PL can be used as adjunct treatment and can make photochemotherapy and phototherapy possibly safe and effective when the control of cutaneous phototoxicity to PUVA or UVB is a limiting factor in such photo-therapies. (au). 50 refs.

Gonzalez, S.; Pathak, M.A.; Fitzpatrick, T.B. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Dept. of Dermatology, Boston, MA (United States); Cuevas, J. [Hospital Universitario de Guadalajara, Dept. of Pathology, Guadalajara (Spain); Villarrubia, V.G. [I.F. Cantabria SA, Medical Dept., Immunology Sect., Madrid (Spain)

1997-12-31

88

TOIB Study. Are topical or oral ibuprofen equally effective for the treatment of chronic knee pain presenting in primary care: a randomised controlled trial with patient preference study. [ISRCTN79353052  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Many older people have chronic knee pain. Both topical and oral non- steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are commonly used to treat this. Oral NSAIDS are effective, at least in the short term, but can have severe adverse effects. Topical NSAIDs also appear to be effective, at least in the short term. One might expect topical NSAIDs both to be less effective and to have fewer adverse effects than oral NSAIDs. If topical NSAIDs have fewer adverse effects this may outweigh both the reduction in effectiveness and the higher cost of topical compared to oral treatment. Patient preferences may influence the comparative effectiveness of drugs delivered via different routes. Methods TOIB is a randomised trial comparing topical and oral ibuprofen, with a parallel patient preference study. We are recruiting people aged 50 or over with chronic knee pain, from 27 MRC General Practice Research Framework practices across the UK. We are seeking to recruit 283 participants to the RCT and 379 to the PPS. Participants will be followed up for up to two years (with the majority reaching one year. Outcomes will be assessed by postal questionnaire, nurse examination, laboratory tests and medical record searches at one and two years or the end of the study. Discussion This study will provide new evidence on the overall costs and benefits of treating chronic knee pain with either oral or topical ibuprofen. The use of a patient preference design is unusual, but will allow us to explore how preference influences response to a medication. In addition, it will provide more information on adverse events. This study will provide evidence to inform primary care practitioners, and possibly influence practice.

Parsons Suzanne

2005-11-01

89

Anthelmintic Evaluation of Formulated Polyherbal Syrup  

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Helminthiasis is an infection of the human body with parasitic worm such as roundworms, earthworms, hookworms, flukes, tapeworms and pinworms. The worms usually only involve the intestinal tract but sometimes they may invade other organs. The present study was done with the aim to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of formulated polyherbal syrup containing traditionally used herbs like Neolamarckia cadamba and Alstonia scholaris using adult earthworms Eisenia foetida against albendazole as st...

Da, Patel; Ul, Patel; Pb, Shah; Hk, Kadikar

2012-01-01

90

Gene Preference in Maple Syrup Urine Disease  

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Untreated maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) results in mental and physical disabilities and often leads to neonatal death. Newborn-screening programs, coupled with the use of protein-modified diets, have minimized the severity of this phenotype and allowed affected individuals to develop into productive adults. Although inheritance of MSUD adheres to rules for single-gene traits, mutations in the genes for E1?, E1?, or E2 of the mitochondrial branched-chain ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex ...

Nellis, Mary M.; Danner, Dean J.

2001-01-01

91

Phenylbutyrate therapy for maple syrup urine disease  

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Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate in urea cycle disorder patients has been associated with a selective reduction in branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in spite of adequate dietary protein intake. Based on this clinical observation, we investigated the potential of phenylbutyrate treatment to lower BCAA and their corresponding ?-keto acids (BCKA) in patients with classic and variant late-onset forms of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). We also performed in vit...

Brunetti-pierri, Nicola; Lanpher, Brendan; Erez, Ayelet; Ananieva, Elitsa A.; Islam, Mohammad; Marini, Juan C.; Sun, Qin; Yu, Chunli; Hegde, Madhuri; Li, Jun; Wynn, R. Max; Chuang, David T.; Hutson, Susan; Lee, Brendan

2011-01-01

92

Molecular Models of Compounds in Maple Syrup  

Science.gov (United States)

This month's issue of J. Chem. Educ. includes articles by David Ball dealing with the chemical composition of honey (1) and maple syrup (2). The JCE Featured Molecules for this month are drawn from those papers. In prior months we have included sucrose, glucose, and fructose (3), and all of the naturally occurring amino acids (4) in the molecule collection. This month we add the molecules identified in Table 4 of ref 2 as probable contributors to the taste of maple syrup. This group of molecules could serve easily as a starting point for a variety of student activities in the area of taste. Students in non-majors courses could be asked to identify structural similarities and differences among the various molecules and could be introduced to functional groups. Students could look for other foods in which some of these molecules are found, and could begin to develop a list of molecules contributing to flavor. In the penultimate paragraph of the maple syrup paper there is a list of substances used as flavoring agents in artificial (maple) syrup. What molecules are in fenugreek and lovage that might be important in flavoring? What are the structures of the other molecules in that paragraph and what, if any, structural features do they have in common with the featured molecules? Students in organic or biochemistry courses could begin to explore the chemistry of taste in more detail. Good starting points for this work are The Chemistry of Taste: Mechanisms, Behaviors, and Mimics by Peter Given and Dulce Paredes (5) and the Chemical and Engineering News Web site (6), which includes a number of articles on this subject.

93

Oral zinc sulphate vs. topical application of salicylic (16.7%) and lactic acid (16.7%) combination in the treatment of plantar warts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Warts are commonly acquired viral tumors, caused by Human apilloma Virus (HPV). This virus can infect and cause disease at any site in the stratified squamous epithelium either keratinizing or non-keratinizing. A plantar wart (also called verruca plantaris) is a lesion that appears on the plantar surface of foot as a small, shining, sago-grain papule which soon assumes the typical appearance of a sharply-defined rounded lesion with a rough keratotic surface, surrounded by a smooth collar of thickened horn. Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of oral zinc sulphate versus topical application of salicylic (16.7%) and lactic acid (16.7%) combination, in the treatment of plantar warts. Study Design: Comparative interventional study. Setting and Duration of Study: Department of Dermatology Unit-I, King Edward Medical University, Mayo Hospital Lahore, from 15 February, 2009 till 14 February, 2010. Methodology: After informed consent, one hundred patients of plantar warts were selected from the outpatient Department of Dermatology, Mayo Hospital, Lahore. The patients were divided into two equal groups; in group A, 50 patients were given oral zinc sulphate (10 mg/kg/day) in two or three divided doses and in group B, 50 patients were advised to apply a combination of salicylic (16.7%) and lactic acid (16.7%) once at night daily. In group A, using oral zinc sulphate, the treatment was given for two months and follow up continued for next 4 months. In group B, the topical preparation was also continued for 2 months or till the complete removal of wart (if before two months) and follow up was extended up to 4 months after treatment. Results:The mean age of patients in group A was 26.2 +- 8.1 years and in group B 26.3 +- 7.3 years. The mean number of warts in group A was 7.9 +- 3.5 and in group B 5.7 +- 2.6. The mean duration of disease in group A was 6.9 +- 4.1 months and in group B 6.0 +- 3.9 months. On follow up at 2nd month, in group A, 41 (82%) patients showed an excellent efficacy while 9 (18%) patients observed poor efficacy. In group B, 31 (62%) cases experienced an excellent response, 2 (4%) had a good efficacy and 17 (34%) patients showed a poor efficacy. At 4th month of follow-up, no recurrence of warts was seen in both groups in complete responders. On follow up of the non responders no further clearance of warts was observed. Conclusions: It was concluded from this study that oral zinc sulphate is significantly more effective (p-value <0.05) than topical application of salicylic (16.7%) and lactic acid (16.7%) combination in the treatment of plantar warts. (author)

94

TASTE MASKING IN SYRUP CONTAINING HERBAL BITTER DRUGS: FORMULATION, STANDARDIZATION AND STABILITY STUDIES  

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Full Text Available Taste masking of bitter drugs has been challenge to scientists as taste is an important parameter governing patient compliance. Several oral pharmaceuticals, numerous food and beverage products and bulking agents have unpleasant bitter taste. In order to ensure patient compliance bitterness masking becomes essential. The desire of improving the palatability has prompted the development of numerous formulations with improved performance and acceptability. Several approaches namely sensory, barrier, chemical and complexation have been tried to mask the unpleasant taste of formulation. The purpose of the present was to evaluate the bitterness of the prepared syrup formulation by using human taste sensor.

T. P. Nimbekar

2011-04-01

95

Pharmacokinetics of potassium chloride in wax-based and syrup formulations.  

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The effect on plasma potassium of 64 mmol potassium chloride (KCl) in two oral formulations was compared against placebo in five healthy men, and their bioavailability was calculated from urinary data. Mean plasma potassium varied between 4.0-4.6 mmol/l during the placebo phase and mean (s.d.) urinary potassium excretion was 84.4 (18.5) mmol over 36 h. KCl syrup produced a significant change in plasma potassium over 24 h (P less than 0.02) with a marked elevation in the first 3 h after dosing...

Toner, J. M.; Ramsay, L. E.

1985-01-01

96

21 CFR 184.1445 - Malt syrup (malt extract).  

Science.gov (United States)

...conditions. Malt syrup and malt extract are interchangeable terms for a viscous concentrate of water extract of germinated barley grain...amounts of amylolytic enzymes and plant constituents. Barley is...to produce malt syrup (malt extract) with 75 to 80 percent...

2010-04-01

97

[Clinical experience with ambroxol syrup (author's transl)].  

Science.gov (United States)

In an open trial trans-4-[(2-amino-3,5-dibromo-benzyl)-amino]-cyclohexanol hydrochloride (ambroxol, NA 872) in the form of ambroxol syrup was given to non-hospitalised patients suffering from acute and chronic bronchitis. A marked reduction in coughing and dyspnoea as well as an improvement in expectoration was apparent. The maximum effect was reached on the third day of treatment. The effect can be maintained by consistent prolongation of the therapy. There were no side effects. PMID:581992

Göbel, P; Rensch, H

1978-01-01

98

Anthelmintic Evaluation of Formulated Polyherbal Syrup  

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Full Text Available Helminthiasis is an infection of the human body with parasitic worm such as roundworms, earthworms, hookworms, flukes, tapeworms and pinworms. The worms usually only involve the intestinal tract but sometimes they may invade other organs. The present study was done with the aim to evaluate the anthelmintic activity of formulated polyherbal syrup containing traditionally used herbs like Neolamarckia cadamba and Alstonia scholaris using adult earthworms Eisenia foetida against albendazole as standard reference and normal saline as control. The time to achieve paralysis of the worms was determined.

Patel DA

2012-10-01

99

The negligible effects of the antifungal natamycin on cholesterol-dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine monolayers may explain its low oral and topical toxicity for mammals.  

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Natamycin is an effective, broad spectrum antifungal with no reported resistance, in contrast to most antimicrobials. It also exhibits reduced (oral and topical) toxicity to humans, which is probably associated with the lack of effects on mammalian cell membranes. In this paper we employ Langmuir monolayers to mimic a cell membrane, whose properties are interrogated with various techniques. We found that natamycin has negligible effects on Langmuir monolayers of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), but it strongly affects cholesterol monolayers. Natamycin causes the surface pressure isotherm of a cholesterol monolayer to expand even at high surface pressures since it penetrates into the hydrophobic chains. It also reduces the compressibility modulus, probably because natamycin disturbs the organization of the cholesterol molecules, as inferred with polarization-modulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS). In mixed cholesterol/DPPC monolayers, strong effects from natamycin were only observed when the cholesterol concentration was 50mol% or higher, well above its concentration in a mammalian cell membrane. For a sterol concentration that mimics a real cell membrane in mammals, i.e. with 25mol% of cholesterol, the effects were negligible, which may explain why natamycin has low toxicity when ingested and/or employed to treat superficial fungal infections. PMID:25048356

Arima, Anderson A; Pavinatto, Felippe J; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Gonzales, Eduardo R P

2014-10-01

100

ANTITUSSIVE EVALUATION OF FORMULATED POLYHERBAL COUGH SYRUP  

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Full Text Available Ethanolic extracts of fruits of Terminalia chebula (Combretaceae, leaves of Mentha piperita (Labiate, leaves of Adhatoda vasica (Acanthaceae, leaves of Ocimum sanctum (Labiateae, rhizomes of Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae, fruits of Piper longum (Piperaceae, roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Leguminosae and roots of Withenia somnifera (Solanaceae were investigated for their antitussive effect on citric acid induced cough model in guinea pig. The results showed that the formulated cough syrup exhibited significant antitussive activity in a dose dependent manner the activity was compared with the prototype antitussive agent diphenhydramine HCl. It has been observed that the extract has produced 54%, 70%, 75% reduction in cough bouts at the dose level of 1, 2, 3 ml respectively after 1hr of drug administration. It is evident from the data the highest dose of 3 ml was found to be more effective. It is found that antitussive activity produced by the herbal formulation in the minimum dose was much better than the standard drug.  

Ashutosh Meher

2012-09-01

 
 
 
 
101

Antioxidant Activity of a Mediterranean Food Product: “Fig Syrup”  

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Full Text Available In this work, the efficacy of fig syrup, a Mediterranean fig derivative, as a nutraceutical supplement, was demonstrated. Fig syrup is a fruit concentrate used as a common ingredient in the preparation of typical foods, and particularly in cakes. In vitro assays were performed to determine the amount of nutraceutical ingredients, such as phenolic compounds (3.92 mg equivalent of gallic acid per g and flavonoids (0.35 mg equivalent of catechin per g, while HPLC analyses provided specific information about the composition of antioxidants in the syrup. Furthermore, total antioxidant activity, scavenging properties against DPPH and peroxyl radicals, and the anticholinesterase activity, clearly showed the efficacy of the syrup in preventing damage induced by free radicals and, thus, the applicability of this food derivative as a nutraceutical supplement.

Umile G. Spizzirri

2011-02-01

102

Replication of Holograms with Corn Syrup by Rubbing  

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Full Text Available Corn syrup films are used to replicate holograms in order to fabricate micro-structural patterns without the toxins commonly found in photosensitive salts and dyes. We use amplitude and relief masks with lithographic techniques and rubbing techniques in order to transfer holographic information to corn syrup material. Holographic diffraction patterns from holographic gratings and computer Fourier holograms fabricated with corn syrup are shown. We measured the diffraction efficiency parameter in order to characterize the film. The versatility of this material for storage information is promising. Holographic gratings achieved a diffraction efficiency of around 8.4% with an amplitude mask and 36% for a relief mask technique. Preliminary results using corn syrup as an emulsion for replicating holograms are also shown in this work.

Arturo Olivares-Pérez

2012-08-01

103

Laboratory experiments on fragmentation of highly-viscous bubbly syrup  

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Fragmentation of vesicular magma by rapid decompression is a key process in explosive eruptions. To determine the fragmentation criteria, we carried out laboratory experiments on magma fragmentation using analogous materials. We used commercial syrup as an analogous material of magma, because the viscosity was widely altered by adding or subtracting water contents in the syrup. We made the bubbly syrup by adding hydrogen peroxide with manganese oxide in the syrup. The amount of hydrogen peroxide is proportional to the gas volume fraction in the syrup. We measured the rheological properties of the syrup. Zero shear viscosity ? was measured by a rotating viscometer and a fiber elongation technique. Glass transition temperature was measured by differential scanning calorimetry. The measured data indicated that the temperature dependence of viscosity was described well using Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) equation. The solid content of syrup alters the viscosity as well as the glass transition temperature, though it may hardly affect the rigidity ?, which was measured by ultrasonic test in our previous work. We used a pressurized vertical tube with a large vacuum vessel to apply the rapid decompression on the material. An acrylic container, filled with the bubbly syrup, was placed in the bottom of the pressurized tube. By rupturing the diaphragms inserted between the tube and the vacuum vessel, the bubbly syrup is rapidly decompressed due to expansion of the pressurized gas in the tube. A high-speed video camera was used to obtain sequential images of the materials. Pressure transducers were mounted on the sidewall of the tube and the bottom of the container. The initial pressure was varied from 1 MPa to 5 MPa. The gas-volume fraction of the syrup under pressure was fixed as 2 % to 20%. The viscosity varied from 105 Pa·s to 108 Pa·s. We successfully observed three principal behaviors using the present analogous material; brittle fragmentation, partial fracture and ductile expansion without crack initiation. From all the experimental data, in conclusion, the fragmentation is observed when the pressure drop ? p reaches a critical value within the order of relaxation time of syrup, which is defined as ?/?. Simultaneously, the initial gas volume fraction should be larger than a critical value, which decreases as the initial high-pressure is larger.

Kurihara, H.; Kameda, M.; Ichihara, M.

2006-12-01

104

Oral ingestion of a topical benzydamine hydrochloride-containing gynaecological preparation in association with television advertising in Italy: analysis of cases managed by a National Poison Control Centre.  

Science.gov (United States)

Objective To evaluate the impact of a television advertising campaign on the risk of oral ingestion of a topical non-prescription gynaecological preparation containing benzydamine hydrochloride. Design An interrupted time series design with data routinely collected. Setting A National Poison Control Centre. Participants 215 cases of hazardous exposure to the preparation under study occurred in Italy from January 2005 to December 2010. Primary and secondary outcome measures Mean daily rate of cases of exposure by gender in three different periods, that is, pre-advertisement period, before the advertisement was broadcast (from 1 January 2005 to 19 December 2009), advertisement period, when the advertisement was repeatedly launched (from 20 December 2009 to 27 February 2010), post-advertisement period (from 28 February 2010 to 6 March 2010); observed/expected ratios of cases, with expected cases based on data from the pre-advertisement period, adjusted for estimated variations in the number of users. Comparison of the distribution of the main characteristics of cases in the three different periods by means of Pearson's ?(2) test or Fisher's exact test. Results The adjusted observed/expected ratio of cases in women was 7.48 (95% CI 5.76 to 9.56) in the advertisement period and 2.97 (95% CI 2.24 to 3.85) in the post-advertisement period. Regarding the characteristics of cases, there was an increased proportion of cases of exposure due to confusion about the correct administration route in the advertisement and post-advertisement periods (81% and 55%, respectively, compared to 16% for the pre-advertisement period.) and of individuals with clinical effects (55%, 52% and 27%, respectively). Conclusions In Italy, an advertisement for a non-prescription medicine seems to have confused consumers regarding the administration route. This effect was observed even after the advertisement had stopped being broadcast. These results highlight the need for the monitoring of medication errors and adverse effects before, during and after advertising. PMID:22267708

Settimi, Laura; Davanzo, Franca; Lauria, Laura; Casini, Maria Luisa; Ferrazin, Fernanda

2012-01-01

105

[Non-pharmaceutical measures, topical analgesics and oral administration of glucose in pain management: Austrian interdisciplinary recommendations on pediatric perioperative pain management].  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-pharmaceutical procedures are increasingly being used in pediatric pain therapy in addition to pharmaceutical procedures and have a supporting function. This article describes the non-pharmaceutical procedures which have an influence on perioperative and posttraumatic pain in children and adolescents. Prerequisites for every adequate pain therapy are affection, imparting a feeling of security, distraction and the creation of a child-oriented environment. Topical analgesics are indicated for application to intact skin for surface anesthesia. For a safe use consideration must be given to the duration of application, the dose and the maximum area of skin treated in an age-dependent manner. For simple but painful procedures in premature infants, neonates and infants, pain can be effectively reduced by the oral administration of glucose. The positive effect is guaranteed particularly for the use in a once only pain stimulation. Non-nutritive sucking, swaddling, facilitated tucking and kangaroo mother care, for example can be used as supportive measures during slightly painful procedures. There is insufficient evidence for a pain reducing effect in older infants and small children. Physical therapeutic procedures can be used as accompanying measures for acute pain and are individually adapted. However, the limited amount of currently available data is insufficient to make a critical scientific assessment of the individual measures. The effects can, however, be observed in the daily routine practice. Psychological methods can facilitate coping with pain. In situations with mental and psychiatric comorbidities or psychosocial impairment, a psychologist should be consulted. Acupuncture and hypnosis are also a meaningful addition within the framework of multimodal pain therapy. PMID:24550025

Messerer, B; Krauss-Stoisser, B; Urlesberger, B

2014-02-01

106

Assessment of owner-administered monthly treatments with oral spinosad or topical spot-on fipronil/(S)-methoprene in controlling fleas and associated pruritus in dogs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Monitoring of the performance of flea control products under conditions of natural challenge is valuable in assessing continued effectiveness and determining the ongoing relevance of laboratory studies. A multi-clinic, investigator-blinded study was undertaken in client-owned dogs to investigate and compare the flea control provided by 3 consecutive monthly treatments of oral spinosad (SPN) or fipronil/(S)-methoprene topical (FSM) spot-on. The first household dog meeting enrollment criteria and with at least 10 fleas (whole-body flea count) served as the index dog in a household against which primary objectives were set. Stratification was based on pruritus scores at the enrollment visit and on single or multiple pet household. Index pets were randomized to treatment with either SPN or FSM, dispensed on day 0 for at-home administration by owners. All other household dogs and cats, maximum 4 pets per household, were dispensed the same treatment as the index dog (spinetoram was dispensed for cats in SPN households). Subsequent treatments were dispensed when index dogs were returned for whole-body flea counts and pruritus-scoring at visits on days 30 and 60, with final assessments on day 90 (±5 days on each occasion). Primary endpoints were the number of flea-free index dogs in each group one month after the final treatment, the reduction in owner-reported pruritus, and the reduction from baseline mean flea counts. One hundred twenty eight index dogs were enrolled (65 in the SPN arm; 63 in the FSM arm) at 10 clinics in FL (6), NC (2), LA (1), and TX (1). On day 0, geometric mean flea counts were 57.7 (range: 10-1469) and 44.8 (10-717) for the SPN and FSM groups, respectively. On Day 90, 55 of 58 (95%) and 21 of 55 (38%) index dogs completing the study were flea-free in SPN and FSM groups, respectively; mean SPN pruritus scores declined to 0.92 (6.67 on day 0), and to 3.83 (6.33 on day 0) for FSM; geometric mean flea counts (% control) were 0.08 (99.9%) and 5.19 (88.4%), for SPN and FSM groups, respectively. Between-treatment differences were highly statistically significant (p<0.0001). In conclusion, SPN provided reliable flea control in client-owned dogs, regardless of challenge level. PMID:23021262

Dryden, Michael W; Ryan, William G; Bell, Margie; Rumschlag, Anthony J; Young, Lisa M; Snyder, Daniel E

2013-01-31

107

[The intermediate form of maple syrup disease].  

Science.gov (United States)

A severely retarded and tetraspastic child died at the age of four years upon a respiratory infection with acidosis, disturbances of serum electrolytes and lactic aciduria. Brain autopsy showed a spongy degeneration and led to suspect an inborn error of amino-acid metabolism. These findings corresponded with the results of computer-tomography and were supported by post mortem amino-acid analysis. An intermediate variant of leucinosis was detected in an younger sister at the age of five months after cerebral convulsions and opisthotonic posture. The activity of the branched chain ketoacid decarboxylase in fibroblasts was reduced to 3-4% of normal. A protein restricted diet allowed a nearly normal cerebral development and improvement of computer-tomographic results. The similarity of clinical and biochemical data in both children indicate that a maple syrup urine disease was most likely the underlying disease in the older sister. Later performed electron-microscopical examinations of the older sister indicate that spongy degeneration of the central nervous system in leucinoisis is caused by a spongy myelinopathy, which is different from the alterations found in Canavan's disease, what could be pointed out for the first time. PMID:3959487

Rittinger, O; Bachmann, C; Irnberger, T; Pilz, P; Walter, G F; Wendel, U; Plöchl, E

1986-01-01

108

Economic and environmental assessment of syrup production. Colombian case.  

Science.gov (United States)

This work presents a techno-economic and environmental assessment of the glucose syrups production from sugarcane bagasse, plantain husk, cassava husk, mango peel, rice husk and corncobs. According to the economic analysis, the corncob had both, the lowest production cost (2.48USD/kg syrup) and the highest yield (0.61kgofsugars/kg of wet agroindustrial waste) due to its high content in cellulose and hemicellulose. This analysis also revealed that a heat integration strategy is necessary since the utilities consumption represent an important factor in the production cost. According to the results, the pretreatment section requires more energy in the syrup production in comparison with the requirements of other sections such as production and sugar concentration. The environmental assessment revealed that the solid wastes such as furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural affected the environmental development of the process for all the agroindustrial wastes, being the rice husk the residue with the lowest environmental impact. PMID:24686375

Dávila, Javier A; Hernández, Valentina; Castro, Eulogio; Cardona, Carlos A

2014-06-01

109

Genetical and Clinical Survey of Maple Syrup Urine Disease Patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 54-day old male infant was referred to the hospital because of weakness, lethargy, poor feeding, general hypotonia, nystagmus, pollakisuria and seizures. Blood gas analysis revealed metabolic acidosis. PT and PTT was disturbed. Brain sonography showed possible hemorrhagy in basal ganglia. The patient died in respiratory distress. Urine chromatography showed broad leucine, isoleucine and valine bands. Maple syrup urine disease was diagnosed. We review in brief genetical, biochemical and clinical aspects of maple syrup urine disease and its different types.

MT Haghi Ashtiani

2000-06-01

110

Stability studies on a cough syrup in plastic containers  

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Full Text Available Packaging of pharmaceuticals is a critical process. Plastics are unanimously used for solid dosage packaging. Due to their numerous advantages over glass, they are now being considered as an alternative to packaging of liquid dosage forms also. Cough syrups are preparations containing antitussive drugs, and are most commonly packaged in glass bottles. The interactive nature of plastics makes it essential that a detailed study be carried out before their use for any pharmaceutical packaging. The present work reports the stability and suitability of packaging antitussive syrup in plastic containers.

Gupta Renuka

2007-01-01

111

Bexarotene Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

Targretin® Topical Gel ... Topical bexarotene is used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL, a type of skin cancer) that ... Topical bexarotene comes as a gel to apply to the skin. It is usually applied once every ...

112

Oral fluoride retention after professional topical application in children with caries activity: comparison between 1.23% fluoride foam and fluoride gel  

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Full Text Available Objective: This study evaluated fluoride retention in the saliva of children with caries activity after topical fluoride application in the form of gel and foam. Methods: A cross-sectional, blind and randomized study, conducted with ten caries-active children aged between 8 and 10 years, in two stage, with a washout interval of two weeks between them. The treatments consisted of: a application of 2mL acidulated phosphate fluoride of the gel type in a mold and b application of 2mL acidulated phosphate fluoride of the foam type in a mold. After the washout, the treatments were inverted. Non-stimulated saliva was collected from the children at the times of 5, 15, 30 and 60 minutes after topical fluoride application. For statistical analysis the Student’s-t test was used, with a level of significance of 5%. Results: Saliva analysis was performed using a fluoride-specific electrode (ISE25F/ Radiometer, Copenhagen, Denmark at the Aquatic Science Center of the Federal University of Marana, which revealed differences after 5 minutes (p=0.0055 and 15 minutes (p=0.0208. The topical application of fluoride in the gel form revealed a higher concentration of fluoride in the saliva. Conclusion: There were differences in the retention of fluoride in the saliva of children with caries activity after the topical application of fluoride gel and the topical application of fluoride foam after 5 and 15 minutes of their application. The topical application of fluoride foam is recommended, on the basis of the lower probability of toxicity during its use.

Cecília Claudia Costa Ribeiro

2008-01-01

113

A double blind, randomised placebo controlled trial of topical 2% viscous lidocaine in improving oral intake in children with painful infectious mouth conditions  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Painful infectious mouth conditions are a common presentation to emergency departments. Although self limiting, painful ulcerative lesions and inflamed mucosa can decrease oral intake and can lead to dehydration. Oral analgesia is of limited efficacy and is often refused by the patient. Despite widespread use of oral 2% viscous lidocaine for many years, there is little evidence for its efficacy as an analgesic and in aiding oral intake in children with painful infectious mouth conditions. This study aims to establish the effectiveness of 2% viscous lidocaine in increasing oral intake in these children by comparing it with placebo. Methods/Design This study is a randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial of children between 6 months and 8 years of age with painful infectious mouth conditions defined as gingivostomatitis (herpetic or non herpetic, ulcerative pharyngitis, herpangina and hand foot and mouth disease as assessed by the treating clinician in association with a history of poor oral fluid intake. It will be conducted at a single tertiary paediatric emergency department in Melbourne Australia. 20 patients have already been randomised to receive 2% lidocaine or placebo in a pilot study to determine the sample size in a preplanned adaptive design. A further 80 patients will be randomised to receive either 2% lidocaine or placebo. The placebo agent is identical to lidocaine in terms of appearance, flavour and smell. All clinical and research staff involved, patients and their parents will be blinded to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint is the amount of fluid ingested by each child, expressed in ml/kg, within 60 minutes from the time of administration of the study mixture. Secondary endpoints are the proportion of patients ingesting 5 ml/kg and 10 ml/kg at 30 and 60 minutes after drug administration and the incidence of adverse events. Longer term outcomes will include the proportion of patients requiring hospital admission and length of emergency department stay. Discussion This trial will define the role of 2% lidocaine in the treatment of painful infectious mouth conditions Trial registration The trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry - ACTRN12609000566235.

Hopper Sandy M

2011-11-01

114

Determination of Microbial Load in Multivitamin and Cough Syrups Sold in Dhaka City  

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Full Text Available The production of substandard drugs and use of inappropriate methods in manufacturing medical products in pharmaceutical industries may cause non-therapeutic effect in patients particularly in children. Hence this study was conducted to determine the microbiological quality of multivitamin and cough syrups of different brands sold in local pharmacy in Dhaka city. Microbiological analysis was carried out using spread plate technique on different culture media including nutrient agar, mannitol salt agar, MacConkey agar, mFC agar, TCBS agar and SS agar for the determination of total viable bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, total coliforms, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. respectively from eleven multivitamin and twelve cough syrups. The results revealed that 50% of the cough syrup and 91% of the multivitamin syrup showed compliance with the official requirement of microbiological quality as they did not show any growth or their microbiological count is within the USP permissible limit (<102 cfu/ml. While the major contaminants in cough syrup were Staphylococcus aureus (75%, Escherichia coli (17% and total coliforms (42%, multivitamin syrup (9% contained only Staphylococcus aureus. Other pathogens like Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. could not be detected in both cough and multivitamin syrups. Although most of the multivitamin syrup (91% samples are free from potential microbial threat, some of the cough syrup (75% samples are contaminated with pathogenic bacteria. Hence potential safety measurement should be taken during the production and use of cough syrups to maintain the microbiological quality.

Abdullah Al Mamun

2014-07-01

115

Efficacy of oral azithromycin versus topical tetracycline in mass treatment of endemic trachoma / Efficacité comparée de l'azithromycine par voie orale et de la tétracycline en application locale dans le traitement de masse du trachome endémique / Eficacia de la azitromicina oral frente a la tetraciclina tópica en el tratamiento masivo del tracoma endémico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Public Health | Language: English Abstract in spanish OBJETIVO: Comparar los efectos del tratamiento masivo con azitromicina oral y con tetraciclina tópica en la prevalencia del tracoma activo. MÉTODOS: Un total de 1803 habitantes de 106 hogares de ocho aldeas de Gambia fueron distribuidos al azar por pares para que recibieran ya fuera tres dosis de az [...] itromicina a intervalos semanales o tetraciclina tópica diaria a lo largo de seis semanas. Se realizaron exámenes oftalmológicos antes del tratamiento y a los 2, 6 y 12 meses del tratamiento. RESULTADOS: Antes del tratamiento, el 16% de los participantes en el estudio presentaban tracoma activo. Dos meses después del tratamiento la prevalencia de tracoma era del 4,6% y del 5,1% en los grupos tratados con azitromicina y tetraciclina, respectivamente (razón de posibilidades (OR) ajustada = 1,09; intervalo de confianza (IC) del 95% = 0,53, 2,02). Posteriormente la prevalencia aumentó al 16% en el grupo tratado con tetraciclina, mientras que permaneció en el 7,7% en el grupo tratado con azitromicina (OR ajustada a los 12 meses = 0,52; IC95% = 0,34, 0,80). A los 12 meses de acabado el tratamiento, la prevalencia de casos nuevos en el grupo tratado con azitromicina fue menor, y la resolución del tracoma fue significativamente mejor en este grupo (OR ajustada = 2,02; IC95% = 1,42, 3,50). CONCLUSIÓN: La azitromicina oral constituye una alternativa para combatir el tracoma causante de ceguera. Es fácil de administrar, y se pueden conseguir coberturas más altas que las logradas hasta ahora. Abstract in english OBJECTIVE: To compare the impact of mass treatment with oral azithromycin and topical tetracycline on the prevalence of active trachoma. METHODS: A total of 1803 inhabitants from 106 households of eight Gambian villages were randomized, in pairs, to receive either three doses of azithromycin at week [...] ly intervals, or daily topical tetracycline over 6 weeks. Ocular examinations were conducted before treatment, and 2, 6 and 12 months after treatment. FINDINGS: Prior to treatment, 16% of the study participants had active trachoma. Two months after treatment, the prevalence of trachoma was 4.6% and 5.1% in the azithromycin and the tetracycline groups, respectively (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.53, 2.02). Subsequently, the prevalence rose to 16% in the tetracycline group, while remaining at 7.7% in the azithromycin group (adjusted OR at 12 months = 0.52; 95% CI = 0.34, 0.80). At 12 months post-treatment, there were fewer new prevalent cases in the azithromycin group, and trachoma resolution was significantly better for this group (adjusted OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.42, 3.50). CONCLUSION: Oral azithromycin therefore appears to offer a means for controlling blinding trachoma. It is easy to administer and higher coverages may be possible than have been achieved hitherto.

Nicole, Fraser-Hurt; Robin L., Bailey; Simon, Cousens; Denise, Mabey; Hannah, Faal; David C.W., Mabey.

116

Detection of adulteration in mulberry pekmez samples added various sugar syrups with ¹³C/¹²C isotope ratio analysis method.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mulberry pekmez can be adulterated in different ways either during the production process or after production is completed. To identify these adulterations, stable carbon isotope ratio analysis (SCIRA) was performed on the model examples prepared by adding saccharose syrup (SS), glucose syrup (GS) and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) into two different pure mulberry pekmez samples in the ratios of 0%, 10%, 30% and 50%. The ?(13)C ratio of the pure mulberry pekmez was determined as -26.60‰ on average, the saccharose syrup as -24.80‰, the glucose syrup as -11.20‰ and the high-fructose corn syrup as -11.40‰. In identifying the adulteration made to pekmez, especially with the high-fructose corn syrup, which is obtained from corn starch, and with the glucose syrup, the ?(13)C ratio comes into prominence. However it remains impossible identify the adulterations made with the saccharose, which is obtained from beet sugar, or invert sugar syrups. PMID:25038711

Tosun, Murat

2014-12-15

117

Oxybutynin Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

Oxybutynin topical gel is used to treat overactive bladder (a condition in which the bladder muscles contract uncontrollably and ... Topical oxybutynin comes as a gel to apply to the skin. It is usually applied once a ...

118

Tretinoin Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

Tretinoin comes in topical liquid, cream, and gel. Tretinoin usually is used daily at bedtime or once every 2 or 3 days. Follow ... nonmedicated cosmetics on cleansed skin. Do not use topical preparations with a lot of alcohol, menthol, spices, ...

119

Fluorouracil Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluorouracil cream and topical solution are used to treat actinic or solar keratoses (scaly or crusted lesions [skin areas] caused by years of too much exposure to sunlight). Fluorouracil cream and topical solution are also used to treat a type ...

120

Bimatoprost Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

Topical bimatoprost is used to treat hypotrichosis (less than the normal amount of hair) of the eyelashes ... the growth of longer, thicker, and darker lashes. Topical bimatoprost is in a class of medications called ...

 
 
 
 
121

Topical anesthesia.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

OBJECTIVE: To consider topical anesthetic options available to primary care physicians, indications for their use, and efficacy and safety of these agents as supported by the literature. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Five randomized controlled trials were retrieved that compared various topical anesthetics as well as topical anesthetics versus infiltrative anesthesia. MAIN FINDINGS: A combination of lidocaine, epinephrine, and tetracaine (LET) is currently the topical anesthetic of choice for repair o...

Keyes, P. D.; Tallon, J. M.; Rizos, J.

1998-01-01

122

Are You at Risk for Oral Cancer? (African American Men)  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... and behavioral challenges common in patients with developmental disabilities and offers strategies for providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer: What African American Men Need to Know > Are You at Risk ...

