WorldWideScience

Sample records for topical oral syrup

  1. Xylitol pediatric topical oral syrup to prevent dental caries: a double blind, randomized clinical trial of efficacy

    Milgrom, Peter; Ly, Kiet A.; Tut, Ohnmar K.; Mancl, Lloyd; Roberts, Marilyn C.; Briand, Kennar; Gancio, Mary Jane

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a xylitol pediatric topical oral syrup to reduce the incidence of dental caries of very young children. Design Randomized, double-blinded, controlled trial. Setting Communities in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Participants 108 children aged 9 to 15 months were screened and 100 were enrolled. Intervention Children were randomized and parents administered topical oral xylitol syrup two times (Xyl-2X, two xylitol 4.00 g/dose + one sorbitol dose) or three times (Xyl-3X, three xylitol 2.67 g/dose) per day (total 8 g) or control (one xylitol 2.67 g/dose + two sorbitol dose). Outcome Measures The outcome end-point of the study was the number of decayed primary teeth. Results Ninety-four of 100 children (mean±SD age, 15.0±2.7 months at randomization) with at least one follow-up exam were included in the intent-to-treat analysis. The mean±SD follow-up period was 10.5±2.2 months. Nearly 52% of children in the control condition had tooth decay compared to 40.6% among Xyl-3X and 24.2% among Xyl-2X conditions. The mean±SD number of decayed teeth was 1.9±2.4 for control, 1.0±1.4 for Xyl-3X, and 0.6±1.1 for Xyl-2X condition. Compared to controls, there was significantly fewer decayed teeth in the Xyl-2X (relative risk [RR], 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.13, 0.66; P=.003) and Xyl-3X (RR, 0.50; 95% CI 0.26, 0.96; P=0.037) conditions. There was no statistical difference between the two xylitol treatment conditions (P=0.22). Conclusion Oral xylitol syrup administered topically two or three times each day at a total dose of 8 g was effective in preventing Early Childhood Caries. PMID:19581542

  2. Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups)

    ... Disease Medications > Quick-Relief Medications > Oral Steroids Oral Steroids (Steroid Pills and Syrups) How are steroid pills and ... Want to learn more about steroids? How are steroid pills and syrups used? Steroid pills and syrups ...

  3. Pharmacokinetic properties of intramuscular versus oral syrup paracetamol in Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    Wattanakul, Thanaporn; Teerapong, Pramote; Plewes, Katherine; Newton, Paul N.; Chierakul, Wirongrong; Silamut, Kamolrat; Chotivanich, Kesinee; Ruengweerayut, Ronnatrai; White, Nicholas J.; Arjen M. Dondorp; Tarning, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Background Fever is an inherent symptom of malaria in both adults and children. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is the recommended antipyretic as it is inexpensive, widely available and has a good safety profile, but patients may not be able to take the oral drug reliably. A comparison between the pharmacokinetics of oral syrup and intramuscular paracetamol given to patients with acute falciparum malaria and high body temperature was performed. Methods A randomized, open-label, two-treatment, cro...

  4. Topical and oral therapeutic approach to rosacea.

    Helfrich, Yolanda R; Maier, Lisa M

    2016-06-01

    Rosacea is an inflammatory condition of the skin, primarily affecting the central convexities of the face. Various topical and oral therapeutic approaches exist. Most have been developed to treat the papulopustular subtype of rosacea; however, other approaches can be used to treat the erythematotelangiectatic, ocular, and phymatous subtypes. This review provides a summary of available topical and oral approaches for the treatment of rosacea. PMID:27416312

  5. Topical morphine for oral mucositis in children

    Nielsen, Bettina Nygaard; Aagaard, Gitte; Henneberg, Steen W;

    2012-01-01

    Systemic opioids for painful chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis in children often result in unsatisfactory pain relief and a high frequency of side effects. Opioids applied topically can produce analgesia by binding to opioid receptors on peripheral terminals of sensory neurons. These receptors...

  6. Topical and oral antibiotics for acne vulgaris.

    Del Rosso, James Q

    2016-06-01

    Antibiotics, both oral and topical, have been an integral component of the management of acne vulgaris (AV) for approximately 6 decades. Originally thought to be effective for AV due to their ability to inhibit proliferation of Propionibacterium acnes, it is now believed that at least some antibiotics also exert anti-inflammatory effects that provide additional therapeutic benefit. To add, an increase in strains of P acnes and other exposed bacteria that are less sensitive to antibiotics used to treat AV have emerged, with resistance directly correlated geographically with the magnitude of antibiotic use. Although antibiotics still remain part of the therapeutic armamentarium for AV treatment, current recommendations support the following when used to treat AV: 1) monotherapy use should be avoided; 2) use benzoyl peroxide concomitantly to reduce emergence of resistant P acnes strains; 3) oral antibiotics should be used in combination with a topical regimen for moderate-to-severe inflammatory AV; and 4) use oral antibiotics over a limited duration to achieve control of inflammatory AV with an exit plan in place to discontinue their use as soon as possible. When selecting an oral antibiotic to treat AV, potential adverse effects are important to consider. PMID:27416309

  7. TOPICAL HYALURONIC ACID IN THE MANAGEMENT OF ORAL ULCERS

    Pranav Kapoor; Shabina Sachdeva; Silonie Sachdeva

    2011-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid is a hygroscopic macromolecule formed by the polymerisation of glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine disaccharide. It is a primary component of the extracellular matrix in various body tissues. Ihe use of topical Hyaluronic acid in the treatment of oral ulcers has been recently reported. This article reviews the mechanism of action, indications and efficacy of topical Hyaluronic acid gel in the management of oral ulcers.

  8. Comparison of topical tretinoin and betamethasone in oral lichen planus

    Kar H

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-one patients of oral lichen planus were enrolled in this study and two groups were made. Group 1 consisting of 16 patients who applied topical tretinoin 0.05% and Group 2 comprising of 15 patients who were given topical betamethasone dipropionate 0.05%. The patients applying tretinoin showed statistically significant improvement as compared to patients applying betamethasone.

  9. Critical review of topical management of oral hairy leukoplakia

    Brasileiro, Cláudia B; Abreu, Mauro Henrique NG; Mesquita, Ricardo A.

    2014-01-01

    Oral hairy leukoplakia (OHL) is a disease associated with Epstein-Barr virus and human immunodeficiency virus infections. OHL is usually an asymptomatic lesion, but in some cases treatment is recommended to reestablish the normal characteristics of the tongue, to eliminate pathogenic microorganisms, to improve patient comfort and for cosmetic reasons. Proposed treatments for this condition include surgery, systemic antiviral treatment and topical management. Topical treatment is an inexpensiv...

  10. Cough syrup psychosis.

    Amaladoss, Alfred; O'Brien, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Over-the-counter medications are widely accessible and used. Cough suppressant syrups contain dextromethorphan (DM), which has the potential to be abused, with resultant psychiatric symptoms. This case report describes a young woman presenting with psychotic mania secondary to DM abuse. We also describe the treatment of this toxidrome and include the results of a literature search on this topic. The recognition of cough syrup as an agent of abuse and its toxidrome is important. This will facilitate early diagnostic clarification and promote efficient treatment strategies. PMID:21324299

  11. Topical and Oral Voriconazole in the Treatment of Fungal Keratitis

    Lee, Sang Joon; Lee, Jung Joo; Kim, Shin Dong

    2009-01-01

    We describe two patients with fungal keratitis refractory to standard antifungal therapy whose conditions were managed with voriconazole. The first case is a patient with endophthalmitis and corneal ulcer due to Candida parapsilosis after receiving a corneal transplant. The patient was treated with amphotericin but showed no signs of improvement. Topical voriconazole, oral voriconazole, and intravitreal voriconazole yielded signs of improvement. The second case is a 63-year-old male who under...

  12. 21 CFR 520.452 - Clenbuterol syrup.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clenbuterol syrup. 520.452 Section 520.452 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ORAL DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.452 Clenbuterol syrup....

  13. Comparative efficacy and safety of topical permethrin, topical ivermectin, and oral ivermectin in patients of uncomplicated scabies

    Sunita B Chhaiya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ivermectin has opened a new era in the management of scabies as orally effective drug. However, topical route has been little explored for ivermectin. Aims: To compare the efficacy and safety of topical permethrin, oral ivermectin, and topical ivermectin in the treatment of uncomplicated scabies. Methods: This was an open-label, randomized, comparative, parallel clinical trial conducted in 315 patients, randomly allocated to 3 groups. First group received permethrin 5% cream as single application, second group received tablet ivermectin 200 mcg/kg as single dose, and third group received ivermectin 1% lotion as single application. All the patients received anti-histaminic for pruritus. The patients were followed up at intervals of 1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. If there were no signs of cure, the same intervention was repeated at each follow up. Primary efficacy variable was clinical cure of lesions. Statistical analysis was done by chi square test and one way ANOVA test using SPSS version 12. Results: At the end of first week, cure rate was 74.8% in permethrin group, 30% in oral ivermectin group, and 69.3% in topical ivermectin group (P < 0.05. At the end of second week, cure rate was 99% in permethrin group, 63% in oral ivermectin group, and 100% in topical ivermectin group (P < 0.05. At the end of third week, 100% cure rate was observed in permethrin and topical ivermectin group while 99% in oral ivermectin group (P = 0.367. No serious adverse events were observed. Conclusions: Permethrin and topical ivermectin were equally effective against scabies while oral ivermectin was significantly less effective up to 2 weeks. Topical ivermectin can be used as an alternative to permethrin.

  14. Topical minoxidil fortified with finasteride: An account of maintenance of hair density after replacing oral finasteride

    B S Chandrashekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Finasteride acts by reducing dihydrotestosterone levels, thereby inhibiting miniaturization of hair follicles in patients with androgenetic alopecia (AGA. Oral finasteride is associated with side effects such as decreased libido, sexual dysfunction, and gynecomastia. Aim: The aim of the following study is to assess the efficacy of maintaining hair growth with 5% topical minoxidil fortified with 0.1% finasteride in patients with AGA after initial treatment with 5% topical minoxidil and oral finasteride for two years. Materials and Methods: A retrospective assessment was done in 50 male patients aged 20-40 years with AGA. All the patients had been initially treated with topical minoxidil and oral finasteride for a period of two years, after which the oral finasteride was replaced with topical minoxidil fortified with finasteride. Five of 50 patients had discontinued the treatment for a period of 8-12 months and were then resumed with only topical minoxidil fortified with finasteride. The patients′ case sheets and photographs were reviewed by independent observers and the efficacy of minoxidil-finasteride combination was assessed. Results: Of the 45 patients who underwent a continuous treatment for AGA, 84.44% maintained a good hair density with topical minoxidil-finasteride combinatio. Of the five patients who discontinued oral finasteride for 8-12 months, four demonstrated good improvement in hair density when treatment was resumed with topical minoxidil-finasteride combination. Conclusion: Topical finasteride can be considered for hair density maintenance after initial improvement with oral finasteride, thereby obviating the indefinite use of oral finasteride.

  15. Topical MMP beacon enabled fluorescence-guided resection of oral carcinoma

    Burgess, Laura; Chen, Juan; Wolter, Nikolaus E.; Wilson, Brian; Zheng, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Each year almost 300,000 individuals worldwide are diagnosed with oral cancer, more than 90% of these being oral carcinoma [N. Engl. J. Med. 328, 184 19938417385]. Surgical resection is the standard of care, but accurate delineation of the tumor boundaries is challenging, resulting in either under-resection with risk of local recurrence or over-resection with increased functional loss and negative impact on quality of life. This study evaluates, in two pre-clinical in vivo tumor models, the potential of fluorescence-guided resection using molecular beacons activated by metalloproteinases, which are frequently upregulated in human oral cancer. In both models there was rapid (oral tissues. Although the tissue penetration was limited using topical application, these findings support further development of this approach towards translation to first-in-human trials.

  16. Topical MMP beacon enabled fluorescence-guided resection of oral carcinoma.

    Burgess, Laura; Chen, Juan; Wolter, Nikolaus E; Wilson, Brian; Zheng, Gang

    2016-03-01

    Each year almost 300,000 individuals worldwide are diagnosed with oral cancer, more than 90% of these being oral carcinoma [N. Engl. J. Med.328, 1841993]. Surgical resection is the standard of care, but accurate delineation of the tumor boundaries is challenging, resulting in either under-resection with risk of local recurrence or over-resection with increased functional loss and negative impact on quality of life. This study evaluates, in two pre-clinical in vivo tumor models, the potential of fluorescence-guided resection using molecular beacons activated by metalloproteinases, which are frequently upregulated in human oral cancer. In both models there was rapid (beacon activation upon local application, allowing clear fluoresecence imaging in vivo and confirmed by ex vivo fluorescence microscopy and HPLC, with minimal activation in normal oral tissues. Although the tissue penetration was limited using topical application, these findings support further development of this approach towards translation to first-in-human trials. PMID:27231609

  17. Clinical Observation of Danggui Huajiao Honey Syrup Oral Solution in the Treatment of Dysmenorrhea%当归花椒蜜浆口服液治疗痛经的临床观察

    王福兰; 颜晓明; 陈克芳; 张芙娟; 王建军; 刘汉斌

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To observe therapeutic efficacy of Danggui huajiao honey syrup oral solution in the treatment of primary and secondary dysmenorrheal, and the differences in therapeutic efficacy between Danggui huajiao honey syrup oral solution and other similar drugs. METHODS: Treatment group (896 cases) was given Danggui huajiao honey syrup oral solution. Control group (895 cases) was given oral dose of Danggui futongning dripping pills, Yuanhu zhitong dripping pills, Ibuprofen tablets, Ibu-profen sustained-release capsules, Indometacin tablets, etc. Treatment group was given medicine 10 mL each time 3 times a day 1~ 2 days before menstruation. The treatment course lasted for 3 months. Control group was given medicine according to the usage and dosage of drugs. According to results of diagnosis, the clinical manifestations were divided into primary dysmenorrhea and secondary dysmenorrheal. Therapeutic efficacies and side effects of two groups were compared. RESULTS: The total effective rate of treatment group was 95.42% and that of control group was 90.05%. In treatment group there were shorter treatment course, less side effects, lower treatment cost and recurrence rate, compared with control group. The cost-effective ratio of treatment group was better than control group. CONCLUSION: Danggui huajiao honey syrup oral solution cure and alleviate dysmenorrhea symptoms significantly , especially for primary dysmenorrheal. It is valuable in the clinic.%目的:观察当归花椒蜜浆口服液治疗原发性痛经和继发性痛经的疗效,并比较其与同类药物的疗效差异.方法:治疗组(896例)给予当归花椒蜜浆口服液,对照组(895例)分别口服当归腹痛宁滴丸、元胡止痛滴丸、布洛芬片、布洛芬缓释胶囊、吲哚美辛片等药物.治疗组给药每日3次,每次10mL,每次月经前1~2 d服用,3个月为1个疗程;对照组分别按各药物项下的用法用量服用.按诊断结果分为原发性

  18. Safety evaluation of topical applications of ethanol on the skin and inside the oral cavity

    Lachenmeier Dirk W

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ethanol is widely used in all kinds of products with direct exposure to the human skin (e.g. medicinal products like hand disinfectants in occupational settings, cosmetics like hairsprays or mouthwashes, pharmaceutical preparations, and many household products. Contradictory evidence about the safety of such topical applications of the alcohol can be found in the scientific literature, yet an up-to-date risk assessment of ethanol application on the skin and inside the oral cavity is currently lacking. The first and foremost concerns of topical ethanol applications for public health are its carcinogenic effects, as there is unambiguous evidence for the carcinogenicity of ethanol orally consumed in the form of alcoholic beverages. So far there is a lack of evidence to associate topical ethanol use with an increased risk of skin cancer. Limited and conflicting epidemiological evidence is available on the link between the use of ethanol in the oral cavity in the form of mouthwashes or mouthrinses and oral cancer. Some studies pointed to an increased risk of oral cancer due to locally produced acetaldehyde, operating via a similar mechanism to that found after alcoholic beverage ingestion. In addition, topically applied ethanol acts as a skin penetration enhancer and may facilitate the transdermal absorption of xenobiotics (e.g. carcinogenic contaminants in cosmetic formulations. Ethanol use is associated with skin irritation or contact dermatitis, especially in humans with an aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH deficiency. After regular application of ethanol on the skin (e.g. in the form of hand disinfectants relatively low but measurable blood concentrations of ethanol and its metabolite acetaldehyde may occur, which are, however, below acute toxic levels. Only in children, especially through lacerated skin, can percutaneous toxicity occur. As there might be industry bias in many studies about the safety of topical ethanol applications, as well

  19. Formulation and Evaluation of Voriconazole Loaded Nanosponges for Oral and Topical Delivery

    Prathima Srinivas; Sreeja. K

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to produce controlled release Voriconazole Nanosponges for topical and oral delivery. Nanosponges using three different polymers ethyl cellulose, Poly (methyl methacrylate) and Pluronic F-68 (poloxamer 188) were prepared successfully using PVA as surfactant by emulsion solvent evaporation method. The effects of different drug: polymer ratios, surfactant concentration, stirring speeds and time, sonication time on the physical characteristics of the nanosp...

  20. Safety evaluation of topical applications of ethanol on the skin and inside the oral cavity

    Lachenmeier Dirk W

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Ethanol is widely used in all kinds of products with direct exposure to the human skin (e.g. medicinal products like hand disinfectants in occupational settings, cosmetics like hairsprays or mouthwashes, pharmaceutical preparations, and many household products). Contradictory evidence about the safety of such topical applications of the alcohol can be found in the scientific literature, yet an up-to-date risk assessment of ethanol application on the skin and inside the oral cavity is...

  1. Diclofenac topical solution compared with oral diclofenac: a pooled safety analysis

    Roth SH

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Sanford H Roth1, Philip Fuller21Arizona Research and Education, Arthritis Laboratory, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA; 2Medical Affairs, Covidien, Hazelwood, MO, USABackground: Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID formulations, which produce less systemic exposure compared with oral formulations, are an option for the management of osteoarthritis (OA. However, the overall safety and efficacy of these agents compared with oral or systemic therapy remains controversial.Methods: Two 12-week, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, controlled, multicenter studies compared the safety and efficacy profiles of diclofenac topical solution (TDiclo with oral diclofenac (ODiclo. Each study independently showed that TDiclo had similar efficacy to ODiclo. To compare the safety profiles of TDiclo and ODiclo, a pooled safety analysis was performed for 927 total patients who had radiologically confirmed symptomatic OA of the knee. This pooled analysis included patients treated with TDiclo, containing 45.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, and those treated with ODiclo. Safety assessments included monitoring of adverse events (AEs, recording of vital signs, dermatologic evaluation of the study knee, and clinical laboratory evaluation.Results: AEs occurred in 312 (67.1% patients using TDiclo versus 298 (64.5% of those taking ODiclo. The most common AE with TDiclo was dry skin at the application site (24.1% vs 1.9% with ODiclo; P < 0.0001. Fewer gastrointestinal (25.4% vs 39.0%; P < 0.0001 and cardiovascular (1.5% vs 3.5%; P = 0.055 AEs occurred with TDiclo compared with ODiclo. ODiclo was associated with significantly greater increases in liver enzymes and creatinine, and greater decreases in creatinine clearance and hemoglobin (P < 0.001 for all.Conclusions: These findings suggest that TDiclo represents a useful alternative to oral NSAID therapy in the management of OA, with a more favorable safety profile.Keywords: diclofenac, gastropathy

  2. Development and validation of a stability indicating method for S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine and related degradation products in oral syrup formulation.

    Fanigliulo, Ameriga; De Filippis, Piero; Curcuruto, Ornella; Repeto, Paolo; Roveda, Davide; Hartenstein, Matthew; Adams, Erwin; Cabooter, Deirdre

    2015-11-10

    A stability-indicating method for the determination of S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine and related degradation impurities in Exputex® 250mg/5mL syrup was developed in anion-exchange liquid chromatography mode. A forced degradation study supported the method development to ensure stability indicating conditions. Aqueous solutions of the active pharmaceutical ingredient and syrup samples at different pH-values were stress-tested in different thermal, light exposure and headspace conditions. One degradation product was detected in thermal stress studies at 60°C and 80°C in the pH range 5.0-7.0 and was identified by mass spectrometry as 5-oxo-thiomorpholine-3-carboxylic acid (lactam of carbocysteine). A second degradation product was only generated in moderately strong oxidizing conditions (0.5% H2O2 aqueous solution) and was identified as S-carboxymethyl-L-cysteine-(R/S)-sulphoxide (carbocysteine sulphoxide). The method was developed on a Zorbax SAX column, in isocratic mode. The mobile phase consisted of 200mM phosphate solution at pH 4.0 and acetonitrile (50:50 v/v) and UV detection was performed at a wavelength of 205nm. The method was linear for carbocysteine (R>0.9982) over a concentration range of 2.5-50μg/mL and 0.4-0.6mg/mL. Linearity for the impurities was shown from the LOQ to 50μg/mL. Specificity was verified and accuracy demonstrated for the active ingredient and its degradation products in syrup samples at 3 levels around their respective specification limits. Repeatability, intermediate precision and inter-laboratory reproducibility were assessed on three commercial batches, analyzed in triplicate by two operators at both the transferring and the receiving site and demonstrated a successful method transfer to the manufacturing quality control laboratory. PMID:26159351

  3. PREVENTION OF CUTANEOUS SIDE EFFECTS OF TOPICAL TRETINOIN: USE OF ORAL VITAMINE E

    G FAGHIHI

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous folicles. Tretinoin is used as one of the topical treatments for acne vulgaris. It has different cutaneous side effects such as erythema, scaling, irritation and photosensitivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral Vitamine E in preventing the cutaneous side effects of topical tretinoin in acne patients.
    Methods: A clinical trial was performed in AI-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan for six months in 2000. 80 patients with mild to moderate facial acne were randomized into 2 groups. Group 1 (controls received topical solution of tretinoin 0.05 percent nightly and group 2 (cases received daily oral 100mg of Vit. E in addition. All patients were followed at 1, 4 and 6 weeks after initiation of treatment. Children under 12 years old, pregnant or lactating women were excluded.
    Results: At the end of one week, no cutaneous side effects were observed in 25 percent (10 of group 1 and 15 percent (6 of group 2 (P > 0.05. At the end of 4 weeks, 25 percent (10 of group 1 and 60 percent (24 of group 2 were without any cutaneous complications, while at the end of 6 weeks, 35 percent (14 of group 1 in comparison to 75 percent (30 of group 2 were free of any cutaneous side effects (P < 0.05. The most common side effect in both groups was exfoliation.
    Discussion: Daily oral 100 mg of Vit. E has been effective in preventing cutaneous complications of topical tretinoin in acne management, but there is a delay of one week in its onset of action. Meanwhile, Vitamine E is a safe modality with no undesirable effects in acne patients.

  4. Plasma and milk kinetics of eprinomectin following topical or oral administration to lactating Chinese Holstein cows.

    Wen, Huiqiang; Pan, Baoliang; Wang, Yuwan; Wang, Fangfei; Yang, Zhenzhong; Wang, Ming

    2010-11-24

    Chinese Holstein, bred by mating the Holstein-Friesian to Chinese Yellow Cattle, is a major dairy cattle breed in China. Eprinomectin is widely used in the treatment of nematode and ectoparasite infections in lactating cattle. The pharmacokinetics of eprinomectin in the plasma and milk were determined in Chinese Holstein cows following topical (at 0.5 mg kg(-1)) or oral (at 0.2 mg kg(-1)) administration. For topical administration, the concentrations of eprinomectin in plasma reached peak values (C(max)) of 16.16 ± 6.02 ng ml(-1) at 3.20 ± 1.30 days (T(max)). In milk, the C(max) values of 2.28 ± 0.85 ng ml(-1) were obtained at 3.48 ± 0.65 days. The MRT values were 5.00 ± 0.96 days for plasma and 4.65 ± 0.60 days for milk. The AUC values were 91.00 ± 25.32 ng d ml(-1) for plasma and 10.53 ± 1.55 ng d ml(-1) for milk. The ratio of AUC milk/plasma was 0.124 ± 0.041. Significant differences were found in C(max) and AUC of eprinomectin in plasma between Chinese Holstein and Prim Holstein following topical administration. It was probably due to the lower storage of body fat in Chinese Holstein than in Prim Holstein. For oral administration, the concentrations of eprinomectin reach peak values of 30.02 ± 5.73 ng ml(-1) at 1.60 ± 0.55 days in plasma and 3.14 ± 0.88 ng ml(-1) at 1.40 ± 0.27 days in milk. The MRT values for plasma and milk were 3.00 ± 0.46 and 3.18 ± 0.55 days, respectively. The AUC values were 98.46 ± 24.75 ng d ml(-1) for plasma and 10.42 ± 4.22 ng d ml(-1) for milk. The ratio of AUC milk/plasma was 0.104 ± 0.022. Compared with the topical administration, a significantly shorter MRT of eprinomectin in plasma was obtained following oral administration, which would shorten residue time of this compound in faeces and reduce its ecotoxicological effect. The low exposure of eprinomectin in milk would favor the use of eprinomectin in lactating Chinese Holstein for topical or oral administration. PMID:20851527

  5. Efficacy of Topical Tacrolimus for Erosive Oral Lichen Planus:A Meta-analysis

    Chun-lan Guo; Ji-zhi Zhao; Jie Zhang; Hai-tao Dong

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy and safety of topical tacrolimus for erosive oral lichen planus (EOLP). Methods Literatures published up to December 2013 were searched from PubMed, Embase, CENTRAL, Chinese BioMedical Literature Database (CBM), and System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe (SIGLE). All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of topical tacrolimus for EOLP which compared with other interventions or a placebo were considered in this Meta-analysis. Two researchers collected data independently. The assessment of methodological quality was based on Cochrane Handbook and the materials were analyzed with the software Revman 5.2.5. The primary outcome measures were the symptoms (e.g. pain, discomfort) complained by patients. The secondary outcome measures included the improvement rate of clinical signs assessed by the investigators and the incidence of adverse effects (e.g. clinical candidiasis). Results A total of 9 RCTs involving 476 patients were finally included. The pooled odds ratio (OR) of clinical improvement for topical tacrolimusvs. topical corticosteroids was 1.19 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.64-2.22,I2: 44%]. Regarding to 0.1% tacrolimus and 0.03% tacrolimus, the pooledOR were 1.87 (95 %CI: 0.60-5.82) and 1.47 (95 %CI: 0.14-16.04) respectively in subgroup analysis. No serious adverse events were reported in topical tacrolimus group. Conclusions There was no evidence to support that topical tacrolimus for EOLP was more effective and safer than topical corticosteroids in this Meta-analysis. Clinical assessment criteria should be established and accepted by clinicians and researchers before further RCTs are undertaken.

  6. Topical Tacrolimus and Periodontal Therapy in the Management of a Case of Oral Chronic GVHD Characterized by Specific Gingival Localization

    Davide Conrotto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Chronic graft versus host disease (cGVHD is a complication following bone marrow transplantation. The oral lesions are difficult to control with a systemic pharmacological therapy. Case Description. A 63-year-old female patient, who underwent an allogeniec transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia, developed a chronic oral and cutaneous GVHD. The patient was treated with topical tacrolimus 0.1%, twice daily for two months, and underwent a protocol of oral hygiene characterized by 3 appointments of scaling, root planning, and daily oral hygiene instructions. The patient showed marked resolution of gingival lesions and a significant improvement of related pain and gingival inflammatory indexes. Clinical Implications. This case report suggests that treatment with topical tacrolimus and professional oral hygiene may be helpful in the management of chronic oral GVHD with severe gingival involvement.

  7. Ketoprofen Absorption by Muscle and Tendon after Topical or Oral Administration in Patients Undergoing Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    Sekiya, Ichiro; Morito, Toshiyuki; Hara, Kenji; Yamazaki, Junya; Ju, Young-Jin; Yagishita, Kazuyoshi; Mochizuki, Tomoyuki; Tsuji, Kunikazu; Muneta, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    Topical ketoprofen patches are widely used in the treatment of musculoskeletal pain, but the pharmacokinetics of ketoprofen following topical application remain unclear. This open-label, single-dose pharmacokinetic study was designed to determine the concentrations of ketoprofen in the semitendinosus muscle/tendon and plasma after topical application or oral administration to patients scheduled for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Two ketoprofen patches (20 mg each) were applied ove...

  8. Bioavailability of lithium from lithium citrate syrup versus conventional lithium carbonate tablets.

    Guelen, P J; Janssen, T J; De Witte, T C; Vree, T B; Benson, K

    1992-10-01

    The bioavailability of lithium citrate syrup was compared with that of regular lithium carbonate tablets in 18 healthy male human volunteers. Blood samples were collected up to 48 h after dosing. Lithium serum concentrations were determined by means of AAS. The absorption rate following oral administration of the syrup was greater (tmax 0.8 h) than following administration of regular tablets (tmax 1.4 h). Maximum lithium serum concentrations, however, were only about 10 per cent higher after syrup dosing and serum concentrations resulting from syrup and tablets were almost superimposable from 2 h after dosing. The terminal half-life of lithium was found to be 22 h after syrup as well as after tablet dosing. No side-effects were observed during the study. The bioavailability of lithium from syrup relative to tablets was found to be bioequivalent with respect to the maximum lithium serum concentration and the extent of drug absorption (AUC). PMID:1489941

  9. Treatment of ocular rosacea: comparative study of topical cyclosporine and oral doxycycline

    Aysegul; Arman; Duriye; Deniz; Demirseren; Tamer; Takmaz

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effectiveness of topical cyclosporine A emulsion with that of oral doxycycline for rosacea associated ocular changes and dry eye complaints.METHODS: One hundred and ten patients with rosacea were screened. Thirty-eight patients having rosacea associated eyelid and ocular surface changes and dry eye complaints were included in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: nineteen patients were given topical cyclosporine twice daily and nineteen patients were given oral doxycycline 100 mg twice daily for the first month and once daily for the following two months. Symptom and sign scores, ocular surface disease index questionnarie and tear function tests were evaluated at baseline and monthly for 3mo. Three months after results were compared with that of baseline.RESULTS: Mean values of symptom, eyelid sign and corneal/conjunctival sign scores of each treatment group at baseline and 3mo after treatments were compared and both drugs were found to be effective on rosacea associated ocular changes(P <0.001). Cyclosporine was more effective in symptomatic relief and in the treatment of eyelid signs(P =0.01). There was statistically significant increase in the mean Schirmer score with anesthesia and tear break up time scores in the cyclosporine treatment group compared to the doxycycline treatment group(P <0.05).CONCLUSION: Cyclosporine as a topical drug can be used in the treatment of rosacea associated ocular complications because it is more effective than doxycycline. In addition ocular rosacea as a chronic disease requires long term treatment and doxycycline has various side effects limiting its long term usage.

  10. The Chemical Composition of Maple Syrup

    Ball, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Maple syrup is one of several high-sugar liquids that humans consume. However, maple syrup is more than just a concentrated sugar solution. Here, we review the chemical composition of maple syrup. (Contains 4 tables and 1 figure.)

  11. Comparison of Safety and Efficacy of Oral Azithromycin-Topical Adapalene Versus Oral Doxycycline-Topical Adapalene in the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris and Determination of the Effects of These Treatments on Patients’ Quality of Life

    Serap Kayhan; İlham Sabuncu; Zeynep Nurhan Saraçoğlu; Ayşe Esra Koku Aksu; Mustafa Tozun

    2012-01-01

    Background and Design: Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit. Oral antibiotics and topical retinoids are effective in the treatment of acne.Materials and Methods: In this study, 60 patients with moderate acne vulgaris were evaluated; the patients were randomized into two equal groups. The groups were matched with respect to age, gender and clinical severity of acne. The patients in group 1 received oral azithromycin (500 mg daily on 3 consecutive days per w...

  12. Topical Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) Extract Does Not Accelerate the Oral Wound Healing in Rats.

    Coelho, Fernanda Hack; Salvadori, Gabriela; Rados, Pantelis Varvaki; Magnusson, Alessandra; Danilevicz, Chris Krebs; Meurer, Luise; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2015-07-01

    The effect of topical application of Aloe Vera (Aloe barbadensis Miller) extract was assessed on the healing of rat oral wounds in an in vivo model using 72 male Wistar rats divided into three groups (n = 24): control, placebo and Aloe Vera (0.5% extract hydroalcoholic). Traumatic ulcers were caused in the dorsum of the tongue using a 3-mm punch tool. The Aloe Vera and placebo group received two daily applications. The animals were sacrificed after 1, 5, 10 and 14 days. Clinical analysis (ulcer area and percentage of repair) and histopathological analysis (degree of re-epithelialization and inflammation) were performed. The comparison of the differences between scores based on group and experimental period, both in quantitative and semi-quantitative analyses, was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The significance level was 5%. On day 1, all groups showed predominantly acute inflammatory infiltrate. On day 5, there was partial epithelialization and chronic inflammatory infiltrate. On the days 10 and 14 total repair of ulcers was observed. There was no significant difference between groups in the repair of mouth ulcers. It is concluded that treatment using Aloe Vera as an herbal formulation did not accelerate oral wound healing in rats. PMID:25891093

  13. Comparing the effects of cryotherapy with nitrous oxide gas versus topical corticosteroids in the treatment of oral lichen planus

    Dariush Amanat; Hooman Ebrahimi; Maryam Zahed Zahedani; Nasim Zeini; Sara Pourshahidi; Zahra Ranjbar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the oral mucosa with treatment challenges for clinicians. Aims: The objective of this study is to compare the effects of cryotherapy as a new modality with topical corticosteroids as a conventional therapy in the treatment of OLP. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with bilateral OLP lesions were selected. From each patient a lesion on one side was chosen randomly for a single session of cryotherapy with nit...

  14. Formulation and Evaluation of Voriconazole Loaded Nanosponges for Oral and Topical Delivery

    Prathima Srinivas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to produce controlled release Voriconazole Nanosponges for topical and oral delivery. Nanosponges using three different polymers ethyl cellulose, Poly (methyl methacrylate and Pluronic F-68 (poloxamer 188 were prepared successfully using PVA as surfactant by emulsion solvent evaporation method. The effects of different drug: polymer ratios, surfactant concentration, stirring speeds and time, sonication time on the physical characteristics of the nanosponges as well as the drug entrapment efficiency of the nanosponges were investigated. Particle size analysis and surface morphology of nanosponges were performed. The scanning electron microscopy of nanosponges showed that they were spherical in shape and spongy in nature. The particle size of the optimized formulations was in the range of 200-400nm and the drug entrapment efficiency was found to be in the range of 69.8 % to 72.5%. These nanosponge formulations were prepared as gel using carbopol 971P and studied for pH, viscosity, in vitro drug release, antimicrobial activity. Of the various formulations prepared E2, P2 and F2 were found to show the maximum drug release of 92.76%, 91.84% and 95.88% respectively at 1:2 drug: polymer ratio. The antifungal activity of the optimized formulations was evaluated in vivo in Male Wistar rats in comparison with marketed Flucos gel. The optimized nanosponge formulations were selected for preparing nanosponge tablets for controlled drug delivery by oral route. These tablets were prepared using microcrystalline cellulose and were evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content and in vitro drug release studies.

  15. pH-activated nanoparticles for controlled topical delivery of farnesol to disrupt oral biofilm virulence.

    Horev, Benjamin; Klein, Marlise I; Hwang, Geelsu; Li, Yong; Kim, Dongyeop; Koo, Hyun; Benoit, Danielle S W

    2015-03-24

    Development of effective therapies to control oral biofilms is challenging, as topically introduced agents must avoid rapid clearance from biofilm-tooth interfaces while targeting biofilm microenvironments. Additionally, exopolysaccharides-matrix and acidification of biofilm microenvironments are associated with cariogenic (caries-producing) biofilm virulence. Thus, nanoparticle carriers capable of binding to hydroxyapatite (HA), saliva-coated HA (sHA), and exopolysaccharides with enhanced drug release at acidic pH were developed. Nanoparticles are formed from diblock copolymers composed of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), butyl methacrylate (BMA), and 2-propylacrylic acid (PAA) (p(DMAEMA)-b-p(DMAEMA-co-BMA-co-PAA)) that self-assemble into ∼21 nm cationic nanoparticles. Nanoparticles exhibit outstanding adsorption affinities (∼244 L-mmol(-1)) to negatively charged HA, sHA, and exopolysaccharide-coated sHA due to strong electrostatic interactions via multivalent tertiary amines of p(DMAEMA). Owing to hydrophobic cores, nanoparticles load farnesol, a hydrophobic antibacterial drug, at ∼22 wt %. Farnesol release is pH-dependent with t1/2 = 7 and 15 h for release at pH 4.5 and 7.2, as nanoparticles undergo core destabilization at acidic pH, characteristic of cariogenic biofilm microenvironments. Importantly, topical applications of farnesol-loaded nanoparticles disrupted Streptococcus mutans biofilms 4-fold more effectively than free farnesol. Mechanical stability of biofilms treated with drug-loaded nanoparticles was compromised, resulting in >2-fold enhancement in biofilm removal under shear stress compared to free farnesol and controls. Farnesol-loaded nanoparticles effectively attenuated biofilm virulence in vivo using a clinically relevant topical treatment regimen (2×/day) in a rodent dental caries disease model. Strikingly, treatment with farnesol-loaded nanoparticles reduced both the number and severity of carious lesions, while free

  16. Hot Topics in Clinical Oral Implants Research: Recent Trends in Literature Coverage

    Vesela Valkova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review looks at thematic trends in clinical research publications on dental implants. For this purpose, MEDLINE electronic searches as well as additional hand searches of six main journals in the field were conducted. A total of 2875 clinical studies published between 2001 and 2012 met the inclusion criteria and were subjected to statistical analysis. Hot topics in dental implant literature included immediate loading (14.3%, bone substitutes (11.6%, cross-arch full bridges (8.0%, and immediate implant placement (7.5%. A significant increase in scientific interest for immediate loading (+6.3%, p = 0.001, platform switching (+2.9%, p = 0.001, guided implant surgery (+1.9%, p = 0.011, growth factors (p = 0.014, +1.4%, piezoelectric surgery (+1.3%, p = 0.015, and restorative materials (+0.7%, p = 0.011 was found. A declining scientific interest in onlay grafting (−0.3%, p = 0.042 was recorded. The findings regarding current clinical oral implants research tie in with better-informed consumers and increased patient demands. Our results demonstrate an increasing interest in techniques that avoid complicated procedures such as bone grafting and that reduce treatment duration.

  17. Targeted localized use of therapeutic antibodies: a review of non-systemic, topical and oral applications.

    Jones, Russell G A; Martino, Angela

    2016-06-01

    gangrenosum, antibiotic resistant bacterial infections or ulcerated wounds. Diseases confined to the gastrointestinal tract can be targeted directly by applying antibody via the injection-free peroral route. The gastrointestinal tract is unusual in that its natural immuno-tolerant nature ensures the long-term safety of repeatedly ingesting heterologous antiserum or antibody materials. Without the stringent regulatory, purity and clean room requirements of manufacturing parenteral (injectable) antibodies, production costs are minimal, with the potential for more direct low-cost targeting of gastrointestinal diseases, especially with those caused by problematic antibiotic resistant or toxigenic bacteria (e.g. Clostridium difficile, Helicobacter pylori), viruses (e.g. rotavirus, norovirus) or inflammatory bowel disease (e.g. ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease). Use of the oral route has previously been hindered by excessive antibody digestion within the gastrointestinal tract; however, this limitation may be overcome by intelligently applying one or more strategies (i.e. decoy proteins, masking therapeutic antibody cleavage sites, pH modulation, enzyme inhibition or encapsulation). These aspects are additionally discussed in this review and novel insights also provided. With the development of new applications via local injections, topical and peroral routes, it is envisaged that an extended range of ailments will increasingly fall within the clinical scope of therapeutic antibodies further expanding this market. PMID:25600465

  18. Effect of Topical Rambutan Honey Pharmaceutical Grade on Oral Mucosa Wound Healing Based on Tissue Wound Closure and Fibroblasts Proliferation in vivo

    E.R. Yuslianti; B.M. Bachtiar; D.F. Suniarti; A.B. Sutjiatmo; Euis Reni Yuslianti; Boy M. Bachtiar; Dewi F. Suniarti; Afifah B. Sutjiatmo

    2015-01-01

    Rambutan honey often used for topical treatment sores in the oral, because it has a good taste and fragrant. The use of rambutan honey empirically efficacious in wound healing has been scientifically proven yet, as a product or stimulant that serves to accelerate oral mucosa wound healing is still very limited. This study aimed to analyze topical Rambutan Honey Pharmaceuticals Grades (RHPG) in influencing wound closure and stimulation of the fibroblasts proliferation in the oral mucosa wound ...

  19. Clinical application of oral form of ANGIPARSTM and in combination with topical form as a new treatment for diabetic foot ulcers: A randomized clinical trial

    Bahrami A; Kamali K; Ali-Asgharzadeh A; Hosseini P; Heshmat R; HR Khorram Khorshid; Gharibdoust F; SH Madani; Larijani B

    2008-01-01

    ANGIPARSTM is a new herbal extract which has been produced in oral, topical, and intravenous forms. The present article contains preliminary results of the study which was planned to evaluate the efficacy and safety of orally applied ANGIPARSTM and to compare it with the combination of oral and topical forms and also with conventional therapy in patients with diabetic ulcers of the lower extremities."nTwenty one patients with diabetic foot ulcers were divided into 3 groups. The first gro...

  20. Benefits of oral and topical administration of ROQUETTE Chlorella sp. on skin inflammation and wound healing in mice.

    Hidalgo-Lucas, Sophie; Bisson, Jean-Francois; Duffaud, Anais; Nejdi, Amine; Guerin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Baert, Blandine; Saniez-Degrave, Marie-Helene; Rozan, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    The human body is constantly exposed to the risk of traumatic lesions. Chlorella is a green microalgae enriched with nutrients, vitamins, minerals and chlorophyll. In some communities, Chlorella is a traditional medicinal plant used for the management of inflammation-related diseases. ROQUETTE Chlorella sp. (RCs) was investigated by oral administration (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg) and cutaneous application (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0%) to evaluate its impact in two dermatological disorder models in mice: skin inflammation and wound healing. For skin inflammation, it was administered during 14 days starting one week before the induction of chronic skin inflammation by repeated cutaneous application of 12-Otetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). For wound healing the microalgae was administered by topical application after scarification of the skin until complete wound healing. Results indicated that oral and topical administrations of the two higher doses of RCs had significant effects on macroscopic score of skin inflammation with an efficient effect on microscopic score with cutaneous application. The microalgae had also efficient effect on healing process and duration of wound healing for both administration routes and particularly at the two highest doses of RCs. These findings suggest that administration of RCs by both oral and topical routes appeared to have beneficial effects on skin lesions. PMID:24965517

  1. 21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn syrup. 184.1865 Section 184.1865 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or “glucose syrup,” is obtained by partial hydrolysis of corn starch with safe and suitable acids or...

  2. New lidocaine lozenge as topical anesthesia compared to lidocaine viscous oral solution before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

    Mogensen, Stine; Treldal, Charlotte; Feldager, Erik;

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect and acceptance of a new lidocaine lozenge compared with a lidocaine viscous oral solution as a pharyngeal anesthetic before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE), a diagnostic procedure commonly performed worldwide during which many patients experience severe discomfort...

  3. Efficacy of topical phenytoin on chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis; a pilot study

    M Baharvand; Sarrafi, M.; Alavi, K.; Jalali Moghaddam, E.

    2010-01-01

    "nBackground and the Purpose of the Study: Oral mucositis is one of the most common complications of malignancy chemotherapy. As yet, no absolute treatment has been demonstrated to be effective for chemotherapy- induced oral mucositis. This study evaluates the effectiveness of phenytoin mouthwash as a wound healing agent, on the basis of stimulating effects on fibroblast proliferation. "nMaterials and Methods: In this multicenter, randomized, placebo- controlled clinical trial; twel...

  4. APPLICATION OF WHEY-DERIVED SYRUPS IN DAIRY PRODUCTS

    V. Somov; I. Evdokimov; Knyazev, S.; S. Perminov; Yu. Kurash

    2015-01-01

    Sugar substitution is a hot topic in current food and beverage development. Sugar substitute is a food additive with sugar-like taste and usually cheaper than sugar. We developed production of glucose-galactose syrup (GGS) from cheese whey to replace and lower sucrose content in dairy products. Nanofiltrated whey containing 15% lactose underwent enzymatic and demineralization processing, producing different levels of monosaccharaides and electrolytes. We hypothesized that the amount of glucos...

  5. Absorption of Bupivacaine after Administration of a Lozenge as Topical Treatment for Pain from Oral Mucositis

    Mogensen, Stine; Sverrisdóttir, Eva; Sveinsdóttir, Kolbrún;

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to investigate systemic exposure after administration of a novel bupivacaine lozenge in healthy individuals with normal mucosa and in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients with oral mucositis. A lozenge containing 5 mg, 10 mg, 25 mg and 50mg bupivacaine, respectively, was administered a...

  6. The Efficacy of Topical Hyaluronic Acid 0.2% in the Management of Symptomatic Oral Lichen Planus

    Burde, Krishna Nagappa; Guttal, Kruthika Satyabodh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a condition frequently referred to the specialist dental clinic for diagnosis and management. It is a disease of the skin and mucous membranes with oral manifestations too. It varies in appearance from keratotic to erythematous and ulcerative form. Immunosuppressants are frequently used for patients but some of these drugs could be implicated in malignant transformation, thus there is a clear need to find an alternative therapy for OLP. Aim To evaluate the relief of symptoms and reduction in the size of the lesions of lichen planus with 0.2% hyaluronic acid topical application and to compare the efficacy of topical hyaluronic acid (0.2%) with that of patients on placebo. Materials and Methods A randomized controlled study was conducted on 50 symptomatic and biopsy proven patients with lichen planus. The subjective symptoms like Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the objective symptoms like degree of erythema and mean area of the lesion were recorded preoperatively and on day 7, day 14, day 21 and day 28. The selected patients were divided randomly into group-I comprising of 25 patients who received topical 0.2% hyaluronic acid therapy for 14 days and group-II comprising of 25 patients who received topical application of placebo for 14 days. The statistical tests used were Mann-Whitney U test, t-test, Wilcoxon matched pairs test by ranks and paired t-test. Results Symptomatic effect of soreness evaluation- there was a significant reduction in VAS scores in the test group as compared to placebo, similarly there was also significant reduction in the degree of erythema, change in the size of the lesion and area of the lesion in the test group. There was significant improvement in relief of symptoms, in the degree of erythema and mean area of the lesion in Group-I when compared with group-II. Conclusion Topical application of 0.2% Hyaluronic acid showed a significant clinical response when compared to topical placebo. It is easy to

  7. The Clinical Observation of Levofloxacin Injection Combined with Cough Syrup Oral Liquid in the Treatment of Bacterial Pneumonia%左氧氟沙星注射液联合咳露口服液治疗细菌性肺炎的临床观察

    史广超; 邢亚恒; 李景钊

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察左氧氟沙星注射液联合咳露口服液治疗细菌性肺炎的临床疗效。方法:对140例细菌性肺炎患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,每组各70例。两组均给予同种抗生素左氧氟沙星注射液,治疗组加用咳露口服液,疗程均为10 d。结果:治疗组总有效率为100%,对照组总有效率为87%,两组总有效率比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:左氧氟沙星注射液联合咳露口服液治疗细菌性肺炎临床效果明显,且安全性高,无明显不良反应。%Objective:To observe clinical curative effect of levofloxacin injection combined with cough syrup oral liquid in the treatment of bacterial pneumonia.Method:140 bacterial pneumonia patients were randomly divided into treatment group and control group,70 patients in each group.The two groups were given levofloxacin injection,the treatment group was added with cough syrup oral liquid,both groups were treated for 10 days. Result:The total effective rate of treatment group 100%,control group in the total efficiency of 87%,the total effective rate of two groups had significant difference(P<0.05).Conclusion:Levofloxacin injection combined with cough syrup oral liquid in the treatment of bacterial pneumonia have good clinical effect,and high safety,and no obvious adverse reaction.

  8. 异丙托溴铵、布地奈德雾化吸入加用口服急支糖浆辅助治疗小儿肺炎支原体肺炎的临床观察%Ipratropium Bromide Nebulized Budesonide Inhalation Plus Oral Acute Bronchitis Syrup Auxiliary Treatment of Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Pneumonia Clinical Observation

    王丽珍; 李飞平; 罗芳; 张梅娟

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To study the budesonide, ipratropium bromide Stock aerosol inhalation plus oral acute bronchitis syrup efficacy of mycoplasma pneumonia in children. Method; from May 2011 to May 2012 in our hospital diagnosed with pneumonia, mycoplasma pneumonia, aged 3 to 14 years old, 69 cases of hospitalized children, 35 cases were randomly divided into a control group and a test group of 34 patients. Test group application budesonide, ipratropium bromide atomizing inhalation plus oral acute bronchitis syrup, observation and comparison of the two groups on the basis of given antibiotics. Experimental group, children with cough disappeared time, of pulmonary rales disappear and hospitalization time there was significantly shorter (P<0.01) than the control group, the total effective rate in the test group than the control group (P<0. 01). Conclusion:Budesonide, ipratropium bromide oxygen drive to the aerosol inhalation plus oral acute bronchitis syrup can be used as auxiliary treatment of mycoplasma pneumonia treatment.%目的:研究布地奈德、异丙托溴铵联合雾化吸入加用口服急支糖浆对小儿支原体肺炎的疗效.方法:将2011年5月-2012年5月在我院诊断为肺炎支原体肺炎,年龄3~14岁的69例住院患儿,随机分为对照组35例与试验组34例.在给予抗感染的基础上试验组应用布地奈德、异丙托溴铵氧气驱动雾化吸入加用口服急支糖浆,观察比较两组疗效.结果:试验组患儿咳嗽消失时间、肺部罗音消失时间及住院时间均比对照组有极显著缩短(P<0.01),试验组总有效率比对照组高(P<0.01).结论:布地奈德、异丙托溴铵氧气驱动雾化吸入加用口服急支糖浆可以作为治疗小儿支原体肺炎的辅助治疗方式.

  9. Clinical efficacy of oral and topical acyclovir in herpes simplex virus stromal necrotizing keratitis

    Dutt, Surabhi; Acharya, Manisha; Gour, Abha; Sapra, Neelam; Chauhan, Lokesh; Mathur, Umang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of systemic and topical antiviral therapy in the treatment of active herpes simplex virus (HSV) necrotizing stromal keratitis (NSK). Design: Prospective interventional case series. Methodology: Patients with a diagnosis of HSV NSK based on history and clinical findings were enrolled in the study. A standard protocol was used for microbiologic investigations. Ten weeks regime of systemic acyclovir and 2 weeks of topical acyclovir was given. Complete ophthalmic examination was performed at every visit. Outcome measures were a reduction in the area of infiltration and improvement in visual acuity. Results: Fifteen patients were enrolled in the study. The mean age of presentation was 51.53 years. The duration of symptoms at presentation ranged from 2 to 8 weeks. HSV1 DNA polymerase chain reaction was positive in 70% cases of those tested. Area of infiltration at trial entry and at the end of 2 weeks of antiviral treatment reduced significantly (P = 0.007). All patients showed a complete resolution of keratitis at the end of study. Conclusion: Topical and systemic acyclovir for treatment of NSK facilitates healing of ulceration. Topical steroids after initial antiviral therapy are safe and decreases inflammation and improve visual recovery. Early initiation of therapy has better outcomes as compared to late presentations. PMID:27221681

  10. Oral Mucosal Ulceration Caused by the Topical Application of a Concentrated Propolis Extract

    Yuniardini Septorini Wimardhani; Anandina Irmagita Soegyanto

    2014-01-01

    Propolis is a resinous mixture that is collected by honey bees from tree buds, sap flow, and other botanical sources. Propolis has been extensively used in medicine, dentistry, and cosmetics; however, unwanted effects have been reported. This paper reports a case of oral mucosal burn in a 50-year-old patient, who used an overnight application of concentrated propolis to overcome a throbbing pain in the right upper posterior mucosa. The patient was otherwise healthy and was not receiving any m...

  11. Efficacy of topical phenytoin on chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis; a pilot study

    M Baharvand

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and the Purpose of the Study: Oral mucositis is one of the most common complications of malignancy chemotherapy. As yet, no absolute treatment has been demonstrated to be effective for chemotherapy- induced oral mucositis. This study evaluates the effectiveness of phenytoin mouthwash as a wound healing agent, on the basis of stimulating effects on fibroblast proliferation. "nMaterials and Methods: In this multicenter, randomized, placebo- controlled clinical trial; twelve patients received phenytoin mouthwash (0.5% or placebo for about two weeks. Oral pain severity was scored on the daily basis using a VAS (visual analogue scale of 10 centimeters. National Cancer Institute (NCI scale was used to grade the intensity of mucositis. To determine the effect of treatment, a quality of life questionnaire, consisting of 35 queries, was filled out for all patients. Statistical analyses of data was performed using Mann- Whitney test. "nResults: The average time for complete remission of mucositis in phenytoin- treated group was less than that of the placebo group. The quality of life improved dramatically in the phenytoin group with the healing process being more evident in the first week. Furthermore, reduction in the wound area was greater in the phenytoin group than controls at the end of the first week of treatment. Both groups eventually demonstrated reduction in pain intensity; however no statistically significant difference was observed between two groups. "nConclusion: Phenytoin mouthwash accelerated wound healing and resolution of mucositis and improved life quality impressively.

