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Sample records for topical oral syrup

  1. Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups)

    ... Disease Medications > Quick-Relief Medications > Oral Steroids Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups) How are steroid pills and ... Want to learn more about steroids? How are steroid pills and syrups used? Steroid pills and syrups ...

  2. Comparison of topical tretinoin and betamethasone in oral lichen planus

    Kar H

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-one patients of oral lichen planus were enrolled in this study and two groups were made. Group 1 consisting of 16 patients who applied topical tretinoin 0.05% and Group 2 comprising of 15 patients who were given topical betamethasone dipropionate 0.05%. The patients applying tretinoin showed statistically significant improvement as compared to patients applying betamethasone.

  3. Cough syrup psychosis.

    Amaladoss, Alfred; O'Brien, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Over-the-counter medications are widely accessible and used. Cough suppressant syrups contain dextromethorphan (DM), which has the potential to be abused, with resultant psychiatric symptoms. This case report describes a young woman presenting with psychotic mania secondary to DM abuse. We also describe the treatment of this toxidrome and include the results of a literature search on this topic. The recognition of cough syrup as an agent of abuse and its toxidrome is important. This will facilitate early diagnostic clarification and promote efficient treatment strategies. PMID:21324299

  4. Efficacy and Safety of Orally Administered Intravenous Midazolam Versus a Commercially Prepared Syrup

    Salem, Katayoun; Khoshrang, Hossein; Kousha, Maryam; Hoseini, Mahboobeh; Ranjbar, Marzieh; Baniasadi, Shadi; Salamzadeh, Jamshid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Among different categories of sedative agents, benzodiazepines have been prescribed for more than three decades to patients of all ages. The effective and predictable sedative and amnestic effects of benzodiazepines support their use in pediatric patients. Midazolam is one of the most extensively used benzodiazepines in this age group. Oral form of drug is the best accepted route of administration in children. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and s...

  5. Accumulation of Topical Naproxen by Cultured Oral Epithelium

    Fitzgerald, R.R.; Walters, J.D.

    2007-01-01

    Topically administered non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit periodontal bone loss, but little is known about the mechanism by which they penetrate oral epithelium. Active transporters could potentially play a role in this process. In this study, we used a cell line derived from oral epithelium to investigate a role for transporters and to characterize conditions that enhance epithelial penetration. Using fluorescence to monitor uptake, we demonstrated that SCC-25 cell monola...

  6. The topical NSAID felbinac versus oral NSAIDS: a critical review.

    Hosie, G; Bird, H

    1994-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders such as soft tissue injuries have traditionally been treated with oral NSAIDs, despite the significant side-effects associated with their clinical use. However, four separate multicentre, double-blind, double-dummy clinical trials have shown that the efficacy of the topical NSAID, felbinac, is equivalent to that of the oral NSAID, ibuprofen, in the treatment of soft tissue injuries, and to that of oral ibuprofen or fenbufen in mild to moderate osteoarthritis. In general practice the incidence of side-effects with felbinac is low, while oral NSAIDs have been associated with significant problems, particularly in the gastrointestinal system. Consequently, the cost of treating side-effects is reduced with felbinac treatment compared with oral NSAIDs, making it a logical treatment alternative from an economic view point as well as for reasons of efficacy and safety. PMID:7601178

  7. 21 CFR 520.452 - Clenbuterol syrup.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clenbuterol syrup. 520.452 Section 520.452 Food... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.452 Clenbuterol syrup. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter contains 72.5 micrograms of clenbuterol hydrochloride. (b) Sponsor. See 000010...

  8. Comparative efficacy and safety of topical permethrin, topical ivermectin, and oral ivermectin in patients of uncomplicated scabies

    Chhaiya, Sunita B.; Patel, Varsha J.; Jayendra N Dave; Mehta, Dimple S.; Hiral A Shah

    2012-01-01

    Background: Ivermectin has opened a new era in the management of scabies as orally effective drug. However, topical route has been little explored for ivermectin. Aims: To compare the efficacy and safety of topical permethrin, oral ivermectin, and topical ivermectin in the treatment of uncomplicated scabies. Methods: This was an open-label, randomized, comparative, parallel clinical trial conducted in 315 patients, randomly allocated to 3 groups. First group received permethrin 5% cream as si...

  9. The Effect of Topical Sucralfate Suspension on Oral Aphthae

    Z. Delavarian

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of oral sucralfate suspension (1gr/10ml in the treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS.Materials and Methods: Fifty-five patients with oral aphthae were included in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted in the Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. In thefirst part of the study, all subjects were instructed to rinse with a 10% suspension of sucralfate or placebo, 4 times a day for 2 weeks. Clinical examination was performed two times a week. The second part consisted of topical use of sucralfate or placebo 2times a day for 4 weeks, followed by biweekly inspections for 6 months.The size and number of the ulcers along with pain severity were assessed in the course of the pretreatment and treatment phases. Recurrence was evaluated during the follow up period. Pearson, ?2, and Fisher’s exact tests were used for statistical analysis.Results: On the fourth day of the study, pain relief was encountered in 59% and 14% of the case and control patients, respectively. Also, 63% of the ulcers in the sucralfate group and 71% in the placebo group showed size-reduction on the first visit. During the first 7 days of treatment, the number of ulcers showed reduction in both groups, which was significantly larger in the case group.Conclusion: A 10% suspension of sucralfate accelerated pain relief in aphthous patients and its use is recommended as an adjunct for the treatment of RAS.

  10. Penetration of topical, oral, and combined administered ofloxacin into the subretinal fluid

    Cekic, O.; Batman, C.; Yasar, U.; Totan, Y.; Basci, N.; Bozkurt, A.; Zilelioglu, O.; Kayaalp, S

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—To assess the subretinal fluid (SRF) levels of ofloxacin following topical, oral or combined administration.
METHODS—31 patients undergoing conventional retinal reattachment surgery were randomly assigned to three groups. Nine patients received topical ofloxacin, 11 patients received oral ofloxacin, and the other 11 patients received combined administration. Collected SRF samples were analysed for drug level by using high performance liquid chromatography.
RESULTS—SRF drug levels after oral and combined administration were significantly higher than that after topical administration (p=0.0002 and p=0.0002, respectively) while there was no significant difference between oral and combined administration (p=0.0844).
CONCLUSIONS—Ocular bioavailability of ofloxacin in SRF after oral and combined administration is equivalent. The addition of oral ofloxacin to topical therapy increased drug SRF penetration sixfold.

 PMID:10502583

  11. The Effect of Topical Sucralfate Suspension on Oral Aphthae

    Z. Delavarian; H. Orafai; L. Molashahi; Pakfetrat, A

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of oral sucralfate suspension (1gr/10ml) in the treatment of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS).Materials and Methods: Fifty-five patients with oral aphthae were included in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted in the Department of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. In thefirst part of the study, all subjects were instructed to rinse with a 10% su...

  12. Penetration of topical, oral, and combined administered ofloxacin into the subretinal fluid

    Cekic, O.; Batman, C.; Yasar, U.; Totan, Y.; Basci, N.; Bozkurt, A.; Zilelioglu, O.; Kayaalp, S

    1999-01-01

    AIMS—To assess the subretinal fluid (SRF) levels of ofloxacin following topical, oral or combined administration.
METHODS—31 patients undergoing conventional retinal reattachment surgery were randomly assigned to three groups. Nine patients received topical ofloxacin, 11 patients received oral ofloxacin, and the other 11 patients received combined administration. Collected SRF samples were analysed for drug level by using high performance liquid chromatography.
RESULTS—SRF drug levels after o...

  13. Subretinal fluid levels of topical, oral, and combined administered ciprofloxacin in humans

    Cekic, O.; Batman, C.; Yasar, U.; Basci, N.; Zilelioglu, O.; Bozkurt, A.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To investigate the subretinal fluid (SRF) penetration of ciprofloxacin following topical, oral, and combined administration.
METHODS—34 patients undergoing conventional retinal reattachment surgery were randomly assigned to three groups. Twelve patients received topical ciprofloxacin, 11 patients received oral ciprofloxacin, and the other 11 patients received combined drug administration. SRF drug level was measured by using high performance liquid chromatography method.
RESULTS—The high...

  14. Topical minoxidil fortified with finasteride: An account of maintenance of hair density after replacing oral finasteride

    B S Chandrashekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Finasteride acts by reducing dihydrotestosterone levels, thereby inhibiting miniaturization of hair follicles in patients with androgenetic alopecia (AGA. Oral finasteride is associated with side effects such as decreased libido, sexual dysfunction, and gynecomastia. Aim: The aim of the following study is to assess the efficacy of maintaining hair growth with 5% topical minoxidil fortified with 0.1% finasteride in patients with AGA after initial treatment with 5% topical minoxidil and oral finasteride for two years. Materials and Methods: A retrospective assessment was done in 50 male patients aged 20-40 years with AGA. All the patients had been initially treated with topical minoxidil and oral finasteride for a period of two years, after which the oral finasteride was replaced with topical minoxidil fortified with finasteride. Five of 50 patients had discontinued the treatment for a period of 8-12 months and were then resumed with only topical minoxidil fortified with finasteride. The patients′ case sheets and photographs were reviewed by independent observers and the efficacy of minoxidil-finasteride combination was assessed. Results: Of the 45 patients who underwent a continuous treatment for AGA, 84.44% maintained a good hair density with topical minoxidil-finasteride combinatio. Of the five patients who discontinued oral finasteride for 8-12 months, four demonstrated good improvement in hair density when treatment was resumed with topical minoxidil-finasteride combination. Conclusion: Topical finasteride can be considered for hair density maintenance after initial improvement with oral finasteride, thereby obviating the indefinite use of oral finasteride.

  15. Oral isotretinoin is as effective as a combination of oral isotretinoin and topical anti-acne agents in nodulocystic acne

    Dhir Rajeev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the late introduction of oral isotretinoin, there is only a single report of the use of this drug from India. Aims: To evaluate the efficacy, acceptability and side effects of oral isotretinoin in Indian conditions and to compare the efficacy of oral isotretinoin monotherapy with that of a combination of oral isotretinoin and topical anti-acne agents. Methods: Sixty clinically diagnosed patients of nodulocystic acne were divided into two groups of 30 each. Patients in group A were administered oral isotretinoin 20 mg twice a day along with topical clindamycin (1% and adapalene (0.1% for 24 weeks. Patients in group B were given only oral isotretinoin. An objective clinical scoring was repeated every four weeks and patients were followed up for six months on completion of treatment. Results: Out of the 60 patients, 50 completed the treatment and 35 completed the follow-up at six months. The mean pretreatment score in group A came down from 12.8 to 1.24 and in group B from 12.4 to 1.48, thus showing a 90.55% and 88% reduction in pretreatment scores respectively. There was no statistical difference in the results obtained from the two groups. Side effects were common but minor in nature. Conclusion: Isotretinoin produces gratifying results in patients of nodulocystic acne in Indian conditions. Addition of topical antiacne agents does not alter the final outcome. This addition is well tolerated but requires careful monitoring.

  16. Topical imiquimod yields systemic effects due to unintended oral uptake.

    Grine, Lynda; Steeland, Sophie; Van Ryckeghem, Sara; Ballegeer, Marlies; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Weiss, Siegfried; Sanders, Niek N; Vandenbroucke, Roosmarijn E; Libert, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive application of topical imiquimod is used as an experimental model for the induction of psoriasiform skin lesions in mice. The model is characterized by several inflammatory processes, including cytokine production both locally and systemically, cellular infiltration, and splenomegaly. To investigate the production of type I interferons in response to imiquimod-containing Aldara cream, IFNβ-luciferase reporter mice were imaged in vivo and ex vivo. Type I interferons were found to be produced in the skin, but also in the intestinal system caused by unintended ingestion of imiquimod by the mice. Through the use of Elizabethan collars to prevent ingestion, these effects, including psoriasiform lesions were nearly completely prevented. Our findings reveal that topical treatment with Aldara induces a psoriasiform skin inflammation, but that its mode of action depends on ingestion of the chemical, which leads to systemic responses and affects local inflammation. Therefore, potential ingestion of topical treatments during experimental procedures should be taken into account during assessment of cutaneous inflammatory parameters in skin disease models. PMID:26818707

  17. Clinical efficacy and safety of topical versus oral ivermectin in treatment of uncomplicated scabies.

    Ahmad, Hesham M; Abdel-Azim, Eman S; Abdel-Aziz, Rasha T

    2016-01-01

    Many medications are available for scabies treatment including oral and topical ivermectin. However, studies comparing these two forms as a scabies treatment are few. This study compares efficacy and safety of topical versus oral ivermectin as scabies treatment. The study included 62 confirmed uncomplicated scabies patients, divided into: Group I (32 patients, received topical ivermectin) and Group II (30 patients, received oral ivermectin). Patients were assessed, clinically and by KOH smear at 1, 2 and 4 weeks. Treatment was repeated after one week in patients with persistent infection. Adverse events were recorded. Most patients (87.5% and 73.5% in group I and group II respectively) were symptom free after a single treatment. A second treatment was required in 4 patients of group I and 8 patients of group II. However, 2 weeks after treatment symptoms and signs completely resolved in all cases with no recurrence at 4 weeks. This study suggests that both topical and oral ivermectin are safe and equally effective in treatment of uncomplicated scabies. Single treatment, whether topical or oral, is associated with high cure rate in a week post treatment. However, repeating treatment after one week may be required to achieve 100% cure. PMID:26555785

  18. Comparison of Topical Nifedipine With Oral Nifedipine for Treatment of Anal Fissure: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Golfam, Farzaneh; Golfam, Parisa; Golfam, Babak; Pahlevani, Puyan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Medical sphincterotomy has gained popularity as a treatment for anal fissure. Calcium channel blockers in topical forms could also be appropriate with low adverse effects. Objectives: This was a prospective randomized controlled trial to compare topical and oral nifedipine in the treatment of chronic anal fissure. Patients and Methods: A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted at two centers of Shahed University. One hundred and thirty patients with chronic anal fiss...

  19. Topical minoxidil fortified with finasteride: An account of maintenance of hair density after replacing oral finasteride

    B S Chandrashekar; T Nandhini; Vani Vasanth; Rashmi Sriram; Shreya Navale

    2015-01-01

    Background: Finasteride acts by reducing dihydrotestosterone levels, thereby inhibiting miniaturization of hair follicles in patients with androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Oral finasteride is associated with side effects such as decreased libido, sexual dysfunction, and gynecomastia. Aim: The aim of the following study is to assess the efficacy of maintaining hair growth with 5% topical minoxidil fortified with 0.1% finasteride in patients with AGA after initial treatment with 5% topical minoxidi...

  20. PREVENTION OF CUTANEOUS SIDE EFFECTS OF TOPICAL TRETINOIN: USE OF ORAL VITAMINE E

    G Faghihi

    2001-01-01

    Introduction: Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous folicles. Tretinoin is used as one of the topical treatments for acne vulgaris. It has different cutaneous side effects such as erythema, scaling, irritation and photosensitivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral Vitamine E in preventing the cutaneous side effects of topical tretinoin in acne patients...

  1. Topical Tacrolimus and Oral Dapsone Combination Regimen in Lichen Planus Pigmentosus.

    Verma, Prashant; Pandhi, Deepika

    2015-01-01

    Lichen planus pigmentosus is a well-recognized variant of lichen planus; however, its etiopathogenesis is still unclear. An effective and safe treatment for lichen planus pigmentosus is needed; therefore, the authors examined a series of five patients with lichen planus pigmentosus with successful response to a combination of topical tacrolimus and oral dapsone. PMID:26790504

  2. Children's Retention of Topical and Factual Information Following Oral Report Activities.

    Glynn, Shawn M.; Hartzell, Linda D.

    This experiment was designed to determine how oral report activities, following exposure to an informative message, can influence children's retention of topical and factual information from the message. The message was a prose passage about modes of transportation. Second grade students (N=51) were subjects. A third of the children presented oral…

  3. Kinetics and anthelmintic efficacy of topical eprinomectin when given orally to goats.

    Badie, C; Lespine, A; Devos, J; Sutra, J F; Chartier, C

    2015-04-15

    Preliminary data suggest that topical eprinomectin in goat shows an individual variation in anthelmintic efficacy when used off-license at a dose rate of 0.5 or 1.0mg/kg BW. As a result, the use of oral administration of topical formulation of eprinomectin tends to develop in dairy goat farms in France. The plasma levels and milk excretion as well as the anthelmintic efficacy of eprinomectin were determined in goats following oral administration of a topical formulation of the drug at dose rates of 0.5 and 1mg/kg BW. The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) values were 17.62 ± 9.68 ng day/ml and 6.56 ± 4.00 ng day/ml for plasma and milk respectively after the administration of 0.5mg/kg BW and 45.32 ± 13.90 ng day/ml and 13.88 ± 1.77 ng day/ml for plasma and milk, respectively after the administration of 1mg/kg BW. The milk-to-plasma ratio ranged from 0.33 to 0.36 and the amount of drug recovered in the milk was 0.4% of the total administered dose. The maximum concentrations of eprinomectin residues determined in milk after oral treatment were Trichostrongylus colubriformis). Additional information is needed about the fate of the vehicles used for topical formulation when given by oral route concerning food safety. PMID:25744609

  4. Systematic review of antibiotic resistance in acne: an increasing topical and oral threat.

    Walsh, Timothy R; Efthimiou, John; Dréno, Brigitte

    2016-03-01

    Topical and oral antibiotics are routinely used to treat acne. However, antibiotic resistance is increasing, with many countries reporting that more than 50% of Propionibacterium acnes strains are resistant to topical macrolides, making them less effective. We reviewed the current scientific literature to enable proposal of recommendations for antibiotic use in acne treatment. References were identified through PubMed searches for articles published from January, 1954, to March 7, 2015, using four multiword searches. Ideally, benzoyl peroxide in combination with a topical retinoid should be used instead of a topical antibiotic to minimise the impact of resistance. Oral antibiotics still have a role in the treatment of moderate-to-severe acne, but only with a topical retinoid, benzoyl peroxide, or their combination, and ideally for no longer than 3 months. To limit resistance, it is recommended that benzoyl peroxide should always be added when long-term oral antibiotic use is deemed necessary. The benefit-to-risk ratio of long-term antibiotic use should be carefully considered and, in particular, use alone avoided where possible. There is a need to treat acne with effective alternatives to antibiotics to reduce the likelihood of resistance. PMID:26852728

  5. Topical MMP beacon enabled fluorescence-guided resection of oral carcinoma

    Burgess, Laura; Chen, Juan; Wolter, Nikolaus E.; Wilson, Brian; Zheng, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Each year almost 300,000 individuals worldwide are diagnosed with oral cancer, more than 90% of these being oral carcinoma [N. Engl. J. Med. 328, 184 19938417385]. Surgical resection is the standard of care, but accurate delineation of the tumor boundaries is challenging, resulting in either under-resection with risk of local recurrence or over-resection with increased functional loss and negative impact on quality of life. This study evaluates, in two pre-clinical in vivo tumor models, the potential of fluorescence-guided resection using molecular beacons activated by metalloproteinases, which are frequently upregulated in human oral cancer. In both models there was rapid (oral tissues. Although the tissue penetration was limited using topical application, these findings support further development of this approach towards translation to first-in-human trials.

  6. Childhood vitiligo : Response to methylprednisolone oral minipulse therapy and topical fluticasone combination

    Majid Imran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood vitiligo is always a challenge to treat, especially when the disease is progressing rapidly in such a patient. Oral minipulse with betamethasone has been tried in childhood vitiligo and also in some other immune mediated skin disorders with good results. Aims: The aim of the present study was to see the overall efficacy of methylprednisolone oral minipulse therapy in combination with topical fluticasone in progressive childhood vitiligo. The combination was tried to achieve a significant amount of repigmentation of vitiligo lesions already present at the initial visit. Materials and Methods: Four hundred children with progressive vitiligo were enrolled for this study and were prescribed oral methylprednisolone on two consecutive days every week in a minipulse form for a period of six months. In addition, the patients were instructed to apply fluticasone ointment topically once a day on their vitiligo lesions. The patients were assessed for the remission achieved as well as the extent of repigmentation of their already existent lesions. Results: More than 90% of patients went into complete remission after the start of the therapy. Moreover, about 65% (two-thirds of patients achieved good to excellent repigmentation of lesions at the end of six months of therapy. The therapy was also well tolerated and the side effects seen were almost negligible. Conclusions: Oral minipulse treatment with methylprednisolone is an effective treatment option for controlling the disease spread in childhood vitiligo and with the addition of topical fluticasone the extent of repigmentation achieved is also quite significant.

  7. Safety evaluation of topical applications of ethanol on the skin and inside the oral cavity

    Lachenmeier Dirk W

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ethanol is widely used in all kinds of products with direct exposure to the human skin (e.g. medicinal products like hand disinfectants in occupational settings, cosmetics like hairsprays or mouthwashes, pharmaceutical preparations, and many household products. Contradictory evidence about the safety of such topical applications of the alcohol can be found in the scientific literature, yet an up-to-date risk assessment of ethanol application on the skin and inside the oral cavity is currently lacking. The first and foremost concerns of topical ethanol applications for public health are its carcinogenic effects, as there is unambiguous evidence for the carcinogenicity of ethanol orally consumed in the form of alcoholic beverages. So far there is a lack of evidence to associate topical ethanol use with an increased risk of skin cancer. Limited and conflicting epidemiological evidence is available on the link between the use of ethanol in the oral cavity in the form of mouthwashes or mouthrinses and oral cancer. Some studies pointed to an increased risk of oral cancer due to locally produced acetaldehyde, operating via a similar mechanism to that found after alcoholic beverage ingestion. In addition, topically applied ethanol acts as a skin penetration enhancer and may facilitate the transdermal absorption of xenobiotics (e.g. carcinogenic contaminants in cosmetic formulations. Ethanol use is associated with skin irritation or contact dermatitis, especially in humans with an aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH deficiency. After regular application of ethanol on the skin (e.g. in the form of hand disinfectants relatively low but measurable blood concentrations of ethanol and its metabolite acetaldehyde may occur, which are, however, below acute toxic levels. Only in children, especially through lacerated skin, can percutaneous toxicity occur. As there might be industry bias in many studies about the safety of topical ethanol applications, as well as a general lack of scientific research on the long-term effects, there is a requirement for independent studies on this topic. The research focus should be set on the chronic toxic effects of ethanol and acetaldehyde at the point of impact, with special regard to children and individuals with genetic deficiencies in ethanol metabolism.

  8. Diclofenac topical solution compared with oral diclofenac: a pooled safety analysis

    Roth SH

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sanford H Roth1, Philip Fuller21Arizona Research and Education, Arthritis Laboratory, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA; 2Medical Affairs, Covidien, Hazelwood, MO, USABackground: Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID formulations, which produce less systemic exposure compared with oral formulations, are an option for the management of osteoarthritis (OA. However, the overall safety and efficacy of these agents compared with oral or systemic therapy remains controversial.Methods: Two 12-week, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, controlled, multicenter studies compared the safety and efficacy profiles of diclofenac topical solution (TDiclo with oral diclofenac (ODiclo. Each study independently showed that TDiclo had similar efficacy to ODiclo. To compare the safety profiles of TDiclo and ODiclo, a pooled safety analysis was performed for 927 total patients who had radiologically confirmed symptomatic OA of the knee. This pooled analysis included patients treated with TDiclo, containing 45.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, and those treated with ODiclo. Safety assessments included monitoring of adverse events (AEs, recording of vital signs, dermatologic evaluation of the study knee, and clinical laboratory evaluation.Results: AEs occurred in 312 (67.1% patients using TDiclo versus 298 (64.5% of those taking ODiclo. The most common AE with TDiclo was dry skin at the application site (24.1% vs 1.9% with ODiclo; P < 0.0001. Fewer gastrointestinal (25.4% vs 39.0%; P < 0.0001 and cardiovascular (1.5% vs 3.5%; P = 0.055 AEs occurred with TDiclo compared with ODiclo. ODiclo was associated with significantly greater increases in liver enzymes and creatinine, and greater decreases in creatinine clearance and hemoglobin (P < 0.001 for all.Conclusions: These findings suggest that TDiclo represents a useful alternative to oral NSAID therapy in the management of OA, with a more favorable safety profile.Keywords: diclofenac, gastropathy, oral NSAIDs, osteoarthritis, topical NSAIDs

  9. Safety evaluation of topical applications of ethanol on the skin and inside the oral cavity

    Lachenmeier Dirk W

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Ethanol is widely used in all kinds of products with direct exposure to the human skin (e.g. medicinal products like hand disinfectants in occupational settings, cosmetics like hairsprays or mouthwashes, pharmaceutical preparations, and many household products). Contradictory evidence about the safety of such topical applications of the alcohol can be found in the scientific literature, yet an up-to-date risk assessment of ethanol application on the skin and inside the oral cavity is...

  10. Trichophytum rubrum endonyx onychomycosis resistant to standard oral and topical therapies

    Mulvaney, Patrick M; Gladys H.Telang; Jellinek, Nat

    2015-01-01

    We present a 45 year-old man with an eight-year history of discoloration of the nail plate on his left hallux. He had been treated with two courses of oral terbinafine and topical 8% ciclopirox for presumed onychomycosis. On exam, his left great toenail contained a wide yellow-white longitudinal band involving a majority of the nail plate. No subungual debris, hyperkeratosis, or paronychial inflammation was present in the affected nail. Histopathology of the nail plate revealed numerous funga...

  11. To study cost effectiveness of topical permethrin versus oral ivermectin in patients of uncomplicated scabies

    Chhaiya, Sunita B.; Patel, Varsha J.; Jayendra N Dave; Mehta, Dimple S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to compare the cost and effectiveness of topical permethrin and oral ivermectin in the treatment of uncomplicated scabies. Methods: This was an open label randomized comparative study conducted in 210 patients, randomly allocated to two groups. First group received permethrin 5% cream as single application, second group received tablet ivermectin 200mcg/kg as single dose. All the patients received antihistaminic for pruritus. The patients were fo...

  12. PREVENTION OF CUTANEOUS SIDE EFFECTS OF TOPICAL TRETINOIN: USE OF ORAL VITAMINE E

    G FAGHIHI

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous folicles. Tretinoin is used as one of the topical treatments for acne vulgaris. It has different cutaneous side effects such as erythema, scaling, irritation and photosensitivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral Vitamine E in preventing the cutaneous side effects of topical tretinoin in acne patients.
    Methods: A clinical trial was performed in AI-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan for six months in 2000. 80 patients with mild to moderate facial acne were randomized into 2 groups. Group 1 (controls received topical solution of tretinoin 0.05 percent nightly and group 2 (cases received daily oral 100mg of Vit. E in addition. All patients were followed at 1, 4 and 6 weeks after initiation of treatment. Children under 12 years old, pregnant or lactating women were excluded.
    Results: At the end of one week, no cutaneous side effects were observed in 25 percent (10 of group 1 and 15 percent (6 of group 2 (P > 0.05. At the end of 4 weeks, 25 percent (10 of group 1 and 60 percent (24 of group 2 were without any cutaneous complications, while at the end of 6 weeks, 35 percent (14 of group 1 in comparison to 75 percent (30 of group 2 were free of any cutaneous side effects (P < 0.05. The most common side effect in both groups was exfoliation.
    Discussion: Daily oral 100 mg of Vit. E has been effective in preventing cutaneous complications of topical tretinoin in acne management, but there is a delay of one week in its onset of action. Meanwhile, Vitamine E is a safe modality with no undesirable effects in acne patients.

  13. Topical tacrolimus and periodontal therapy in the management of a case of oral chronic GVHD characterized by specific gingival localization.

    Conrotto, Davide; Broccoletti, Roberto; Carcieri, Paola; Giaccone, Luisa; Arduino, Paolo G

    2014-01-01

    Background. Chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD) is a complication following bone marrow transplantation. The oral lesions are difficult to control with a systemic pharmacological therapy. Case Description. A 63-year-old female patient, who underwent an allogeniec transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia, developed a chronic oral and cutaneous GVHD. The patient was treated with topical tacrolimus 0.1%, twice daily for two months, and underwent a protocol of oral hygiene characterized by 3 appointments of scaling, root planning, and daily oral hygiene instructions. The patient showed marked resolution of gingival lesions and a significant improvement of related pain and gingival inflammatory indexes. Clinical Implications. This case report suggests that treatment with topical tacrolimus and professional oral hygiene may be helpful in the management of chronic oral GVHD with severe gingival involvement. PMID:24639902

  14. Trichophytum rubrum endonyx onychomycosis resistant to standard oral and topical therapies.

    Mulvaney, Patrick M; Telang, Gladys H; Jellinek, Nat

    2015-01-01

    We present a 45 year-old man with an eight-year history of discoloration of the nail plate on his left hallux. He had been treated with two courses of oral terbinafine and topical 8% ciclopirox for presumed onychomycosis. On exam, his left great toenail contained a wide yellow-white longitudinal band involving a majority of the nail plate. No subungual debris, hyperkeratosis, or paronychial inflammation was present in the affected nail. Histopathology of the nail plate revealed numerous fungal elements arranged transversely and longitudinally, solely within the keratin layers of the nail plate; these were highlighted with periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) stain confirming endonyx onychomycosis. Cultures grew Trichophyton rubrum. All types of onychomycosis under the new classification system proposed by Hay et al. have now been associated with T. rubrum. Endonyx related to T. rubrum may be a particularly difficult infection to treat with oral or topical agents owing to the absence of robust local immune response and limited drug penetration to the interior nail plate. Physicians should be aware that this type of infection may require treatment with dual-agent therapy or alternative modalities including chemical or surgical plate avulsion or photodynamic therapy. PMID:26437286

  15. Efficacy of oral azithromycin versus topical tetracycline in mass treatment of endemic trachoma

    Fraser-Hurt Nicole

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the impact of mass treatment with oral azithromycin and topical tetracycline on the prevalence of active trachoma. METHODS: A total of 1803 inhabitants from 106 households of eight Gambian villages were randomized, in pairs, to receive either three doses of azithromycin at weekly intervals, or daily topical tetracycline over 6 weeks. Ocular examinations were conducted before treatment, and 2, 6 and 12 months after treatment. FINDINGS: Prior to treatment, 16% of the study participants had active trachoma. Two months after treatment, the prevalence of trachoma was 4.6% and 5.1% in the azithromycin and the tetracycline groups, respectively (adjusted odds ratio (OR = 1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.53, 2.02. Subsequently, the prevalence rose to 16% in the tetracycline group, while remaining at 7.7% in the azithromycin group (adjusted OR at 12 months = 0.52; 95% CI = 0.34, 0.80. At 12 months post-treatment, there were fewer new prevalent cases in the azithromycin group, and trachoma resolution was significantly better for this group (adjusted OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.42, 3.50. CONCLUSION: Oral azithromycin therefore appears to offer a means for controlling blinding trachoma. It is easy to administer and higher coverages may be possible than have been achieved hitherto.

  16. Ketoprofen Absorption by Muscle and Tendon after Topical or Oral Administration in Patients Undergoing Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Sekiya, Ichiro; Morito, Toshiyuki; Hara, Kenji; Yamazaki, Junya; Ju, Young-Jin; Yagishita, Kazuyoshi; Mochizuki, Tomoyuki; Tsuji, Kunikazu; Muneta, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    Topical ketoprofen patches are widely used in the treatment of musculoskeletal pain, but the pharmacokinetics of ketoprofen following topical application remain unclear. This open-label, single-dose pharmacokinetic study was designed to determine the concentrations of ketoprofen in the semitendinosus muscle/tendon and plasma after topical application or oral administration to patients scheduled for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Two ketoprofen patches (20 mg each) were applied ove...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn syrup. 184.1865 Section 184.1865 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or...

  18. The efficacy of topical and oral ivermectin in the treatment of human scabies.

    Panahi, Yunes; Poursaleh, Zohreh; Goldust, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Scabies is an itchy skin condition caused by the microscopic mite Sarcoptes scabei. The itching is caused by an allergic reaction to the mites. The treatment of choice is still controversial. It is commonly treated with topical insecticides. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of topical and oral ivermectin in the treatment of human scabies. We searched electronic databases (Cochrane Occupational Safety and Health Review Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (Ovid), Pubmed, EMBASE, LILACS, CINAHL, Open Grey and WHO ICTRP) up to September 2014. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or cluster RCTs which compared the efficacy of ivermectin with other medications in the treatment of scabies. Interventions could be compared to each other, or to placebo or to no treatment. The author intended to extract dichotomous data (developed infection or did not develop infection) for the effects of interventions. We intended to report any adverse outcomes similarly. It has been sated that ivermectin was as effective as permethrin in the treatment of scabies. In comparison to other medications such as lindane, benzyl benzoate, crotamiton and malathion, ivermectin was more effective in the treatment of scabies. Ivermectin is an effective and cost-comparable alternative to topical agents in the treatment of scabies infection. PMID:25911032

  19. Topical oral cavity pharmacokinetic modeling of a stannous fluoride dentifrice: an unusual two compartment model.

    Scott, Douglas C; Coggan, John W; Cruze, Charles A; He, Tao; Johnson, Robert D

    2009-10-01

    A pharmacokinetic model was developed describing the pharmacokinetics of stannous fluoride in human subjects after oral topical application of a stannous fluoride dentifrice. Twenty subjects participated in an investigation of an experimental dentifrice. Subjects rinsed their mouths with the experimental dentifrice slurry. Saliva and plaque samples were obtained from the subjects at various times up to 6 h after administration. Samples were analyzed for total tin content, used as an analytical marker for the active stannous fluoride ingredient, using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer. The modeling indicates that there is an obvious kinetic relationship between saliva and plaque compartments and that stannous fluoride is very well retained in and slowly released from plaque (and oral surfaces) into saliva. Additionally, both compartments are simultaneously loaded during administration unlike typical systemic drug behavior, and the elimination rate "constant" from the central compartment (saliva) changes due to changes in salivary flow. Stannous fluoride is cleared from saliva rapidly but very well retained in gingival plaque. The model with simultaneous loading of plaque and saliva describes these observations and may account for the prolonged antiplaque and antigingivitis benefits of stannous fluoride. PMID:19189400

  20. Topical Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) Extract Does Not Accelerate the Oral Wound Healing in Rats.

    Coelho, Fernanda Hack; Salvadori, Gabriela; Rados, Pantelis Varvaki; Magnusson, Alessandra; Danilevicz, Chris Krebs; Meurer, Luise; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2015-07-01

    The effect of topical application of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) extract was assessed on the healing of rat oral wounds in an in vivo model using 72 male Wistar rats divided into three groups (n = 24): control, placebo and Aloe Vera (0.5% extract hydroalcoholic). Traumatic ulcers were caused in the dorsum of the tongue using a 3-mm punch tool. The Aloe Vera and placebo group received two daily applications. The animals were sacrificed after 1, 5, 10 and 14 days. Clinical analysis (ulcer area and percentage of repair) and histopathological analysis (degree of re-epithelialization and inflammation) were performed. The comparison of the differences between scores based on group and experimental period, both in quantitative and semi-quantitative analyses, was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The significance level was 5%. On day 1, all groups showed predominantly acute inflammatory infiltrate. On day 5, there was partial epithelialization and chronic inflammatory infiltrate. On the days 10 and 14 total repair of ulcers was observed. There was no significant difference between groups in the repair of mouth ulcers. It is concluded that treatment using Aloe Vera as an herbal formulation did not accelerate oral wound healing in rats. PMID:25891093

  1. Efficacy of Haemocoagulase as a Topical Haemostatic Agent after Minor Oral Surgical Procedures—A Prospective Study

    Kaberi Majumder; Shalender   Dayashankara Rao, J. K.; Neelima Gehlot; Varun Arya; Vijay Siwach

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Haemocoagulase is a topical haemostatic agent which provides the adequate haemostasis after minor oral surgical procedures and it has also been proved to be beneficial in promoting wound healing. The aim of this study was to check the efficacy of haemocoagulase in stopping the bleeding and its effect over wound healing after the minor oral surgical procedure. Material & Method: This study is comprised of 150 surgical sites in 75 patients. The subjects were divi...

  2. Efficacy of a New Cream Formulation of Mupirocin: Comparison with Oral and Topical Agents in Experimental Skin Infections

    Gisby, John; Bryant, Joanna

    2000-01-01

    A new cream formulation of mupirocin developed to improve patient compliance was compared with systemic and topical antibiotics commonly used to treat primary and secondary skin infections. A mouse surgical wound model infected with Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes was used. Topical treatment was applied at 4 and 10 h postinfection or oral treatment at a clinically relevant dose was administered 4, 8, and 12 h postinfection; treatments were continued three times daily for a fur...

  3. Formulation and Evaluation of Voriconazole Loaded Nanosponges for Oral and Topical Delivery

    Prathima Srinivas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to produce controlled release Voriconazole Nanosponges for topical and oral delivery. Nanosponges using three different polymers ethyl cellulose, Poly (methyl methacrylate and Pluronic F-68 (poloxamer 188 were prepared successfully using PVA as surfactant by emulsion solvent evaporation method. The effects of different drug: polymer ratios, surfactant concentration, stirring speeds and time, sonication time on the physical characteristics of the nanosponges as well as the drug entrapment efficiency of the nanosponges were investigated. Particle size analysis and surface morphology of nanosponges were performed. The scanning electron microscopy of nanosponges showed that they were spherical in shape and spongy in nature. The particle size of the optimized formulations was in the range of 200-400nm and the drug entrapment efficiency was found to be in the range of 69.8 % to 72.5%. These nanosponge formulations were prepared as gel using carbopol 971P and studied for pH, viscosity, in vitro drug release, antimicrobial activity. Of the various formulations prepared E2, P2 and F2 were found to show the maximum drug release of 92.76%, 91.84% and 95.88% respectively at 1:2 drug: polymer ratio. The antifungal activity of the optimized formulations was evaluated in vivo in Male Wistar rats in comparison with marketed Flucos gel. The optimized nanosponge formulations were selected for preparing nanosponge tablets for controlled drug delivery by oral route. These tablets were prepared using microcrystalline cellulose and were evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content and in vitro drug release studies.

  4. Hot Topics in Clinical Oral Implants Research: Recent Trends in Literature Coverage

    Vesela Valkova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review looks at thematic trends in clinical research publications on dental implants. For this purpose, MEDLINE electronic searches as well as additional hand searches of six main journals in the field were conducted. A total of 2875 clinical studies published between 2001 and 2012 met the inclusion criteria and were subjected to statistical analysis. Hot topics in dental implant literature included immediate loading (14.3%, bone substitutes (11.6%, cross-arch full bridges (8.0%, and immediate implant placement (7.5%. A significant increase in scientific interest for immediate loading (+6.3%, p = 0.001, platform switching (+2.9%, p = 0.001, guided implant surgery (+1.9%, p = 0.011, growth factors (p = 0.014, +1.4%, piezoelectric surgery (+1.3%, p = 0.015, and restorative materials (+0.7%, p = 0.011 was found. A declining scientific interest in onlay grafting (−0.3%, p = 0.042 was recorded. The findings regarding current clinical oral implants research tie in with better-informed consumers and increased patient demands. Our results demonstrate an increasing interest in techniques that avoid complicated procedures such as bone grafting and that reduce treatment duration.

  5. The Comparison of Efficacy of Adcortyl Ointment and Topical Tacrolimus in Treatment of Erosive Oral Lichen Planus

    Arash Azizi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and aims. Oral lichen planus (OLP is a common chronic mucocutaneous disease. Patients with atrophic and erosive lichen planus often have symptoms of soreness and need proper treatment. The main therapy of OLP has been the administration of topical or systemic corticosteroids. Potent topical corticosteroids have been increasingly prescribed in the treatment of erosive lichen planus. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of adcortyl ointment (triamcinolone in orabase with topical tacrolimus for the treatment of erosive oral lichen planus.

    Materials and methods. Sixty Patients with histopathologically confirmed oral lichen planus were enrolled in the study. The severity of lesions was scored from 0 to 5 according to the criteria described in a previous study. Patients were randomly given adcortyl (group A and topical tacrolimus ointment (group B and asked to apply the medication on dried lesions 4 times a day. The lesions were evaluated after 4 weeks of treatment. Visual analogue scale was used to assess the severity of pain before and after treatment. The severity scores were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis k-sample test.

    Results. The average score of lesions improved from 3.4 to 1.5 in patients who received adcortyl ointment and from 3.2 to 1.2 in patients who received topical tacrolimus ointment. The differences between the improvements in scores were not statistically significant in the two groups. The average pain severity in A and B groups was 8.2 and 7.8 at the beginning of treatment, and 3.5 and 3.2 at the end of treatment, respectively. There was a statistically significant reduction in pain severity in both groups.

    Conclusion. Topical tacrolimus is a safe and effective alternative therapy in the treatment of oral lichen planus.

  6. Targeted localized use of therapeutic antibodies: a review of non-systemic, topical and oral applications.

    Jones, Russell G A; Martino, Angela

    2016-06-01

    Therapeutic antibodies provide important tools in the "medicine chest" of today's clinician for the treatment of a range of disorders. Typically monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies are administered in large doses, either directly or indirectly into the circulation, via a systemic route which is well suited for disseminated ailments. Diseases confined within a specific localized tissue, however, may be treated more effectively and at reduced cost by a delivery system which targets directly the affected area. To explore the advantages of the local administration of antibodies, we reviewed current alternative, non-systemic delivery approaches which are in clinical use, being trialed or developed. These less conventional approaches comprise: (a) local injections, (b) topical and (c) peroral administration routes. Local delivery includes intra-ocular injections into the vitreal humor (i.e. Ranibizumab for age-related macular degeneration), subconjunctival injections (e.g. Bevacizumab for corneal neovascularization), intra-articular joint injections (i.e. anti-TNF alpha antibody for persistent inflammatory monoarthritis) and intratumoral or peritumoral injections (e.g. Ipilimumab for cancer). A range of other strategies, such as the local use of antibacterial antibodies, are also presented. Local injections of antibodies utilize doses which range from 1/10th to 1/100th of the required systemic dose therefore reducing both side-effects and treatment costs. In addition, any therapeutic antibody escaping from the local site of disease into the systemic circulation is immediately diluted within the large blood volume, further lowering the potential for unwanted effects. Needle-free topical application routes become an option when the condition is restricted locally to an external surface. The topical route may potentially be utilized in the form of eye drops for infections or corneal neovascularization or be applied to diseased skin for psoriasis, dermatitis, pyoderma gangrenosum, antibiotic resistant bacterial infections or ulcerated wounds. Diseases confined to the gastrointestinal tract can be targeted directly by applying antibody via the injection-free peroral route. The gastrointestinal tract is unusual in that its natural immuno-tolerant nature ensures the long-term safety of repeatedly ingesting heterologous antiserum or antibody materials. Without the stringent regulatory, purity and clean room requirements of manufacturing parenteral (injectable) antibodies, production costs are minimal, with the potential for more direct low-cost targeting of gastrointestinal diseases, especially with those caused by problematic antibiotic resistant or toxigenic bacteria (e.g. Clostridium difficile, Helicobacter pylori), viruses (e.g. rotavirus, norovirus) or inflammatory bowel disease (e.g. ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease). Use of the oral route has previously been hindered by excessive antibody digestion within the gastrointestinal tract; however, this limitation may be overcome by intelligently applying one or more strategies (i.e. decoy proteins, masking therapeutic antibody cleavage sites, pH modulation, enzyme inhibition or encapsulation). These aspects are additionally discussed in this review and novel insights also provided. With the development of new applications via local injections, topical and peroral routes, it is envisaged that an extended range of ailments will increasingly fall within the clinical scope of therapeutic antibodies further expanding this market. PMID:25600465

  7. Evaluation of the effect of topical cefadroxil on bacterial load of pathogenic staphylococci in anterior nares in human volunteers, comparative study between oral vs. topical cefadroxil and evaluation of effect of combination of oral plus topical cefadroxil in patients with staphylococcal superficial skin infections

    Dimple S. Mehta

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cefadroxil has good tissue penetration & exerts more sustained action at the site of infection after oral absorption. Our aim of the study was to check topical cefadroxil has any efficacy over staphylococcal superficial skin infection or not. Methods: Pre-treatment nasal swabs were obtained from 25 healthy human volunteers and bacterial load was recorded. After single application of topical cefadroxil 3% in left anterior nare and placebo (vehicle in right anterior nare nasal swabs were obtained and results were compared. 150 patients with staphylococcal superficial skin infections were distributed in 4 groups: Group A - oral cefadroxil 500 mg twice daily for 5 days, Group B - topical cefadroxil (0.5 % to 5% twice daily, Group C - cefadroxil 500 mg orally plus placebo (vehicle topically twice daily and Group D -cefadroxil 500 mg orally plus cefadroxil preparation topically twice daily. Bacterial load was measured before treatment, on follow up &after clinical cure and results were compared. Results: Topical cefadroxil significantly reduced bacterial load after single application in anterior nare. Topical cefadroxil cured and significantly reduced bacterial load in staphylococcal superficial skin infections within 3 days of treatment. Oral plus topical cefadroxil combination therapy significantly reduced bacterial load and cured infection within 3 days of treatment in patients with moderate to heavy bacterial growth. No any adverse effect was observed during entire study period in any of groups. Conclusions: Topical preparation of cefadroxil is safe and effective in treating staphylococcal superficial skin infections. Combination of oral plus topical cefadroxil showed synergistic effect in infections with moderate to heavy growth. This study is registered at CTRI [REG ID: CTRI/2013/02/003433 REF: REF/2013/02/004576]. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(3.000: 264-271

  8. Effect of Topical Rambutan Honey Pharmaceutical Grade on Oral Mucosa Wound Healing Based on Tissue Wound Closure and Fibroblasts Proliferation in vivo

    E.R. Yuslianti; B.M. Bachtiar; D.F. Suniarti; A.B. Sutjiatmo; Euis Reni Yuslianti; Boy M. Bachtiar; Dewi F. Suniarti; Afifah B. Sutjiatmo

    2015-01-01

    Rambutan honey often used for topical treatment sores in the oral, because it has a good taste and fragrant. The use of rambutan honey empirically efficacious in wound healing has been scientifically proven yet, as a product or stimulant that serves to accelerate oral mucosa wound healing is still very limited. This study aimed to analyze topical Rambutan Honey Pharmaceuticals Grades (RHPG) in influencing wound closure and stimulation of the fibroblasts proliferation in the oral mucosa wound ...

  9. Evaluation of effect of topical ozone therapy on salivary Candidal carriage in oral candidiasis

    Isha Khatri; Ganapathi Moger; N. Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Ozone is highly valued for various therapeutic applications such as antimicrobial, antihypoxic, analgesic, and immunostimulating for more than a century in the medical profession. Ozone therapy is now gaining a strong foothold in dentistry. Ozone has bactericidal, fungicidal, and virucidal properties. Oral candidiasis is one of the most common opportunistic fungal infections of the oral cavity. Hence, a study was conducted to evaluate and compare the ability of ozonated wa...

  10. Evaluation of the effect of topical cefadroxil on bacterial load of pathogenic staphylococci in anterior nares in human volunteers, comparative study between oral vs. topical cefadroxil and evaluation of effect of combination of oral plus topical cefadroxil in patients with staphylococcal superficial skin infections

    Mehta, Dimple S; Hiral A Shah; Sanjay J Mehta; Tanvi B. Shah; Dave, Jayendra N

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cefadroxil has good tissue penetration & exerts more sustained action at the site of infection after oral absorption. Our aim of the study was to check topical cefadroxil has any efficacy over staphylococcal superficial skin infection or not. Methods: Pre-treatment nasal swabs were obtained from 25 healthy human volunteers and bacterial load was recorded. After single application of topical cefadroxil 3% in left anterior nare and placebo (vehicle) in right anterior nare nasal swab...

  11. New lidocaine lozenge as topical anesthesia compared to lidocaine viscous oral solution before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

    Mogensen, Stine; Treldal, Charlotte; Feldager, Erik; Pulis, Sylvia; Jacobsen, Jette; Andersen, Ove; Rasmussen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect and acceptance of a new lidocaine lozenge compared with a lidocaine viscous oral solution as a pharyngeal anesthetic before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE), a diagnostic procedure commonly performed worldwide during which many patients experience severe discomfort mo...

  12. The Efficacy of Topical Hyaluronic Acid 0.2% in the Management of Symptomatic Oral Lichen Planus

    Burde, Krishna Nagappa; Guttal, Kruthika Satyabodh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a condition frequently referred to the specialist dental clinic for diagnosis and management. It is a disease of the skin and mucous membranes with oral manifestations too. It varies in appearance from keratotic to erythematous and ulcerative form. Immunosuppressants are frequently used for patients but some of these drugs could be implicated in malignant transformation, thus there is a clear need to find an alternative therapy for OLP. Aim To evaluate the relief of symptoms and reduction in the size of the lesions of lichen planus with 0.2% hyaluronic acid topical application and to compare the efficacy of topical hyaluronic acid (0.2%) with that of patients on placebo. Materials and Methods A randomized controlled study was conducted on 50 symptomatic and biopsy proven patients with lichen planus. The subjective symptoms like Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the objective symptoms like degree of erythema and mean area of the lesion were recorded preoperatively and on day 7, day 14, day 21 and day 28. The selected patients were divided randomly into group-I comprising of 25 patients who received topical 0.2% hyaluronic acid therapy for 14 days and group-II comprising of 25 patients who received topical application of placebo for 14 days. The statistical tests used were Mann-Whitney U test, t-test, Wilcoxon matched pairs test by ranks and paired t-test. Results Symptomatic effect of soreness evaluation- there was a significant reduction in VAS scores in the test group as compared to placebo, similarly there was also significant reduction in the degree of erythema, change in the size of the lesion and area of the lesion in the test group. There was significant improvement in relief of symptoms, in the degree of erythema and mean area of the lesion in Group-I when compared with group-II. Conclusion Topical application of 0.2% Hyaluronic acid showed a significant clinical response when compared to topical placebo. It is easy to use; hence a frequent application scheme should be advised to improve the efficacy of hyaluronic acid. PMID:26894175

  13. A Self-controlled Single Blinded Clinical Trial to Evaluate Oral Lichen Planus after Topical Treatment with Aloe Vera

    Kareman El-Soudany

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The object of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a selfcontrolledsingle blinded clinical trial of the topical application ofAloe vera in oral lichen planus (OLP.METHODS: Twenty patients (15 male and 5 female aged at least18 years recruited from the outpatients. In all cases the diagnosisnet currently accepted criteria. Each patient was instructed tomanually apply Aloe vera (AV high molecular weight fractions(AHM on the affected side oral mucosa three times daily andexamined at the beginning of treatment and then after 4 and 8 weeksof therapy. AHM were obtained from water-washed gel part of AVand processed by the patented hyper-dry system in combinationof freeze-dry technique with micro wave and far infrared rayirradiations. The macromolecular aloe ointment is a mixture of thehydrophilic ointment and AHM at 0.1% by weight.RESULTS: A self-controlled single blind protocol to assessmentclinical improvement and pain response was used in this study. Theclinical results showed a rapid subjective and objective improvementwith topical AHM treatment. Fifteen patients (75% had completeremission at treated side and two patients (10% had partialremission, while one patient showed no response to treatment (5%,and placebo sides showed partial remission responded in two casesonly (10% and no responded in other sides.CONCLUSION: The effect of AHM ointment on OLP wassignificantly effective than that of placebo. The results showeddecrease both in clinical signs and in pain scores. AHM ointmentshowed well tolerated, safe and effective treatment to OLP.

  14. Efficacy of topical phenytoin on chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis; a pilot study

    M Baharvand

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and the Purpose of the Study: Oral mucositis is one of the most common complications of malignancy chemotherapy. As yet, no absolute treatment has been demonstrated to be effective for chemotherapy- induced oral mucositis. This study evaluates the effectiveness of phenytoin mouthwash as a wound healing agent, on the basis of stimulating effects on fibroblast proliferation. "nMaterials and Methods: In this multicenter, randomized, placebo- controlled clinical trial; twelve patients received phenytoin mouthwash (0.5% or placebo for about two weeks. Oral pain severity was scored on the daily basis using a VAS (visual analogue scale of 10 centimeters. National Cancer Institute (NCI scale was used to grade the intensity of mucositis. To determine the effect of treatment, a quality of life questionnaire, consisting of 35 queries, was filled out for all patients. Statistical analyses of data was performed using Mann- Whitney test. "nResults: The average time for complete remission of mucositis in phenytoin- treated group was less than that of the placebo group. The quality of life improved dramatically in the phenytoin group with the healing process being more evident in the first week. Furthermore, reduction in the wound area was greater in the phenytoin group than controls at the end of the first week of treatment. Both groups eventually demonstrated reduction in pain intensity; however no statistically significant difference was observed between two groups. "nConclusion: Phenytoin mouthwash accelerated wound healing and resolution of mucositis and improved life quality impressively.

  15. Efficacy of laser phototherapy in comparison to topical clobetasol for the treatment of oral lichen planus: a randomized controlled trial

    Dillenburg, Caroline Siviero; Martins, Marco Antonio Trevizani; Munerato, Maria Cristina; Marques, Márcia Martins; Carrard, Vinícius Coelho; Filho, Manoel Sant'Ana; Castilho, Rogério Moraes; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2014-06-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a relatively common chronic mucocutaneous inflammatory disease and a search for novel therapeutic options has been performed. We sought to compare the efficacy of laser phototherapy (LPT) to topical clobetasol propionate 0.05% for the treatment of atrophic and erosive OLP. Forty-two patients with atrophic/erosive OLP were randomly allocated to two groups: clobetasol group (n=21): application of topical clobetasol propionate gel (0.05%) three times a day; LPT group (n=21): application of laser irradiation using InGaAlP diode laser three times a week. Evaluations were performed once a week during treatment (Days 7, 14, 21, and 30) and in four weeks (Day 60) and eight weeks (Day 90) after treatment. At the end of treatment (Day 30), significant reductions in all variables were found in both groups. The LPT group had a higher percentage of complete lesion resolution. At follow-up periods (Days 60 and 90), the LPT group maintained the clinical pattern seen at Day 30, with no recurrence of the lesions, whereas the clobetasol group exhibited worsening for all variables analyzed. These findings suggest that the LPT proved more effective than topical clobetasol 0.05% for the treatment of OLP.

  16. Evaluation of effect of topical ozone therapy on salivary Candidal carriage in oral candidiasis

    Isha Khatri

    2015-01-01

    Results and Conclusion: There was gradual but significant reduction in Candidal CFU count in both groups. At the end of the treatment, Candidal CFU count reduction in ozone group (60.5% reduction was more than the clotrimazole group (32.3% reduction. 14 patients (70% with candidiasis in ozone group were reduced to 6 (30% whereas only 8 patients (40% out of 13 (65% in clotrimazole group, although intergroup comparison was not statistically significant. Ozone therapy was much more effective in reducing the patients with candidiasis to a state of carriers. These findings suggest that ozonated water might be useful to treat oral candidiasis.

  17. Topic- and mode-sensitive interaction strategies : Functions of ellipsis in oral communication

    White, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we discuss ellipsis as an interactive strategy by analysing the author’s textchat corpus and the VOICE corpus of English as a Lingua Franca. It is found that there were fewer repetitions in the textchat data, and this is explained as a consequence of the textchat mode. Textchat contributions are preserved as long as the chat is active or has been saved, and therefore users can scroll through and review the discussion, compared to the more fleeting nature of oral conversation....