123

Lead and cadmium levels of commonly administered pediatric syrups in Nigeria: A public health concern?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fifty different pediatric syrups were randomly sampled from patent medicine stores and pharmaceutical shops within Awka, in Anambra State between November 2007 and May 2008. Syrups were ashed before digestion using conc. aqua regia, HCl:HNO3 (3:1) and lead and cadmium were assayed with AAS 205A. Results revealed that 60 and 98% of the sample size had lead and cadmium respectively. The lead levels ranged from 0.01 in chloroquine to 1.08 mg/l in magcid suspension. The highest level of cadmium was seen in magcid suspension with concentration of 2.45 mg/l while lowest concentration of 0.01 in emzolyn and colipan. About 41.2% of the locally made syrup had none detectable levels of lead while all the syrup had detectable levels of cadmium. Lead levels ranged from 0.01 mg/l in cadiphen manufactured in Dholka, India to 0.09 in maxiquine made in England. About 68.8% of the imported syrups of the imported syrups had non detectable levels of lead. Chloramphenicol and zentel albendazole syrups had 0.60 and 0.88 mg/l of cadmium respectively. Bellis cough syrup showed the lowest level (0.01 mg/l) of cadmium. Only erythromycin suspension representing 6.3% had non detectable level of cadmium of the imported syrups. Due to the Cd and Pb levels found, we suggest that the behaviour scenario (here, self administration without medical assistance) should be properly taken under control. Along with this, contamination sources or vulnerable practices during syrups preparation shoue practices during syrups preparation should be also assessed in a tiered approach, towards the minimization of noxious presence in syrups and the promotion of quality of Nigerian-made products.

124

Studies on dehydration of figs using different sugar syrup treatments.  

Science.gov (United States)

The ripe fig (Ficus carica L) fruits of cultivar cv., 'Deanna' were steam treated at 90°C and 10 psi for 5 min in autoclave. Steamed fruits were dipped in sucrose, glucose, fructose and invert sugar syrups at 50°Brix for 24 h for getting desired total soluble solids content. The treated fruits were further dried to 20% moisture in a cabinet dryer at 50-55°C. Good quality and acceptable dried figs could be prepared by using invert sugar syrup treatment. Dried figs prepared using invert sugar and packed in aluminum foil pouch and stored at ambient (27 ± 2°C) as well as refrigerated (10 ± 2°C) temperature remained in excellent condition up to 6 months. PMID:23572667

Naikwadi, P M; Chavan, U D; Pawar, V D; Amarowicz, R

2010-08-01

125

Genetical and Clinical Survey of Maple Syrup Urine Disease Patients  

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A 54-day old male infant was referred to the hospital because of weakness, lethargy, poor feeding, general hypotonia, nystagmus, pollakisuria and seizures. Blood gas analysis revealed metabolic acidosis. PT and PTT was disturbed. Brain sonography showed possible hemorrhagy in basal ganglia. The patient died in respiratory distress. Urine chromatography showed broad leucine, isoleucine and valine bands. Maple syrup urine disease was diagnosed. We review in brief genetical, biochemical and clin...

Mt, Haghi Ashtiani; Zh, Soltani

2000-01-01

126

Biochemical correlates of neuropsychiatric illness in maple syrup urine disease  

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Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of branched chain amino acid metabolism presenting with neonatal encephalopathy, episodic metabolic decompensation, and chronic amino acid imbalances. Dietary management enables survival and reduces risk of acute crises. Liver transplantation has emerged as an effective way to eliminate acute decompensation risk. Psychiatric illness is a reported MSUD complication, but has not been well characterized and remains poorly understood. We r...

Muelly, Emilie R.; Moore, Gregory J.; Bunce, Scott C.; Mack, Julie; Bigler, Don C.; Morton, D. Holmes; Strauss, Kevin A.

2013-01-01

127

Optimization of Enzymatic Production of Fructooligosaccharides from Longan Syrup  

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Full Text Available Fructooligosaccharides (FOS are nutritive and low calorie sweeteners. They have been attracted and attributed to the expansion of healthy-sugar market due to prebiotic function. Longan is one of the traditional and economic fruits in the Northern of Thailand. In addition to its typical taste and floral flavor, it is a good source of sugars. In some years, over supply of longan is reported, consequently the extra produce was discarded. This research aimed to produce FOS from longan syrup and to optimize the yield of FOS using two enzymes of Pectinex Ultra SP-L and glucose oxidase from 60°Bx of the syrup. The sugar contents of the syrup consisted of sucrose (222.2±3.6 g L-1, glucose (120.3±0.8 g L-1 and fructose (104.7±1.7 g L-1, respectively. Response surface methodology using central composite design was applied to optimize three parameters of FOS production, including pectinase (2.7-7.2 U g-1 sucrose, glucose oxidase (1022-4022 U g-1 sucrose and reaction time (7-25 h. Results showed that Pectinex Ultra SP-L concentration had a significant effect (p-1 sucrose and 8 h 41 min, respectively which resulted in the highest amount of nystose (30.27 g L-1 and 1-kestose (123.36 g L-1.

P. Thakeow

2012-01-01

128

Efeitos adversos de medicamentos tópicos e sistêmicos na mucosa bucal Adverse effects of topical and sistemic medications in the oral mucosa  

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Full Text Available Muitos medicamentos utilizados com ou sem prescrição de um profissional de saúde têm o potencial de causar reações adversas na mucosa bucal e, por esta razão, torna-se necessário que os profissionais a saúde estejam conscientes dos possíveis efeitos indesejáveis causados por cada droga, possibilitando um diagnóstico correto, e a conduta clínica adequada a fim de tomar as medidas necessárias para poder minimizá-los. Apresentamos neste trabalho uma revisão sobre os medicamentos que mais comumente podem causar estas alterações bucais.Many of the commonly used with or without medical prescription drugs potentially cause adverse reactions in the oral mucosa. Thus, it is necessary that health care providers become conscious about the possible undesired effects caused by each medication, to enable an adequate clinical conduct in order to take the necessary steps to minimize them. In this paper the authors present a review of the drugs that most commonly cause these alterations.

Caio C. S. Loureiro

2004-01-01

129

Lead and cadmium levels of commonly administered pediatric syrups in Nigeria: A public health concern?  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Fifty different pediatric syrups were randomly sampled from patent medicine stores and pharmaceutical shops within Awka, in Anambra State between November 2007 and May 2008. Syrups were ashed before digestion using conc. aqua regia, HCl:HNO{sub 3} (3:1) and lead and cadmium were assayed with AAS 205A. Results revealed that 60 and 98% of the sample size had lead and cadmium respectively. The lead levels ranged from 0.01 in chloroquine to 1.08 mg/l in magcid suspension. The highest level of cadmium was seen in magcid suspension with concentration of 2.45 mg/l while lowest concentration of 0.01 in emzolyn and colipan. About 41.2% of the locally made syrup had none detectable levels of lead while all the syrup had detectable levels of cadmium. Lead levels ranged from 0.01 mg/l in cadiphen manufactured in Dholka, India to 0.09 in maxiquine made in England. About 68.8% of the imported syrups of the imported syrups had non detectable levels of lead. Chloramphenicol and zentel albendazole syrups had 0.60 and 0.88 mg/l of cadmium respectively. Bellis cough syrup showed the lowest level (0.01 mg/l) of cadmium. Only erythromycin suspension representing 6.3% had non detectable level of cadmium of the imported syrups. Due to the Cd and Pb levels found, we suggest that the behaviour scenario (here, self administration without medical assistance) should be properly taken under control. Along with this, contamination sources or vulnerable practices during syrups preparation should be also assessed in a tiered approach, towards the minimization of noxious presence in syrups and the promotion of quality of Nigerian-made products.

Orisakwe, Orish Ebere, E-mail: eorish@aol.com [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology,College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University,Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Nduka, John Kanayochukwu [Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology Research Unit, Pure and Industrial Chemistry Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B. 5025, Awka Anambra State (Nigeria)

2009-11-15

130

Topical treatment of melasma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment. Multiple options for topical treatment are available, of which hydroquinone (HQ is the most commonly prescribed agent. Besides HQ, other topical agents for which varying degrees of evidence for clinical efficacy exist include azelaic acid, kojic acid, retinoids, topical steroids, glycolic acid, mequinol, and arbutin. Topical medications modify various stages of melanogenesis, the most common mode of action being inhibition of the enzyme, tyrosinase. Combination therapy is the preferred mode of treatment for the synergism and reduction of untoward effects. The most popular combination consists of HQ, a topical steroid, and retinoic acid. Prolonged HQ usage may lead to untoward effects like depigmentation and exogenous ochronosis. The search for safer alternatives has given rise to the development of many newer agents, several of them from natural sources. Well-designed controlled clinical trials are needed to clarify their role in the routine management of melasma.

Bandyopadhyay Debabrata

2009-01-01

131

The use of botulinum toxin and epidural analgesia for the treatment of spasticity and pain in a patient with maple syrup urine disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 7-year-old boy, weighing 18 kg, was diagnosed with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). He suffered from spasticity of the lower limbs and pain that did not respond to oral medications. Injections of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) at 10 sites and epidural analgesia with 0.125% bupivacaine were used to treat spasticity with good results. We conclude that BTX-A combined with epidural analgesia may be a useful treatment option for incapacitating, painful spasticity related to MSUD. This treatment modality allowed a comprehensive rehabilitation program to be completed and it lasted longer than 9 months. PMID:22754448

Kaki, Abdullah M; Arab, Abeer A

2012-04-01

132

The use of botulinum toxin and epidural analgesia for the treatment of spasticity and pain in a patient with maple syrup urine disease  

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A 7-year-old boy, weighing 18 kg, was diagnosed with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). He suffered from spasticity of the lower limbs and pain that did not respond to oral medications. Injections of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) at 10 sites and epidural analgesia with 0.125% bupivacaine were used to treat spasticity with good results. We conclude that BTX-A combined with epidural analgesia may be a useful treatment option for incapacitating, painful spasticity related to MSUD. This treatment moda...

Kaki, Abdullah M.; Arab, Abeer A.

2012-01-01

133

Analysis of Dextromethorphan in Cough Drops and Syrups: A Medicinal Chemistry Laboratory  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluorescence spectroscopy is used to determine the quantity of dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DM) in over-the-counter (OTC) cough drops and syrups. This experiment is appropriate for an undergraduate medicinal chemistry laboratory course when studying OTC medicines and active ingredients. Students prepare the cough drops and syrups for analysis,…

Hamilton, Todd M.; Wiseman, Frank L., Jr.

2009-01-01

134

Evaluation of Preserving Efficacy for Different Cough Syrups Manufactured by Different Pharmaceutical Companies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the current investigation is to assess the efficacy of different preservatives ingredients of different expectorant cough syrups manufactured by different pharmaceutical companies by comparing the growth of five microorganisms of known quanta of S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. The microorganisms were inoculated into syrup A (glycerol and propylene glycol, syrup B (propylene glycol and glycerin, syrup C (glycerin, propylene glycol and butyl paraben, syrup D (methyl paraben and probylparaben and normal saline as a control. All microorganisms were taken from standard stock cultures and incubated for 24 h. Growth of microorganisms into syrup was compared by counting the CFUs from a subculture of inoculated syrup at zero, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h intervals. The data showed that all the combinations of the preservatives in the four studied cough syrups behaved similarly in term of antimicrobial efficiency. The findings suggested that the preservatives mixtures of propylene glycol with glycerol or with glycerin or with butyl paraben preservatives as well as methyl paraben with probylparaben are acceptable clinically and have considerably antimicrobial activity against infectious bacteria during the 48 h studied period.

M. Khanfar

2009-01-01

135

Some compositional properties and mineral contents of carob (Ceratonia siliqua) fruit, flour and syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

The approximate composition and mineral contents of carob fruit (Ceratonia siliqua), and the traditional foods produced from this fruit, carob flour and carob syrup, were studied. Protein, crude fiber and ash content and energy values of carob syrup were lower than the values of both carob fruit and carob flour. According to the results, the total sugar content, the most important constituents of carob products, were 48.35%, 41.55% and 63.88% for fruit, flour and syrup, respectively. These products contained high amounts of calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium and phosphorus, which were the most abundant elements in carob fruits (P carob syrup, respectively. Carob flour also contained these elements in high amounts, with the addition of sodium. We extended the notion that carob fruit, flour and syrup were rich sources of carbohydrates, proteins and minerals. PMID:17852490

Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Arslan, Derya; Gökçalik, Harun

2007-12-01

136

Branched-chain Ketoacyl Dehydrogenase Deficiency: Maple Syrup Disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Classic maple syrup disease can be managed to allow a benign neonatal course, normal growth, and low hospitalization rates. The majority of affected infants that are prospectively managed have good neurodevelopmental outcome; however, acute metabolic intoxication and neurologic deterioration can develop rapidly at any age. Each episode is associated with a risk for cerebral edema, cerebrovascular compromise, and brain herniation. High plasma leucine and, possibly, alpha-ketoisocaproate are the principal neurotoxins in maple syrup disease. Plasma levels rise rapidly in association with net protein catabolism provoked by common infections and injuries. Transient periods of maple syrup disease encephalopathy appear fully reversible, leaving no clinically detectable neurologic sequelae. In contrast, prolonged amino acid imbalance, particularly if occurring during the critical period of brain development, leads to neuronal hypoplasia, a paucity of synapses, and undermyelination. Stagnated maturation and inadequate nutritional maintenance of brain structure have lifelong neurologic and behavioral consequences. Core elements of effective long-term therapy include screening and identification of asymptomatic newborns, frequent plasma amino acid monitoring, careful attention to branched-chain amino acid nurtriture, prevention of cerebral essential amino acid deficiencies, adequate provision of essential omega-3 class fatty acids and micronutrients deficient in commercial formulas, methods for home monitoring of metabolic control, and a commitment to lifelong therapy. Recognizing the risk for acute leucine intoxication depends on anticipating effects of common childhood infection and physiologic stresses on whole body protein turnover. Successful management of metabolic decompensation is based on the use of home sick-day regimens, rapid availability of branched-chain amino acid-free hyperalimentation solutions for hospitalized children, prevention of hyponatremia in patients with leucinosis, and frequent adjustments of intravenous therapies guided by plasma amino acid levels and indices of metabolic and clinical response. PMID:12791200

Strauss, Kevin A.; Morton, D. Holmes

2003-07-01

137

Growth characteristics of Saccharomyces rouxii isolated from chocolate syrup.  

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We investigated the growth parameters of Saccharomyces rouxii isolated from spoiled chocolate syrup. The optimum pH range for S. rouxii was 3.5 to 5.5, whereas the minimum and maximum pH values that permitted growth were 1.5 and 10.5, respectively. For cells grown in 0 and 60% sucrose the optimum water activity (aw) values were 0.97 and 0.96, respectively. The optimum temperature for S. rouxii increased with a decreasing aw regardless of whether glucose or sucrose was used as the humectant. T...

Restaino, L.; Bills, S.; Tscherneff, K.; Lenovich, L. M.

1983-01-01

138

Erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp successfully treated with oral prednisone and topical tacrolimus / Dermatose pustular erosiva do couro cabeludo tratada com sucesso com prednisona oral e tacrolimus topico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A dermatose pustular erosiva do couro cabeludo é uma doença inflamatória rara do couro cabeludo, de ocorrência preferencial em pacientes idosos após trauma local e com evolução para alopecia cicatricial. O caso relatado é de uma paciente idosa feminina que iniciou com pústulas dolorosas em região pa [...] rietal bilateral com aumento das lesões e exulceração local. Após o diagnóstico histológico de dermatose pustular erosiva do couro cabeludo, foi iniciada prednisona 40 mg/dia e tacrolimus 0,1% tópico. Após 10 semanas evoluiu com cicatrização completa das áreas erosadas e alopecia cicatricial. Abstract in english Erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp is a rare inflammatory disorder of the scalp, affecting elderly patients after local trauma and leading to scarring or cicatricial alopecia. Case Report: An elderly female patient complained of painful pustules on the parietal region bilaterally with progress [...] ive enlargement and ulceration. A biopsy suggested erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp and the patient was treated with prednisone 40 mg/day and 0.1% topical tacrolimus. After 10 weeks complete closure of the eroded areas was observed and a stable scarring alopecia developed.

Mariana Ribas, Zahdi; Gabriela Bestani, Seidel; Vanessa Cristina, Soares; Camila Fernanda Novak Pinheiro de, Freitas; Fabiane Andrade, Mulinari-Brenner.

139

Erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp successfully treated with oral prednisone and topical tacrolimus / Dermatose pustular erosiva do couro cabeludo tratada com sucesso com prednisona oral e tacrolimus topico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A dermatose pustular erosiva do couro cabeludo é uma doença inflamatória rara do couro cabeludo, de ocorrência preferencial em pacientes idosos após trauma local e com evolução para alopecia cicatricial. O caso relatado é de uma paciente idosa feminina que iniciou com pústulas dolorosas em região pa [...] rietal bilateral com aumento das lesões e exulceração local. Após o diagnóstico histológico de dermatose pustular erosiva do couro cabeludo, foi iniciada prednisona 40 mg/dia e tacrolimus 0,1% tópico. Após 10 semanas evoluiu com cicatrização completa das áreas erosadas e alopecia cicatricial. Abstract in english Erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp is a rare inflammatory disorder of the scalp, affecting elderly patients after local trauma and leading to scarring or cicatricial alopecia. Case Report: An elderly female patient complained of painful pustules on the parietal region bilaterally with progress [...] ive enlargement and ulceration. A biopsy suggested erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp and the patient was treated with prednisone 40 mg/day and 0.1% topical tacrolimus. After 10 weeks complete closure of the eroded areas was observed and a stable scarring alopecia developed.

Mariana Ribas, Zahdi; Gabriela Bestani, Seidel; Vanessa Cristina, Soares; Camila Fernanda Novak Pinheiro de, Freitas; Fabiane Andrade, Mulinari-Brenner.

2013-10-01

140

Clindamycin Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

Topical clindamycin is used to treat acne. Clindamycin is in a class of medications called lincomycin antibiotics. It works by slowing or stopping the growth of bacteria that cause acne and by decreasing ...

 
 
 
 
141

Estradiol Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

... used to treat and prevent hot flushes (hot flashes; sudden strong feelings of heat and sweating) in ... and moisture (not in the bathroom). Do not freeze topical estradiol. Keep estradiol gel away from open ...

142

Tacrolimus Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

Tacrolimus ointment is used to treat the symptoms of eczema (atopic dermatitis; a skin disease that causes ... whose eczema has not responded to another medication. Tacrolimus is in a class of medications called topical ...

143

Herpes - oral  

Science.gov (United States)

... HSV-2 is spread to the mouth during oral sex, causing oral herpes. Herpes viruses spread easily. You ... if someone has oral herpes. Do not have oral sex if you have oral herpes, especially if you ...

144

Topic tacrolimus, alternative treatment for oral erosive lichen planus resistant to steroids: A case report / Tacrolimus tópico, tratamiento alternativo para liquen plano erosivo de mucosa resistente a corticoides: A propósito de un caso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish El liquen plano es una enfermedad mucocutánea de etiología desconocida y patogenia autoinmune. Existen tres variantes de liquen plano: la forma reticular, la forma en placas y la forma atrófico-erosiva. El curso es crónico con frecuentes reactivaciones. Afecta con más frecuencia a mujeres en la 4ª d [...] écada de la vida y superiores. El diagnóstico se basa en la identificación clínica de las lesiones junto a el estudio histopatológico (degeneración hidrópica de la capa basal, infiltrado de linfo-plasmocitario y ausencia de signos de displasia). Su alta prevalencia (0,5-2%), su carácter recurrente y el potencial riesgo de transformación maligna explican el gran número de opciones terapéuticas disponibles. Presentamos un caso de liquen plano erosivo, de mucosa oral, resistente a múltiples tratamientos, fundamentalmente corticoideos. En el plazo de 15 días respondió a la administración de tacrolimus al 0,1% en aplicación tópica. El artículo pretende señalar la indicación novedosa del principio activo tacrolimus, un inmunosupresor inhibidor de la calcineurina, que se ha demostrado eficaz en la solución de las lesiones erosivas. Abstract in english The lichen planus is a mucocutaneous disease with unknown etiology and auto-immune pathogenia. There have been three variants of lichen planus: the reticular, the plaque-like and the atrophic-erosive lesions. It’s a chronic disease with acute relapses that generally affects more frecuently to women [...] from the fourties. The diagnostic is based on the clinic identification of the lesions joined with the histopathologic study (basal cells hidropic degeneration, linfoplasmocitic infiltration and absence of displasy signs). The great number of therapeutic options are explained for its high prevalency (0.5-2%), its recurrence and its risk for malignant transformation. We present a case of oral erosive lichen planus, refractory to numerous treatments, mainly corticosteroids. During 15 days the lesion responded to the administration of a 0.1% tacrolimus in topic application. This article tries to show the new indication of tacrolimus, a calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressor, that it is effective in the erosive lesions treatment.

Ana, Riaño Argüelles; Raúl, Martino Gorbea; María Eugenia, Iglesias Zamora; Joaquín, Garatea Crelgo.

145

Topic tacrolimus, alternative treatment for oral erosive lichen planus resistant to steroids: A case report / Tacrolimus tópico, tratamiento alternativo para liquen plano erosivo de mucosa resistente a corticoides: A propósito de un caso  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish El liquen plano es una enfermedad mucocutánea de etiología desconocida y patogenia autoinmune. Existen tres variantes de liquen plano: la forma reticular, la forma en placas y la forma atrófico-erosiva. El curso es crónico con frecuentes reactivaciones. Afecta con más frecuencia a mujeres en la 4ª d [...] écada de la vida y superiores. El diagnóstico se basa en la identificación clínica de las lesiones junto a el estudio histopatológico (degeneración hidrópica de la capa basal, infiltrado de linfo-plasmocitario y ausencia de signos de displasia). Su alta prevalencia (0,5-2%), su carácter recurrente y el potencial riesgo de transformación maligna explican el gran número de opciones terapéuticas disponibles. Presentamos un caso de liquen plano erosivo, de mucosa oral, resistente a múltiples tratamientos, fundamentalmente corticoideos. En el plazo de 15 días respondió a la administración de tacrolimus al 0,1% en aplicación tópica. El artículo pretende señalar la indicación novedosa del principio activo tacrolimus, un inmunosupresor inhibidor de la calcineurina, que se ha demostrado eficaz en la solución de las lesiones erosivas. Abstract in english The lichen planus is a mucocutaneous disease with unknown etiology and auto-immune pathogenia. There have been three variants of lichen planus: the reticular, the plaque-like and the atrophic-erosive lesions. It’s a chronic disease with acute relapses that generally affects more frecuently to women [...] from the fourties. The diagnostic is based on the clinic identification of the lesions joined with the histopathologic study (basal cells hidropic degeneration, linfoplasmocitic infiltration and absence of displasy signs). The great number of therapeutic options are explained for its high prevalency (0.5-2%), its recurrence and its risk for malignant transformation. We present a case of oral erosive lichen planus, refractory to numerous treatments, mainly corticosteroids. During 15 days the lesion responded to the administration of a 0.1% tacrolimus in topic application. This article tries to show the new indication of tacrolimus, a calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressor, that it is effective in the erosive lesions treatment.

Ana, Riaño Argüelles; Raúl, Martino Gorbea; María Eugenia, Iglesias Zamora; Joaquín, Garatea Crelgo.

2006-12-01

146

Intermittent maple syrup urine disease: two case reports.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presenting symptoms and clinical course of 2 cases of intermittent maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) are described. Intermittent MSUD is a potentially life-threatening metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of branched-chain ?-keto acid dehydrogenase, the enzyme complex that decarboxylates the 3 branched-chain amino acids. In contrast to classic MSUD, children with the intermittent form show normal development with normal intelligence and, when asymptomatic, normal levels of branched-chain amino acids. Symptoms usually appear between 5 months and 2 years of age, when a trivial infection such as otitis media or viral gastroenteritis triggers catabolism of muscle protein. Intermittent MSUD should be suspected in cases of common infections with a clinically atypical course, especially in children displaying ataxia or marked drowsiness. PMID:24394677

Axler, Olof; Holmquist, Peter

2014-02-01

147

Molecular characterization of maple syrup urine disease patients from Tunisia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare disorder of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) metabolism caused by the defective function of branched-chain ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCKD). The disease causal mutations can occur either in BCKDHA, BCKDHB or DBT genes encoding respectively the E1?, E1? and E2 subunits of the complex. In this study we report the molecular characterization of 3 Tunisian patients with the classic form of MSUD. Two novel putative mutations have been identified: the alteration c.716A>G (p.Glu239Gly) in BCKDHB and a small deletion (c.1333_1336delAATG; p.Asn445X) detected in DBT gene. PMID:23313820

Jaafar, N; Moleirinho, A; Kerkeni, E; Monastiri, K; Seboui, H; Amorim, A; Prata, M J; Quental, S

2013-03-15

148

Diffusion-weighted MRI of maple syrup urine disease encephalopathy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report the case of a newborn child with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), diagnosed at 10 days of life. Diffusion-weighted echoplanar MRI showed marked hyperintensity of the cerebellar white matter, the brainstem, the cerebral peduncles, the thalami, the dorsal limb of the internal capsule and the centrum semiovale, while conventional dual-echo sequence evidenced only a weak diffuse T2 hyperintensity in the cerebellar white matter and in the dorsal brainstem. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of these regions was markedly (>80%) decreased. Therefore, in agreement with current hypotheses on MSUD pathogenesis, MSUD oedema proves to be a cytotoxic oedema. Diffusion-weighted MRI may be a valuable tool, more sensitive than conventional spin-echo techniques, to assess the extent and progression of cytotoxicity in MSUD, as well as the effectiveness of the therapeutic interventions. (orig.)

Cavalleri, F.; Mavilla, L. [Servizio di Neuroradiologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico, Modena (Italy); Berardi, A.; Ferrari, F. [Servizio di Neonatologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico, Modena (Italy); Burlina, A.B. [Dipartimento di Pediatria, Azienda Ospedaliera, Universita di Padova, Padua (Italy)

2002-06-01

149

Diffusion-weighted MRI of maple syrup urine disease encephalopathy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report the case of a newborn child with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), diagnosed at 10 days of life. Diffusion-weighted echoplanar MRI showed marked hyperintensity of the cerebellar white matter, the brainstem, the cerebral peduncles, the thalami, the dorsal limb of the internal capsule and the centrum semiovale, while conventional dual-echo sequence evidenced only a weak diffuse T2 hyperintensity in the cerebellar white matter and in the dorsal brainstem. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of these regions was markedly (>80%) decreased. Therefore, in agreement with current hypotheses on MSUD pathogenesis, MSUD oedema proves to be a cytotoxic oedema. Diffusion-weighted MRI may be a valuable tool, more sensitive than conventional spin-echo techniques, to assess the extent and progression of cytotoxicity in MSUD, as well as the effectiveness of the therapeutic interventions. (orig.)

150

Neurocognitive profile in a case of maple syrup urine disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is a metabolic disease with associated enzyme deficiency and an inability to break down amino acids. Neurotoxic levels can occur resulting in neurological sequelae. Information regarding cognitive functions has suggested greater verbal than visuospatial abilities. Specific neuropsychological functions have not been studied. The objective of this study is to examine the neuropsychological profile in a case of MSUD. We present a case study of a 7-year-old female who has a history of late diagnosis (7 days of age) and poor metabolic control. Consistent with existing literature, a profile of stronger verbal reasoning and memory skills compared with visual-perceptual and nonverbal memory was revealed. Additional weaknesses were demonstrated with attention, emerging executive functions, and fine motor control. The results suggest that while previously described nonverbal reasoning and visuospatial impairments are present, there is likely a more complex pattern of neuropsychological impairments in children with MSUD, especially those with poor metabolic control. PMID:20204917

Walsh, Karin S; Scott, Megan N

2010-05-01

151

Cranial computed tomography in maple syrup urine disease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cranial computed tomography in the initial stage of the intermediate phenotype of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) demonstrates diffuse, symmetric hypodensities in white and grey matter, which show a complete return to normal after early introduction of an adequate protein-restrictive diet. If diagnosis of this disease is missed or delayed, progressive global (end-stage) atrophy will take place over several years. A decrease in density values correlates well with the total cerebral lipid and water content (closely related to myelinisation), whereas progression and grade of atrophy show a relationship with the severity of pathological white and grey matter changes that are not demonstrable with computed tomography but can be proven histologically. Analysis of both morphological parameters corresponds well with clinical-neurological outcome and therapeutic success.

Irnberger, T.; Ploechl, E.; Rittinger, O.; Bachmann, C.; Pilz, P.; Walter, G.F.; Wendel, U.

1986-04-01

152

Cranial computed tomography in maple syrup urine disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cranial computed tomography in the initial stage of the intermediate phenotype of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) demonstrates diffuse, symmetric hypodensities in white and grey matter, which show a complete return to normal after early introduction of an adequate protein-restrictive diet. If diagnosis of this disease is missed or delayed, progressive global (end-stage) atrophy will take place over several years. A decrease in density values correlates well with the total cerebral lipid and water content (closely related to myelinisation), whereas progression and grade of atrophy show a relationship with the severity of pathological white and grey matter changes that are not demonstrable with computed tomography but can be proven histologically. Analysis of both morphological parameters corresponds well with clinical-neurological outcome and therapeutic success. (orig.)

153

29 CFR 780.819 - Production must be of unrefined sugar or syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

...AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup; Exemption From Overtime Pay Requirements Under...

2010-07-01

154

Effect of Glycerol and Glucose Syrup on Sugar Crystallization in Figs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Crystallization is an important phenomenon that affects some quality attributes such as appearance, texture and shelf life in many food materials. Sugar crystallization is a major challenge for dried fruits such as figs with low moisture levels and high sugar contents. In this study, the effect of glycerol and glucose syrup (DE = 38 on the amount of sugar crystallization in figs with different moisture contents was investigated using X-ray diffraction. The addition of glycerol and glucose syrup increased equilibrium moisture content and reduced sugar crystallization significantly. In the presence of glycerol, sugar crystallization was one third of the control. Glycerol also had greater effect compared to glucose syrup. Changes observed due to the presence of glycerol and glucose syrup could be attrinuted to the hygroscopic behavior of these additives and their ability to keep more water at a specific water activity.

A Farahnaki

2009-07-01

155

Cough syrup addiction and rampant caries: a report of two cases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugar-containing syrups such as cough medications have been recognised as potentially cariogenic, especially for chronically sick children suffering from otitis media, seizure disorder, congenital cardiac diseases and asthma. Unfortunately, an increasing number of juveniles are addicted to cough syrups containing centrally-acting drugs and these individuals not only end up with medical and social problems, but also with dental manifestations. This paper addresses the latter problem with the help of two illustrative cases. PMID:11901787

Siu, Adam S C; Chu, Frederick C S; Yip, Hak Kong

2002-01-01

156

A New Approach of Syrup Manufacturing Using Fuzzy Time Control Discrete Event System  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pharmaceutical industries of world are manufacturing their most of the goods in syrup form. The proposed study relates with the designing of medicated syrup manufacturing using the fuzzy time control discrete event system. The system is designed with three inputs; viscosity, specific gravity, and chemical selection. And eight outputs temperature, temperature time, mixing speed, mixing time, valve, valve opening time, PH at current liquid temperature, and PH time. System is controlled by contr...

Syed Fazil Bin Farukh; Saleem Khan, M.

2013-01-01

157

Interannual and spatial variability of maple syrup yield as related to climatic factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sugar maple syrup production is an important economic activity for eastern Canada and the northeastern United States. Since annual variations in syrup yield have been related to climate, there are concerns about the impacts of climatic change on the industry in the upcoming decades. Although the temporal variability of syrup yield has been studied for specific sites on different time scales or for large regions, a model capable of accounting for both temporal and regional differences in yield is still lacking. In the present study, we studied the factors responsible for interregional and interannual variability in maple syrup yield over the 2001–2012 period, by combining the data from 8 Quebec regions (Canada and 10 U.S. states. The resulting model explained 44.5% of the variability in yield. It includes the effect of climatic conditions that precede the sapflow season (variables from the previous growing season and winter, the effect of climatic conditions during the current sapflow season, and terms accounting for intercountry and temporal variability. Optimal conditions for maple syrup production appear to be spatially restricted by less favourable climate conditions occurring during the growing season in the north, and in the south, by the warmer winter and earlier spring conditions. This suggests that climate change may favor maple syrup production northwards, while southern regions are more likely to be negatively affected by adverse spring conditions.

Louis Duchesne

2014-06-01

158

Effect of Wheat Germ Addition on Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Date Syrup  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Wheat germ was utilized for improvement in quality and nutritive value of date syrup in the present study. Some physicochemical (total soluble solids, water activity, pH, consistency, color and antioxidant properties of different date syrup/wheat germ blends (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% wheat germ were investigated. Total soluble solids and pH of date syrup were slightly affected by addition of wheat germ. The consistency values of blends were increased by increasing wheat germ addition, while, water activity values were gradually decreased (0.677-0.655. Significant differences (p<0.05 in the CIE L* a* b* color values for date syrup/wheat germ blends were noticed. The phenolic content of blends was slightly affected by wheat germ addition. Non significant differences (p<0.05 were observed in the antioxidant activity (192-200 TEAC ?mol/100 g sample among the date syrup/wheat germ blends. Results showed that blends containing 2, 4 and 6% wheat germ presented a higher overall acceptability. The obtained results suggest that wheat germ could be used for improvement in quality and nutritive value of date syrup.

Abdalla S.M. Ammar

2012-01-01

159

2-acetylfuran-3-glucopyranoside as a novel marker for the detection of honey adulterated with rice syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

The determination of honey authenticity is of importance to ensure its quality and safety. There is an urgent need of effective methods to detect adulterated honey. A simple, rapid, and effective HPLC-DAD method was developed to detect honey adulteration by rice syrup, using a characteristic compound from rice syrup, which is presently difficult to detect by current analytical methods. The characteristic compound was identified as 2-acetylfuran-3-glucopyranoside (AFGP) by MS and NMR. Based on HPLC analyses, the average concentration of AFGP was 92 ± 60 mg/kg in rice syrup. However, AFGP was not detected in any of the natural honey samples, so it could be used as a marker for the detection of honey adulteration by rice syrup. The developed method enabled a rapid detection of honey samples adulterated with 10% rice syrup. Using the developed method, 16 out of 186 honey samples from some markets were found to be adulterated with rice syrup. PMID:23844945

Xue, Xiaofeng; Wang, Qiang; Li, Yi; Wu, Liming; Chen, Lanzhen; Zhao, Jing; Liu, Fengmao

2013-08-01

160

Topical cholesterol in clofazimine induced ichthyosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Topical application of 10% cholesterol in petrolatum significantly (P< 0.05 controlled the development of ichthyosis in 62 patients taking 100 mg clofazimine daily for a period of 3 months. However, topical cholesterol application did not affect the lowering of serum cholesterol induced by oral clofazimine. Probable mechanism of action is being discussed.

Pandey S

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Descriptive Discourse: Topic Familiarity and Disfluencies  

Science.gov (United States)

This investigation was undertaken to address questions about topic familiarity and disfluencies during oral descriptive discourse of adult speakers. Participants expressed more attributes when the topic was familiar than when it was unfamiliar. Fillers and lexical pauses were the most frequent disfluencies. The mean duration of each hesitation…

Merlo, Sandra; Mansur, Leticia Lessa

2004-01-01

162

Palm tree syrup: nutritional composition of a natural edulcorant Miel de palma: composición nutricional de un edulcorante natural  

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Introduction: Palm syrup is a typical product from the Canary Islands, traditionally produced from the sap of the tropical palm tree Phoenix canariensis. Its high caloric content has led to its increasing use as a health food supplement for athletes, children and elderly. Furthermore, demand for this natural syrup is continuously increasing due also to its medicinal uses in homeopathic medicine. Objective: Palm Tree syrup samples prepared with palm sap from primary producers in La Gomera isla...

Luis, G.; Rubio, C.; Gutie?rrez, A. J.; Herna?ndez, C.; Gonza?lez-weller, D.; Revert, C.; Castilla, A.; Abreu, P.; Hardisson, A.

2012-01-01

163

Identification, classification, and discrimination of agave syrups from natural sweeteners by infrared spectroscopy and HPAEC-PAD.  