  12. Evaluation of effect of topical ozone therapy on salivary Candidal carriage in oral candidiasis

    Isha Khatri

    2015-01-01

    Results and Conclusion: There was gradual but significant reduction in Candidal CFU count in both groups. At the end of the treatment, Candidal CFU count reduction in ozone group (60.5% reduction was more than the clotrimazole group (32.3% reduction. 14 patients (70% with candidiasis in ozone group were reduced to 6 (30% whereas only 8 patients (40% out of 13 (65% in clotrimazole group, although intergroup comparison was not statistically significant. Ozone therapy was much more effective in reducing the patients with candidiasis to a state of carriers. These findings suggest that ozonated water might be useful to treat oral candidiasis.

  13. Comparison of Safety and Efficacy of Oral Azithromycin-Topical Adapalene Versus Oral Doxycycline-Topical Adapalene in the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris and Determination of the Effects of These Treatments on Patients’ Quality of Life

    Serap Kayhan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit. Oral antibiotics and topical retinoids are effective in the treatment of acne.Materials and Methods: In this study, 60 patients with moderate acne vulgaris were evaluated; the patients were randomized into two equal groups. The groups were matched with respect to age, gender and clinical severity of acne. The patients in group 1 received oral azithromycin (500 mg daily on 3 consecutive days per week and the patients in group 2 received doxycycline (100 mg daily for 12 weeks. Topical adapalene gel was added to the systemic treatment in both groups. Clinical evaluation was performed at baseline and at the end of first, second and third months. Side effects were recorded. Quality of life in patients was measured with Skindex-29 and Acne Quality of Life Scale before treatment and at the end of third month. Results: At the end of the treatment, the patients in the two treatment groups had clinical improvement of more than 50%. Twenty-one patients in the azithromycin-adapalene group and 23 patients in the doxycycline-adapelene group had more than 80% clinical improvement. There was not any statistically significant difference in the clinical efficacy between the two combinations. Both treatment regimens were safe with minimal side effects. There was statistically significant difference in Skindex-29 and Acne Quality of Life Scale scores at baseline and at the end of the treatment (p0.05. Conclusion: Both treatments were efficient and safe. There was significant improvement in quality of life scale scores in both groups.

  14. Erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp successfully treated with oral prednisone and topical tacrolimus*

    Zahdi, Mariana Ribas; Seidel, Gabriela Bestani; Soares, Vanessa Cristina; de Freitas, Camila Fernanda Novak Pinheiro; Mulinari-Brenner, Fabiane Andrade

    2013-01-01

    Erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp is a rare inflammatory disorder of the scalp, affecting elderly patients after local trauma and leading to scarring or cicatricial alopecia. Case Report: An elderly female patient complained of painful pustules on the parietal region bilaterally with progressive enlargement and ulceration. A biopsy suggested erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp and the patient was treated with prednisone 40 mg/day and 0.1% topical tacrolimus. After 10 weeks complete closure of the eroded areas was observed and a stable scarring alopecia developed. PMID:24173187

  15. Disposition of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole disulfide in rats dosed intravenously, orally, and topically and in guinea pigs dosed topically

    To determine the metabolic disposition of [14C]-2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) and [14C]-2-mercaptobenzothiazole disulfide (MBTS), male and female rats were dosed topically. Topical doses were 36.1 micrograms/animal for [14C]MBT and 33.6 micrograms/animal for [14C]MBTS. Although more MBT passed through the skin than MBTS and although, relative to rats, guinea pigs absorbed a greater percentage of the dose (33.4% compared to 16.1-17.5% of the MBT and 12.2% compared to 5.94-7.87% for MBTS), the disposition of radioactivity derived from the two compounds was similar. Washing of the skin removed more of the radioactivity from guinea pigs than from rats. For both sexes of rats dosed intravenously with [14C]MBT or [14C]MBTS, disposition of the compounds was similar. In 72 h, 90.9-101% of the dose appeared in the urine and 3.79-15.1% in the feces. At this time, a small portion of the administered radioactivity remained associated with erythrocytes. Oral dosing of rats for 14 d with unlabeled MBT prior to a single dose of [14C]MBT or with unlabeled MBTS prior to a single dose of [14C]MBTS (0.730 mg/kg). For both sexes, disposition of the compounds was similar. At 96 h after dosing, a small portion of the administered radioactivity remained associated with erythrocytes, most of which was bound to the membranes. For both compounds and sexes, 60.8-101% of the radioactivity administered appeared in the urine and 3.46-9.99% in the feces in 96 h. At the time, only trace amounts of radioactivity remained in tissues other than blood. Of these tissues, thyroid contained the highest concentration. In the urine, there was a detectable MBT or MBTS, but there were two metabolites, one of which was identified as a thioglucuronide derivative of MBT. The other was possibly a sulfonic acid derivative of MBT

  16. Topical permethrin and oral ivermectin in the management of scabies: A prospective, randomized, double blind, controlled study

    Reena Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scabies is a highly contagious and intensely pruritic parasitic infestation. It is a re-emerging infection in the new millennium especially with HIV pandemic and a significant health problem in developing countries. Various treatment modalities have been used since time immemorial but the search for an ideal scabicide is ongoing. Aims: In this study, we compared the therapeutic efficacy of single application of topical 5% permethrin with oral ivermectin (200 μg/kg/dose in a single-dose and a two-dose regimen in patients with scabies. Methods: 120 clinically diagnosed cases of scabies (>5 years of age and/or >15 kg were randomized into three treatment groups A, B, C of 40 patients each; receiving either topical 5% permethrin (group A or oral ivermectin (200 μg/kg/dose in a single dose (group B or double dose regimen (group C repeated at 2 weeks interval. Patients were followed up at 1, 2, and 4 weeks interval. At each visit, cure rate (>50% improvement in lesion count and pruritus and negative microscopy was assessed and compared. Results: Cure rate in three treatment groups at the end of 4 weeks was 94.7% (A, 90% (B, 89.7%(C, and thus all three treatment modalities were equally efficacious. However, at 1 week follow up, group A patients reported better improvement in both lesion count and pruritus. Conclusions: Both permethrin and ivermectin in both single and two dose regimen are equally efficacious and well tolerated in scabies. However, permethrin has a rapid onset of action.

  17. An open randomized comparative study to test the efficacy and safety of oral terbinafine pulse as a monotherapy and in combination with topical ciclopirox olamine 8% or topical amorolfine hydrochloride 5% in the treatment of onychomycosis

    Jaiswal Amit

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of nails caused by dermatophytes, yeasts and molds. Aims: To study the efficacy and safety of oral terbinafine pulse as a monotherapy and in combination with topical ciclopirox olamine 8% or topical amorolfine hydrochloride 5% in onychomycosis. Methods: A clinical comparative study was undertaken on 96 Patients of onychomycosis during the period between August 2005 to July 2006. Forty-eight patients were randomly assigned in group A to receive oral terbinafine 250 mg, one tablet twice daily for seven days every month (pulse therapy; 24 patients in group B to receive oral terbinafine pulse therapy plus topical ciclopirox olamine 8% to be applied once daily at night on all affected nails; and 24 patients in group C to receive oral terbinafine pulse therapy plus topical amorolfine hydrochloride 5% to be applied once weekly at night on all the affected nails. The treatment was continued for four months. The patients were evaluated at four weekly intervals till sixteen weeks and then at 24 and 36 weeks. Results: We observed clinical cure in 71.73, 82.60 and 73.91% patients in groups A, B and C, respectively; Mycological cure rates against dematophytes were 88.9, 88.9 and 85.7 in groups A, B and C, respectively. The yeast mycological cure rates were 66.7, 100 and 50 in groups A, B and C, respectively. In the case of nondermatophytes, the overall response was poor: one out of two cases (50% responded in group A, while one case each in group B and group C did not respond at all. Conclusion: Terbinafine pulse therapy is effective and safe alternative in treatment of onychomycosis due to dermatophytes; and combination therapy with topical ciclopirox or amorolfine do not show any significant difference in efficacy in comparison to monotherapy with oral terbinafine.

  18. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... for providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect ...

  19. 21 CFR 520.622b - Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. 520.622b Section... Diethylcarbamazine citrate syrup. (a)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of syrup contains 60 milligrams of... veterinarian. (b)(1) Specifications. Each milliliter of syrup contains 60 milligrams of...

  20. Oral, topical, and inhalation of Calcarea carbonica derivative complex (M8 to treat inflammatory mammary carcinoma in dogs

    Carolina de Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inflammatory mammary carcinoma (IMC is locally aggressive, fast growing, highly malignant tumor that affects humans and dogs. Affected dogs usually are presented with generalized edema, pain, erythema, and skin ulceration in mammary glands. Surgery is not recommended and an effective treatment has not been established [1]. Calcarea carbonica derivative complex (M8 has demonstrated anticancer properties in a murine model, by improving innate immune response against tumor cells [2]. M8 is a complex high diluted medication comprised of Calcarea carbonica 16x, Aconitum napellus 20x, Arsenicum album 18x, Asa foetida 20x, Conium maculatum 17x, Ipecacuanha 13x, Phosphorus 20x, Rhus toxicodendron 17x, Silicea 20x, Sulphur 24x, and Thuya occidentalis 19x, dilution procedures have followed standard methodology described at the Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia. Aims: To describe different routes of M8 administration associated with oral pyroxican (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug to treat dogs with IMC. Methodology: Three female dogs with 10 years old median age were presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at Federal University of Parana, Curitiba (HV-UFPR with cytological and clinical diagnosis of IMC. Patients were treated with oral (0.5 mL,q12h, topical (q12h and inhalatory (2 mL, q24h, through an ultrasonic inhalation device M8, and oral pyroxican (0.3mg/kg, q24h.Thoracic radiographs showed pulmonary metastasis in all dogs. Results: 7 days after initiating treatment all patients had clinical improvement. It was observed reduction on mammary glands inflammation and decreased pain sensitivity. One patient had 8 month of complete remission. The other two patients died 1 and 2 month after initial treatment. However none of the patients had pulmonary progressive disease, showed by radiographic examinations. Owners revealed treatment satisfaction in regards to quality of life improvement, easy M8 administration, good M8

  1. Use of compounded dispersing media for extemporaneous pediatric syrups with candesartan cilexetil and valsartan

    Musko Monika

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Available tablets or capsules for adults are often used to prepare extemporaneously formulated medicines appropriate for children. The most acceptable drug forms in pediatric population are oral liquids and pharmacists use commercial dispersing media to compound syrups from an active substance or from tablets available on the market. In many countries ready-to-use dispersing media are not available or refunded, but pharmacists can use other compounded media, providing their compatibility and stability are proven. The aim of this study was to formulate and evaluate the stability of syrups with candesartan cilexetil (1 mg mL-1 and valsartan (4 mg mL-1 extemporaneously prepared using commercial tablets (Diovan® and Atacand®. The following three different suspending media, which could be easily made in a pharmacy, were investigated: V1 - with xanthan gum (0.5 %, V2 - the USP/NF vehicle for oral solution and V3 - the medium based on a simple sucrose syrup. The stability of preparations was studied during 35 days of storage in a dark place at controlled temperature of 25 and 4 °C. During the study, microscopic observation was carried out and pH, viscosity, and concentration of candesartan cilexetil and valsartan were analyzed. Syrups with valsartan prepared with V2 and V3 media were stable for 3 or 4 weeks when stored at 25 °C, while syrups with candesartan were stable for as long as 35 days. For syrups prepared using V1 medium, the 14-day expiry date was not achieved because of microbial deterioration.

  2. Clinical application of oral form of ANGIPARSTM and in combination with topical form as a new treatment for diabetic foot ulcers: A randomized clinical trial

    Bahrami A

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ANGIPARSTM is a new herbal extract which has been produced in oral, topical, and intravenous forms. The present article contains preliminary results of the study which was planned to evaluate the efficacy and safety of orally applied ANGIPARSTM and to compare it with the combination of oral and topical forms and also with conventional therapy in patients with diabetic ulcers of the lower extremities."nTwenty one patients with diabetic foot ulcers were divided into 3 groups. The first group received 100 mg of oral ANGIPARSTM twice a day for 6 weeks in addition to conventional therapies. In the second group, ANGIPARSTM gel 3% was added to the oral form of the same product besides the conventional therapies for the same period of time. Finally, in the third group which was considered as control, only conventional therapies were performed. The patients were followed for 6 weeks. Parameters such as granulation tissue formation, skin epithelization, and wound surface areas changes were analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the compound in wounds healing. Furthermore, drug safety was assessed by monitoring adverse events and by clinical and laboratory evaluations."nThe study data showed significant differences between the intervention and control groups with respect to efficacy and tolerability. In each intervention group, primary wound healings occurred following 2 weeks. Complete wound healing which was greater than 70% improvement in wounds surface areas was achieved in 83% and 100% of group 1 and group 2 participants, respectively after 6 weeks. On the other hand, at the same period of time, only 22.2% of patients in control group revealed complete healing. Therefore, ANGIPARSTM had significant positive effect in increasing the incidence of complete wound closure compared with control group (p = 0.042. However, our evaluations indicated that adding topical treatment with 3% gel once a day to the oral therapy with the same product did not make

  3. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents ... developmental disabilities and offers strategies for providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam ...

  4. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... common in patients with developmental disabilities and offers strategies for providing oral care. NIDCR > OralHealth > Topics > Oral ... diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected medical terms and resource information. Oral ...

  5. Oral Cancer Exam

    ... Topics > Oral Cancer > The Oral Cancer Exam The Oral Cancer Exam Main Content See a step-by-step video explaining what happens during an oral cancer examination. An oral cancer exam is painless and quick — it takes ...

  6. Clinical and serological efficacy of topical calcineurin inhibitors in oral lichen planus: a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Vohra, Suruchi; Singal, Archana; Sharma, Suman Bala

    2016-01-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a T-cell-mediated disease characterized by immune-mediated basal cell degeneration releasing interleukins (ILs) such as IL-6 and IL-8 into the circulation. Their serum levels reportedly reflect disease activity. Although many therapeutic options are available, none are curative. We compared the efficacy of tacrolimus 0.1% ointment and pimecrolimus 1% cream in OLP and correlated with serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels before and after treatment. Forty patients with symptomatic OLP were randomized into two groups, to receive either topical tacrolimus 0.1% ointment or pimecrolimus 1% cream (twice daily for 8 weeks). Patients were assessed at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. At each visit, objective improvement in the net clinical score (NCS), drug tolerability, and side effects were evaluated. Serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels were measured at baseline and at eight weeks. Baseline characteristics were comparable between the groups. The mean NCS declined from 10.9 ± 4.5 and 9.9 ± 4.6 at baseline to 5.4 ± 3.5 and 5.3 ± 4.2 at 12 weeks for tacrolimus and pimecrolimus group, respectively. At each visit, in both groups, the decline in mean NCS from baseline was statistically significant (P Pimecrolimus 1% cream seems to be as effective as tacrolimus 0.1% ointment. Serum IL-6 and IL-8 may act as markers of disease activity. However, future efforts are needed to objectify the use of serum interleukin levels in the disease severity index. PMID:26147635

  7. Ultrasonic flotational separation of syrup with polyacrylamide

    A 60 degrees Bx solution of Australian raw sugar was treated at 80 degrees C with 300 ppm phosphoric acid and neutralized to pH 7 with Ca(OH)2. The resulting syrup (as model cane syrup rather than phosphatated liquor?) was subjected to flotational separation with and without ultrasonic vibration (16.5-33 kHz, 20-300 W) and/or addition of polyacrylamide (PAM; dose not stated)

  8. Oral ingestion of a topical benzydamine hydrochloride-containing gynaecological preparation in association with television advertising in Italy: analysis of cases managed by a National Poison Control Centre

    Settimi, Laura; Davanzo, Franca; Lauria, Laura; Casini, Maria Luisa; Ferrazin, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of a television advertising campaign on the risk of oral ingestion of a topical non-prescription gynaecological preparation containing benzydamine hydrochloride. Design An interrupted time series design with data routinely collected. Setting A National Poison Control Centre. Participants 215 cases of hazardous exposure to the preparation under study occurred in Italy from January 2005 to December 2010. Primary and secondary outcome measures Mean daily rate of ...

  9. Placebo controlled, crossover validation study of oral ibuprofen and topical hydrocortisone-21-acetate for a model of ultraviolet B radiation (UVR-induced pain and inflammation

    Rother M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Matthias Rother, Ilka RotherDepartment of Clinical Operations, X-pert Med GmbH, Graefelfing, GermanyBackground: Pain related to ultraviolet B radiation (UVR induced sunburn is an established, simple, acute pain model. One of the major criticisms is related to the potential dermal adverse events caused by the UVR exposure. This study tried to validate the model for oral and topical drugs and to define the minimum required UVR exposure.Methods: This subject- and observer-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study evaluated 600 mg oral ibuprofen (IB and topical hydrocortisone-21-acetate (HC twice daily (bid in 24 healthy volunteers. Treatment started immediately after irradiation and again at 12 hours, 24 hours, and 36 hours post-UVR. Assessment of hyperalgesia to heat and signs of inflammation (erythema, skin temperature for all areas was performed after UVR and again at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours. Subjects returned within 4–11 days to the study site for the second period of the study. As in the first period, subjects received HC at one side and topical placebo on the other side, but oral treatment was crossed-over.Results: The primary analysis failed to show the expected superiority of the IB-group vs the placebo group in period 1 of the study. Evaluating period 2 alone clearly showed the expected treatment effects of IB for erythema and heat pain threshold. The results were less pronounced for skin temperature. In contrast to IB vs oral placebo, there were no differences in treatment response between HC and topical placebo. UVR at all dosages induced profound erythema and reduction of heat pain threshold without causing blisters or other unexpected discomfort to the subjects. The changes were almost linear between 1 and 2 minimal erythema doses (MED, whereas the change from 2 to 3 MED was less pronounced.Conclusion: Use of 2 MED in upcoming studies seems to be reasonable to limit subjects' UVB exposure. The following procedural changes are

  10. Effects of systemic or topical administration of sodium selenite on early radiation effects in mouse oral mucosa

    Gehrisch, A. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Technical Univ. of Dresden (Germany); Doerr, W. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Technical Univ. of Dresden (Germany); Experimental Center, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Technical Univ. of Dresden (Germany)

    2007-01-15

    Purpose: to quantify the effect of sodium selenite (selenium) on radiation-induced oral mucositis (mouse) after subcutaneous or topical administration. Material and methods: mucosal ulceration of the lower epithelium of mouse tongue was analyzed. Selenium (5 {mu}g) was applied subcutaneously (s.c.) or locally, 60 min or 30 min prior to irradiation, respectively. In combination with single-dose irradiation, a single selenium application was given. With daily fractionated irradiation (3 Gy/fraction) for 1 week (days 0-4), selenium was administered at all 5 days of irradiation. With ten fractions over 2 weeks, selenium was applied in week 1, week 2, or both. All fractionation protocols were terminated by graded test doses to generate full dose-effect curves. Results: in a single-dose control experiment, the ED{sub 50} (dose after which ulcer induction is expected in 50% of the mice) was 12.9 {+-} 1.6 Gy. Selenium increased the ED{sub 50} to 17.7 {+-} 2.6 Gy (s.c.; p = 0.0003) and 16.3 {+-} 3.0 Gy (local; p = 0.0104). The ED{sub 50} for test irradiation after 5 x 3 Gy was 7.4 {+-} 2.2 Gy. Subcutaneous administration of selenium resulted in an ED{sub 50} of 11.5 {+-} 2.0 Gy (p = 0.0015), local application yielded an ED{sub 50} of 10.0 {+-} 2.1 Gy (p = 0.0284). The ED{sub 50} for test irradiation after 10 x 3 Gy/2 weeks was 8.0 {+-} 1.7 Gy. Subcutaneous or local administration of selenium in week 1 yielded a significant increase in ED{sub 50} to 10.5 {+-} 1.0 Gy (p = 0.0069) and 10.7 {+-} 1.0 Gy (p = 0.0039), respectively. By clear contrast, selenium administration in week 2 had no significant effect. Administration in both weeks resulted in an ED{sub 50} of 9.1 {+-} 2.0 Gy (s.c.; p = 0.2747) and 9.7 {+-} 1.4 Gy (local; p = 0.0541). Conclusion: administration of sodium selenite during clinically relevant fractionated irradiation protocols has a significant effect during the initial treatment phase, i.e., week 1 in the mouse. Therefore, in clinical radiotherapy, the

  11. Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup)

    ... Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup) Cough and Cold Medicine (DXM and Codeine Syrup) Street names: Candy, Drank, Robo Print What Are Cough and Cold Medicines? Also known as: robotripping, robo, tussin, triple c, ...

  12. SYRUPS: COMPOSITION, TECHNOLOGY, CURRENT STATE OF RESEARCH (REVIEW

    M. E. Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The overview data for the syrups formulation, including syrups for children, with synthetic substances were represented: assortment, composition, technological approach. The advantages and disadvantages of this dosage form were described. Details considered flavoring agents and other auxiliaries (stabilizers, preservatives, thickeners comprising syrups were closely examined. The issues of current research state of syrups for children were described.

  13. Extrinsic tooth staining potential of high dose and sustained release iron syrups on primary teeth

    Pani, Sharat Chandra; Alenazi, Fahad Murdhi; Alotain, Abdullah Muhammad; Alanazi, Hamad Daher; Alasmari, Abdullah Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Background Iron in the form of oral supplements is routinely prescribed to children to help fight anemia, however tooth staining is a commonly reported complication. This study tests in vitro, the staining potential of two different forms of iron syrup on primary teeth. Methods Forty caries free primary central incisors were divided into four groups of ten teeth each. The control group comprised of ten teeth immersed in artificial saliva, while the test solutions were comprised of different f...

  14. 7 CFR 58.625 - Fruit or syrup feeders.

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fruit or syrup feeders. 58.625 Section 58.625 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards....625 Fruit or syrup feeders. Fruit or syrup feeders inject flavoring material into the...

  15. 21 CFR 573.530 - Hydrogenated corn syrup.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hydrogenated corn syrup. 573.530 Section 573.530... Additive Listing § 573.530 Hydrogenated corn syrup. (a) Identity. The product is produced by hydrogenation of corn syrup over a nickel catalyst. (b) Specifications. The product contains 70...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1445 - Malt syrup (malt extract).

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Malt syrup (malt extract). 184.1445 Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1445 Malt syrup (malt extract). (a) Malt is the product of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) germinated under controlled conditions. Malt syrup and malt...

  17. Placebo controlled, crossover validation study of oral ibuprofen and topical hydrocortisone-21-acetate for a model of ultraviolet B radiation (UVR)-induced pain and inflammation

    Rother M; Rother I

    2011-01-01

    Matthias Rother, Ilka RotherDepartment of Clinical Operations, X-pert Med GmbH, Graefelfing, GermanyBackground: Pain related to ultraviolet B radiation (UVR) induced sunburn is an established, simple, acute pain model. One of the major criticisms is related to the potential dermal adverse events caused by the UVR exposure. This study tried to validate the model for oral and topical drugs and to define the minimum required UVR exposure.Methods: This subject- and observer-blinded, placebo-contr...

  18. Idiopathic Facial Aseptic Granuloma in a 13-Year-Old Boy Dramatically Improved with Oral Doxycycline and Topical Metronidazole: Evidence for a Link with Childhood Rosacea

    Camille Orion

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic facial aseptic granuloma (IFAG is a rare, benign pediatric dermatological lesion that occurs in children between 8 months and 13 years of age. The pathogenesis of IFAG is still unclear but it is likely to be associated with granulomatous rosacea in childhood. Here we describe a case of IFAG in a 13-year-old boy who showed a dramatic response to oral doxycycline and topical metronidazole, which supports the hypothesis that IFAG may belong to the spectrum of rosacea.

  19. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect ...

  20. Management of symptomatic erosive-ulcerative lesions of oral lichen planus in an adult Egyptian population using Selenium - ACE combined with topical corticosteroids plus antifungal agent

    Mahmoud Helmy Belal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Oral lichen planus (OLP is a chronic mucocutaneous disease with an immunological etiology. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of selenium combined with Vitamins A, C & E (Selenium-ACE in the treatment of erosive-ulcerative OLP as an adjunctive to topical corticosteroids plus antifungal agent. Subjects and Methods: Thirty patients with a confirmed clinical and histopathologic diagnosis of OLP participated in this clinical trial. Patients were randomly allocated into one of three groups and treated as follows: (I Topical corticosteroids, (II topical corticosteroids plus antifungal, and (III SE-ACE combined with topical corticosteroids plus antifungal. The patients were followed for 6 weeks. The pain and severity of the lesions were recorded at the initial and follow-up visits. All recorded data were analyzed using paired t-test and ANOVA test. A P ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The experimental groups showed a marked reduction in pain sensation and size of lesions, particularly in the final follow-up period, but there was no significant difference between the first two Groups I and II. However, healing of lesions and improvement of pain sensation was effective in Group III since a significant difference was found favoring Group III over both Groups I and II. Conclusion: No significant difference was found in treating erosive-ulcerative lesions of OLP by topical corticosteroids alone or combined with antifungal. However, when using SE-ACE in combination with topical corticosteroids plus antifungal, this approach may be effective in managing ulcerative lesions of OLP; but more research with a larger sample size and a longer evaluation period may be recommended.

  1. Determination of gluten in glucose syrups

    Dostálek, P.; Gabrovská, D.; Rysová, J.; Mena, M. C.; Hernando, A.; Méndez, E.; Chmelík, Josef; Šalplachta, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 7-8 (2009), s. 762-765. ISSN 0889-1575 R&D Projects: GA MZe 1B53002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : glucose syrup * gluten determination * celiac disease Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.423, year: 2009

  2. Genetics Home Reference: maple syrup urine disease

    ... Urine Disease Mitsubuchi H, Owada M, Endo F. Markers associated with inborn errors of metabolism of branched-chain amino acids and their relevance to upper levels of intake in healthy people: an implication from clinical and molecular investigations on maple syrup urine disease. J Nutr. ...

  3. Prepolymer Syrup for Encapsulating Solar Cells

    Gupta, A.; Ingham, J. D.; Yavrouian, A. H.

    1982-01-01

    Clear polymer syrup, made by disolving n-butyl acrylate prepolymer in monomer, used to encapsulate solar cells by any of three standard processes (dipping, multiple coating, or automated machine coating). Use of cyclohexane instead of methanol/water solvent during initial polymerization stage maintains high molecular weight and raises yield of linear polymer to essentially 100 percent.

  4. Fructose and high fructose corn syrup

    Fructose, a monosaccharide, is naturally present in fruits, vegetables and honey, usually accompanied by other sugars including glucose and the disaccharide sucrose. It is also found as a component of sweeteners used in many processed food products, usually as sucrose or high fructose corn syrup (HF...

  5. Maple Syrup Disease: Diagnosis and Therapy

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Infants at high risk for maple syrup disease (MSD were identified by family history and molecular testing for the Y393N mutation of the E1a subunit of the branched chain a-ketoacid dehydrogenase in a study at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

  6. EVALUATION OF ANTITUSSIVE ACTIVITY OF VASU COUGH SYRUP IN SULPHUR DIOXIDE (SO2 INDUCED COUGH MODEL IN MICE

    Patel Hirenjal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cough is the most common symptom of respiratory diseases. When cough becomes serious, opioid drugs are effective, but they have side effects like sedation, delirium, constipation etc.. Therefore, there is a need to search out effective anti-tussive agents that are free from previously mentioned side effects. The present study was carried out to evaluate acute oral toxicity study and anti-tussive activity of Vasu Cough Syrup in sulphur dioxide (SO2-induced cough model in mice. Albino mice of either sex, weighing 25-30 g were divided into four groups (n = 6. Group I served as Disease control, Group II received standard drug i.e. Codeine phosphate (10 mg/kg, p.o., group III to IV were given Vasu Cough Syrup 0.25mL/kg and 0.5mL/kg body wt. p.o., dose. After 30 minutes, the mice were exposed to Sulphur dioxide for 30 sec. The mice were then placed in an observation chamber for counting of cough bouts for five minutes. Vasu Cough Syrup showed 63.91% and 70.64% inhibition in frequency of cough at 0.25mL/kg and 0.5mL/kg dose level respectively. It proves significant anti-tussive activity of Vasu Cough Syrup in Sulphur dioxide induced cough model. Thus, Vasu Cough Syrup can be useful as an alternative medicine for cough.

  7. Comparing the effects of cryotherapy with nitrous oxide gas versus topical corticosteroids in the treatment of oral lichen planus

    Dariush Amanat

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Cryotherapy with nitrous oxide gas is as effective as topical triamcinolone acetonide in the treatment of OLP with no systemic side effects and needs less patient compliance. It can be considered as an alternative or adjuvant therapy in OLP patients to reduce the use of treatments with adverse effects.

  8. Topical coal tar alone and in combination with oral methotrexate in management of psoriasis : a retrospective analysis

    Prasad PVS

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty five patients admitted with psoriasis were analysed. 16 patients received 20% crude coal tar and 19 patients received 20% crude coal tar along with methotrexate in a weekly oral schedule (15mg/wk. After 4 weeks of therapy there was total clearence in 52.6% of the patients with combination therapy, whereas only 12.5% of the patients with conventional therapy achieved this.

  9. Topical or oral administration with an extract of Polypodium leucotomos prevents acute sunburn and psoralen-induced phototoxic reactions as well as depletion of Langerhans cells in human skin

    Gonzalez, S.; Pathak, M.A.; Fitzpatrick, T.B. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Dept. of Dermatology, Boston, MA (United States); Cuevas, J. [Hospital Universitario de Guadalajara, Dept. of Pathology, Guadalajara (Spain); Villarrubia, V.G. [I.F. Cantabria SA, Medical Dept., Immunology Sect., Madrid (Spain)

    1997-12-31

    Sunburn, immune suppression, photo-aging, and skin cancers result from uncontrolled overexposure of human skin to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Preventive measures, including photo-protection, are helpful and can be achieved by topical sun-screening agents. Polypodium leucotomos (PL) has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and has shown some in vitro and in vivo immunomodulating properties. Its beneficial photo-protective effects in the treatment of vitiligo and its antioxidant properties encouraged us to evaluate in vivo the potentially useful photo-protective property of natural extract of PL after topical application or oral ingestion. Twenty-one healthy volunteers [either untreated or treated with oral psoralens (8-MOP or 5-MOP)] were enrolled in this study and exposed to solar radiation for evaluation of the following clinical parameters: immediate pigment darkening (IPD), minimal erythema dose (MED), minimal melanogenic dose (MMD), and minimal phototoxic dose (MPD) before and after topical or oral administration of PL. Immunohistochemical assessment of CD1a-expressing epidermal cells were also performed. PL was found to be photo-protective after topical application as well as oral administration. PL increased UV dose required for IPD (P<0.01), MED (P<0.001) and MPD (P<0.001). After oral administration of PL, MED increased 2.,8{+-}0.59 times and MPD increased 2.75{+-}0.5 and 6.8{+-}1.3 times depending upon the type of psoralen used. Immunohistochemical study revealed photo-protection of Langherhans cells by oral as well as topical PL. The observed photo-protective activities of oral or topical PL reveal a new avenue in examining the potentially useful field of systemic photo-protection and suggests that PL can be used as adjunct treatment and can make photochemotherapy and phototherapy possibly safe and effective when the control of cutaneous phototoxicity to PUVA or UVB is a limiting factor in such photo-therapies. (au). 50 refs.

  10. TOIB Study. Are topical or oral ibuprofen equally effective for the treatment of chronic knee pain presenting in primary care: a randomised controlled trial with patient preference study. [ISRCTN79353052

    Parsons Suzanne

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many older people have chronic knee pain. Both topical and oral non- steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are commonly used to treat this. Oral NSAIDS are effective, at least in the short term, but can have severe adverse effects. Topical NSAIDs also appear to be effective, at least in the short term. One might expect topical NSAIDs both to be less effective and to have fewer adverse effects than oral NSAIDs. If topical NSAIDs have fewer adverse effects this may outweigh both the reduction in effectiveness and the higher cost of topical compared to oral treatment. Patient preferences may influence the comparative effectiveness of drugs delivered via different routes. Methods TOIB is a randomised trial comparing topical and oral ibuprofen, with a parallel patient preference study. We are recruiting people aged 50 or over with chronic knee pain, from 27 MRC General Practice Research Framework practices across the UK. We are seeking to recruit 283 participants to the RCT and 379 to the PPS. Participants will be followed up for up to two years (with the majority reaching one year. Outcomes will be assessed by postal questionnaire, nurse examination, laboratory tests and medical record searches at one and two years or the end of the study. Discussion This study will provide new evidence on the overall costs and benefits of treating chronic knee pain with either oral or topical ibuprofen. The use of a patient preference design is unusual, but will allow us to explore how preference influences response to a medication. In addition, it will provide more information on adverse events. This study will provide evidence to inform primary care practitioners, and possibly influence practice.

  11. Topical Drugs for Pain Relief

    Anjali Srinivasan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Topical therapy helps patients with oral and perioral pain problems such as ulcers, burning mouth syndrome, temporomandibular disorders, neuromas, neuropathies and neuralgias. Topical drugs used in the field of dentistry are topical anaesthetics, topical analgesics, topical antibiotics and topical corticosteroids. It provides symptomatic/curative effect. Topical drugs are easy to apply, avoids hepatic first pass metabolism and more sites specific. But it can only be used for medications that require low plasma concentrations to achieve a therapeutic effect.

  12. Oral zinc sulphate vs. topical application of salicylic (16.7%) and lactic acid (16.7%) combination in the treatment of plantar warts

    Warts are commonly acquired viral tumors, caused by Human apilloma Virus (HPV). This virus can infect and cause disease at any site in the stratified squamous epithelium either keratinizing or non-keratinizing. A plantar wart (also called verruca plantaris) is a lesion that appears on the plantar surface of foot as a small, shining, sago-grain papule which soon assumes the typical appearance of a sharply-defined rounded lesion with a rough keratotic surface, surrounded by a smooth collar of thickened horn. Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of oral zinc sulphate versus topical application of salicylic (16.7%) and lactic acid (16.7%) combination, in the treatment of plantar warts. Study Design: Comparative interventional study. Setting and Duration of Study: Department of Dermatology Unit-I, King Edward Medical University, Mayo Hospital Lahore, from 15 February, 2009 till 14 February, 2010. Methodology: After informed consent, one hundred patients of plantar warts were selected from the outpatient Department of Dermatology, Mayo Hospital, Lahore. The patients were divided into two equal groups; in group A, 50 patients were given oral zinc sulphate (10 mg/kg/day) in two or three divided doses and in group B, 50 patients were advised to apply a combination of salicylic (16.7%) and lactic acid (16.7%) once at night daily. In group A, using oral zinc sulphate, the treatment was given for two months and follow up continued for next 4 months. In group B, the topical preparation was also continued for 2 months or till the complete removal of wart (if before two months) and follow up was extended up to 4 months after treatment. Results:The mean age of patients in group A was 26.2 +- 8.1 years and in group B 26.3 +- 7.3 years. The mean number of warts in group A was 7.9 +- 3.5 and in group B 5.7 +- 2.6. The mean duration of disease in group A was 6.9 +- 4.1 months and in group B 6.0 +- 3.9 months. On follow up at 2nd month, in group A, 41 (82%) patients showed an

  13. [Microbial production of glucose/fructose syrups].

    Matur, A; Sağlam, N

    1982-04-01

    With the ever-increasing demand for sugar and the trend in rising price, rapid progress in research on new and/or alternative sweeteners has been inevitable during the past decade or so. Pure glucose, glucose/fructose, glucose/maltose syrups are often called "isosyrups". Isosyrups have been recognized as a good alternative sources of sugar. These are used today in the manufacture of soft drinks, jams and jellies, confectionary, baking fermentation, dietetic and infant food, ice-cream, pharmaceutical processes, etc. Isosyrups are produced by hydrolysis of starch and cellulocis raw materials have been utilized for the production of isosyrups. PMID:7144624

  14. Outcome of maple syrup urine disease.

    Naughten, E. R.; Jenkins, J; Francis, D E; Leonard, J V

    1982-01-01

    The outcome of 12 children with classical maple syrup urine disease is reviewed. All patients presented in the neonatal period at ages varying from 5 to 21 (median 8) days. The time taken to make the diagnosis ranged from 1 day to longer than 9 months (median 7 days). Each survived his initial illness but 3 died later after apparently mild infections. Three of the 12 patients had a spastic quadriplegia and 6 others abnormal neurological signs without clear cerebral palsy. The single most impo...

  15. Efficacy and safety of oral alitretinoin (9-cis retinoic acid) in patients with severe chronic hand eczema refractory to topical corticosteroids : results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial

    Ruzicka, T.; Lynde, C. W.; Jemec, G. B. E.; Diepgen, T.; Berth-Jones, J.; Coenraads, P. J.; Kaszuba, A.; Bissonnette, R.; Varjonen, E.; Hollo, P.; Cambazard, F.; Lahfa, M.; Elsner, P.; Nyberg, F.; Svensson, A.; Brown, T. C.; Harsch, M.; Maares, J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Patients with severe chronic hand eczema (CHE) refractory to topical corticosteroids currently have limited treatment options suited for chronic use, and few controlled clinical studies have investigated new therapies in this setting. Objectives To assess the efficacy and safety of oral a

  16. Oral and topical pharmacokinetic studies of a novel TRPV1 antagonist, PAC-14028 in rats and minipigs using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric method.

    Park, Yang-Hui; Joo, Kyung-Mi; Woo, Byoung-Young; Son, Eui Dong; Byun, Sang Yo; Shin, Hong-Ju; Lee, Ki-Wha; Park, Young-Ho; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2012-03-01

    PAC-14028 ((E)-N-((R)-1-(3,5-difluoro-4-methanesulfonylamino-phenyl)-ethyl)-3-(2-propyl-6-trifluoromethyl-pyridine-3-yl)-acrylamide) is a novel and potent transient receptor potential vanilloid type I (TRPV1) antagonist. We developed and validated a rapid, sensitive and selective liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric method for determination of PAC-14028 in rat and minipig plasma. After protein precipitation PAC-14028 and internal standard (methylated analog, PAC-14026) were separated on a Symmetry C(18) column (4.6 mm × 75 mm, 3.5 μm) with an isocratic mobile phase, acetonitrile: water (8:2, v/v) containing 0.2% formic acid and monitored by electrospray positive ionization with multiple reaction monitoring mode (PAC-14028, 492→156; IS, 506→156, m/z). The calibration curve was linear over the range of 1.0-500 ng/ml (r(2)>0.999) and lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) was 1 ng/ml. The precision and accuracy were within ± 15% and the stability was acceptable during bench-top, auto-sampler, 3 freeze-thaw cycles and 4-week storage in a freezer at -80°C. This method was successfully applied to the intravenous, oral and topical pharmacokinetic studies of PAC-14028 in rats and minipigs, which showed comparable pharmacokinetic parameters (T1/2, 2.1h and 3.8h; F%, 52.7% and 64.2% for rats and minipigs, respectively). Percutaneous absorption of PAC-14028 was negligible after topical application (F% 0.2-1.7%). PMID:22169466

  17. Pharmacokinetics of ketoprofen syrup in small children.

    Kokki, H; Le Liboux, A; Jekunen, A; Montay, G; Heikkinen, M

    2000-04-01

    Ketoprofen is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties. Its pharmacokinetics has not been determined in small children. The objective here was to determine the pharmacokinetics of ketoprofen syrup, 0.5 mg/kg, in two groups of 10 children. Group 1 was from ages 6 months up to 2 years (7/10 younger than 1 year), and Group 2 was from ages 2 to 7 years. Venous blood samples were collected before drug administration and 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 hours after. A validated HPLC method was used to determine plasma levels of ketoprofen. The lower limit of quantification was 0.02 microgram/ml of plasma. Ketoprofen syrup was absorbed rapidly, the plasma level reaching its maximum at 0.5 hours, with C0.5 hours = 3 micrograms/ml. The pharmacokinetics was similar between the two groups of children. The elimination half-life, 2.0 hours in Group 1 or 1.9 hours in Group 2, was similar to that reported in adults. PMID:10761162

  18. The pasting and gel textural properties of corn starch in glucose, fructose and maltose syrup.

    Qingjie Sun

    Full Text Available The pasting and gel textural properties of corn starch in syrup at different concentrations were investigated by Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA and Texture profile analysis (TPA tests. The results showed that the pasting temperatures of corn starch greatly increased, especially at higher sugar concentration. Increasing concentration of syrup caused an increase in peak, trough and final viscosity of corn starch. Peak viscosity and the disintegration rate of starch increased in the following order: fructose syrup> maltose syrup> glucose syrup. Increasing syrup concentration to 13%, 25% and 50% resulted in a lower retrogradation rate than the control. When the maltose syrup concentration increased to 50%, the retrogradation rate decreased to 14.30% from 33.38%. The highest hardness was observed when the syrup concentration was 25%. There was a particular low hardness when the concentration of syrup was 50%. The springiness of starch gels in syrup was similar at different concentrations.

  19. The pasting and gel textural properties of corn starch in glucose, fructose and maltose syrup.

    Sun, Qingjie; Xing, Yan; Qiu, Chao; Xiong, Liu

    2014-01-01

    The pasting and gel textural properties of corn starch in syrup at different concentrations were investigated by Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA) and Texture profile analysis (TPA) tests. The results showed that the pasting temperatures of corn starch greatly increased, especially at higher sugar concentration. Increasing concentration of syrup caused an increase in peak, trough and final viscosity of corn starch. Peak viscosity and the disintegration rate of starch increased in the following order: fructose syrup> maltose syrup> glucose syrup. Increasing syrup concentration to 13%, 25% and 50% resulted in a lower retrogradation rate than the control. When the maltose syrup concentration increased to 50%, the retrogradation rate decreased to 14.30% from 33.38%. The highest hardness was observed when the syrup concentration was 25%. There was a particular low hardness when the concentration of syrup was 50%. The springiness of starch gels in syrup was similar at different concentrations. PMID:24755772

  20. Topical or oral administration with an extract of Polypodium leucotomos prevents acute sunburn and psoralen-induced phototoxic reactions as well as depletion of Langerhans cells in human skin

    Sunburn, immune suppression, photo-aging, and skin cancers result from uncontrolled overexposure of human skin to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Preventive measures, including photo-protection, are helpful and can be achieved by topical sun-screening agents. Polypodium leucotomos (PL) has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and has shown some in vitro and in vivo immunomodulating properties. Its beneficial photo-protective effects in the treatment of vitiligo and its antioxidant properties encouraged us to evaluate in vivo the potentially useful photo-protective property of natural extract of PL after topical application or oral ingestion. Twenty-one healthy volunteers [either untreated or treated with oral psoralens (8-MOP or 5-MOP)] were enrolled in this study and exposed to solar radiation for evaluation of the following clinical parameters: immediate pigment darkening (IPD), minimal erythema dose (MED), minimal melanogenic dose (MMD), and minimal phototoxic dose (MPD) before and after topical or oral administration of PL. Immunohistochemical assessment of CD1a-expressing epidermal cells were also performed. PL was found to be photo-protective after topical application as well as oral administration. PL increased UV dose required for IPD (P<0.01), MED (P<0.001) and MPD (P<0.001). After oral administration of PL, MED increased 2.,8±0.59 times and MPD increased 2.75±0.5 and 6.8±1.3 times depending upon the type of psoralen used. Immunohistochemical study revealed photo-protection of Langherhans cells by oral as well as topical PL. The observed photo-protective activities of oral or topical PL reveal a new avenue in examining the potentially useful field of systemic photo-protection and suggests that PL can be used as adjunct treatment and can make photochemotherapy and phototherapy possibly safe and effective when the control of cutaneous phototoxicity to PUVA or UVB is a limiting factor in such photo-therapies. (au)

  1. Topical treatment of melasma

    Bandyopadhyay Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment. Multiple options for topical treatment are available, of which hydroquinone (HQ) is the most commonly prescribed agent. Besides HQ, other topical ...

  2. Atrial fibrillation due to licorice root syrup.

    Erkuş, Musluhittin Emre; Altıparmak, İbrahim Halil; Demirbağ, Recep; Günebakmaz, Özgür

    2016-04-01

    While it is known that consumption of licorice may lead to cardiac arrhythmias, there have been no reports of atrial fibrillation resulting from the consumption of licorice root syrup. A 57-year-old male with no prior history of cardiovascular disease was admitted to the emergency department with palpitation. His electrocardiogram showed atrial fibrillation with a moderate to rapid ventricular rate. In laboratory assessment, potassium was 2.0 mmol/L and plasma renin activity and aldosterone level were suppressed (<300 ng/L/hour, 42 ng/L respectively). Volumes of the heart chambers were within normal range and functions and structures of the heart valves were normal in echocardiographic assessment. The arrhythmia was resolved with propafenone infusion. PMID:27138313

  3. Quality Control of Wild Berries Honey Syrup

    Laura Stan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the quality control parameters of wild berries honey syrup . The product was created in laboratory (wild berries: honey, 1:4 w/w and there were no changes recorded in overall quality over 6 months preservation at 1-2°C. Basic quality parameters of the product were evaluated: humidity, pH, acidity, hydroxymethylfurfural, diastase, total sugars and ascorbic acid. Methods developed by Internantional Honey Commission and Romanian Food Quality Standards were applied during this study. The product presented qood quality criteria and it was highly appreciated by consumers who tasted it. This study presents a valuable method to preserve fresh widberries in honey over a long period of time. The economical value of this experiment resides in making these fruits available outside the harvesting season.

  4. Replication of Holograms with Corn Syrup by Rubbing

    Arturo Olivares-Pérez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Corn syrup films are used to replicate holograms in order to fabricate micro-structural patterns without the toxins commonly found in photosensitive salts and dyes. We use amplitude and relief masks with lithographic techniques and rubbing techniques in order to transfer holographic information to corn syrup material. Holographic diffraction patterns from holographic gratings and computer Fourier holograms fabricated with corn syrup are shown. We measured the diffraction efficiency parameter in order to characterize the film. The versatility of this material for storage information is promising. Holographic gratings achieved a diffraction efficiency of around 8.4% with an amplitude mask and 36% for a relief mask technique. Preliminary results using corn syrup as an emulsion for replicating holograms are also shown in this work.

  5. 21 CFR 184.1866 - High fructose corn syrup.

    2010-04-01

    ... incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true High fructose corn syrup. 184.1866 Section 184.1866... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1866 High fructose corn syrup. (a) High...

  6. [Clinical study of BRON-L syrup (cough suppressant) abuse].

    Miyatake, Ryosuke; Doi, Tomoko; Date, Kenji; Naitoh, Tomomichi; Suwaki, Hiroshi

    2002-02-01

    In 1980s, abuse and dependence of BRON-W syrup (cough suppressant), which contains methylephedrine, dihydrocodeine, chlorpheniramine and caffeine, were prevalent in Japan. Pharmacological and clinical studies suggest that methylephedrine and dihydrocodeine cause dependence. Although BRON-L syrup, newly modified cough suppressant contains only chlorpheniramine and caffeine, there still are abuse and dependence of this drug. In this report, three cases of BRON-L syrup abuse are demonstrated. All cases started using BRON-L syrup in the late teens in their peer groups, and dropped out from school. Case 1 misused only BRON-L syrup, but case 2 and 3 were multi-drug abusers (case 2: amphetamine, cocaine, and marijuana, case 3: solvent, alcohol, bromovalerylurea), and had kept in tough with the peer groups. Case 2 and 3 hospitalized more than 2 times. Withdrawal symptoms, such as headache, insomnia, and irritability were mild and improved in a few weeks after drug use was stopped. These findings suggest that 1) psychosocial backgrounds of these cases are in common with those of BRON-W syrup abusers, but 2) the clinical course and prognosis of multi-drug abusers are different from the BRON single abuser, 3) chlorpheniramine and caffeine possibly cause dependence, 4) abusers are likely to choose BRON brand although two main dependence-producing constituents are removed from it now. Therefore, prevention and care of BRON-L abusers requires both psychosocial and pharmacological aspects. PMID:11915306

  7. A randomised trial comparing the efficacy and safety of topical ketoprofen in Transfersome(®) gel (IDEA-033) with oral ketoprofen and drug-free ultra-deformable Sequessome™ vesicles (TDT 064) for the treatment of muscle soreness following exercise.

    Seidel, Egbert J; Rother, Matthias; Regenspurger, Katja; Rother, Ilka

    2016-01-01

    We compared the effectiveness of topical ketoprofen in Transfersome(®) gel (IDEA-033) with oral ketoprofen and drug-free Sequessome™ vesicles (FLEXISEQ(®) Sport; TDT 064) in reducing calf muscle soreness. One hundred and sixty eight healthy individuals with a pain score ≥ 3 (10-point scale) 12-16 h post-exercise (walking down stairs with an altitude of 300-400 m) were randomised to receive IDEA-033 plus oral placebo (two dose groups), oral ketoprofen plus TDT 064, or TDT 064 plus oral placebo. The primary endpoint was muscle soreness reduction from pre-dosing to Day 7. Higher pain scores were recorded with oral ketoprofen plus TDT 064 (mean ± s 462.4 ± 160.4) versus IDEA-033 plus oral placebo (434.7 ± 190.8; P = 0.2931) or TDT 064 plus oral placebo (376.2 ± 159.1; P = 0.0240) in the 7 days post-exercise. Recovery from muscle soreness was longer with oral ketoprofen plus TDT 064 (mean 91.0 ± 19.5 h) versus IDEA-033 plus placebo (mean 81.4 ± 22.9 h; P = 0.5964) or TDT 064 plus placebo (mean 78.9 ± 22.8 h; P = 0.0262). In conclusion, ultradeformable phospholipid vesicles ± ketoprofen did not retard recovery from muscle soreness. TDT 064 improves osteoarthritis-related pain and could be of interest as a treatment for joint pain during and post-exercise. PMID:25893979

  8. Oral ingestion of a topical benzydamine hydrochloride-containing gynaecological preparation in association with television advertising in Italy: analysis of cases managed by a National Poison Control Centre.

    Settimi, Laura; Davanzo, Franca; Lauria, Laura; Casini, Maria Luisa; Ferrazin, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of a television advertising campaign on the risk of oral ingestion of a topical non-prescription gynaecological preparation containing benzydamine hydrochloride. Design An interrupted time series design with data routinely collected. Setting A National Poison Control Centre. Participants 215 cases of hazardous exposure to the preparation under study occurred in Italy from January 2005 to December 2010. Primary and secondary outcome measures Mean daily rate of cases of exposure by gender in three different periods, that is, pre-advertisement period, before the advertisement was broadcast (from 1 January 2005 to 19 December 2009), advertisement period, when the advertisement was repeatedly launched (from 20 December 2009 to 27 February 2010), post-advertisement period (from 28 February 2010 to 6 March 2010); observed/expected ratios of cases, with expected cases based on data from the pre-advertisement period, adjusted for estimated variations in the number of users. Comparison of the distribution of the main characteristics of cases in the three different periods by means of Pearson's χ(2) test or Fisher's exact test. Results The adjusted observed/expected ratio of cases in women was 7.48 (95% CI 5.76 to 9.56) in the advertisement period and 2.97 (95% CI 2.24 to 3.85) in the post-advertisement period. Regarding the characteristics of cases, there was an increased proportion of cases of exposure due to confusion about the correct administration route in the advertisement and post-advertisement periods (81% and 55%, respectively, compared to 16% for the pre-advertisement period.) and of individuals with clinical effects (55%, 52% and 27%, respectively). Conclusions In Italy, an advertisement for a non-prescription medicine seems to have confused consumers regarding the administration route. This effect was observed even after the advertisement had stopped being broadcast. These results highlight the need for the monitoring of

  9. Unintentional topical lindane ingestions--United States, 1998-2003.

    2005-06-01

    Lindane is an organochlorine pesticide found in certain prescription-only shampoos and topical lotions used to treat pediculosis (i.e., lice infestation) and scabies; lindane has been associated with human neurologic toxicity. In 2004, CDC was alerted to cases of illness caused by unintentional ingestion of lindane by persons mistaking the product for a liquid oral medication (e.g., cough syrup). To assess the extent of illness from ingestion of lindane, CDC, with assistance from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and state health departments, collected case reports and analyzed data from the Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks-Pesticides (SENSOR-Pesticides) program and the Toxic Exposure Surveillance System (TESS). This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which identified 870 cases of unintentional lindane ingestion during 1998-2003, and describes two examples of lindane ingestions. To reduce the risk of lindane ingestion, public health authorities should alert clinicians to the hazards of lindane and the importance of following FDA usage guidelines, which include dispensing lindane in manufacturer-produced, 1- or 2-ounce single-use containers. PMID:15931156

  10. 29 CFR 780.819 - Production must be of unrefined sugar or syrup.

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Production must be of unrefined sugar or syrup. 780.819..., or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup; Exemption From Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(b)(15... syrup. The second part of the section 13(b)(15) exemption is specifically limited to the production...