  18. Comparison of Safety and Efficacy of Oral Azithromycin-Topical Adapalene Versus Oral Doxycycline-Topical Adapalene in the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris and Determination of the Effects of These Treatments on Patients’ Quality of Life

    Serap Kayhan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit. Oral antibiotics and topical retinoids are effective in the treatment of acne.Materials and Methods: In this study, 60 patients with moderate acne vulgaris were evaluated; the patients were randomized into two equal groups. The groups were matched with respect to age, gender and clinical severity of acne. The patients in group 1 received oral azithromycin (500 mg daily on 3 consecutive days per week and the patients in group 2 received doxycycline (100 mg daily for 12 weeks. Topical adapalene gel was added to the systemic treatment in both groups. Clinical evaluation was performed at baseline and at the end of first, second and third months. Side effects were recorded. Quality of life in patients was measured with Skindex-29 and Acne Quality of Life Scale before treatment and at the end of third month. Results: At the end of the treatment, the patients in the two treatment groups had clinical improvement of more than 50%. Twenty-one patients in the azithromycin-adapalene group and 23 patients in the doxycycline-adapelene group had more than 80% clinical improvement. There was not any statistically significant difference in the clinical efficacy between the two combinations. Both treatment regimens were safe with minimal side effects. There was statistically significant difference in Skindex-29 and Acne Quality of Life Scale scores at baseline and at the end of the treatment (p0.05. Conclusion: Both treatments were efficient and safe. There was significant improvement in quality of life scale scores in both groups.

  19. Erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp successfully treated with oral prednisone and topical tacrolimus*

    Zahdi, Mariana Ribas; Seidel, Gabriela Bestani; Soares, Vanessa Cristina; de Freitas, Camila Fernanda Novak Pinheiro; Mulinari-Brenner, Fabiane Andrade

    2013-01-01

    Erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp is a rare inflammatory disorder of the scalp, affecting elderly patients after local trauma and leading to scarring or cicatricial alopecia. Case Report: An elderly female patient complained of painful pustules on the parietal region bilaterally with progressive enlargement and ulceration. A biopsy suggested erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp and the patient was treated with prednisone 40 mg/day and 0.1% topical tacrolimus. After 10 weeks complete closure of the eroded areas was observed and a stable scarring alopecia developed. PMID:24173187

  20. Design, Development & Evaluation of a Poly herbal Syrup from some herbs used as Energy booster

    Swain Pramod Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Ayurvedic formulations are preferentially administered by oral route, and most of the orally administered Ayurvedic formulations belong to liquid form of drug or drug combination. However herbal medicinal products have to fulfill the legal requirements with regard to quality including stability testing. Designing as well as shelf-life determination of oral herbal formulations is till date a challenge in modern pharmaceutics. A locally used polyherbal formulation from Withania somnifera Dunal, Asparagus racemosos Wild, Bombax malabaricum, Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn. Elettaria cardamomum Maton Var., Cinnamomum zelylanicum Nees, is used as energy booster. In present study the formulation was selected for designing developing and evaluation of a polyherbal syrup from it. The prepared poly herbal syrup was evaluated immediately after preparation and all the tested parameter along with turbidity/homogeneity were compared with the changes in accelerated stability testing. The final syrup was found to have pH 4.25 and specific gravity 1.2054 g/ml. The results of stability study of the final syrup reveal that no changes were noticed in all the tested physicochemical parameter as well as turbidity/homogeneity during 24 hr, 48 hr and 72 hr.

  1. Disposition of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole disulfide in rats dosed intravenously, orally, and topically and in guinea pigs dosed topically

    To determine the metabolic disposition of [14C]-2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) and [14C]-2-mercaptobenzothiazole disulfide (MBTS), male and female rats were dosed topically. Topical doses were 36.1 micrograms/animal for [14C]MBT and 33.6 micrograms/animal for [14C]MBTS. Although more MBT passed through the skin than MBTS and although, relative to rats, guinea pigs absorbed a greater percentage of the dose (33.4% compared to 16.1-17.5% of the MBT and 12.2% compared to 5.94-7.87% for MBTS), the disposition of radioactivity derived from the two compounds was similar. Washing of the skin removed more of the radioactivity from guinea pigs than from rats. For both sexes of rats dosed intravenously with [14C]MBT or [14C]MBTS, disposition of the compounds was similar. In 72 h, 90.9-101% of the dose appeared in the urine and 3.79-15.1% in the feces. At this time, a small portion of the administered radioactivity remained associated with erythrocytes. Oral dosing of rats for 14 d with unlabeled MBT prior to a single dose of [14C]MBT or with unlabeled MBTS prior to a single dose of [14C]MBTS (0.730 mg/kg). For both sexes, disposition of the compounds was similar. At 96 h after dosing, a small portion of the administered radioactivity remained associated with erythrocytes, most of which was bound to the membranes. For both compounds and sexes, 60.8-101% of the radioactivity administered appeared in the urine and 3.46-9.99% in the feces in 96 h. At the time, only trace amounts of radioactivity remained in tissues other than blood. Of these tissues, thyroid contained the highest concentration. In the urine, there was a detectable MBT or MBTS, but there were two metabolites, one of which was identified as a thioglucuronide derivative of MBT. The other was possibly a sulfonic acid derivative of MBT

  2. Topical permethrin and oral ivermectin in the management of scabies: A prospective, randomized, double blind, controlled study

    Reena Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scabies is a highly contagious and intensely pruritic parasitic infestation. It is a re-emerging infection in the new millennium especially with HIV pandemic and a significant health problem in developing countries. Various treatment modalities have been used since time immemorial but the search for an ideal scabicide is ongoing. Aims: In this study, we compared the therapeutic efficacy of single application of topical 5% permethrin with oral ivermectin (200 μg/kg/dose in a single-dose and a two-dose regimen in patients with scabies. Methods: 120 clinically diagnosed cases of scabies (>5 years of age and/or >15 kg were randomized into three treatment groups A, B, C of 40 patients each; receiving either topical 5% permethrin (group A or oral ivermectin (200 μg/kg/dose in a single dose (group B or double dose regimen (group C repeated at 2 weeks interval. Patients were followed up at 1, 2, and 4 weeks interval. At each visit, cure rate (>50% improvement in lesion count and pruritus and negative microscopy was assessed and compared. Results: Cure rate in three treatment groups at the end of 4 weeks was 94.7% (A, 90% (B, 89.7%(C, and thus all three treatment modalities were equally efficacious. However, at 1 week follow up, group A patients reported better improvement in both lesion count and pruritus. Conclusions: Both permethrin and ivermectin in both single and two dose regimen are equally efficacious and well tolerated in scabies. However, permethrin has a rapid onset of action.

  3. Ultrasonic flotational separation of syrup with polyacrylamide

    A 60 degrees Bx solution of Australian raw sugar was treated at 80 degrees C with 300 ppm phosphoric acid and neutralized to pH 7 with Ca(OH)2. The resulting syrup (as model cane syrup rather than phosphatated liquor?) was subjected to flotational separation with and without ultrasonic vibration (16.5-33 kHz, 20-300 W) and/or addition of polyacrylamide (PAM; dose not stated)

  4. An open randomized comparative study to test the efficacy and safety of oral terbinafine pulse as a monotherapy and in combination with topical ciclopirox olamine 8% or topical amorolfine hydrochloride 5% in the treatment of onychomycosis

    Jaiswal Amit

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of nails caused by dermatophytes, yeasts and molds. Aims: To study the efficacy and safety of oral terbinafine pulse as a monotherapy and in combination with topical ciclopirox olamine 8% or topical amorolfine hydrochloride 5% in onychomycosis. Methods: A clinical comparative study was undertaken on 96 Patients of onychomycosis during the period between August 2005 to July 2006. Forty-eight patients were randomly assigned in group A to receive oral terbinafine 250 mg, one tablet twice daily for seven days every month (pulse therapy; 24 patients in group B to receive oral terbinafine pulse therapy plus topical ciclopirox olamine 8% to be applied once daily at night on all affected nails; and 24 patients in group C to receive oral terbinafine pulse therapy plus topical amorolfine hydrochloride 5% to be applied once weekly at night on all the affected nails. The treatment was continued for four months. The patients were evaluated at four weekly intervals till sixteen weeks and then at 24 and 36 weeks. Results: We observed clinical cure in 71.73, 82.60 and 73.91% patients in groups A, B and C, respectively; Mycological cure rates against dematophytes were 88.9, 88.9 and 85.7 in groups A, B and C, respectively. The yeast mycological cure rates were 66.7, 100 and 50 in groups A, B and C, respectively. In the case of nondermatophytes, the overall response was poor: one out of two cases (50% responded in group A, while one case each in group B and group C did not respond at all. Conclusion: Terbinafine pulse therapy is effective and safe alternative in treatment of onychomycosis due to dermatophytes; and combination therapy with topical ciclopirox or amorolfine do not show any significant difference in efficacy in comparison to monotherapy with oral terbinafine.

  5. Oral, topical, and inhalation of Calcarea carbonica derivative complex (M8 to treat inflammatory mammary carcinoma in dogs

    Carolina de Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inflammatory mammary carcinoma (IMC is locally aggressive, fast growing, highly malignant tumor that affects humans and dogs. Affected dogs usually are presented with generalized edema, pain, erythema, and skin ulceration in mammary glands. Surgery is not recommended and an effective treatment has not been established [1]. Calcarea carbonica derivative complex (M8 has demonstrated anticancer properties in a murine model, by improving innate immune response against tumor cells [2]. M8 is a complex high diluted medication comprised of Calcarea carbonica 16x, Aconitum napellus 20x, Arsenicum album 18x, Asa foetida 20x, Conium maculatum 17x, Ipecacuanha 13x, Phosphorus 20x, Rhus toxicodendron 17x, Silicea 20x, Sulphur 24x, and Thuya occidentalis 19x, dilution procedures have followed standard methodology described at the Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia. Aims: To describe different routes of M8 administration associated with oral pyroxican (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug to treat dogs with IMC. Methodology: Three female dogs with 10 years old median age were presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Federal University of Parana, Curitiba (HV-UFPR with cytological and clinical diagnosis of IMC. Patients were treated with oral (0.5 mL,q12h, topical (q12h and inhalatory (2 mL, q24h, through an ultrasonic inhalation device M8, and oral pyroxican (0.3mg/kg, q24h.Thoracic radiographs showed pulmonary metastasis in all dogs. Results: 7 days after initiating treatment all patients had clinical improvement. It was observed reduction on mammary glands inflammation and decreased pain sensitivity. One patient had 8 month of complete remission. The other two patients died 1 and 2 month after initial treatment. However none of the patients had pulmonary progressive disease, showed by radiographic examinations. Owners revealed treatment satisfaction in regards to quality of life improvement, easy M8 administration, good M8 palatability for dogs, and inflammation reduction. Conclusion: The present report suggests that M8 influenced positively the anti -inflammatory treatment. Keywords: Calcarea carbonica complex; inflammatory mammary carcinoma; routes of administration References [1] Sorenmo K. Canine mammary gland tumors. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice. 2003 33(3:573-96. [2] Oliveira CC, Abud APR, Oliveira SM, Guimarães FSF, Andrade LF, Di Bernardi RP, Coletto ELO, Kuczera D, Da Lozzo EJ, Gonçalves JP, Trindade ES, Buchi DF. Developments on drug discovery and on new therapeutics: highly diluted tinctures act as biological response modifiers. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2011, 11(101: 2-11.

  6. Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup)

    ... Map Print Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup) Street names: Candy, Drank, Robo Home / Drug ... Health Related Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup) Interactives National Drug IQ Challenge Challenge yourself— ...

  7. Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup)

    ... to-Read Web site Citation Site Map Print Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup) Street ... Cold Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup) What Are Cough and Cold Medicines? Also known as: robotripping, robo, ...

  8. 21 CFR 520.622b - Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. 520.622b Section... Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of syrup contains 60 milligrams of diethylcarbamazine citrate. (2) Sponsor. See No. 053501 in § 510.600(c) of this chapter. (3) Conditions of use....

  9. 21 CFR 573.530 - Hydrogenated corn syrup.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrogenated corn syrup. 573.530 Section 573.530... Additive Listing § 573.530 Hydrogenated corn syrup. (a) Identity. The product is produced by hydrogenation of corn syrup over a nickel catalyst. (b) Specifications. The product contains 70...

  10. Efficacy of topical versus oral 5-aminosalicylate for treatment of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats.

    Li, Jin; Chen, Cheng; Cao, Xiao-nian; Wang, Gui-hua; Hu, Jun-bo; Wang, Jing

    2014-02-01

    5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is drug of choice for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). In this study, the efficacy of topical versus oral 5-ASA for the treatment of UC was examined as well as the action mechanism of this medication. A flexible tube was inserted into the rat cecum to establish a topical administration model of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced UC. A total of 60 rats were divided into sham operation group (receiving an enema of 0.9% saline solution instead of the TNBS solution via the tube), model group, topical 5-ASA group, oral Etiasa group (a release agent of mesalazine used as positive control) and oral 5-ASA group (n=12 each). Different treatments were administered 1 day after UC induction. The normal saline (2 mL) was instilled twice a day through the tube in the sham operation group and model group. 5-ASA was given via the tube in the topical 5-ASA group (7.5 g/L, twice per day, 100 mg/kg), and rats in the oral Etiasa group and oral 5-ASA group intragastrically received Etiasa (7.5 g/L, twice per day, 100 mg/kg) and 5-ASA (7.5 g/L, twice per day, 100 mg/kg), respectively. The body weight was recorded every day. After 7 days of treatment, blood samples were drawn from the heart to harvest the sera. Colonic tissues were separated and prepared for pathological and related molecular biological examinations. The concentrations of 5-ASA were detected at different time points in the colonic tissues, feces and sera in different groups by using the high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the symptoms of acute UC, including bloody diarrhea and weight loss, were significantly improved in topical 5-ASA-treated rats. The colonic mucosal damage, both macroscopical and histological, was significantly relieved and the myeloperoxidase activity was markedly decreased in rats topically treated with 5-ASA compared with those treated with oral 5-ASA or Etiasa. The mRNA and protein expression of IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-? was down-regulated in the colonic tissue of rats topically treated with 5-ASA, significantly lower than those from rats treated with oral 5-ASA or Etiasa. The concentrations of 5-ASA in the colonic tissue were significantly higher in the topical 5-ASA group than in the oral 5-ASA and oral Etiasa groups. It was concluded that the topical administration of 5-ASA can effectively increase the concentration of 5-ASA in the colonic tissue, decrease the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, alleviate the colonic pathological damage and improve the symptoms of TNBS-induced acute UC in rats. PMID:24496680

  11. Extrinsic tooth staining potential of high dose and sustained release iron syrups on primary teeth

    Pani, Sharat Chandra; Alenazi, Fahad Murdhi; Alotain, Abdullah Muhammad; Alanazi, Hamad Daher; Alasmari, Abdullah Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Background Iron in the form of oral supplements is routinely prescribed to children to help fight anemia, however tooth staining is a commonly reported complication. This study tests in vitro, the staining potential of two different forms of iron syrup on primary teeth. Methods Forty caries free primary central incisors were divided into four groups of ten teeth each. The control group comprised of ten teeth immersed in artificial saliva, while the test solutions were comprised of different f...

  12. Determination of gluten in glucose syrups

    Dostálek, P.; Gabrovská, D.; Rysová, J.; Mena, M. C.; Hernando, A.; Méndez, E.; Chmelík, Josef; Šalplachta, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 7-8 (2009), s. 762-765. ISSN 0889-1575 R&D Projects: GA MZe 1B53002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : glucose syrup * gluten determination * celiac disease Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.423, year: 2009

  13. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents ... developmental disabilities and offers strategies for providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam ...

  14. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... common in patients with developmental disabilities and offers strategies for providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Oral ... diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected medical terms and resource information. Oral ...

  15. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents ... developmental disabilities and offers strategies for providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam ...

  16. [Plasma and tissue concentrations of biphenylacetic acid following 1 week oral fenbufen medication and topical administration of Felbinac gel on the knee joint].

    Bolten, W; Salzmann, G; Goldmann, R; Miehlke, K

    1989-01-01

    In an randomised study 30 patients were treated during one week before undergoing an elective surgery of the knee joint with 1 or 2 g respectively of 3% Felbinac gel (biphenylacetic acid gel) or oral 300 mg Fenbufen thrice daily. Biphenylacetic acid (BPAA) is the therapeutically active metabolite of the non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug Fenbufen. Plasma concentrations were measured before, during therapy and at the time of the operation. During the surgery of the knee joint specimens of synovial fluid and -membrane, of cartilage, muscle and tendons as well as of the skin and the subcutaneous fatty tissue were obtained and the BPAA concentrations measured. There was a large variance of the obtained values in all groups. It seems that mainly methodical problems are responsible for this. At the time of surgery, the plasma concentrations following oral administration were with 10,080 ng/ml 20 to 50 times higher than those after topical administration. The tissue concentrations reached 1/8 to 1/2 of the plasma concentrations. The relation of tissue concentrations to plasma concentrations of BPAA was smaller in patients treated with oral administration than in patients treated with topical administration. Therefore a partial direct penetration of Felbinac into the deeper tissue compartments can be assumed. There was no significant difference in plasma-, synovial- or tissue concentrations between the two groups treated with the topical administration. The tissue concentrations were 1 to 2 orders of magnitude lower than those after oral administration. Only in the skin the concentrations were with 9160 respectively 3830 ng/g higher than those obtained after oral application (2110 ng/g). PMID:2696292

  17. Efficacy of orally administered fluralaner (BravectoTM) or topically applied imidacloprid/moxidectin (Advocate®) against generalized demodicosis in dogs

    Fourie, Josephus J; Liebenberg, Julian E; Ivan G. Horak; Taenzler, Janina; Heckeroth, Anja R.; Frénais, Regis

    2015-01-01

    Background This laboratory study compared the efficacy of Bravecto™ (fluralaner), formulated as a chewable tablet, with the efficacy of Advocate® (imidacloprid/moxidectin), formulated for topical administration, against naturally acquired generalized demodicosis in dogs. Methods Sixteen dogs, all diagnosed with generalized demodectic mange, were randomly allocated to two equal groups. Bravecto™ chewable tablets were administered once orally at a minimum dose of 25 mg fluralaner/kg body weight...

  18. Oral ingestion of a topical benzydamine hydrochloride-containing gynaecological preparation in association with television advertising in Italy: analysis of cases managed by a National Poison Control Centre

    Settimi, Laura; Davanzo, Franca; Lauria, Laura; Casini, Maria Luisa; Ferrazin, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of a television advertising campaign on the risk of oral ingestion of a topical non-prescription gynaecological preparation containing benzydamine hydrochloride. Design An interrupted time series design with data routinely collected. Setting A National Poison Control Centre. Participants 215 cases of hazardous exposure to the preparation under study occurred in Italy from January 2005 to December 2010. Primary and secondary outcome measures Mean daily rate of ...

  19. Comparative efficacy on dogs of a single topical treatment with the pioneer fipronil/(S)-methoprene and an oral treatment with spinosad against Ctenocephalides felis

    Beugnet F.; Doyle V.; Murray M.; Chalvet-Monfray K.

    2011-01-01

    In the study reported here, the pioneer fipronil/(S)-methoprene topical product (FRONTLINE® PLUS, Merial Limited, Duluth, GA) was compared to the oral spinosad product (COMFORTIS® Elanco, Greenfield, IN) for efficacy against adult fleas and preventing egg production. The product presentations, doses and labelling were the one applicable in the USA. Using a standard protocol, 200 cat fleas of mixed sex were applied to dogs on Days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42. Dogs were combed to remove fleas ...

  20. EVALUATION OF ANTITUSSIVE ACTIVITY OF VASU COUGH SYRUP IN SULPHUR DIOXIDE (SO2 INDUCED COUGH MODEL IN MICE

    Patel Hirenjal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cough is the most common symptom of respiratory diseases. When cough becomes serious, opioid drugs are effective, but they have side effects like sedation, delirium, constipation etc.. Therefore, there is a need to search out effective anti-tussive agents that are free from previously mentioned side effects. The present study was carried out to evaluate acute oral toxicity study and anti-tussive activity of Vasu Cough Syrup in sulphur dioxide (SO2-induced cough model in mice. Albino mice of either sex, weighing 25-30 g were divided into four groups (n = 6. Group I served as Disease control, Group II received standard drug i.e. Codeine phosphate (10 mg/kg, p.o., group III to IV were given Vasu Cough Syrup 0.25mL/kg and 0.5mL/kg body wt. p.o., dose. After 30 minutes, the mice were exposed to Sulphur dioxide for 30 sec. The mice were then placed in an observation chamber for counting of cough bouts for five minutes. Vasu Cough Syrup showed 63.91% and 70.64% inhibition in frequency of cough at 0.25mL/kg and 0.5mL/kg dose level respectively. It proves significant anti-tussive activity of Vasu Cough Syrup in Sulphur dioxide induced cough model. Thus, Vasu Cough Syrup can be useful as an alternative medicine for cough.

  1. Phenylbutyrate therapy for maple syrup urine disease

    Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola; Lanpher, Brendan; Erez, Ayelet; Ananieva, Elitsa A.; Islam, Mohammad; Marini, Juan C; Sun, Qin; Yu, Chunli; Hegde, Madhuri; Li, Jun; Wynn, R. Max; Chuang, David T.; Hutson, Susan; Lee, Brendan

    2010-01-01

    Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate in urea cycle disorder patients has been associated with a selective reduction in branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in spite of adequate dietary protein intake. Based on this clinical observation, we investigated the potential of phenylbutyrate treatment to lower BCAA and their corresponding α-keto acids (BCKA) in patients with classic and variant late-onset forms of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). We also performed in vitr...

  2. Topical diclofenac does not affect the antiplatelet properties of aspirin as compared to the intermediate effects of oral diclofenac: A prospective, randomized, complete crossover study.

    Rowcliffe, M; Nezami, B; Westphal, E S; Rainka, M; Janda, M; Bates, V; Gengo, F

    2016-04-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) adversely interact with aspirin, diminishing its antiplatelet effect and potentially placing patients at an increased risk for recurrent thrombotic events. This crossover study aimed to determine whether the topical NSAID diclofenac epolamine 1.3% patch or oral diclofenac 50?mg interfered with the antiplatelet effects of aspirin 325?mg. Twelve healthy men and women aged 18-50 were included. Participants were randomized into 5 treatment arms: aspirin, diclofenac potassium 50?mg, diclofenac patch, diclofenac potassium plus ASA 325?mg, and diclofenac patch plus aspirin. Platelet responsiveness was determined using whole-blood impedance aggregation (WBA) to collagen 1??g/mL and arachidonic acid (AA) 0.5?mM and was sampled every 2 hours. No significant difference in platelet function was observed following the diclofenac patch and aspirin vs aspirin alone. Oral diclofenac produced a mixed effect with significant reduction in platelet inhibition at hour 2 and hour 8 following aspirin administration. Topical diclofenac does not significantly interfere with the antiplatelet effects of aspirin and may be a safer alternative to the oral formulation. PMID:26265197

  3. Acceptability of oral and topical HIV chemoprophylaxis in India: implications for at-risk women and men who have sex with men.

    Chandhiok, Nomita; Joshi, Smita N; Gangakhedkar, Raman

    2014-07-01

    With reducing HIV prevalence, India has made gains in containing the epidemic. Yet, unprotected sex and commercial sex work, unprotected anal sex between men and needle sharing among intravenous drug users continue to drive the epidemic. Development of effective, safe and acceptable topical (microbicides) and oral (pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP)) chemoprophylaxis could augment the already available tools for HIV prevention. This paper reviews the acceptability of topical microbicides and oral PrEP, in the context of the nature of the HIV epidemic, the sociocultural norms and the acceptability data obtained from studies carried out in India. Overall, men and women have a positive attitude towards the concept and use of microbicide products. Self-perceptions of HIV risk, product attributes, ease and convenience of use during sex, gender norms, the sociocultural context and the potential for undisclosed use were important factors influencing acceptability. A multipurpose product that would simultaneously address women's contraceptive and disease prevention needs would be devoid of the stigma attached to an anti-HIV product and may be more acceptable. Limited information on the acceptability of oral PrEP amongst high-risk groups merits further research, including carrying out demonstration projects for program introduction. PMID:24119324

  4. Utilization of date syrup as a tablet binder, comparative study

    Alanazi, Fars Kaed

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using dates syrup as a tablet binder. Dates syrup (40%, 50%, 60% w/w dates syrup:water) was utilized for the granulation of sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate as examples for water-soluble and water-insoluble materials; correspondingly. Those two materials represent examples of bulky drugs as well. Starch paste (10% w/w starch in water) and sucrose syrup (50% w/w sucrose in water), the well-known tablet binders, were used in th...

  5. Management of symptomatic erosive-ulcerative lesions of oral lichen planus in an adult Egyptian population using Selenium - ACE combined with topical corticosteroids plus antifungal agent

    Mahmoud Helmy Belal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Oral lichen planus (OLP is a chronic mucocutaneous disease with an immunological etiology. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of selenium combined with Vitamins A, C & E (Selenium-ACE in the treatment of erosive-ulcerative OLP as an adjunctive to topical corticosteroids plus antifungal agent. Subjects and Methods: Thirty patients with a confirmed clinical and histopathologic diagnosis of OLP participated in this clinical trial. Patients were randomly allocated into one of three groups and treated as follows: (I Topical corticosteroids, (II topical corticosteroids plus antifungal, and (III SE-ACE combined with topical corticosteroids plus antifungal. The patients were followed for 6 weeks. The pain and severity of the lesions were recorded at the initial and follow-up visits. All recorded data were analyzed using paired t-test and ANOVA test. A P ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The experimental groups showed a marked reduction in pain sensation and size of lesions, particularly in the final follow-up period, but there was no significant difference between the first two Groups I and II. However, healing of lesions and improvement of pain sensation was effective in Group III since a significant difference was found favoring Group III over both Groups I and II. Conclusion: No significant difference was found in treating erosive-ulcerative lesions of OLP by topical corticosteroids alone or combined with antifungal. However, when using SE-ACE in combination with topical corticosteroids plus antifungal, this approach may be effective in managing ulcerative lesions of OLP; but more research with a larger sample size and a longer evaluation period may be recommended.

  6. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect ...

  7. HEPATO PROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF HEPASHREY SYRUP

    Manoj Dash*, Laksmeesh Upadhya, Namrata Joshi, Baidyanath Mishra, Sivani Prashar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Liver is known as a vital organ and play a crucial role in the metabolism and it is causes it to succumb to numerous hepatic diseases. Synthetic drugs exploited in the treatment of liver diseases are incompetent and may sometimes lead to serious side-effects. In this context, herbal therapy has emerged as a proficient approach with good values in treating hepatic diseases. Medicinal plants may serve as a vital source of potentially useful new compounds for the development of effective therapy to combat a variety of liver problems. Many herbs have been proven to be effectual as hepato protective agents while many more are claimed to be hepato protective but lack any such scientific evidence to support such claims. Developing a satisfactory herbal therapy to treat severe liver diseases requires systematic investigation of properties such as antiviral action (Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, anti-hepatotoxicity (antioxidants, stimulation of liver regeneration and choleretic activity. Formulation of herbal medicines with standards of safety and efficacy can revitalize treatment of liver disorders. In the present study, the efficacy of polyherbal herbal formulation Hepashrey Syrup has been studied in human with history of liver disorders twice daily dosage for a period of one month at OPD of JSS Ayurveda Medical College, Mysore. The initial results are reported with encouraging results on liver. We conclude that Hepashrey syrup possess hepato protective effect in patients. This protective effect of Hepashrey syrup can be attributed to the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and hepato protective properties of the component herbs.

  8. Topical coal tar alone and in combination with oral methotrexate in management of psoriasis : a retrospective analysis

    Prasad PVS

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty five patients admitted with psoriasis were analysed. 16 patients received 20% crude coal tar and 19 patients received 20% crude coal tar along with methotrexate in a weekly oral schedule (15mg/wk. After 4 weeks of therapy there was total clearence in 52.6% of the patients with combination therapy, whereas only 12.5% of the patients with conventional therapy achieved this.

  9. Topical or oral administration with an extract of Polypodium leucotomos prevents acute sunburn and psoralen-induced phototoxic reactions as well as depletion of Langerhans cells in human skin

    Gonzalez, S.; Pathak, M.A.; Fitzpatrick, T.B. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Dept. of Dermatology, Boston, MA (United States); Cuevas, J. [Hospital Universitario de Guadalajara, Dept. of Pathology, Guadalajara (Spain); Villarrubia, V.G. [I.F. Cantabria SA, Medical Dept., Immunology Sect., Madrid (Spain)

    1997-12-31

    Sunburn, immune suppression, photo-aging, and skin cancers result from uncontrolled overexposure of human skin to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Preventive measures, including photo-protection, are helpful and can be achieved by topical sun-screening agents. Polypodium leucotomos (PL) has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and has shown some in vitro and in vivo immunomodulating properties. Its beneficial photo-protective effects in the treatment of vitiligo and its antioxidant properties encouraged us to evaluate in vivo the potentially useful photo-protective property of natural extract of PL after topical application or oral ingestion. Twenty-one healthy volunteers [either untreated or treated with oral psoralens (8-MOP or 5-MOP)] were enrolled in this study and exposed to solar radiation for evaluation of the following clinical parameters: immediate pigment darkening (IPD), minimal erythema dose (MED), minimal melanogenic dose (MMD), and minimal phototoxic dose (MPD) before and after topical or oral administration of PL. Immunohistochemical assessment of CD1a-expressing epidermal cells were also performed. PL was found to be photo-protective after topical application as well as oral administration. PL increased UV dose required for IPD (P<0.01), MED (P<0.001) and MPD (P<0.001). After oral administration of PL, MED increased 2.,8{+-}0.59 times and MPD increased 2.75{+-}0.5 and 6.8{+-}1.3 times depending upon the type of psoralen used. Immunohistochemical study revealed photo-protection of Langherhans cells by oral as well as topical PL. The observed photo-protective activities of oral or topical PL reveal a new avenue in examining the potentially useful field of systemic photo-protection and suggests that PL can be used as adjunct treatment and can make photochemotherapy and phototherapy possibly safe and effective when the control of cutaneous phototoxicity to PUVA or UVB is a limiting factor in such photo-therapies. (au). 50 refs.

  10. Utilization of date syrup as a tablet binder, comparative study.

    Alanazi, Fars Kaed

    2010-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using dates syrup as a tablet binder. Dates syrup (40%, 50%, 60% w/w dates syrup:water) was utilized for the granulation of sodium bicarbonate and calcium carbonate as examples for water-soluble and water-insoluble materials; correspondingly. Those two materials represent examples of bulky drugs as well. Starch paste (10% w/w starch in water) and sucrose syrup (50% w/w sucrose in water), the well-known tablet binders, were used in the granulation of the same materials for the sake of comparison. The granulations were evaluated with regard to particle size and particle size distribution, granule strength, bulk density, flowability, moisture content and compression behavior. In addition, tablets prepared and evaluated from these granules. Taste and flavor of the prepared tablet have been tested by seven healthy volunteers. Within the scope of this work, dates syrup showed excellent properties as a tablet binder in comparison to starch paste or sucrose syrup for the granulation of both water-soluble and water-insoluble materials. Also, better flavoring and masking taste have been noticed from an evaluation by human volunteers demonstrating the usefulness of the date syrup as sweetener and flavoring the tablets in addition to its use as binder. PMID:23960724

  11. Combined oral pulse and topical corticosteroid therapy for severe alopecia areata in children: a long-term follow-up study.

    Lalosevic, Jovan; Gajic-Veljic, Mirjana; Bonaci-Nikolic, Branka; Nikolic, Milos

    2015-01-01

    There are no widely accepted therapy protocols for severe alopecia areata (AA). We treated 65 children/adolescents with AA affecting >30% of scalp. Fourty-three percent of patients had AA plurifocalis (AAP). Fifty-seven percent had AA subtotalis (AAS), AAP+ophiasis (AAP+OPH), and alopecia totalis/universalis (AT/AU). Long-term follow-up (median 96 months) data were available for 69% of patients. Oral dexamethasone (prednisolone 5 mg/kg equivalent) was given once in 4 weeks. Patients received 6, 9, or 12 pulses. Clobetasol propionate 0.05% ointment under plastic wrap occlusion was applied 6 days a week. Hair growth was assessed on a scale ranging 0-100% of regrowth in individual AA lesions. Regrowth >50% was considered good response. Six to twelve months months after the therapy, 56.9% of patients had >75% of hair regrowth. In AAP, 65.5% had complete regrowth. 61.5% of all patients were considered good responders. Significantly, higher percentage of good responders was found in AA lasting ?12 months. No patients had serious side effects. There was no change in stability of the hair status at the long-term follow-up. Most AA patients had beneficial effects with this protocol. Best results were in AAP and AAP+OPH. Combined topical and oral pulse corticosteroid therapy of AA in children shows long-lasting results, without serious side effects. PMID:26179196

  12. ANTITUSSIVE EVALUATION OF FORMULATED POLYHERBAL COUGH SYRUP

    Ashutosh Meher

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ethanolic extracts of fruits of Terminalia chebula (Combretaceae, leaves of Mentha piperita (Labiate, leaves of Adhatoda vasica (Acanthaceae, leaves of Ocimum sanctum (Labiateae, rhizomes of Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae, fruits of Piper longum (Piperaceae, roots of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Leguminosae and roots of Withenia somnifera (Solanaceae were investigated for their antitussive effect on citric acid induced cough model in guinea pig. The results showed that the formulated cough syrup exhibited significant antitussive activity in a dose dependent manner the activity was compared with the prototype antitussive agent diphenhydramine HCl. It has been observed that the extract has produced 54%, 70%, 75% reduction in cough bouts at the dose level of 1, 2, 3 ml respectively after 1hr of drug administration. It is evident from the data the highest dose of 3 ml was found to be more effective. It is found that antitussive activity produced by the herbal formulation in the minimum dose was much better than the standard drug.  

  13. Quality Control of Wild Berries Honey Syrup

    Laura Stan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the quality control parameters of wild berries honey syrup . The product was created in laboratory (wild berries: honey, 1:4 w/w and there were no changes recorded in overall quality over 6 months preservation at 1-2°C. Basic quality parameters of the product were evaluated: humidity, pH, acidity, hydroxymethylfurfural, diastase, total sugars and ascorbic acid. Methods developed by Internantional Honey Commission and Romanian Food Quality Standards were applied during this study. The product presented qood quality criteria and it was highly appreciated by consumers who tasted it. This study presents a valuable method to preserve fresh widberries in honey over a long period of time. The economical value of this experiment resides in making these fruits available outside the harvesting season.

  14. Mechanistic insights in the use of a Polypodium leucotomos extract as an oral and topical photoprotective agent.

    Gonzalez, Salvador; Gilaberte, Yolanda; Philips, Neena

    2010-04-01

    Photoprotection is essential to prevent the deleterious effects of ultraviolet (UV) light, including skin cancer, photoaging and immunosuppression. Photoprotective agents can be classified according to their main mechanism of action. Some of them absorb or deflect UV photons (sunscreens), whereas others prevent or fix the deleterious effects of UV exposure. Here, we review recent evidence on the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the photoprotective effect of a Polypodium leucotomos fern extract (PL). PL is a natural mixture of phytochemicals endowed with powerful antioxidant properties. Its short-term effects include inhibition of reactive oxygen species production induced by UV radiation, DNA damage, isomerization and decomposition of trans-urocanic acid, prevention of UV-mediated apoptosis and necrosis, as well as degradative matrix remodeling, which is the main cause of photoaging. These short-term effects translate into long-term prevention of photoaging and photocarcinogenesis. A striking property is that PL can exert its effect when administered orally. Together, these effects postulate PL as a natural photoprotective agent and a potential adjuvant to phototherapy for various skin diseases. PMID:20354651

  15. Topical or oral administration with an extract of Polypodium leucotomos prevents acute sunburn and psoralen-induced phototoxic reactions as well as depletion of Langerhans cells in human skin.

    González, S; Pathak, M A; Cuevas, J; Villarrubia, V G; Fitzpatrick, T B

    1997-01-01

    Sunburn, immune suppression, photoaging, and skin cancers result from uncontrolled overexposure of human skin to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Preventive measures, including photoprotection, are helpful and can be achieved by topical sunscreening agents. Polypodium leucotomos (PL) has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and has shown some in vitro and in vivo inmunomodulating properties. Its beneficial photoprotective effects in the treatment of vitiligo and its antioxidant properties encouraged us to evaluate in vivo the potentially useful photoprotective property of natural extract of PL after topical application or oral ingestion. Twenty-one healthy volunteers [either untreated or treated with oral psoralens (8-MOP or 5-MOP)] were enrolled in this study and exposed to solar radiation for evaluation of the following clinical parameters: immediate pigment darkening (IPD), minimal erythema dose (MED), minimal melanogenic dose (MMD), and minimal phototoxic dose (MPD) before and after topical or oral administration of PL. Immunohistochemical assessment of CD1a-expressing epidermal cells were also performed. PL was found to be photoprotective after topical application as well as oral administration. PL increased UV dose required for IPD (P photoprotection of Langherhans cells by oral as well as topical PL. The observed photoprotective activities of oral or topical PL reveal a new avenue in examining the potentially useful field of systemic photoprotection and suggests that PL can be used as adjunct treatment and can make photochemotherapy and phototherapy possibly safe and effective when the control of cutaneous phototoxicity to PUVA or UVB is a limiting factor in such phototherapies. PMID:9361129

  16. Combined treatment with oral finasteride and topical minoxidil in male androgenetic alopecia: a randomized and comparative study in Chinese patients.

    Hu, Ruiming; Xu, Feng; Sheng, Youyu; Qi, Sisi; Han, Yumei; Miao, Ying; Rui, Wenlong; Yang, Qinping

    2015-01-01

    Finasteride at 1 mg/day and 5% topical minoxidil are effective in male androgenetic alopecia (MAGA). However, studies describing their effects in Chinese individuals are scarce. 450 Chinese MAGA patients were randomly assigned to receive finasteride (n = 160), minoxidil (n = 130) and combined medication (n = 160) for 12 months. The patients returned to the clinic every 3 months for efficacy evaluation. And efficacy was evaluated in 428 men at treatment end, including 154, 122, and 152 in the finasteride, 5% minoxidil, and combination groups, respectively. All groups showed similar baseline characteristics, including age at enrollment, and duration and severity of alopecia (p > 0.05). At 12 months, 80.5, 59, and 94.1% men treated with finasteride, 5% minoxidil and the combination therapy showed improvement, respectively. Adverse reactions were rare (finasteride, 1.8%; minoxidil, 6.1%), and disappeared right after drug withdrawal. In conclusion, finasteride is superior to 5% minoxidil, while the combined medication showed the best efficacy. PMID:26031764

  17. Oral zinc sulphate vs. topical application of salicylic (16.7%) and lactic acid (16.7%) combination in the treatment of plantar warts

    Warts are commonly acquired viral tumors, caused by Human apilloma Virus (HPV). This virus can infect and cause disease at any site in the stratified squamous epithelium either keratinizing or non-keratinizing. A plantar wart (also called verruca plantaris) is a lesion that appears on the plantar surface of foot as a small, shining, sago-grain papule which soon assumes the typical appearance of a sharply-defined rounded lesion with a rough keratotic surface, surrounded by a smooth collar of thickened horn. Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of oral zinc sulphate versus topical application of salicylic (16.7%) and lactic acid (16.7%) combination, in the treatment of plantar warts. Study Design: Comparative interventional study. Setting and Duration of Study: Department of Dermatology Unit-I, King Edward Medical University, Mayo Hospital Lahore, from 15 February, 2009 till 14 February, 2010. Methodology: After informed consent, one hundred patients of plantar warts were selected from the outpatient Department of Dermatology, Mayo Hospital, Lahore. The patients were divided into two equal groups; in group A, 50 patients were given oral zinc sulphate (10 mg/kg/day) in two or three divided doses and in group B, 50 patients were advised to apply a combination of salicylic (16.7%) and lactic acid (16.7%) once at night daily. In group A, using oral zinc sulphate, the treatment was given for two months and follow up continued for next 4 months. In group B, the topical preparation was also continued for 2 months or till the complete removal of wart (if before two months) and follow up was extended up to 4 months after treatment. Results:The mean age of patients in group A was 26.2 +- 8.1 years and in group B 26.3 +- 7.3 years. The mean number of warts in group A was 7.9 +- 3.5 and in group B 5.7 +- 2.6. The mean duration of disease in group A was 6.9 +- 4.1 months and in group B 6.0 +- 3.9 months. On follow up at 2nd month, in group A, 41 (82%) patients showed an excellent efficacy while 9 (18%) patients observed poor efficacy. In group B, 31 (62%) cases experienced an excellent response, 2 (4%) had a good efficacy and 17 (34%) patients showed a poor efficacy. At 4th month of follow-up, no recurrence of warts was seen in both groups in complete responders. On follow up of the non responders no further clearance of warts was observed. Conclusions: It was concluded from this study that oral zinc sulphate is significantly more effective (p-value <0.05) than topical application of salicylic (16.7%) and lactic acid (16.7%) combination in the treatment of plantar warts. (author)

  18. Topical Drugs for Pain Relief

    Anjali Srinivasan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Topical therapy helps patients with oral and perioral pain problems such as ulcers, burning mouth syndrome, temporomandibular disorders, neuromas, neuropathies and neuralgias. Topical drugs used in the field of dentistry are topical anaesthetics, topical analgesics, topical antibiotics and topical corticosteroids. It provides symptomatic/curative effect. Topical drugs are easy to apply, avoids hepatic first pass metabolism and more sites specific. But it can only be used for medications that require low plasma concentrations to achieve a therapeutic effect.

  19. Laboratory experiments on fragmentation of highly-viscous bubbly syrup

    Kurihara, H.; Kameda, M.; Ichihara, M.

    2006-12-01

    Fragmentation of vesicular magma by rapid decompression is a key process in explosive eruptions. To determine the fragmentation criteria, we carried out laboratory experiments on magma fragmentation using analogous materials. We used commercial syrup as an analogous material of magma, because the viscosity was widely altered by adding or subtracting water contents in the syrup. We made the bubbly syrup by adding hydrogen peroxide with manganese oxide in the syrup. The amount of hydrogen peroxide is proportional to the gas volume fraction in the syrup. We measured the rheological properties of the syrup. Zero shear viscosity η was measured by a rotating viscometer and a fiber elongation technique. Glass transition temperature was measured by differential scanning calorimetry. The measured data indicated that the temperature dependence of viscosity was described well using Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) equation. The solid content of syrup alters the viscosity as well as the glass transition temperature, though it may hardly affect the rigidity μ, which was measured by ultrasonic test in our previous work. We used a pressurized vertical tube with a large vacuum vessel to apply the rapid decompression on the material. An acrylic container, filled with the bubbly syrup, was placed in the bottom of the pressurized tube. By rupturing the diaphragms inserted between the tube and the vacuum vessel, the bubbly syrup is rapidly decompressed due to expansion of the pressurized gas in the tube. A high-speed video camera was used to obtain sequential images of the materials. Pressure transducers were mounted on the sidewall of the tube and the bottom of the container. The initial pressure was varied from 1 MPa to 5 MPa. The gas-volume fraction of the syrup under pressure was fixed as 2 % to 20%. The viscosity varied from 105 Pa·s to 108 Pa·s. We successfully observed three principal behaviors using the present analogous material; brittle fragmentation, partial fracture and ductile expansion without crack initiation. From all the experimental data, in conclusion, the fragmentation is observed when the pressure drop Δ p reaches a critical value within the order of relaxation time of syrup, which is defined as η/μ. Simultaneously, the initial gas volume fraction should be larger than a critical value, which decreases as the initial high-pressure is larger.

  20. Topical or oral administration with an extract of Polypodium leucotomos prevents acute sunburn and psoralen-induced phototoxic reactions as well as depletion of Langerhans cells in human skin

    Sunburn, immune suppression, photo-aging, and skin cancers result from uncontrolled overexposure of human skin to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Preventive measures, including photo-protection, are helpful and can be achieved by topical sun-screening agents. Polypodium leucotomos (PL) has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and has shown some in vitro and in vivo immunomodulating properties. Its beneficial photo-protective effects in the treatment of vitiligo and its antioxidant properties encouraged us to evaluate in vivo the potentially useful photo-protective property of natural extract of PL after topical application or oral ingestion. Twenty-one healthy volunteers [either untreated or treated with oral psoralens (8-MOP or 5-MOP)] were enrolled in this study and exposed to solar radiation for evaluation of the following clinical parameters: immediate pigment darkening (IPD), minimal erythema dose (MED), minimal melanogenic dose (MMD), and minimal phototoxic dose (MPD) before and after topical or oral administration of PL. Immunohistochemical assessment of CD1a-expressing epidermal cells were also performed. PL was found to be photo-protective after topical application as well as oral administration. PL increased UV dose required for IPD (P<0.01), MED (P<0.001) and MPD (P<0.001). After oral administration of PL, MED increased 2.,8±0.59 times and MPD increased 2.75±0.5 and 6.8±1.3 times depending upon the type of psoralen used. Immunohistochemical study revealed photo-protection of Langherhans cells by oral as well as topical PL. The observed photo-protective activities of oral or topical PL reveal a new avenue in examining the potentially useful field of systemic photo-protection and suggests that PL can be used as adjunct treatment and can make photochemotherapy and phototherapy possibly safe and effective when the control of cutaneous phototoxicity to PUVA or UVB is a limiting factor in such photo-therapies. (au)

  1. Topical treatment of melasma

    Bandyopadhyay Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment. Multiple options for topical treatment are available, of which hydroquinone (HQ) is the most commonly prescribed agent. Besides HQ, other topical ...

  2. Economic and environmental assessment of syrup production. Colombian case.

    Dávila, Javier A; Hernández, Valentina; Castro, Eulogio; Cardona, Carlos A

    2014-06-01

    This work presents a techno-economic and environmental assessment of the glucose syrups production from sugarcane bagasse, plantain husk, cassava husk, mango peel, rice husk and corncobs. According to the economic analysis, the corncob had both, the lowest production cost (2.48USD/kg syrup) and the highest yield (0.61kgofsugars/kg of wet agroindustrial waste) due to its high content in cellulose and hemicellulose. This analysis also revealed that a heat integration strategy is necessary since the utilities consumption represent an important factor in the production cost. According to the results, the pretreatment section requires more energy in the syrup production in comparison with the requirements of other sections such as production and sugar concentration. The environmental assessment revealed that the solid wastes such as furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural affected the environmental development of the process for all the agroindustrial wastes, being the rice husk the residue with the lowest environmental impact. PMID:24686375

  3. Validation of spectrophotometric method for lactulose assay in syrup preparation

    Mahardhika, Andhika Bintang; Novelynda, Yoshella; Damayanti, Sophi

    2015-09-01

    Lactulose is a synthetic disaccharide widely used in food and pharmaceutical fields. In the pharmaceutical field, lactulose is used as osmotic laxative in a syrup dosage form. This research was aimed to validate the spectrophotometric method to determine the levels of lactulose in syrup preparation and the commercial sample. Lactulose is hydrolyzed by hydrochloric acid to form fructose and galactose. The fructose was reacted with resorcinol reagent, forming compounds that give absorption peak at 485 nm. Analytical methods was validated, hereafter lactulose content in syrup preparation were determined. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 30-100 μg/mL with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9996, coefficient of variance (Vxo) of 1.1 %, limit of detection of 2.32 μg/mL, and limit of quantitation of 7.04 μg/mL. The result of accuracy test for the lactulose assay in the syrup preparation showed recoveries of 96.6 to 100.8 %. Repeatability test of lactulose assay in standard solution of lactulose and sample preparation syrup showed the coefficient of variation (CV) of 0.75 % and 0.7 %. Intermediate precision (interday) test resulted in coefficient of variation 1.06 % on the first day, the second day by 0.99 %, and 0.95 % for the third day. This research gave a valid analysis method and levels of lactulose in syrup preparations of samples A, B, C were 101.6, 100.5, and 100.6 %, respectively.

  4. Stability studies on a cough syrup in plastic containers

    Gupta Renuka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Packaging of pharmaceuticals is a critical process. Plastics are unanimously used for solid dosage packaging. Due to their numerous advantages over glass, they are now being considered as an alternative to packaging of liquid dosage forms also. Cough syrups are preparations containing antitussive drugs, and are most commonly packaged in glass bottles. The interactive nature of plastics makes it essential that a detailed study be carried out before their use for any pharmaceutical packaging. The present work reports the stability and suitability of packaging antitussive syrup in plastic containers.

  5. [Influence of food intake on the bioavailability of ponsinomycin administered in a syrup form].

    Fourtillan, J B; Couet, W; Ingrand, I; Reigner, B; Bizouard, J; Girault, J

    1989-05-01

    Ponsinomycin is a new macrolide. Following oral administration, ponsinomycin is totally metabolized, even before reaching blood circulation. Metabolite Mb12 is the first compound on the main metabolic route, which can be assayed. The influence of food on ponsinomycin bioavailability has therefore been estimated from measurements of Mb12 plasma levels. Twelve young healthy volunteers received 800 mg of ponsinomycin as a syrup on two separate occasions, 2 hours before and during a standard meal. The Mb12 metabolite was assayed in plasma by High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Plasma peak concentrations and areas under curves were not significantly different but time to peak was significantly shorter when ponsinomycin was administered during meal. The results suggest that ponsinomycin absorption is faster when administered with food but quantitatively unchanged. PMID:2789364

  6. A randomised trial comparing the efficacy and safety of topical ketoprofen in Transfersome(®) gel (IDEA-033) with oral ketoprofen and drug-free ultra-deformable Sequessome™ vesicles (TDT 064) for the treatment of muscle soreness following exercise.

    Seidel, Egbert J; Rother, Matthias; Regenspurger, Katja; Rother, Ilka

    2016-01-01

    We compared the effectiveness of topical ketoprofen in Transfersome(®) gel (IDEA-033) with oral ketoprofen and drug-free Sequessome™ vesicles (FLEXISEQ(®) Sport; TDT 064) in reducing calf muscle soreness. One hundred and sixty eight healthy individuals with a pain score ≥ 3 (10-point scale) 12-16 h post-exercise (walking down stairs with an altitude of 300-400 m) were randomised to receive IDEA-033 plus oral placebo (two dose groups), oral ketoprofen plus TDT 064, or TDT 064 plus oral placebo. The primary endpoint was muscle soreness reduction from pre-dosing to Day 7. Higher pain scores were recorded with oral ketoprofen plus TDT 064 (mean ± s 462.4 ± 160.4) versus IDEA-033 plus oral placebo (434.7 ± 190.8; P = 0.2931) or TDT 064 plus oral placebo (376.2 ± 159.1; P = 0.0240) in the 7 days post-exercise. Recovery from muscle soreness was longer with oral ketoprofen plus TDT 064 (mean 91.0 ± 19.5 h) versus IDEA-033 plus placebo (mean 81.4 ± 22.9 h; P = 0.5964) or TDT 064 plus placebo (mean 78.9 ± 22.8 h; P = 0.0262). In conclusion, ultradeformable phospholipid vesicles ± ketoprofen did not retard recovery from muscle soreness. TDT 064 improves osteoarthritis-related pain and could be of interest as a treatment for joint pain during and post-exercise. PMID:25893979

  7. Unintentional topical lindane ingestions--United States, 1998-2003.

    2005-06-01

    Lindane is an organochlorine pesticide found in certain prescription-only shampoos and topical lotions used to treat pediculosis (i.e., lice infestation) and scabies; lindane has been associated with human neurologic toxicity. In 2004, CDC was alerted to cases of illness caused by unintentional ingestion of lindane by persons mistaking the product for a liquid oral medication (e.g., cough syrup). To assess the extent of illness from ingestion of lindane, CDC, with assistance from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and state health departments, collected case reports and analyzed data from the Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks-Pesticides (SENSOR-Pesticides) program and the Toxic Exposure Surveillance System (TESS). This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which identified 870 cases of unintentional lindane ingestion during 1998-2003, and describes two examples of lindane ingestions. To reduce the risk of lindane ingestion, public health authorities should alert clinicians to the hazards of lindane and the importance of following FDA usage guidelines, which include dispensing lindane in manufacturer-produced, 1- or 2-ounce single-use containers. PMID:15931156

  8. Determination of Microbial Load in Multivitamin and Cough Syrups Sold in Dhaka City

    Abdullah Al Mamun

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The production of substandard drugs and use of inappropriate methods in manufacturing medical products in pharmaceutical industries may cause non-therapeutic effect in patients particularly in children. Hence this study was conducted to determine the microbiological quality of multivitamin and cough syrups of different brands sold in local pharmacy in Dhaka city. Microbiological analysis was carried out using spread plate technique on different culture media including nutrient agar, mannitol salt agar, MacConkey agar, mFC agar, TCBS agar and SS agar for the determination of total viable bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, total coliforms, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. respectively from eleven multivitamin and twelve cough syrups. The results revealed that 50% of the cough syrup and 91% of the multivitamin syrup showed compliance with the official requirement of microbiological quality as they did not show any growth or their microbiological count is within the USP permissible limit (<102 cfu/ml. While the major contaminants in cough syrup were Staphylococcus aureus (75%, Escherichia coli (17% and total coliforms (42%, multivitamin syrup (9% contained only Staphylococcus aureus. Other pathogens like Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. could not be detected in both cough and multivitamin syrups. Although most of the multivitamin syrup (91% samples are free from potential microbial threat, some of the cough syrup (75% samples are contaminated with pathogenic bacteria. Hence potential safety measurement should be taken during the production and use of cough syrups to maintain the microbiological quality.

  9. Mentha Longifolia Syrup in Secondary Amenorrhea: a Double-blind, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized Trials

    Roshanak Mokaberinejad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Amenorrhea is defined as the cessation of menses. Hormone therapy is the most common treatment. Due to the contraindications and side effects of it and the increasing demand for alternative medicine substitutes, Mentha longifolia L. was used in this study. Mentha longifolia L. is a known medication in Iranian traditional medicine to induce menstrual bleeding in women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea.Methods A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter study was conducted in 120 women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea. Treatment consisted of sequential oral syrup, 45 ml (15 ml three times a day for 2 weeks. If the patients did not have menstruation after 2 weeks of taking the medication, we would wait for two more weeks. If the patients had menstruation at each stage of using the drug, we started it one week after the end of menstruation. But if the patients had not menstruate after four weeks (two-week using of drug and waiting for two more weeks, the previous steps were repeated. The drug and placebo were repeated in three cycles of menstruation. Bleeding was documented by the patient on diary cards. The primary outcome variable was the occurrence (yes/no of bleeding during the first treatment cycle. The secondary efficacy outcome was the regularity of bleeding pattern during the three cycles of the study.Results The number of women with bleeding during the first cycle were higher in the drug group as in the placebo group (68.3% vs. 13.6%; p?syrup.ConclusionIn conclusion, Mentha longifolia L. syrup is a safe, well-tolerated, and effective choice in inducing bleeding and maintaining regular bleeding in women with secondary amenorrhea and oligomenorrhea.

