WorldWideScience
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Changes in plasma glucose in Otsuka long-evans Tokushima Fatty rats after oral administration of maple syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

We investigate whether maple syrup is a suitable sweetener in the management of type 2 diabetes using the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat. The enhancement in plasma glucose (PG) and glucose absorption in the small intestine were lower after the oral administration of maple syrup than after sucrose administration in OLETF rats, and no significant differences were observed in insulin levels. These data suggested that maple syrup might inhibit the absorption of glucose from the small intestine and preventing the enhancement of PG in OLETF rats. Therefore, maple syrup might help in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25757438

Nagai, Noriaki; Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Tanabe, Wataru; Ito, Yoshimasa; Kurabuchi, Satoshi; Mitamura, Kuniko; Taga, Atsushi

2015-03-01

2

Maple Syrup  

Science.gov (United States)

The Spring Thaw is upon us, maple trees are experiencing below freezing temperatures by night and above freezing temperatures by day, signaling a time to cook up some pancakes because maple syrup is on its way! The following websites cover many aspects of the longstanding North American maple syrup tradition. The first site (1) presents Cornell University's Sugar Maple Research and Extension Program. This website is informative and extensive with activities for students and teachers, great photos, and a wealth of information about syrup production, research, and more. The second site (2) from the University of Vermont introduces the Proctor Maple Research Center and includes information about various research projects. The third website (3) hosted by The Ohio State University Extension, features an online copy of the _North American Maple Syrup Producers Manual_, an important and comprehensive text authored by a host of experts in the field. The fourth site, (4) from The Australian National University, provides a concise overview of maple syrup including sections on Origin and History, Collecting and Boiling the Sap, and more. The fifth site, (5) from the Wisconsin DNR's Environmental Education for Kids! (EEK!) electronic magazine for 4th-8th graders and teachers, contains a short history of maple syrup with a link to maple syrup recipes. The last three websites are all from regional maple syrup producers associations in North America, and they include recipes, information about maple syrup history and production, and more. The sixth site (6) is hosted by the Massachusetts Maple Producers Association, the seventh site (7) is hosted by the Michigan Maple Syrup Association, and the final site (8) is hosted by the Qu'bec Maple Syrup Producers Federation.

3

TOPICAL HYALURONIC ACID IN THE MANAGEMENT OF ORAL ULCERS  

OpenAIRE

Hyaluronic acid is a hygroscopic macromolecule formed by the polymerisation of glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine disaccharide. It is a primary component of the extracellular matrix in various body tissues. Ihe use of topical Hyaluronic acid in the treatment of oral ulcers has been recently reported. This article reviews the mechanism of action, indications and efficacy of topical Hyaluronic acid gel in the management of oral ulcers.

Kapoor, Pranav; Sachdeva, Shabina; Sachdeva, Silonie

2011-01-01

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Accumulation of Topical Naproxen by Cultured Oral Epithelium  

OpenAIRE

Topically administered non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit periodontal bone loss, but little is known about the mechanism by which they penetrate oral epithelium. Active transporters could potentially play a role in this process. In this study, we used a cell line derived from oral epithelium to investigate a role for transporters and to characterize conditions that enhance epithelial penetration. Using fluorescence to monitor uptake, we demonstrated that SCC-25 cell monola...

Fitzgerald, R. R.; Walters, J. D.

2007-01-01

5

Penetration of topical, oral, and combined administered ofloxacin into the subretinal fluid  

OpenAIRE

AIMS—To assess the subretinal fluid (SRF) levels of ofloxacin following topical, oral or combined administration.?METHODS—31 patients undergoing conventional retinal reattachment surgery were randomly assigned to three groups. Nine patients received topical ofloxacin, 11 patients received oral ofloxacin, and the other 11 patients received combined administration. Collected SRF samples were analysed for drug level by using high performance liquid chromatography.?RESULTS—SRF drug le...

Cekic, O.; Batman, C.; Yasar, U.; Totan, Y.; Basci, N.; Bozkurt, A.; Zilelioglu, O.; Kayaalp, S.

1999-01-01

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Subretinal fluid levels of topical, oral, and combined administered ciprofloxacin in humans  

OpenAIRE

AIMS—To investigate the subretinal fluid (SRF) penetration of ciprofloxacin following topical, oral, and combined administration.?METHODS—34 patients undergoing conventional retinal reattachment surgery were randomly assigned to three groups. Twelve patients received topical ciprofloxacin, 11 patients received oral ciprofloxacin, and the other 11 patients received combined drug administration. SRF drug level was measured by using high performance liquid chromatography method.?RESULT...

Cekic, O.; Batman, C.; Yasar, U.; Basci, N.; Zilelioglu, O.; Bozkurt, A.

2000-01-01

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Comparative study of oral and topical ketoconazole therapy in pityriasis versicolor  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: Both topical and systemic ketoconazole are reported to be effective against pityriasis versicolor. Material and Methods: Forty patients suffering from pityriasis versicolor were treated either with oral ketoconazole 200 mg per day or 2% ketoconazole cream topically once daily for 2 weeks. Results: On global assessment, after 2 weeks of start of therapy, 18 (90%) out of 20 patients treated with oral ketoconazole were cured while 2 patients had considerable residual ...

Nagpal V; Jain V; Aggarwal K

2003-01-01

8

Oral and Topical Toxicity of Fipronil to Melon Fly and Oriental Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to develop basic oral and topical toxicity data for Fipronil in Solulys protein bait to wild melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) and the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). RESULTS: For the oral study, both females and males were ...

9

"EFFICACY OF TOPICAL RETINOIC ACID COMPARED WITH TOPICAL TRIAMCINOLONE ACETONIDE IN THE TREATMENT OF ORAL LICHEN PLANUS"  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of retinoic acid 0.05% with triamcinolone acetonide 0.1%, both in an oral base, in the treatment of atrophic and erosive oral lichen planus. Thirty patients with clinically proven oral lichen planus were asked to participate in the study. The severity of lesions was scored from 0 (no lesion to 5 (large erosion, and symptoms were scored ranging from 100 (asymptomatic to 0 (impossible to live with symptoms. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either triamcinolone acetonide or retinoic acid. They were instructed to apply the medication on dried lesions four times a day. The signs and symptoms were evaluated after 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks of treatment. The scores were analyzed by the Wilcoxon rank sum test. The stage of lesions in patients receiving topical triamcinolone acetonide (n=18 improved from an average score of 3.22 to 1.05 after 4 weeks of treatment, whereas patients receiving topical retinoic acid (n=12 showed nonsignificant improvement (average score 3.41 improved to 3.25. The keratotic areas in 4 patients (22.2% receiving triamcinolone acetonide and one patient (8.3% in the retinoic acid group were completely resolved. After 4 weeks of treatment all patients in triamcinolone acetonide group, and 50% of retinoic acid group were asymptomatic. Improvement in symptoms and signs was significantly different in the two groups (p? 0.003, p? 0.0001 respectively. The results suggest that in non-keratotic and even keratotic oral lichen planus, topical triamcinolone acetonide 0.1% in oral base reduces the severity of atrophic and erosive oral lesions more effectively than topical retionoic acid 0.05% in oral base.

M. Sahebjamee

2004-06-01

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The Chemical Composition of Maple Syrup  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup is one of several high-sugar liquids that humans consume. However, maple syrup is more than just a concentrated sugar solution. Here, we review the chemical composition of maple syrup. (Contains 4 tables and 1 figure.)

Ball, David W.

2007-01-01

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Diclofenac topical solution compared with oral diclofenac: a pooled safety analysis  

OpenAIRE

Sanford H Roth1, Philip Fuller21Arizona Research and Education, Arthritis Laboratory, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA; 2Medical Affairs, Covidien, Hazelwood, MO, USABackground: Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) formulations, which produce less systemic exposure compared with oral formulations, are an option for the management of osteoarthritis (OA). However, the overall safety and efficacy of these agents compared with oral or systemic therapy remains controversia...

Sh, Roth; Fuller P

2011-01-01

12

PREVENTION OF CUTANEOUS SIDE EFFECTS OF TOPICAL TRETINOIN: USE OF ORAL VITAMINE E  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous folicles. Tretinoin is used as one of the topical treatments for acne vulgaris. It has different cutaneous side effects such as erythema, scaling, irritation and photosensitivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral Vitamine E in preventing the cutaneous side effects of topical tretinoin in acne patients...

Faghihi, G.

2001-01-01

13

Teaching Through Trade Books: From Sap to Syrup  

Science.gov (United States)

Warm days, cold nights, melting snow--signs winter is waning and spring is nearing. Though winter may just be getting started in your area, it's always fun to appreciate the good things about winter, including the special time at the end of winter in New England known as "sugaring time." The sap starts flowing in the sugar maples, and the process of turning sap into syrup begins. These "sugaring time" investigations will connect a familiar product, maple syrup, with properties of matter and can be adapted to introduce or further develop an understanding of this topic. A corresponding activity is included.

Janna Bjork

2005-11-01

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Adrenal insufficiency secondary to inappropriate oral administration of topical exogenous steroids presenting with hypercalcaemia.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 59-year-old Caucasian gentleman presented with malaise, fatigue and proximal muscle weakness. He had history of long-standing roseate psoriasis treated with topical clobetasol propionate (dermovate). On admission, he had significant postural hypotension, and hypercalcaemia. Endocrinological investigation revealed hypercalcaemia, a serum cortisol of synacthen test and undetectable adrenocorticotropic hormone. He was treated with hydrocortisone. The abrupt withdrawal of the topical steroids by the patient precipitated the addisonian crisis. Further enquiry documented inappropriate oral administration of clobetasol for more than 10 years in addition to prescribed topical usage. PMID:22729340

Bhatti, Rahila Sarwar; Flynn, Michael D

2012-01-01

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Management of uncomplicated ankle sprains with topical or oral ketoprofen treatment. A registry study.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ankle sprains mainly caused by accidents or strenuous sport activities can often be quite painful and impair motility. If not treated immediately and correctly, sprains may lead to severe complications. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy and safety of topically applied ketoprofen versus orally administered ketoprofen in 20 patients with grade I ankle sprain and 34 patients with grade II sprain. The patients were divide into in two treatment groups and received either topically applied ketoprofen treatment (ketoprofen 10% spray-gel; Prontoflex; 360 mg/die) or orally administered ketoprofen treatment (ketoprofen tablets; 3x50 mg/die). Treatment duration was one week. After 3 and 7 days of treatment, reduction of spontaneous pain and pain on active movement in the Prontoflex group was significantly bigger greater in the oral treatment group, irrespective of sprain severity. Regarding secondary parameters as mobility impairment and ankle swelling topically applied ketoprofen treatment turned out to be significantly superior to orally administered ketoprofen treatment. Additionally, Prontoflex was well tolerated, whereas ketoprofen tablets caused gastrointestinal side effects in some patients. The good efficacy in pain reduction and absence of side effects in the present study distinguished the topically applied ketoprofen as a favorable treatment for patients with accidental or sport soft tissue injuries. PMID:19597410

Vinciguerra, G; Belcaro, G; Cesarone, M R; Errichi, B M; Di Renzo, A; Errichi, S; Ricci, A; Gizzi, G; Dugall, M; Cacchio, M; Ippolito, E; Ruffini, I; Fano, F; Stuard, S; Grossi, M G

2008-10-01

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Kinetics and anthelmintic efficacy of topical eprinomectin when given orally to goats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Preliminary data suggest that topical eprinomectin in goat shows an individual variation in anthelmintic efficacy when used off-license at a dose rate of 0.5 or 1.0mg/kg BW. As a result, the use of oral administration of topical formulation of eprinomectin tends to develop in dairy goat farms in France. The plasma levels and milk excretion as well as the anthelmintic efficacy of eprinomectin were determined in goats following oral administration of a topical formulation of the drug at dose rates of 0.5 and 1mg/kg BW. The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) values were 17.62±9.68ngday/ml and 6.56±4.00ngday/ml for plasma and milk respectively after the administration of 0.5mg/kg BW and 45.32±13.90ngday/ml and 13.88±1.77ngday/ml for plasma and milk, respectively after the administration of 1mg/kg BW. The milk-to-plasma ratio ranged from 0.33 to 0.36 and the amount of drug recovered in the milk was 0.4% of the total administered dose. The maximum concentrations of eprinomectin residues determined in milk after oral treatment were goat milk). The anthelmintic efficacy of the oral administration of topical eprinomectin was 100% through Faecal Egg Count Reduction Test in natural infection and ?99.8% through Controlled Test in experimental infection (Haemonchus contortus and Trichostrongylus colubriformis). Additional information is needed about the fate of the vehicles used for topical formulation when given by oral route concerning food safety. PMID:25744609

Badie, C; Lespine, A; Devos, J; Sutra, J F; Chartier, C

2015-04-15

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Comparative study of oral and topical ketoconazole therapy in pityriasis versicolor  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Both topical and systemic ketoconazole are reported to be effective against pityriasis versicolor. Material and Methods: Forty patients suffering from pityriasis versicolor were treated either with oral ketoconazole 200 mg per day or 2% ketoconazole cream topically once daily for 2 weeks. Results: On global assessment, after 2 weeks of start of therapy, 18 (90% out of 20 patients treated with oral ketoconazole were cured while 2 patients had considerable residual disease. In the ketoconazole cream group, 16 (80% out of 20 patients were cured and 4 patients had considerable residual disease. Conclusion: No significant difference was observed in the response rates in the two groups. Relapse occurred in two patients of the systemic ketoconazole group and six patients of the topical ketoconazole group during the follow-up period of three months.

Nagpal V

2003-07-01

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Pure Maple Syrup: Nutritive Value.  

Science.gov (United States)

Variations in concentrations of sugar, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium of sap from sugar maple (Acer saccharum, Marsh.) trees are related to the time of sap collection and result in variation of the same components in pure maple syrup. Thirty milliliters (one fluid ounce) of pure maple syrup may contain 3 to 6 mg of phosphorus, 10 to 30 mg of potassium, 40 to 80 mg of calcium, and 4 to 25 mg of magnesium. PMID:17743933

Leaf, A L

1964-02-28

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Diclofenac topical solution compared with oral diclofenac: a pooled safety analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sanford H Roth1, Philip Fuller21Arizona Research and Education, Arthritis Laboratory, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA; 2Medical Affairs, Covidien, Hazelwood, MO, USABackground: Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID formulations, which produce less systemic exposure compared with oral formulations, are an option for the management of osteoarthritis (OA. However, the overall safety and efficacy of these agents compared with oral or systemic therapy remains controversial.Methods: Two 12-week, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized, controlled, multicenter studies compared the safety and efficacy profiles of diclofenac topical solution (TDiclo with oral diclofenac (ODiclo. Each study independently showed that TDiclo had similar efficacy to ODiclo. To compare the safety profiles of TDiclo and ODiclo, a pooled safety analysis was performed for 927 total patients who had radiologically confirmed symptomatic OA of the knee. This pooled analysis included patients treated with TDiclo, containing 45.5% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO, and those treated with ODiclo. Safety assessments included monitoring of adverse events (AEs, recording of vital signs, dermatologic evaluation of the study knee, and clinical laboratory evaluation.Results: AEs occurred in 312 (67.1% patients using TDiclo versus 298 (64.5% of those taking ODiclo. The most common AE with TDiclo was dry skin at the application site (24.1% vs 1.9% with ODiclo; P < 0.0001. Fewer gastrointestinal (25.4% vs 39.0%; P < 0.0001 and cardiovascular (1.5% vs 3.5%; P = 0.055 AEs occurred with TDiclo compared with ODiclo. ODiclo was associated with significantly greater increases in liver enzymes and creatinine, and greater decreases in creatinine clearance and hemoglobin (P < 0.001 for all.Conclusions: These findings suggest that TDiclo represents a useful alternative to oral NSAID therapy in the management of OA, with a more favorable safety profile.Keywords: diclofenac, gastropathy, oral NSAIDs, osteoarthritis, topical NSAIDs

Roth SH

2011-06-01

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Safety evaluation of topical applications of ethanol on the skin and inside the oral cavity  

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Full Text Available Abstract Ethanol is widely used in all kinds of products with direct exposure to the human skin (e.g. medicinal products like hand disinfectants in occupational settings, cosmetics like hairsprays or mouthwashes, pharmaceutical preparations, and many household products. Contradictory evidence about the safety of such topical applications of the alcohol can be found in the scientific literature, yet an up-to-date risk assessment of ethanol application on the skin and inside the oral cavity is currently lacking. The first and foremost concerns of topical ethanol applications for public health are its carcinogenic effects, as there is unambiguous evidence for the carcinogenicity of ethanol orally consumed in the form of alcoholic beverages. So far there is a lack of evidence to associate topical ethanol use with an increased risk of skin cancer. Limited and conflicting epidemiological evidence is available on the link between the use of ethanol in the oral cavity in the form of mouthwashes or mouthrinses and oral cancer. Some studies pointed to an increased risk of oral cancer due to locally produced acetaldehyde, operating via a similar mechanism to that found after alcoholic beverage ingestion. In addition, topically applied ethanol acts as a skin penetration enhancer and may facilitate the transdermal absorption of xenobiotics (e.g. carcinogenic contaminants in cosmetic formulations. Ethanol use is associated with skin irritation or contact dermatitis, especially in humans with an aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH deficiency. After regular application of ethanol on the skin (e.g. in the form of hand disinfectants relatively low but measurable blood concentrations of ethanol and its metabolite acetaldehyde may occur, which are, however, below acute toxic levels. Only in children, especially through lacerated skin, can percutaneous toxicity occur. As there might be industry bias in many studies about the safety of topical ethanol applications, as well as a general lack of scientific research on the long-term effects, there is a requirement for independent studies on this topic. The research focus should be set on the chronic toxic effects of ethanol and acetaldehyde at the point of impact, with special regard to children and individuals with genetic deficiencies in ethanol metabolism.

Lachenmeier Dirk W

2008-11-01

21

Oral versus topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors in ocular hypertension after scleral tunnel cataract surgery  

OpenAIRE

Abdulmoghni Al-Barrag1, Motaher Al-Shaer1, Nabil Al-Matary2, Mahfoud Bamashmous11Ophthalmic Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University, Sana’a, Republic of Yemen; 2Ophthalmic Department, Military Hospital, Sana’a, Republic of YemenPurpose: To compare the effect of oral acetazolamide and topical 2% dorzolamide in prevention of ocular hypertension after scleral tunnel cataract surgery.Setting: Ophthalmic department, Sana’a Univ...

Abdulmoghni Al-Barrag; Motaher Al-Shaer; Nabil Al-Matary; Mahfoud Bamashmous

2009-01-01

22

Randomized clinical trial of topical mupirocin versus oral erythromycin for impetigo.  

OpenAIRE

The safety and efficacy of a new topical antiinfective agent, mupirocin, was compared with that of oral erythromycin ethylsuccinate in the treatment of impetigo in children. Sixty-two children aged 5 months to 13 years with impetigo were assigned to be treated with either mupirocin in three daily applications or erythromycin ethylsuccinate (40 mg/kg of body weight per day divided into four doses) according to a randomized treatment schedule. On the initial visit, exudate or cleansed infected ...

Goldfarb, J.; Crenshaw, D.; O Horo, J.; Lemon, E.; Blumer, J. L.

1988-01-01

23

21 CFR 184.1865 - Corn syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

...Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Corn syrup. 184.1865 Section 184.1865 Food and...Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1865 Corn syrup. (a) Corn syrup, commonly called “glucose sirup” or...

2010-04-01

24

Effects of single oral and topical administration of D-002 (beeswax alcohols) on xylene-induced ear edema in mice  

OpenAIRE

D-002 (beeswax alcohols) contains triacontanol as most abundant component. Local application of triacontanol has been shown anti-inflammatory effects on chemically-induced dermatitis and oral treatment with D-002 produced anti-inflammatory effects in carrageenan-induced pleurisy and cotton granuloma in rats, but its effects on xylene-induced mouse ear edema had not been studied. This study investigated the effects of single oral and topical doses of D-002 on this model. Oral dosing groups wer...

Ravelo, Yazmin; Molina, Vivian; Carbajal, Daisy; Arruzazabala, Mari?a Lourdes; Ma?s, Rosa; Oyarza?bal, Ambar; Pe?rez, Yohani; Jime?nez, Sonia

2010-01-01

25

PREVENTION OF CUTANEOUS SIDE EFFECTS OF TOPICAL TRETINOIN: USE OF ORAL VITAMINE E  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous folicles. Tretinoin is used as one of the topical treatments for acne vulgaris. It has different cutaneous side effects such as erythema, scaling, irritation and photosensitivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral Vitamine E in preventing the cutaneous side effects of topical tretinoin in acne patients.
Methods: A clinical trial was performed in AI-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan for six months in 2000. 80 patients with mild to moderate facial acne were randomized into 2 groups. Group 1 (controls received topical solution of tretinoin 0.05 percent nightly and group 2 (cases received daily oral 100mg of Vit. E in addition. All patients were followed at 1, 4 and 6 weeks after initiation of treatment. Children under 12 years old, pregnant or lactating women were excluded.
Results: At the end of one week, no cutaneous side effects were observed in 25 percent (10 of group 1 and 15 percent (6 of group 2 (P > 0.05. At the end of 4 weeks, 25 percent (10 of group 1 and 60 percent (24 of group 2 were without any cutaneous complications, while at the end of 6 weeks, 35 percent (14 of group 1 in comparison to 75 percent (30 of group 2 were free of any cutaneous side effects (P < 0.05. The most common side effect in both groups was exfoliation.
Discussion: Daily oral 100 mg of Vit. E has been effective in preventing cutaneous complications of topical tretinoin in acne management, but there is a delay of one week in its onset of action. Meanwhile, Vitamine E is a safe modality with no undesirable effects in acne patients.