  11. Validation of spectrophotometric method for lactulose assay in syrup preparation

    Mahardhika, Andhika Bintang; Novelynda, Yoshella; Damayanti, Sophi

    2015-09-01

    Lactulose is a synthetic disaccharide widely used in food and pharmaceutical fields. In the pharmaceutical field, lactulose is used as osmotic laxative in a syrup dosage form. This research was aimed to validate the spectrophotometric method to determine the levels of lactulose in syrup preparation and the commercial sample. Lactulose is hydrolyzed by hydrochloric acid to form fructose and galactose. The fructose was reacted with resorcinol reagent, forming compounds that give absorption peak at 485 nm. Analytical methods was validated, hereafter lactulose content in syrup preparation were determined. The calibration curve was linear in the range of 30-100 μg/mL with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9996, coefficient of variance (Vxo) of 1.1 %, limit of detection of 2.32 μg/mL, and limit of quantitation of 7.04 μg/mL. The result of accuracy test for the lactulose assay in the syrup preparation showed recoveries of 96.6 to 100.8 %. Repeatability test of lactulose assay in standard solution of lactulose and sample preparation syrup showed the coefficient of variation (CV) of 0.75 % and 0.7 %. Intermediate precision (interday) test resulted in coefficient of variation 1.06 % on the first day, the second day by 0.99 %, and 0.95 % for the third day. This research gave a valid analysis method and levels of lactulose in syrup preparations of samples A, B, C were 101.6, 100.5, and 100.6 %, respectively.

  12. Topical Research: Africa.

    Lynn, Karen

    This lesson plan can be used in social studies, language arts, or library research. The instructional objective is for students to select a topic of study relating to Africa, write a thesis statement, collect information from media sources, and develop a conclusion. The teacher may assign the lesson for written or oral evaluation. The teacher…

  13. Stability studies on a cough syrup in plastic containers

    Gupta Renuka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Packaging of pharmaceuticals is a critical process. Plastics are unanimously used for solid dosage packaging. Due to their numerous advantages over glass, they are now being considered as an alternative to packaging of liquid dosage forms also. Cough syrups are preparations containing antitussive drugs, and are most commonly packaged in glass bottles. The interactive nature of plastics makes it essential that a detailed study be carried out before their use for any pharmaceutical packaging. The present work reports the stability and suitability of packaging antitussive syrup in plastic containers.

  14. Ten myths about high-fructose corn syrup

    High-fructose corn syrup, the sweetener used in most carbonated beverages in the United States, drew very little attention over its 30-year history until the past two years, when some researchers in the nutrition community claimed that it bears a unique responsibility for the current obesity epidemi...

  15. Fluorouracil Topical

    ... topical solution are used to treat actinic or solar keratoses (scaly or crusted lesions [skin areas] caused by years of too much exposure to sunlight). Fluorouracil cream and topical solution are also used to treat ...

  16. Testosterone Topical

    ... in which the body does not produce enough natural testosterone). Testosterone is used only for men with ... topical may control your symptoms but will not cure your condition. Continue to use testosterone topical even ...

  17. Bexarotene Topical

    ... condition may improve as soon as 4 weeks after you begin to use topical bexarotene, or it may ... notice any improvement. Continue to use topical bexarotene after you notice improvement; your condition may continue to improve. ...

  18. A double blind, randomised placebo controlled trial of topical 2% viscous lidocaine in improving oral intake in children with painful infectious mouth conditions

    Hopper Sandy M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Painful infectious mouth conditions are a common presentation to emergency departments. Although self limiting, painful ulcerative lesions and inflamed mucosa can decrease oral intake and can lead to dehydration. Oral analgesia is of limited efficacy and is often refused by the patient. Despite widespread use of oral 2% viscous lidocaine for many years, there is little evidence for its efficacy as an analgesic and in aiding oral intake in children with painful infectious mouth conditions. This study aims to establish the effectiveness of 2% viscous lidocaine in increasing oral intake in these children by comparing it with placebo. Methods/Design This study is a randomised double-blind placebo controlled trial of children between 6 months and 8 years of age with painful infectious mouth conditions defined as gingivostomatitis (herpetic or non herpetic, ulcerative pharyngitis, herpangina and hand foot and mouth disease as assessed by the treating clinician in association with a history of poor oral fluid intake. It will be conducted at a single tertiary paediatric emergency department in Melbourne Australia. 20 patients have already been randomised to receive 2% lidocaine or placebo in a pilot study to determine the sample size in a preplanned adaptive design. A further 80 patients will be randomised to receive either 2% lidocaine or placebo. The placebo agent is identical to lidocaine in terms of appearance, flavour and smell. All clinical and research staff involved, patients and their parents will be blinded to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint is the amount of fluid ingested by each child, expressed in ml/kg, within 60 minutes from the time of administration of the study mixture. Secondary endpoints are the proportion of patients ingesting 5 ml/kg and 10 ml/kg at 30 and 60 minutes after drug administration and the incidence of adverse events. Longer term outcomes will include the proportion of patients requiring

  19. Determination of Microbial Load in Multivitamin and Cough Syrups Sold in Dhaka City

    Abdullah Al Mamun

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The production of substandard drugs and use of inappropriate methods in manufacturing medical products in pharmaceutical industries may cause non-therapeutic effect in patients particularly in children. Hence this study was conducted to determine the microbiological quality of multivitamin and cough syrups of different brands sold in local pharmacy in Dhaka city. Microbiological analysis was carried out using spread plate technique on different culture media including nutrient agar, mannitol salt agar, MacConkey agar, mFC agar, TCBS agar and SS agar for the determination of total viable bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, total coliforms, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. respectively from eleven multivitamin and twelve cough syrups. The results revealed that 50% of the cough syrup and 91% of the multivitamin syrup showed compliance with the official requirement of microbiological quality as they did not show any growth or their microbiological count is within the USP permissible limit (<102 cfu/ml. While the major contaminants in cough syrup were Staphylococcus aureus (75%, Escherichia coli (17% and total coliforms (42%, multivitamin syrup (9% contained only Staphylococcus aureus. Other pathogens like Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. could not be detected in both cough and multivitamin syrups. Although most of the multivitamin syrup (91% samples are free from potential microbial threat, some of the cough syrup (75% samples are contaminated with pathogenic bacteria. Hence potential safety measurement should be taken during the production and use of cough syrups to maintain the microbiological quality.

  20. Comparison of the transfer of coumaphos from beeswax into syrup and honey

    Kochansky, Jan; Wilzer, Kenneth; Feldlaufer, Mark

    2001-01-01

    International audience The organophosphate insecticide coumaphos has recently received emergency approval in the United States for control of fluvalinate-resistant Varroa destructor and the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray. We investigated the transfer of coumaphos from wax into syrup and honey, using adsorption of coumaphos from diluted syrup or honey onto a solid-phase extraction cartridge, elution, and subsequent analysis. Coumaphos in syrup was quantitated using HPLC with UV de...

  1. AI Topics

    Buchanan, Bruce G; Glick, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    The debut of the AI in the News column elsewhere in this issue of AI Magazine created a good opportunity to introduce the professional community to the AI Topics web site, home of the AI in the news virtual page. Although AI Topics is designed for the lay public, it serves a much larger audience.

  2. Oral candidiasis.

    Millsop, Jillian W; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Oral candidiasis (OC) is a common fungal disease encountered in dermatology, most commonly caused by an overgrowth of Candida albicans in the mouth. Although thrush is a well-recognized presentation of OC, it behooves clinicians to be aware of the many other presentations of this disease and how to accurately diagnose and manage these cases. The clinical presentations of OC can be broadly classified as white or erythematous candidiasis, with various subtypes in each category. The treatments include appropriate oral hygiene, topical agents, and systemic medications. This review focuses on the various clinical presentations of OC and treatment options. PMID:27343964

  3. Topical treatment of melasma

    Bandyopadhyay Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment. Multiple options for topical treatment are available, of which hydroquinone (HQ is the most commonly prescribed agent. Besides HQ, other topical agents for which varying degrees of evidence for clinical efficacy exist include azelaic acid, kojic acid, retinoids, topical steroids, glycolic acid, mequinol, and arbutin. Topical medications modify various stages of melanogenesis, the most common mode of action being inhibition of the enzyme, tyrosinase. Combination therapy is the preferred mode of treatment for the synergism and reduction of untoward effects. The most popular combination consists of HQ, a topical steroid, and retinoic acid. Prolonged HQ usage may lead to untoward effects like depigmentation and exogenous ochronosis. The search for safer alternatives has given rise to the development of many newer agents, several of them from natural sources. Well-designed controlled clinical trials are needed to clarify their role in the routine management of melasma.

  4. Lactoferrin dampens high-fructose corn syrup-induced hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome in a murine model.

    Yi-Chieh Li

    Full Text Available Hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome are related obesity, type 2 diabetes/insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Here we investigated how the anti-inflammatory properties of lactoferrin can protect against the onset of hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome by using a murine model administered with high-fructose corn syrup. Our results show that a high-fructose diet stimulates intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increases intestinal permeability, leading to the introduction of endotoxin into blood circulation and liver. Immunohistochemical staining of Toll-like receptor-4 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin indicated that lactoferrin can modulate lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammatory cascade. The important regulatory roles are played by adipokines including interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and adiponectin, ultimately reducing hepatitis and decreasing serum alanine aminotransferase release. These beneficial effects of lactoferrin related to the downregulation of the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cascade in the liver. Furthermore, lactoferrin reduced serum and hepatic triglycerides to prevent lipid accumulation in the liver, and reduced lipid peroxidation, resulting in 4-hydroxynonenal accumulation. Lactoferrin reduced oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance. Lactoferrin administration thus significantly lowered liver weight, resulting from a decrease in the triglyceride and cholesterol synthesis that activates hepatic steatosis. Taken together, these results suggest that lactoferrin protected against high-fructose corn syrup induced hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome.

  5. Lactoferrin dampens high-fructose corn syrup-induced hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome in a murine model.

    Li, Yi-Chieh; Hsieh, Chang-Chi

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome are related obesity, type 2 diabetes/insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Here we investigated how the anti-inflammatory properties of lactoferrin can protect against the onset of hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome by using a murine model administered with high-fructose corn syrup. Our results show that a high-fructose diet stimulates intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increases intestinal permeability, leading to the introduction of endotoxin into blood circulation and liver. Immunohistochemical staining of Toll-like receptor-4 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin indicated that lactoferrin can modulate lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammatory cascade. The important regulatory roles are played by adipokines including interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and adiponectin, ultimately reducing hepatitis and decreasing serum alanine aminotransferase release. These beneficial effects of lactoferrin related to the downregulation of the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cascade in the liver. Furthermore, lactoferrin reduced serum and hepatic triglycerides to prevent lipid accumulation in the liver, and reduced lipid peroxidation, resulting in 4-hydroxynonenal accumulation. Lactoferrin reduced oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance. Lactoferrin administration thus significantly lowered liver weight, resulting from a decrease in the triglyceride and cholesterol synthesis that activates hepatic steatosis. Taken together, these results suggest that lactoferrin protected against high-fructose corn syrup induced hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:24816278

  6. Lead and cadmium levels of commonly administered pediatric syrups in Nigeria: A public health concern?

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere, E-mail: eorish@aol.com [Toxicology Unit, Department of Pharmacology,College of Health Sciences, Nnamdi Azikiwe University,Nnewi Campus. P.M.B. 5001, Nnewi, Anambra State (Nigeria); Nduka, John Kanayochukwu [Environmental Chemistry and Toxicology Research Unit, Pure and Industrial Chemistry Department, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, P.M.B. 5025, Awka Anambra State (Nigeria)

    2009-11-15

    Fifty different pediatric syrups were randomly sampled from patent medicine stores and pharmaceutical shops within Awka, in Anambra State between November 2007 and May 2008. Syrups were ashed before digestion using conc. aqua regia, HCl:HNO{sub 3} (3:1) and lead and cadmium were assayed with AAS 205A. Results revealed that 60 and 98% of the sample size had lead and cadmium respectively. The lead levels ranged from 0.01 in chloroquine to 1.08 mg/l in magcid suspension. The highest level of cadmium was seen in magcid suspension with concentration of 2.45 mg/l while lowest concentration of 0.01 in emzolyn and colipan. About 41.2% of the locally made syrup had none detectable levels of lead while all the syrup had detectable levels of cadmium. Lead levels ranged from 0.01 mg/l in cadiphen manufactured in Dholka, India to 0.09 in maxiquine made in England. About 68.8% of the imported syrups of the imported syrups had non detectable levels of lead. Chloramphenicol and zentel albendazole syrups had 0.60 and 0.88 mg/l of cadmium respectively. Bellis cough syrup showed the lowest level (0.01 mg/l) of cadmium. Only erythromycin suspension representing 6.3% had non detectable level of cadmium of the imported syrups. Due to the Cd and Pb levels found, we suggest that the behaviour scenario (here, self administration without medical assistance) should be properly taken under control. Along with this, contamination sources or vulnerable practices during syrups preparation should be also assessed in a tiered approach, towards the minimization of noxious presence in syrups and the promotion of quality of Nigerian-made products.

  7. Lead and cadmium levels of commonly administered pediatric syrups in Nigeria: a public health concern?

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Nduka, John Kanayochukwu

    2009-11-15

    Fifty different pediatric syrups were randomly sampled from patent medicine stores and pharmaceutical shops within Awka, in Anambra State between November 2007 and May 2008. Syrups were ashed before digestion using conc. aqua regia, HCl:HNO(3) (3:1) and lead and cadmium were assayed with AAS 205A. Results revealed that 60 and 98% of the sample size had lead and cadmium respectively. The lead levels ranged from 0.01 in chloroquine to 1.08 mg/l in magcid suspension. The highest level of cadmium was seen in magcid suspension with concentration of 2.45 mg/l while lowest concentration of 0.01 in emzolyn and colipan. About 41.2% of the locally made syrup had none detectable levels of lead while all the syrup had detectable levels of cadmium. Lead levels ranged from 0.01 mg/l in cadiphen manufactured in Dholka, India to 0.09 in maxiquine made in England. About 68.8% of the imported syrups of the imported syrups had non detectable levels of lead. Chloramphenicol and zentel albendazole syrups had 0.60 and 0.88 mg/l of cadmium respectively. Bellis cough syrup showed the lowest level (0.01 mg/l) of cadmium. Only erythromycin suspension representing 6.3% had non detectable level of cadmium of the imported syrups. Due to the Cd and Pb levels found, we suggest that the behaviour scenario (here, self administration without medical assistance) should be properly taken under control. Along with this, contamination sources or vulnerable practices during syrups preparation should be also assessed in a tiered approach, towards the minimization of noxious presence in syrups and the promotion of quality of Nigerian-made products. PMID:19765804

  8. Lead and cadmium levels of commonly administered pediatric syrups in Nigeria: A public health concern?

    Fifty different pediatric syrups were randomly sampled from patent medicine stores and pharmaceutical shops within Awka, in Anambra State between November 2007 and May 2008. Syrups were ashed before digestion using conc. aqua regia, HCl:HNO3 (3:1) and lead and cadmium were assayed with AAS 205A. Results revealed that 60 and 98% of the sample size had lead and cadmium respectively. The lead levels ranged from 0.01 in chloroquine to 1.08 mg/l in magcid suspension. The highest level of cadmium was seen in magcid suspension with concentration of 2.45 mg/l while lowest concentration of 0.01 in emzolyn and colipan. About 41.2% of the locally made syrup had none detectable levels of lead while all the syrup had detectable levels of cadmium. Lead levels ranged from 0.01 mg/l in cadiphen manufactured in Dholka, India to 0.09 in maxiquine made in England. About 68.8% of the imported syrups of the imported syrups had non detectable levels of lead. Chloramphenicol and zentel albendazole syrups had 0.60 and 0.88 mg/l of cadmium respectively. Bellis cough syrup showed the lowest level (0.01 mg/l) of cadmium. Only erythromycin suspension representing 6.3% had non detectable level of cadmium of the imported syrups. Due to the Cd and Pb levels found, we suggest that the behaviour scenario (here, self administration without medical assistance) should be properly taken under control. Along with this, contamination sources or vulnerable practices during syrups preparation should be also assessed in a tiered approach, towards the minimization of noxious presence in syrups and the promotion of quality of Nigerian-made products.

  9. Estradiol Topical

    ... a medication that is applied topically to the vagina. Estradiol is in a class of medications called ... swelling, redness, burning, irritation, or itching of the vagina vaginal discharge Some side effects can be serious. ...

  10. THE PURIFICATION OF GLUCOSE SYRUP FROM TAPIOCA BY USING ABSORPTION METHOD AND THE CONCENTRATION PROCESS BY VACUUM EVAPORATOR

    Zainal; Laga, Amran; Bastian, Februadi

    2013-01-01

    The glucose syrupe production from tapioca needs to remove dirt and the colour. The water content should also be reduced. The aobjectives of this research were to identify the efffectiveness of glucose syrup purification by using the combination of activated charcoal and zeolit, and to determine the optimal evaporation time on the concentration process of glucose syrup to produce high glucose syrup. The materials were tapioca, activated charcoal, and zeolit. The research was started with conv...

  11. Analysis of Dextromethorphan in Cough Drops and Syrups: A Medicinal Chemistry Laboratory

    Hamilton, Todd M.; Wiseman, Frank L., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is used to determine the quantity of dextromethorphan hydrobromide (DM) in over-the-counter (OTC) cough drops and syrups. This experiment is appropriate for an undergraduate medicinal chemistry laboratory course when studying OTC medicines and active ingredients. Students prepare the cough drops and syrups for analysis,…

  12. MICROBIAL ASSESSMENT OF SOME SYRUP SOLD IN PATENT MEDICINE STORES IN MINNA METROPOLIS, NIGERIA

    Daniyan S.Y.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The microbiological quality of eighteen different brands of syrups comprising of Paracetamol, Chloroquine phosphate and Vitamin C syrups purchased from different patent medicine stores in Minna metropolis was assessed. The microbial load was determined using the viable cell count method; the resulting contaminant microorganisms were isolated and characterized by standard methods. The results revealed the contamination in four of six; five of six and four of six, Vitamin C. Paracetamol and Chloroquine phosphate syrups respectively exceeding the tolerance limit of permissible microorganisms specified officially for syrups. The contaminant organisms isolated from analyzed syrups include bacteria: Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and fungal isolates include: Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillum notatum, Aspergillus flavus and Mucor specie. Bacilus subtilis were found to be most predominant bacterial isolates while Aspergillus niger was the predominant fungal isolate. The pH values of the analyzed syrups ranged from 2.71-3.94 with the exception of Paracetamol syrups,brands of Vitamin C and Chloroquine phosphate syrups which had pH range of 5.28-7.11, 5.30-5.32 and 4.83-4.88 respectively. The susceptibility patterns of each bacterial isolates to antimicrobial agents showed resistance to Nalixidic acid,Ampicillin,Rocephin,Ampiclox and Amoxacillin, with high sensitivity to Pefloxacin,Ciprofloxacin, Streptomycin and Septrin.

  13. Comparison of productivity of colonies of honey bees, Apis mellifera, supplemented with sucrose or high fructose corn syrup

    Honey bee colony feeding trials were conducted to determine whether differential effects of carbohydrate feeding (sucrose syrup vs. high fructose corn syrups) were detected between colonies fed exclusively on these syrups. In one experiment, colonies installed within a closed arena had increased pr...

  14. 21 CFR 201.308 - Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for over-the-counter sale.

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for... Specific Drug Products § 201.308 Ipecac syrup; warnings and directions for use for over-the-counter sale... poisonings, ipecac syrup is considered the emetic of choice. The immediate availability of this drug for...

  15. 78 FR 146 - Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of...

    2013-01-02

    ... STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar... certain sugar and syrup goods and sugar containing products of Determination of Trade Surplus in Certain Sugar and Syrup Goods and Sugar-Containing Products of Chile, Morocco, Costa Rica, the...

  16. Fermentation of an Aromatized Wine-Based Beverage with Sambucus nigra L. Syrup (after Champenoise Method

    Teodora Emilia Coldea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The sparkling wine based beverage with elderflower (Sambucus nigra L. syrup presented improved sensorial characteristics. White wine used was Fetească regală variety, obtained in Micro winery of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Cluj-Napoca. Elderflower syrup was prepared without thermal treatment, but was pasteurised before its addition to wine. Elderflower have many health benefits, such as diuretic, diaphoretic, or antioxidant activity. In this study it was used elderflower syrup both to improve the product s sensorial properties, and for their multiple benefits to health. The sparkling wine based beverage with elderflower syrup was produced by fermentation in the bottle (after Champenoise method, with the addition of wine yeast. The novelty brought by this paper is the use of elderflower syrup in alcoholic-beverage industry.

  17. Spotlight Topics

    A Spotlight Topic consists of a set of two or more review articles focused on a specific subject in surface science. The topics are recommended by the Board of Editors. A topic may be chosen because it is particularly new or fast-breaking, thus deserving introduction to the general readership. Or, it may be because a topic is especially controversial or confusing, requiring clarification by experts. Each review will give a critical assessment rather than an encyclopedic report. While our editors always will insist on fairness and accuracy, any review which forwards an opinion is bound to be somewhat subjective. Therefore, it is the editors' wish that the set of reviews written by different authors on the same subject matter will provide a broad and balanced viewpoint. It is often the case that an author who is an expert in a technique or method may be especially enthusiastic or critical about this technique or method. A companion review in the set may provide a different viewpoint. We are hopeful that the reader, after studying these reviews and checking some of the key references, will obtain an informed opinion of the subject. We think the set of reviews in a spotlight area will considerably shorten the ``learning time'' that a nonexpert would otherwise need to become knowledgeable about a subject. In this issue, we feature a spotlight topic on oxide surfaces. The set contains an overview article by Jacques Jupille, and four articles written by G. Pacchioni, F. Cosandey and T. E. Madey, B. G. Daniels, R. Lindsay and G. Thornton, and C. Noguera respectively. Of these, the article by Pacchioni has already appeared in SRL 7, 277 (2000). The other three articles appear in this issue. A reader who wishes to suggest a spotlight topic or recommend authors to write such reviews should contact the Editor-in-Chief. We would like to hear from you.

  18. Ciclopirox Topical

    ... Use the applicator brush attached to the bottle cap to apply ciclopirox topical solution evenly to all affected nails. Also apply the ... the bottle cap and neck and replace the cap tightly on the bottle. Let the solution dry for about 30 seconds before you put ...

  19. Detection of honey adulteration with starch syrup by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Wang, Shaoqing; Guo, Qilei; Wang, Linlin; Lin, Li; Shi, Hailiang; Cao, Hong; Cao, Baosen

    2015-04-01

    According to saccharide profile comparison between starch syrups and pure honeys analysed through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), a characteristic peak was found at 15.25 min retention time in HPLC chromatogram of syrup, but no peak was observed at the same retention time in chromatogram of pure honeys. This characteristic peak for syrup was identified as an overlapping peak of oligosaccharides with more than 5 degree of polymerisation (DP) based on HPLC chromatogram comparison between starch syrup and a series of standard mono-, di- and oligosaccharides of 3-7 DP. Additionally syrup content correlated linearly with the height of the characteristic peak of syrup under different slope in two ranges 2.5-7.5% and 10-100%, respectively. Therefore, the characteristic peak at 15.25 min retention time can serve as a syrup indicator in HPLC analysis of the adulterated honeys. This new HPLC method for honey adulteration detection was further applied in an authenticity inspection on more than 100 commercial honeys. In addition to the improved accuracy of honey adulteration detection, the proposed HPLC method was simple, low cost and easy practice for honey product quality control by government department considering the popularity of HPLC device and technology. PMID:25442605

  20. Elemental Impurities in Nigerian Pediatric Syrups: Mercury in Violation of Standard Guidelines.

    Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Roberts, Irosanga Itamuno; Bagbi, Baribefe Monday

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the human exposure to elemental impurities like antimony, tin, and mercury pharmaceutical products in the African environment are scarce and limited. In this study, we determined the concentrations of these elemental impurities in 28 different brands of commonly used pediatric syrups, purchased randomly from patent medicine retail outlets in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. The aim of this study was to compare the antimony, tin, and mercury levels in these pediatric syrups with the recommended limits of United States Pharmacopeia. Twenty-eight different pediatric syrups were randomly sampled and purchased using the market basket protocol from pharmacy shops in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria in December 2010. Syrups were ashed before digestion using concentrated aqua regia, HCl: HNO3 (3:1), and antimony, tin, and mercury were analyzed using Unicam Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) Model 929. The ranges of heavy metal content in these pediatric syrups were 0.54-1.27, 0.86-2.56, and 0.97-5.13 μg/g for antimony, tin, and mercury, respectively. About 75% of the syrups exceeded the United States Pharmacopeia mercury limit of 1.5 μg/g. The estimated or calculated amounts of antimony, tin, and mercury in the 3 most likely administered syrups were 17.15, 64.20, and 34.60 μg of antimony, tin, and mercury, respectively. The daily intake or estimated amount from the ingestion of syrups excluding background exposure (μg metal·kg body weight·d) for a 15-kg child were 1.17, 2.31, and 4.28 for antimony, tin, and mercury, respectively. Mercury content in pediatric syrups may constitute a significant source of heavy metal exposure to children and may be of public health importance in Nigeria. PMID:23676346

  1. 推拿拔罐结合养阴清肺糖浆治疗小儿阴虚肺热咳嗽80例%Massage and Cupping Combined with Yangyin Qingfei Syrup Treating 80 Cases of Children with Yin Deficiency and Lung Heat Cough

    胡沛铎; 马军虎

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the clinical effect of massage and cupping combined with Yangyin Qingfei syrup for the treatment of yin deficiency and lung heat cough. Methods:There were 160 cases randomly di-vided into the treatment group and the control group. In the control group patients were treated with Yangyin Qingfei syrup,while in the treatment group patents were give massage and cupping combined with Yangyin Qingfei syrup. Effects were compared after the treatment. Results:The total effective rate of the massage and cupping combined with oral administration of Yangyin Qingfei syrup was 91.3%,obviously supe-rior to oral administration of Yangyin Qingfei syrup alone. Conclusion:massage and cupping combined with Yangyin Qingfei syrup in treatment of children with yin deficiency and lung heat cough was of obvious ef-fect.%目的:观察推拿拔罐结合养阴清肺糖浆治疗阴虚肺热咳嗽的临床疗效.方法:将160例患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,对照组采用口服养阴清肺糖浆,治疗组在对照组基础上与推拿拔罐结合,治疗后进行疗效比较.结果:推拿拔罐结合口服养阴清肺糖浆总有效率91.3%,疗效明显优于单纯口服养阴清肺糖浆.结论:推拿拔罐结合养阴清肺糖浆治疗小儿阴虚肺热咳嗽效果显著.

  2. Intellectual performance of children with maple syrup urine disease.

    Hilliges, C; Awiszus, D; Wendel, U

    1993-02-01

    The intellectual performance of 22 children aged 3-16 years with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) was assessed and compared to a group of early treated phenylketonuria (PKU) children and normal subjects matched by age, sex, nationality, and socio-economic status. All subjects were tested by one examiner only using the age related versions of the non-verbal Snijders-Oomen intelligence test. The mean IQ (+/- SD) score was 74 +/- 14 (range 50-103) in patients with MSUD, 101 +/- 12 (range 87-125) in early treated PKU patients, and 107 +/- 9 (range 90-122) in normal subjects. Intercorrelations indicated that length of time after birth that plasma leucine concentration remained > 1 mmol/l and quality of long-term metabolic control have important influences on IQ. PMID:8444223

  3. Diffusion-weighted MRI of maple syrup urine disease encephalopathy

    We report the case of a newborn child with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), diagnosed at 10 days of life. Diffusion-weighted echoplanar MRI showed marked hyperintensity of the cerebellar white matter, the brainstem, the cerebral peduncles, the thalami, the dorsal limb of the internal capsule and the centrum semiovale, while conventional dual-echo sequence evidenced only a weak diffuse T2 hyperintensity in the cerebellar white matter and in the dorsal brainstem. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of these regions was markedly (>80%) decreased. Therefore, in agreement with current hypotheses on MSUD pathogenesis, MSUD oedema proves to be a cytotoxic oedema. Diffusion-weighted MRI may be a valuable tool, more sensitive than conventional spin-echo techniques, to assess the extent and progression of cytotoxicity in MSUD, as well as the effectiveness of the therapeutic interventions. (orig.)

  4. Maple Syrup Urine Disease in a Central Indiana Hereford Herd

    Mark E. Robarge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD and further cases were identified in herd mates of a small Hereford herd in Indiana based on history, clinical signs, microscopic lesions, and biochemical and genetic testing. This aminoacidopathy has been diagnosed in polled Shorthorn, polled Hereford, and Hereford cattle in Australia, Uruguay, Argentina, and Canada and is the result of a mutation of the branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. The Indiana index calf case was confirmed by showing the classic accumulation of ketoacids in liver that results from a defect in the E1-alpha subunit (248 C/T haplotype in the mitochondrial branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. The presence of the mutation was confirmed in the index case, the dam, and four related herd mates that represent the first confirmed cases of bovine MSUD mutation in United States cattle.

  5. Multifractal modeling of the production of concentrated sugar syrup crystal

    闭胜; 高剑波

    2016-01-01

    High quality, concentrated sugar syrup crystal is produced in a critical step in cane sugar production:the clarification process. It is characterized by two variables: the color of the produced sugar and its clarity degree. We show that the temporal variations of these variables follow power-law distributions and can be well modeled by multiplicative cascade multifractal processes. These interesting properties suggest that the degradation in color and clarity degree has a system-wide cause. In particular, the cascade multifractal model suggests that the degradation in color and clarity degree can be equivalently accounted for by the initial“impurities”in the sugarcane. Hence, more effective cleaning of the sugarcane before the clarification stage may lead to substantial improvement in the effect of clarification.

  6. Multifractal modeling of the production of concentrated sugar syrup crystal

    Sheng, Bi; Jianbo, Gao

    2016-07-01

    High quality, concentrated sugar syrup crystal is produced in a critical step in cane sugar production: the clarification process. It is characterized by two variables: the color of the produced sugar and its clarity degree. We show that the temporal variations of these variables follow power-law distributions and can be well modeled by multiplicative cascade multifractal processes. These interesting properties suggest that the degradation in color and clarity degree has a system-wide cause. In particular, the cascade multifractal model suggests that the degradation in color and clarity degree can be equivalently accounted for by the initial “impurities” in the sugarcane. Hence, more effective cleaning of the sugarcane before the clarification stage may lead to substantial improvement in the effect of clarification.

  7. Diffusion-weighted MRI of maple syrup urine disease encephalopathy

    Cavalleri, F.; Mavilla, L. [Servizio di Neuroradiologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico, Modena (Italy); Berardi, A.; Ferrari, F. [Servizio di Neonatologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico, Modena (Italy); Burlina, A.B. [Dipartimento di Pediatria, Azienda Ospedaliera, Universita di Padova, Padua (Italy)

    2002-06-01

    We report the case of a newborn child with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), diagnosed at 10 days of life. Diffusion-weighted echoplanar MRI showed marked hyperintensity of the cerebellar white matter, the brainstem, the cerebral peduncles, the thalami, the dorsal limb of the internal capsule and the centrum semiovale, while conventional dual-echo sequence evidenced only a weak diffuse T2 hyperintensity in the cerebellar white matter and in the dorsal brainstem. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of these regions was markedly (>80%) decreased. Therefore, in agreement with current hypotheses on MSUD pathogenesis, MSUD oedema proves to be a cytotoxic oedema. Diffusion-weighted MRI may be a valuable tool, more sensitive than conventional spin-echo techniques, to assess the extent and progression of cytotoxicity in MSUD, as well as the effectiveness of the therapeutic interventions. (orig.)

  8. Codeine cough syrup use among African-American crack cocaine users.

    Peters, Ronald J; Williams, Mark; Ross, Michael W; Atkinson, John; Yacoubian, George S

    2007-03-01

    While studies show evidence of a clear problem with the prevalence of crack cocaine and codeine cough syrup use separately, the relationship between these substances of abuse and concurrent polydrug use is unknown. In an attempt to ascertain beyond anecdotal evidence, the authors carried out a cross-sectional study among 482 African-American crack users to investigate the differences between those who were concurrently codeine cough syrup users and those who were not codeine cough syrup users in Houston, Texas. Logistic regression indicated that codeine use was significantly associated with lower participant age and lower education; codeine cough syrup users were significantly more likely than nonusers to not have a main sexual partner. In addition, codeine users had significantly higher odds of ever trading sex for money, marijuana use, and fry use. These findings are important in determining the "cultural novelties" relative to crack and codeine use among younger African Americans. PMID:17523589

  9. Comparative efficacy and tolerance of ibuprofen syrup and acetaminophen syrup in children with pyrexia associated with infectious diseases and treated with antibiotics.

    Autret, E; Breart, G; Jonville, A P; Courcier, S; Lassale, C; Goehrs, J M

    1994-01-01

    A double-blind, randomised, parallel group study has been done comparing the efficacy and tolerability of 7.5 mg/kg ibuprofen syrup (n = 77) and 10 mg.kg-1 acetaminophen syrup (n = 77) in 154 children (6 months to 5 years) with fever (> or = 38 degrees C) associated with infectious diseases and treated with antibiotic therapy. The area under the percentage reduction in temperature curve captured the net effect of each drug and provided the best estimate for comparison of efficacy during a defined period. Temperature evolution over time was not significantly different between the two groups. Nevertheless, the temperature reduction over the first 4 h of treatment (H0-H4) was significantly higher after ibuprofen (60%) than acetaminophen (45%). Both ibuprofen and acetaminophen were well tolerated. In conclusion, significant antipyretic activity, good tolerability and its availability as a syrup make ibuprofen an effective means of fever control in children. PMID:8070499

  10. Carotenoid production by Rhodotorula rubra cultivated in sugarcane juice, molasses, and syrup

    David Banzatto; Lidyane Aline de Freita; Márcia Justino Rossini Mutton

    2013-01-01

    The Rhodotorularubra biomass and carotenoids production was evaluated in sugarcane juice, molasses, and syrup based media. The effects of media supplementation with urea- nitrogen or the commercial nutrient called Nitrofos KL was also verified. The experimental design used was a completely randomized factorial with 3 substrates (juice, molasses, and syrup) and three supplementations (control, urea, and Nitrofos KL). The results were submitted to variance analysis and Tukey test at 5% probabil...

  11. Pengaruh Perbandingan Konsentrasi Sukrosa Dengan High Fructose Syrup (Hfs) Dan Konsentrasi Pektin Terhadap Mutu Permen Jelly

    Zulfaini, Fauziah

    2013-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui adanya Pengaruh Perbandingan Konsentrasi Sukrosa Dengan High Fructose Syrup Dan Konsentrasi Pektin Terhadap Mutu Permen Jelly yang dihasilkan. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode Rancangan Acak Lengkap dengan dua faktorial: 4X4 terdiri dari 2 faktor dengan 2 ulangan. Faktor I Perbandingan Konsentrasi Sukrosa Dengan High Fructose Syrup (P) terdiri dari 4 jenis yaitu : P t (70% : 20%), P2 (75% : 15%), P3 (80% : 10%), P4 (85% : 5%) dengan penambahan glu...

  12. Influence of thermal effect on sugars composition of Mexican Agave syrup

    Muniz-Marquez, D.B.; Contreras, J. C.; Rodriguez, R.; S. I. Mussatto; Wong-Paz, J.E.; Teixeira, J.A.; C. N. Aguilar

    2015-01-01

    Agave syrup is a fermentable by-product from the Agave industry that is used for pulque production, a typical Mexican fermented beverage. However, to date, the information available on its physicochemical composition is scarce, with this study being one of the first contributions on the subject. Here the influence of thermal treatment at 121ºC/15 min on the physicochemical composition of agave syrup was studied. The chemical composition based on sugar content was evaluated by thin-layer chrom...

  13. The Pasting and Gel Textural Properties of Corn Starch in Glucose, Fructose and Maltose Syrup

    Qingjie Sun; Yan Xing; Chao Qiu; Liu Xiong

    2014-01-01

    The pasting and gel textural properties of corn starch in syrup at different concentrations were investigated by Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA) and Texture profile analysis (TPA) tests. The results showed that the pasting temperatures of corn starch greatly increased, especially at higher sugar concentration. Increasing concentration of syrup caused an increase in peak, trough and final viscosity of corn starch. Peak viscosity and the disintegration rate of starch increased in the following order...

  14. Canada's maple syrup industry%加拿大枫糖业

    2005-01-01

    Maple syrup is a natural product with no coloring agents or additives. Canada produces about 85 per cent of the world's maple syrup. Marketing has evolved from selling to traditional markets to more value added markets such as blends with other products (cereals, yogurt, etc.). This industry contributes to Canada's value added exports, since more than 60 per cent of maple exports are now shipped in pre packaged containers.

  15. MICROBIAL ASSESSMENT OF SOME SYRUP SOLD IN PATENT MEDICINE STORES IN MINNA METROPOLIS, NIGERIA

    Daniyan S .Y.; Sangodere T.A.

    2011-01-01

    The microbiological quality of eighteen different brands of syrups comprising of Paracetamol, Chloroquine phosphate and Vitamin C syrups purchased from different patent medicine stores in Minna metropolis was assessed. The microbial load was determined using the viable cell count method; the resulting contaminant microorganisms were isolated and characterized by standard methods. The results revealed the contamination in four of six; five of six and four of six, Vitamin C. Paracetamol and Chl...

  16. Sugar Profile, Mineral Content, and Rheological and Thermal Properties of an Isomerized Sweet Potato Starch Syrup

    Brunson Dominque; Gichuhi, Peter N; Vijay Rangari; Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C

    2013-01-01

    Currently, corn is used to produce more than 85% of the world's high fructose syrup (HFS). There is a search for alternative HFS substrates because of increased food demand and shrinking economies, especially in the developing world. The sweet potato is a feasible, alternative raw material. This study isomerized a high glucose sweet potato starch syrup (SPSS) and determined its sugar profile, mineral content, and rheological and thermal properties. Rheological and thermal properties were meas...

  17. Sugar Profile, Mineral Content, and Rheological and Thermal Properties of an Isomerized Sweet Potato Starch Syrup.

    Dominque, Brunson; Gichuhi, Peter N; Rangari, Vijay; Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C

    2013-01-01

    Currently, corn is used to produce more than 85% of the world's high fructose syrup (HFS). There is a search for alternative HFS substrates because of increased food demand and shrinking economies, especially in the developing world. The sweet potato is a feasible, alternative raw material. This study isomerized a high glucose sweet potato starch syrup (SPSS) and determined its sugar profile, mineral content, and rheological and thermal properties. Rheological and thermal properties were measured using a rheometer and DSC, respectively. Sweet potato starch was hydrolyzed to syrup with a mean fructose content of 7.6 ± 0.4%. The SPSS had significantly higher (P syrups. During 70 days of storage, the SPSS acted as a non-Newtonian, shear-thinning liquid in which the viscosity decreased as shear stress increased. Water loss temperature of the SPSS continually decreased during storage, while pancake and ginger syrups' peak water loss temperature decreased initially and then increased. Further and more detailed studies should be designed to further enhance the fructose content of the syrup and observe its stability beyond 70 days. The SPSS has the potential to be used in human food systems in space and on Earth. PMID:26904593

  18. Variation and correlation of properties in different grades of maple syrup.

    Singh, Amritpal S; Jones, A Maxwell P; Saxena, Praveen K

    2014-03-01

    Thirty five commercial maple syrups from twelve producers in Southern Ontario were evaluated for properties including light transmittance, autofluorescence, density, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), glucose and fructose content, total phenol content, antioxidant potential and mineral content (Mg, Mn, P, Zn, Ca, K, Fe and Pb). A high degree of variability was found in many characteristics, often exceeding an order of magnitude. Syrups were categorized based on light transmission at 560 nm into amber (12), dark (13) and very dark (10) using International Maple Syrup Institute (IMSI) guidelines. No statistical differences were found among grades of syrup for density, pH, TSS, glucose, fructose, total reducing sugars, glucose:fructose ratio, magnesium, manganese or potassium. Darker syrups showed significantly higher autofluorescence, total phenol content, antioxidant potential, phosphorous, calcium and total mineral content. Significant negative correlations of percent transmission with total phenol content, antioxidant potential and total mineral content are reported. Significant positive correlations among total phenol content, antioxidant potential and total mineral content are also described. The results from this study suggest that darker syrups tend to contain more beneficial traits and may be applied in developing functional foods and value added products. PMID:24408861

  19. Medroxyprogesterone acetate plasma levels after a single oral administration of two drug formulations.

    Pannuti, F; Strocchi, E; Longhi, A; Comparsi, R; Camaggi, C M

    1986-08-01

    A comparison has been made between the absorption of oral medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in an aqueous suspension preparation and in syrup form. Plasma drug profiles were measured after a single administration of the two formulations in 17 advanced cancer patients. On average the standard form (aqueous suspension) gave peak levels which were lower than the syrup mixture. However, the wide intersubject spread in MPA plasma levels observed in both groups did not allow any statistical significance to be assigned to this difference. PMID:2945648

  20. The effects of sucralfate suspension and diphenhydramine syrup plus kaolin-pectin on radiotherapy-induced mucositis

    A prospective, double-blind study compared the effectiveness of sucralfate suspension with diphenhydramine syrup plus kaolin-pectin in reducing severity and pain of radiation-induced oropharyngeal mucositis. Fourteen patients who received at least 4600 cGy to the oral cavity used one of the mouth rinses four times a day, beginning at 1600 cGy. Data were collected on daily perceived pain and helpfulness of mouth rinse, weekly mucositis grade, weight change, and interruption of therapy. Analysis of data revealed no statistically significant differences between the two groups in any parameter. A retrospective review of 15 patients who had received at least 4600 cGy radiation to the oropharynx but had not used a daily mouth-coating rinse, was compared with the study group. Comparison of the two groups suggested that consistent daily oral hygiene and use of a mouth-coating agent will result in less pain and may reduce weight loss and interruption of radiation because of severe mucositis

  1. [Topical contraceptives].

    Alipov, V I; Korkhov, V V

    1982-02-01

    Recently there has been little interest in topical contraceptives. The most popular are the cervical cap and the diaphragm. Other types of mechanical contraceptive devices are being investigated. Standley and Kessler have developed a device for introduction into the cervical canal with a reservoir of spermatocide, it does not block the flow of blood during menstruation. New models of vaginal rings are also being developed which are simple enough for self-insertion and also contain a reservoir of spermatocide. Work is being done on spermatocide-containing sponges in many countries. Another project being investigated is the possibility of using natural proteins, collagens, and other substances which absorb spermatozoids. The ancients used various vaginal suppositories to kill spermatozoids; in the late 19th century quinine sulfate was used for this, and a variety of substances have been used recently. These spermicidal creams also have the advantage of acting as anti-infectious agents in many cases. But they do have some negative effects. They are about 85% effective, are local irritants, and some cause discomfort during intercourse. And it is possible that some are resorbed by the body and act on the liver and other organs. Vaginal globules and suppositories are also popular. The "Kontraceptin-T" brand contains quinosol, boric acid, and tannin. There are also foaming tablets which are mixed with water and then introduced. New locally-active chemical substances are being developed in Japan, West Germany, and the USSR. Kontraceptin-E contains paranonyl-phenoxypolyethylene glycol and sodium dioctylsulfosuccinate. The "Norforks" and other preparations contain mercurial compounds which may turn out to be harmful. The future promises the development of products which will act to prevent fertilization by acting on the hyaluronidase and the acrosine of the spermatozoid, thus preventing it from penetrating the ovum. It would be best to find enzyme inhibitors which are

  2. Identification, classification, and discrimination of agave syrups from natural sweeteners by infrared spectroscopy and HPAEC-PAD.

    Mellado-Mojica, Erika; López, Mercedes G

    2015-01-15

    Agave syrups are gaining popularity as new natural sweeteners. Identification, classification and discrimination by infrared spectroscopy coupled to chemometrics (NIR-MIR-SIMCA-PCA) and HPAEC-PAD of agave syrups from natural sweeteners were achieved. MIR-SIMCA-PCA allowed us to classify the natural sweeteners according to their natural source. Natural syrups exhibited differences in the MIR spectra region 1500-900 cm(-1). The agave syrups displayed strong absorption in the MIR spectra region 1061-1,063 cm(-1), in agreement with their high fructose content. Additionally, MIR-SIMCA-PCA allowed us to differentiate among syrups from different Agave species (Agavetequilana and Agavesalmiana). Thin-layer chromatography and HPAEC-PAD revealed glucose, fructose, and sucrose as the principal carbohydrates in all of the syrups. Oligosaccharide profiles showed that A. tequilana syrups are mainly composed of fructose (>60%) and fructooligosaccharides, while A. salmiana syrups contain more sucrose (28-32%). We conclude that MIR-SIMCA-PCA and HPAEC-PAD can be used to unequivocally identify and classified agave syrups. PMID:25148997

  3. Stability of Commercially Available Grape and Compounded Cherry Oral Vancomycin Preparations Stored in Syringes and Cups.

    Kirk, Loren; Lewis, Paul; Luu, Yao; Brown, Stacy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of two preparations of vancomycin oral solution in two different storage containers, capped amber oral-dosing syringes and heat-sealed oral-dosing cups, stored under refrigerated conditions. Commercially available grape-flavored vancomycin oral preparation and compounded vancomycin for intravenous use in cherry syrup oral preparation were divided into 5-mL aliquots into heat-sealed plastic dosing cups and capped oral-dosing syringes. All samples were stored under refrigeration (2°C to 8°C) and evaluated at days 0, 3, 7, 14, 30, 60, and 90. For each evaluation, samples were visually inspected and analyzed for potency using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method with ultraviolet detection. Over the study period, at least 90% of the initial concentrations for the preparation and the product in both storage containers were retained at 60 days. The commercially available oral vancomycin further demonstrated stability within 90% out to 90 days in the syringe and the unit-dose cups. Visual inspection revealed no changes in the grape-flavored vancomycin oral preparation, but a detectable red-dye precipitate could be seen in the crevices of the dosing cups from the vancomycin in cherry syrup oral preparation after 60 days. Commercially available grape-flavored vancomycin oral preparation was stable up to 90 days, and com- pounded vancomycin for intravenous use in cherry syrup oral preparation maintained stability for 60 days when dispensed in capped amber polypropylene oral-dosing syringes and heat-sealed plastic dosing cups when stored at refrigerated conditions. PMID:27323427

  4. Determination and Comparision of Hydroxymethylfurfural in Industrial and Traditional Date Syrup Products

    Afrooz Jafarnia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF is a common Maillard reaction product directly formed from dehydration of sugars under acidic conditions during heating and storage in carbohydrate rich foods. The aim of the present study was to detect and quantify the amount of HMF in date syrup by HPLC method. In addition, the amount of HMF in date syrup produced by traditional and industrial methods were compared. Methods: A HPLC method for determination of HMF in date syrup was developed and validated. The amount of HMF in date syrup products produced by the traditional and industrial methods was compared. In addition, to determine whether HMF was produced during storage in date syrup, its amount was measured in fresh and old samples. Results: The HMF content of fresh traditional products varied between 1000 to 2675 mg⁄kg and in the old products varied between 2580 to 6450 mg⁄kg. The HMF concentration of the fresh industrial products varied between 12 to 456 mg⁄kg and 611 to 943 mg⁄kg in the old ones. The HMF concentration of the traditionally produced products was significantly higher than industrial products (P<0.001. Moreover, the HMF content in old products significantly was more than fresh ones (P<0.001. Wide variation was found in HMF content of the traditionally produced products. Conclusion: HMF was produced in date syrup during preparation and storage. Because HMF is recognized as an indicator of quality deterioration in a wide range of foods and is still under investigation for possible toxic effects, it is recommended that the amount of HMF is measured in date syrup and considered as an indicator of the quality control of this product.

  5. Oral Cancer

    ... TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer ... Puts Someone at Risk? Possible Signs & Symptoms Early Detection About Oral Cancer Oral cancer includes cancers of ...

  6. Nonmedical Use of Cough Syrup Among Secondary Vocational School Students

    Wu, Qingfeng; Yu, Jincong; Yang, Chengwu; Chen, Jiayan; Yang, Longyu; Zhang, Hui; Teng, Shiwei; Li, Jiang; Yan, Dong; Cao, Jiepin; Zhao, Yanting; Wang, Zengzhen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Nonmedical use of cough syrup (NUCS) among secondary vocational school (SVS) students has been an increasing concern for public health in China, but no data were available. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the epidemiological characters of NUCS as well as its risk factors among SVS students in China. From September 2013 to December 2014, a total of 13,614 SVS students were purposively selected through multistage sampling in 6 cities of China. Information on NUCS, demographics, family background, smoking and alcohol consumption, impulsiveness, sensation seeking, and parental monitoring were collected. Logistic regression was used to explore factors related to NUCS. The 12,923 (94.9%) valid responses (16.3 ± 1.0 years old, and 52.6% men) reported 3.47% (95% confidence interval: 3.15–3.79%) lifetime NUCS. Logistic regression indicated that smoking, part-time job experience, high level of impulsiveness, and sensation seeking were risk factors for NUCS, whereas urban living and high parental monitoring were protective ones. NUCS was prevalent among SVS students. Interventions that target on smoking, impulsiveness and sensation seeking control, improvement on parental monitoring may have considerable impact on NUCS among SVS students. PMID:26962800

  7. Acrodermatitis dysmetabolica in an infant with maple syrup urine disease.

    Flores, K; Chikowski, R; Morrell, D S

    2016-08-01

    Acrodermatitis dysmetabolica (AD) is a rare, newly termed, and poorly understood disease that appears to be clinically similar to acrodermatitis enteropathica (AE). Both diseases are characterized by the triad of periorificial and acral dermatitis, diarrhoea, and alopecia. Unlike AE, which is caused by zinc deficiency, AD is caused by numerous metabolic disorders. One such disorder is maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), a genetic deficiency of branched chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase, the enzyme that degrades the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) isoleucine, leucine and valine. Treatment involves restricting BCAAs to prevent accumulation. We report a case of an infant being treated for MSUD, who developed the triad of AE/AD after a period of poor BCAA formula intake. The child was found to have low isoleucine and normal zinc levels. Increasing the isoleucine dose improved the eruption, thus the diagnosis of AD secondary to isoleucine deficiency was made. This case emphasizes the importance of carefully balancing BCAA levels while treating MSUD, as deficiency can precipitate AD. PMID:27334242

  8. High fructose corn syrup and diabetes prevalence: a global perspective.

    Goran, Michael I; Ulijaszek, Stanley J; Ventura, Emily E

    2013-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to evaluate, from a global and ecological perspective, the relationships between availability of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) and prevalence of type 2 diabetes. Using published resources, country-level estimates (n =43 countries) were obtained for: total sugar, HFCS and total calorie availability, obesity, two separate prevalence estimates for diabetes, prevalence estimate for impaired glucose tolerance and fasting plasma glucose. Pearson's correlations and partial correlations were conducted in order to explore associations between dietary availability and obesity and diabetes prevalence. Diabetes prevalence was 20% higher in countries with higher availability of HFCS compared to countries with low availability, and these differences were retained or strengthened after adjusting for country-level estimates of body mass index (BMI), population and gross domestic product (adjusted diabetes prevalence=8.0 vs. 6.7%, p=0.03; fasting plasma glucose=5.34 vs. 5.22 mmol/L, p=0.03) despite similarities in obesity and total sugar and calorie availability. These results suggest that countries with higher availability of HFCS have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes independent of obesity. PMID:23181629

  9. The future of topical analgesics.

    Arnstein, Paul M

    2013-07-01

    Topically applied analgesic therapies have been used throughout history to treat a variety of patient conditions that present with pain. Before modem pharmaceuticals became readily available, mud-based emollients, salves, cold therapies, and other natural remedies were often used. Now we have effective therapies and are developing advanced topical analgesics as we learn more about the physiology and pathophysiology of pain. The use of topical analgesics may be associated with fewer patient systemic side effects than are seen with oral, parenteral, or transdermally administered agents, making the topical route of administration attractive to prescribers and patients. With further refinement of existing drugs and the development of novel agents, topical analgesics may offer relief for treating patient pain conditions that are currently challenging to treat, such as pain resulting from burns, wound debridement, and pressure ulcers. Recognizing the value of a multimodal approach, topical analgesics may offer a therapeutic option that can become part of a comprehensive treatment plan for the patient. With continued advancements in targeted drug-delivery systems, topical analgesics may be able to provide a method to prevent or reverse the phenomena of peripheral and central sensitization, or the neuroplastic changes believed to be responsible for the transition from acute to chronic pain states in patients. For those patients at risk for developing chronic pain states, such as complex regional pain syndrome, the combination of cutaneous stimulation (achieved through rubbing during application) and analgesic effects produced by the drug itself may prevent the disabling pain that often emerges during the subacute phase of disease. In summary, better utilization of currently available topical analgesics and continued research promise to ensure that topical analgesics are, and will continue to be, important tools in the treatment of patients with resistant pain. PMID

  10. 舒肺止咳糖浆治疗感染后咳嗽的临床观察%Clinical observation on treating post infectious cough with cough syrup

    朱颖文; 缪晓路

    2013-01-01

      目的:观察舒肺止咳糖浆对感染后咳嗽的临床疗效.方法:选择感染后咳嗽患者75例,给予强力安喘通口服3d后,联用舒肺止咳糖浆口服,治疗3d,观察临床疗效.结果:第1个疗程后总有效率为66.7%;第2个疗程后总有效率为82.5%.两个疗程总有效率比较有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:联用舒肺止咳糖浆对感染后咳嗽有较好的疗效.%Objective: To observe the clinical therapeutic effect of cough syrup in treating post infectious cough. Methods: 75 cases of post infectious cough patients were selected, given Asmeton’strong’ Capsules orally for 3 days and given cough syrup for another 3 days. Results: The total effective rate after the first course of treatment was 66.7%, and that of the second course of treatment was 82.5%. A significant difference were detected between the two groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: Combination use of cough syrup had an expected effect in treating post infectious cough.