  10. Simple and efficient methodology to determine mycotoxins in cereal syrups.

    Arroyo-Manzanares, Natalia; Huertas-Pérez, José F; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura; García-Campaña, Ana M

    2015-06-15

    Consumption of cereal syrups is increasing nowadays. Mycotoxins may be found in syrups resulting from the use of contaminated raw material or invading microorganisms in the final manufactured product. However, these matrices have been scarcely explored regarding their mycotoxin content. A sensitive, simple and rapid method for the determination of ten mycotoxins (ochratoxin A, fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2, deoxynivalenol, fusarenon-X, T-2 and HT-2 toxin, citrinin, sterigmatocystin and zearalenone) in cereal syrups (rice, wheat and barley) has been developed and characterised using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) and a sample treatment based on QuEChERS procedure. Matrix-matched calibration curves were established and limits of quantification were below the limits usually established by current legislation in different foodstuff. The relative standard deviation of the whole analytical method was lower than 12% in all cases, while recoveries ranged from 70.2% to 100.6%, therefore fulfilling the current requirements for mycotoxins analysis. PMID:25660886

  11. Optimization of Osmotic Dehydration of Apples Slices in Dates Syrup Using the Response Surface Methodology

    H. Acheheb; A. Ferradji; Khatir, A

    2014-01-01

    Osmotic dehydration of apple slices in continuous kinetic was studied using dates syrup at different concentration (52-74%), temperature (30-60°C), time (15-240 min). The response surface methodology was used to optimize effects of temperature, syrup concentration and immersion time in osmotic dehydration of apples slices in date syrup. A composite central design was used with water loss (WL%) and solid gain (SG %) as responses. The models obtained for all the ...

  12. Bexarotene Topical

    ... condition may improve as soon as 4 weeks after you begin to use topical bexarotene, or it may ... notice any improvement. Continue to use topical bexarotene after you notice improvement; your condition may continue to improve. ...

  13. Lead and cadmium levels of commonly administered pediatric syrups in Nigeria: a public health concern?

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Nduka, John Kanayochukwu

    2009-11-15

    Fifty different pediatric syrups were randomly sampled from patent medicine stores and pharmaceutical shops within Awka, in Anambra State between November 2007 and May 2008. Syrups were ashed before digestion using conc. aqua regia, HCl:HNO(3) (3:1) and lead and cadmium were assayed with AAS 205A. Results revealed that 60 and 98% of the sample size had lead and cadmium respectively. The lead levels ranged from 0.01 in chloroquine to 1.08 mg/l in magcid suspension. The highest level of cadmium was seen in magcid suspension with concentration of 2.45 mg/l while lowest concentration of 0.01 in emzolyn and colipan. About 41.2% of the locally made syrup had none detectable levels of lead while all the syrup had detectable levels of cadmium. Lead levels ranged from 0.01 mg/l in cadiphen manufactured in Dholka, India to 0.09 in maxiquine made in England. About 68.8% of the imported syrups of the imported syrups had non detectable levels of lead. Chloramphenicol and zentel albendazole syrups had 0.60 and 0.88 mg/l of cadmium respectively. Bellis cough syrup showed the lowest level (0.01 mg/l) of cadmium. Only erythromycin suspension representing 6.3% had non detectable level of cadmium of the imported syrups. Due to the Cd and Pb levels found, we suggest that the behaviour scenario (here, self administration without medical assistance) should be properly taken under control. Along with this, contamination sources or vulnerable practices during syrups preparation should be also assessed in a tiered approach, towards the minimization of noxious presence in syrups and the promotion of quality of Nigerian-made products. PMID:19765804

  14. Lead and cadmium levels of commonly administered pediatric syrups in Nigeria: A public health concern?

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere, E-mail: eorish@aol.com [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology,College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University,Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Nduka, John Kanayochukwu [Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology Research Unit, Pure and Industrial Chemistry Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B. 5025, Awka Anambra State (Nigeria)

    2009-11-15

    Fifty different pediatric syrups were randomly sampled from patent medicine stores and pharmaceutical shops within Awka, in Anambra State between November 2007 and May 2008. Syrups were ashed before digestion using conc. aqua regia, HCl:HNO{sub 3} (3:1) and lead and cadmium were assayed with AAS 205A. Results revealed that 60 and 98% of the sample size had lead and cadmium respectively. The lead levels ranged from 0.01 in chloroquine to 1.08 mg/l in magcid suspension. The highest level of cadmium was seen in magcid suspension with concentration of 2.45 mg/l while lowest concentration of 0.01 in emzolyn and colipan. About 41.2% of the locally made syrup had none detectable levels of lead while all the syrup had detectable levels of cadmium. Lead levels ranged from 0.01 mg/l in cadiphen manufactured in Dholka, India to 0.09 in maxiquine made in England. About 68.8% of the imported syrups of the imported syrups had non detectable levels of lead. Chloramphenicol and zentel albendazole syrups had 0.60 and 0.88 mg/l of cadmium respectively. Bellis cough syrup showed the lowest level (0.01 mg/l) of cadmium. Only erythromycin suspension representing 6.3% had non detectable level of cadmium of the imported syrups. Due to the Cd and Pb levels found, we suggest that the behaviour scenario (here, self administration without medical assistance) should be properly taken under control. Along with this, contamination sources or vulnerable practices during syrups preparation should be also assessed in a tiered approach, towards the minimization of noxious presence in syrups and the promotion of quality of Nigerian-made products.

  15. Lead and cadmium levels of commonly administered pediatric syrups in Nigeria: A public health concern?

    Fifty different pediatric syrups were randomly sampled from patent medicine stores and pharmaceutical shops within Awka, in Anambra State between November 2007 and May 2008. Syrups were ashed before digestion using conc. aqua regia, HCl:HNO3 (3:1) and lead and cadmium were assayed with AAS 205A. Results revealed that 60 and 98% of the sample size had lead and cadmium respectively. The lead levels ranged from 0.01 in chloroquine to 1.08 mg/l in magcid suspension. The highest level of cadmium was seen in magcid suspension with concentration of 2.45 mg/l while lowest concentration of 0.01 in emzolyn and colipan. About 41.2% of the locally made syrup had none detectable levels of lead while all the syrup had detectable levels of cadmium. Lead levels ranged from 0.01 mg/l in cadiphen manufactured in Dholka, India to 0.09 in maxiquine made in England. About 68.8% of the imported syrups of the imported syrups had non detectable levels of lead. Chloramphenicol and zentel albendazole syrups had 0.60 and 0.88 mg/l of cadmium respectively. Bellis cough syrup showed the lowest level (0.01 mg/l) of cadmium. Only erythromycin suspension representing 6.3% had non detectable level of cadmium of the imported syrups. Due to the Cd and Pb levels found, we suggest that the behaviour scenario (here, self administration without medical assistance) should be properly taken under control. Along with this, contamination sources or vulnerable practices during syrups preparation should be also assessed in a tiered approach, towards the minimization of noxious presence in syrups and the promotion of quality of Nigerian-made products.

  16. THE PURIFICATION OF GLUCOSE SYRUP FROM TAPIOCA BY USING ABSORPTION METHOD AND THE CONCENTRATION PROCESS BY VACUUM EVAPORATOR

    Zainal; Laga, Amran; Bastian, Februadi

    2013-01-01

    The glucose syrupe production from tapioca needs to remove dirt and the colour. The water content should also be reduced. The aobjectives of this research were to identify the efffectiveness of glucose syrup purification by using the combination of activated charcoal and zeolit, and to determine the optimal evaporation time on the concentration process of glucose syrup to produce high glucose syrup. The materials were tapioca, activated charcoal, and zeolit. The research was started with conv...

  17. Analysis of Dextromethorphan in Cough Drops and Syrups: A Medicinal Chemistry Laboratory

    Hamilton, Todd M.; Wiseman, Frank L., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is used to determine the quantity of dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DM) in over-the-counter (OTC) cough drops and syrups. This experiment is appropriate for an undergraduate medicinal chemistry laboratory course when studying OTC medicines and active ingredients. Students prepare the cough drops and syrups for analysis,…

  18. Evaluation of Preserving Efficacy for Different Cough Syrups Manufactured by Different Pharmaceutical Companies

    M. Khanfar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current investigation is to assess the efficacy of different preservatives ingredients of different expectorant cough syrups manufactured by different pharmaceutical companies by comparing the growth of five microorganisms of known quanta of S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. The microorganisms were inoculated into syrup A (glycerol and propylene glycol, syrup B (propylene glycol and glycerin, syrup C (glycerin, propylene glycol and butyl paraben, syrup D (methyl paraben and probylparaben and normal saline as a control. All microorganisms were taken from standard stock cultures and incubated for 24 h. Growth of microorganisms into syrup was compared by counting the CFUs from a subculture of inoculated syrup at zero, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h intervals. The data showed that all the combinations of the preservatives in the four studied cough syrups behaved similarly in term of antimicrobial efficiency. The findings suggested that the preservatives mixtures of propylene glycol with glycerol or with glycerin or with butyl paraben preservatives as well as methyl paraben with probylparaben are acceptable clinically and have considerably antimicrobial activity against infectious bacteria during the 48 h studied period.

  19. MICROBIAL ASSESSMENT OF SOME SYRUP SOLD IN PATENT MEDICINE STORES IN MINNA METROPOLIS, NIGERIA

    Daniyan S.Y.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological quality of eighteen different brands of syrups comprising of Paracetamol, Chloroquine phosphate and Vitamin C syrups purchased from different patent medicine stores in Minna metropolis was assessed. The microbial load was determined using the viable cell count method; the resulting contaminant microorganisms were isolated and characterized by standard methods. The results revealed the contamination in four of six; five of six and four of six, Vitamin C. Paracetamol and Chloroquine phosphate syrups respectively exceeding the tolerance limit of permissible microorganisms specified officially for syrups. The contaminant organisms isolated from analyzed syrups include bacteria: Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and fungal isolates include: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillum notatum, Aspergillus flavus and Mucor specie. Bacilus subtilis were found to be most predominant bacterial isolates while Aspergillus niger was the predominant fungal isolate. The pH values of the analyzed syrups ranged from 2.71-3.94 with the exception of Paracetamol syrups,brands of Vitamin C and Chloroquine phosphate syrups which had pH range of 5.28-7.11, 5.30-5.32 and 4.83-4.88 respectively. The susceptibility patterns of each bacterial isolates to antimicrobial agents showed resistance to Nalixidic acid,Ampicillin,Rocephin,Ampiclox and Amoxacillin, with high sensitivity to Pefloxacin,Ciprofloxacin, Streptomycin and Septrin.

  20. 29 CFR 780.819 - Production must be of unrefined sugar or syrup.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Production must be of unrefined sugar or syrup. 780.819... STANDARDS ACT Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup; Exemption From Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section...

  1. CODEINE CONTAINING COUGH SYRUP ADDICTION IN ASSAM AND NAGALAND

    Wairagkar, Niteen S.; Das, J.; Kumar, S.; Mahanta, J.; K. Satyanarayana; Phukan, R K; Chetia, M.; Goswami, S K

    1994-01-01

    The drug abuse monitoring study of Regional Medical Research Center, Dibrugarh, reported 181 and 395 addicts from the states of Assam and Nagaland respectively in one year. Of these, 48 (26.5%) and 49(12.4%) cases were contributed by the primary abuse of codeine containing cough syrups. A11 addicts were males in their early twenties. Most of the addicts were unmarried and educated up to matriculation. The majority of addicts in Assam were Hindus (85.4%) and in Nagaland Christians (81.63%). Un...

  2. Comparison of productivity of colonies of honey bees, Apis mellifera, supplemented with sucrose or high fructose corn syrup

    Honey bee colony feeding trials were conducted to determine whether differential effects of carbohydrate feeding (sucrose syrup vs. high fructose corn syrups) were detected between colonies fed exclusively on these syrups. In one experiment, colonies installed within a closed arena had increased pr...

  3. Fermentation of an Aromatized Wine-Based Beverage with Sambucus nigra L. Syrup (after Champenoise Method

    Teodora Emilia Coldea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The sparkling wine based beverage with elderflower (Sambucus nigra L. syrup presented improved sensorial characteristics. White wine used was Fetească regală variety, obtained in Micro winery of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Cluj-Napoca. Elderflower syrup was prepared without thermal treatment, but was pasteurised before its addition to wine. Elderflower have many health benefits, such as diuretic, diaphoretic, or antioxidant activity. In this study it was used elderflower syrup both to improve the product s sensorial properties, and for their multiple benefits to health. The sparkling wine based beverage with elderflower syrup was produced by fermentation in the bottle (after Champenoise method, with the addition of wine yeast. The novelty brought by this paper is the use of elderflower syrup in alcoholic-beverage industry.

  4. PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF NATURAL COLOR EXTRACT FOR AYURVEDIC SYRUP

    Santosh Bhadkaria

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The plant Butea monosperma is very popular among the peoples of Northern Ghana, where the leaves are used in soups; and calyces for soft drinks and also used medicinally. It has been found to possess several health benefits. The flower has a very rich orange colour, which this study aims as investigating its suitability as a coloring agent in pharmaceutical syrup. Materials and Methods: The plant parts (flowers are used in experimental work for investigating the suitability of Butea monosperma extract as coloring agent for pediatric syrup.1kg of dried Butea Monosperma flowers were weighed out and spread out in a thin layer. After authentication, sample of Butea monosperma was washed for ten seconds in water (to avoid losing colour. Excess water was blotted from the sample with a clean towel, and dried in a hot air oven for four hours at 300ºC before the extraction procedure. Then the solvent for extraction (water, drug solvent ratio taken = 1:8 was filled in Soxhlet apparatus. After completion of the extraction procedure, the extract was taken out and evaporated up to semisolid consistency and then amount in percentages was determined in % w/w. Result: The colour extract from Butea monosperma is found suitable as a pharmaceutical coloring agent. Tartrazine can be replaced with this natural source of colour, promoting the health of our people.

  5. Health Topics

    ... Awareness Day National Women's Health Week Nursing (breastfeeding) Nutrition (and fitness) O Oral health Osteoporosis Ovarian cancer Ovarian cysts Ovarian syndrome (PCOS or polycystic ovary syndrome) Overweight, obesity, and weight loss P Pain ...

  6. Health Topics

    ... V W X Y Z A Acne Anemia Anorexia nervosa Anxiety disorders Autoimmune diseases Return to top B ... and fitness) Return to top O Oral health Osteoporosis Ovarian cancer Ovarian cysts Ovarian syndrome (PCOS or ...

  7. AI Topics

    Buchanan, Bruce G.; Glick, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    The debut of the AI in the News column elsewhere in this issue of AI Magazine created a good opportunity to introduce the professional community to the AI Topics web site, home of the AI in the news virtual page. Although AI Topics is designed for the lay public, it serves a much larger audience.

  8. Detection of honey adulteration with starch syrup by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Wang, Shaoqing; Guo, Qilei; Wang, Linlin; Lin, Li; Shi, Hailiang; Cao, Hong; Cao, Baosen

    2015-04-01

    According to saccharide profile comparison between starch syrups and pure honeys analysed through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), a characteristic peak was found at 15.25 min retention time in HPLC chromatogram of syrup, but no peak was observed at the same retention time in chromatogram of pure honeys. This characteristic peak for syrup was identified as an overlapping peak of oligosaccharides with more than 5 degree of polymerisation (DP) based on HPLC chromatogram comparison between starch syrup and a series of standard mono-, di- and oligosaccharides of 3-7 DP. Additionally syrup content correlated linearly with the height of the characteristic peak of syrup under different slope in two ranges 2.5-7.5% and 10-100%, respectively. Therefore, the characteristic peak at 15.25 min retention time can serve as a syrup indicator in HPLC analysis of the adulterated honeys. This new HPLC method for honey adulteration detection was further applied in an authenticity inspection on more than 100 commercial honeys. In addition to the improved accuracy of honey adulteration detection, the proposed HPLC method was simple, low cost and easy practice for honey product quality control by government department considering the popularity of HPLC device and technology. PMID:25442605

  9. Topical treatment of melasma

    Bandyopadhyay Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment. Multiple options for topical treatment are available, of which hydroquinone (HQ is the most commonly prescribed agent. Besides HQ, other topical agents for which varying degrees of evidence for clinical efficacy exist include azelaic acid, kojic acid, retinoids, topical steroids, glycolic acid, mequinol, and arbutin. Topical medications modify various stages of melanogenesis, the most common mode of action being inhibition of the enzyme, tyrosinase. Combination therapy is the preferred mode of treatment for the synergism and reduction of untoward effects. The most popular combination consists of HQ, a topical steroid, and retinoic acid. Prolonged HQ usage may lead to untoward effects like depigmentation and exogenous ochronosis. The search for safer alternatives has given rise to the development of many newer agents, several of them from natural sources. Well-designed controlled clinical trials are needed to clarify their role in the routine management of melasma.

  10. Elemental Impurities in Nigerian Pediatric Syrups: Mercury in Violation of Standard Guidelines.

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Roberts, Irosanga Itamuno; Bagbi, Baribefe Monday

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the human exposure to elemental impurities like antimony, tin, and mercury pharmaceutical products in the African environment are scarce and limited. In this study, we determined the concentrations of these elemental impurities in 28 different brands of commonly used pediatric syrups, purchased randomly from patent medicine retail outlets in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. The aim of this study was to compare the antimony, tin, and mercury levels in these pediatric syrups with the recommended limits of United States Pharmacopeia. Twenty-eight different pediatric syrups were randomly sampled and purchased using the market basket protocol from pharmacy shops in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria in December 2010. Syrups were ashed before digestion using concentrated aqua regia, HCl: HNO3 (3:1), and antimony, tin, and mercury were analyzed using Unicam Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) Model 929. The ranges of heavy metal content in these pediatric syrups were 0.54-1.27, 0.86-2.56, and 0.97-5.13 μg/g for antimony, tin, and mercury, respectively. About 75% of the syrups exceeded the United States Pharmacopeia mercury limit of 1.5 μg/g. The estimated or calculated amounts of antimony, tin, and mercury in the 3 most likely administered syrups were 17.15, 64.20, and 34.60 μg of antimony, tin, and mercury, respectively. The daily intake or estimated amount from the ingestion of syrups excluding background exposure (μg metal·kg body weight·d) for a 15-kg child were 1.17, 2.31, and 4.28 for antimony, tin, and mercury, respectively. Mercury content in pediatric syrups may constitute a significant source of heavy metal exposure to children and may be of public health importance in Nigeria. PMID:23676346

  11. Testosterone Topical

    ... not apply any testosterone topical products to your penis or scrotum or to skin that has sores, ... are severe or do not go away: breast enlargement and/or pain decreased sexual desire acne depression ...

  12. Tacrolimus Topical

    Tacrolimus ointment is used to treat the symptoms of eczema (atopic dermatitis; a skin disease that causes ... whose eczema has not responded to another medication. Tacrolimus is in a class of medications called topical ...

  13. Diphenhydramine Topical

    Diphenhydramine, an antihistamine, is used to relieve the itching of insect bites, sunburns, bee stings, poison ivy, ... Diphenhydramine topical comes in cream, lotion, gel, and spray to be applied to the skin. It is ...

  14. Ciclopirox Topical

    ... treatment. Use the applicator brush attached to the bottle cap to apply ciclopirox topical solution evenly to all ... you can reach these areas. Wipe off the bottle cap and neck and replace the cap tightly on ...

  15. Zincovit syrup ameliorates oxidative stress induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats

    S. M. Satyam; Bairy, K.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Zincovit (ZVT) syrup is a combined formulation of vitamins, minerals and lysine. The present study was aimed to investigate the in vivo antioxidant potential of ZVT syrup in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) intoxicated Wistar rats. Methods: A total of 36 Wistar rats were divided into six groups of six rats each. Antioxidant potential of ZVT syrup at the dose of 15 mg/kg/day, 30 mg/kg/day and 60 mg/kg/day was evaluated in CCl4 intoxicated rats. The extent of CCl4 induced oxidative st...

  16. Influence of process parameters on the color and texture of passion fruit albedo preserved in syrup

    Luisa Pereira Figueiredo; Marali Vilela Dias; Wanderson Alexandre Valente; Soraia Vilela Borges; Anirene Galvão Tavares Pereira; Patrícia Aparecida Pimenta Pereira; Fabiana Queiroz

    2013-01-01

    The industrialization of passion fruit in the form of juice produces considerable amounts of residue that could be used as food. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of the volume of passion fruit juice added to the syrup and the cooking time on the color and texture of passion fruit albedo preserved in syrup. Multi-linear models were well fit to describe the value for a* (for the albedo) the values for b* (for the albedo and syrup), which exhibited high correlation...

  17. Effect of Wheat Germ Addition on Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Date Syrup

    Abdalla S.M. Ammar

    2012-01-01

    Wheat germ was utilized for improvement in quality and nutritive value of date syrup in the present study. Some physicochemical (total soluble solids, water activity, pH, consistency, color) and antioxidant properties of different date syrup/wheat germ blends (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% wheat germ) were investigated. Total soluble solids and pH of date syrup were slightly affected by addition of wheat germ. The consistency values of blends were increased by increasing wheat germ addition, while, w...

  18. Diffusion-weighted MRI of maple syrup urine disease encephalopathy

    Cavalleri, F.; Mavilla, L. [Servizio di Neuroradiologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico, Modena (Italy); Berardi, A.; Ferrari, F. [Servizio di Neonatologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico, Modena (Italy); Burlina, A.B. [Dipartimento di Pediatria, Azienda Ospedaliera, Universita di Padova, Padua (Italy)

    2002-06-01

    We report the case of a newborn child with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), diagnosed at 10 days of life. Diffusion-weighted echoplanar MRI showed marked hyperintensity of the cerebellar white matter, the brainstem, the cerebral peduncles, the thalami, the dorsal limb of the internal capsule and the centrum semiovale, while conventional dual-echo sequence evidenced only a weak diffuse T2 hyperintensity in the cerebellar white matter and in the dorsal brainstem. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of these regions was markedly (>80%) decreased. Therefore, in agreement with current hypotheses on MSUD pathogenesis, MSUD oedema proves to be a cytotoxic oedema. Diffusion-weighted MRI may be a valuable tool, more sensitive than conventional spin-echo techniques, to assess the extent and progression of cytotoxicity in MSUD, as well as the effectiveness of the therapeutic interventions. (orig.)

  19. Diffusion-weighted MRI of maple syrup urine disease encephalopathy

    We report the case of a newborn child with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), diagnosed at 10 days of life. Diffusion-weighted echoplanar MRI showed marked hyperintensity of the cerebellar white matter, the brainstem, the cerebral peduncles, the thalami, the dorsal limb of the internal capsule and the centrum semiovale, while conventional dual-echo sequence evidenced only a weak diffuse T2 hyperintensity in the cerebellar white matter and in the dorsal brainstem. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of these regions was markedly (>80%) decreased. Therefore, in agreement with current hypotheses on MSUD pathogenesis, MSUD oedema proves to be a cytotoxic oedema. Diffusion-weighted MRI may be a valuable tool, more sensitive than conventional spin-echo techniques, to assess the extent and progression of cytotoxicity in MSUD, as well as the effectiveness of the therapeutic interventions. (orig.)

  20. Cranial computed tomography in maple syrup urine disease

    Cranial computed tomography in the initial stage of the intermediate phenotype of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) demonstrates diffuse, symmetric hypodensities in white and grey matter, which show a complete return to normal after early introduction of an adequate protein-restrictive diet. If diagnosis of this disease is missed or delayed, progressive global (end-stage) atrophy will take place over several years. A decrease in density values correlates well with the total cerebral lipid and water content (closely related to myelinisation), whereas progression and grade of atrophy show a relationship with the severity of pathological white and grey matter changes that are not demonstrable with computed tomography but can be proven histologically. Analysis of both morphological parameters corresponds well with clinical-neurological outcome and therapeutic success. (orig.)

  1. Codeine cough syrup use among African-American crack cocaine users.

    Peters, Ronald J; Williams, Mark; Ross, Michael W; Atkinson, John; Yacoubian, George S

    2007-03-01

    While studies show evidence of a clear problem with the prevalence of crack cocaine and codeine cough syrup use separately, the relationship between these substances of abuse and concurrent polydrug use is unknown. In an attempt to ascertain beyond anecdotal evidence, the authors carried out a cross-sectional study among 482 African-American crack users to investigate the differences between those who were concurrently codeine cough syrup users and those who were not codeine cough syrup users in Houston, Texas. Logistic regression indicated that codeine use was significantly associated with lower participant age and lower education; codeine cough syrup users were significantly more likely than nonusers to not have a main sexual partner. In addition, codeine users had significantly higher odds of ever trading sex for money, marijuana use, and fry use. These findings are important in determining the "cultural novelties" relative to crack and codeine use among younger African Americans. PMID:17523589

  2. Zincovit syrup ameliorates oxidative stress induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats

    S. M. Satyam

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The present findings revealed that ZVT syrup may be useful in oxidative stress associated tissue damage as a nutritional food supplement. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(3.000: 449-452

  3. Fermentation of an Aromatized Wine-Based Beverage with Sambucus nigra L. Syrup (after Champenoise Method)

    Teodora Emilia Coldea; Elena Mudura; Carmen Pop; Ancuța Rotar; Paula Adriana Bîrsan; Dorina Lazăr

    2015-01-01

    The sparkling wine based beverage with elderflower (Sambucus nigra L.) syrup presented improved sensorial characteristics. White wine used was Fetească regală variety, obtained in Micro winery of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Cluj-Napoca. Elderflower syrup was prepared without thermal treatment, but was pasteurised before its addition to wine. Elderflower have many health benefits, such as diuretic, diaphoretic, or antioxidant activity. In this study it was us...

  4. Pengaruh Perbandingan Konsentrasi Sukrosa Dengan High Fructose Syrup (Hfs) Dan Konsentrasi Pektin Terhadap Mutu Permen Jelly

    Zulfaini, Fauziah

    2013-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui adanya Pengaruh Perbandingan Konsentrasi Sukrosa Dengan High Fructose Syrup Dan Konsentrasi Pektin Terhadap Mutu Permen Jelly yang dihasilkan. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode Rancangan Acak Lengkap dengan dua faktorial: 4X4 terdiri dari 2 faktor dengan 2 ulangan. Faktor I Perbandingan Konsentrasi Sukrosa Dengan High Fructose Syrup (P) terdiri dari 4 jenis yaitu : P t (70% : 20%), P2 (75% : 15%), P3 (80% : 10%), P4 (85% : 5%) dengan penambahan glu...

  5. Polyphenolic Extract from Maple Syrup Potentiates Antibiotic Susceptibility and Reduces Biofilm Formation of Pathogenic Bacteria

    Maisuria, Vimal B.; Hosseinidoust, Zeinab; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are believed to be promising candidates as complementary therapeutics. Maple syrup, prepared by concentrating the sap from the North American maple tree, is a rich source of natural and process-derived phenolic compounds. In this work, we report the antimicrobial activity of a phenolic-rich maple syrup extract (PRMSE). PRMSE exhibited antimicrobial activity as well as strong synergistic interaction with selected antibiotics against Gram-negative clinical strains of Escheric...

  6. Formulation and quality control of Prunus domestica syrup, prepared according to Iranian Traditional Medicine

    M. Hamzeloo-Moghadam

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Prunus domestica (plum has been considered as a useful remedy for several disorders in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM. It has cold and wet temperament and is used as syrup for hot temperament diseases such as hot headache and stomach disorders. In the present study, plum syrup has been formulated according to ITM manuscripts and quality control evaluations have been accomplished to present a suitable formulation. Methods: The fruits of Prunus domestica L. were macerated in water, then decocted. The mixture was filtered. The filtrate was concentrated to have a suitable viscosity. The extract was sweetened by adding sugar (1:2 and heated till sugar was completely dissolved. The final product was evaluated physicochemically and microbiologically according to standard protocols and total phenolics content of the syrup stability was determined. The syrup was assessed in accelerated condition (40 ºC during 6 months. Results: The prepared formulation was a viscose and brown syrup with plum flavor and fragrance. No precipitation and cap locking were observed in the syrup. Dry residue, pH, density, viscosity and total phenolics of the syrup were found 43.1%, 3.49, 1.27 g/ml, 6.5 cP and 152.3 mg/100ml, respectively. No microbial growth was observed in the formulation. In the accelerated stability tests, no remarkable changes were seen in the product. Total phenolics content was decreased 2.2% during 6 months in 40 ºC. Conclusion: The formulated Prunus domestica syrup could be introduced for further mass production after completing the final required evaluations.

  7. MICROBIAL ASSESSMENT OF SOME SYRUP SOLD IN PATENT MEDICINE STORES IN MINNA METROPOLIS, NIGERIA

    Daniyan S. Y.; Sangodere T.A.

    2011-01-01

    The microbiological quality of eighteen different brands of syrups comprising of Paracetamol, Chloroquine phosphate and Vitamin C syrups purchased from different patent medicine stores in Minna metropolis was assessed. The microbial load was determined using the viable cell count method; the resulting contaminant microorganisms were isolated and characterized by standard methods. The results revealed the contamination in four of six; five of six and four of six, Vitamin C. Paracetamol and Chl...

  8. Fungi in Ontario maple syrup & some factors that determine the presence of mold damage.

    Frasz, Samantha L; Miller, J David

    2015-08-17

    Maple syrup is a high value artisanal product produced mainly in Canada and a number of States primarily in the northeast USA. Mold growth (Wallemia sebi) on commercial product was first reported in syrup in 1908. Since then, few data have been published. We conducted a systematic examination for fungi in maple syrup from 68 producers from all of the syrup-producing areas of Ontario, Canada. The mean pH of the samples was pH 6.82, sugar content averaged 68.0±0.89 °Brix and aw averaged 0.841±0.011. Some 23 species of fungi were isolated based on morphology and molecular techniques. The most common fungus in the maple syrup samples was Eurotium herbariorum, followed by Penicillium chrysogenum, Aspergillus penicillioides, Aspergillus restrictus, Aspergillus versicolor and two species of Wallemia. Cladosporium cladosporioides was also common but only recovered when fungi known from high sugar substrates were also present in the mold damaged sample. The rarely reported yeast Citeromyces matrinsis was found in samples from three producers. There appear to be three potential causes for mold damage observed. High aw was associated with about one third of the mold damage. Independently, cold packing (bottling at ~25 °C) was a risk factor. However, syrup of good quality and quite low aw values was contaminated. We hypothesize that sanitation in the bottling line and other aspects of the bottling process may be partial explanations. Clarifying this requires further study. PMID:26001061

  9. Difference spectrophotometric assay of 5-hydroxymethylfurfuraldehyde in hydrolysed pharmaceutical syrups--I. Sodium borohydride reagent.

    Davidson, A G; Dawodu, T O

    1987-01-01

    A rapid difference spectrophotometric procedure is described for the assay of 5-hydroxymethylfurfuraldehyde (5-HMF) in hydrolysed pharmaceutical syrups. The assay involves measurement of the difference absorbance at 283 nm (DeltaA(283)) of a solution of 5-HMF at pH 8 relative to that of an equimolar solution in which the absorption of the 5-HMF has been destroyed by reduction of the carbonyl group by sodium borohydride. The DeltaA(283) is proportional to the concentration of 5-HMF and is unaffected by the presence of sucrose (the sugar component of syrup) or of dextrose or laevulose (the principal sugars of invert syrup). The accuracy, precision and selectivity of the method are discussed. The limits of detection and determination are 0.78 microg ml(-1) and 9.6 microg ml(-1) respectively. The assay has been applied successfully to samples of syrup containing hydroxybenzoate (paraben) preservatives, invert syrup, simple linctus, ephedrine elixir and raspberry syrup. PMID:16867518

  10. Utilization of waste syrup for production of polyunsaturated fatty acids and xanthophylls by Aurantiochytrium.

    Iwasaka, Hiroaki; Aki, Tsunehiro; Adachi, Hirofumi; Watanabe, Kenshi; Kawamoto, Seiji; Ono, Kazuhisa

    2013-01-01

    In the food industry, syrups containing a high concentration of sugar used for fruit preservation is abundantly discharged as a food processing waste and disposed by incineration, resulting in the rise of the manufacturing cost and environmental pollution. This study demonstrates how waste syrup can be utilized as carbon source for production of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and astaxanthin by the thraustochytrid strain, Aurantiochytrium sp. KH105. The strain could grow in culture medium containing 3-50% waste syrup, and the maximum yields of DHA and astaxanthin were 207.6 mg/L (at 50%) and 1.1 mg/L (at 25%), respectively. After the optimization of culture medium composition by response surface method, DHA and astaxanthin yields increased by 2.1 and 1.5 fold, respectively. When the waste syrup was treated with activated charcoal, citrate concentration in the syrup was reduced and the astaxanthin yield increased by 2.3 fold. This study shows that the waste syrup can be effectively used for the functional lipid production by the thraustochytrid. PMID:24005017

  11. Effect of Wheat Germ Addition on Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Date Syrup

    Abdalla S.M. Ammar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat germ was utilized for improvement in quality and nutritive value of date syrup in the present study. Some physicochemical (total soluble solids, water activity, pH, consistency, color and antioxidant properties of different date syrup/wheat germ blends (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% wheat germ were investigated. Total soluble solids and pH of date syrup were slightly affected by addition of wheat germ. The consistency values of blends were increased by increasing wheat germ addition, while, water activity values were gradually decreased (0.677-0.655. Significant differences (p<0.05 in the CIE L* a* b* color values for date syrup/wheat germ blends were noticed. The phenolic content of blends was slightly affected by wheat germ addition. Non significant differences (p<0.05 were observed in the antioxidant activity (192-200 TEAC μmol/100 g sample among the date syrup/wheat germ blends. Results showed that blends containing 2, 4 and 6% wheat germ presented a higher overall acceptability. The obtained results suggest that wheat germ could be used for improvement in quality and nutritive value of date syrup.

  12. Sugar Profile, Mineral Content, and Rheological and Thermal Properties of an Isomerized Sweet Potato Starch Syrup

    Dominque, Brunson; Gichuhi, Peter N.; Rangari, Vijay; Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, corn is used to produce more than 85% of the world's high fructose syrup (HFS). There is a search for alternative HFS substrates because of increased food demand and shrinking economies, especially in the developing world. The sweet potato is a feasible, alternative raw material. This study isomerized a high glucose sweet potato starch syrup (SPSS) and determined its sugar profile, mineral content, and rheological and thermal properties. Rheological and thermal properties were measured using a rheometer and DSC, respectively. Sweet potato starch was hydrolyzed to syrup with a mean fructose content of 7.6 ± 0.4%. The SPSS had significantly higher (P < 0.05) mineral content when compared to commercial ginger and pancake syrups. During 70 days of storage, the SPSS acted as a non-Newtonian, shear-thinning liquid in which the viscosity decreased as shear stress increased. Water loss temperature of the SPSS continually decreased during storage, while pancake and ginger syrups' peak water loss temperature decreased initially and then increased. Further and more detailed studies should be designed to further enhance the fructose content of the syrup and observe its stability beyond 70 days. The SPSS has the potential to be used in human food systems in space and on Earth.

  13. The effects of sucralfate suspension and diphenhydramine syrup plus kaolin-pectin on radiotherapy-induced mucositis

    Barker, G.; Loftus, L.; Cuddy, P.; Barker, B. (Univ. of Missouri, Kansas City (USA))

    1991-03-01

    A prospective, double-blind study compared the effectiveness of sucralfate suspension with diphenhydramine syrup plus kaolin-pectin in reducing severity and pain of radiation-induced oropharyngeal mucositis. Fourteen patients who received at least 4600 cGy to the oral cavity used one of the mouth rinses four times a day, beginning at 1600 cGy. Data were collected on daily perceived pain and helpfulness of mouth rinse, weekly mucositis grade, weight change, and interruption of therapy. Analysis of data revealed no statistically significant differences between the two groups in any parameter. A retrospective review of 15 patients who had received at least 4600 cGy radiation to the oropharynx but had not used a daily mouth-coating rinse, was compared with the study group. Comparison of the two groups suggested that consistent daily oral hygiene and use of a mouth-coating agent will result in less pain and may reduce weight loss and interruption of radiation because of severe mucositis.

  14. The effects of sucralfate suspension and diphenhydramine syrup plus kaolin-pectin on radiotherapy-induced mucositis

    A prospective, double-blind study compared the effectiveness of sucralfate suspension with diphenhydramine syrup plus kaolin-pectin in reducing severity and pain of radiation-induced oropharyngeal mucositis. Fourteen patients who received at least 4600 cGy to the oral cavity used one of the mouth rinses four times a day, beginning at 1600 cGy. Data were collected on daily perceived pain and helpfulness of mouth rinse, weekly mucositis grade, weight change, and interruption of therapy. Analysis of data revealed no statistically significant differences between the two groups in any parameter. A retrospective review of 15 patients who had received at least 4600 cGy radiation to the oropharynx but had not used a daily mouth-coating rinse, was compared with the study group. Comparison of the two groups suggested that consistent daily oral hygiene and use of a mouth-coating agent will result in less pain and may reduce weight loss and interruption of radiation because of severe mucositis

  15. Polyphenolic Compositions and Chromatic Characteristics of Bog Bilberry Syrup Wines

    Shu-Xun Liu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds determine the color quality of fruit wines. In this study, the phenolic compound content and composition, color characteristics and changes during 6 months of bottle aging were studied in wines fermented with bog bilberry syrup under three different pHs. The total anthocyanins and total phenols were around 15.12–16.23 mg/L and 475.82 to 486.50 mg GAE/L in fresh wines and declined 22%–31% and about 11% in bottle aged wines, respectively. In fresh wines, eight anthocyanins, six phenolic aids and 14 flavonols, but no flavon-3-ols were identified; Malvidin-3-O-glucoside, petunidin-3-O-glucoside and delphinium-3-O-glucoside were the predominant pigments; Chlorogentic acid was the most abundant phenolic acid, and quercetin-3-O-galactoside and myricetin-3-O-galactoside accounted for nearly 90% of the total flavonols. During 6 months of bottle storage, the amounts of all the monomeric anthocyanins and phenolic acids were reduced dramatically, while the glycosidyl flavonols remained constant or were less reduced and their corresponding aglycones increased a lot. The effects of aging on blueberry wine color were described as the loss of color intensity with a dramatic change in color hue, from initial red-purple up to final red-brick nuances, while the pH of the fermentation matrix was negatively related to the color stability of aged wine.

  16. The optimal conditions for nata production from sugar palm syrup by Acetobacter xylinum TISTR 107

    Laochareonsuk, T.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The optimal conditions of nata production from the fermentation of sugar palm syrup by Acetobacter xylinum TISTR 107 was studied. The results showed that optimized production for a litre of sugar palm syrup medium should compose 15 ºBrix concentration, 7.0 g NH4H2PO4 and 0.7 g MgSO4. 7 H2O at pH 4.25 and incubation at room temperature. The thickness of nata production reached 1.15 cm in 9 days. Sensory evaluation showed that there were no significant difference in odor and acceptability between the nata from sugar palm syrup and the traditional nata production from coconut juice whereas there were significant differences in color and texture. However, the nata from sugar palm syrup gave a better texture. Chemical analysis of the nata produced under these optimal culture conditions revealed 0.13% protein, 0.012% fat, 2.74% fiber, 0.378% nitrogen-free extract, 0.11% ash and 96.63% moisture content. The results suggest that nata produced from sugar palm syrup can be used in food and confectionery.

  17. Drying kinetics of syrup of Parinari curatellifolia fruit and cereal based product, zvambwa.

    Benhura, Chakare; Kugara, Jameson; Muchuweti, Maud; Nyagura, Stella F; Matarise, Florence; Gombiro, Power E; Nyandoro, George

    2015-08-01

    Drying properties of syrup prepared from Parinari curatellifolia fruit and cereal based product, zvambwa prepared from the syrup and finger millet (Eleusine coracana) meal were studied using a convective tray drier at temperatures ranging from 30 to 80 °C and air velocity of 0.72 m/s. Nine mathematical models namely Henderson and Pabis, Lewis, Midilli et al., Modified Page, Page, Two Term, Weibull, Modified Page Equation (II) and Wang and Singh were fitted to data for thin layer drying of the products using non-linear regression analysis. Thin layer drying processes for the syrup and zvambwa were best described by the Modified Page model. Effective moisture diffusivities for drying of syrup were higher than those for drying of zvambwa. The activation energies for drying of syrup and zvambwa were 21.0 ± 2.0 kJ/mol and19.0 ± 2.0 kJ/mol respectively. PMID:26243916

  18. Stability and subjective taste acceptability of four glycopyrrolate solutions for oral administration.

    Landry, Christine; Forest, Jean-Marc; Hildgen, Patrice

    2005-01-01

    The oral tablet form of glycopryrrolate has been discontinued in Canada because of declining use. Alternatives include injectable glycopyrrolate, which is still on the market, and an oral solution compounded from the injectable form. The stabilities of different oral solutions of gycopyrrolate formulated from the injectable form were studied by using a high-performance liquid chromatographic technique. The 0.2 mg/mL injectable solution of glycopyrrolate was diluted 1:1 with water, simple syrup, a Hospital for Sick Children vehicle, or Ora-Plus/Ora-Sweet vehicle. After 35 days of storage, more than 90% of the original concentration of glycopyrrolate was still present in all solutions, regardless of whether the solution was kept at room temperature or refrigerated. A simple taste test indicated that Ora-Plus/Ora-Sweet solution and simple syrup were better choices as vehicles for the glycopyrrolate oral dosage form. PMID:23925137

  19. Topic tacrolimus, alternative treatment for oral erosive lichen planus resistant to steroids: A case report / Tacrolimus tópico, tratamiento alternativo para liquen plano erosivo de mucosa resistente a corticoides: A propósito de un caso

    Ana, Riaño Argüelles; Raúl, Martino Gorbea; María Eugenia, Iglesias Zamora; Joaquín, Garatea Crelgo.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El liquen plano es una enfermedad mucocutánea de etiología desconocida y patogenia autoinmune. Existen tres variantes de liquen plano: la forma reticular, la forma en placas y la forma atrófico-erosiva. El curso es crónico con frecuentes reactivaciones. Afecta con más frecuencia a mujeres en la 4ª d [...] écada de la vida y superiores. El diagnóstico se basa en la identificación clínica de las lesiones junto a el estudio histopatológico (degeneración hidrópica de la capa basal, infiltrado de linfo-plasmocitario y ausencia de signos de displasia). Su alta prevalencia (0,5-2%), su carácter recurrente y el potencial riesgo de transformación maligna explican el gran número de opciones terapéuticas disponibles. Presentamos un caso de liquen plano erosivo, de mucosa oral, resistente a múltiples tratamientos, fundamentalmente corticoideos. En el plazo de 15 días respondió a la administración de tacrolimus al 0,1% en aplicación tópica. El artículo pretende señalar la indicación novedosa del principio activo tacrolimus, un inmunosupresor inhibidor de la calcineurina, que se ha demostrado eficaz en la solución de las lesiones erosivas. Abstract in english The lichen planus is a mucocutaneous disease with unknown etiology and auto-immune pathogenia. There have been three variants of lichen planus: the reticular, the plaque-like and the atrophic-erosive lesions. It’s a chronic disease with acute relapses that generally affects more frecuently to women [...] from the fourties. The diagnostic is based on the clinic identification of the lesions joined with the histopathologic study (basal cells hidropic degeneration, linfoplasmocitic infiltration and absence of displasy signs). The great number of therapeutic options are explained for its high prevalency (0.5-2%), its recurrence and its risk for malignant transformation. We present a case of oral erosive lichen planus, refractory to numerous treatments, mainly corticosteroids. During 15 days the lesion responded to the administration of a 0.1% tacrolimus in topic application. This article tries to show the new indication of tacrolimus, a calcineurin inhibitor immunosuppressor, that it is effective in the erosive lesions treatment.

  20. Rapid Screening of Multiclass Syrup Adulterants in Honey by Ultrahigh-Performance Liquid Chromatography/Quadrupole Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    Du, Bing; Wu, Liming; Xue, Xiaofeng; Chen, Lanzhen; Li, Yi; Zhao, Jing; Cao, Wei

    2015-07-29

    Honey adulteration with sugar syrups is a widespread problem. Several types of syrups have been used in honey adulteration, and there is no available method that can simultaneously detect all of these adulterants. In this study, we generated a small-scale database containing the specific chromatographic and mass spectrometry information on sugar syrup markers and developed a simple, rapid, and effective ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS) method for the detection of adulterated honey. Corn syrup, high-fructose corn syrup, inverted syrup, and rice syrup were used as honey adulterants; polysaccharides, difructose anhydrides, and 2-acetylfuran-3-glucopyranoside were used as detection markers. The presence of 10% sugar syrup in honey could be easily detected in <30 min using the developed method. The results revealed that UHPLC/Q-TOF-MS was simple and rapid. PMID:26151590

  1. Effect of ultrafiltration process on physico-chemical, rheological, microstructure and thermal properties of syrups from male and female date palm saps.

    Makhlouf-Gafsi, Ines; Baklouti, Samia; Mokni, Abir; Danthine, Sabine; Attia, Hamadi; Blecker, Christophe; Besbes, Souhail; Masmoudi, Manel

    2016-07-15

    This study investigates the effect of the ultrafiltration process on physicochemical, rheological, microstructure and thermal properties of syrups from male and female date palm sap. All the studied syrups switched from pseudoplastic rheological behaviour (n=0.783) to Newtonian behaviour (n∼1) from 10 to 50°C respectively and present similar thermal profiles. Results revealed that the ultrafiltration process significantly affects the rheological behaviour of the male and female syrups. These differences on rheological properties are attributed to the variation of chemical composition between sap and sap permeate syrups. Furthermore, the effect of temperature on viscosity of the syrups was investigated during heating and cooling processes at the same shear rate (50s(-1)). This study provides idea of the stability of the syrup by evaluating the area between heating and cooling curves. Actually, the syrup prepared from male sap permeate is the most stable between the four studied syrups. PMID:26948603

  2. [Gene analysis of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD)].

    Mitsubuchi, H; Nobukuni, Y; Hayashida, Y; Ohta, K; Indo, Y; Akaboshi, I; Endo, F; Matsuda, I

    1993-05-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), an autosomal recessive hereditary metabolic disorder, is due to defective oxidative decarboxylation of the branched-chain alpha-ketoacids (BCKAs) derived from transamination of the three branched-chain amino acids, valine, leucine and isoleucine. The oxidative decarboxylation of three BCKAs is catalysed by the branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex. BCKDH consists of three catalytic components: E1, E2 and E3. The E1 component is further composed of two subunits, E1 alpha and E1 beta. To clarify the mechanisms involved in MSUD, measurements of the enzyme activity in cultured cells, measurements of the generation time in cultured cells, complementation analysis and immunoblot analysis were performed. To further elucidate the molecular mechanisms of MSUD, we and others isolated and characterized cDNAs encoding BCKDH-E1 alpha, E1 beta, E2 and E3. The human genome structures of BCKDH -E1 alpha, E1 beta and E2 were also characterized. Gene mutations in E1 alpha, E1 beta and E2, respectively, were identified at the molecular level in three cases of classical MSUD. It became clear that the molecular mechanisms of MSUD involved not only the function of each subunit but also the protein-protein interactions between each subunit. In an attempt to further analyse the molecular basis of MSUD, we carried out complementation analyses by somatic cell hybridization, and identified the affected component of BCKDH complex in the MSUD patient. Furthermore, to rapidly screen for gene mutations, we used PCR-SSCP analysis. Seventeen patients with MSUD were examined using these methods. Defects of E1 alpha, E1 beta and E2 subunits were suspected in 8, 5, and 4 patients, respectively, by complementation analysis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8350511

  3. Protein and leucine metabolism in maple syrup urine disease

    Constant infusions of [13C]leucine and [2H5]phenylalanine were used to trace leucine and protein kinetics, respectively, in seven children with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) and eleven controls matched for age and dietary protein intake. Despite significant elevations of plasma leucine (mean 351 mumol/l, range 224-477) in MSUD subjects, mean whole body protein synthesis [3.78 +/- 0.42 (SD) g.kg-1. 24 h-1] and catabolism (4.07 +/- 0.46) were similar to control values (3.69 +/- 0.50 and 4.09 +/- 0.50, respectively). The relationship between phenylalanine and leucine fluxes was also similar in MSUD subjects (mean phenylalanine-leucine flux ratio 0.35 +/- 0.07) and previously reported adult controls (0.33 +/- 0.02). Leucine oxidation was undetectable in four of the MSUD subjects and very low in the other three (less than 4 mumol.kg-1.h-1; controls 13-20). These results show that persistent elevation in leucine concentration has no effect on protein synthesis. The marked disturbance in leucine metabolism in MSUD did not alter the relationship between rates of catabolism of protein to phenylalanine and leucine, which provides further support for the validity of the use of a single amino acid to trace whole body protein metabolism. The minimal leucine oxidation in MSUD differs from findings in other inborn metabolic errors and indicates that in patients with classical MSUD there is no significant route of leucine disposal other than through protein synthesis

  4. The Abuse of Dextromethorphan-Based Cough Syrup: A Pilot Study of the Community of Waynesboro, Pennsylvania.

    Momodou, N. Darboe; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the emergence of a new type of abused drug, dextromethorphan, which is used in cough syrup. Presents the results of the first phase of a comprehensive investigation of this phenomenon in the Waynesboro, Pa. school district. Survey data indicate abuse of cough syrup has increased over the years and is increasingly perceived as a problem…

  5. Evaluation of Clinical Efficacy and Tolerance of Khasceeze –SF Cough Syrup

    S Satam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty patients of either sex aged 15 - 65 years entered the study to test the efficacy and tolerability of a herbal preparation known as Khasceeze-SF Cough Syrup. They were studied for cough and related symptoms such as sore throat, sneezing, breathlessness and fever. Substantial improvement, i.e., excellent to good response, in relief of cough and other symptoms was noted over 84% out of 50 patients and fair response in 11.64%. Only 4.10% patients showed poor relief in symptoms hence suggested Khasceeze-SF Cough Syrup facilitated a healing touch to the diseased bronchial tree and helps alleviate the cough of any aetiology. No drowsiness, irritability, or dryness in mouth was seen with Khasceeze-SF Cough Syrup.

  6. FTIR characterization of Mexican honey and its adulteration with sugar syrups by using chemometric methods

    A chemometric analysis of adulteration of Mexican honey by sugar syrups such as corn syrup and cane sugar syrup was realized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to measure the absorption of a group of bee honey samples from central region of Mexico. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to process FTIR spectra to determine the adulteration of bee honey. In addition to that, the content of individual sugars from honey samples: glucose, fructose, sucrose and monosaccharides was determined by using PLS-FTIR analysis validated by HPLC measurements. This analytical methodology which is based in infrared spectroscopy and chemometry can be an alternative technique to characterize and also to determine the purity and authenticity of nutritional products as bee honey and other natural products.

  7. Optimization of Osmotic Dehydration of Apples Slices in Dates Syrup Using the Response Surface Methodology

    H. Acheheb

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Osmotic dehydration of apple slices in continuous kinetic was studied using dates syrup at different concentration (52-74%, temperature (30-60°C, time (15-240 min. The response surface methodology was used to optimize effects of temperature, syrup concentration and immersion time in osmotic dehydration of apples slices in date syrup. A composite central design was used with water loss (WL% and solid gain (SG % as responses. The models obtained for all the responses were significant (p<0.05. The optimal conditions for maximum water loss and solid gains (75.52 and 17.92% correspond to 60°C for a concentration of 74% (w/w during 240 min.

  8. FTIR characterization of Mexican honey and its adulteration with sugar syrups by using chemometric methods

    Rios-Corripio, M A; Rojas-Lopez, M; Delgado-Macuil, R [CIBA-Tlaxcala, IPN, Tlaxcala, Tlax. (Mexico); Rios-Leal, E, E-mail: marlonrl@yahoo.com.mx [CINVESTAV, Zacatenco, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    A chemometric analysis of adulteration of Mexican honey by sugar syrups such as corn syrup and cane sugar syrup was realized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to measure the absorption of a group of bee honey samples from central region of Mexico. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to process FTIR spectra to determine the adulteration of bee honey. In addition to that, the content of individual sugars from honey samples: glucose, fructose, sucrose and monosaccharides was determined by using PLS-FTIR analysis validated by HPLC measurements. This analytical methodology which is based in infrared spectroscopy and chemometry can be an alternative technique to characterize and also to determine the purity and authenticity of nutritional products as bee honey and other natural products.

  9. A New Approach of Syrup Manufacturing Using Fuzzy Time Control Discrete Event System

    Syed Fazil Bin Farukh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Pharmaceutical industries of world are manufacturing their most of the goods in syrup form. The proposed study relates with the designing of medicated syrup manufacturing using the fuzzy time control discrete event system. The system is designed with three inputs; viscosity, specific gravity, and chemical selection. And eight outputs temperature, temperature time, mixing speed, mixing time, valve, valve opening time, PH at current liquid temperature, and PH time. System is controlled by controlling the four parameters; valve selection, temperature monitoring unit, mixing motor, and PH control unit. System takes feed back from four sensors and time control rules are formulated and simulated using MATLAB tool box.

  10. The effects of 90-day feeding of D-psicose syrup in male wistar rats

    Tatsuhiro Matsuo; Reika Ishii; Yoko Shirai

    2011-01-01

    D-Psicose is a rare sugar present in small quantities in natural products. In a previous study, we showed that D-psicose suppresses increase in plasma glucose and reduces body fat accumulation in rats. Based on acute and chronic toxicity testing in rats, D-psicose is classified as an ordinary and safe substance. Recently, we developed a high D-psicose syrup (PS) made from high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) by the alkaline isomerization method. However, the safety of PS as a food additive has not...

  11. [Discrimination of Rice Syrup Adulterant of Acacia Honey Based Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy].

    Zhang, Yan-nan; Chen, Lan-zhen; Xue, Xiao-feng; Wu, Li-ming; Li, Yi; Yang, Juan

    2015-09-01

    At present, the rice syrup as a low price of the sweeteners was often adulterated into acacia honey and the adulterated honeys were sold in honey markets, while there is no suitable and fast method to identify honey adulterated with rice syrup. In this study, Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) combined with chemometric methods were used to discriminate authenticity of honey. 20 unprocessed acacia honey samples from the different honey producing areas, mixed? with different proportion of rice syrup, were prepared of seven different concentration gradient? including 121 samples. The near infrared spectrum (NIR) instrument and spectrum processing software have been applied in the? spectrum? scanning and data conversion on adulterant samples, respectively. Then it was analyzed by Principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical discriminant analysis methods in order to discriminating adulterated honey. The results showed that after principal components analysis, the first two principal components accounted for 97.23% of total variation, but the regionalism of the score plot of the first two PCs was not obvious, so the canonical discriminant analysis was used to make the further discrimination, all samples had been discriminated correctly, the first two discriminant functions accounted for 91.6% among the six canonical discriminant functions, Then the different concentration of adulterant samples can be discriminated correctly, it illustrate that canonical discriminant analysis method combined with NIR spectroscopy is not only feasible but also practical for rapid and effective discriminate of the rice syrup adulterant of acacia honey. PMID:26669162

  12. Are agrochemicals present in high fructose corn syrup fed to honey bees (Apis mellifera L.)?

    Honey bee colonies are commonly fed high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as a nectar substitute. Many agrochemicals are applied to corn during cultivation including systemic neonicotinoids. Whether agrochemicals are present in HFCS fed to bees is unknown. Samples from the major manufacturers and distri...

  13. A critical examination of the evidence relating high fructose corn syrup and weight gain

    The use of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has increased over the past several decades in the United States while overweight and obesity rates have risen dramatically. Some scientists hypothesize that HFCS consumption has uniquely contributed to the increasing mean body mass index (BMI) of the U.S....

  14. Carbohydrate composition of high fructose corn syrups (HFCS) used for bee feeding. Effect on honey composition.

    In the present study, carbohydrate composition of high fructose corn syrups (HFCS) from commercial manufacturers as well as from beekeepers was deeply characterised by GC-MS. Sucrose syryps (SS) were also included in this work for comparison. Fructosyl-fructoses and some unknown carbohydrates prob...