G FAGHIHI

2001-03-01

26

Topical therapies for oral lichen planus management and their efficacy: a narrative review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral Lichen Planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory condition implicating T cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and involving oral mucosal surfaces. Several therapeutic regimens have been evaluated to treat OLP and pain related, but often without high level of evidence. Topical formulations are the favourite for the majority of cases; bioadhesive formulations have been considered very useful and practical for local drug delivery in oral mucosa, due to the increased residence time on the oral mucosa of the dosage forms and better therapeutic efficacy. In this narrative review, authors try to illustrate the current topical managements for OLP from the accessible literature on this topic. Steroids are very helpful in discomfort and making better quality of life: they are considered the first-line treatment even if they could cause secondary candidosis, and sometimes bad taste, nausea, dry mouth, sore throat or swollen mouth. Other substances or devices by topical administration are adopted especially when the first line approach is refractory. This is the case when retinol with its synthetic and natural analogues (retinoids), hyaluronic acid, or Aloe Vera are chosen. Recent topical applications for OLP therapy include phototherapy and low/high energy pulsing light; the treatment with extracorporeal photochemotherapy is also reasonable and promising. Finally, calcineurin inhibitors (i.e. cyclosporine, tacrolimus and pimecrolimus), antioxidant and biologics (i.e alefacept, efalizumab, basiliximab, TNF-? inhibitors - infliximab, rituximab) may be alternative approaches when OLP does not respond to the standard protocols. In this scenario, there are several studies on molecules different from glucocorticosteroids, but not sufficient or statistically adequate to justify their evidence-based use in OLP; large randomized placebo controlled trials are required to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of these non conventional therapies. In conclusion, since OLP is a chronic disease and requires long-term management, the dental/medical practitioner, who treats OLP patients, needs to know the natural history of OLP, how to monitor, and how to treat, taking in account all of the available modalities conventional and not, with pros and cons. PMID:22632394

Bagan, José; Compilato, Domenico; Paderni, Carlo; Campisi, Giuseppina; Panzarella, Vera; Picciotti, Maria; Lorenzini, Guido; Di Fede, Olga

2012-01-01

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Efficacy of oral azithromycin versus topical tetracycline in mass treatment of endemic trachoma  

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Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the impact of mass treatment with oral azithromycin and topical tetracycline on the prevalence of active trachoma. METHODS: A total of 1803 inhabitants from 106 households of eight Gambian villages were randomized, in pairs, to receive either three doses of azithromycin at weekly intervals, or daily topical tetracycline over 6 weeks. Ocular examinations were conducted before treatment, and 2, 6 and 12 months after treatment. FINDINGS: Prior to treatment, 16% of the study participants had active trachoma. Two months after treatment, the prevalence of trachoma was 4.6% and 5.1% in the azithromycin and the tetracycline groups, respectively (adjusted odds ratio (OR = 1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.53, 2.02. Subsequently, the prevalence rose to 16% in the tetracycline group, while remaining at 7.7% in the azithromycin group (adjusted OR at 12 months = 0.52; 95% CI = 0.34, 0.80. At 12 months post-treatment, there were fewer new prevalent cases in the azithromycin group, and trachoma resolution was significantly better for this group (adjusted OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.42, 3.50. CONCLUSION: Oral azithromycin therefore appears to offer a means for controlling blinding trachoma. It is easy to administer and higher coverages may be possible than have been achieved hitherto.

Fraser-Hurt Nicole

2001-01-01

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21 CFR 573.530 - Hydrogenated corn syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

...2010-04-01 false Hydrogenated corn syrup. 573.530 Section 573.530...Listing § 573.530 Hydrogenated corn syrup. (a) Identity. The product is produced by hydrogenation of corn syrup over a nickel catalyst....

2010-04-01

29

Neuroradiological findings in maple syrup urine disease  

OpenAIRE

Maple syrup urine disease is a rare inborn error of amino acid metabolism involving catabolic pathway of the branched-chain amino acids. This disease, if left untreated, may cause damage to the brain and may even cause death. These patients typically present with distinctive maple syrup odour of sweat and urine. Patients typically present with skin and urine smelling like maple syrup. Here we describe a case with relevant magnetic resonance imaging findings and confirmatory biochemical findings.

Indiran, Venkatraman; Gunaseelan, R. Emmanuel

2013-01-01

30

Oral versus topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors in ocular hypertension after scleral tunnel cataract surgery  

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Full Text Available Abdulmoghni Al-Barrag1, Motaher Al-Shaer1, Nabil Al-Matary2, Mahfoud Bamashmous11Ophthalmic Department, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana’a University, Sana’a, Republic of Yemen; 2Ophthalmic Department, Military Hospital, Sana’a, Republic of YemenPurpose: To compare the effect of oral acetazolamide and topical 2% dorzolamide in prevention of ocular hypertension after scleral tunnel cataract surgery.Setting: Ophthalmic department, Sana’a University, Yemen Sana’a from March 2007 to October 2007.Methods: This prospective double-blind, randomized study included 150 eyes undergoing scleral tunnel cataract surgery with hard posterior chamber intraocular implantation. Methylcellulose was used as the viscoelastic in all surgery cases. Patients were assigned to one of three groups: group 1: topical gentamicin eye drops (control; n = 52; group 2: systemic acetazolamide 250 mg (n = 45; and group 3: topical 2% dorzolamide (n = 53. Acetazolamide patients received one 250 mg tablet, one hour before surgery, then half a tablet every eight hours. A topical dorzolamide 2% or gentamicin was applied in one drop one hour before surgery then every eight hours, for three days postoperatively. Intraocular pressures (IOP were measured by Goldman applanation tonometry one hour preoperatively and 16, 24, and 48 hours postoperatively. Results: At 16 hours, IOP between the three groups increased significantly with a statistically significant p-value of 0.008, but the mean IOP of acetazolamide patients was less than other groups. IOP nearly returned to the normal level 24 and 48 hours postoperatively, but this was not statistically significant (p = 0.452 and 0.138, respectively.Conclusion: Acetazolamide offers better IOP control than topical dorzolamide 2% in preventing ocular hypertension after scleral tunnel cataract surgery. Keywords: cataract surgery, ocular hypertension, viscoelastic, dorzolamide, intraocular pressure

Abdulmoghni Al-Barrag

2009-06-01

31

Outpatient use of oral propranolol and topical timolol for infantile hemangiomas: survey results and comparison with propranolol consensus statement guidelines.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral and topical ?-blockers are used to treat infantile hemangiomas (IHs). Although a recent consensus report provided guidelines for the treatment of IH with propranolol, there are no standard guidelines for the use of topical timolol. The objectives of this study were to determine the current use of oral propranolol and topical timolol by pediatric dermatologists in an outpatient setting and to compare current propranolol use with published propranolol consensus guidelines. An electronic survey was sent to pediatric dermatologists in May and June 2013. One hundred forty-nine pediatric dermatologists responded to the survey, a 79% response rate. Of the respondents, 96% prescribed oral propranolol, but 75% did not follow consensus guidelines exactly; recommended history, physical examination, initial dose, and frequency varied. The dose of propranolol was usually titrated up to goal dose as recommended (89%). Fifty-six percent monitored vital signs in patients after the initial dose and 49% continued to monitor vital signs in their clinic after each dose escalation, which did not meet consensus guideline recommendations. Ninety-one percent reported using topical timolol for the treatment of IH and 66% responded they had used topical timolol in conjunction with oral propranolol to treat IH. The most common indication was superficial hemangiomas (97%). Most practitioners (74%) did not routinely monitor heart rate or blood pressure in infants treated with topical timolol. This study highlights the variability in prescribing and monitoring practices of physicians using propranolol for the treatment of IHs and demonstrates that topical timolol is commonly used alone and in conjunction with oral propranolol to treat IHs. PMID:25556828

Kumar, Monique G; Coughlin, Carrie; Bayliss, Susan J

2015-03-01

32

Comparison of Topical Triamcinolone and Oral Atorvastatin in Treatment of Paederus Dermatitis Northern Iran  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dermatitis caused by stimulation of beetle paederus, is a common health problem in Northern and some southern parts of Iran. Since by now, traditional medicine and some corticosteroid agents have been used for treatment of dermatitis caused by beetle paederus. Because, there are few researches about classical treatment of the disease at academic level, this study planned to compare the effectiveness of triamcinolone ointment and atorvastatin tablet with placebo in treatment of paederus dermatitis in Northern Iran. A randomized double-blind clinical trial was carried out on 30 patients referred to the hospital and clinics at Sari and Neka countries in Northern Iran during 6 months. Patients were randomly divided into two therapeutic equal groups. The first group was triamcinolone ointment twice a day and a placebo atorvastatin tablet daily. The second group was oral atorvastatin one tablet (20 mg daily and a placebo triamcinolone ointment twice a day. In Seventh day of visits, therapeutic response of the patients in triamcinolone and atorvastatin group were 93.33 and 80%, respectively. No significant differences were found in therapeutic outcome between the two groups (p>0.05. The results showed both of triamcinolone ointment and oral atorvastatin had similar effect on paederus dermatitis. Because the paederus dermatitis is a self-limited disease use of topical therapy for treatment of the disease is recommend.

Seyed Hasan Moosa-Kazemi

2012-01-01

33

Comparison of topical triamcinolone and oral atorvastatin in treatment of paederus dermatitis Northern Iran.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dermatitis caused by stimulation of beetle paederus, is a common health problem in Northern and some southern parts of Iran. Since by now, traditional medicine and some corticosteroid agents have been used for treatment of dermatitis caused by beetle paederus. Because, there are few researches about classical treatment of the disease at academic level, this study planned to compare the effectiveness of triamcinolone ointment and atorvastatin tablet with placebo in treatment ofpaederus dermatitis in Northern Iran. A randomized double-blind clinical trial was carried out on 30 patients referred to the hospital and clinics at Sari and Neka countries in Northern Iran during 6 months. Patients were randomly divided into two therapeutic equal groups. The first group was triamcinolone ointment twice a day and a placebo atorvastatin tablet daily. The second group was oral atorvastatin one tablet (20 mg) daily and a placebo triamcinolone ointment twice a day. In Seventh day of visits, therapeutic response of the patients in triamcinolone and atorvastatin group were 93.33 and 80%, respectively. No significant differences were found in therapeutic outcome between the two groups (p > 0.05). The results showed both oftriamcinolone ointment and oral atorvastatin had similar effect on paederus dermatitis. Because the paederus dermatitis is a self-limited disease use of topical therapy for treatment of the disease is recommend. PMID:22545364

Nikookar, Seyed Hasan; Hajheydari, Zohreh; Moosa-Kazemi, Seyed Hasan; Mahmoudi, Mitra; Shahmohammadi, Soheila

2012-01-15

34

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... OralHealth > Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect ...

35

Molecular imaging of glucose uptake in oral neoplasia following topical application of fluorescently labeled deoxy-glucose.  

Science.gov (United States)

The clinical value of assessing tumor glucose metabolism via F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET imaging in oncology is well established; however, the poor spatial resolution of PET is a significant limitation especially for early stage lesions. An alternative technology is optical molecular imaging, which allows for subcellular spatial resolution and can be effectively used with topical contrast agents for imaging epithelial derived cancers. The goal of this study was to evaluate the potential of optical molecular imaging of glucose metabolism to aid in early detection of oral neoplasia. Fluorescently labeled deoxyglucose (2-NBDG (2-[N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]-2-deoxy-D-glucose)) was applied topically to tissue phantoms, fresh oral biopsies (n = 32) and resected tumors specimens (n = 2). High-resolution imaging results show that 2-NBDG can be rapidly delivered to oral epithelium using topical application. In normal epithelium, the uptake of 2-NBDG is limited to basal epithelial cells. In contrast, high-grade dysplasia and cancers show uptake of 2-NBDG in neoplastic cells throughout the lesion. Following 2-NBDG labeling, the mean fluorescence intensity of neoplastic tissue averages 3.7 times higher than that of matched nonneoplastic oral biopsies in samples from 20 patients. Widefield fluorescence images of 8-paired oral specimens were obtained pre and postlabeling with 2-NBDG. Prior to labeling, neoplastic samples showed significantly lower autofluorescence than nonneoplastic samples. The fluorescence of neoplastic samples increased dramatically after labeling; the differential increase in fluorescence was on average 30 times higher in neoplastic samples than in normal samples. Topical application of 2-NBDG can therefore provide image contrast in both widefield and high-resolution fluorescence imaging modalities, highlighting its potential in early detection of oral neoplasia. PMID:19173294

Nitin, Nitin; Carlson, Alicia L; Muldoon, Tim; El-Naggar, Adel K; Gillenwater, Ann; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

2009-06-01

36

pH-Activated Nanoparticles for Controlled Topical Delivery of Farnesol To Disrupt Oral Biofilm Virulence.  

Science.gov (United States)

Development of effective therapies to control oral biofilms is challenging, as topically introduced agents must avoid rapid clearance from biofilm-tooth interfaces while targeting biofilm microenvironments. Additionally, exopolysaccharides-matrix and acidification of biofilm microenvironments are associated with cariogenic (caries-producing) biofilm virulence. Thus, nanoparticle carriers capable of binding to hydroxyapatite (HA), saliva-coated HA (sHA), and exopolysaccharides with enhanced drug release at acidic pH were developed. Nanoparticles are formed from diblock copolymers composed of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), butyl methacrylate (BMA), and 2-propylacrylic acid (PAA) (p(DMAEMA)-b-p(DMAEMA-co-BMA-co-PAA)) that self-assemble into ?21 nm cationic nanoparticles. Nanoparticles exhibit outstanding adsorption affinities (?244 L-mmol(-1)) to negatively charged HA, sHA, and exopolysaccharide-coated sHA due to strong electrostatic interactions via multivalent tertiary amines of p(DMAEMA). Owing to hydrophobic cores, nanoparticles load farnesol, a hydrophobic antibacterial drug, at ?22 wt %. Farnesol release is pH-dependent with t1/2 = 7 and 15 h for release at pH 4.5 and 7.2, as nanoparticles undergo core destabilization at acidic pH, characteristic of cariogenic biofilm microenvironments. Importantly, topical applications of farnesol-loaded nanoparticles disrupted Streptococcus mutans biofilms 4-fold more effectively than free farnesol. Mechanical stability of biofilms treated with drug-loaded nanoparticles was compromised, resulting in >2-fold enhancement in biofilm removal under shear stress compared to free farnesol and controls. Farnesol-loaded nanoparticles effectively attenuated biofilm virulence in vivo using a clinically relevant topical treatment regimen (2×/day) in a rodent dental caries disease model. Strikingly, treatment with farnesol-loaded nanoparticles reduced both the number and severity of carious lesions, while free farnesol had no effect. Nanoparticle carriers have great potential to enhance the efficacy of antibiofilm agents through multitargeted binding and pH-responsive drug release due to microenvironmental triggers. PMID:25661192

Horev, Benjamin; Klein, Marlise I; Hwang, Geelsu; Li, Yong; Kim, Dongyeop; Koo, Hyun; Benoit, Danielle S W

2015-03-24

37

Use of compounded dispersing media for extemporaneous pediatric syrups with candesartan cilexetil and valsartan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Available tablets or capsules for adults are often used to prepare extemporaneously formulated medicines appropriate for children. The most acceptable drug forms in pediatric population are oral liquids and pharmacists use commercial dispersing media to compound syrups from an active substance or from tablets available on the market. In many countries ready-to-use dispersing media are not available or refunded, but pharmacists can use other compounded media, providing their compatibility and stability are proven. The aim of this study was to formulate and evaluate the stability of syrups with candesartan cilexetil (1 mg mL-1) and valsartan (4 mg mL-1) extemporaneously prepared using commercial tablets (Diovan® and Atacand®). The following three different suspending media, which could be easily made in a pharmacy, were investigated: V1 - with xanthan gum (0.5 %), V2 - the USP/NF vehicle for oral solution and V3 - the medium based on a simple sucrose syrup. The stability of preparations was studied during 35 days of storage in a dark place at controlled temperature of 25 and 4 °C. During the study, microscopic observation was carried out and pH, viscosity, and concentration of candesartan cilexetil and valsartan were analyzed. Syrups with valsartan prepared with V2 and V3 media were stable for 3 or 4 weeks when stored at 25 °C, while syrups with candesartan were stable for as long as 35 days. For syrups prepared using V1 medium, the 14-day expiry date was not achieved because of microbial deterioration. PMID:25531786

Musko, Monika; Sznitowska, Malgorzata

2014-12-01

38

pH-activated Nanoparticles for Controlled Topical Delivery of Farnesol to Disrupt Oral Biofilm Virulence  

Science.gov (United States)

Development of effective therapies to control oral biofilms is challenging, as topically introduced agents must avoid rapid clearance from biofilm-tooth interfaces while targeting biofilm microenvironments. Additionally, exopolysaccharide matrix and acidification of biofilm microenvironments are associated with cariogenic (caries-producing) biofilm virulence. Thus, nanoparticle carriers capable of binding to hydroxyapatite (HA), saliva-coated HA (sHA), and exopolysaccharides with enhanced drug-release at acidic pH were developed. Nanoparticles are formed from diblock copolymers composed of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), butyl methacrylate (BMA), and 2-propylacrylic acid (PAA) (p(DMAEMA)-b-p(DMAEMA-co-BMA-co-PAA)) that self-assemble into ~21 nm cationic nanoparticles. Nanoparticles exhibit outstanding adsorption affinities (~244 L-mmol?1) to negatively-charged HA, sHA, and exopolysaccharide-coated sHA due to strong electrostatic interactions via multivalent tertiary amines of p(DMAEMA). Owing to hydrophobic cores, Nanoparticles load farnesol, a hydrophobic antibacterial drug, at ~22 wt%. Farnesol release is pH-dependent with t1/2=7 and 15 h for release at pH 4.5 and 7.2, as Nanoparticles undergo core destabilization at acidic pH, characteristic of cariogenic biofilm microenvironments. Importantly, topical applications of farnesol-loaded nanoparticles disrupted Streptococcus mutans biofilms 4-fold more effectively than free farnesol. Mechanical stability of biofilms treated with drug-loaded nanoparticles was compromised, resulting in >2-fold enhancement in biofilm removal under shear stress compared to free farnesol and controls. Farnesol-loaded nanoparticles effectively attenuated biofilm virulence in vivo using a clinically-relevant topical treatment regimen (2×/day) in a rodent dental caries disease model. Treatment with farnesol-loaded nanoparticles reduced both the number and severity of carious lesions, while free-farnesol had no effect. Nanoparticles have great potential to enhance the efficacy of antibiofilm agents through multi-targeted binding and pH-responsive drug release due to microenvironmental triggers. PMID:25661192

Horev, Benjamin; Klein, Marlise I.; Hwang, Geelsu; Li, Yong; Kim, Dongyeop; Koo, Hyun; Benoit, Danielle S.W.

2015-01-01

39

Arsenic, Organic Foods, and Brown Rice Syrup  

OpenAIRE

Background: Rice can be a major source of inorganic arsenic (Asi) for many sub-populations. Rice products are also used as ingredients in prepared foods, some of which may not be obviously rice based. Organic brown rice syrup (OBRS) is used as a sweetener in organic food products as an alternative to high-fructose corn syrup. We hypothesized that OBRS introduces As into these products.

Jackson, Brian P.; Taylor, Vivien F.; Karagas, Margaret R.; Punshon, Tracy; Cottingham, Kathryn L.

2012-01-01

40

Systemic and topical corticosteroid treatment of oral lichen planus: a comparative study with long-term follow-up  

OpenAIRE

BACKGROUND: Topical corticosteroids are the mainstay treatment for oral lichen planus (OLP), but some authors suggest that systemic corticosteroid therapy is the only way to control acute presentation of OLP. METHODS: Forty-nine patients with histologically proven atrophic-erosive OLP were divided into two groups matched for age and sex. The test group (26 patients) was treated systemically with prednisone (50 mg/day), and afterwards with clobetasol ointment in an adhesive medium plus antimic...

Gandolfo, Sergio; Broccoletti, Roberto

2003-01-01

41

Benefits of oral and topical administration of ROQUETTE Chlorella sp. on skin inflammation and wound healing in mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

The human body is constantly exposed to the risk of traumatic lesions. Chlorella is a green microalgae enriched with nutrients, vitamins, minerals and chlorophyll. In some communities, Chlorella is a traditional medicinal plant used for the management of inflammation-related diseases. ROQUETTE Chlorella sp. (RCs) was investigated by oral administration (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg) and cutaneous application (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0%) to evaluate its impact in two dermatological disorder models in mice: skin inflammation and wound healing. For skin inflammation, it was administered during 14 days starting one week before the induction of chronic skin inflammation by repeated cutaneous application of 12-Otetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA). For wound healing the microalgae was administered by topical application after scarification of the skin until complete wound healing. Results indicated that oral and topical administrations of the two higher doses of RCs had significant effects on macroscopic score of skin inflammation with an efficient effect on microscopic score with cutaneous application. The microalgae had also efficient effect on healing process and duration of wound healing for both administration routes and particularly at the two highest doses of RCs. These findings suggest that administration of RCs by both oral and topical routes appeared to have beneficial effects on skin lesions. PMID:24965517

Hidalgo-Lucas, Sophie; Bisson, Jean-Francois; Duffaud, Anais; Nejdi, Amine; Guerin-Deremaux, Laetitia; Baert, Blandine; Saniez-Degrave, Marie-Helene; Rozan, Pascale

2014-01-01

42

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect ...

43

Bronchodilating Activity of Formulated Syrup of Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Moraceae) Root Extract in Albino Rats  

OpenAIRE

Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) root extract, with a bronchodilating agent, is traditionally used for treating asthma. To provide a scientific basis for such claim, this study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the formulated syrup of such extract by determining its acute oral toxicity level, approximate effective dose, the significant difference in the total leukocyte count (TLC), total eosinophil count (TEC) and histopathologic evaluation of lung tissue. Female Swiss ...

Bersabal, Kathleen G.; Alaza, Angeli B.; Claro, Charlotte Grace D.; Licatan, Bianca Karla P.

2012-01-01

44

Diclofenac sodium topical solution with dimethyl sulfoxide, a viable alternative to oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories in osteoarthritis: review of current evidence  

OpenAIRE

Philip Fuller¹, Sanford Roth²¹Covidien, Hazelwood, MO; ²Arizona Research and Education, Arthritis Research Laboratory, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USAAbstract: Topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may offer a safer alternative to their oral counterparts for the management of osteoarthritis. Diclofenac sodium topical solution with dimethyl sulfoxide (TDiclo) was evaluated in five randomized, controlled trials and is indicated for ...

Fuller P; Sh, Roth

2011-01-01

45

Sustained clinical resolution of acquired epidermodysplasia verruciformis in an immunocompromised patient after discontinuation of oral acitretin with topical imiquimod.  