  11. Effect of ultrafiltration process on physico-chemical, rheological, microstructure and thermal properties of syrups from male and female date palm saps.

    Makhlouf-Gafsi, Ines; Baklouti, Samia; Mokni, Abir; Danthine, Sabine; Attia, Hamadi; Blecker, Christophe; Besbes, Souhail; Masmoudi, Manel

    2016-07-15

    This study investigates the effect of the ultrafiltration process on physicochemical, rheological, microstructure and thermal properties of syrups from male and female date palm sap. All the studied syrups switched from pseudoplastic rheological behaviour (n=0.783) to Newtonian behaviour (n∼1) from 10 to 50 °C respectively and present similar thermal profiles. Results revealed that the ultrafiltration process significantly affects the rheological behaviour of the male and female syrups. These differences on rheological properties are attributed to the variation of chemical composition between sap and sap permeate syrups. Furthermore, the effect of temperature on viscosity of the syrups was investigated during heating and cooling processes at the same shear rate (50s(-1)). This study provides idea of the stability of the syrup by evaluating the area between heating and cooling curves. Actually, the syrup prepared from male sap permeate is the most stable between the four studied syrups. PMID:26948603

  12. The optimal conditions for nata production from sugar palm syrup by Acetobacter xylinum TISTR 107

    Laochareonsuk, T.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The optimal conditions of nata production from the fermentation of sugar palm syrup by Acetobacter xylinum TISTR 107 was studied. The results showed that optimized production for a litre of sugar palm syrup medium should compose 15 ºBrix concentration, 7.0 g NH4H2PO4 and 0.7 g MgSO4. 7 H2O at pH 4.25 and incubation at room temperature. The thickness of nata production reached 1.15 cm in 9 days. Sensory evaluation showed that there were no significant difference in odor and acceptability between the nata from sugar palm syrup and the traditional nata production from coconut juice whereas there were significant differences in color and texture. However, the nata from sugar palm syrup gave a better texture. Chemical analysis of the nata produced under these optimal culture conditions revealed 0.13% protein, 0.012% fat, 2.74% fiber, 0.378% nitrogen-free extract, 0.11% ash and 96.63% moisture content. The results suggest that nata produced from sugar palm syrup can be used in food and confectionery.

  13. Drying kinetics of syrup of Parinari curatellifolia fruit and cereal based product, zvambwa.

    Benhura, Chakare; Kugara, Jameson; Muchuweti, Maud; Nyagura, Stella F; Matarise, Florence; Gombiro, Power E; Nyandoro, George

    2015-08-01

    Drying properties of syrup prepared from Parinari curatellifolia fruit and cereal based product, zvambwa prepared from the syrup and finger millet (Eleusine coracana) meal were studied using a convective tray drier at temperatures ranging from 30 to 80 °C and air velocity of 0.72 m/s. Nine mathematical models namely Henderson and Pabis, Lewis, Midilli et al., Modified Page, Page, Two Term, Weibull, Modified Page Equation (II) and Wang and Singh were fitted to data for thin layer drying of the products using non-linear regression analysis. Thin layer drying processes for the syrup and zvambwa were best described by the Modified Page model. Effective moisture diffusivities for drying of syrup were higher than those for drying of zvambwa. The activation energies for drying of syrup and zvambwa were 21.0 ± 2.0 kJ/mol and19.0 ± 2.0 kJ/mol respectively. PMID:26243916

  14. Sugar Profile, Mineral Content, and Rheological and Thermal Properties of an Isomerized Sweet Potato Starch Syrup

    Brunson Dominque

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, corn is used to produce more than 85% of the world’s high fructose syrup (HFS. There is a search for alternative HFS substrates because of increased food demand and shrinking economies, especially in the developing world. The sweet potato is a feasible, alternative raw material. This study isomerized a high glucose sweet potato starch syrup (SPSS and determined its sugar profile, mineral content, and rheological and thermal properties. Rheological and thermal properties were measured using a rheometer and DSC, respectively. Sweet potato starch was hydrolyzed to syrup with a mean fructose content of 7.6±0.4%. The SPSS had significantly higher (P<0.05 mineral content when compared to commercial ginger and pancake syrups. During 70 days of storage, the SPSS acted as a non-Newtonian, shear-thinning liquid in which the viscosity decreased as shear stress increased. Water loss temperature of the SPSS continually decreased during storage, while pancake and ginger syrups’ peak water loss temperature decreased initially and then increased. Further and more detailed studies should be designed to further enhance the fructose content of the syrup and observe its stability beyond 70 days. The SPSS has the potential to be used in human food systems in space and on Earth.

  15. Effect of High Fructose Syrup Diet Exposure on the Activities of Detoxifying Enzymes in Honey Bees Apis mellifera ligustica%饲喂果葡糖浆对意大利蜜蜂解毒酶的影响

    孟丽峰; 靳三省; 刁青云

    2013-01-01

    为了探讨果葡糖浆饲喂蜜蜂的安全性,以意大利蜜蜂(Apis mellifera ligustica)为实验材料,蔗糖作为对照,饲喂果葡糖浆2个月后,检测意大利蜜蜂体内解毒酶的变化情况.结果表明:饲喂果葡糖浆后,意大利蜜蜂大幼虫体内细胞色素P450比活力、成年工蜂腹部谷胱甘肽-S-转移酶和羧酸酯酶比活力均与对照无显著差异.短期饲喂果葡糖浆对蜜蜂是安全的,长期影响还有待于继续研究.%The activities of Cytochrome-P450,glutathione S-transferase and carboxylesterase in the worker bees of Apis mellifera ligustica were investigated after the bees were fed orally with high fructose syrup in two consecutive months.The results showed that compared with sucrose diet,high fructose syrup diet did not significantly affect the activities of three detoxifying enzymes.Feeding with high fructose syrups is safe to Apis mellifera ligustica in short time and long-time effects need further research.The results can be used to assess the security of high fructose syrups used as bee feed.

  16. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens levansucrase-catalyzed the synthesis of fructooligosaccharides, oligolevan and levan in maple syrup-based reaction systems.

    Li, Mengxi; Seo, Sooyoun; Karboune, Salwa

    2015-11-20

    Maple syrups with selected degree Brix (°Bx) (15, 30, 60) were investigated as reaction systems for levansucrase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The enzymatic conversion of sucrose present in the maple syrup and the production of the transfructosylation products were assessed over a time course of 48h. At 30°C, the use of maple syrup 30°Bx led to the highest levansucrase activity (427.53μmol/mg protein/min), while maple syrup 66°Bx led to the highest converted sucrose concentration (1.53M). In maple syrup 30°Bx, oligolevans (1080%). In maple syrup 66°Bx, the most abundant products were oligolevans at 30°C and levans (DP≥30) at 8°C. The acceptor specificity study revealed the ability of B. amyloliquefaciens levansucrase to synthesize a variety of hetero-fructooligosaccharides (FOSs) in maple syrups 15°Bx and 30°Bx enriched with various disaccharides, with lactose being the preferred fructosyl acceptor. The current study is the first to investigate maple-syrup-based reaction systems for the synthesis of FOSs/oligolevans/levans. PMID:26344273

  17. The Abuse of Dextromethorphan-Based Cough Syrup: A Pilot Study of the Community of Waynesboro, Pennsylvania.

    Momodou, N. Darboe; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the emergence of a new type of abused drug, dextromethorphan, which is used in cough syrup. Presents the results of the first phase of a comprehensive investigation of this phenomenon in the Waynesboro, Pa. school district. Survey data indicate abuse of cough syrup has increased over the years and is increasingly perceived as a problem…

  18. FTIR characterization of Mexican honey and its adulteration with sugar syrups by using chemometric methods

    A chemometric analysis of adulteration of Mexican honey by sugar syrups such as corn syrup and cane sugar syrup was realized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to measure the absorption of a group of bee honey samples from central region of Mexico. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to process FTIR spectra to determine the adulteration of bee honey. In addition to that, the content of individual sugars from honey samples: glucose, fructose, sucrose and monosaccharides was determined by using PLS-FTIR analysis validated by HPLC measurements. This analytical methodology which is based in infrared spectroscopy and chemometry can be an alternative technique to characterize and also to determine the purity and authenticity of nutritional products as bee honey and other natural products.

  19. Evaluation of Clinical Efficacy and Tolerance of Khasceeze –SF Cough Syrup

    S Satam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fifty patients of either sex aged 15 - 65 years entered the study to test the efficacy and tolerability of a herbal preparation known as Khasceeze-SF Cough Syrup. They were studied for cough and related symptoms such as sore throat, sneezing, breathlessness and fever. Substantial improvement, i.e., excellent to good response, in relief of cough and other symptoms was noted over 84% out of 50 patients and fair response in 11.64%. Only 4.10% patients showed poor relief in symptoms hence suggested Khasceeze-SF Cough Syrup facilitated a healing touch to the diseased bronchial tree and helps alleviate the cough of any aetiology. No drowsiness, irritability, or dryness in mouth was seen with Khasceeze-SF Cough Syrup.

  20. FTIR characterization of Mexican honey and its adulteration with sugar syrups by using chemometric methods

    Rios-Corripio, M A; Rojas-Lopez, M; Delgado-Macuil, R [CIBA-Tlaxcala, IPN, Tlaxcala, Tlax. (Mexico); Rios-Leal, E, E-mail: marlonrl@yahoo.com.mx [CINVESTAV, Zacatenco, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    A chemometric analysis of adulteration of Mexican honey by sugar syrups such as corn syrup and cane sugar syrup was realized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to measure the absorption of a group of bee honey samples from central region of Mexico. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to process FTIR spectra to determine the adulteration of bee honey. In addition to that, the content of individual sugars from honey samples: glucose, fructose, sucrose and monosaccharides was determined by using PLS-FTIR analysis validated by HPLC measurements. This analytical methodology which is based in infrared spectroscopy and chemometry can be an alternative technique to characterize and also to determine the purity and authenticity of nutritional products as bee honey and other natural products.

  1. PERAWATAN GIGI PADA ANAK DENGAN MAPLE SYRUP URINE DISEASE (LAPORAN KASUS

    Tri Fajari

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Maple Syrup Urine Disease is a disparity of leusin decarboxilation, and isoleusin of valin defect that is synthesized with complex enzyme systems. It is a rare disease and represents disparity. In some cases can generate ketosis that grows according to health change and can cause comma. Dental treatment of a child with Maple Syrup Urine Disease was not clearly mentioned, there is only a factor such as infection, which is very dangerous at any age, and can generate irregular metabolism. Dental treatment of a child with Maple Syrup Urine Disease accompanied by mental retardation must be done continuously to avoid infection that can result in the death of the patients.

  2. Antipyretic therapy. Comparison of rectal and oral paracetamol.

    Keinänen, S; Hietula, M; Similä, S; Kouvalainen, K

    1977-08-17

    The absorption of paracetamol from syrup, tablet and two different suppository bases was compared in six adult volunteers using urinary excretion measurements. The total amount of paracetamol and its metabolites excreted and the peak excretion rates were lower from the suppository bases than from the oral dosage forms. Absorption was a little better from a polyethylene glycol suppository base than from a triglyceride base. The antipyretic efficacy of a paracetamol syrup and suppository at a dose of 10 mg/kg was compared in 30 children between the age of 4 months and 12 years, who had infections and a rectal temperature above 38.5 degrees C. Both dosage forms produced a significant decrease in temperature, the greatest fall being about 2 hours earlier with the oral dosage form. The syrup also seemed to be significantly (p less than 0.05) more effective (maximum fall of temperature 1.58 degrees C) in reducing fever than the suppository, which produced its greatest fall of temperature (1.24 degrees C) six hours after insertion of the suppository. From the practical point of view both forms can be regarded as safe and effective antipyretics. PMID:332506

  3. Xylitol Syrup for the Prevention of Acute Otitis Media

    Corwin, Michael J.; Vezina, Richard M.; Pelton, Steven I.; Feldman, Henry A.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; Mitchell, Allen A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute otitis media (AOM) is a common childhood illness and the leading indication for antibiotic prescriptions for US children. Xylitol, a naturally occurring sugar alcohol, can reduce AOM when given 5 times per day as a gum or syrup, but a more convenient dosing regimen is needed for widespread adoption. METHODS: We designed a pragmatic practice-based randomized controlled trial to determine if viscous xylitol solution at a dose of 5 g 3 times per day could reduce the occurrence of clinically diagnosed AOM among otitis-prone children 6 months through 5 years of age. RESULTS: A total of 326 subjects were enrolled, with 160 allocated to xylitol and 166 to placebo. In the primary analysis of time to first clinically diagnosed AOM episode, the hazard ratio for xylitol versus placebo recipients was 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.61 to 1.3). In secondary analyses, the incidence of AOM was 0.53 episodes per 90 days in the xylitol group versus 0.59 in the placebo group (difference 0.06; 95% CI –0.25 to 0.13); total antibiotic use was 6.8 days per 90 days in the xylitol group versus 6.4 in the placebo group (difference 0.4; 95% CI –1.8 to 2.7). The lack of effectiveness was not explained by nonadherence to treatment, as the hazard ratio for those taking nearly all assigned xylitol compared with those taking none was 0.93 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.57). CONCLUSIONS: Viscous xylitol solution in a dose of 5 g 3 times per day was ineffective in reducing clinically diagnosed AOM among otitis-prone children. PMID:24394686

  4. Protein and leucine metabolism in maple syrup urine disease

    Constant infusions of [13C]leucine and [2H5]phenylalanine were used to trace leucine and protein kinetics, respectively, in seven children with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) and eleven controls matched for age and dietary protein intake. Despite significant elevations of plasma leucine (mean 351 mumol/l, range 224-477) in MSUD subjects, mean whole body protein synthesis [3.78 +/- 0.42 (SD) g.kg-1. 24 h-1] and catabolism (4.07 +/- 0.46) were similar to control values (3.69 +/- 0.50 and 4.09 +/- 0.50, respectively). The relationship between phenylalanine and leucine fluxes was also similar in MSUD subjects (mean phenylalanine-leucine flux ratio 0.35 +/- 0.07) and previously reported adult controls (0.33 +/- 0.02). Leucine oxidation was undetectable in four of the MSUD subjects and very low in the other three (less than 4 mumol.kg-1.h-1; controls 13-20). These results show that persistent elevation in leucine concentration has no effect on protein synthesis. The marked disturbance in leucine metabolism in MSUD did not alter the relationship between rates of catabolism of protein to phenylalanine and leucine, which provides further support for the validity of the use of a single amino acid to trace whole body protein metabolism. The minimal leucine oxidation in MSUD differs from findings in other inborn metabolic errors and indicates that in patients with classical MSUD there is no significant route of leucine disposal other than through protein synthesis

  5. Chemoprevention of 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced oral carcinogenesis in hamster cheek pouch by topical application of a dual inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ErbB2 tyrosine kinases

    Sun, Zheng; Sood, Sandeep; Li, Ning; Yang, Peiying; Newman, Robert A.; Yang, Chung S.; Chen, Xiaoxin

    2007-01-01

    Oral cancer is a common neoplasm worldwide with tobacco and alcohol being the major etiological factors contributing to its pathogenesis. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and ErbB2 are known to be involved in the development of oral cancer with the former up-regulated in up to 90% human cases. The goal of this study was to evaluate the chemopreventive effects of a dual inhibitor of EGFR and ErbB2 tyrosine kinases, GW2974, in the 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster ch...

  6. Oral cancer

    ... the immune system (immunosuppressants) Poor dental and oral hygiene Some oral cancers begin as a white plaque ( leukoplakia ) or ... use Visiting the dentist regularly and practicing good oral hygiene

  7. Efficacy observation of compound Huangbai liquid and Loratadine syrup in treatment of infantile eczema%复方黄柏液联合氯雷他定糖浆治疗小儿湿疹疗效观察

    周桂林; 杨伯艳; 窦海忠

    2014-01-01

    目的::观察复方黄柏液联合氯雷他定糖浆治疗小儿湿疹的临床疗效。方法:将152例湿疹患儿随机分为治疗组和对照组,每组76例患儿。治疗组患儿给予氯雷他定糖浆口服,急性湿疹有渗出糜烂者用复方黄柏液冷湿敷;亚急性湿疹,结痂肥厚者直接外搽;对照组患儿给予氯雷他定糖浆口服,急性湿疹有渗出糜烂者用2%~3%硼酸溶液冷湿敷患处;亚急性湿疹,结痂肥厚者用硼酸氧化锌软膏外搽。比较两组疗效。结果:总有效率治疗组和对照组患儿分别为88.16%、61.84%,两组比较差异有显著性(P<0.01)。结论:复方黄柏液联合氯雷他定糖浆治疗小儿湿疹疗效好,不良反应小,值得临床推广应用。%Objective:To observe clinical efficacy of compound Huangbai liquid and Loratadine syrup in treatment of infantile eczema. Methods:152 cases of eczema were randomly divided into treatment group and control group. 76 cases in treatment group o-rally took Loratadine syrup oral: acute eczema patients with exudation erosion were treated by wet and cold liquid of compound Huang-bai; those with subacute eczema and scabs hypertrophy were coated with compound Huangbai liquid directly. 76 cases in control group orally took Loratadine syrup: the acute eczema patients with exudation erosion were treated by wet and cold 2% -3% boric acid solution on skin; those with subacute eczema and scabs hypertrophy were coated with zinc oxide ointment. The efficacies of the two groups were compared. Results: The total effective rates of treatment group and control group were 88. 16% and 61. 84% , respectively, and the difference was significant (P<0. 01). Conclusions: Compound Huangbai liquid and Loratadine syrup in the treatment of infantile ecze-ma can get a good efficacy, reduce side effects, and be worthy of clinical application.

  8. Detection of adulteration in honey samples added various sugar syrups with 13C/12C isotope ratio analysis method.

    Tosun, Murat

    2013-06-01

    Honey can be adulterated in various ways. One of the adulteration methods is the addition of different sugar syrups during or after honey production. Starch-based sugar syrups, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), glucose syrup (GS) and saccharose syrups (SS), which are produced from beet or canes, can be used for adulterating honey. In this study, adulterated honey samples were prepared with the addition of HFCS, GS and SS (beet sugar) at a ratio of 0%, 10%, 20%, 40% and 50% by weight. (13)C/(12)C analysis was conducted on these adulterated honey samples using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer in combination with an elemental analyser (EA-IRMS). As a result, adulteration using C(4) sugar syrups (HFCS and GS) could be detected to a certain extent while adulteration of honey using C(3) sugar syrups (beet sugar) could not be detected. Adulteration by using SS (beet sugar) still has a serious detection problem, especially in countries in which beet is used in manufacturing sugar. For this reason, practice and analysis methods are needed to meet this deficit and to detect the adulterations precisely in the studies that will be conducted. PMID:23411291

  9. Carbohydrate composition of high fructose corn syrups (HFCS) used for bee feeding. Effect on honey composition.

    In the present study, carbohydrate composition of high fructose corn syrups (HFCS) from commercial manufacturers as well as from beekeepers was deeply characterised by GC-MS. Sucrose syryps (SS) were also included in this work for comparison. Fructosyl-fructoses and some unknown carbohydrates prob...

  10. Influence of thermal effect on sugars composition of Mexican Agave syrup

    Muniz-Marquez, D.B.; Contreras, J.C.; Rodriguez, R.; Mussatto, S.I.; Wong-Paz, J.E.; Teixeira, J.A.; Aguilar, C.N.

    2015-01-01

    Agave syrup is a fermentable by-product from the Agave industry that is used for pulque production, a typical Mexican fermented beverage. However, to date, the information available on its physicochemical composition is scarce, with this study being one of the first contributions on the subject. Her

  11. Glycemic effect of nutritive sweeteners: Honey, sugar and high fructose corn syrup

    Controversy currently exists over whether all nutritive sweeteners produce similar metabolic effects. Using a randomized, crossover design we evaluated the effects of chronic consumption of 3 nutritive sweeteners (honey, sucrose and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS)) on glucose tolerance in overweigh...

  12. Quantitative Determination of Catechin as Chemical Marker in Pediatric Polyherbal Syrup by HPLC/DAD.

    Sheikh, Zeeshan A; Siddiqui, Zafar A; Naveed, Safila; Usmanghani, Khan

    2016-09-01

    Vivabon syrup is a balanced composition of dietary ingredients of phytopharmaceutical nature for maintaining the physique, vigor, vitality and balanced growth of children. The herbal ingredients of pediatric syrup are rich in bioflavonoid, proteins, vitamins, glycosides and trace elements. Vivabon is formulated with herbal drugs such as Phoenix sylvestris, Emblica officinalis, Withania somnifera, Centella asiatica, Amomum subulatum, Zingiber officinalis, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Centaurea behen and Piper longum Catechins are flavan-3-ols that are found widely in the medicinal herbs and are utilized for anti-inflammatory, cardio protective, hepato-protective, neural protection and other biological activities. In general, the dietary intake of flavonoids has been regarded traditionally as beneficial for body growth. Standardization of Vivabon syrup dosage form using HPLC/DAD has been developed for quantitative estimation of Catechin as a chemical marker. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines. Validation studies demonstrated that the developed HPLC method is quite distinct, reproducible as well as quick and fast. The relatively high recovery and low comparable standard deviation confirm the suitability of the developed method for the determination of Catechin in syrup. PMID:27165575

  13. Dual Mechanism of Brain Injury and Novel Treatment Strategy in Maple Syrup Urine Disease

    Zinnanti, William J.; Lazovic, Jelena; Griffin, Kathleen; Skvorak, Kristen J.; Paul, Harbhajan S.; Homanics, Gregg E.; Bewley, Maria C.; Cheng, Keith C.; LaNoue, Kathryn F.; Flanagan, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism presenting with life-threatening cerebral oedema and dysmyelination in affected individuals. Treatment requires life-long dietary restriction and monitoring of branched-chain amino acids to avoid brain injury. Despite careful management, children…

  14. Are agrochemicals present in high fructose corn syrup fed to honey bees (Apis mellifera L.)?

    Honey bee colonies are commonly fed high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as a nectar substitute. Many agrochemicals are applied to corn during cultivation including systemic neonicotinoids. Whether agrochemicals are present in HFCS fed to bees is unknown. Samples from the major manufacturers and distri...

  15. Case Study: Commercialization of sweet sorghum juice clarification for large-scale syrup manufacture

    The precipitation and burning of insoluble granules of starch from sweet sorghum juice on heating coils prevented the large scale manufacture of syrup at a new industrial plant in Missouri, USA. To remove insoluble starch granules, a series of small and large-scale experiments were conducted at the...

  16. Cellular characterization of human dermal fibroblasts, focus on mitochondria and maple syrup urine disease

    Fernandez-Guerra, Paula

    (SRM) can be used for targeted quantitative proteomics to identify and quantify proteins encoded by wild-type and mutant genes. Mutations in branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDH) can cause Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD). BCKDH is composed of three subunits: a heterotetrameric E1...

  17. Identification and characterisation of organisms associated with chocolate pralines and sugar syrups used for their production

    Nielsen, Cecilie Lykke Marvig; Kristiansen, Rikke M.; Madsen, Mikkel G.;

    2014-01-01

    preservatives is needed. Using media containing 40-50% glucose (aw 0.872-0.925) bacteria, yeasts and moulds were isolated from chocolate pralines (aw 0.70-0.898) of nine manufactures and sugar syrups (aw 0.854) used as ingredient in chocolate praline production by one of the manufacturers. Isolates were...

  18. In vivo neuroprotective effect of L-carnitine against oxidative stress in maple syrup urine disease

    Mescka, Caroline; Moraes, Tarsila; Rosa, Andrea; Mazzola, Priscila; Piccoli, Bruna; Jacques, Carlos; Dalazen, Giovana; Coelho, Juliana; Cortes, Marcelo; Terra, Melaine; Regla Vargas, Carmen; Dutra-Filho, Carlos S

    2011-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism caused by deficiency of the activity of the mitochondrial enzyme complex branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD) leading to accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) leucine, isoleucine and val

  19. The first use of N-carbamylglutamate in a patient with decompensated maple syrup urine disease

    S.K. Ucar; M. Coker; S. Habif; E.U. Saz; B. Karapinar; H. Ucar; O. Kitis; M. Duran

    2009-01-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a defect in the catabolism of the branched-chain amino acids; leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Affected patients may also develop hyperammonaemia of unknown etiology. This report describes a four-year-old girl with MSUD, who presented with decompensated hyperleuci

  20. Control of pain with topical plant medicines

    James; David; Adams; Jr.; Xiaogang; Wang

    2015-01-01

    Pain is normally treated with oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and opioids. These drugs are dangerous and are responsible for many hospitalizations and deaths. It is much safer to use topical preparations made from plants to treat pain, even severe pain. Topical preparations must contain compounds that penetrate the skin, inhibit pain receptors such as transient receptor potential cation channels and cyclooxygenase-2, to relieve pain. Inhibition of pain in the skin disrupts the pain cycle and avoids exposure of internal organs to large amounts of toxic compounds. Use of topical pain relievers has the potential to save many lives, decrease medical costs and improve therapy.

  1. Beet sugar syrup and molasses as low-cost feedstock for the enzymatic production of fructo-oligosaccharides

    Ghazi, Iraj; Fernández Arrojo, Lucía; Gómez de Segura, María Aránzazu; Alcalde Galeote, Miguel; Plou Gasca, Francisco José; Ballesteros Olmo, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    Sugar syrup and molasses from beet processing containing 620 and 570 mg/ml sucrose, respectively, were assayed as low-cost and available substrates for the enzymatic synthesis of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). A commercial pectinase (Pectinex Ultra SP-L, from Aspergillus aculeatus) characterised by the presence of a transfructosylating activity, was used as biocatalyst. The FOS production increased when lowering the initial pH value of syrup (7.5) and molasses (8.9) to 5.5. Sugar syrup and mo...

  2. Artichoke and milk thistle pills and syrups as sources of phenolic compounds with antimicrobial activity.

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; José Alves, Maria; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-07-13

    Dietary supplements based on hepatoprotective plants have been increasingly used in the prevention of liver injuries. In the present work, the aim was to study the phenolic profile and possibly relate it to the in vitro antimicrobial activity of two different formulations (pills and syrups) of artichoke and milk thistle, the antioxidant and anti-hepatocellular carcinoma activities of which were previously reported by our research group. The phenolic profiles were obtained by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS, and the antimicrobial activity evaluation was performed with the clinical isolates of multiresistant bacteria (Escherichia coli, extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Artichoke syrup revealed the presence of vanillic acid and luteolin-7-O-glucoside while the pills possessed higher concentrations of 4-O-caffeoylquinic, 5-O-caffeoylquinic and 1,3-O-dicaffeoylquinic acids, this latest being able to inhibit the growth of MRSA. Regarding milk thistle formulations, the syrup presented isorhamnetin-O-deoxyhexoside-O-dihexoside, isorhamnetin-O-deoxyhexoside-O-hexoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside as the major phenolic constituents whereas the pills were richer in taxifolin, silymarin derivatives and hydroxylated silibinin; the syrup revealed antimicrobial activity against all the studied bacteria with the exception of Proteus mirabilis whereas the pills revealed activity against ESBL producing Escherichia coli. Overall, all of the studied formulations revealed to be a good source of phenolic compounds, among which milk thistle syrup presented the highest variety and concentration of flavonoids, which is possibly related to its strongest antimicrobial activity. PMID:27273551

  3. Recent advances in topical formulation carriers of antifungal agents

    Eman Ahmed Bseiso; Maha Nasr; Omaima Sammour; Nabaweya A Abd El Gawad

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections are amongst the most commonly encountered diseases affecting the skin. Treatment approaches include both topical and oral antifungal agents. The topical route is generally preferred due to the possible side effects of oral medication. Advances in the field of formulation may soon render outdated conventional products such as creams, ointments and gels. Several carrier systems loaded with antifungal drugs have demonstrated promising results in the treatment of skin fungal inf...

  4. Topical vs Combination Ciprofloxacin in the Management of Discharging Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media

    Renukananda, G.S.; U P, Santosh; George, Nitha Mary

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To study the microbial flora and determine the efficacy of topical ciprofloxacin ear drops in comparison with combination of topical and oral ciprofloxacin as first line management in patients diagnosed with chronic suppurative otitis media.

  5. Development of orally disintegrating tablets comprising controlled-release multiparticulate beads

    Venkatesh, Gopi M.; Stevens, Phillip J.; Lai, Jin-Wang

    2012-01-01

    Melperone is an atypical antipsychotic agent that has shown a wide spectrum of neuroleptic properties, particularly effective in the treatment of senile dementia and Parkinson’s-associated psychosis, and is marketed in Europe as an immediate-release (IR) tablet and syrup. An orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) dosage form would be advantageous for patients who experience difficulty in swallowing large tablets or capsules or those who experience dysphagia. Controlled-release (CR) capsule and OD...

  6. Oral voriconazole and miconazole oral gel produce comparable effects on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of etoricoxib

    Hynninen, Ville V.; Olkkola, Klaus T.; Neuvonen, Pertti J; Laine, Kari

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Purpose The effect of topical miconazole oral gel and systemic oral voriconazole on the pharmacokinetics of oral etoricoxib was studied in 12 healthy volunteers. Methods Plasma concentrations of etoricoxib, miconazole, voriconazole, and thromboxane B2 generation were followed after ingestion of 60 mg eto...

  7. Physiological characterization of brewer's yeast in high-gravity beer fermentations with glucose or maltose syrups as adjuncts

    Piddocke, Maya Petrova; kreisz, Stefan; Heldt-Hansen, Hans Peter;

    2009-01-01

    of high-gravity brewing on the fermentation performance of the brewer’s yeast under model brewing conditions. The lager brewer’s strain Weihenstephan 34/70 strain was characterized at three different gravities by adding either glucose or maltose syrups to the basic wort. We observed that increased gravity...... resulted in a lower specific growth rate, a longer lag phase before initiation of ethanol production, incomplete sugar utilization, and an increase in the concentrations of ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate in the final beer. Increasing the gravity by adding maltose syrup as opposed to glucose syrup...... of sugar syrups on the fermentation performance and the flavor profile of the final beer....

  8. Development of a pilot system for converting sweet potato starch into glucose syrup

    Silayo, Valerian C K.; Lu, John Y.; Aglan, Heshmat A.; Bovell-Benjamin, A. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Sweet potato has been chosen as one of NASA's crops to support human beings in future space missions. One of the possible uses is to make syrup that can be used as a general sweetener. In this work a simple engineering system for converting sweet potato starch into glucose syrup was studied on a laboratory scale. The system comprises the following main units: a blender, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), centrifugal and vacuum filters, deionization column and vacuum evaporator. The system was tested by carrying out conversion processes from fresh sweet potato roots. The roots were pealed, sliced, homogenized, heated and hydrolyzed by diastase of malt and Dextrozyme C (Novo Nordisk BioChem, North America, Inc.) enzymes in the CSTR. After hydrolysis the slurry was filtered, de-ionized and concentrated to get glucose syrup. The performance of the system was evaluated based on the quality of the conversion. The main factor was the level of reducing sugars except for the deionization where ash content and color were the main factors. Through careful control of the system units, good heating performance in the CSTR was obtained and the hydrolysis process attained sufficient conversion. The filtration process that incorporated the centrifuge was faster than when it was by-passed to the vacuum filter but losses in sugars were higher. Deionization removed more than 90% of the ash and reduced pigmentation, with probable insignificant losses in sugars during the deionization process. Recovery levels when the centrifuge was used and when it was by-passed could reach about 65% and 78%, respectively. These correspond to reducing sugar concentration of 259 and 310 mg/ml in 150-ml syrups from 300 g of sweet potatoes in each process. However, from concentration trials, syrups with volumes of 100 and 70 ml with the respective dextrose equivalence of 281 and 213 mg/ml were obtained. The syrups obtained were brownish in color and the process that employed centrifugal filtration

  9. Evaluation of microbial and physico-chemical qualities of some cough syrups marketed in Sana’a city, Yemen.

    Ali G. Al−Kaf; Alghalibi, Saeed M.; Wadhah H. Edrees

    2015-01-01

    Context: Microbial contamination of cough syrups can bring clinical hazards to the users or patients as well as physical and chemical changes in the product. Aims: To evaluate the microbial and physicochemical characteristics of two hundred samples of four different types of cough syrups marketed in Sana’a city, Yemen. Methods: All collected samples were subjected to the following examinations: the total microbial count, type of isolated microorganisms, physical parameters, and concen...

  10. Oral myiasis

    Thalaimalai Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy.

  11. Comparing the therapeutic effect of oral doxycycline,topical tretinoin and their combination therapy in treatment of rosacea%多西环素及维A酸霜与两者联合使用治疗酒渣鼻的疗效比较研究

    赖劲东; 杨娟

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨比较口服多西环素、外用维A酸霜以及两者联合使用治疗酒渣鼻的疗效和安全性.方法:将就诊于我院的酒渣鼻患者共60名,随机分为三组:口服多西环素治疗组、外用维A酸霜治疗组及两者联合治疗组,观察比较三组治疗前后炎症损害数目、红斑评分、毛细血管扩张严重程度的变化情况.结果:治疗12周后,联合治疗组的疗效优于另外两组(P0.05),三组中仅发生5例短暂轻微的副作用.结论:多西环素和维A酸外用制剂治疗酒渣鼻均能达到很好的疗效,发生的副作用轻微且短暂,两者联合应用的疗效更为显著,但均无改善毛细血管扩张症状的作用.%Objective To evaluate the therapeutic effect and security of oral doxycycline, topical tretinoin and their combination therapy in treatment of rosacea.Methods 60 patients who suffered rosacea were randomly divided into three groups:the oral Doxycycline treatment group,topical tretinoin cream treatment group and their combination treatment group.We compared the changes in the number of inflammatory lesions,erythema scores and the severity of telangiectasia before and after the treatment.Results After 12 weeks of treatment,we found that the therapeutic effect of combination group was better than the other two groups(P<0.05), and a considerable therapeutic effect was achieved in both doxycycline group and tretinoin group (P>0.05).there were only 5 cases involved in transient and minor adverse effect.Conclusions Excellent therapeutic effect with mild and transient adverse could be achieved by oral doxycycline and topical tretinoin, and their combination therapy was better, but they had no improvement in telangiectasia.

  12. EMLA Cream is an Effective Topical Anesthetic for Bronchoscopy

    Benjamin Sohmer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: EMLA cream (AstraZeneca Inc, Canada (1:1 eutectic mixture of lidocaine 2.5% and prilocaine 2.5% has traditionally been used for topical anesthesia of the skin. Recent reports of EMLA's use for anesthesia of the oral mucosa suggest an application in topical anesthesia for bronchoscopy.

  13. Topic and Textual Coherence

    何明烈; 戢焕奇

    2008-01-01

    Based on the investigation of the origin and definition of topic as well as the classification of textual coherence, this paper ana-lyzes the function of topic to non-coherence, imphcit coherence and explicit coherence, and concludes that topic relevance is the primary cri-terion for textual coherence.

  14. Freshman Health Topics

    Hovde, Karen

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a cluster of health topics that are frequently selected by students in lower division classes. Topics address issues relating to addictive substances, including alcohol and tobacco, eating disorders, obesity, and dieting. Analysis of the topics examines their interrelationships and organization in the reference literature.…

  15. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy reflects metabolic decompensation in maple syrup urine disease

    Heindel, W. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Koeln (Germany); Kugel, H. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Koeln (Germany); Wendel, U. [Children`s Hospital, Univ. Duesseldorf (Germany); Roth, B. [Children`s Hospital, Univ. Koeln (Germany); Benz-Bohm, G. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Koeln (Germany)

    1995-06-01

    Using localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS), accumulation of branchedchain amino acids (BCAA) and their corresponding 2-oxo acids (BCOA) could be non-invasively demonstrated in the brain of a 9-year-old girl suffering from classical maple syrup urine disease. During acute metabolic decompensation, the compounds caused a signal at a chemical shift of 0.9 ppm which was assigned by in vitro experiments. The brain tissue concentration of the sum of BCAA and BCOA could be estimated as 0.9 mmol/l. Localized {sup 1}H-MRS of the brain appears to be suitable for examining patients suffering from maple syrup urine disease in different metabolic states. (orig.)

  16. Simultaneous Estimation of Four Antitussive Components from Herbal Cough Syrup by HPTLC.

    Deore, Sharada L; Jaju, Payal S; Baviskar, Bhushan A

    2014-01-01

    A new simple, rapid, selective and precise high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) method has been developed for simultaneous estimation of vasicine, glycyrrhizin, eugenol, and cineole in herbal cough syrup. The retention factors of vasicine, glycyrrhizin, eugenol, and cineole are 0.53, 0.44, 0.75, and 0.77, respectively. Chromatography was performed on 60F254 percolated TLC plate using n-hexane : ethyl acetate : glacial acetic acid (8.5 : 1.0 : 0.5 v/v/v). Methods are validated according to ICH guidelines and can be adopted for the routine analysis of vasicine, glycyrrhizin, eugenol and cineole in herbal cough syrup. PMID:27382629

  17. Maple Syrup Decreases TDP-43 Proteotoxicity in a Caenorhabditis elegans Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS).

    Aaron, Catherine; Beaudry, Gabrielle; Parker, J Alex; Therrien, Martine

    2016-05-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease causing death of the motor neurons. Proteotoxicity caused by TDP-43 protein is an important aspect of ALS pathogenesis, with TDP-43 being the main constituent of the aggregates found in patients. We have previously tested the effect of different sugars on the proteotoxicity caused by the expression of mutant TDP-43 in Caenorhabditis elegans. Here we tested maple syrup, a natural compound containing many active molecules including sugars and phenols, for neuroprotective activity. Maple syrup decreased several age-dependent phenotypes caused by the expression of TDP-43(A315T) in C. elegans motor neurons and requires the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16 to be effective. PMID:27071850

  18. CLINICAL EFFICACY OF CRUX SYRUP IN THE MANAGEMENT OF COUGH DUE TO VARIOUS ETIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS

    Patel Girish

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cough associated with acute and chronic respiratory conditions is common in patients of all ages. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical efficacy of CRUX syrup, a proprietary mixture of herbal ingredients in the management of cough of various etiological conditions in open label, uncontrolled, prospective cohort study. 55 Patients aged 9 - 64 years with cough of more than 1 day but less than 14 days duration was recruited. They were prescribed dose of CRUX syrup according to severity of cough for three days. Treatment results were assessed on the basis of Investigator’s evaluation. At the end of three days prescribed treatment, evaluator’s assessment shown that 29 % patient gave excellent, 55 % patient gave good, 11 % patient gave fair and 5 % patient gave poor response to treatment. The results demonstrate that CRUX treatment has significant decrease in the frequency and severity of cough without any significant side effect in patients of all ages.

  19. Comparison of breath testing with fructose and high fructose corn syrups in health and IBS

    Skoog, S. M.; Bharucha, A. E.; Zinsmeister, A R

    2008-01-01

    Although incomplete fructose absorption has been implicated to cause gastrointestinal symptoms, foods containing high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) contain glucose. Glucose increases fructose absorption in healthy subjects. Our hypothesis was that fructose intolerance is less prevalent after HFCS consumption compared to fructose alone in healthy subjects and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Breath hydrogen levels and gastrointestinal symptoms were assessed after 40 g of fructose (12% solution) pr...

  20. Acute dystonia in a young schizophrenic patient associated with ingestion of a cloperastine containing cough syrup.

    Linazasoro, G; Garmendia, M T; Lizaso, X

    2000-01-01

    Acute dystonic reactions are usually observed after exposure to drugs with antidopaminergic actions. We report on one patient with acute dystonia associated with ingestion of a cloperastine containing syrup, who suffered from schizophrenia but had been neuroleptic-free for 6months. Cloperastine has antihistaminic properties. We suggest that antihistaminic agents may induce acute dystonia by altering the balance between dopamine and acetylcholine in the striatum. PMID:18591150

  1. Haemodialysis is an effective treatment in acute metabolic decompensation of maple syrup urine disease

    P.S. Atwal

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute metabolic decompensation in maple syrup urine disease can occur during intercurrent illness and is a medical emergency. A handful of reports in the medical literature describe the use of peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis as therapeutic inventions. We report the only patient from our centre to have haemodialysis performed in this setting. Combined with dietary BCAA restriction and calorific support, haemodialysis allows rapid reduction in plasma leucine concentrations considerably faster than conservative methods.

  2. Policy induced substitution of high fructose corn syrup for sugar in the United States

    Hafi, Ahmed; Connell, Peter; Roberts, Ivan

    1996-01-01

    US sugar policies have depressed the world sugar price markedly, and tlte substitution of high fructose com syrup for sugar brought about by US sugar policies has contributed a major part of this price depressing effect. Current US sugar policies impose substantial costs on US consumers. the US economy and sugar exporters, most of which are developing countries. This paper measures the impact that the increased consumption of high fructose com has had on both the USand world sugar economies. ...

  3. [Oral antibiotic treatment of urinary tract infections in children].

    Klingenberg, Claus; Småbrekke, Lars; Døllner, Henrik; Simonsen, Gunnar Skov

    2009-06-25

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections in childhood. Empiric antibiotic therapy is guided by the clinical presentation, the patient's ability to take oral agents and the local resistance pattern of Escherichia coli (E. coli), the most common pathogen. Most children (with both upper and lower UTI) can safely be treated with oral antibiotics. We recommend pivmecillinam or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid as first-line empiric therapy for upper UTI. Amoxicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are no longer first-line oral agents due to increasing E. coli resistance to both drugs. For lower UTI nitrofurantoin is an excellent first choice. In Norway, lack of paediatric antibiotic syrups is a great challenge and we recommend that such formulations are introduced to the Norwegian market. PMID:19561661

  4. Irradiation mucositis and oral flora

    This study, which is motivated by the substantial morbidity of local signs of mucositis and generalized symptoms that result from mucositis induced by therapeutic irradiation, has the following objectives: To investigate if it is possible to prevent irradiation mucositis via oral flora elimination, and, if it is true that flora plays a role in irradiation mucositis, what fraction of the oral flora may be involved; to evaluate oral Gram-negative bacillary carriage; to investigate the possibility to eradicate Gram-negative bacilli from the oral cavity; to evaluate oral yeast carriage; to investigate the possibility to eradicate yeasts stomatitis and the 'selectivity' of elimination of flora. Two methods are described for monitoring alterations of mucositis of the oral cavity and changes in oral flora. Chlorhexidine has been tested as the commonly used prophylaxis. The effect of chlorhexidine 0.1% rinses on oral flora and mucositis has been studied in a prospective placebo controlled double blind randomized programme. The results of the influence of saliva on the antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine and the results of selective elimination of oral flora in irradiated patients who have head and neck cancer are reported. Salivary inactivation of the topical antimicrobials used for selective elimination of oral flora has been studied and the results are reported. Finally, the objectives that have been achieved (or not) are delineated. The significance of the results of the study are discussed in terms of published information and further lines of research are suggested. (author). 559 refs.; 29 figs.; 20 tabs

  5. Rosacea-like eruption due to topical pimecrolimus

    El-Heis, S; Buckley, DA

    2015-01-01

    Topical calcineurin inhibitors have been used outside their approved indications for a number of conditions, including topical steroid-induced rosacea. However, tacrolimus ointment itself has been reported to trigger rosacea in a small number of cases. We report a case of a rosacea-like eruption in a 39-year-old woman occurring after the use of pimecrolimus cream for 12 months for atopic dermatitis. Withdrawal of pimecrolimus combined with treatment with oral lymecycline, topical metronidazol...

  6. Methylglyoxal is associated with bacteriostatic activity of high fructose agave syrups.

    Corrales Escobosa, Alma Rosa; Gomez Ojeda, Armando; Wrobel, Kazimierz; Magana, Armando Alcazar; Wrobel, Katarzyna

    2014-12-15

    Three α-ketoaldehydes, potentially present in high fructose agave syrups (HFASs) as intermediates of the Maillard reaction, were determined. A previously reported HPLC-FLD procedure based on pre-column derivatisation with 4-methoxy-o-phenylenediamine was adopted, yielding the method quantification limits 0.11 mg/kg, 0.10mg/kg, 0.09 mg/kg for glyoxal, methylglyoxal (MGo) and diacetyl, respectively. The obtained results revealed high concentrations of methylglyoxal in HFASs (average 102 ± 91 mg/kg, range 15.6-315 mg/kg) as compared to commercial Mexican bee honeys or corn syrups. Hydrogen peroxide was generated in all HFASs upon dilution, yet to less extent than in bee honeys. HFASs presented bacteriostatic activity against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli; catalase addition had minimum effect on the assay results in syrups with elevated MGo. Principal component analysis revealed direct association between growth inhibition and MGo. It is concluded that elevated concentration of MGo in HFASs is at least in part responsible for their non-peroxide bacteriostatic activity. PMID:25038697

  7. Alternatives for clarifying glucose syrup obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of starch

    Gloria Teresa Cruz Guerrero

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper studies some routes for separating and purifying glucose syrup obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of potato starch. The clarifying process is done in three stages. The first one (solids remotion is done by applying conventional solid-liquid separation techniiques such as sedimentation, centrifugation and filtration, as well as studying the effect of using flocculant and coagulant agents, prior to the already mentioned operations. Purification is done by adding decolouring agents, followed by ultrafiltration of the syrup. The last step (concentration is done by vacuum evaporation. The results showed that separation, centrifuging and sedimation reached 50% yield whilst filtration and ultrafiltration achieved 78% and 98% respectively. It was found that adsorbent agents such as activated carbon and diatomaceous earth were effective in removing colour during the purification stage. The most suitable alternative for separation can be suggested from the foregoing, allowing a syrup to be obtained having similar characteristics and propierties to the commercial product. The most appropriate technological module for carrying out the operation is also represented.

  8. Oral Insulin

    Kalra Sanjay; Kalra Bharti; Agrawal Navneet

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Oral insulin is an exciting area of research and development in the field of diabetology. This brief review covers the various approaches used in the development of oral insulin, and highlights some of the recent data related to novel oral insulin preparation.

  9. Syntactic Topic Models

    Boyd-Graber, Jordan

    2010-01-01

    The syntactic topic model (STM) is a Bayesian nonparametric model of language that discovers latent distributions of words (topics) that are both semantically and syntactically coherent. The STM models dependency parsed corpora where sentences are grouped into documents. It assumes that each word is drawn from a latent topic chosen by combining document-level features and the local syntactic context. Each document has a distribution over latent topics, as in topic models, which provides the semantic consistency. Each element in the dependency parse tree also has a distribution over the topics of its children, as in latent-state syntax models, which provides the syntactic consistency. These distributions are convolved so that the topic of each word is likely under both its document and syntactic context. We derive a fast posterior inference algorithm based on variational methods. We report qualitative and quantitative studies on both synthetic data and hand-parsed documents. We show that the STM is a more pred...

  10. Detection of adulteration in mulberry pekmez samples added various sugar syrups with ¹³C/¹²C isotope ratio analysis method.

    Tosun, Murat

    2014-12-15

    Mulberry pekmez can be adulterated in different ways either during the production process or after production is completed. To identify these adulterations, stable carbon isotope ratio analysis (SCIRA) was performed on the model examples prepared by adding saccharose syrup (SS), glucose syrup (GS) and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) into two different pure mulberry pekmez samples in the ratios of 0%, 10%, 30% and 50%. The δ(13)C ratio of the pure mulberry pekmez was determined as -26.60‰ on average, the saccharose syrup as -24.80‰, the glucose syrup as -11.20‰ and the high-fructose corn syrup as -11.40‰. In identifying the adulteration made to pekmez, especially with the high-fructose corn syrup, which is obtained from corn starch, and with the glucose syrup, the δ(13)C ratio comes into prominence. However it remains impossible identify the adulterations made with the saccharose, which is obtained from beet sugar, or invert sugar syrups. PMID:25038711

  11. Undergraduate Research at Oral Roberts University.

    Couch, Richard; Thurman, Duane

    1981-01-01

    Explains Oral Roberts University's undergraduate requirement for research proficiency and how this requirement is fulfilled by biology majors. Topics of the required courses include: introduction to biological research; research techniques; independent research and senior paper; and senior seminar. (DS)

  12. Effect of conventional and sugar free pediatric syrup formulations on primary tooth enamel hardness: An in vitro study

    Gaurao Vasant Mali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess and compare the effect of conventional and sugar free pediatric syrup formulations on primary tooth enamel hardness over a period of 14 days. Materials and Methods: An in vitro study was done on 40 noncarious deciduous teeth. 10 teeth in each group were dipped in 4 pediatric medicinal syrups (1 sugarfree and 3 conventional for 1 min thrice daily for 14 days and the enamel surface micro hardness was checked at baseline, 7 th day and 14 th day by Vickers hardness testing machine. The pH, titratable acidity and buffering capacity of the syrups were assessed. Results: The pH of syrups were above critical pH for demineralization of the tooth but tiratable acidity and buffering capacity differed. ANOVA test indicated that the reduction in mean micro hardness was maximum in Group D (Conventional Analgesic syrup and least in Group A (Sugarfree cough syrup on 7 th and 14 th day. On intergroup comparison there was no difference (P > 0.05 in micro hardness between Group B (Conventional Cough syrup and Group C (Conventional Antibiotic. However, highly significant (P < 0.01 difference between the either pair of Group B with Group D, and Group C with Group D on 14 th day. The percentage reduction in micro hardness on 14 th day was maximum for Group D (24.4 ± 2.2 and minimum for Group A (14.0 ± 1.3 which was statistically significant (P < 0.01. Conclusion: Sugar free pediatric medicines can be effective in reducing dental erosion and efforts should be made to incorporate sugar substitutes in formulation of pediatric medicines.

  13. Oral Melanoma

    A Forouzandeh

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is a malignant tumor that originates from melanocyte cells. Its oral type is rare. The goal of this investigation was to determine the prevalence of oral malignant melanoma in Iran, as determined by age, sex and location. This research reviewed 623 cases of oral and non-oral malignant melanoma in Immam-Khomeini hospital, Mearaj cancer institute and department of oral pathology of dental faculty, Tehran University of Medical Sciences in a period of 19 years from 1981-1999. The results showed that 54 cases of biopsy lesions were melanoma of oral cavity that included 7.8% of these lesions. The mean age incidence of oral melanoma was 55.5(between 26-86 years. The most prevalent sites were palate (37.1% and alveolar mucosa (20.4% and less common sites included floor of mouth. buccal mucosa and tongue.

  14. Topical report review status

    A Topical Report Review Status is scheduled to be published semi-annually. The primary purpose of this document is to provide periodic progress reports of on-going topical report reviews, to identify those topical reports for which the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff review has been completed and, to the extent practicable, to provide NRC management with sufficient information regarding the conduct of the topical report program to permit taking whatever actions deemed necessary or appropriate. This document is also intended to be a source of information to NRC Licensing Project Managers and other NRC personnel regarding the status of topical reports which may be referenced in applications for which they have responsibility. This status report is published primarily for internal NRC use in managing the topical report program, but is also used by NRC to advise the industry of report review status

  15. Clinical experience and results of treatment with suprofen in pediatrics. 5th communication: a single-blind study on antipyretic effect and tolerability of suprofen syrup versus metamizole drops in pediatric patients.

    Giovannini, M; Longhi, R; Besana, R; Michos, N; Sarchi, C

    1986-06-01

    In a single-blind study, 60 children in two age groups (30 patients: 6 months to 3 years; 30 patients: 3 years to 12 years), were orally treated with either alpha-methyl-4-(2-thienyl-carbonyl)phenylacetic acid (suprofen, Suprol), syrup 10 mg/ml or metamizole drops 50% for a maximum period of 4 days, up to 4 times a day. The children presented with high fever due to bacterial or virus infections. Body temperature, pulse rate, and respiratory rate were evaluated at the beginning and then 30 min, 1, 1 1/2, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 h after the first administration of the respective drug. Significant differences between the drugs were found for all variables; this demonstrated that with suprofen the antipyretic effect set in more rapidly than with the reference drug. No side-effects were observed in children treated with suprofen syrup. Two patients showed adverse effects, i.e. sweating and hypotension, during the treatment with metamizole. Due to its good antipyretic effect and good tolerability, suprofen appears to be particularly useful for symptomatic treatment of pediatric patients with fever caused by bacterial or virus infections. PMID:3527181

  16. [Aphthous ulcers and oral ulcerations].