Science.gov (United States)

Agave syrups are gaining popularity as new natural sweeteners. Identification, classification and discrimination by infrared spectroscopy coupled to chemometrics (NIR-MIR-SIMCA-PCA) and HPAEC-PAD of agave syrups from natural sweeteners were achieved. MIR-SIMCA-PCA allowed us to classify the natural sweeteners according to their natural source. Natural syrups exhibited differences in the MIR spectra region 1500-900 cm(-1). The agave syrups displayed strong absorption in the MIR spectra region 1061-1,063 cm(-1), in agreement with their high fructose content. Additionally, MIR-SIMCA-PCA allowed us to differentiate among syrups from different Agave species (Agavetequilana and Agavesalmiana). Thin-layer chromatography and HPAEC-PAD revealed glucose, fructose, and sucrose as the principal carbohydrates in all of the syrups. Oligosaccharide profiles showed that A. tequilana syrups are mainly composed of fructose (>60%) and fructooligosaccharides, while A. salmiana syrups contain more sucrose (28-32%). We conclude that MIR-SIMCA-PCA and HPAEC-PAD can be used to unequivocally identify and classified agave syrups. PMID:25148997

Mellado-Mojica, Erika; López, Mercedes G

2015-01-15

164

Liquen Plano Oral / Oral Lichen Planus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El Liquen Plano Oral es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica con fisiopatología inmune. Afecta piel, mucosa oral y genital, cuero cabelludo y uñas. Al agrupar diversas características clínicas e histopatológicas se puede clasificar como: reticular, papular, en placa, erosivo, atrófico y bulloso. Su t [...] ratamiento está orientado al alivio de la sintomatología, a la eliminación de factores locales traumáticos y a la administración de diversos agentes como: esteroides tópicos, sistémicos, retinoides e incluso sustancias naturales como la cúrcuma. Abstract in english Oral lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory disease with immune pathophysiology It affects skin, oral and genital mucosa, scalp and nails. By grouping various clinical and histopathologic features can distinguish different clinical presentations: reticular, papular, plaque, erosive, atrophic and bu [...] llous. Treatment is aimed at relief of symptoms, removal of local traumatic factors and administration of various agents such as topical and systemic steroids, retinoids and even natural substances like turmeric.

Adriana, Colonia; Luis Fernando, Vélez.

165

Liquen Plano Oral / Oral Lichen Planus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El Liquen Plano Oral es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica con fisiopatología inmune. Afecta piel, mucosa oral y genital, cuero cabelludo y uñas. Al agrupar diversas características clínicas e histopatológicas se puede clasificar como: reticular, papular, en placa, erosivo, atrófico y bulloso. Su t [...] ratamiento está orientado al alivio de la sintomatología, a la eliminación de factores locales traumáticos y a la administración de diversos agentes como: esteroides tópicos, sistémicos, retinoides e incluso sustancias naturales como la cúrcuma. Abstract in english Oral lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory disease with immune pathophysiology It affects skin, oral and genital mucosa, scalp and nails. By grouping various clinical and histopathologic features can distinguish different clinical presentations: reticular, papular, plaque, erosive, atrophic and bu [...] llous. Treatment is aimed at relief of symptoms, removal of local traumatic factors and administration of various agents such as topical and systemic steroids, retinoids and even natural substances like turmeric.

Adriana, Colonia; Luis Fernando, Vélez.

2011-07-01

166

EVALUATION OF ACUTE TOXICITY STUDY AND DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF URAL SYRUP  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There are considerable amount of scientific evidences available for diuretic activity of individual ingredients of a polyherbal formulation Ural Syrup however no evidence has been found which proves overall safety and efficacy of the formulation. The present study was undertaken to investigate safety as well as Diuretic activity of this polyherbal formulation- Ural Syrup. Acute toxicity study was carried out as per OECD Guideline 420. The Ural syrup (1.8mL/kg and 3.6mL/kg was tested for its diuretic activity on rat model. Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ (10mg/kg was used as positive control in study. The diuretic effect of the Ural syrup was evaluated by measuring urine volume, pH and excretion of sodium and potassium content. In result, significant increase in urine volume was observed at both dosage levels of Ural syrup in comparison to normal control group. There was no significant change observed in pH of urine. The excretion of Sodium was also found significantly increased at both dosage levels but more in TEDx2 group with respect to TED group. Potassium excretion was found increased only at TEDx2 group as compared to normal control group. It can be concluded that Ural syrup produced considerable diuretic effect which appeared to be comparable to that produced by the reference diuretic HCTZ. There was no lethality and toxic reaction found among the tested animals. The present study provides scientific support that Ural syrup can be employed as a safe and effective diuretic drug.

Thakkar Tejas

2013-08-01

167

Comprehensive review on oral disintegrating films.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fast-dissolving drug-delivery systems were first developed in the late 1970s as an alternative to tablets, capsules, and syrups for pediatric and geriatric patients who experience difficulties swallowing traditional oral solid dosage forms. In response to this need, a variety of orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) formats were commercialized, which disintegrate within 1 min when placed in the mouth without drinking water or chewing. Oral drug delivery technology has improved from conventional dosage forms to modified release dosage forms to ODT to the recent oral disintegrating films (ODF). Oral disintegrating film or strip that employs a water dissolving polymer which allows the dosage form to quickly hydrate by saliva, adhere to mucosa, and disintegrate within a few seconds, dissolve and releases medication for oromucosal absorption when placed on the tongue or oral cavity. Oral strip technology provides an alternate route for drugs with first pass metabolism. This review give details of materials used in ODF, manufacturing aspects, technologies, evaluation tests and marketed products. PMID:22920576

Nagaraju, T; Gowthami, R; Rajashekar, M; Sandeep, S; Mallesham, M; Sathish, D; Kumar, Y Shravan

2013-02-01

168

Identification of hydrolyzed inulin syrup and high-fructose corn syrup in apple juice by capillary gas chromatography: PVM 4:1999.  

Science.gov (United States)

A peer-verified, gas chromatographic (GC) method is presented for the identification of hydrolyzed inulin syrup (HIS) and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) in apple juice. The procedure involves determining the Brix value of the apple juice or apple juice concentrate and preparing a dilution of the test sample to 5.5 degrees Brix. A 100 microL aliquot of the 5.5 degrees Brix test solution is then freeze-dried in a GC autosampler vial. The sugars in the freeze-dried residue are converted to trimethylsilyl derivatives, by the addition of an appropriate silylation reagent, and the vial is heated at 75 degrees C for 30 min. After derivatization, the solution is introduced into a gas chromatograph where the analytes are separated on a 30 m, 0.25 mm id DB-5 column. The method can use hydrogen, helium, or nitrogen as the carrier gas. The analytes and marker compounds are measured by use of a flame ionization detecone of the 2 syrups at 2 levels. Dilution was ascertained by the presence of retrograde sugar markers found in the 2 sugar syrups. All 3 laboratories involved in the study were able to identify the correct diluent in the blind, randomly coded, apple juice test portions. The levels of dilution in the test portions were 0, 6.9% (HIS), 16.0% (HIS), 8.1% (HFCS), and 17.0% (HFCS). No false positive results were reported. Quantitative conclusions can be drawn when the same syrup is used for dilution and as a reference standard. PMID:11324615

Low, N H; McLaughlin, M A; Page, S W; Canas, B J; Brause, A R; Low, N H

2001-01-01

169

Biochemical correlates of neuropsychiatric illness in maple syrup urine disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of branched chain amino acid metabolism presenting with neonatal encephalopathy, episodic metabolic decompensation, and chronic amino acid imbalances. Dietary management enables survival and reduces risk of acute crises. Liver transplantation has emerged as an effective way to eliminate acute decompensation risk. Psychiatric illness is a reported MSUD complication, but has not been well characterized and remains poorly understood. We report the prevalence and characteristics of neuropsychiatric problems among 37 classical MSUD patients (ages 5-35 years, 26 on dietary therapy, 11 after liver transplantation) and explore their underlying mechanisms. Compared with 26 age-matched controls, MSUD patients were at higher risk for disorders of cognition, attention, and mood. Using quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we found lower brain glutamate, N-acetylaspartate (NAA), and creatine concentrations in MSUD patients, which correlated with specific neuropsychiatric outcomes. Asymptomatic neonatal course and stringent longitudinal biochemical control proved fundamental to optimizing long-term mental health. Neuropsychiatric morbidity and neurochemistry were similar among transplanted and nontransplanted MSUD patients. In conclusion, amino acid dysregulation results in aberrant neural networks with neurochemical deficiencies that persist after transplant and correlate with neuropsychiatric morbidities. These findings may provide insight into general mechanisms of psychiatric illness. PMID:23478409

Muelly, Emilie R; Moore, Gregory J; Bunce, Scott C; Mack, Julie; Bigler, Don C; Morton, D Holmes; Strauss, Kevin A

2013-04-01

170

Biochemical correlates of neuropsychiatric illness in maple syrup urine disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of branched chain amino acid metabolism presenting with neonatal encephalopathy, episodic metabolic decompensation, and chronic amino acid imbalances. Dietary management enables survival and reduces risk of acute crises. Liver transplantation has emerged as an effective way to eliminate acute decompensation risk. Psychiatric illness is a reported MSUD complication, but has not been well characterized and remains poorly understood. We report the prevalence and characteristics of neuropsychiatric problems among 37 classical MSUD patients (ages 5–35 years, 26 on dietary therapy, 11 after liver transplantation) and explore their underlying mechanisms. Compared with 26 age-matched controls, MSUD patients were at higher risk for disorders of cognition, attention, and mood. Using quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we found lower brain glutamate, N-acetylaspartate (NAA), and creatine concentrations in MSUD patients, which correlated with specific neuropsychiatric outcomes. Asymptomatic neonatal course and stringent longitudinal biochemical control proved fundamental to optimizing long-term mental health. Neuropsychiatric morbidity and neurochemistry were similar among transplanted and nontransplanted MSUD patients. In conclusion, amino acid dysregulation results in aberrant neural networks with neurochemical deficiencies that persist after transplant and correlate with neuropsychiatric morbidities. These findings may provide insight into general mechanisms of psychiatric illness. PMID:23478409

Muelly, Emilie R.; Moore, Gregory J.; Bunce, Scott C.; Mack, Julie; Bigler, Don C.; Morton, D. Holmes; Strauss, Kevin A.

2013-01-01

171

Oral cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

... the immune system (immunosuppressants) Poor dental and oral hygiene Some oral cancers begin as a white plaque ( leukoplakia ) or ... use Visiting the dentist regularly and practicing good oral hygiene

172

Oral fungal infections.  

Science.gov (United States)

Candidiasis is the most common oral fungal infection diagnosed in humans. Candidiasis may result from immune system dysfunction or as a result of local or systemic medical treatment. Because oral candidiasis is generally a localized infection, topical treatment methods are the first line of therapy, especially for the pseudomembranous and erythematous variants. Patients with dental prostheses should also be advised to disinfect the prosthesis routinely during the candidal treatment period, because the prosthesis may serve as a source of reinfection. Additionally, patients should be advised that oral hygiene aids, such as toothbrushes and denture brushes, may also be contaminated and should be discarded or disinfected. A disinfecting solution of equal parts of hydrogen peroxide and water may be used. Likewise, 2% chlorhexidine gluconate solution may be used asa disinfecting solution for dental prostheses and oral hygiene aids. Occasionally the clinician encounters a more resistant form of oral candidiasis such as the hyperplastic variant or a variant that does not respond to topical therapy. Appropriate systemic therapy should be employed for the treatment of these infections. Additionally, a biopsy should be undertaken in individuals with the hyperplastic variant of Candida because there is some degree of risk for malignant transformation. Deep fungal infections should be managed in association with appropriate medical specialists to rule out other systemic involvement. The dental health care provider plays an important part in the diagnosis and management of fungal disease, and therefore clinicians should be aware of the presenting signs and symptoms or oral fungal disease. PMID:15567360

Muzyka, Brian C

2005-01-01

173

FTIR characterization of Mexican honey and its adulteration with sugar syrups by using chemometric methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A chemometric analysis of adulteration of Mexican honey by sugar syrups such as corn syrup and cane sugar syrup was realized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to measure the absorption of a group of bee honey samples from central region of Mexico. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to process FTIR spectra to determine the adulteration of bee honey. In addition to that, the content of individual sugars from honey samples: glucose, fructose, sucrose and monosaccharides was determined by using PLS-FTIR analysis validated by HPLC measurements. This analytical methodology which is based in infrared spectroscopy and chemometry can be an alternative technique to characterize and also to determine the purity and authenticity of nutritional products as bee honey and other natural products.

174

FTIR characterization of Mexican honey and its adulteration with sugar syrups by using chemometric methods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A chemometric analysis of adulteration of Mexican honey by sugar syrups such as corn syrup and cane sugar syrup was realized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to measure the absorption of a group of bee honey samples from central region of Mexico. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to process FTIR spectra to determine the adulteration of bee honey. In addition to that, the content of individual sugars from honey samples: glucose, fructose, sucrose and monosaccharides was determined by using PLS-FTIR analysis validated by HPLC measurements. This analytical methodology which is based in infrared spectroscopy and chemometry can be an alternative technique to characterize and also to determine the purity and authenticity of nutritional products as bee honey and other natural products.

Rios-Corripio, M A; Rojas-Lopez, M; Delgado-Macuil, R [CIBA-Tlaxcala, IPN, Tlaxcala, Tlax. (Mexico); Rios-Leal, E, E-mail: marlonrl@yahoo.com.mx [CINVESTAV, Zacatenco, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

2011-01-01

175

Optimization of Osmotic Dehydration of Apples Slices in Dates Syrup Using the Response Surface Methodology  

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Full Text Available Osmotic dehydration of apple slices in continuous kinetic was studied using dates syrup at different concentration (52-74%, temperature (30-60°C, time (15-240 min. The response surface methodology was used to optimize effects of temperature, syrup concentration and immersion time in osmotic dehydration of apples slices in date syrup. A composite central design was used with water loss (WL% and solid gain (SG % as responses. The models obtained for all the responses were significant (p<0.05. The optimal conditions for maximum water loss and solid gains (75.52 and 17.92% correspond to 60°C for a concentration of 74% (w/w during 240 min.

H. Acheheb

2014-01-01

176

Utilization of Labneh Whey Lactose Hydrolyzed Syrup in Baking and Confectionery  

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Full Text Available Hydrolyzed labneh whey lactose syrup was obtained by the action of immobilized Beta-galactosidase enzyme using fluidized bed reactor system. The obtained sweet syrup was used as sugar replacement in three products (French - type bread, Cherry cake and Kunafah syrup. The sensory evaluation results showed that bread made with 25% sugar replacement level was better than the control one. For (Cherry cake and Kunafah there were no significant differences between the products made with 25% sugar replacement level and the control samples. The bread dough mad with 25% sugar replacement had a better rheological properties with regards to stability, rate of absorption and mechanical tolerance indication. The nutritional value of the newly developed product was improved with regards to high amount of protein content compared to control products. No microbial growth was detected in both control and new developed bread products during storage.

Malik Hadadin

2012-01-01

177

Protein and leucine metabolism in maple syrup urine disease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Constant infusions of (13C)leucine and (2H5)phenylalanine were used to trace leucine and protein kinetics, respectively, in seven children with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) and eleven controls matched for age and dietary protein intake. Despite significant elevations of plasma leucine (mean 351 mumol/l, range 224-477) in MSUD subjects, mean whole body protein synthesis (3.78 +/- 0.42 (SD) g.kg-1. 24 h-1) and catabolism (4.07 +/- 0.46) were similar to control values (3.69 +/- 0.50 and 4.09 +/- 0.50, respectively). The relationship between phenylalanine and leucine fluxes was also similar in MSUD subjects (mean phenylalanine-leucine flux ratio 0.35 +/- 0.07) and previously reported adult controls (0.33 +/- 0.02). Leucine oxidation was undetectable in four of the MSUD subjects and very low in the other three (less than 4 mumol.kg-1.h-1; controls 13-20). These results show that persistent elevation in leucine concentration has no effect on protein synthesis. The marked disturbance in leucine metabolism in MSUD did not alter the relationship between rates of catabolism of protein to phenylalanine and leucine, which provides further support for the validity of the use of a single amino acid to trace whole body protein metabolism. The minimal leucine oxidation in MSUD differs from findings in other inborn metabolic errors and indicates that in patients with classical MSUD there is no significant route of leucine disposal other than through protein synthesis.

Thompson, G.N.; Bresson, J.L.; Pacy, P.J.; Bonnefont, J.P.; Walter, J.H.; Leonard, J.V.; Saudubray, J.M.; Halliday, D. (Clinical Research Centre, Harrow (England))

1990-04-01

178

Protein and leucine metabolism in maple syrup urine disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Constant infusions of [13C]leucine and [2H5]phenylalanine were used to trace leucine and protein kinetics, respectively, in seven children with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) and eleven controls matched for age and dietary protein intake. Despite significant elevations of plasma leucine (mean 351 mumol/l, range 224-477) in MSUD subjects, mean whole body protein synthesis [3.78 +/- 0.42 (SD) g.kg-1. 24 h-1] and catabolism (4.07 +/- 0.46) were similar to control values (3.69 +/- 0.50 and 4.09 +/- 0.50, respectively). The relationship between phenylalanine and leucine fluxes was also similar in MSUD subjects (mean phenylalanine-leucine flux ratio 0.35 +/- 0.07) and previously reported adult controls (0.33 +/- 0.02). Leucine oxidation was undetectable in four of the MSUD subjects and very low in the other three (less than 4 mumol.kg-1.h-1; controls 13-20). These results show that persistent elevation in leucine concentration has no effect on protein synthesis. The marked disturbance in leucine metabolism in MSUD did not alter the relationship between rates of catabolism of protein to phenylalanine and leucine, which provides further support for the validity of the use of a single amino acid to trace whole body protein metabolism. The minimal leucine oxidation in MSUD differs from findings in other inborn metabolic errors and indicates that in patients with classical MSUD there is no significant route of leucine disposal other than through protein synthesis

179

The effects of 90-day feeding of D-psicose syrup in male wistar rats  

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D-Psicose is a rare sugar present in small quantities in natural products. In a previous study, we showed that D-psicose suppresses increase in plasma glucose and reduces body fat accumulation in rats. Based on acute and chronic toxicity testing in rats, D-psicose is classified as an ordinary and safe substance. Recently, we developed a high D-psicose syrup (PS) made from high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) by the alkaline isomerization method. However, the safety of PS as a food additive has not...

Tatsuhiro Matsuo; Reika Ishii; Yoko Shirai

2011-01-01

180

A New Approach of Syrup Manufacturing Using Fuzzy Time Control Discrete Event System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pharmaceutical industries of world are manufacturing their most of the goods in syrup form. The proposed study relates with the designing of medicated syrup manufacturing using the fuzzy time control discrete event system. The system is designed with three inputs; viscosity, specific gravity, and chemical selection. And eight outputs temperature, temperature time, mixing speed, mixing time, valve, valve opening time, PH at current liquid temperature, and PH time. System is controlled by controlling the four parameters; valve selection, temperature monitoring unit, mixing motor, and PH control unit. System takes feed back from four sensors and time control rules are formulated and simulated using MATLAB tool box.

Syed Fazil Bin Farukh

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
181

Treatment of pediculosis capitis with topical albendazole.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pediculosis capitis, or head lice infestation, caused by Pediculus humanus capitis, is a common and ubiquitous health concern. Increasing resistance and treatment failures are reported with available topical pediculicides and may prove challenging to manage. Recent data indicate that the oral anti-helmintic agents thiabendazole and albendazole could represent new therapeutic options against pediculosis capitis. We report a novel treatment modality in four patients with head lice who were successfully treated with a topical application of albendazole. PMID:20964575

Ayoub, Nakhlé; Maatouk, Ismaël; Merhy, Martin; Tomb, Roland

2012-02-01

182

Detection of adulteration in honey samples added various sugar syrups with 13C/12C isotope ratio analysis method.  

Science.gov (United States)

Honey can be adulterated in various ways. One of the adulteration methods is the addition of different sugar syrups during or after honey production. Starch-based sugar syrups, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), glucose syrup (GS) and saccharose syrups (SS), which are produced from beet or canes, can be used for adulterating honey. In this study, adulterated honey samples were prepared with the addition of HFCS, GS and SS (beet sugar) at a ratio of 0%, 10%, 20%, 40% and 50% by weight. (13)C/(12)C analysis was conducted on these adulterated honey samples using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer in combination with an elemental analyser (EA-IRMS). As a result, adulteration using C(4) sugar syrups (HFCS and GS) could be detected to a certain extent while adulteration of honey using C(3) sugar syrups (beet sugar) could not be detected. Adulteration by using SS (beet sugar) still has a serious detection problem, especially in countries in which beet is used in manufacturing sugar. For this reason, practice and analysis methods are needed to meet this deficit and to detect the adulterations precisely in the studies that will be conducted. PMID:23411291

Tosun, Murat

2013-06-01

183

Management of maple syrup urine disease in the peri-operative period.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) has an incidence of 1:125,000 newborns in Ireland. Patients, when fasting, or in a catabolic state build up toxic metabolites leading to progressive neurological dysfunction. We describe the necessary peri-operative management of a patient with MSUD who developed symptomatic gallstones requiring a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:24416851

McCarron, E; McCormack, O; Cronin, T; McGowan, A; Healy, M L; O'Rourke, D; Crushell, E; Ravi, N; Reynolds, J V

2013-10-01

184

Dual Mechanism of Brain Injury and Novel Treatment Strategy in Maple Syrup Urine Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism presenting with life-threatening cerebral oedema and dysmyelination in affected individuals. Treatment requires life-long dietary restriction and monitoring of branched-chain amino acids to avoid brain injury. Despite careful management, children…

Zinnanti, William J.; Lazovic, Jelena; Griffin, Kathleen; Skvorak, Kristen J.; Paul, Harbhajan S.; Homanics, Gregg E.; Bewley, Maria C.; Cheng, Keith C.; LaNoue, Kathryn F.; Flanagan, John M.

2009-01-01

185

Clinical trial of adhatoda vasica syrup (vasa) in the patients of non-ulcer dyspepsia (amlapitta).  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficacy of Vasa (Adhatoda vasica) in the form of syrup against Non-ulcer Dyspepsia (Amiapitta) through a clinical trial is attempted here. This trial showed hopeful results. The drug has reduced the total and free HCL in the patients of hyperacidity and hyperchlorhydria. PMID:22557371

Chaturvedi, G N; Rai, N P; Dhani, R; Tiwari, S K

1983-07-01

186

CLINICAL TRIAL OF ADHATODA VASICA SYRUP (VASA) IN THE PATIENTS OF NON-ULCER DYSPEPSIA (AMLAPITTA)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The efficacy of Vasa (Adhatoda vasica) in the form of syrup against Non-ulcer Dyspepsia (Amiapitta) through a clinical trial is attempted here. This trial showed hopeful results. The drug has reduced the total and free HCL in the patients of hyperacidity and hyperchlorhydria.

Chaturvedi, G. N.; Rai, N. P.; Dhani, Ram; Tiwari, S. K.

1983-01-01

187

Chemical compositional, biological, and safety studies of a novel maple syrup derived extract for nutraceutical applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup has nutraceutical potential given the macronutrients (carbohydrates, primarily sucrose), micronutrients (minerals and vitamins), and phytochemicals (primarily phenolics) found in this natural sweetener. We conducted compositional (ash, fiber, carbohydrates, minerals, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, phytochemicals), in vitro biological, and in vivo safety (animal toxicity) studies on maple syrup extracts (MSX-1 and MSX-2) derived from two declassified maple syrup samples. Along with macronutrient and micronutrient quantification, thirty-three phytochemicals were identified (by HPLC-DAD), and nine phytochemicals, including two new compounds, were isolated and identified (by NMR) from MSX. At doses of up to 1000 mg/kg/day, MSX was well tolerated with no signs of overt toxicity in rats. MSX showed antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and anti-inflammatory (in RAW 264.7 macrophages) effects and inhibited glucose consumption (by HepG2 cells) in vitro. Thus, MSX should be further investigated for potential nutraceutical applications given its similarity in chemical composition to pure maple syrup. PMID:24983789

Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Tao; Li, Liya; Nahar, Pragati; Slitt, Angela; Seeram, Navindra P

2014-07-16

188

[Topical corticosteroids versus topical inhibitors of calcineurin].  

Science.gov (United States)

Topical corticosteroids (TCC) have significantly shaped dermatological therapy for five decades. A few months ago the TCC were joined by competition, the topical inhibitors of calcineurin (TIC), wrongly termed topical immunomodulators. The present paper reviews the pharmacological effects and clinical efficacy of TIC, compares the risks, benefits and costs of those two groups of topical drugs and develops a position on the use of TIC. While TIC have ushered in a new era of topical anti-inflammatory therapy, the age of TCC is far from over. PMID:12669205

Niedner, R

2003-04-01

189

[Oral ulcers].  

Science.gov (United States)

Ulcers commonly occur in the oral cavity, their main symptom being pain. There are different ways to classify oral ulcers. The most widely accepted form divides them into acute ulcers--sudden onset and short lasting--and chronic ulcers--insidious onset and long lasting. Commonest acute oral ulcers include traumatic ulcer, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, viral and bacterial infections and necrotizing sialometaplasia. On the other hand, oral lichen planus, oral cancer, benign mucous membrane pemphigoid, pemphigus and drug-induced ulcers belong to the group of chronic oral ulcers. It is very important to make a proper differential diagnosis in order to establish the appropriate treatment for each pathology. PMID:16277953

Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Figuero-Ruiz, Elena; Esparza-Gómez, Germán Carlos

2005-10-29

190

Oral Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

... motivation of the patient. In some cases, reconstructive plastic surgery or the use of prosthetic devices can restore oral functioning to near normal levels. How is oral cancer diagnosed? Dentists and doctors are often the first ...

191

Oral Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

... oral cancer cells to begin to design targeted molecular therapies to kill the cancer cells with greater precision ... developing oral tumor. Treatment will improve as targeted molecular therapy and personalized medicine become a reality. Emerging evidence ...

192

Oral lichen planus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Lichen Planus is a mucosal disorder of established immune-mediated pathogenesis, that affects skin and/or mucosa. In general, studies disclose that the prevalence varies of 0,02 to 1,2.% of the population.Case report and conclusion: A case report of oral lichen planus diagnosed and treated in the Dental School Clinic of São Lucas College will be presented, showing the clinical results after topical corticosteroid therapy.

Hanny Paula Rodrigues MARTINS

2008-08-01

193

Development of a pilot system for converting sweet potato starch into glucose syrup  

Science.gov (United States)

Sweet potato has been chosen as one of NASA's crops to support human beings in future space missions. One of the possible uses is to make syrup that can be used as a general sweetener. In this work a simple engineering system for converting sweet potato starch into glucose syrup was studied on a laboratory scale. The system comprises the following main units: a blender, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), centrifugal and vacuum filters, deionization column and vacuum evaporator. The system was tested by carrying out conversion processes from fresh sweet potato roots. The roots were pealed, sliced, homogenized, heated and hydrolyzed by diastase of malt and Dextrozyme C (Novo Nordisk BioChem, North America, Inc.) enzymes in the CSTR. After hydrolysis the slurry was filtered, de-ionized and concentrated to get glucose syrup. The performance of the system was evaluated based on the quality of the conversion. The main factor was the level of reducing sugars except for the deionization where ash content and color were the main factors. Through careful control of the system units, good heating performance in the CSTR was obtained and the hydrolysis process attained sufficient conversion. The filtration process that incorporated the centrifuge was faster than when it was by-passed to the vacuum filter but losses in sugars were higher. Deionization removed more than 90% of the ash and reduced pigmentation, with probable insignificant losses in sugars during the deionization process. Recovery levels when the centrifuge was used and when it was by-passed could reach about 65% and 78%, respectively. These correspond to reducing sugar concentration of 259 and 310 mg/ml in 150-ml syrups from 300 g of sweet potatoes in each process. However, from concentration trials, syrups with volumes of 100 and 70 ml with the respective dextrose equivalence of 281 and 213 mg/ml were obtained. The syrups obtained were brownish in color and the process that employed centrifugal filtration gave a product with color that resembled the original color of the sweet potatoes. Further work is required to improve the overall system performance.

Silayo, Valerian C K.; Lu, John Y.; Aglan, Heshmat A.; Bovell-Benjamin, A. C. (Principal Investigator)

2003-01-01

194

Oral Melanoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Melanoma is a malignant tumor that originates from melanocyte cells. Its oral type is rare. The goal of this investigation was to determine the prevalence of oral malignant melanoma in Iran, as determined by age, sex and location. This research reviewed 623 cases of oral and non-oral malignant melanoma in Immam-Khomeini hospital, Mearaj cancer institute and department of oral pathology of dental faculty, Tehran University of Medical Sciences in a period of 19 years from 1981-1999. The results...

Forouzandeh, A.; Rostamali, G.

2002-01-01

195

Topical report review status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides industry with procedures for submitting topical reports, guidance on how the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) processes and responds to topical report submittals, and an accounting, with review schedules, of all topical reports currently accepted for review schedules, of all topical reports currently accepted for review by the NRC. This report will be published annually. Each sponsoring organization with one or more topical reports accepted for review copies

196

Oral Melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Melanoma is a malignant tumor that originates from melanocyte cells. Its oral type is rare. The goal of this investigation was to determine the prevalence of oral malignant melanoma in Iran, as determined by age, sex and location. This research reviewed 623 cases of oral and non-oral malignant melanoma in Immam-Khomeini hospital, Mearaj cancer institute and department of oral pathology of dental faculty, Tehran University of Medical Sciences in a period of 19 years from 1981-1999. The results showed that 54 cases of biopsy lesions were melanoma of oral cavity that included 7.8% of these lesions. The mean age incidence of oral melanoma was 55.5(between 26-86 years. The most prevalent sites were palate (37.1% and alveolar mucosa (20.4% and less common sites included floor of mouth. buccal mucosa and tongue.

A Forouzandeh

2002-02-01

197

Optimization of the production of maltose syrups by different enzyme combinations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Maltose syrups are of importance for the production of many sweets and baking goods. These starch hydrolysates show reduced browning capacity, retarded crystallization phenomena, and are less sweet, less viscous and less hygroscopic in comparison with syrups of higher glucose content. Enzymatic preparation of such products with regard to the influence of substrate and enzyme concentration, reaction time and added calcium on maltose formation by fungal-..cap alpha..-amylase or barley-..beta..-amylase was investigated. For increasing the maltose content pullulanase as a debranching enzyme was applied. Commercial maltodextrin was used as substrate. The maltogenic enzymes showed different substrate tolerances. High amounts of enzyme did not lead to the expected high amounts of maltose. On the other hand, low enzyme concentrations could not be compensated by extended reaction times. Different substrate tolerances also appeared when mixtures of maltogenic and debranching enzymes came into use.

Tegge, G.; Richter, G.; Richter, G.

1986-02-01

198

CLINICAL EFFICACY OF CRUX SYRUP IN THE MANAGEMENT OF COUGH DUE TO VARIOUS ETIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cough associated with acute and chronic respiratory conditions is common in patients of all ages. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical efficacy of CRUX syrup, a proprietary mixture of herbal ingredients in the management of cough of various etiological conditions in open label, uncontrolled, prospective cohort study. 55 Patients aged 9 - 64 years with cough of more than 1 day but less than 14 days duration was recruited. They were prescribed dose of CRUX syrup according to severity of cough for three days. Treatment results were assessed on the basis of Investigator’s evaluation. At the end of three days prescribed treatment, evaluator’s assessment shown that 29 % patient gave excellent, 55 % patient gave good, 11 % patient gave fair and 5 % patient gave poor response to treatment. The results demonstrate that CRUX treatment has significant decrease in the frequency and severity of cough without any significant side effect in patients of all ages.

Patel Girish

2013-10-01

199

Wernicke-like encephalopathy during classic maple syrup urine disease decompensation.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe a new neuroradiologic picture observed during metabolic decompensation in two maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) patients that resembles Wernicke encephalopathy (WE). Clinical observations and the review of the literature regarding WE and MSUD pathophysiology prompted us to hypothesize a pathogenic link between these two disorders. Based on these findings, clinicians and neuroradiologists should be aware of MSUD as a possible predisposing factor of WE in children. PMID:22350544

Manara, R; Del Rizzo, M; Burlina, A P; Bordugo, A; Citton, V; Rodriguez-Pombo, P; Ugarte, M; Burlina, A B

2012-05-01

200

The electroencephalogram in neonatal maple syrup urine disease: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Untreated maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) leads to encephalopathy in neonates and causes abnormalities on the electroencephalogram (EEG). A case is presented of MSUD with unique features consisting of a comb-like rhythm before the therapy and its disappearance with therapy is presented. This case illustrates the potential use of the EEG in the identification of this specific cause of a neonatal encephalopathy. PMID:22423553

Agadi, Satish; Sutton, Vernon R; Quach, Michael M; Riviello, James J

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Identification of a founder mutation for maple syrup urine disease in Hutterites.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an organic acidemia detected on newborn screening. The condition has been reported with increased frequency in certain founder populations including Hutterites. We present a case of MSUD in a Hutterite boy. Mutation analysis was completed and identified a candidate founder mutation in the BCKDHB gene, specifically c.595_596delAG. Further testing of other Hutterites with MSUD is needed to determine whether additional mutations may exist. PMID:24791375

Mroch, Amelia; Davis-Keppen, Laura; Matthes, Cindy; Stein, Quinn

2014-04-01

202

Comparison of breath testing with fructose and high fructose corn syrups in health and IBS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Although incomplete fructose absorption has been implicated to cause gastrointestinal symptoms, foods containing high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) contain glucose. Glucose increases fructose absorption in healthy subjects. Our hypothesis was that fructose intolerance is less prevalent after HFCS consumption compared to fructose alone in healthy subjects and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Breath hydrogen levels and gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed after 40 g of fructose (12% solution) pr...

Skoog, S. M.; Bharucha, A. E.; Zinsmeister, A. R.

2008-01-01

203

The Case of the Missing Bees High Fructose Corn Syrup and Colony Collapse Disorder  

Science.gov (United States)

Colony Collapse Disorder (CCD) has claimed approximately one-third of the commercial honeybee population in recent years. A number of causes have been suggested for this phenomenon, including the consumption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) by the bees. This directed case investigates the issues and chemistry that might be involved in CCD related to HFCS. The case was developed for use in an undergraduate organic chemistry or food chemistry course.

Bohlscheid, Jeffri C.; Dinan, Frank J.

2011-01-01

204

Classical maple syrup urine disease and brain development: Principles of management and formula design  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase deficiency results in complex and volatile metabolic derangements that threaten brain development. Treatment for classical maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) should address this underlying physiology while also protecting children from nutrient deficiencies. Based on a 20-year experience managing 79 patients, we designed a study formula to (1) optimize transport of seven amino acids (Tyr, Trp, His, Met, Thr, Gln, Phe) that compete with branched-chain amino ...

Strauss, Kevin A.; Wardley, Bridget; Robinson, Donna; Hendrickson, Christine; Rider, Nicholas L.; Puffenberger, Erik G.; Shelmer, Diana; Moser, Ann B.; Morton, D. Holmes

2010-01-01

205

Cerebral Edema in Maple Syrup Urine Disease Despite Newborn Screening Diagnosis and Early Initiation of Treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A 7-day-old girl had an elevated leucine level on newborn screen drawn at 2 days of age and was suspected of having maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). When reported, the patient was immediately admitted to hospital, and started on a modified diet involving high calories with reduced branched chain amino acid (BCAA) formula. Clinical exam was normal at initial assessment. Despite rapid initiation of treatment, the baby became lethargic and somnolent over the next day. Diet was stopped and infus...

Myers, Kenneth A.; Reeves, Melanie; Wei, Xing-chang; Khan, Aneal

2012-01-01

206

Dual mechanism of brain injury and novel treatment strategy in maple syrup urine disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism presenting with life-threatening cerebral oedema and dysmyelination in affected individuals. Treatment requires life-long dietary restriction and monitoring of branched-chain amino acids to avoid brain injury. Despite careful management, children commonly suffer metabolic decompensation in the context of catabolic stress associated with non-specific illness. The mechanisms underlying this decompe...

Zinnanti, William J.; Lazovic, Jelena; Griffin, Kathleen; Skvorak, Kristen J.; Paul, Harbhajan S.; Homanics, Gregg E.; Bewley, Maria C.; Cheng, Keith C.; Lanoue, Kathryn F.; Flanagan, John M.

2009-01-01

207

Clinical and Biochemical Profiles of Maple Syrup Urine Disease in Malaysian Children  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defects in the branched-chain ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex resulting in accumulation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and corresponding branched-chain ketoacids (BCKAs) in tissues and plasma, which are neurotoxic. Early diagnosis and subsequent nutritional modification management can reduce the morbidity and mortality. Prior to 1990s, the diagnosis of MSUD and other inborn errors of metabolis...

Yunus, Z. Md; Kamaludin, Dp Abg; Mamat, M.; Ngu, Lh

2012-01-01

208

Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine : guidelines for oral pathology and oral medicine in the dental curriculum  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In Scandinavia, as in many European countries, most patients consult their general dentist once a year or more. This gives the dentist a unique opportunity and an obligation to make an early diagnosis of oral diseases, which is beneficial for both the patient and the society. Thus, the dentist must have knowledge of clinical symptoms, local and systemic signs and clinical differential diagnoses to make an accurate diagnosis. The dentist must be competent in selecting appropriate diagnostic tests, for example, tissue biopsy and microbiological samples, and conducting them correctly, as well as in interpreting test results and taking appropriate action accordingly. Furthermore, the dentist must be aware of diseases demanding multidisciplinary cooperation and be able to recognise his/her professional limitation, and to refer to other specialists when required. The dental curriculum changes over time as new approaches, treatments and diagnostic possibilities develop. Likewise, the role of the dentist in the community changes and may vary in different countries. As members of the Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine and subject representatives of oral pathology and oral medicine, we feel obliged to contribute to the discussion of how the guidelines of the dental curriculum support the highest possible standards of dental education. This article is meant to delineate a reasonable standard of oral pathology and oral medicine in the European dental curriculum and to guide subject representatives in curriculum development and planning. We have created an advisory topic list in oral pathology and oral medicine.