Science.gov (United States)

Increased cases of acquired epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EDV) have been reported in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). With regard to management, there are no randomized controlled trials in either immunocompetent or immunocompromised patients, and only a limited number of anecdotal treatment options. Systemic retinoids, either independently or in combination with other treatment modalities, have been used with limited success, demonstrating transient clinical response and recurrence of lesions after cessation of therapy. We report a case of an HIV-positive patient with acquired EDV who achieved sustained clinical resolution even after discontinuation of oral acitretin by applying topical imiquimod to prevent recurrence of his lesions. PMID:23545921

Nijhawan, Rajiv I; Osei-Tutu, Achiamah; Hugh, Jeremy M

2013-03-01

46

EVALUATION OF ANTITUSSIVE ACTIVITY OF VASU COUGH SYRUP IN SULPHUR DIOXIDE (SO2 INDUCED COUGH MODEL IN MICE  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cough is the most common symptom of respiratory diseases. When cough becomes serious, opioid drugs are effective, but they have side effects like sedation, delirium, constipation etc.. Therefore, there is a need to search out effective anti-tussive agents that are free from previously mentioned side effects. The present study was carried out to evaluate acute oral toxicity study and anti-tussive activity of Vasu Cough Syrup in sulphur dioxide (SO2-induced cough model in mice. Albino mice of either sex, weighing 25-30 g were divided into four groups (n = 6. Group I served as Disease control, Group II received standard drug i.e. Codeine phosphate (10 mg/kg, p.o., group III to IV were given Vasu Cough Syrup 0.25mL/kg and 0.5mL/kg body wt. p.o., dose. After 30 minutes, the mice were exposed to Sulphur dioxide for 30 sec. The mice were then placed in an observation chamber for counting of cough bouts for five minutes. Vasu Cough Syrup showed 63.91% and 70.64% inhibition in frequency of cough at 0.25mL/kg and 0.5mL/kg dose level respectively. It proves significant anti-tussive activity of Vasu Cough Syrup in Sulphur dioxide induced cough model. Thus, Vasu Cough Syrup can be useful as an alternative medicine for cough.

Patel Hirenjal

2013-06-01

47

Prepolymer Syrup for Encapsulating Solar Cells  

Science.gov (United States)

Clear polymer syrup, made by disolving n-butyl acrylate prepolymer in monomer, used to encapsulate solar cells by any of three standard processes (dipping, multiple coating, or automated machine coating). Use of cyclohexane instead of methanol/water solvent during initial polymerization stage maintains high molecular weight and raises yield of linear polymer to essentially 100 percent.

Gupta, A.; Ingham, J. D.; Yavrouian, A. H.

1982-01-01

48

Determination of gluten in glucose syrups.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Ro?. 22, ?. 7-8 (2009), s. 762-765. ISSN 0889-1575 R&D Projects: GA MZe 1B53002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : glucose syrup * gluten determination * celiac disease Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.423, year: 2009

Dostálek, P.; Gabrovská, D.; Rysová, J.; Mena, M. C.; Hernando, A.; Méndez, E.; Chmelík, Josef; Šalplachta, Ji?í

2009-01-01

49

Ophthalmoplegia in Maple Syrup Urine Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Reported is the case of a female infant whose early symptom of ophthalmoplegia (paralysis of one or more motor nerves in the eye) led to eventual diagnosis and treatment for maple syrup urine disease, a condition in which early dietary restrictions can prevent severe mental retardation and neurologic disability. (DB)

Zee, David S.; And Others

1974-01-01

50

Topical treatment of oral cavity and wounded skin with a new disinfection system utilizing photolysis of hydrogen peroxide in rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study aimed to evaluate the acute locally injurious property of hydroxyl radical generation system by photolysis of H(2)O(2), which is a new disinfection system for the treatment of periodontitis developed in our laboratory. Firstly, generation of the hydroxyl radical by a test device utilizing the photolysis of H(2)O(2) was confirmed by applying an electron spin resonance (ESR)-spin trapping technique. Secondly, the bactericidal effect of the device was examined under a simulant condition in which Staphylococcus aureus suspended in 1 M H(2)O(2) was irradiated with laser light emitted from the test device, resulting in substantial reduction of the colony forming unit of the bacteria within a short time as 2 min. Finally, acute topical effect of the disinfection system on rat oral mucosa and wounded skin was evaluated by histological examination. No abnormal findings were observed in the buccal mucosal region treated three times with 1 M H(2)O(2) and irradiation. Similarly, no abnormal findings were observed during the healing of skin treated with 1 M H(2)O(2) and irradiation immediately after wounding. Since topical treatment with the novel disinfection technique utilizing the photolysis of H(2)O(2) had no detrimental effect on the oral mucosa and the healing of full thickness skin wounds in rats, it is expected that the acute locally injurious property of the disinfection technique is low. PMID:22467023

Yamada, Yasutomo; Mokudai, Takayuki; Nakamura, Keisuke; Hayashi, Eisei; Kawana, Yoshiko; Kanno, Taro; Sasaki, Keiichi; Niwano, Yoshimi

2012-01-01

51

Evolution of saliva and serum components in patients with oral candidosis topically treated with Ketoconazole and Nystatin.  

Science.gov (United States)

The present study involves the analysis of some saliva components (SC) and serum components in patients with oral candidosis topically treated with Ketoconazole 2% (K) or Nystatin 100,000 IU (N). Twenty-four male and female patients, age range 39-82 years, were included in the study. A double-blind study was undertaken in which the patients were divided into 2 treatment groups. These groups were compared with a control group (CG) of 16 healthy patients, both male and female, age-matched with the treated groups. The parameters evaluated were oral mucous membrane lesion index (MLI), CFU of Candida, saliva flow rate, protein-bound Fe (Fe-prot), Fe-prot binding capacity (Fe-prot cap), IgAs, peroxidase activity (PA), hypothiocyanite and thiocyanite. The values of Candida CFU and MLI were significantly reduced in patients treated with K and N. The pre-treatment values of SC as compared to the CG revealed a reduction in Fe-prot and Fe-prot cap. These parameters reach values similar to control towards the end of the treatment. The PA was significantly higher in candidosis patients and fell to control values with treatment. The other SC and serum components did not exhibit significant differences with the CG. Patients with oral candidosis treated locally exhibit not only an improvement in clinical manifestations but also a return to control values of altered SC. PMID:11885450

Cornejo, L S; López de Blanc, S; Femopase, F; Azcurra, A; Calamari, S; Battellino, L J; Dorronsoro de Cattoni, S T

1998-01-01

52

Reductions in Skin and Systemic Parasite Burdens as a Combined Effect of Topical Paromomycin and Oral Miltefosine Treatment of Mice Experimentally Infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis?  

OpenAIRE

This study aimed to investigate the activity of a combination of topical paromomycin gel and oral miltefosine for the treatment of experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. The efficacy of the combination, evaluated by measuring lesion size and parasite burden in the skin and spleen, was assessed in BALB/c mice infected by L. (L.) amazonensis. The miltefosine was administered orally at 10 mg/kg of body weight/day for 10 days, while 10% paromomycin gel...

Aguiar, Marta Gontijo; Pereira, Aline Ma?rcia Machado; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Ferreira, Lucas Antonio Miranda

2010-01-01

53

Bronchodilating Activity of Formulated Syrup of Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Moraceae Root Extract in Albino Rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus root extract, with a bronchodilating agent, is traditionally used for treating asthma. To provide a scientific basis for such claim, this study was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the formulated syrup of such extract by determining its acute oral toxicity level, approximate effective dose, the significant difference in the total leukocyte count (TLC, total eosinophil count (TEC and histopathologic evaluation of lung tissue. Female Swiss mice were used to determine the toxicity at selected fixed dose levels of 5, 50, 300 and 2000 mg/kg. Approximate Effective Dose (AED determination was conducted using female albino rats with a logarithmic increase by 0.6 intervals. Animals were administered with alumovalbumin and desired dose of root extract, respectively. Blood samples were collected for leukocyte and eosinophil counts. It was found that acute oral toxicity was at 2000mg/kg and 5000 mg/kg. AED has significant influence on TLC and TEC at dose levels of 15.85, 251.19, 1000 and 3981.07 mg/ kg. Analysis of Variance showed a significant difference in the mean of the decrease in the total leukocyte count due to the formulated syrup of root extract, Salbutamol (positive control and plain syrup (negative control. Tukey's multiple comparison tests, t-test and histopathologic evaluation on the group treated with Salbutamol and root extract formulation showed no significant difference on the TLC and TEC. Salbutamol was not significantly different from the formulated syrup. Hence, both treatments were effective as bronchodilating agents.

Kathleen G. Bersabal

2012-10-01

54

The case for advanced physics topics in oral and maxillofacial surgery.  

Science.gov (United States)

Research in oral and maxillofacial surgery has focused mainly on principles founded in the biological and chemical sciences, which have provided excellent answers to many questions. However, recent technologic advances have begun to gain prominence in many of the medical sciences, providing clinicians with more effective tools for diagnosis and treatment. The era of modern physics has led to the development of diagnostic techniques that could provide information at a more basic level than many of the current biochemical methods used. The goal of this report is to introduce 2 of these methods and describe how they can be applied to oral and maxillofacial surgery. PMID:25234523

Tandon, Rahul; Herford, Alan S

2014-10-01

55

New lidocaine lozenge as topical anesthesia compared to lidocaine viscous oral solution before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

To evaluate the effect and acceptance of a new lidocaine lozenge compared with a lidocaine viscous oral solution as a pharyngeal anesthetic before upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE), a diagnostic procedure commonly performed worldwide during which many patients experience severe discomfort mostly because of the gag reflex.

Mogensen, Stine; Treldal, Charlotte

2012-01-01

56

Symbiosis, Printspeak, and Politics: Topics in the Orality and Literacy Debate.  

Science.gov (United States)

Orality and literacy are not antithetical, rather they exist in a complex symbiosis at the individual, family, and community levels. Such a symbiosis is inevitable and appears in all kinds of institutions, including economic, political, social, cultural, and educatonal institutions. Out of this relationship, "printspeak" has emerged. Printspeak is…

Bhola, H. S.

57

Comparative study of mupirocin and oral co-trimoxazole plus topical fusidic acid in eradication of nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.  

OpenAIRE

Mupirocin is a topically applied drug that is very active in the eradication of nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However, studies designed to compare mupirocin treatment with other antimicrobial regimens are lacking. We therefore conducted an open, prospective, randomized, controlled trial to compare the efficacy and safety of mupirocin versus those of oral co-trimoxazole plus topical fusidic acid (both regimens with a clorhexidine scrub bath) for the erad...

Parras, F.; Guerrero, M. C.; Bouza, E.; Bla?zquez, M. J.; Moreno, S.; Menarguez, M. C.; Cercenado, E.

1995-01-01

58

Efficacy of oral and topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors in controlling early period postoperative intraocular pressure elevation after phacoemulsification surgery  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objective: To compare the effectiveness of oral acetazolamide 250 mg, topical brinzolamide 1% and dorzolamide 2% on intraocular pressure (IOP during the early period after phacoemulsification surgery. Material and Methods: The study was planned prospectively in our clinic under the same technique and operation conditions, applying uncomplicated phacoemulsification surgery in 80 eyes of 68 patients without another pathology. When 38 patients were men, 30 patients were women. Patients were randomly divided in four groups without thinking their right or left eyes, age, and sex. It was applied dorzolamide 2% for first group, brinzolamide 1% for second group, oral asetazolamide 250 mg for third group after operation immediately, then in 12th hour and 24th hour. It was not applied treatment for fourth group that was controlling group. IOP of patients were measured using Goldmann applanation tonometer preoperatively and 4th hour and 24th hour postoperatively. Results: When before and after surgery 4th hour and 24th hour IOP measurement values compared, group 1 and 2 was found no significantly different (p>0.05, but group 3 and 4 were significant statistically ( p<0.001 ve p<0.05. IOP values that were measured before and after surgery in 4th and 24th. hour were statistically compared. When Group 1 and 3, Group 2 and 3 compared before and after surgery in 24th hour IOP average were not significant statistically (p>0.05, but they were significant statistically postoperative 4th hour (p<0.05. When Group 1 and 2, Group 1 and 4, Group 2 and 4, Group 3 and 4 compared before and after surgery in 4th and 24th hour, it was not observed significant statistically as IOP average (p>0.05. Conclusion: When topical brinzolamide and dorzolamide was more effective than acetazolamide IOP control 4 hours after phacoemulsification, it was found similar effects at 24 hours. Topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors were preferred especially for patients that had sistemical illnesses and risky oral asetazolamide treatment.

Ulviye Yi?it

2011-01-01

59

Comparison of Safety and Efficacy of Oral Azithromycin-Topical Adapalene Versus Oral Doxycycline-Topical Adapalene in the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris and Determination of the Effects of These Treatments on Patients’ Quality of Life  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Design: Acne vulgaris is a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit. Oral antibiotics and topical retinoids are effective in the treatment of acne.Materials and Methods: In this study, 60 patients with moderate acne vulgaris were evaluated; the patients were randomized into two equal groups. The groups were matched with respect to age, gender and clinical severity of acne. The patients in group 1 received oral azithromycin (500 mg daily on 3 consecutive days per week and the patients in group 2 received doxycycline (100 mg daily for 12 weeks. Topical adapalene gel was added to the systemic treatment in both groups. Clinical evaluation was performed at baseline and at the end of first, second and third months. Side effects were recorded. Quality of life in patients was measured with Skindex-29 and Acne Quality of Life Scale before treatment and at the end of third month. Results: At the end of the treatment, the patients in the two treatment groups had clinical improvement of more than 50%. Twenty-one patients in the azithromycin-adapalene group and 23 patients in the doxycycline-adapelene group had more than 80% clinical improvement. There was not any statistically significant difference in the clinical efficacy between the two combinations. Both treatment regimens were safe with minimal side effects. There was statistically significant difference in Skindex-29 and Acne Quality of Life Scale scores at baseline and at the end of the treatment (p0.05. Conclusion: Both treatments were efficient and safe. There was significant improvement in quality of life scale scores in both groups.

Serap Kayhan

2012-09-01

60

Quality Control of Wild Berries Honey Syrup  

OpenAIRE

This paper presents the quality control parameters of wild berries honey syrup . The product was created in laboratory (wild berries: honey, 1:4 w/w) and there were no changes recorded in overall quality over 6 months preservation at 1-2°C. Basic quality parameters of the product were evaluated: humidity, pH, acidity, hydroxymethylfurfural, diastase, total sugars and ascorbic acid. Methods developed by Internantional Honey Commission and Romanian Food Quality Standards were applied during th...

Laura Stan; Alina Maria Hangan; Sevastiata Muste

2013-01-01

61

Phenylbutyrate therapy for maple syrup urine disease  

OpenAIRE

Therapy with sodium phenylacetate/benzoate or sodium phenylbutyrate in urea cycle disorder patients has been associated with a selective reduction in branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) in spite of adequate dietary protein intake. Based on this clinical observation, we investigated the potential of phenylbutyrate treatment to lower BCAA and their corresponding ?-keto acids (BCKA) in patients with classic and variant late-onset forms of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). We also performed in vit...

Brunetti-pierri, Nicola; Lanpher, Brendan; Erez, Ayelet; Ananieva, Elitsa A.; Islam, Mohammad; Marini, Juan C.; Sun, Qin; Yu, Chunli; Hegde, Madhuri; Li, Jun; Wynn, R. Max; Chuang, David T.; Hutson, Susan; Lee, Brendan

2010-01-01

62

Gene Preference in Maple Syrup Urine Disease  

OpenAIRE

Untreated maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) results in mental and physical disabilities and often leads to neonatal death. Newborn-screening programs, coupled with the use of protein-modified diets, have minimized the severity of this phenotype and allowed affected individuals to develop into productive adults. Although inheritance of MSUD adheres to rules for single-gene traits, mutations in the genes for E1?, E1?, or E2 of the mitochondrial branched-chain ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex ...

Nellis, Mary M.; Danner, Dean J.

2000-01-01

63

Efficacy and safety of topical diclofenac containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) compared with those of topical placebo, DMSO vehicle and oral diclofenac for knee osteoarthritis.  

Science.gov (United States)

While topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are considered safe, their long-term efficacy for osteoarthritis has been suspect. We conducted a 12-week, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized controlled trial of topical diclofenac (TDiclo) in a vehicle solution containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in 775 subjects with radiologically confirmed, symptomatic primary osteoarthritis of the knee. This 5-arm study compared TDiclo with a placebo solution, the DMSO vehicle, oral diclofenac (ODiclo) and the combination of TDiclo+ODiclo for relieving the signs and symptoms of knee osteoarthritis. Subjects applied study solution, 40 drops four times daily, and took one study tablet daily for 12 weeks. Co-primary efficacy variables were WOMAC pain and physical function and a patient overall health assessment. Secondary variables were WOMAC stiffness and patient global assessment (PGA) of the knee osteoarthritis. TDiclo was superior to placebo for pain (-6.0 vs. -4.7, P=0.015), physical function (-15.8 vs. -12.3, P=0.034), overall health (-0.95 vs. -0.37, P<0.0001), and PGA (-1.36 vs. -1.01, P=0.016), and was superior to DMSO vehicle for all efficacy variables. No significant difference was observed between DMSO vehicle and placebo or between TDiclo and ODiclo. The commonest adverse event associated with TDiclo was dry skin (18.2%). Fewer digestive system and laboratory abnormalities were observed with TDiclo than with ODiclo. Addition of TDiclo to ODiclo did not increase the incidence of systemic adverse events. TDiclo in DMSO vehicle is an effective treatment option for knee osteoarthritis with efficacy similar to, but tolerability better than ODiclo. DMSO vehicle was no more efficacious than placebo. PMID:19380203

Simon, Lee S; Grierson, Lisa M; Naseer, Zahid; Bookman, Arthur A M; Zev Shainhouse, J

2009-06-01

64

An open randomized comparative study to test the efficacy and safety of oral terbinafine pulse as a monotherapy and in combination with topical ciclopirox olamine 8% or topical amorolfine hydrochloride 5% in the treatment of onychomycosis  

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Full Text Available Background: Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of nails caused by dermatophytes, yeasts and molds. Aims: To study the efficacy and safety of oral terbinafine pulse as a monotherapy and in combination with topical ciclopirox olamine 8% or topical amorolfine hydrochloride 5% in onychomycosis. Methods: A clinical comparative study was undertaken on 96 Patients of onychomycosis during the period between August 2005 to July 2006. Forty-eight patients were randomly assigned in group A to receive oral terbinafine 250 mg, one tablet twice daily for seven days every month (pulse therapy; 24 patients in group B to receive oral terbinafine pulse therapy plus topical ciclopirox olamine 8% to be applied once daily at night on all affected nails; and 24 patients in group C to receive oral terbinafine pulse therapy plus topical amorolfine hydrochloride 5% to be applied once weekly at night on all the affected nails. The treatment was continued for four months. The patients were evaluated at four weekly intervals till sixteen weeks and then at 24 and 36 weeks. Results: We observed clinical cure in 71.73, 82.60 and 73.91% patients in groups A, B and C, respectively; Mycological cure rates against dematophytes were 88.9, 88.9 and 85.7 in groups A, B and C, respectively. The yeast mycological cure rates were 66.7, 100 and 50 in groups A, B and C, respectively. In the case of nondermatophytes, the overall response was poor: one out of two cases (50% responded in group A, while one case each in group B and group C did not respond at all. Conclusion: Terbinafine pulse therapy is effective and safe alternative in treatment of onychomycosis due to dermatophytes; and combination therapy with topical ciclopirox or amorolfine do not show any significant difference in efficacy in comparison to monotherapy with oral terbinafine.

Jaiswal Amit

2007-01-01

65

TASTE MASKING IN SYRUP CONTAINING HERBAL BITTER DRUGS: FORMULATION, STANDARDIZATION AND STABILITY STUDIES  

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Full Text Available Taste masking of bitter drugs has been challenge to scientists as taste is an important parameter governing patient compliance. Several oral pharmaceuticals, numerous food and beverage products and bulking agents have unpleasant bitter taste. In order to ensure patient compliance bitterness masking becomes essential. The desire of improving the palatability has prompted the development of numerous formulations with improved performance and acceptability. Several approaches namely sensory, barrier, chemical and complexation have been tried to mask the unpleasant taste of formulation. The purpose of the present was to evaluate the bitterness of the prepared syrup formulation by using human taste sensor.

M. V. Nema

2010-04-01

66

HEPATO PROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF HEPASHREY SYRUP  

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Full Text Available Liver is known as a vital organ and play a crucial role in the metabolism and it is causes it to succumb to numerous hepatic diseases. Synthetic drugs exploited in the treatment of liver diseases are incompetent and may sometimes lead to serious side-effects. In this context, herbal therapy has emerged as a proficient approach with good values in treating hepatic diseases. Medicinal plants may serve as a vital source of potentially useful new compounds for the development of effective therapy to combat a variety of liver problems. Many herbs have been proven to be effectual as hepato protective agents while many more are claimed to be hepato protective but lack any such scientific evidence to support such claims. Developing a satisfactory herbal therapy to treat severe liver diseases requires systematic investigation of properties such as antiviral action (Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, anti-hepatotoxicity (antioxidants, stimulation of liver regeneration and choleretic activity. Formulation of herbal medicines with standards of safety and efficacy can revitalize treatment of liver disorders. In the present study, the efficacy of polyherbal herbal formulation Hepashrey Syrup has been studied in human with history of liver disorders twice daily dosage for a period of one month at OPD of JSS Ayurveda Medical College, Mysore. The initial results are reported with encouraging results on liver. We conclude that Hepashrey syrup possess hepato protective effect in patients. This protective effect of Hepashrey syrup can be attributed to the anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and hepato protective properties of the component herbs.

Manoj Dash*, Laksmeesh Upadhya, Namrata Joshi, Baidyanath Mishra, Sivani Prashar

2013-04-01

67

Microbial production of glucose/fructose syrups  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

With the ever-increasing demand for sugar and the trend in rising price, rapid progress in research on new and/or alternative sweeteners has been inevitable during the past decade or so. Pure glucose, glucose/fructose, glucose/maltose syrups are often called isosyrups. Isosyrups have been recognized as a good alternative sources of sugar. These are used today in the manufacture of soft drinks, jams and jellies, confectionary, baking fermentation, dietetic and infant food, ice-cream, pharmaceutical processes, etc. Isosyrups are produced by hydrolysis of starch and cellulocis raw materials have been utilized for the production of isosyrups.

Matur, A.; Saglam, N.

1982-04-01

68

Outcome of maple syrup urine disease.  

OpenAIRE

The outcome of 12 children with classical maple syrup urine disease is reviewed. All patients presented in the neonatal period at ages varying from 5 to 21 (median 8) days. The time taken to make the diagnosis ranged from 1 day to longer than 9 months (median 7 days). Each survived his initial illness but 3 died later after apparently mild infections. Three of the 12 patients had a spastic quadriplegia and 6 others abnormal neurological signs without clear cerebral palsy. The single most impo...

Naughten, E. R.; Jenkins, J.; Francis, D. E.; Leonard, J. V.