    Vaillant, Loïc; Samimi, Mahtab

    2016-02-01

    Aphthous ulcers are painful ulcerations located on the mucous membrane, generally in the mouth, less often in the genital area. Three clinical forms of aphthous ulcers have been described: minor aphthous ulcers, herpetiform aphthous ulcers and major aphthous ulcers. Many other conditions presenting with oral bullous or vesiculous lesions orulcerations and erosions can be mistaken for aphthous ulcers. Currently, treatment of aphthous ulcers is palliative and symptomatic. Topical treatments (topical anesthetics, topical steroids and sucralfate) are the first line therapy. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is defined by the recurrence of oral aphthous ulcers at least 4 times per year. RAS is often idiopathic but can be associated with gastro-intestinal diseases (i.e. celiac disease, inflammatory bowel diseases), nutritional deficiencies (iron, folates…), immune disorders (HIV infection, neutropenia) and rare syndromes. Behçet's disease is a chronic, inflammatory, disease whose main clinical feature is recurrent bipolar aphthosis. Colchicine associated with topical treatments constitutes a suitable treatment of most RAS. Thalidomide is the most effective treatment of RAS but its use is limited by frequent adverse effects. Oral ulcers can be related to a wide range of conditions that constitute the differential diagnoses of aphthous ulcers. Oral ulcers are classified into three main groups: acute ulcers with abrupt onset and short duration, recurrent ulcers (mainly due to postherpetic erythema multiforme) and chronic ulcers (with slow onset and insidious progression). Acute oral ulcers are due to trauma, bacterial infections (including acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis), deep fungal infection, gastro-intestinal (namely inflammatory bowel disease) or systemic diseases. Chronic oral ulcers may be drug-induced, or due to benign or malignant tumors. Every oral solitary chronic ulcer should be biopsied to rule out squamous cell carcinoma. A solitary palatal ulcer

  17. A Review of the Ingredients Contained in Over the Counter (OTC Cough Syrup Formulations in Kenya. Are They Harmful to Infants?

    Gabriel Kigen

    Full Text Available Cough syrups are widely used in the developing world, but safety of their use in infants and children less than two years has not been well documented. Some syrups contain multiple combinations of such drugs as promethazine, diphenhydramine and ephedrine; which are individually now contraindicated in children less than two years. Despite this, the syrups are available as over the counter drugs and may be dispensed to mothers who are unaware of the potentially hazardous effects to their infants. A descriptive cross-sectional study was used to investigate suitability of cough syrups sold within Eldoret municipality for use in children less than two years of age based on their formulations and available literature.Two semi-structured questionnaires were administered to pharmacy attendants and mothers attending sick child clinic at a referral hospital to establish whether cough syrups containing more than one active ingredient of compounds, now contraindicated in children are administered to infants, and awareness of potential serious adverse effects. Data from labeled contents of cough syrups from retail pharmacies was recorded and corroborated with information from literature to determine those deemed to contain the ingredients. The second questionnaire was administered to mothers with children less than two years to ascertain whether they had used the identified syrups. A total of 260 mothers and 55 pharmacy attendants were interviewed.There was widespread use of the syrups in children, including infants, with 192 (74% of the respondents having used identified syrups and over 90% of these on children less than 2 years including those less than three months.146 (76% mothers had administered the syrup at double the recommended dose.The regulatory authorities should make concerted efforts to discourage use of cough syrups containing ingredients that pose adverse events to infants, including campaigns to educate pharmacy workers and mothers.

  18. Spontaneous Coronary Artery Dissection following Topical Hormone Replacement Therapy

    Alexander L. Pan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous coronary artery dissection is a rare condition, usually presenting as an acute coronary syndrome, and is often seen in states associated with high systemic estrogen levels such as pregnancy or oral contraceptive use. While topical hormonal replacement therapy may result in increased estrogen levels similar to those documented with oral contraceptive use, there are no reported cases of spontaneous coronary dissection with topical hormonal replacement therapy. We describe a 53-year-old female who developed two spontaneous coronary dissections while on topical hormonal replacement therapy. The patient had no other risk factors for coronary dissection. After withdrawal from topical hormonal therapy, our patient has done well and has not had recurrent coronary artery dissections over a one-year follow-up period. The potential contributory role of topical hormonal therapy as a cause of spontaneous coronary dissection should be recognized.

  19. Relatos orais de famílias de imigrantes japoneses: elementos para a história da educação brasileira Japanese families oral history: topics for the history of Brazilian education

    Zeila de Brito Fabri Demartini

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo dá continuidade a uma reflexão que vimos realizando há muitos anos sobre a estruturação do campo educacional paulista e as diferentes formas pelas quais a procura pela escolarização tem se configurado para diferentes setores da população rural e urbana no estado de São Paulo. Focalizamos aqui o segmento representado pelas famílias de imigrantes japoneses que vieram para São Paulo a partir de 1908. Apresentamos os resultados obtidos em estudo sobre as famílias de imigrantes japoneses na cidade de São Paulo, sendo que os relatos orais foram a fonte privilegiada que permitiu, de um lado, apreender as visões e vivências educacionais desse grupo, e, de outro, obter informações valiosas sobre a ainda desconhecida rede de escolas "japonesas" criadas por esse grupo na sociedade paulistana.This paper continues a long lasting research that analyses the educational field in São Paulo and the different forms assumed by the need of instruction of different sectors of the rural and urban population. We focus on the segment represented by the Japanese immigrants' families which came to São Paulo from 1908. We present the results obtained by means of oral reports, a privileged source for collecting data. It allowed, on the one hand, to seize the educational representations and practices of these Japanese groups and, on the other hand, to obtain valuable information about the still unknown Japanese school-net created by this group within São Paulo society.

  20. GROUP ORAL PRESENTATION IN BUSINESS COMMUNICATION B

    Hong-Nguyen, NGUYEN

    2015-01-01

    Oral presentations are becoming more and more important in language learning process, especially in the university environment. In Business Communication B course at Kanazawa Institute of Technology (KIT), students also have a chance learn how to do group oral presentation on some business-related topics and this is one of the most important parts in the assessment process of Business Communication B course. In this paper, a review of the literature will illustrate how this oral activity coul...

  1. Oral histoplasmosis

    Patil Karthikeya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Histoplasmosis is a systemic fungal disease that takes various clinical forms, among which oral lesions are rare. The disseminated form of the disease that usually occurs in association with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV is one of the AIDS-defining diseases. Isolated oral histoplasmosis, without systemic involvement, with underlying immunosuppression due to AIDS is very rare. We report one such case of isolated oral histoplasmosis in a HIV-infected patient.

  2. Syntacticized topics in Kurmuk

    Andersen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that Kurmuk, a little-described Western Nilotic language, is characterized by a syntacticized topic whose grammatical relation is variable. In this language, declarative clauses have as topic an obligatory preverbal NP which is either a subject, an object or an adjunct. The gr...

  3. Rheology and density of glucose syrup and honey: Determining their suitability for usage in analogue and fluid dynamic models of geological processes

    Schellart, W. P.

    2011-06-01

    Analogue models of lithospheric deformation and fluid dynamic models of mantle flow mostly use some kind of syrup such as honey or glucose syrup to simulate the low-viscosity sub-lithospheric mantle. This paper describes detailed rheological tests and density measurements of three brands of glucose syrup and three brands of honey. Additional tests have been done for one brand of glucose syrup that was diluted with water to various degrees (2%, 5% and 10% by weight). The rheological tests have been done to test the effect of shear strain, shear rate and temperature on the dynamic viscosity of the syrup. The results show that the viscosity of all glucose syrups and honeys is independent of shear strain (i.e. no strain hardening or softening). The viscosity of the glucose syrups is independent of shear rate (γ˙), i.e. linear-viscous or Newtonian, in the range γ˙=10-4-10 s with stress exponents that are almost identical to one ( n = 0.995-1.004). All the honeys show a very weak, but consistent, decrease in viscosity with increasing shear rate of 7-14% from 10 -3 to 10 0 s -1 and have stress exponents more distinct from one ( n = 1.007-1.026). All syrups have a viscosity that is strongly dependent on temperature in the range 0-50 °C, where viscosity decreases with increasing temperature. Such decrease can be fitted with exponential and Arrhenius functions, with the latter giving the best results. Furthermore, the viscosity of glucose syrup decreases approximately exponentially with increasing water content. Oscillation tests indicate that the rheology of all the syrups is entirely dominated by viscous behaviour and not by elastic behaviour at frequencies of 10 -3-10 2 Hz. Finally, the density investigations show that the density of glucose syrup and honey decreases approximately linearly with increasing temperature in the range 10-70 °C, with coefficients of thermal volumetric expansion at 20 °C of 3.89-3.95 × 10 -4 °C -1 and 4.57-4.81 × 10 -4 °C -1 for

  4. Effectiveness of increasing the frequency of posaconazole syrup administration to achieve optimal plasma concentrations in patients with haematological malignancy.

    Park, Wan Beom; Cho, Joo-Youn; Park, Sang-In; Kim, Eun Jung; Yoon, Seonghae; Yoon, Seo Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Koh, Youngil; Song, Kyoung-Ho; Choe, Pyoeng Gyun; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Kim, Eu Suk; Bang, Su Mi; Kim, Nam Joong; Kim, Inho; Oh, Myoung-Don; Kim, Hong Bin; Song, Sang Hoon

    2016-07-01

    Few data are available on whether adjusting the dose of posaconazole syrup is effective in patients receiving anti-cancer chemotherapy. The aim of this prospective study was to analyse the impact of increasing the frequency of posaconazole administration on optimal plasma concentrations in adult patients with haematological malignancy. A total of 133 adult patients receiving chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia or myelodysplastic syndrome who received posaconazole syrup 200 mg three times daily for fungal prophylaxis were enrolled in this study. Drug trough levels were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In 20.2% of patients (23/114) the steady-state concentration of posaconazole was suboptimal (syrup is effective for achieving optimal levels in patients with haematological malignancy undergoing chemotherapy. PMID:27234674

  5. Biological Hydrogen Production from Corn-Syrup Waste Using a Novel System

    George Nakhla

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The reported patent-pending system comprises a novel biohydrogen reactor with a gravity settler for decoupling of SRT from HRT. The biohydrogenator was operated for 100 days at 37 °C, hydraulic retention time 8 h and solids retention time ranging from 2.2–2.5 days. The feed was a corn-syrup waste generated as a byproduct from an industrial facility for bioethanol production located in southwestern Ontario, Canada. The system was initially started up with a synthetic feed containing glucose at concentration of 8 g/L and other essential inorganics. Anaerobicaly-digested sludge from the St. Mary’s wastewater treatment plant (St. Mary, Ontario, Canada was used as the seed, and was heat treated at 70 °C for 30 min to inhibit methanogens. After 10 days, when the hydrogen production was steady, the corn-syrup waste was introduced to the system. Glucose was the main constituent in the corn-syrup; its concentration was varied over a period of 90 days from 8 to 25 g/L. The change in glucose concentration was used to study the impact of variable organic loading on the stability of hydrogen production in the biohydrogenator. Hydrogen production rate increased from 10 L H2/L·d to 34 L H2/L·d with the increase of organic loading rate (OLR from 26 to 81 gCOD/L·d, while a maximum hydrogen yield of 430 mL H2/gCOD was achieved in the system with an overall average of 385 mL H2/gCOD.

  6. The Effect of Viola odorata Flower Syrup on the Cough of Children With Asthma: A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Qasemzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Sharifi, Hosein; Hamedanian, Mohammad; Gharehbeglou, Mohammad; Heydari, Mojtaba; Sardari, Mehdi; Akhlaghdoust, Meisam; Minae, Mohammad Bagher

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of violet syrup on cough alleviation in children with intermittent asthma. In a parallel, double-blind, randomized controlled trial, 182 children aged 2 to 12 years with intermittent asthma were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive violet syrup or placebo along with the common standard treatments in both groups (short-acting β-agonist). Both groups were evaluated in terms of the duration until cough suppression was achieved. No significant difference was observed in basic characteristics. The duration lasting to yield more than 50% cough reduction and 100% cough suppression was significantly less in the violet syrup group compared to placebo (P = .001, P cough alleviation and suppression by violet syrup. This study showed that the adjuvant use of violet syrup with short-acting β-agonist can enhance the cough suppression in children with intermittent asthma. PMID:25954025

  7. Characterization of various fruit syrups by UV - Vis and HPLC analysis

    Šťavíková, Lenka; Hohnová, Barbora; Roth, Michal

    Messina: Chromaleont S.r.L, 2012 - (Sandra, P.; Mondello, L.). s. 491 [International Symposium on Capillary Chromatography /36./ and GC x GC Symposium /9./. 27.5.2012-01.06.2012, Riva del Garda] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP503/11/P523; GA ČR(CZ) GAP206/11/0138; GA ČR(CZ) GAP106/12/0522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : UV-Vis and HPLC * phenolic antioxidants * fruit syrups Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

  8. Effect of honey vinegar syrup on blood sugar and lipid profile in healthy subjects

    Seyedeh-Masomeh Derakhshandeh-Rishehri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The impact of honey or vinegar on several metabolic abnormalities has been studied separately, a mixture of these two ingredients known as honey vinegar syrup (HVS has not been investigated previously so far. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of HVS consumption (Iranian′s traditional syrup on glycemic parameters and lipid profiles in healthy individuals. Methods: We conducted a 4-week, randomized, controlled, parallel study consisting of two groups of nonobese healthy volunteers. All subjects were asked to stay on their normal diet. Intervention group (n = 36 received a cup of HVS daily in the evening snack for 4-week (250 cc syrup contains 21.66 g honey vinegar. Assessments of fasting blood sugar (FBS, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C were conducted at the baseline and after 4-week of study. Results: We observed no significant effect of HVS on FBS, HOMA-IR, LDL-C and TG. A significant effect of HVS was found on increasing fasting insulin and HOMA-IR and reduction in TC level only in intervention group (Δ =3.39 P = 0.01, Δ =1.65 P = 0.03, Δ = −9.43 P = 0.005, respectively. Changes of FBS, TG and LDL-C were 1.83 mg/dl, −1.53 mg/dl and − 3.99 mg/dl respectively in the intervention group. These changes were not significant. An unfavorable and significant reduction in HDL-C level was also observed between two groups (Δ = −4.82 P < 0.001 in the intervention group. Conclusions: Honey vinegar syrup increased fasting insulin level and decreased TC level in the intervention group. HVS had an unfavorable effect on HDL-C level. Further prospective investigations are warranted to confirm these findings.

  9. Effects of dietary high fructose corn syrup on regulation of energy intake and leptin gene expression in rats

    Guadalupe López-Rodríguez; Silke Kotasek Osuna; Marcos Galván García; Teodoro Suárez Dieguez

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in Wistar rats the effect of chronic use of high fructose corn syrup on serum lipids, body weight, energy intake regulation, and expression of associated genes. METHODS: For 11 weeks, male rats were fed a standard diet with either water (control) or 15% high fructose corn syrup solution, or fed a high-fat diet. The rats' food intake and body weight were measured weekly. Expression of leptin and fatty acid synthase genes was quantified in their brain and adipose tissue ...

  10. A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN ORAL CLONIDINE AND ORAL MIDAZOLAM AS PREMEDICANT IN CHILDREN

    Gurudatta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Majority of Paediatric patients experience significant anxiety in the preoperative holding area and during induction of anesthesia. Such anxiety often prolongs the induction of Anesthesia, increases post - operative pain and produces negative behavioral changes in chil dren. Effective premedication is the answer, which permits less traumatic separation of child from parents and facilitates smooth induction of anesthesia. The aim of the study is to evaluate and compare the efficacy of oral clonidine v/s oral midazolam adm inistered as a pre medicant in children. METHODS: 100 patients of ASA group I/II of either sex between the age group 4 years to 12 years scheduled for elective surgery were divided into two groups. (1 Group C received tablet oral clonidine 4μg/kg mixed wi th 5 ml of water 90 minutes before the induction. (2 Group M – received oral midazolam syrup 0.5mg/kg 45 minutes before the induction. Both the groups were assessed for: (1 drug acceptance (2 sedation score (3 anxiety score (4 onset of sedation (5 ma sk acceptance (6 Cardio respiratory scoring (7 OPS scoring (8 Parental acceptance. The results were statistically analysed. CONCLUSION: Premedication with oral clonidine is a suitable alternative to oral midazolam. It has several advantages compared to oral midazolam, like better acceptance of the drug by the children, adequate sedation and anxiolysis, easy acceptance of mask and I.V. cannulation, minimal side effects, adequate analgesia, good parental satisfaction. One disadvantage of clonidine is slowe r onset of action

  11. Topics in Nuclear Astrophysics

    Some topics in nuclear astrophysics are discussed, e.g.: highly evolved stellar cores, stellar evolution (through the temperature analysis of stellar surface), nucleosynthesis and finally the solar neutrino problem. (L.C.)

  12. Topical anesthesia in phacoemulsification

    Saad Waheeb

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion : Topical anesthesia is a satisfactory and safe alternative to retrobulbar and peribulbar anesthesia for clear corneal phacoemulsification and intraocular lens implantation in selected cataract patients in the hands of experienced cataract surgeon.

  13. Advanced Topics in Aerodynamics

    Filippone, Antonino

    1999-01-01

    "Advanced Topics in Aerodynamics" is a comprehensive electronic guide to aerodynamics,computational fluid dynamics, aeronautics, aerospace propulsion systems, design and relatedtechnology. We report data, tables, graphics, sketches,examples, results, photos, technical andscientific literature, for...

  14. 鼻渊糖浆治疗分泌性中耳炎临床效果观察%Clinical efficacy of nasosinusitis syrup in the treatment of secretory otitis media

    孙文青

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of nasosinusitis syrup in the treatment of secretory otitis media. Meth-ods 50 patients with secretory otitis media were selected and randomly divided into treatment group and control group. The treatment group was treated with nasosinusitis syrup,clarithromycin capsules,oral and nasal corticosteroid for 10 days. The con-trol group was treated with sinupret drops,clarithromycin capsules,oral and nasal cotristeroids for 10 days. The clinical efficacy was observed. Results The effective rates in treatment group and control group were 89. 29% and 86. 20% respectively. There was no significant difference in the effective rates between two groups(P﹥0. 05). Conclusion Nasosinusitis syrup has a good effect in the treatment of secretory otitis media with high safety. It deserves the clinical expansion.%目的:观察鼻渊糖浆治疗分泌性中耳炎的临床疗效。方法选取50例分泌性中耳炎患者,随机分为治疗组和对照组,各25例。治疗组采用鼻渊糖浆、克拉霉素胶囊、口服及鼻用激素治疗10 d,对照组采用欧龙马滴剂、克拉霉素胶囊、口服及鼻用激素治疗10 d,观察两组的临床疗效。结果治疗组治疗总有效率为89.29%,对照组为86.20%;治疗组治疗总有效率明显高于对照组,差异无统计学意义(P﹥0.05)。结论鼻渊糖浆治疗分泌性中耳炎效果良好,安全性高,值得临床推广。

  15. Evaluation of toxic heavy metals in ayurvedic syrups sold in local markets of hazara, pakistan

    Herbal and Ayurvedic preparations, widely used in Pakistan and the developing world, present serious risk of heavy metal toxicity related to their medicinal content and prolonged use by patients. The objective of this study was to find out the concentration of heavy metals in Herbal and Ayurvedic liquid preparations commonly used for treatment of different diseases, from local markets of Hazara. Methods: The cross sectional survey of traditional herbal and Ayurvedic medicine shops included ten liquid preparations selected from local shops of Mansehra and Abbottabad after interviewing the shopkeepers; so as to select the most commonly sold preparations along with their indications. All samples were analysed on standard Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy for qualitative and quantitative study of toxic heavy metals (Mercury, Iron, Zinc, Lead, Manganese and Arsenic). Results: Toxic levels of Mercury were present in seven syrups, i.e., (Kashneeze, Akseer e Pachas, Tankar, Sharbat e folad, Urosinal, Akseer e Jigar and Amrat dhara) while Arsenic was present only in Urosinal. Iron, Zinc, Manganese and Lead were present in permissible limits in all syrups. Conclusion: Mercury and Arsenic are present in local Herbal and Ayurvedic liquid preparations far beyond the permissible limits as proposed by the International Regulatory Authorities for health drugs while the rest of metals, i.e., Zinc, Manganese, and Iron are within the therapeutic limits. (author)

  16. Polysaccharides as a marker for detection of corn sugar syrup addition in honey.

    Megherbi, Mehdi; Herbreteau, Bernard; Faure, René; Salvador, Arnaud

    2009-03-25

    Honey is a natural product of high quality. However, because of its limited production and of its relatively high price, some beekeepers or unscrupulous traders do not hesitate to modify and falsify this natural product in order to try to increase its market value. Then, these involved falsification practices, for example intentional addition of cheap sugar syrup to honeys, are sometimes difficult to detect. An effective and simple analytical method is proposed in order to detect adulteration in honey by analysis of polysaccharide profiles. Samples were previously treated with reversed-phase solid phase extraction first to remove monosaccharides and small oligosaccharides and second to concentrate simultaneously traces of polysaccharides. A chromatographic separation using anion exchange stationary phase and pulse amperometric detection was further performed. Polysaccharide fingerprints (degree of polymerization from 11 to 17) were shown to be present in laboratory doped samples, and not detectable or present at very low concentrations in the authentic honey samples. Application to acacia, mountain polyfloral and polyfloral honeys enabled readily the detection of fraud resulting from deliberate addition of 1% of corn syrup. PMID:19243098

  17. Simultaneous determination of phenylephrine hydrochloride, guaifenesin, and chlorpheniramine maleate in cough syrup by gradient liquid chromatography.

    Amer, Sawsan M; Abbas, Samah S; Shehata, Mostafa A; Ali, Nahed M

    2008-01-01

    A simple and reliable high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous determination of mixture of phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHENYL), guaifenesin (GUAIF), and chlorpheniramine maleate (CHLO) either in pure form or in the presence of methylparaben and propylparaben in a commercial cough syrup dosage form. Separation was achieved on a C8 column using 0.005 M heptane sulfonic acid sodium salt (pH 3.4 +/- 0.1) and acetonitrile as a mobile phase by gradient elution at different flow rates, and detection was done spectrophotometrically at 210 nm. A linear relationship in the range of 30-180, 120-1800, and 10-60 microg/mL was obtained for PHENYL, GUAIF, and CHLO, respectively. The results were statistically analyzed and compared with those obtained by applying the British Pharmacopoeia (2002) method and showed that the proposed method is precise, accurate, and can be easily applied for the determination of the drugs under investigation in pure form and in cough syrup formulations. PMID:18476338

  18. Progress in maple syrup urine disease%枫糖尿症研究进展

    范国清

    2013-01-01

    枫糖尿症是一种罕见的常染色体隐性遗传性支链氨基酸代谢病,以神经系统症状及尿液枫糖味为突出表现,血氨基酸分析可见亮氨酸为主的支链氨基酸水平显著升高,按临床表现分为5种临床表型,按受累基因不同分为4种基因型,该病的治疗主要包括急性代谢危象期治疗及慢性期饮食治疗,总体预后不佳.%Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare inherited disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism presenting with life threatening encephalopathy and maple syrup odor in urine in affected individuals.Blood levels of branched-chain amino acids(BCAA) significantly increase.It is classified into 5 forms according to the clinical course,and classified 4 molecular phenotypes based on the affected locus of the branched chain αr-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex.Treatment of MSUD is divided into acute decompensation stage treatment and life-long dietary restriction treatment.

  19. Optimization of biohydrogen production from sweet sorghum syrup using statistical methods

    Saraphirom, Piyawadee [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Rajabhat Maha Sarakham University, A.Muang, Maha Sarakham 44000 (Thailand); Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Khon Kaen University, A. Muang, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Reungsang, Alissara [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Khon Kaen University, A. Muang, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Fermentation Research Center for Value Added of Agricultural Products, Faculty of Technology, Khon Kaen University, A. Muang, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)

    2010-12-15

    This study employed statistically based experimental designs to optimize fermentation conditions for hydrogen production from sweet sorghum syrup by anaerobic mixed cultures. Initial screening of important factors influencing hydrogen production, i.e., total sugar, initial pH, nutrient solution, iron (II) sulphate (FeSO{sub 4}), peptone and sodium bicarbonate was conducted by the Plackett-Burman method. Results indicated that only FeSO{sub 4} had statistically significant (P {<=} 0.005) influences on specific hydrogen production (P{sub s}) while total sugar and initial pH had an interdependent effect on P{sub s}. Optimal conditions for the maximal P{sub s} were 25 g/L total sugar, 4.75 initial pH and 1.45 g/L FeSO{sub 4} in which P{sub s} of 6897 mL H{sub 2}/L was estimated. Estimated optimum conditions revealed only 0.04% difference from the actual P{sub s} of 6864 mL H{sub 2}/L which suggested that the optimal conditions obtained can be practically applied to produce hydrogen from sweet sorghum syrup with the least error. (author)

  20. Identification of polyphenols and their metabolites in human urine after cranberry-syrup consumption.

    Iswaldi, Ihsan; Arráez-Román, David; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; Contreras, María Del Mar; Uberos, José; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-05-01

    As the beneficial effects of American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) can be partly attributed to its phenolic composition, the evaluation of the physiological behaviour of this fraction is crucial. A rapid and sensitive method by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS) has been used to identify phenolic metabolites in human urine after a single dose of cranberry syrup. Prior to the analysis, metabolites were extracted using an optimised solid-phase extraction procedure. All possible metabolites were investigated based on retention time, accurate mass data and isotope and fragmentation patterns. Free coumaroyl hexose (isomer 1 and 2), dihydroxybenzoic acid, caffeoyl glucose, dihydroferulic acid 4-O-β-d-glucuronide, methoxyquercetin 3-O-galactoside, scopoletin, myricetin and quercetin, together with other 23 phase-I and phase-II metabolites, including various isomers, could be tentatively identified in the urine. Afterwards, the metabolites were simultaneously screened in the urine of different subjects at 0, 2, 4, and 6h after the ingestion of cranberry syrup by Target Analysis(TM) software. PMID:23395719

  1. Recent advances in topical formulation carriers of antifungal agents.

    Bseiso, Eman Ahmed; Nasr, Maha; Sammour, Omaima; Abd El Gawad, Nabaweya A

    2015-01-01

    Fungal infections are amongst the most commonly encountered diseases affecting the skin. Treatment approaches include both topical and oral antifungal agents. The topical route is generally preferred due to the possible side effects of oral medication. Advances in the field of formulation may soon render outdated conventional products such as creams, ointments and gels. Several carrier systems loaded with antifungal drugs have demonstrated promising results in the treatment of skin fungal infections. Examples of these newer carriers include micelles, lipidic systems such as solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers, microemulsions and vesicular systems such as liposomes, niosomes, transfersomes, ethosomes, and penetration enhancer vesicles. PMID:26261140

  2. Recent advances in topical formulation carriers of antifungal agents

    Eman Ahmed Bseiso

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections are amongst the most commonly encountered diseases affecting the skin. Treatment approaches include both topical and oral antifungal agents. The topical route is generally preferred due to the possible side effects of oral medication. Advances in the field of formulation may soon render outdated conventional products such as creams, ointments and gels. Several carrier systems loaded with antifungal drugs have demonstrated promising results in the treatment of skin fungal infections. Examples of these newer carriers include micelles, lipidic systems such as solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers, microemulsions and vesicular systems such as liposomes, niosomes, transfersomes, ethosomes, and penetration enhancer vesicles.

  3. Rosacea-like eruption due to topical pimecrolimus.

    El-Heis, S; Buckley, D A

    2015-05-01

    Topical calcineurin inhibitors have been used outside their approved indications for a number of conditions, including topical steroid-induced rosacea. However, tacrolimus ointment itself has been reported to trigger rosacea in a small number of cases. We report a case of a rosacea-like eruption in a 39-year-old woman occurring after the use of pimecrolimus cream for 12 months for atopic dermatitis. Withdrawal of pimecrolimus combined with treatment with oral lymecycline, topical metronidazole, and an emollient resulted in resolution of the eruption. There have been 5 previously reported cases of a topical pimecrolimus-induced rosacea-like eruption suggesting that this rare side-effect may be a class effect of all topical calcineurin inhibitors. Dermatologists prescribing these drugs should be aware of this uncommon complication and may wish to warn patients of its occurrence as a potential side-effect when using topical calcineurin inhibitors in facial skin in adults. PMID:26295863

  4. Oral Adverse Reactions Caused by Over-the-Counter Oral Agents

    Vanja Vucicevic Boras

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over-the-counter products rarely cause unwanted reactions in the oral cavity. Oral reactions to these agents are not specific and might present with various clinical oral findings. Detailed medical history is a key to the proper diagnosis of these lesions and fortunately other diagnostic procedures are rarely needed. Lesions are usually managed with elimination of the offending agent and with topical steroids. In more severe cases systemic steroids should be applied.

  5. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect oral cancer early—when it can ...

  6. Methylprednisolone Oral

    ... Nizoral), oral contraceptives, phenobarbital, phenytoin (Dilantin), rifampin (Rifadin), theophylline (Theo-Dur), and vitamins.if you have a ... stomach irritation vomiting headache dizziness insomnia restlessness depression anxiety acne increased hair growth easy bruising irregular or ...

  7. Dexamethasone Oral

    ... Nizoral), oral contraceptives, phenobarbital, phenytoin (Dilantin), rifampin (Rifadin), theophylline (Theo-Dur), and vitamins.if you have a ... stomach irritation vomiting headache dizziness insomnia restlessness depression anxiety acne increased hair growth easy bruising irregular or ...

  8. Hydrocortisone Oral

    ... Nizoral), oral contraceptives, phenobarbital, phenytoin (Dilantin), rifampin (Rifadin), theophylline (Theo-Dur), and vitamins.if you have a ... stomach irritation vomiting headache dizziness insomnia restlessness depression anxiety acne increased hair growth easy bruising irregular or ...

  9. Oral Cancer

    ... use. Some oral cancers are linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) infections of the mouth and throat. ... The number of oropharyngeal cancers linked to human papilloma virus (HPV) has risen dramatically over the past ...

  10. Clinical Effects of Topical Tacrolimus on Fox-Fordyce Disease

    Hilal Kaya Erdoğan; Işıl Bulur; Zeliha Kaya

    2015-01-01

    Fox-Fordyce Disease (FFD) is a rare, chronic, pruritic, inflammatory disorder of apocrine glands. It is characterized by dome-shaped, firm, discrete, skin-colored, and monomorphic perifollicular papules. The most common sites of involvement are axillae and anogenital and periareolar regions which are rich in apocrine sweat glands. Treatment is difficult. Topical, intralesional steroids, topical tretinoin, adapalene, clindamycin, benzoyl peroxide, oral contraceptives, isotretinoin, phototherap...

  11. Safety of warfarin therapy during cataract surgery under topical anesthesia

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To analyze the safety of warfarin therapy during cataract surgery under topical anesthesia. Methods: This was a prospective nonrandomized comparative study of 60 eyes of 60 patients treated with or without concurrent oral warfarin anticoagulant therapy, referred for cataract surgery under topical anesthesia. The sample included a treatment (n=30) and a control (n=30) group. Results: There were no records of intraoperative or postoperative intracameral bleeding complications ...

  12. Characters and Topical Diversity

    Eriksson, Rune

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to contribute to our understanding of the difference between the bestseller and the non-bestseller in nonfiction. It is noticed that many bestsellers in nonfiction belongs to the sub-genre of creative nonfiction, but also that the topics in this kind of literature is...... largely ignored by the critics. Thus, the article tests how topics may work in creative nonfiction. Two Danish bestsellers belonging to the genre, Frank’s Mit smukke genom ( My Beautiful Genome), about genomics, and Buk-Swienty’s Slagtebænk Dybbøl ( ‘Slaughter-bench Dybbøl’), a history book, are chosen as...... cases and analysed using a slightly modified motif model by Johansen. The result is that in both books the main topic is treated from a double perspective, but also that six out of seven secondary topics, or motifs, are treated as well. It is concluded that also in a topical sense creative nonfiction...

  13. Oral myiasis

    Treville Pereira; Tamgadge, Avinash P.; Mayura S Chande; Sudhir Bhalerao; Sandhya Tamgadge

    2010-01-01

    Myiasis is a relatively rare condition arising from the invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals or humans by maggots or larvae of certain species of flies. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries and hot climate regions, and is associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions; alcoholism and senility. Its diagnosis is made basically by the presence of larvae. The present article reports a case of oral myiasis involving 20 larv...

  14. Oral cyclosporine therapy for refractory severe vernal keratoconjunctivitis

    Nikhil S Gokhale

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the success of oral cyclosporine therapy in a patient with severe vision-threatening vernal keratoconjunctivitis. A child presented with severe allergy which was not controlled with topical steroids, cyclosporine and mast cell stabilizers. Oral steroids were required repeatedly to suppress inflammation. Child showed a dramatic improvement and stabilization with oral cyclosporine therapy. Oral cyclosporine therapy can be tried in severe vision-threatening allergy refractory to conventional therapy.

  15. Effects of dietary high fructose corn syrup on regulation of energy intake and leptin gene expression in rats

    Guadalupe López-Rodríguez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in Wistar rats the effect of chronic use of high fructose corn syrup on serum lipids, body weight, energy intake regulation, and expression of associated genes. METHODS: For 11 weeks, male rats were fed a standard diet with either water (control or 15% high fructose corn syrup solution, or fed a high-fat diet. The rats' food intake and body weight were measured weekly. Expression of leptin and fatty acid synthase genes was quantified in their brain and adipose tissue upon sacrifice at age 119 days using real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The intake of 15% high fructose corn syrup did not affect the rats' weight, only the rats on the high-fat diet gained significant weight. The rats in both diets had lower levels of leptin expression and high levels of fatty acid synthase in the brain, which were associated with high serum triglycerides. CONCLUSION: Fifteen percent high fructose corn syrup intake and the high-fat diet reduced leptin gene expression in the brain of Wistar rats, with differential effects on weight gain.

  16. Evaluation of microbial and physico-chemical qualities of some cough syrups marketed in Sana’a city, Yemen.

    Ali G. Al−Kaf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Microbial contamination of cough syrups can bring clinical hazards to the users or patients as well as physical and chemical changes in the product. Aims: To evaluate the microbial and physicochemical characteristics of two hundred samples of four different types of cough syrups marketed in Sana’a city, Yemen. Methods: All collected samples were subjected to the following examinations: the total microbial count, type of isolated microorganisms, physical parameters, and concentration of active ingredients were identified and assessed by standard techniques described in US Pharmacopeia. Results: All the cough syrup samples used contained viable microbial load within acceptable limit according Pharmacopeia specifications. Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus fulvum, and Staphylococcus epidermidis were the most commonly recovered bacteria. However, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Penicillium notatum, Mucor sp., and Aspergillus flavus were the most fungi isolated. The physical properties represented in the appearance, density, and pH of the analyzed samples complied with Pharmacopoeia standards. The concentrations of diphenhydramine HCl (92,51 – 108,78%, pseudoephedrine HCl (94,55 – 109,07%, and triprolidine HCl (98,20 – 104,19% were recorded. Conclusions: All cough syrups marketed in Sana’a City had good microbiological and physico-chemical qualities.

  17. Pomegranate and mint syrup addition to green tea beverage stabilized its polyphenolic content and biofunctional potentials during refrigerated storage.

    Dhaouadi, Karima; Belkhir, Manel; Raboudi, Faten; Mecha, Elsa; Ghommeme, Imen; Bronze, Maria Do Rosario; Ammar, Hajer; Fattouch, Sami

    2016-02-01

    The chemical stability of the green tea (GT) preparation during refrigerated storage was investigated following the addition of mint (MS) or pomegranate (PS) syrups, a common habit in the Mediterranean countries that improves the savor of this popular beverage. The supernatants recovered by centrifuging GT supplemented or not with mint (GTMS) or pomegranate (GTPS) syrup were examined for their polyphenolic profiles using the high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. Following storage at 4 °C for 15 days, not-supplemented GT showed a significant decrease (≈92 %) of its phenolic content. However, the decrease was relatively lesser in GTPS (≈36 %) and in GTMS (≈40 %). The observed slight increase of the extractable polyphenolics in PS and MS during the storage might explain in part the relatively limited decrease of GTPS and GTMS total phenolic content. However, chromatographic examination proved that some tea compounds, particularly caffeine, were preserved following PS and MS supplementation. Likewise, syrups'addition to GT significantly (P syrups supplementation noticeably preserved the tea bacteriostatic and bactericide activities during storage. The obtained analytical results demonstrate that MS or PS addition to green tea beverage stabilized its polyphenolic content and biofunctional properties during refrigerated storage, thus, scientifically supporting this popular practice in the Mediterranean countries. PMID:27162396

  18. 果葡糖浆生产技术的研究进展%Fructose syrup production technology research

    王犇; 宁玉娟; 李克贤; 黄科林

    2014-01-01

    The syrup production technology, separation technology, applications and development prospects were mainly discussed in the paper.%文章主要论述了果葡糖浆的生产技术、分离技术、应用以及发展前景。

  19. Selected reaction monitoring as an effective method for reliable quantification of disease-associated proteins in maple syrup urine disease

    Fernández-Guerra, Paula; Birkler, Rune I D; Merinero, Begoña;

    2014-01-01

    in mitochondria-enriched samples from cultured fibroblasts from healthy individuals and patients with mutations in branched-chain α-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex. BCKDH is a mitochondrial multienzyme complex and its defective activity causes maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), a rare but severe inherited...

  20. Physicochemical, Proximate and Sensory Properties of Pineapple (Ananas sp.) Syrup Developed from Its Organic Side-Stream

    Tortoe, C.; Johnson, P.N.T.; Slaghek, T.; Miedema, M.; Timmermans, T.

    2013-01-01

    A major economical industrial challenge from pineapple (Ananas sp.) processing contributing to environmental pollu- tion is the organic side-streams of pineapple. The physicochemical, proximate and sensory properties of organic side- stream pineapple syrup (OSPS) developed from Smooth cayenne, Sugar

  1. Social wasps trapped in the Czech Republic with syrup and fermented fruit and comparison with similar studies (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

    Eight species of social wasps were trapped in the Czech Republic and Slovakia with syrup as bait. Vespa crabro L, Vespula germanica (Fabricius), and Vespula vulgaris (L.) dominated trap catches at most sites, comprising 32, 28, and 35% of the wasps trapped respectively. Nearly all wasps captured wer...

  2. Topic Identification in Discourse

    Chen, Kuang-hua

    1995-01-01

    This paper proposes a corpus-based language model for topic identification. We analyze the association of noun-noun and noun-verb pairs in LOB Corpus. The word association norms are based on three factors: 1) word importance, 2) pair co-occurrence, and 3) distance. They are trained on the paragraph and sentence levels for noun-noun and noun-verb pairs, respectively. Under the topic coherence postulation, the nouns that have the strongest connectivities with the other nouns and verbs in the di...

  3. Topics in Physical Mathematics

    Marathe, Kishore

    2010-01-01

    This title adopts the view that physics is the primary driving force behind a number of developments in mathematics. Previously, science and mathematics were part of natural philosophy and many mathematical theories arose as a result of trying to understand natural phenomena. This situation changed at the beginning of last century as science and mathematics diverged. These two fields are collaborating once again; 'Topics in Mathematical Physics' takes the reader through this journey. The author discusses topics where the interaction of physical and mathematical theories has led to new points o

  4. Clinical Analysis of Serious Kaliopenia Induced by Abuse of Anticol Cough Syrup Addict%滥用联邦止咳露糖浆致低钾性麻痹的临床分析

    黄晓勇; 朱信云; 黄志军; 单爱军; 彭朝林

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the inducing causes and clinical characteristics in patients with hypokalemia paralysis attributed to Anticol Cough Syrup abuse. Methods The clinical data of 16 patients of hypokalemia paralysis attributed to Anticol Cough Syrup abuse were retrospectively analyzed. Results The time of Anticol Cough Syrup Addicts abuse of 16 patients were 3-30 months, who took large doses of Anticol Cough Syrup within 24 h before the symptom disappeared. All the patients suffered from ex tremity myodynamia paralysis, and couldnf walk. Proximal end was severer than distal end, and those of lower extremity were seve rer than that of upper extremity, and there were recurrent attacks of paralysis. Tendon reflexes were normal or weakened, without sensory disturbances. Pathological syndrome was negative. 2 patients had mild psychiatric symptoms such as insomnia, excitement, and transient visual hallucination, 3 patients had serious diarrhea. The blood kalium of 16 patients were 1.4-2.3 mmol/L. Creatine kinase were a little higher than normal value, and ECG showed changes in U Wave, long Q-T, and ST segment depression. After kalium was given intravenously or orally, the patients recovered quickly. Conclusion Abuse of Anticol Cough Syrup may cause se rious hypokalemia, so physicians and patients should be cautioned against it.%目的 探讨滥用联邦止咳露糖浆诱发低钾性麻痹的原因及临床特点.方法 对滥用联邦止咳露糖浆导致的低钾性麻痹16例的临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果 本组联邦止咳露糖浆滥用时间3~30个月,发作前24h内均有明确的大量饮用联邦止咳露糖浆史.所有病例均有四肢肌力迟缓性瘫痪,不能行走,近端重于远端,下肢重于上肢,且反复发作.腱反射正常或减退,无感觉障碍,病理征阴性,其中2例伴失眠、亢奋、一过性幻视等轻度精神症状,3例合并严重腹泻.16例血钾1.4~ 2.3 mmol/L;心肌酶检测肌酸激酶均稍高于正常

  5. Microbial and physicochemical assays of paracetamol in different brands of analgesic syrups sold in Sana’a City-Yemen

    Ali G. Al−Kaf

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Contamination of pharmaceuticals with microorganisms irrespective whether they are harmful or nonpathogenic can bring about changes in physicochemical characteristics of the drugs. Aims: To assay the microbial and physicochemical characteristics of paracetamol of two hundreds samples of different brands of analgesic syrups sold in Sana’a City, Yemen. Methods: Total viable aerobic count, type of isolated microorganisms, physical properties, and content of active ingredients were identified and evaluated by standard methods and techniques. The SPSS program was used to statistical analysis of variance for results obtained. Results: The total bacterial count of <10 CFU/mL and <100 CFU/mL in 179 (89.5% and 21 (10.5% samples, respectively was recorded, while the total fungal count was ≤10 CFU/mL in all analyzed syrup samples. The isolated bacteria were Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus fulvum, and Staphylococcus epidermidis while isolated fungi were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Penicillium notatum. Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger were the predominant bacteria and fungi isolated. The color results had a light red liquid with a sweet taste in the analyzed analgesic syrups. The pH values were ranged from 4.44–5.88. However, the density fluctuated from 1.149–1.184 g/mL. The paracetamol concentration as an active ingredient in the analgesic syrup was recorded from 98.19% – 106.53%. Conclusions: This finding showed that all analgesic syrups sold in Sana’a City followed Pharmacopeia specifications on microbial and physicochemical qualities.

  6. Topic: Mastery Learning.

    Killoran, James, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    This journal issue addresses the topic of mastery learning at both the elementary and secondary school levels. The first article, "The Theory and Practice of Mastery Learning" (Guskey), gives a definition of and information about the development, operation, and application of mastery learning, based on the theories of Benjamin Bloom. In addition,…

  7. Differential Topic Models.

    Chen, Changyou; Buntine, Wray; Ding, Nan; Xie, Lexing; Du, Lan

    2015-02-01

    In applications we may want to compare different document collections: they could have shared content but also different and unique aspects in particular collections. This task has been called comparative text mining or cross-collection modeling. We present a differential topic model for this application that models both topic differences and similarities. For this we use hierarchical Bayesian nonparametric models. Moreover, we found it was important to properly model power-law phenomena in topic-word distributions and thus we used the full Pitman-Yor process rather than just a Dirichlet process. Furthermore, we propose the transformed Pitman-Yor process (TPYP) to incorporate prior knowledge such as vocabulary variations in different collections into the model. To deal with the non-conjugate issue between model prior and likelihood in the TPYP, we thus propose an efficient sampling algorithm using a data augmentation technique based on the multinomial theorem. Experimental results show the model discovers interesting aspects of different collections. We also show the proposed MCMC based algorithm achieves a dramatically reduced test perplexity compared to some existing topic models. Finally, we show our model outperforms the state-of-the-art for document classification/ideology prediction on a number of text collections. PMID:26353238

  8. Contrastive topics decomposed

    Michael Wagner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of contrastive topics introduced in Büring 1997b and further developed in Büring 2003 relies on distinguishing two types of constituents that introduce alternatives: the sentence focus, which is marked by a FOC feature, and the contrastive topic, which is marked by a CT feature. A non-compositional rule of interpretation that refers to these features is used to derive a topic semantic value, a nested set of sets of propositions. This paper presents evidence for a correlation between the restrictive syntax of nested focus operators and the syntax of contrastive topics, a correlation which is unexpected under this analysis. A compositional analysis is proposed that only makes use of the flatter focus semantic values introduced by focus operators. The analysis aims at integrating insights from the original analysis while at the same time capturing the observed syntactic restrictions. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.5.8 BibTeX info

  9. Topics in Nonlinear Dynamics

    Mosekilde, Erik

    Through a significant number of detailed and realistic examples this book illustrates how the insights gained over the past couple of decades in the fields of nonlinear dynamics and chaos theory can be applied in practice. Aomng the topics considered are microbiological reaction systems, ecological...

  10. Selected topics in magnetism

    Gupta, L C

    1993-01-01

    Part of the ""Frontiers in Solid State Sciences"" series, this volume presents essays on such topics as spin fluctuations in Heisenberg magnets, quenching of spin fluctuations by high magnetic fields, and kondo effect and heavy fermions in rare earths amongst others.

  11. Historical Topics in Algebra.

    National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, Inc., Reston, VA.

    This is a reprint of the historical capsules dealing with algebra from the 31st Yearbook of NCTM,"Historical Topics for the Mathematics Classroom." Included are such themes as the change from a geometric to an algebraic solution of problems, the development of algebraic symbolism, the algebraic contributions of different countries, the origin and…

  12. Topic Tracking with Dynamic Topic Model and Topic-based Weighting Method

    Xiaoyan Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In topic tracking, a topic is usually described by several stories. How to represent a topic is always an issue and a difficult problem in the research on topic tracking. To emphasis the topic in stories, we provide an improved topic-based tf*idf weighting method to measure the topical importance of the features in the representation model. To overcome the topic drift problem and filter the noise existed in the tracked topic description, a dynamic topic model is proposed based on the static model. It extends the initial topic model with the information from the incoming related stories and filters the noise using the latest unrelated story. The topic tracking systems are implemented on the TDT4 Chinese corpus. The experimental results indicate that both the new weighting method and the dynamic model can improve the tracking performance.

  13. Herpes - oral

    ... Avoid hot beverages, spicy and salty foods, and citrus. Gargle with cool water or eat popsicles. Rinse ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Cold Sores Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  14. Topics and topic prominence in two sign languages

    V. Kimmelman

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe topic marking in Russian Sign Language (RSL) and Sign Language of the Netherlands (NGT) and discuss whether these languages should be considered topic prominent. The formal markers of topics in RSL are sentence-initial position, a prosodic break following the topic, and non

  15. Workshop on beam cooling and related topics

    The sessions of the Workshop on Beam Cooling and Related Topics, held in Montreux from 4-8 October 1993, are reported in these Proceedings. This meeting brought together international experts in the field of accelerator beam cooling. Its purpose was to discuss the status of the different cooling techniques currently in use (stochastic, electron, ionization, heavy-ion, and laser) and their actual performances, technological implications, and future prospects. Certain theoretical principles (muon cooling, cyclotron maser cooling) were discussed and are reported on in these Proceedings. Also of interest in this Workshop was the possibility of beam crystallization in accelerators using ultimate cooling. In the first part of these Proceedings, overview talks on the various cooling techniques, their implications, present performance, and future prospects are presented. More detailed reports on all the topics are then given in the form of oral presentations or poster sessions. Finally, the chairmen and/or convenors then present summary talks. (orig.)

  16. Discovering Health Topics in Social Media Using Topic Models

    Paul, Michael J.; Dredze, Mark

    2014-01-01

    By aggregating self-reported health statuses across millions of users, we seek to characterize the variety of health information discussed in Twitter. We describe a topic modeling framework for discovering health topics in Twitter, a social media website. This is an exploratory approach with the goal of understanding what health topics are commonly discussed in social media. This paper describes in detail a statistical topic model created for this purpose, the Ailment Topic Aspect Model (ATAM...

  17. Two consecutive partial liver transplants in a patient with Classic Maple Syrup Urine Disease

    H.L. Chin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Maple syrup urine disease is caused by a deficiency in the branched chain ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKAD complex. This results in the accumulation of branched chain amino acids (BCAA and branched chain ketoacids in the body. Even when aggressively treated with dietary restriction of BCAA, patients experience long term cognitive, neurological and psychosocial problems. Liver transplantation from deceased donors has been shown to be an effective modality in introducing adequate BCKAD activity, attaining a metabolic cure for patients. Here, we report the clinical course of the first known patient with classic MSUD who received two consecutive partial liver grafts from two different living non-carrier donors and his five year outcome posttransplant. We also show that despite the failure of the first liver graft, and initial acute cellular rejection of the second liver graft in our patient, his metabolic control remained good without metabolic decompensation.

  18. Simultaneous determination of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and diphenhydramine hydrochloride in cough syrup by gas chromatography (GC).

    Raj, S V; Kapadia, S U; Argekar, A P

    1998-05-01

    A simple, rapid and precise gas chromatographic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of pseudoephedrine hydrochloride and diphenhydramine hydrochloride in cough syrup, using a SS column of 10% OV 1 on chromosorb W-HP (80-100 mesh) and nitrogen as a carrier gas at a flow rate of 30 ml min(-1). The oven temperature was programmed at 135 degrees C for 1 min, with a rise of 10 degrees C min(-1) up to 250 degrees C (held for 5 min). The injector and detector port temperatures were maintained at 280 degrees C. Detection was carried out using Flame ionization detector. Guaphenesin was used as an internal standard. Results of assay and recovery studies were statistically evaluated for its accuracy and precision. PMID:18967146

  19. Purple drank prevalence and characteristics of misusers of codeine cough syrup mixtures.

    Agnich, Laura E; Stogner, John M; Miller, Bryan Lee; Marcum, Catherine D

    2013-09-01

    A mixture of codeine cough syrup with alcohol and/or a soft drink known as "purple drank" has gained media attention in recent years as a drug associated with professional athletes and southern rap music. The existing research on purple drank consumption has primarily utilized samples of African Americans residing in the Houston, Texas area. This is the first scholarly study of purple drank use outside of the Houston, Texas area among a general population of young adults, and indicates that purple drank use is not limited to African American males. The findings depict higher odds of the use of purple drank among other racial and ethnic groups, males, and homosexual, bisexual, and transgender college students from urban areas. PMID:23688907

  20. Hypokalemic paralysis and respiratory failure due to excessive intake of licorice syrup

    Mehmet Oguzhan Ay

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Licorice is the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra, which has a herbal ingredient, glycyrrhizic acid. Excessive intake of licorice may cause a hypermineralocorticoidism-like syndrome characterized by sodium and water retention, hypokalemia, hypertension, metabolic alkalosis, low-renin activity, and hypoaldosteronism. In this paper, an 34 years old man who admitted to the emergency department with respiratory failure and marked muscle weakness of all extremities that progressed to paralysis after excessive intake of licorice syrup was presented. It was aimed to draw attention to the necessity of questioning whether there is excessive intake of licorice or not in patients who admitted to emergency department with paralysis and dyspnea. Plasma potassium concentration of the patient was 1.4 mmol/L. The patient\\'s respiratory distress and loss of muscle strength recovered completely after potassium replacement. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(2.000: 387-391

  1. Minerais em melados e em caldos de cana Minerals in sugar cane syrup and cane juice

    Fernanda dos Santos Nogueira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A cana-de-açúcar está entre as culturas que apresenta larga escala de adaptações às condições climáticas, sendo utilizada para a fabricação de diversos produtos. Dentre os produtos derivados da cana-de-açúcar, o melado é tido popularmente como um alimento rico em ferro. Este trabalho objetivou conhecer a concentração de alguns minerais em melados comerciais e em melados preparados com equipamentos de aço inoxidável. Ao todo foram 20 amostras, 10 de cada tipo. As amostras foram preparadas para análise por oxidação da matéria orgânica por via úmida e os teores de Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn e Fe foram determinados por espectroscopia de absorção atômica, Na e K por fotometria de chama e P por colorimetria. Concluiu-se, com este trabalho, que os teores médios dos minerais Fe, P, Na e Mg foram significativamente mais elevados nos melados comerciais do que nos melados feitos com equipamentos inox. O contrário foi encontrado para o mineral cálcio, que apresentou teor mais elevado nos melados feitos no laboratório, mas condizentes com os teores encontrados nos caldos de cana. Não houve diferença significativa nos teores dos demais minerais.Sugar cane is an easily adaptable crop to diverse climate conditions, and it is used in the manufacturing of many different products. Among those products is the syrup, which is popularly known to be good sources of iron. In this work, we aimed to measure the concentration of some minerals in commercial sugar cane syrup brands and syrup prepared in the laboratory using stainless steel equipment. A total of 20 samples were analyzed, 10 of commercial brands and ten prepared in the laboratory. The samples were prepared by wet-air oxidation of organic matter and the contents of Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Fe were determined by atomic absorption. Na and K were determined by photometry and P by colorimetry. It was found that the mean concentration of Fe, P, Na, and Mn were higher in the commercial

  2. A comparative study of two dosage levels of ibuprofen syrup in children with pyrexia.

    Kotob, A

    1985-01-01

    In a study of the antipyretic effect of two dosage levels of ibuprofen syrup in children with fever due to a variety of causes, forty-four out of the fifty children admitted completed the 24-hour trial period, twenty-three receiving 20 mg ibuprofen/kg body-weight, twenty-one receiving 30 mg/kg ibuprofen. Both dosage levels gave highly significant (p less than 0.001) reductions in rectal temperatures, with a statistically significant reduction, at the 5% level, in favour of the higher dose at 12 and 20 hours. No side-effects were reported at either dosage level, and the taste was acceptable to all the children. It is concluded that ibuprofen was a useful and effective antipyretic drug in the population studied, and that the higher dosage is preferable to the lower, being more effective, equally palatable, and giving rise to no side-effects in this study. PMID:3888726

  3. Oral myiasis

    Treville Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a relatively rare condition arising from the invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals or humans by maggots or larvae of certain species of flies. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries and hot climate regions, and is associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions; alcoholism and senility. Its diagnosis is made basically by the presence of larvae. The present article reports a case of oral myiasis involving 20 larvae in a patient with neurological deficiency.