Kragelund, Camilla; Reibel, J

2012-01-01

209

Methylglyoxal is associated with bacteriostatic activity of high fructose agave syrups.  

Science.gov (United States)

Three ?-ketoaldehydes, potentially present in high fructose agave syrups (HFASs) as intermediates of the Maillard reaction, were determined. A previously reported HPLC-FLD procedure based on pre-column derivatisation with 4-methoxy-o-phenylenediamine was adopted, yielding the method quantification limits 0.11 mg/kg, 0.10mg/kg, 0.09 mg/kg for glyoxal, methylglyoxal (MGo) and diacetyl, respectively. The obtained results revealed high concentrations of methylglyoxal in HFASs (average 102 ± 91 mg/kg, range 15.6-315 mg/kg) as compared to commercial Mexican bee honeys or corn syrups. Hydrogen peroxide was generated in all HFASs upon dilution, yet to less extent than in bee honeys. HFASs presented bacteriostatic activity against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli; catalase addition had minimum effect on the assay results in syrups with elevated MGo. Principal component analysis revealed direct association between growth inhibition and MGo. It is concluded that elevated concentration of MGo in HFASs is at least in part responsible for their non-peroxide bacteriostatic activity. PMID:25038697

Corrales Escobosa, Alma Rosa; Gomez Ojeda, Armando; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Magana, Armando Alcazar; Wrobel, Katarzyna

2014-12-15

210

Development and Validation of HPTLC Method for Determination of Vasicine in Polyherbal Cough Syrup  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A new and simple HPTLC method was developed and validated for the quantitative estimation of biologically active compound vasicine in polyherbal Cough Syrup. TLC aluminium plates precoated with silica gel 60F-254 (0.2 mm thickness were used. The linear ascending development was carried out in twin trough glass chamber saturated with mobile phase Ethyl acetate: methanol: ammonia (8.0 : 2.0 : 0.2 v/v/v and densitometric determination  was carried out by TLC scanner (CAMAG at 254 nm in reflectance/absorbance mode. The Rf value of vasicine was found to be 0.54 ± 0.03. Linearity was found to be in the concentration range of 200 ng to 1600 ng. The linear regression data for the calibration plots showed a good linear relationship with r2=0.99 for vasicine. According to the ICH guideline the method was validate for accuracy, precision, recovery, robustness and ruggedness. The vasicine content quantified from polyherbal formulation (Cough Syrup was found well within limits. The proposed method is accurate, precise, reproducible, and can be adopted for routine analysis of vasicine from polyherbal cough syrup by HPTLC

Unmesh Keshwar

2014-05-01

211

Alternatives for clarifying glucose syrup obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of starch  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper studies some routes for separating and purifying glucose syrup obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of potato starch. The clarifying process is done in three stages. The first one (solids remotion is done by applying conventional solid-liquid separation techniiques such as sedimentation, centrifugation and filtration, as well as studying the effect of using flocculant and coagulant agents, prior to the already mentioned operations. Purification is done by adding decolouring agents, followed by ultrafiltration of the syrup. The last step (concentration is done by vacuum evaporation. The results showed that separation, centrifuging and sedimation reached 50% yield whilst filtration and ultrafiltration achieved 78% and 98% respectively. It was found that adsorbent agents such as activated carbon and diatomaceous earth were effective in removing colour during the purification stage. The most suitable alternative for separation can be suggested from the foregoing, allowing a syrup to be obtained having similar characteristics and propierties to the commercial product. The most appropriate technological module for carrying out the operation is also represented.

Gloria Teresa Cruz Guerrero

2010-03-01

212

Major carbohydrate, polyol, and oligosaccharide profiles of agave syrup. Application of this data to authenticity analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nineteen pure agave syrups representing the three major production regions and four processing facilities in Mexico were analyzed for their major carbohydrate, polyol, and oligosaccharide profiles, as well as their physicochemical properties (pH, °Brix, total acidity, percent total titratable acidity, and color). Additionally, the detection of intentional debasing of agave syrup with four commercial nutritive sweeteners (HFCS 55 and 90, DE 42 and sucrose) was afforded by oligosaccharide profiling employing both high performance anion exchange liquid chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAE-PAD) and capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (CGC-FID). Results showed that the major carbohydrate and polyol in agave syrups were fructose and inositol with mean concentrations of 84.29% and 0.38%, respectively. Oligosaccharide profiling was extremely successful for adulteration detection with detection limits ranging from 0.5 to 2.0% for the aforementioned debasing agents. Also, all four of these possible adulterants could be detected within a single chromatographic analysis. PMID:22909406

Willems, Jamie L; Low, Nicholas H

2012-09-01

213

Diclofenac Topical (actinic keratosis)  

Science.gov (United States)

Diclofenac topical gel (Solaraze; generic) is used to treat actinic keratosis (flat, scaly growths on the skin caused by ... products for osteoarthritis, read the monograph entitled diclofenac topical (osteoarthritis pain).

214

Ciclopirox Topical Solution  

Science.gov (United States)

Ciclopirox topical solution is used along with regular nail trimming to treat fungal infections of the fingernails and toenails ( ... using ciclopirox without talking to your doctor.Ciclopirox topical solution will work best if you trim your ...

215

Diclofenac Topical (osteoarthritis pain)  

Science.gov (United States)

Diclofenac topical gel (Voltaren) is used to relieve pain from osteoarthritis (arthritis caused by a breakdown of the lining ... knees, ankles, feet, elbows, wrists, and hands. Diclofenac topical liquid (Pennsaid) is used to relieve osteoarthritis pain ...

216

Cancer Topic Searches  

Science.gov (United States)

Cancer Topic Searches are prepared literature searches of the National Library of Medicine's PubMed database. Literature citations on more than 100 different topics can be obtained. All citations on a specific topic can be retrieved, or the results can be limited by selecting one of three date ranges.

217

Freshman Health Topics  

Science.gov (United States)

This article examines a cluster of health topics that are frequently selected by students in lower division classes. Topics address issues relating to addictive substances, including alcohol and tobacco, eating disorders, obesity, and dieting. Analysis of the topics examines their interrelationships and organization in the reference literature.…

Hovde, Karen

2011-01-01

218

Oral Hygiene. Learning Activity Package.  

Science.gov (United States)

This learning activity package on oral hygiene is one of a series of 12 titles developed for use in health occupations education programs. Materials in the package include objectives, a list of materials needed, a list of definitions, information sheets, reviews (self evaluations) of portions of the content, and answers to reviews. These topics…

Hime, Kirsten

219

Hydrocortisone Oral  

Science.gov (United States)

... and after you stop taking the tablets or oral liquid, even if you switch to an inhalation. If these problems occur, call your doctor immediately. You may need to increase your dose of oral hydrocortisone temporarily or start taking it again.

220

Health benefits of oral contraceptives.  

Science.gov (United States)

A sizeable literature corroborates the multiple health benefits of oral contraceptive use. The first estrogen/progestin combination pills were marketed to treat a variety of menstrual disorders. Although currently used oral contraceptives no longer carry FDA-approved labeling for these indications, they remain important therapeutic options for a variety of gynecologic conditions. Well-established gynecologic benefits include a reduction in dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia, iron-deficiency anemia, ectopic pregnancy, and PID. Although older, higher-dose pills reduced the incidence of ovarian cysts, low-dose pills suppress follicular activity less consistently. Nevertheless, cycle-related symptoms, including functional cysts, dysmenorrhea, chronic pelvic pain, and ovulation pain (mittelschmerz), generally improve. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome note improvement in bleeding patterns and a reduction in acne and hirsutism. Symptoms from endometriosis also improve with oral contraceptive therapy. Current data suggest that oral contraceptive therapy increases bone density and that past use decreases fracture risk. Oral contraceptives also improve acne, a major health concern of young women. Oral contraceptives provide lasting reduction in the risk of two serious gynecologic malignancies--ovarian and endometrial cancer. The data with respect to ovarian cancer are compelling enough to recommend the use of oral contraceptives to women at high risk by virtue of family history, positive carrier status of the BRCA mutations, or nulliparity, even if contraception is not required. Health care providers must counsel women regarding these benefits to counteract deeply held public attitudes and misconceptions regarding oral contraceptive use. Messages should focus on topics of interest to particular groups of women. The fact that oral contraceptives increase bone mineral density and reduce ovarian cancer is of great interest to women in their forties and helps influence use and compliance in this group. In contrast, the beneficial effects of oral contraceptives on acne resonates with younger women. Getting the good news out about the benefits of oral contraceptives will enable more women to take advantage of their positive health effects. PMID:11091985

Jensen, J T; Speroff, L

2000-12-01

 
 
 
 
221

Evaluation of the Nutritional Value of Functional Yogurt Resulting from Combination of Date Palm Syrup and Skim Milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to use date palm syrup as a part of water (v/v used in reconstituting skim milk powder in processing yogurt with 14% total solids. Physical properties such as sensory characteristics and apparent viscosity were evaluated. To evaluate the nutritional value of yogurt, antioxidant values were monitored during storage and the sample which recorded the highest values would determine its chemical composition. In addition, some micronutrients (HCl-soluble minerals and (folate and C vitamins compared to plain yogurt. Results showed that yogurt enriched with 10% date syrup had a significant sweetness, recorded the highest antioxidant values, higher in HCl-soluble minerals and folate concentration compared to plain yogurt. It could be concluded that numerous health benefits beyond its nutritional value have been associated with consuming yogurt enriched with 10% date palm syrup.

A.F. Sayed

2010-01-01

222

Topical report review status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A Topical Report Review Status is scheduled to be published semi-annually. The primary purpose of this document is to provide periodic progress reports of on-going topical report reviews, to identify those topical reports for which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff review has been completed and, to the extent practicable, to provide NRC management with sufficient information regarding the conduct of the topical report program to permit taking whatever actions deemed necessary or appropriate. This document is also intended to be a source of information to NRC Licensing Project Managers and other NRC personnel regarding the status of topical reports which may be referenced in applications for which they have responsibility. This status report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the topical report program, but is also used by NRC to advise the industry of report review status

223

Malignización del liquen plano oral / Oral lichen planus malignancy  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La complicación más importante del Liquen Plano Oral (LPO), es el desarrollo de un carcinoma oral de células escamosas (COCE). Desde 1910 en que se comunicó el primer caso en una paciente con LP, se han publicado numerosos casos, y series de casos de malignización, que nos aportan cifras que varían [...] entre el 0 y el 12,5% de LPO malignizados, con periodos de seguimiento también muy variables, que oscilan entre 0,5 y 20 años. Pero estos estudios han sido refutados por un grupo de autores, que se cuestionan los criterios diagnósticos utilizados. Por todo ello, el potencial maligno del liquen plano oral, es un tema actualmente muy controvertido en Medicina Oral. Se realiza una revisión crítica de la literatura más actual sobre los conceptos clave, implicados en esta controversia. Abstract in english The most important complication of oral lichen planus (OLP), is the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). From 1910 when was reported the first case in a woman suffered OLP, many cases and cases series have been reported with values from 0 to 12,5%, and with follow-up ranking from 0,5 [...] to 20 years. But many of this cases not had been accepted by some authors who disagree with the diagnostic criteria employed. By all previously cited, the cancerization of OLP is a very controversial topic in Oral Medicine. It has been performed a critical review of the recent literature about it.

R., Cerero-Lapiedra.

2008-02-01

224

Malignización del liquen plano oral Oral lichen planus malignancy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La complicación más importante del Liquen Plano Oral (LPO, es el desarrollo de un carcinoma oral de células escamosas (COCE. Desde 1910 en que se comunicó el primer caso en una paciente con LP, se han publicado numerosos casos, y series de casos de malignización, que nos aportan cifras que varían entre el 0 y el 12,5% de LPO malignizados, con periodos de seguimiento también muy variables, que oscilan entre 0,5 y 20 años. Pero estos estudios han sido refutados por un grupo de autores, que se cuestionan los criterios diagnósticos utilizados. Por todo ello, el potencial maligno del liquen plano oral, es un tema actualmente muy controvertido en Medicina Oral. Se realiza una revisión crítica de la literatura más actual sobre los conceptos clave, implicados en esta controversia.The most important complication of oral lichen planus (OLP, is the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. From 1910 when was reported the first case in a woman suffered OLP, many cases and cases series have been reported with values from 0 to 12,5%, and with follow-up ranking from 0,5 to 20 years. But many of this cases not had been accepted by some authors who disagree with the diagnostic criteria employed. By all previously cited, the cancerization of OLP is a very controversial topic in Oral Medicine. It has been performed a critical review of the recent literature about it.

R. Cerero-Lapiedra

2008-02-01

225

Biological Hydrogen Production from Corn-Syrup Waste Using a Novel System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The reported patent-pending system comprises a novel biohydrogen reactor with a gravity settler for decoupling of SRT from HRT. The biohydrogenator was operated for 100 days at 37 °C, hydraulic retention time 8 h and solids retention time ranging from 2.2–2.5 days. The feed was a corn-syrup waste generated as a byproduct from an industrial facility for bioethanol production located in southwestern Ontario, Canada. The system was initially started up with a synthetic feed containing glucose at concentration of 8 g/L and other essential inorganics. Anaerobicaly-digested sludge from the St. Mary’s wastewater treatment plant (St. Mary, Ontario, Canada was used as the seed, and was heat treated at 70 °C for 30 min to inhibit methanogens. After 10 days, when the hydrogen production was steady, the corn-syrup waste was introduced to the system. Glucose was the main constituent in the corn-syrup; its concentration was varied over a period of 90 days from 8 to 25 g/L. The change in glucose concentration was used to study the impact of variable organic loading on the stability of hydrogen production in the biohydrogenator. Hydrogen production rate increased from 10 L H2/L·d to 34 L H2/L·d with the increase of organic loading rate (OLR from 26 to 81 gCOD/L·d, while a maximum hydrogen yield of 430 mL H2/gCOD was achieved in the system with an overall average of 385 mL H2/gCOD.

George Nakhla

2009-06-01

226

Oral Probiotics  

Science.gov (United States)

... Read our disclaimer about external links Menu Oral Probiotics: An Introduction On this page: Introduction Key Points ... will help ensure coordinated and safe care. Top Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics Probiotics are not the same ...

227

Oral pathology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral disease is exceedingly common in small animal patients. In addition, there is a very wide variety of pathologies that are encountered within the oral cavity. These conditions often cause significant pain and/or localized and systemic infection; however, the majority of these conditions have little to no obvious clinical signs. Therefore, diagnosis is not typically made until late in the disease course. Knowledge of these diseases will better equip the practitioner to effectively treat them. This article covers the more common forms of oral pathology in the dog and cat, excluding periodontal disease, which is covered in its own chapter. The various pathologies are presented in graphic form, and the etiology, clinical signs, recommended diagnostic tests, and treatment options are discussed. Pathologies that are covered include: persistent deciduous teeth, fractured teeth, intrinsically stained teeth, feline tooth resorption, caries, oral neoplasia, eosinophilic granuloma complex, lymphoplasmacytic gingivostomatitis, enamel hypoplasia, and "missing" teeth. PMID:18482706

Niemiec, Brook A

2008-05-01

228

Oral myiasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oral myiasis is a rare disease that is most common in developing countries and is associated with poor oral hygiene, suppurating lesions, severe halitosis and other predisposing conditions. This paper describes a case of oral myiasis in a 22-year-old female patient who presented with acute upper lip swelling with an extensive necrotic area in the anterior region of the maxilla and fetid odor. The diagnosis was based on the typical clinical features and the visual presence of the larvae. The patient's management included surgical exploration to remove the larvae and the necrotic tissue, followed by scaling and oral hygiene instruction. Upon treatment, the larvae were eliminated, and complete lesion healing and remission of symptoms were observed within 21 days.

Leite Cavalcanti Alessandro

2008-01-01

229

penal oral  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

El objetivo es estudiar los antecedentes y la epistemología de los juicios orales como un nuevo sistema emergente de justicia penal, cuestionándonos principalmente desde los puntos de vista de la teoría del conocimiento e historia jurídica.

Juan de Dios Gonz\\u00E1lez Ibarra

2008-01-01

230

Minerais em melados e em caldos de cana Minerals in sugar cane syrup and cane juice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A cana-de-açúcar está entre as culturas que apresenta larga escala de adaptações às condições climáticas, sendo utilizada para a fabricação de diversos produtos. Dentre os produtos derivados da cana-de-açúcar, o melado é tido popularmente como um alimento rico em ferro. Este trabalho objetivou conhecer a concentração de alguns minerais em melados comerciais e em melados preparados com equipamentos de aço inoxidável. Ao todo foram 20 amostras, 10 de cada tipo. As amostras foram preparadas para análise por oxidação da matéria orgânica por via úmida e os teores de Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn e Fe foram determinados por espectroscopia de absorção atômica, Na e K por fotometria de chama e P por colorimetria. Concluiu-se, com este trabalho, que os teores médios dos minerais Fe, P, Na e Mg foram significativamente mais elevados nos melados comerciais do que nos melados feitos com equipamentos inox. O contrário foi encontrado para o mineral cálcio, que apresentou teor mais elevado nos melados feitos no laboratório, mas condizentes com os teores encontrados nos caldos de cana. Não houve diferença significativa nos teores dos demais minerais.Sugar cane is an easily adaptable crop to diverse climate conditions, and it is used in the manufacturing of many different products. Among those products is the syrup, which is popularly known to be good sources of iron. In this work, we aimed to measure the concentration of some minerals in commercial sugar cane syrup brands and syrup prepared in the laboratory using stainless steel equipment. A total of 20 samples were analyzed, 10 of commercial brands and ten prepared in the laboratory. The samples were prepared by wet-air oxidation of organic matter and the contents of Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Fe were determined by atomic absorption. Na and K were determined by photometry and P by colorimetry. It was found that the mean concentration of Fe, P, Na, and Mn were higher in the commercial products than in that prepared in the laboratory using stainless steel equipment. On the other hand, it was found that the calcium content was higher in the laboratory made syrup, which is in agreement with the Ca content found for the sugarcane juice. There was no significant difference in the concentration of the other tested minerals.

Fernanda dos Santos Nogueira

2009-12-01

231

Application of loofa sponge (Luffa cylindrica as carrier for invertase immobilization for invert sugar syrup production  

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Full Text Available Invertase immobilization in loofa sponge (Luffa cylindrica for invert sugar syrup production has been carried out. Loofa sponge was treated with NaIO4 followed by the use of diamine compound, glutaraldehyde and enzyme immobilization. The best results obtained were: invertase immobilized activity: 4.510 (mmols/g matrix x min x mL; enzyme coupling efficiency: 0.428%, recovered activity: 1.5% and the extent of hydrolysis was of 2.6x10-3%.h-1.

Doumit Camilios Neto

2004-01-01

232

Unusual imaging findings in brain and spinal cord in two siblings with maple syrup urine disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare metabolic disease affecting the neural tissue. While the brain abnormalities present on MRI are well known, spinal imaging features have not been studied. We herewith report an unusual finding of enlarged Virchow Robin spaces in brain and novel spinal cord changes in two biochemically diagnosed cases of MSUD. To the best of our knowledge, spinal MRI findings in cases of MSUD have not been previously reported. Knowledge of spinal MRI findings may be useful in diagnosis of this rare disorder. PMID:23279201

Bhat, Maya; Prasad, Chandrajit; Bindu, Parayil Sankaran; Aziz, Zarina; Christopher, Rita; Saini, Jitender

2013-10-01

233

Minerais em melados e em caldos de cana / Minerals in sugar cane syrup and cane juice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A cana-de-açúcar está entre as culturas que apresenta larga escala de adaptações às condições climáticas, sendo utilizada para a fabricação de diversos produtos. Dentre os produtos derivados da cana-de-açúcar, o melado é tido popularmente como um alimento rico em ferro. Este trabalho objetivou conhe [...] cer a concentração de alguns minerais em melados comerciais e em melados preparados com equipamentos de aço inoxidável. Ao todo foram 20 amostras, 10 de cada tipo. As amostras foram preparadas para análise por oxidação da matéria orgânica por via úmida e os teores de Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn e Fe foram determinados por espectroscopia de absorção atômica, Na e K por fotometria de chama e P por colorimetria. Concluiu-se, com este trabalho, que os teores médios dos minerais Fe, P, Na e Mg foram significativamente mais elevados nos melados comerciais do que nos melados feitos com equipamentos inox. O contrário foi encontrado para o mineral cálcio, que apresentou teor mais elevado nos melados feitos no laboratório, mas condizentes com os teores encontrados nos caldos de cana. Não houve diferença significativa nos teores dos demais minerais. Abstract in english Sugar cane is an easily adaptable crop to diverse climate conditions, and it is used in the manufacturing of many different products. Among those products is the syrup, which is popularly known to be good sources of iron. In this work, we aimed to measure the concentration of some minerals in commer [...] cial sugar cane syrup brands and syrup prepared in the laboratory using stainless steel equipment. A total of 20 samples were analyzed, 10 of commercial brands and ten prepared in the laboratory. The samples were prepared by wet-air oxidation of organic matter and the contents of Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Fe were determined by atomic absorption. Na and K were determined by photometry and P by colorimetry. It was found that the mean concentration of Fe, P, Na, and Mn were higher in the commercial products than in that prepared in the laboratory using stainless steel equipment. On the other hand, it was found that the calcium content was higher in the laboratory made syrup, which is in agreement with the Ca content found for the sugarcane juice. There was no significant difference in the concentration of the other tested minerals.

Fernanda dos Santos, Nogueira; Karla Silva, Ferreira; Josil de Barros, Carneiro Junior; Luís César, Passoni.

2009-12-01

234

Oral feeding.  

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Early nutrition can help to improve energy and protein intake and decrease the negative impact of the metabolic response to surgery. A key goal is to identify patients who exhibit increased respiration risk before beginning oral alimentation. Once a simple bedside 3-oz (90 ml) challenge, or early intervention in the oral care, administered by a trained provider is passed, specific diet recommendations can be made safely and confidently without the need for further objective dysphagia testing. Gastrointestinal motility disorders occur as part of the pathophysiology of diseases and critical illness, or are a result of medication therapies or enteral feeding complications. Inadequate energy intake in the first 7 days following extubation have recently been described. It would be highly beneficial to determine when it is best to initiate timely oral alimentation for recovering extubated intensive care unit (ICU) and more specifically surgical ICU patients to support the maintenance and rebuilding of lean body mass, maintain hydration, and permit the ingestion of oral medications. In a cross-sectional multicenter study conducted in 18 Spanish ICUs, within the scope of the 2007 European Nutrition Day, only 95 of 348 investigated patients (27.3%) received oral nutritional support. Constipation and diarrhea were common adverse effects. Unexpectedly, however, constipation episodes were more frequent than diarrhea in the patients not receiving oral nutritional support. PMID:23075585

Alvárez-Falcón, Ana; Ruiz-Santana, Sergio

2013-01-01

235

Prevention & Detection Topics  

Science.gov (United States)

Links to information on prevention and detection of specific cancers, including breast, cervical, colorectal, endometrial, esophageal, lung, oral, ovarian, prostate, skin, and stomach. Links within DCP and throughout NCI offer details on genetic factors, causes, screening, key trials and contacts.

236

Choosing a Research Topic  

Science.gov (United States)

This website from the Chronicle of Higher Education features tips for graduate students on choosing a research topic. The author explains a variety of ways that a topic should be matched to the individual. A good choice can help lead to long-term career success.

Reis, Richard M.; Education, The C.

237

Mapping Topics and Topic Bursts in PNAS  

CERN Document Server

Scientific research is highly dynamic. New areas of science continually evolve;others gain or lose importance, merge or split. Due to the steady increase in the number of scientific publications it is hard to keep an overview of the structure and dynamic development of one's own field of science, much less all scientific domains. However, knowledge of hot topics, emergent research frontiers, or change of focus in certain areas is a critical component of resource allocation decisions in research labs, governmental institutions, and corporations. This paper demonstrates the utilization of Kleinberg's burst detection algorithm, co-word occurrence analysis, and graph layout techniques to generate maps that support the identification of major research topics and trends. The approach was applied to analyze and map the complete set of papers published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) in the years 1982-2001. Six domain experts examined and commented on the resulting maps in an attempt to ...

Mane, K; Mane, Ketan; B\\"orner, Katy

2004-01-01

238

Oral biopsy: oral pathologist's perspective.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many oral lesions may need to be diagnosed by removing a sample of tissue from the oral cavity. Biopsy is widely used in the medical field, but the practice is not quite widespread in dental practice. As oral pathologists, we have found many artifacts in the tissue specimen because of poor biopsy technique or handling, which has led to diagnostic pitfalls and misery to both the patient and the clinician. This article aims at alerting the clinicians about the clinical faults arising preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively while dealing with oral biopsy that may affect the histological assessment of the tissue and, therefore, the diagnosis. It also reviews the different techniques, precautions and special considerations necessary for specific lesions. PMID:22842360

Kumaraswamy, K L; Vidhya, M; Rao, Prasanna Kumar; Mukunda, Archana

2012-01-01

239

Voriconazole Concentration in Human Aqueous Humor and Plasma during Topical or Combined Topical and Systemic Administration for Fungal Keratitis?  

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Voriconazole (VRC) is an antifungal drug that effectively treats keratitis caused by yeasts and molds when administered orally. We retrospectively evaluated clinical outcomes and plasma and aqueous humor drug concentrations in five patients with fungal keratitis and one patient with posttraumatic endophthalmitis who were treated with VRC. VRC was administered either topically (1% eye drops every hour) or orally (400 mg twice a day). Plasma and aqueous humor samples from affected eyes were taken 12 h after oral administration or 1 h after eye drop application. The drug concentration was measured by liquid chromatography with UV or mass spectrometric detection. All six patients responded well to VRC treatment. The VRC concentration ranged from 2.93 to 3.40 mg/liter in the aqueous humor and from 3.20 to 4.20 mg/liter in the plasma after combined oral and topical treatment. Topical administration alone resulted in highly variable trough VRC concentrations of 0.61 to 3.30 mg/liter in the aqueous humor. VRC concentrations were above the MIC for Candida albicans Aspergillus fumigatus and clinical improvement was seen in all four patients with C. albicans and A. fumigatus keratitis. Combined orally and topically administered VRC resulted in aqueous humor drug concentrations of ?2.93 mg/liter, which is above the VRC MIC for most fungi. Topical VRC treatment resulted in an aqueous humor drug concentration >0.61 mg/liter, which is above the MIC for most Candida species. The results from this small series of patients suggest that both topical and combined systemic and topical VRC therapy can be effective in treating fungal keratitis. Furthermore, the data provide preliminary support for initiation of VRC treatment with a combined topical and systemic administration until the causative fungus and its MIC are identified. PMID:17060517

Thiel, Michael A.; Zinkernagel, Annelies S.; Burhenne, Jürgen; Kaufmann, Claude; Haefeli, Walter E.

2007-01-01

240

Improvement of effect of water-in-oil microemulsion as an oral delivery system for fexofenadine: in vitro and in vivo studies  

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Full Text Available E Gundogdu1,2, I Gonzalez Alvarez3, E Karasulu1,21Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics, 2Center For Drug Research and Development and Pharmacokinetic Applications, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey; 3Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Engineering, Pharmaceutical Technical Section, Research Group on Drug Absorption, Universidad Miguel Hernández, Alicante, SpainAbstract: Fexofenadine (FEX has high solubility and low permeability (BCS, Class III. In this work, novel FEX loaded water in oil microemulsion (w/o was designed to improve bioavailability and compared with Fexofen® syrup in in vitro and in vivo studies. In addition, pharmacokinetic parameters in permeability studies were estimated by using WinNonLin software program. w/o microemulsion system was optimized using a pseudoternary phase diagram, composed of span 80/lutrol F 68 (9.5:0.5 w/w, oleic acide, isopropyl alcohol and water as surfactant mixture; oil and cosurfactant was developed for oral drug delivery. w/o microemulsion systems were characterized by phase behavior, particle size, viscosity and solubilization capacity. In vitro studies were studied using Caco-2 cell monolayer. Pharmacokinetic parameters of w/o microemulsion were investigated in rabbits and compared to Fexofen® syrup. Fexofen® syrup and microemulsion were administered by oral gavage at 6 mg/kg of the same concentration. The experimental results indicated that microemulsion (HLB = 5.53 formed nanometer sized droplets (33.29 ± 1.76 and had good physical stability. This microemulsion increased the oral bioavailability of FEX which was highly water-soluble but fairly impermeable. The relative bioavailability of FEX microemulsion was about 376.76% compared with commercial syrup in rabbits. In vitro experiments were further employed for the enhanced effect of the microemulsion for FEX. These results suggest that novel w/o microemulsion plays an important role in enhancing oral bioavailability of low permeability drugs.Keywords: pharmacokinetic, bioavailability, permeability, oleic acid

Gundogdu E

2011-08-01

 
 
 
 
241

Topical and peripheral ketamine as an analgesic.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ketamine, in subanesthetic doses, produces systemic analgesia in chronic pain settings, an action largely attributed to block of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the spinal cord and inhibition of central sensitization processes. N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors also are located peripherally on sensory afferent nerve endings, and this provided the initial impetus for exploring peripheral applications of ketamine. Ketamine also produces several other pharmacological actions (block of ion channels and receptors, modulation of transporters, anti-inflammatory effects), and while these may require higher concentrations, after topical (e.g., as gels, creams) and peripheral application (e.g., localized injections), local tissue concentrations are higher than those after systemic administration and can engage lower affinity mechanisms. Peripheral administration of ketamine by localized injection produced some alterations in sensory thresholds in experimental trials in volunteers and in complex regional pain syndrome subjects in experimental settings, but many variables were unaltered. There are several case reports of analgesia after topical application of ketamine given alone in neuropathic pain, but controlled trials have not confirmed such effects. A combination of topical ketamine with several other agents produced pain relief in case, and case series, reports with response rates of 40% to 75% in retrospective analyses. In controlled trials of neuropathic pain with topical ketamine combinations, there were improvements in some outcomes, but optimal dosing and drug combinations were not clear. Given orally (as a gargle, throat swab, localized peritonsillar injections), ketamine produced significant oral/throat analgesia in controlled trials in postoperative settings. Topical analgesics are likely more effective in particular conditions (patient factors, disease factors), and future trials of topical ketamine should include a consideration of factors that could predispose to favorable outcomes. PMID:24945127

Sawynok, Jana

2014-07-01

242

Implicit stage topics  

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Full Text Available Il a souvent été proposé que les éléments spatio-temporels en position initiale de phrase spécifient le cadre de l’événement dénoté par la proposition et ont une interprétation thématique ou topicale. Alors que les topiques spatio-temporels explicites ont souvent été étudiés, Erteschik-Schir (1997, 1999 propose l’idée que les topiques spatio-temporels, ou topiques scéniques (stage topics peuvent aussi être implicites.Dans cet article, nous offrons des arguments en faveur de la notion de topique scénique implicite. Nous montrons qu’un certain nombre de cas d’inversion nominale en français, une configuration syntaxique qui est favorisée par la présence d’un topique scénique explicite, s’expliquent par la présence d’un topique scénique implicite. Le fait que les topiques scéniques implicites interagissent avec la structure syntaxique de la même façon que les topiques scéniques explicites constitue un argument empirique en faveur de leur existence.It has often been proposed that sentence-initial spatio-temporal elements specify the frame in which the whole proposition takes place and are topical (i.e. thematic. Whereas considerable attention has been paid to explicit spatio-temporal topics, Erteschik-Shir (1997, 1999 argues that spatio-temporal topics, or stage topics, can also be implicit.In this article we provide evidence in favour of the notion of implicit stage topic. We show that a certain number of nominal inversion cases in French, a syntactic configuration which is triggered by the presence of an explicit stage topic, are explained by the presence of an implicit stage topic. The fact that implicit stage topics interact with syntactic structure the same way explicit stage topics do constitutes a strong empirical argument in favour of their existence.

Karen Lahousse

2008-04-01

243

DNA damage in an animal model of maple syrup urine disease.  

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Maple syrup urine disease is an inborn error of metabolism caused by a severe deficiency of the branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. Neurological dysfunction is a common finding in patients with maple syrup urine disease. However, the mechanisms underlying the neuropathology of brain damage in this disorder are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether acute or chronic administration of a branched chain amino acid pool (leucine, isoleucine and valine) causes transient DNA damage, as determined by the alkaline comet assay, in the brain and blood of rats during development and whether antioxidant treatment prevented the alterations induced by branched chain amino acids. Our results showed that the acute administration of branched chain amino acids increased the DNA damage frequency and damage index in the hippocampus. However, the chronic administration of branched chain amino acids increased the DNA damage frequency and damage index in both the hippocampus and the striatum, and the antioxidant treatment was able to prevent DNA damage in the hippocampus and striatum. The present study demonstrated that metabolite accumulation in MSUD induces DNA damage in the hippocampus and striatum and that it may be implicated in the neuropathology observed in the affected patients. We demonstrated that the effect of antioxidant treatment (N-acetylcysteine plus deferoxamine) prevented DNA damage, suggesting the involvement of oxidative stress in DNA damage. PMID:22560665

Scaini, Giselli; Jeremias, Isabela C; Morais, Meline O S; Borges, Gabriela D; Munhoz, Bruna P; Leffa, Daniela D; Andrade, Vanessa M; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Streck, Emilio L

2012-06-01

244

Identification of two novel BCKDHA mutations in a Chinese patient with maple syrup urine disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder affecting branched-chain amino acids. Mutations in the BCKDHA, BCKDHB, and DBT gene impair the branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKD) complex, resulting in the accumulation of branched-chain amino acids and branched-chain alpha-ketoacid in tissues and plasma. This leads to mental and physical retardation, feeding problems, and a maple syrup odor in the urine. In this study, we describe the clinical and biochemical manifestations of a sporadic mutation in a neonate with classic MSUD. Analysis of the BCKDHA gene revealed a compound heterozygous mutation consisting of two novel missense mutations (p.L103P and p.R265P). Viewing the protein with PyMOL indicated that the p.L103P and p.R265P mutations were, respectively, located in the helical region and core domains of the BCKD's Ela component. The p.L103P mutation affected the hydrophobic cores and is predicted to shorten the helix; the p.R265P mutation can predictably affect the cofactor binding site by ligating the associated manganese ion. In conclusion, we identified two novel missense mutations in the BCKDHA gene in a Chinese patient with MSUD. PMID:22145486

Wang, Jian; Liu, Hongjing; Chen, Guoqiang; Tsuei, Sian Hsiang-Te; Yu, Tingting; Fu, Qihua

2011-01-01

245

[Production of sugar syrup containing rare sugar using dual-enzyme coupled reaction system].  

Science.gov (United States)

Enzymatic conversion is very important to produce functional rare sugars, but the conversion rate of single enzymes is generally low. To increase the conversion rate, a dual-enzyme coupled reaction system was developed. Dual-enzyme coupled reaction system was constructed using D-psicose-3-epimerase (DPE) and L-rhamnose isomerase (L-RhI), and used to convert D-fructose to D-psicose and D-allose. The ratio of DPE and L-RhI was 1:10 (W/W), and the concentration of DPE was 0.05 mg/mL. The optimum temperature was 60 degrees C and pH was 9.0. When the concentration of D-fructose was 2%, the reaction reached its equilibrium after 10 h, and the yield of D-psicose and D-allose was 5.12 and 2.04 g/L, respectively. Using the dual-enzymes coupled system developed in the current study, we could obtain sugar syrup containing functional rare sugar from fructose-rich raw material, such as high fructose corn syrup. PMID:24818483

Han, Wenjia; Zhu, Yueming; Bai, Wei; Izumori, Ken; Zhang, Tongcun; Sun, Yuanxia

2014-01-01

246

The effects of 90-day feeding of D-psicose syrup in male wistar rats  

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Full Text Available D-Psicose is a rare sugar present in small quantities in natural products. In a previous study, we showed that D-psicose suppresses increase in plasma glucose and reduces body fat accumulation in rats. Based on acute and chronic toxicity testing in rats, D-psicose is classified as an ordinary and safe substance. Recently, we developed a high D-psicose syrup (PS made from high fructose corn syrup (HFCS by the alkaline isomerization method. However, the safety of PS as a food additive has not been demonstrated. In this study, we investigated the effects of 90-day feeding of PS in male Wistar rats. The rats were fed diets containing 3% D-psicose (control or 4.3% PS for 90 days. The body weight gain and intra-abdominal adipose tissue weight did not differ between the control and PS group. The weights of the tissues did not differ between the two dietary groups. In clinical chemistry and hematological analyses, no differences were found between the control and PS groups. No gross pathological findings were evident at dietary doses of 4.3% PS. Therefore, the present study found no adverse effects of PS in rats fed a diet containing 4.3% PS for 90 days.