  15. Oral Herpes

    ... Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer ... Herpes Main Content Title: Oral ...

  16. Stability of rifabutin in two extemporaneously compounded oral liquids.

    Haslam, J L; Egodage, K L; Chen, Y; Rajewski, R A; Stella, V

    1999-02-15

    The stability of rifabutin 20 mg/mL in two oral liquids was studied. Powder from 100 150-mg rifabutin capsules was placed in a glass mortar. Cherry syrup (pH 2.9) or a 1:1 mixture of Ora-Sweet and Ora-Plus (Paddock Laboratories) was added to produce 750 mL of each formulation, which was then stored in 2-oz plastic prescription bottles. Three bottles of each formulation were stored at 4, 25, 30, and 40 degrees C. At 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks, the bottles were collected and allowed to remain at room temperature for one hour; samples of about 1 mL were collected from each bottle, weighed, and assayed for rifabutin content by high-performance liquid chromatography. The rifabutin liquids prepared with cherry syrup and stored at 4, 25, and 30 degrees C lost a mean of 10% of the initial drug concentration by 12 weeks. There was a mean loss of Ora-Sweet and Ora-Plus. The liquid prepared with cherry syrup, upon standing, showed a tendency for some of the ingredients to float. The suspension prepared with Ora-Sweet and Ora-Plus had a tendency to retain bubbles after it was shaken, but the ingredients did not settle upon standing. Rifabutin 20 mg/mL in two extemporaneously compounded oral liquids prepared from capsules and sweetened vehicles was stable for at least 12 weeks at 4, 25, 30, and 40 degrees C with the exception of rifabutin in cherry syrup, which was stable for only 8 weeks at 40 degrees C. PMID:10690216

  17. Evaluation of microbial and physico-chemical qualities of some cough syrups marketed in Sana’a city, Yemen.

    Ali G. Al?Kaf; Saeed M. Alghalibi; Wadhah H. Edrees

    2015-01-01

    Context: Microbial contamination of cough syrups can bring clinical hazards to the users or patients as well as physical and chemical changes in the product. Aims: To evaluate the microbial and physicochemical characteristics of two hundred samples of four different types of cough syrups marketed in Sana’a city, Yemen. Methods: All collected samples were subjected to the following examinations: the total microbial count, type of isolated microorganisms, physical parameters, and concen...

  18. Physicochemical, Proximate and Sensory Properties of Pineapple (Ananas sp.) Syrup Developed from Its Organic Side-Stream

    Tortoe, C.; Johnson, P.N.T.; Slaghek, T.; Miedema, M.; Timmermans, T.

    2013-01-01

    A major economical industrial challenge from pineapple (Ananas sp.) processing contributing to environmental pollu- tion is the organic side-streams of pineapple. The physicochemical, proximate and sensory properties of organic side- stream pineapple syrup (OSPS) developed from Smooth cayenne, Sugar loaf and MD2 pineapple varieties were evalu- ated. Organic side-stream pineapple syrup developed from MD2 recorded the highest moisture content with a corre- sponding water activity. The colour ch...

  19. Physicochemical, Proximate and Sensory Properties of Pineapple (Ananas sp.) Syrup Developed from Its Organic Side-Stream

    Theo Timmermans; Matilde Miedema; Ted Slaghek; Johnson, Paa-Nii T.; Charles Tortoe

    2013-01-01

    A major economical industrial challenge from pineapple (Ananas sp.) processing contributing to environmental pollution is the organic side-streams of pineapple. The physicochemical, proximate and sensory properties of organic sidestream pineapple syrup (OSPS) developed from Smooth cayenne, Sugar loaf and MD2 pineapple varieties were evaluated. Organic side-stream pineapple syrup developed from MD2 recorded the highest moisture content with a corresponding water activity. The colour change in...

  20. Treatment of pediculosis capitis with topical albendazole.

    Ayoub, Nakhlé; Maatouk, Ismaël; Merhy, Martin; Tomb, Roland

    2012-02-01

    Pediculosis capitis, or head lice infestation, caused by Pediculus humanus capitis, is a common and ubiquitous health concern. Increasing resistance and treatment failures are reported with available topical pediculicides and may prove challenging to manage. Recent data indicate that the oral anti-helmintic agents thiabendazole and albendazole could represent new therapeutic options against pediculosis capitis. We report a novel treatment modality in four patients with head lice who were successfully treated with a topical application of albendazole. PMID:20964575

  1. Topical Melatonin for Treatment of Androgenetic Alopecia

    Tobias W. Fischer; Trüeb, Ralph M.; Hänggi, Gabriella; Innocenti, Marcello; Elsner, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background: In the search for alternative agents to oral finasteride and topical minoxidil for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia (AGA), melatonin, a potent antioxidant and growth modulator, was identified as a promising candidate based on in vitro and in vivo studies. Materials and Methods: One pharmacodynamic study on topical application of melatonin and four clinical pre-post studies were performed in patients with androgenetic alopecia or general hair loss and evaluated by standardise...

  2. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy reflects metabolic decompensation in maple syrup urine disease

    Heindel, W. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Koeln (Germany); Kugel, H. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Koeln (Germany); Wendel, U. [Children`s Hospital, Univ. Duesseldorf (Germany); Roth, B. [Children`s Hospital, Univ. Koeln (Germany); Benz-Bohm, G. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Koeln (Germany)

    1995-06-01

    Using localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS), accumulation of branchedchain amino acids (BCAA) and their corresponding 2-oxo acids (BCOA) could be non-invasively demonstrated in the brain of a 9-year-old girl suffering from classical maple syrup urine disease. During acute metabolic decompensation, the compounds caused a signal at a chemical shift of 0.9 ppm which was assigned by in vitro experiments. The brain tissue concentration of the sum of BCAA and BCOA could be estimated as 0.9 mmol/l. Localized {sup 1}H-MRS of the brain appears to be suitable for examining patients suffering from maple syrup urine disease in different metabolic states. (orig.)

  3. CLINICAL EFFICACY OF CRUX SYRUP IN THE MANAGEMENT OF COUGH DUE TO VARIOUS ETIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

    Patel Girish

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cough associated with acute and chronic respiratory conditions is common in patients of all ages. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical efficacy of CRUX syrup, a proprietary mixture of herbal ingredients in the management of cough of various etiological conditions in open label, uncontrolled, prospective cohort study. 55 Patients aged 9 - 64 years with cough of more than 1 day but less than 14 days duration was recruited. They were prescribed dose of CRUX syrup according to severity of cough for three days. Treatment results were assessed on the basis of Investigator’s evaluation. At the end of three days prescribed treatment, evaluator’s assessment shown that 29 % patient gave excellent, 55 % patient gave good, 11 % patient gave fair and 5 % patient gave poor response to treatment. The results demonstrate that CRUX treatment has significant decrease in the frequency and severity of cough without any significant side effect in patients of all ages.

  4. Maple Syrup Decreases TDP-43 Proteotoxicity in a Caenorhabditis elegans Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS).

    Aaron, Catherine; Beaudry, Gabrielle; Parker, J Alex; Therrien, Martine

    2016-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease causing death of the motor neurons. Proteotoxicity caused by TDP-43 protein is an important aspect of ALS pathogenesis, with TDP-43 being the main constituent of the aggregates found in patients. We have previously tested the effect of different sugars on the proteotoxicity caused by the expression of mutant TDP-43 in Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we tested maple syrup, a natural compound containing many active molecules including sugars and phenols, for neuroprotective activity. Maple syrup decreased several age-dependent phenotypes caused by the expression of TDP-43(A315T) in C. elegans motor neurons and requires the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 to be effective. PMID:27071850

  5. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy reflects metabolic decompensation in maple syrup urine disease

    Using localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), accumulation of branchedchain amino acids (BCAA) and their corresponding 2-oxo acids (BCOA) could be non-invasively demonstrated in the brain of a 9-year-old girl suffering from classical maple syrup urine disease. During acute metabolic decompensation, the compounds caused a signal at a chemical shift of 0.9 ppm which was assigned by in vitro experiments. The brain tissue concentration of the sum of BCAA and BCOA could be estimated as 0.9 mmol/l. Localized 1H-MRS of the brain appears to be suitable for examining patients suffering from maple syrup urine disease in different metabolic states. (orig.)

  6. Haemodialysis is an effective treatment in acute metabolic decompensation of maple syrup urine disease

    P.S. Atwal; C. Macmurdo; Grimm, P. C.

    2015-01-01

    Acute metabolic decompensation in maple syrup urine disease can occur during intercurrent illness and is a medical emergency. A handful of reports in the medical literature describe the use of peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis as therapeutic inventions. We report the only patient from our centre to have haemodialysis performed in this setting. Combined with dietary BCAA restriction and calorific support, haemodialysis allows rapid reduction in plasma leucine concentrations considerably fa...

  7. Comparison of breath testing with fructose and high fructose corn syrups in health and IBS

    Skoog, S. M.; Bharucha, A E; ZINSMEISTER, A. R.

    2008-01-01

    Although incomplete fructose absorption has been implicated to cause gastrointestinal symptoms, foods containing high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) contain glucose. Glucose increases fructose absorption in healthy subjects. Our hypothesis was that fructose intolerance is less prevalent after HFCS consumption compared to fructose alone in healthy subjects and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Breath hydrogen levels and gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed after 40 g of fructose (12% solution) pr...

  8. Diet-dependent gene expression in honey bees: honey vs. sucrose or high fructose corn syrup

    Wheeler, Marsha M; Robinson, Gene E.

    2014-01-01

    Severe declines in honey bee populations have made it imperative to understand key factors impacting honey bee health. Of major concern is nutrition, as malnutrition in honey bees is associated with immune system impairment and increased pesticide susceptibility. Beekeepers often feed high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) or sucrose after harvesting honey or during periods of nectar dearth. We report that, relative to honey, chronic feeding of either of these two alternative carbohydrate sources el...

  9. Highly efficient production of inverted syrup in an analytical column with immobilized invertase

    Upadhyay, Lata Sheo Bachan; Verma, Nishant

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a procedure by which a simple and economical analytical column containing immobilized invertase was developed. This column has high efficiency of converting sucrose into inverted syrup rapidly. Gelatine beads were used for the immobilization of invertase. The enzyme was entrapped efficiently and was found to be stable and retained its activity over a period of 3 months. Immobilization parameters for maximum enzyme activity were estimated as temperature optima at 60 °C, pH ...

  10. Haemodialysis is an effective treatment in acute metabolic decompensation of maple syrup urine disease

    P.S. Atwal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute metabolic decompensation in maple syrup urine disease can occur during intercurrent illness and is a medical emergency. A handful of reports in the medical literature describe the use of peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis as therapeutic inventions. We report the only patient from our centre to have haemodialysis performed in this setting. Combined with dietary BCAA restriction and calorific support, haemodialysis allows rapid reduction in plasma leucine concentrations considerably faster than conservative methods.

  11. Potential Toxic Levels of Cyanide in Almonds (Prunus amygdalus), Apricot Kernels (Prunus armeniaca), and Almond Syrup

    Nadia Chaouali; Ines Gana; Amira Dorra; Fathia Khelifi; Anouer Nouioui; Wafa Masri; Ines Belwaer; Hayet Ghorbel; Abderazzek Hedhili

    2013-01-01

    Under normal environmental conditions, many plants synthesize cyanogenic glycosides, which are able to release hydrogen cyanide upon hydrolysis. Each year, there are frequent livestock and occasional human victims of cyanogenic plants consumption. The present work aims to determine the hydrocyanic acid content in different samples of cyanogenic plants, selected from the Tunisian flora, and in the almond syrup. In order to evaluate their toxicity and their impact on the consumer health in the ...

  12. Haemodialysis is an effective treatment in acute metabolic decompensation of maple syrup urine disease.

    Atwal, P S; Macmurdo, C; Grimm, P C

    2015-09-01

    Acute metabolic decompensation in maple syrup urine disease can occur during intercurrent illness and is a medical emergency. A handful of reports in the medical literature describe the use of peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis as therapeutic inventions. We report the only patient from our centre to have haemodialysis performed in this setting. Combined with dietary BCAA restriction and calorific support, haemodialysis allows rapid reduction in plasma leucine concentrations considerably faster than conservative methods. PMID:26937409

  13. Alternatives for clarifying glucose syrup obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of starch

    Gloria Teresa Cruz Guerrero

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper studies some routes for separating and purifying glucose syrup obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of potato starch. The clarifying process is done in three stages. The first one (solids remotion is done by applying conventional solid-liquid separation techniiques such as sedimentation, centrifugation and filtration, as well as studying the effect of using flocculant and coagulant agents, prior to the already mentioned operations. Purification is done by adding decolouring agents, followed by ultrafiltration of the syrup. The last step (concentration is done by vacuum evaporation. The results showed that separation, centrifuging and sedimation reached 50% yield whilst filtration and ultrafiltration achieved 78% and 98% respectively. It was found that adsorbent agents such as activated carbon and diatomaceous earth were effective in removing colour during the purification stage. The most suitable alternative for separation can be suggested from the foregoing, allowing a syrup to be obtained having similar characteristics and propierties to the commercial product. The most appropriate technological module for carrying out the operation is also represented.

  14. Oral Cancer

    ... Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer ... This Page Facebook External link – please review ...

  15. Oral Myiasis

    Saravanan, Thalaimalai; Mohan, Mathan A; Thinakaran, Meera; Ahammed, Saneem

    2015-01-01

    Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy. PMID:25709196

  16. Oral Myiasis

    Thalaimalai Saravanan; Mohan, Mathan A; Meera Thinakaran; Saneem Ahammed

    2015-01-01

    Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability ...

  17. Development of orally disintegrating tablets comprising controlled-release multiparticulate beads

    Venkatesh, Gopi M.; Stevens, Phillip J.; Lai, Jin-Wang

    2012-01-01

    Melperone is an atypical antipsychotic agent that has shown a wide spectrum of neuroleptic properties, particularly effective in the treatment of senile dementia and Parkinson’s-associated psychosis, and is marketed in Europe as an immediate-release (IR) tablet and syrup. An orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) dosage form would be advantageous for patients who experience difficulty in swallowing large tablets or capsules or those who experience dysphagia. Controlled-release (CR) capsule and OD...

  18. Effect of conventional and sugar free pediatric syrup formulations on primary tooth enamel hardness: An in vitro study

    Gaurao Vasant Mali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess and compare the effect of conventional and sugar free pediatric syrup formulations on primary tooth enamel hardness over a period of 14 days. Materials and Methods: An in vitro study was done on 40 noncarious deciduous teeth. 10 teeth in each group were dipped in 4 pediatric medicinal syrups (1 sugarfree and 3 conventional for 1 min thrice daily for 14 days and the enamel surface micro hardness was checked at baseline, 7 th day and 14 th day by Vickers hardness testing machine. The pH, titratable acidity and buffering capacity of the syrups were assessed. Results: The pH of syrups were above critical pH for demineralization of the tooth but tiratable acidity and buffering capacity differed. ANOVA test indicated that the reduction in mean micro hardness was maximum in Group D (Conventional Analgesic syrup and least in Group A (Sugarfree cough syrup on 7 th and 14 th day. On intergroup comparison there was no difference (P > 0.05 in micro hardness between Group B (Conventional Cough syrup and Group C (Conventional Antibiotic. However, highly significant (P < 0.01 difference between the either pair of Group B with Group D, and Group C with Group D on 14 th day. The percentage reduction in micro hardness on 14 th day was maximum for Group D (24.4 ± 2.2 and minimum for Group A (14.0 ± 1.3 which was statistically significant (P < 0.01. Conclusion: Sugar free pediatric medicines can be effective in reducing dental erosion and efforts should be made to incorporate sugar substitutes in formulation of pediatric medicines.

  19. Topical report review status

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This report provides industry with procedures for submitting topical reports, guidance on how the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) processes and responds to topical report submittals, and an accounting, with review schedules, of all topical reports currently accepted for review schedules, of all topical reports currently accepted for review by the NRC. This report will be published annually. Each sponsoring organization with one or more topical reports accepted for review copies.

  20. Topical report review status

    This report provides industry with procedures for submitting topical reports, guidance on how the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) processes and responds to topical report submittals, and an accounting, with review schedules, of all topical reports currently accepted for review schedules, of all topical reports currently accepted for review by the NRC. This report will be published annually. Each sponsoring organization with one or more topical reports accepted for review copies

  1. Oral mucositis.

    Scully, C; Sonis, S; Diz, P D

    2006-05-01

    Mucositis and xerostomia are the most common oral complications of the non-surgical therapy of cancer. Mucositis, a common sequel of radio- (DXR), chemo-(CXR) and radiochemo-therapy in patients with cancer, or patients requiring haemopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT), has a direct and significant impact on the quality of life and cost of care, and also affects survival--because of the risk of infection. Apart from dose reduction, preventive and treatment options for mucositis are scarce, although multiple agents have been tested. Evidence suggests that cryotherapy, topical benzydamine and amifostine might provide some benefit in specific situations. The recombinant human keratinocyte growth factor Palifermin (Kepivance) was recently approved as a mucositis intervention in patients receiving conditioning regimens before HSCT for the treatment of haematological malignancies. A number of mechanistically based interventions are in various stages of development. Unfortunately, many other approaches have not been rigorously tested. This paper reviews the clinical features, prevalence, diagnosis, complications, pathogenesis, prophylaxis and management of mucositis. PMID:16700732

  2. Evaluation of the Nutritional Value of Functional Yogurt Resulting from Combination of Date Palm Syrup and Skim Milk

    A.F. Sayed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to use date palm syrup as a part of water (v/v used in reconstituting skim milk powder in processing yogurt with 14% total solids. Physical properties such as sensory characteristics and apparent viscosity were evaluated. To evaluate the nutritional value of yogurt, antioxidant values were monitored during storage and the sample which recorded the highest values would determine its chemical composition. In addition, some micronutrients (HCl-soluble minerals and (folate and C vitamins compared to plain yogurt. Results showed that yogurt enriched with 10% date syrup had a significant sweetness, recorded the highest antioxidant values, higher in HCl-soluble minerals and folate concentration compared to plain yogurt. It could be concluded that numerous health benefits beyond its nutritional value have been associated with consuming yogurt enriched with 10% date palm syrup.

  3. Opium tincture versus methadone syrup in management of acute raw opium withdrawal: A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.

    Tabassomi, Farzaneh; Zarghami, Mehran; Shiran, Mohammad-Reza; Farnia, Samaneh; Davoodi, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of opium tincture versus methadone syrup in the management of acute withdrawal syndrome in opium dependent patients during the detoxification period. In this double-blind randomized controlled study, a total of 74 adult male raw opium dependent patients were treated with opium tincture or methadone syrup 2 times daily for 5 consecutive days. Detoxification was initiated by tapered dose reductions to reach abstinence. At the end of the 10th day, the medications were discontinued. The Objective Opioid Withdrawal Scale was used to assess withdrawal symptoms every day. Significant decreases on the Objective Opioid Withdrawal Scale were found for both treatment methods during the study period (p Opium tincture can be considered as a potential substitute for methadone syrup for suppression of raw opium withdrawal symptoms, with minimal adverse effects. PMID:26566681

  4. [Oral antibiotic treatment of urinary tract infections in children].

    Klingenberg, Claus; Småbrekke, Lars; Døllner, Henrik; Simonsen, Gunnar Skov

    2009-06-25

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections in childhood. Empiric antibiotic therapy is guided by the clinical presentation, the patient's ability to take oral agents and the local resistance pattern of Escherichia coli (E. coli), the most common pathogen. Most children (with both upper and lower UTI) can safely be treated with oral antibiotics. We recommend pivmecillinam or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid as first-line empiric therapy for upper UTI. Amoxicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are no longer first-line oral agents due to increasing E. coli resistance to both drugs. For lower UTI nitrofurantoin is an excellent first choice. In Norway, lack of paediatric antibiotic syrups is a great challenge and we recommend that such formulations are introduced to the Norwegian market. PMID:19561661

  5. Simultaneous Estimation of Four Antitussive Components from Herbal Cough Syrup by HPTLC

    Sharada L. Deore; Jaju, Payal S.; Baviskar, Bhushan A.

    2014-01-01

    A new simple, rapid, selective and precise high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method has been developed for simultaneous estimation of vasicine, glycyrrhizin, eugenol, and cineole in herbal cough syrup. The retention factors of vasicine, glycyrrhizin, eugenol, and cineole are 0.53, 0.44, 0.75, and 0.77, respectively. Chromatography was performed on 60F254 percolated TLC plate using n-hexane : ethyl acetate : glacial acetic acid (8.5 : 1.0 : 0.5 v/v/v). Methods are validated a...

  6. Effect of honey vinegar syrup on blood sugar and lipid profile in healthy subjects

    Seyedeh-Masomeh Derakhshandeh-Rishehri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The impact of honey or vinegar on several metabolic abnormalities has been studied separately, a mixture of these two ingredients known as honey vinegar syrup (HVS has not been investigated previously so far. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HVS consumption (Iranian′s traditional syrup on glycemic parameters and lipid profiles in healthy individuals. Methods: We conducted a 4-week, randomized, controlled, parallel study consisting of two groups of nonobese healthy volunteers. All subjects were asked to stay on their normal diet. Intervention group (n = 36 received a cup of HVS daily in the evening snack for 4-week (250 cc syrup contains 21.66 g honey vinegar. Assessments of fasting blood sugar (FBS, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C were conducted at the baseline and after 4-week of study. Results: We observed no significant effect of HVS on FBS, HOMA-IR, LDL-C and TG. A significant effect of HVS was found on increasing fasting insulin and HOMA-IR and reduction in TC level only in intervention group (Δ =3.39 P = 0.01, Δ =1.65 P = 0.03, Δ = −9.43 P = 0.005, respectively. Changes of FBS, TG and LDL-C were 1.83 mg/dl, −1.53 mg/dl and − 3.99 mg/dl respectively in the intervention group. These changes were not significant. An unfavorable and significant reduction in HDL-C level was also observed between two groups (Δ = −4.82 P < 0.001 in the intervention group. Conclusions: Honey vinegar syrup increased fasting insulin level and decreased TC level in the intervention group. HVS had an unfavorable effect on HDL-C level. Further prospective investigations are warranted to confirm these findings.

  7. Oral myiasis

    Thalaimalai Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy.

  8. Freshman Health Topics

    Hovde, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a cluster of health topics that are frequently selected by students in lower division classes. Topics address issues relating to addictive substances, including alcohol and tobacco, eating disorders, obesity, and dieting. Analysis of the topics examines their interrelationships and organization in the reference literature.…

  9. Freshman Health Topics

    Hovde, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a cluster of health topics that are frequently selected by students in lower division classes. Topics address issues relating to addictive substances, including alcohol and tobacco, eating disorders, obesity, and dieting. Analysis of the topics examines their interrelationships and organization in the reference literature.…

  10. The Effect of Viola odorata Flower Syrup on the Cough of Children With Asthma: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Qasemzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Sharifi, Hosein; Hamedanian, Mohammad; Gharehbeglou, Mohammad; Heydari, Mojtaba; Sardari, Mehdi; Akhlaghdoust, Meisam; Minae, Mohammad Bagher

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of violet syrup on cough alleviation in children with intermittent asthma. In a parallel, double-blind, randomized controlled trial, 182 children aged 2 to 12 years with intermittent asthma were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive violet syrup or placebo along with the common standard treatments in both groups (short-acting β-agonist). Both groups were evaluated in terms of the duration until cough suppression was achieved. No significant difference was observed in basic characteristics. The duration lasting to yield more than 50% cough reduction and 100% cough suppression was significantly less in the violet syrup group compared to placebo (P = .001, P cough alleviation and suppression by violet syrup. This study showed that the adjuvant use of violet syrup with short-acting β-agonist can enhance the cough suppression in children with intermittent asthma. PMID:25954025

  11. Health Topic XML File Description

    ... topic URL. The URL for the corresponding health topic page on MedlinePlus. Example: url="https://www.nlm.nih. ... related topics shown on the left sidebar of topic pages and other pages. Example: topic title="Abdominal ...

  12. Syntactic Topic Models

    Boyd-Graber, Jordan

    2010-01-01

    The syntactic topic model (STM) is a Bayesian nonparametric model of language that discovers latent distributions of words (topics) that are both semantically and syntactically coherent. The STM models dependency parsed corpora where sentences are grouped into documents. It assumes that each word is drawn from a latent topic chosen by combining document-level features and the local syntactic context. Each document has a distribution over latent topics, as in topic models, which provides the semantic consistency. Each element in the dependency parse tree also has a distribution over the topics of its children, as in latent-state syntax models, which provides the syntactic consistency. These distributions are convolved so that the topic of each word is likely under both its document and syntactic context. We derive a fast posterior inference algorithm based on variational methods. We report qualitative and quantitative studies on both synthetic data and hand-parsed documents. We show that the STM is a more pred...

  13. Irradiation mucositis and oral flora

    This study, which is motivated by the substantial morbidity of local signs of mucositis and generalized symptoms that result from mucositis induced by therapeutic irradiation, has the following objectives: To investigate if it is possible to prevent irradiation mucositis via oral flora elimination, and, if it is true that flora plays a role in irradiation mucositis, what fraction of the oral flora may be involved; to evaluate oral Gram-negative bacillary carriage; to investigate the possibility to eradicate Gram-negative bacilli from the oral cavity; to evaluate oral yeast carriage; to investigate the possibility to eradicate yeasts stomatitis and the 'selectivity' of elimination of flora. Two methods are described for monitoring alterations of mucositis of the oral cavity and changes in oral flora. Chlorhexidine has been tested as the commonly used prophylaxis. The effect of chlorhexidine 0.1% rinses on oral flora and mucositis has been studied in a prospective placebo controlled double blind randomized programme. The results of the influence of saliva on the antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine and the results of selective elimination of oral flora in irradiated patients who have head and neck cancer are reported. Salivary inactivation of the topical antimicrobials used for selective elimination of oral flora has been studied and the results are reported. Finally, the objectives that have been achieved (or not) are delineated. The significance of the results of the study are discussed in terms of published information and further lines of research are suggested. (author). 559 refs.; 29 figs.; 20 tabs

  14. Simultaneous determination of phenylephrine hydrochloride, guaifenesin, and chlorpheniramine maleate in cough syrup by gradient liquid chromatography.

    Amer, Sawsan M; Abbas, Samah S; Shehata, Mostafa A; Ali, Nahed M

    2008-01-01

    A simple and reliable high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of mixture of phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHENYL), guaifenesin (GUAIF), and chlorpheniramine maleate (CHLO) either in pure form or in the presence of methylparaben and propylparaben in a commercial cough syrup dosage form. Separation was achieved on a C8 column using 0.005 M heptane sulfonic acid sodium salt (pH 3.4 +/- 0.1) and acetonitrile as a mobile phase by gradient elution at different flow rates, and detection was done spectrophotometrically at 210 nm. A linear relationship in the range of 30-180, 120-1800, and 10-60 microg/mL was obtained for PHENYL, GUAIF, and CHLO, respectively. The results were statistically analyzed and compared with those obtained by applying the British Pharmacopoeia (2002) method and showed that the proposed method is precise, accurate, and can be easily applied for the determination of the drugs under investigation in pure form and in cough syrup formulations. PMID:18476338

  15. Evaluation of toxic heavy metals in ayurvedic syrups sold in local markets of hazara, pakistan

    Herbal and Ayurvedic preparations, widely used in Pakistan and the developing world, present serious risk of heavy metal toxicity related to their medicinal content and prolonged use by patients. The objective of this study was to find out the concentration of heavy metals in Herbal and Ayurvedic liquid preparations commonly used for treatment of different diseases, from local markets of Hazara. Methods: The cross sectional survey of traditional herbal and Ayurvedic medicine shops included ten liquid preparations selected from local shops of Mansehra and Abbottabad after interviewing the shopkeepers; so as to select the most commonly sold preparations along with their indications. All samples were analysed on standard Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy for qualitative and quantitative study of toxic heavy metals (Mercury, Iron, Zinc, Lead, Manganese and Arsenic). Results: Toxic levels of Mercury were present in seven syrups, i.e., (Kashneeze, Akseer e Pachas, Tankar, Sharbat e folad, Urosinal, Akseer e Jigar and Amrat dhara) while Arsenic was present only in Urosinal. Iron, Zinc, Manganese and Lead were present in permissible limits in all syrups. Conclusion: Mercury and Arsenic are present in local Herbal and Ayurvedic liquid preparations far beyond the permissible limits as proposed by the International Regulatory Authorities for health drugs while the rest of metals, i.e., Zinc, Manganese, and Iron are within the therapeutic limits. (author)

  16. Syrup of ipecac awareness: the use of a survey to direct future education efforts.

    Krenzelok, E P; Garber, R J; Sauer, W J; Dean, B S

    1988-02-01

    Syrup of ipecac awareness has been a major educational endeavor of our poison center for nearly 15 years. Educational efforts have been widespread and not directed specifically at any demographic population. A telephone survey was developed to determine our effectiveness in creating awareness and to identify demographic trends which would direct our future efforts. Respondents were randomly selected from the metropolitan telephone directory. Four hundred surveys were completed. The data was analyzed for statistical significance using chi square. The demographic background of the respondents compared favorably with that published by the Census Bureau. Fifty and six tenths percent were aware of syrup of ipecac. Age groups between 30-59 were more aware of ipecac than younger or older groups. Females were more aware of ipecac than males (37% vs 2%). There was a direct relationship between the number of years of education and ipecac awareness (college 62%, high school 49%, non-high school 37%). Married and divorced respondents had a higher awareness than single individuals (56% vs 38%). Respondents with working spouses had greater awareness than those with unemployed spouses (65% vs 43%). Twenty-four percent claimed to have ipecac in their home at the time of the survey. This provides significant insight for future direction with our educational efforts. PMID:2895529

  17. Stability of dolasetron in two oral liquid vehicles.

    Johnson, Cary E; Wagner, Deborah S; Bussard, Wendy E

    2003-11-01

    The stability of dolasetron 10 mg/mL over 90 days when prepared as an oral liquid formulation from commercially available tablets in both strawberry syrup and a sugar-free vehicle was studied. A liquid suspension of dolasetron mesylate 10 mg/mL was prepared from commercially available dolasetron tablets, OraPlus, and Ora-Sweet or strawberry syrup. Six samples of each formulation were prepared and stored in amber plastic bottles. Three samples of each formulation were refrigerated (3-5 degrees C) and three were stored at room temperature (23-25 degrees C). A 1-mL sample was withdrawn from each of the 12 bottles immediately and after 7, 14, 30, 60, and 90 days. After further dilution to an expected concentration of 10 micrograms/mL with sample diluent, the solutions were assayed in duplicate using high-performance liquid chromatography. The samples were also inspected for color and odor changes, and the pH of each sample was determined. The stability-indicating capability of the dolasetron assay was determined by forced degradation of four separate 10-mg/mL samples exposed to direct sunlight for 90 days. There were no detectable changes in color, odor, or taste and no visible microbial growth in any sample. At least 98% of the initial dolasetron concentration remained throughout the 90-day study period for all samples. An extemporaneously compounded oral liquid preparation of dolasetron mesylate 10 mg/mL in a 1:1 mixture of Ora-Plus and strawberry syrup or Ora-Sweet was stable for at least 90 days when stored at 3-5 or 23-25 degrees C. PMID:14619116

  18. Topical report review status

    A Topical Report Review Status is scheduled to be published semi-annually. The primary purpose of this document is to provide periodic progress reports of on-going topical report reviews, to identify those topical reports for which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff review has been completed and, to the extent practicable, to provide NRC management with sufficient information regarding the conduct of the topical report program to permit taking whatever actions deemed necessary or appropriate. This document is also intended to be a source of information to NRC Licensing Project Managers and other NRC personnel regarding the status of topical reports which may be referenced in applications for which they have responsibility. This status report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the topical report program, but is also used by NRC to advise the industry of report review status

  19. Contrastive topics decomposed

    Michael Wagner

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of contrastive topics introduced in Büring 1997b and further developed in Büring 2003 relies on distinguishing two types of constituents that introduce alternatives: the sentence focus, which is marked by a FOC feature, and the contrastive topic, which is marked by a CT feature. A non-compositional rule of interpretation that refers to these features is used to derive a topic semantic value, a nested set of sets of propositions. This paper presents evidence for a correlation betw...

  20. [Topical therapy of rosacea].

    Schöfer, H

    2013-07-01

    Metronidazole and azelaic acid are the only topical medications approved for rosacea. All other topical treatments for rosacea and its special forms are used off-label. Topical steroids are not indicated in rosacea, because of their side effects (induction of steroid rosacea, high risk of facial skin atrophy, and high risk of rebound after cessation of therapy). Topical as well as systemic steroids are allowed only as initial and short term therapy for acute forms of rosacea (e.g. rosacea fulminans). Papular and pustular rosacea is the major indication for topical therapy. Sebaceous gland and connective tissue hyperplasia in glandular-hypertrophic rosacea as well as erythema in erythematous rosacea do not respond well to topical measures. A new active substance, the alpha-2-adrenoreceptor agonist brimonidine, will be approved soon for the topical treatment of erythema in rosacea. All severe forms of rosacea should initially be treated with a combination of topical and systemic agents. After improvement of the clinical symptoms, topical treatment alone is usually adequate to maintain the control. PMID:23780475

  1. Diclofenac Topical (osteoarthritis pain)

    ... your medications or monitor you carefully for side effects.you should know that you should not apply sunscreens, cosmetics, lotions, moisturizers, insect repellents, or other topical medications ...

  2. Evaluation of microbial and physico-chemical qualities of some cough syrups marketed in Sana’a city, Yemen.

    Ali G. Al−Kaf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Microbial contamination of cough syrups can bring clinical hazards to the users or patients as well as physical and chemical changes in the product. Aims: To evaluate the microbial and physicochemical characteristics of two hundred samples of four different types of cough syrups marketed in Sana’a city, Yemen. Methods: All collected samples were subjected to the following examinations: the total microbial count, type of isolated microorganisms, physical parameters, and concentration of active ingredients were identified and assessed by standard techniques described in US Pharmacopeia. Results: All the cough syrup samples used contained viable microbial load within acceptable limit according Pharmacopeia specifications. Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus fulvum, and Staphylococcus epidermidis were the most commonly recovered bacteria. However, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium notatum, Mucor sp., and Aspergillus flavus were the most fungi isolated. The physical properties represented in the appearance, density, and pH of the analyzed samples complied with Pharmacopoeia standards. The concentrations of diphenhydramine HCl (92,51 – 108,78%, pseudoephedrine HCl (94,55 – 109,07%, and triprolidine HCl (98,20 – 104,19% were recorded. Conclusions: All cough syrups marketed in Sana’a City had good microbiological and physico-chemical qualities.

  3. The evolution stages of a local agro-production: The cases of cider and syrup in East Belgium

    Schmitz, Serge

    2007-01-01

    Relating the history of cider and syrup from the “Pays de Herve” (East of Belgium), the paper underlines the vicissitude of a local production. What remains local in these traditional products? Which component should remain local in traditional product?

  4. Selected reaction monitoring as an effective method for reliable quantification of disease-associated proteins in maple syrup urine disease

    Fernández-Guerra, Paula; Birkler, Rune I D; Merinero, Begoña; Ugarte, Magdalena; Gregersen, Niels; Rodríguez-Pombo, Pilar; Bross, Peter; Palmfeldt, Johan

    2014-01-01

    mitochondria-enriched samples from cultured fibroblasts from healthy individuals and patients with mutations in branched-chain ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex. BCKDH is a mitochondrial multienzyme complex and its defective activity causes maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), a rare but severe inherited...

  5. Undergraduate Research at Oral Roberts University.

    Couch, Richard; Thurman, Duane

    1981-01-01

    Explains Oral Roberts University's undergraduate requirement for research proficiency and how this requirement is fulfilled by biology majors. Topics of the required courses include: introduction to biological research; research techniques; independent research and senior paper; and senior seminar. (DS)

  6. Malignant tumors of the oral cavity

    This book discusses carcinomas of the oral cavity including the lymph nodes and salivary glands. Topics include; Epidemiology and etiology; Immunolgical and virological aspects; Basic principles of management; Surgery; Radiotherapy; Chemotherapy; and Cryosurgery

  7. Malignant tumors of the oral cavity

    Henk, J.M.; Langdon, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    This book discusses carcinomas of the oral cavity including the lymph nodes and salivary glands. Topics include; Epidemiology and etiology; Immunolgical and virological aspects; Basic principles of management; Surgery; Radiotherapy; Chemotherapy; and Cryosurgery.

  8. Relatos orais de famílias de imigrantes japoneses: elementos para a história da educação brasileira Japanese families oral history: topics for the history of Brazilian education

    Zeila de Brito Fabri Demartini

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo dá continuidade a uma reflexão que vimos realizando há muitos anos sobre a estruturação do campo educacional paulista e as diferentes formas pelas quais a procura pela escolarização tem se configurado para diferentes setores da população rural e urbana no estado de São Paulo. Focalizamos aqui o segmento representado pelas famílias de imigrantes japoneses que vieram para São Paulo a partir de 1908. Apresentamos os resultados obtidos em estudo sobre as famílias de imigrantes japoneses na cidade de São Paulo, sendo que os relatos orais foram a fonte privilegiada que permitiu, de um lado, apreender as visões e vivências educacionais desse grupo, e, de outro, obter informações valiosas sobre a ainda desconhecida rede de escolas "japonesas" criadas por esse grupo na sociedade paulistana.This paper continues a long lasting research that analyses the educational field in São Paulo and the different forms assumed by the need of instruction of different sectors of the rural and urban population. We focus on the segment represented by the Japanese immigrants' families which came to São Paulo from 1908. We present the results obtained by means of oral reports, a privileged source for collecting data. It allowed, on the one hand, to seize the educational representations and practices of these Japanese groups and, on the other hand, to obtain valuable information about the still unknown Japanese school-net created by this group within São Paulo society.

  9. Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine: guidelines for oral pathology and oral medicine in the dental curriculum.

    Kragelund, C; Reibel, J; Hietanen, J; Hadler-Olsen, E; Johannessen, A C; Kenrad, B; Nylander, K; Puranen, M; Salo, T; Syrjänen, S; Søland, T M; van der Waal, I; van der Wal, J E; Warfvinge, G

    2012-11-01

    In Scandinavia, as in many European countries, most patients consult their general dentist once a year or more. This gives the dentist a unique opportunity and an obligation to make an early diagnosis of oral diseases, which is beneficial for both the patient and the society. Thus, the dentist must have knowledge of clinical symptoms, local and systemic signs and clinical differential diagnoses to make an accurate diagnosis. The dentist must be competent in selecting appropriate diagnostic tests, for example, tissue biopsy and microbiological samples, and conducting them correctly, as well as in interpreting test results and taking appropriate action accordingly. Furthermore, the dentist must be aware of diseases demanding multidisciplinary cooperation and be able to recognise his/her professional limitation, and to refer to other specialists when required. The dental curriculum changes over time as new approaches, treatments and diagnostic possibilities develop. Likewise, the role of the dentist in the community changes and may vary in different countries. As members of the Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine and subject representatives of oral pathology and oral medicine, we feel obliged to contribute to the discussion of how the guidelines of the dental curriculum support the highest possible standards of dental education. This article is meant to delineate a reasonable standard of oral pathology and oral medicine in the European dental curriculum and to guide subject representatives in curriculum development and planning. We have created an advisory topic list in oral pathology and oral medicine. PMID:23050507

  10. Stability of levofloxacin in an extemporaneously compounded oral liquid.

    VandenBussche, H L; Johnson, C E; Fontana, E M; Meram, J M

    1999-11-15

    The stability of levofloxacin in an extemporaneously compounded oral liquid was studied. A suspension of levofloxacin 50 mg/mL was prepared from commercially available 500-mg levofloxacin tablets and equal amounts of Ora-Plus and Strawberry Syrup, NF, to make a final volume of 60 mL. Six identical volumes of the suspension were prepared in amber plastic prescription bottles. Three bottles were stored at 23-25 degrees C, and three were stored at 3-5 degrees C. Immediately after preparation and at 8, 15, 29, and 57 days, samples were visually inspected and assayed in duplicate by high-performance liquid chromatography; pH was also determined. At least 99% of the initial levofloxacin concentration remained in all samples throughout the study period. The color, odor, and pH of all the samples did not change appreciably. An extemporaneously compounded oral liquid formulation of levofloxacin 50 mg/mL in a 1:1 mixture of Ora-Plus and Strawberry Syrup, NF, was stable at 23-25 or 3-5 degrees C for up to 57 days. PMID:10582824

  11. Development of two stable oral suspensions for gabapentin.

    Nahata, M C

    1999-03-01

    Gabapentin is not available in a liquid dosage form for clinical use. This study was designed to develop two oral gabapentin suspensions and determine their stability under refrigeration or at room temperature. Commercially available gabapentin capsules were used to prepare two suspensions: one in extemporaneously prepared 1% methylcellulose in syrup (1:1) and another in equal volumes of commercially available suspending agents/syrup (Ora Plus/Ora Sweet). Each suspension containing gabapentin (100 mg/mL) was stored in 10 plastic prescription bottles; five were stored at 4 degrees C and five at 25 degrees C. Three 500-microL samples were collected immediately after preparation (day 0) and on days 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, and 91. Gabapentin was measured by accurate, reproducible, specific, and stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (n = 15). The observed mean concentrations exceeded 90% of the initial concentrations in both suspensions for 91 days at 4 degrees C and 56 days at 25 degrees C. No change in pH, odor, or physical appearance was observed. On the basis of these results, stable oral suspensions of gabapentin can be prepared and stored in plastic prescription bottles for 91 days at 4 degrees C or 56 days at 25 degrees C. PMID:10207927

  12. Microbial and physicochemical assays of paracetamol in different brands of analgesic syrups sold in Sana’a City-Yemen

    Ali G. Al−Kaf

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Contamination of pharmaceuticals with microorganisms irrespective whether they are harmful or nonpathogenic can bring about changes in physicochemical characteristics of the drugs. Aims: To assay the microbial and physicochemical characteristics of paracetamol of two hundreds samples of different brands of analgesic syrups sold in Sana’a City, Yemen. Methods: Total viable aerobic count, type of isolated microorganisms, physical properties, and content of active ingredients were identified and evaluated by standard methods and techniques. The SPSS program was used to statistical analysis of variance for results obtained. Results: The total bacterial count of <10 CFU/mL and <100 CFU/mL in 179 (89.5% and 21 (10.5% samples, respectively was recorded, while the total fungal count was ≤10 CFU/mL in all analyzed syrup samples. The isolated bacteria were Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus fulvum, and Staphylococcus epidermidis while isolated fungi were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Penicillium notatum. Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger were the predominant bacteria and fungi isolated. The color results had a light red liquid with a sweet taste in the analyzed analgesic syrups. The pH values were ranged from 4.44–5.88. However, the density fluctuated from 1.149–1.184 g/mL. The paracetamol concentration as an active ingredient in the analgesic syrup was recorded from 98.19% – 106.53%. Conclusions: This finding showed that all analgesic syrups sold in Sana’a City followed Pharmacopeia specifications on microbial and physicochemical qualities.

  13. Syntacticized topics in Kurmuk

    Andersen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that Kurmuk, a little-described Western Nilotic language, is characterized by a syntacticized topic whose grammatical relation is variable. In this language, declarative clauses have as topic an obligatory preverbal NP which is either a subject, an object or an adjunct. The gr...

  14. Syntacticized topics in Kurmuk

    Andersen, Torben

    This article argues that Kurmuk, a little-described Western Nilotic language, is characterized by a syntacticized topic whose grammatical relation is variable. In this language, declarative clauses have as topic an obligatory preverbal NP which is either a subject, an object or an adjunct. The gr...

  15. Efficacy of Clobetasol, Ketoconazole and Amitryptiline Mouthwash on Oral Lichen Planus

    Abbas Javadzadeh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral Lichen Planus (OLP is a chronic inflammatory disease of oral mucosa, with an immunological origin. Atrophic/erosive OLP needs appropriate treatment, due to the pain and malignancy potential. Topical corticosteroids are the most effective drug therapy and mouthwashes are more effective topical dosage forms for this purpose. However, at present there are no corticosteroid mouthwashes available in Iran. In this study, the efficacy of a new mouthwash containing clobetasol, ketoconasole and amitriptyline was evaluated in comparison to the common treatment.In this double blind randomized clinical trial study, 50 patients who had inclusion criteria were grouped randomly, with no difference in demographic data. The experimental group was treated using 5ml of mouthwash four times a day for 5 min, while the control group was treated by dexamethasone tablet, nystatin drop and diphenhydramine syrup. Severity of the lesions and pain were followed as the chief complain and recorded in the initial, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks intervals. All the collected data were analyzed with the Chi-Square, Mann-Whitney, student T-test and Mantel-Cox statistical tests, using the SPSS version 13 softwares.There were significant differences in the pain reduction in the 1st (P<0.001, 2nd (P=0.01 and 12th (P=0.025 weeks between the two groups, but the difference in weeks 4 (P=0.058 and 8 (P=0.131 were not significant. The lesion reduction was significantly higher in the experimental group (P<0.001. Complete resolution of lesions occurred on average after 2.65 and 10.75 weeks for the experimental and control groups, respectively. Also most patients in the experimental group (70.6% had complete subjective satisfaction (75-100% of treatment but most patients (43.8% were mildly satisfied (0-25% in the control group. Survival analysis showed that the possibility of existence of lesions after 3 months in the experimental group and control groups were 0% and 100% (P<0.001, respectively.In conclusion, it seems that the new mouthwash is more effective in short term, with greater convenience for the patients.

  16. [Aphthous ulcers and oral ulcerations].

    Vaillant, Loïc; Samimi, Mahtab

    2016-02-01

    Aphthous ulcers are painful ulcerations located on the mucous membrane, generally in the mouth, less often in the genital area. Three clinical forms of aphthous ulcers have been described: minor aphthous ulcers, herpetiform aphthous ulcers and major aphthous ulcers. Many other conditions presenting with oral bullous or vesiculous lesions orulcerations and erosions can be mistaken for aphthous ulcers. Currently, treatment of aphthous ulcers is palliative and symptomatic. Topical treatments (topical anesthetics, topical steroids and sucralfate) are the first line therapy. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is defined by the recurrence of oral aphthous ulcers at least 4 times per year. RAS is often idiopathic but can be associated with gastro-intestinal diseases (i.e. celiac disease, inflammatory bowel diseases), nutritional deficiencies (iron, folates…), immune disorders (HIV infection, neutropenia) and rare syndromes. Behçet's disease is a chronic, inflammatory, disease whose main clinical feature is recurrent bipolar aphthosis. Colchicine associated with topical treatments constitutes a suitable treatment of most RAS. Thalidomide is the most effective treatment of RAS but its use is limited by frequent adverse effects. Oral ulcers can be related to a wide range of conditions that constitute the differential diagnoses of aphthous ulcers. Oral ulcers are classified into three main groups: acute ulcers with abrupt onset and short duration, recurrent ulcers (mainly due to postherpetic erythema multiforme) and chronic ulcers (with slow onset and insidious progression). Acute oral ulcers are due to trauma, bacterial infections (including acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis), deep fungal infection, gastro-intestinal (namely inflammatory bowel disease) or systemic diseases. Chronic oral ulcers may be drug-induced, or due to benign or malignant tumors. Every oral solitary chronic ulcer should be biopsied to rule out squamous cell carcinoma. A solitary palatal ulcer can be related with necrotizing sialometaplasia. PMID:26880080

  17. Oral histoplasmosis

    Patil Karthikeya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Histoplasmosis is a systemic fungal disease that takes various clinical forms, among which oral lesions are rare. The disseminated form of the disease that usually occurs in association with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV is one of the AIDS-defining diseases. Isolated oral histoplasmosis, without systemic involvement, with underlying immunosuppression due to AIDS is very rare. We report one such case of isolated oral histoplasmosis in a HIV-infected patient.

  18. Minerais em melados e em caldos de cana Minerals in sugar cane syrup and cane juice

    Fernanda dos Santos Nogueira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A cana-de-açúcar está entre as culturas que apresenta larga escala de adaptações às condições climáticas, sendo utilizada para a fabricação de diversos produtos. Dentre os produtos derivados da cana-de-açúcar, o melado é tido popularmente como um alimento rico em ferro. Este trabalho objetivou conhecer a concentração de alguns minerais em melados comerciais e em melados preparados com equipamentos de aço inoxidável. Ao todo foram 20 amostras, 10 de cada tipo. As amostras foram preparadas para análise por oxidação da matéria orgânica por via úmida e os teores de Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn e Fe foram determinados por espectroscopia de absorção atômica, Na e K por fotometria de chama e P por colorimetria. Concluiu-se, com este trabalho, que os teores médios dos minerais Fe, P, Na e Mg foram significativamente mais elevados nos melados comerciais do que nos melados feitos com equipamentos inox. O contrário foi encontrado para o mineral cálcio, que apresentou teor mais elevado nos melados feitos no laboratório, mas condizentes com os teores encontrados nos caldos de cana. Não houve diferença significativa nos teores dos demais minerais.Sugar cane is an easily adaptable crop to diverse climate conditions, and it is used in the manufacturing of many different products. Among those products is the syrup, which is popularly known to be good sources of iron. In this work, we aimed to measure the concentration of some minerals in commercial sugar cane syrup brands and syrup prepared in the laboratory using stainless steel equipment. A total of 20 samples were analyzed, 10 of commercial brands and ten prepared in the laboratory. The samples were prepared by wet-air oxidation of organic matter and the contents of Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Fe were determined by atomic absorption. Na and K were determined by photometry and P by colorimetry. It was found that the mean concentration of Fe, P, Na, and Mn were higher in the commercial products than in that prepared in the laboratory using stainless steel equipment. On the other hand, it was found that the calcium content was higher in the laboratory made syrup, which is in agreement with the Ca content found for the sugarcane juice. There was no significant difference in the concentration of the other tested minerals.

  19. Two consecutive partial liver transplants in a patient with Classic Maple Syrup Urine Disease

    H.L. Chin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Maple syrup urine disease is caused by a deficiency in the branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKAD complex. This results in the accumulation of branched chain amino acids (BCAA and branched chain ketoacids in the body. Even when aggressively treated with dietary restriction of BCAA, patients experience long term cognitive, neurological and psychosocial problems. Liver transplantation from deceased donors has been shown to be an effective modality in introducing adequate BCKAD activity, attaining a metabolic cure for patients. Here, we report the clinical course of the first known patient with classic MSUD who received two consecutive partial liver grafts from two different living non-carrier donors and his five year outcome posttransplant. We also show that despite the failure of the first liver graft, and initial acute cellular rejection of the second liver graft in our patient, his metabolic control remained good without metabolic decompensation.

  20. Purple drank prevalence and characteristics of misusers of codeine cough syrup mixtures.

    Agnich, Laura E; Stogner, John M; Miller, Bryan Lee; Marcum, Catherine D

    2013-09-01

    A mixture of codeine cough syrup with alcohol and/or a soft drink known as "purple drank" has gained media attention in recent years as a drug associated with professional athletes and southern rap music. The existing research on purple drank consumption has primarily utilized samples of African Americans residing in the Houston, Texas area. This is the first scholarly study of purple drank use outside of the Houston, Texas area among a general population of young adults, and indicates that purple drank use is not limited to African American males. The findings depict higher odds of the use of purple drank among other racial and ethnic groups, males, and homosexual, bisexual, and transgender college students from urban areas. PMID:23688907

  1. Hypokalemic paralysis and respiratory failure due to excessive intake of licorice syrup

    Mehmet Oguzhan Ay

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Licorice is the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra, which has a herbal ingredient, glycyrrhizic acid. Excessive intake of licorice may cause a hypermineralocorticoidism-like syndrome characterized by sodium and water retention, hypokalemia, hypertension, metabolic alkalosis, low-renin activity, and hypoaldosteronism. In this paper, an 34 years old man who admitted to the emergency department with respiratory failure and marked muscle weakness of all extremities that progressed to paralysis after excessive intake of licorice syrup was presented. It was aimed to draw attention to the necessity of questioning whether there is excessive intake of licorice or not in patients who admitted to emergency department with paralysis and dyspnea. Plasma potassium concentration of the patient was 1.4 mmol/L. The patient\\'s respiratory distress and loss of muscle strength recovered completely after potassium replacement. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(2.000: 387-391

  2. Two consecutive partial liver transplants in a patient with Classic Maple Syrup Urine Disease.

    Chin, H L; Aw, M M; Quak, S H; Huang, J; Hart, C E; Prabhakaran, K; Goh, D L

    2015-09-01

    Maple syrup urine disease is caused by a deficiency in the branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKAD) complex. This results in the accumulation of branched chain amino acids (BCAA) and branched chain ketoacids in the body. Even when aggressively treated with dietary restriction of BCAA, patients experience long term cognitive, neurological and psychosocial problems. Liver transplantation from deceased donors has been shown to be an effective modality in introducing adequate BCKAD activity, attaining a metabolic cure for patients. Here, we report the clinical course of the first known patient with classic MSUD who received two consecutive partial liver grafts from two different living non-carrier donors and his five year outcome posttransplant. We also show that despite the failure of the first liver graft, and initial acute cellular rejection of the second liver graft in our patient, his metabolic control remained good without metabolic decompensation. PMID:26937410

  3. Intermittent neurological symptoms in a girl with a maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) variant.

    Holmgren, G; Brundin, A; Gustavson, K H; Sjögren, S; Kleijer, W J; Niermeijer, M F

    1980-11-01

    Severe neurological symptoms, including intermittent ataxia, hallucinations and convulsions, associated with metabolic acidosis and branched-chain amino-acidemia occurred in a six-year-old girl with a variant form of maple syrup urine disease. The symptoms only appeared during periods of infection. Between these periods the girl was healthy and the biochemical findings were normal. In later episodes of infection the condition was successfully treated with a low protein diet and sodium bicarbonate. Analyses of 1-14C-leucine decarboxylase in fibroblasts revealed 10 per cent of normal activity in the girl and 50-70 per cent in the parents. The importance of early diagnosis of MSUD variants is discussed. This is the first published Swedish case of MSUD variant. PMID:7207707

  4. Antiemetic efficacy of smoked marijuana: subjective and behavioral effects on nausea induced by syrup of ipecac.

    Söderpalm, A H; Schuster, A; de Wit, H

    2001-01-01

    Although the public debate about the legalization of marijuana has continued for as long as 25 years, few controlled studies have been conducted to assess its potential medical benefits. The present study examined the antiemetic effect of smoked marijuana cigarettes (8.4 and 16.9 mg Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC]) compared to a highly potent antiemetic drug, ondansetron (8 mg) in 13 healthy volunteers. Nausea and emesis were induced by syrup of ipecac. Marijuana significantly reduced ratings of "queasiness" and slightly reduced the incidence of vomiting compared to placebo. Ondansetron completely eliminated the emetic effects of ipecac. These findings support and extend previous results, indicating that smoked marijuana reduces feelings of nausea and also reduces emesis in this model. However, its effects are very modest relative to ondansetron, and the psychoactive effects of marijuana are likely to limit its clinical usefulness in the general population. PMID:11509190

  5. Oral Communication across the Curriculum

    Ediger, Marlow

    2011-01-01

    Proficiency in oral communication is necessary in school and in society. To do well in the different curriculum areas, pupils must speak with clarity and understanding. For example, in a discussion group in the social studies involving the topic "the pros and cons of raising taxes," pupils need to express knowledgeable ideas with appropriate voice…

  6. Oral Health

    ... can I take to have healthy teeth and gums? More information on oral health Celia's Story I started having pain in my ... disease Taking good care of your teeth and gums can help you avoid or lessen oral health problems. Return to top I'm pregnant. Do ...