  4. Open study of the clinical effect of suprofen syrup in children.

    Burgio, G R; Nespoli, L; Michos, N; Sarchi, C

    1986-06-01

    The aim of the study was to test the antipyretic effect and the tolerability of alpha-methyl-4-(2-thienyl-carbonyl)phenylacetic acid (suprofen, Suprol) syrup in a sample of pediatric patients with fever of various etiology. The study was designed as an open multiple dose study including 41 hospitalized children (males and females) aged 6 months to 12 years. Temperature, pulse rate, and respiratory rate were measured immediately after consumption of the syrup, after 30 min, 1 h, 1 1/2, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 h. The study was performed at one investigational center. At the end of the study, data were evaluated for a total of 41 patients. 27 patients were 5 years or less, 14 patients were 6 to 12 years old. The mean age of the males (23 patients) was 4.5 years; the mean age of the females (18 patients) was 3.8 years. There was no significant sex dependence of the development of temperature, the pulse rate, and the respiratory rate. Prior to treatment the mean temperature was 38.6 degrees C. Temperature decreased to 37.7 degrees C within 1 h and to 37.2 degrees C within 2 h after treatment. From then on, the temperature increased to 37.7 degrees C at the end of the observation period. The decrease in temperature (compared to baseline) was significant throughout the trial. The mean pulse rate decreased from 131.2/min to 119.9/min within 1 h, and to 114.0/min within 2 h. At the end of the trial the mean pulse rate was 120.1/min.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3741532

  5. PREFACE: CEWQO Topical Issue CEWQO Topical Issue

    Bozic, Mirjana; Man'ko, Margarita

    2009-09-01

    This topical issue of Physica Scripta collects selected peer-reviewed contributions based on invited and contributed talks and posters presented at the 15th Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics (CEWQO) which took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http://cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole community took place in Belgrade 29 May-3 June 2008 (http://cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu, cewqo08.phy.bg.ac.yu). On behalf of the whole community of the workshop, we thank the referees for their careful reading and useful suggestions which helped to improve all of the submitted papers. A brief description of CEWQO The Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics is a series of conferences started informally in Budapest in 1992. Sometimes small events transform into important conferences, as in the case of CEWQO. Professor Jozsef Janszky, from the Research Institute of Solid State Physics and Optics, is the founder of this series. Margarita Man'ko obtained the following information from Jozsef Janszky during her visit to Budapest, within the framework of cooperation between the Russian and Hungarian Academies of Sciences in 2005. He organized a small workshop on quantum optics in Budapest in 1992 with John Klauder as a main speaker. Then, bearing in mind that a year before Janszky himself was invited by Vladimir Buzek to give a seminar on the same topic in Bratislava, he decided to assign the name 'Central European Workshop on Quantum Optics', considering the seminar in Bratislava to be the first workshop and the one in Budapest the second. The third formal workshop took place in Bratislava in 1993 organized by Vladimir Buzek, then in 1994 (Budapest, by Jozsef Janszky), 1995 and 1996 (Budmerice, Slovakia, by Vladimir Buzek), 1997 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 1999 (Olomouc, Czech Republic, by Zdenek Hradil), 2000 (Balatonfüred, Hungary, by Jozsef Janszky ), 2001 (Prague, by Igor Jex), 2002 (Szeged, Hungary, by Mihaly Benedict), 2003 (Rostock,Germany, by Werner Vogel and

  6. Topical retinoids for acne.

    Yeh, Lindsey; Bonati, Lauren Meshkov; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2016-06-01

    Topical retinoids are currently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of acne vulgaris in nonpregnant, nonlactating patients 12 years of age and older. Their efficacy, safety, and tolerability are well documented for inflammatory and noninflammatory acne with studies repeatedly demonstrating a decrease in the number of lesions, significant improvement in acne severity, improvement in the cosmetic appearance of acne, and the prevention of acne lesions through microcomedone formation. There is some variability between prescription retinoid products regarding efficacy, safety, and tolerability; with erythema, peeling, and dryness being common, potential side effects. Due to their efficacious and safe profile, topical retinoids remain the first-line treatment for acne vulgaris. PMID:27416308

  7. Contribution of the diffusion-weighted MRI in the diagnosis and follow-up of encephalopathy caused by maple syrup urine disease in a full-term newborn

    The purpose of this case report is to show conventional MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) findings of the different evolutionary phases in MSUD (Maple syrup urine disease) of a newborn that evolved with brain white matter lesions (author)

  8. Contribution of the diffusion-weighted MRI in the diagnosis and follow-up of encephalopathy caused by maple syrup urine disease in a full-term newborn

    Ferraz-Filho, Jose Roberto Lopes; Floriano, Valdeci Helio; Quirici, Marcelo Bianco; Souza, Antonio Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Albuquerque, Regina Pires de [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Pediatria

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this case report is to show conventional MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) findings of the different evolutionary phases in MSUD (Maple syrup urine disease) of a newborn that evolved with brain white matter lesions (author)

  9. In vitro evaluation of alternative oral contrast agents for MRI of the gastrointestinal tract

    Purpose: In vitro evaluation of different materials as potential alternative oral contrast agents for small bowel MRI. Materials and methods: The T1 and T2 relaxation times of rose hip syrup, black currant extract, cocoa, iron-deferoxamine solution and a commonly used oral contrast material (1 mM Gd-DTPA) were determined in vitro at different concentrations on a 1.0 T clinical MR scanner. T1 values were obtained with an inversion prepared spoiled gradient echo sequence. T2 values were obtained using multiple echo sequences. Finally the materials were visualized on T1-, T2- and T2*-weighted MR images. Results: The relaxation times of the undiluted rose hip syrup (T1 = 110 ± 5 ms, T2 = 86 ± 3 ms), black currant extract (T1 = 55 ± 3 ms, T2 = 39 ± 2 ms) and 5 mM iron-deferoxamine solution (T1 = 104 ± 4 ms, T2 = 87 ± 2 ms) were much shorter than for a 1 mM Gd-DTPA solution (T1 = 180 ± 8 ms, T2 = 168 ± 5 ms). Dilution of black currant extract to 30% or a 3 mM iron-deferoxamine solution conducted to T1 relaxation times which are quite comparable to a 1 mM Gd-DTPA solution. Despite its much lower metal content an aqueous cocoa suspension (100 g/L) produced T2 relaxation times (T1 = 360 ± 21 ms, T2 = 81 ± 3 ms) more or less in the same range like the 5 mM iron-deferoxamine solution. Imaging of our in vitro model using clinical sequences allowed to anticipate the T1-, T2- and T2*-depiction of all used substances. Cocoa differed from all other materials with its low to moderate signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted sequences. While all substances presented a linear 1/T1 and 1/T2 relationship towards concentration, rose hip syrup broke ranks with a disproportionately high increase of relaxation at higher concentrations. Conclusions: Rose hip syrup, black currant extract and iron-deferoxamine solution due to their positive T1 enhancement characteristics and drinkability appear to be valuable oral contrast agents for T1-weighted small bowel MRI. Cocoa with its

  10. A Comparison of the Efficacy, Adverse Effects, and Patient Compliance of the Sena-Graph®Syrup and Castor Oil Regimens for Bowel Preparation

    Ghazikhanlou Sani, Karim; Jafari, Mahmood-Reza; Shams, Safar

    2010-01-01

    Sena-Graph syrup has recently been formulated by an Iranian pharmaceutical company for being used in bowel evacuation before radiography, colonoscopy and surgery. This study compares the efficacy, adverse effects and patient compliance of two bowel preparation regimens with castor oil and Sena-Graph syrup in of outpatients for Intravenous Urography (IVU). One hundred and fourteen consecutive outpatients were randomized to receive either the standard bowel preparation with 60 mL of castor oil ...

  11. Oral calcitonin

    Hamdy RC

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald C Hamdy,1,2 Dane N Daley11Osteoporosis Center, College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, 2Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Johnson City, TN, USAAbstract: Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the C-cells of the thyroid gland in response to elevations of the plasma calcium level. It reduces bone resorption by inhibiting mature active osteoclasts and increases renal calcium excretion. It is used in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget's disease of bone, and malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Synthetic and recombinant calcitonin preparations are available; both have similar pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. As calcitonin is a peptide, the traditional method of administration has been parenteral or intranasal. This hinders its clinical use: adherence with therapy is notoriously low, and withdrawal from clinical trials has been problematic. An oral formulation would be more attractive, practical, and convenient to patients. In addition to its effect on active osteoclasts and renal tubules, calcitonin has an analgesic action, possibly mediated through β-endorphins and the central modulation of pain perception. It also exerts a protective action on cartilage and may be useful in the management of osteoarthritis and possibly rheumatoid arthritis. Oral formulations of calcitonin have been developed using different techniques. The most studied involves drug-delivery carriers such as Eligen® 8-(N-2hydroxy-5-chloro-benzoyl-amino-caprylic acid (5-CNAC (Emisphere Technologies, Cedar Knolls, NJ. Several factors affect the bioavailability and efficacy of orally administered calcitonin, including amount of water used to take the tablet, time of day the tablet is taken, and proximity to intake of a meal. Preliminary results looked promising. Unfortunately, in two Phase III studies, oral calcitonin (0.8 mg with 200 mg 5-CNAC, once a day for postmenopausal osteoporosis and twice a day for osteoarthritis failed to

  12. Oral Sex, Oral Health and Orogenital Infections

    Rajiv Saini; Santosh Saini; Sugandha Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Althou...

  13. Oral care.

    Hitz Lindenmüller, Irène; Lambrecht, J Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable. PMID:21325845

  14. TEACHER CORRECTIVE ORAL FEEDBACK IN THE CLASSROOM

    INTHISONE PFANNER NASY

    2015-01-01

    The article reports on a study of teacher corrective oral feedback in Iris Becker Elementary School, a public school serving pupils from kindergarten-5th grade in Dearborn, Michigan. Some researchers claim that teacher corrective oral feedback is beneficial to L2 learning while others discard its merit. This study is an attempt to explore this topic further with young learners. The method used in the study included one classroom observation. The participants included one mainstream classroom ...

  15. [Oral formulation of choice for children].

    Lajoinie, A; Henin, E; Kassai, B

    2015-08-01

    Selecting the most appropriate oral formulation is very challenging when developing medicines for children and in routine practice. Research in pediatric pharmacology has focused on oral drug formulation, determining whether the active pharmaceutical ingredient can be successfully delivered to children. Pediatric expert committees (EMA, EuFPI) recommend that children's medicines be safe, well tolerated, easy to use (palatable and requiring minimal handling), transportable, easily produced, cost effective, commercially viable, with a minimal impact on children's life-style. Oral liquid drug formulations (OLFs: solutions, syrups, suspensions) are historically considered as the most appropriate oral formulation for children, since they are easy to swallow for younger infants and palatable for children. However, OLFs present numerous disadvantages, such as low stability, potentially toxic excipients for children, and low transportability. In the long-term, dose volume and frequency of administration might lead to non-compliance. Multiple preparation steps and volume calculations are also among risk factors for medicine errors in children. An alternative to OLFs is the conventional solid oral dosage form (OSF), such as tablets and capsules. These offer the advantages of greater stability, easy dose selection, improved transportability, and ease of storage. They also allow the modification of drug pharmacokinetic parameters, minimizing administration frequency. Finally, OSFs are less costly than OLFs, since they are easier to develop, manufacture, transport, store, and deliver. Controlled study results suggest that the use of OSFs in children would be associated with greater acceptability by children, greater preference on the part of caregivers, and higher drug compliance than OLFs. Recent controlled studies, confirming that OSFs with an acceptable size for children (mini-tablets), should shift the current paradigm of OLFs as the reference for children's oral medicine

  16. Oral Health and Aging

    ... please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Oral Health and Aging Oral Health and Aging Summer 2016 Table of Contents Jerrold H. Epstein, ... they may need. Read More "Oral Health and Aging" Articles Oral Health and Aging / 4 Myths About ...

  17. Novel therapies for oral lichen planus.

    Thongprasom, Kobkan; Prapinjumrune, Chanwit; Carrozzo, Marco

    2013-11-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic mucocutaneous disorder commonly found in middle-aged women. Despite the progress in research and advance in knowledge on OLP, a successful management is still difficult to achieve. The main aim of OLP treatment is to control the symptoms of the affected patients. Steroids and other immunosuppressive drugs have been recommended and widely used in the treatment of OLP. Topical corticosteroids are the mainstay of OLP treatment, but strong evidence on their effectiveness is lacking. The effectiveness of alternative ways of managing OLP has been recently reported. Topical aloe vera, topical pimecrolimus and oral curcuminoids are the most promising of the new treatment modalities. Other interesting modalities are topically applied thalidomide and amlexanox. Nevertheless, the careful assessment between the risks and benefits of these drugs is crucial and larger and well-conducted trials need to confirm the above encouraging results. PMID:23668304

  18. Oral Antibiotics in Acne Vulgaris: Therapeutic Response Over 5 Years

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Antibiotic resistant P. acnes have influenced acne therapy worldwide resulting in increased use of topical and systemic retinoids. Judicious use of oral antibiotic is important for effective therapeutic outcome.

  19. Topics on continua

    Macias, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Specialized as it might be, continuum theory is one of the most intriguing areas in mathematics. However, despite being popular journal fare, few books have thoroughly explored this interesting aspect of topology. In Topics on Continua, Sergio Macías, one of the field's leading scholars, presents four of his favorite continuum topics: inverse limits, Jones's set function T, homogenous continua, and n-fold hyperspaces, and in doing so, presents the most complete set of theorems and proofs ever contained in a single topology volume. Many of the results presented have previously appeared only in research papers, and some appear here for the first time. After building the requisite background and exploring the inverse limits of continua, the discussions focus on Professor Jones''s set function T and continua for which T is continuous. An introduction to topological groups and group actions lead to a proof of Effros''s Theorem, followed by a presentation of two decomposition theorems. The author then offers an...

  20. Determination of 20 synthetic dyes in chili powders and syrup-preserved fruits by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

    Chia-Fen Tsai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS method is developed to simultaneously determine 20 synthetic dyes (New Coccine, Indigo Carmine, Erythrosine, Tartrazine, Sunset Yellow FCF, Fast Green FCF, Brilliant Blue FCF, Allura Red AC, Amaranth, Dimethyl Yellow, Fast Garnet GBC, Para Red, Sudan I, Sudan II, Sudan III, Sudan IV, Sudan Orange G, Sudan Red 7B, Sudan Red B, and Sudan Red G in food samples. This method offers high sensitivity and selectivity through the selection of two fragment ion transitions under multiple reaction monitoring mode to satisfy the requirements of both quantitation and qualitation. Using LC-MS/MS, the newly developed extraction protocol used in this study is rapid and simple and does not require the use of solid-phase extraction cartridges. The linearities and recoveries of the method are observed at the concentration range of 0.10–200 μg/kg and more than 90% for all dyes, respectively. The method has been successfully applied to screen 18 commercial chili powders and six commercial syrup-preserved fruits purchased from retail establishments in Taipei City. The results show that three legal food dyes, Tartrazine, and/or Sunset Yellow FCF, and/or New Coccine, are present in some syrup-preserved fruits. Amaranth, an illegal food dye in certain countries but declared illegal in Taiwan, is found in an imported syrup-preserved fruit.

  1. Carbohydrate composition of high-fructose corn syrups (HFCS) used for bee feeding: effect on honey composition.

    Ruiz-Matute, Ana Isabel; Weiss, Milagra; Sammataro, Diana; Finely, Jennifer; Sanz, Maria Luz

    2010-06-23

    In this study, the carbohydrate composition of high-fructose corn syrups (HFCS) from commercial manufacturers as well as from beekeepers was characterized by GC-MS. Sucrose syrups (SS) were also included in this work for comparison. Fructosyl-fructoses and some unknown carbohydrates, which could correspond to fructosyl-glucoses, have been detected in HFCS for the first time, whereas SS were mainly characterized by the high contents of sucrose. Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content of samples supplied by beekeepers was much more variable; the mean level of HMF was 64.61 ppm (+/-16.92 ppm, 95% CI ranging from 26.91 to 102.31 ppm). Syrups were used to feed caged bees and the resulting honeys produced were analyzed in order to determine their influence in carbohydrate composition. Fructosyl-fructoses were mainly detected in honeys from bees fed with HFCS, but not from those honeys coming from free-flying bees or bees fed with SS. PMID:20491475

  2. An abrupt outgassing revealed by a slow decompression experiment of cristal-bearing syrup foam

    Kanno, Y.; Namiki, A.

    2013-12-01

    Distribution of volcanic gasses in a conduit determines eruption style. Outgassing changes the distribution of volcanic gasses in a conduit.We here simulated the outgassing from ascending magma by slow decompression experiments. As molten magma ascends in a conduit, surrounding pressure becomes low and bubbles in magma expand. In our previous work, we found that the bubble expansion causes film rupturing and makes paths for outgassing. The crystals in magma may affect this newly found outgassing style. Accordingly, we slowly decompressed syrup foam including solid particles as a magma analogue. Experiments are conducted in an acrylic tank. We observed the expansion of three-phase magma analog from the front of the tank using a digital video camera. From the images and pressure measurements, we calculated time evolution of the syrup volume and permeability. We consider that there is no bubble segregation by the ascent of individual bubbles from the Stoke's velocity. We conducted our experiments with a viscosity range of 10-20 Pa s which is the same orders of magnitude of that of basaltic magma, 10-103 Pa s. At the beginning of the decompression, the volume change of the syrup foam is well explained by isothermal expansion. When the gas fractions reached to the 85-90%, we observed that deformations of bubble films caused film rupturing so that bubbles coalesce vertically to clear a path. As time elapsed, the measured gas volume in the foam becomes smaller than that estimated by the isothermal expansion, indicating the occurrence of outgassing. In the experiments with high volume fraction of solid particles (>30 vol.% for bubble-free liquid), we observed another new style of outgassing. Several large voids (> 10 mm in radius) appear at a middle height of the foam and connect each other to make a horizontally elongated cavity. The roof of the cavity collapses, and then massive outgassing occurs. At the beginning of the decompression until the foam collapses, outgassing

  3. Topical Acne Treatments and Pregnancy

    Topical Acne Treatments and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to topical acne treatments may increase the risk for birth defects ...

  4. Topical tretinoin in acanthosis nigricans

    Lahiri Koushik

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficacy of topical tretinoin was assessed in 30 cases of idiopathic acanthosis nigricans which were recalcitrant to conventional modalities of treatment. Topical tretinoin once at night application was found to be very effective both clinically and histologically.

  5. Topical tretinoin in acanthosis nigricans

    Lahiri Koushik; Malakar Subrata

    1996-01-01

    Efficacy of topical tretinoin was assessed in 30 cases of idiopathic acanthosis nigricans which were recalcitrant to conventional modalities of treatment. Topical tretinoin once at night application was found to be very effective both clinically and histologically.

  6. Treatment of oral mucositis due to chemotherapy

    Bagán-Sebastián, José V

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The management of oral mucositis is a challenge, due to its complex biological nature. Over the last 10 years, different strategies have been developed for the management of oral mucositis caused by chemotherapy in cancer patients. Material and Methods An exhaustive search was made of the PubMed-Medline, Cochrane Library and Scopus databases, crossing the key words “oral mucositis”, “prevention” and “treatment” with the terms “chemotherapy” and “radiotherapy” by means of the boolean operators “AND” and “NOT”. A total of 268 articles were obtained, of which 96 met the inclusion criteria. Results Several interventions for the prevention of oral mucositis, such as oral hygiene protocols, amifostine, benzidamine, calcium phosphate, cryotherapy and iseganan, among others, were found to yield only limited benefits. Other studies have reported a decrease in the appearance and severity of mucositis with the use of cytoprotectors (sucralfate, oral glutamine, hyaluronic acid), growth factors, topical polyvinylpyrrolidone, and low power laser irradiation. Conclusions Very few interventions of confirmed efficacy are available for the management of oral mucositis due to chemotherapy. However, according to the reviewed literature, the use of palifermin, cryotherapy and low power laser offers benefits, reducing the incidence and severity of oral mucositis – though further studies are needed to confirm the results obtained. Key words:Chemotherapy-Induced Oral Mucositis Treatment. PMID:27034762

  7. A Comparative Study on the Sedative Effect of Oral Midazolam and Oral Promethazine Medication in Lumbar Puncture

    Hojjat DERAKHSHANFAR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Derakhshanfar H, Modanlookordi M, Amini A, Shahrami A. A Comparative Study of the Sedative Effect of Oral Midazolam and Oral Promethazine Medication in Lumbar Puncture. Iran J Child Neurol. 2013 Spring;7(2:11-16. ObjectiveLumbar puncture (LP essentially is a painful and stressful procedure that indicated for diagnosis and therapeutic purposes. One way to reduce the anxiety is to administer an oral premedication. The aim of this study is to compare clinical effects of oral midazolam and oral promethazine in LP.Materials & MethodsThis prospective randomized controlled clinical trial study wasperformed on 80 children aged 2-7 years that were candidate for LP. They were divided into two randomized equal groups. First group received oral midazolam syrup 0.5 mg/kg and the other group received oral promethazine syrup 1mg/kg. Level of sedation, hemodynamic changes and any other complications were monitored every 5 minutes from 30 minutes before the start of the procedure.ResultsMidazolam group and promethazine group were similar in age, gender and weight. Midazolam had significantly shorter onset of sedation and also shorter duration to maximal sedation. The two groups were similar with respect to sedative effect at all time. The only complication that was significantly more in midazolam group was nausea and vomiting.ConclusionMidazolam syrup and promethazine syrup have same sedative effect in children. Both of these medications are easy to use in preschool children and none of them appeared to be superior to another. References1. Ellenby MS, Tegtmeyer K, Lai S, Braner DA. Lumbar Puncture. N Engl J Med 2006;28;355(13:e12.2. Crock C, Olsson C, Phillips R, Chalkiadis G, Sawyer S, Ashley D, et al. General anesthesia or conscious sedation for painful procedures in childhood cancer: The family’s perspective. Arch Dis Child 2003;88(3:253−7.3. Holdsworth MT, Raisch DW, Winter SS, Frost JD, Moro MA, Doran NH, et al. Pain and

  8. Topics in atomic physics

    Burkhardt, Charles E

    2006-01-01

    The study of atomic physics propelled us into the quantum age in the early twentieth century and carried us into the twenty-first century with a wealth of new and, in some cases, unexplained phenomena. Topics in Atomic Physics provides a foundation for students to begin research in modern atomic physics. It can also serve as a reference because it contains material that is not easily located in other sources. A distinguishing feature is the thorough exposition of the quantum mechanical hydrogen atom using both the traditional formulation and an alternative treatment not usually found in textbooks. The alternative treatment exploits the preeminent nature of the pure Coulomb potential and places the Lenz vector operator on an equal footing with other operators corresponding to classically conserved quantities. A number of difficult to find proofs and derivations are included as is development of operator formalism that permits facile solution of the Stark effect in hydrogen. Discussion of the classical hydrogen...

  9. Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for osteoarthritis.

    Barthel, H Richard; Axford-Gatley, Robert A

    2010-11-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are mainstays of the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA) but have dose- and age-related risks of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and renal adverse events (AEs). As a result, US and international guidelines recommend caution when prescribing oral NSAIDs, particularly in older patients and those with significant comorbidities. For OA of the hands and knees, topical NSAIDs provide efficacy similar to oral NSAIDs, with far less systemic distribution. Treatment-related cardiovascular, renal, and other serious AEs with topical NSAIDs have not been reported. At present, only 2 topical NSAIDs are approved in the United States for the treatment of OA: diclofenac sodium 1% gel for hand or knee OA and diclofenac sodium 1.5% in 45.5% dimethylsulfoxide solution for knee OA. Clinical trial data for these products have demonstrated efficacy superior to placebo or similar to oral diclofenac with AE profiles similar to placebo, except for application site reactions. In large double-blind trials, gastrointestinal AEs were infrequent and did not include ulcers, perforations, or bleeding. The purpose of this brief review is to examine the data from controlled double-blind trials evaluating the use of topical NSAIDs in patients with OA. Articles included were identified via a search of PubMed covering the period from January 1, 2005 through March 31, 2010. Reference lists from OA treatment guidelines and meta-analyses were reviewed for additional citations of importance. PMID:21084786

  10. Assessment of a low dose of IV midazolam used orally for conscious sedation in pediatric dentistry

    M Mortazavi

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Midazolam is preferably used in pediatric dentistry for quick onset of action and recovery. The aim of this prospective, observer-blind and placebo-controlled study was to assess the efficacy of a low dose of oral midazolam in modification of  the behavior of young pediatric dental patients. Methods: Forty children aged 3 to 5 years who displayed ratings 1 or 2 on the Frankl Scale and  were healthy by the American Society of Anesthesiologists-I status were randomly divided into two experimental and control groups of 20 each. All children required pulpotomy and restoration of D and E teeth and received either 0.25mg/kg of a 15mg/3ml IV midazolam mixed in black cherry syrup or the syrup alone. Subjects were continuously observed and monitored with pulse oximetry. Houpt's Behavioral Ratings was used to determine the overall behavior, the degree of crying and movement during treatment. Mann-Whitney U test was used for statistical analysis. Results and major conclusion: Patients who received 0.25mg/kg of the prepared oral midazolam significantly behaved better during treatment than the placebo controls (P<0.05. In comparison with the placebo group, reduced movement and crying were observed in the midazolam group (P<0.05. No adverse effects were observed and treatments were completed successfully. A low dose of 0.25mg/kg of a 15mg/3ml IV midazolam mixed in black cherry syrup was found to be effective in conscious sedation of young pediatric dental patients.

  11. Detection of added beet or cane sugar in maple syrup by the site-specific deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) method: collaborative study.

    Martin, Y L

    2001-01-01

    Results of a collaborative study are reported for the detection of added beet or cane sugar in maple syrup by the site-specific natural isotope fractionation-nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) method. The method is based on the fact that the deuterium content at specific positions of the sugar molecules is different in maple syrup from that in beet or cane sugar. The syrup is diluted with pure water and fermented; the alcohol is distilled with a quantitative yield and analyzed with a high-field NMR spectrometer fitted with a deuterium probe and fluorine lock. The proportion of ethanol molecules monodeuterated at the methyl site is recorded. This parameter (D/H)I is decreased when beet sugar is added and increased when cane sugar is added to the maple syrup. The precision of the method for measuring (D/H)I was found to be in good agreement with the values already published for the application of this method to fruit juice concentrates (AOAC Official Method 995.17). An excellent correlation was found between the percentage of added beet sugar and the (D/H)I isotopic ratio measured in this collaborative study. Consequently, all samples in which exogenous sugars were added were found to have a (D/H)I isotopic ratio significantly different from the normal value for an authentic maple syrup. By extension of what is known about plants having the C4 cycle, the method can be applied to corn sweeteners as well as to cane sugar. One limitation of the method is its reduced sensitivity when applied to specific blends of beet and cane sugars or corn sweeteners. In such case, the C13 ratio measurement (see AOAC Official Method 984.23, Corn Syrup and Cane Sugar in Maple Syrup) may be used in conjunction. PMID:11601471

  12. Oral / response

    Bartram, Angela; O'Neill, Mary

    2012-01-01

    The performance ‘Oral/Response’ joins an artist, Angela Bartram and a theorist, Mary O’Neill in research to analyse the dynamic, but often disjointed relationship between the live experience and its documentation by positioning both elements within the performance. Traditionally, the documentation of performance is a record left to stand for the work after the event that demonstrates an out of time viewpoint, which is a problem for ephemeral practice whose intention is to be ‘live’ and in the...

  13. Oral Haemangioma

    Jaspreet Singh Gill

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular anomalies comprise a widely heterogeneous group of tumours and malformations. Haemangioma is the most common benign tumour of vascular origin of the head and neck region. The possible sites of occurrence in oral cavity are lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, and palate. Despite its benign origin and behaviour, it is always of clinical importance to the dental profession and requires appropriate management. This case study reports a rare case of capillary haemangioma on the palatal gingiva in a 14-year-old female.

  14. Duration of extracorporeal therapy in acute maple syrup urine disease: a kinetic model.

    Phan, Véronique; Clermont, Marie-José; Merouani, Aicha; Litalien, Catherine; Tucci, Marisa; Lambert, Marie; Mitchell, Grant; Jouvet, Philippe

    2006-05-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD, MIM 248600) can be complicated by metabolic crises necessitating extracorporeal removal therapy (ECRT). Since leucine levels are usually not immediately available during therapy, an accurate kinetic model of leucine plasma levels during removal would be useful to establish the duration of ECRT. Such a kinetic model is available for neonates undergoing continuous ECRT (CECRT) with a leucine clearance>or=35 ml min-1 1.73 m-2. The current study tests the validity of this model in older children. Plasma leucine levels were obtained from eleven ECRT sessions [seven CECRT and four intermittent hemodialysis (HDi) sessions] in seven children aged 1-14 years. No hemodynamic instability or neurological complications were observed during treatment. HDi provided a higher leucine clearance and required shorter sessions than CECRT (5.4+/-0.6 vs. 17.1+/-6.0 h). All patients regained precrisis neurological status except for one patient who had severe neurological damage (severe cerebral edema) at the time of dialysis and subsequently died despite efficient leucine removal. A leucine clearance>or=50 ml min-1 1.73 m-2 is required to obtain a kinetic model similar to that reported in neonates, both with CECRT and HDi. This model should be helpful in predicting the duration of therapy needed to attain desired leucine levels. PMID:16518628

  15. MR diffusion imaging and MR spectroscopy of maple syrup urine disease during acute metabolic decompensation

    Jan, Wajanat; Wang, Zhiyue J. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Zimmerman, Robert A. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Civic Center Boulevard, PA 19104, Philadelphia (United States); Berry, Gerard T.; Kaplan, Paige B.; Kaye, Edward M. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of amino acid metabolism, which affects the brain tissue resulting in impairment or death if untreated. Imaging studies have shown reversible brain edema during acute metabolic decompensation. The purpose of this paper is to describe the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and spectroscopy findings during metabolic decompensation and to assess the value of these findings in the prediction of patient outcome. Six patients with the diagnosis of MSUD underwent conventional MR imaging with DWI during acute presentation with metabolic decompensation. Spectroscopy with long TE was performed in four of the six patients. Follow-up examinations were performed after clinical and metabolic recovery. DWI demonstrated marked restriction of proton diffusion compatible with cytotoxic or intramyelinic sheath edema in the brainstem, basal ganglia, thalami, cerebellar and periventricular white matter and the cerebral cortex. This was accompanied by the presence of an abnormal branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and branched-chain alpha-keto acids (BCKA) peak at 0.9 ppm as well as elevated lactate on proton spectroscopy in all four patients. The changes in all six patients were reversed with treatment without evidence of volume loss or persistent tissue damage. The presence of cytotoxic or intramyelinic edema as evidenced by restricted water diffusion on DWI, with the presence of lactate on spectroscopy, could imply imminent cell death. However, in the context of metabolic decompensation in MSUD, it appears that changes in cell osmolarity and metabolism can reverse completely after metabolic correction. (orig.)

  16. Nonmedical Use of Cough Syrup Among Secondary Vocational School Students: A National Survey in China.

    Wu, Qingfeng; Yu, Jincong; Yang, Chengwu; Chen, Jiayan; Yang, Longyu; Zhang, Hui; Teng, Shiwei; Li, Jiang; Yan, Dong; Cao, Jiepin; Zhao, Yanting; Wang, Zengzhen

    2016-03-01

    Nonmedical use of cough syrup (NUCS) among secondary vocational school (SVS) students has been an increasing concern for public health in China, but no data were available. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the epidemiological characters of NUCS as well as its risk factors among SVS students in China.From September 2013 to December 2014, a total of 13,614 SVS students were purposively selected through multistage sampling in 6 cities of China. Information on NUCS, demographics, family background, smoking and alcohol consumption, impulsiveness, sensation seeking, and parental monitoring were collected. Logistic regression was used to explore factors related to NUCS.The 12,923 (94.9%) valid responses (16.3 ± 1.0 years old, and 52.6% men) reported 3.47% (95% confidence interval: 3.15-3.79%) lifetime NUCS. Logistic regression indicated that smoking, part-time job experience, high level of impulsiveness, and sensation seeking were risk factors for NUCS, whereas urban living and high parental monitoring were protective ones.NUCS was prevalent among SVS students. Interventions that target on smoking, impulsiveness and sensation seeking control, improvement on parental monitoring may have considerable impact on NUCS among SVS students. PMID:26962800

  17. Maple syrup urine disease in Brazil: a panorama of the last two decades

    Silvani Herber

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize a sample of Brazilian patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD diagnosed between 1992 and 2011. METHODS: In this retrospective study, patients were identified through a national reference laboratory for the diagnosis of MSUD and through contact with other medical genetics services across Brazil. Data were collected by means of a chart review. RESULTS: Eighty-three patients from 75 families were enrolled in the study (median age, 3 years; interquartile range [IQR], 0.57-7. Median age at onset of symptoms was 10 days (IQR 5-30, whereas median age at diagnosis was 60 days (IQR 29-240, p = 0.001. Only three (3.6% patients were diagnosed before the onset of clinical manifestations. A comparison between patients with (n = 12 and without (n = 71 an early diagnosis shows that early diagnosis is associated with the presence of positive family history and decreased prevalence of clinical manifestations at the time of diagnosis, but not with a better outcome. Overall, 98.8% of patients have some psychomotor or neurodevelopmental delay. CONCLUSION: In Brazil, patients with MSUD are usually diagnosed late and exhibit neurological involvement and poor survival even with early diagnosis. We suggest that specific public policies for diagnosis and treatment of MSUD should be developed and implemented in the country.

  18. MR diffusion imaging and MR spectroscopy of maple syrup urine disease during acute metabolic decompensation

    Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of amino acid metabolism, which affects the brain tissue resulting in impairment or death if untreated. Imaging studies have shown reversible brain edema during acute metabolic decompensation. The purpose of this paper is to describe the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and spectroscopy findings during metabolic decompensation and to assess the value of these findings in the prediction of patient outcome. Six patients with the diagnosis of MSUD underwent conventional MR imaging with DWI during acute presentation with metabolic decompensation. Spectroscopy with long TE was performed in four of the six patients. Follow-up examinations were performed after clinical and metabolic recovery. DWI demonstrated marked restriction of proton diffusion compatible with cytotoxic or intramyelinic sheath edema in the brainstem, basal ganglia, thalami, cerebellar and periventricular white matter and the cerebral cortex. This was accompanied by the presence of an abnormal branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and branched-chain alpha-keto acids (BCKA) peak at 0.9 ppm as well as elevated lactate on proton spectroscopy in all four patients. The changes in all six patients were reversed with treatment without evidence of volume loss or persistent tissue damage. The presence of cytotoxic or intramyelinic edema as evidenced by restricted water diffusion on DWI, with the presence of lactate on spectroscopy, could imply imminent cell death. However, in the context of metabolic decompensation in MSUD, it appears that changes in cell osmolarity and metabolism can reverse completely after metabolic correction. (orig.)

  19. Teaching Oral Chinese in the United States

    Cheng, Chin-Chuan

    1976-01-01

    Because Chinese language textbooks were judged inadequate in teaching vocabulary dealing with everyday life in the U.S. and in China, new methods and materials were introduced into an oral Chinese course. Prepared discussion topics, Chinese films, soap operas, and shortwave radio broadcasts were used. (CHK)

  20. School based oral health promotional intervention: Effect on knowledge, practices and clinical oral health related parameters

    Arjun Gauba

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: No organized school oral health program is existent in India. Aim: The aim of this study is to test the feasibility and efficacy of an economical school oral health promotional intervention with educational and preventive components. Settings and Design: School oral health promotional intervention carried out in one of the randomly selected school and evaluated through short duration prospective model. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 children with an age range of 10-12 years with no previous history of dental intervention were enrolled. Interventions comprised of oral health education (delivered through lecture and demonstrations by an undergraduate dental student and topical antibacterial therapy (fluoride varnish and povidone iodine. Outcomes consisted of Knowledge and practices (KAP regarding oral health, clinical oral health related parameters such as plaque index (PI, gingival index (GI and caries activity as per Modified Snyder′s test. These were reported at baseline, 3 weeks and 6 months follow-up examination by a calibrated examiner. Statistical Analysis: McNemar Bowker′s test, Student′s t-test, Pearson Chi-square tests were used. Results: Highly significant (P < 0.001 improvements in KAP scores, PI scores, GI scores and caries activity were reported at 3 weeks and 6 months follow-up examination. Conclusion: This small economical school oral health program positively influenced oral health related practices and parameters of oral health such as oral cleanliness, gingival health and caries activity.

  1. Oral Cancer and Oral Precancerous Lesions in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: A Systematic Review.

    Katsanos, Konstantinos H; Roda, Giulia; Brygo, Alexandre; Delaporte, Emmanuel; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric

    2015-11-01

    Oral cancer is historically linked to well-known behavioural risk factors such as tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption. Other risk factors include age over 40, male sex, several dietary factors, nutritional deficiencies, viruses, sexually transmitted infections, human papillomavirus, chronic irritation, and possibly genetic predisposition. Precancerous lesions in the oral cavity include leukoplakia, erythroplakia, and lichen planus. Histology of oral cancer varies widely but the great majority are squamous cell carcinomas.Epidemiological studies and cancer registries have shown a consistently increased risk of oral malignancies in kidney, bone marrow, heart, or liver transplantation, in graft vs host disease, and in patients with HIV infection. Because of the increasing use of immunosuppressive drugs in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, it is useful to more accurately delineate the consequences of chronic immunosuppression to the oral cavity. Oral cancer and precancerous oral lesions in patients with inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] have been scarcely reported and reviews on the topic are lacking.We conducted a literature search using the terms and variants of all cancerous and precancerous oral manifestations of inflammatory bowel diseases. By retrieving the existing literature, it is evident that patients with IBD belong to the high-risk group of developing these lesions, a phenomenon amplified by the increasing HPV prevalence. Education on modifiable risk behaviours in patients with oral cancer is the cornerstone of prevention.Oral screening should be performed for all IBD patients, especially those who are about to start an immunosuppressant or biological drug. PMID:26163301

  2. Towards understanding oral health

    E. Zaura; J.M. ten Cate

    2015-01-01

    During the last century, dental research has focused on unraveling the mechanisms behind various oral pathologies, while oral health was typically described as the mere absence of oral diseases. The term ‘oral microbial homeostasis' is used to describe the capacity of the oral ecosystem to maintain

  3. Topics in statistical mechanics

    Elser, V.

    1984-05-01

    This thesis deals with four independent topics in statistical mechanics: (1) the dimer problem is solved exactly for a hexagonal lattice with general boundary using a known generating function from the theory of partitions. It is shown that the leading term in the entropy depends on the shape of the boundary; (2) continuum models of percolation and self-avoiding walks are introduced with the property that their series expansions are sums over linear graphs with intrinsic combinatorial weights and explicit dimension dependence; (3) a constrained SOS model is used to describe the edge of a simple cubic crystal. Low and high temperature results are derived as well as the detailed behavior near the crystal facet; (4) the microscopic model of the lambda-transition involving atomic permutation cycles is reexamined. In particular, a new derivation of the two-component field theory model of the critical behavior is presented. Results for a lattice model originally proposed by Kikuchi are extended with a high temperature series expansion and Monte Carlo simulation. 30 references.

  4. Topics in statistical mechanics

    This thesis deals with four independent topics in statistical mechanics: (1) the dimer problem is solved exactly for a hexagonal lattice with general boundary using a known generating function from the theory of partitions. It is shown that the leading term in the entropy depends on the shape of the boundary; (2) continuum models of percolation and self-avoiding walks are introduced with the property that their series expansions are sums over linear graphs with intrinsic combinatorial weights and explicit dimension dependence; (3) a constrained SOS model is used to describe the edge of a simple cubic crystal. Low and high temperature results are derived as well as the detailed behavior near the crystal facet; (4) the microscopic model of the lambda-transition involving atomic permutation cycles is reexamined. In particular, a new derivation of the two-component field theory model of the critical behavior is presented. Results for a lattice model originally proposed by Kikuchi are extended with a high temperature series expansion and Monte Carlo simulation. 30 references

  5. Superconcentration and related topics

    Chatterjee, Sourav

    2014-01-01

    A certain curious feature of random objects, introduced by the author as “super concentration,” and two related topics, “chaos” and “multiple valleys,” are highlighted in this book. Although super concentration has established itself as a recognized feature in a number of areas of probability theory in the last twenty years (under a variety of names), the author was the first to discover and explore its connections with chaos and multiple valleys. He achieves a substantial degree of simplification and clarity in the presentation of these findings by using the spectral approach. Understanding the fluctuations of random objects is one of the major goals of probability theory and a whole subfield of probability and analysis, called concentration of measure, is devoted to understanding these fluctuations. This subfield offers a range of tools for computing upper bounds on the orders of fluctuations of very complicated random variables. Usually, concentration of measure is useful when more direct prob...

  6. Advanced verification topics

    Bhattacharya, Bishnupriya; Hall, Gary; Heaton, Nick; Kashai, Yaron; Khan Neyaz; Kirshenbaum, Zeev; Shneydor, Efrat

    2011-01-01

    The Accellera Universal Verification Methodology (UVM) standard is architected to scale, but verification is growing and in more than just the digital design dimension. It is growing in the SoC dimension to include low-power and mixed-signal and the system integration dimension to include multi-language support and acceleration. These items and others all contribute to the quality of the SOC so the Metric-Driven Verification (MDV) methodology is needed to unify it all into a coherent verification plan. This book is for verification engineers and managers familiar with the UVM and the benefits it brings to digital verification but who also need to tackle specialized tasks. It is also written for the SoC project manager that is tasked with building an efficient worldwide team. While the task continues to become more complex, Advanced Verification Topics describes methodologies outside of the Accellera UVM standard, but that build on it, to provide a way for SoC teams to stay productive and profitable.

  7. Detection of Embryonic Research Topics by Analysing Semantic Topic Networks

    Salatino, Angelo Antonio; Motta, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Being aware of new research topics is an important asset for anybody involved in the research environment, including researchers, academic publishers and institutional funding bodies. In recent years, the amount of scholarly data available on the web has increased steadily, allowing the development of several approaches for detecting emerging research topics and assessing their trends. However, current methods focus on the detection of topics which are already associated with a label or a sub...

  8. Interindividual variation in transdermal and oral drug deliveries.

    Levin, Jacquelyn; Maibach, Howard

    2012-11-01

    It is generally assumed that the topical absorption of drugs is subject to more interindividual variation than the oral absorption of drugs. To date, we are unaware of any clinical studies or meta-analyses that compare the interindividual variation of transdermal and oral drug deliveries for a large number of medications. In this research article, the absorption data for 10 medications that can be used as an oral medication or a transdermal patch were compiled, and from the collected data, the interindividual variance was calculated for topical and oral absorption as an overall average and by drug. This research article also briefly reviews the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of transdermal and oral drug absorption. Our results indicate that there is considerable interindividual variation in topical and oral absorption for the 10 medications investigated. Yet, surprisingly, the calculated overall mean and median coefficient of variation (CV) for topical and oral absorption were comparable (within 10% of each other). Therefore, the interindividual variation in topical and oral absorption may not be as divergent as assumed previously. In a drug-by-drug comparison, certain medications demonstrated considerably more variation when absorbed orally versus topically and vice versa. It is unclear why certain drugs had less variation in absorption when delivered topically versus orally (or vice versa). However, patterns in drug molecular weight (MW) or octanol partition coefficient (log K(OCT) ) could not totally explain these findings. In our analysis, the previously reported correlation between MW or log K(OCT) and interindividual variation in absorption could only be replicated when plotting the topical absorption CV and MW. What became clear from our analysis is that the drug itself is an important variable when considering which route of delivery (oral or topical) will provide the least amount of interindividual variation. Our study had many limitations because

  9. Date syrup-derived polyphenols attenuate angiogenic responses and exhibits anti-inflammatory activity mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in endothelial cells.

    Taleb, Hajer; Morris, R Keith; Withycombe, Cathryn E; Maddocks, Sarah E; Kanekanian, Ara D

    2016-07-01

    Bioactive components such as polyphenols, present in many plants, are purported to have anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties. Date syrup, produced from date fruit of the date palm tree, has traditionally been used to treat a wide range of diseases with etiologies involving angiogenesis and inflammation. It was hypothesized that polyphenols in date syrup reduce angiogenic responses such as cell migration, tube formation, and matrix metalloproteinase activity in an inflammatory model by exhibiting anti-inflammatory activity mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the prostaglandin enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in endothelial cells. Date syrup polyphenols at 60 and 600μg/mL reduced inflammation and suppressed several stages of angiogenesis, including endothelial cell migration, invasion, matrix metalloproteinase activity, and tube formation, without evidence of cytotoxicity. VEGF and COX-2 expression induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha at both gene expression and protein level was significantly reduced by date syrup polyphenols in comparison to untreated cells. In conclusion, polyphenols in date syrup attenuated angiogenic responses and exhibited anti-inflammatory activity mediated by VEGF and COX-2 expression in endothelial cells. PMID:27333954

  10. Oral sex, oral health and orogenital infections

    Rajiv Saini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection and safer sex precautions. There are various methods of preventing infection during oral sex such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues and oral hygiene and dental issues. The lesions or unhealthy periodontal status of oral cavity accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex.

  11. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... the mouth for signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes ... step description of the oral cancer examination so patients know what to expect. What You Need to ...

  12. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect oral ... Step-by-step description of the oral cancer examination so patients know what to expect. What You ...

  13. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, signs and symptoms of oral cancer, and the importance of detecting the disease in ...

  14. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer ... Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/ ...

  15. Oral Thrush (For Parents)

    ... About Oral Thrush Symptoms Prevention Treatment en español Candidiasis bucal About Oral Thrush Oral thrush is a ... digestive tract can overgrow and lead to an infection. Candida overgrowth also causes diaper rash and vaginal (yeast) ...

  16. Oral Cancer Prevention

    ... Quit General Information About Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer are diseases in ... about how you might lower your risk of cancer. Oral cavity cancer and oropharyngeal cancer are two different ...

  17. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... Tips Careers & Training Fellowships and Internships for... High School and College Students Recent College Graduates Dental and ... Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an ...

  18. Combination topical therapy in the treatment of acne.

    Del Rosso, James Q

    2006-08-01

    Many medications are available for the management of acne. The armamentarium includes topical retinoids (ie, adapalene, tazarotene, tretinoin), antimicrobial and antibacterial agents (ie, benzoyl peroxide, clindamycin, erythromycin, sulfacetamide with or without sulfur), oral antibiotics (ie, doxycycline, minocycline, tetracycline), hormonal agents (ie, oral contraceptives, spironolactone), and systemic retinoids (ie, isotretinoin). Acne usually is treated with combination therapy to address its multifactorial pathophysiology. The combination of clindamycin 1%-benzoyl peroxide 5% gel, available as a stable formulation in a single tube, is efficacious and well-tolerated. The product's excipients, glycerin and dimethicone, minimize treatment-related irritation, thereby increasing patient compliance. Clindamycin-benzoyl peroxide may be well-tolerated when applied with topical retinoids, creating a more targeted and complete treatment strategy. PMID:17966494

  19. Penile pyoderma gangrenosum successfully treated with topical Imiquimod

    Santosh P Rathod

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyoderma gangrenosum(PG is a rare ulcerating inflammatory neutrophilic dermatosis. Genital involvement has been rarely reported. We report such a case of 24- year- old, male patient living with HIV/AIDS(PLHIV who presented with progressive genital ulceration, not responding to oral antibiotics and aciclovir, gradually increasing in size over 15-18 months. Repeated biopsies showed acute on chronic inflammation. The lesion partially responded to oral and topical corticosteroids but soon increased in size after tapering the dosage of the steroids.Then patient was given Imiquimod 5% cream to be applied over the lesion once daily for 2-4 weeks. Lesion cleared completely in 4 weeks and is in remission since last 6 months. The case report highlights the successful use of topical Imiquimod 5% cream in the treatment of penile PG.

  20. Scaling up Dynamic Topic Models

    Bhadury, Arnab; Chen, Jianfei; Zhu, Jun; Liu, Shixia

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic topic models (DTMs) are very effective in discovering topics and capturing their evolution trends in time series data. To do posterior inference of DTMs, existing methods are all batch algorithms that scan the full dataset before each update of the model and make inexact variational approximations with mean-field assumptions. Due to a lack of a more scalable inference algorithm, despite the usefulness, DTMs have not captured large topic dynamics. This paper fills this research void, a...

  1. Topic Modeling of Hierarchical Corpora /

    Kim, Do-kyum

    2014-01-01

    The sizes of modern digital libraries have grown beyond our capacity to comprehend manually. Thus we need new tools to help us in organizing and browsing large corpora of text that do not require manually examining each document. To this end, machine learning researchers have developed topic models, statistical learning algorithms for automatic comprehension of large collections of text. Topic models provide both global and local views of a corpus; they discover topics that run through the co...

  2. Topical corticosteroid addiction and phobia

    Aparajita Ghosh; Sujata Sengupta; Arijit Coondoo; Amlan Kusum Jana

    2014-01-01

    Corticosteroids, one of the most widely prescribed topical drugs, have been used for about six decades till date. However, rampant misuse and abuse down the years has given the drug a bad name. Topical steroid abuse may lead to two major problems which lie at the opposing ends of the psychosomatic spectrum. Topical steroid addiction, a phenomenon that came to be recognized about a decade after the introduction of the molecule is manifested as psychological distress and rebound phenomenon on s...

  3. Systemic vs. Topical Therapy for the Treatment of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Sebastian Faro

    1994-01-01

    It is estimated that 75% of all women will experience at least 1 episode of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) during their lifetimes. Most patients with acute VVC can be treated with short-term regimens that optimize compliance. Since current topical and oral antifungals have shown comparably high efficacy rates, other issues should be considered in determining the most appropriate therapy. It is possible that the use of short-durat...

  4. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... Main Content National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral ... Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All ...

  5. Hot topic [editorial

    simulations 'would be seriously in error'. One may ask if this magazine should give space to Lindzen or those involved in geoengineering to air their views. Given the uncertainties still present within climate models and the potential costs of dealing with global warming, it would be wrong for Physics World to ignore those outside the mainstream. After all, as Richard Feynman once wrote: 'There is no harm in doubt and scepticism, for it is through these that new discoveries are made'. Physicists should never take anything at face value, not least a topic as important as climate change. (U.K.)

  6. 电渗析在葡萄糖浆脱盐中的应用%Application of Electrodialysis on Demineralization of Glucose Syrup

    武睿; 于秋生; 陈正行; 郭贯新

    2012-01-01

    电渗析技术应用于葡萄糖浆的脱盐效果显著。研究表明,脱盐最佳条件为:操作电压30V,糖浆流量25L/h,糖浆浓度30%;该条件下,糖浆脱盐率94.69%,糖浆得率77.84%。%Electrodialysis (ED) demineralization of glucose syrup was applied in this research. The results showed that electrodialysis was feasible for glucose syrup demineralization. The optimal operating parameters under experimental working condition were: 30 v applied voltage, 25 L/h flow rate and 30% syrup concentration. After the treatment with these operating parameters, the demineralization ratio was reached to 94.69% and the sugar component retention was 77.84%.