Tatsuhiro Matsuo

2011-08-01

247

Polysaccharides as a marker for detection of corn sugar syrup addition in honey.  

Science.gov (United States)

Honey is a natural product of high quality. However, because of its limited production and of its relatively high price, some beekeepers or unscrupulous traders do not hesitate to modify and falsify this natural product in order to try to increase its market value. Then, these involved falsification practices, for example intentional addition of cheap sugar syrup to honeys, are sometimes difficult to detect. An effective and simple analytical method is proposed in order to detect adulteration in honey by analysis of polysaccharide profiles. Samples were previously treated with reversed-phase solid phase extraction first to remove monosaccharides and small oligosaccharides and second to concentrate simultaneously traces of polysaccharides. A chromatographic separation using anion exchange stationary phase and pulse amperometric detection was further performed. Polysaccharide fingerprints (degree of polymerization from 11 to 17) were shown to be present in laboratory doped samples, and not detectable or present at very low concentrations in the authentic honey samples. Application to acacia, mountain polyfloral and polyfloral honeys enabled readily the detection of fraud resulting from deliberate addition of 1% of corn syrup. PMID:19243098

Megherbi, Mehdi; Herbreteau, Bernard; Faure, René; Salvador, Arnaud

2009-03-25

248

Penile pyoderma gangrenosum successfully treated with topical Imiquimod  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pyoderma gangrenosum(PG) is a rare ulcerating inflammatory neutrophilic dermatosis. Genital involvement has been rarely reported. We report such a case of 24- year- old, male patient living with HIV/AIDS(PLHIV) who presented with progressive genital ulceration, not responding to oral antibiotics and aciclovir, gradually increasing in size over 15-18 months. Repeated biopsies showed acute on chronic inflammation. The lesion partially responded to oral and topical corticosteroids but soon incre...

Rathod, Santosh P.; Padhiar, Bela B.; Karia, Umesh K.; Shah, Bela J.

2011-01-01

249

Topics in Nuclear Astrophysics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Some topics in nuclear astrophysics are discussed, e.g.: highly evolved stellar cores, stellar evolution (through the temperature analysis of stellar surface), nucleosynthesis and finally the solar neutrino problem. (L.C.)

250

Topical photodynamic therapy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Topical photodynamic therapy is a therapeutic modality in development, thus arises grate interest among dermatologists worldwide. It is an effective therapy for actinic keratosis, superficial BCC and Bowenos disease. Treatment efficacy, good cosmetics, low risk of skin cancer, low invasiveness, low rate of adverse events, facility for treating multiple or large lesions, especially in poor healing sites and, for penile, digital and facial involvement, low general toxicity and possibility of repeating the treatments with the same efficiency, enable topical photodynamic therapy to become increasingly practiced treatment modality. Researching aimed topical photodynamic therapy to prove as a treatment modality for clinical use in other dermatoses, is in experimental phase. To answer the question when dermatologist should consider using topical photodynamic therapy treatment modatility, we are present available date.

Polja?ki Mirjana

2006-01-01

251

Salicylic Acid Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

... to the skin that you are treating with topical salicylic acid unless your doctor tells you that you should: abrasive soaps or cleansers; skin care products that contain alcohol; other medications that are ...

252

Hancock research topics  

Science.gov (United States)

Here's what Greg Hancock writes about choosing topics his students will research during his Surface Processes class. You may also jump ahead to some examples that fit these criteria, or see some of the ...

253

Related Topics and News  

Science.gov (United States)

Related Topics and News Harold Varmus Appointed to President's Council of Advisors on Science and Technology Harold Varmus Attends White House Signing Harold Varmus Awarded Henry G. Friesen International Prize in Health Research Harold Varmus Featured

254

Morphine Oral  

Science.gov (United States)

... to dissolve the capsule contents in applesauce.Morphine oral solution (liquid) comes in three different concentrations (amount of medication ... Morphine comes as a tablet, a solution (liquid), an extended-release ... every 4 hours as needed for pain. MS Contin brand long-acting tablets are ...

255

Oral Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

... has risen dramatically over the past few decades. HPV DNA is now found in about 2 out of 3 oropharyngeal cancers and in a much smaller fraction of oral cavity cancers. Quality-of-life issues From the time of diagnosis, the quality of life for every cancer patient ...

256

In vitro evaluation of alternative oral contrast agents for MRI of the gastrointestinal tract  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: In vitro evaluation of different materials as potential alternative oral contrast agents for small bowel MRI. Materials and methods: The T1 and T2 relaxation times of rose hip syrup, black currant extract, cocoa, iron-deferoxamine solution and a commonly used oral contrast material (1 mM Gd-DTPA) were determined in vitro at different concentrations on a 1.0 T clinical MR scanner. T1 values were obtained with an inversion prepared spoiled gradient echo sequence. T2 values were obtained using multiple echo sequences. Finally the materials were visualized on T1-, T2- and T2*-weighted MR images. Results: The relaxation times of the undiluted rose hip syrup (T1 = 110 ± 5 ms, T2 = 86 ± 3 ms), black currant extract (T1 = 55 ± 3 ms, T2 = 39 ± 2 ms) and 5 mM iron-deferoxamine solution (T1 = 104 ± 4 ms, T2 = 87 ± 2 ms) were much shorter than for a 1 mM Gd-DTPA solution (T1 = 180 ± 8 ms, T2 = 168 ± 5 ms). Dilution of black currant extract to 30% or a 3 mM iron-deferoxamine solution conducted to T1 relaxation times which are quite comparable to a 1 mM Gd-DTPA solution. Despite its much lower metal content an aqueous cocoa suspension (100 g/L) produced T2 relaxation times (T1 = 360 ± 21 ms, T2 = 81 ± 3 ms) more or less in the same range like the 5 mM iron-deferoxamine solution. Imaging of our in vitro model using clinical sequences allowed to anticipate the T1-, T2- and T2*-depiction of all used substances. Cocoa differed from all other materials with its low to other materials with its low to moderate signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted sequences. While all substances presented a linear 1/T1 and 1/T2 relationship towards concentration, rose hip syrup broke ranks with a disproportionately high increase of relaxation at higher concentrations. Conclusions: Rose hip syrup, black currant extract and iron-deferoxamine solution due to their positive T1 enhancement characteristics and drinkability appear to be valuable oral contrast agents for T1-weighted small bowel MRI. Cocoa with its differing relaxation and signal enhancement properties is a promising oral contrast agent but needs further clinical evaluation

257

Oral calcitonin  

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Full Text Available Ronald C Hamdy,1,2 Dane N Daley11Osteoporosis Center, College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, 2Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Johnson City, TN, USAAbstract: Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the C-cells of the thyroid gland in response to elevations of the plasma calcium level. It reduces bone resorption by inhibiting mature active osteoclasts and increases renal calcium excretion. It is used in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget's disease of bone, and malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Synthetic and recombinant calcitonin preparations are available; both have similar pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. As calcitonin is a peptide, the traditional method of administration has been parenteral or intranasal. This hinders its clinical use: adherence with therapy is notoriously low, and withdrawal from clinical trials has been problematic. An oral formulation would be more attractive, practical, and convenient to patients. In addition to its effect on active osteoclasts and renal tubules, calcitonin has an analgesic action, possibly mediated through ?-endorphins and the central modulation of pain perception. It also exerts a protective action on cartilage and may be useful in the management of osteoarthritis and possibly rheumatoid arthritis. Oral formulations of calcitonin have been developed using different techniques. The most studied involves drug-delivery carriers such as Eligen® 8-(N-2hydroxy-5-chloro-benzoyl-amino-caprylic acid (5-CNAC (Emisphere Technologies, Cedar Knolls, NJ. Several factors affect the bioavailability and efficacy of orally administered calcitonin, including amount of water used to take the tablet, time of day the tablet is taken, and proximity to intake of a meal. Preliminary results looked promising. Unfortunately, in two Phase III studies, oral calcitonin (0.8 mg with 200 mg 5-CNAC, once a day for postmenopausal osteoporosis and twice a day for osteoarthritis failed to meet key end points, and in December 2011, Novartis Pharma AG announced that it would not pursue further clinical development of oral calcitonin for postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteoarthritis. A unique feature of calcitonin is that it is able to uncouple bone turnover, reducing bone resorption without affecting bone formation and therefore increasing bone mass and improving bone quality. This effect, however, may be dose-dependent, with higher doses inhibiting both resorption and formation. Because so many factors affect the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of calcitonin, especially orally administered calcitonin, much work remains to be done to explore the full pharmacologic spectrum and potential of calcitonin and determine the optimum dose and timing of administration, as well as water and food intake.Keywords: oral calcitonin, osteoporosis, fractures, arthritis, pain

Hamdy RC

2012-09-01

258

Oral sex, oral health and orogenital infections  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Althou...

Saini Rajiv; Saini Santosh; Sharma Sugandha

2010-01-01

259

Oral Sex, Oral Health and Orogenital Infections  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Althou...

Saini Rajiv; Saini Santosh; Sharma Sugandha

2010-01-01

260

Actividad antiartrítica del jarabe de Allium sativum L / Antiarthritic activity of Allium sativum L syrup  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Allium sativum L. es ampliamente utilizado por la población cubana en la medicina tradicional y natural para aliviar procesos inflamatorios y en especial en la artritis reumatoide; sin embargo, su actividad no ha sido demostrada científicamente como para poder establecer un ensayo clínico para su re [...] gistro y producción industrial. En el presente trabajo se evaluó la acción de un jarabe de Allium sativum L. sobre la artritis reumatoide experimental, empleando los modelos de edema de la pata y pleuresía en ratas Wistar, basados en la reacción pasiva de Arthus. En los dos modelos, se ensayaron placebo y dosis de 45, 90 y 180 mg/kg de peso corporal, en base a sólidos totales contenido en el jarabe de A. sativum. Como controles positivos se utilizó ibuprofeno y prednisona a las dosis de 200 y 10 mg/kg respectivamente. Tanto los controles positivos, como las dosis de jarabe de Allium sativum L. ensayadas disminuyeron el proceso inflamatorio desencadenado por la reacción antígeno anticuerpo que se logra mediante la reacción pasiva de Arthus, el antisuero de albúmina de huevo y antisuero de albúmina bovina para el edema de la pata y el desarrollo de pleuresía respectivamente. Abstract in english Allium sativum L is widely used by Cuban people in folk and natural medicine to alliviate inflammatory processes and specially in rheumatoid arthritis; however, its activity hasn’t scientifically enough demonstrated to stablish a clinical assay for its registration and industrial production. In pres [...] ent paper, action of a Allium sativum syrup on experimental rheumatoid arthritis was assessed, using models of leg edema and pleurisy in Wistar rats, based on passive reaction of Arthus. In two models, placebo and doses of 45, 90, and 180 mg/kg of body weight were assayed based on total solids in A.sativum syrup. As positive controls Ibuprofen and Prednisone were used at dosis of 200 and 10 mg/kg, respectively. Positive controls and assayed dosis of Allium sativum L syrup decreased inflammatory process triggered by antigen-antibody reaction achieved by means of passive reaction of Arthus, by means of egg albumin antiserum, and bovine albumin antiserum for leg edema and development of pleurisy, recpectively.

Juana I., Tillán Capó; Annia, Benítez López; Ivette, Hernández Paderni; Carmen, Carrillo.

2007-06-01

 
 
 
 
261

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, ... been diagnosed with oral cancer, this brochure includes information on symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, ...

262

Oral myiasis: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Myiasis is a condition caused by the invasion of tissues by larvae of Diptera flies. This phenomenon is well documented in the skin especially among animals and people in tropical and subtropical areas. The condition causes extensive tissue destruction as the larvae, at least for a certain period, feed on the host's dead or living tissue, liquid body substances, or ingested food. Mouth breathing during sleep, poor oral hygiene, alcoholism, senility, mental disability, cerebral palsy, and hemiplegia may facilitate the development of myiasis. We present a case report of oral myiasis in a 22-year-old male with cerebral palsy and severe mental retardation treated successfully by manual removal of the larvae by topical application of turpentine oil and oral systemic therapy with ivermectin. PMID:24382372

Zachariah, Jane Emily; Sehgal, Khushboo; Dixit, Uma B; Bhatia, Rupinder

2014-01-01

263

Análisis comparativo entre jarabe de agave azul (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul) y otros jarabes naturales / Comparative analysis between blue agave syrup (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul) and other natural syrups  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El jarabe de agave azul (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul) es la sustancia dulce natural producida por hidrólisis de los fructanos almacenados en la planta de maguey. Este endulzante se ha popularizado por su capacidad prebiótica e índice glucémico bajo respecto a otros jarabes y mieles naturales. La [...] s marcas comerciales, distribuidores, producción y comercialización de estos jarabes han incrementado, por ello es conveniente conocer sus características físicas y químicas y contrastarlas con las de otros productos del mismo tipo. En el presente estudio se determinaron el contenido de sólidos solubles totales (SST) y de humedad, pH, perfil de carbohidratos y algunas características sensoriales de 29 muestras de jarabes de agave azul, maíz y caña, y miel de abeja. El jarabe de agave azul, en promedio tuvo SST equivalentes a 76 °Brix, 22 % de humedad (% H) y pH 4; en contraste la miel presentó el contenido mayor de SST (82 °Brix), el menor de humedad (16 % H) y pH (pH 3.7). La cromatografía en capa fina (TLC) y cromatografía de intercambio aniónico de alta resolución, acoplada a un detector de pulso amperométrico (HPAEC-PAD), mostró que el jarabe de agave azul contiene principalmente fructosa y fructooligosacáridos; los de maíz y caña y la miel contienen glucosa, sacarosa y maltooligosacáridos con perfiles diferenciables. Abstract in english The blue agave syrup (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul) is the natural sweet substance produced by hydrolysis of fructans stored in the agave plant. This sweetener has become popular for its prebiotic capacity and low glycemic index compared to other natural syrups and honeys. The trademarks, distrib [...] utors, production and commercialization of these syrups have increased; therefore, it is important to know their physical and chemical characteristics and contrast them with other products of the same type. In this study we determined the content of total soluble solids (TSS) and of humidity, pH, carbohydrate profile and some sensorial characteristics of 29 samples of blue agave and corn, sugarcane syrups, and honey. The blue agave syrup, on average, had TSS equivalent to 76 °Brix, 22 % humidity (% H) and pH 4; in contrast, honey showed the highest TSS content (82 °Brix), the lowest values of humidity (16 % H) and pH (pH 3.7). Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and anion-exchange chromatography with high-performance coupled to a pulsed amperometric detector (HPAEC-PAD), showed that the blue agave syrups contains mainly fructose and fructooligosaccharides; those of corn, sugarcane, and honey contain glucose, sucrose and maltooligosaccharides with differentiated profiles.

Erika, Mellado-Mojica; Mercedes Gpe., López-Pérez.

2013-05-01

264

Soaking turkey meat in salt-glucose syrup solutions--an experimental study of mass transfers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Turkey meat can be salted and dried in one step by soaking in a concentrated salt-glucose syrup solution at low temperature. Sugar impregnation is minimal; only low molecular weight sugars generally penetrate the product. Glucose uptake is very quick, suggesting the possible involvement of passive glucose transporters. The operational scope of this process, depending on the targeted end-product features, was determined for turkey meat on the basis of clearly characterized mass transport phenomena between the product and the soaking solution. With 2 cm thick meat fillets processed at 10 C it is thus possible to obtain salted-dried end-products containing 2 to 10% salt and 35 to 70% water, ranges that are compatible with a broad range of commercial cured products. PMID:12211319

Deumier, F; Collignan, A; Bohuon, P

2002-08-01

265

The management of pregnancy in maple syrup urine disease: experience with two patients.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe the management and outcomes of pregnancy in two women affected with Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). Both patients had classical disease diagnosed in the newborn period and were managed with low-protein diets and supplements, although compliance was moderately poor throughout life. Both pregnancies were complicated by poor compliance and one patient had a metabolic decompensation, which included seizures and profound encephalopathy, at the end of the first trimester. Peri-partum management required a coordinated team approach including a high-calorie and low-protein diet. Both patients had elevated leucine levels in the post-partum period - one due to mastitis and the other due to poor dietary and supplement compliance combined with uterine involution. On later review, leucine had returned to pre-pregnancy levels. Both infants were unaffected and have made normal developmental progress in the subsequent 1 to 2 years. PMID:23430812

Tchan, Michel; Westbrook, M; Wilcox, G; Cutler, R; Smith, N; Penman, R; Strauss, B J G; Wilcken, B

2013-01-01

266

Imaging in classic form of maple syrup urine disease: a rare metabolic central nervous system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism. The condition gets its name from the distinctive sweet odour of affected infants' urine. MSUD is caused by a deficiency of the branched-chain ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase enzyme complex, leading to accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, and valine) and their toxic by-products (ketoacids) in the blood and urine. Imaging is characterestized by MSUD oedema affecting the myelinated white matter. We present a neonate with classic type of MSUD and its imaging features on computed tomography, conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. PMID:24049754

Jain, Aditi; Jagdeesh, K; Mane, Ranoji; Singla, Saurabh

2013-04-01

267

Maple syrup urine disease: diffusion-weighted MRI findings during acute metabolic encephalopathic crisis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is caused by a genetic defect of branched-chain amino acids, which include leucine, isoleucine and valine. We report diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) findings in a newborn child with MSUD who presented with acute metabolic encephalopathic crisis. DWI (b = 1,000 s/mm(2)) showed high signal localized within the myelinated white matter (WM) areas including the cerebellar white matter, pons, bulbus, cerebral peduncles, lentiform nucleus, posterior limbs of the internal capsules, corona radiata and bilateral perirolandic cortex. The apparent diffusion coefficient values of these regions were markedly low in the affected areas. The presence of these findings was considered cytotoxic or intramyelinic edema evidenced by restricted water diffusion. In conclusion, our findings suggest that during the acute phase and early encephalopathic crisis stage of MSUD, DWI can demonstrate the involvement of myelinated WM in newborns. PMID:22476847

Kilicarslan, Rukiye; Alkan, Alpay; Demirkol, Demet; Toprak, Huseyin; Sharifov, Rasul

2012-07-01

268

Diet-dependent gene expression in honey bees: honey vs. sucrose or high fructose corn syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

Severe declines in honey bee populations have made it imperative to understand key factors impacting honey bee health. Of major concern is nutrition, as malnutrition in honey bees is associated with immune system impairment and increased pesticide susceptibility. Beekeepers often feed high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or sucrose after harvesting honey or during periods of nectar dearth. We report that, relative to honey, chronic feeding of either of these two alternative carbohydrate sources elicited hundreds of differences in gene expression in the fat body, a peripheral nutrient-sensing tissue analogous to vertebrate liver and adipose tissues. These expression differences included genes involved in protein metabolism and oxidation-reduction, including some involved in tyrosine and phenylalanine metabolism. Differences between HFCS and sucrose diets were much more subtle and included a few genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Our results suggest that bees receive nutritional components from honey that are not provided by alternative food sources widely used in apiculture. PMID:25034029

Wheeler, Marsha M; Robinson, Gene E

2014-01-01

269

A novel probiotic fermented beverage based on soymilk and sea buckthorn syrup  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the last decade, there is an increasing interest in using nondairyingredients as substrates for certain strains of bifidobacteria to deliver the benefits of probiotics to a wider group of consumers. This research aimed to explore the use of soymilk and sea buckthorn syrup as substrates for bifidobacteria fermentation. Microbial population, pH, and titratable acidity were measured during the fermentation period while the viability, pH, titratable acidity and water holding capacity were determined during the storage time at 4°C ± 1°C within 14 days. Survival and stability of Bifidobacterium bifidus (Bb-12®, Bb inoculated into a beverage when exposed to simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions, were assessed. TheBb-12® strain exhibited the highest viable cell numbers when exposed to simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions.

Nicoleta Maricica Maftei

2012-08-01

270

Contribution of the diffusion-weighted MRI in the diagnosis and follow-up of encephalopathy caused by maple syrup urine disease in a full-term newborn  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this case report is to show conventional MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) findings of the different evolutionary phases in MSUD (Maple syrup urine disease) of a newborn that evolved with brain white matter lesions (author)

Ferraz-Filho, Jose Roberto Lopes; Floriano, Valdeci Helio; Quirici, Marcelo Bianco; Souza, Antonio Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Albuquerque, Regina Pires de [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Pediatria

2009-07-01

271

Topical Acne Treatments and Pregnancy  

Science.gov (United States)

... or visit us online at: www.OTISpregnancy.org . Topical Acne Treatments and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a ... advice from your health care professional. What are topical acne treatments? Topical acne treatments are medications applied ...

272

Oral Leucoplakia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oral leucoplakia was predominantly seen in elderly age group. Addiction to tobacco was observed in majority of patients (80.8%. Clinically commonest site of involvement was buccal mucosa (67.33%, followed by labial mucosa (13.86%. Majority of patients (57.35% were having homogenous type of leucoplakia, followed by verrucous variety (25%. 26-48% cases were also having oral submucous fibrosis. Histologically various combinations of hyperkeratosis, hyperorthokeratosis and acanthosis were observed in 77.93% of cases. Dysplastic lesions were reported in 17.65% cases. In 80% of dysplastic lesions, band like infiltrate of mononuclear cells in subepithelial zone was seen. Malignant transformation was noticed in 2.94% cases. Excellent therapeutic results were obtained by cryosurgery. In resistant cases good results were observed with high dosage of vitamin A.

Jain R

1995-01-01

273

Topics in Physical Mathematics  

CERN Document Server

This title adopts the view that physics is the primary driving force behind a number of developments in mathematics. Previously, science and mathematics were part of natural philosophy and many mathematical theories arose as a result of trying to understand natural phenomena. This situation changed at the beginning of last century as science and mathematics diverged. These two fields are collaborating once again; 'Topics in Mathematical Physics' takes the reader through this journey. The author discusses topics where the interaction of physical and mathematical theories has led to new points o

Marathe, Kishore

2010-01-01

274

A Review of Topical Diclofenac Use in Musculoskeletal Disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are commonly prescribed medications for the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis in humans and its prevalence rises with age. Oral NSAIDs have potential associated toxicities that must be monitored for and can limit the use of these drugs in certain populations including people of older age. Topical NSAIDs are now being recognized as an option for the treatment strategy of osteoarthritis. We review the efficacy and safety of one of the most common topical NSAIDS, topical diclofenac, for the treatment of osteoarthritis.

Bindu Nair

2010-06-01

275

Nonstandard Topics for Student Presentations in Differential Equations  

Science.gov (United States)

An interesting and effective way to showcase the wide variety of fields to which differential equations can be applied is to have students give short oral presentations on a specific application. These talks, which have been presented by 30-40 students per year in our differential equations classes, provide exposure to a diverse array of topics…

LeMasurier, Michelle

2006-01-01

276

Topical NSAIDs for acute pain in adults  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Use of topical NSAIDs to treat acute musculoskeletal conditions is widely accepted in some parts of the world, but not in others. Their main attraction is their potential to provide pain relief without associated systemic adverse events. Objectives To review the evidence from randomised, double-blind, controlled trials on the efficacy and safety of topically applied NSAIDs in acute pain. Search methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, and our own in-house database to December 2009. We sought unpublished studies by asking personal contacts and searching on-line clinical trial registers and manufacturers web sites. Selection criteria We included randomised, double-blind, active or placebo (inert carrier)-controlled trials in which treatments were administered to adult patients with acute pain resulting from strains, sprains or sports or overuse-type injuries (twisted ankle, for instance). There had to be at least 10 participants in each treatment arm, with application of treatment at least once daily. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and validity, and extracted data. Numbers of participants achieving each outcome were used to calculate relative risk and numbers needed to treat (NNT) or harm (NNH) compared to placebo or other active treatment. Main results Forty-seven studies were included; most compared topical NSAIDs in the form of a gel, spray, or cream with a similar placebo, with 3455 participants in the overall analysis of efficacy. For all topical NSAIDs combined, compared with placebo, the number needed to treat to benefit (NNT) for clinical success, equivalent to 50% pain relief, was 4.5 (3.9 to 5.3) for treatment periods of 6 to 14 days. Topical diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and piroxicam were of similar efficacy, but indomethacin and benzydamine were not significantly better than placebo. Local skin reactions were generally mild and transient, and did not differ from placebo. There were very few systemic adverse events or withdrawals due to adverse events. There were insufficient data to reliably compare individual topical NSAIDs with each other or the same oral NSAID. Authors’ conclusions Topical NSAIDs can provide good levels of pain relief, without the systemic adverse events associated with oral NSAIDs, when used to treat acute musculoskeletal conditions. PMID:20556778

Massey, Thomas; Derry, Sheena; Moore, R Andrew; McQuay, Henry J

2014-01-01

277

Workshop on beam cooling and related topics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The sessions of the Workshop on Beam Cooling and Related Topics, held in Montreux from 4-8 October 1993, are reported in these Proceedings. This meeting brought together international experts in the field of accelerator beam cooling. Its purpose was to discuss the status of the different cooling techniques currently in use (stochastic, electron, ionization, heavy-ion, and laser) and their actual performances, technological implications, and future prospects. Certain theoretical principles (muon cooling, cyclotron maser cooling) were discussed and are reported on in these Proceedings. Also of interest in this Workshop was the possibility of beam crystallization in accelerators using ultimate cooling. In the first part of these Proceedings, overview talks on the various cooling techniques, their implications, present performance, and future prospects are presented. More detailed reports on all the topics are then given in the form of oral presentations or poster sessions. Finally, the chairmen and/or convenors then present summary talks. (orig.)

278

Topic Tracking with Dynamic Topic Model and Topic-based Weighting Method  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In topic tracking, a topic is usually described by several stories. How to represent a topic is always an issue and a difficult problem in the research on topic tracking. To emphasis the topic in stories, we provide an improved topic-based tf*idf weighting method to measure the topical importance of the features in the representation model. To overcome the topic drift problem and filter the noise existed in the tracked topic description, a dynamic topic model is proposed based on the static model. It extends the initial topic model with the information from the incoming related stories and filters the noise using the latest unrelated story. The topic tracking systems are implemented on the TDT4 Chinese corpus. The experimental results indicate that both the new weighting method and the dynamic model can improve the tracking performance.

Xiaoyan Zhang

2010-05-01

279

Selected topics in magnetism  

CERN Document Server

Part of the ""Frontiers in Solid State Sciences"" series, this volume presents essays on such topics as spin fluctuations in Heisenberg magnets, quenching of spin fluctuations by high magnetic fields, and kondo effect and heavy fermions in rare earths amongst others.

Gupta, L C

1993-01-01

280

Topical anesthesia in phacoemulsification  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose : To evaluate the efficacy of topical anesthesia; topical Benoxinate 0.4% (Oxybuprocaine and Xylocaine (Lidocaine gel, in selected cataract patients as an alternative to peribulbar or retrobulbar block anesthesia during cataract surgery. Materials and Methods : Prospective non-comparative evaluation of patients? and surgeon?s satisfaction at the end of the procedure. Three hundred patients (300 eyes were included in the study. The procedure was explained to patients with details regarding what will happen and what to expect during surgery. All patients received topical anesthesia with Benoxinate 0.4% eye drops and Xylocaine gel 2%. All surgeries were done by the same surgeon using the same machine (updated LEGACY phacoemulsifier, Alcon and approach (clear corneal incision and followed by a foldable intraocular lens (IOL implantation. Results : None of the patients had severe pain during the procedure; only 2% (six of 300 required use of intravenous sedation (Propofol, both the surgeon?s and the patients? satisfaction were high. Eye movements and blepharospasm were not significant problems, and no serious complications occurred. Rate of vitreous loss due to posterior capsule tear/rupture was within literature reported range and not different from our previous experience. Conclusion : Topical anesthesia is a satisfactory and safe alternative to retrobulbar and peribulbar anesthesia for clear corneal phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation in selected cataract patients in the hands of experienced cataract surgeon.

Waheeb Saad

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Topic in Depth - Antimatter  

Science.gov (United States)

For every action there is a reaction, for every plus there is a minus, and for every matter there is wellâ¦antimatter. This topic in depth tackles the complex concept of antimatter, from the Big Bang to solar explosions and the technology to detect it.

2010-09-15

282

Topical immunomodulators in dermatology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Topical immunomodulators are agents that regulate the local immune response of the skin. They are now emerging as the therapy of choice for several immune-mediated dermatoses such as atopic dermatitis, contact allergic dermatitis, alopecia areata, psoriasis, vitiligo, connective tissue disorders such as morphea and lupus erythematosus, disorders of keratinization and several benign and malignant skin tumours, because of their comparable efficacy, ease of application and greater safety than their systemic counterparts. They can be used on a domiciliary basis for longer periods without aggressive monitoring. In this article, we have discussed the mechanism of action, common indications and side-effects of the commonly used topical immunomodulators, excluding topical steroids. Moreover, newer agents, which are still in the experimental stages, have also been described. A MEDLINE search was undertaken using the key words "topical immunomodulators, dermatology" and related articles were also searched. In addition, a manual search for many Indian articles, which are not indexed, was also carried out. Wherever possible, the full article was reviewed. If the full article could not be traced, the abstract was used.

Khandpur Sujay

2004-04-01

283

Assessment of a low dose of IV midazolam used orally for conscious sedation in pediatric dentistry  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Midazolam is preferably used in pediatric dentistry for quick onset of action and recovery. The aim of this prospective, observer-blind and placebo-controlled study was to assess the efficacy of a low dose of oral midazolam in modification of  the behavior of young pediatric dental patients. Methods: Forty children aged 3 to 5 years who displayed ratings 1 or 2 on the Frankl Scale and  were healthy by the American Society of Anesthesiologists-I status were randomly divided into two experimental and control groups of 20 each. All children required pulpotomy and restoration of D and E teeth and received either 0.25mg/kg of a 15mg/3ml IV midazolam mixed in black cherry syrup or the syrup alone. Subjects were continuously observed and monitored with pulse oximetry. Houpt's Behavioral Ratings was used to determine the overall behavior, the degree of crying and movement during treatment. Mann-Whitney U test was used for statistical analysis. Results and major conclusion: Patients who received 0.25mg/kg of the prepared oral midazolam significantly behaved better during treatment than the placebo controls (P<0.05. In comparison with the placebo group, reduced movement and crying were observed in the midazolam group (P<0.05. No adverse effects were observed and treatments were completed successfully. A low dose of 0.25mg/kg of a 15mg/3ml IV midazolam mixed in black cherry syrup was found to be effective in conscious sedation of young pediatric dental patients.

M Mortazavi

2009-08-01

284

The Report of Suicide by Ingestion of Lidocaine Topical Spray  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background: Lidocaine is a local anesthetic and antiarrhythmic agent. There are reports on accidental and intentional cases of poisoning following injection of lidocaine while rare are the fatal cases realized after oral ingestion of lidocaine. Suicidal poisoning with lidocaine pharmaceutical formulations is rare since no pharmaceutical dosage forms for oral use are available except gels and sprays used as local anesthetics in dentistry. Cases: Three cases of suicidal poisoning by ingestion of the content of lidocaine topical spray are reported in the present study. The cases developed episodes of seizure requiring diazepam and other therapeutic modalities upon admission. Eventually, one of the cases expired. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first reported case of suicidal poisoning after ingestion of this formulation which highlights the fact that lidocaine topical spray formulation may be used for committing suicide. Ingestion of lidocaine present in topical spray can induce varying levels of toxicity that can even be fatal.

Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam

2014-09-01

285

Comparative effect of cane syrup and natural honey on abdominal viscera of growing male and female rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The high intake of refined sugars, mainly fructose has been implicated in the epidemiology of metabolic diseases in adults and children. With an aim to determine whether honey can substitute refined sugars without adverse effect, the long-term effects of natural honey and cane syrup have been compared on visceral morphology in growing rats fed from neonatal age. Honey increased the caecum and pancreas weights in male rats, which could enhance enzymatic activities of pancreas and digestive functions by intestinal microflora of caecum. Unlike honey, cane syrup caused fatty degenerations in the liver of both male and female rats. Honey enhanced intestinal villi growth, and did not cause pathology in the rodents' abdominal viscera, suggesting potential nutritional benefit as substitution for refined sugars in animal feed. PMID:24195350

Ajibola, Abdulwahid; Chamunorwa, Joseph P; Erlwanger, Kennedy H

2013-04-01

286

Maple syrup urine disease encephalopathy: a follow-up study in the acute stage using diffusion-weighted MRI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Neonatal maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is associated with diffuse oedema and characteristic MSUD oedema. We present a newborn infant with two coexisting different types of oedema. The myelinated white matter showed a marked decrease in the water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) compatible with cytotoxic oedema. The unmyelinated white matter showed an increase in ADC, consistent with vasogenic-interstitial oedema. On follow-up studies, the cytotoxic oedema showed improvement, but the vasogenic-interstitial oedema progressed into brain atrophy. (orig.)

Ha, Jong Su; Kim, Taik-Kun; Lee, Ki Yeol; Seol, Hae Young; Cha, Sang Hoon [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan City, Kyungki-Do (Korea); Eun, Baik-Lin; Lee, Hee Sun [Department of Paediatrics, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

2004-02-01

287

Maple syrup urine disease encephalopathy: a follow-up study in the acute stage using diffusion-weighted MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neonatal maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is associated with diffuse oedema and characteristic MSUD oedema. We present a newborn infant with two coexisting different types of oedema. The myelinated white matter showed a marked decrease in the water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) compatible with cytotoxic oedema. The unmyelinated white matter showed an increase in ADC, consistent with vasogenic-interstitial oedema. On follow-up studies, the cytotoxic oedema showed improvement, but the vasogenic-interstitial oedema progressed into brain atrophy. (orig.)

288

Hepatocyte Transplantation Improves Phenotype and Extends Survival in a Murine Model of Intermediate Maple Syrup Urine Disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD; OMIM 248600) is an inborn error of metabolism of the branched chain ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex that is treated primarily by dietary manipulation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). Dietary restriction is lifelong and compliance is difficult. Liver transplantation significantly improves outcomes; however, alternative therapies are needed. To test novel therapies such as hepatocyte transplantation (HTx), we previously created a murine model of i...

Skvorak, Kristen J.; Paul, Harbhajan S.; Dorko, Kenneth; Marongiu, Fabio; Ellis, Ewa; Chace, Donald; Ferguson, Carolyn; Gibson, K. Michael; Homanics, Gregg E.; Strom, Stephen C.

2009-01-01

289

ENU mutagenesis identifies mice with mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase deficiency resembling human maple syrup urine disease  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Tandem mass spectrometry was applied to detect derangements in the pathways of amino acid and fatty acid metabolism in N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea–treated (ENU-treated) mice. We identified mice with marked elevation of blood branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), ketoaciduria, and clinical features resembling human maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), a severe genetic metabolic disorder caused by the deficiency of branched-chain ?-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD) complex. However, the BCKD genes and enz...

Wu, Jer-yuarn; Kao, Hsiao-jung; Li, Sing-chung; Stevens, Robert; Hillman, Steven; Millington, David; Chen, Yuan-tsong

2004-01-01

290

A Validated RP HPLC-PAD Method for the Determination of Hederacoside C in Ivy-Thyme Cough Syrup  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A simple reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method coupled with a photodiode array detector (PAD) has been developed and validated for the analysis of hederacoside C, the marker of ivy plant, in Ivy-Thyme cough syrup. Separation of hederacoside C was achieved using a Phenomenex-Gemini C18 column isothermally at 40°C. A mobile phase system constituted of solvent A (water: acetonitrile: orthophosphoric acid (85%), 860?:?140?:...

Ayman Khdair; Mohammad, Mohammad K.; Khaled Tawaha; Eman Al-Hamarsheh; Alkhatib, Hatim S.; Bashar Al-khalidi; Yasser Bustanji; Samer Najjar; Mohammad Hudaib

2010-01-01

291

Comparative effect of cane syrup and natural honey on abdominal viscera of growing male and female rats  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The high intake of refined sugars, mainly fructose has been implicated in the epidemiology of metabolic diseases in adults and children. With an aim to determine whether honey can substitute refined sugars without adverse effect, the long-term effects of natural honey and cane syrup have been compared on visceral morphology in growing rats fed from neonatal age. Honey increased the caecum and pancreas weights in male rats, which could enhance enzymatic activities of pancreas and digestive fun...

Ajibola, Abdulwahid; Chamunorwa, Joseph P.; Erlwanger, Kennedy H.

2013-01-01

292

New topical antifungal drugs.  