1982-01-01

69

Clinical application of oral form of ANGIPARSTM and in combination with topical form as a new treatment for diabetic foot ulcers: A randomized clinical trial  

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Full Text Available ANGIPARSTM is a new herbal extract which has been produced in oral, topical, and intravenous forms. The present article contains preliminary results of the study which was planned to evaluate the efficacy and safety of orally applied ANGIPARSTM and to compare it with the combination of oral and topical forms and also with conventional therapy in patients with diabetic ulcers of the lower extremities."nTwenty one patients with diabetic foot ulcers were divided into 3 groups. The first group received 100 mg of oral ANGIPARSTM twice a day for 6 weeks in addition to conventional therapies. In the second group, ANGIPARSTM gel 3% was added to the oral form of the same product besides the conventional therapies for the same period of time. Finally, in the third group which was considered as control, only conventional therapies were performed. The patients were followed for 6 weeks. Parameters such as granulation tissue formation, skin epithelization, and wound surface areas changes were analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the compound in wounds healing. Furthermore, drug safety was assessed by monitoring adverse events and by clinical and laboratory evaluations."nThe study data showed significant differences between the intervention and control groups with respect to efficacy and tolerability. In each intervention group, primary wound healings occurred following 2 weeks. Complete wound healing which was greater than 70% improvement in wounds surface areas was achieved in 83% and 100% of group 1 and group 2 participants, respectively after 6 weeks. On the other hand, at the same period of time, only 22.2% of patients in control group revealed complete healing. Therefore, ANGIPARSTM had significant positive effect in increasing the incidence of complete wound closure compared with control group (p = 0.042. However, our evaluations indicated that adding topical treatment with 3% gel once a day to the oral therapy with the same product did not make significant difference in healing outcomes statistically (p = 0.769. Clinical and paraclinical evaluations did not show any adverse events during the study."nThis study showed that in diabetic foot ulcers, either treatment with oral ANGIPARSTM capsules (100mg twice a day or combination therapy with oral and topical forms, in conjunction with good wound care significantly increased the incidence of complete wound closure. In addition, the application of this product was safe and did not make any unexpected adverse event.

Bahrami A

2008-04-01

70

Disposition of 2-mercaptobenzothiazole and 2-mercaptobenzothiazole disulfide in rats dosed intravenously, orally, and topically and in guinea pigs dosed topically  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

To determine the metabolic disposition of [14C]-2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) and [14C]-2-mercaptobenzothiazole disulfide (MBTS), male and female rats were dosed topically. Topical doses were 36.1 micrograms/animal for [14C]MBT and 33.6 micrograms/animal for [14C]MBTS. Although more MBT passed through the skin than MBTS and although, relative to rats, guinea pigs absorbed a greater percentage of the dose (33.4% compared to 16.1-17.5% of the MBT and 12.2% compared to 5.94-7.87% for MBTS), the disposition of radioactivity derived from the two compounds was similar. Washing of the skin removed more of the radioactivity from guinea pigs than from rats. For both sexes of rats dosed intravenously with [14C]MBT or [14C]MBTS, disposition of the compounds was similar. In 72 h, 90.9-101% of the dose appeared in the urine and 3.79-15.1% in the feces. At this time, a small portion of the administered radioactivity remained associated with erythrocytes. Oral dosing of rats for 14 d with unlabeled MBT prior to a single dose of [14C]MBT or with unlabeled MBTS prior to a single dose of [14C]MBTS (0.730 mg/kg). For both sexes, disposition of the compounds was similar. At 96 h after dosing, a small portion of the administered radioactivity remained associated with erythrocytes, most of which was bound to the membranes. For both compounds and sexes, 60.8-101% of the radioactivity administered appeared in the urine and 3.46-9.99% in the feces in 96 h. At the time, only trace amounts of r96 h. At the time, only trace amounts of radioactivity remained in tissues other than blood. Of these tissues, thyroid contained the highest concentration. In the urine, there was a detectable MBT or MBTS, but there were two metabolites, one of which was identified as a thioglucuronide derivative of MBT. The other was possibly a sulfonic acid derivative of MBT

71

Stability of 1% rifampin suspensions prepared in five syrups.  

Science.gov (United States)

The stability and microbiological activity (potency) of rifampin in 1% w/v suspensions prepared extemporaneously using five syrups was studied. The contents of four 300-mg rifampin capsules (Rifadin, Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals Inc.) were crushed and placed in amber glass bottles. The rifampin powder was combined with 120 mL of each of the following syrups: Syrup, NF; two commercially available simple syrups (Humco Laboratories and Whiteworth, Inc.), wild cherry syrup (Eli Lilly and Company), and a fruit-flavored syrup (Syrpalta). The bottles were then stored at room temperature or under refrigeration for six weeks. Portions of each suspension were removed and assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and a microbiological assay technique initially and after two, four, and six weeks of storage. No significant changes in rifampin concentrations were detected by either assay technique over the study period. However, an increase in the concentration of rifampin degradation products was detected by HPLC assay, especially between the fourth and sixth weeks. A 1% w/v suspension of rifampin prepared using Rifadin capsules and any of the five syrups studied is stable for four weeks at room temperature or under refrigeration. PMID:3766578

Krukenberg, C C; Mischler, P G; Massad, E N; Moore, L A; Chandler, A D

1986-09-01

72

Comparative efficacy on dogs of a single topical treatment with the pioneer fipronil/(S)-methoprene and an oral treatment with spinosad against Ctenocephalides felis  

OpenAIRE

In the study reported here, the pioneer fipronil/(S)-methoprene topical product (FRONTLINE® PLUS, Merial Limited, Duluth, GA) was compared to the oral spinosad product (COMFORTIS® Elanco, Greenfield, IN) for efficacy against adult fleas and preventing egg production. The product presentations, doses and labelling were the one applicable in the USA. Using a standard protocol, 200 cat fleas of mixed sex were applied to dogs on Days 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42. Dogs were combed to remove flea...

Beugnet, F.; Doyle, V.; Murray, M.; Chalvet-monfray, K.

2011-01-01

73

Infection prevention in patients with cancer: microbiological evaluation of portable laminar air flow isolation, topical chlorhexidine, and oral non-absorbable antibiotics.  

OpenAIRE

The increasing use of intensive cytotoxic chemotherapy for patients with solid tumours enhances the risk of opportunistic infection to levels formerly seen only in patients with acute leukaemia, and prevention of infection is a major concern. A relatively simple regimen of isolation, topical antisepsis, and orally administered non-absorbable antibiotics was studied in 18 patients. Sixteen of 21 studies were performed using portable laminar air flow apparatus and five with isolation only. All ...

Spiers, A. S.; Dias, S. F.; Lopez, J. A.

1980-01-01

74

Maple syrup-production, composition, chemistry, and sensory characteristics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup is made from sap exuded from stems of the genus Acer during the springtime. Sap is a dilute solution of primarily water and sucrose, with varying amounts of amino and organic acids and phenolic substances. When concentrated, usually by heating, a series of complex reactions produce a wide variety of flavor compounds that vary due to processing and other management factors, seasonal changes in sap chemistry, and microbial contamination. Color also forms during thermal evaporation. Flavor and color together are the primary factors determining maple syrup grade, and syrup can range from very light-colored and delicate-flavored to very dark-colored and strong-flavored. PMID:19389608

Perkins, Timothy D; van den Berg, Abby K

2009-01-01

75

Pre-emptive effects of ibuprofen syrup and lidocaine infiltration on post-operative analgesia in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy.  

Science.gov (United States)

We aimed to compare the effects of lidocaine and adrenaline with ibuprofen syrup (administered before adenotonsillectomy) on post-operative analgesia and initiation of oral feeding. One group of 20 children received 100 g/5 ml ibuprofen suspension (10 mg/kg) 1 h before anaesthesia; bleeding control was provided by pre-incisional administration of 1:200,000 adrenaline solution (10 ml). The same amount of 0.5% lidocaine solution plus 1:200,000 adrenaline was applied pre-incisionally in a similar manner in a second group of 20 children. No significant differences were observed between the two groups in terms of the duration of operation and anaesthesia, post-operative pain scores, paracetamol requirements, times to initiation of liquid and solid food intake, or adverse side-effects. We conclude that ibuprofen syrup applied pre-incisionally and local infiltration with lidocaine are equally effective for post-operative analgesia. PMID:15790130

Kedek, A; Derbent, A; Uyar, M; Bilgen, C; Uyar, M; Kirazli, T; Certug, A

2005-01-01

76

Systemic exposure to parabens: pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, excretion balance and plasma metabolites of [14C]-methyl-, propyl- and butylparaben in rats after oral, topical or subcutaneous administration.  

Science.gov (United States)

Parabens (PB) are preservatives used in food, drugs and personal care products preventing microbial and fungal contamination. We investigated ADME profiles of [14C]-methyl-, propyl- or butylparaben (MP, PP, BP) following single oral, dermal or subcutaneous (BP) doses at 100 mg/kg to Sprague-Dawley rats. Plasma Cmax and AUC values after oral or subcutaneous doses were 4- to 10-fold higher relative to respective values after dermal administration. tmax ranged from 0.5, 2 or 8 h after oral, subcutaneous or dermal administration, respectively. MP produced higher blood Cmax and AUC levels relative to those after PP or BP. Following oral or subcutaneous administration, urinary excretion was predominant (>70%, mainly during the first 24 h), less than 4% were eliminated in the feces, 2% were retained in the tissues and carcasses. Following dermal application, >50% of the dose was unabsorbed, 14-27% or PB produce no significant systemic exposure of mammalian organisms after oral, topical or subcutaneous administration. PMID:22265941

Aubert, Nicolas; Ameller, Thibault; Legrand, Jean-Jacques

2012-03-01

77

Maple syrup urine disease: new insights from a zebrafish model  

OpenAIRE

Summary and comment on a recent Disease Models & Mechanisms paper entitled ‘Mutation of zebrafish dihydrolipoamide branched-chain transacylase E2 results in motor dysfunction and models maple syrup urine disease’ (Friedrich et al., 2012).

Roberts, Nathan B.

2012-01-01

78

Effects of systemic or topical administration of sodium selenite on early radiation effects in mouse oral mucosa  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: to quantify the effect of sodium selenite (selenium) on radiation-induced oral mucositis (mouse) after subcutaneous or topical administration. Material and methods: mucosal ulceration of the lower epithelium of mouse tongue was analyzed. Selenium (5 ?g) was applied subcutaneously (s.c.) or locally, 60 min or 30 min prior to irradiation, respectively. In combination with single-dose irradiation, a single selenium application was given. With daily fractionated irradiation (3 Gy/fraction) for 1 week (days 0-4), selenium was administered at all 5 days of irradiation. With ten fractions over 2 weeks, selenium was applied in week 1, week 2, or both. All fractionation protocols were terminated by graded test doses to generate full dose-effect curves. Results: in a single-dose control experiment, the ED50 (dose after which ulcer induction is expected in 50% of the mice) was 12.9 ± 1.6 Gy. Selenium increased the ED50 to 17.7 ± 2.6 Gy (s.c.; p = 0.0003) and 16.3 ± 3.0 Gy (local; p = 0.0104). The ED50 for test irradiation after 5 x 3 Gy was 7.4 ± 2.2 Gy. Subcutaneous administration of selenium resulted in an ED50 of 11.5 ± 2.0 Gy (p = 0.0015), local application yielded an ED50 of 10.0 ± 2.1 Gy (p = 0.0284). The ED50 for test irradiation after 10 x 3 Gy/2 weeks was 8.0 ± 1.7 Gy. Subcutaneous or local administration of selenium in week 1 yielded a significant increase in ED50 to 10.5 ± 1se in ED50 to 10.5 ± 1.0 Gy (p = 0.0069) and 10.7 ± 1.0 Gy (p = 0.0039), respectively. By clear contrast, selenium administration in week 2 had no significant effect. Administration in both weeks resulted in an ED50 of 9.1 ± 2.0 Gy (s.c.; p = 0.2747) and 9.7 ± 1.4 Gy (local; p = 0.0541). Conclusion: administration of sodium selenite during clinically relevant fractionated irradiation protocols has a significant effect during the initial treatment phase, i.e., week 1 in the mouse. Therefore, in clinical radiotherapy, the latent time to manifestation of confluent mucositis may be significantly prolonged, and hence the burden for the patient clearly reduced by selenium. (orig.)

79

Effects of systemic or topical administration of sodium selenite on early radiation effects in mouse oral mucosa  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Purpose: to quantify the effect of sodium selenite (selenium) on radiation-induced oral mucositis (mouse) after subcutaneous or topical administration. Material and methods: mucosal ulceration of the lower epithelium of mouse tongue was analyzed. Selenium (5 {mu}g) was applied subcutaneously (s.c.) or locally, 60 min or 30 min prior to irradiation, respectively. In combination with single-dose irradiation, a single selenium application was given. With daily fractionated irradiation (3 Gy/fraction) for 1 week (days 0-4), selenium was administered at all 5 days of irradiation. With ten fractions over 2 weeks, selenium was applied in week 1, week 2, or both. All fractionation protocols were terminated by graded test doses to generate full dose-effect curves. Results: in a single-dose control experiment, the ED{sub 50} (dose after which ulcer induction is expected in 50% of the mice) was 12.9 {+-} 1.6 Gy. Selenium increased the ED{sub 50} to 17.7 {+-} 2.6 Gy (s.c.; p = 0.0003) and 16.3 {+-} 3.0 Gy (local; p = 0.0104). The ED{sub 50} for test irradiation after 5 x 3 Gy was 7.4 {+-} 2.2 Gy. Subcutaneous administration of selenium resulted in an ED{sub 50} of 11.5 {+-} 2.0 Gy (p = 0.0015), local application yielded an ED{sub 50} of 10.0 {+-} 2.1 Gy (p = 0.0284). The ED{sub 50} for test irradiation after 10 x 3 Gy/2 weeks was 8.0 {+-} 1.7 Gy. Subcutaneous or local administration of selenium in week 1 yielded a significant increase in ED{sub 50} to 10.5 {+-} 1.0 Gy (p = 0.0069) and 10.7 {+-} 1.0 Gy (p = 0.0039), respectively. By clear contrast, selenium administration in week 2 had no significant effect. Administration in both weeks resulted in an ED{sub 50} of 9.1 {+-} 2.0 Gy (s.c.; p = 0.2747) and 9.7 {+-} 1.4 Gy (local; p = 0.0541). Conclusion: administration of sodium selenite during clinically relevant fractionated irradiation protocols has a significant effect during the initial treatment phase, i.e., week 1 in the mouse. Therefore, in clinical radiotherapy, the latent time to manifestation of confluent mucositis may be significantly prolonged, and hence the burden for the patient clearly reduced by selenium. (orig.)

Gehrisch, A. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Technical Univ. of Dresden (Germany); Doerr, W. [Dept. of Radiotherapy and Radiooncology, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Technical Univ. of Dresden (Germany); Experimental Center, Medical Faculty Carl Gustav Carus, Technical Univ. of Dresden (Germany)

2007-01-15

80

[The intermediate form of maple syrup disease].  

Science.gov (United States)

A severely retarded and tetraspastic child died at the age of four years upon a respiratory infection with acidosis, disturbances of serum electrolytes and lactic aciduria. Brain autopsy showed a spongy degeneration and led to suspect an inborn error of amino-acid metabolism. These findings corresponded with the results of computer-tomography and were supported by post mortem amino-acid analysis. An intermediate variant of leucinosis was detected in an younger sister at the age of five months after cerebral convulsions and opisthotonic posture. The activity of the branched chain ketoacid decarboxylase in fibroblasts was reduced to 3-4% of normal. A protein restricted diet allowed a nearly normal cerebral development and improvement of computer-tomographic results. The similarity of clinical and biochemical data in both children indicate that a maple syrup urine disease was most likely the underlying disease in the older sister. Later performed electron-microscopical examinations of the older sister indicate that spongy degeneration of the central nervous system in leucinoisis is caused by a spongy myelinopathy, which is different from the alterations found in Canavan's disease, what could be pointed out for the first time. PMID:3959487

Rittinger, O; Bachmann, C; Irnberger, T; Pilz, P; Walter, G F; Wendel, U; Plöchl, E

1986-01-01

81

Topical or oral administration with an extract of Polypodium leucotomos prevents acute sunburn and psoralen-induced phototoxic reactions as well as depletion of Langerhans cells in human skin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Sunburn, immune suppression, photo-aging, and skin cancers result from uncontrolled overexposure of human skin to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Preventive measures, including photo-protection, are helpful and can be achieved by topical sun-screening agents. Polypodium leucotomos (PL) has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and has shown some in vitro and in vivo immunomodulating properties. Its beneficial photo-protective effects in the treatment of vitiligo and its antioxidant properties encouraged us to evaluate in vivo the potentially useful photo-protective property of natural extract of PL after topical application or oral ingestion. Twenty-one healthy volunteers [either untreated or treated with oral psoralens (8-MOP or 5-MOP)] were enrolled in this study and exposed to solar radiation for evaluation of the following clinical parameters: immediate pigment darkening (IPD), minimal erythema dose (MED), minimal melanogenic dose (MMD), and minimal phototoxic dose (MPD) before and after topical or oral administration of PL. Immunohistochemical assessment of CD1a-expressing epidermal cells were also performed. PL was found to be photo-protective after topical application as well as oral administration. PL increased UV dose required for IPD (P<0.01), MED (P<0.001) and MPD (P<0.001). After oral administration of PL, MED increased 2.,8{+-}0.59 times and MPD increased 2.75{+-}0.5 and 6.8{+-}1.3 times depending upon the type of psoralen used. Immunohistochemical study revealed photo-protection of Langherhans cells by oral as well as topical PL. The observed photo-protective activities of oral or topical PL reveal a new avenue in examining the potentially useful field of systemic photo-protection and suggests that PL can be used as adjunct treatment and can make photochemotherapy and phototherapy possibly safe and effective when the control of cutaneous phototoxicity to PUVA or UVB is a limiting factor in such photo-therapies. (au). 50 refs.

Gonzalez, S.; Pathak, M.A.; Fitzpatrick, T.B. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Dept. of Dermatology, Boston, MA (United States); Cuevas, J. [Hospital Universitario de Guadalajara, Dept. of Pathology, Guadalajara (Spain); Villarrubia, V.G. [I.F. Cantabria SA, Medical Dept., Immunology Sect., Madrid (Spain)

1997-12-31

82

Topical or oral administration with an extract of Polypodium leucotomos prevents acute sunburn and psoralen-induced phototoxic reactions as well as depletion of Langerhans cells in human skin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sunburn, immune suppression, photo-aging, and skin cancers result from uncontrolled overexposure of human skin to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Preventive measures, including photo-protection, are helpful and can be achieved by topical sun-screening agents. Polypodium leucotomos (PL) has been used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases and has shown some in vitro and in vivo immunomodulating properties. Its beneficial photo-protective effects in the treatment of vitiligo and its antioxidant properties encouraged us to evaluate in vivo the potentially useful photo-protective property of natural extract of PL after topical application or oral ingestion. Twenty-one healthy volunteers [either untreated or treated with oral psoralens (8-MOP or 5-MOP)] were enrolled in this study and exposed to solar radiation for evaluation of the following clinical parameters: immediate pigment darkening (IPD), minimal erythema dose (MED), minimal melanogenic dose (MMD), and minimal phototoxic dose (MPD) before and after topical or oral administration of PL. Immunohistochemical assessment of CD1a-expressing epidermal cells were also performed. PL was found to be photo-protective after topical application as well as oral administration. PL increased UV dose required for IPD (P<0.01), MED (P<0.001) and MPD (P<0.001). After oral administration of PL, MED increased 2.,8±0.59 times and MPD increased 2.75±0.5 and 6.8±1.3 times depending upon the type of psoralen used. Immunohistochee type of psoralen used. Immunohistochemical study revealed photo-protection of Langherhans cells by oral as well as topical PL. The observed photo-protective activities of oral or topical PL reveal a new avenue in examining the potentially useful field of systemic photo-protection and suggests that PL can be used as adjunct treatment and can make photochemotherapy and phototherapy possibly safe and effective when the control of cutaneous phototoxicity to PUVA or UVB is a limiting factor in such photo-therapies. (au)

83

Determination of D-pinitol in carob syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

Carob syrup is a traditional product native to the Mediterranean region, containing a high concentration of sugar, phenolic compounds and minerals. d-pinitol is a bioactive component extracted from legumes and has some beneficial effects on human metabolism. In this research, the d-pinitol content and sugar profile of 10 different carob syrup samples purchased from Turkish markets were determined. Mean d-pinitol, sucrose, glucose and fructose contents of samples were found to be 84.63 ± 10.73, 385.90 ± 45.07, 152.44 ± 21.72 and 162.03 ± 21.45 g/kg dry weight, respectively. Carob syrup has a considerable amount of d-pinitol compared with the other d-pinitol-including legumes. Consequently, this study showed that carob syrup may be a suitable source of d-pinitol for medical use and d-pinitol may be an indicator for the detection of any adulteration in carob syrup. PMID:21466274

Tetik, Nedim; Turhan, Irfan; Oziyci, Hatice R; Karhan, Mustafa

2011-09-01

84

Effects of air injection during sap processing on maple syrup color, chemical composition and flavor volatiles.  

Science.gov (United States)

Air injection (AI) is a maple sap processing technology reported to increase the efficiency of maple syrup production by increasing production of more economically valuable light-colored maple syrup, and reducing development of loose scale mineral precipitates in syrup, and scale deposits on evapora...

85

Genetical and Clinical Survey of Maple Syrup Urine Disease Patients  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 54-day old male infant was referred to the hospital because of weakness, lethargy, poor feeding, general hypotonia, nystagmus, pollakisuria and seizures. Blood gas analysis revealed metabolic acidosis. PT and PTT was disturbed. Brain sonography showed possible hemorrhagy in basal ganglia. The patient died in respiratory distress. Urine chromatography showed broad leucine, isoleucine and valine bands. Maple syrup urine disease was diagnosed. We review in brief genetical, biochemical and clinical aspects of maple syrup urine disease and its different types.

MT Haghi Ashtiani

2000-06-01

86

Fermentability of Corn Syrups with Different Dextrose Equivalents Added to Various Grape Juices1  

Science.gov (United States)

It was found that neither the enzymes of the grapes nor those of wine yeast Saccharomyces ellipsoideus strain 223 attacked the higher polysaccharides present in corn syrups. The alcohol yield of the corn syrups approached but did not quite reach theoretical assuming that all of the dextrose equivalent (DE) solids were fermented. Glucose, sucrose, and 95 DE corn syrup fermented at about the same rate and yielded comparable alcohol contents. At equal solids content, the 42 DE syrup fermented slower in most cases and yielded lower alcohol content than higher DE syrups. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:16349714

Steinkraus, Keith H.; Robinson, Willard B.

1967-01-01

87

Fermentability of corn syrups with different dextrose equivalents added to various grape juices.  

Science.gov (United States)

It was found that neither the enzymes of the grapes nor those of wine yeast Saccharomyces ellipsoideus strain 223 attacked the higher polysaccharides present in corn syrups. The alcohol yield of the corn syrups approached but did not quite reach theoretical assuming that all of the dextrose equivalent (DE) solids were fermented. Glucose, sucrose, and 95 DE corn syrup fermented at about the same rate and yielded comparable alcohol contents. At equal solids content, the 42 DE syrup fermented slower in most cases and yielded lower alcohol content than higher DE syrups. PMID:16349714

Steinkraus, K H; Robinson, W B

1967-03-01

88

Ten myths about high-fructose corn syrup  

Science.gov (United States)

High-fructose corn syrup, the sweetener used in most carbonated beverages in the United States, drew very little attention over its 30-year history until the past two years, when some researchers in the nutrition community claimed that it bears a unique responsibility for the current obesity epidemi...