  7. Contrastive topics decomposed

    Michael Wagner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of contrastive topics introduced in Büring 1997b and further developed in Büring 2003 relies on distinguishing two types of constituents that introduce alternatives: the sentence focus, which is marked by a FOC feature, and the contrastive topic, which is marked by a CT feature. A non-compositional rule of interpretation that refers to these features is used to derive a topic semantic value, a nested set of sets of propositions. This paper presents evidence for a correlation between the restrictive syntax of nested focus operators and the syntax of contrastive topics, a correlation which is unexpected under this analysis. A compositional analysis is proposed that only makes use of the flatter focus semantic values introduced by focus operators. The analysis aims at integrating insights from the original analysis while at the same time capturing the observed syntactic restrictions. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.5.8 BibTeX info

  8. Sparse Topical Coding

    Zhu, Jun

    2012-01-01

    We present sparse topical coding (STC), a non-probabilistic formulation of topic models for discovering latent representations of large collections of data. Unlike probabilistic topic models, STC relaxes the normalization constraint of admixture proportions and the constraint of defining a normalized likelihood function. Such relaxations make STC amenable to: 1) directly control the sparsity of inferred representations by using sparsity-inducing regularizers; 2) be seamlessly integrated with a convex error function (e.g., SVM hinge loss) for supervised learning; and 3) be efficiently learned with a simply structured coordinate descent algorithm. Our results demonstrate the advantages of STC and supervised MedSTC on identifying topical meanings of words and improving classification accuracy and time efficiency.

  9. Topics in Nuclear Astrophysics

    Some topics in nuclear astrophysics are discussed, e.g.: highly evolved stellar cores, stellar evolution (through the temperature analysis of stellar surface), nucleosynthesis and finally the solar neutrino problem. (L.C.)

  10. Salicylic Acid Topical

    ... scaling or overgrowth of skin cells such as psoriasis (a skin disease in which red, scaly patches ... and patch to apply to the skin or scalp. Topical salicylic acid comes in several strengths, including ...

  11. Topical photodynamic therapy

    Polja?ki Mirjana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical photodynamic therapy is a therapeutic modality in development, thus arises grate interest among dermatologists worldwide. It is an effective therapy for actinic keratosis, superficial BCC and Bowenos disease. Treatment efficacy, good cosmetics, low risk of skin cancer, low invasiveness, low rate of adverse events, facility for treating multiple or large lesions, especially in poor healing sites and, for penile, digital and facial involvement, low general toxicity and possibility of repeating the treatments with the same efficiency, enable topical photodynamic therapy to become increasingly practiced treatment modality. Researching aimed topical photodynamic therapy to prove as a treatment modality for clinical use in other dermatoses, is in experimental phase. To answer the question when dermatologist should consider using topical photodynamic therapy treatment modatility, we are present available date.

  12. Contribution of the diffusion-weighted MRI in the diagnosis and follow-up of encephalopathy caused by maple syrup urine disease in a full-term newborn

    Ferraz-Filho, Jose Roberto Lopes; Floriano, Valdeci Helio; Quirici, Marcelo Bianco; Souza, Antonio Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Albuquerque, Regina Pires de [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Pediatria

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this case report is to show conventional MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) findings of the different evolutionary phases in MSUD (Maple syrup urine disease) of a newborn that evolved with brain white matter lesions (author)

  13. Contribution of the diffusion-weighted MRI in the diagnosis and follow-up of encephalopathy caused by maple syrup urine disease in a full-term newborn

    The purpose of this case report is to show conventional MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) findings of the different evolutionary phases in MSUD (Maple syrup urine disease) of a newborn that evolved with brain white matter lesions (author)

  14. Towards Big Topic Modeling

    Yan, Jian-feng; Zeng, Jia; Liu, Zhi-qiang; GAO, YANG

    2013-01-01

    To solve the big topic modeling problem, we need to reduce both time and space complexities of batch latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) algorithms. Although parallel LDA algorithms on the multi-processor architecture have low time and space complexities, their communication costs among processors often scale linearly with the vocabulary size and the number of topics, leading to a serious scalability problem. To reduce the communication complexity among processors for a better scalability, we p...

  15. A Comparison of the Efficacy, Adverse Effects, and Patient Compliance of the Sena-Graph®Syrup and Castor Oil Regimens for Bowel Preparation

    Ghazikhanlou Sani, Karim; Jafari, Mahmood-Reza; Shams, Safar

    2010-01-01

    Sena-Graph syrup has recently been formulated by an Iranian pharmaceutical company for being used in bowel evacuation before radiography, colonoscopy and surgery. This study compares the efficacy, adverse effects and patient compliance of two bowel preparation regimens with castor oil and Sena-Graph syrup in of outpatients for Intravenous Urography (IVU). One hundred and fourteen consecutive outpatients were randomized to receive either the standard bowel preparation with 60 mL of castor oil ...

  16. Oral Myiasis

    Treville Pereira; Tamgadge, Avinash P; Chande, Mayura S.; Sudhir Bhalerao; Sandhya Tamgadge

    2011-01-01

    Oral myiasis is a rare disease that is most common in developing countries and is associated with poor oral hygiene, suppurating lesions, severe halitosis and other predisposing conditions. This paper describes a case of oral myiasis in a 22-year-old female patient who presented with acute upper lip swelling with an extensive necrotic area in the anterior region of the maxilla and fetid odor. The diagnosis was based on the typical clinical features and the visual presence of the larvae. The p...

  17. Physiological characterization of brewer's yeast in high-gravity beer fermentations with glucose or maltose syrups as adjuncts

    Piddocke, Maya Petrova; kreisz, Stefan; Heldt-Hansen, Hans Peter; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2009-01-01

    High-gravity brewing, which can decrease production costs by increasing brewery yields, has become an attractive alternative to traditional brewing methods. However, as higher sugar concentration is required, the yeast is exposed to various stresses during fermentation. We evaluated the influence...... of high-gravity brewing on the fermentation performance of the brewer’s yeast under model brewing conditions. The lager brewer’s strain Weihenstephan 34/70 strain was characterized at three different gravities by adding either glucose or maltose syrups to the basic wort. We observed that increased...... gravity resulted in a lower specific growth rate, a longer lag phase before initiation of ethanol production, incomplete sugar utilization, and an increase in the concentrations of ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate in the final beer. Increasing the gravity by adding maltose syrup as opposed to glucose...

  18. Discriminative Relational Topic Models.

    Chen, Ning; Zhu, Jun; Xia, Fei; Zhang, Bo

    2015-05-01

    Relational topic models (RTMs) provide a probabilistic generative process to describe both the link structure and document contents for document networks, and they have shown promise on predicting network structures and discovering latent topic representations. However, existing RTMs have limitations in both the restricted model expressiveness and incapability of dealing with imbalanced network data. To expand the scope and improve the inference accuracy of RTMs, this paper presents three extensions: 1) unlike the common link likelihood with a diagonal weight matrix that allows the-same-topic interactions only, we generalize it to use a full weight matrix that captures all pairwise topic interactions and is applicable to asymmetric networks; 2) instead of doing standard Bayesian inference, we perform regularized Bayesian inference (RegBayes) with a regularization parameter to deal with the imbalanced link structure issue in real networks and improve the discriminative ability of learned latent representations; and 3) instead of doing variational approximation with strict mean-field assumptions, we present collapsed Gibbs sampling algorithms for the generalized relational topic models by exploring data augmentation without making restricting assumptions. Under the generic RegBayes framework, we carefully investigate two popular discriminative loss functions, namely, the logistic log-loss and the max-margin hinge loss. Experimental results on several real network datasets demonstrate the significance of these extensions on improving prediction performance. PMID:26353322

  19. Characters and Topical Diversity

    Eriksson, Rune

    The purpose of this article is to contribute to our understanding of the difference between the bestseller and the non-bestseller in nonfiction. It is noticed that many bestsellers in nonfiction belongs to the sub-genre of creative nonfiction, but also that the topics in this kind of literature is...... largely ignored by the critics. Thus, the article tests how topics may work in creative nonfiction. Two Danish bestsellers belonging to the genre, Frank’s Mit smukke genom ( My Beautiful Genome), about genomics, and Buk-Swienty’s Slagtebænk Dybbøl ( ‘Slaughter-bench Dybbøl’), a history book, are chosen as...... cases and analysed using a slightly modified motif model by Johansen. The result is that in both books the main topic is treated from a double perspective, but also that six out of seven secondary topics, or motifs, are treated as well. It is concluded that also in a topical sense creative nonfiction...

  20. Maple syrup urine disease encephalopathy: a follow-up study in the acute stage using diffusion-weighted MRI

    Ha, Jong Su; Kim, Taik-Kun; Lee, Ki Yeol; Seol, Hae Young; Cha, Sang Hoon [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan City, Kyungki-Do (Korea); Eun, Baik-Lin; Lee, Hee Sun [Department of Paediatrics, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

    2004-02-01

    Neonatal maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is associated with diffuse oedema and characteristic MSUD oedema. We present a newborn infant with two coexisting different types of oedema. The myelinated white matter showed a marked decrease in the water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) compatible with cytotoxic oedema. The unmyelinated white matter showed an increase in ADC, consistent with vasogenic-interstitial oedema. On follow-up studies, the cytotoxic oedema showed improvement, but the vasogenic-interstitial oedema progressed into brain atrophy. (orig.)

  1. Severe NAFLD with hepatic necroinflammatory changes in mice fed trans fats and a high-fructose corn syrup equivalent

    Tetri, Laura H.; Basaranoglu, Metin; Brunt, Elizabeth M.; Yerian, Lisa M.; Neuschwander-Tetri, Brent A

    2008-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether combining features of a western lifestyle in mice with trans fats in a high-fat diet, high-fructose corn syrup in the water, and interventions designed to promote sedentary behavior would cause the hepatic histopathological and metabolic abnormalities that characterize nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Male C57BL/6 mice fed ad libitum high-fat chow containing trans fats (partially hydrogenated vegetable oil) and relevant amounts of a high-fr...

  2. Maple syrup urine disease encephalopathy: a follow-up study in the acute stage using diffusion-weighted MRI

    Neonatal maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is associated with diffuse oedema and characteristic MSUD oedema. We present a newborn infant with two coexisting different types of oedema. The myelinated white matter showed a marked decrease in the water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) compatible with cytotoxic oedema. The unmyelinated white matter showed an increase in ADC, consistent with vasogenic-interstitial oedema. On follow-up studies, the cytotoxic oedema showed improvement, but the vasogenic-interstitial oedema progressed into brain atrophy. (orig.)

  3. Identification of three novel mutations by studying the molecular genetics of Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) in the Lebanese population

    Omar Tabbouche; Amer Saker; Harry Mountain

    2014-01-01

    Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is a genetically heterogeneous metabolic disorder that is transmitted in an autosomal recessive manner. According to clinical data, MSUD prevalence in Lebanon is expected to be higher than the International prevalence because of consanguineous marriage. Novel mutations are still getting detected by using DNA sequencing for mutation analysis in MSUD patients. In the current study, we have extracted DNA from Lebanese MSUD patients in order to amplify the exon...

  4. An abrupt outgassing revealed by a slow decompression experiment of cristal-bearing syrup foam

    Kanno, Y.; Namiki, A.

    2013-12-01

    Distribution of volcanic gasses in a conduit determines eruption style. Outgassing changes the distribution of volcanic gasses in a conduit.We here simulated the outgassing from ascending magma by slow decompression experiments. As molten magma ascends in a conduit, surrounding pressure becomes low and bubbles in magma expand. In our previous work, we found that the bubble expansion causes film rupturing and makes paths for outgassing. The crystals in magma may affect this newly found outgassing style. Accordingly, we slowly decompressed syrup foam including solid particles as a magma analogue. Experiments are conducted in an acrylic tank. We observed the expansion of three-phase magma analog from the front of the tank using a digital video camera. From the images and pressure measurements, we calculated time evolution of the syrup volume and permeability. We consider that there is no bubble segregation by the ascent of individual bubbles from the Stoke's velocity. We conducted our experiments with a viscosity range of 10-20 Pa s which is the same orders of magnitude of that of basaltic magma, 10-103 Pa s. At the beginning of the decompression, the volume change of the syrup foam is well explained by isothermal expansion. When the gas fractions reached to the 85-90%, we observed that deformations of bubble films caused film rupturing so that bubbles coalesce vertically to clear a path. As time elapsed, the measured gas volume in the foam becomes smaller than that estimated by the isothermal expansion, indicating the occurrence of outgassing. In the experiments with high volume fraction of solid particles (>30 vol.% for bubble-free liquid), we observed another new style of outgassing. Several large voids (> 10 mm in radius) appear at a middle height of the foam and connect each other to make a horizontally elongated cavity. The roof of the cavity collapses, and then massive outgassing occurs. At the beginning of the decompression until the foam collapses, outgassing occurs intermittently. We calculated the apparent permeability of the foam before the collapse occurs assuming the Darcy's law. Calculated permeability observed for the experiments with large volume fraction of solid particles has temporal variation and they varies from 10-7 -10-9. This value is quite larger than those measured for natural pumices and scoriae. From our experiments, we infer that there is a skin depth of the outgassing. At the beginning, the upper most part of the foam has a high apparent permeability to cause outgassing energetically. However, the gas within this region decreases eventually to be impermeable. Beneath the impermeable layer, the gas transported from a depth accumulates to make a cavity. The cavity is gravitationally unstable and collapses at the end. It has been widely recognized that the Vulcanian eruption occurs by a sudden expansion of the accumulated gas beneath an impermeable plug. Our experimental results may explain the mechanism generating an impermeable plug.

  5. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect oral cancer early—when it can ...

  6. Oral Medication

    ... by Mail Close www.diabetes.org > Living With Diabetes > Treatment and Care > Medication > Oral Medications Share: Print Page ... Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care Complications Health Insurance For Parents & Kids Know ...

  7. Oral myiasis

    Leite Cavalcanti Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral myiasis is a rare disease that is most common in developing countries and is associated with poor oral hygiene, suppurating lesions, severe halitosis and other predisposing conditions. This paper describes a case of oral myiasis in a 22-year-old female patient who presented with acute upper lip swelling with an extensive necrotic area in the anterior region of the maxilla and fetid odor. The diagnosis was based on the typical clinical features and the visual presence of the larvae. The patient's management included surgical exploration to remove the larvae and the necrotic tissue, followed by scaling and oral hygiene instruction. Upon treatment, the larvae were eliminated, and complete lesion healing and remission of symptoms were observed within 21 days.

  8. Rosacea-like eruption due to topical pimecrolimus.

    El-Heis, S; Buckley, D A

    2015-05-01

    Topical calcineurin inhibitors have been used outside their approved indications for a number of conditions, including topical steroid-induced rosacea. However, tacrolimus ointment itself has been reported to trigger rosacea in a small number of cases. We report a case of a rosacea-like eruption in a 39-year-old woman occurring after the use of pimecrolimus cream for 12 months for atopic dermatitis. Withdrawal of pimecrolimus combined with treatment with oral lymecycline, topical metronidazole, and an emollient resulted in resolution of the eruption. There have been 5 previously reported cases of a topical pimecrolimus-induced rosacea-like eruption suggesting that this rare side-effect may be a class effect of all topical calcineurin inhibitors. Dermatologists prescribing these drugs should be aware of this uncommon complication and may wish to warn patients of its occurrence as a potential side-effect when using topical calcineurin inhibitors in facial skin in adults. PMID:26295863

  9. Carbohydrate composition of high-fructose corn syrups (HFCS) used for bee feeding: effect on honey composition.

    Ruiz-Matute, Ana Isabel; Weiss, Milagra; Sammataro, Diana; Finely, Jennifer; Sanz, Maria Luz

    2010-06-23

    In this study, the carbohydrate composition of high-fructose corn syrups (HFCS) from commercial manufacturers as well as from beekeepers was characterized by GC-MS. Sucrose syrups (SS) were also included in this work for comparison. Fructosyl-fructoses and some unknown carbohydrates, which could correspond to fructosyl-glucoses, have been detected in HFCS for the first time, whereas SS were mainly characterized by the high contents of sucrose. Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content of samples supplied by beekeepers was much more variable; the mean level of HMF was 64.61 ppm (+/-16.92 ppm, 95% CI ranging from 26.91 to 102.31 ppm). Syrups were used to feed caged bees and the resulting honeys produced were analyzed in order to determine their influence in carbohydrate composition. Fructosyl-fructoses were mainly detected in honeys from bees fed with HFCS, but not from those honeys coming from free-flying bees or bees fed with SS. PMID:20491475

  10. Evaluation of Honey and Rice Syrup as Replacements for Sorbitol in the Production of Restructured Duck Jerky.

    Triyannanto, Endy; Lee, Keun Taik

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of natural humectants such as honey and rice syrup to replace sorbitol in the production of restructured duck jerky. Each humectant was mixed at 3%, 6%, and 10% (wt/wt) concentrations with the marinating solution. The values of water activity and the moisture-to-protein ratio of all of the samples were maintained below 0.75. Jerky samples treated with honey retained more moisture than those exposed to other treatments. Among all samples, those treated with 10% sorbitol produced the highest processing yield and the lowest shear force values. The highest L* value and the lowest b* value were observed for the sorbitol-treated sample, followed by the rice syrup- and honey-treated samples. Duck jerky samples treated with 10% honey showed the highest scores for the sensory parameters evaluated. The overall acceptability scores of samples treated with rice syrup were comparable with those of samples treated with sorbitol. Microscopic observation of restructured duck jerky samples treated with honey showed stable forms and smaller pores when compared with other treatments. PMID:26732452

  11. Oral candidiasis

    Akpan, A; Morgan, R

    2002-01-01

    Oral candidiasis is a common opportunistic infection of the oral cavity caused by an overgrowth of Candida species, the commonest being Candida albicans. The incidence varies depending on age and certain predisposing factors. There are three broad groupings consisting of acute candidiasis, chronic candidiasis, and angular cheilitis. Risk factors include impaired salivary gland function, drugs, dentures, high carbohydrate diet, and extremes of life, smoking, diabetes mellitus, Cushing's syndro...

  12. Design, Development & Evaluation of a Poly herbal Syrup from some herbs used as Energy booster

    Swain Pramod Kumar; Nayak Durga Prasan

    2013-01-01

    Ayurvedic formulations are preferentially administered by oral route, and most of the orally administered Ayurvedic formulations belong to liquid form of drug or drug combination. However herbal medicinal products have to fulfill the legal requirements with regard to quality including stability testing. Designing as well as shelf-life determination of oral herbal formulations is till date a challenge in modern pharmaceutics. A locally used polyherbal formulation from Withania somnifera Dunal...

  13. [Clinical studies of rokitamycin dry syrup on Chlamydia trachomatis infections in the neonate and infant].

    Motohiro, T; Aramaki, M; Oda, K; Kawakami, A; Tanaka, K; Koga, T; Shimada, Y; Tomita, S; Koga, M; Sakata, Y

    1988-10-01

    A dry syrup preparation for infants and children of a newly developed 16-membered macrolide antibiotic, rokitamycin, was administered to 5 neonates and low birth weight infants of 6 to 25 days after births at a dose level of 10 mg/kg on an empty stomach then plasma drug levels were determined. The dry syrup preparation was also given to a total of 19 Chlamydia trachomatis infection cases of 7 days to 8 months old neonates, low birth weight infants and infants including 12 cases of pneumonia, 2 cases of conjunctivitis and 5 non-symptomatic carriers at an average daily dose level of 48.1 mg/kg in 2 to 4 doses for an average of 19 days and its clinical effects, bacteriological effectiveness, side effects and effects on laboratory test values were examined. The obtained results are summarized as follows. 1. Because the test subjects were neonates and premature infants, obtainable amounts of blood samples were limited, thus it was not possible to determine time courses of plasma drug levels to reach their peaks. Peak plasma levels, however, were speculated to be similar to those in children. Plasma half-lives of the drug were also not determinable, but they seemed to be somewhat longer than those in children. 2. Clinical efficacies were determinable in the 2 cases of conjunctivitis and 10 of the 12 cases of pneumonia, with excellent or good results in both cases of the former and with excellent or good results in 9 of the 10 determinable cases of the latter. Thus, the overall efficacy rate was high, 91.7%. 3. Bacteriological efficacies were determinable in 18 cases including non-symptomatic carriers. C. trachomatis was eradicated in 16 of the cases with an overall efficacy rate of 88.9%. 4. Diarrhea was observed in 2 cases, which were suspected as side effects of the drug. 5. No abnormalities were observed in the laboratory test results. Judging from the above results, this drug appears to be useful for the treatment of C. trachomatis infections of neonates, low birth weight infants and infants. PMID:3204656

  14. Chemical composition and sensory analysis of roasted peanuts coated with prickly pear and algarrobo pod syrups

    Grosso, N. R.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to determine the chemical composition, sensory attributes and consumer acceptance of roasted peanuts coated with prickly pear (RP-P and â??algarroboâ? pod syrups (RP-A. Roasted peanuts (RP without coating had the highest oil content (50.4% in comparison with the coated products RP-P and RP-A (45.3% and 46.7%, respectively. RP-P and RP-A showed lower protein percentage and higher carbohydrate content than RP. These results affected the energy values of the products: 6.14 kcal/g in RP-P, 6.24 kcal/g in RP-A and 6.42 kcal/g in RP. In the consumer test, RP and RP-P had higher consumer acceptance for the attributes of color, texture and flavor than RP-A. In the descriptive analysis, RP-P and RPA showed higher intensity ratings in brown color, roughness, glossy, powdery, sweetness, and salty sensory attributes and lower intensity ratings in raw/beany flavor than in RP. The intensity of roasted peanutty flavor and the texture attributes in the descriptive analysis were not affected for the pod syrup coating.El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la composición química, atributos sensoriales y la aceptabilidad del maní tostado cubierto con arrope de tuna (RP-P y de Algarrobo (RP-A. El maní tostado sin cobertura presentó el mayor contenido de aceite (50,4% en comparación con los maníes cubiertos, RPP y RP-A (45,3% y 46,7%, respectivamente. RP-P y RP-A mostraron menor porcentaje de proteína y mayor contenido de hidratos de carbonos que RP. Estos resultados afectaron los valores energéticos de los productos: 6,14 kcal/g in RP-P, 6,24 kcal/g in RP-A y 6,42 kcal/g in RP. En la prueba de consumidores, RP y RP-P tuvieron mayor aceptabilidad para los atributos color, textura y sabor que en RP-A. En la prueba descriptiva, RP-P y RP-A mostraron mayores intensidades en los atributos sensoriales de color marrón, rugosidad, brillo, pulverulencia, dulzor y salado y menor intensidad en sabor crudo/ poroto que en RP. Las intensidades del sabor a maní tostado y de los atributos de texturas en el análisis descriptivo no fueron afectadas por la presencia de la cobertura de arrope.

  15. Topics for Mathematics Clubs.

    Dalton, LeRoy C., Ed.; Snyder, Henry D., Ed.

    The ten chapters in this booklet cover topics not ordinarily discussed in the classroom: Fibonacci sequences, projective geometry, groups, infinity and transfinite numbers, Pascal's Triangle, topology, experiments with natural numbers, non-Euclidean geometries, Boolean algebras, and the imaginary and the infinite in geometry. Each chapter is…

  16. Selected topics in magnetism

    Gupta, L C

    1993-01-01

    Part of the ""Frontiers in Solid State Sciences"" series, this volume presents essays on such topics as spin fluctuations in Heisenberg magnets, quenching of spin fluctuations by high magnetic fields, and kondo effect and heavy fermions in rare earths amongst others.

  17. Topics in Nonlinear Dynamics

    Mosekilde, Erik

    Through a significant number of detailed and realistic examples this book illustrates how the insights gained over the past couple of decades in the fields of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory can be applied in practice. Aomng the topics considered are microbiological reaction systems, ecological...

  18. Advanced Topics in Aerodynamics

    Filippone, Antonino

    1999-01-01

    "Advanced Topics in Aerodynamics" is a comprehensive electronic guide to aerodynamics,computational fluid dynamics, aeronautics, aerospace propulsion systems, design and relatedtechnology. We report data, tables, graphics, sketches,examples, results, photos, technical andscientific literature, for...... higher education, learning, reference, research and engineering services....

  19. Differential Topic Models.

    Chen, Changyou; Buntine, Wray; Ding, Nan; Xie, Lexing; Du, Lan

    2015-02-01

    In applications we may want to compare different document collections: they could have shared content but also different and unique aspects in particular collections. This task has been called comparative text mining or cross-collection modeling. We present a differential topic model for this application that models both topic differences and similarities. For this we use hierarchical Bayesian nonparametric models. Moreover, we found it was important to properly model power-law phenomena in topic-word distributions and thus we used the full Pitman-Yor process rather than just a Dirichlet process. Furthermore, we propose the transformed Pitman-Yor process (TPYP) to incorporate prior knowledge such as vocabulary variations in different collections into the model. To deal with the non-conjugate issue between model prior and likelihood in the TPYP, we thus propose an efficient sampling algorithm using a data augmentation technique based on the multinomial theorem. Experimental results show the model discovers interesting aspects of different collections. We also show the proposed MCMC based algorithm achieves a dramatically reduced test perplexity compared to some existing topic models. Finally, we show our model outperforms the state-of-the-art for document classification/ideology prediction on a number of text collections. PMID:26353238

  20. Oral cyclosporine therapy for refractory severe vernal keratoconjunctivitis

    Nikhil S Gokhale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the success of oral cyclosporine therapy in a patient with severe vision-threatening vernal keratoconjunctivitis. A child presented with severe allergy which was not controlled with topical steroids, cyclosporine and mast cell stabilizers. Oral steroids were required repeatedly to suppress inflammation. Child showed a dramatic improvement and stabilization with oral cyclosporine therapy. Oral cyclosporine therapy can be tried in severe vision-threatening allergy refractory to conventional therapy.

  1. Stability of compounded thioguanine oral suspensions.

    Aliabadi, Hamidreza Montazeri; Romanick, Marcel; Somayaji, Vishwa; Mahdipoor, Parvin; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh

    2011-05-15

    PURPOSE. Updated information on the stability of compounded thioguanine oral suspensions prepared with currently available ingredients, as well as results of testing to determine if the addition of an antioxidant could extend shelf life by inhibiting formation of guanine, are presented. METHODS. Using triturated thioguanine tablets, three compounded suspensions were prepared: (1) a reference formulation containing methylcellulose and simple syrup, (2) an equivalent formulation using Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet, and (3) an antioxidant-containing formulation prepared by adding ascorbic acid to the equivalent formulation. The compounded batches were stored at room temperature (19-23 °C). The chemical stability of the suspensions was evaluated immediately after compounding and at weekly intervals by a validated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS) assay method; physical stability was evaluated by regular visual checks and weekly pH testing. RESULTS. As demonstrated by serial LCMS testing, mean thioguanine levels in sampled batches of all three suspensions remained above accepted standards and mean guanine formation remained within acceptable limits for up to 63 days. The addition of ascorbic acid appeared to slow guanine formation but did not significantly extend the shelf life of the suspension. CONCLUSION. Compounded oral suspensions of thioguanine 20 mg/mL exhibited acceptable chemical and physical stability for up to nine weeks at 19-23 °C. The addition of ascorbic acid at a concentration of 0.1% to the suspension was not effective in consistently increasing the shelf life of the thioguanine suspensions. PMID:21546641

  2. Stability of ciprofloxacin in an extemporaneous oral liquid dosage form.

    Johnson, C E; Wong, D V; Hoppe, H L; Bhatt-Mehta, V

    1998-01-01

    The stability of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride in an extemporaneously compounded oral liquid formulation was studied. A suspension was prepared by mixing four crushed, commercially available 750-mg tablets of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride with equal amounts of Ora Plus and simple syrup, NF to make a final volume of 60 mL. The final concentration of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride in the suspension was 50 mg/mL. Six identical suspensions were prepared, placed in amber, plastic prescription bottles and stored at room temperature (24 to 26 deg C) and under refrigeration (3 to 5 deg C). Immediately after preparation and at seven, 14, 28, and 56 days, samples were removed and assayed in duplicate by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography. Color, odor and pH did not change appreciably over the study period. At least 99% of the inital ciprofloxacin hydrochloride concentration remained in all suspensions througout the study period. Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride 50 mg/mL compounded extemporaneously in equal amounts of Ora Plus and simple syrup, NF was stable at room temperature and under refrigeration for at least 56 days in amber, plastic prescription bottles. PMID:23989641

  3. Stability of tacrolimus in an extemporaneously compounded oral liquid.

    Jacobson, P A; Johnson, C E; West, N J; Foster, J A

    1997-01-15

    The stability of tacrolimus in an extemporaneously compounded oral liquid formulation was studied. A suspension was prepared by mixing the contents of commercially available 5-mg capsules of tacrolimus with equal amounts of Ora-Plus and Simple Syrup, NF, to make a final volume of 60 mL. The final concentration of tacrolimus in the suspension was 0.5 mg/mL. Six identical suspensions were prepared, placed in three glass and three plastic amber prescription bottles, and stored at room temperature (24-26 degrees C). Immediately after preparation and at 7, 15, 30, 45, and 56 days, samples were removed and assayed in duplicate by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography. At least 98% of the initial tacrolimus concentrations remained in all suspensions throughout the study period. Color, order, and pH did not change appreciably over the study period. Tacrolimus 0.5 mg/mL compounded extemporaneously in equal amounts of Ora-Plus and Simple Syrup, NF, was stable at 24-26 degrees C for at least 56 days in both glass and plastic amber prescription bottles. PMID:9117806

  4. Detection of added beet or cane sugar in maple syrup by the site-specific deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) method: collaborative study.

    Martin, Y L

    2001-01-01

    Results of a collaborative study are reported for the detection of added beet or cane sugar in maple syrup by the site-specific natural isotope fractionation-nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) method. The method is based on the fact that the deuterium content at specific positions of the sugar molecules is different in maple syrup from that in beet or cane sugar. The syrup is diluted with pure water and fermented; the alcohol is distilled with a quantitative yield and analyzed with a high-field NMR spectrometer fitted with a deuterium probe and fluorine lock. The proportion of ethanol molecules monodeuterated at the methyl site is recorded. This parameter (D/H)I is decreased when beet sugar is added and increased when cane sugar is added to the maple syrup. The precision of the method for measuring (D/H)I was found to be in good agreement with the values already published for the application of this method to fruit juice concentrates (AOAC Official Method 995.17). An excellent correlation was found between the percentage of added beet sugar and the (D/H)I isotopic ratio measured in this collaborative study. Consequently, all samples in which exogenous sugars were added were found to have a (D/H)I isotopic ratio significantly different from the normal value for an authentic maple syrup. By extension of what is known about plants having the C4 cycle, the method can be applied to corn sweeteners as well as to cane sugar. One limitation of the method is its reduced sensitivity when applied to specific blends of beet and cane sugars or corn sweeteners. In such case, the C13 ratio measurement (see AOAC Official Method 984.23, Corn Syrup and Cane Sugar in Maple Syrup) may be used in conjunction. PMID:11601471

  5. Topic Tracking with Dynamic Topic Model and Topic-based Weighting Method

    Xiaoyan Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In topic tracking, a topic is usually described by several stories. How to represent a topic is always an issue and a difficult problem in the research on topic tracking. To emphasis the topic in stories, we provide an improved topic-based tf*idf weighting method to measure the topical importance of the features in the representation model. To overcome the topic drift problem and filter the noise existed in the tracked topic description, a dynamic topic model is proposed based on the static model. It extends the initial topic model with the information from the incoming related stories and filters the noise using the latest unrelated story. The topic tracking systems are implemented on the TDT4 Chinese corpus. The experimental results indicate that both the new weighting method and the dynamic model can improve the tracking performance.

  6. Successful domino liver transplantation in maple syrup urine disease using a related living donor

    F.H., Feier; I.K., Miura; E.A., Fonseca; G., Porta; R., Pugliese; A., Porta; I.V.D., Schwartz; A.V.B., Margutti; J.S., Camelo Jr; S.N., Yamaguchi; A.T., Taveira; H., Candido; M., Benavides; V., Danesi; T., Guimaraes; M., Kondo; P., Chapchap; J. Seda, Neto.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive disease associated with high levels of branched-chain amino acids. Children with MSUD can present severe neurological damage, but liver transplantation (LT) allows the patient to resume a normal diet and avoid further neurological damage. Th [...] e use of living related donors has been controversial because parents are obligatory heterozygotes. We report a case of a 2-year-old child with MSUD who underwent a living donor LT. The donor was the patient's mother, and his liver was then used as a domino graft. The postoperative course was uneventful in all three subjects. DNA analysis performed after the transplantation (sequencing of the coding regions of BCKDHA, BCKDHB, and DBT genes) showed that the MSUD patient was heterozygous for a pathogenic mutation in the BCKDHB gene. This mutation was not found in his mother, who is an obligatory carrier for MSUD according to the family history and, as expected, presented both normal clinical phenotype and levels of branched-chain amino acids. In conclusion, our data suggest that the use of a related donor in LT for MSUD was effective, and the liver of the MSUD patient was successfully used in domino transplantation. Routine donor genotyping may not be feasible, because the test is not widely available, and, most importantly, the disease is associated with both the presence of allelic and locus heterogeneity. Further studies with this population of patients are required to expand the use of related donors in MSUD.

  7. Highly efficient production of inverted syrup in an analytical column with immobilized invertase.

    Upadhyay, Lata Sheo Bachan; Verma, Nishant

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a procedure by which a simple and economical analytical column containing immobilized invertase was developed. This column has high efficiency of converting sucrose into inverted syrup rapidly. Gelatine beads were used for the immobilization of invertase. The enzyme was entrapped efficiently and was found to be stable and retained its activity over a period of 3 months. Immobilization parameters for maximum enzyme activity were estimated as temperature optima at 60 °C, pH optima 7.0 and 30 mg/mL enzyme concentration was found to give maximum immobilization (72 %). The reusability of the gelatine immobilized invertase was found to be seven times with a time interval of 24 h. The immobilized invertase presented a KM of 51.28 mM and Vmax of 0.334 mM/min. The time required to hydrolyse 50 % sucrose solution by a column of length 10 cm and diameter of 1.5 cm was found to be 15 min at room temperature. The column was found effective for inversion of biological samples like sugar cane juice. PMID:25477691

  8. MR diffusion imaging and MR spectroscopy of maple syrup urine disease during acute metabolic decompensation

    Jan, Wajanat; Wang, Zhiyue J. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Zimmerman, Robert A. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Civic Center Boulevard, PA 19104, Philadelphia (United States); Berry, Gerard T.; Kaplan, Paige B.; Kaye, Edward M. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of amino acid metabolism, which affects the brain tissue resulting in impairment or death if untreated. Imaging studies have shown reversible brain edema during acute metabolic decompensation. The purpose of this paper is to describe the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and spectroscopy findings during metabolic decompensation and to assess the value of these findings in the prediction of patient outcome. Six patients with the diagnosis of MSUD underwent conventional MR imaging with DWI during acute presentation with metabolic decompensation. Spectroscopy with long TE was performed in four of the six patients. Follow-up examinations were performed after clinical and metabolic recovery. DWI demonstrated marked restriction of proton diffusion compatible with cytotoxic or intramyelinic sheath edema in the brainstem, basal ganglia, thalami, cerebellar and periventricular white matter and the cerebral cortex. This was accompanied by the presence of an abnormal branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and branched-chain alpha-keto acids (BCKA) peak at 0.9 ppm as well as elevated lactate on proton spectroscopy in all four patients. The changes in all six patients were reversed with treatment without evidence of volume loss or persistent tissue damage. The presence of cytotoxic or intramyelinic edema as evidenced by restricted water diffusion on DWI, with the presence of lactate on spectroscopy, could imply imminent cell death. However, in the context of metabolic decompensation in MSUD, it appears that changes in cell osmolarity and metabolism can reverse completely after metabolic correction. (orig.)

  9. The Antibacterial Activity of Date Syrup Polyphenols against S. aureus and E. coli

    Taleb, Hajer; Maddocks, Sarah E.; Morris, R. Keith; Kanekanian, Ara D.

    2016-01-01

    Plant-derived products such as date syrup (DS) have demonstrated antibacterial activity and can inhibit bacteria through numerous different mechanisms, which may be attributed to bioactive compounds including plant-derived phenolic molecules. DS is rich in polyphenols and this study hypothesized that DS polyphenols demonstrate inherent antimicrobial activity, which cause oxidative damage. This investigation revealed that DS has a high content of total polyphenols (605 mg/100 g), and is rich in tannins (357 mg/100 g), flavonoids (40.5 mg/100 g), and flavanols (31.7 mg/100 g) that are known potent antioxidants. Furthermore, DS, and polyphenols extracted from DS, the most abundant bioactive constituent of DS are bacteriostatic to both Gram positive and Gram negative Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. It has further been shown that the extracted polyphenols independently suppress the growth of bacteria at minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 30 and 20 mg/mL for E. coli and S. aureus, and have observed that DS behaves as a prooxidant by generating hydrogen peroxide that mediates bacterial growth inhibition as a result of oxidative stress. At sub-lethal MIC concentrations DS demonstrated antioxidative activity by reducing hydrogen peroxide, and at lethal concentrations DS demonstrated prooxidant activity that inhibited the growth of E. coli and S. aureus. The high sugar content naturally present in DS did not significantly contribute to this effect. These findings highlight that DS’s antimicrobial activity is mediated through hydrogen peroxide generation in inducing oxidative stress in bacteria.

  10. Identification and characterisation of organisms associated with chocolate pralines and sugar syrups used for their production

    Nielsen, Cecilie Lykke Marvig; Kristiansen, Rikke M.; Madsen, Mikkel G.; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris

    2014-01-01

    Spoilage of chocolate pralines, due to growth of microorganisms tolerating low water activity, causes problems in the confectionary industry. Therefore, an increased knowledge on which organisms are present in the chocolate fillings and their tolerance towards low aw, pH, ethanol and other...... preservatives is needed. Using media containing 40-50% glucose (aw 0.872-0.925) bacteria, yeasts and moulds were isolated from chocolate pralines (aw 0.70-0.898) of nine manufactures and sugar syrups (aw 0.854) used as ingredient in chocolate praline production by one of the manufacturers. Isolates were...... Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus terreus, respectively.Fifteen isolates were screened for their ability to grow in presence of low aw (0.65-0.90), low pH (pH=2.0-7.0), ethanol (0-15%), sorbic acid (0-1500ppm) and different temperatures (15°C-25°C) relevant for chocolate manufacturing. Z...

  11. Nonmedical Use of Cough Syrup Among Secondary Vocational School Students: A National Survey in China.

    Wu, Qingfeng; Yu, Jincong; Yang, Chengwu; Chen, Jiayan; Yang, Longyu; Zhang, Hui; Teng, Shiwei; Li, Jiang; Yan, Dong; Cao, Jiepin; Zhao, Yanting; Wang, Zengzhen

    2016-03-01

    Nonmedical use of cough syrup (NUCS) among secondary vocational school (SVS) students has been an increasing concern for public health in China, but no data were available. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the epidemiological characters of NUCS as well as its risk factors among SVS students in China.From September 2013 to December 2014, a total of 13,614 SVS students were purposively selected through multistage sampling in 6 cities of China. Information on NUCS, demographics, family background, smoking and alcohol consumption, impulsiveness, sensation seeking, and parental monitoring were collected. Logistic regression was used to explore factors related to NUCS.The 12,923 (94.9%) valid responses (16.3 ± 1.0 years old, and 52.6% men) reported 3.47% (95% confidence interval: 3.15-3.79%) lifetime NUCS. Logistic regression indicated that smoking, part-time job experience, high level of impulsiveness, and sensation seeking were risk factors for NUCS, whereas urban living and high parental monitoring were protective ones.NUCS was prevalent among SVS students. Interventions that target on smoking, impulsiveness and sensation seeking control, improvement on parental monitoring may have considerable impact on NUCS among SVS students. PMID:26962800

  12. Citric Acid Production from Date Syrup using Immobilized Cells of Aspergillus niger

    Abdulrahman M. Al-Shehri

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 14 isolates of Aspergillus niger were obtained from soil samples of two different locations in Saudi Arabia. These cultures were screened for their ability to produce citric acid in date syrup medium under free and immobilized cells systems. Maximum productivity was about 1.44 times higher in the immobilized system compared to free cells. A. niger j4 isolated from Jazan region was selected as a good producer for optimization of the citric acid fermentation in immobilized cells technique. Citric acid production was increased gradually and reached to maximum value (30.6 g L-1 after 6 days of cultivation. Optimum production was achieved at 15% sugar concentration with consumed sugar of 49.5%. The highest value of citric acid (42.5 g L-1 was obtained at pH 5.5 with increasing the consumed sugar to 61.7%. A positive relationship between citric acid production and incubation temperature was also observed up to 30°C.

  13. MR diffusion imaging and MR spectroscopy of maple syrup urine disease during acute metabolic decompensation

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of amino acid metabolism, which affects the brain tissue resulting in impairment or death if untreated. Imaging studies have shown reversible brain edema during acute metabolic decompensation. The purpose of this paper is to describe the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and spectroscopy findings during metabolic decompensation and to assess the value of these findings in the prediction of patient outcome. Six patients with the diagnosis of MSUD underwent conventional MR imaging with DWI during acute presentation with metabolic decompensation. Spectroscopy with long TE was performed in four of the six patients. Follow-up examinations were performed after clinical and metabolic recovery. DWI demonstrated marked restriction of proton diffusion compatible with cytotoxic or intramyelinic sheath edema in the brainstem, basal ganglia, thalami, cerebellar and periventricular white matter and the cerebral cortex. This was accompanied by the presence of an abnormal branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and branched-chain alpha-keto acids (BCKA) peak at 0.9 ppm as well as elevated lactate on proton spectroscopy in all four patients. The changes in all six patients were reversed with treatment without evidence of volume loss or persistent tissue damage. The presence of cytotoxic or intramyelinic edema as evidenced by restricted water diffusion on DWI, with the presence of lactate on spectroscopy, could imply imminent cell death. However, in the context of metabolic decompensation in MSUD, it appears that changes in cell osmolarity and metabolism can reverse completely after metabolic correction. (orig.)

  14. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD): screening for known mutations in Italian patients.

    Parrella, T; Surrey, S; Iolascon, A; Sartore, M; Heidenreich, R; Diamond, G; Ponzone, A; Guardamagna, O; Burlina, A B; Cerone, R

    1994-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive disease due to deficiency of the branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) caused by a large number of mutations. In the present study, DNA from Italian patients and their relatives was examined for three point mutations (Y393N in the E1 alpha gene, T841G and G1031A in the E2 gene) and two deletions (-G at the intron/exon border of exon 8 in the E2 gene and an 11 bp deletion in exon 1 of the E1 beta gene) using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by allele-specific oligonucleotide (ASO) hybridization, gene-scanning size analysis of fluorescent-tagged PCR products and/or automated DNA sequence analysis. Our results show that two different mutations account for 7 of the 20 mutant MSUD alleles. Two unrelated affected children, two of their parents and one sibling were carriers for the 11 bp deletion in the E1 beta gene, one patient and her mother were heterozygous for Y393N in E1 alpha, while T841G, G1031A and the -G deletion in E2 were not detected. This study is the first attempt to characterize at a nucleic acid level MSUD mutations in Italy. Our results indicate that additional defects are present in the Italian population and that, unlike the Mennonites, a number of different MSUD mutations exist in Italians. PMID:7707687

  15. In vitro evaluation of alternative oral contrast agents for MRI of the gastrointestinal tract

    Purpose: In vitro evaluation of different materials as potential alternative oral contrast agents for small bowel MRI. Materials and methods: The T1 and T2 relaxation times of rose hip syrup, black currant extract, cocoa, iron-deferoxamine solution and a commonly used oral contrast material (1 mM Gd-DTPA) were determined in vitro at different concentrations on a 1.0 T clinical MR scanner. T1 values were obtained with an inversion prepared spoiled gradient echo sequence. T2 values were obtained using multiple echo sequences. Finally the materials were visualized on T1-, T2- and T2*-weighted MR images. Results: The relaxation times of the undiluted rose hip syrup (T1 = 110 ± 5 ms, T2 = 86 ± 3 ms), black currant extract (T1 = 55 ± 3 ms, T2 = 39 ± 2 ms) and 5 mM iron-deferoxamine solution (T1 = 104 ± 4 ms, T2 = 87 ± 2 ms) were much shorter than for a 1 mM Gd-DTPA solution (T1 = 180 ± 8 ms, T2 = 168 ± 5 ms). Dilution of black currant extract to 30% or a 3 mM iron-deferoxamine solution conducted to T1 relaxation times which are quite comparable to a 1 mM Gd-DTPA solution. Despite its much lower metal content an aqueous cocoa suspension (100 g/L) produced T2 relaxation times (T1 = 360 ± 21 ms, T2 = 81 ± 3 ms) more or less in the same range like the 5 mM iron-deferoxamine solution. Imaging of our in vitro model using clinical sequences allowed to anticipate the T1-, T2- and T2*-depiction of all used substances. Cocoa differed from all other materials with its low to moderate signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted sequences. While all substances presented a linear 1/T1 and 1/T2 relationship towards concentration, rose hip syrup broke ranks with a disproportionately high increase of relaxation at higher concentrations. Conclusions: Rose hip syrup, black currant extract and iron-deferoxamine solution due to their positive T1 enhancement characteristics and drinkability appear to be valuable oral contrast agents for T1-weighted small bowel MRI. Cocoa with its differing relaxation and signal enhancement properties is a promising oral contrast agent but needs further clinical evaluation

  16. Workshop on beam cooling and related topics

    The sessions of the Workshop on Beam Cooling and Related Topics, held in Montreux from 4-8 October 1993, are reported in these Proceedings. This meeting brought together international experts in the field of accelerator beam cooling. Its purpose was to discuss the status of the different cooling techniques currently in use (stochastic, electron, ionization, heavy-ion, and laser) and their actual performances, technological implications, and future prospects. Certain theoretical principles (muon cooling, cyclotron maser cooling) were discussed and are reported on in these Proceedings. Also of interest in this Workshop was the possibility of beam crystallization in accelerators using ultimate cooling. In the first part of these Proceedings, overview talks on the various cooling techniques, their implications, present performance, and future prospects are presented. More detailed reports on all the topics are then given in the form of oral presentations or poster sessions. Finally, the chairmen and/or convenors then present summary talks. (orig.)

  17. PREFACE: CEWQO Topical Issue CEWQO Topical Issue

    Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita

    2009-09-01

    This topical issue of Physica Scripta collects selected peer-reviewed contributions based on invited and contributed talks and posters presented at the 15th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics (CEWQO) which took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http://cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole community took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http://cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu, cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole community of the workshop, we thank the referees for their careful reading and useful suggestions which helped to improve all of the submitted papers. A brief description of CEWQO The Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics is a series of conferences started informally in Budapest in 1992. Sometimes small events transform into important conferences, as in the case of CEWQO. Professor Jozsef Janszky, from the Research Institute of Solid State Physics and Optics, is the founder of this series. Margarita Man'ko obtained the following information from Jozsef Janszky during her visit to Budapest, within the framework of cooperation between the Russian and Hungarian Academies of Sciences in 2005. He organized a small workshop on quantum optics in Budapest in 1992 with John Klauder as a main speaker. Then, bearing in mind that a year before Janszky himself was invited by Vladimir Buzek to give a seminar on the same topic in Bratislava, he decided to assign the name 'Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics', considering the seminar in Bratislava to be the first workshop and the one in Budapest the second. The third formal workshop took place in Bratislava in 1993 organized by Vladimir Buzek, then in 1994 (Budapest, by Jozsef Janszky), 1995 and 1996 (Budmerice, Slovakia, by Vladimir Buzek), 1997 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 1999 (Olomouc, Czech Republic, by Zdenek Hradil), 2000 (Balatonfüred, Hungary, by Jozsef Janszky ), 2001 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 2002 (Szeged, Hungary, by Mihaly Benedict), 2003 (Rostock,Germany, by Werner Vogel and Sascha Wallentowitz), 2004 (Trieste, Italy, by Naseem Rahman and Sascha Wallentowitz), 2005 (Bilkent, Ankara, by Alexander Shumovsky), 2006 (Vienna, by Helmut Rauch), 2007 (Palermo, Italy, by Antonino Messina) and 2008 (Belgrade, by Mirjana Bozic). The CEWQO series developed in two directions following the rapid development of quantum optics and the transitional development of the scientific collaboration of Central European researchers with researchers from old and new emerging Central European countries, and from all over the world. The topics discussed at CEWQO 08 were divided into ten groups that aimed to cover the broad scope of modern quantum optics: Fundamental aspects of quantum optics and quantum mechanics Single photons and photon pairs Cavity and circuit QED Atoms in intense fields Neutron, atom and molecular quantum optics Quantum gases and fluids Coherence, entanglement and decoherence Optical properties of condensed matter and nanostructures Open quantum systems and chaos Quantum information processing Central European Workshops on Quantum Optics realize and are consistent with a wider idea, and a social, economical, cultural and political program promoted since 1989 by the Central European Initiative (CEI), the main goal of which was to help transition countries in Central Europe to become closer to the EU. The resulting support of the CEI, first obtained thanks to the scientific reputation, organizing activities, and efforts of Helmut Rauch, has been very important for the organization of the CEWQO in recent years, particularly in 2008. The support of the Sixth and Seventh Framework Programs of the European Commission was also very important. A short review of papers in this topical issue A principal role in this topical issue is played by the photon. Vuletic et al describe the mapping of the photon-polarization state onto a single collective-spin excitation (magnon) shared between two atomic ensembles. A heralded quantum memory based on this mapping is demonstrated. Dodonov derives a formula which predicts a photon generation rate in a cavity due to strong variations of the complex dielectric function in a thin layer near an ideally conducting wall (simulation of the dynamic Casimir effect). Skenderovic reports how photons from two femptosecond laser pulses prepare a large molecule in a coherent superposition of vibrational states. The time evolution of this state is interrogated with a third (delayed) pulse which creates a fourth wave, the signal, giving information on the molecular dynamics. Dimitrova et al present lecture demonstrations of interference and quantum erasing with single photons. By considering electromagnetic energy flow lines as photon paths Davidovic et al explain the emergence of an interference pattern in the process of the accumulation of single photon events behind an interference grating. Atoms in a cavity, atom-atom interactions, interactions of atoms with photons and macroscopic bodies is the next important topic in this topical issue. Khanbekyan et al deal with the problem of the spontaneous emission of an excited atom in a high-Q cavity and investigate the regime when the emitted photon belongs to a wave packet simultaneously located inside and outside the cavity. Sambale et al study the resonant Casimir-Polder potential of an excited atom in front of meta-material half-space and show that for long distances it exhibits attenuated oscillations, while close to the surface the potential becomes attractive or repulsive. Buhmann et al study the nonequilibrium Casimir-Polder force on an atom prepared in an incoherent superposition of internal energy-eigenstates, which is placed in a magnetoelectric environment of nonuniform temperature. Lazarou et al discuss how two atoms, interacting with a single cavity, can be coherently evolved into an entangled state when they are controlled by a sequence of Gaussian pulses, named frequency chirps. Bougouffa et al report on field quantization between two parallel conducting plates (modifications of the decay rate between such plates) and the three-level Jaynes-Cummings dynamics in the single-mode regime. Tomas studies the interaction between two atoms, one excited and the other in its ground state near the interface between two media. It is shown that the nonretarded van der Waals force gets enhanced by almost three orders of magnitude at the surface mode resonance. Vuskovic et al write about the plasma treatment of a bulk Nb surface which is very efficient for producing high-Q factor microwave cavities. Nemeth et al review the theory and experiments of the coherently pumped micromaser. With varied atomic inversion in a coherently pumped micromaser, a sudden switch occurs between two distinctively different field states, with high and low photon numbers. Moi et al show that alkali-metal atoms adsorbed either in organic films or in porous glass are released into the vapor phase (desorbed) under illumination, the action of many photons. Several papers are devoted to matter-wave interference and quantum fluids. By analyzing unavoidable quantum losses as they appear in neutron phase-echo and spin rotation experiments, Rauch concludes that basic quantum irreversibility exists in neutron interferometry. Rauch also shows how entanglement effects in a single particle system demonstrate quantum contextuality, and then argues that a quantum system carries much more information than is usually extracted. The time evolution of the wave function of an atom hit by a photon in a three-grating interferometer is used by Arsenovic et al to interpret the intriguing results of the corresponding experiment by Chapman et al. Grujic et al demonstrate dark Raman resonance due to Ramsey interference in a spatially separated pump and probe laser beams co-propagating through a pure 87Rb vapor cell. Obtained EIT profiles are explained by solving Bloch's equations for an atom in a magnetic field moving through pump and probe laser regions. Gawlik et al present results of experiments on finite-temperature Bose-Einstein condensate of 87Rb atoms in a magnetic trap. In the Thomas-Fermi (TF) regime, the condensate dynamics has a hydrodynamic character. The dynamics of non-TF condensates reflect the interaction between BEC and non-condensed thermal atoms. Atoms in intense fields is the subject of several papers. Gainutdinov et al show that the contribution to the radiative shift of the side bands of the Mollow spectrum is very significant. Using Gell-Mann, Low S-matrix formalism, and QED, Glushkov et al present an approach to study multiphoton processes during the interaction of an atom with a realistic intense laser field. The paper by Khetselius is devoted to two related problems: the calculation of the atomic hyperfine structure of the Li-like ions and an estimation of the effectiveness of the three-step scheme of isotope separation for the case of Cs isotopes. Vvedenskii et al present the results concerning the excitation of a residual quasi-dc current in the plasma, which are based on the solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for the hydrogen atom in a few-cycle laser pulse. Information processing is one of the important aspects of this issue and it is considered in several papers. M Man'ko et al presented a new notion of tomographic entropy and new entropic uncertainty relations applied to the problem of light propagation in optical fibers. Nonlinearity in the quantum-information processing is considered in the paper by Chirkin et al. D'Arrigo et al investigated a very specific semiclassical Hamiltonian model of a quantum memory channel. They evaluated the performance of the three-qubit code error correcting code by means of entanglement fidelity. The fundamental aspects of quantum optics are the subject of several papers, namely, Bell's inequalities are studied in the paper by Andreev, the star-product quantization scheme was discussed by O Man'ko, and probabilistic representation was investigated in the paper by Adam et al. In the paper by V Man'ko et al the diagonal representation of the density operator (usually called P-function of Glauber-Sudarshan) is related to the star-product quantization method and to the tomographic-probability representation of quantum states. Laskowski et al suggest an elegant geometrical criterion for the separability, which is based on the local correlation measurements readily available in the laboratory. Mizrahi describes a method to derive the Pauli-Schrödinger equation starting from a simple model of a qubit carried by a massive particle. By analyzing unavoidable quantum losses as they appear in neutron phase-echo and spin rotation experiments, Rauch concludes that basic quantum irreversibility exists in neutron interferometry. Rauch also shows how entanglement effects in a single particle system demonstrate quantum contextuality, and then argues that a quantum system carries much more information than is usually extracted. Kupczynski advocates various statistical tests which could be used to search for a fine structure in experimental data in order to answer the question: is quantum theory predictably complete? For an ion confined within a Paul trap, Mihalcea constructs an invariant operator based on the Lews and Riesenfeld approach and determines the spectrum of the quasienergy operator. Popov et al construct pair-coherent states of the Barut-Girardello kind for two noninteracting subsystems of pseudoharmonic oscillators and examine their statistical properties in different regions of parameters. The property of entanglement, considered to be the most intriguing property of composite quantum systems, has been an important research subject in recent years. It is considered to be a possible resource for quantum computation and communication. Therefore, a substantial number of papers in this topical issue is devoted to entanglement. Leon et al write that two-photon emission from two atoms initially excited in a common electromagnetic vacuum may generate atom-atom entanglement. Dömötör et al elucidate a connection between entanglement and coherent states. Earlier they proved that in the symmetric subspace of a system of N qubits a pure state is not globally entangled, if and only if, it is a coherent state. Here they extend this proof to a system of N 'quKits' (subsystems of arbitrary finite dimension K). Napoli et al compute exactly localizable entanglement as a function of temperature for the system of three interacting spins in a thermal state. Isar considers entanglement in open quantum dynamics by studying the system of two independent oscillators interacting with the general environment. He proposes some special parameters of the environment that manifest interesting properties (e.g., the environment is entangling initially separable states). Lindén et al study the decay of entanglement in rings of qubits that live in the Markov environment. They use the entanglement of formation as the measure whose time evolution announces (or not) the decay. Jivulescu et al consider the time evolution of a spin-1/2 particle nonuniformly coupled through the Heisenberg interaction to the environment composed of N spins. Considering arbitrary initial conditions the authors determine a numerically manipulative general solution from which information on full dynamics may be extracted. Ferraro et al investigate the entanglement evolution of two qubits interacting with a common environment through a Heisenberg XX mechanism and show that the phenomena of entanglement hidden death and entanglement hidden revival take place. Stochastic processes have been very important in quantum optics. Pascazio et al review and compare three algorithms for the generation of sequences of symmetric stable Levy random variables. They draw conclusions on the efficiency of the algorithms used and on some applications in quantum optics. Hul et al report on the possibilities of explaining the statistical properties of the spectra of irregular quantum systems by invoking the random matrix theory. The authors calculated the spectra, spectral correlation functions, and the distributions of avoided crossings, for two types of idealized model of one-dimensional quantum wires forming a quantum graph. Sirko et al present the experimental study of microwave networks displaying an irregular hexagonal structure. In a sense, these networks model quantum graphs with special properties. Kiss et al consider the recurrence of quantum walks on lattices by studying the properties of the generalized Polya number. The properties of this number are compared for classical and quantum cases. A number of interesting papers are devoted to the optical properties of condensed matter and nanostructures. Gorelik derives analytical expressions for photonic dispersion law in 3D photonic crystals filled by dielectrics or metal. Nemilentsau et al evaluate the photon density of states near a single-wall finite length carbon nanotube. The authors found definite singularities in the density of photon states that may be observable in light-matter interaction, thermal radiation distribution, and micromechanical phenomena related to Casimir forces. Perinova et al pay attention to the interesting relationship between microscopic and macroscopic approaches to the quantization of the electromagnetic field in the medium. They examine the problem of a source atom radiating into a dielectric. Radovanovic et al present an extended approach for estimating the tunneling times through all linear materials, including metamaterials having a negative refractive index. Vasic et al describe the optical design of 2D confined structures with metamaterial layers which is based on coordinate transformations. Using the Green's functions method, Ilic et al analyze the influence of boundaries of the molecular ultrathin film on exciton dispersion law. Jeknic-Dugic proposes the model of optically induced transitions in an electronic subsystem of a bio-molecule that is able to describe relatively slow conformational transitions of a bio-molecule. Stef et al present their goal to grow good quality YbF3-doped and PbF2-codoped CaF2 crystals with high divalent Ytterbium content for investigating the influence of Pb2+ ions on the valence conversion, on the dielectric and optical absorption spectra. Vasile et al present the fabrication and SEM and photoluminescence characterization of zinc gallate doped with Eu and Er ions. The results could be important for photonic applications of spinels. Vasiljevic et al present the process of production of microlenses by irradiation of a tot'hema eosin sensitized gelatin (TESG) layer with a laser beam (2nd Nd:YAG harmonic, 532 nm). Microlenses chemically processed after production with 10% alum solution had near diffraction limited performance. The production and application of microlenses are fast expanding because they are increasingly used in biomedical and general optics. Prizes for the poster presentations Authors under 35 years of age were invited to take part in the poster competition. Two first prizes EX-AEQUOAE were awarded to Zoran Grujic from the Institute of Physics, Belgrade, Serbia, for the poster 'Numerical simulation of Raman-Ramsey effects induced by thermal motion of rubidium atoms' and to Andrey Popov from Altai State Technical University, Bernaul, Russia, for the poster 'Beryllium atoms in intense fields'. The third prize was awarded to Alex Crosse from Imperial College, London, UK, for the poster 'Quantum electrodynamics in absorbing nonlinear media'. Members of the Jury were: Mirjana Bozic (Chairperson), Victor Dodonov, Margarita Man'ko, Helmut Rauch, Saverio Pascazio, Richard Tanas and Philip Walther. Sponsors of the awards were the Institute of Physics, Belgrade, European Physical Journal (EPJ) and John Wiley and Sons. CEWQO 2009 and 2010 The 16th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics was held in Turku, Finland, 23-27 May 2009. CEWQO09 was chaired by Professor Kalle-Antti Suominen (http://www.congress.utu.fi/cewqo2009). The conference site is the new ICT building at chaired by Professor Kalle-Antti Suominen (http://www.congress.utu.fi/cewqo2009, www.congress.utu.fi/cewqo2009). The conference site was the new ICT building at the University of Turku campus area and the Viking Line ferry boat. Turku is the central city of historical Finland established on the mouth of the river Aura in the 13th century. It is the birthplace of Finnish academic life, since the Academy of Turku was established there in 1640. In 2011, Turku will be one of the cultural capitals of Europe. The city has a strong maritime tradition and is shielded from the Baltic sea by a large and beautiful archipelago. The 17th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics will be held in 2010 in St Andrews, UK. It will be chaired by Professors Ulf Leonhardt and Natalia Korolkova from the School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews. St Andrews is home to the first university of Scotland, the third-oldest in the English-speaking world, and is the home of golf. It remains a charming, eccentric seaside town that is sufficiently secluded - the ideal place for a stimulating and thought-provoking conference.