  7. Docosahexaenoic acid status in females of reproductive age with maple syrup urine disease.

    Mazer, Laura M; Yi, Sarah H L; Singh, Rani H

    2010-04-01

    Individuals with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) have impaired metabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) valine, isoleucine, and leucine. Life-long dietary therapy is recommended to restrict BCAA intake and thus prevent poor neurological outcomes and death. To maintain adequate nutritional status, the majority of protein and nutrients are derived from synthetic BCAA-free medical foods with variable fatty acid content. Given the restrictive diet and the importance of omega-3 fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in neurological development, this study evaluated the dietary and fatty acid status of females of reproductive age with MSUD attending a metabolic camp. Healthy controls of similar age and sex were selected from existing normal laboratory data. Total lipid fatty acid concentration in plasma and erythrocytes was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Participants with MSUD had normal to increased concentrations of plasma and erythrocyte alpha linolenic acid (ALA) but significantly lower concentrations of plasma and erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as percent of total lipid fatty acids compared with controls (plasma DHA: MSUD 1.03 +/- 0.35, controls 2.87 +/- 1.08; P = 0.001; erythrocyte DHA: MSUD 2.58 +/- 0.58, controls 3.66 +/- 0.80; P = 0.011). Dietary records reflected negligible or no DHA intake over the 3-day period prior to the blood draw (range 0-2 mg). These results suggest females of reproductive age with MSUD have lower blood DHA concentrations than age-matched controls. In addition, the presence of ALA in medical foods and the background diet may not counter the lack of preformed DHA in the diet. The implications of these results warrant further investigation. PMID:20217236

  8. Resveratrol prevents high-fructose corn syrup-induced vascular insulin resistance and dysfunction in rats.

    Babacanoglu, C; Yildirim, N; Sadi, G; Pektas, M B; Akar, F

    2013-10-01

    Dietary intake of fructose and sucrose can cause development of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. The consequences of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS), a commonly consumed form of fructose and glucose, have poorly been examined. Therefore, in this study, we investigated whether HFCS intake (10% and 20% beverages for 12 weeks) impacts vascular reactivity to insulin and endothelin-1 in conjunction with insulin receptor substrate-1(IRS-1), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) mRNA/proteins levels in aorta of rats. At challenge, we tested the effectiveness of resveratrol (28-30 mg/kg body weight/day) on outcomes of HFCS feeding. HFCS (20%) diet feeding increased plasma triglyceride, VLDL, cholesterol, insulin and glucose levels, but not body weights of rats. Impaired nitric oxide-mediated relaxation to insulin (10⁻⁹ to 3×10⁻⁶ M), and enhanced contraction to endothelin-1 (10⁻¹¹ to 10⁻⁸ M) were associated with decreased expression of IRS-1 and eNOS mRNA and protein, but increased expression of iNOS, in aortas of rats fed with HFCS. Resveratrol supplementation restored many features of HFCS-induced disturbances, probably by regulating eNOS and iNOS production. In conclusion, dietary HFCS causes vascular insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction through attenuating IRS-1 and eNOS expressions as well as increasing iNOS in rats. Resveratrol has capability to recover HFCS-induced disturbances. PMID:23872130

  9. The use of oral pentobarbital sodium (Nembutal) versus oral chloral hydrate in infants undergoing CT and MR imaging - a pilot study

    Background. Chloral hydrate, a commonly used oral sedative for infants undergoing imaging examinations, has a bitter taste and requires relatively large volume, provoking unpleasant reactions from the infants. Experience with an alternative sedative, oral pentobarbital (Nembutal), has not been reported for infants Objective. To compare patient acceptance of oral Nembutal and oral chloral hydrate for sedation of infants up to 12 months of age. Methods and materials. Fifty-four infants (mean age: 7 months) were prospectively enrolled. Parents chose Nembutal, chloral hydrate, or no preference. Thirty-eight infants received Nembutal (4-6 mg/kg) mixed with cherry syrup and 16 received chloral hydrate (50-100 mg/kg). We recorded infant's acceptance of sedative, parental impression of infant's acceptance, time to sedation, time to discharge, adverse effects, parental preference of future sedative. Results. Infant acceptance and parental impression were better for Nembutal (P < 0.0001). Fewer parents in the Nembutal group preferred another sedative (P = 0.05). There was a trend toward shorter time to discharge with Nembutal (P = 0.03). There were no adverse effects in either group. One infant failed to sedate with Nembutal. Conclusions. Compared with chloral hydrate, oral Nembutal has significantly better acceptance by infants and parents, equal effectiveness, and may result in a shorter time to discharge. (orig.)

  10. 鼻炎糖浆质量标准研究%Quality Standard Study of Biyan Syrup

    曾江洪; 刘灿辉

    2011-01-01

    目的 建立鼻炎糖浆的质量标准研究方法.方法 用薄层色谱法定性鉴别麻黄、辛夷、黄芩、白芷,用高效液相色谱法测定骨碎补中木兰脂素的含量.结果 薄层色谱图斑点清晰,阴性对照无干扰;木兰脂素进样量在0.0966~0.966 μg范围内与峰面积线性关系良好,平均回收率97.64%,RSD为1.03%(n=6).结论 方法 专属性强,灵敏度高,重现性好,可用于鼻炎糖浆的质量控制.%Objective To establish the quality standard study for Biyan Syrup. Methods Herba Ephedrae, Flos Magnoliae, Radix Scutellariae and Radix Angelicae dahuricae in Biyan Syrup were identified by TLC; the content of emodin was determined by HPLC. Results The TLC sports developed was fairly clear, and the blank test showed no interference. The calibration curve of emodin was linear in the range of 0.096 6-0. 966 μg, its average recovery rate was 97.64% and RSD was 1.03% (n =6). Conclusion The selective, sensitive and reproducibility of the method are good, the method can be used for quality of control of Biyan Syrup.

  11. Gentiooligaccharide Corn Syrup with Amer Flavor%带苦味的低聚龙胆糖玉米糖浆

    黄琼华

    2001-01-01

    低聚龙胆糖是以葡萄糖液为原料,经过专用酶的葡基转移作用和缩和作用生产出来的.由于低聚龙胆糖比蔗糖和麦芽糖浆(malt syrup)有较高的吸湿性(hygroscopity),因此可以保持各种食品中有合适的水分,从而防止淀粉质食品的老化.

  12. Linguistic Extensions of Topic Models

    Boyd-Graber, Jordan

    2010-01-01

    Topic models like latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) provide a framework for analyzing large datasets where observations are collected into groups. Although topic modeling has been fruitfully applied to problems social science, biology, and computer vision, it has been most widely used to model datasets where documents are modeled as exchangeable…

  13. Topics of Evolutionary Computation 2001

    Ursem, Rasmus Kjær

    This booklet contains the student reports from the course: Topics of Evolutionary Computation, Fall 2001, given by Thiemo Krink, Rene Thomsen and Rasmus K. Ursem......This booklet contains the student reports from the course: Topics of Evolutionary Computation, Fall 2001, given by Thiemo Krink, Rene Thomsen and Rasmus K. Ursem...

  14. Advancements in Topical Antifungal Vehicles.

    Kircik, Leon H

    2016-02-01

    The primary treatment for superficial fungal infections is antifungal topical formulations, and allylamines and azoles represent the two major classes of topical formulations that are used to treat these infections. The stratum corneum (SC) is composed of keratinocytes that are surrounded by a matrix of lipids. The efficacy of topically applied formulations depends on their ability to penetrate this lipid matrix, and the vehicle plays an integral role in the penetration of active molecule into skin. There are several challenges to formulating topical drugs, which include the biotransformation of the active molecules as they pass through the SC and the physical changes that occur to the vehicle itself when it is applied to the skin. This article will review current and emerging topical antifungal vehicles. PMID:26885798

  15. Oral myiasis in a maxillofacial trauma patient

    Grandim Balarama Gupta Vinit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a rare disease primarily caused by the invasion of tissue by larvae of certain dipteran flies. Oral myiasis is still more "rare" and "unique" owing to the fact that oral cavity rarely provides the necessary habitat conducive for a larval lifecycle. Common predisposing factors are poor oral hygiene, halitosis, trauma, senility, learning disabilities, physically and mentally challenged conditions. Oral myiasis can lead to rapid tissue destruction and disfigurement and requires immediate treatment. Treatment consists of manual removal of maggots from the oral cavity after application of chemical agents. Good sanitation, personal and environmental hygiene and cleanliness and special care for debilitated persons are the best methods to prevent oral myiasis. This case report describes the presentation of oral myiasis caused by musca nebulo (common house fly in a 40-year-old male patient, with recent maxillofacial trauma. The patient was treated by manual removal larvae by topical application of turpentine oil, followed by surgical debridement of the wound and open reduction and internal fixation of the fracture.

  16. Clinical Comparison: Fast-Acting and Traditional Topical Dental Anesthetic.

    DiMarco, Arthur C; Wetmore, Ann O'Kelley

    2016-01-01

    A randomized, nonblinded clinical trial compared the effectiveness of an application method of a fast-acting refrigerant topical agent to a 20% benzocaine gel topical. In a split-mouth design, right and left anterior middle superior alveolar injections (N = 30) were administered with a 27-gauge needle at least 24 hours apart with preinjection topicals. Using a cotton-tipped applicator, a refrigerant topical was applied for 5 seconds and 20% benzocaine gel for 2 minutes on opposite sides at 2 separate appointments. Subjects self-reported pain perception after each injection using a visual analog scale (VAS). The mean VAS ratings demonstrated no significant difference between the 5-second application of the refrigerant (M = 16.2, SD = 17.7) and the 2-minute application of 20% benzocaine topical gel anesthetic (M = 17.9, SD = 18.2). Fifty-seven percent of the subjects reported greater pain reduction with the refrigerant, 33% reported greater pain reduction with 20% benzocaine, and 10% reported no difference. Results suggest the described method of application of a refrigerant as an oral topical anesthetic has a faster onset and provides similar benefit in pain reduction compared with 20% benzocaine gel. The refrigerant was easy to accomplish and well received by subjects, indicating potential for routine use in dentistry. PMID:27269661

  17. Iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome After Topical Steroid Therapy for Psoriasis.

    Sahıp, Birsen; Celık, Mehmet; Ayturk, Semra; Kucukarda, Ahmet; Mert, Onur; Dıncer, Nejla; Guldıken, Sıbel; Tugrul, Armagan

    2016-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are used for the treatment of many diseases, such as inflammatory, allergic, autoimmune, and neoplastic diseases. They can be used in the form of topical, oral, inhalable, rectal, and intra-articular agents. Many topical steroid-related iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome cases affecting especially children have been reported in the literature. Topical steroid-related Cushing's syndrome is rarely seen in adults. In this report, we present the case of a 32-year-old male patient with iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome related to long-term clobetasol propionate treatment for psoriasis. In the context of such treatment, the glucocorticoid withdrawal problem has to be overcome. At present there is no consensus on steroid withdrawal. Patients on long-term glucocorticoid treatment must be evaluated for potential adverse effects and withdrawal symptoms by their physician and their endocrinologist. PMID:26955131

  18. Safety of warfarin therapy during cataract surgery under topical anesthesia

    Newton Kara-Junior

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To analyze the safety of warfarin therapy during cataract surgery under topical anesthesia. Methods: This was a prospective nonrandomized comparative study of 60 eyes of 60 patients treated with or without concurrent oral warfarin anticoagulant therapy, referred for cataract surgery under topical anesthesia. The sample included a treatment (n=30 and a control (n=30 group. Results: There were no records of intraoperative or postoperative intracameral bleeding complications in both the groups. At 1-month postoperative follow-up, 90.0% of patients presented spectacle-corrected visual acuity of at least 20/40. Conclusion: Cataract surgery by phacoemulsification with topical anesthesia can be successfully conducted without discontinuing warfarin.

  19. Clinical Effects of Topical Tacrolimus on Fox-Fordyce Disease

    Hilal Kaya Erdoğan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fox-Fordyce Disease (FFD is a rare, chronic, pruritic, inflammatory disorder of apocrine glands. It is characterized by dome-shaped, firm, discrete, skin-colored, and monomorphic perifollicular papules. The most common sites of involvement are axillae and anogenital and periareolar regions which are rich in apocrine sweat glands. Treatment is difficult. Topical, intralesional steroids, topical tretinoin, adapalene, clindamycin, benzoyl peroxide, oral contraceptives, isotretinoin, phototherapy, electrocauterisation, excision-liposuction and curettage, and fractional carbon dioxide laser are among the treatment options. In the literature, there are articles reporting beneficial effects of pimecrolimus in FFD. Nevertheless, there have not been any reports about the use of tacrolimus in FFD. We report two patients diagnosed with FFD by clinical and histopathologic examination and discussed therapeutic effects of topical tacrolimus on FFD in the light of literature.

  20. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... Search Text size: Website Contents NIDCR Home Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental ... Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide for Health ...

  1. Study on Enhancing Electrolytic flocculation Decoiorization of Syrup by Ultrasound%超声强化糖汁电絮凝脱色的研究

    黄永春; 黄卫春; 关瑞晨; 杨锋

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨超声波对糖汁电絮凝脱色的强化作用.[方法]用赤砂糖和蒸馏水以15∶ 85的质量比制备浓度在15°Bx左右糖汁,考察了糖汁电解后静置絮凝沉降、糖汁电解后超声处理、超声波协同糖汁电解处理对糖汁脱色效果的影响.[结果]糖汁电解处理后静置絮凝沉降50 min时,脱色率为39.8%;而电解6 min后即进行超声强化絮凝沉降,在超声功率为195 W,时间为120 s时,脱色率达到36%,大大缩短了絮凝沉降时间;在超声功率97.5W条件下,超声波协同糖汁电解处理6 min,糖汁脱色率为32.7%,高于单独电解处理下的脱色率(27.9%).[结论]超声波能够促进电解后糖汁絮凝沉降过程,还能强化糖汁的电解反应过程.%[Objective] The study aimed to discuss the enhancing action of the ultrasound on the electrolytic decolorization of syrup. [ Method] The syrup at about 15°Bx was prepared with the red sugar and the distilled water at the mass ratio of 15: 85 and the effects of the static flocculation sedimentation after the syrup electrolysis, the ultrasonic treatment after the syrup electrolysis, the ultrasonic collaborative with the syrup electrolysis treatment on the syrup decolorization effect. [ Result] The syrup decolorization rate could reach 39. 8% when the static flocculation sedimentation was for 50 min after the syrup electrolysis treatment, while that was 36% when the flocculation sedimentation was enhanced by the ultrasound immediately after the syTup electrolysis for 6 min and under the ultrasound power of 195 W and the ultrasound time of 120 s, which shortened the flocculation time greatly and that was 32. 7% under the ultrasound power of 97.5 W, the ultrasonic collaborative with syrup electrolysis for 6 min, which was higher than 27.9% decolorization rate obtained by the single electrolysis treatment. [ Conclusion] The ultrasound could enhance the flocculation sedimentation after the syrup electrolysis or

  2. Topic Model for Graph Mining.

    Xuan, Junyu; Lu, Jie; Zhang, Guangquan; Luo, Xiangfeng

    2015-12-01

    Graph mining has been a popular research area because of its numerous application scenarios. Many unstructured and structured data can be represented as graphs, such as, documents, chemical molecular structures, and images. However, an issue in relation to current research on graphs is that they cannot adequately discover the topics hidden in graph-structured data which can be beneficial for both the unsupervised learning and supervised learning of the graphs. Although topic models have proved to be very successful in discovering latent topics, the standard topic models cannot be directly applied to graph-structured data due to the "bag-of-word" assumption. In this paper, an innovative graph topic model (GTM) is proposed to address this issue, which uses Bernoulli distributions to model the edges between nodes in a graph. It can, therefore, make the edges in a graph contribute to latent topic discovery and further improve the accuracy of the supervised and unsupervised learning of graphs. The experimental results on two different types of graph datasets show that the proposed GTM outperforms the latent Dirichlet allocation on classification by using the unveiled topics of these two models to represent graphs. PMID:25616091

  3. Selective fermentation of pitted dates by S. cerevisiae for the production of concentrated fructose syrups and ethanol

    Dharma Putra, Meilana; Abasaeed, Ahmed E.; Zeinelabdeen, Mohamed A.; Gaily, Mohamed H.; Sulieman, Ashraf K.

    2014-04-01

    About half of worldwide production of dates is unconsumed. Dates contain over 75 % reduced sugars (mostly glucose and fructose with nearly equal amount). Compared to the commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild strain, the strains ATCC 36858 and 36859 could produce high concentration fructose syrups. The fructose fractions obtained were 95.9 and 97.4% for ATCC 36858 and 86.5 and 91.4% for ATCC 36859 at 30 and 33°C, respectively. Fructose yields higher than 90% were obtained using ATCC 36858 compared to those obtained using ATCC 36859 which were 87.3 and 66.1% at 30 and 33°C, respectively. The ethanol yield using ATCC 36858 was higher than that using ATCC 36859 by 16 and 9% at 30 and 33°C, respectively. Through this finding, the production of fructose and ethanol from date extract is a promising process. Moreover, the fructose fractions obtained here (about 90%) are much higher than those obtained with the commercial process, i.e. 55 % fructose syrups.

  4. A New UPLC Approach for the Simultaneous Quantitative Estimation of Four Compounds in a Cough Syrup Formulation.

    Turak, Fatma; Güzel, Remziye; Dinç, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    A new ultra-performance liquid chromatographic (UPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous estimation of potassium guaiacolsulfonate (PGS), guaifenesin (GUA), diphenhydramine HCl (DIP) and carbepentane citrate (CAR) in a commercial cough syrup. The chromatographic separation of four compounds PGS, GUA, DIP and CAR was performed on a BEH phenyl column (100 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 µm i.d.) using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1 M HCl (50 : 50, v/v). In addition, the optimized conditions of the chromatographic analysis were found with the flow rate of 0.38 mL/min, the column temperature of 30°C and the injection volume of 1.2 µL with the photodiode array detection of 220 nm. Calibration curves in the concentration ranges of 10-98 µg/mL for PGS, 5-80 µg/mL for GUA, 5-25 µg/mL for DIP and CAR were computed by the regression of the analyte concentration on the chromatographic peak area. The newly developed UPLC method was validated by analyzing the quaternary mixtures of the related compounds, intraday and interday experiment and standard addition samples. After method validation, the proposed UPLC approach was successfully applied for the analysis of the commercial syrup formulation containing PGS, GUA, DIP and CAR compounds. PMID:26202585

  5. Development and Validation of RP-HPLC Method for the Estimation of NAcetylcysteine in Wet Cough Syrup

    Shaikh Sana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available N-Acetylcysteine is an active pharmaceutical agent and nutritional supplement primarily used as a mucolytic agent and in the management of Paracetamol overdose. A simple, specific and precise reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP HPLC method for the analysis of Acetylcysteine in wet cough syrup dosage form has been developed and validated. Sample was resolved on a Waters Symmetry, C18 (150mm X 4.6 mm i.d., particle size 3.5μ column. The gradient system was used with mobile phase consisting of Acetonitrile and 0.05 M phosphate buffer (pH was adjusted to 3.0 + 0.05 by using orthrophosphoric acid, at a flow rate of 0.8 ml/min at ambient temperature. Detection was carried out at 214nm. The retention time of about 4.6 minutes was recorded. Force degradation studies were carried out for acidic, alkaline, oxidative, reductive and photolytic exposure of the drug substance and drug product. The method was found to be specific for Acetylcysteine and was able to resolve the NAC peak from formulation excipients. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 400-600 μg/ml (R=0.999. The proposed method was applicable to routine analysis of Acetylcysteine in wet cough syrup dosage form.

  6. Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Vascular Damage Caused by Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup in Rats

    Gun, Aburrahman; Bilgic, Sedat; Kocaman, Nevin; Ozan, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    Fructose corn syrup is cheap sweetener and prolongs the shelf life of products, but fructose intake causes hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. All of them are referred to as metabolic syndrome and they are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the harmful effects of increased fructose intake on health and their prevention should take greater consideration. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) has beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome and vascular function which is important in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, there are no known studies about the effect of CAPE on fructose-induced vascular dysfunction. In this study, we examined the effect of CAPE on vascular dysfunction due to high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). HFCS (6 weeks, 30% fed with drinking water) caused vascular dysfunction, but treatment with CAPE (50 micromol/kg i.p. for the last two weeks) effectively restored this problem. Additionally, hypertension in HFCS-fed rats was also decreased in CAPE supplemented rats. CAPE supplements lowered HFCS consumption-induced raise in blood glucose, homocysteine, and cholesterol levels. The aorta tissue endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) production was decreased in rats given HFCS and in contrast CAPE supplementation efficiently increased its production. The presented results showed that HFCS-induced cardiovascular abnormalities could be prevented by CAPE treatment. PMID:27042260

  7. Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Vascular Damage Caused by Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup in Rats

    Aburrahman Gun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fructose corn syrup is cheap sweetener and prolongs the shelf life of products, but fructose intake causes hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. All of them are referred to as metabolic syndrome and they are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the harmful effects of increased fructose intake on health and their prevention should take greater consideration. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE has beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome and vascular function which is important in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, there are no known studies about the effect of CAPE on fructose-induced vascular dysfunction. In this study, we examined the effect of CAPE on vascular dysfunction due to high fructose corn syrup (HFCS. HFCS (6 weeks, 30% fed with drinking water caused vascular dysfunction, but treatment with CAPE (50 micromol/kg i.p. for the last two weeks effectively restored this problem. Additionally, hypertension in HFCS-fed rats was also decreased in CAPE supplemented rats. CAPE supplements lowered HFCS consumption-induced raise in blood glucose, homocysteine, and cholesterol levels. The aorta tissue endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS production was decreased in rats given HFCS and in contrast CAPE supplementation efficiently increased its production. The presented results showed that HFCS-induced cardiovascular abnormalities could be prevented by CAPE treatment.

  8. Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester on Vascular Damage Caused by Consumption of High Fructose Corn Syrup in Rats.

    Gun, Aburrahman; Ozer, Mehmet Kaya; Bilgic, Sedat; Kocaman, Nevin; Ozan, Gonca

    2016-01-01

    Fructose corn syrup is cheap sweetener and prolongs the shelf life of products, but fructose intake causes hyperinsulinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. All of them are referred to as metabolic syndrome and they are risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Hence, the harmful effects of increased fructose intake on health and their prevention should take greater consideration. Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) has beneficial effects on metabolic syndrome and vascular function which is important in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, there are no known studies about the effect of CAPE on fructose-induced vascular dysfunction. In this study, we examined the effect of CAPE on vascular dysfunction due to high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). HFCS (6 weeks, 30% fed with drinking water) caused vascular dysfunction, but treatment with CAPE (50 micromol/kg i.p. for the last two weeks) effectively restored this problem. Additionally, hypertension in HFCS-fed rats was also decreased in CAPE supplemented rats. CAPE supplements lowered HFCS consumption-induced raise in blood glucose, homocysteine, and cholesterol levels. The aorta tissue endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) production was decreased in rats given HFCS and in contrast CAPE supplementation efficiently increased its production. The presented results showed that HFCS-induced cardiovascular abnormalities could be prevented by CAPE treatment. PMID:27042260

  9. Study on the quality standard of Pneumonia Syrup%肺炎糖浆的质量标准研究

    刘静

    2016-01-01

    Objective In order to establish a TLC identification method and content determination method for Pneumonia Syrup . Method Fractus forsythiae ,Lonicera japonica and Radix scrophulariae were identified by TLC .High performance liquid chro‐matography was adopted to analyze the content of ephedrine hydrochloride in the medicine .Results TLC spots were clear without negative interference .Standards for ephedrine hydrochloride were set up .Conclusion The method is easy ,fast ,and reliable ,and could be used to control the quality of Pneumonia Syrup .%目的:建立肺炎糖浆的薄层鉴别方法和含量测定方法。方法采用薄层色谱法对处方中连翘、金银花和玄参进行定性鉴别;采用HPLC法对君药麻黄中的盐酸麻黄碱进行含量分析。结果薄层色谱斑点清晰,阴性无干扰;制定了麻黄中盐酸麻黄碱含量标准。结论该方法简便快速,结果准确可靠,可作为该制剂的质量控制标准。

  10. Selective fermentation of pitted dates by S. cerevisiae for the production of concentrated fructose syrups and ethanol

    About half of worldwide production of dates is unconsumed. Dates contain over 75 % reduced sugars (mostly glucose and fructose with nearly equal amount). Compared to the commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae wild strain, the strains ATCC 36858 and 36859 could produce high concentration fructose syrups. The fructose fractions obtained were 95.9 and 97.4% for ATCC 36858 and 86.5 and 91.4% for ATCC 36859 at 30 and 33°C, respectively. Fructose yields higher than 90% were obtained using ATCC 36858 compared to those obtained using ATCC 36859 which were 87.3 and 66.1% at 30 and 33°C, respectively. The ethanol yield using ATCC 36858 was higher than that using ATCC 36859 by 16 and 9% at 30 and 33°C, respectively. Through this finding, the production of fructose and ethanol from date extract is a promising process. Moreover, the fructose fractions obtained here (about 90%) are much higher than those obtained with the commercial process, i.e. 55 % fructose syrups.

  11. Comparison of response between food supplemented with powdered iron and iron in syrup form for iron deficiency anemia

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the response between food supplemented with iron in powdered and iron in syrup forms for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in children aged 1-5 years. Results: Over half (51 %) of the patients were between 1-2 years of age. One hundred thirty-two were males and 68 females. Most of the patients belonged to poor socioeconomic class. The iron in powder form was better tolerated than iron syrup as this group witnessed fewer episodes of gastrointestinal disturbances. The rise in mean Hb level after 6 weeks of treatment in group A and B was 1.6 g/dl and 1.9 g/dl respectively. Hemoglobin rise in group B was more than group A but this was statistically non-significant (p>0.05). There was small but significant (p<0.05) rise in serum ferritin in both the groups. There was no significant difference between the two groups for response to the two forms of iron administration. Conclusion: The powdered form of iron is a cost-effective and better tolerated method of iron administration in children and can be considered as an alternate option for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in children. (author)

  12. In-depth proteomic analysis of non-alcoholic beverages with peptide ligand libraries. I: Almond milk and orgeat syrup.

    Fasoli, Elisa; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Kravchuk, Alexander V; Citterio, Attilio; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2011-06-10

    Combinatorial peptide ligand libraries, both commercial and home-made, have been adopted to investigate the proteome of non-alcoholic beverages, in order to assess their genuineness and detect also trace proteins, in search of potential allergens. Two such beverages have been studied: almond milk and orgeat syrup. In the first product we have been able to identify 132 unique protein species, the deepest investigation so far of the almond proteome. In the second beverage, a handful of proteins (just 14) have been detected, belonging to a bitter almond extract. In both cases, the genuineness of such products has been verified, as well as the fact that almond milk, judging on the total protein and fat content, must have been produced with 100g ground almonds per litre of beverage, as required by authorities. On the contrary, cheap orgeat syrups produced by local supermarkets and sold as their own brands, where found not to contain any residual proteins, suggesting that they contained only synthetic aromas and no natural plant extracts. This could be the starting point for investigating the myriad of beverages that in the last decades have invaded the shelves of supermarkets the world over, whose genuineness and natural origin have never been properly assessed. PMID:21440098

  13. Oral cavity and leprosy

    Shambulingappa Pallagatti; Soheyl Sheikh; Anupreet Kaur; Amit Aggarwal; Ravinder Singh2

    2012-01-01

    Although leprosy involves the oral cavity in up to 60% of the patients, examination of the oral cavity in leprosy clinics or oral health science clinics is often neglected. Oral involvement in leprosy can broadly be divided into non-specific and specific lesions. In this review, we discuss various oral manifestations in leprosy patients so as to increase the awareness about this aspect among dermatologists and dental surgeons.

  14. Investigating lava-substrate interactions through flow experiments with syrup, wax, and molten basalt

    Rumpf, M. E.; Lev, E.

    2015-12-01

    Among the many factors influencing the complex process of lava flow emplacement, the interaction with the substrate onto which flow is emplaced plays a central role. Lava flows are rarely emplaced onto smooth or regular surfaces. For example, at Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai'i, lava flows regularly flow over solid rock, vegetation, basaltic or silica sand, and man-made materials, including asphalt and concrete. In situ studies of lava-substrate interactions are inherently difficult, and often dangerous, to carry-out, requiring the design of controllable laboratory experiments. We investigate the effects of substrate grain size, cohesion, and roughness on flow mobility and morphology through a series of flow experiments using analog materials and molten basalt. We have developed a series of experiments that allow for adjustable substrate parameters and analyze their effects on lava flow emplacement. The first set of experiments are performed at the Fluids Mechanics Laboratory at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and focus on two analog materials: polyethylene glycol (PEG), a commercially available wax, and corn syrup. The fluids were each extruded onto a series of scaled substrate beds to replicate the emplacement of lava in a natural environment. Preliminary experiments demonstrated that irregular topography, particularly topography with a height amplitude similar to that of the flow itself, can affect flow morphology, width, and velocity by acting as local barriers or culverts to the fluid. This is expected from observations of fluid flow in natural environments. A follow-up set of experiments will be conducted in Fall 2015 at the Syracuse University (SU) Lava Project Lab. In this set, we will pour molten basalt directly onto a series of substrates representing natural environments found on the Earth and other rocky bodies in the Solar System. These experiments will allow for analysis of the effects of basaltic composition and high temperatures on lava-substrate heat

  15. Classical maple syrup urine disease and brain development: principles of management and formula design.

    Strauss, Kevin A; Wardley, Bridget; Robinson, Donna; Hendrickson, Christine; Rider, Nicholas L; Puffenberger, Erik G; Shellmer, Diana; Shelmer, Diana; Moser, Ann B; Morton, D Holmes

    2010-04-01

    Branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase deficiency results in complex and volatile metabolic derangements that threaten brain development. Treatment for classical maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) should address this underlying physiology while also protecting children from nutrient deficiencies. Based on a 20-year experience managing 79 patients, we designed a study formula to (1) optimize transport of seven amino acids (Tyr, Trp, His, Met, Thr, Gln, Phe) that compete with branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) for entry into the brain via a common transporter (LAT1), (2) compensate for episodic depletions of glutamine, glutamate, and alanine caused by reverse transamination, and (3) correct deficiencies of omega-3 essential fatty acids, zinc, and selenium widespread among MSUD patients. The formula was enriched with LAT1 amino acid substrates, glutamine, alanine, zinc, selenium, and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3). Fifteen Old Order Mennonite children were started on study formula between birth and 34 months of age and seen at least monthly in the office. Amino acid levels were checked once weekly and more often during illnesses. All children grew and developed normally over a period of 14-33 months. Energy demand, leucine tolerance, and protein accretion were tightly linked during periods of normal growth. Rapid shifts to net protein degradation occurred during illnesses. At baseline, most LAT1 substrates varied inversely with plasma leucine, and their calculated rates of brain uptake were 20-68% below normal. Treatment with study formula increased plasma concentrations of LAT1 substrates and normalized their calculated uptakes into the nervous system. Red cell membrane omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and serum zinc and selenium levels increased on study formula. However, selenium and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) levels remained below normal. During the study period, hospitalizations decreased from 0.35 to 0.14 per patient per year. There were 28 hospitalizations

  16. Health Topic XML File Description

    ... XML File Description: MedlinePlus URL of this page: https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/xmldescription.html Health ... corresponding health topic page on MedlinePlus. Example: url="https://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/abdominalpain.html" Use ...

  17. Selected topics in nuclear structure

    The collection of abstracts on selected topics in nuclear structure are given. Special attention pays to collective excitations and high-spin states of nuclei, giant resonance structure, nuclear reaction mechanisms and so on

  18. Topical NSAIDs for acute pain: a meta-analysis

    Derry Sheena

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A previous systematic review reported that topical NSAIDs were effective in relieving pain in acute conditions like sprains and strains, with differences between individual drugs for efficacy. More trials, a better understanding of trial quality and bias, and a reclassification of certain drugs necessitate a new review. Methods Studies were identified by searching electronic databases and writing to manufacturers. We selected randomised double blind trials comparing topical NSAID with either placebo or another active treatment in adults with acute pain, and extracted dichotomous information approximating to a 50% reduction in pain at one week, together with details of adverse events and withdrawals. Relative benefit and number-needed-to-treat (NNT, and relative risk and number-needed-to-harm (NNH were calculated, with sensitivity analyses where appropriate to investigate differences between individual drugs and aspects of trial design. Results Twenty-six double blind placebo controlled trials had information from 2,853 patients for evaluation of efficacy. Topical NSAID was significantly better than placebo in 19 of the 26 trials, with a pooled relative benefit of 1.6 (95% confidence interval 1.4 to 1.7, and NNT of 3.8 (95% confidence interval 3.4 to 4.4 compared with placebo for the outcome of half pain relief at seven days. Results were not affected by outcome reported, or condition treated, but smaller trials yielded a larger estimate of efficacy. Indirect comparisons of individual topical NSAIDs showed that ketoprofen was significantly better than all other topical NSAIDs, while indomethacin was barely distinguished from placebo. Three trials, with 433 patients, compared topical with oral NSAID (two trials compared the same drug, one compared different drugs and found no difference in efficacy. Local adverse events, systemic adverse events, or withdrawals due to an adverse event were rare, and no different between topical

  19. Topics of Bioengineering in Wikipedia

    Vassia Atanassova

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The present report aims to give a snapshot of how topics from the field of bioengineering (bioinformatics, bioprocess systems, biomedical engineering, biotechnology, etc. are currently covered in the free electronic encyclopedia Wikipedia. It also offers insights and information about what Wikipedia is, how it functions, how and when to cite Wikipedian articles, if necessary. Several external wikis, devoted to topics of bioengineering, are also listed and reviewed.

  20. Do scientists trace hot topics?

    Tian Wei; Menghui Li; Chensheng Wu; Xiao-Yong Yan; Ying Fan; Zengru Di; Jinshan Wu

    2013-01-01

    Do scientists follow hot topics in their scientific investigations? In this paper, by performing analysis to papers published in the American Physical Society (APS) Physical Review journals, it is found that papers are more likely to be attracted by hot fields, where the hotness of a field is measured by the number of papers belonging to the field. This indicates that scientists generally do follow hot topics. However, there are qualitative differences among scientists from various countries,...

  1. Key Topics in Sports Medicine

    Amir Ali Narvani; Panagiotis Thomas; Burce Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Key Topics in Sports Medicine is a single quick reference source for sports and exercise medicine. It presents the essential information from across relevant topic areas, and includes both the core and emerging issues in this rapidly developing field. It covers: 1) Sports injuries, rehabilitation and injury prevention, 2) Exercise physiology, fitness testing and training, 3) Drugs in sport, 4) Exercise and health promotion, 5) Sport and exercise for special and clinical populations, 6) The ps...

  2. Oral mucositis in myelosuppressive cancer therapy.

    Epstein, J B; Schubert, M M

    1999-09-01

    Because the etiology of mucositis is multifactorial , approaches to prevention and management have also been multifactorial. Effective prevention and management of mucositis will reduce the pain and suffering experienced during cancer treatment. Oropharyngeal pain in cancer patients frequently requires systemic analgesics, adjunctive medications, physical therapy, and psychologic therapy in addition to oral care and topical treatments. Good oral hygiene reduces the severity of oral mucositis and does not increase the risk of bacteremia. Current approaches to management include frequent oral rinsing with saline or bicarbonate rinses, maintaining excellent oral hygiene, and using topical anesthetics and analgesics. Cryotherapy is a potential adjunctive approach in some cases. There are a number of approaches that appear to represent viable candidates for further study. Biologic response modifiers offer the potential for prevention and for acceleration of healing. Various cytokines will enter clinical trials in the near future; these offer the potential for reduction of epithelial cell sensitivity to the toxic effects of cancer therapy or for stimulation of repair of the damaged tissue. Other approaches include the use of medications to reduce exposure of the oral mucosa to chemotherapeutic drugs that are secreted in saliva. Antimicrobial approaches have met with conflicting results, little effect being seen with chlorhexidine and systemic antimicrobials in the prevention of mucositis in radiation patients. In patients with BMT and patients with leukemia, chlorhexidine may not be effective in preventing mucositis, although there may be reduction in oral colonization by Candida. Initial studies of topical antimicrobials that affect the gram-negative oral flora have shown reductions in ulcerative mucositis during radiation therapy but have not been assessed in leukemia/BMT. Among other approaches that require further study are low-energy lasers and anti

  3. Beliefs and Social Norms about Codeine and Promethazine Hydrochloride Cough Syrup (CPHCS) Onset and Perceived Addiction among Urban Houstonian Adolescents: An Addiction Trend in the City of Lean

    Peters, Ronald J., Jr.; Kelder, Steven H.; Markham, Christine M.; Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Peters, LeCresha A.; Ellis, Artist

    2003-01-01

    In the current study, we used a qualitative approach to investigate relevant beliefs and norms associated with codeine and promethazine hydrochloride cough syrup (CPHCS) consumption, initiation, and perceived addiction among 48 alternative school students who identified themselves as current CPHCS users. In general, both boys and girls believed…

  4. Erosive potential of commonly used beverages, medicated syrup, and their effects on dental enamel with and without restoration: An in vitro study

    Trivedi, Krishna; Bhaskar, Vijay; Ganesh, Mahadevan; Venkataraghavan, Karthik; Choudhary, Prashant; Shah, Shalin; Krishnan, Ramesh

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study evaluates erosive potential of commonly used beverages, medicated syrup, and their effects on dental enamel with and without restoration in vitro. Materials and Methods: Test medias used in this study included carbonated beverage, noncarbonated beverage, high-energy sports drink medicated cough syrup, distilled water as the control. A total of 110 previously extracted human premolar teeth were selected for the study. Teeth were randomly divided into two groups. Test specimens were randomly distributed to five beverages groups and comprised 12 specimens per group. Surface roughness (profilometer) readings were performed at baseline and again, following immersion for 14 days (24 h/day). Microleakage was evaluated. The results obtained were analyzed for statistical significance using SPSS-PC package using the multiple factor ANOVA at a significance level of P energy sports drink and noncarbonated beverage showed the highly significant difference with P values of 0.000 and 0.000, respectively compared to other test media. For microleakage high-energy sports drink had significant difference in comparison to noncarbonated beverage (P = 0.002), medicated syrup (P = 0.000), and distilled water (P = 0.000). Conclusion: High-energy sports drink showed highest surface roughness value and microleakage score among all test media and thus greater erosive potential to enamel while medicated syrup showed least surface roughness value and microleakage among all test media. PMID:26538901

  5. A dose-response of consuming high fructose corn syrup-sweetened beverages on lipid/lipoprotein risk factors for cardiovascular disease in young adults

    National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data show increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality with increased intake of added sugar across quintiles. Objective: To determine the dose response effects of consuming beverages sweetened with high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) at zero, ...

  6. Observational Study of Retention Samples of Promethazine Hydrochloride Syrup%盐酸异丙嗪糖浆的留样观察研究

    彭芳玲; 张志华; 何周康

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the stability of Promethazine Hydrochloride Syrup. Methods: To observe and study its qualitative stability, this article is based on the quality standard of ( Hunan ) weiyaoji ( 98 ) 13 NO. 023, Promethazine Hydrochloride Syrup. The stability was inspected when it was stored under the prescriptive conditions by using room temperature retention samples. Results: The Promethazine Hydrochloride Syrup was stored at room temperature for 12 months. The indicators were in line with the quality standard. Conclusions: According to the stability results, Promethazine Hydrochloride Syrup at room temperature for 12 months is stable and reliable.%目的:考察盐酸异丙嗪糖浆的稳定性.方法:为考究其质量稳定性,以(湘)卫药剂(98)13第023号盐酸异丙嗪糖浆项下质量标准为依据,采用室温留样观察法,考察其在规定条件下贮存的稳定性.结果:盐酸异丙嗪糖浆在室温下贮存12个月,各项指标都符合质量标准.结论:根据稳定性考察结果,盐酸异丙嗪糖浆在室温下12个月内含量稳定、质量可靠.

  7. Topical diclofenac in the treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee

    Niklas Schuelert

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Niklas Schuelert, Fiona A Russell, Jason J McDougallDepartment of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, CanadaAbstract: Osteoarthritis (OA is a common disease that affects millions of people worldwide. As there is no cure for OA, drug treatment to relieve symptoms is the main form of management. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs such as diclofenac are the most commonly used drugs to treat knee OA pain. Unfortunately, these agents are associated with gastrointestinal and cardiovascular risks, which limit their chronic use. Topical NSAIDs are emerging as a viable alternative for managing OA pain. Because a pharmacologically effective dose can be restricted to the site of pain, there is superfluous systemic absorption, and the risk of related adverse effects is minimized. This article reviews the currently available preclinical and clinical information on topical diclofenac for the treatment of OA pain, including data from recently published randomized controlled trials regarding the efficacy and safety of topical diclofenac. Most studies confirm topical diclofenac to be as effective as oral diclofenac with significantly reduced side effects; however, the efficacy of NSAIDs is far from optimal, and more research needs to be done to investigate the underlying mechanisms of OA in order to improve treatment options, especially for patients with NSAID-resistant OA pain.Keywords: osteoarthritis, topical diclofenac, NSAID, joint pain 

  8. Professionally applied topical fluoride: evidence-based clinical recommendations.

    2007-03-01

    With the dramatic increase in the amount of scientific information available about oral health, an evidence-based approach to oral health care and the practice of dentistry is necessary. There is a need to summarize, critique, and disseminate scientific evidence and to translate the evidence into a practical format that is used easily by dentists. The evidence-based clinical recommendations in this report were developed by an expert panel established by the American Dental Association Council on Scientific Affairs that evaluated the collective body of scientific evidence on the effectiveness of professionally applied topical fluoride for caries prevention. The recommendations are intended to assist dentists in clinical decision making. MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library were searched for systematic reviews and clinical studies of professionally applied topical fluoride-including gel, foam, and varnish-through October 2005. Panelists were selected on the basis of their expertise in the relevant subject matter. The recommendations are stratified by age groups and caries risk and indicate that periodic fluoride treatments should be considered for both children and adults who are at moderate or high risk of developing caries. Included in the clinical recommendations is a summary table that can be used as a chairside resource. The dentist, knowing the patient's health history and vulnerability to oral disease, is in the best position to make treatment decisions in the interest of each patient. These clinical recommendations must be balanced with the practitioner's professional expertise and the individual patient's preferences. PMID:17389574

  9. Comparative pharmacokinetics of fluralaner in dogs and cats following single topical or intravenous administration

    Kilp, Susanne; Ramirez, Diana; Allan, Mark J.; Roepke, Rainer KA

    2016-01-01

    Background Bravecto™ Chewable Tablets for Dogs, containing fluralaner as active ingredient, is an innovative treatment for flea and tick infestations that provides safe, rapid and long acting efficacy after a single oral administration in dogs. Topically applied fluralaner provides similar safe, rapid and long acting efficacy, both in dogs and in cats. The pharmacokinetic profile of fluralaner was evaluated in dogs and in cats following either topical or intravenous administration. Methods Tw...

  10. The Economics of Topical Immunomodulators for the Treatment of Atopic Dermatitis

    William Abramovits; Mark Boguniewicz; Paller, Amy S.; Diane L. Whitaker-Worth; Mary M. Prendergast; Michael Tokar; Tong, Kuo B

    2005-01-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a common, chronic, relapsing inflammatory skin disease frequently affecting infants and children. The worldwide prevalence of atopic dermatitis is estimated to be 5-20% of the paediatric population. First-line therapy has generally consisted of dry skin care, avoidance of triggers, application of topical corticosteroids, and administration of antihistamines and oral antibacterials. Topical corticosteroids improve the lesions of atopic dermatitis; however, concern on the p...

  11. Topical agents in burn care

    Momčilović Dragan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Understanding of fluid shifts and recognition of the importance of early and appropriate fluid replacement therapy have significantly reduced mortality in the early post burn period. After the bum patient successfully passes the resuscitation period, the burn wound represents the greatest threat to survival. History Since the dawn of civilization, man has been trying to find an agent which would help burn wounds heal, and at the same time, not harm general condition of the injured. It was not until the XX century, after the discovery of antibiotics, when this condition was fulfilled. In 1968, combining silver and sulfadiazine, fox made silver-sulfadiazine, which is a 1% hydro-soluble cream and a superior agent in topical treatment of burns today. Current topical agents None of the topical antimicrobial agents available today, alone or combined, have the characteristics of ideal prophylactic agents, but they eliminate colonization of burn wound, and invasive infections are infrequent. With an excellent spectrum of activity, low toxicity, and ease of application with minimal pain, silver-sulfadiazine is still the most frequently used topical agent. Conclusion The incidence of invasive infections and overall mortality have been significantly reduced after introduction of topical burn wound antimicrobial agents into practice. In most burn patients the drug of choice for prophylaxis is silver sulfadiazine. Other agents may be useful in certain clinical situations.

  12. Risk for oral cancer from smokeless tobacco

    Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Qadir, M. Imran; Basser, Hibba Tul; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs...

  13. Dental Topics for Medical Students

    Lorber, Mortimer

    1976-01-01

    As part of the required Introduction to Clinical Sciences course, second-year students at Georgetown University School of Medicine attend three one-hour lectures on dentistry: restorative dentistry, oral surgery, and various diseases. Contents of the lectures are summarized here. (JT)

  14. Improvement of effect of water-in-oil microemulsion as an oral delivery system for fexofenadine: in vitro and in vivo studies

    Gundogdu E

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available E Gundogdu1,2, I Gonzalez Alvarez3, E Karasulu1,21Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics, 2Center For Drug Research and Development and Pharmacokinetic Applications, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey; 3Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Engineering, Pharmaceutical Technical Section, Research Group on Drug Absorption, Universidad Miguel Hernández, Alicante, SpainAbstract: Fexofenadine (FEX has high solubility and low permeability (BCS, Class III. In this work, novel FEX loaded water in oil microemulsion (w/o was designed to improve bioavailability and compared with Fexofen® syrup in in vitro and in vivo studies. In addition, pharmacokinetic parameters in permeability studies were estimated by using WinNonLin software program. w/o microemulsion system was optimized using a pseudoternary phase diagram, composed of span 80/lutrol F 68 (9.5:0.5 w/w, oleic acide, isopropyl alcohol and water as surfactant mixture; oil and cosurfactant was developed for oral drug delivery. w/o microemulsion systems were characterized by phase behavior, particle size, viscosity and solubilization capacity. In vitro studies were studied using Caco-2 cell monolayer. Pharmacokinetic parameters of w/o microemulsion were investigated in rabbits and compared to Fexofen® syrup. Fexofen® syrup and microemulsion were administered by oral gavage at 6 mg/kg of the same concentration. The experimental results indicated that microemulsion (HLB = 5.53 formed nanometer sized droplets (33.29 ± 1.76 and had good physical stability. This microemulsion increased the oral bioavailability of FEX which was highly water-soluble but fairly impermeable. The relative bioavailability of FEX microemulsion was about 376.76% compared with commercial syrup in rabbits. In vitro experiments were further employed for the enhanced effect of the microemulsion for FEX. These results suggest that novel w/o microemulsion plays an important role in enhancing oral

  15. Systemic vs. Topical Therapy for the Treatment of Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Sebastian Faro

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that 75% of all women will experience at least 1 episode of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC during their lifetimes. Most patients with acute VVC can be treated with short-term regimens that optimize compliance. Since current topical and oral antifungals have shown comparably high efficacy rates, other issues should be considered in determining the most appropriate therapy. It is possible that the use of short-duration narrow-spectrum agents may increase selection of more resistant organisms which will result in an increase of recurrent VVC (RVVC. Women who are known or suspected to be pregnant and women of childbearing age who are not using a reliable means of contraception should receive topical therapy, as should those who are breast-feeding or receiving drugs that can interact with an oral azole and those who have previously experienced adverse effects during azole therapy. Because of the potential risks associated with systemic treatment, topical therapy with a broad-spectrum agent should be the method of choice for VVC, whereas systemic therapy should be reserved for either RVVC or cases where the benefits outweigh any possible adverse reactions.

  16. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See All Order ... Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – This booklet presents an overview of physical, mental, ...

  17. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... Research Programs (Extramural Research) NIDCR Laboratories (Intramural Research) Science News in Brief Study Takes First Comprehensive Look ... diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected medical terms and resource information. Oral ...

  18. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, ... not collect any actual information. External Web Site Policy This graphic notice ( ) means that you are leaving ...

  19. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... Professionals A step-by-step, illustrated guide for health professionals that provides instruction on examining the mouth for signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, ...

  20. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities Diabetes Heart Disease HIV/AIDS See ... this brochure includes information on symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, along with definitions of selected ...

  1. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... Trials What Are Clinical Trials? About Clinical Trials Information for Clinical Researchers See All Browse Studies by ... been diagnosed with oral cancer, this brochure includes information on symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of oral cancer, ...

  2. Topical corticosteroid addiction and phobia

    Aparajita Ghosh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroids, one of the most widely prescribed topical drugs, have been used for about six decades till date. However, rampant misuse and abuse down the years has given the drug a bad name. Topical steroid abuse may lead to two major problems which lie at the opposing ends of the psychosomatic spectrum. Topical steroid addiction, a phenomenon that came to be recognized about a decade after the introduction of the molecule is manifested as psychological distress and rebound phenomenon on stoppage of the drug. The rebound phenomenon, which can affect various parts of the body particularly the face and the genitalia has been reported by various names in the literature. TC phobia which lies at the opposite end of the psychiatric spectrum of steroid abuse has been reported particularly among parents of atopic children. Management of both conditions is difficult and frustrating. Psychological counseling and support can be of immense help in both the conditions.

  3. Topical corticosteroid addiction and phobia.

    Ghosh, Aparajita; Sengupta, Sujata; Coondoo, Arijit; Jana, Amlan Kusum

    2014-09-01

    Corticosteroids, one of the most widely prescribed topical drugs, have been used for about six decades till date. However, rampant misuse and abuse down the years has given the drug a bad name. Topical steroid abuse may lead to two major problems which lie at the opposing ends of the psychosomatic spectrum. Topical steroid addiction, a phenomenon that came to be recognized about a decade after the introduction of the molecule is manifested as psychological distress and rebound phenomenon on stoppage of the drug. The rebound phenomenon, which can affect various parts of the body particularly the face and the genitalia has been reported by various names in the literature. TC phobia which lies at the opposite end of the psychiatric spectrum of steroid abuse has been reported particularly among parents of atopic children. Management of both conditions is difficult and frustrating. Psychological counseling and support can be of immense help in both the conditions. PMID:25284851

  4. Quantum mechanics II advanced topics

    Rajasekar, S

    2015-01-01

    Quantum Mechanics II: Advanced Topics uses more than a decade of research and the authors’ own teaching experience to expound on some of the more advanced topics and current research in quantum mechanics. A follow-up to the authors introductory book Quantum Mechanics I: The Fundamentals, this book begins with a chapter on quantum field theory, and goes on to present basic principles, key features, and applications. It outlines recent quantum technologies and phenomena, and introduces growing topics of interest in quantum mechanics. The authors describe promising applications that include ghost imaging, detection of weak amplitude objects, entangled two-photon microscopy, detection of small displacements, lithography, metrology, and teleportation of optical images. They also present worked-out examples and provide numerous problems at the end of each chapter.

  5. Chrysomya Bezziana Oral Myiasis

    G S Vijay Kumar; G S Sowmya; Shivananda, S

    2011-01-01

    Myiasis is an opportunistic infestation of human and vertebrate animals with dipterous larvae. Oral myiasis is a rare condition associated with poor oral hygiene, mental disability, halitosis and other conditions. We present a case report of an adult mentally challenged woman with extensive necrotic oral lesion burrowing into the hard palate through which three live maggots (larvae) were seen emerging out. The larvae were removed using forceps and the patient was treated with oral ivermectin....

  6. Essentials of oral cancer

    Rivera, César

    2015-01-01

    Oral cancer is one of the 10 most common cancers in the world, with a delayed clinical detection, poor prognosis, without specific biomarkers for the disease and expensive therapeutic alternatives. This review aims to present the fundamental aspects of this cancer, focused on squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC), moving from its definition and epidemiological aspects, addressing the oral carcinogenesis, oral potentially malignant disorders, epithelial precursor lesions and experi...

  7. Oral vaccination of fish

    Embregts, Carmen W.E.; Forlenza, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The limited number of oral vaccines currently approved for use in humans and veterinary species clearly illustrates that development of efficacious and safe oral vaccines has been a challenge not only for fish immunologists. The insufficient efficacy of oral vaccines is partly due to antigen breakdown in the harsh gastric environment, but also to the high tolerogenic gut environment and to inadequate vaccine design. In this review we discuss current approaches used to develop oral vaccines fo...

  8. Radiation induced oral mucositis

    P S Satheesh Kumar; Anita Balan; Arun Sankar; Tinky Bose

    2009-01-01

    Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i) With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii) who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii) who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv) who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concer...

  9. Oral health in pregnancy

    Blagojević Duška; Brkanić Tatjana; Stojić Siniša

    2002-01-01

    Introduction Good oral health care during pregnancy is essential but often overlooked factor of dental growth as well as of other structures of oral cavity. Pregnancy is the time when conscious approach to preventive oral care should increase. Preventive measures during pregnancy Preventive measures during pregnancy mean usage of fluorides, special dietary measures and increased oral hygiene habits. Preventive measures in pregnant women have one goal: providing conditions for development of f...

  10. Helicobacter pylori and oral pathology: Relationship with the gastric infection

    Adler, Isabel; Muiño, Andrea; Aguas, Silvia; Harada, Laura; Diaz, Mariana; Lence, Adriana; Labbrozzi, Mario; Muiño, Juan Manuel; Elsner, Boris; Avagnina, Alejandra; Denninghoff, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been found in the oral cavity and stomach, and its infection is one of the most frequent worldwide. We reviewed the literature and conducted a Topic Highlight, which identified studies reporting an association between H. pylori-infection in the oral cavity and H. pylori-positive stomach bacterium. This work was designed to determine whether H. pylori is the etiologic agent in periodontal disease, recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS), squamous cell carcinoma,...

  11. Selected topics in nuclear structure

    The Fourth International Conference on selected topics in nuclear structure was held at Dubna in July 1994 on recent experimental and theoretical investigations in nuclear structure. Topics discussed were the following: nuclear structure at low-energy excitations (collective quasiparticle phenomena, proton-neutron interactions, microscopic and phenomenological theories of nuclear structure; nuclear structure studies with charged particles. heavy ions, neutrons and photons; nuclei at high angular momenta and superdeformation, structure and decay properties of giant resonances, charge-exchange resonances and β-decay; semiclassical approach of large amplitude collective motion and structure of hot nuclei

  12. Topics in millimeter wave technology

    Button, Kenneth

    1988-01-01

    Topics in Millimeter Wave Technology, Volume 1 presents topics related to millimeter wave technology, including fin-lines and passive components realized in fin-lines, suspended striplines, suspended substrate microstrips, and modal power exchange in multimode fibers. A miniaturized monopulse assembly constructed in planar waveguide with multimode scalar horn feeds is also described. This volume is comprised of five chapters; the first of which deals with the analysis and synthesis techniques for fin-lines as well as the various passive components realized in fin-line. Tapers, discontinuities,

  13. Topics in current aerosol research

    Hidy, G M

    1971-01-01

    Topics in Current Aerosol Research deals with the fundamental aspects of aerosol science, with emphasis on experiment and theory describing highly dispersed aerosols (HDAs) as well as the dynamics of charged suspensions. Topics covered range from the basic properties of HDAs to their formation and methods of generation; sources of electric charges; interactions between fluid and aerosol particles; and one-dimensional motion of charged cloud of particles. This volume is comprised of 13 chapters and begins with an introduction to the basic properties of HDAs, followed by a discussion on the form

  14. Developing Oral Communication Skills.

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    Intended for use by both elementary and secondary school teachers, the two papers in this report stress the importance of developing students' oral and written communication skills. The first paper, "Relationship of Oral Communication to Reading," by Phil Backlund and John Johnson, argues that ability in oral communication is a prerequisite to the…

  15. Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) in Adults

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Thrush (Oral Candidiasis) Information for adults A A A White, slightly ... the tongue and lips are typical of oral candidiasis. Overview Thrush (oral candidiasis), also known as oral ...