89

Topical coal tar alone and in combination with oral methotrexate in management of psoriasis : a retrospective analysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Thirty five patients admitted with psoriasis were analysed. 16 patients received 20% crude coal tar and 19 patients received 20% crude coal tar along with methotrexate in a weekly oral schedule (15mg/wk. After 4 weeks of therapy there was total clearence in 52.6% of the patients with combination therapy, whereas only 12.5% of the patients with conventional therapy achieved this.

Prasad PVS

1997-01-01

90

Determination of Microbial Load in Multivitamin and Cough Syrups Sold in Dhaka City  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The production of substandard drugs and use of inappropriate methods in manufacturing medical products in pharmaceutical industries may cause non-therapeutic effect in patients particularly in children. Hence this study was conducted to determine the microbiological quality of multivitamin and cough syrups of different brands sold in local pharmacy in Dhaka city. Microbiological analysis was carried out using spread plate technique on different culture media including nutrient agar, mannitol salt agar, MacConkey agar, mFC agar, TCBS agar and SS agar for the determination of total viable bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, total coliforms, Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. respectively from eleven multivitamin and twelve cough syrups. The results revealed that 50% of the cough syrup and 91% of the multivitamin syrup showed compliance with the official requirement of microbiological quality as they did not show any growth or their microbiological count is within the USP permissible limit (<102 cfu/ml. While the major contaminants in cough syrup were Staphylococcus aureus (75%, Escherichia coli (17% and total coliforms (42%, multivitamin syrup (9% contained only Staphylococcus aureus. Other pathogens like Vibrio cholerae, Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. could not be detected in both cough and multivitamin syrups. Although most of the multivitamin syrup (91% samples are free from potential microbial threat, some of the cough syrup (75% samples are contaminated with pathogenic bacteria. Hence potential safety measurement should be taken during the production and use of cough syrups to maintain the microbiological quality.

Abdullah Al Mamun

2014-07-01

91

Comparative study of mupirocin and oral co-trimoxazole plus topical fusidic acid in eradication of nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mupirocin is a topically applied drug that is very active in the eradication of nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However, studies designed to compare mupirocin treatment with other antimicrobial regimens are lacking. We therefore conducted an open, prospective, randomized, controlled trial to compare the efficacy and safety of mupirocin versus those of oral co-trimoxazole plus topical fusidic acid (both regimens with a clorhexidine scrub bath) for the eradication of MRSA from nasal and extranasal carriers of MRSA. The eradication rates with mupirocin and co-trimoxazole plus fusidic acid at 2, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 90 days were 93 and of 93, 100 and 100, 97 and 94, 100 and 92, 96 and 95, and 78 and 71%, respectively, for nasal carriage. At 7, 14, and 28 days the eradication rates for extranasal carriage by the two regimens were 23 and 74, 83 and 76, and 45 and 69%, respectively. The efficacies and safety of both regimens were similar. The MRSA isolates were not resistant to the study drugs either at the baseline or at follow-up. These results suggest that mupirocin and co-trimoxazole plus fusidic acid, both used in conjunction with a chlorhexidine soap bath, are equally effective and safe for the eradication of MRSA from nasal and extranasal MRSA carriers. Mupirocin was easier to use but was more expensive. PMID:7695302

Parras, F; Guerrero, M C; Bouza, E; Blázquez, M J; Moreno, S; Menarguez, M C; Cercenado, E

1995-01-01

92

Detection of adulteration in mulberry pekmez samples added various sugar syrups with ¹³C/¹²C isotope ratio analysis method.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mulberry pekmez can be adulterated in different ways either during the production process or after production is completed. To identify these adulterations, stable carbon isotope ratio analysis (SCIRA) was performed on the model examples prepared by adding saccharose syrup (SS), glucose syrup (GS) and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) into two different pure mulberry pekmez samples in the ratios of 0%, 10%, 30% and 50%. The ?(13)C ratio of the pure mulberry pekmez was determined as -26.60‰ on average, the saccharose syrup as -24.80‰, the glucose syrup as -11.20‰ and the high-fructose corn syrup as -11.40‰. In identifying the adulteration made to pekmez, especially with the high-fructose corn syrup, which is obtained from corn starch, and with the glucose syrup, the ?(13)C ratio comes into prominence. However it remains impossible identify the adulterations made with the saccharose, which is obtained from beet sugar, or invert sugar syrups. PMID:25038711

Tosun, Murat

2014-12-15

93

Oral zinc sulphate vs. topical application of salicylic (16.7%) and lactic acid (16.7%) combination in the treatment of plantar warts  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Warts are commonly acquired viral tumors, caused by Human apilloma Virus (HPV). This virus can infect and cause disease at any site in the stratified squamous epithelium either keratinizing or non-keratinizing. A plantar wart (also called verruca plantaris) is a lesion that appears on the plantar surface of foot as a small, shining, sago-grain papule which soon assumes the typical appearance of a sharply-defined rounded lesion with a rough keratotic surface, surrounded by a smooth collar of thickened horn. Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of oral zinc sulphate versus topical application of salicylic (16.7%) and lactic acid (16.7%) combination, in the treatment of plantar warts. Study Design: Comparative interventional study. Setting and Duration of Study: Department of Dermatology Unit-I, King Edward Medical University, Mayo Hospital Lahore, from 15 February, 2009 till 14 February, 2010. Methodology: After informed consent, one hundred patients of plantar warts were selected from the outpatient Department of Dermatology, Mayo Hospital, Lahore. The patients were divided into two equal groups; in group A, 50 patients were given oral zinc sulphate (10 mg/kg/day) in two or three divided doses and in group B, 50 patients were advised to apply a combination of salicylic (16.7%) and lactic acid (16.7%) once at night daily. In group A, using oral zinc sulphate, the treatment was given for two months and follow up continued for next 4 months. In group B, the topical preparation was also continued for 2 months or till the complete removal of wart (if before two months) and follow up was extended up to 4 months after treatment. Results:The mean age of patients in group A was 26.2 +- 8.1 years and in group B 26.3 +- 7.3 years. The mean number of warts in group A was 7.9 +- 3.5 and in group B 5.7 +- 2.6. The mean duration of disease in group A was 6.9 +- 4.1 months and in group B 6.0 +- 3.9 months. On follow up at 2nd month, in group A, 41 (82%) patients showed an excellent efficacy while 9 (18%) patients observed poor efficacy. In group B, 31 (62%) cases experienced an excellent response, 2 (4%) had a good efficacy and 17 (34%) patients showed a poor efficacy. At 4th month of follow-up, no recurrence of warts was seen in both groups in complete responders. On follow up of the non responders no further clearance of warts was observed. Conclusions: It was concluded from this study that oral zinc sulphate is significantly more effective (p-value <0.05) than topical application of salicylic (16.7%) and lactic acid (16.7%) combination in the treatment of plantar warts. (author)

94

Utilization of Labneh Whey Lactose Hydrolyzed Syrup in Baking and Confectionery  

OpenAIRE

Hydrolyzed labneh whey lactose syrup was obtained by the action of immobilized Beta-galactosidase enzyme using fluidized bed reactor system. The obtained sweet syrup was used as sugar replacement in three products (French - type bread, Cherry cake and Kunafah syrup). The sensory evaluation results showed that bread made with 25% sugar replacement level was better than the control one. For (Cherry cake and Kunafah) there were no significant differences between the products made with 25% ...

Malik Hadadin; Alsaed, Ali K.; Wail-Alomari

2012-01-01

95

Optimization of Osmotic Dehydration of Apples Slices in Dates Syrup Using the Response Surface Methodology  

OpenAIRE

Osmotic dehydration of apple slices in continuous kinetic was studied using dates syrup at different concentration (52-74%), temperature (30-60°C), time (15-240 min). The response surface methodology was used to optimize effects of temperature, syrup concentration and immersion time in osmotic dehydration of apples slices in date syrup. A composite central design was used with water loss (WL%) and solid gain (SG %) as responses. The models obtained for all the ...

Acheheb, H.; Ferradji, A.; Khatir, A.

2014-01-01

96

Interannual and spatial variability of maple syrup yield as related to climatic factors  

OpenAIRE

Sugar maple syrup production is an important economic activity for eastern Canada and the northeastern United States. Since annual variations in syrup yield have been related to climate, there are concerns about the impacts of climatic change on the industry in the upcoming decades. Although the temporal variability of syrup yield has been studied for specific sites on different time scales or for large regions, a model capable of accounting for both temporal and regional differences in yield...

Louis Duchesne; Daniel Houle

2014-01-01

97

SORPTION OF AROMA COMPOUNDS IN PET AND PVC DURING THE STORAGE OF A STRAWBERRY SYRUP  

OpenAIRE

Abstract The sorption of 14 aroma compounds into PET and PVC was monitored during one year storage of a strawberry syrup. Their concentrations in the syrup and in the polymer were assessed during storage and compared with previously published results obtained with glass bottles. Apparent partition coefficients between the polymer and the syrup (noted Kapp) were estimated from experimental kinetics without reaching the equilibrium Kapp values were optimally identified from the k...

Ducruet, Violette; Vitrac, Olivier; Saillard, Philippe; Guichard, Elisabeth; Feigenbaum, Alexandre E.; Fournier, Nicole

2007-01-01

98

Lead and cadmium levels of commonly administered pediatric syrups in Nigeria: A public health concern?  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fifty different pediatric syrups were randomly sampled from patent medicine stores and pharmaceutical shops within Awka, in Anambra State between November 2007 and May 2008. Syrups were ashed before digestion using conc. aqua regia, HCl:HNO3 (3:1) and lead and cadmium were assayed with AAS 205A. Results revealed that 60 and 98% of the sample size had lead and cadmium respectively. The lead levels ranged from 0.01 in chloroquine to 1.08 mg/l in magcid suspension. The highest level of cadmium was seen in magcid suspension with concentration of 2.45 mg/l while lowest concentration of 0.01 in emzolyn and colipan. About 41.2% of the locally made syrup had none detectable levels of lead while all the syrup had detectable levels of cadmium. Lead levels ranged from 0.01 mg/l in cadiphen manufactured in Dholka, India to 0.09 in maxiquine made in England. About 68.8% of the imported syrups of the imported syrups had non detectable levels of lead. Chloramphenicol and zentel albendazole syrups had 0.60 and 0.88 mg/l of cadmium respectively. Bellis cough syrup showed the lowest level (0.01 mg/l) of cadmium. Only erythromycin suspension representing 6.3% had non detectable level of cadmium of the imported syrups. Due to the Cd and Pb levels found, we suggest that the behaviour scenario (here, self administration without medical assistance) should be properly taken under control. Along with this, contamination sources or vulnerable practices during syrups preparation shoue practices during syrups preparation should be also assessed in a tiered approach, towards the minimization of noxious presence in syrups and the promotion of quality of Nigerian-made products.

99

Biochemical correlates of neuropsychiatric illness in maple syrup urine disease  

OpenAIRE

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of branched chain amino acid metabolism presenting with neonatal encephalopathy, episodic metabolic decompensation, and chronic amino acid imbalances. Dietary management enables survival and reduces risk of acute crises. Liver transplantation has emerged as an effective way to eliminate acute decompensation risk. Psychiatric illness is a reported MSUD complication, but has not been well characterized and remains poorly understood. We r...

Muelly, Emilie R.; Moore, Gregory J.; Bunce, Scott C.; Mack, Julie; Bigler, Don C.; Morton, D. Holmes; Strauss, Kevin A.

2013-01-01

100

Genetical and Clinical Survey of Maple Syrup Urine Disease Patients  

OpenAIRE

A 54-day old male infant was referred to the hospital because of weakness, lethargy, poor feeding, general hypotonia, nystagmus, pollakisuria and seizures. Blood gas analysis revealed metabolic acidosis. PT and PTT was disturbed. Brain sonography showed possible hemorrhagy in basal ganglia. The patient died in respiratory distress. Urine chromatography showed broad leucine, isoleucine and valine bands. Maple syrup urine disease was diagnosed. We review in brief genetical, biochemical and clin...

Mt, Haghi Ashtiani; Zh, Soltani

2000-01-01

101

Simple and efficient methodology to determine mycotoxins in cereal syrups.  

Science.gov (United States)

Consumption of cereal syrups is increasing nowadays. Mycotoxins may be found in syrups resulting from the use of contaminated raw material or invading microorganisms in the final manufactured product. However, these matrices have been scarcely explored regarding their mycotoxin content. A sensitive, simple and rapid method for the determination of ten mycotoxins (ochratoxin A, fumonisin B1, fumonisin B2, deoxynivalenol, fusarenon-X, T-2 and HT-2 toxin, citrinin, sterigmatocystin and zearalenone) in cereal syrups (rice, wheat and barley) has been developed and characterised using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) and a sample treatment based on QuEChERS procedure. Matrix-matched calibration curves were established and limits of quantification were below the limits usually established by current legislation in different foodstuff. The relative standard deviation of the whole analytical method was lower than 12% in all cases, while recoveries ranged from 70.2% to 100.6%, therefore fulfilling the current requirements for mycotoxins analysis. PMID:25660886

Arroyo-Manzanares, Natalia; Huertas-Pérez, José F; Gámiz-Gracia, Laura; García-Campaña, Ana M

2015-06-15

102

Inhibitory effect of maple syrup on the cell growth and invasion of human colorectal cancer cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup is a natural sweetener consumed by individuals of all ages throughout the world. Maple syrup contains not only carbohydrates such as sucrose but also various components such as organic acids, amino acids, vitamins and phenolic compounds. Recent studies have shown that these phenolic compounds in maple syrup may possess various activities such as decreasing the blood glucose level and an anticancer effect. In this study, we examined the effect of three types of maple syrup, classified by color, on the cell proliferation, migration and invasion of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells in order to investigate whether the maple syrup is suitable as a phytomedicine for cancer treatment. CRC cells that were administered maple syrup showed significantly lower growth rates than cells that were administered sucrose. In addition, administration of maple syrup to CRC cells caused inhibition of cell invasion, while there was no effect on cell migration. Administration of maple syrup clearly inhibited AKT phosphorylation, while there was no effect on ERK phosphorylation. These data suggest that maple syrup might inhibit cell proliferation and invasion through suppression of AKT activation and be suitable as a phytomedicine for CRC treatment, with fewer adverse effects than traditional chemotherapy. PMID:25647359

Yamamoto, Tetsushi; Uemura, Kentaro; Moriyama, Kaho; Mitamura, Kuniko; Taga, Atsushi

2015-04-01

103

[Relative bioavailability and penetration of glucosamine after topical treatment by Hondroxid Maximum transdermal glucosamine complex in comparison with oral, injectable routes in experiment on the rats].  

Science.gov (United States)

A comparison of the relative bioavailability and intensity of penetration of glucosamine sulfate in oral, injection and topical administration of the dosage form Hondroxid Maximum as a cream containing micellar system for transdermal delivery of glucosamine in the experiment by Sprague-Dawley rats was carried out. On the base on the pharmacokinetic profiles data of glucosamine in rat blood plasma with daily administration in 3 times a day for 1 week by cream Hondroxid Maximum 400 mg/kg and the single injection solution of 4% Glucosamine sulfate 400 mg/kg was found that the relative bioavailability was 61.6%. Calculated penetration rate of glucosamine in the plasma through the rats skin in 4 hours, equal to 26.9 ?g/cm2 x h, and the penetration of glucosamine through the skin into the plasma after a single dose of cream in 4 hours was 4.12%. Comparative analysis of literature and experimental data and calculations based on them suggest that medicine Hondroxid Maximum, cream with transdermal glucosamine complex in the treatment in accordance with the instructions can provide an average concentration of glucosamine in the synovial fluid of an inflamed joint in the range (0.7 - 1.5) ?g/ml, much higher than the concentration of endogenous glucosamine human synovial joint fluid (0.02 - 0.07 ?g/ml). By theoretical calculations taking into account experimental data it is shown that the medicine Hondroxid Maximum can reach the bioavailability level of the modern injection forms and exceed the bioavailability level of modern oral forms of glucosamine up to 2 times. PMID:25739190

2014-01-01

104

Lactoferrin dampens high-fructose corn syrup-induced hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome in a murine model.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome are related obesity, type 2 diabetes/insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Here we investigated how the anti-inflammatory properties of lactoferrin can protect against the onset of hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome by using a murine model administered with high-fructose corn syrup. Our results show that a high-fructose diet stimulates intestinal bacterial overgrowth and increases intestinal permeability, leading to the introduction of endotoxin into blood circulation and liver. Immunohistochemical staining of Toll-like receptor-4 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin indicated that lactoferrin can modulate lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammatory cascade. The important regulatory roles are played by adipokines including interleukin-1?, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-?, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and adiponectin, ultimately reducing hepatitis and decreasing serum alanine aminotransferase release. These beneficial effects of lactoferrin related to the downregulation of the lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory cascade in the liver. Furthermore, lactoferrin reduced serum and hepatic triglycerides to prevent lipid accumulation in the liver, and reduced lipid peroxidation, resulting in 4-hydroxynonenal accumulation. Lactoferrin reduced oral glucose tolerance test and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance. Lactoferrin administration thus significantly lowered liver weight, resulting from a decrease in the triglyceride and cholesterol synthesis that activates hepatic steatosis. Taken together, these results suggest that lactoferrin protected against high-fructose corn syrup induced hepatic manifestations of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:24816278

Li, Yi-Chieh; Hsieh, Chang-Chi

2014-01-01

105

The use of botulinum toxin and epidural analgesia for the treatment of spasticity and pain in a patient with maple syrup urine disease  

OpenAIRE

A 7-year-old boy, weighing 18 kg, was diagnosed with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). He suffered from spasticity of the lower limbs and pain that did not respond to oral medications. Injections of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) at 10 sites and epidural analgesia with 0.125% bupivacaine were used to treat spasticity with good results. We conclude that BTX-A combined with epidural analgesia may be a useful treatment option for incapacitating, painful spasticity related to MSUD. This treatment moda...

Kaki, Abdullah M.; Arab, Abeer A.

2012-01-01

106

The negligible effects of the antifungal natamycin on cholesterol-dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine monolayers may explain its low oral and topical toxicity for mammals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Natamycin is an effective, broad spectrum antifungal with no reported resistance, in contrast to most antimicrobials. It also exhibits reduced (oral and topical) toxicity to humans, which is probably associated with the lack of effects on mammalian cell membranes. In this paper we employ Langmuir monolayers to mimic a cell membrane, whose properties are interrogated with various techniques. We found that natamycin has negligible effects on Langmuir monolayers of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), but it strongly affects cholesterol monolayers. Natamycin causes the surface pressure isotherm of a cholesterol monolayer to expand even at high surface pressures since it penetrates into the hydrophobic chains. It also reduces the compressibility modulus, probably because natamycin disturbs the organization of the cholesterol molecules, as inferred with polarization-modulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS). In mixed cholesterol/DPPC monolayers, strong effects from natamycin were only observed when the cholesterol concentration was 50mol% or higher, well above its concentration in a mammalian cell membrane. For a sterol concentration that mimics a real cell membrane in mammals, i.e. with 25mol% of cholesterol, the effects were negligible, which may explain why natamycin has low toxicity when ingested and/or employed to treat superficial fungal infections. PMID:25048356

Arima, Anderson A; Pavinatto, Felippe J; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Gonzales, Eduardo R P

2014-10-01

107

Comparison of productivity of colonies of honey bees, Apis mellifera, supplemented with sucrose or high fructose corn syrup  

Science.gov (United States)

Honey bee colony feeding trials were conducted to determine whether differential effects of carbohydrate feeding (sucrose syrup vs. high fructose corn syrups) were detected between colonies fed exclusively on these syrups. In one experiment, colonies installed within a closed arena had increased pr...

108

Effect of extraction and concentration processes on properties of longan syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

Longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour.) syrup is a novel liquid sweetener produced from longan, one of the traditional and economic fruits in the Northern of Thailand. In this research, the effect of extraction and concentration processes on properties of longan syrup was investigated. There were two extraction methods (juice extractor and hydraulic press) and three concentration methods (direct heating, steam heating and vacuum evaporation). Results overall showed that the extraction method had no significant (p???0.05) effect on longan syrup properties, while concentration resulted in the quality changes of longan syrup. Concentration using direct heating of longan juice caused reduction of sucrose content, and longan syrup dark in color. The headspace volatile compounds of longan syrup were sampled using direct headspace technique and further characterized using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The identified volatile compounds could be divided into two groups of aroma characteristics which were (1) floral aroma: 3-methybutyl acetate, (?)-ocimene and 2-phenylethyl alcohol and (2) caramel aroma: butyraldehyde, furfural and benzaldehyde. 2-Phenylethyl alcohol, contributing to floral odor, was retained using vacuum evaporation as a concentration method. Result revealed that the optimal concentration process for longan syrup production was vacuum evaporation, providing the highest floral volatile and lowest caramel volatile. Sensory tests confirmed that longan flavor of the syrup produced from the vacuum evaporation process had significantly higher hedonic scores than other processes. PMID:25190864

Surin, Siriluck; Thakeow, Prodpran; Seesuriyachan, Phisit; Angeli, Sergio; Phimolsiripol, Yuthana

2014-09-01

109

Evaluation of Preserving Efficacy for Different Cough Syrups Manufactured by Different Pharmaceutical Companies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of the current investigation is to assess the efficacy of different preservatives ingredients of different expectorant cough syrups manufactured by different pharmaceutical companies by comparing the growth of five microorganisms of known quanta of S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and C. albicans. The microorganisms were inoculated into syrup A (glycerol and propylene glycol, syrup B (propylene glycol and glycerin, syrup C (glycerin, propylene glycol and butyl paraben, syrup D (methyl paraben and probylparaben and normal saline as a control. All microorganisms were taken from standard stock cultures and incubated for 24 h. Growth of microorganisms into syrup was compared by counting the CFUs from a subculture of inoculated syrup at zero, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h intervals. The data showed that all the combinations of the preservatives in the four studied cough syrups behaved similarly in term of antimicrobial efficiency. The findings suggested that the preservatives mixtures of propylene glycol with glycerol or with glycerin or with butyl paraben preservatives as well as methyl paraben with probylparaben are acceptable clinically and have considerably antimicrobial activity against infectious bacteria during the 48 h studied period.