  18. Oral Warts

    ... Salivary Gland Tumors More Science News Grants & Funding Funding Opportunity Announcements By Topic RFAs PAs Application Forms ... This form does not collect any actual information. External Web Site Policy This graphic notice ( ) means that ...

  19. Discovering Health Topics in Social Media Using Topic Models

    Paul, Michael J; Dredze, Mark

    2014-01-01

    By aggregating self-reported health statuses across millions of users, we seek to characterize the variety of health information discussed in Twitter. We describe a topic modeling framework for discovering health topics in Twitter, a social media website. This is an exploratory approach with the goal of understanding what health topics are commonly discussed in social media. This paper describes in detail a statistical topic model created for this purpose, the Ailment Topic Aspect Model (ATAM...

  20. Topics in molecular interactions

    This volume deals with a variety of problems in intermolecular interactions. These fall into two groups. The first contains important topics which have not recently been dealt with in an authoritative fashion, such as the information given by studying hindered internal rotation. The second group contains contributions based largely on nuclear magnetic resonance work. Nuclear spin relaxation studies have led to intimate knowledge concerning association effects. The approach developed principally at the Karlsruhe laboratory is described. Also included is a second experimental chapter devoted to the way in which light scattering studies provide information on multipole forces in molecular interactions. Other topics based on NMR studies show how this technique yields valuable information on molecular and ion-molecule interactions respectively. (Auth.)

  1. Topics in industrial mathematics

    Mathematical methods are widely used to solve practical problems arising in modern industry. This article outlines some of the topics relevant to AECL programmes. This covers the applications of transmission and neutron transport tomography to determine density distributions in rocks and two phase flow situations. Another example covered is the use of variational methods to solve the problems of aerosol migration and control theory. (author). 7 refs

  2. Oral myiasis

    Treville Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a relatively rare condition arising from the invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals or humans by maggots or larvae of certain species of flies. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries and hot climate regions, and is associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions; alcoholism and senility. Its diagnosis is made basically by the presence of larvae. The present article reports a case of oral myiasis involving 20 larvae in a patient with neurological deficiency.

  3. Nonstandard Topics for Student Presentations in Differential Equations

    LeMasurier, Michelle

    2006-01-01

    An interesting and effective way to showcase the wide variety of fields to which differential equations can be applied is to have students give short oral presentations on a specific application. These talks, which have been presented by 30-40 students per year in our differential equations classes, provide exposure to a diverse array of topics…

  4. Oral physicians.

    Giddon, D B

    2012-11-01

    In response to Stephen Hancocks' editorial Sawbones no longer, this paper examines the future role of oral physicians and patients' need for dental professionals to play a larger part in overall healthcare. Whilst the financial structures behind the US and UK dental systems differ, it can be questioned whether the outcomes of impending change will be as diverse. PMID:23175071

  5. penal oral

    Juan de Dios González Ibarra

    2008-01-01

    El objetivo es estudiar los antecedentes y la epistemología de los juicios orales como un nuevo sistema emergente de justicia penal, cuestionándonos principalmente desde los puntos de vista de la teoría del conocimiento e historia jurídica.

  6. Oral Cancer

    ... notice signs of oral cancer during regular checkups. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) also make note of unusual or abnormal ... 186,000 members and affiliates who are audiologists; speech-language pathologists; speech, language, and hearing scientists; audiology and speech- ...

  7. A Comparative Study on the Sedative Effect of Oral Midazolam and Oral Promethazine Medication in Lumbar Puncture

    Hojjat DERAKHSHANFAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Derakhshanfar H, Modanlookordi M, Amini A, Shahrami A. A Comparative Study of the Sedative Effect of Oral Midazolam and Oral Promethazine Medication in Lumbar Puncture. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Spring;7(2:11-16. ObjectiveLumbar puncture (LP essentially is a painful and stressful procedure that indicated for diagnosis and therapeutic purposes. One way to reduce the anxiety is to administer an oral premedication. The aim of this study is to compare clinical effects of oral midazolam and oral promethazine in LP.Materials & MethodsThis prospective randomized controlled clinical trial study wasperformed on 80 children aged 2-7 years that were candidate for LP. They were divided into two randomized equal groups. First group received oral midazolam syrup 0.5 mg/kg and the other group received oral promethazine syrup 1mg/kg. Level of sedation, hemodynamic changes and any other complications were monitored every 5 minutes from 30 minutes before the start of the procedure.ResultsMidazolam group and promethazine group were similar in age, gender and weight. Midazolam had significantly shorter onset of sedation and also shorter duration to maximal sedation. The two groups were similar with respect to sedative effect at all time. The only complication that was significantly more in midazolam group was nausea and vomiting.ConclusionMidazolam syrup and promethazine syrup have same sedative effect in children. Both of these medications are easy to use in preschool children and none of them appeared to be superior to another. References1. Ellenby MS, Tegtmeyer K, Lai S, Braner DA. Lumbar Puncture. N Engl J Med 2006;28;355(13:e12.2. Crock C, Olsson C, Phillips R, Chalkiadis G, Sawyer S, Ashley D, et al. General anesthesia or conscious sedation for painful procedures in childhood cancer: The family’s perspective. Arch Dis Child 2003;88(3:253−7.3. Holdsworth MT, Raisch DW, Winter SS, Frost JD, Moro MA, Doran NH, et al. Pain and distress from Bone marrow aspirations and lumbar punctures. Ann Pharmacother 2003;37(1:17-22.4. Ellis JA, Villeneuve K, Newhook K, Ulrichsen J. Pain Management Practices for Lumbar Punctures: Are We Consistent? J Pediatr Nurs 2007 Dec;22(6:479-87.5. Mathai A, Nazareth M, Raju RS. Preanesthetic sedation of preschool children: comparison of intranasal midazolam versus oral promethazin. Anesth Essays Res 2011;5(1:67-71.6. McCann ME, Kain ZN. The management of preoperative anxiety in children: an update. Anesth Analg 2001; 93(1: 98–105.7. Kain ZN, Caldwell-Andrews AA. Psychological preparation of children undergoing surgery. Anesth Clinic NA 2005;23:597–614.8. Wolf AR, Rosenbarum A, Kain ZN, Larsson P, Lönnqvist PA. The place of premedication in pediatric practice. Paediatr Anaesth 2009;19(9:817-28.9. Yuen VM, Hui TW, Irwin MG, Yuen MK. A Comparison of Intranasal Dexmedetomidine and Oral Midazolam for Premedication in Pediatric Anesthesia: A Double-Blinded Randomized Controlled Trial. Anesth Analg 2008;106(6:1715–21.10. Funk W, Jakob W, Riedl T, Taeger K. Oral preanaestheticmedication for children: double blind randomized study of a combination of midazplam and ketamine vs midazolam or ketamine alone. Br JAnaesth 2000;84(3:355-4011. Mazurek MS. Sedation and Analgesia for Procedures outside the Operating Room. Semin in Pediatr Surg 2004;13(3:166-173.12. Jo SH, Hong HK, Chong SH, Lee HS, Choe H. H1 antihistamine drug promethazine directly blocks hERG K+ channel. Pharmacol Res 2009;60(5:429-37.13. Gutstein HB, Johnson KL, Heard MB, Gregory GA. Oral Ketamine Preanesthetic Medication in children, Anesthesiology 1992;76(1:28-33.14. Almenrader N, Passariello M, Coccetti B, Haiber R, Pietropaoli P. Premedication in children: a comparison of oral midazolam and oral clonidine. Pediatr Anesth 2007;17(12:1143–9.15. Singh N, Pandey RK, Saksena AK, Jaiswal JN. A comparative evaluation of oral midazolam with oral sedatives as  premedication in pediatric dentistry. J Clin Pediatr Dent 2002;26(2:161-4.16. Naziri F, Alijanpour E, Rabei SM, Seifi S, Mir M, Hosseinpour M, et al. Comparison of oral Midazolam with oral Promethazine on decreasing anxiety of children when separated from their parents before anesthesia. J Babol Univ Medl Sci  2007;9(4:29-32.17. Parkinson L, Hughes J, Gill A, Billingham I, Ratcliffe J, Choonara I. A randomized controlled trial of sedation in the critically ill. Paediatr Anaesth 1997;7(5: 405-10. 18. Crean P. Sedation and neuromuscular blockade in paediatric intensive care;practice in the United Kingdom and North America. Paediatr Anaesth 2004;14(6:439-42.19. Schmidt AP, Valinetti EA, Bandeira D, Bertacchi MF, Simões CM, Auler JO Jr. Effects of preanesthetic administration of midazolam, clonidine, or dexmedetomidine on postoperative pain and anxiety in children. Paediatr Anaesth 2007;17(7:667-74.20. Pfeil N, Uhlig U, Kostev K, Carius R, Schröder H, Kiess W, et al. Antiemetic edications in children with presumed infectious gastroenteritis--harmacoepidemiology in Europe and Northern America. J Pediatr 2008;153(5:659-62.

  8. Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome and topical steroid therapy: case series and review of the literature.

    Decani, Sem; Federighi, Veronica; Baruzzi, Elisa; Sardella, Andrea; Lodi, Giovanni

    2014-12-01

    Topical corticosteroids are considered first-line therapy in patients with chronic inflammatory oral mucosal diseases; among them, clobetasol propionate is one of the most widely used in oral medicine. Under physiological conditions, the transmucosal application is characterized by a significantly greater absorption than the skin application. Contrary to many publications about the side effects of topical corticosteroids in dermatology, few studies have investigated the systemic effects due to local application of these drugs on oral mucosa. Although topical steroid therapy for the management of oral diseases is generally associated with local adverse effects (candidiasis, stomatopyrosis, and hypogeusia), these drugs can also lead to systemic side effects, such as suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and Cushing's syndrome. This review reports five cases of systemic adverse effects caused by clobetasol propionate topical treatment. PMID:23210698

  9. Oral calcitonin

    Hamdy RC

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald C Hamdy,1,2 Dane N Daley11Osteoporosis Center, College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, 2Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Johnson City, TN, USAAbstract: Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the C-cells of the thyroid gland in response to elevations of the plasma calcium level. It reduces bone resorption by inhibiting mature active osteoclasts and increases renal calcium excretion. It is used in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget's disease of bone, and malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Synthetic and recombinant calcitonin preparations are available; both have similar pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. As calcitonin is a peptide, the traditional method of administration has been parenteral or intranasal. This hinders its clinical use: adherence with therapy is notoriously low, and withdrawal from clinical trials has been problematic. An oral formulation would be more attractive, practical, and convenient to patients. In addition to its effect on active osteoclasts and renal tubules, calcitonin has an analgesic action, possibly mediated through β-endorphins and the central modulation of pain perception. It also exerts a protective action on cartilage and may be useful in the management of osteoarthritis and possibly rheumatoid arthritis. Oral formulations of calcitonin have been developed using different techniques. The most studied involves drug-delivery carriers such as Eligen® 8-(N-2hydroxy-5-chloro-benzoyl-amino-caprylic acid (5-CNAC (Emisphere Technologies, Cedar Knolls, NJ. Several factors affect the bioavailability and efficacy of orally administered calcitonin, including amount of water used to take the tablet, time of day the tablet is taken, and proximity to intake of a meal. Preliminary results looked promising. Unfortunately, in two Phase III studies, oral calcitonin (0.8 mg with 200 mg 5-CNAC, once a day for postmenopausal osteoporosis and twice a day for osteoarthritis failed to meet key end points, and in December 2011, Novartis Pharma AG announced that it would not pursue further clinical development of oral calcitonin for postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteoarthritis. A unique feature of calcitonin is that it is able to uncouple bone turnover, reducing bone resorption without affecting bone formation and therefore increasing bone mass and improving bone quality. This effect, however, may be dose-dependent, with higher doses inhibiting both resorption and formation. Because so many factors affect the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of calcitonin, especially orally administered calcitonin, much work remains to be done to explore the full pharmacologic spectrum and potential of calcitonin and determine the optimum dose and timing of administration, as well as water and food intake.Keywords: oral calcitonin, osteoporosis, fractures, arthritis, pain

  10. Oral care.

    Hitz Lindenmüller, Irène; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable. PMID:21325845

  11. Oral Sex, Oral Health and Orogenital Infections

    Rajiv Saini; Santosh Saini; Sugandha Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Althou...

  12. Topics in Operator Theory

    Ball, Joseph A; Helton, JWilliam; Rodman, Leiba; Spitkovsky, Iiya

    2010-01-01

    This is the first volume of a collection of original and review articles on recent advances and new directions in a multifaceted and interconnected area of mathematics and its applications. It encompasses many topics in theoretical developments in operator theory and its diverse applications in applied mathematics, physics, engineering, and other disciplines. The purpose is to bring in one volume many important original results of cutting edge research as well as authoritative review of recent achievements, challenges, and future directions in the area of operator theory and its applications.

  13. Topics in circular statistics

    Jammalamadaka, S Rao

    2001-01-01

    This research monograph on circular data analysis covers some recent advances in the field, besides providing a brief introduction to, and a review of, existing methods and models. The primary focus is on recent research into topics such as change-point problems, predictive distributions, circular correlation and regression, etc. An important feature of this work is the S-plus subroutines provided for analyzing actual data sets. Coupled with the discussion of new theoretical research, the book should benefit both the researcher and the practitioner. Contents: Circular Probability Distributions

  14. Topics in field theory

    Karpilovsky, G

    1989-01-01

    This monograph gives a systematic account of certain important topics pertaining to field theory, including the central ideas, basic results and fundamental methods.Avoiding excessive technical detail, the book is intended for the student who has completed the equivalent of a standard first-year graduate algebra course. Thus it is assumed that the reader is familiar with basic ring-theoretic and group-theoretic concepts. A chapter on algebraic preliminaries is included, as well as a fairly large bibliography of works which are either directly relevant to the text or offer supplementary material of interest.

  15. Superconductivity elementary topics

    Shrivastava, KN

    2000-01-01

    This book describes the elementary concepts of superconductivity and discusses the topics of flux-lattice melting, magnetization including the para-Meissner effect, microwave absorption, a.c. resistivity along with the London penetration depth, the Mössbauer effect, levitation, fractals and nuclear magnetic resonance. There are appendices covering superconducting compounds, the isotope effect, symmetries, the pseudogap, relativistic superconductivity, the Cherenkov effect and soft vortices. Also included is an appendix on the quantum Hall effect. In all of the chapters, the theoretical descrip

  16. Topical Treatment in Rhinology

    Anamaria Gocea

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Far from being exhaustive, this paper aims to review the most illustrative topical therapies in rhinology, to show their patterns of action and their most suggestive characteristics proven by clinical trials and meta-analyses as tools of evidence based medecine. We describe several therapeutic clases: decongestants, antihistaminics, anticholinergics, antibiotics, disinfectants, antimicotics, fitotherapeutics, vitamins, immunotherapy and compounds. Furthermore, the nose is increasingly being used for the delivery of other drugs, ranging from hormone replacement therapy and growth hormone to insulin and anti-migraine medication (sumatriptan. The ability to directly reach the neuronal tissue in the olfactory niche and hence the brain makes this a very attractive challenge.

  17. Living related versus deceased donor liver transplantation for maple syrup urine disease.

    Feier, Flavia; Schwartz, Ida Vanessa D; Benkert, Abigail R; Neto, Joao Seda; Miura, Irene; Chapchap, Paulo; da Fonseca, Eduardo Antunes; Vieira, Sandra; Zanotelli, Maria Lúcia; Vairo, Filippo Pinto E; Camelo, Jose Simon; Margutti, Ana Vitoria Barban; Mazariegos, George V; Puffenberger, Erik G; Strauss, Kevin A

    2016-03-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of branched chain ketoacid (BCKA) oxidation associated with episodic and chronic brain disease. Transplantation of liver from an unrelated deceased donor restores 9-13% whole-body BCKA oxidation capacity and stabilizes MSUD. Recent reports document encouraging short-term outcomes for MSUD patients who received a liver segment from mutation heterozygous living related donors (LRDT). To investigate effects of living related versus deceased unrelated grafts, we studied four Brazilian MSUD patients treated with LRDT who were followed for a mean 19±12 postoperative months, and compared metabolic and clinical outcomes to 37 classical MSUD patients treated with deceased donor transplant. Patient and graft survival for LRDT were 100%. Three of 4 MSUD livers were successfully domino transplanted into non-MSUD subjects. Following LRDT, all subjects resumed a protein-unrestricted diet as mean plasma leucine decreased from 224±306μM to 143±44μM and allo-isoleucine decreased 91%. We observed no episodes of hyperleucinemia during 80 aggregate postoperative patient-months. Mean plasma leucine:isoleucine:valine concentration ratios were ~2:1:4 after deceased donor transplant compared to ~1:1:1.5 following LRDT, resulting in differences of predicted cerebral amino acid uptake. Mutant heterozygous liver segments effectively maintain steady-state BCAA and BCKA homeostasis on an unrestricted diet and during most catabolic states, but might have different metabolic effects than grafts from unrelated deceased donors. Neither living related nor deceased donor transplant affords complete protection from metabolic intoxication, but both strategies represent viable alternatives to nutritional management. PMID:26786177

  18. Comparison of breath testing with fructose and high fructose corn syrups in health and IBS.

    Skoog, S M; Bharucha, A E; Zinsmeister, A R

    2008-05-01

    Although incomplete fructose absorption has been implicated to cause gastrointestinal symptoms, foods containing high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) contain glucose. Glucose increases fructose absorption in healthy subjects. Our hypothesis was that fructose intolerance is less prevalent after HFCS consumption compared to fructose alone in healthy subjects and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Breath hydrogen levels and gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed after 40 g of fructose (12% solution) prepared either in water or as HFCS, administered in double-blind randomized order on 2 days in 20 healthy subjects and 30 patients with IBS. Gastrointestinal symptoms were recorded on 100-mm Visual Analogue Scales. Breath hydrogen excretion was more frequently abnormal (P < 0.01) after fructose (68%) than HFCS (26%) in controls and patients. Fructose intolerance (i.e. abnormal breath test and symptoms) was more prevalent after fructose than HFCS in healthy subjects (25% vs. 0%, P = 0.002) and patients (40% vs. 7%, P = 0.062). Scores for several symptoms (e.g. bloating r = 0.35) were correlated (P < or = 0.01) to peak breath hydrogen excretion after fructose but not HFCS; in the fructose group, this association did not differ between healthy subjects and patients. Symptoms were not significantly different after fructose compared to HFCS. Fructose intolerance is more prevalent with fructose alone than with HFCS in health and in IBS. The prevalence of fructose intolerance is not significantly different between health and IBS. Current methods for identifying fructose intolerance should be modified to more closely reproduce fructose ingestion in daily life. PMID:18221251

  19. Topics on continua

    Macias, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Specialized as it might be, continuum theory is one of the most intriguing areas in mathematics. However, despite being popular journal fare, few books have thoroughly explored this interesting aspect of topology. In Topics on Continua, Sergio Macías, one of the field's leading scholars, presents four of his favorite continuum topics: inverse limits, Jones's set function T, homogenous continua, and n-fold hyperspaces, and in doing so, presents the most complete set of theorems and proofs ever contained in a single topology volume. Many of the results presented have previously appeared only in research papers, and some appear here for the first time. After building the requisite background and exploring the inverse limits of continua, the discussions focus on Professor Jones''s set function T and continua for which T is continuous. An introduction to topological groups and group actions lead to a proof of Effros''s Theorem, followed by a presentation of two decomposition theorems. The author then offers an...

  20. Erosive potential of commonly used beverages, medicated syrup, and their effects on dental enamel with and without restoration: An in vitro study

    Trivedi, Krishna; Bhaskar, Vijay; Ganesh, Mahadevan; Venkataraghavan, Karthik; Choudhary, Prashant; Shah, Shalin; Krishnan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study evaluates erosive potential of commonly used beverages, medicated syrup, and their effects on dental enamel with and without restoration in vitro. Materials and Methods: Test medias used in this study included carbonated beverage, noncarbonated beverage, high-energy sports drink medicated cough syrup, distilled water as the control. A total of 110 previously extracted human premolar teeth were selected for the study. Teeth were randomly divided into two groups. Test specimens were randomly distributed to five beverages groups and comprised 12 specimens per group. Surface roughness (profilometer) readings were performed at baseline and again, following immersion for 14 days (24 h/day). Microleakage was evaluated. The results obtained were analyzed for statistical significance using SPSS-PC package using the multiple factor ANOVA at a significance level of P erosive potential to enamel while medicated syrup showed least surface roughness value and microleakage among all test media. PMID:26538901

  1. A Validated RP HPLC-PAD Method for the Determination of Hederacoside C in Ivy-Thyme Cough Syrup

    Ayman Khdair; Mohammad, Mohammad K; Khaled Tawaha; Eman Al-Hamarsheh; AlKhatib, Hatim S.; Bashar Al-khalidi; Yasser Bustanji; Samer Najjar; Mohammad Hudaib

    2010-01-01

    A simple reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method coupled with a photodiode array detector (PAD) has been developed and validated for the analysis of hederacoside C, the marker of ivy plant, in Ivy-Thyme cough syrup. Separation of hederacoside C was achieved using a Phenomenex-Gemini C18 column isothermally at 40°C. A mobile phase system constituted of solvent A (water: acetonitrile: orthophosphoric acid (85%), 860 : 140 :...

  2. Selected reaction monitoring as an effective method for reliable quantification of disease-associated proteins in maple syrup urine disease

    Fernández-Guerra, Paula; Birkler, Rune I D; Merinero, Begoña; Ugarte, Magdalena; Gregersen, Niels; Rodríguez-Pombo, Pilar; Bross, Peter; Palmfeldt, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry can quantitatively measure proteins by specific targeting of peptide sequences, and allows the determination of multiple proteins in one single analysis. Here, we show the feasibility of simultaneous measurements of multiple proteins in...... mitochondria-enriched samples from cultured fibroblasts from healthy individuals and patients with mutations in branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex. BCKDH is a mitochondrial multienzyme complex and its defective activity causes maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), a rare but severe inherited...

  3. Development and Validation of RP-HPLC Method for the Estimation of NAcetylcysteine in Wet Cough Syrup

    Shaikh Sana; Athawale Rajani; Nadkar Sumedha; Phadtare Pravin; Naik Shripad

    2012-01-01

    N-Acetylcysteine is an active pharmaceutical agent and nutritional supplement primarily used as a mucolytic agent and in the management of Paracetamol overdose. A simple, specific and precise reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP HPLC) method for the analysis of Acetylcysteine in wet cough syrup dosage form has been developed and validated. Sample was resolved on a Waters Symmetry, C18 (150mm X 4.6 mm i.d., particle size 3.5μ) column. The gradient system was used with mobi...

  4. Temozolomide stability in extemporaneously compounded oral suspensions.

    Trissel, Lawrence A; Zhang, Yanping; Koontz, Susannah E

    2006-01-01

    Temozolomide, commercially available in capsules, is an oral alkylating agent used to treat brain tumors. The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmaceutical acceptability and chemical stability of temozolomide in two extemporaneously compounded suspension formulations prepared from the capsules. The temozolomide oral suspensions were prepared from 100-mg commercial capsules yielding a nominal temozolomide concentration of 10 mg/mL. The suspension vehicles selected for testing were an equal parts mixture of Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet and an equal parts mixture of Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet SF. The suspensions were packaged in amber plastic screw-cap prescription bottles, which were stored at 23 deg C for 21 days or 4 deg C for 60 days. Stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis revealed that the temozolomide concentration in both suspension vehicle combinations exhibited little or no loss for 60 days at 4 deg C. At 23 deg C, temozolomide losses were somewhat greater. In the Ora-Sweet formulation, the loss was 6% at 7 days; in the Ora-Sweet SF formulation, losses were about 8% at 14 days and 10% to 11% at 21 days. Temozolomide extemporaneously prepared as oral suspensions from capsules in equal parts mixtures of Ora-Plus suspension vehicle with Ora-Sweet and with ora-Sweet SF syrups with added povidine k-30 and acidified with citric acid were pharmaceutically acceptable and chemically stable for at least 60 days at 4 deg C. Refrigerated storage is recommended. The suspensions should not be stored at room temperature longer than 1 week if Ora-Sweet is used or longer than 2 weeks if Ora-Sweet SF is used. PMID:23974320

  5. Oral vs. written evaluation of students

    Asklund, U.; Bendix, Lars Gotfred

    2003-01-01

    In this short paper we discuss the advantages and drawbacks of oral and written evaluation of students. First in more general terms and then followed by details of what we did in our course and our experience. Finally, we outline some topics for further study and discussions......In this short paper we discuss the advantages and drawbacks of oral and written evaluation of students. First in more general terms and then followed by details of what we did in our course and our experience. Finally, we outline some topics for further study and discussions...

  6. Assessment of a low dose of IV midazolam used orally for conscious sedation in pediatric dentistry

    M Mortazavi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Midazolam is preferably used in pediatric dentistry for quick onset of action and recovery. The aim of this prospective, observer-blind and placebo-controlled study was to assess the efficacy of a low dose of oral midazolam in modification of  the behavior of young pediatric dental patients. Methods: Forty children aged 3 to 5 years who displayed ratings 1 or 2 on the Frankl Scale and  were healthy by the American Society of Anesthesiologists-I status were randomly divided into two experimental and control groups of 20 each. All children required pulpotomy and restoration of D and E teeth and received either 0.25mg/kg of a 15mg/3ml IV midazolam mixed in black cherry syrup or the syrup alone. Subjects were continuously observed and monitored with pulse oximetry. Houpt's Behavioral Ratings was used to determine the overall behavior, the degree of crying and movement during treatment. Mann-Whitney U test was used for statistical analysis. Results and major conclusion: Patients who received 0.25mg/kg of the prepared oral midazolam significantly behaved better during treatment than the placebo controls (P<0.05. In comparison with the placebo group, reduced movement and crying were observed in the midazolam group (P<0.05. No adverse effects were observed and treatments were completed successfully. A low dose of 0.25mg/kg of a 15mg/3ml IV midazolam mixed in black cherry syrup was found to be effective in conscious sedation of young pediatric dental patients.

  7. Novel therapies for oral lichen planus.

    Thongprasom, Kobkan; Prapinjumrune, Chanwit; Carrozzo, Marco

    2013-11-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic mucocutaneous disorder commonly found in middle-aged women. Despite the progress in research and advance in knowledge on OLP, a successful management is still difficult to achieve. The main aim of OLP treatment is to control the symptoms of the affected patients. Steroids and other immunosuppressive drugs have been recommended and widely used in the treatment of OLP. Topical corticosteroids are the mainstay of OLP treatment, but strong evidence on their effectiveness is lacking. The effectiveness of alternative ways of managing OLP has been recently reported. Topical aloe vera, topical pimecrolimus and oral curcuminoids are the most promising of the new treatment modalities. Other interesting modalities are topically applied thalidomide and amlexanox. Nevertheless, the careful assessment between the risks and benefits of these drugs is crucial and larger and well-conducted trials need to confirm the above encouraging results. PMID:23668304

  8. Comparison Effects of Sucrose and Date Palm Syrup on Somatic Embryogenesis of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L )

    Abdullatif Alkhateeb

    2008-01-01

    The effect of different concentration of date palm syrup (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10%) and sucrose at concentration of 30 and 60 g/l in addition to the control (without carbon source) on the micro propagation of date palm "cv. Suckary" were investigated. The results indicated that date syrup was taken up from the media as shown by the increase in total dry weight of culture. Addition of sucrose at 60 g/l produced the highest number of somatic embryos and longest shoot equal to that produced by date sy...

  9. Topical Acne Treatments and Pregnancy

    Topical Acne Treatments and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to topical acne treatments may increase the risk for birth defects ...

  10. Symbiosis: Rich, Exciting, Neglected Topic

    Rowland, Jane Thomas

    1974-01-01

    Argues that the topic of symbiosis has been greatly neglected and underemphasized in general-biology textbooks. Discusses many types and examples of symbiosis, and provides an extensive bibliography of the literature related to this topic. (JR)

  11. Topical tretinoin in acanthosis nigricans

    Lahiri Koushik

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of topical tretinoin was assessed in 30 cases of idiopathic acanthosis nigricans which were recalcitrant to conventional modalities of treatment. Topical tretinoin once at night application was found to be very effective both clinically and histologically.

  12. Topical tretinoin in acanthosis nigricans

    Lahiri Koushik; Malakar Subrata

    1996-01-01

    Efficacy of topical tretinoin was assessed in 30 cases of idiopathic acanthosis nigricans which were recalcitrant to conventional modalities of treatment. Topical tretinoin once at night application was found to be very effective both clinically and histologically.

  13. Topics in orbit equivalence

    Kechris, Alexander S

    2004-01-01

    This volume provides a self-contained introduction to some topics in orbit equivalence theory, a branch of ergodic theory. The first two chapters focus on hyperfiniteness and amenability. Included here are proofs of Dye's theorem that probability measure-preserving, ergodic actions of the integers are orbit equivalent and of the theorem of Connes-Feldman-Weiss identifying amenability and hyperfiniteness for non-singular equivalence relations. The presentation here is often influenced by descriptive set theory, and Borel and generic analogs of various results are discussed. The final chapter is a detailed account of Gaboriau's recent results on the theory of costs for equivalence relations and groups and its applications to proving rigidity theorems for actions of free groups.

  14. Topics in atomic physics

    Burkhardt, Charles E

    2006-01-01

    The study of atomic physics propelled us into the quantum age in the early twentieth century and carried us into the twenty-first century with a wealth of new and, in some cases, unexplained phenomena. Topics in Atomic Physics provides a foundation for students to begin research in modern atomic physics. It can also serve as a reference because it contains material that is not easily located in other sources. A distinguishing feature is the thorough exposition of the quantum mechanical hydrogen atom using both the traditional formulation and an alternative treatment not usually found in textbooks. The alternative treatment exploits the preeminent nature of the pure Coulomb potential and places the Lenz vector operator on an equal footing with other operators corresponding to classically conserved quantities. A number of difficult to find proofs and derivations are included as is development of operator formalism that permits facile solution of the Stark effect in hydrogen. Discussion of the classical hydrogen...

  15. The Polylingual Labeled Topic Model

    Posch, Lisa; Bleier, Arnim; Schaer, Philipp; Strohmaier, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present the Polylingual Labeled Topic Model, a model which combines the characteristics of the existing Polylingual Topic Model and Labeled LDA. The model accounts for multiple languages with separate topic distributions for each language while restricting the permitted topics of a document to a set of predefined labels. We explore the properties of the model in a two-language setting on a dataset from the social science domain. Our experiments show that our model outperform...

  16. Oral myiasis in a maxillofacial trauma patient

    Pramod Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral Myiasis is a rare disease that is mostly reported in developing countries. It is primarily caused by the invasion of the human body by fly larvae. The phenomenon is well-documented in the skin, especially among animals. This case report describes the presentation of Oral Myiasis caused by Musca Nebulo (common house fly, in a 28-year-old patient, with recent maxillofacial trauma. The patient was treated by manual removal of the larvae, after topical application of turpentine oil, followed by surgical debridement and oral therapy with Ivermectin.

  17. Topical griseofulvin in the treatment of dermatophytoses.

    Aly, R; Bayles, C I; Oakes, R A; Bibel, D J; Maibach, H I

    1994-01-01

    Whether griseofulvin, which pioneered oral antifungal therapy, works topically has long been an open question. The effectiveness of a 1% griseofulvin spray formulation and the vehicle alone against experimentally induced Trichophyton mentagrophytes lesions on the forearms of 16 healthy volunteers and in the treatment of 100 tinea pedis patients (various dermatophytes) was evaluated in a double-blind study. After treatment of the 58 induced lesions twice daily for 14 days with topical griseofulvin (28) or placebo (30), 89% of lesions receiving griseofulvin were mycologically negative compared with 30% in the placebo group (P < 0.0001). In the tinea pedis patients who applied medication once daily for 4 weeks the mycological cure was 79.2% on the fourth week and 80.9% 2 weeks post-treatment. Resurgence of dermatophytes quickly followed the end of treatment in the placebo group only, which had a mycological cure rate of 34% (week 6). Administration of a topical formulation of griseofulvin thus may be an effective treatment for interdigital dermatophyte infections. PMID:8313635

  18. Oral myiasis: A case report

    Evandro Neves, Abdo; Ausgusto César, Sette-Dias; Cláudio Rômulo, Comunian; Carlos Eduardo Assis, Dutra; Evandro Guimarães de, Aguiar.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Oral Myiasis is a rare pathology in humans and is associated with poor oral hygiene, alcoholism, senility, supuranting lesions, severe halitosis and others conditions. The treatment is a mechanical removal of the maggots one by one but a systemic treatment with Ivermectin, a semi-synthetic macrolide [...] antibiotic, have been used for treatment for oral myiasis. We present a case report of a 32-year-old man indigent, alcohol-dependent with an extensive necrotic area and acute swelling in upper lip and fetid odor. The patient’s manegement included topic use of gencian violet, oral therapy with ivermectin (6 mg orally), surgical exploration to remove the larvae and necrotic tissue. After the complete larvae removal the swelling and the wounds were healing normally, the patients was referred to plastic surgery to repair tissue damage. The prevention of human myiasis is by education, but unfortunately in the developing countries some people live in low social condition, predisposing the occurrence of the infestation.

  19. Treatment of oral mucositis due to chemotherapy

    Bagán-Sebastián, José V

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The management of oral mucositis is a challenge, due to its complex biological nature. Over the last 10 years, different strategies have been developed for the management of oral mucositis caused by chemotherapy in cancer patients. Material and Methods An exhaustive search was made of the PubMed-Medline, Cochrane Library and Scopus databases, crossing the key words “oral mucositis”, “prevention” and “treatment” with the terms “chemotherapy” and “radiotherapy” by means of the boolean operators “AND” and “NOT”. A total of 268 articles were obtained, of which 96 met the inclusion criteria. Results Several interventions for the prevention of oral mucositis, such as oral hygiene protocols, amifostine, benzidamine, calcium phosphate, cryotherapy and iseganan, among others, were found to yield only limited benefits. Other studies have reported a decrease in the appearance and severity of mucositis with the use of cytoprotectors (sucralfate, oral glutamine, hyaluronic acid), growth factors, topical polyvinylpyrrolidone, and low power laser irradiation. Conclusions Very few interventions of confirmed efficacy are available for the management of oral mucositis due to chemotherapy. However, according to the reviewed literature, the use of palifermin, cryotherapy and low power laser offers benefits, reducing the incidence and severity of oral mucositis – though further studies are needed to confirm the results obtained. Key words:Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis Treatment.

  20. In-depth proteomic analysis of non-alcoholic beverages with peptide ligand libraries. I: Almond milk and orgeat syrup.

    Fasoli, Elisa; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Kravchuk, Alexander V; Citterio, Attilio; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2011-06-10

    Combinatorial peptide ligand libraries, both commercial and home-made, have been adopted to investigate the proteome of non-alcoholic beverages, in order to assess their genuineness and detect also trace proteins, in search of potential allergens. Two such beverages have been studied: almond milk and orgeat syrup. In the first product we have been able to identify 132 unique protein species, the deepest investigation so far of the almond proteome. In the second beverage, a handful of proteins (just 14) have been detected, belonging to a bitter almond extract. In both cases, the genuineness of such products has been verified, as well as the fact that almond milk, judging on the total protein and fat content, must have been produced with 100g ground almonds per litre of beverage, as required by authorities. On the contrary, cheap orgeat syrups produced by local supermarkets and sold as their own brands, where found not to contain any residual proteins, suggesting that they contained only synthetic aromas and no natural plant extracts. This could be the starting point for investigating the myriad of beverages that in the last decades have invaded the shelves of supermarkets the world over, whose genuineness and natural origin have never been properly assessed. PMID:21440098

  1. Development and Validation of RP-HPLC Method for the Estimation of NAcetylcysteine in Wet Cough Syrup

    Shaikh Sana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available N-Acetylcysteine is an active pharmaceutical agent and nutritional supplement primarily used as a mucolytic agent and in the management of Paracetamol overdose. A simple, specific and precise reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP HPLC method for the analysis of Acetylcysteine in wet cough syrup dosage form has been developed and validated. Sample was resolved on a Waters Symmetry, C18 (150mm X 4.6 mm i.d., particle size 3.5μ column. The gradient system was used with mobile phase consisting of Acetonitrile and 0.05 M phosphate buffer (pH was adjusted to 3.0 + 0.05 by using orthrophosphoric acid, at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min at ambient temperature. Detection was carried out at 214nm. The retention time of about 4.6 minutes was recorded. Force degradation studies were carried out for acidic, alkaline, oxidative, reductive and photolytic exposure of the drug substance and drug product. The method was found to be specific for Acetylcysteine and was able to resolve the NAC peak from formulation excipients. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 400-600 μg/ml (R=0.999. The proposed method was applicable to routine analysis of Acetylcysteine in wet cough syrup dosage form.

  2. A New UPLC Approach for the Simultaneous Quantitative Estimation of Four Compounds in a Cough Syrup Formulation.

    Turak, Fatma; Güzel, Remziye; Dinç, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    A new ultra-performance liquid chromatographic (UPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of potassium guaiacolsulfonate (PGS), guaifenesin (GUA), diphenhydramine HCl (DIP) and carbepentane citrate (CAR) in a commercial cough syrup. The chromatographic separation of four compounds PGS, GUA, DIP and CAR was performed on a BEH phenyl column (100 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm i.d.) using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1 M HCl (50 : 50, v/v). In addition, the optimized conditions of the chromatographic analysis were found with the flow rate of 0.38 mL/min, the column temperature of 30°C and the injection volume of 1.2 µL with the photodiode array detection of 220 nm. Calibration curves in the concentration ranges of 10-98 µg/mL for PGS, 5-80 µg/mL for GUA, 5-25 µg/mL for DIP and CAR were computed by the regression of the analyte concentration on the chromatographic peak area. The newly developed UPLC method was validated by analyzing the quaternary mixtures of the related compounds, intraday and interday experiment and standard addition samples. After method validation, the proposed UPLC approach was successfully applied for the analysis of the commercial syrup formulation containing PGS, GUA, DIP and CAR compounds. PMID:26202585

  3. Selective fermentation of pitted dates by S. cerevisiae for the production of concentrated fructose syrups and ethanol

    About half of worldwide production of dates is unconsumed. Dates contain over 75 % reduced sugars (mostly glucose and fructose with nearly equal amount). Compared to the commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild strain, the strains ATCC 36858 and 36859 could produce high concentration fructose syrups. The fructose fractions obtained were 95.9 and 97.4% for ATCC 36858 and 86.5 and 91.4% for ATCC 36859 at 30 and 33°C, respectively. Fructose yields higher than 90% were obtained using ATCC 36858 compared to those obtained using ATCC 36859 which were 87.3 and 66.1% at 30 and 33°C, respectively. The ethanol yield using ATCC 36858 was higher than that using ATCC 36859 by 16 and 9% at 30 and 33°C, respectively. Through this finding, the production of fructose and ethanol from date extract is a promising process. Moreover, the fructose fractions obtained here (about 90%) are much higher than those obtained with the commercial process, i.e. 55 % fructose syrups.

  4. Comparison of response between food supplemented with powdered iron and iron in syrup form for iron deficiency anemia

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the response between food supplemented with iron in powdered and iron in syrup forms for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in children aged 1-5 years. Results: Over half (51 %) of the patients were between 1-2 years of age. One hundred thirty-two were males and 68 females. Most of the patients belonged to poor socioeconomic class. The iron in powder form was better tolerated than iron syrup as this group witnessed fewer episodes of gastrointestinal disturbances. The rise in mean Hb level after 6 weeks of treatment in group A and B was 1.6 g/dl and 1.9 g/dl respectively. Hemoglobin rise in group B was more than group A but this was statistically non-significant (p>0.05). There was small but significant (p<0.05) rise in serum ferritin in both the groups. There was no significant difference between the two groups for response to the two forms of iron administration. Conclusion: The powdered form of iron is a cost-effective and better tolerated method of iron administration in children and can be considered as an alternate option for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in children. (author)

  5. Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Vascular Damage Caused by Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup in Rats

    Gun, Aburrahman; Bilgic, Sedat; Kocaman, Nevin; Ozan, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    Fructose corn syrup is cheap sweetener and prolongs the shelf life of products, but fructose intake causes hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. All of them are referred to as metabolic syndrome and they are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the harmful effects of increased fructose intake on health and their prevention should take greater consideration. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) has beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome and vascular function which is important in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, there are no known studies about the effect of CAPE on fructose-induced vascular dysfunction. In this study, we examined the effect of CAPE on vascular dysfunction due to high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). HFCS (6 weeks, 30% fed with drinking water) caused vascular dysfunction, but treatment with CAPE (50 micromol/kg i.p. for the last two weeks) effectively restored this problem. Additionally, hypertension in HFCS-fed rats was also decreased in CAPE supplemented rats. CAPE supplements lowered HFCS consumption-induced raise in blood glucose, homocysteine, and cholesterol levels. The aorta tissue endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) production was decreased in rats given HFCS and in contrast CAPE supplementation efficiently increased its production. The presented results showed that HFCS-induced cardiovascular abnormalities could be prevented by CAPE treatment. PMID:27042260

  6. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for osteoarthritis.

    Barthel, H Richard; Axford-Gatley, Robert A

    2010-11-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are mainstays of the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) but have dose- and age-related risks of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and renal adverse events (AEs). As a result, US and international guidelines recommend caution when prescribing oral NSAIDs, particularly in older patients and those with significant comorbidities. For OA of the hands and knees, topical NSAIDs provide efficacy similar to oral NSAIDs, with far less systemic distribution. Treatment-related cardiovascular, renal, and other serious AEs with topical NSAIDs have not been reported. At present, only 2 topical NSAIDs are approved in the United States for the treatment of OA: diclofenac sodium 1% gel for hand or knee OA and diclofenac sodium 1.5% in 45.5% dimethylsulfoxide solution for knee OA. Clinical trial data for these products have demonstrated efficacy superior to placebo or similar to oral diclofenac with AE profiles similar to placebo, except for application site reactions. In large double-blind trials, gastrointestinal AEs were infrequent and did not include ulcers, perforations, or bleeding. The purpose of this brief review is to examine the data from controlled double-blind trials evaluating the use of topical NSAIDs in patients with OA. Articles included were identified via a search of PubMed covering the period from January 1, 2005 through March 31, 2010. Reference lists from OA treatment guidelines and meta-analyses were reviewed for additional citations of importance. PMID:21084786

  7. Identification and characterisation of organisms associated with chocolate pralines and sugar syrups used for their production.

    Marvig, Cecilie L; Kristiansen, Rikke M; Madsen, Mikkel G; Nielsen, Dennis S

    2014-08-18

    Spoilage of chocolate pralines, due to growth of microorganisms tolerating low water activity, causes problems in the confectionary industry. Therefore, an increased knowledge on which organisms are present in the chocolate fillings and their tolerance towards low aw, pH, ethanol and other preservatives is needed. Using media containing 40-50% glucose (aw 0.872-0.925) bacteria, yeasts and moulds were isolated from chocolate pralines (aw 0.70-0.898) of nine manufactures and sugar syrups (aw 0.854) used as ingredient in chocolate praline production by one of the manufacturers. Isolates were identified by conventional microbiological analyses and by sequencing of their 16S rRNA, 26S rRNA (D1/D2-region) or calmodulin genes. Further, for several species the identity was confirmed by amplification and sequencing of additional genes. In total 677 isolates were identified as belonging to ten different bacteria species, six yeast species and ten mould species with yeast being the most frequently isolated. Bacteria and moulds were found in low numbers, whereas yeast were found in numbers up to 10(7)CFU/g. The most frequently isolated yeast, bacteria and moulds belonged to the species of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii, Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus terreus, respectively. Fifteen isolates were screened for their ability to grow in presence of low aw (0.65-0.90), low pH (pH=2.0-7.0), ethanol (0-15%), sorbic acid (0-1,500 ppm) and different temperatures (15°C-25°C) relevant for chocolate manufacturing. Z. rouxii was overall the most tolerant organism to the stress factors and grew within the same range of environmental conditions as found in chocolate pralines. It was able to grow at water activities down to 0.70, ethanol concentrations up to 6.0%, pH down to pH2.0, sorbic acid concentrations up to 1,500 ppm and at all temperatures tested. Eurotium amstelodami also showed high tolerance towards all the stress factors except for ethanol. None of the bacteria were able to grow at the conditions tested. However, B. subtilis survived the 60 day incubation period. PMID:24997272

  8. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD)--clinical profile of 47 Filipino patients.

    Lee, J Y; Chiong, M A; Estrada, S C; Cutiongco-De la Paz, E M; Silao, C L T; Padilla, C D

    2008-12-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a very rare disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism. However, it is the most common inborn error of metabolism in the Philippines. We present a retrospective review of 21 patients diagnosed with MSUD between 1999 and 2004. The patients presented clinically between 2 and 14 days of life (mean 5 days) and the diagnosis of MSUD was established between 6 days and 11 months of age (mean 39 days). The classical burnt sugar odour was noted in the majority of patients (81%). The diagnosis of MSUD was initially based on clinical suspicion and confirmed biochemically by measurement of leucine/isoleucine levels by thin-layer chromatography. The acute management included removal of accumulated branched-chain amino acids by peritoneal dialysis in 62% of the patients. Mortality rate of this group of patients was 24% and follow-up rate was 87%. We compared this series with a previously reported series of 26 patients to determine whether diagnosis and the management of MSUD improved over the two periods. Four cases have been diagnosed early since 1992, the majority of whom had the classic form of MSUD with the onset of symptoms in the first two weeks of life. A small subset of patients with early nonspecific symptoms was diagnosed much later owing to a low-level clinical suspicion among clinicians. Overall, however, there appears to be a small but general trend towards earlier diagnosis, reduced mortality and long-term follow up in the later series. Although we are able to diagnose and manage MSUD in the Philippines, we recognize that the clinical outcome remains poor and is due mainly to late referral of cases and inadequate long-term management. In the Philippines, we recommend that all newborns who are considered to be septic, have feeding difficulties, fail to regain their birth weight or present with any other symptoms suggestive of MSUD be evaluated in the first instance by analysis of urine for ketones and if they are positive have blood collected and sent to our laboratory for leucine/isoleucine measurement. PMID:18989748

  9. Palm tree syrup: nutritional composition of a natural edulcorant Miel de palma: composición nutricional de un edulcorante natural

    G. Luis

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Palm syrup is a typical product from the Canary Islands, traditionally produced from the sap of the tropical palm tree Phoenix canariensis. Its high caloric content has led to its increasing use as a health food supplement for athletes, children and elderly. Furthermore, demand for this natural syrup is continuously increasing due also to its medicinal uses in homeopathic medicine. Objective: Palm Tree syrup samples prepared with palm sap from primary producers in La Gomera island (Canary Islands, Spain were analyzed for their nutritional composition (moisture, ash, sugars, fat, vitamins and minerals. Methods: 35 syrup samples from five different producing regions in La Gomera island were analyzed. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to determine sugars and vitamins and Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (FAAS was used to analyze the minerals. Results: Major carbohydrates were sucrose (37.8%, glucose (9.50% and fructose (4.80%, respectively. The presence of arabinose could not be confirmed. Niacin was the water-soluble vitamin with the highest concentration with an average content of 0.003%. Fat content was found to be under 0.20%. Potassium was the mineral with highest contents (0.45%. Conclusions: Results suggest that palm tree syrup can play an important role as a sugar and mineral source in human nutrition, suggesting that future applications for this product could be developed.Introducción: La miel de palma es un producto típico de las Islas Canarias, tradicionalmente producido a partir de la savia de la palmera Phoenix canariensis. El alto contenido calórico lo convierte en un producto cada vez más utilizado como suplemento alimenticio para atletas, niños y mayores. Además, la demanda de este sirope natural, está en constante crecimiento debido también a sus usos medicinales en la medicina homeopática. Objetivo: Analizar la composición nutricional (humedad, cenizas, azúcares, grasa, vitaminas y minerales de las muestras de miel de palma preparadas con la savia de las palmeras de los productores de la isla de La Gomera (Islas Canarias, España. Métodos: 35 muestras de miel de palma procedentes de cinco regiones productoras de la isla de La Gomera fueron analizadas. Los azúcares y las vitaminas fueron medidos mediante cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (CLAR y la espectrofotometría de absorción atómica por llama (FAAS se usó para determinar los minerales. Resultados: Los hidratos de carbono mayoritarios fueron sacarosa (37,8%, glucosa (9,50% y fructosa (4,80%, respectivamente. La presencia de arabinosa no pudo ser confirmada. La niacina es la vitamina hidrosoluble con la mayor concentración con un contenido promedio de 0,003%. Los contenidos en grasas se encontraron por debajo de 0,20%. El potasio era el macroelemento con los contenidos más altos (0,45%. Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren que la miel de palma puede jugar un papel importante como una fuente de azúcar y minerales en la nutrición humana y se pueden desarrollar futuras aplicaciones para este producto.

  10. Oral Myiasis

    Vikas Sharma

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is the infestation of tissues and organs of animals and humans by certain Dipteran fly larvae. This phenomenon is well documented in the skin, especially among animals and people in tropical and subtropical areas. Oral myiasis is a rare condition and can be caused by several species of Dipteran fly larvae and may be secondary to serious medical conditions. Upon removal of the larvae, the tissues seem to recover with no subsequent complications and with no need for further treatment.