  16. INDUCTION OF ENZYME COCKTAILS BY LOW COST CARBON SOURCES FOR PRODUCTION OF MONOSACCHARIDE-RICH SYRUPS FROM PLANT MATERIALS

    Caroline T. Gilleran

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The production of cellulases, hemicellulases, and starch-degrading enzymes by the thermophilic aerobic fungus Talaromyces emersonii under liquid state culture on various food wastes was investigated. A comprehensive enzyme screening was conducted, which resulted in the identification of spent tea leaves as a potential substrate for hydrolytic enzyme production. The potent, polysaccharide-degrading enzyme-rich cocktail produced when tea leaves were utilised as sole carbon source was analysed at a protein and mRNA level and shown to exhibit high level production of key cellulose and hemicellulose degrading enzymes. As presented in this paper, the crude enzyme preparation produced after 120 h growth of Talaromyces emersonii on used tea leaves is capable of hydrolysing other lignocellulosic materials into their component monosaccharides, generating high value sugar syrups with a host of industrial applications including conversion to fuels and chemicals.

  17. [Wavelength interval selection by iteratively reinitialized GA and its application to spectrophotometric determination of components in cough syrup].

    Cheng, Biao; Wu, Xiao-hua; Chen, De-zhao

    2006-10-01

    Wavelength selection in PLS calibration can be used to reach two goals: improve the predictive ability and simplify the model. Iteratively reinitialized GA is a modified genetic algorithm, and it gives an initializing procedure of selecting the first candidates for every run of GA, which uses the results of previous runs as the guiding information. This algorithm can select wavelength regions instead of scattering points, which is very helpful in understanding the relevant parts of spectra. Furthermore, the continuous wavelength points make the PLS model more robust. Appling IRGA based wavelength selection to the UV-Vis spectrum of cough syrup, the result illustrates that PLS regression can greatly benefit from variable selection when used for multicomponent spectrophotometric determination. PMID:17205754

  18. Comparison of physical and chemical properties of high pressure- and heat-treated Lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) in syrup

    Dajanta, Katekan; Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee; Somsang, Soontaree

    2012-03-01

    Lychee usually has white flesh, but its flesh is very sensitive to thermal and enzymatic impairment and ultimately changes in color. This investigation was intended to study the magnitude of color change in lychee by high pressure and thermal processing. The lychee was packed in syrup prior to being processed. Pressurized lychee was performed at 600 MPa at 30°C or 50°C for 20 min, while the pasteurized sample was heated at 90°C for 3 min. It was found that pressurization induced lower color L*, a* and b* values, including low anthocyanin content. For enzymatic activities, high pressure could reduce the activity of polyphenoloxidase by 33-51%, whereas pasteurization markedly reduced that activity by 90%.

  19. "Healthy" discussions about risk: The Corn Refiners Association's strategic negotiation of authority in the debate over high fructose corn syrup.

    Heiss, Sarah N

    2013-02-01

    Many foods and eating practices have been framed as risky by risk societies. Recently, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has become a highly scrutinized food additive. Informed by a social construction of risk framework, I analyze the discursive contributions of the Corn Refiners Association, a trade association, to public negotiations of HFCS risks. I describe how the association's Sweet Surprise campaign advertisements rely on a deficit model to shape understandings of who should participate in conversations about HFCS. I conclude by exploring the practical implications of this analysis, particularly how trade associations can negotiate tensions between promoting health and serving commercial interests, and how these decisions contribute to understandings of the public's role in risk negotiation. PMID:23833026

  20. Feasibility study of date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit syrup-based natural jelly using central composite design.

    Benali, Sonia; Benamara, Salem; Bigan, Muriel; Madani, Khodir

    2015-08-01

    A feasibility study of natural fruit jelly from three Algerian raw materials, namely date (Phoenix dactylifera l.) fruit syrup and suspension of orange albedo powder (OAP) in lemon juice (LJ) was performed by response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD). The textural properties of the final jelly were investigated through two dependent variables: hardness and stickiness. The cooking temperature (X1), corresponding to that of thermo stated oil bath, and cooking time (X 2), taken for heating the initial fruit mixture in the oil bath (from ambient temperature without fixing however, the final temperature), were found to be the most influent factors, compared to °Brix of date syrup (X3) and temperature (X4) of the cooling stage following the cooking process. Results have also shown that the second-degree polynomial models correctly fit experimental data (R(2), adjusted R(2) (R(2) adj) and cross-validation (Q(2)) ≈ 1). Considering textural properties of commercial jellies as a reference, it was found that the cooking temperature of 155 °C for 10 min gave a jelly with suitable textural properties. On the other hand, FT-IR spectra revealed that the structure of such jelly was partially close to that of pectin molecules. Finally, the color analysis in the CIELab system of the fruit mixture over the cooking process showed that both lightness (L(*)) and a*/b* ratio were not affected by the experienced temperature range (80-155 °C). PMID:26243917

  1. IPOMOEA BATATAS SYRUP DECREASE MALONDIALDEHYDE AND INCREASE NITROUS OXIDE PLASMA LEVELS AMONGST MODERATE SMOKER WORKERS AT DENPASAR

    I Dewa Ayu Intan Dwi-Primayanti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cells and tissues are continuously damaged by reactive oxygen species. Cigarette smoke is one of an exogenous source of free radical containing more than 4000 chemical compounds, that triggering the formation of free radicals related to diseases and aging process. Anthocyanins are potent antioxidants that are widely distributed in fruit, vegetables, red wines and Ipomea batatas. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Ipomea batatas as a source of antioxidants in decreasing levels of alondialdehyde (MDA and increasing of Nitrous oxide (nitrite/nitrate/NOxplasma in moderate smokers of workers at Denpasar.Method: This was an experimental study with a pretest-posttest control groups design. There are 33 moderate smokers who were divided into three groups, control group (placebo, treatment group with 15 ml purple sweet potato syrup (P1 and 30 ml (P2, for 14 days. All groups were performed the laboratory examinations for MDA and NOx plasma before and after the treatment.Results: This study showed that there were significant differences (p<0.05 both in MDA and NOx plasma levels in the control group, P1 and P2. The decrease of MDAlevels on P1 was 35.39% and on P2 was 49.87%. The increase of NOx plasma levels was 7.78% for P1 and 14.68% for P2.Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that Ipomea batatas syrup contains of 8mg/mL anthocyanins, probably play a role in reducing the free radical and thus reducingthe risk of disease and slowing the aging process.

  2. Oral Health and Swallowing Problems

    Furuta, Michiko; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2013-01-01

    Oral health impacts systemic health. Therefore, oral care is an important consideration in maintaining quality of life (QOL). Previously, maintenance and improvement of oral hygiene was considered essential for achieving oral health. In addition to oral hygiene, oral care in terms of oral function is now considered to maintain QOL. Ingestion of exogenous nutrients via the oral cavity is fundamental to the function of all higher animals, not only human beings. Chewing and swallowing processes ...

  3. Topics in optics and music

    Sparks, Andrew W.

    2012-10-01

    While the use of optics in the playback of music has been a tremendously successful technology and laser light shows are a common occurrence, other intersections of optics and music tend to be less well known. Topics such as optics-based instruments, performance tools and effects, instrument characterization and manufacturing, recording, playback, and signal processing are explored.

  4. The Health Curriculum: 500 Topics.

    Byrd, Oliver E.

    2001-01-01

    This 1958 paper divides 500 health topics into 20 categories: health as a social accomplishment/social problem; nutrition; physical fitness; mental health and disease; heredity/eugenics; infection/immunity; chronic and degenerative disease; substance abuse; skin care; vision, hearing, and speech; dental health; safety; physical environment; health…

  5. Topics on Galactic Chemical Evolution

    Prantzos, Nikos

    2011-01-01

    I discuss three different topics in Galactic chemical evolution:the "puzzling" absence of any observational signature of secondary elements ; the building of the Galactic halo in the framework of hierarchical galaxy formation, as evidenced from its metallicity distribution ; and the potentially important role that radial migration may play in the evolution of galactic disks, according to recent studies.

  6. Two topics in quantum chromodynamics

    The two topics are (1) estimates of perturbation theory coefficients for R(e+e- → hadrons), and (2) the virtual-photon structure function, with emphasis on the analytic behavior in its squared mass. 20 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Topics in combinatorial pattern matching

    Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel

    This dissertation studies problems in the general theme of combinatorial pattern matching. More specifically, we study the following topics: Longest Common Extensions. We revisit the longest common extension (LCE) problem, that is, preprocess a string T into a compact data structure that supports...

  8. Selected topics in nuclear structure

    19. winter school in Zakopane was devoted to selected topics in nuclear structure such as: production of spin resonances, heavy ions reactions and their applications to the investigation of high spin states, octupole deformations, excited states and production of new elements etc. The experimental data are ofen compared with theoretical predictions. Report contains 28 papers. (M.F.W.)

  9. Dose-dependent pharmacokinetics and teratogenic activity of topical retinoids

    Oral retinoid treatment can be teratogenic and topical applications are used to treat acne and smooth wrinkles. A single topical trace (2.5 μg; 191 μCi/kg) or high (1.3 mg; 195 μCi/kg) dose of all-trans-[10, 11-3H2] retinoic acid (RA) dissolved in acetone was applied to 4 cm2 shaved dorsal hamster skin. Peak plasma radioactivity (Cmax) occurred at 12 and 36 hr and mean t1/2 values for parent PA absorption were 48 min and 2.8 hr, for trace and high dose, respectively. The dermal RA Cmax values were only 2% of that after an equivalent oral dose, but plasma AUC after dermal treatment was 63% of the oral value. The mean t1/2 for rapid elimination was shorter for the high (57 min) than for the trace (6.9 hr) dose, but t1/2 values for slow elimination were comparable (t1/2 high = 51.2 hr; t1/2 trace = 36.8 hr). Single topical application of 10-30 mg/kg RA or 5 mg/kg etretinate (Ro 10-9359) to pregnant hamsters (day 8) caused local hyperkeratosis, but failed to induce terata. Similar application of 10-1000 μg/kg arotinoid Ro 13-6298 caused dose-dependent terata, being twice as embryolethal by parenteral as enteric dosing. Skin toxicity and attenuated maternal blood levels limit the amount of retinoids that can reach the embryo

  10. Oral contraceptives induced hepatotoxicity

    B. Akshaya Srikanth

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Oral Contraceptives are the pharmacological agents used to prevent pregnancy. These are divided as the combined and progestogen methods and are administered orally, transdermally, systemically and via vaginal route. All these methods contain both oestrogen and progestogen. Vigorous usage of oral contraceptives and anabolic steroids as associated with cholestasis, vascular lesions and hepatic neoplasm. Benign hepatic neoplasms are clearly associated with oral contraceptives. In this article we discuss the various hepatocellular complications like cholestasis, benign neoplasm and hepatocellular carcinoma occurred by oral contraceptives. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(1.000: 91-93

  11. Efficacy and safety of topical NSAIDs in the management of osteoarthritis: Evidence from real-life setting trials and surveys.

    Rannou, François; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne

    2016-02-01

    Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are recommended in international and national guidelines as an early treatment option for the symptomatic management of knee and hand osteoarthritis (OA), and may be used ahead of oral NSAIDs due to their superior safety profile. The European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) treatment algorithm recommends topical NSAIDs for knee OA in addition to the pharmacological background of symptomatic slow-acting drugs for osteoarthritis (SYSADOAs) and rescue analgesia with paracetamol and non-pharmacological treatment, if the patient is still symptomatic. Topical NSAIDs have a moderate effect on pain relief, with efficacy similar to that of oral NSAIDs, with the advantage of a better risk:benefit ratio. In real-life studies, topical and oral NSAIDs demonstrate an equivalent effect on knee pain over 1 year of treatment, with fewer adverse events due to lower systemic absorption of topical NSAIDs compared with oral NSAIDs. As a result, topical NSAIDs may be the preferred treatment option, especially in OA patients aged ≥75 years, and those with co-morbidities or at an increased risk of cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, or renal side effects. Furthermore, using topical NSAIDs in inflammatory rheumatic diseases leads to a 40% reduction in the need for concomitant oral NSAIDs. When selecting a topical NSAID, absorption and bioavailability are important because of heterogeneity among topical drug formulations. Molecules like etofenamate have a bioavailability of >20% and evidence for accumulation in synovial tissues, with efficacy demonstrated as improvement in pain and function in real-life studies of OA patients. Diclofenac also shows good efficacy alongside evidence that diclofenac accumulates in the synovium. PMID:26806189

  12. Oral biopsy: Oral pathologist′s perspective

    K L Kumaraswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many oral lesions may need to be diagnosed by removing a sample of tissue from the oral cavity. Biopsy is widely used in the medical field, but the practice is not quite widespread in dental practice. As oral pathologists, we have found many artifacts in the tissue specimen because of poor biopsy technique or handling, which has led to diagnostic pitfalls and misery to both the patient and the clinician. This article aims at alerting the clinicians about the clinical faults arising preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively while dealing with oral biopsy that may affect the histological assessment of the tissue and, therefore, the diagnosis. It also reviews the different techniques, precautions and special considerations necessary for specific lesions.

  13. Composition for the treatment of radiation sickness and topical bacterial infections

    A therapeutic composition for the theatment of radiation sickness comprises a carrier medium including one or more antibodies specific to gram negative bacteria chosen from the group Klebsiella, Pseudomoneas, Shigella, Salmonella and Escherichia species is discussed. The composition may by formed for oral administration or topical application

  14. LIQUID CRYSTAL AS ACCELERANT IN DRUG ABSORPTION FROM TOPICAL FORMULATIONS

    Trivedi Nirali

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Topical drug delivery has been one of the major research fields in the area of drug therapy for last few decades. However inspite of its large therapeutic potential market success has been limited. It provides the several advantages over the oral drug delivery. Percutaneous absorption involves the passage of the drug molecule from the skin surface into the stratum corneum under the influence of a concentration gradient and its subsequent diffusion through the stratum corneum and underlying epidermis, through the dermis, and into the blood circulation. Liquid crystal phase has emerged as a novel material for preparation of topical drug delivery systems. It fulfills the requirements for making drug loading and drug absorption faster from the site of application of topical formulations. Liquid crystal has got many phases in itself which can be further exploited to get a better and more efficient drug delivery system. Also a variety of areas in medical and electronics streamline can find its application. There is also a wide scope in respect to the methods by which these liquid crystals can be prepared. Different methods give rise to different kinds of liquid crystals. Topical formulations have emerged as a very useful drug delivery system as it bypasses the first pass metabolism. Also the absorption of drugs depends on the percutaneous absorption of drug from the area of application. Hence it’s required to choose such a vehicle which enhances the absorption of drug from the formulation.

  15. Ethical use of topical corticosteroids

    Abir Saraswat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatologists rely very heavily on corticosteroids for treating many common dermatoses. Concerns about their incorrect use are widely expressed both in lay public and specialist discourse. From the point of view of medical ethics, issues of autonomy, beneficence and non-maleficence are all raised frequently when we prescribe topical corticosteroids to our patients. We need to be aware of situations when conflicts between these issues arise and have a clear thought process about resolving them. This can only be achieved if we have a thorough understanding of the skin disease being treated coupled with expertise in the use of the varied potencies and available dosage forms of topical corticosteroids. A good understanding of human psychology and effective communication is also needed to use these agents optimally.

  16. Four (Somewhat Nonstandard) Research Topics

    Paun, Gheorghe; Research Group on Natural Computing (Universidad de Sevilla) (Coordinador)

    2014-01-01

    Four research directions are suggested, dealing with the following four main ideas: computing along the axon (up to now, this topic was only preliminarily investi- gated), using pre-computed resources in order to solve computationally hard problems, considering in P systems both objects \\of matter" and \\of anti-matter" (which annihilate each other when meet), and considering the distance (naturally de ned in a membrane structure of a given type) as a support of information.

  17. Preface to Special Topic: Optofluidics

    Liu, Ai-qun

    2010-01-01

    This Special Topic section of Biomicrofluidics is on optofluidics or micro-optofluidic systems (MOFS), a burgeoning technology that aims to manipulate light and fluid at microscale and exploits their interaction to create highly versatile devices and integrated systems. This special issue puts together various contributed articles focusing on optofluidics or MOFS, which help inspire new research ideas and innovation in the microfluidics and nanofluidics community.

  18. Stochastic Analysis and Related Topics

    Ustunel, Ali

    1988-01-01

    The Silvri Workshop was divided into a short summer school and a working conference, producing lectures and research papers on recent developments in stochastic analysis on Wiener space. The topics treated in the lectures relate to the Malliavin calculus, the Skorohod integral and nonlinear functionals of white noise. Most of the research papers are applications of these subjects. This volume addresses researchers and graduate students in stochastic processes and theoretical physics.

  19. Topics in clinical oncology. 15

    The monograph comprising primarily papers on topical subjects of oncology and cancer research, contains also a selection of papers presented at the 2. Congress of the Czechoslovak Society of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Hygiene. Seven papers were selected on behalf of their subject related to clinical oncology. All of them were iputted in INIS; five of them deal with the scintiscanning of the skeleton of cancer patients, one with radioimmunodetection of tumors, and one with radionuclide lymphography. (A.K.)

  20. Hot topics from the Tevatron

    Glenzinski, D.; /Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    The Tevatron Run-II began in March 2001. To date, both the CDF and D0 experiments have collected 1 fb{sup -1} of data each. The results obtained from this data set were summarized at this conference in 39 parallel session presentations covering a wide range of topics. The author summarizes the most important of those results here and comments on some of the prospects for the future.

  1. 阿片类止咳糖浆的安全使用预警%Warning on the safety in using of opioid-containing cough syrups

    闫赋琴; 李霞; 曹军平

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years , the adverse reactions of opioid -containing cough syrups always occurred because of the improper using . Combined with researches on related papers , this review analyzes the pharmacology and the potential risks , hoping to provide a reference for the clinical using of opioid-containing cough syrups .%近年来,常有因过度使用含阿片类止咳糖浆导致成瘾或其他不良反应的发生,本文结合相关文献调查,针对阿片类止咳糖浆概述其临床药理学特点和潜在风险,讨论其在临床治疗中如何安全使用,以促进阿片类止咳糖浆在社会人群中的合理使用。

  2. Reduction of abdominal fat accumulation in rats by 8-week ingestion of a newly developed sweetener made from high fructose corn syrup.

    Iida, Tetsuo; Yamada, Takako; Hayashi, Noriko; Okuma, Kazuhiro; Izumori, Ken; Ishii, Reika; Matsuo, Tatsuhiro

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have shown that ingestion of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) may cause an increase in body weight and abdominal fat. We recently developed a new sweetener containing rare sugars (rare sugar syrup; RSS) by slight isomerization of HFCS. Here, the functional effects of RSS on body weight and abdominal fat, and biochemical parameters in Wistar rats were examined. Rats (n=30) were randomly divided into three groups and maintained for 8-weeks on starch, starch+HFCS (50:50), and starch+RSS (50:50) diets. Rats in the Starch and HFCS groups gained significantly more body weight and abdominal fat than the RSS group. Fasting serum insulin in the RSS group was significantly lower than in the Starch and HFCS groups, although serum glucose in the HFCS and RSS groups was significantly lower than that in the Starch group. Thus, the substitution of HFCS with RSS prevents obesity induced by the consumption of HFCS. PMID:23411176

  3. Topic prominence in Chinese EFL learners’ interlanguage

    Li, Shaopeng; Yang, Lianrui

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the general characteristics of topic-prominent typological interlanguage development of Chinese learners of English in terms of acquiring subject-prominent English structures from a discourse perspec- tive. Topic structures mainly appear in Chinese discourse in the form of topic chains (Wang, 2002; 2004). The research target are the topic chain, which is the main topic-prominent structure in Chinese discourse, and zero anaphora, which is the most common t...

  4. Preliminary Pharmacodynamic Study of Xingsu Zhike Syrup%杏苏止咳糖浆的药效学研究

    张士勇; 程军; 彭代银; 高家荣

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the expectorant, anti-tussive, anti-asthmatic and anti-inflammatory effects of xingsu zhike syrup. Methods Mice were divided into five groups at random, including normal control, kechuanning group (3.0 mL · kg-1 ), and three groups received with low dose, middle dose and high dose of xingsu zhike syrup( 1. 5,3. 0, 6. 0 mL · kg-1 ), respectively. The rat model with cough by ammonia, mouse model for testing phenol red excretion, mouse model of histamine-acetylcholine induced asthma and that with celiac capillary permeation by acetic acid were created to explore effect of xingsu zhike syrup. Results Cough frequency within 2 minutes of the medium, low dose groups of xingsu zhike syrup, and blank control were( 40.50±9. 53 ),( 36.73±10. 40 ),( 36. 54±7. 24 ),( 28. 07±4. 83 ),( 44. 72±6. 97 )times, respectively. The latent period of cough induced was( 24. 56 ± 10. 83 ),(26. 22±9. 17 ), ( 26. 92±8. 69 ), ( 28. 62± 11. 58 ), ( 18. 49±5. 56) s,respectively. The latent period of incubation induced was( 64. 8±17. 9 ),( 68.4±18. 3 ),(75.8±20. 7 ),( 73. 6±17. 8 ),( 49. 8± 15. 4 ) s , respectiYely. The absorbency reflecting phenol red discharge was( 0. 096±0. 025 ),( 0. 103±0. 021 ),( 0. 110±0. 035 ), (0.110±0.032),(0. 083 ±0.022), respectively, that for capillary permeability was( 0. 107 ±0. 034 ),( 0. 103 ±0.027 ), (0.090±0.024),( 0. 099±0. 031 ), ( 0. 121 ±0. 037 ), respectiYely. Conclusion Xingsu zhike syrup has significant expectorant, anti-tussive, anti-asthmatic and anti-inflammatory effects.%目的 探讨杏苏止咳糖浆止咳、化痰、平喘、抗炎的功效.方法将实验小鼠随机分为5组:杏苏止咳糖浆低、中、高剂量组,先声咳喘宁组,空白对照组.杏苏止咳糖浆低、中、高剂量组分别给予杏苏止咳糖浆1.5,3.0,6.0 mL·kg-1,先声咳喘宁组给予先声咳喘宁3.0 mL·kg-1,空白对照组给予等量0.9%氯化钠注射液.观察杏苏止咳糖浆对小鼠氨水引咳法模型、

  5. Influence of myrtle juice and syrup on microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory features of goat’s milk yogurt made with indigenous starter Culture

    Mangia, Nicoletta Pasqualina; Murgia, Marco Ambrogio; FANCELLO, FRANCESCO; Nudda, Anna; Deiana, Pietrino

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of Myrtle Juice (MJ) and Syrup (MS) on microbiological, physicochemical and sensory features in goat milk yogurt fermented by indigenous Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbruekii subsp. bulgaricus during 30 days of storage. Generally, in all samples, the high LAB number at the end of incubation and the pH values ranging from 4.1 to 4.6 indicates a good effectiveness of the used starter on fermentation process. L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus c...

  6. 黑参糖浆的抗炎消肿实验研究%Research on the effects of anti-inflammatory and detumescence of Heishen syrup

    蔡博文

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究黑参糖浆的抗炎消肿作用。方法:采用二甲苯致耳廓肿胀法、角叉菜胶致足跖肿胀法及棉球致肉芽肿法制造炎性模型鼠,观察黑参糖浆对炎性模型鼠的抗炎消肿作用。结果:黑参糖浆对二甲苯所致小鼠耳廓肿胀,角叉菜胶所致大鼠足跖肿胀和棉球所致肉芽肿均有显著的抑制作用。结论:黑参糖浆在一定的剂量范围内抗炎消肿作用强度与剂量的大小有关,剂量大者抗炎消肿作用明显。%Objective:To research the effects of anti-inflammatory and detumescence of Heishen syrup. Methods:The mice models of auricular swelling induced by xylene,voix pedis swelling induced by carageen glue,and granuloma induced by cotton were used to observe the effects of anti-inflammation and detumescence of Heishen syrup. Results:Heishen syrup could significantly inhibit the inflammation induced by xylene,carageen glue and cotton respectively. Conclusion:The effects of anti-inflammatory and detumescence of Heishen syrup are related to the size of the dose within a certain dose range.

  7. Efficacy and safety of cumaru syrup as complementary therapy in mild persistent asthma: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study

    Elisete Mendes Carvalho; Gilmara Holanda da Cunha; Francisco Vagnaldo Fechine; Célia Regina Amaral Uchôa; Manoel Odorico de Moraes Filho; Fernando Antônio Frota Bezerra; Maria Elisabete Amaral de Moraes

    2012-01-01

    Amburana cearensis is a medicinal plant known as "cumaru". It is used in Northeast Brazil in the treatment of respiratory diseases. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, with the aim of evaluating the efficacy and safety of cumaru syrup as complementary therapy in mild persistent asthma. The study consisted of 3 phases, pre-treatment, treatment and post-treatment. The primary efficacy outcome was comparison of the changes reported by patients of the cumaru and placebo...

  8. Intake of high-fructose corn syrup sweetened soft drinks, fruit drinks and apple juice is associated with prevalent arthritis in US adults, aged 20–30 years

    DeChristopher, L R; Uribarri, J.; Tucker, K L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: There is a link between joint and gut inflammation of unknown etiology in arthritis. Existing research indicates that regular consumption of high-fructose corn syrup sweetened (HFCS) soft drinks, but not diet soft drinks, may be associated with increased risk of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in women, independent of other dietary and lifestyle factors. One unexplored hypothesis for this association is that fructose malabsorption, due to regular consumption of excess free f...

  9. Pharmacokinetic profile of two different pharmaceutical forms of theophylline (a slow release tablet and a syrup after multiple dose administration to healthy human volunteers

    Marcelo Nicolás Muscará

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the narrow therapeutic range of theophyline, plasma concentrations of this drug are monitored in patients undergoing chronic therapy. Slow-release preparations avoid the fluctuations in plasma levels and improve patient compliance. In this study, we have compared the pharmacokinetic profiles of a theophylline slow-release tablet and a syrup form, when administered in multiple doses to healthy adult volunteers. The classification based upon releasing patterns is confirmed.

  10. Determination of the 13C/12C ratio of ethanol derived from fruit juices and maple syrup by isotope ratio mass spectrometry: collaborative study.

    Jamin, Eric; Martin, Frédérique; Martin, Gilles G

    2004-01-01

    A collaborative study of the carbon-13 isotope ratio mass spectrometry (13C-IRMS) method based on fermentation ethanol for detecting some sugar additions in fruit juices and maple syrup is reported. This method is complementary to the site-specific natural isotope fractionation by nuclear magnetic resonance (SNIF-NMR) method for detecting added beet sugar in the same products (AOAC Official Methods 995.17 and 2000.19), and uses the same initial steps to recover pure ethanol. The fruit juices or maple syrups are completely fermented with yeast, and the alcohol is distilled with a quantitative yield (>96%). The carbon-13 deviation (delta13C) of ethanol is then determined by IRMS. This parameter becomes less negative when exogenous sugar derived from plants exhibiting a C4 metabolism (e.g., corn or cane) is added to a juice obtained from plants exhibiting a C3 metabolism (most common fruits except pineapple) or to maple syrup. Conversely, the delta13C of ethanol becomes more negative when exogenous sugar derived from C3 plants (e.g., beet, wheat, rice) is added to pineapple products. Twelve laboratories analyzed 2 materials (orange juice and pure cane sugar) in blind duplicate and 4 sugar-adulterated materials (orange juice, maple syrup, pineapple juice, and apple juice) as Youden pairs. The precision of that method for measuring delta13C was similar to that of other methods applied to wine ethanol or extracted sugars in juices. The within-laboratory (Sr) values ranged from 0.06 to 0.16%o (r = 0.17 to 0.46 percent per thousand), and the among-laboratories (SR) values ranged from 0.17 to 0.26 percent per thousand (R = 0.49 to 0.73 percent per thousand). The Study Directors recommend that the method be adopted as First Action by AOAC INTERNATIONAL. PMID:15287660

  11. Oral and Anal Vaccination Confers Full Protection against Enteric Redmouth Disease (ERM) in Rainbow Trout

    Villumsen, Kasper Rømer; Neumann, Lukas; Ohtani, Maki; Strøm, Helene Kragelund; Raida, Martin Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The effect of oral vaccines against bacterial fish diseases has been a topic for debate for decades. Recently both M-like cells and dendritic cells have been discovered in the intestine of rainbow trout. It is therefore likely that antigens reaching the intestine can be taken up and thereby induce immunity in orally vaccinated fish. The objective of this project was to investigate whether oral and anal vaccination of rainbow trout induces protection against an experimental waterborne infectio...

  12. Oral Manifestations in Acute Leukemia as the First Sign; The Interdisciplinary Approach of Diagnosis and Treatment

    Paunica Stana; Giurgiu Marina; Dumitriu Anca

    2015-01-01

    Systemic diseases often present associated oral signs and symptoms, which can occur either from the beginning of the disease or during its evolution. In some cases the oral manifestations reveal an undetected and severe disease, like leukemia. According to the encountered oral signs and symptoms and their response to topical/ dental treatment, the dentist and physician should take into account specific additional tests, which could highlight a possible associated systemic disease. The m...

  13. Radiation induced oral mucositis

    P S Satheesh Kumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene

  14. Effect of zinc therapy in patients with psoriasis and a topic dermatitis on some trace elements in serum and skin

    The effects of zinc therapy on some trace elements in serum and skin had been studied in forty patients with psoriasis and a topic dermatitis with age range between 20-65 years. Patients were treated with 330 mg oral zinc sulfate for 12 week. Significant increases in both serum and skin copper levels were detected. Also, serum and skin calcium and magnesium levels in both psoriatic and a topic patients were significantly decreased, while iron level was significantly increased in psoriasis and significantly decreased in a topic patients. It could be conclude that zinc therapy could affect copper, calcium, iron and magnesium levels in both psoriatic and a topic patients

  15. Commentary: Oral rehydration solution

    Fontaine, O.

    1998-01-01

    Although it had been shown as early as 1968 that oral rehydration therapy was as effective as intravenous rehydration therapy in the treatment of dehydration due to diarrhoea, use of oral rehydration therapy was limited to rural health centres. In large urban hospitals oral rehydration therapy was held to be inferior to intravenous therapy and tended to be used only when the latter was not available. The results reported in the article by Samadi et al. in 1983 were extremely important in help...

  16. Oral microbiota and cancer

    Meurman, Jukka

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the...

  17. The Canine Oral Microbiome

    Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Klein, Erin A.; Thompson, Emily C.; Blanton, Jessica M.; Chen, Tsute; Milella, Lisa; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Davis, Ian J.; Bennett, Marie-Lousie; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V.

    2012-01-01

    Determining the bacterial composition of the canine oral microbiome is of interest for two primary reasons. First, while the human oral microbiome has been well studied using molecular techniques, the oral microbiomes of other mammals have not been studied in equal depth using culture independent methods. This study allows a comparison of the number of bacterial taxa, based on 16S rRNA-gene sequence comparison, shared between humans and dogs, two divergent mammalian species. Second, canine or...

  18. In house validation from direct determination of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (HMF) in Brazilian corn and cane syrups samples by HPLC-UV.

    de Andrade, Jucimara K; Komatsu, Emy; Perreault, Hélène; Torres, Yohandra R; da Rosa, Marcos R; Felsner, Maria L

    2016-01-01

    In this work the development and in house validation of the HMF direct determination in corn and cane syrups by HPLC-UV was carried out for the first time. The separation was done with isocratic elution of a mobile phase comprising water (with 0.5% formic acid) and acetonitrile (90:10, v/v) on Phenomenex C18 column (5.0 μm, 4.6 × 150 mm), at 30 °C, flow rate of 0.8 mL min(-1) and detection at 285 nm. The validated method showed excellent performance with low limits (LOD and LOQ of 0.09 and 0.26 mg L(-1), respectively), good accuracy (recovery rates between 100% and 104%) and precision (RSD's for repeatability and intermediate precision between 0.57% and 6.43%). Good selectivity and linearity were also observed. HMF contents in both foods were very high (406.6-2121.3 mg kg(-1) for corn syrup and 109.2-893.1 mg kg(-1) for cane syrup), which arouses concern about food safety of these products. PMID:26213000

  19. Strategy for biotechnological process design applied to the enzymatic hydrolysis of agave fructo-oligosaccharides to obtain fructose-rich syrups.

    García-Aguirre, Mauricio; Sáenz-Alvaro, Victor A; Rodríguez-Soto, Mayra A; Vicente-Magueyal, Francisco J; Botello-Alvarez, Enrique; Jimenez-Islas, Hugo; Cárdenas-Manríquez, Marcela; Rico-Martínez, Ramiro; Navarrete-Bolaños, Jose L

    2009-11-11

    A strategy to optimize biotechnological process design is illustrated for the production of fructose-rich syrups via enzymatic hydrolysis of agave fructo-oligosaccharides. The optimization process includes ecological studies from natural fermentations leading to the selection of a strain with capacity for inulinase synthesis, and variable optimization for the synthesis, and enzymatic hydrolysis using the response surface methodology. The results lead to the selection of Kluyveromyces marxianus , endogenous strains isolated from aguamiel (natural fermented sugary sap from agave plants), as the main strain with high capacity for enzyme synthesis with inulinase activity. Production optimization at bioreactor level revealed that operation at 30.6 degrees C, 152 rpm, 1.3 VVM of aeration, and pH 6.3 leads to maximum inulinase synthesis, whereas 31 degrees C, 50 rpm, and pH 6.2 leads to maximum hydrolysis of agave fructo-oligosaccharides. HPLC analysis of the fructose-rich syrups obtained at these optimal conditions showed an average composition of 95% of fructose and 5% of glucose and the absence of sucrose. The analysis also revealed that the syrups are free of residues and toxic compounds, an undesirable occurrence often present when traditional methods based on thermal or acid hydrolysis are applied for their obtainment. Therefore, the product may be suitable for use as additive in many applications in the food and beverage industries. PMID:19827764

  20. Assay of Indigo in Gan Mao Yian Ke king Syrup%感冒炎咳灵糖浆中靛蓝含量测定

    王海宁; 杨永东; 黄作苏

    2001-01-01

    目的:建立感冒炎咳灵糖浆中靛蓝的含量测定。方法:采用高效液相色谱法测定感冒炎咳灵糖浆中靛蓝的含量。使用C18柱,甲醇∶水∶醋酸(68∶32∶0.5)为流动相,检测波长为280 nm。结果:线性关系良好,平均加样回收率为97.6%,相对偏差(RSD)=1.69%。结论:本方法精密度高,分离度良好,可用于感冒炎咳灵糖浆质量控制。%Objective:Assay of indigo in Gan Mao Yian Ke Ling Syrup. Methods: Determination of the contents of indigo in Gan Mao Yian Ke Ling Syrup with HPLC. This system consisted of C18 column and methanol-water-acetic acid (68∶32∶0.5) mixture as mobile phase, with the detection wavelength at 280 nm. Results: There is a good linear correlation.The avevage added recovery was 97.6%.RSD=1.69%. Conclusion: The method is accurate and capable of being used for the quality control of the syrup.

  1. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions with oral contraceptives.

    Back, D J; Orme, M L

    1990-06-01

    Oral contraceptive steroids are used by an estimated 60 to 70 million women world-wide. Over the past 20 years there have been both case reports and clinical studies on the topic of drug interactions with these agents. Some of the interactions are of definite therapeutic relevance, whereas others can be discounted as being of no clinical significance. Pharmacological interactions between oral contraceptive steroids and other compounds may be of 2 kinds: (a) drugs may impair the efficacy of oral contraceptive steroids, leading to breakthrough bleeding and pregnancy (in a few cases, the activity of the contraceptive is enhanced); (b) oral contraceptive steroids may interfere with the metabolism of other drugs. A number of anticonvulsants (phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine) are enzyme-inducing agents and thereby increase the clearance of the oral contraceptive steroids. Valproic acid has no enzyme-inducing properties, and thus women on this anticonvulsant can rely on their low dose oral contraceptive steroids for contraceptive protection. Researchers are now beginning to unravel the molecular basis of this interaction, with evidence of specific forms of cytochrome P450 (P450IIC and IIIA gene families) being induced by phenobarbital. Rifampicin, the antituberculous drug, also induces a cytochrome P450 which is a product of the P450IIIA gene subfamily. This isozyme is one of the major forms involved in 2-hydroxylation of ethinylestradiol. Broad spectrum antibiotics have been implicated in causing pill failure; case reports document the interaction, and general practitioners are convinced that it is real. The problem remains that there is still no firm clinical pharmacokinetic evidence which indicates that blood concentrations of oral contraceptive steroids are altered by antibiotics. However, perhaps this should not be a surprise, given that the incidence of the interaction may be very low. It is suggested that an individual at risk will have a low bioavailability

  2. Chrysomya Bezziana oral myiasis

    G S Vijay Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is an opportunistic infestation of human and vertebrate animals with dipterous larvae. Oral myiasis is a rare condition associated with poor oral hygiene, mental disability, halitosis and other conditions. We present a case report of an adult mentally challenged woman with extensive necrotic oral lesion burrowing into the hard palate through which three live maggots (larvae were seen emerging out. The larvae were removed using forceps and the patient was treated with oral ivermectin. The maggots were identified as larvae of the Chrysomya bezziana fly.

  3. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ ... – This booklet presents an overview of physical, mental, and behavioral challenges common in patients with developmental ...

  4. The 21st-Century Oral Presentation Tool Bag

    LaBanca, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Oral presentations are pedagogically useful when there are many examples or subcategories for the topic at hand. For example, in the author's biology classes, students make presentations on different species of bacteria--highlighting morphology, benefits or detriments, transmissions, niches, and other relevant information. They also present on a…

  5. Clinical efficacy of farcosolvin syrup (ambroxol–theophylline–guaiphenesin mixture in the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis

    Mostafa Yakoot

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa Yakoot1, Amel Salem2, Abdel-Mohsen Omar31Green Clinics and Research Center, Alexandria, Egypt; 2Al-Mabarah Hospital, 3Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, EgyptBackground: Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB are defined as recurrent attacks of worsening bronchial inflammation that are marked by an increase in the volume of daily sputum produced, a change in color of the expectorated sputum, and worsening dyspnea. Farcosolvin® (Pharco Pharmaceuticals, Alexandria, Egypt is a mixture of ambroxol (15 mg; theophylline (50 mg; and guaiphenesin (30 mg, per 5 mL syrup.Objective: To test the clinical efficacy of Farcosolvin in the treatment of AECB in a randomized, single-blinded, controlled study design.Patients and methods: One hundred patients with AECB were randomized to either Farcosolvin or guaiphenesin treatment groups, in addition to the standard medical treatment for their cases. Baseline clinical symptomatolgy of breathlessness, cough, and sputum severity scoring were compared before and after 3 and 7 days of treatment in both groups and the differences compared between groups. Changes in perceived improvement were also compared between groups using the Clinical Global Impression of Improvement or Change Scale (CGIC.Results: There were statistically significant improvements in breathlessness and cough scores in both groups (pretreatment versus posttreatment at day 3 and at day 7; P < 0.05. There were highly statistically significant differences between groups in improvement in ­breathlessness and cough scores, after 3 and 7 days treatment, in favor of the Farcosolvin ­treatment group (P < 0.001. Out of 50 patients, 48 (96% in the Farcosolvin-treated group rated their ­improvement on the CGIC scale as “much” and “very much” improved, while only 41 patients (82% reported such a degree of improvement in the control group. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05.Conclusion: We

  6. Topics in black hole evaporation

    Two major aspects of particle creation by gravitational fields of black holes are studied: the neutrino emission from rotating black holes; and interactions between scalar particles emitted by a black hole. Neutrino emission is investigated under three topics: The asymmetry of the angular dependence of neutrino emission from rotating black holes; the production of a local matter excess by rotating black holes in a baryon symmetric universe; and cosmological magnetic field generation by neutrinos from evaporating black holes. Finally the author studies the effects of interactions on the black hole evaporation process

  7. Topics in strangeness nuclear physics

    Strangeness nuclear physics bears a broad impact on contemporary physics since it lies at the intersection of nuclear and elementary particle physics, having, moreover, significant implications to the astrophysics of compact objects. This set of extensive lectures presents a balanced theoretical and experimental introduction to, and survey of, the field, addressing topics such as the production and spectroscopy of strange nuclear systems, modern approaches to the hyperon-nucleon interaction, and weak decays of hypernuclei. With new experiments underway, this burgeoning research field is well served by this tutorial primer and review for both newcomers and seasoned researchers alike. (orig.)

  8. Topics in commutative ring theory

    Watkins, John J

    2009-01-01

    Topics in Commutative Ring Theory is a textbook for advanced undergraduate students as well as graduate students and mathematicians seeking an accessible introduction to this fascinating area of abstract algebra. Commutative ring theory arose more than a century ago to address questions in geometry and number theory. A commutative ring is a set-such as the integers, complex numbers, or polynomials with real coefficients--with two operations, addition and multiplication. Starting from this simple definition, John Watkins guides readers from basic concepts to Noetherian rings-one of

  9. Modern topics in electron scattering

    Frois, Bernard

    1991-01-01

    This book summarizes the considerable progress recently achieved in the understanding of nucleon and nuclear structure by using high energy electrons as a probe. A collection of papers discusses in detail the new frontiers of this field. Experimental and theoretical articles cover topics such as the structure of the nucleon, nucleon distributions, many-body correlations, non-nucleonic degrees of freedom and few-body systems. This book is an up-to-date introduction to the research planned with continuous beam electron accelerators.

  10. The Structure of Wolof Sufi Oral Narratives: Expanding the Labovian and Longacrean Models to Accommodate Wolof Oral Tradition

    Seck, Mamarame

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation investigates Wolof Sufi oral narrative structure and its relationship with the context of production of the narratives. The findings of this study indicate that the structure of these narratives is characterized by (1) the salience of the complicating action, (2) the presence a pre-story stage, which announces the general topic,…

  11. Effect of plant syrup addition on the rheological behavior of Chinese milk vetch honey%植物糖浆对紫云英蜂蜜流变特性影响的研究

    隋丽敏; 李爽; 俞苓; 李沈轶

    2011-01-01

    The viscosity models of Chinese milk vetch honey and high fructose syrup were founded to be Bingham model,while the effects of plant syrup addition on the rheological behavior of honey were studied.The viscosity of honey decreased while the content of syrup increased.A good linear correlation existed between both when the syrup content was below 20% at 25℃.Curves of viscosity versus temperature of Chinese milk vetch honey with different contents of high fructose syrup showed an obvious difference at interval of 10~20℃, the effect of temperature on the viscosity of honey samples with different contents of syrup followed an Arrhenius-type relationship well.The results showed that measurements of the rheological behavior of honey could be valuable for the qualitative and quantitative research of plant syrup addition to honey.%确立了国产紫云英蜂蜜和高果糖浆的Bingham流体模型,分析了不同糖浆含量对蜂蜜流变特性的影响.随着高果糖浆含量的增多,蜂蜜的粘度呈下降趋势,在25℃,20%以下糖浆浓度范围内,两者线性关系良好.不同糖浆含量的蜂蜜的温度-粘度曲线在10~20℃区间有明显差异,且都符合Arrhenius模型.结果表明,蜂蜜流变学特性研究将为蜂蜜中植物糖浆的定性及定量研究提供十分有价值的参考依据.

  12. 基于iFIX和PLC的糖厂糖浆上浮控制系统%Syrup Flotation Control System Design of Sugar Mill Based on PLC and iFIX

    麦艳红

    2013-01-01

    糖浆上浮是糖厂在制糖过程中的一套工序.引入糖浆上浮系统作为澄清把关工序,可以弥补澄清不足,促进产糖率的提高.为实现对糖浆上浮系统进行有效的控制,设计了基于iFIX 5.0组态监控软件的实时监控系统,通过MPI电缆实时采集S7-300 PLC的各种信号,糖浆温度、糖浆流量、PH值、絮凝剂流量、糖化钙流量等,并实现自动控制,实时显示和超限报警,达到了预期的设计目标.实际运行结果表明,糖浆上浮控制系统设计合理,有效,且安全可靠.%Syrup flotation control system was one workstage in the sugar mill, and the syrup flotation control system was the critical step which could make up for lack of clarification and improve the sugar productivity by clearing the syrup. For the realization of effective control of syrup flotation, the realtime supervision system based on iFIX 5.0 configuration monitoring software has been designed in our group. The signals including syrup temperature, syrup flow, PH value, flocculating agent flow and saccharification calcium flow were real time monitored on S7-300 PLC by MPI cable. Automatic controlling, real-time display and the warning of excessive were achieved by this system. Practical operation results showed that the syrup flotation control system was rational, effective, safe and reliable.

  13. Grey relational analysis of syrup color value's influence factors in sucrose clarification section%蔗糖澄清工段糖浆色值影响因素的灰色关联分析

    宋春宁; 杨瑞标

    2013-01-01

    The influence factors of syrup color value in the sucrose clarification section could be solved by grey relational analysis. The relational degrees of syrup color value and preliminary grey pH, preliminary grey valve position, a carbon pH, a carbon valve position, two carbon pH, two carbon valve position, clear juice pH, clear juice valve position, syrup pH, syrup valve position, a clear color value, two clear color value, clear juice color value, sugarcane juice flow, a carbon add ash content, and the two clear muddy degree were figured out ,which was to know the order of their influencing syrup color value . The results show that the relational degree of two carbon pH and syrup color value is biggest while the minimum correlation factor with syrup color value is clear juice valve position.%利用灰色关联分析,可以解决蔗糖澄清工段糖浆色值影响因素的分析问题.通过计算预灰pH、预灰阀位、一碳pH、一碳阀位、二碳pH、二碳阀位、清汁pH、清汁阀位、糖浆pH、糖浆阀位、一清色值、二清色值、清汁色值、蔗汁流量、一碳加灰量、二清浊度与糖浆色值的关联度,了解这些因素对糖浆色值的影响主次.结果表明,一清色值与糖浆色值的关联度最大,而与糖浆色值关联度最小的因素是清汁阀位.

  14. Detection of adulterated honey produced by honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies fed with different levels of commercial industrial sugar (C₃ and C₄ plants) syrups by the carbon isotope ratio analysis.

    Guler, Ahmet; Kocaokutgen, Hasan; Garipoglu, Ali V; Onder, Hasan; Ekinci, Deniz; Biyik, Selim

    2014-07-15

    In the present study, one hundred pure and adulterated honey samples obtained from feeding honeybee colonies with different levels (5, 20 and 100 L/colony) of various commercial sugar syrups including High Fructose Corn Syrup 85 (HFCS-85), High Fructose Corn Syrup 55 (HFCS-55), Bee Feeding Syrup (BFS), Glucose Monohydrate Sugar (GMS) and Sucrose Sugar (SS) were evaluated in terms of the δ(13)C value of honey and its protein, difference between the δ(13)C value of protein and honey (Δδ(13)C), and C4% sugar ratio. Sugar type, sugar level and the sugar type*sugar level interaction were found to be significant (Psyrup level of all sugar types when the δ(13)C value of honey, Δδ(13)C (protein-honey), and C4% sugar ratio were used as criteria according to the AOAC standards. However, it was possible to detect the adulteration by using the same criteria in the honeys taken from the 20 and 100 L/colony of HFCS-85 and the 100L/colony of HFCS-55. Adulteration at low syrup level (20 L/colony) was more easily detected when the fructose content of HFCS syrup increased. As a result, the official methods (AOAC, 978.17, 1995; AOAC, 991.41, 1995; AOAC 998.12, 2005) and Internal Standard Carbon Isotope Ratio Analysis could not efficiently detect the indirect adulteration of honey obtained by feeding the bee colonies with the syrups produced from C3 plants such as sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and wheat (Triticium vulgare). For this reason, it is strongly needed to develop novel methods and standards that can detect the presence and the level of indirect adulterations. PMID:24594168

  15. Development of oxybutynin chloride topical gel for overactive bladder

    Lucente VR

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Vincent R Lucente1, David R Staskin2, Elise De31Institute of Female Pelvic Medicine and Reconstructive Surgery, Allentown, PA, USA; 2Division of Urology, St Elizabeth’s Medical Center, Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA; 3Urological Institute of Northeastern New York, Albany, NY, USAAbstract: Overactive bladder (OAB is an age-related syndrome often associated with urinary incontinence. Symptoms of OAB, such as urgency, frequency, and nocturia, can be treated effectively with inhibitors of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Antimuscarinic agents promote relaxation of the detrusor muscle and may modulate afferent neuronal signals involved in the regulation of the micturition reflex. Despite the availability of an increasing number of oral antimuscarinic agents, treatment persistence among patients with OAB generally appears to be low. This may be attributed, at least in part, to the common occurrence of anticholinergic adverse effects, such as dry mouth, constipation, and dizziness. Oxybutynin is a well-established antimuscarinic agent that is available in a variety of formulations. Transdermal formulations have been developed to avoid the first-pass hepatic and gastrointestinal drug metabolism responsible for the anticholinergic adverse effects often observed with oral delivery of oxybutynin. Oxybutynin chloride topical gel (OTG is a formulation of oxybutynin that was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in January 2009. OTG was the result of a systematic evidence-based effort to develop a formulation that preserves the efficacy of oral oxybutynin formulations while eliminating most of their anticholinergic adverse effects. Additional emphasis was put on creating a transdermal formulation with minimal potential for application-site skin reactions. The formulation and pharmacokinetic properties of OTG are reviewed in the context of recently published efficacy and tolerability data from a large multicenter, placebo

  16. Improvement of low bioavailability of a novel factor Xa inhibitor through formulation of cationic additives in its oral dosage form.

    Fujii, Yoshimine; Kanamaru, Taro; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Nakagami, Hiroaki; Yamashita, Shinji; Akashi, Mitsuru; Sakuma, Shinji

    2011-12-15

    A clinical trial of (2S)-2-[4-[[(3S)-1-acetimidoyl-3-pyrrolidinyl]oxy]phenyl]-3-(7-amidino-2-naphtyl) propanoic acid (DX-9065) revealed that its oral bioavailability was only 3% when it was administered as a conventional capsule formulation. The low bioavailability of DX-9065 was likely caused by both its poor membrane permeability and its electrostatic interaction with anionic bile acids. We hypothesized that DX-9065 absorption would be enhanced when the cationic drug was free from the complex through its replacement with other cationic substances. Polystyrene nanospheres coated with cationic poly(vinylamine) and cholestyramine, which is clinically used as a cholesterol-lowering agent, dramatically prevented DX-9065 from interacting with chenodeoxycholic acid in vitro. Successive animal experiments showed that bioavailability of DX-9065 administered with these cationic substances was 2-3 times that of DX-9065 administered solely. A dry syrup formulation with one-half of a minimal cholesterol-lowering equivalent dose of cholestyramine was designed, and the clinical trial was resumed. A 1.3-fold increase in bioavailability of DX-9065 was observed when the dry syrup was administered. We successfully demonstrated that DX-9065 absorption was enhanced when the drug was administered with cationic additives; however, it appeared that the absorption-enhancing function of cholestyramine largely depended on its dose. The dose escalation is probably prerequisite for the significant improvement of DX-9065 absorption in humans. PMID:22001539

  17. [Oral hygiene aids].

    Hovius, M; Leemans, G J

    1994-05-01

    Different dental hygiene aids are discussed, such as floss, tape, superfloss, gauze, flat shoelace, toothpick, interproximal brush, single-tufted brush, electric toothbrush, manual toothbrush and oral irrigation. Research shows that not one specific aid is superior to another if effectiveness is taken into consideration. Other factors which can influence oral hygiene efficacy are discussed as well. PMID:11830968

  18. Oral Microbiology and Immunology

    Dahlén, Gunnar; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Olsen, Ingar

    , dental assistants and trainees may find it a useful source of reference. The contents are based on general microbiology and immunology. Oral microbiology is given particular attention, with examples relevant to oral infectious diseases. Each chapter opens with a relatively short pre-reading section...

  19. Oral administration of taxanes

    Malingré, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    Oral treatment with cytotoxic agents is to be preferred as this administration route is convenient to patients, reduces administration costs and facilitates the use of more chronic treatment regimens. For the taxanes paclitaxel and docetaxel, however, low oral bioavailability has limited development

  20. Oral Cancer Exam

    Full Text Available ... Oral Health Diseases and Conditions Gum Disease TMJ Disorders Oral Cancer Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay ... Need to Know ​​ Main Content Share This Page Facebook External link – please review our disclaimer Twitter External ...