Science.gov (United States)

The new antifungal drugs used for topical treatment of superficial, skin and mucosal mycoses are reviewed. Amorolfine and allylamines (naftifine and terbinafine) are promising original molecules with new and different modes of action against fungi. Rilopirox is a new pyridone derivative under study. A great number of azole derivatives, such as oxiconazole, isoconazole, sulconazole, and terconazole, are used as topical antifungals. Three of them are synthesized in Barcelona by pharmaceutical laboratories: sertaconazole, flutrimazole and eberconazole. All of them are now in the register process for commercialization. The combination of antifungals with active products, such as keratoplastics, is used mainly for the treatment of onychomycoses; 40% urea associated with 1% bifonazole has shown high efficacy for this indication. PMID:8118161

Torres-Rodríguez, J M

1993-01-01

293

Topics in String Phenomenology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We consider two questions in string ``phenomenology.'' First, are there any generic string predictions? Second, are there any general lessons which string theory suggests for thinking about low energy models, particularly in the framework of supersymmetry? Among the topics we consider are the squark and slepton spectrum, flavor symmetries, discrete symmetries including $CP$, and Peccei-Quinn symmetries. We also note that in some cases, discrete symmetries can be used to co...

Dine, Michael

1993-01-01

294

Topics on String Phenomenology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

These lectures present some topics of string phenomenology and contain two parts. In the first part, I review the possibility of lowering the string scale in the TeV region, that provides a theoretical framework for solving the mass hierarchy problem and unifying all interactions. The apparent weakness of gravity can then be accounted by the existence of large internal dimensions, in the submillimeter region, and transverse to a braneworld where our universe must be confined...

Antoniadis, I.

2007-01-01

295

Superconductivity elementary topics  

CERN Document Server

This book describes the elementary concepts of superconductivity and discusses the topics of flux-lattice melting, magnetization including the para-Meissner effect, microwave absorption, a.c. resistivity along with the London penetration depth, the Mössbauer effect, levitation, fractals and nuclear magnetic resonance. There are appendices covering superconducting compounds, the isotope effect, symmetries, the pseudogap, relativistic superconductivity, the Cherenkov effect and soft vortices. Also included is an appendix on the quantum Hall effect. In all of the chapters, the theoretical descrip

Shrivastava, KN

2000-01-01

296

Topics in industrial mathematics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Mathematical methods are widely used to solve practical problems arising in modern industry. This article outlines some of the topics relevant to AECL programmes. This covers the applications of transmission and neutron transport tomography to determine density distributions in rocks and two phase flow situations. Another example covered is the use of variational methods to solve the problems of aerosol migration and control theory. (author). 7 refs

297

Oral contraception.  

Science.gov (United States)

Types of oral contraceptives, their mode of action, choice of dosage, side effects, and contraindications are summarized for the general clinician. A 50 mcg dosage of estrogen in a combination formula appears to be the minimum dose necessary for consistent protection from pregnancy although some compounds with less estrogen but a more powerful progestin appear to provide good protection. These lower dose estrogen formulations may be advised if estrogen-related symptoms such as nausea or breast soreness are encountered. In amenorrheao r symptoms of estrogen deprivation 80-100 mcgs of estrogen may be required. Although there is a risk of thromboembolic disease, hypertension, carbohydrate and lipid metabolic effects, gallbladder disease, hepatoma, and possible post-pill amenorrhea, these problems can be minimized by careful screening of patients. Benefits include decreased incidence of ovarian cysts, benign breast neoplasia, menstrual disorders, premenstrual syndrome, iron deficiency anemia, sebaceous cysts, and acne (due to decreased sebum production with estrogen adminsitration). Patients need to be reminded that the morbidity and mortality associated with pregnancy exceed that attributed to oral contraceptives. PMID:839194

Dockery, J L

1977-02-01

298

Topical Methotrexate In Localized Psoriasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A comparative study of topical methotrexate and topical tar in eighteen patients of localized psoriasis with bilateral involvement of both lower legs, equal in area and disease severity was carried out. The patients were asked to apply topical methorexate 0.25% in a hydrophilic gel twice daily on right leg. The test sites were score, before therapy, after one month and after two months. The result with topical methotrexate preparation was promising but was comparable to topical tar formulation.

Rath Namita

2004-01-01

299

Chemical composition and sensory analysis of roasted peanuts coated with prickly pear and algarrobo pod syrups  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the chemical composition, sensory attributes and consumer acceptance of roasted peanuts coated with prickly pear (RP-P and â??algarroboâ? pod syrups (RP-A. Roasted peanuts (RP without coating had the highest oil content (50.4% in comparison with the coated products RP-P and RP-A (45.3% and 46.7%, respectively. RP-P and RP-A showed lower protein percentage and higher carbohydrate content than RP. These results affected the energy values of the products: 6.14 kcal/g in RP-P, 6.24 kcal/g in RP-A and 6.42 kcal/g in RP. In the consumer test, RP and RP-P had higher consumer acceptance for the attributes of color, texture and flavor than RP-A. In the descriptive analysis, RP-P and RPA showed higher intensity ratings in brown color, roughness, glossy, powdery, sweetness, and salty sensory attributes and lower intensity ratings in raw/beany flavor than in RP. The intensity of roasted peanutty flavor and the texture attributes in the descriptive analysis were not affected for the pod syrup coating.El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la composición química, atributos sensoriales y la aceptabilidad del maní tostado cubierto con arrope de tuna (RP-P y de Algarrobo (RP-A. El maní tostado sin cobertura presentó el mayor contenido de aceite (50,4% en comparación con los maníes cubiertos, RPP y RP-A (45,3% y 46,7%, respectivamente. RP-P y RP-A mostraron menor porcentaje de proteína y mayor contenido de hidratos de carbonos que RP. Estos resultados afectaron los valores energéticos de los productos: 6,14 kcal/g in RP-P, 6,24 kcal/g in RP-A y 6,42 kcal/g in RP. En la prueba de consumidores, RP y RP-P tuvieron mayor aceptabilidad para los atributos color, textura y sabor que en RP-A. En la prueba descriptiva, RP-P y RP-A mostraron mayores intensidades en los atributos sensoriales de color marrón, rugosidad, brillo, pulverulencia, dulzor y salado y menor intensidad en sabor crudo/ poroto que en RP. Las intensidades del sabor a maní tostado y de los atributos de texturas en el análisis descriptivo no fueron afectadas por la presencia de la cobertura de arrope.

Grosso, N. R.

2008-06-01

300

Detection of added beet or cane sugar in maple syrup by the site-specific deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) method: collaborative study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Results of a collaborative study are reported for the detection of added beet or cane sugar in maple syrup by the site-specific natural isotope fractionation-nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) method. The method is based on the fact that the deuterium content at specific positions of the sugar molecules is different in maple syrup from that in beet or cane sugar. The syrup is diluted with pure water and fermented; the alcohol is distilled with a quantitative yield and analyzed with a high-field NMR spectrometer fitted with a deuterium probe and fluorine lock. The proportion of ethanol molecules monodeuterated at the methyl site is recorded. This parameter (D/H)I is decreased when beet sugar is added and increased when cane sugar is added to the maple syrup. The precision of the method for measuring (D/H)I was found to be in good agreement with the values already published for the application of this method to fruit juice concentrates (AOAC Official Method 995.17). An excellent correlation was found between the percentage of added beet sugar and the (D/H)I isotopic ratio measured in this collaborative study. Consequently, all samples in which exogenous sugars were added were found to have a (D/H)I isotopic ratio significantly different from the normal value for an authentic maple syrup. By extension of what is known about plants having the C4 cycle, the method can be applied to corn sweeteners as well as to cane sugar. One limitation of the method is its reduced sensitivity when applied to specific blends of beet and cane sugars or corn sweeteners. In such case, the C13 ratio measurement (see AOAC Official Method 984.23, Corn Syrup and Cane Sugar in Maple Syrup) may be used in conjunction. PMID:11601471

Martin, Y L

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
301

Oral sex, oral health and orogenital infections  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection and safer sex precautions. There are various methods of preventing infection during oral sex such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues and oral hygiene and dental issues. The lesions or unhealthy periodontal status of oral cavity accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex.

Saini Rajiv

2010-01-01

302

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer ... Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/ ...

303

Tratamiento del liquen plano oral: una revisión Treatment of oral lichen planus: a review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue realizar una revisión sobre los actuales tratamientos del liquen plano oral (LPO. Antes de iniciar el tratamiento al paciente, debe de realizarse una biopsia para establecer el correcto diagnóstico. Dado que para el LPO no hay tratamiento curativo, el primer objetivo en los pacientes sintomáticos es el efecto paliativo. Entre las alternativas terapéuticas se incluyen: corticosteroides tópicos, sistémicos e intralesionales; retinoides tópicos o sistémicos; ciclosporina tópica, tacrolimus tópico, azatioprina, fototerapia y tratamiento quirúrgico.The aim of the present study was to review about the current treatment of oral lichen planus (OLP. Before a patients is started on therapy a biopsy must be done to establish an accurate diagnosis. Because there is no curative therapy for OLP, the primary goal for symtomatic patients is palliative. Treatment modalities include the use of: topical, systemic and intralesional corticosteroids; topical and systemic retinoids, topical cyclosoporine; topical tacrolimus; azathioprine; phototherapy and surgical procedures.

M.J. García-Pola Vallejo

2008-02-01

304

Topics in CP violation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Given the varied backgrounds of the members of this audience this talk will be a grab bag of topics related to the general theme of CP Violation. I do not have time to dwell in detail on any of them. First, for the astronomers and astrophysicists among you, I want to begin by reviewing the experimental status of evidence for CP violation in particle processes. There is only one system where this has been observed, and that is in the decays of neutral K mesons

305

Desmame precoce: implicações para o desenvolvimento motor-oral Early weaning: implications to oral motor development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo: revisar as estreitas relações entre o desmame precoce e seus reflexos no desenvolvimento motor-oral, enfocando as conseqüências na oclusão, respiração e aspectos motores orais da criança. Fonte de dados: foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica relacionada às áreas de pediatria, odontologia e fonoaudiologia, através do Medline, entre o ano de 1960 e o ano 2001. Síntese dos dados: a partir da literatura levantada, pode-se observar que o desmame precoce pode levar à ruptura do desenvolvimento motor-oral adequado, podendo prejudicar as funções de mastigação, deglutição, respiração e articulação dos sons da fala, ocasionar má-oclusão, respiração oral e alteração motora oral. Conclusões: pode-se concluir que além dos inúmeros benefícios do aleitamento materno, este contribui para o desenvolvimento motor-oral adequado e previne alterações fonoaudiológicas, no que se refere ao sistema motor-oral.Objective: this article aims at reviewing the relationship between early weaning and its consequences to oral motor development, focusing on the consequences to occlusion, breathing and children's oral motor aspects. Sources: a literature review based on Medline database from the early 60's up to 2001 was performed taking into consideration the following topics: pediatrics, dentistry and speech language pathology. Summary of the findings: based on this review of literature, we could verified that early weaning may lead to a proper oral motor development rupture, which may cause negative consequences to swallowing, breathing and speaking activities as well as malocclusion, oral breathing and oral motor disorders. Conclusions: in addition to several benefits of breastfeeding, it contributes to a proper oral motor development and also avoids speech-language disorders, regarding oral motor system.

Flávia Cristina Brisque Neiva

2003-02-01

306

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Main Content National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral ... Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All ...

307

Topic and Topic-Comment Constructions in Mandarin Chinese.  

Science.gov (United States)

Attempts to provide a precise definition for topic and to derive most of the properties of topic from this definition. The main assumption is that the topic-comment construction is a syntactic device employed to fulfill certain discourse functions. (Author/VWL)

Shi, Dingxu

2000-01-01

308

Successful domino liver transplantation in maple syrup urine disease using a related living donor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive disease associated with high levels of branched-chain amino acids. Children with MSUD can present severe neurological damage, but liver transplantation (LT) allows the patient to resume a normal diet and avoid further neurological damage. The use of living related donors has been controversial because parents are obligatory heterozygotes. We report a case of a 2-year-old child with MSUD who underwent a living donor LT. The donor was the patient's mother, and his liver was then used as a domino graft. The postoperative course was uneventful in all three subjects. DNA analysis performed after the transplantation (sequencing of the coding regions of BCKDHA, BCKDHB, and DBT genes) showed that the MSUD patient was heterozygous for a pathogenic mutation in the BCKDHB gene. This mutation was not found in his mother, who is an obligatory carrier for MSUD according to the family history and, as expected, presented both normal clinical phenotype and levels of branched-chain amino acids. In conclusion, our data suggest that the use of a related donor in LT for MSUD was effective, and the liver of the MSUD patient was successfully used in domino transplantation. Routine donor genotyping may not be feasible, because the test is not widely available, and, most importantly, the disease is associated with both the presence of allelic and locus heterogeneity. Further studies with this population of patients are required to expand the use of related donors in MSUD. PMID:24770567

Feier, F H; Miura, I K; Fonseca, E A; Porta, G; Pugliese, R; Porta, A; Schwartz, I V D; Margutti, A V B; Camelo, J S; Yamaguchi, S N; Taveira, A T; Candido, H; Benavides, M; Danesi, V; Guimaraes, T; Kondo, M; Chapchap, P; Neto, J Seda

2014-06-01

309

Heterogeneity in maple syrup urine disease: aspects of cofactor requirement and complementation in cultured fibroblasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fibroblast strains derived from six patients with maple syrup urine disease have been investigated for their requirements of the cofactors NAD, CoASH, Mg++ and TPP in comparison with 10 normal control strains. The reconstitution of the decarboxylase function of branched chain alpha-keto acid (BCKA) dehydrogenase complex in lysed cells was studied with respect to the substrates alpha-keto-isocaproic acid, alpha-keto-isovaleric acid, and alpha-keto-beta-methylvaleric acid (KIC, KIVA, MEVA). The enzyme activity of all normal control strains for the substrates KIC and KIVA was not reconstituted by TPP + Mg++ alone, but CoASH + NAD could reconstitute the enzyme activity with KIC and KIVA in different degrees. Only two control strains were tested with MEVA as substrate, and these showed in contrast that TPP + Mg++ could partly reconstitute the enzyme activity. In contrast to the relative homogeneity in the reconstitution profiles of normal strains, the five classical and one intermittent MSUD strains showed heterogeneity in cofactor requirements. Complementation analysis using heterokaryons prepared from fibroblasts of four patients with classical MSUD and one patient with intermittent MSUD showed, in contrast to experiments with normal controls, a partial amelioration of the defect in two combinations; it is suggested that the defect in these strains is located at different functional subunits of the multienzyme complex. PMID:192504

Singh, S; Willers, I; Goedde, H W

1977-04-01

310

Maple syrup urine disease: analysis of branched chain ketoacid decarboxylation in cultured fibroblasts.  

Science.gov (United States)

Kinetic data are presented for the decarboxylation of branched chain alpha-ketoacids (BCKA) by intact human fibroblasts. Cultured cells of normal individuals and nine patients with different clinical pictures of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) are studied with both alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (2-oxo-4-methylpentanoic acid (KIC)) and alpha-ketoisovaleric acid (2-oxo-3-methylbutanoic acid (KIVA)) as substrates. One normal cell strain and one patient cell strain is analyzed with alpha-keto-beta-methyl-n-valeric acid (2-oxo-3-methylpentanoic acid (MEVA)) as a substrate. A biphasic degradation kinetic for each BCKA is obtained for normal control subjects. The component with higher substrate affinity is affected in MSUD: for KIC the normally hyperbolic substrate curve is changed to sigmoid shape, for KIVA and MEVA as substrates this component is not detectable at all. Considering qualitative aspects of the BCKA decarboxylation kinetics intact fibroblasts yield the same results as our recent studies with the decarboxylase moieties of partially purified kidney BCKA dehydrogenase of normal individuals and one patient with classic MSUD (27). The decarboxylation velocities for normal and patient fibroblasts with one exception differ widely at low but not at high substrate concentrations of BCKA. To get meaningful data on the residual substrate degradation activities with intact fibroblasts of different phenotypes of MSUD physiologically low substrate concentrations are required in the assay. PMID:1202420

Wendel, U; Wentrup, H; Rüdiger, H W

1975-09-01

311

Comparison of breath testing with fructose and high fructose corn syrups in health and IBS.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although incomplete fructose absorption has been implicated to cause gastrointestinal symptoms, foods containing high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) contain glucose. Glucose increases fructose absorption in healthy subjects. Our hypothesis was that fructose intolerance is less prevalent after HFCS consumption compared to fructose alone in healthy subjects and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Breath hydrogen levels and gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed after 40 g of fructose (12% solution) prepared either in water or as HFCS, administered in double-blind randomized order on 2 days in 20 healthy subjects and 30 patients with IBS. Gastrointestinal symptoms were recorded on 100-mm Visual Analogue Scales. Breath hydrogen excretion was more frequently abnormal (P HFCS (26%) in controls and patients. Fructose intolerance (i.e. abnormal breath test and symptoms) was more prevalent after fructose than HFCS in healthy subjects (25% vs. 0%, P = 0.002) and patients (40% vs. 7%, P = 0.062). Scores for several symptoms (e.g. bloating r = 0.35) were correlated (P HFCS; in the fructose group, this association did not differ between healthy subjects and patients. Symptoms were not significantly different after fructose compared to HFCS. Fructose intolerance is more prevalent with fructose alone than with HFCS in health and in IBS. The prevalence of fructose intolerance is not significantly different between health and IBS. Current methods for identifying fructose intolerance should be modified to more closely reproduce fructose ingestion in daily life. PMID:18221251

Skoog, S M; Bharucha, A E; Zinsmeister, A R

2008-05-01

312

Nutrition management guideline for maple syrup urine disease: an evidence- and consensus-based approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an effort to increase harmonization of care and enable outcome studies, the Genetic Metabolic Dietitians International (GMDI) and the Southeast Regional Newborn Screening and Genetics Collaborative (SERC) are partnering to develop nutrition management guidelines for inherited metabolic disorders (IMD) using a model combining both evidence- and consensus-based methodology. The first guideline to be completed is for maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). This report describes the methodology used in its development: formulation of five research questions; review, critical appraisal and abstraction of peer-reviewed studies and unpublished practice literature; and expert input through Delphi surveys and a nominal group process. This report includes the summary statements for each research question and the nutrition management recommendations they generated. Each recommendation is followed by a standardized rating based on the strength of the evidence and consensus used. The application of technology to build the infrastructure for this project allowed transparency during development of this guideline and will be a foundation for future guidelines. Online open access of the full, published guideline allows utilization by health care providers, researchers, and collaborators who advise, advocate and care for individuals with MSUD and their families. There will be future updates as warranted by developments in research and clinical practice. PMID:24881969

Frazier, Dianne M; Allgeier, Courtney; Homer, Caroline; Marriage, Barbara J; Ogata, Beth; Rohr, Frances; Splett, Patricia L; Stembridge, Adrya; Singh, Rani H

2014-07-01

313

Protein and lipid damage in maple syrup urine disease patients: l-carnitine effect.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of metabolism biochemically characterized by elevated levels of the branched chain amino acids (BCAA) leucine, isoleucine, valine and the corresponding branched-chain ?-keto acids. This disorder is clinically characterized by ketoacidosis, seizures, coma, psychomotor delay and mental retardation whose pathophysiology is not completely understood. Recent studies have shown that oxidative stress may be involved in neuropathology of MSUD. l-Carnitine (l-Car) plays a central role in the cellular energy metabolism because it transports long-chain fatty acids for oxidation and ATP generation. In recent years many studies have demonstrated the antioxidant role of this compound. In this work, we investigated the effect of BCAA-restricted diet supplemented or not with l-Car on lipid peroxidation and in protein oxidation in MSUD patients. We found a significant increase of malondialdehyde and of carbonyl content in plasma of MSUD patients under BCAA-restricted diet compared to controls. Furthermore, patients under BCAA-restricted diet plus l-Car supplementation presented a marked reduction of malondialdehyde content in relation to controls, reducing the lipid peroxidation. In addition, free l-Car concentrations were negatively correlated with malondialdehyde levels. Our data show that l-Car may have an antioxidant effect, protecting against the lipid peroxidation and this could represent an additional therapeutic approach to the patients affected by MSUD. PMID:23137711

Mescka, Caroline Paula; Wayhs, Carlos Alberto Yasin; Vanzin, Camila Simioni; Biancini, Giovana Brondani; Guerreiro, Gilian; Manfredini, Vanusa; Souza, Carolina; Wajner, Moacir; Dutra-Filho, Carlos Severo; Vargas, Carmen Regla

2013-02-01

314

Diagnostic tools of early brain disturbances in an asymptomatic neonate with maple syrup urine disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare inherited metabolic disorder resulting from the defective activity of branched-chain 2-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. Routine screening of newborn with tandem mass spectroscopy on the third day of life may detect elevated branched-chain amino acids in blood before the appearance of encephalopathic symptoms in MSUD cases. If undiagnosed by such a routine screening test, patients often present with encephalopathy and seizures. Clinical neurologic examination is supplemented by electroencephalography and imaging. Here, we report abnormal amplitude-integrated electroencephalography, electroencephalography, magnetic resonance imaging, and magnetic resonance imaging spectroscopy findings in a neurologically asymptomatic male newborn who was diagnosed with MSUD at the third week of life. These neurologic disturbances disappeared at the fourth month of life with appropriate special diet. Therefore, even in already asymptomatic cases, early neurologic deterioration of brain metabolism and structure can be detected with these early laboratory findings, indicating the importance of early diagnosis and management. Patients may also benefit from these investigations during the follow-up period. PMID:23341096

Terek, Demet; Koroglu, Ozge; Yalaz, Mehmet; Gokben, Sarenur; Calli, Cem; Coker, Mahmut; Kultursay, Nilgun

2013-08-01

315

MR diffusion imaging and MR spectroscopy of maple syrup urine disease during acute metabolic decompensation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of amino acid metabolism, which affects the brain tissue resulting in impairment or death if untreated. Imaging studies have shown reversible brain edema during acute metabolic decompensation. The purpose of this paper is to describe the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and spectroscopy findings during metabolic decompensation and to assess the value of these findings in the prediction of patient outcome. Six patients with the diagnosis of MSUD underwent conventional MR imaging with DWI during acute presentation with metabolic decompensation. Spectroscopy with long TE was performed in four of the six patients. Follow-up examinations were performed after clinical and metabolic recovery. DWI demonstrated marked restriction of proton diffusion compatible with cytotoxic or intramyelinic sheath edema in the brainstem, basal ganglia, thalami, cerebellar and periventricular white matter and the cerebral cortex. This was accompanied by the presence of an abnormal branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and branched-chain alpha-keto acids (BCKA) peak at 0.9 ppm as well as elevated lactate on proton spectroscopy in all four patients. The changes in all six patients were reversed with treatment without evidence of volume loss or persistent tissue damage. The presence of cytotoxic or intramyelinic edema as evidenced by restricted water diffusion on DWI, with the presence of lactate on spectroscopy, could imply imminent cell death. However, in the context of metabolic decompensation in MSUD, it appears that changes in cell osmolarity and metabolism can reverse completely after metabolic correction. (orig.)

Jan, Wajanat; Wang, Zhiyue J. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Zimmerman, Robert A. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Civic Center Boulevard, PA 19104, Philadelphia (United States); Berry, Gerard T.; Kaplan, Paige B.; Kaye, Edward M. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

2003-06-01

316

Interrupting the mechanisms of brain injury in a model of maple syrup urine disease encephalopathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) was first recognized as an inherited lethal encephalopathy beginning in the first week of life and associated with an unusual odor in the urine of affected children. It was later confirmed as a deficiency of branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKDH), which is the second step in branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) breakdown. MSUD is characterized by BCAA and branched-chain keto acid (BCKA) accumulation. BCAAs are essential amino acids and powerful metabolic signals with severe consequences of both deprivation and accumulation. Treatment requires life-long dietary restriction and monitoring of BCAAs. However, despite excellent compliance, children commonly suffer metabolic decompensation during intercurrent illness resulting in life-threatening cerebral edema and dysmyelination. The mechanisms underlying brain injury have been poorly understood. Recent studies using newly developed mouse models of both classic and intermediate MSUD have yielded insight into the consequences of rapid BCAA accumulation. Additionally, these models have been used to test preliminary treatments aimed at competing with blood-brain barrier transport of BCAA using norleucine. Assessment of biochemical changes with and without treatment suggests different roles for BCAA and BCKA in the mechanism of brain injury. PMID:21541722

Zinnanti, William J; Lazovic, Jelena

2012-01-01

317

In vivo neuroprotective effect of L-carnitine against oxidative stress in maple syrup urine disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism caused by deficiency of the activity of the mitochondrial enzyme complex branched-chain ?-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD) leading to accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) leucine, isoleucine and valine and their corresponding branched-chain ?-keto acids. Affected patients present severe brain dysfunction manifested such as ataxia, seizures, coma, psychomotor delay and mental retardation. The mechanisms of brain damage in this disease remain poorly understood. Recent studies have shown that oxidative stress may be involved in neuropathology of MSUD. L-Carnitine (L-Car) is considered a potential antioxidant through its action against peroxidation as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species and by its stabilizing effect of damage to cell membranes. In this study we evaluate the possible neuroprotective in vivo effects of L-Car against pro-oxidative effects of BCAA in cerebral cortex of rats. L-Car prevented lipoperoxidation, measured by thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, protein damage, measured by sulfhydryl and protein carbonyl content and alteration on catalase and glutathione peroxidase activity in rat cortex from a chemically-induced model of MSUD. Our data clearly show that L-Car may be an efficient antioxidant, protecting against the oxidative stress promoted by BCAA. If the present results are confirmed in MSUD patients, this could represent an additional therapeutic approach to the patients affected by this disease. PMID:21380499

Mescka, Caroline; Moraes, Tarsila; Rosa, Andrea; Mazzola, Priscila; Piccoli, Bruna; Jacques, Carlos; Dalazen, Giovana; Coelho, Juliana; Cortes, Marcelo; Terra, Melaine; Regla Vargas, Carmen; Dutra-Filho, Carlos S

2011-03-01

318

Efficacy of Vasadi Syrup and Shwasaghna Dhuma in the patients of COPD (Shwasa Roga).  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) threatens as emerging public health crisis. The two major drivers for this are the ageing of the world's population and the impressive, if deplorable, success of the multinational tobacco companies at forcing open world markets. One of the most striking aspect of COPD is that it is heterogenous. There are many different presentations with differing intensities of symptoms and even differing responses to the medication. Sorting out, what accounts for this phenomenon and how treatments can be best individualised, is of concern to both basic and clinical scientists. COPD is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and results in a substantial economic and social burden to society. It is the sixth most common cause of death worldwide and expected to rise to third position by 2020. Several national and international agencies like WHO, GOLD, ATS, ERS etc. are working in a direction of finding some solution of this wicked problem. In Ayurvedic texts Shwasa Roga has been described having symptomatology close to COPD. A study was carried out in P.G.Deptt. of Kayachikitsa in R.G.G.P.G.Ayu.College Paprola, H. P. where the role and efficacy of two Ayurvedic formulations -Vasadi Syrup and Shwasaghna Dhuma was evaluated on 30 patients of COPD selected on the basis of fixed inclusion and exclusion criteria in two different groups. In both the groups drugs provided significant results based on subjective symptomatological criteria and objective spirometric criteria. PMID:22131684

Sharma, Praveen Kumar; Johri, Sharad; Mehra, B L

2010-01-01

319

Citric Acid Production from Date Syrup using Immobilized Cells of Aspergillus niger  

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Full Text Available A total of 14 isolates of Aspergillus niger were obtained from soil samples of two different locations in Saudi Arabia. These cultures were screened for their ability to produce citric acid in date syrup medium under free and immobilized cells systems. Maximum productivity was about 1.44 times higher in the immobilized system compared to free cells. A. niger j4 isolated from Jazan region was selected as a good producer for optimization of the citric acid fermentation in immobilized cells technique. Citric acid production was increased gradually and reached to maximum value (30.6 g L-1 after 6 days of cultivation. Optimum production was achieved at 15% sugar concentration with consumed sugar of 49.5%. The highest value of citric acid (42.5 g L-1 was obtained at pH 5.5 with increasing the consumed sugar to 61.7%. A positive relationship between citric acid production and incubation temperature was also observed up to 30°C.

Abdulrahman M. Al-Shehri

2006-01-01

320

Comparative evaluation of the antitussive activity of butamirate citrate linctus versus clobutinol syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a double-blind randomized study 60 patients with either irritative cough due to seasonal respiratory disorders or chronic cough of any etiology were treated with either butamirate citrate linctus (Sinecod, Zyma) or with clobutinol syrup (Silomat, Boehringer, Ingelheim) for a period of 5 days at a dose regimen of 3 tablespoons daily. Efficacy was assessed based on the reduction of the severity as well as frequency of the cough and on the global opinion of the physician. Both groups showed highly significant improvements for the severity and frequency parameters (p less than 0.001), thus demonstrating the effectiveness of both treatments. No significant differences between groups were detected globally for the whole collective. For cough due to carcinomas (n = 14), however, a significantly better effect of butamirate on the frequency of cough (p = 0.026) was found which originated other significant differences in the global scores (p = 0.013) and in the physician's opinion (p = 0.026). Seven patients in both groups complained about side effects (mainly nausea and drowsiness). PMID:2095610

Charpin, J; Weibel, M A

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

DNA carrier testing and newborn screening for maple syrup urine disease in Old Order Mennonite communities.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited metabolic disorder caused by mutations in the branched chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex. Worldwide incidence of MSUD is 1:225,000 live births. However, within Old Order Mennonite communities, the incidence is 1:150 live births and results from a common tyrosine to asparagine substitution (Y438N) in the E1alpha subunit of branched chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase. We developed a new DNA diagnostic assay utilizing TaqMan technology and compared its efficacy, sensitivity, and duration with an existing polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay. Carrier testing was performed by both TaqMan technology and PCR-RFLP on DNA isolated from buccal swabs of 160 individuals as well as from buccal swabs and blood spots of nine at-risk newborns; assay time, sensitivity, and reliability were also evaluated. The TaqMan assay, like the PCR-RFLP assay, accurately determined Y438N E1alpha allele status. However, the TaqMan assay appeared (1) more sensitive than the PCR-RFLP assay, requiring 10-fold less DNA (10 ng) to reliably determine genotype status and (2) faster, reducing the assay time required for diagnosis from approximately 12 to 5 h. TaqMan technology allowed more rapid DNA diagnoses of MSUD in the neonate, thereby reducing the likelihood of neurological impairment while enhancing health and prognosis for affected infants. PMID:20136525

Carleton, Stephanie M; Peck, Dawn S; Grasela, Julie; Dietiker, Kristin L; Phillips, Charlotte L

2010-04-01

322

The use of oral pentobarbital sodium (Nembutal) versus oral chloral hydrate in infants undergoing CT and MR imaging - a pilot study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background. Chloral hydrate, a commonly used oral sedative for infants undergoing imaging examinations, has a bitter taste and requires relatively large volume, provoking unpleasant reactions from the infants. Experience with an alternative sedative, oral pentobarbital (Nembutal), has not been reported for infants Objective. To compare patient acceptance of oral Nembutal and oral chloral hydrate for sedation of infants up to 12 months of age. Methods and materials. Fifty-four infants (mean age: 7 months) were prospectively enrolled. Parents chose Nembutal, chloral hydrate, or no preference. Thirty-eight infants received Nembutal (4-6 mg/kg) mixed with cherry syrup and 16 received chloral hydrate (50-100 mg/kg). We recorded infant's acceptance of sedative, parental impression of infant's acceptance, time to sedation, time to discharge, adverse effects, parental preference of future sedative. Results. Infant acceptance and parental impression were better for Nembutal (P < 0.0001). Fewer parents in the Nembutal group preferred another sedative (P = 0.05). There was a trend toward shorter time to discharge with Nembutal (P = 0.03). There were no adverse effects in either group. One infant failed to sedate with Nembutal. Conclusions. Compared with chloral hydrate, oral Nembutal has significantly better acceptance by infants and parents, equal effectiveness, and may result in a shorter time to discharge. (orig.)

323

The use of oral pentobarbital sodium (Nembutal) versus oral chloral hydrate in infants undergoing CT and MR imaging - a pilot study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background. Chloral hydrate, a commonly used oral sedative for infants undergoing imaging examinations, has a bitter taste and requires relatively large volume, provoking unpleasant reactions from the infants. Experience with an alternative sedative, oral pentobarbital (Nembutal), has not been reported for infants Objective. To compare patient acceptance of oral Nembutal and oral chloral hydrate for sedation of infants up to 12 months of age. Methods and materials. Fifty-four infants (mean age: 7 months) were prospectively enrolled. Parents chose Nembutal, chloral hydrate, or no preference. Thirty-eight infants received Nembutal (4-6 mg/kg) mixed with cherry syrup and 16 received chloral hydrate (50-100 mg/kg). We recorded infant's acceptance of sedative, parental impression of infant's acceptance, time to sedation, time to discharge, adverse effects, parental preference of future sedative. Results. Infant acceptance and parental impression were better for Nembutal (P < 0.0001). Fewer parents in the Nembutal group preferred another sedative (P = 0.05). There was a trend toward shorter time to discharge with Nembutal (P = 0.03). There were no adverse effects in either group. One infant failed to sedate with Nembutal. Conclusions. Compared with chloral hydrate, oral Nembutal has significantly better acceptance by infants and parents, equal effectiveness, and may result in a shorter time to discharge. (orig.)

Chung, T.; Hoffer, F.A.; Connor, L.; Burrows, P.E. [Dept. of Radiology, Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Zurakowski, D. [Research Computing, Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

2000-05-01

324

Topical tretinoin in acanthosis nigricans  

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Full Text Available Efficacy of topical tretinoin was assessed in 30 cases of idiopathic acanthosis nigricans which were recalcitrant to conventional modalities of treatment. Topical tretinoin once at night application was found to be very effective both clinically and histologically.

Lahiri Koushik

1996-01-01

325

Health Topics: MedlinePlus  

Science.gov (United States)

... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Health Topics Read about symptoms, causes, treatment and prevention for ... illnesses, health conditions and wellness issues. MedlinePlus health topics are regularly reviewed, and links are updated daily. ...

326

Using corticosteroids during pregnancy. Are topical, inhaled, or systemic agents associated with risk?  

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Full Text Available QUESTION: I am concerned about use of corticosteroids during pregnancy. Some of my women patients of reproductive age are using topical, inhaled, or oral preparations, and I am not sure what to advise. ANSWER: Both topical and systemic corticosteroids are used for a variety of autoimmune and inflammatory conditions. Results of first-trimester studies were inconclusive and underpowered. Recent meta-analyses suggest a small but significant association between use of systemic corticosteroids during the first trimester and oral clefts. This is consistent with results of animal studies. No similar evidence exists for topical or inhaled corticosteroids, probably because of much lower systemic exposure.

Oren D

2004-08-01

327

Topics in broken supersymmetry  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Studies on two topics in the framework of broken supersymmetry are presented. Chapter I is a brief introduction in which the motivation and the background of this work are discussed. In Chapter II, the author studies the decay K+ ? ?+ ?? in models with spontaneous supersymmetry breaking and find that it is generally suppressed relative to the decay K+ ? ?+ anti nu nu of the conventional model, except possibly for a class of models where the scalar quark masses are generated by radiative corrections from a much larger supersymmetry breaking scale. For a small range of scalar quark and photino mass parameters, the cascade decay process K+ ? ?+ ?0 ? ?+ ?? will become dominant over the anti nu nu mode. The author also comments on the possibility of probing the neutrino mass through the K+ ? ?+ ?0 ? ?+ anti nu nu cascade decay. Chapter III is concerned with the implications of explicit lepton number violating soft operators in a general low energy effective theory with softly broken supersymmetry

328

Superconcentration and related topics  

CERN Document Server

A certain curious feature of random objects, introduced by the author as “super concentration,” and two related topics, “chaos” and “multiple valleys,” are highlighted in this book. Although super concentration has established itself as a recognized feature in a number of areas of probability theory in the last twenty years (under a variety of names), the author was the first to discover and explore its connections with chaos and multiple valleys. He achieves a substantial degree of simplification and clarity in the presentation of these findings by using the spectral approach. Understanding the fluctuations of random objects is one of the major goals of probability theory and a whole subfield of probability and analysis, called concentration of measure, is devoted to understanding these fluctuations. This subfield offers a range of tools for computing upper bounds on the orders of fluctuations of very complicated random variables. Usually, concentration of measure is useful when more direct prob...

Chatterjee, Sourav

2014-01-01

329

Topics on String Phenomenology  

CERN Document Server

These lectures present some topics of string phenomenology and contain two parts. In the first part, I review the possibility of lowering the string scale in the TeV region, that provides a theoretical framework for solving the mass hierarchy problem and unifying all interactions. The apparent weakness of gravity can then be accounted by the existence of large internal dimensions, in the submillimeter region, and transverse to a braneworld where our universe must be confined. I review the main properties of this scenario and its implications for observations at both particle colliders, and in non-accelerator gravity experiments. In the second part, I discuss a simple framework of toroidal string models with magnetized branes, that offers an interesting self-consistent setup for string phenomenology. I will present an algorithm for fixing the geometric parameters of the compactification, build calculable particle physics models such as a supersymmetric SU(5) Grand Unified Theory with three generations of quark...