  11. Advanced verification topics

    Bhattacharya, Bishnupriya; Hall, Gary; Heaton, Nick; Kashai, Yaron; Khan Neyaz; Kirshenbaum, Zeev; Shneydor, Efrat

    2011-01-01

    The Accellera Universal Verification Methodology (UVM) standard is architected to scale, but verification is growing and in more than just the digital design dimension. It is growing in the SoC dimension to include low-power and mixed-signal and the system integration dimension to include multi-language support and acceleration. These items and others all contribute to the quality of the SOC so the Metric-Driven Verification (MDV) methodology is needed to unify it all into a coherent verification plan. This book is for verification engineers and managers familiar with the UVM and the benefits it brings to digital verification but who also need to tackle specialized tasks. It is also written for the SoC project manager that is tasked with building an efficient worldwide team. While the task continues to become more complex, Advanced Verification Topics describes methodologies outside of the Accellera UVM standard, but that build on it, to provide a way for SoC teams to stay productive and profitable.

  12. Topics in statistical mechanics

    This thesis deals with four independent topics in statistical mechanics: (1) the dimer problem is solved exactly for a hexagonal lattice with general boundary using a known generating function from the theory of partitions. It is shown that the leading term in the entropy depends on the shape of the boundary; (2) continuum models of percolation and self-avoiding walks are introduced with the property that their series expansions are sums over linear graphs with intrinsic combinatorial weights and explicit dimension dependence; (3) a constrained SOS model is used to describe the edge of a simple cubic crystal. Low and high temperature results are derived as well as the detailed behavior near the crystal facet; (4) the microscopic model of the lambda-transition involving atomic permutation cycles is reexamined. In particular, a new derivation of the two-component field theory model of the critical behavior is presented. Results for a lattice model originally proposed by Kikuchi are extended with a high temperature series expansion and Monte Carlo simulation. 30 references

  13. Superconcentration and related topics

    Chatterjee, Sourav

    2014-01-01

    A certain curious feature of random objects, introduced by the author as “super concentration,” and two related topics, “chaos” and “multiple valleys,” are highlighted in this book. Although super concentration has established itself as a recognized feature in a number of areas of probability theory in the last twenty years (under a variety of names), the author was the first to discover and explore its connections with chaos and multiple valleys. He achieves a substantial degree of simplification and clarity in the presentation of these findings by using the spectral approach. Understanding the fluctuations of random objects is one of the major goals of probability theory and a whole subfield of probability and analysis, called concentration of measure, is devoted to understanding these fluctuations. This subfield offers a range of tools for computing upper bounds on the orders of fluctuations of very complicated random variables. Usually, concentration of measure is useful when more direct prob...

  14. Topics in inflationary cosmology

    This thesis examines several topics in the theory of inflationary cosmology. It first proves the existence of Hawking Radiation during the slow-rolling period of a new inflationary universe. It then derives and somewhat extends Bardeen's gauge invariant formalism for calculating the growth of linear gravitational perturbations in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological background. This formalism is then applied, first to several new inflationary universe models all of which show a Zel'dovich spectrum of fluctuations, but with amplitude sigma(1004) above observational limits. The general formalism is next applied to models that exhibit primordial inflation. Fluctuations in these models also exhibit a Zel'dovich spectrum here with an acceptable amplitude. Finally the thesis presents the results of new, numerical calculations. A classical, (2 + 1) dimensional computer model is developed that includes a Higgs field (which drives inflation) along with enough auxiliary fields to generate dynamically not only a thermal bath, but also the fluctuations that naturally accompany that bath. The thesis ends with a discussion of future prospects

  15. Topics in statistical mechanics

    Elser, V.

    1984-05-01

    This thesis deals with four independent topics in statistical mechanics: (1) the dimer problem is solved exactly for a hexagonal lattice with general boundary using a known generating function from the theory of partitions. It is shown that the leading term in the entropy depends on the shape of the boundary; (2) continuum models of percolation and self-avoiding walks are introduced with the property that their series expansions are sums over linear graphs with intrinsic combinatorial weights and explicit dimension dependence; (3) a constrained SOS model is used to describe the edge of a simple cubic crystal. Low and high temperature results are derived as well as the detailed behavior near the crystal facet; (4) the microscopic model of the lambda-transition involving atomic permutation cycles is reexamined. In particular, a new derivation of the two-component field theory model of the critical behavior is presented. Results for a lattice model originally proposed by Kikuchi are extended with a high temperature series expansion and Monte Carlo simulation. 30 references.

  16. Beliefs and Social Norms about Codeine and Promethazine Hydrochloride Cough Syrup (CPHCS) Onset and Perceived Addiction among Urban Houstonian Adolescents: An Addiction Trend in the City of Lean

    Peters, Ronald J., Jr.; Kelder, Steven H.; Markham, Christine M.; Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Peters, LeCresha A.; Ellis, Artist

    2003-01-01

    In the current study, we used a qualitative approach to investigate relevant beliefs and norms associated with codeine and promethazine hydrochloride cough syrup (CPHCS) consumption, initiation, and perceived addiction among 48 alternative school students who identified themselves as current CPHCS users. In general, both boys and girls believed…

  17. Beliefs and Social Norms about Codeine and Promethazine Hydrochloride Cough Syrup (CPHCS) Onset and Perceived Addiction among Urban Houstonian Adolescents: An Addiction Trend in the City of Lean

    Peters, Ronald J., Jr.; Kelder, Steven H.; Markham, Christine M.; Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Peters, LeCresha A.; Ellis, Artist

    2003-01-01

    In the current study, we used a qualitative approach to investigate relevant beliefs and norms associated with codeine and promethazine hydrochloride cough syrup (CPHCS) consumption, initiation, and perceived addiction among 48 alternative school students who identified themselves as current CPHCS users. In general, both boys and girls believed…

  18. A dose-response of consuming high fructose corn syrup-sweetened beverages on lipid/lipoprotein risk factors for cardiovascular disease in young adults

    National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data show increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality with increased intake of added sugar across quintiles. Objective: To determine the dose response effects of consuming beverages sweetened with high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) at zero, ...

  19. Oral Cancer and Oral Precancerous Lesions in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: A Systematic Review.

    Katsanos, Konstantinos H; Roda, Giulia; Brygo, Alexandre; Delaporte, Emmanuel; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric

    2015-11-01

    Oral cancer is historically linked to well-known behavioural risk factors such as tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption. Other risk factors include age over 40, male sex, several dietary factors, nutritional deficiencies, viruses, sexually transmitted infections, human papillomavirus, chronic irritation, and possibly genetic predisposition. Precancerous lesions in the oral cavity include leukoplakia, erythroplakia, and lichen planus. Histology of oral cancer varies widely but the great majority are squamous cell carcinomas.Epidemiological studies and cancer registries have shown a consistently increased risk of oral malignancies in kidney, bone marrow, heart, or liver transplantation, in graft vs host disease, and in patients with HIV infection. Because of the increasing use of immunosuppressive drugs in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, it is useful to more accurately delineate the consequences of chronic immunosuppression to the oral cavity. Oral cancer and precancerous oral lesions in patients with inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] have been scarcely reported and reviews on the topic are lacking.We conducted a literature search using the terms and variants of all cancerous and precancerous oral manifestations of inflammatory bowel diseases. By retrieving the existing literature, it is evident that patients with IBD belong to the high-risk group of developing these lesions, a phenomenon amplified by the increasing HPV prevalence. Education on modifiable risk behaviours in patients with oral cancer is the cornerstone of prevention.Oral screening should be performed for all IBD patients, especially those who are about to start an immunosuppressant or biological drug. PMID:26163301

  20. School based oral health promotional intervention: Effect on knowledge, practices and clinical oral health related parameters

    Arjun Gauba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: No organized school oral health program is existent in India. Aim: The aim of this study is to test the feasibility and efficacy of an economical school oral health promotional intervention with educational and preventive components. Settings and Design: School oral health promotional intervention carried out in one of the randomly selected school and evaluated through short duration prospective model. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 children with an age range of 10-12 years with no previous history of dental intervention were enrolled. Interventions comprised of oral health education (delivered through lecture and demonstrations by an undergraduate dental student and topical antibacterial therapy (fluoride varnish and povidone iodine. Outcomes consisted of Knowledge and practices (KAP regarding oral health, clinical oral health related parameters such as plaque index (PI, gingival index (GI and caries activity as per Modified Snyder?s test. These were reported at baseline, 3 weeks and 6 months follow-up examination by a calibrated examiner. Statistical Analysis: McNemar Bowker?s test, Student?s t-test, Pearson Chi-square tests were used. Results: Highly significant (P < 0.001 improvements in KAP scores, PI scores, GI scores and caries activity were reported at 3 weeks and 6 months follow-up examination. Conclusion: This small economical school oral health program positively influenced oral health related practices and parameters of oral health such as oral cleanliness, gingival health and caries activity.

  1. Developing Oral Language. Learning Package No. 1.

    Hong, Zhang; Smith, Carl, Comp.

    Originally developed for the Department of Defense Schools (DoDDS) system, this learning package on developing oral language is designed for teachers who wish to upgrade or expand their teaching skills on their own. The package includes a comprehensive search of the ERIC database; a lecture giving an overview on the topic; the full text of several…

  2. Teaching Oral Chinese in the United States

    Cheng, Chin-Chuan

    1976-01-01

    Because Chinese language textbooks were judged inadequate in teaching vocabulary dealing with everyday life in the U.S. and in China, new methods and materials were introduced into an oral Chinese course. Prepared discussion topics, Chinese films, soap operas, and shortwave radio broadcasts were used. (CHK)

  3. An Automatic Topic Identification Algorithm

    Hossein S. Baghdadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Topic is a stream of words which stands for the content of a text. Knowing the topic of a document can help people to be aware from its content and facilitate their searching process. Approach: This paper proposes an automatic algorithm to identify the topic for a textual document based on the chunks corresponding to each sentences in the document. Results and conclusion: We achieved 86% matching for both total and partial matching in our experimental data sample.

  4. Topic Maps :a bibliometric study

    Anyi, Kevin Wan Utap

    2012-01-01

    Topic Maps is an international standard (ISO/IEC 13250) to describe and encode knowledge structures and associating them with relevant information resources. This thesis seeks to investigate what has been written about Topic Maps from year 2000 to 2011, as well as finding out the research and publication trend in Topic Maps. This study was based on quantitative methodology, which was bibliometric analysis. The data was collected from Scopus and Web of Knowledge databases. Search keywords used...

  5. Topical corticosteroid addiction and phobia

    Aparajita Ghosh; Sujata Sengupta; Arijit Coondoo; Amlan Kusum Jana

    2014-01-01

    Corticosteroids, one of the most widely prescribed topical drugs, have been used for about six decades till date. However, rampant misuse and abuse down the years has given the drug a bad name. Topical steroid abuse may lead to two major problems which lie at the opposing ends of the psychosomatic spectrum. Topical steroid addiction, a phenomenon that came to be recognized about a decade after the introduction of the molecule is manifested as psychological distress and rebound phenomenon on s...

  6. Scaling up Dynamic Topic Models

    Bhadury, Arnab; Chen, Jianfei; Zhu, Jun; Liu, Shixia

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic topic models (DTMs) are very effective in discovering topics and capturing their evolution trends in time series data. To do posterior inference of DTMs, existing methods are all batch algorithms that scan the full dataset before each update of the model and make inexact variational approximations with mean-field assumptions. Due to a lack of a more scalable inference algorithm, despite the usefulness, DTMs have not captured large topic dynamics. This paper fills this research void, a...

  7. Topic selection in industry experiments

    Misirli, Ayse Tosun; Erdogmus, Hakan; Juristo Juzgado, Natalia; Dieste Tubio, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    This paper shares our experience with initial negotiation and topic elicitation process for conducting industry experiments in six software development organizations in Finland. The process involved interaction with company representatives in the form of both multiple group discussions and separate face-to-face meetings. Fitness criteria developed by researchers were applied to the list of generated topics to decide on a common topic. The challenges we faced include diversity of proposed topi...

  8. Hot topic [editorial

    There is strong evidence for the human impact on climate change, but we should not ignore those who think otherwise. Unseasonably warm weather in many parts of Europe and North America last month will probably have added to the impression in many people's minds that climate change is a reality and that humans are guilty of warming our planet. The several hundred members of the United Nations' Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) certainly think that the evidence for anthropogenic climate change is solid. Although Physics World was unable to obtain a copy of the IPCC's latest report on the science of climate change before its release date of 2 February - a clear sign of how sensitive its findings are - hints from those involved in writing the report suggest that the IPCC will have strengthened its conclusions, previously stated in 2001, that humans are heating up the Earth. While most scientists probably share this view, there are some who think otherwise. Many of those are either scientifically ill-informed or have dubious links with the energy industry. But some have genuine doubts. One bona fide sceptic is Richard Lindzen, a climate physicist from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the US, who was involved in preparing the IPCC's 2001 scientific report. While he does not dispute that the Earth is getting hotter, Lindzen thinks that, in all probability, the warming is largely the result of natural variations in the Earth's climate. Lindzen believes that climate models, although rooted in physics, contain far too many uncertainties to provide accurate forecasts. Indeed, mainstream climate physicists admit their computer models are far from perfect. Writing in their feature, for example, the chief scientist of the UK's Meteorological Office and colleagues describe how hard it is to incorporate the impact of clouds, which are much smaller than the resolution of the best models. They also warn that if clouds were modelled incorrectly, climate simulations 'would be seriously in error'. One may ask if this magazine should give space to Lindzen or those involved in geoengineering to air their views. Given the uncertainties still present within climate models and the potential costs of dealing with global warming, it would be wrong for Physics World to ignore those outside the mainstream. After all, as Richard Feynman once wrote: 'There is no harm in doubt and scepticism, for it is through these that new discoveries are made'. Physicists should never take anything at face value, not least a topic as important as climate change. (U.K.)

  9. Oral sex, oral health and orogenital infections

    Saini Rajiv

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection and safer sex precautions. There are various methods of preventing infection during oral sex such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues and oral hygiene and dental issues. The lesions or unhealthy periodontal status of oral cavity accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex.

  10. Actividad antiartrítica del jarabe de Allium sativum L Antiarthritic activity of Allium sativum L syrup

    Juana I. Tillán Capó

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Allium sativum L. es ampliamente utilizado por la población cubana en la medicina tradicional y natural para aliviar procesos inflamatorios y en especial en la artritis reumatoide; sin embargo, su actividad no ha sido demostrada científicamente como para poder establecer un ensayo clínico para su registro y producción industrial. En el presente trabajo se evaluó la acción de un jarabe de Allium sativum L. sobre la artritis reumatoide experimental, empleando los modelos de edema de la pata y pleuresía en ratas Wistar, basados en la reacción pasiva de Arthus. En los dos modelos, se ensayaron placebo y dosis de 45, 90 y 180 mg/kg de peso corporal, en base a sólidos totales contenido en el jarabe de A. sativum. Como controles positivos se utilizó ibuprofeno y prednisona a las dosis de 200 y 10 mg/kg respectivamente. Tanto los controles positivos, como las dosis de jarabe de Allium sativum L. ensayadas disminuyeron el proceso inflamatorio desencadenado por la reacción antígeno anticuerpo que se logra mediante la reacción pasiva de Arthus, el antisuero de albúmina de huevo y antisuero de albúmina bovina para el edema de la pata y el desarrollo de pleuresía respectivamente.Allium sativum L is widely used by Cuban people in folk and natural medicine to alliviate inflammatory processes and specially in rheumatoid arthritis; however, its activity hasn’t scientifically enough demonstrated to stablish a clinical assay for its registration and industrial production. In present paper, action of a Allium sativum syrup on experimental rheumatoid arthritis was assessed, using models of leg edema and pleurisy in Wistar rats, based on passive reaction of Arthus. In two models, placebo and doses of 45, 90, and 180 mg/kg of body weight were assayed based on total solids in A.sativum syrup. As positive controls Ibuprofen and Prednisone were used at dosis of 200 and 10 mg/kg, respectively. Positive controls and assayed dosis of Allium sativum L syrup decreased inflammatory process triggered by antigen-antibody reaction achieved by means of passive reaction of Arthus, by means of egg albumin antiserum, and bovine albumin antiserum for leg edema and development of pleurisy, recpectively.

  11. The use of oral pentobarbital sodium (Nembutal) versus oral chloral hydrate in infants undergoing CT and MR imaging - a pilot study

    Chung, T.; Hoffer, F.A.; Connor, L.; Burrows, P.E. [Dept. of Radiology, Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Zurakowski, D. [Research Computing, Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2000-05-01

    Background. Chloral hydrate, a commonly used oral sedative for infants undergoing imaging examinations, has a bitter taste and requires relatively large volume, provoking unpleasant reactions from the infants. Experience with an alternative sedative, oral pentobarbital (Nembutal), has not been reported for infants Objective. To compare patient acceptance of oral Nembutal and oral chloral hydrate for sedation of infants up to 12 months of age. Methods and materials. Fifty-four infants (mean age: 7 months) were prospectively enrolled. Parents chose Nembutal, chloral hydrate, or no preference. Thirty-eight infants received Nembutal (4-6 mg/kg) mixed with cherry syrup and 16 received chloral hydrate (50-100 mg/kg). We recorded infant's acceptance of sedative, parental impression of infant's acceptance, time to sedation, time to discharge, adverse effects, parental preference of future sedative. Results. Infant acceptance and parental impression were better for Nembutal (P < 0.0001). Fewer parents in the Nembutal group preferred another sedative (P = 0.05). There was a trend toward shorter time to discharge with Nembutal (P = 0.03). There were no adverse effects in either group. One infant failed to sedate with Nembutal. Conclusions. Compared with chloral hydrate, oral Nembutal has significantly better acceptance by infants and parents, equal effectiveness, and may result in a shorter time to discharge. (orig.)

  12. The use of oral pentobarbital sodium (Nembutal) versus oral chloral hydrate in infants undergoing CT and MR imaging - a pilot study

    Background. Chloral hydrate, a commonly used oral sedative for infants undergoing imaging examinations, has a bitter taste and requires relatively large volume, provoking unpleasant reactions from the infants. Experience with an alternative sedative, oral pentobarbital (Nembutal), has not been reported for infants Objective. To compare patient acceptance of oral Nembutal and oral chloral hydrate for sedation of infants up to 12 months of age. Methods and materials. Fifty-four infants (mean age: 7 months) were prospectively enrolled. Parents chose Nembutal, chloral hydrate, or no preference. Thirty-eight infants received Nembutal (4-6 mg/kg) mixed with cherry syrup and 16 received chloral hydrate (50-100 mg/kg). We recorded infant's acceptance of sedative, parental impression of infant's acceptance, time to sedation, time to discharge, adverse effects, parental preference of future sedative. Results. Infant acceptance and parental impression were better for Nembutal (P < 0.0001). Fewer parents in the Nembutal group preferred another sedative (P = 0.05). There was a trend toward shorter time to discharge with Nembutal (P = 0.03). There were no adverse effects in either group. One infant failed to sedate with Nembutal. Conclusions. Compared with chloral hydrate, oral Nembutal has significantly better acceptance by infants and parents, equal effectiveness, and may result in a shorter time to discharge. (orig.)

  13. Continuous Time Dynamic Topic Models

    Wang, Chong; Blei, David; Heckerman, David

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we develop the continuous time dynamic topic model (cDTM). The cDTM is a dynamic topic model that uses Brownian motion to model the latent topics through a sequential collection of documents, where a "topic" is a pattern of word use that we expect to evolve over the course of the collection. We derive an efficient variational approximate inference algorithm that takes advantage of the sparsity of observations in text, a property that lets us easily handle many time points. In c...

  14. Penile pyoderma gangrenosum successfully treated with topical Imiquimod

    Santosh P Rathod

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyoderma gangrenosum(PG is a rare ulcerating inflammatory neutrophilic dermatosis. Genital involvement has been rarely reported. We report such a case of 24- year- old, male patient living with HIV/AIDS(PLHIV who presented with progressive genital ulceration, not responding to oral antibiotics and aciclovir, gradually increasing in size over 15-18 months. Repeated biopsies showed acute on chronic inflammation. The lesion partially responded to oral and topical corticosteroids but soon increased in size after tapering the dosage of the steroids.Then patient was given Imiquimod 5% cream to be applied over the lesion once daily for 2-4 weeks. Lesion cleared completely in 4 weeks and is in remission since last 6 months. The case report highlights the successful use of topical Imiquimod 5% cream in the treatment of penile PG.

  15. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... Programs (Extramural Research) NIDCR Laboratories (Intramural Research) Science News in Brief Study Takes First Comprehensive Look at ... Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral ...

  16. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... the mouth for signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes ... step description of the oral cancer examination so patients know what to expect. What You Need to ...

  17. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect oral ... Step-by-step description of the oral cancer examination so patients know what to expect. What You ...

  18. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer ... Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/ ...

  19. TASTE MASKING IN SYRUP CONTAINING HERBAL BITTER DRUGS: FORMULATION, STANDARDIZATION AND STABILITY STUDIES

    Nema, M. V.; Nimbekar, T. P.; B. E. Wanjari; A. S. Dongarwar .

    2010-01-01

    Taste masking of bitter drugs has been challenge to scientists as taste is an important parameter governing patient compliance. Several oral pharmaceuticals, numerous food and beverage products and bulking agents have unpleasant bitter taste. In order to ensure patient compliance bitterness masking becomes essential. The desire of improving the palatability has prompted the development of numerous formulations with improved performance and acceptability. Several approaches namely sensory, bar...

  20. [Wavelength interval selection by iteratively reinitialized GA and its application to spectrophotometric determination of components in cough syrup].

    Cheng, Biao; Wu, Xiao-hua; Chen, De-zhao

    2006-10-01

    Wavelength selection in PLS calibration can be used to reach two goals: improve the predictive ability and simplify the model. Iteratively reinitialized GA is a modified genetic algorithm, and it gives an initializing procedure of selecting the first candidates for every run of GA, which uses the results of previous runs as the guiding information. This algorithm can select wavelength regions instead of scattering points, which is very helpful in understanding the relevant parts of spectra. Furthermore, the continuous wavelength points make the PLS model more robust. Appling IRGA based wavelength selection to the UV-Vis spectrum of cough syrup, the result illustrates that PLS regression can greatly benefit from variable selection when used for multicomponent spectrophotometric determination. PMID:17205754

  1. INDUCTION OF ENZYME COCKTAILS BY LOW COST CARBON SOURCES FOR PRODUCTION OF MONOSACCHARIDE-RICH SYRUPS FROM PLANT MATERIALS

    Caroline T. Gilleran

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The production of cellulases, hemicellulases, and starch-degrading enzymes by the thermophilic aerobic fungus Talaromyces emersonii under liquid state culture on various food wastes was investigated. A comprehensive enzyme screening was conducted, which resulted in the identification of spent tea leaves as a potential substrate for hydrolytic enzyme production. The potent, polysaccharide-degrading enzyme-rich cocktail produced when tea leaves were utilised as sole carbon source was analysed at a protein and mRNA level and shown to exhibit high level production of key cellulose and hemicellulose degrading enzymes. As presented in this paper, the crude enzyme preparation produced after 120 h growth of Talaromyces emersonii on used tea leaves is capable of hydrolysing other lignocellulosic materials into their component monosaccharides, generating high value sugar syrups with a host of industrial applications including conversion to fuels and chemicals.

  2. Cranberry syrup vs trimethoprim in the prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infections among children: a controlled trial

    Uberos J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Jose Uberos,1 Mercedes Nogueras-Ocana,2 Verónica Fernandez-Puentes,1 Rocio Rodriguez-Belmonte,1 Eduardo Narbona-López,1 Antonio Molina-Carballo,1 Antonio Munoz-Hoyos11Paediatric Clinical Management Unit, San Cecilio University Clinical Hospital, Avda de Madrid s/n, Granada, Spain; 2Paediatric Urology, San Cecilio University Clinical Hospital, Avda de Madrid s/n, Granada, SpainObjectives: The present study forms part of the ISRCTN16968287 clinical assay. The objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of cranberry syrup in the prophylaxis of recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI.Design: Phase III randomized clinical trial.Setting: The study was conducted at the San Cecilio Clinical Hospital (Granada, Spain.Participants: A total of 192 patients were recruited. The subjects were aged between 1 month and 13 years. Criteria for inclusion were a background of recurrent UTI (more than two episodes of infection in the last 6 months, associated or otherwise with vesicoureteral reflux of any degree, or renal pelvic dilatation associated with UTI. Criteria for exclusion from recruitment to the study included the co-existence of UTI with other infectious diseases or with metabolic diseases, chronic renal insufficiency, and the presence of allergy or intolerance to any of the components of cranberry syrup or trimethoprim.Primary outcome measures: The primary objective was to determine the risk of UTI associated with each intervention.Results: Of the 198 patients initially eligible, 192 were finally included in the study to receive either cranberry syrup or trimethoprim. UTI was observed in 47 patients, 17 of whom were males and 30 females. We recruited 95 patients diagnosed with recurrent UTI on entry; during follow-up, 26 patients had a UTI (27.4%, 95% CI: 18.4%–36.3%. Six patients (6.3% were male and 20 (21.1% were female. Eighteen patients (18.9% of the total, 95% CI: 11%–26.3% receiving trimethoprim had a UTI and eight patients (8.4% of the total, 95% CI: 2.8%–13.9% were given cranberry. Sixty-six percent of the episodes of UTI recurrence were caused by Escherichia coli, with no significant differences being found between the two treatment branches. No differences were observed between the two treatment branches in the rate of resistance to antibiotics.Conclusion: Our study confirms that cranberry syrup is a safe treatment for the pediatric population. Cranberry prophylaxis has noninferiority with respect to trimethoprim in recurrent UTI. (European Clinical Trials Registry EuDract 2007-004397-62 (ISRCTN16968287.Keywords: cranberry, urinary tract infections, trimethoprim, vesicoureteral reflux, antibiotic prophylaxis 

  3. [Compliance of the diet restricted with leucine, isoleucine and valine in maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) children].

    Kowalik, Agnieszka; Narojek, Lucyna; Sykut-Cegielska, Jolanta

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the compliance of the diet with limited branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) content in long-term observation of patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). The study group consisted of 7 children at age of 1.5-18 years. Nutrition evaluation was based on current diet records from 3-4 days, every 3-4 months. Energy and nutrition values of proposed daily products lists and diet records was compared with adequate references and recommendations. Energy and content of most of the nutrients in proposed daily products lists were in agreement with RDI except calcium. Diet analysis at MSUD children revealed insufficient contents of: iron, zinc, copper, vitamin B1, B2, niacin and vitamin C (often below 90% RDI). PMID:17711097

  4. A new missense mutation in the BCKDHB gene causes the classic form of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD).

    Miryounesi, Mohammad; Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh; Goodarzi, Hamedreza; Fardaei, Majid

    2015-05-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disease caused by mutations in the BCKDHA, BCKDHB, DBT and DLD genes, which encode the E1?, E1?, E2 and E3 subunits of the branched chain ? ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKD) complex, respectively. This complex is involved in the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids. In this study, we analyzed the DNA sequences of BCKDHA and BCKDHB genes in an infant who suffered from MSUD and died at the age of 6 months. We found a new missense mutation in exon 5 of BCKDHB gene (c.508C>T). The heterozygosity of the parents for the mentioned nucleotide change was confirmed by direct sequence analysis of the corresponding segment. Another missense mutation has been found in the same codon previously and shown by in silico analyses to be deleterious. This report provides further evidence that this amino acid change can cause classic MSUD. PMID:25381949

  5. Hot topics for leadership development.

    Bleich, Michael R

    2015-02-01

    Three areas stand out from a health systems perspective that should be on the development agenda for all leaders. These topics include population health, predictive analytics, and supply chain management. Together, these topics address access, quality, and cost management. PMID:25633301

  6. Updated Topics in Healthcare Informatics

    Takeda, Hiroshi,

    2010-01-01

    This key note lecture introduces the role of IMIA, scope of healthcare informatics and some topics in healthcare informatics. Among updated topics, electronic patient record (EPR) and electronic health record (EHR) are featured. A new paradigm of clinical information systems, a document archiving and communication system (DACS) is also described and discussed.

  7. Novel topical therapies for distal colitis

    Ian Craig Lawrance

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Distal colitis (DC can be effectively treated with topical 5ASA agents. Suppositories target the rectum while enemas can reliably reach the splenic flexure. Used in combination with oral 5ASAs, the control of the inflammation is even more effective. Unfortunately, resistant DC does occur and can be extremely challenging to manage. In these patients, the use of steroids, immunosuppressants and the anti-tumor necrosis factor ? agents are often required. These, however, can be associated with systemic side effects and are not always effective. The investigation of new topical therapeutic agents is thus required as they are rarely associated with significant blood drug levels and side effects are infrequent. Some of the agents that have been proposed for use in resistant distal colitis include butyrate, cyclosporine and nicotine enemas as well as tacrolimus suppositories and tacrolimus, ecabet sodium, arsenic, lidocaine, rebamipide and Ridogrel® enemas. Some of these agents have demonstrated impressive results but the majority of the agents have only been assessed in small open-labelled patient cohorts. Further work is thus required with the investigation of promising agents in the context of randomized double-blinded placebo controlled trials. This review aims to highlight those potentially effective therapies in the management of resistant distal colitis and to promote interest in furthering their investigation.

  8. Feasibility study of date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit syrup-based natural jelly using central composite design.

    Benali, Sonia; Benamara, Salem; Bigan, Muriel; Madani, Khodir

    2015-08-01

    A feasibility study of natural fruit jelly from three Algerian raw materials, namely date (Phoenix dactylifera l.) fruit syrup and suspension of orange albedo powder (OAP) in lemon juice (LJ) was performed by response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD). The textural properties of the final jelly were investigated through two dependent variables: hardness and stickiness. The cooking temperature (X1), corresponding to that of thermo stated oil bath, and cooking time (X 2), taken for heating the initial fruit mixture in the oil bath (from ambient temperature without fixing however, the final temperature), were found to be the most influent factors, compared to °Brix of date syrup (X3) and temperature (X4) of the cooling stage following the cooking process. Results have also shown that the second-degree polynomial models correctly fit experimental data (R(2), adjusted R(2) (R(2) adj) and cross-validation (Q(2)) ≈ 1). Considering textural properties of commercial jellies as a reference, it was found that the cooking temperature of 155 °C for 10 min gave a jelly with suitable textural properties. On the other hand, FT-IR spectra revealed that the structure of such jelly was partially close to that of pectin molecules. Finally, the color analysis in the CIELab system of the fruit mixture over the cooking process showed that both lightness (L(*)) and a*/b* ratio were not affected by the experienced temperature range (80-155 °C). PMID:26243917

  9. Advancements in Topical Antifungal Vehicles.

    Kircik, Leon H

    2016-02-01

    The primary treatment for superficial fungal infections is antifungal topical formulations, and allylamines and azoles represent the two major classes of topical formulations that are used to treat these infections. The stratum corneum (SC) is composed of keratinocytes that are surrounded by a matrix of lipids. The efficacy of topically applied formulations depends on their ability to penetrate this lipid matrix, and the vehicle plays an integral role in the penetration of active molecule into skin. There are several challenges to formulating topical drugs, which include the biotransformation of the active molecules as they pass through the SC and the physical changes that occur to the vehicle itself when it is applied to the skin. This article will review current and emerging topical antifungal vehicles. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(Suppl 2):s44-48. PMID:26885798

  10. Stability of tiagabine in two oral liquid vehicles.

    Nahata, Milap C; Morosco, Richard S

    2003-01-01

    The stability of tiagabine hydrochloride in two extemporaneously prepared oral suspensions stored at 4 and 25 degrees C for three months was studied. Tiagabine is used for adjunctive therapy for the treatment of refractory partial seizures. It is currently available in a tablet dosage form, which cannot be used in young children who are unable to swallow and given doses in milligrams per kilogram of body weight. No stability data are available for tiagabine in any liquid dosage form. Five bottles contained tiagabine 1 mg/mL in 1% methylcellulose:Simple Syrup, NF (1:6), and another five bottles had tiagabine 1 mg/mL in Ora-Plus:Ora-Sweet (1:1). Three samples were collected from each bottle at 0, 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, and 91 days and analyzed by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method (n = 15). At 4 degrees C, the mean concentration of tiagabine exceeded 95% of the original concentration for 91 days in both formulations. At 25 degrees C, the mean concentration of tiagabine exceeded 90% of the original concentration for 70 days in Ora-Plus:Ora-Sweet formulation and for 42 days in 1% methylcellulose:syrup formulation. No changes in pH or physical appearance were seen during this period. The stability data for two formulations would provide flexibility for compounding tiagabine. Tiagabine hydrochloride 1 mg/,mL in extemporaneously prepared liquid dosage forms and stored in plastic bottles remained stable for up to three months at 4 degrees C and six weeks at 25 degrees C. PMID:12533980

  11. Literatura oral, oralidad ficticia Oral literature, fictitious orality

    Mauricio Ostria González

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se pretende una aproximación a las relaciones entre la contradictoria ‘literatura oral’ y redundante ‘literatura escrita’, entre lo oral (en tanto fenómeno de comunicación real, convertido en creación verbal, y la ficción de oralidad en la escritura (literaria. Todo, en el marco general de la problemática oralidad/escritura tal como aparece en la práctica cultural latinoamericana. En este último caso, se trata, sin duda, de un esfuerzo por dialogar con la otredad, con lo excluido por el canon de la literatura y cultura oficial. Con ello no sólo se busca incorporar formas o estructuras propias del discurso oral en los textos literarios, sino, en algunos casos paradigmáticos, alcanzar una cierta certidumbre de que esos textos literarios obedecen a una lógica profunda de oralidad cultural.Within the framework of the conceptions of orality and writing prevalent in Latin American cultural practice, the author attempts an approach to the relationship between the contradictory notion of ‘oral literature’ and the redundant notion of ‘written literature’, that is, between orality as a real communication phenomenon, when it occurs as verbal creation, and the fiction of orality found in literary writing. In this case, what one really discovers is an effort to establish a dialog with what has been omitted by the literary establishment and cultural standards. Along these lines, literary texts not only incorporate forms and structures proper of oral texts, but in some paradigmatic cases a true link with a deep cultural orality is found.

  12. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental ... Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide for Health ...

  13. Safety of warfarin therapy during cataract surgery under topical anesthesia

    Newton Kara-Junior

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To analyze the safety of warfarin therapy during cataract surgery under topical anesthesia. Methods: This was a prospective nonrandomized comparative study of 60 eyes of 60 patients treated with or without concurrent oral warfarin anticoagulant therapy, referred for cataract surgery under topical anesthesia. The sample included a treatment (n=30 and a control (n=30 group. Results: There were no records of intraoperative or postoperative intracameral bleeding complications in both the groups. At 1-month postoperative follow-up, 90.0% of patients presented spectacle-corrected visual acuity of at least 20/40. Conclusion: Cataract surgery by phacoemulsification with topical anesthesia can be successfully conducted without discontinuing warfarin.

  14. Iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome After Topical Steroid Therapy for Psoriasis

    Sahıp, Birsen; Celık, Mehmet; Ayturk, Semra; Kucukarda, Ahmet; Mert, Onur; Dıncer, Nejla; Guldıken, Sıbel; Tugrul, Armagan

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are used for the treatment of many diseases, such as inflammatory, allergic, autoimmune, and neoplastic diseases. They can be used in the form of topical, oral, inhalable, rectal, and intra-articular agents. Many topical steroid-related iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome cases affecting especially children have been reported in the literature. Topical steroid-related Cushing's syndrome is rarely seen in adults. In this report, we present the case of a 32-year-old male patient with iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome related to long-term clobetasol propionate treatment for psoriasis. In the context of such treatment, the glucocorticoid withdrawal problem has to be overcome. At present there is no consensus on steroid withdrawal. Patients on long-term glucocorticoid treatment must be evaluated for potential adverse effects and withdrawal symptoms by their physician and their endocrinologist. PMID:26955131

  15. Iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome After Topical Steroid Therapy for Psoriasis.

    Sahıp, Birsen; Celık, Mehmet; Ayturk, Semra; Kucukarda, Ahmet; Mert, Onur; Dıncer, Nejla; Guldıken, Sıbel; Tugrul, Armagan

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are used for the treatment of many diseases, such as inflammatory, allergic, autoimmune, and neoplastic diseases. They can be used in the form of topical, oral, inhalable, rectal, and intra-articular agents. Many topical steroid-related iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome cases affecting especially children have been reported in the literature. Topical steroid-related Cushing's syndrome is rarely seen in adults. In this report, we present the case of a 32-year-old male patient with iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome related to long-term clobetasol propionate treatment for psoriasis. In the context of such treatment, the glucocorticoid withdrawal problem has to be overcome. At present there is no consensus on steroid withdrawal. Patients on long-term glucocorticoid treatment must be evaluated for potential adverse effects and withdrawal symptoms by their physician and their endocrinologist. PMID:26955131

  16. Topical steroid-damaged skin

    Anil Abraham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Topical steroids, commonly used for a wide range of skin disorders, are associated with side effects both systemic and cutaneous. This article aims at bringing awareness among practitioners, about the cutaneous side effects of easily available, over the counter, topical steroids. This makes it important for us as dermatologists to weigh the usefulness of topical steroids versus their side effects, and to make an informed decision regarding their use in each individual based on other factors such as age, site involved and type of skin disorder.

  17. Topics in lightwave transmission systems

    Li, Tingye

    1991-01-01

    Topics in Lightwave Transmission Systems is a second volume of a treatise on optical fiber communications that is devoted to the science, engineering, and application of information transmission via optical fibers. The first volume, published in 1985, dealt exclusively with fiber fabrication. The present volume contains topics that pertain to subsystems and systems. The book contains five chapters and begins with discussions of transmitters and receivers, which are basic to systems now operating in the field. Subsequent chapters cover topics relating to coherent systems: frequency and phase m

  18. Oral myiasis in a maxillofacial trauma patient

    Grandim Balarama Gupta Vinit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a rare disease primarily caused by the invasion of tissue by larvae of certain dipteran flies. Oral myiasis is still more "rare" and "unique" owing to the fact that oral cavity rarely provides the necessary habitat conducive for a larval lifecycle. Common predisposing factors are poor oral hygiene, halitosis, trauma, senility, learning disabilities, physically and mentally challenged conditions. Oral myiasis can lead to rapid tissue destruction and disfigurement and requires immediate treatment. Treatment consists of manual removal of maggots from the oral cavity after application of chemical agents. Good sanitation, personal and environmental hygiene and cleanliness and special care for debilitated persons are the best methods to prevent oral myiasis. This case report describes the presentation of oral myiasis caused by musca nebulo (common house fly in a 40-year-old male patient, with recent maxillofacial trauma. The patient was treated by manual removal larvae by topical application of turpentine oil, followed by surgical debridement of the wound and open reduction and internal fixation of the fracture.

  19. Oral myiasis in a maxillofacial trauma patient.

    Vinit, Grandim Balarama Gupta; Jayavelu, Perumal; Shrutha, Santhebachali Prakasha

    2013-07-01

    Myiasis is a rare disease primarily caused by the invasion of tissue by larvae of certain dipteran flies. Oral myiasis is still more "rare" and "unique" owing to the fact that oral cavity rarely provides the necessary habitat conducive for a larval lifecycle. Common predisposing factors are poor oral hygiene, halitosis, trauma, senility, learning disabilities, physically and mentally challenged conditions. Oral myiasis can lead to rapid tissue destruction and disfigurement and requires immediate treatment. Treatment consists of manual removal of maggots from the oral cavity after application of chemical agents. Good sanitation, personal and environmental hygiene and cleanliness and special care for debilitated persons are the best methods to prevent oral myiasis. This case report describes the presentation of oral myiasis caused by musca nebulo (common house fly) in a 40-year-old male patient, with recent maxillofacial trauma. The patient was treated by manual removal larvae by topical application of turpentine oil, followed by surgical debridement of the wound and open reduction and internal fixation of the fracture. PMID:23956607

  20. Oral cavity and leprosy

    Shambulingappa Pallagatti; Soheyl Sheikh; Anupreet Kaur; Amit Aggarwal; Ravinder Singh2

    2012-01-01

    Although leprosy involves the oral cavity in up to 60% of the patients, examination of the oral cavity in leprosy clinics or oral health science clinics is often neglected. Oral involvement in leprosy can broadly be divided into non-specific and specific lesions. In this review, we discuss various oral manifestations in leprosy patients so as to increase the awareness about this aspect among dermatologists and dental surgeons.

  1. Formulation of budesonide mouthwash for the treatment of oral chronic graft-versus-host disease.

    Van Schandevyl, Guy; Bauters, Tiene

    2016-02-01

    Oral involvement is (very) common in chronic graft-versus-host disease and can cause discomfort and impairment of oral function. Budesonide, a highly potent corticosteroid with low systemic activity, can be used as a topical treatment for oral chronic graft-versus-host disease. We describe the development of a formulation of budesonide and sodium bicarbonate for use as mouthwash in patients with oral chronic graft-versus-host disease. PMID:25411262

  2. Selected topics in nuclear structure

    The collection of abstracts on selected topics in nuclear structure are given. Special attention pays to collective excitations and high-spin states of nuclei, giant resonance structure, nuclear reaction mechanisms and so on

  3. Erythromycin and Benzoyl Peroxide Topical

    The combination of erythromycin and benzoyl peroxide is used to treat acne. Erythromycin and benzoyl peroxide are in a class of medications called topical antibiotics. The combination of erythromycin and benzoyl peroxide works by killing the bacteria ...

  4. Present topics of nuclear energy

    The report is discussing the topics: Reprocessing of spent fuel elements; Final storage of radioactive wastes; Effects of thermal power plants upon the climate; Safeguarding of nuclear facilities and fissionable materials; Properties and possibilities of plutonium. (orig./HP)

  5. Topics on the FORM software

    These notes studies the compilation with FORM software as applied to high energy physics, covering the following topics: Command structures, statistics and numbers, Dirac matrices, optimization control, Gamma matrices, errors and polynomial substitution

  6. Iodine Absorption After Topical Administration

    Cruz, Francine Dela; Brown, Deborah Harper; Leikin, Jerrold B.; Franklin, Cory; Hryhorczuk, Daniel O.

    1987-01-01

    Absorption from povidone-iodine preparations after topical administration has been reported to be negligible, but an elderly woman had increased serum iodine levels with possible metabolic complications after povidone-iodine solution was applied to decubitus ulcers.

  7. Special topics in spectral distributions

    We discuss two problems which relate to the foundations of the subject, and a third about asymptotic properties of spectral distributions. We give also a brief list of topics which should be further explored

  8. Do scientists trace hot topics?

    Tian Wei; Menghui Li; Chensheng Wu; Xiao-Yong Yan; Ying Fan; Zengru Di; Jinshan Wu

    2013-01-01

    Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries,...

  9. KEY TOPICS IN SPORTS MEDICINE

    Amir Ali Narvani; Panagiotis Thomas; Burce Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1) Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2) Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3) Drugs in sport, 4) Exercise and health promotion, 5) Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6) The ps...

  10. Topics of Bioengineering in Wikipedia

    Vassia Atanassova

    2009-01-01

    The present report aims to give a snapshot of how topics from the field of bioengineering (bioinformatics, bioprocess systems, biomedical engineering, biotechnology, etc.) are currently covered in the free electronic encyclopedia Wikipedia. It also offers insights and information about what Wikipedia is, how it functions, how and when to cite Wikipedian articles, if necessary. Several external wikis, devoted to topics of bioengineering, are also listed and reviewed.

  11. Topics of Bioengineering in Wikipedia

    Vassia Atanassova

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present report aims to give a snapshot of how topics from the field of bioengineering (bioinformatics, bioprocess systems, biomedical engineering, biotechnology, etc. are currently covered in the free electronic encyclopedia Wikipedia. It also offers insights and information about what Wikipedia is, how it functions, how and when to cite Wikipedian articles, if necessary. Several external wikis, devoted to topics of bioengineering, are also listed and reviewed.

  12. Stability of ketoconazole, metolazone, metronidazole, procainamide hydrochloride, and spironolactone in extemporaneously compounded oral liquids.

    Allen, L V; Erickson, M A

    1996-09-01

    The stability of drugs commonly prescribed for use in oral liquid dosage forms but not commercially available as such was studied. Ketoconazole 20 mg/mL, metolazone 1 mg/mL, metronidazole 50 mg/mL, procainamide hydrochloride 50 mg/ mL, and spironolactone 25 mg/mL were prepared in a 1:1 mixture of Ora-Sweet and Ora-Plus (Paddock Laboratories), a 1:1 mixture of Ora-Sweet SF and Ora-Plus (Paddock Laboratories), and cherry syrup and placed in 120-mL polyethylene terephthalate bottles. The sources of the drugs were powder, capsules, and tablets. Six bottles were prepared per liquid; three were stored at 5 degrees C and three at 25 degrees C, all in the dark. A sample was removed from each bottle immediately after preparation and at intervals up to 60 days and analyzed for drug concentration by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography. At least 93% of the initial drug concentration was retained in all the oral liquids for up to 60 days. There were no substantial changes in the appearance or odor of the liquids, or in the pH. Ketoconazole 20 mg/mL, metolazone 1 mg/mL, metronidazole 50 mg/mL, procainamide hydrochloride 50 mg/ mL, and spironolactone 25 mg/mL were stable for up to 60 days at 5 and 25 degrees C in three extemporaneously compounded oral liquids. INDEX TERMS: Anti-infective agents; Antifungals; Capsules; Cardiac drugs; Cherry syrup; Compounding; Containers; Diuretics; Incompatibilities; Ketoconazole; Liquids; Metolazone; Metronidazole; Polyethylene terephthalate; Powders; Procainamide hydrochloride; Spironolactone; Stability; Storage; Suspending agents; Tablets; Temperature; Vehicles. PMID:8870895

  13. Do current sports nutrition guidelines conflict with good oral health?

    Broad, Elizabeth M; Rye, Leslie A

    2015-01-01

    For optimal athletic performance, an athlete requires good oral health to reduce the risk of oral pain, inflammation, and infection and thereby minimize the use of analgesics and antimicrobial agents. Increased intake, frequency, and dental contact time of carbohydrate-rich foods, sports nutrition products, and acidic carbohydrate-containing sports and energy drinks may contribute to risks of dental erosion, caries, and inflammatory periodontal conditions in the athlete, especially when he or she also exhibits dehydration and poor oral hygiene habits. Examining the athlete before he or she begins participating in a sport allows the dental care provider to determine the patient's existing oral health, hygiene, and susceptibility to risk factors for erosion, caries, and inflammatory periodontal disease. This oral profile, in conjunction with the individual athlete's dietary needs, can be used to establish a treatment and preventive program, including oral health education. Good oral hygiene practices and application of topical fluoride, especially via fluoridated toothpastes and topical fluoride varnishes, must be available to the athlete. Rinsing with water or a neutral beverage after exposure to carbohydrates or acidic sports nutrition products may reduce carbohydrate contact time and bring oral pH levels back to neutral more quickly, reducing the risk of caries and erosion. Finally, the dentist should encourage the athlete to consult with an experienced sports dietitian to ensure that principles of sports nutrition are being appropriately applied for the type, frequency, and duration of exercise in consideration of the individual's oral health needs. PMID:26545270

  14. Development of orally disintegrating tablets comprising controlled-release multiparticulate beads.

    Venkatesh, Gopi M; Stevens, Phillip J; Lai, Jin-Wang

    2012-12-01

    Melperone is an atypical antipsychotic agent that has shown a wide spectrum of neuroleptic properties, particularly effective in the treatment of senile dementia and Parkinson's-associated psychosis, and is marketed in Europe as an immediate-release (IR) tablet and syrup. An orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) dosage form would be advantageous for patients who experience difficulty in swallowing large tablets or capsules or those who experience dysphagia. Controlled-release (CR) capsule and ODT formulations containing melperone HCl were developed with target in vitro release profiles suitable for a once-daily dosing regimen. Both dosage forms allow for the convenient production of dose-proportional multiple strengths. Two ODT formulations exhibiting fast and medium release profiles and one medium release profile capsule formulation (each 50?mg) were tested in vivo using IR syrup as the reference. The two medium release formulations were shown to be bioequivalent to each other and are suitable for once-daily dosing. Based on the analytical and organoleptic test results, as well as the blend uniformity and in-process compression data at various compression forces using coated beads produced at one-tenth (1/10) commercial scale, both formulations in the form of CR capsules and CR ODTs have shown suitability for progression into further clinical development. PMID:22356215

  15. Stability of sotalol hydrochloride in extemporaneously prepared oral suspension formulations.

    Sidhom, Madiha B; Rivera, Nadya; Almoazen, Hassan; Taft, David R; Kirschenbaum, Harold L

    2005-01-01

    The physical, chemical, and microbial stabilities of extemporaneously compounded oral liquid formulations of sotalol hydrochloride were studied. Sotalol hydrochloride oral liquid suspensions (5mg/mL) were prepared from commercially available tablets (Betapace) in a 1:1 mixture of Ora-Plus: Ora-Sweet, a 1:1 mixture of Ora-Plus:Ora-Sweet SF, and a 1:2.4 mixture of simple syrup:methylcellulose vehicle. Six batches of each formulation were prepared; three were stored at refrigerated temperature (2 deg to 8 deg C) and three at room temperature (20 deg to 25 deg C). Samples were collected from each batch weekly for 6 weeks, and again at 12 weeks. Samples were analyzed by means of a high-performance liquid chromatographic method, and the concentrations obtained were compared to the theoretical time zero value. Samples were examined for pH, odor, color, and consistency changes. The suspensions also were evaluated for their microbial stability. Sotalol hydrochloride oral liquid suspensions (5mg/mL) were chemically stable for 12 weeks regardless of storage conditions (room temperature or refrigerated). Bacterial growth was not supported by any of the formulations. Suspensions stored at refrigerated temperature retained better physical quality (e.g., odor, color, and consistency) than suspensions stored at room temperature. Overall, this study demonstrates that oral formulations of sotalol hydrochloride can be readily prepared with commercially available vehicles. The method of preparation is relatively simple, the materials are relatively inexpensive, and the products have a shelf-life of at least 12 weeks. PMID:23925139

  16. Topical NSAIDs for acute pain: a meta-analysis

    Derry Sheena

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A previous systematic review reported that topical NSAIDs were effective in relieving pain in acute conditions like sprains and strains, with differences between individual drugs for efficacy. More trials, a better understanding of trial quality and bias, and a reclassification of certain drugs necessitate a new review. Methods Studies were identified by searching electronic databases and writing to manufacturers. We selected randomised double blind trials comparing topical NSAID with either placebo or another active treatment in adults with acute pain, and extracted dichotomous information approximating to a 50% reduction in pain at one week, together with details of adverse events and withdrawals. Relative benefit and number-needed-to-treat (NNT, and relative risk and number-needed-to-harm (NNH were calculated, with sensitivity analyses where appropriate to investigate differences between individual drugs and aspects of trial design. Results Twenty-six double blind placebo controlled trials had information from 2,853 patients for evaluation of efficacy. Topical NSAID was significantly better than placebo in 19 of the 26 trials, with a pooled relative benefit of 1.6 (95% confidence interval 1.4 to 1.7, and NNT of 3.8 (95% confidence interval 3.4 to 4.4 compared with placebo for the outcome of half pain relief at seven days. Results were not affected by outcome reported, or condition treated, but smaller trials yielded a larger estimate of efficacy. Indirect comparisons of individual topical NSAIDs showed that ketoprofen was significantly better than all other topical NSAIDs, while indomethacin was barely distinguished from placebo. Three trials, with 433 patients, compared topical with oral NSAID (two trials compared the same drug, one compared different drugs and found no difference in efficacy. Local adverse events, systemic adverse events, or withdrawals due to an adverse event were rare, and no different between topical NSAID and placebo. Conclusions Topical NSAIDs were effective and safe in treating acute painful conditions for one week.

  17. Improvement of effect of water-in-oil microemulsion as an oral delivery system for fexofenadine: in vitro and in vivo studies

    Gundogdu E

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available E Gundogdu1,2, I Gonzalez Alvarez3, E Karasulu1,21Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics, 2Center For Drug Research and Development and Pharmacokinetic Applications, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey; 3Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Engineering, Pharmaceutical Technical Section, Research Group on Drug Absorption, Universidad Miguel Hernández, Alicante, SpainAbstract: Fexofenadine (FEX has high solubility and low permeability (BCS, Class III. In this work, novel FEX loaded water in oil microemulsion (w/o was designed to improve bioavailability and compared with Fexofen® syrup in in vitro and in vivo studies. In addition, pharmacokinetic parameters in permeability studies were estimated by using WinNonLin software program. w/o microemulsion system was optimized using a pseudoternary phase diagram, composed of span 80/lutrol F 68 (9.5:0.5 w/w, oleic acide, isopropyl alcohol and water as surfactant mixture; oil and cosurfactant was developed for oral drug delivery. w/o microemulsion systems were characterized by phase behavior, particle size, viscosity and solubilization capacity. In vitro studies were studied using Caco-2 cell monolayer. Pharmacokinetic parameters of w/o microemulsion were investigated in rabbits and compared to Fexofen® syrup. Fexofen® syrup and microemulsion were administered by oral gavage at 6 mg/kg of the same concentration. The experimental results indicated that microemulsion (HLB = 5.53 formed nanometer sized droplets (33.29 ± 1.76 and had good physical stability. This microemulsion increased the oral bioavailability of FEX which was highly water-soluble but fairly impermeable. The relative bioavailability of FEX microemulsion was about 376.76% compared with commercial syrup in rabbits. In vitro experiments were further employed for the enhanced effect of the microemulsion for FEX. These results suggest that novel w/o microemulsion plays an important role in enhancing oral bioavailability of low permeability drugs.Keywords: pharmacokinetic, bioavailability, permeability, oleic acid

  18. Integrating Document Clustering and Topic Modeling

    Xie, Pengtao; Xing, Eric P

    2013-01-01

    Document clustering and topic modeling are two closely related tasks which can mutually benefit each other. Topic modeling can project documents into a topic space which facilitates effective document clustering. Cluster labels discovered by document clustering can be incorporated into topic models to extract local topics specific to each cluster and global topics shared by all clusters. In this paper, we propose a multi-grain clustering topic model (MGCTM) which integrates document clusterin...

  19. Influence of myrtle juice and syrup on microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory features of goat’s milk yogurt made with indigenous starter Culture

    Mangia, Nicoletta Pasqualina; Murgia, Marco Ambrogio; Fancello, Francesco; Nudda, Anna; Deiana, Pietrino

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of Myrtle Juice (MJ) and Syrup (MS) on microbiological, physicochemical and sensory features in goat milk yogurt fermented by indigenous Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbruekii subsp. bulgaricus during 30 days of storage. Generally, in all samples, the high LAB number at the end of incubation and the pH values ranging from 4.1 to 4.6 indicates a good effectiveness of the used starter on fermentation process. L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus c...

  20. Determination of the 13C/12C ratio of ethanol derived from fruit juices and maple syrup by isotope ratio mass spectrometry: collaborative study.