M. Khanfar

2009-01-01

110

Some compositional properties and mineral contents of carob (Ceratonia siliqua) fruit, flour and syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

The approximate composition and mineral contents of carob fruit (Ceratonia siliqua), and the traditional foods produced from this fruit, carob flour and carob syrup, were studied. Protein, crude fiber and ash content and energy values of carob syrup were lower than the values of both carob fruit and carob flour. According to the results, the total sugar content, the most important constituents of carob products, were 48.35%, 41.55% and 63.88% for fruit, flour and syrup, respectively. These products contained high amounts of calcium, potassium, magnesium, sodium and phosphorus, which were the most abundant elements in carob fruits (P < 0.05). Among the samples, potassium, phosphorus and calcium had the highest values in carob syrup, respectively. Carob flour also contained these elements in high amounts, with the addition of sodium. We extended the notion that carob fruit, flour and syrup were rich sources of carbohydrates, proteins and minerals. PMID:17852490

Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Arslan, Derya; Gökçalik, Harun

2007-12-01

111

Branched-chain Ketoacyl Dehydrogenase Deficiency: Maple Syrup Disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Classic maple syrup disease can be managed to allow a benign neonatal course, normal growth, and low hospitalization rates. The majority of affected infants that are prospectively managed have good neurodevelopmental outcome; however, acute metabolic intoxication and neurologic deterioration can develop rapidly at any age. Each episode is associated with a risk for cerebral edema, cerebrovascular compromise, and brain herniation. High plasma leucine and, possibly, alpha-ketoisocaproate are the principal neurotoxins in maple syrup disease. Plasma levels rise rapidly in association with net protein catabolism provoked by common infections and injuries. Transient periods of maple syrup disease encephalopathy appear fully reversible, leaving no clinically detectable neurologic sequelae. In contrast, prolonged amino acid imbalance, particularly if occurring during the critical period of brain development, leads to neuronal hypoplasia, a paucity of synapses, and undermyelination. Stagnated maturation and inadequate nutritional maintenance of brain structure have lifelong neurologic and behavioral consequences. Core elements of effective long-term therapy include screening and identification of asymptomatic newborns, frequent plasma amino acid monitoring, careful attention to branched-chain amino acid nurtriture, prevention of cerebral essential amino acid deficiencies, adequate provision of essential omega-3 class fatty acids and micronutrients deficient in commercial formulas, methods for home monitoring of metabolic control, and a commitment to lifelong therapy. Recognizing the risk for acute leucine intoxication depends on anticipating effects of common childhood infection and physiologic stresses on whole body protein turnover. Successful management of metabolic decompensation is based on the use of home sick-day regimens, rapid availability of branched-chain amino acid-free hyperalimentation solutions for hospitalized children, prevention of hyponatremia in patients with leucinosis, and frequent adjustments of intravenous therapies guided by plasma amino acid levels and indices of metabolic and clinical response. PMID:12791200

Strauss, Kevin A.; Morton, D. Holmes

2003-07-01

112

Oral Warts  

Science.gov (United States)

... Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities ... care. NIDCR > Image Gallery > Oral Health > Oral Warts Oral Warts Main Content Title: Oral Warts Description: Warts ...

113

Oral Herpes  

Science.gov (United States)

... Dry Mouth Burning Mouth Tooth Decay See All Oral Complications of Systemic Diseases Cancer Treatment Developmental Disabilities ... care. NIDCR > Image Gallery > Oral Health > Oral Herpes Oral Herpes Main Content Title: Oral Herpes Description: Herpes ( ...

114

[Non-pharmaceutical measures, topical analgesics and oral administration of glucose in pain management: Austrian interdisciplinary recommendations on pediatric perioperative pain management].  

Science.gov (United States)

Non-pharmaceutical procedures are increasingly being used in pediatric pain therapy in addition to pharmaceutical procedures and have a supporting function. This article describes the non-pharmaceutical procedures which have an influence on perioperative and posttraumatic pain in children and adolescents. Prerequisites for every adequate pain therapy are affection, imparting a feeling of security, distraction and the creation of a child-oriented environment. Topical analgesics are indicated for application to intact skin for surface anesthesia. For a safe use consideration must be given to the duration of application, the dose and the maximum area of skin treated in an age-dependent manner. For simple but painful procedures in premature infants, neonates and infants, pain can be effectively reduced by the oral administration of glucose. The positive effect is guaranteed particularly for the use in a once only pain stimulation. Non-nutritive sucking, swaddling, facilitated tucking and kangaroo mother care, for example can be used as supportive measures during slightly painful procedures. There is insufficient evidence for a pain reducing effect in older infants and small children. Physical therapeutic procedures can be used as accompanying measures for acute pain and are individually adapted. However, the limited amount of currently available data is insufficient to make a critical scientific assessment of the individual measures. The effects can, however, be observed in the daily routine practice. Psychological methods can facilitate coping with pain. In situations with mental and psychiatric comorbidities or psychosocial impairment, a psychologist should be consulted. Acupuncture and hypnosis are also a meaningful addition within the framework of multimodal pain therapy. PMID:24550025

Messerer, B; Krauss-Stoisser, B; Urlesberger, B

2014-02-01

115

Detection of honey adulteration with starch syrup by high performance liquid chromatography.  

Science.gov (United States)

According to saccharide profile comparison between starch syrups and pure honeys analysed through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), a characteristic peak was found at 15.25 min retention time in HPLC chromatogram of syrup, but no peak was observed at the same retention time in chromatogram of pure honeys. This characteristic peak for syrup was identified as an overlapping peak of oligosaccharides with more than 5 degree of polymerisation (DP) based on HPLC chromatogram comparison between starch syrup and a series of standard mono-, di- and oligosaccharides of 3-7 DP. Additionally syrup content correlated linearly with the height of the characteristic peak of syrup under different slope in two ranges 2.5-7.5% and 10-100%, respectively. Therefore, the characteristic peak at 15.25 min retention time can serve as a syrup indicator in HPLC analysis of the adulterated honeys. This new HPLC method for honey adulteration detection was further applied in an authenticity inspection on more than 100 commercial honeys. In addition to the improved accuracy of honey adulteration detection, the proposed HPLC method was simple, low cost and easy practice for honey product quality control by government department considering the popularity of HPLC device and technology. PMID:25442605

Wang, Shaoqing; Guo, Qilei; Wang, Linlin; Lin, Li; Shi, Hailiang; Cao, Hong; Cao, Baosen

2015-04-01

116

Cranial computed tomography in maple syrup urine disease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Cranial computed tomography in the initial stage of the intermediate phenotype of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) demonstrates diffuse, symmetric hypodensities in white and grey matter, which show a complete return to normal after early introduction of an adequate protein-restrictive diet. If diagnosis of this disease is missed or delayed, progressive global (end-stage) atrophy will take place over several years. A decrease in density values correlates well with the total cerebral lipid and water content (closely related to myelinisation), whereas progression and grade of atrophy show a relationship with the severity of pathological white and grey matter changes that are not demonstrable with computed tomography but can be proven histologically. Analysis of both morphological parameters corresponds well with clinical-neurological outcome and therapeutic success.

Irnberger, T.; Ploechl, E.; Rittinger, O.; Bachmann, C.; Pilz, P.; Walter, G.F.; Wendel, U.

1986-04-01

117

Molecular characterization of maple syrup urine disease patients from Tunisia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare disorder of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) metabolism caused by the defective function of branched-chain ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex (BCKD). The disease causal mutations can occur either in BCKDHA, BCKDHB or DBT genes encoding respectively the E1?, E1? and E2 subunits of the complex. In this study we report the molecular characterization of 3 Tunisian patients with the classic form of MSUD. Two novel putative mutations have been identified: the alteration c.716A>G (p.Glu239Gly) in BCKDHB and a small deletion (c.1333_1336delAATG; p.Asn445X) detected in DBT gene. PMID:23313820

Jaafar, N; Moleirinho, A; Kerkeni, E; Monastiri, K; Seboui, H; Amorim, A; Prata, M J; Quental, S

2013-03-15

118

Diffusion-weighted MRI of maple syrup urine disease encephalopathy  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

We report the case of a newborn child with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), diagnosed at 10 days of life. Diffusion-weighted echoplanar MRI showed marked hyperintensity of the cerebellar white matter, the brainstem, the cerebral peduncles, the thalami, the dorsal limb of the internal capsule and the centrum semiovale, while conventional dual-echo sequence evidenced only a weak diffuse T2 hyperintensity in the cerebellar white matter and in the dorsal brainstem. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of these regions was markedly (>80%) decreased. Therefore, in agreement with current hypotheses on MSUD pathogenesis, MSUD oedema proves to be a cytotoxic oedema. Diffusion-weighted MRI may be a valuable tool, more sensitive than conventional spin-echo techniques, to assess the extent and progression of cytotoxicity in MSUD, as well as the effectiveness of the therapeutic interventions. (orig.)

Cavalleri, F.; Mavilla, L. [Servizio di Neuroradiologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico, Modena (Italy); Berardi, A.; Ferrari, F. [Servizio di Neonatologia, Azienda Ospedaliera Policlinico, Modena (Italy); Burlina, A.B. [Dipartimento di Pediatria, Azienda Ospedaliera, Universita di Padova, Padua (Italy)

2002-06-01

119

Diffusion-weighted MRI of maple syrup urine disease encephalopathy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We report the case of a newborn child with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), diagnosed at 10 days of life. Diffusion-weighted echoplanar MRI showed marked hyperintensity of the cerebellar white matter, the brainstem, the cerebral peduncles, the thalami, the dorsal limb of the internal capsule and the centrum semiovale, while conventional dual-echo sequence evidenced only a weak diffuse T2 hyperintensity in the cerebellar white matter and in the dorsal brainstem. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of these regions was markedly (>80%) decreased. Therefore, in agreement with current hypotheses on MSUD pathogenesis, MSUD oedema proves to be a cytotoxic oedema. Diffusion-weighted MRI may be a valuable tool, more sensitive than conventional spin-echo techniques, to assess the extent and progression of cytotoxicity in MSUD, as well as the effectiveness of the therapeutic interventions. (orig.)

120

Cranial computed tomography in maple syrup urine disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cranial computed tomography in the initial stage of the intermediate phenotype of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) demonstrates diffuse, symmetric hypodensities in white and grey matter, which show a complete return to normal after early introduction of an adequate protein-restrictive diet. If diagnosis of this disease is missed or delayed, progressive global (end-stage) atrophy will take place over several years. A decrease in density values correlates well with the total cerebral lipid and water content (closely related to myelinisation), whereas progression and grade of atrophy show a relationship with the severity of pathological white and grey matter changes that are not demonstrable with computed tomography but can be proven histologically. Analysis of both morphological parameters corresponds well with clinical-neurological outcome and therapeutic success. (orig.)

121

Intermittent maple syrup urine disease: two case reports.  

Science.gov (United States)

The presenting symptoms and clinical course of 2 cases of intermittent maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) are described. Intermittent MSUD is a potentially life-threatening metabolic disorder caused by a deficiency of branched-chain ?-keto acid dehydrogenase, the enzyme complex that decarboxylates the 3 branched-chain amino acids. In contrast to classic MSUD, children with the intermittent form show normal development with normal intelligence and, when asymptomatic, normal levels of branched-chain amino acids. Symptoms usually appear between 5 months and 2 years of age, when a trivial infection such as otitis media or viral gastroenteritis triggers catabolism of muscle protein. Intermittent MSUD should be suspected in cases of common infections with a clinically atypical course, especially in children displaying ataxia or marked drowsiness. PMID:24394677

Axler, Olof; Holmquist, Peter

2014-02-01

122

Intellectual performance of children with maple syrup urine disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

The intellectual performance of 22 children aged 3-16 years with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) was assessed and compared to a group of early treated phenylketonuria (PKU) children and normal subjects matched by age, sex, nationality, and socio-economic status. All subjects were tested by one examiner only using the age related versions of the non-verbal Snijders-Oomen intelligence test. The mean IQ (+/- SD) score was 74 +/- 14 (range 50-103) in patients with MSUD, 101 +/- 12 (range 87-125) in early treated PKU patients, and 107 +/- 9 (range 90-122) in normal subjects. Intercorrelations indicated that length of time after birth that plasma leucine concentration remained > 1 mmol/l and quality of long-term metabolic control have important influences on IQ. PMID:8444223

Hilliges, C; Awiszus, D; Wendel, U

1993-02-01

123

Effect of concentration temperature on some bioactive compounds and antioxidant proprieties of date syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of the concentration temperature on the antioxidant activity, carotenoid and phenolic compounds of date syrup was investigated. Date juice was concentrated at 100? and at "60? in vacuum". After concentration, total phenolic, tannin, non-tannin, flavonoid and carotenoid content were determined spectrophotometrically and high-performance liquid chromatography was used for determination of 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furfuraldehyde content. The antioxidant activity of date syrup was evaluated by various antioxidant methods including total antioxidant, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging test, ferric reducing antioxidant power and ?-carotene bleaching. All date syrups showed strong antioxidant activity accompanied by high total phenolic contents. Results showed that concentration at 100? significantly enhanced the antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents of date syrups compared to vacuum concentration at 60?. A good correlation between the antioxidant activity and total phenolic content and flavonoid was observed. PMID:23729415

Abbès, Fatma; Besbes, Souhail; Brahim, Bchir; Kchaou, Wissal; Attia, Hamadi; Blecker, Christophe

2013-08-01

124

Movement Disorders in Adult Surviving Patients with Maple Syrup Urine Disease  

OpenAIRE

Maple syrup urine disease is a rare metabolic disorder caused by mutations in the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex gene. Patients generally present early in life with a toxic encephalopathy because of the accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine and the corresponding ketoacids. Movement disorders in maple syrup urine disease have typically been described during decompensation episodes or at presentation in the context of a toxic enceph...

Carecchio, M.; Schneider, S. A.; Chan, H.; Lachmann, R.; Lee, P. J.; Murphy, E.; Bhatia, K. P.

2011-01-01

125

Maple syrup urine disease: An uncommon cause for neonatal metabolic distress  

OpenAIRE

Maple Syrup Urine Disease is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by a deficiency in the activity of the branched-chain ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. This rare disorder represents one of the causes of acute neonatal illness which results in devastating disturbances of neurological development. On investigation of 1750 infants with neurological impairment for inborn errors of amino acid metabolism, 4 neonates with classical maple syrup urine disease were detected. These otherwise normal...

Christopher, Rita; Babu, S. V. Suresh; Nirmala, L.; Rangaswamy, G. R.; Narayan, C. P.; Shetty, K. Taranath

1999-01-01

126

Synergisms in antioxidant and anti-hepatocellular carcinoma activities of artichoke, milk thistle, and borututu syrups  

OpenAIRE

Artichoke, borututu and milk thistle are three medicinal plants well-known for their capacity to prevent oxidative stress and many liver diseases. In a previous work, we reported the bioactivity of infusions and pills based on these plants; herein, the aim was to provide scientific information about the antioxidant and anti-hepatocellular carcinoma activities of syrups based on these medicinal plants and evaluate the synergism among the combined plants by using syrups based on the mixed plant...

Pereira, Carla; Calhelha, Ricardo C.; Barros, Lillian; Queiroz, Maria Joa?o R. P.; Ferreira, Isabel C. F. R.

2014-01-01

127

Formulation and quality control of Prunus domestica syrup, prepared according to Iranian Traditional Medicine  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and objectives: Prunus domestica (plum has been considered as a useful remedy for several disorders in Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM. It has cold and wet temperament and is used as syrup for hot temperament diseases such as hot headache and stomach disorders. In the present study, plum syrup has been formulated according to ITM manuscripts and quality control evaluations have been accomplished to present a suitable formulation. Methods: The fruits of Prunus domestica L. were macerated in water, then decocted. The mixture was filtered. The filtrate was concentrated to have a suitable viscosity. The extract was sweetened by adding sugar (1:2 and heated till sugar was completely dissolved. The final product was evaluated physicochemically and microbiologically according to standard protocols and total phenolics content of the syrup stability was determined. The syrup was assessed in accelerated condition (40 ºC during 6 months. Results: The prepared formulation was a viscose and brown syrup with plum flavor and fragrance. No precipitation and cap locking were observed in the syrup. Dry residue, pH, density, viscosity and total phenolics of the syrup were found 43.1%, 3.49, 1.27 g/ml, 6.5 cP and 152.3 mg/100ml, respectively. No microbial growth was observed in the formulation. In the accelerated stability tests, no remarkable changes were seen in the product. Total phenolics content was decreased 2.2% during 6 months in 40 ºC. Conclusion: The formulated Prunus domestica syrup could be introduced for further mass production after completing the final required evaluations.

M. Hamzeloo-Moghadam

2015-05-01

128

The Pasting and Gel Textural Properties of Corn Starch in Glucose, Fructose and Maltose Syrup  

OpenAIRE

The pasting and gel textural properties of corn starch in syrup at different concentrations were investigated by Rapid Visco Analyzer (RVA) and Texture profile analysis (TPA) tests. The results showed that the pasting temperatures of corn starch greatly increased, especially at higher sugar concentration. Increasing concentration of syrup caused an increase in peak, trough and final viscosity of corn starch. Peak viscosity and the disintegration rate of starch increased in the following order...

Sun, Qingjie; Xing, Yan; Qiu, Chao; Xiong, Liu

2014-01-01

129

Liquen Plano Oral / Oral Lichen Planus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El Liquen Plano Oral es una enfermedad inflamatoria crónica con fisiopatología inmune. Afecta piel, mucosa oral y genital, cuero cabelludo y uñas. Al agrupar diversas características clínicas e histopatológicas se puede clasificar como: reticular, papular, en placa, erosivo, atrófico y bulloso. Su t [...] ratamiento está orientado al alivio de la sintomatología, a la eliminación de factores locales traumáticos y a la administración de diversos agentes como: esteroides tópicos, sistémicos, retinoides e incluso sustancias naturales como la cúrcuma. Abstract in english Oral lichen planus is a chronic inflammatory disease with immune pathophysiology It affects skin, oral and genital mucosa, scalp and nails. By grouping various clinical and histopathologic features can distinguish different clinical presentations: reticular, papular, plaque, erosive, atrophic and bu [...] llous. Treatment is aimed at relief of symptoms, removal of local traumatic factors and administration of various agents such as topical and systemic steroids, retinoids and even natural substances like turmeric.

Adriana, Colonia; Luis Fernando, Vélez.

2011-07-01

130

Variation and correlation of properties in different grades of maple syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty five commercial maple syrups from twelve producers in Southern Ontario were evaluated for properties including light transmittance, autofluorescence, density, pH, total soluble solids (TSS), glucose and fructose content, total phenol content, antioxidant potential and mineral content (Mg, Mn, P, Zn, Ca, K, Fe and Pb). A high degree of variability was found in many characteristics, often exceeding an order of magnitude. Syrups were categorized based on light transmission at 560 nm into amber (12), dark (13) and very dark (10) using International Maple Syrup Institute (IMSI) guidelines. No statistical differences were found among grades of syrup for density, pH, TSS, glucose, fructose, total reducing sugars, glucose:fructose ratio, magnesium, manganese or potassium. Darker syrups showed significantly higher autofluorescence, total phenol content, antioxidant potential, phosphorous, calcium and total mineral content. Significant negative correlations of percent transmission with total phenol content, antioxidant potential and total mineral content are reported. Significant positive correlations among total phenol content, antioxidant potential and total mineral content are also described. The results from this study suggest that darker syrups tend to contain more beneficial traits and may be applied in developing functional foods and value added products. PMID:24408861

Singh, Amritpal S; Jones, A Maxwell P; Saxena, Praveen K

2014-03-01

131

Interannual and spatial variability of maple syrup yield as related to climatic factors.  

Science.gov (United States)

Sugar maple syrup production is an important economic activity for eastern Canada and the northeastern United States. Since annual variations in syrup yield have been related to climate, there are concerns about the impacts of climatic change on the industry in the upcoming decades. Although the temporal variability of syrup yield has been studied for specific sites on different time scales or for large regions, a model capable of accounting for both temporal and regional differences in yield is still lacking. In the present study, we studied the factors responsible for interregional and interannual variability in maple syrup yield over the 2001-2012 period, by combining the data from 8 Quebec regions (Canada) and 10 U.S. states. The resulting model explained 44.5% of the variability in yield. It includes the effect of climatic conditions that precede the sapflow season (variables from the previous growing season and winter), the effect of climatic conditions during the current sapflow season, and terms accounting for intercountry and temporal variability. Optimal conditions for maple syrup production appear to be spatially restricted by less favourable climate conditions occurring during the growing season in the north, and in the south, by the warmer winter and earlier spring conditions. This suggests that climate change may favor maple syrup production northwards, while southern regions are more likely to be negatively affected by adverse spring conditions. PMID:24949244

Duchesne, Louis; Houle, Daniel

2014-01-01

132

Interannual and spatial variability of maple syrup yield as related to climatic factors  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Sugar maple syrup production is an important economic activity for eastern Canada and the northeastern United States. Since annual variations in syrup yield have been related to climate, there are concerns about the impacts of climatic change on the industry in the upcoming decades. Although the temporal variability of syrup yield has been studied for specific sites on different time scales or for large regions, a model capable of accounting for both temporal and regional differences in yield is still lacking. In the present study, we studied the factors responsible for interregional and interannual variability in maple syrup yield over the 2001–2012 period, by combining the data from 8 Quebec regions (Canada and 10 U.S. states. The resulting model explained 44.5% of the variability in yield. It includes the effect of climatic conditions that precede the sapflow season (variables from the previous growing season and winter, the effect of climatic conditions during the current sapflow season, and terms accounting for intercountry and temporal variability. Optimal conditions for maple syrup production appear to be spatially restricted by less favourable climate conditions occurring during the growing season in the north, and in the south, by the warmer winter and earlier spring conditions. This suggests that climate change may favor maple syrup production northwards, while southern regions are more likely to be negatively affected by adverse spring conditions.

Louis Duchesne

2014-06-01

133

The effects of sucralfate suspension and diphenhydramine syrup plus kaolin-pectin on radiotherapy-induced mucositis  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A prospective, double-blind study compared the effectiveness of sucralfate suspension with diphenhydramine syrup plus kaolin-pectin in reducing severity and pain of radiation-induced oropharyngeal mucositis. Fourteen patients who received at least 4600 cGy to the oral cavity used one of the mouth rinses four times a day, beginning at 1600 cGy. Data were collected on daily perceived pain and helpfulness of mouth rinse, weekly mucositis grade, weight change, and interruption of therapy. Analysis of data revealed no statistically significant differences between the two groups in any parameter. A retrospective review of 15 patients who had received at least 4600 cGy radiation to the oropharynx but had not used a daily mouth-coating rinse, was compared with the study group. Comparison of the two groups suggested that consistent daily oral hygiene and use of a mouth-coating agent will result in less pain and may reduce weight loss and interruption of radiation because of severe mucositis

134

A kinetic study of the main guaco metabolites using syrup formulation and the identification of an alternative route of coumarin metabolism in humans.  