Antoniadis, Ignatios

2008-01-01

330

Perspective and research topics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

In the preceding chapters various aspects of the theory of turbulent reacting flows are discussed in detail. The fundamental features of such flows, some of the relevant practical problems connected with turbulent combustion, approaches appropriate for the limiting cases of nonpremixed and premixed reactants, and the direct probability-density approach to the description of such flows are treated in successive chapters. There results a relatively complete view of the present status of the fundamental theory and its application to somewhat idealized flows. In this chapter we attempt to provide an overview and perspective of the field and call attention to research topics of greatest interest from both practical and fundamental points of view. (orig.)

331

Literatura oral, oralidad ficticia Oral literature, fictitious orality  

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Full Text Available Se pretende una aproximación a las relaciones entre la contradictoria ‘literatura oral’ y redundante ‘literatura escrita’, entre lo oral (en tanto fenómeno de comunicación real, convertido en creación verbal, y la ficción de oralidad en la escritura (literaria. Todo, en el marco general de la problemática oralidad/escritura tal como aparece en la práctica cultural latinoamericana. En este último caso, se trata, sin duda, de un esfuerzo por dialogar con la otredad, con lo excluido por el canon de la literatura y cultura oficial. Con ello no sólo se busca incorporar formas o estructuras propias del discurso oral en los textos literarios, sino, en algunos casos paradigmáticos, alcanzar una cierta certidumbre de que esos textos literarios obedecen a una lógica profunda de oralidad cultural.Within the framework of the conceptions of orality and writing prevalent in Latin American cultural practice, the author attempts an approach to the relationship between the contradictory notion of ‘oral literature’ and the redundant notion of ‘written literature’, that is, between orality as a real communication phenomenon, when it occurs as verbal creation, and the fiction of orality found in literary writing. In this case, what one really discovers is an effort to establish a dialog with what has been omitted by the literary establishment and cultural standards. Along these lines, literary texts not only incorporate forms and structures proper of oral texts, but in some paradigmatic cases a true link with a deep cultural orality is found.

Mauricio Ostria González

2001-01-01

332

Topical issues in venous thromboembolism.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite clear guidelines and the availability of effective treatments, venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains relatively common, particularly in the hospital setting. This paper reviews topical issues in VTE, in terms of treatments, data and guidelines. Existing anticoagulants have several limitations. Bleeding risk is a concern with all anticoagulants. Vitamin K antagonists are the mainstay of oral anticoagulant therapy, but they are limited by the need for frequent monitoring. Unfractionated heparin (UFH) is limited by an inconvenient route of administration (continuous intravenous infusion) and a higher risk of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and bleeding compared with low molecular weight heparins (LMWH). LMWH have a more predictable pharmacokinetic profile and greater bioavailability than UFH, which permits weight-adjusted LMWH dosing without the need for monitoring in most patients. LMWH also have a more convenient dosing strategy than UFH (once-daily subcutaneous injection). Fondaparinux is a selective inhibitor of factor Xa and, like LMWH, does not require monitoring. The efficacy of fondaparinux in long-term VTE treatment remains to be established. The optimal time to initiate thromboprophylaxis in patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery remains controversial. Initiating thromboprophylaxis just before or soon after surgery (the 'just-in-time' strategy) achieves better thromboprophylaxis but could increase the risk of bleeding complications. Balancing the need for extended thromboprophylaxis after major surgery with the need to minimize bleeding remains an important consideration. Despite clear guidelines, thromboprophylaxis is widely underused, particularly in medical patients, in whom rates as low as 28% have been reported. Electronic alert systems may be of value for increasing the use of adequate thromboprophylaxis. The use of different definitions of VTE and bleeding in clinical trials, together with missing venography data, conflicting guidelines in patients undergoing total hip or knee arthroplasty, and the limited amount of data in children, also make VTE prevention and management more difficult. Administering thromboprophylaxis to a wider group of patients, employing the 'just-in-time' protocols, ensuring adequate duration of thromboprophylaxis, combining different methods of thromboprophylaxis and developing new anticoagulants should help to improve thromboprophylaxis. PMID:21162605

Abad Rico, José Ignacio; Llau Pitarch, Juan Vicente; Páramo Fernández, José Antonio

2010-12-14

333

Successful domino liver transplantation in maple syrup urine disease using a related living donor  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive disease associated with high levels of branched-chain amino acids. Children with MSUD can present severe neurological damage, but liver transplantation (LT) allows the patient to resume a normal diet and avoid further neurological damage. Th [...] e use of living related donors has been controversial because parents are obligatory heterozygotes. We report a case of a 2-year-old child with MSUD who underwent a living donor LT. The donor was the patient's mother, and his liver was then used as a domino graft. The postoperative course was uneventful in all three subjects. DNA analysis performed after the transplantation (sequencing of the coding regions of BCKDHA, BCKDHB, and DBT genes) showed that the MSUD patient was heterozygous for a pathogenic mutation in the BCKDHB gene. This mutation was not found in his mother, who is an obligatory carrier for MSUD according to the family history and, as expected, presented both normal clinical phenotype and levels of branched-chain amino acids. In conclusion, our data suggest that the use of a related donor in LT for MSUD was effective, and the liver of the MSUD patient was successfully used in domino transplantation. Routine donor genotyping may not be feasible, because the test is not widely available, and, most importantly, the disease is associated with both the presence of allelic and locus heterogeneity. Further studies with this population of patients are required to expand the use of related donors in MSUD.

F.H., Feier; I.K., Miura; E.A., Fonseca; G., Porta; R., Pugliese; A., Porta; I.V.D., Schwartz; A.V.B., Margutti; J.S., Camelo Jr; S.N., Yamaguchi; A.T., Taveira; H., Candido; M., Benavides; V., Danesi; T., Guimaraes; M., Kondo; P., Chapchap; J. Seda, Neto.

334

Successful domino liver transplantation in maple syrup urine disease using a related living donor  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive disease associated with high levels of branched-chain amino acids. Children with MSUD can present severe neurological damage, but liver transplantation (LT) allows the patient to resume a normal diet and avoid further neurological damage. Th [...] e use of living related donors has been controversial because parents are obligatory heterozygotes. We report a case of a 2-year-old child with MSUD who underwent a living donor LT. The donor was the patient's mother, and his liver was then used as a domino graft. The postoperative course was uneventful in all three subjects. DNA analysis performed after the transplantation (sequencing of the coding regions of BCKDHA, BCKDHB, and DBT genes) showed that the MSUD patient was heterozygous for a pathogenic mutation in the BCKDHB gene. This mutation was not found in his mother, who is an obligatory carrier for MSUD according to the family history and, as expected, presented both normal clinical phenotype and levels of branched-chain amino acids. In conclusion, our data suggest that the use of a related donor in LT for MSUD was effective, and the liver of the MSUD patient was successfully used in domino transplantation. Routine donor genotyping may not be feasible, because the test is not widely available, and, most importantly, the disease is associated with both the presence of allelic and locus heterogeneity. Further studies with this population of patients are required to expand the use of related donors in MSUD.

F.H., Feier; I.K., Miura; E.A., Fonseca; G., Porta; R., Pugliese; A., Porta; I.V.D., Schwartz; A.V.B., Margutti; J.S., Camelo Jr; S.N., Yamaguchi; A.T., Taveira; H., Candido; M., Benavides; V., Danesi; T., Guimaraes; M., Kondo; P., Chapchap; J. Seda, Neto.

2014-04-25

335

Successful domino liver transplantation in maple syrup urine disease using a related living donor  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive disease associated with high levels of branched-chain amino acids. Children with MSUD can present severe neurological damage, but liver transplantation (LT) allows the patient to resume a normal diet and avoid further neurological damage. Th [...] e use of living related donors has been controversial because parents are obligatory heterozygotes. We report a case of a 2-year-old child with MSUD who underwent a living donor LT. The donor was the patient's mother, and his liver was then used as a domino graft. The postoperative course was uneventful in all three subjects. DNA analysis performed after the transplantation (sequencing of the coding regions of BCKDHA, BCKDHB, and DBT genes) showed that the MSUD patient was heterozygous for a pathogenic mutation in the BCKDHB gene. This mutation was not found in his mother, who is an obligatory carrier for MSUD according to the family history and, as expected, presented both normal clinical phenotype and levels of branched-chain amino acids. In conclusion, our data suggest that the use of a related donor in LT for MSUD was effective, and the liver of the MSUD patient was successfully used in domino transplantation. Routine donor genotyping may not be feasible, because the test is not widely available, and, most importantly, the disease is associated with both the presence of allelic and locus heterogeneity. Further studies with this population of patients are required to expand the use of related donors in MSUD.

F.H., Feier; I.K., Miura; E.A., Fonseca; G., Porta; R., Pugliese; A., Porta; I.V.D., Schwartz; A.V.B., Margutti; J.S., Camelo Jr; S.N., Yamaguchi; A.T., Taveira; H., Candido; M., Benavides; V., Danesi; T., Guimaraes; M., Kondo; P., Chapchap; J. Seda, Neto.

2014-06-01

336

Antioxidant administration prevents memory impairment in an animal model of maple syrup urine disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder resulting from deficiency of branched-chain ?-keto acid dehydrogenase complex leading to branched chain amino acids (BCAA) leucine, isoleucine, and valine accumulation as well as their corresponding transaminated branched-chain ?-keto acids. MSUD patients present neurological dysfunction and cognitive impairment. Here, we investigated whether acute and chronic administration of a BCAA pool causes impairment of acquisition and retention of avoidance memory in young rats. We have used two administration protocols. Acute administration consisted of three subcutaneous administrations of the BCAA pool (15.8 ?L/g body weight at 1-h intervals) containing 190 mmol/L leucine, 59 mmol/L isoleucine, and 69 mmol/L valine or saline solution (0.85% NaCl; control group) in 30 days old Wistar rats. Chronic administration consisted of two subcutaneous administrations of BCAA pool for 21 days in 7 days old Wistar rats. N-acetylcysteine (NAC; 20 mg/kg) and deferoxamine (DFX; 20 mg/kg) co administration influence on behavioral parameters after chronic BCAA administration was also investigated. BCAA administration induced long-term memory impairment in the inhibitory avoidance and CMIA (continuous multiple-trials step-down inhibitory avoidance) tasks whereas with no alterations in CMIA retention memory. Inhibitory avoidance alterations were prevented by NAC and DFX. BCAA administration did not impair the neuropsychiatric state, muscle tone and strength, and autonomous function evaluated with the SHIRPA (SmithKline/Harwell/ImperialCollege/RoyalHospital/Phenotype Assessment) protocol. Taken together, our results indicate that alterations of motor activity or emotionality probably did not contribute to memory impairment after BCAA administration and NAC and DFX effects suggest that cognition impairment after BCAA administration may be caused by oxidative brain damage. PMID:22433584

Scaini, Giselli; Teodorak, Brena P; Jeremias, Isabela C; Morais, Meline O; Mina, Francielle; Dominguini, Diogo; Pescador, Bruna; Comim, Clarissa M; Schuck, Patrícia F; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio L

2012-05-16

337

Three Korean patients with maple syrup urine disease: four novel mutations in the BCKDHA gene.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism caused by dysfunction of the multienzyme branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex. Although a few cases of MSUD have been reported in the Korean population, the genetic background of MSUD is not well understood. In this study, we investigated three newborn males who were diagnosed with MSUD using a standard newborn screening test and amino acid analysis. We screened all coding regions of the BCKDHA, BCKDHB and DBT genes for abnormalities using direct sequencing. Changes in these genes are associated with MSUD. For one patient with complex deletion/duplication mutations, we also performed TOPO TA cloning sequencing. Amino acid analysis showed elevated levels of all branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) in all patients. Three patients were either homozygous or compound heterozygous for the BCKDHA mutations. Patient 1 was homozygous for c.1036C>T (p.R346C); patient 2 was heterozygous, with c.632C>T (p.T211M) and c.659C>T (p.A220V); and patient 3 had c.1204_1209dupAAACCC (p.L402_P403dup) and c.1280_1282delTGG (p.L427_A428delinsP). Among these mutations, c.1036C>T, c.632C>T, c.1204_1209dup and c.1280_1282del were novel. These patients had no mutations in either the BCKDHB or the DBT gene. Although this study included only three patients, the five different mutations in these patients may indicate mutational heterogeneity in Korean patients with MSUD. In addition, the BCHDHA gene may present a primary target for clinical genetic analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of genetically confirmed MSUD in Korea. PMID:21844576

Park, Hyung-Doo; Lee, Dong Hwan; Hong, Yong Hee; Kang, Dong Hee; Lee, You Kyoung; Song, Junghan; Lee, Soo-Youn; Kim, Jong-Won; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Yong-Wha

2011-01-01

338

Production and characterization of murine models of classic and intermediate maple syrup urine disease  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD is an inborn error of metabolism caused by a deficiency of branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase. MSUD has several clinical phenotypes depending on the degree of enzyme deficiency. Current treatments are not satisfactory and require new approaches to combat this disease. A major hurdle in developing new treatments has been the lack of a suitable animal model. Methods To create a murine model of classic MSUD, we used gene targeting and embryonic stem cell technologies to create a mouse line that lacked a functional E2 subunit gene of branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase. To create a murine model of intermediate MSUD, we used transgenic technology to express a human E2 cDNA on the knockout background. Mice of both models were characterized at the molecular, biochemical, and whole animal levels. Results By disrupting the E2 subunit gene of branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase, we created a gene knockout mouse model of classic MSUD. The homozygous knockout mice lacked branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase activity, E2 immunoreactivity, and had a 3-fold increase in circulating branched-chain amino acids. These metabolic derangements resulted in neonatal lethality. Transgenic expression of a human E2 cDNA in the liver of the E2 knockout animals produced a model of intermediate MSUD. Branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase activity was 5–6% of normal and was sufficient to allow survival, but was insufficient to normalize circulating branched-chain amino acids levels, which were intermediate between wildtype and the classic MSUD mouse model. Conclusion These mice represent important animal models that closely approximate the phenotype of humans with the classic and intermediate forms of MSUD. These animals provide useful models to further characterize the pathogenesis of MSUD, as well as models to test novel therapeutic strategies, such as gene and cellular therapies, to treat this devastating metabolic disease.

Watkins Simon

2006-03-01

339

Cerebral edema in maple syrup urine disease despite newborn screening diagnosis and early initiation of treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 7-day-old girl had an elevated leucine level on newborn screen drawn at 2 days of age and was suspected of having maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). When reported, the patient was immediately admitted to hospital, and started on a modified diet involving high calories with reduced branched chain amino acid (BCAA) formula. Clinical exam was normal at initial assessment. Despite rapid initiation of treatment, the baby became lethargic and somnolent over the next day. Diet was stopped and infusions of 12.5% dextrose and 20% intravenous lipids at 2 g/kg per day were immediately started. Lethargy improved within 3 h of intravenous therapy initiation. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated diffuse cerebral edema, and symmetric restricted diffusion in bilateral cerebellar white matter, dorsal brainstem, thalami, globi pallidi, posterior limbs of internal capsules, and corona radiata. Plasma leucine was 1.98 mmol/L on admission (normal 0.05-0.17 mmol/L), decreasing to 1.34 mmol/L with diet, however clinical deterioration occurred despite improving leucine levels.Cerebral edema in MSUD is thought secondary to a combination of increased cerebral BCAA levels, and depleted levels of other essential amino acids, as well as neurotransmitters. Our case illustrates that newborns can develop encephalopathy with cerebral edema despite treatment with special formula initiated while asymptomatic. These findings suggest decompensation may begin early on, so that early introduction of high dextrose infusion and intravenous lipids, in combination with reduced BCAA formula, should be initiated for any patient with a positive newborn screen for MSUD. PMID:23430881

Myers, Kenneth A; Reeves, Melanie; Wei, Xing-Chang; Khan, Aneal

2012-01-01

340

Cranberry syrup vs trimethoprim in the prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections among children: a controlled trial  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jose Uberos,1 Mercedes Nogueras-Ocana,2 Verónica Fernandez-Puentes,1 Rocio Rodriguez-Belmonte,1 Eduardo Narbona-López,1 Antonio Molina-Carballo,1 Antonio Munoz-Hoyos11Paediatric Clinical Management Unit, San Cecilio University Clinical Hospital, Avda de Madrid s/n, Granada, Spain; 2Paediatric Urology, San Cecilio University Clinical Hospital, Avda de Madrid s/n, Granada, SpainObjectives: The present study forms part of the ISRCTN16968287 clinical assay. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of cranberry syrup in the prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI.Design: Phase III randomized clinical trial.Setting: The study was conducted at the San Cecilio Clinical Hospital (Granada, Spain.Participants: A total of 192 patients were recruited. The subjects were aged between 1 month and 13 years. Criteria for inclusion were a background of recurrent UTI (more than two episodes of infection in the last 6 months, associated or otherwise with vesicoureteral reflux of any degree, or renal pelvic dilatation associated with UTI. Criteria for exclusion from recruitment to the study included the co-existence of UTI with other infectious diseases or with metabolic diseases, chronic renal insufficiency, and the presence of allergy or intolerance to any of the components of cranberry syrup or trimethoprim.Primary outcome measures: The primary objective was to determine the risk of UTI associated with each intervention.Results: Of the 198 patients initially eligible, 192 were finally included in the study to receive either cranberry syrup or trimethoprim. UTI was observed in 47 patients, 17 of whom were males and 30 females. We recruited 95 patients diagnosed with recurrent UTI on entry; during follow-up, 26 patients had a UTI (27.4%, 95% CI: 18.4%–36.3%. Six patients (6.3% were male and 20 (21.1% were female. Eighteen patients (18.9% of the total, 95% CI: 11%–26.3% receiving trimethoprim had a UTI and eight patients (8.4% of the total, 95% CI: 2.8%–13.9% were given cranberry. Sixty-six percent of the episodes of UTI recurrence were caused by Escherichia coli, with no significant differences being found between the two treatment branches. No differences were observed between the two treatment branches in the rate of resistance to antibiotics.Conclusion: Our study confirms that cranberry syrup is a safe treatment for the pediatric population. Cranberry prophylaxis has noninferiority with respect to trimethoprim in recurrent UTI. (European Clinical Trials Registry EuDract 2007-004397-62 (ISRCTN16968287.Keywords: cranberry, urinary tract infections, trimethoprim, vesicoureteral reflux, antibiotic prophylaxis 

Uberos J

2012-05-01

 
 
 
 
341

Maple Syrup Urine Disease: Identification and Carrier-Frequency Determination of a Novel Founder Mutation in the Ashkenazi Jewish Population  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism. We noted that a large proportion (10 of 34) of families with MSUD that were followed in our clinic were of Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) descent, leading us to search for a common mutation within this group. On the basis of genotyping data suggestive of a conserved haplotype at tightly linked markers on chromosome 6q14, the BCKDHB gene encoding the E1? subunit was sequenced. Three novel ...

Edelmann, Lisa; Wasserstein, Melissa P.; Kornreich, Ruth; Sansaricq, Claude; Snyderman, Selma E.; Diaz, George A.

2001-01-01

342

Evidence for both a regulatory mutation and a structural mutation in a family with maple syrup urine disease.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) results from a deficiency of branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH). We have studied the etiology of MSUD by determining the enzyme activity, protein, and mRNA levels of BCKDH in fibroblasts from a classic MSUD patient and his parents. By enzymatic amplification of the patient's mRNA followed by cloning and DNA sequencing, we have identified a T to A transversion that alters a tyrosine to an asparagine at residue 394 of the E1 alpha subunit. Ampli...

Zhang, B.; Edenberg, H. J.; Harris, R. A.

1989-01-01

343

Topics in statistical mechanics  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This thesis deals with four independent topics in statistical mechanics: (1) the dimer problem is solved exactly for a hexagonal lattice with general boundary using a known generating function from the theory of partitions. It is shown that the leading term in the entropy depends on the shape of the boundary; (2) continuum models of percolation and self-avoiding walks are introduced with the property that their series expansions are sums over linear graphs with intrinsic combinatorial weights and explicit dimension dependence; (3) a constrained SOS model is used to describe the edge of a simple cubic crystal. Low and high temperature results are derived as well as the detailed behavior near the crystal facet; (4) the microscopic model of the lambda-transition involving atomic permutation cycles is reexamined. In particular, a new derivation of the two-component field theory model of the critical behavior is presented. Results for a lattice model originally proposed by Kikuchi are extended with a high temperature series expansion and Monte Carlo simulation. 30 references

344

Anti-inflammatory Activities of Colocynth Topical Gel  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Owing to the purgative effect of Colocynth extract when taken orally, the objective of this investigation was to prepare Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (5%) topical gel formulations containing 3% of colocynth extract, hydrolyzed extract, or acetylated extract and to study their release through cellophane membrane and their permeability through hairless mouse skin. Also, to study the in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of the different types of colocynth extract using the carrageenan ind...

Aly, Adel M.; Ahmad Naddaf

2006-01-01

345

Discovering health topics in social media using topic models.  

Science.gov (United States)

By aggregating self-reported health statuses across millions of users, we seek to characterize the variety of health information discussed in Twitter. We describe a topic modeling framework for discovering health topics in Twitter, a social media website. This is an exploratory approach with the goal of understanding what health topics are commonly discussed in social media. This paper describes in detail a statistical topic model created for this purpose, the Ailment Topic Aspect Model (ATAM), as well as our system for filtering general Twitter data based on health keywords and supervised classification. We show how ATAM and other topic models can automatically infer health topics in 144 million Twitter messages from 2011 to 2013. ATAM discovered 13 coherent clusters of Twitter messages, some of which correlate with seasonal influenza (r = 0.689) and allergies (r = 0.810) temporal surveillance data, as well as exercise (r = ?.534) and obesity (r = ?-.631) related geographic survey data in the United States. These results demonstrate that it is possible to automatically discover topics that attain statistically significant correlations with ground truth data, despite using minimal human supervision and no historical data to train the model, in contrast to prior work. Additionally, these results demonstrate that a single general-purpose model can identify many different health topics in social media. PMID:25084530

Paul, Michael J; Dredze, Mark

2014-01-01

346

An Automatic Topic Identification Algorithm  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Problem statement: Topic is a stream of words which stands for the content of a text. Knowing the topic of a document can help people to be aware from its content and facilitate their searching process. Approach: This paper proposes an automatic algorithm to identify the topic for a textual document based on the chunks corresponding to each sentences in the document. Results and conclusion: We achieved 86% matching for both total and partial matching i...

Baghdadi, Hossein S.; Bali Ranaivo-Malançon

2011-01-01

347

Topic of the Moment - Supernovae  

...Topic of the Moment - Supernovae Topic of the Moment - Supernovae Topic of the Moment - Supernovae This site uses cookies. By continuing ...Other IOP websites Energy harvesting On this day Topic of the Moment - Supernovae A new supernova has been spotted in the galaxy M82. ... On 22 January, it was announced that astronomers had found a new supernova in the galaxy M82, about 12 million lightyears away. ...The discovery is exciting astronomers since the last supernova observed within our own galaxy was seen by Kepler in 1604, but what is ...

348

Section three: oral cancers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral cancers are uncommon in the United States. Risk factors for oral cancer include tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and high-risk oral human papillomavirus infection. Precancerous lesions, such as leukoplakia, may lead to oral cancers, but the majority of precancerous lesions never undergo malignant transformation. Management and prognosis for oral cancers vary widely depending on the site of the cancer. Lip cancers typically are detected early and have the greatest likelihood for cure and long-term patient survival. Cancers of the pharynx and tonsil have poor survival rates even when diagnosed in early stages. The best approach to preventing oral cancers is to control risk factors. PMID:24328950

Hueston, William J; Kaur, Dipinpreet

2013-12-01

349

Novel topical therapies for distal colitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Distal colitis (DC can be effectively treated with topical 5ASA agents. Suppositories target the rectum while enemas can reliably reach the splenic flexure. Used in combination with oral 5ASAs, the control of the inflammation is even more effective. Unfortunately, resistant DC does occur and can be extremely challenging to manage. In these patients, the use of steroids, immunosuppressants and the anti-tumor necrosis factor ? agents are often required. These, however, can be associated with systemic side effects and are not always effective. The investigation of new topical therapeutic agents is thus required as they are rarely associated with significant blood drug levels and side effects are infrequent. Some of the agents that have been proposed for use in resistant distal colitis include butyrate, cyclosporine and nicotine enemas as well as tacrolimus suppositories and tacrolimus, ecabet sodium, arsenic, lidocaine, rebamipide and Ridogrel® enemas. Some of these agents have demonstrated impressive results but the majority of the agents have only been assessed in small open-labelled patient cohorts. Further work is thus required with the investigation of promising agents in the context of randomized double-blinded placebo controlled trials. This review aims to highlight those potentially effective therapies in the management of resistant distal colitis and to promote interest in furthering their investigation.

Ian Craig Lawrance

2010-10-01

350

Hot topic [editorial  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is strong evidence for the human impact on climate change, but we should not ignore those who think otherwise. Unseasonably warm weather in many parts of Europe and North America last month will probably have added to the impression in many people's minds that climate change is a reality and that humans are guilty of warming our planet. The several hundred members of the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) certainly think that the evidence for anthropogenic climate change is solid. Although Physics World was unable to obtain a copy of the IPCC's latest report on the science of climate change before its release date of 2 February - a clear sign of how sensitive its findings are - hints from those involved in writing the report suggest that the IPCC will have strengthened its conclusions, previously stated in 2001, that humans are heating up the Earth. While most scientists probably share this view, there are some who think otherwise. Many of those are either scientifically ill-informed or have dubious links with the energy industry. But some have genuine doubts. One bona fide sceptic is Richard Lindzen, a climate physicist from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the US, who was involved in preparing the IPCC's 2001 scientific report. While he does not dispute that the Earth is getting hotter, Lindzen thinks that, in all probability, the warming is largely the result of natural variations in the Earth's climate. Lindzen believes that climate models, although rooted in physics, contain far too many uncertainties to provide accurate forecasts. Indeed, mainstream climate physicists admit their computer models are far from perfect. Writing in their feature, for example, the chief scientist of the UK's Meteorological Office and colleagues describe how hard it is to incorporate the impact of clouds, which are much smaller than the resolution of the best models. They also warn that if clouds were modelled incorrectly, climate simulations 'would be seriously in error'. One may ask if this magazine should give space to Lindzen or those involved in geoengineering to air their views. Given the uncertainties still present within climate models and the potential costs of dealing with global warming, it would be wrong for Physics World to ignore those outside the mainstream. After all, as Richard Feynman once wrote: 'There is no harm in doubt and scepticism, for it is through these that new discoveries are made'. Physicists should never take anything at face value, not least a topic as important as climate change. (U.K.)

351

Physicochemical, Proximate and Sensory Properties of Pineapple (Ananas sp. Syrup Developed from Its Organic Side-Stream  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A major economical industrial challenge from pineapple (Ananas sp. processing contributing to environmental pollution is the organic side-streams of pineapple. The physicochemical, proximate and sensory properties of organic sidestream pineapple syrup (OSPS developed from Smooth cayenne, Sugar loaf and MD2 pineapple varieties were evaluated. Organic side-stream pineapple syrup developed from MD2 recorded the highest moisture content with a corresponding water activity. The colour change in OSPS was significant among the three varieties and Sugar loaf variety deviated from the standard yellow colour more than Smooth cayenne and MD2 varieties. This was buttress by the high Total Soluble Solids in 10% and 20% dilutions of Sugar loaf. The OSPS was acidic. In bread, incorporating 5% OSPS (w:w of Sugar loaf recorded the highest percentage acceptability among the pineapple varieties. Interestingly, in the production of cakes with 15%, 20% and 30% OSPS, MD2 recorded the highest percentage overall acceptance. For bread and cake, there was varied significance (P 2 and 5% Sugar loaf was more acceptable.

Theo Timmermans

2013-02-01

352

Selective fermentation of pitted dates by S. cerevisiae for the production of concentrated fructose syrups and ethanol  

Science.gov (United States)

About half of worldwide production of dates is unconsumed. Dates contain over 75 % reduced sugars (mostly glucose and fructose with nearly equal amount). Compared to the commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild strain, the strains ATCC 36858 and 36859 could produce high concentration fructose syrups. The fructose fractions obtained were 95.9 and 97.4% for ATCC 36858 and 86.5 and 91.4% for ATCC 36859 at 30 and 33°C, respectively. Fructose yields higher than 90% were obtained using ATCC 36858 compared to those obtained using ATCC 36859 which were 87.3 and 66.1% at 30 and 33°C, respectively. The ethanol yield using ATCC 36858 was higher than that using ATCC 36859 by 16 and 9% at 30 and 33°C, respectively. Through this finding, the production of fructose and ethanol from date extract is a promising process. Moreover, the fructose fractions obtained here (about 90%) are much higher than those obtained with the commercial process, i.e. 55 % fructose syrups.

Dharma Putra, Meilana; Abasaeed, Ahmed E.; Zeinelabdeen, Mohamed A.; Gaily, Mohamed H.; Sulieman, Ashraf K.

2014-04-01

353

Neonatal case of classic maple syrup urine disease: usefulness of (1) H-MRS in early diagnosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe a male neonate with classic maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) in metabolic crisis. On day 7 of life, he was referred to hospital because of coma and metabolic acidosis with maple syrup odor. On day 4 after admission, brain magnetic resonance imaging findings were consistent with encephalopathy due to MSUD. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS) showed a large methyl resonance peak at 0.9?p.p.m. The diagnosis of MSUD was confirmed on low branched-chain ?-keto acid dehydrogenase complex activity in lymphocyte. (1) H-MR spectra were obtained in 10?min, while it took at least several days to obtain the results of other diagnostic examinations. In convalescence, the peak at 0.9?p.p.m. decreased. The large methyl resonance peak at 0.9?p.p.m. in brain (1) H-MRS would be one of the earliest clues to the diagnosis of classic MSUD in the neonatal period, especially in metabolic crisis. PMID:24548198

Sato, Takeshi; Muroya, Koji; Hanakawa, Junko; Asakura, Yumi; Aida, Noriko; Tomiyasu, Moyoko; Tajima, Go; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Adachi, Masanori

2014-02-01

354

High-pressure liquid chromatographic assay of dextromethorphan hydrobromide, guaifenesin, and sodium benzoate in an expectorant syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

An ion-pair reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatographic assay is developed that allows simultaneous quantitation of guaifenesin, dextromethorphan hydrobromide, and sodium benzoate in an expectorant syrup. The method is rapid and accurate. Average recoveries of 99.6, 99.8, and 99.7% with relative standard deviations of 0.5, 0.9, and 0.2% are obtained for guaifenesin, dextromethorphan hydrobromide, and sodium benzoate, respectively, from laboratory prepared samples. Chromatographic conditions are selected to afford a pH that provides adequate separation of guaifenesin, dextromethorphan hydrobromide, sodium benzoate, and sodium saccharin and a detection wavelength that effectively compensates for the great disparity in quantity between guaifenesin and dextromethorphan hydrobromide present in syrups. The relationships between the retention volume of dextromethorphan hydrobromide and the alkyl chain length as well as the concentration of the counterion are studied. The retention profiles for sodium saccharin, guaifenesin, sodium benzoate, and dextromethorphan hydrobromide in the apparent pH range of 2.5 to 6.6 are established. PMID:3230118

Chen, T M; Pacifico, J R; Daly, R E

1988-12-01

355

Immobilization of inulinase on concanavalin A-attached super macroporous cryogel for production of high-fructose syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, concanavalin A (Con A)-attached poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) [poly(EGDMA)] cryogels were used for immobilization of Aspergillus niger inulinase. For this purposes, the monolithic cryogel column was prepared by radical cryocopolymerization of EGDMA as a monomer and N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide as a crosslinker. Then, Con A was attached by covalent binding onto amino-activated poly(EGDMA) cryogel via glutaraldehyde activation. Characterization of cryogels was performed by FTIR, EDX, and SEM studies. Poly(EGDMA) cryogels were highly porous and pore size was found to be approximately 50-100 ?m. Con A-attached poly(EGDMA) cryogels was used in the adsorption of inulinase from aqueous solutions. Adsorption of inulinase on the Con A-attached poly(EGDMA) cryogel was performed in continuous system and the effects of pH, inulinase concentration, and flow rate on adsorption were investigated. The maximum amount of inulinase adsorption was calculated to be 27.85 mg/g cryogel at 1.0 mg/mL inulinase concentration and in acetate buffer at pH 4.0. Immobilized inulinase was effectively used in continuous preparation of high-fructose syrup. Inulin was converted to fructose in a continuous system and released fructose concentration was found to be 0.23 mg/mL at the end of 5 min of hydrolysis. High-fructose content of the syrup was demonstrated by thin layer chromatography. PMID:23780342

Altunba?, Canan; Uygun, Murat; Uygun, Deniz Akta?; Akgöl, Sinan; Denizli, Adil

2013-08-01

356

Comparison of response between food supplemented with powdered iron and iron in syrup form for iron deficiency anemia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate and compare the response between food supplemented with iron in powdered and iron in syrup forms for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in children aged 1-5 years. Results: Over half (51 %) of the patients were between 1-2 years of age. One hundred thirty-two were males and 68 females. Most of the patients belonged to poor socioeconomic class. The iron in powder form was better tolerated than iron syrup as this group witnessed fewer episodes of gastrointestinal disturbances. The rise in mean Hb level after 6 weeks of treatment in group A and B was 1.6 g/dl and 1.9 g/dl respectively. Hemoglobin rise in group B was more than group A but this was statistically non-significant (p>0.05). There was small but significant (p<0.05) rise in serum ferritin in both the groups. There was no significant difference between the two groups for response to the two forms of iron administration. Conclusion: The powdered form of iron is a cost-effective and better tolerated method of iron administration in children and can be considered as an alternate option for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in children. (author)

357

Palm tree syrup: nutritional composition of a natural edulcorant / Miel de palma: composición nutricional de un edulcorante natural  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish Introducción: La miel de palma es un producto típico de las Islas Canarias, tradicionalmente producido a partir de la savia de la palmera Phoenix canariensis. El alto contenido calórico lo convierte en un producto cada vez más utilizado como suplemento alimenticio para atletas, niños y mayores. Adem [...] ás, la demanda de este sirope natural, está en constante crecimiento debido también a sus usos medicinales en la medicina homeopática. Objetivo: Analizar la composición nutricional (humedad, cenizas, azúcares, grasa, vitaminas y minerales) de las muestras de miel de palma preparadas con la savia de las palmeras de los productores de la isla de La Gomera (Islas Canarias, España). Métodos: 35 muestras de miel de palma procedentes de cinco regiones productoras de la isla de La Gomera fueron analizadas. Los azúcares y las vitaminas fueron medidos mediante cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (CLAR) y la espectrofotometría de absorción atómica por llama (FAAS) se usó para determinar los minerales. Resultados: Los hidratos de carbono mayoritarios fueron sacarosa (37,8%), glucosa (9,50%) y fructosa (4,80%), respectivamente. La presencia de arabinosa no pudo ser confirmada. La niacina es la vitamina hidrosoluble con la mayor concentración con un contenido promedio de 0,003%. Los contenidos en grasas se encontraron por debajo de 0,20%. El potasio era el macroelemento con los contenidos más altos (0,45%). Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren que la miel de palma puede jugar un papel importante como una fuente de azúcar y minerales en la nutrición humana y se pueden desarrollar futuras aplicaciones para este producto. Abstract in english Introduction: Palm syrup is a typical product from the Canary Islands, traditionally produced from the sap of the tropical palm tree Phoenix canariensis. Its high caloric content has led to its increasing use as a health food supplement for athletes, children and elderly. Furthermore, demand for thi [...] s natural syrup is continuously increasing due also to its medicinal uses in homeopathic medicine. Objective: Palm Tree syrup samples prepared with palm sap from primary producers in La Gomera island (Canary Islands, Spain) were analyzed for their nutritional composition (moisture, ash, sugars, fat, vitamins and minerals). Methods: 35 syrup samples from five different producing regions in La Gomera island were analyzed. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine sugars and vitamins and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (FAAS) was used to analyze the minerals. Results: Major carbohydrates were sucrose (37.8%), glucose (9.50%) and fructose (4.80%), respectively. The presence of arabinose could not be confirmed. Niacin was the water-soluble vitamin with the highest concentration with an average content of 0.003%. Fat content was found to be under 0.20%. Potassium was the mineral with highest contents (0.45%). Conclusions: Results suggest that palm tree syrup can play an important role as a sugar and mineral source in human nutrition, suggesting that future applications for this product could be developed.

G., Luis; C., Rubio; A. J., Gutiérrez; C., Hernández; D., González-Weller; C., Revert; A., Castilla; P., Abreu; A., Hardisson.