    Jamin, Eric; Martin, Frédérique; Martin, Gilles G

    2004-01-01

    A collaborative study of the carbon-13 isotope ratio mass spectrometry (13C-IRMS) method based on fermentation ethanol for detecting some sugar additions in fruit juices and maple syrup is reported. This method is complementary to the site-specific natural isotope fractionation by nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) method for detecting added beet sugar in the same products (AOAC Official Methods 995.17 and 2000.19), and uses the same initial steps to recover pure ethanol. The fruit juices or maple syrups are completely fermented with yeast, and the alcohol is distilled with a quantitative yield (>96%). The carbon-13 deviation (delta13C) of ethanol is then determined by IRMS. This parameter becomes less negative when exogenous sugar derived from plants exhibiting a C4 metabolism (e.g., corn or cane) is added to a juice obtained from plants exhibiting a C3 metabolism (most common fruits except pineapple) or to maple syrup. Conversely, the delta13C of ethanol becomes more negative when exogenous sugar derived from C3 plants (e.g., beet, wheat, rice) is added to pineapple products. Twelve laboratories analyzed 2 materials (orange juice and pure cane sugar) in blind duplicate and 4 sugar-adulterated materials (orange juice, maple syrup, pineapple juice, and apple juice) as Youden pairs. The precision of that method for measuring delta13C was similar to that of other methods applied to wine ethanol or extracted sugars in juices. The within-laboratory (Sr) values ranged from 0.06 to 0.16%o (r = 0.17 to 0.46 percent per thousand), and the among-laboratories (SR) values ranged from 0.17 to 0.26 percent per thousand (R = 0.49 to 0.73 percent per thousand). The Study Directors recommend that the method be adopted as First Action by AOAC INTERNATIONAL. PMID:15287660

  1. Simultaneous determination of clobutinol hydrochloride and doxylamine succinate from syrups by RP HPLC using a new stationary phase containing embedded urea polar groups

    Paulo Cesar Pires Rosa; Isabel Cristina Sales Fontes Jardim

    2012-01-01

    A new, simple, fast, reproducible and sensitive reversed phase HPLC method, using a new stationary phase containing embedded urea polar groups, has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of clobutinol hydrochloride (CLO) and doxylamine succinate (DOX) in syrups. The determination was carried out on a C8 urea column (125 mm x 3.9 mm i.d., 5 µm particle size) synthetized at the Liquid Chomatography Laboratory (LabCrom) of the Chemistry Institute of Unicamp. The mobile p...

  2. Fructose, high-fructose corn syrup, sucrose, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or indexes of liver health: a systematic review and meta-analysis 1 2 3 4

    Chung, Mei; Ma, Jiantao; Patel, Kamal; Berger, Samantha; LAU, JOSEPH; LICHTENSTEIN, ALICE H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Concerns have been raised about the concurrent temporal trend between simple sugar intakes, especially of fructose or high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), and rates of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the United States. Objective: We examined the effect of different amounts and forms of dietary fructose on the incidence or prevalence of NAFLD and indexes of liver health in humans. Design: We conducted a systematic review of English-language, human studies of any design in c...

  3. In house validation from direct determination of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (HMF) in Brazilian corn and cane syrups samples by HPLC-UV.

    de Andrade, Jucimara K; Komatsu, Emy; Perreault, Hélène; Torres, Yohandra R; da Rosa, Marcos R; Felsner, Maria L

    2016-01-01

    In this work the development and in house validation of the HMF direct determination in corn and cane syrups by HPLC-UV was carried out for the first time. The separation was done with isocratic elution of a mobile phase comprising water (with 0.5% formic acid) and acetonitrile (90:10, v/v) on Phenomenex C18 column (5.0 μm, 4.6 × 150 mm), at 30 °C, flow rate of 0.8 mL min(-1) and detection at 285 nm. The validated method showed excellent performance with low limits (LOD and LOQ of 0.09 and 0.26 mg L(-1), respectively), good accuracy (recovery rates between 100% and 104%) and precision (RSD's for repeatability and intermediate precision between 0.57% and 6.43%). Good selectivity and linearity were also observed. HMF contents in both foods were very high (406.6-2121.3 mg kg(-1) for corn syrup and 109.2-893.1 mg kg(-1) for cane syrup), which arouses concern about food safety of these products. PMID:26213000

  4. Assessment of the stability of proanthocyanidins and other phenolic compounds in cranberry syrup after gamma-irradiation treatment and during storage.

    Rodríguez-Pérez, C; Quirantes-Piné, R; Contreras, M del M; Uberos, J; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A; Segura-Carretero, A

    2015-05-01

    Shelf life of commercial cranberry syrup irradiated with gamma radiation at a rate of 5 kGy and stored for 6 months at 25 °C and 60% relative humidity (RH) and under accelerated stability conditions was investigated. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS) was used to characterise cranberry syrup. Afterwards, these compounds were quantified by HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS and 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMAC) assay. A significant increase in the content of procyanidin B isomer 1 (from 4.4 to 7.0 ?g/ml) and procyanidin A2 (from 83 to 93 ?g/ml) was observed after irradiation and compared with the non-irradiated syrup. Procyanidin B isomers and prodelphinidin were stable at 25 °C during the first month of storage, whereas quercetin and some derivatives remained constant for 3 months of storage at this temperature. In short, after gamma-irradiation in dose of 5 kGy, most compounds were highly stable for a month at 25 °C. PMID:25529697

  5. The effect of bordaleza and sulfocálcica syrups in different concentrations and ages of plants on leafs diseases of sweet passion fruit in organic cropping

    Lin Chau Ming

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The complex of leaves diseases that attack the culture of the passion fruit, especially, the sweet passion fruit(Passiflora alata could commit the productivity and quality of fruits. However, P. alata, is also used as medicinalplant, being the leaves, the part used for this end. Then, the focus of the studies aiming to to agronomic managementof P. alata for raw material production for pharmaceutical end, it diverges, at least partly, of the focus of theproduction of fruits. Therefore, it was evaluated the effect of bordaleza and sulfocálcica syrups in differentconcentrations and ages of plants on leaves diseases of P. alata. The experiment was installed in field conditions inrandonmized blocks with five treatments and five repetitions of 10 plants each. The treatments were bordalesa syrupin 0,5 and 1,0%, sulfocálcica syrup in 0,5 and 1,0% prepared from main solution to 27th Baumé and the witness(without application. The treatment with sulfocalcica syrup in 0,5% promoted the smallest index of disease and thelargest relative efficiency of control associated to the smallest rate of development of the disease with the age of thecultivation.

  6. Topics

    Mathematics Teaching, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Notes on divisibility using manipulative materials, cyclic groups of functions, Horner's method of synthetic division, arc lengths of cycloids and cardioids, number squares, and students' concepts of mathematics. (MM)

  7. Dental Topics for Medical Students

    Lorber, Mortimer

    1976-01-01

    As part of the required Introduction to Clinical Sciences course, second-year students at Georgetown University School of Medicine attend three one-hour lectures on dentistry: restorative dentistry, oral surgery, and various diseases. Contents of the lectures are summarized here. (JT)

  8. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of pain due to soft tissue injury: diclofenac epolamine topical patch

    David R Lionberger

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available David R Lionberger1, Michael J Brennan21Southwest Orthopedic Group, Houston, TX, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Bridgeport Hospital, Bridgeport, CT, USAAbstract: The objective of this article is to review published clinical data on diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% (DETP in the treatment of acute soft tissue injuries, such as strains, sprains, and contusions. Review of published literature on topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, diclofenac, and DETP in patients with acute soft tissue injuries was included. Relevant literature was identified on MEDLINE using the search terms topical NSAIDs, diclofenac, diclofenac epolamine, acute pain, sports injury, soft tissue injury, strain, sprain, and contusion, and from citations in retrieved articles covering the years 1978–2008. Review of published, randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses shows that topical NSAIDs are significantly more effective than placebo in relieving acute pain; the pooled average relative benefit was 1.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.5–1.9. In a limited number of comparisons, topical and oral NSAIDs provided comparable pain relief, but the use of topical agents produced lower plasma drug concentrations and fewer systemic adverse events (AEs. The physical–chemical properties of diclofenac epolamine make it well suited for topical use. In patients with acute soft tissue injuries treated with DETP, clinical data report an analgesic benefit within hours of the first application, and significant pain relief relative to placebo within 3 days. Moreover, DETP displayed tolerability comparable with placebo; the most common AEs were pruritus and other application site reactions. Review of published literature suggests that DETP is generally safe and well tolerated, clinically efficacious, and a rational treatment option for patients experiencing acute pain associated with strains, sprains, and contusions, and other localized painful conditions.Keywords: diclofenac epolamine, topical analgesics, soft tissue injury, strains, sprains, contusions

  9. Clinical efficacy of farcosolvin syrup (ambroxol–theophylline–guaiphenesin mixture in the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis

    Mostafa Yakoot

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa Yakoot1, Amel Salem2, Abdel-Mohsen Omar31Green Clinics and Research Center, Alexandria, Egypt; 2Al-Mabarah Hospital, 3Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, EgyptBackground: Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB are defined as recurrent attacks of worsening bronchial inflammation that are marked by an increase in the volume of daily sputum produced, a change in color of the expectorated sputum, and worsening dyspnea. Farcosolvin® (Pharco Pharmaceuticals, Alexandria, Egypt is a mixture of ambroxol (15 mg; theophylline (50 mg; and guaiphenesin (30 mg, per 5 mL syrup.Objective: To test the clinical efficacy of Farcosolvin in the treatment of AECB in a randomized, single-blinded, controlled study design.Patients and methods: One hundred patients with AECB were randomized to either Farcosolvin or guaiphenesin treatment groups, in addition to the standard medical treatment for their cases. Baseline clinical symptomatolgy of breathlessness, cough, and sputum severity scoring were compared before and after 3 and 7 days of treatment in both groups and the differences compared between groups. Changes in perceived improvement were also compared between groups using the Clinical Global Impression of Improvement or Change Scale (CGIC.Results: There were statistically significant improvements in breathlessness and cough scores in both groups (pretreatment versus posttreatment at day 3 and at day 7; P < 0.05. There were highly statistically significant differences between groups in improvement in ­breathlessness and cough scores, after 3 and 7 days treatment, in favor of the Farcosolvin ­treatment group (P < 0.001. Out of 50 patients, 48 (96% in the Farcosolvin-treated group rated their ­improvement on the CGIC scale as “much” and “very much” improved, while only 41 patients (82% reported such a degree of improvement in the control group. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05.Conclusion: We concluded from our study that Farcosolvin syrup might be safe and effective in improving symptoms in cases of acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis.Keywords: acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, ambroxol, theophylline

  10. Selected topics in radiation dosimetry

    This report describes four topics, three of which ultimately have found much interest among dosimetrists. The first topic is dedicated to lyoluminescence, a dosimetric method developed on the fact, that dissolving of irradiated inorganic or organic solids in a suitable solvent is accompanied by the emission of light, the amount of which is proportional to the radiation energy absorbed within the solids. The method finds so much attention in particular, because it allows to obtain mixtures of organics with solvents, that exhibit very close tissue equivalence over a wide range of photon energies and also is very suited for neutron dosimetry. The second topic is on passive solid state radiation dosimetry or radiation induced thermally activated current effects, which turned out to be a very sensitive dosimetric method and has led to the development of ultra high purity sapphire dosimeters of high reliability. The third topic concerns the calibration of ionization chambers in units of absorbed dose, avoiding the transformation of the results of exposure measurements into absorbed dose data by utilizing conversion factors. Ionization chambers properly calibrated in units of absorbed dose serve much to simplify dose assessment in tissue equivalent material or in living tissue. The forth topic finally deals with the application of miniature TL-dosimeters in the determination of phosphate diffusion in sediments, work, which has been performed at the European Joint Research Center Ispra recently. (orig.)

  11. Topical agents in burn care

    Momčilović Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Understanding of fluid shifts and recognition of the importance of early and appropriate fluid replacement therapy have significantly reduced mortality in the early post burn period. After the bum patient successfully passes the resuscitation period, the burn wound represents the greatest threat to survival. History Since the dawn of civilization, man has been trying to find an agent which would help burn wounds heal, and at the same time, not harm general condition of the injured. It was not until the XX century, after the discovery of antibiotics, when this condition was fulfilled. In 1968, combining silver and sulfadiazine, fox made silver-sulfadiazine, which is a 1% hydro-soluble cream and a superior agent in topical treatment of burns today. Current topical agents None of the topical antimicrobial agents available today, alone or combined, have the characteristics of ideal prophylactic agents, but they eliminate colonization of burn wound, and invasive infections are infrequent. With an excellent spectrum of activity, low toxicity, and ease of application with minimal pain, silver-sulfadiazine is still the most frequently used topical agent. Conclusion The incidence of invasive infections and overall mortality have been significantly reduced after introduction of topical burn wound antimicrobial agents into practice. In most burn patients the drug of choice for prophylaxis is silver sulfadiazine. Other agents may be useful in certain clinical situations.

  12. Topical Curcumin-Based Cream Is Equivalent to Dietary Curcumin in a Skin Cancer Model

    Kunal Sonavane; Jeffrey Phillips; Oleksandr Ekshyyan; Tara Moore-Medlin; Jennifer Roberts Gill; Xiaohua Rong; Raghunatha Reddy Lakshmaiah; Fleurette Abreo; Douglas Boudreaux; Clifford, John L.; Cherie-Ann O. Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), the most common cancer in the USA, is a growing problem with the use of tanning booths causing sun-damaged skin. Antiproliferative effects of curcumin were demonstrated in an aggressive skin cancer cell line SRB12-p9 (P < 0.05 compared to control). Topical formulation was as effective as oral curcumin at suppressing tumor growth in a mouse skin cancer model. Curcumin at 15 mg administered by oral, topical, or combined formulation significantly reduced tumor...

  13. Professionally applied topical fluoride: evidence-based clinical recommendations.

    2007-03-01

    With the dramatic increase in the amount of scientific information available about oral health, an evidence-based approach to oral health care and the practice of dentistry is necessary. There is a need to summarize, critique, and disseminate scientific evidence and to translate the evidence into a practical format that is used easily by dentists. The evidence-based clinical recommendations in this report were developed by an expert panel established by the American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs that evaluated the collective body of scientific evidence on the effectiveness of professionally applied topical fluoride for caries prevention. The recommendations are intended to assist dentists in clinical decision making. MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library were searched for systematic reviews and clinical studies of professionally applied topical fluoride-including gel, foam, and varnish-through October 2005. Panelists were selected on the basis of their expertise in the relevant subject matter. The recommendations are stratified by age groups and caries risk and indicate that periodic fluoride treatments should be considered for both children and adults who are at moderate or high risk of developing caries. Included in the clinical recommendations is a summary table that can be used as a chairside resource. The dentist, knowing the patient's health history and vulnerability to oral disease, is in the best position to make treatment decisions in the interest of each patient. These clinical recommendations must be balanced with the practitioner's professional expertise and the individual patient's preferences. PMID:17389574

  14. Topical diclofenac in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee

    Niklas Schuelert

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Niklas Schuelert, Fiona A Russell, Jason J McDougallDepartment of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, CanadaAbstract: Osteoarthritis (OA is a common disease that affects millions of people worldwide. As there is no cure for OA, drug treatment to relieve symptoms is the main form of management. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs such as diclofenac are the most commonly used drugs to treat knee OA pain. Unfortunately, these agents are associated with gastrointestinal and cardiovascular risks, which limit their chronic use. Topical NSAIDs are emerging as a viable alternative for managing OA pain. Because a pharmacologically effective dose can be restricted to the site of pain, there is superfluous systemic absorption, and the risk of related adverse effects is minimized. This article reviews the currently available preclinical and clinical information on topical diclofenac for the treatment of OA pain, including data from recently published randomized controlled trials regarding the efficacy and safety of topical diclofenac. Most studies confirm topical diclofenac to be as effective as oral diclofenac with significantly reduced side effects; however, the efficacy of NSAIDs is far from optimal, and more research needs to be done to investigate the underlying mechanisms of OA in order to improve treatment options, especially for patients with NSAID-resistant OA pain.Keywords: osteoarthritis, topical diclofenac, NSAID, joint pain 

  15. Topical corticosteroid addiction and phobia

    Aparajita Ghosh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroids, one of the most widely prescribed topical drugs, have been used for about six decades till date. However, rampant misuse and abuse down the years has given the drug a bad name. Topical steroid abuse may lead to two major problems which lie at the opposing ends of the psychosomatic spectrum. Topical steroid addiction, a phenomenon that came to be recognized about a decade after the introduction of the molecule is manifested as psychological distress and rebound phenomenon on stoppage of the drug. The rebound phenomenon, which can affect various parts of the body particularly the face and the genitalia has been reported by various names in the literature. TC phobia which lies at the opposite end of the psychiatric spectrum of steroid abuse has been reported particularly among parents of atopic children. Management of both conditions is difficult and frustrating. Psychological counseling and support can be of immense help in both the conditions.

  16. Topical corticosteroid addiction and phobia.

    Ghosh, Aparajita; Sengupta, Sujata; Coondoo, Arijit; Jana, Amlan Kusum

    2014-09-01

    Corticosteroids, one of the most widely prescribed topical drugs, have been used for about six decades till date. However, rampant misuse and abuse down the years has given the drug a bad name. Topical steroid abuse may lead to two major problems which lie at the opposing ends of the psychosomatic spectrum. Topical steroid addiction, a phenomenon that came to be recognized about a decade after the introduction of the molecule is manifested as psychological distress and rebound phenomenon on stoppage of the drug. The rebound phenomenon, which can affect various parts of the body particularly the face and the genitalia has been reported by various names in the literature. TC phobia which lies at the opposite end of the psychiatric spectrum of steroid abuse has been reported particularly among parents of atopic children. Management of both conditions is difficult and frustrating. Psychological counseling and support can be of immense help in both the conditions. PMID:25284851

  17. Quantum mechanics II advanced topics

    Rajasekar, S

    2015-01-01

    Quantum Mechanics II: Advanced Topics uses more than a decade of research and the authors’ own teaching experience to expound on some of the more advanced topics and current research in quantum mechanics. A follow-up to the authors introductory book Quantum Mechanics I: The Fundamentals, this book begins with a chapter on quantum field theory, and goes on to present basic principles, key features, and applications. It outlines recent quantum technologies and phenomena, and introduces growing topics of interest in quantum mechanics. The authors describe promising applications that include ghost imaging, detection of weak amplitude objects, entangled two-photon microscopy, detection of small displacements, lithography, metrology, and teleportation of optical images. They also present worked-out examples and provide numerous problems at the end of each chapter.

  18. Topics in millimeter wave technology

    Button, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Topics in Millimeter Wave Technology, Volume 1 presents topics related to millimeter wave technology, including fin-lines and passive components realized in fin-lines, suspended striplines, suspended substrate microstrips, and modal power exchange in multimode fibers. A miniaturized monopulse assembly constructed in planar waveguide with multimode scalar horn feeds is also described. This volume is comprised of five chapters; the first of which deals with the analysis and synthesis techniques for fin-lines as well as the various passive components realized in fin-line. Tapers, discontinuities,

  19. Selected topics in nuclear structure

    The Fourth International Conference on selected topics in nuclear structure was held at Dubna in July 1994 on recent experimental and theoretical investigations in nuclear structure. Topics discussed were the following: nuclear structure at low-energy excitations (collective quasiparticle phenomena, proton-neutron interactions, microscopic and phenomenological theories of nuclear structure; nuclear structure studies with charged particles. heavy ions, neutrons and photons; nuclei at high angular momenta and superdeformation, structure and decay properties of giant resonances, charge-exchange resonances and β-decay; semiclassical approach of large amplitude collective motion and structure of hot nuclei

  20. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See All Order ... Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents an overview of physical, mental, ...

  1. Oral Cancer Screening

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  2. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See All Order Publications English and Spanish brochures available ...

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    Full Text Available ... Trials What Are Clinical Trials? About Clinical Trials Information for Clinical Researchers See All Browse Studies by ... been diagnosed with oral cancer, this brochure includes information on symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, ...

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    ... Support - Advocacy Research... and Hope About About The Foundation About Us Bruce Paltrow Fund Press Releases TV ... Videos & Images OCF YouTube Channel | The Oral Cancer Foundation The Oral Cancer Foundation is a national public ...

  5. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See All Order ... Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents an overview of physical, mental, ...

  6. Children's Oral Health

    ... for Dentistry Success Stories Workbook Conferences Related Organizations Supplement to the Journal of Periodontology Fact Sheets Adult Oral Health Children's Oral Health Engineering & Operations Infection Control School-Based ...

  7. Disparities in Oral Health

    ... for Dentistry Success Stories Workbook Conferences Related Organizations Supplement to the Journal of Periodontology Fact Sheets Adult Oral Health Children's Oral Health Engineering & Operations Infection Control School-Based ...

  8. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See ... this brochure includes information on symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected ...

  9. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... Programs (Extramural Research) NIDCR Laboratories (Intramural Research) Science News in Brief Study Takes First Comprehensive Look at ... detection and treatment of oral cancers. Note: For materials specific to African American men, please see: Oral ...

  10. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... Deadlines Grant Application Forms Application Receipt Dates Electronic Submission of Applications Grants 101 (How to Write a ... the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, signs and symptoms of oral cancer, and ...

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  12. Chronic Actinic Dermatitis with Leonine Facies and Iatrogenic Adrenal Insufficiency Successfully Treated with Topical Tacrolimus

    Busaracome, Ploysyne; Wattanakrai, Penpun; Rajatanavin, Natta

    2011-01-01

    Chronic actinic dermatitis is a chronic photosensitivity disorder characterized by severe eczematous lesions on sun-exposed skin areas. We report a case of chronic actinic dermatitis presenting with leonine facies and secondary adrenal insufficiency, which was successfully treated with topical tacrolimus. The facial lesions dramatically improved after sun avoidance and topical tacrolimus application. After almost 20 years of oral corticosteroid therapy complicated with secondary adrenal insuf...

  13. Essentials of oral cancer

    RIVERA, CÉSAR

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experi...

  14. Oral English Learning Strategies

    Xiaoxue Yu

    2013-01-01

    This thesis is concerned about the strategies of learning oral English. In the thesis, I introduce many strategies to help students to improve their oral English. Some of these strategies can directly influence their effectiveness of learning oral English such as cognitive strategies, but some do not have directly influence on oral English. The theory of individual differences is still another important one foe choosing effective strategies, which includes age, gender, learning style preferen...

  15. Chrysomya Bezziana Oral Myiasis

    Vijay Kumar, G. S.; G S Sowmya; Shivananda, S

    2011-01-01

    Myiasis is an opportunistic infestation of human and vertebrate animals with dipterous larvae. Oral myiasis is a rare condition associated with poor oral hygiene, mental disability, halitosis and other conditions. We present a case report of an adult mentally challenged woman with extensive necrotic oral lesion burrowing into the hard palate through which three live maggots (larvae) were seen emerging out. The larvae were removed using forceps and the patient was treated with oral ivermectin....

  16. [Bitterness of the mixture of clarithromycin dry syrup and carbocisteine preparation--difference between brand name and generic drugs].

    Matsuo, Ritsuko; Tanaka, Syouko; Kanou, Michiko; Isono, Kimiko; Tanaka, Yasuha; Taura, Tomoko; Asada, Yuki; Akamine, Yukiko; Sawai, Hashimu; Kinosita, Masakazu; Sudou, Tomomi; Kunoki, Yoshiko; Miki, Akiko; Hori, Satoko; Satoh, Hiroki; Ohtani, Hisakazu; Sawada, Yasufumi

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the bitterness intensity and pH of the solutions of clarithromycin dry syrup (CAM-DS), carbocisteine preparation (CC), and the concomitant use of both drugs. We conducted 6 types of human gustatory sensation tests with 6 healthy male volunteers. As a result, there was almost no difference in the bitterness intensity of CAM-DS between the branded (the latest and former preparations) and the generic formulations. The bitterness intensity of CAM-DS (the latest and former preparations of the branded as well as the generic formulations) was almost equally enhanced by mixing it with either the branded CC-DS or the branded and the generic carbocisteine granule (CC-Gr). On this occasion, the enhancing the bitterness of the branded CAM-DS (latest and former preparation) was nearly avoided safely by dosage form's changing CC-DS or CC-Gr to the branded CC-Sy. However, unlike the branded CC-Sy, some generic CC-Sy failed to suppress the bitterness. Furthermore, it was proven that some generic CAM-DS were shown to exhibit bitterness when mixed with even branded CC-Sy. In conclusion, it should be noted that the extent of bitterness of the mixture of CAM-DS and CC highly varies among the generic formulations. PMID:18311069

  17. Two novel compound heterozygous mutations in the BCKDHB gene that cause the intermittent form of maple syrup urine disease.

    Guo, Yi; Liming, Liu; Jiang, Li

    2015-12-01

    Intermittent maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a potentially life-threatening metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of branched chain ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKD) complex. In contrast to classic MSUD, children with the intermittent form usually have an atypical clinical manifestation. Here, we describe the presenting symptoms and clinical course of a Chinese boy with intermittent MSUD. Mutation analysis identified two previously unreported mutations in exon 7 of the BCKDHB gene: c.767A?>?G (p.Y256C) and c.768C?>?G (p.Y256X); the parents were each heterozygous for one of these mutations. In silico analysis predicted Y256C probably affects protein structure; Y256X leads to a premature stop codon. This case demonstrates intermittent MSUD should be suspected in cases with symptoms of recurrent encephalopathy, especially ataxia or marked drowsiness, which usually present after the neonatal period and in conjunction with infection. symmetrical basal ganglia damage but normal myelination in the posterior limb will assist differential diagnosis; alloisoleucine is a useful diagnostic marker and mutation analysis may be of prognostic value. These novel mutations Y256C and Y256X result in the clinical manifestation of a variant form of MSUD, expanding the mutation spectrum of this disease. PMID:26239723

  18. Mass spectrometric detection and formation of D-amino acids in processed plant saps, syrups, and fruit juice concentrates.

    Pätzold, Ralf; Brückner, Hans

    2005-12-14

    Liquid and syrupy dietary saps and juices of plant origin, characterized by the presence of large quantities of saccharides (glucose, fructose, or sucrose) and containing amino acids, were analyzed for the presence of D-amino acids using enantioselective gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. D-amino acids were detected in processed saps and juices of trees (maple, palm, birch), fruits (grape, apple, pear, pomegranate, date), and various other plants (agave, beetroot, sugar cane, carob). D-Ala was detected in all plant products and amounted to approximately 34% D-Ala (relative to L-Ala + D-Ala) in Canadian maple syrups, to approximately 13% in palm saps, and to 48 and 13% D-Ala, respectively, in concentrated grape juices (Spanish Arrope and Turkish Pekmez). Varying amounts and kinds of other D-amino acids were also detected. To test the hypothesis that racemization, that is, partial conversion of L-amino acids into their corresponding D-enantiomers, occurs at reversible stages of the Maillard reaction, the Amadori compound fructose-L-phenylalanine was synthesized. On heating at 200 degrees C for 5 (20) min, release of 10.8% (24.2%) D-Phe was detected. From the data it is concluded that the Amadori compounds formed in the course of the Maillard reaction are pecursors of D-amino acids in foodstuffs. PMID:16332121

  19. A Validated RP HPLC-PAD Method for the Determination of Hederacoside C in Ivy-Thyme Cough Syrup

    Ayman Khdair

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC method coupled with a photodiode array detector (PAD has been developed and validated for the analysis of hederacoside C, the marker of ivy plant, in Ivy-Thyme cough syrup. Separation of hederacoside C was achieved using a Phenomenex-Gemini C18 column isothermally at 40°C. A mobile phase system constituted of solvent A (water: acetonitrile: orthophosphoric acid (85%, 860 : 140 : 2 v/v and solvent B (acetonitrile: orthophosphoric acid (85%, 998 : 2 v/v was used, at gradient conditions, at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. Analysis was performed using UV-detection (205 nm. The method was linear over the range (0.03–0.15 mg/mL of hederacoside C (r=0.9992. Repeatability and intermediate precision were acceptable (RSD <2%. Limits of detection (LOD and quantitation (LOQ were 0.011 and 0.032 mg/mL, respectively. Percentage recovery was found to lie between 99.69% and 100.90% (RSD <2%. The method was also proved to be specific (peak-purity coefficient=0.996.

  20. SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF CHLORPHINERAMINE MALEATE, DEXTROMETHORPHAN HBR AND PHENYLEPHRIN HCL IN CODILAR SYRUP USING HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY

    Nora H. Al-Shaalan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A simple, selective, sensitive and precise, simultaneous high performance liquid chromatographic analysis of syrup containing Chlorphineramine Maleate, Dextromethorphan HBr and Phenylephrin HCl was described. Good chromatographic separation was achieved using a Zorbax C18 (4.6 cm x 250 mm, 5 µm and a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile-phosphate buffer pH 3.5 (15:85, v/v at a flow rate 0.9 mL/min. The ultraviolet detector was set at wavelength 280 nm. Chlorphineramine Maleate, dextromethorphan HBr and Phenylephrin HCl were measured at 2.789, 3.645 and 13.521 min, respectively. The linear ranges for chlorphineramine maleate, dextromethorphan HBr and phenylephrin HCl were 10-50, 10-50 and 5-45 µg/mL, respectively. The recoveries of chlorphineramine maleate, dextromethorphan HBr and phenylephrin HCl in pharmaceutical preparation were all greater than 98% and their relative standard deviations were less than 2.0%. The limits of detection were 2.57, 0.19 and 0.003 µg/mL for Chlorphineramine Maleate, Dextromethorphan HBr and Phenylephrin HCl, respectively.

  1. A Validated RP HPLC-PAD Method for the Determination of Hederacoside C in Ivy-Thyme Cough Syrup.

    Khdair, Ayman; Mohammad, Mohammad K; Tawaha, Khaled; Al-Hamarsheh, Eman; Alkhatib, Hatim S; Al-Khalidi, Bashar; Bustanji, Yasser; Najjar, Samer; Hudaib, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    A simple reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method coupled with a photodiode array detector (PAD) has been developed and validated for the analysis of hederacoside C, the marker of ivy plant, in Ivy-Thyme cough syrup. Separation of hederacoside C was achieved using a Phenomenex-Gemini C18 column isothermally at 40°C. A mobile phase system constituted of solvent A (water: acetonitrile: orthophosphoric acid (85%), 860 : 140 : 2 v/v) and solvent B (acetonitrile: orthophosphoric acid (85%), 998 : 2 v/v) was used, at gradient conditions, at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. Analysis was performed using UV-detection (205 nm). The method was linear over the range (0.03-0.15) mg/mL of hederacoside C (r = 0.9992). Repeatability and intermediate precision were acceptable (RSD <2%). Limits of detection (LOD) and quantitation (LOQ) were 0.011 and 0.032 mg/mL, respectively. Percentage recovery was found to lie between 99.69% and 100.90% (RSD <2%). The method was also proved to be specific (peak-purity coefficient = 0.996). PMID:20862201

  2. Formation of hydroxymethylfurfural in domestic high-fructose corn syrup and its toxicity to the honey bee (Apis mellifera).

    LeBlanc, Blaise W; Eggleston, Gillian; Sammataro, Diana; Cornett, Charles; Dufault, Renee; Deeby, Thomas; St Cyr, Eldwin

    2009-08-26

    In the United States, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has become a sucrose replacement for honey bees and has widespread use as a sweetener in many processed foods and beverages for human consumption. It is utilized by commercial beekeepers as a food for honey bees for several reasons: to promote brood production, after bees have been moved for commercial pollination, and when field-gathered nectar sources are scarce. Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is a heat-formed contaminant and is the most noted toxin to honey bees. Currently, there are no rapid field tests that would alert beekeepers of dangerous levels of HMF in HFCS or honey. In this study, the initial levels and the rates of formation of HMF at four temperatures were evaluated in U.S.-available HFCS samples. Different HFCS brands were analyzed and compared for acidity and metal ions by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Levels of HMF in eight HFCS products were evaluated over 35 days, and the data were fit to polynomial and exponential equations, with excellent correlations. The data can be used by beekeepers to predict HMF formation on storage. Caged bee studies were conducted to evaluate the HMF dose-response effect on bee mortality. Finally, commercial bases such as lime, potash, and caustic soda were added to neutralize hydronium ion in HMF samples, and the rates of HMF formation were compared at 45 degrees C. PMID:19645504

  3. Neonatal screening in Italy for congenital hypothyroidism and metabolic disorders: hyperphenylalaninemia, maple syrup urine disease and homocystinuria.

    Antonozzi, I; Dominici, R; Andreoli, M; Monaco, F

    1980-01-01

    A multiple screening program to establish the frequency of congenital hypothyroidism (CH), phenylketonuria (PKU), maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), homocystinuria and hypertyrosinemia in endemic and sporadic goitrous regions of Italy is being carried out. Valine, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, tyrosine and phenylalanine, eluted from a single spot and separated by column chromatography, are measured, using whole blood adsorbed on filter paper. CH is detected by RIA assay of TSH eluted from dried blood spot. A cut-off of 100 microU/ml for TSH is used providing a recall rate of 0.38%. Out of 116,000 newborn infants screened for aminoacidopathies (since 1974), 16 PKU patients, 3 affected by MSUD, 2 homocystinuric babies have been detected. Out of 25,400 newborn infants screened for CH, 5 patients were affected by permanent CH and 29 by transient hyperthyrotropinemia. Thus PKU shows a frequency of 1:7,200 newborn infants, and permanent congenital hypothyroidism 1:5,080. The coordination of screening programs for congenital metabolic diseases in a single central unit allows:--the unification of the input of samples and output of data in a single data bank;--a minimization of the physical and psychological stress to the patients and their families;--and a more satisfactory cost/benefit ratio. PMID:7204885

  4. Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD): a case with long-term follow-up after liver transplantation.

    McLaughlin, Paula M; Hinshaw, Jessica; Stringer, Anthony Y

    2013-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare hereditary metabolic condition where the body is unable to breakdown amino acids causing toxic buildup. Acute and long-term management of MSUD involves a restricted diet and regular monitoring of amino acid levels; however, more recently liver transplants have been shown to be successful in treating this condition. Even with successful management of MSUD there is evidence from pediatric cases that shows a distinct pattern of neurocognitive deficits associated with this condition, including impaired nonverbal skills and psychomotor functioning with relatively intact verbal abilities. In the present paper, we report an adult case of MSUD with associated neurocognitive deficits and functional limitations following liver transplantation. Neuroimaging revealed no structural abnormalities, while the results from the neuropsychological evaluation showed impairment in visual-spatial processing, attention, executive functioning, and psychomotor abilities, with relative strengths in verbal skills. The patient also showed reduced adaptive functioning and mild anxiety. This case demonstrates neurocognitive deficiencies within the context of normal magnetic resonance imaging. The possible underlying mechanism of this neuropsychological profile is discussed in relation to other neurodevelopmental models. PMID:23829516

  5. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral ... E-mail commonUtilitiesRightboxRadEditor commonRightboxRadEditor Connect: Subscribe Twitter LinkedIn YouTube RSS Share: Facebook Twitter Linked-In Google E- ...

  6. Oral Thrush (For Parents)

    ... Size What's in this article? About Oral Thrush Symptoms Prevention Treatment en español Candidiasis bucal About Oral Thrush Oral thrush is a ... rash and vaginal (yeast) infections. Candida overgrowth (or candidiasis ) can happen after a baby has ... thrush can affect anyone, although it's most ...

  7. Oral Melanotic Macule

    ... typical brown oral melanotic macule, a flat, small lesion. Overview Oral melanotic macule is a non-cancerous (benign), dark ... the lips or inside the mouth are benign oral melanotic macules. Usually, your doctor will observe the lesion by measuring it, by taking a photograph of ...

  8. Topics in Mitigating Radar Bias

    Serakos, Demetrios; Youssef, Hazim

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate two topics related to mitigating the effect of radar bias in ballistic missile tracking applications. We determine the absolute bias between two radars in polar coordinates when their relative bias is given in rectangular coordinates. Using this result, we then obtain the optimized steady-state filter to handle the random bias.

  9. Selected topics in nuclear structure

    19. winter school in Zakopane was devoted to selected topics in nuclear structure such as: production of spin resonances, heavy ions reactions and their applications to the investigation of high spin states, octupole deformations, excited states and production of new elements etc. The experimental data are ofen compared with theoretical predictions. Report contains 28 papers. (M.F.W.)

  10. Psoriasis: consensus on topical therapies

    van de Kerkhof, P C M; Barker, J; Griffiths, C E M; Kragballe, K; Mason, J; Menter, A; Papp, K

    2008-01-01

    Objective A consensus conference was convened to evaluate the topical treatment of psoriasis. Participants Members of the International Psoriasis Council (IPC) with broad clinical experience in the treatment of psoriasis and a specialist in meta- and pharmacoeconomic analyses were invited to...

  11. Two topics in quantum chromodynamics

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1989-12-01

    The two topics are (1) estimates of perturbation theory coefficients for R(e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} hadrons), and (2) the virtual-photon structure function, with emphasis on the analytic behavior in its squared mass. 20 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Topics in optics and music

    Sparks, Andrew W.

    2012-10-01

    While the use of optics in the playback of music has been a tremendously successful technology and laser light shows are a common occurrence, other intersections of optics and music tend to be less well known. Topics such as optics-based instruments, performance tools and effects, instrument characterization and manufacturing, recording, playback, and signal processing are explored.

  13. Two topics in quantum chromodynamics

    The two topics are (1) estimates of perturbation theory coefficients for R(e+e- → hadrons), and (2) the virtual-photon structure function, with emphasis on the analytic behavior in its squared mass. 20 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Seven topics in perturbative QCD

    The following topics of perturbative QCD are discussed: (1) deep inelastic scattering; (2) higher order corrections to e+e- annihilation, to photon structure functions and to quarkonia decays; (3) higher order corrections to fragmentation functions and to various semi-inclusive processes; (4) higher twist contributions; (5) exclusive processes; (6) transverse momentum effects; (7) jet and photon physics

  15. Topics on Galactic Chemical Evolution

    Prantzos, Nikos

    2011-01-01

    I discuss three different topics in Galactic chemical evolution:the "puzzling" absence of any observational signature of secondary elements ; the building of the Galactic halo in the framework of hierarchical galaxy formation, as evidenced from its metallicity distribution ; and the potentially important role that radial migration may play in the evolution of galactic disks, according to recent studies.

  16. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the treatment of pain due to soft tissue injury: diclofenac epolamine topical patch.

    Lionberger, David R; Brennan, Michael J

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this article is to review published clinical data on diclofenac epolamine topical patch 1.3% (DETP) in the treatment of acute soft tissue injuries, such as strains, sprains, and contusions. Review of published literature on topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), diclofenac, and DETP in patients with acute soft tissue injuries was included. Relevant literature was identified on MEDLINE using the search terms topical NSAIDs, diclofenac, diclofenac epolamine, acute pain, sports injury, soft tissue injury, strain, sprain, and contusion, and from citations in retrieved articles covering the years 1978-2008. Review of published, randomized clinical trials and meta-analyses shows that topical NSAIDs are significantly more effective than placebo in relieving acute pain; the pooled average relative benefit was 1.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.5-1.9). In a limited number of comparisons, topical and oral NSAIDs provided comparable pain relief, but the use of topical agents produced lower plasma drug concentrations and fewer systemic adverse events (AEs). The physical-chemical properties of diclofenac epolamine make it well suited for topical use. In patients with acute soft tissue injuries treated with DETP, clinical data report an analgesic benefit within hours of the first application, and significant pain relief relative to placebo within 3 days. Moreover, DETP displayed tolerability comparable with placebo; the most common AEs were pruritus and other application site reactions. Review of published literature suggests that DETP is generally safe and well tolerated, clinically efficacious, and a rational treatment option for patients experiencing acute pain associated with strains, sprains, and contusions, and other localized painful conditions. PMID:21197326

  17. Oral Health and Swallowing Problems

    Furuta, Michiko; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2013-01-01

    Oral health impacts systemic health. Therefore, oral care is an important consideration in maintaining quality of life (QOL). Previously, maintenance and improvement of oral hygiene was considered essential for achieving oral health. In addition to oral hygiene, oral care in terms of oral function is now considered to maintain QOL. Ingestion of exogenous nutrients via the oral cavity is fundamental to the function of all higher animals, not only human beings. Chewing and swallowing processes ...

  18. Ocular changes with oral and transepidermal diethylcarbamazine therapy of onchocerciasis.

    Taylor, H.R.; Greene, B. M.

    1981-01-01

    Twenty men with moderate infection of Onchocerca volvulus were studied in a double-masked, controlled clinical trial to compare the safety and efficacy of oral diethylcarbamazine (DEC) with topical DEC lotion. Visual acuity and colour vision did not alter during the 6 months of observation, although 2 patients receiving DEC lotion and 3 patients receiving oral DEC developed either visual field constriction or optic atrophy. Fluffy corneal opacities were common in both groups. Intraocular micr...

  19. Oral Antibiotics in Acne Vulgaris: Therapeutic Response Over 5 Years

    ROSHIDAH B; Priya, G; ADAWIYAH J

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Antibiotic resistant P. acnes have influenced acne therapy worldwide resulting in increased use of topicaland systemic retinoids. Judicious use of oral antibiotic is important for effective therapeutic outcome. Objectives: To determine the response and side effects of oral antibiotic treatment in acne vulgaris. To determine the typeof antibiotic used, therapy duration and the types of concomitant topical therapy. Methods: Retrospective analysis of the therapeutic response to ora...

  20. Dose-dependent pharmacokinetics and teratogenic activity of topical retinoids

    Oral retinoid treatment can be teratogenic and topical applications are used to treat acne and smooth wrinkles. A single topical trace (2.5 μg; 191 μCi/kg) or high (1.3 mg; 195 μCi/kg) dose of all-trans-[10, 11-3H2] retinoic acid (RA) dissolved in acetone was applied to 4 cm2 shaved dorsal hamster skin. Peak plasma radioactivity (Cmax) occurred at 12 and 36 hr and mean t1/2 values for parent PA absorption were 48 min and 2.8 hr, for trace and high dose, respectively. The dermal RA Cmax values were only 2% of that after an equivalent oral dose, but plasma AUC after dermal treatment was 63% of the oral value. The mean t1/2 for rapid elimination was shorter for the high (57 min) than for the trace (6.9 hr) dose, but t1/2 values for slow elimination were comparable (t1/2 high = 51.2 hr; t1/2 trace = 36.8 hr). Single topical application of 10-30 mg/kg RA or 5 mg/kg etretinate (Ro 10-9359) to pregnant hamsters (day 8) caused local hyperkeratosis, but failed to induce terata. Similar application of 10-1000 μg/kg arotinoid Ro 13-6298 caused dose-dependent terata, being twice as embryolethal by parenteral as enteric dosing. Skin toxicity and attenuated maternal blood levels limit the amount of retinoids that can reach the embryo

  1. Essentials of oral cancer

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experimental methods for its study, therapies and future challenges. Oral cancer is a preventable disease, risk factors and natural history is already being known, where biomedical sciences and dentistry in particular are likely to improve their poor clinical indicators. PMID:26617944

  2. Oral contraceptives induced hepatotoxicity

    B. Akshaya Srikanth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Oral Contraceptives are the pharmacological agents used to prevent pregnancy. These are divided as the combined and progestogen methods and are administered orally, transdermally, systemically and via vaginal route. All these methods contain both oestrogen and progestogen. Vigorous usage of oral contraceptives and anabolic steroids as associated with cholestasis, vascular lesions and hepatic neoplasm. Benign hepatic neoplasms are clearly associated with oral contraceptives. In this article we discuss the various hepatocellular complications like cholestasis, benign neoplasm and hepatocellular carcinoma occurred by oral contraceptives. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(1.000: 91-93

  3. Topical capsaicin formulations in the management of neuropathic pain.

    Schumacher, Mark; Pasvankas, George

    2014-01-01

    This chapter reviews the scientific and clinical evidence supporting the use of topical formulations containing the pungent principle of chili peppers--capsaicin, for the treatment of peripheral neuropathic pain. Given the limitations of current oral and parenteral therapies for the management of pain arising from various forms of nerve injury, alternate therapeutic approaches that are not associated with systemic adverse events that limit quality of life, impair function, or threaten respiratory depression are critically needed. Moreover, neuropathic conditions can be complicated by progressive changes in the central and peripheral nervous system, leading to persistent reorganization of pain pathways and chronic neuropathic pain. Recent advances in the use of high-dose topical capsaicin preparations hold promise in managing a wide range of painful conditions associated with peripheral neuropathies and may in fact help reduce suffering by reversing progressive changes in the nervous system associated with chronic neuropathic pain conditions. PMID:24941666

  4. Topical formulations of serratiopeptidase: Development and pharmacodynamic evaluation

    Nirale N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Serratiopeptidase, an enzyme derived from Serratia marcescences strain E-15 (ATCC 21074, present in the gut wall of the silk worm possesses anti-inflammatory properties, and can prove to be a suitable alternative to commonly used non steroidal antiinflammatory agents. Being sensitive to gastric degradation, serratiopeptidase is conventionally given orally in the form of enteric coated tablet formulations. Topical formulations of serratiopeptidase would be useful to treat local inflammations and may prove to be more effective compared to non steroidal antiinflammatory agents. The present study investigates the feasibility of developing topical preparations of serratiopeptidase in the form of ointments and gels. Excipient compatibility of serratiopeptidase with various excipients and polymers, formulation development, characterization and stability studies have been carried out. Stable formulation was evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity by oxazolone induced ear edema method in mice and allergenic potential by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis.

  5. Naratriptan hydrochloride in extemporaneosly compounded oral suspensions.

    Zhang, Y P; Trissel, L A; Fox, J L

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmaceutical acceptability and chemical stability of naratriptan hydrochloride in three extemporaneously compounded suspension formulations. The naratriptan-hydrochloride oral suspensions were prepared from 2.5-mg commercial tablets yielding a nominal naratriptan concentration of 0.5 mg/mL. The suspension vehicles selected for testing were Syrpalta, an equal-parts mixture of Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet, and an equal-parts mixture of Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet SF. The tablets were crushed and thoroughly triturated to a fine powder using a porcelain mortar and pestle. The powder was incorporated into a portion of the Syrpalta or Ora-Plus suspension vehicle and mixed until homogeneous. The mixtures were then brought to volume with Syrpalta, Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF, as appropriate. The suspensions were packaged in amber, plastic, screw-cap prescription bottles and stored at 23 deg C for seven days and 4 deg C for 90 days. An adequate suspension was never achieved in Syrpalta. The crushed-tablet powder did not produce a uniformly dispersed mixture and exhibited clumping and a high rate of sedimentation. A distinct layer of the solid tablet material settled immediately after shaking. Over the next four hours, a densely packed, yellow, caked layer formed at the bottom of the containers, making resuspension difficult. During storage, the caking became worse. Chemical analysis was not performed. The Ora-Plus and Ora-Sweet or Ora-Sweet SF suspensions had a slight greenish cast and were resuspended without difficulty by shaking for approximately ten seconds, yielding easily poured and homogeneous mixtures throughout the study. Visible settling and layering did not begin for four hours with the Ora-Sweet suspension and 24 hours for the Ora-Sweet SF suspension. High pressure liquid chromatographic analysis found that the naratriptan concentration in both suspension-vehicle combinations exhibited little or no loss for seven days at 23 deg C and 90 days at 4 deg C. At least 96% of the inital concentration remained at all time points. Naratriptan hydrochloride extemporaneously prepared as oral suspensions from tablets in equal-parts mixtures of Ora-Plus suspension vehicle with Ora-Sweet and with Ora-Sweet SF syrups was pharmaceutically acceptable and chemically stable for at least seven days at 23 deg C and 90 days at 4 deg C. Syrpalta was unacceptable for use as a vehicle for naratriptan hydrochloride suspensions prepared from tablets. PMID:23985892

  6. Ethical use of topical corticosteroids

    Abir Saraswat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatologists rely very heavily on corticosteroids for treating many common dermatoses. Concerns about their incorrect use are widely expressed both in lay public and specialist discourse. From the point of view of medical ethics, issues of autonomy, beneficence and non-maleficence are all raised frequently when we prescribe topical corticosteroids to our patients. We need to be aware of situations when conflicts between these issues arise and have a clear thought process about resolving them. This can only be achieved if we have a thorough understanding of the skin disease being treated coupled with expertise in the use of the varied potencies and available dosage forms of topical corticosteroids. A good understanding of human psychology and effective communication is also needed to use these agents optimally.

  7. Retapamulin: A newer topical antibiotic

    D Dhingra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Impetigo is a common childhood skin infection. There are reports of increasing drug resistance to the currently used topical antibiotics including fusidic acid and mupirocin. Retapamulin is a newer topical agent of pleuromutilin class approved by the Food and Drug Administration for treatment of impetigo in children and has been recently made available in the Indian market. It has been demonstrated to have low potential for the development of antibacterial resistance and a high degree of potency against poly drug resistant Gram-positive bacteria found in skin infections including Staphylococcus aureus strains. The drug is safe owing to low systemic absorption and has only minimal side-effect of local irritation at the site of application.

  8. Topics on electricity transmission pricing

    Bjørndal, Mette

    2000-01-01

    The efficiency of the power market is heavily affected by the operation and pricing of the transmission system and the topic of this thesis concerns the interaction of the transmission network and the energy markets. After describing different power flow models, we provide an overview of models developed to efficiently coordinate the allocation of transmission resources. The focus is mainly on short-term efficiency, and the survey is only partial, but provides an integrated overview of some o...

  9. Hot topics from the Tevatron

    Glenzinski, D.; /Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    The Tevatron Run-II began in March 2001. To date, both the CDF and D0 experiments have collected 1 fb{sup -1} of data each. The results obtained from this data set were summarized at this conference in 39 parallel session presentations covering a wide range of topics. The author summarizes the most important of those results here and comments on some of the prospects for the future.

  10. Topical Immunotherapy in Alopecia Areata

    Singh, Gurcharan; Lavanya, MS

    2010-01-01

    Alopecia Areata (AA) is a common non-scarring alopecia directed against the anagenic hair follicle. Various treatment modalities have been used for the treatment of severe AA. Topical immunotherapy is the best documented treatment so far for severe and refractory AA. Dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB), squaric acid dibutylester (SADBE), and diphencyprone (DPCP) are the contact allergens used for this purpose. DNCB has been found to be mutagenic by the Ames test and is largely replaced by DPCP and SA...

  11. Probabilistic analysis and related topics

    Bharucha-Reid, A T

    1983-01-01

    Probabilistic Analysis and Related Topics, Volume 3 focuses on the continuity, integrability, and differentiability of random functions, including operator theory, measure theory, and functional and numerical analysis. The selection first offers information on the qualitative theory of stochastic systems and Langevin equations with multiplicative noise. Discussions focus on phase-space evolution via direct integration, phase-space evolution, linear and nonlinear systems, linearization, and generalizations. The text then ponders on the stability theory of stochastic difference systems and Marko

  12. Topics in Local Economic Development

    Bubbico, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This thesis contributes to the current debate in literature about local economic development by considering two different topics: quality of institutions, and the role of clusters in innovation and productivity growth. The research is built upon three papers. The first paper deals with the analysis of the effect of administrative continuity on administrative efficiency. The analysis underlines the importance of different typologies of social capital. Findings reveal a positive impact on ...

  13. Stochastic Analysis and Related Topics

    Ustunel, Ali

    1988-01-01

    The Silvri Workshop was divided into a short summer school and a working conference, producing lectures and research papers on recent developments in stochastic analysis on Wiener space. The topics treated in the lectures relate to the Malliavin calculus, the Skorohod integral and nonlinear functionals of white noise. Most of the research papers are applications of these subjects. This volume addresses researchers and graduate students in stochastic processes and theoretical physics.

  14. Preface to Special Topic: Optofluidics

    LIU, AI-QUN

    2010-01-01

    This Special Topic section of Biomicrofluidics is on optofluidics or micro-optofluidic systems (MOFS), a burgeoning technology that aims to manipulate light and fluid at microscale and exploits their interaction to create highly versatile devices and integrated systems. This special issue puts together various contributed articles focusing on optofluidics or MOFS, which help inspire new research ideas and innovation in the microfluidics and nanofluidics community.

  15. Topics in clinical oncology. 15

    The monograph comprising primarily papers on topical subjects of oncology and cancer research, contains also a selection of papers presented at the 2. Congress of the Czechoslovak Society of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Hygiene. Seven papers were selected on behalf of their subject related to clinical oncology. All of them were iputted in INIS; five of them deal with the scintiscanning of the skeleton of cancer patients, one with radioimmunodetection of tumors, and one with radionuclide lymphography. (A.K.)

  16. Oral Health Education: 'delivering Better Oral Health’

    Shitanshu Malhotra; Anuradha P

    2013-01-01

    Abstract:Health is regarded by World Health Organization (WHO) as a fundamental human right, and correspondingly, all people should have access to basic resources for health. Health education is a process of transmission of knowledge and skills necessary for improvement in quality of life. Oral health education, an important part of oral health promotion, has been considered as essential & basic part of dental health services. The goal is to improve knowledge, which may lead to the adoption o...

  17. LIQUID CRYSTAL AS ACCELERANT IN DRUG ABSORPTION FROM TOPICAL FORMULATIONS

    Trivedi Nirali

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Topical drug delivery has been one of the major research fields in the area of drug therapy for last few decades. However inspite of its large therapeutic potential market success has been limited. It provides the several advantages over the oral drug delivery. Percutaneous absorption involves the passage of the drug molecule from the skin surface into the stratum corneum under the influence of a concentration gradient and its subsequent diffusion through the stratum corneum and underlying epidermis, through the dermis, and into the blood circulation. Liquid crystal phase has emerged as a novel material for preparation of topical drug delivery systems. It fulfills the requirements for making drug loading and drug absorption faster from the site of application of topical formulations. Liquid crystal has got many phases in itself which can be further exploited to get a better and more efficient drug delivery system. Also a variety of areas in medical and electronics streamline can find its application. There is also a wide scope in respect to the methods by which these liquid crystals can be prepared. Different methods give rise to different kinds of liquid crystals. Topical formulations have emerged as a very useful drug delivery system as it bypasses the first pass metabolism. Also the absorption of drugs depends on the percutaneous absorption of drug from the area of application. Hence it’s required to choose such a vehicle which enhances the absorption of drug from the formulation.

  18. Oral Health Education: 'delivering Better Oral Health’

    Shitanshu Malhotra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:Health is regarded by World Health Organization (WHO as a fundamental human right, and correspondingly, all people should have access to basic resources for health. Health education is a process of transmission of knowledge and skills necessary for improvement in quality of life. Oral health education, an important part of oral health promotion, has been considered as essential & basic part of dental health services. The goal is to improve knowledge, which may lead to the adoption of favourable oral health behaviours that contribute to better oral health. This was the fundamental and seminal concept that shaped various dental health programmes in the initial stages. The initial enthusiasm in oral health education faded because these programmes failed to produce successful long term outcomes. Need to make health education more effective, interesting and appealing to the recipients was recognized. Oral health education can be planned for the community at large or high risk group based on the resources available. Priority should be given to expectant mothers, preschool and school going children, physically and mentally challenged and the elderly

  19. Composition for the treatment of radiation sickness and topical bacterial infections

    A therapeutic composition for the theatment of radiation sickness comprises a carrier medium including one or more antibodies specific to gram negative bacteria chosen from the group Klebsiella, Pseudomoneas, Shigella, Salmonella and Escherichia species is discussed. The composition may by formed for oral administration or topical application

  20. Approximal plaque pH following topical applications of standard buffers in vivo

    Bælum, Vibeke; Fejerskov, Ole; Küseler, Annelise

    1994-01-01

    In this study, the null hypothesis was tested that topical application of standard buffer solutions, pH 7.00 and pH 4.01, to 4-day-old plaque deposits accumulated in situ causes the plaque to attain the pH values of the buffer solutions applied. Following a 4-day abstention from all oral hygiene ...