Science.gov (United States)

For decades guaco species have been empirically used for the treatment of respiratory diseases. However, studies have shown that the toxic and therapeutic effects of the main guaco metabolites are dose-dependent, and none clinical study was done to evaluate the behavior of these substances in humans. In this work, a pilot study measuring the kinetic profile of the main guaco metabolites was performed leading to the knowledge of an alternative route of coumarin metabolism in humans. Initial screenings demonstrated that the administration of 60 mL of guaco syrup (single dose) did not provide sufficient levels of coumarin (COU), 7-hydroxycoumarin (7-HCOU), o-coumaric acid (OCA) and kaurenoic acid (KAU). The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by orally administering 60 mL of guaco syrup spiked with 1500 mg of COU. The kinetic study demonstrated that the plasmatic levels of 7-HCOU (considered the main metabolite of COU) were 10 times lower than the levels of COU, and the kinetic profile of 7-HCOU suggests sequential metabolism in the liver with low access of 7-HCOU to the systemic circulation. The study also demonstrated that OCA is one of the main bioavailable metabolites of COU. Therefore, the hydrolysis of the lactone ring forming a carboxylated compound is one of the possible routes of COU metabolism in humans. The half-lives of COU, 7-HCOU and OCA were approximately 4.0, 1.0 and 3.0 h, respectively and there was evidence that the recommended dosage of guaco syrup did not provide sufficient levels of COU, 7-HCOU or OCA to obtain a bronchodilation effect. Clinical studies are necessary to prove the efficacy and safety of products based on guaco. PMID:25757073

Gasparetto, João Cleverson; Peccinini, Rosângela Gonçalves; de Francisco, Thais Martins Guimarães; Cerqueira, Letícia Bonâncio; Campos, Francinete Ramos; Pontarolo, Roberto

2015-01-01

135

ADHA Oral Health Resources  

Science.gov (United States)

Provided by the American Dental Hygienists' Association, this site's resources are valuable for both dental patients and hygienists to help understand "the importance of oral health to total health." Patients will find informative fact sheets describing potential oral health problems as well as tips for preventing them. Hygienists will find the free posters useful as well as the instructions included for proper brushing and flossing techniques in order to educate and support their patients. The site underscores dental hygienists' roles in tobacco cessation efforts, a major topic of concern in the allied health professions. Providing free "life-saving advice", the ADHA hopes to promote overall heath beginning with oral care.

136

Antioxidant activity, inhibition of nitric oxide overproduction, and in vitro antiproliferative effect of maple sap and syrup from Acer saccharum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Antioxidant activity, inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) overproduction, and antiproliferative effect of ethyl acetate extracts of maple sap and syrup from 30 producers were evaluated in regard to the period of harvest in three different regions of Québec, Canada. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values of maple sap and syrup extracts are, respectively, 12 +/- 6 and 15 +/- 5 micromol of Trolox equivalents (TE)/mg. The antioxidant activity was also confirmed by a cell-based assay. The period of harvest has no statistically significant incidence on the antioxidant activity of both extracts. The antioxidant activity of pure maple syrup was also determined using the ORAC assay. Results indicate that the ORAC value of pure maple syrup (8 +/- 2 micromol of TE/mL) is lower than the ORAC value of blueberry juice (24 +/- 1 micromol of TE/mL) but comparable to the ORAC values of strawberry (10.7 +/- 0.4 micromol of TE/mL) and orange (10.8 +/- 0.5 micromol of TE/mL) juices. Maple sap and syrup extracts showed to significantly inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced NO overproduction in RAW264.7 murine macrophages. Maple syrup extract was significantly more active than maple sap extract, suggesting that the transformation of maple sap into syrup increases NO inhibition activity. The highest NO inhibition induced by the maple syrup extracts was observed at the end of the season. Moreover, darker maple syrup was found to be more active than clear maple syrup, suggesting that some colored oxidized compounds could be responsible in part for the activity. Finally, maple syrup extracts (50% inhibitory concentration = 42 +/- 6 microg/mL) and pure maple syrup possess a selective in vitro antiproliferative activity against cancer cells. PMID:20132041

Legault, Jean; Girard-Lalancette, Karl; Grenon, Carole; Dussault, Catherine; Pichette, André

2010-04-01

137

TOPICAL TREATMENT OF MELASMA  

OpenAIRE

Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment. Multiple options for topical treatment are available, of which hydroquinone (HQ) is the most commonly prescribed agent. Besides HQ, other topical ...

Bandyopadhyay Debabrata

2009-01-01

138

Stability of ursodiol in an extemporaneously compounded oral liquid.  

Science.gov (United States)

The stability of ursodiol in an extemporaneous oral liquid formulation refrigerated at 4 degrees C for 35 days was studied. A suspension was prepared by opening commercially available 300-mg capsules of ursodiol, adding Glycerin, USP, to form a paste, and then adding Simple Syrup, NF. A control solution was prepared from analytical-grade ursodiol powder in simple syrup. The final concentration of ursodiol in both formulations was 60 mg/mL. Three samples of each preparation were stored in 2-oz, amber glass prescription bottles in the dark at 4 degrees C. Immediately after preparation and at 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days, samples were visually inspected, tested for pH, and assayed in duplicate by high-performance liquid chromatography. Stability was defined as the retention of more than 90% of the initial concentration. On day 35, the mean percentage of the initial ursodiol concentration remaining was 96.5% in the suspension made from powder-filled capsules, and 100.6% in the suspension made from analytical-grade powder. The color, odor, and pH of the samples did not change appreciably over the study period. An extemporaneously compounded oral liquid preparation of ursodiol in simple syrup was stable under the conditions studied for up to 35 days. PMID:8528836

Johnson, C E; Nesbitt, J

1995-08-15

139

Stability of an extemporaneously compounded baclofen oral liquid.  

Science.gov (United States)

The stability of baclofen in an extemporaneously compounded oral liquid formulation for 35 days was studied. A suspension was prepared by grinding commercially available 20-mg baclofen tablets and adding Glycerin, USP, to form a paste. Simple Syrup, NF, was added as necessary to make a final volume of 60 mL. A control solution was prepared from analytical-grade baclofen powder in Simple Syrup, NF. The final concentration of baclofen in both formulations was 5 mg/mL. Three samples of each preparation were stored in 2-oz, amber glass prescription bottles in the dark under refrigeration at 4 degrees C. Immediately after preparation and at 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days, samples were visually inspected, tested for pH, and assayed in duplicate by high-performance liquid chromatography. On day 35, the mean percentages of the initial baclofen concentrations remaining were 95.9% in the suspension and 95.6% in the solution. The color, odor, and pH of the samples did not change appreciably over the study period. In an extemporaneously compounded oral liquid preparation in Simple Syrup, NF, stored in the dark under refrigeration, baclofen was stable for at least 35 days. PMID:8266961

Johnson, C E; Hart, S M

1993-11-01

140

Stability of an extemporaneously compounded clonidine hydrochloride oral liquid.  

Science.gov (United States)

The stability of clonidine hydrochloride in an extemporaneous oral liquid formulation refrigerated for 28 days was studied. A suspension was prepared by grinding commercially available 0.2-mg clonidine hydrochloride tablets, adding Purified Water, USP, to form a paste, and then adding Simple Syrup, NF. A control solution was prepared from analytical grade clonidine hydrochloride powder in Simple Syrup, NF. The final concentration of clonidine hydrochloride in both formulations was 0.1 mg/mL. Three samples of each preparation were stored in 2-ounce amber glass prescription bottles in the dark at 4 degrees C. Immediately after preparation and at 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days, samples were visually inspected, tested for pH, and assayed in duplicate by high-performance liquid chromatography. On day 28, the mean percentages of the initial clonidine hydrochloride concentrations remaining were 92.4% in the suspension and 93.7% in the solution. The color, odor, and pH of the samples did not change appreciably over the study period. An extemporaneously compounded oral liquid preparation of clonidine hydrochloride in Simple Syrup, NF, is stable under the conditions studied for up to 28 days. PMID:1570852

Levinson, M L; Johnson, C E

1992-01-01

141

Stability of isradipine in an extemporaneously compounded oral liquid.  

Science.gov (United States)

The stability of isradipine in an extemporaneously compounded oral liquid was studied. A suspension was prepared from the powder of commercially available 5-mg isradipine capsules and sufficient Simple Syrup, NF, to make a final volume of 50 mL. A control suspension was prepared from analytical-grade isradipine powder and Simple Syrup, NF. The final concentration of isradipine in both suspensions was 1 mg/mL. Three identical volumes of each suspension were stored in 2-oz amber glass prescription bottles, which were stored at 4 degrees C. Immediately after preparation and at 7, 16, 22, 28, and 35 days, samples were visually inspected and assayed in duplicate by high-performance liquid chromatography; the pH of the samples was also determined. At least 95% of the initial isradipine concentration remained throughout the study period in all samples of both suspensions. Color, odor, and pH did not change appreciably. Isradipine 1 mg/mL in an oral liquid compounded from Simple Syrup, NF, and powder from capsules was stable for at least 35 days in amber glass bottles at 4 degrees C. PMID:7847406

MacDonald, J L; Johnson, C E; Jacobson, P

1994-10-01

142

Biochemical correlates of neuropsychiatric illness in maple syrup urine disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of branched chain amino acid metabolism presenting with neonatal encephalopathy, episodic metabolic decompensation, and chronic amino acid imbalances. Dietary management enables survival and reduces risk of acute crises. Liver transplantation has emerged as an effective way to eliminate acute decompensation risk. Psychiatric illness is a reported MSUD complication, but has not been well characterized and remains poorly understood. We report the prevalence and characteristics of neuropsychiatric problems among 37 classical MSUD patients (ages 5-35 years, 26 on dietary therapy, 11 after liver transplantation) and explore their underlying mechanisms. Compared with 26 age-matched controls, MSUD patients were at higher risk for disorders of cognition, attention, and mood. Using quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we found lower brain glutamate, N-acetylaspartate (NAA), and creatine concentrations in MSUD patients, which correlated with specific neuropsychiatric outcomes. Asymptomatic neonatal course and stringent longitudinal biochemical control proved fundamental to optimizing long-term mental health. Neuropsychiatric morbidity and neurochemistry were similar among transplanted and nontransplanted MSUD patients. In conclusion, amino acid dysregulation results in aberrant neural networks with neurochemical deficiencies that persist after transplant and correlate with neuropsychiatric morbidities. These findings may provide insight into general mechanisms of psychiatric illness. PMID:23478409

Muelly, Emilie R; Moore, Gregory J; Bunce, Scott C; Mack, Julie; Bigler, Don C; Morton, D Holmes; Strauss, Kevin A

2013-04-01

143

Maple Syrup Urine Disease Complicated with Kyphoscoliosis and Myelopathy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive aminoacidopathy secondary to an enzyme defect in the catabolic pathway of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs: leucine, isoleucine, and valine). Accumulation of their corresponding keto-acids leads to encephalopathy if not treated in time. A newborn male patient was suspected to have MSUD after tandem mass study when he presented symptoms and signs suggestive neonatal sepsis, anemia, and diarrhea. Food restriction of BCAAs was started; however, acrodermatitis enteropathica-like skin eruptions occurred at age 2 months. The skin rashes resolved after adding BCAAs and adjusting the infant formula. At age 7 months, he suffered from recurrent skin lesions, zinc deficiency, osteoporosis, and kyphosis of the thoracic spine with acute angulation over the T11-T12 level associated with spinal compression and myelopathy. After supplementation of zinc products and pamidronate, skin lesions and osteopenia improved gradually. Direct sequencing of the DBT gene showed a compound heterozygous mutation [4.7 kb deletion and c.650-651insT (L217F or L217fsX223)]. It is unusual that neurodegeneration still developed in this patient despite diet restriction. Additionally, brain and spinal magnetic resonance imaging, bone mineral density study, and monitoring of zinc status are suggested in MSUD patients. PMID:24486081

Hou, Jia-Woei

2014-01-29

144

Identification of hydrolyzed inulin syrup and high-fructose corn syrup in apple juice by capillary gas chromatography: PVM 4:1999.  

Science.gov (United States)

A peer-verified, gas chromatographic (GC) method is presented for the identification of hydrolyzed inulin syrup (HIS) and high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) in apple juice. The procedure involves determining the Brix value of the apple juice or apple juice concentrate and preparing a dilution of the test sample to 5.5 degrees Brix. A 100 microL aliquot of the 5.5 degrees Brix test solution is then freeze-dried in a GC autosampler vial. The sugars in the freeze-dried residue are converted to trimethylsilyl derivatives, by the addition of an appropriate silylation reagent, and the vial is heated at 75 degrees C for 30 min. After derivatization, the solution is introduced into a gas chromatograph where the analytes are separated on a 30 m, 0.25 mm id DB-5 column. The method can use hydrogen, helium, or nitrogen as the carrier gas. The analytes and marker compounds are measured by use of a flame ionization detecone of the 2 syrups at 2 levels. Dilution was ascertained by the presence of retrograde sugar markers found in the 2 sugar syrups. All 3 laboratories involved in the study were able to identify the correct diluent in the blind, randomly coded, apple juice test portions. The levels of dilution in the test portions were 0, 6.9% (HIS), 16.0% (HIS), 8.1% (HFCS), and 17.0% (HFCS). No false positive results were reported. Quantitative conclusions can be drawn when the same syrup is used for dilution and as a reference standard. PMID:11324615

Low, N H; McLaughlin, M A; Page, S W; Canas, B J; Brause, A R; Low, N H

2001-01-01

145

Oral Medication  

Science.gov (United States)

... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Oral Medication The first treatment for type 2 diabetes ... anything new — even over-the-counter items. Explore: Oral Medication How Much Do Oral Medications Cost? Save ...

146

The optimal conditions for nata production from sugar palm syrup by Acetobacter xylinum TISTR 107  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The optimal conditions of nata production from the fermentation of sugar palm syrup by Acetobacter xylinum TISTR 107 was studied. The results showed that optimized production for a litre of sugar palm syrup medium should compose 15 ºBrix concentration, 7.0 g NH4H2PO4 and 0.7 g MgSO4. 7 H2O at pH 4.25 and incubation at room temperature. The thickness of nata production reached 1.15 cm in 9 days. Sensory evaluation showed that there were no significant difference in odor and acceptability between the nata from sugar palm syrup and the traditional nata production from coconut juice whereas there were significant differences in color and texture. However, the nata from sugar palm syrup gave a better texture. Chemical analysis of the nata produced under these optimal culture conditions revealed 0.13% protein, 0.012% fat, 2.74% fiber, 0.378% nitrogen-free extract, 0.11% ash and 96.63% moisture content. The results suggest that nata produced from sugar palm syrup can be used in food and confectionery.

Laochareonsuk, T.

2005-11-01

147

Oral myiasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy. PMID:25709196

Saravanan, Thalaimalai; Mohan, Mathan A; Thinakaran, Meera; Ahammed, Saneem

2015-01-01

148

Optimization of Osmotic Dehydration of Apples Slices in Dates Syrup Using the Response Surface Methodology  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Osmotic dehydration of apple slices in continuous kinetic was studied using dates syrup at different concentration (52-74%, temperature (30-60°C, time (15-240 min. The response surface methodology was used to optimize effects of temperature, syrup concentration and immersion time in osmotic dehydration of apples slices in date syrup. A composite central design was used with water loss (WL% and solid gain (SG % as responses. The models obtained for all the responses were significant (p<0.05. The optimal conditions for maximum water loss and solid gains (75.52 and 17.92% correspond to 60°C for a concentration of 74% (w/w during 240 min.

H. Acheheb

2014-01-01

149

FTIR characterization of Mexican honey and its adulteration with sugar syrups by using chemometric methods  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A chemometric analysis of adulteration of Mexican honey by sugar syrups such as corn syrup and cane sugar syrup was realized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to measure the absorption of a group of bee honey samples from central region of Mexico. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to process FTIR spectra to determine the adulteration of bee honey. In addition to that, the content of individual sugars from honey samples: glucose, fructose, sucrose and monosaccharides was determined by using PLS-FTIR analysis validated by HPLC measurements. This analytical methodology which is based in infrared spectroscopy and chemometry can be an alternative technique to characterize and also to determine the purity and authenticity of nutritional products as bee honey and other natural products.

150

FTIR characterization of Mexican honey and its adulteration with sugar syrups by using chemometric methods  

Science.gov (United States)

A chemometric analysis of adulteration of Mexican honey by sugar syrups such as corn syrup and cane sugar syrup was realized. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to measure the absorption of a group of bee honey samples from central region of Mexico. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to process FTIR spectra to determine the adulteration of bee honey. In addition to that, the content of individual sugars from honey samples: glucose, fructose, sucrose and monosaccharides was determined by using PLS-FTIR analysis validated by HPLC measurements. This analytical methodology which is based in infrared spectroscopy and chemometry can be an alternative technique to characterize and also to determine the purity and authenticity of nutritional products as bee honey and other natural products.

Rios-Corripio, M. A.; Rios-Leal, E.; Rojas-López, M.; Delgado-Macuil, R.

2011-01-01

151

Protein and leucine metabolism in maple syrup urine disease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Constant infusions of (13C)leucine and (2H5)phenylalanine were used to trace leucine and protein kinetics, respectively, in seven children with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) and eleven controls matched for age and dietary protein intake. Despite significant elevations of plasma leucine (mean 351 mumol/l, range 224-477) in MSUD subjects, mean whole body protein synthesis (3.78 +/- 0.42 (SD) g.kg-1. 24 h-1) and catabolism (4.07 +/- 0.46) were similar to control values (3.69 +/- 0.50 and 4.09 +/- 0.50, respectively). The relationship between phenylalanine and leucine fluxes was also similar in MSUD subjects (mean phenylalanine-leucine flux ratio 0.35 +/- 0.07) and previously reported adult controls (0.33 +/- 0.02). Leucine oxidation was undetectable in four of the MSUD subjects and very low in the other three (less than 4 mumol.kg-1.h-1; controls 13-20). These results show that persistent elevation in leucine concentration has no effect on protein synthesis. The marked disturbance in leucine metabolism in MSUD did not alter the relationship between rates of catabolism of protein to phenylalanine and leucine, which provides further support for the validity of the use of a single amino acid to trace whole body protein metabolism. The minimal leucine oxidation in MSUD differs from findings in other inborn metabolic errors and indicates that in patients with classical MSUD there is no significant route of leucine disposal other than through protein synthesis.

Thompson, G.N.; Bresson, J.L.; Pacy, P.J.; Bonnefont, J.P.; Walter, J.H.; Leonard, J.V.; Saudubray, J.M.; Halliday, D. (Clinical Research Centre, Harrow (England))

1990-04-01

152

Protein and leucine metabolism in maple syrup urine disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Constant infusions of [13C]leucine and [2H5]phenylalanine were used to trace leucine and protein kinetics, respectively, in seven children with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) and eleven controls matched for age and dietary protein intake. Despite significant elevations of plasma leucine (mean 351 mumol/l, range 224-477) in MSUD subjects, mean whole body protein synthesis [3.78 +/- 0.42 (SD) g.kg-1. 24 h-1] and catabolism (4.07 +/- 0.46) were similar to control values (3.69 +/- 0.50 and 4.09 +/- 0.50, respectively). The relationship between phenylalanine and leucine fluxes was also similar in MSUD subjects (mean phenylalanine-leucine flux ratio 0.35 +/- 0.07) and previously reported adult controls (0.33 +/- 0.02). Leucine oxidation was undetectable in four of the MSUD subjects and very low in the other three (less than 4 mumol.kg-1.h-1; controls 13-20). These results show that persistent elevation in leucine concentration has no effect on protein synthesis. The marked disturbance in leucine metabolism in MSUD did not alter the relationship between rates of catabolism of protein to phenylalanine and leucine, which provides further support for the validity of the use of a single amino acid to trace whole body protein metabolism. The minimal leucine oxidation in MSUD differs from findings in other inborn metabolic errors and indicates that in patients with classical MSUD there is no significant route of leucine disposal other than through protein synthesisan through protein synthesis

153

The effects of 90-day feeding of D-psicose syrup in male wistar rats  

OpenAIRE

D-Psicose is a rare sugar present in small quantities in natural products. In a previous study, we showed that D-psicose suppresses increase in plasma glucose and reduces body fat accumulation in rats. Based on acute and chronic toxicity testing in rats, D-psicose is classified as an ordinary and safe substance. Recently, we developed a high D-psicose syrup (PS) made from high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) by the alkaline isomerization method. However, the safety of PS as a food additive has not...

Tatsuhiro Matsuo; Reika Ishii; Yoko Shirai

2011-01-01

154

A New Approach of Syrup Manufacturing Using Fuzzy Time Control Discrete Event System  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pharmaceutical industries of world are manufacturing their most of the goods in syrup form. The proposed study relates with the designing of medicated syrup manufacturing using the fuzzy time control discrete event system. The system is designed with three inputs; viscosity, specific gravity, and chemical selection. And eight outputs temperature, temperature time, mixing speed, mixing time, valve, valve opening time, PH at current liquid temperature, and PH time. System is controlled by controlling the four parameters; valve selection, temperature monitoring unit, mixing motor, and PH control unit. System takes feed back from four sensors and time control rules are formulated and simulated using MATLAB tool box.

Syed Fazil Bin Farukh

2013-04-01

155

Stability of midazolam hydrochloride in a flavored, dye-free oral solution.  

Science.gov (United States)

The stability of injectable midazolam hydrochloride in a solution for oral use was studied at three temperatures over 56 days. A 2.5-mg/mL oral solution was prepared from injectable midazolam hydrochloride and a flavored, dye-free syrup. Samples of solution were stored in amber glass bottles at 7, 20, or 40 degrees C. Duplicate samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography on days 0, 1, 3, 5, 14, 21, 35, and 56. Samples were also visually inspected on each sampling day. The concentrations of all samples remained greater than 90% of the original concentration and there were no visual signs of microbial growth or changes in color, turbidity, or odor throughout the 56-day period. A 2.5-mg/mL solution of injectable midazolam in syrup was stable for 56 days at 7, 20, or 40 degrees C. PMID:1598938

Steedman, S L; Koonce, J R; Wynn, J E; Brahen, N H

1992-03-01

156

Oral voriconazole and miconazole oral gel produce comparable effects on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of etoricoxib  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Purpose The effect of topical miconazole oral gel and systemic oral voriconazole on the pharmacokinetics of oral etoricoxib was studied in 12 healthy volunteers. Methods Plasma concentrations of etoricoxib, miconazole, voriconazole, and thromboxane B2 generation were followed after ingestion of 60 mg et...