2012-04-01

358

Palm tree syrup: nutritional composition of a natural edulcorant / Miel de palma: composición nutricional de un edulcorante natural  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish Introducción: La miel de palma es un producto típico de las Islas Canarias, tradicionalmente producido a partir de la savia de la palmera Phoenix canariensis. El alto contenido calórico lo convierte en un producto cada vez más utilizado como suplemento alimenticio para atletas, niños y mayores. Adem [...] ás, la demanda de este sirope natural, está en constante crecimiento debido también a sus usos medicinales en la medicina homeopática. Objetivo: Analizar la composición nutricional (humedad, cenizas, azúcares, grasa, vitaminas y minerales) de las muestras de miel de palma preparadas con la savia de las palmeras de los productores de la isla de La Gomera (Islas Canarias, España). Métodos: 35 muestras de miel de palma procedentes de cinco regiones productoras de la isla de La Gomera fueron analizadas. Los azúcares y las vitaminas fueron medidos mediante cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (CLAR) y la espectrofotometría de absorción atómica por llama (FAAS) se usó para determinar los minerales. Resultados: Los hidratos de carbono mayoritarios fueron sacarosa (37,8%), glucosa (9,50%) y fructosa (4,80%), respectivamente. La presencia de arabinosa no pudo ser confirmada. La niacina es la vitamina hidrosoluble con la mayor concentración con un contenido promedio de 0,003%. Los contenidos en grasas se encontraron por debajo de 0,20%. El potasio era el macroelemento con los contenidos más altos (0,45%). Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren que la miel de palma puede jugar un papel importante como una fuente de azúcar y minerales en la nutrición humana y se pueden desarrollar futuras aplicaciones para este producto. Abstract in english Introduction: Palm syrup is a typical product from the Canary Islands, traditionally produced from the sap of the tropical palm tree Phoenix canariensis. Its high caloric content has led to its increasing use as a health food supplement for athletes, children and elderly. Furthermore, demand for thi [...] s natural syrup is continuously increasing due also to its medicinal uses in homeopathic medicine. Objective: Palm Tree syrup samples prepared with palm sap from primary producers in La Gomera island (Canary Islands, Spain) were analyzed for their nutritional composition (moisture, ash, sugars, fat, vitamins and minerals). Methods: 35 syrup samples from five different producing regions in La Gomera island were analyzed. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine sugars and vitamins and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (FAAS) was used to analyze the minerals. Results: Major carbohydrates were sucrose (37.8%), glucose (9.50%) and fructose (4.80%), respectively. The presence of arabinose could not be confirmed. Niacin was the water-soluble vitamin with the highest concentration with an average content of 0.003%. Fat content was found to be under 0.20%. Potassium was the mineral with highest contents (0.45%). Conclusions: Results suggest that palm tree syrup can play an important role as a sugar and mineral source in human nutrition, suggesting that future applications for this product could be developed.

G., Luis; C., Rubio; A. J., Gutiérrez; C., Hernández; D., González-Weller; C., Revert; A., Castilla; P., Abreu; A., Hardisson.

359

Palm tree syrup: nutritional composition of a natural edulcorant Miel de palma: composición nutricional de un edulcorante natural  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Palm syrup is a typical product from the Canary Islands, traditionally produced from the sap of the tropical palm tree Phoenix canariensis. Its high caloric content has led to its increasing use as a health food supplement for athletes, children and elderly. Furthermore, demand for this natural syrup is continuously increasing due also to its medicinal uses in homeopathic medicine. Objective: Palm Tree syrup samples prepared with palm sap from primary producers in La Gomera island (Canary Islands, Spain were analyzed for their nutritional composition (moisture, ash, sugars, fat, vitamins and minerals. Methods: 35 syrup samples from five different producing regions in La Gomera island were analyzed. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to determine sugars and vitamins and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (FAAS was used to analyze the minerals. Results: Major carbohydrates were sucrose (37.8%, glucose (9.50% and fructose (4.80%, respectively. The presence of arabinose could not be confirmed. Niacin was the water-soluble vitamin with the highest concentration with an average content of 0.003%. Fat content was found to be under 0.20%. Potassium was the mineral with highest contents (0.45%. Conclusions: Results suggest that palm tree syrup can play an important role as a sugar and mineral source in human nutrition, suggesting that future applications for this product could be developed.Introducción: La miel de palma es un producto típico de las Islas Canarias, tradicionalmente producido a partir de la savia de la palmera Phoenix canariensis. El alto contenido calórico lo convierte en un producto cada vez más utilizado como suplemento alimenticio para atletas, niños y mayores. Además, la demanda de este sirope natural, está en constante crecimiento debido también a sus usos medicinales en la medicina homeopática. Objetivo: Analizar la composición nutricional (humedad, cenizas, azúcares, grasa, vitaminas y minerales de las muestras de miel de palma preparadas con la savia de las palmeras de los productores de la isla de La Gomera (Islas Canarias, España. Métodos: 35 muestras de miel de palma procedentes de cinco regiones productoras de la isla de La Gomera fueron analizadas. Los azúcares y las vitaminas fueron medidos mediante cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (CLAR y la espectrofotometría de absorción atómica por llama (FAAS se usó para determinar los minerales. Resultados: Los hidratos de carbono mayoritarios fueron sacarosa (37,8%, glucosa (9,50% y fructosa (4,80%, respectivamente. La presencia de arabinosa no pudo ser confirmada. La niacina es la vitamina hidrosoluble con la mayor concentración con un contenido promedio de 0,003%. Los contenidos en grasas se encontraron por debajo de 0,20%. El potasio era el macroelemento con los contenidos más altos (0,45%. Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren que la miel de palma puede jugar un papel importante como una fuente de azúcar y minerales en la nutrición humana y se pueden desarrollar futuras aplicaciones para este producto.

G. Luis

2012-04-01

360

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See All Order ... Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents an overview of physical, mental, ...

 
 
 
 
361

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Professionals A step-by-step, illustrated guide for health professionals that provides instruction on examining the mouth for signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, ...

362

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, ... Us Viewers and Players Site Map FOIA Web Policies Privacy Policy National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial ...

363

Oral Thrush (For Parents)  

Science.gov (United States)

... Candida overgrowth can lead to vaginal (yeast) infections, diaper rashes, or oral thrush. Most people (including infants) ... sore. Babies can have oral thrush and a diaper rash due to the same yeast at the ...

364

Oral Cancer Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

What is prevention? Cancer prevention is action taken to lower the chance of getting cancer. By preventing cancer, the number of ... oral cancer and die from it. Oral Cancer Prevention Avoiding risk factors and increasing protective factors may ...

365

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... information on symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected medical terms and resource information. Oral Cancer A fact sheet that describes current and future ...

366

Linguistic Extensions of Topic Models  

Science.gov (United States)

Topic models like latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) provide a framework for analyzing large datasets where observations are collected into groups. Although topic modeling has been fruitfully applied to problems social science, biology, and computer vision, it has been most widely used to model datasets where documents are modeled as exchangeable…

Boyd-Graber, Jordan

2010-01-01

367

Clindamycin and Benzoyl Peroxide Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

... peroxide are in a class of medications called topical antibiotics. The combination of clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide works ... erythromycin (E.E.S., E-Mycin, Erythrocin) and other topical medications ... diarrhea caused by antibiotics.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan ...

368

Topics: From Myths to Objectives.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper outlines the development of the topic approach to learning in Great Britain and the tradition of objectives-based teaching; presents integrated schemes of work which merge the two approaches for students with severe learning difficulties; and presents an example, using the topic of the school garden. (JDD)

Byers, Richard

1990-01-01

369

Identification and characterisation of organisms associated with chocolate pralines and sugar syrups used for their production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Spoilage of chocolate pralines, due to growth of microorganisms tolerating low water activity, causes problems in the confectionary industry. Therefore, an increased knowledge on which organisms are present in the chocolate fillings and their tolerance towards low aw, pH, ethanol and other preservatives is needed. Using media containing 40-50% glucose (aw 0.872-0.925) bacteria, yeasts and moulds were isolated from chocolate pralines (aw 0.70-0.898) of nine manufactures and sugar syrups (aw 0.854) used as ingredient in chocolate praline production by one of the manufacturers. Isolates were identified by conventional microbiological analyses and by sequencing of their 16S rRNA, 26S rRNA (D1/D2-region) or calmodulin genes. Further, for several species the identity was confirmed by amplification and sequencing of additional genes. In total 677 isolates were identified as belonging to ten different bacteria species, six yeast species and ten mould species with yeast being the most frequently isolated. Bacteria and moulds were found in low numbers, whereas yeast were found in numbers up to 10(7)CFU/g. The most frequently isolated yeast, bacteria and moulds belonged to the species of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus terreus, respectively. Fifteen isolates were screened for their ability to grow in presence of low aw (0.65-0.90), low pH (pH=2.0-7.0), ethanol (0-15%), sorbic acid (0-1,500 ppm) and different temperatures (15°C-25°C) relevant for chocolate manufacturing. Z. rouxii was overall the most tolerant organism to the stress factors and grew within the same range of environmental conditions as found in chocolate pralines. It was able to grow at water activities down to 0.70, ethanol concentrations up to 6.0%, pH down to pH2.0, sorbic acid concentrations up to 1,500 ppm and at all temperatures tested. Eurotium amstelodami also showed high tolerance towards all the stress factors except for ethanol. None of the bacteria were able to grow at the conditions tested. However, B. subtilis survived the 60 day incubation period. PMID:24997272

Marvig, Cecilie L; Kristiansen, Rikke M; Madsen, Mikkel G; Nielsen, Dennis S

2014-08-18

370

Identification and characterisation of organisms associated with chocolate pralines and sugar syrups used for their production  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Spoilage of chocolate pralines, due to growth of microorganisms tolerating low water activity, causes problems in the confectionary industry. Therefore, an increased knowledge on which organisms are present in the chocolate fillings and their tolerance towards low aw, pH, ethanol and other preservatives is needed. Using media containing 40-50% glucose (aw 0.872-0.925) bacteria, yeasts and moulds were isolated from chocolate pralines (aw 0.70-0.898) of nine manufactures and sugar syrups (aw 0.854) used as ingredient in chocolate praline production by one of the manufacturers. Isolates were identified by conventional microbiological analyses and by sequencing of their 16S rRNA, 26S rRNA (D1/D2-region) or calmodulin genes. Further, for several species the identity was confirmed by amplification and sequencing of additional genes. In total 677 isolates were identified as belonging to ten different bacteria species, six yeast species and ten mould species with yeast being the most frequently isolated. Bacteria andmoulds were found in low numbers, whereas yeast were found in numbers up to 107CFU/g. The most frequently isolated yeast, bacteria and moulds belonged to the species of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus terreus, respectively.Fifteen isolates were screened for their ability to grow in presence of low aw (0.65-0.90), low pH (pH=2.0-7.0), ethanol (0-15%), sorbic acid (0-1500ppm) and different temperatures (15°C-25°C) relevant for chocolate manufacturing. Z. rouxii was overall the most tolerant organism to the stress factors and grew within the same range of environmental conditions as found in chocolate pralines. It was able to grow at water activities down to 0.70, ethanol concentrations up to 6.0%, pH down to pH2.0, sorbic acid concentrations up to 1500ppm and at all temperatures tested. Eurotium amstelodami also showed high tolerance towards all the stress factors except for ethanol. None of the bacteria were able to grow at the conditions tested. However, B. subtilis survived the 60day incubation period. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Nielsen, Cecilie Lykke Marvig; Kristiansen, Rikke M.

2014-01-01

371

Maple syrup urine disease: further evidence that newborn screening may fail to identify variant forms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Newborn screening (NBS) by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has allowed for early detection and initiation of treatment in many patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) (OMIM 248600), however, a recent report suggests that variants forms may be missed. Information on these patients is limited. We present clinical, biochemical and molecular information on patients with variant forms of MSUD not detected by the California Newborn Screening Program. Between July 2005 and July 2009, 2200,000 newborns were screened in California by MS/MS. Seventeen cases of MSUD were detected and three (two siblings) were missed. Additionally, the NBS cards of two siblings with late onset MSUD, who were born pre-expanded NBS, were retrospectively analyzed. None of the five patients met criteria to be considered presumptive positive for MSUD (leucine>200micromol/L and a ratio of leucine/alanine>or=1.5). Alloisoleucine (allo-ile) was subsequently analyzed in the NBS cards of all five patients, two of whom were found to have elevated levels. The proband in each family was diagnosed following symptoms triggered by an intercurrent illness or increased protein intake. At diagnosis, leucine levels ranged between 561 and >4528micromol/L, and allo-ile ranged from 137 to 239micromol/L. Two affected siblings had normal plasma amino acids when asymptomatic; however, their biochemical profiles were diagnostic of MSUD during intercurrent illnesses. The median age at diagnosis of all patients was one year (range 0.8-6.7). Heterozygous BCKDHB (E1beta) mutations (c.832G>A/c.970C>T) were identified in one family and a homozygous DBT (E2) sequence variant (c.1430 T>G) in another. The third family had one identifiable DBT mutation (c.827T>G), however, a second mutation was not detected. This report provides further evidence that NBS by MS/MS is unable to detect all cases of MSUD. Second-tier testing with allo-ile may improve sensitivity; however, some children with variant forms will invariably be missed. PMID:20307994

Puckett, R L; Lorey, F; Rinaldo, P; Lipson, M H; Matern, D; Sowa, M E; Levine, S; Chang, R; Wang, R Y; Abdenur, J E

2010-06-01

372

Identification and quantification of six major ?-dicarbonyl process contaminants in high-fructose corn syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is a widely used liquid sweetener produced from corn starch by hydrolysis and partial isomerization of glucose to fructose. During these processing steps, sugars can be considerably degraded, leading, for example, to the formation of reactive ?-dicarbonyl compounds (?-DCs). The present study performed targeted screening to identify the major ?-DCs in HFCS. For this purpose, ?-DCs were selectively converted with o-phenylendiamine to the corresponding quinoxaline derivatives, which were analyzed by liquid chromatography with hyphenated diode array-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-MS/MS) detection. 3-Deoxy-D-erythro-hexos-2-ulose (3-deoxyglucosone), D-lyxo-hexos-2-ulose (glucosone), 3-deoxy-D-threo-hexos-2-ulose (3-deoxygalactosone), 1-deoxy-D-erythro-hexos-2,3-diulose (1-deoxyglucosone), 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene, methylglyoxal, and glyoxal were identified by enhanced mass spectra as well as MS/MS product ion spectra using the synthesized standards as reference. Addition of diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid and adjustment of the derivatization conditions ensured complete derivatization without de novo formation for all identified ?-DCs in HFCS matrix except for glyoxal. Subsequently, a ultra-high performance LC-DAD-MS/MS method was established to quantify 3-deoxyglucosone, glucosone, 3-deoxygalactosone, 1-deoxyglucosone, 3,4-dideoxyglucosone-3-ene, and methylglyoxal in HFCS. Depending on the ?-DC compound and concentration, the recovery ranged between 89.2% and 105.8% with a relative standard deviation between 1.9% and 6.5%. Subsequently, the ?-DC profiles of 14 commercial HFCS samples were recorded. 3-Deoxyglucosone was identified as the major ?-DC with concentrations up to 730 ?g/mL HFCS. The total ?-DC content ranged from 293 ?g/mL to 1,130 ?g/mL HFCS. Significantly different ?-DC levels were not detected between different HFCS specifications, but between samples of various manufacturers indicating that the ?-DC load is influenced by the production procedures. PMID:22382856

Gensberger, Sabrina; Mittelmaier, Stefan; Glomb, Marcus A; Pischetsrieder, Monika

2012-07-01

373

Classical maple syrup urine disease and brain development: principles of management and formula design.  

Science.gov (United States)

Branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase deficiency results in complex and volatile metabolic derangements that threaten brain development. Treatment for classical maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) should address this underlying physiology while also protecting children from nutrient deficiencies. Based on a 20-year experience managing 79 patients, we designed a study formula to (1) optimize transport of seven amino acids (Tyr, Trp, His, Met, Thr, Gln, Phe) that compete with branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) for entry into the brain via a common transporter (LAT1), (2) compensate for episodic depletions of glutamine, glutamate, and alanine caused by reverse transamination, and (3) correct deficiencies of omega-3 essential fatty acids, zinc, and selenium widespread among MSUD patients. The formula was enriched with LAT1 amino acid substrates, glutamine, alanine, zinc, selenium, and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3). Fifteen Old Order Mennonite children were started on study formula between birth and 34 months of age and seen at least monthly in the office. Amino acid levels were checked once weekly and more often during illnesses. All children grew and developed normally over a period of 14-33 months. Energy demand, leucine tolerance, and protein accretion were tightly linked during periods of normal growth. Rapid shifts to net protein degradation occurred during illnesses. At baseline, most LAT1 substrates varied inversely with plasma leucine, and their calculated rates of brain uptake were 20-68% below normal. Treatment with study formula increased plasma concentrations of LAT1 substrates and normalized their calculated uptakes into the nervous system. Red cell membrane omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and serum zinc and selenium levels increased on study formula. However, selenium and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) levels remained below normal. During the study period, hospitalizations decreased from 0.35 to 0.14 per patient per year. There were 28 hospitalizations managed with MSUD hyperalimentation solution; 86% were precipitated by common infections, especially vomiting and gastroenteritis. The large majority of catabolic illnesses were managed successfully at home using 'sick-day' formula and frequent amino acid monitoring. We conclude that the study formula is safe and effective for the treatment of classical MSUD. In principle, dietary enrichment protects the brain against deficiency of amino acids used for protein accretion, neurotransmitter synthesis, and methyl group transfer. Although the pathophysiology of MSUD can be addressed through rational formula design, this does not replace the need for vigilant clinical monitoring, frequent measurement of the complete amino acid profile, and ongoing dietary adjustments that match nutritional intake to the metabolic demands of growth and illness. PMID:20061171

Strauss, Kevin A; Wardley, Bridget; Robinson, Donna; Hendrickson, Christine; Rider, Nicholas L; Puffenberger, Erik G; Shellmer, Diana; Shelmer, Diana; Moser, Ann B; Morton, D Holmes

2010-04-01

374

Oral health in pregnancy  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction Good oral health care during pregnancy is essential but often overlooked factor of dental growth as well as of other structures of oral cavity. Pregnancy is the time when conscious approach to preventive oral care should increase. Preventive measures during pregnancy Preventive measures during pregnancy mean usage of fluorides, special dietary measures and increased oral hygiene habits. Preventive measures in pregnant women have one goal: providing conditions for development of f...

Blagojevi? Duška; Brkani? Tatjana; Stoji? Siniša

2002-01-01

375

Radiation induced oral mucositis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i) With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii) who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii) who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv) who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concer...

Satheesh Kumar P; Balan Anita; Sankar Arun; Bose Tinky

2009-01-01

376

Chrysomya Bezziana Oral Myiasis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Myiasis is an opportunistic infestation of human and vertebrate animals with dipterous larvae. Oral myiasis is a rare condition associated with poor oral hygiene, mental disability, halitosis and other conditions. We present a case report of an adult mentally challenged woman with extensive necrotic oral lesion burrowing into the hard palate through which three live maggots (larvae) were seen emerging out. The larvae were removed using forceps and the patient was treated with oral ivermectin....

Kumar, Gs Vijay; Sowmya, Gs; Shivananda, S.

2011-01-01

377

Immune Disorders (and Oral Health)  

Science.gov (United States)

... the mouth and/or cause dry mouth . Good oral hygiene is important. Your dentist can talk to you ... any dental or oral infection right away. Good oral hygiene is extremely important, because any oral infection that ...

378

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral Health National Institutes of Health Español Staff Directory A–Z Index Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All ...

379

ORAL ANTIBIOTICS IN ACNE VULGARIS: THERAPEUTIC RESPONSE OVER 5 YEARS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: Antibiotic resistant P. acnes have influenced acne therapy worldwide resulting in increased use of topicaland systemic retinoids. Judicious use of oral antibiotic is important for effective therapeutic outcome. Objectives: To determine the response and side effects of oral antibiotic treatment in acne vulgaris. To determine the typeof antibiotic used, therapy duration and the types of concomitant topical therapy. Methods: Retrospective analysis of the therapeutic response to ora...

Roshidah, B.; Priya, G.; Adawiyah, J.

2010-01-01

380

Método espectroscópico para determinação de cumarina em xarope de Mikania glomerata Sprengel / Ultraviolet spectroscopy method for coumarin quantification in Mikania glomerata Sprengel syrup  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver uma metodologia analítica por espectroscopia UV, para doseamento de cumarina em xaropes de Mikania glomerata. A técnica foi baseada na extração da cumarina utilizando solventes como o clorofórmio e hexano. Após a seleção do solvente, o comprimento de onda [...] foi definido através da sobreposição dos espectros da cumarina, metil parabeno, diluição do xarope e solução extrativa do xarope. Foram preparadas curvas analíticas de cinco soluções de cumarina com concentração variando de 0,002 a 0,03 mg/mL. Para análise da exatidão do método, foram preparados três lotes de xarope de Mikania glomerata Sprengel e o teor de cumarina determinado pela técnica espectrofotométrica foi comparado a técnica por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. O solvente selecionado para extração foi o clorofórmio, o comprimento de onda 320 nm. A curva analítica apresentou R² de 0,99978, demonstrando linearidade. A comparação estatística do doseamento da cumarina pela técnica espectrofotométrica estudada com a técnica cromatográfica desenvolvida por Celeghini et al. (2001) demonstrou não existir diferenças significativas, indicativo de exatidão da técnica. Abstract in english A spectrophotometric procedure for coumarin determination in Mikania glomerata Sprengel (guaco) syrup is described in this work. Due to the high number of constituents in guaco syrups, the coumarin was extracted with apolar extractors (chloroform and hexane), in which chloroform was selected, becaus [...] e of its higher capacity of extraction. After the solvent choice, the wavelength at 320 nm, region where there is the lower interference of syrup constituents, was selected. The calibration curve showed linearity, R² of 0.99978. The spectrophotometric assay of coumarin in three samples of Mikania glomerata Sprengel syrup showed accuracy compared with the HPLC method. The results presented suggest that the spectrophotometric method may be useful for the quantitative analysis of coumarin in Mikania glomerata Sprengel syrup.

Cleinils R. da, Silva; Víctor S., Gomes; Irene C., Kulkamp; Luiz A., Kanis.

 
 
 
 
381

Oral contraceptives induced hepatotoxicity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oral Contraceptives are the pharmacological agents used to prevent pregnancy. These are divided as the combined and progestogen methods and are administered orally, transdermally, systemically and via vaginal route. All these methods contain both oestrogen and progestogen. Vigorous usage of oral contraceptives and anabolic steroids as associated with cholestasis, vascular lesions and hepatic neoplasm. Benign hepatic neoplasms are clearly associated with oral contraceptives. In this article we discuss the various hepatocellular complications like cholestasis, benign neoplasm and hepatocellular carcinoma occurred by oral contraceptives. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(1.000: 91-93

B. Akshaya Srikanth

2013-02-01

382

Topical NSAIDs for acute pain: a meta-analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background A previous systematic review reported that topical NSAIDs were effective in relieving pain in acute conditions like sprains and strains, with differences between individual drugs for efficacy. More trials, a better understanding of trial quality and bias, and a reclassification of certain drugs necessitate a new review. Methods Studies were identified by searching electronic databases and writing to manufacturers. We selected randomised double blind trials comparing topical NSAID with either placebo or another active treatment in adults with acute pain, and extracted dichotomous information approximating to a 50% reduction in pain at one week, together with details of adverse events and withdrawals. Relative benefit and number-needed-to-treat (NNT, and relative risk and number-needed-to-harm (NNH were calculated, with sensitivity analyses where appropriate to investigate differences between individual drugs and aspects of trial design. Results Twenty-six double blind placebo controlled trials had information from 2,853 patients for evaluation of efficacy. Topical NSAID was significantly better than placebo in 19 of the 26 trials, with a pooled relative benefit of 1.6 (95% confidence interval 1.4 to 1.7, and NNT of 3.8 (95% confidence interval 3.4 to 4.4 compared with placebo for the outcome of half pain relief at seven days. Results were not affected by outcome reported, or condition treated, but smaller trials yielded a larger estimate of efficacy. Indirect comparisons of individual topical NSAIDs showed that ketoprofen was significantly better than all other topical NSAIDs, while indomethacin was barely distinguished from placebo. Three trials, with 433 patients, compared topical with oral NSAID (two trials compared the same drug, one compared different drugs and found no difference in efficacy. Local adverse events, systemic adverse events, or withdrawals due to an adverse event were rare, and no different between topical NSAID and placebo. Conclusions Topical NSAIDs were effective and safe in treating acute painful conditions for one week.

Derry Sheena

2004-05-01

383

Iodine Absorption After Topical Administration  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Absorption from povidone-iodine preparations after topical administration has been reported to be negligible, but an elderly woman had increased serum iodine levels with possible metabolic complications after povidone-iodine solution was applied to decubitus ulcers.

Cruz, Francine Dela; Brown, Deborah Harper; Leikin, Jerrold B.; Franklin, Cory; Hryhorczuk, Daniel O.

1987-01-01

384

Present topics of nuclear energy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The report is discussing the topics: Reprocessing of spent fuel elements; Final storage of radioactive wastes; Effects of thermal power plants upon the climate; Safeguarding of nuclear facilities and fissionable materials; Properties and possibilities of plutonium. (orig./HP)

385

Erythromycin and Benzoyl Peroxide Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

The combination of erythromycin and benzoyl peroxide is used to treat acne. Erythromycin and benzoyl peroxide are in a class of medications called topical antibiotics. The combination of erythromycin ...

386

Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of pain due to soft tissue injury: diclofenac epolamine topical patch  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available David R Lionberger1, Michael J Brennan21Southwest Orthopedic Group, Houston, TX, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Bridgeport Hospital, Bridgeport, CT, USAAbstract: The objective of this article is to review published clinical data on diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% (DETP in the treatment of acute soft tissue injuries, such as strains, sprains, and contusions. Review of published literature on topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, diclofenac, and DETP in patients with acute soft tissue injuries was included. Relevant literature was identified on MEDLINE using the search terms topical NSAIDs, diclofenac, diclofenac epolamine, acute pain, sports injury, soft tissue injury, strain, sprain, and contusion, and from citations in retrieved articles covering the years 1978–2008. Review of published, randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses shows that topical NSAIDs are significantly more effective than placebo in relieving acute pain; the pooled average relative benefit was 1.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.5–1.9. In a limited number of comparisons, topical and oral NSAIDs provided comparable pain relief, but the use of topical agents produced lower plasma drug concentrations and fewer systemic adverse events (AEs. The physical–chemical properties of diclofenac epolamine make it well suited for topical use. In patients with acute soft tissue injuries treated with DETP, clinical data report an analgesic benefit within hours of the first application, and significant pain relief relative to placebo within 3 days. Moreover, DETP displayed tolerability comparable with placebo; the most common AEs were pruritus and other application site reactions. Review of published literature suggests that DETP is generally safe and well tolerated, clinically efficacious, and a rational treatment option for patients experiencing acute pain associated with strains, sprains, and contusions, and other localized painful conditions.Keywords: diclofenac epolamine, topical analgesics, soft tissue injury, strains, sprains, contusions

David R Lionberger

2010-11-01

387

Topics of Bioengineering in Wikipedia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present report aims to give a snapshot of how topics from the field of bioengineering (bioinformatics, bioprocess systems, biomedical engineering, biotechnology, etc. are currently covered in the free electronic encyclopedia Wikipedia. It also offers insights and information about what Wikipedia is, how it functions, how and when to cite Wikipedian articles, if necessary. Several external wikis, devoted to topics of bioengineering, are also listed and reviewed.

Vassia Atanassova

2009-10-01

388

KEY TOPICS IN SPORTS MEDICINE  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1) Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2) Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3) Drugs in sport, 4) Exercise and health promotion, 5) Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6) The ps...

Amir Ali Narvani; Panagiotis Thomas; Burce Lynn

2006-01-01

389

Oral Health Education: 'delivering Better Oral Health’  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract:Health is regarded by World Health Organization (WHO as a fundamental human right, and correspondingly, all people should have access to basic resources for health. Health education is a process of transmission of knowledge and skills necessary for improvement in quality of life. Oral health education, an important part of oral health promotion, has been considered as essential & basic part of dental health services. The goal is to improve knowledge, which may lead to the adoption of favourable oral health behaviours that contribute to better oral health. This was the fundamental and seminal concept that shaped various dental health programmes in the initial stages. The initial enthusiasm in oral health education faded because these programmes failed to produce successful long term outcomes. Need to make health education more effective, interesting and appealing to the recipients was recognized. Oral health education can be planned for the community at large or high risk group based on the resources available. Priority should be given to expectant mothers, preschool and school going children, physically and mentally challenged and the elderly

Shitanshu Malhotra

2013-09-01

390

In vitro evaluation of topical gel prepared using natural polymer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

Nimesulide is a second generation non–steroidal anti–inflammatory agent, which is widely used in the long term therapy of rheumatoid arthritis, in alleviating pain and inflammation. But its short half-life (only 3–4 hr, so its causes more fluctuation. After oral administration Nimesulide causes to produces heart burn, nausea, loose motions, pruritus, etc. The present study based on the preparation of bioadhesive topical gel of Nimesulide, so as to avoid all gastric side effects. For the preparation of bioadhesive topical gel natural polymer aegel marmelos (plant Bale was used. Bioadhesive polymers are the agents which increases the contact between the formulation and biological membrane, so as to avoid the fluctuation of formulation and behave as a sustained release formulation. In the present study, prepared bioadhesive topical gel was evaluated with the help of different parameters like drug content, spreadability, extrudability, swelling index study, in–vitro drug diffusion study, in-vitro drug release kinetic study and ex–vivo bioadhesive measurement. On the basis of in–vitro drug diffusion study and ex–vivo bioadhesive measurement property of gel, we have concluded that natural polymer aegel marmelos is the best polymer for the preparation of sustained release bioadhesive topical gel.

Keywords: Topical gel; Bioadhesion; Natural polymer

Lalit Kumar

2011-04-01

391

Topical diclofenac in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Niklas Schuelert, Fiona A Russell, Jason J McDougallDepartment of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, CanadaAbstract: Osteoarthritis (OA is a common disease that affects millions of people worldwide. As there is no cure for OA, drug treatment to relieve symptoms is the main form of management. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs such as diclofenac are the most commonly used drugs to treat knee OA pain. Unfortunately, these agents are associated with gastrointestinal and cardiovascular risks, which limit their chronic use. Topical NSAIDs are emerging as a viable alternative for managing OA pain. Because a pharmacologically effective dose can be restricted to the site of pain, there is superfluous systemic absorption, and the risk of related adverse effects is minimized. This article reviews the currently available preclinical and clinical information on topical diclofenac for the treatment of OA pain, including data from recently published randomized controlled trials regarding the efficacy and safety of topical diclofenac. Most studies confirm topical diclofenac to be as effective as oral diclofenac with significantly reduced side effects; however, the efficacy of NSAIDs is far from optimal, and more research needs to be done to investigate the underlying mechanisms of OA in order to improve treatment options, especially for patients with NSAID-resistant OA pain.Keywords: osteoarthritis, topical diclofenac, NSAID, joint pain 

Niklas Schuelert

2011-02-01

392

Direct enzymatic extraction of starch from corn as an energy-saving alternative to production of high-fructose syrup  

Science.gov (United States)

The liquefaction of pre-gelatinized starch was studied with various analytical techniques to determine the effects of starch molecular weight, granule structure, granule size, and mechanical depolymerization. Also, improvements were made in the chromatographic system used to characterize starch hydrolysates. Progress is reported on protein removal. The effects of pH, temperature, and ionic strength were examined for the removal of protein from a syrup stream by adsorption on a phenolic resin. Buffered systems, which maintain more stable pH values, were also examined. Mathematical modeling of the results is in progress. The pilot plant facility is complete and in operation. Starch streams containing 1% protein are being produced by the protein extraction process.

393

"Healthy" discussions about risk: The Corn Refiners Association's strategic negotiation of authority in the debate over high fructose corn syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

Many foods and eating practices have been framed as risky by risk societies. Recently, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has become a highly scrutinized food additive. Informed by a social construction of risk framework, I analyze the discursive contributions of the Corn Refiners Association, a trade association, to public negotiations of HFCS risks. I describe how the association's Sweet Surprise campaign advertisements rely on a deficit model to shape understandings of who should participate in conversations about HFCS. I conclude by exploring the practical implications of this analysis, particularly how trade associations can negotiate tensions between promoting health and serving commercial interests, and how these decisions contribute to understandings of the public's role in risk negotiation. PMID:23833026

Heiss, Sarah N

2013-02-01

394

Analytical method by high resolution liquid chromatography for the stability study of cloratidine syrup 0.1 %  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A high resolution liquid chromatography method was validated to study the stability of cloratidine syrup 0.1 %. The calibration curve in the range from 13.6 to 3.36 ?g/mL was lineal, with a coefficient of correlation equal to 0.99975. The intercept and slope statistical test was not significant. The recovery obtained was 100.2 % in the concentration range studied, and the Cochran and Student (t) tests results were not important. The variation coefficient in the repeatability study was equal to 0.41 % for 10 replications assayed, whereas in the reproducibility Fischer and Student tests were not remarkable. The method proved to be specific, lineal, accurate, and exact. (Author)

395

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... for Clinical Researchers See All Browse Studies by Topic NIDCR-Sponsored Clinical Trials Why are clinical trials ... Science News Grants & Funding Funding Opportunity Announcements By Topic RFAs PAs Application Forms and Deadlines Grant Application ...

396

Radiation induced oral mucositis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene

Satheesh Kumar P

2009-01-01

397

Commentary: Oral rehydration solution  

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Although it had been shown as early as 1968 that oral rehydration therapy was as effective as intravenous rehydration therapy in the treatment of dehydration due to diarrhoea, use of oral rehydration therapy was limited to rural health centres. In large urban hospitals oral rehydration therapy was held to be inferior to intravenous therapy and tended to be used only when the latter was not available. The results reported in the article by Samadi et al. in 1983 were extremely important in help...

Fontaine, O.

1998-01-01

398

Management of oral mucositis  

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Oral mucositis is one of the most common oral complications of cancer treatment. Studies have shown some interventions that reduce the severity of this condition, but there is not a specific treatment proved that really prevents or treats mucositis efficiently. The aim of this paper was to provide a literature review for better understanding of the management of oral mucositis. Pubmed and Scopus were used in order to identify research articles published between 2005 and 2012 in English ...

da Mota Vasconcelos Brasil Catarina; Sampaio Serpa Marianna; de França Talita Ribeiro Tenório; de Jurema Freire Castro Lisboa

2012-01-01

399

Saúde oral na grávida  

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Descriptive study with an analytic component, on pregnant women that went for consultation to Maternidade Daniel de Matos (Coimbra, Portugal) during the second week of July 1997. 80 women were randomly selected and asked to answer a questionnaire, concerning level of knowledge towards oral health as well as dietary and oral hygiene habits before and during pregnancy. It was also quantified the dental plaque indicator by using a plaque staining method. The knowledge about oral health is global...

Antunes, A.; Rosete, V.; Fagulha, J.

2001-01-01

400

Topical agents in burn care  

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Full Text Available Introduction Understanding of fluid shifts and recognition of the importance of early and appropriate fluid replacement therapy have significantly reduced mortality in the early post burn period. After the bum patient successfully passes the resuscitation period, the burn wound represents the greatest threat to survival. History Since the dawn of civilization, man has been trying to find an agent which would help burn wounds heal, and at the same time, not harm general condition of the injured. It was not until the XX century, after the discovery of antibiotics, when this condition was fulfilled. In 1968, combining silver and sulfadiazine, fox made silver-sulfadiazine, which is a 1% hydro-soluble cream and a superior agent in topical treatment of burns today. Current topical agents None of the topical antimicrobial agents available today, alone or combined, have the characteristics of ideal prophylactic agents, but they eliminate colonization of burn wound, and invasive infections are infrequent. With an excellent spectrum of activity, low toxicity, and ease of application with minimal pain, silver-sulfadiazine is still the most frequently used topical agent. Conclusion The incidence of invasive infections and overall mortality have been significantly reduced after introduction of topical burn wound antimicrobial agents into practice. In most burn patients the drug of choice for prophylaxis is silver sulfadiazine. Other agents may be useful in certain clinical situations.

Mom?ilovi? Dragan

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Oral lesions in leprosy  

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Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leprotic oral lesions are more common in the lepromatous form of leprosy, indicate a late manifestation, and have a great epidemiological importance as a source of infection. METHODS: Patients with leprosy were examined searching for oral lesions. Biopsies of the left buccal mucosa in all patients, and of oral lesions, were performed and were stained with H&E and Wade. RESULTS: Oral lesions were found in 26 patients, 11 lepromatous leprosy, 14 borderline leprosy, and one tuberculoid leprosy. Clinically 5 patients had enanthem of the anterior pillars, 3 of the uvula and 3 of the palate. Two had palatal infiltration. Viable bacilli were found in two lepromatous patients. Biopsies of the buccal mucosa showed no change or a nonspecific inflammatory infiltrate. Oral clinical alterations were present in 69% of the p