Hynninen, Ville V.; Olkkola, Klaus T.; Neuvonen, Pertti J.; Laine, Kari

2008-01-01

157

Development of orally disintegrating tablets comprising controlled-release multiparticulate beads  

OpenAIRE

Melperone is an atypical antipsychotic agent that has shown a wide spectrum of neuroleptic properties, particularly effective in the treatment of senile dementia and Parkinson’s-associated psychosis, and is marketed in Europe as an immediate-release (IR) tablet and syrup. An orally disintegrating tablet (ODT) dosage form would be advantageous for patients who experience difficulty in swallowing large tablets or capsules or those who experience dysphagia. Controlled-release (CR) capsule and ...

Venkatesh, Gopi M.; Stevens, Phillip J.; Lai, Jin-wang

2012-01-01

158

Detection of adulteration in honey samples added various sugar syrups with 13C/12C isotope ratio analysis method.  

Science.gov (United States)

Honey can be adulterated in various ways. One of the adulteration methods is the addition of different sugar syrups during or after honey production. Starch-based sugar syrups, high fructose corn syrup (HFCS), glucose syrup (GS) and saccharose syrups (SS), which are produced from beet or canes, can be used for adulterating honey. In this study, adulterated honey samples were prepared with the addition of HFCS, GS and SS (beet sugar) at a ratio of 0%, 10%, 20%, 40% and 50% by weight. (13)C/(12)C analysis was conducted on these adulterated honey samples using an isotope ratio mass spectrometer in combination with an elemental analyser (EA-IRMS). As a result, adulteration using C(4) sugar syrups (HFCS and GS) could be detected to a certain extent while adulteration of honey using C(3) sugar syrups (beet sugar) could not be detected. Adulteration by using SS (beet sugar) still has a serious detection problem, especially in countries in which beet is used in manufacturing sugar. For this reason, practice and analysis methods are needed to meet this deficit and to detect the adulterations precisely in the studies that will be conducted. PMID:23411291

Tosun, Murat

2013-06-01

159

[Adhesion loss of syrups in a metering glass which consists of a low surface free energy material].  

Science.gov (United States)

We previously reported a strong positive correlation between syrup viscosity and the rate of syrup loss due to adhesion to a glass metering device. In this study, we examined differences in the surface free energies of metering devices made of different polymeric materials, since reducing adhesion loss to metering devices could improve the efficiency of drug preparation involving highly viscous syrups. Among metering devices made of glass only, glass with a silicone coating (SLC), polypropylene (PP), and polymethylpentene (PMP) the surface free energy of the glass-only metering device was the highest (49.2 mN/m). The adhesion loss obtained for highly viscous syrups in the PP and PMP metering devices was significantly lower than that of the glass metering device. Measurements of syrup contact angles suggested that in metering devices made of PP and PMP, which have low surface free energies, a decrease in the spreading wetting of syrups was a factor in reducing the rate of adhesion loss. Thus irrespective of the syrup viscosity being measured, metering devices produced from materials with low surface free energies can reduce the time required to prepare prescriptions without compromising the accuracy of drug preparation. PMID:20686213

Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Toyofumi; Hashizaki, Kaname; Ogura, Masao; Umeda, Yukiko; Hidaka, Shinji; Fukami, Toshiro; Tomono, Kazuo

2010-08-01

160

Are agrochemicals present in high fructose corn syrup fed to honey bees (Apis mellifera L.)?  

Science.gov (United States)

Honey bee colonies are commonly fed high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as a nectar substitute. Many agrochemicals are applied to corn during cultivation including systemic neonicotinoids. Whether agrochemicals are present in HFCS fed to bees is unknown. Samples from the major manufacturers and distri...

161

Dual Mechanism of Brain Injury and Novel Treatment Strategy in Maple Syrup Urine Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism presenting with life-threatening cerebral oedema and dysmyelination in affected individuals. Treatment requires life-long dietary restriction and monitoring of branched-chain amino acids to avoid brain injury. Despite careful management, children…

Zinnanti, William J.; Lazovic, Jelena; Griffin, Kathleen; Skvorak, Kristen J.; Paul, Harbhajan S.; Homanics, Gregg E.; Bewley, Maria C.; Cheng, Keith C.; LaNoue, Kathryn F.; Flanagan, John M.

2009-01-01

162

Chemical compositional, biological, and safety studies of a novel maple syrup derived extract for nutraceutical applications.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup has nutraceutical potential given the macronutrients (carbohydrates, primarily sucrose), micronutrients (minerals and vitamins), and phytochemicals (primarily phenolics) found in this natural sweetener. We conducted compositional (ash, fiber, carbohydrates, minerals, amino acids, organic acids, vitamins, phytochemicals), in vitro biological, and in vivo safety (animal toxicity) studies on maple syrup extracts (MSX-1 and MSX-2) derived from two declassified maple syrup samples. Along with macronutrient and micronutrient quantification, thirty-three phytochemicals were identified (by HPLC-DAD), and nine phytochemicals, including two new compounds, were isolated and identified (by NMR) from MSX. At doses of up to 1000 mg/kg/day, MSX was well tolerated with no signs of overt toxicity in rats. MSX showed antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and anti-inflammatory (in RAW 264.7 macrophages) effects and inhibited glucose consumption (by HepG2 cells) in vitro. Thus, MSX should be further investigated for potential nutraceutical applications given its similarity in chemical composition to pure maple syrup. PMID:24983789

Zhang, Yan; Yuan, Tao; Li, Liya; Nahar, Pragati; Slitt, Angela; Seeram, Navindra P

2014-07-16

163

Management of maple syrup urine disease in the peri-operative period.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) has an incidence of 1:125,000 newborns in Ireland. Patients, when fasting, or in a catabolic state build up toxic metabolites leading to progressive neurological dysfunction. We describe the necessary peri-operative management of a patient with MSUD who developed symptomatic gallstones requiring a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:24416851

McCarron, E; McCormack, O; Cronin, T; McGowan, A; Healy, M L; O'Rourke, D; Crushell, E; Ravi, N; Reynolds, J V

2013-10-01

164

Stability of an extemporaneously compounded terbutaline sulfate oral liquid.  

Science.gov (United States)

The stability of terbutaline sulfate in an extemporaneous oral liquid formulation refrigerated for 55 days was studied. A suspension was prepared by grinding commercially available 5-mg terbutaline sulfate tablets, adding Purified Water, USP, to form a paste, and then adding Simple Syrup, NF. A control solution was prepared from analytical grade terbutaline sulfate powder in Simple Syrup, NF. The final concentration of terbutaline sulfate in both preparations was 1 mg/mL. Three samples of each formulation were stored in 4-ounce amber glass prescription bottles in the dark at 4 degrees C. Immediately after preparation and at 10, 19, 35, and 55 days, samples were visually inspected, tested for pH, and assayed in duplicate by high-performance liquid chromatography. On days 0 and 35, 100-microL samples of each suspension and solution were placed on agar plates for microbiological testing. On day 55, the mean percentages of the initial terbutaline sulfate concentrations remaining were 103.8% in the suspension and 91.7% in the solution. Color, odor, and pH of the samples did not change appreciably, and colony counts of bacteria were within acceptable limits. An extemporaneously prepared liquid preparation of terbutaline sulfate in Simple Syrup, NF, is stable under the conditions studied for up to 55 days; however, since microbiological testing was not performed on day 55, it is recommended that the preparation be stored for no longer than 30 days. PMID:2003504

Horner, R K; Johnson, C E

1991-02-01

165

Beet sugar syrup and molasses as low-cost feedstock for the enzymatic production of fructo-oligosaccharides  

OpenAIRE

Sugar syrup and molasses from beet processing containing 620 and 570 mg/ml sucrose, respectively, were assayed as low-cost and available substrates for the enzymatic synthesis of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). A commercial pectinase (Pectinex Ultra SP-L, from Aspergillus aculeatus) characterised by the presence of a transfructosylating activity, was used as biocatalyst. The FOS production increased when lowering the initial pH value of syrup (7.5) and molasses (8.9) to 5.5. Sugar syrup and mo...

Ghazi, Iraj; Ferna?ndez Arrojo, Luci?a; Go?mez Segura, Mari?a Ara?nzazu; Alcalde Galeote, Miguel; Plou Gasca, Francisco Jose?; Ballesteros, Antonio

2009-01-01

166

Further Investigation Into Maple Syrup Yields Three New Lignans, a New Phenylpropanoid, and Twenty-Six Other Phytochemicals  

OpenAIRE

Maple syrup is made by boiling the sap collected from certain maple (Acer) species. During this process, phytochemicals naturally present in tree sap are concentrated in maple syrup. We previously reported 23 phytochemicals from a butanol extract of Canadian maple syrup (MS-BuOH). Here we report the isolation and identification of 30 additional compounds (1–30) from its ethyl acetate extract (MS-EtOAc) not previously reported from MS-BuOH. Of these, 4 compounds are new (1–3, 18) and 20 co...

Li, Liya; Seeram, Navindra P.

2011-01-01

167

Effect of aronia berry honey syrup used for sweetening jams on their quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of sweetening agents on the quality of low sweetened jams were compared with respect to blackcurrant, raspberry, sour cherry, strawberry, and bilberry jams. The sweetening agents were sucrose, aronia berry honey syrup, and sucrose + honey syrup at a ratio of 1:1. The level of physicochemical indices, especially the content of vitamin C and anthocyanins determined directly after production and after 3- and 6-month storage, was used as the quality criterion for the evaluation of jams. Moreover, after 6-month storage the products were subjected to sensorial analysis. According to the accepted method of the investigation the produced jams were characterized by a 32-33% content of extract. During the production and 6-month storage the content of acids slightly and that of pectin considerably (from 26 to 46%) decreased, although the consistency of the jams was not affected thereby. In the case of vitamin C, its pronounced losses concerned raspberry (62-67% of the initial value), strawberry (57-61%), and sour cherry (57-58%), being distinctly smaller in blackcurrant (13-16%) and bilberry (15-35%) jams. With respect to anthocyanins a similar regularity was observed, the losses reaching 49-63% in strawberry jam, 40-56% in raspberry, 33-39% in sour cherry, 30-36% in blackcurrant, and 28-36% in bilberries. In almost all the products the losses of vitamin C and anthocyanins were higher when sweetening agent was aronia berry honey syrup. The organoleptic evaluation showed that the addition of aronia berry honey syrup to raspberry and strawberry jams slightly spoiled their colour but improved the aroma and taste. In the final score the significant differentiation in favour of the addition of aronia berry honey syrup concerned only blackcurrant, sour cherry, and bilberry jams. PMID:11534468

Kmiecik, W; Lisiewska, Z; Jaworska, G

2001-08-01

168

Efficacy of an injectable combination anthelmintic (nitroxynil+clorsulon+ivermectin) against early immature Fasciola hepatica compared to triclabendazole combination flukicides given orally or topically to cattle.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective was to compare the efficacy against artificially induced 2- and 4-week old early immature triclabendazole-susceptible liver flukes (Fasciola hepatica) of an injectable combination of nitroxynil, clorsulon and ivermectin with oral and pour-on combination formulations containing triclabendazole. Groups of yearling Angus or Angus cross cattle were confirmed fluke free before being artificially infected with 500 Sunny Corner strain triclabendazole-susceptible liver fluke metacercariae. Two or four weeks after infection, cattle were treated with the test combination Nitromec (10.2mg/kg nitroxynil, 2.0mg/kg clorsulon, 0.2mg/kg ivermectin), or oral Flukazole C+Se (triclabendazole/oxfendazole/Selenium), oral Fasimec C (triclabendazole/ivermectin) or Genesis Ultra Pour-On (triclabendazole/abamectin). At intervals cattle were weighed, faecal sampled for liver fluke egg counts and blood sampled for liver serum enzyme analysis. Cattle were slaughtered 14 weeks after infection for recovery of adult flukes; fluke egg counts and liver pathology assessment. All cattle increased in body weight by 0.4-0.8kg/day but there were no significant differences between control and treated groups or between the treatment groups. Geometric mean 14-week fluke egg counts and total fluke counts for all treatments, were significantly less (p<0.05) than the control group, except for the group treated with Genesis Ultra Pour-On, 2 weeks after infection. Nitromec treatment of 2-week old flukes was 83% and 95% effective as assessed by 14-week egg and fluke counts, respectively, compared to Flukazole C; 96% and 99%, Fasimec C; 70% and 46%, and Genesis Pour-On, which was ineffective, with egg and fluke count reductions of 0% and 8%, respectively. Against 4-week old flukes, Nitromec treatment was 88% and 99% effective when assessed by 14-week egg and fluke counts, respectively, with Flukazole C; 98% and 99%, Genesis Pour-On; 98% and 82% and Fasimec C; 91% and 61% effective, respectively. Group mean levels of the bile duct-associated enzyme gamma glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and the parenchymal associated enzymes, aspartate amino-transferase (AST) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) increased above the normal range 8 and 11 weeks after infection in the untreated control animals and the group treated 2 weeks after infection with Genesis Pour-On. The groups treated with Fasimec at 2 or 4 weeks after infection, also had elevated enzyme levels. The use of liver-associated enzyme assay is supported as supplementary indicators of fluke-induced pathology. PMID:19375232

Hutchinson, G W; Dawson, K; Fitzgibbon, C C; Martin, P J

2009-06-10

169

Oral malodour  

OpenAIRE

Oral malodour may affect up to three billion people worldwide, with millions of dollars spent on treatment. Halitosis is often used synonymously, but oral malodour is the preferred term for any bad breath emanating from the mouth. Oral causes account for the majority of bad breath cases. It is the objective of this article to review the causes, classification and treatment of oral malodour for health care workers.

Zyl, Andre W.; Fourie, Jeanine; Heerden, W. F. P.

2011-01-01

170

Oral Literature of the Sukuma  

OpenAIRE

This short overview of Basukuma oral literature is based on the author’s field work materials. The material was collected in the late 1990s and a study on the same topic was written that the present paper is based on. The first part of the article provides a short historical background of the Basukuma of Mwanza of Tanzania, the second part introduces via sample texts the Basukuma fictional stories. The conclusion sum up the improtance of oral stories for the society.

Immaculate Mirambo

2004-01-01

171

Erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp successfully treated with oral prednisone and topical tacrolimus / Dermatose pustular erosiva do couro cabeludo tratada com sucesso com prednisona oral e tacrolimus topico  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A dermatose pustular erosiva do couro cabeludo é uma doença inflamatória rara do couro cabeludo, de ocorrência preferencial em pacientes idosos após trauma local e com evolução para alopecia cicatricial. O caso relatado é de uma paciente idosa feminina que iniciou com pústulas dolorosas em região pa [...] rietal bilateral com aumento das lesões e exulceração local. Após o diagnóstico histológico de dermatose pustular erosiva do couro cabeludo, foi iniciada prednisona 40 mg/dia e tacrolimus 0,1% tópico. Após 10 semanas evoluiu com cicatrização completa das áreas erosadas e alopecia cicatricial. Abstract in english Erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp is a rare inflammatory disorder of the scalp, affecting elderly patients after local trauma and leading to scarring or cicatricial alopecia. Case Report: An elderly female patient complained of painful pustules on the parietal region bilaterally with progress [...] ive enlargement and ulceration. A biopsy suggested erosive pustular dermatosis of the scalp and the patient was treated with prednisone 40 mg/day and 0.1% topical tacrolimus. After 10 weeks complete closure of the eroded areas was observed and a stable scarring alopecia developed.

Mariana Ribas, Zahdi; Gabriela Bestani, Seidel; Vanessa Cristina, Soares; Camila Fernanda Novak Pinheiro de, Freitas; Fabiane Andrade, Mulinari-Brenner.

2013-10-01

172

Malignant tumors of the oral cavity  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book discusses carcinomas of the oral cavity including the lymph nodes and salivary glands. Topics include; Epidemiology and etiology; Immunolgical and virological aspects; Basic principles of management; Surgery; Radiotherapy; Chemotherapy; and Cryosurgery

173

Development of a pilot system for converting sweet potato starch into glucose syrup  

Science.gov (United States)

Sweet potato has been chosen as one of NASA's crops to support human beings in future space missions. One of the possible uses is to make syrup that can be used as a general sweetener. In this work a simple engineering system for converting sweet potato starch into glucose syrup was studied on a laboratory scale. The system comprises the following main units: a blender, continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), centrifugal and vacuum filters, deionization column and vacuum evaporator. The system was tested by carrying out conversion processes from fresh sweet potato roots. The roots were pealed, sliced, homogenized, heated and hydrolyzed by diastase of malt and Dextrozyme C (Novo Nordisk BioChem, North America, Inc.) enzymes in the CSTR. After hydrolysis the slurry was filtered, de-ionized and concentrated to get glucose syrup. The performance of the system was evaluated based on the quality of the conversion. The main factor was the level of reducing sugars except for the deionization where ash content and color were the main factors. Through careful control of the system units, good heating performance in the CSTR was obtained and the hydrolysis process attained sufficient conversion. The filtration process that incorporated the centrifuge was faster than when it was by-passed to the vacuum filter but losses in sugars were higher. Deionization removed more than 90% of the ash and reduced pigmentation, with probable insignificant losses in sugars during the deionization process. Recovery levels when the centrifuge was used and when it was by-passed could reach about 65% and 78%, respectively. These correspond to reducing sugar concentration of 259 and 310 mg/ml in 150-ml syrups from 300 g of sweet potatoes in each process. However, from concentration trials, syrups with volumes of 100 and 70 ml with the respective dextrose equivalence of 281 and 213 mg/ml were obtained. The syrups obtained were brownish in color and the process that employed centrifugal filtration gave a product with color that resembled the original color of the sweet potatoes. Further work is required to improve the overall system performance.

Silayo, Valerian C K.; Lu, John Y.; Aglan, Heshmat A.; Bovell-Benjamin, A. C. (Principal Investigator)

2003-01-01

174

Relatos orais de famílias de imigrantes japoneses: elementos para a história da educação brasileira Japanese families oral history: topics for the history of Brazilian education  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Este artigo dá continuidade a uma reflexão que vimos realizando há muitos anos sobre a estruturação do campo educacional paulista e as diferentes formas pelas quais a procura pela escolarização tem se configurado para diferentes setores da população rural e urbana no estado de São Paulo. Focalizamos aqui o segmento representado pelas famílias de imigrantes japoneses que vieram para São Paulo a partir de 1908. Apresentamos os resultados obtidos em estudo sobre as famílias de imigrantes japoneses na cidade de São Paulo, sendo que os relatos orais foram a fonte privilegiada que permitiu, de um lado, apreender as visões e vivências educacionais desse grupo, e, de outro, obter informações valiosas sobre a ainda desconhecida rede de escolas "japonesas" criadas por esse grupo na sociedade paulistana.This paper continues a long lasting research that analyses the educational field in São Paulo and the different forms assumed by the need of instruction of different sectors of the rural and urban population. We focus on the segment represented by the Japanese immigrants' families which came to São Paulo from 1908. We present the results obtained by means of oral reports, a privileged source for collecting data. It allowed, on the one hand, to seize the educational representations and practices of these Japanese groups and, on the other hand, to obtain valuable information about the still unknown Japanese school-net created by this group within São Paulo society.

Zeila de Brito Fabri Demartini

2000-08-01

175

Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine : guidelines for oral pathology and oral medicine in the dental curriculum  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

In Scandinavia, as in many European countries, most patients consult their general dentist once a year or more. This gives the dentist a unique opportunity and an obligation to make an early diagnosis of oral diseases, which is beneficial for both the patient and the society. Thus, the dentist must have knowledge of clinical symptoms, local and systemic signs and clinical differential diagnoses to make an accurate diagnosis. The dentist must be competent in selecting appropriate diagnostic tests, for example, tissue biopsy and microbiological samples, and conducting them correctly, as well as in interpreting test results and taking appropriate action accordingly. Furthermore, the dentist must be aware of diseases demanding multidisciplinary cooperation and be able to recognise his/her professional limitation, and to refer to other specialists when required. The dental curriculum changes over time as new approaches, treatments and diagnostic possibilities develop. Likewise, the role of the dentist in the community changes and may vary in different countries. As members of the Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine and subject representatives of oral pathology and oral medicine, we feel obliged to contribute to the discussion of how the guidelines of the dental curriculum support the highest possible standards of dental education. This article is meant to delineate a reasonable standard of oral pathology and oral medicine in the European dental curriculum and to guide subject representatives in curriculum development and planning. We have created an advisory topic list in oral pathology and oral medicine.

Kragelund, Camilla; Reibel, J

2012-01-01

176

Oral dosage forms for children: acceptability and palatability.  

Science.gov (United States)

  Children generally reject taking medicine which does not have a favorable shape, taste, flavor, etc. However, if a child who needs to take a medicine, rejects taking it, he might never recover from his condition. When a child is unable to take medicine orally, it is intravenously administered, and he and his caregivers then may experience stress. Syrups and suspensions are considered as favorable types of dosage forms in which to orally administer medicine to infants and children. However, they may have disadvantages such as solubility, a bad taste, portability problems or required refrigerator storage. World Health Organization (WHO) currently favors that infants and children be treated with oral solid medicines. New oral solid tablets, such as a mini-tablet, instead of liquid medicines are proposed for this group, however, there are a few reports that mini-tablets are suitable for infants and children. Palatability is one of the main elements of patient acceptability of an oral pediatric medicine. Palatability is defined as the overall appreciation of an oral medicinal product in relation to its smell, taste, aftertaste and feeling in the mouth. Design of the formulation of an oral pediatric medicine should be considered together with its palatability. PMID:25747220

Kojima, Jun

2015-01-01

177

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy reflects metabolic decompensation in maple syrup urine disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Using localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS), accumulation of branchedchain amino acids (BCAA) and their corresponding 2-oxo acids (BCOA) could be non-invasively demonstrated in the brain of a 9-year-old girl suffering from classical maple syrup urine disease. During acute metabolic decompensation, the compounds caused a signal at a chemical shift of 0.9 ppm which was assigned by in vitro experiments. The brain tissue concentration of the sum of BCAA and BCOA could be estimated as 0.9 mmol/l. Localized 1H-MRS of the brain appears to be suitable for examining patients suffering from maple syrup urine disease in different metabolic states. (orig.)

178

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy reflects metabolic decompensation in maple syrup urine disease  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Using localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS), accumulation of branchedchain amino acids (BCAA) and their corresponding 2-oxo acids (BCOA) could be non-invasively demonstrated in the brain of a 9-year-old girl suffering from classical maple syrup urine disease. During acute metabolic decompensation, the compounds caused a signal at a chemical shift of 0.9 ppm which was assigned by in vitro experiments. The brain tissue concentration of the sum of BCAA and BCOA could be estimated as 0.9 mmol/l. Localized {sup 1}H-MRS of the brain appears to be suitable for examining patients suffering from maple syrup urine disease in different metabolic states. (orig.)

Heindel, W. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Koeln (Germany); Kugel, H. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Koeln (Germany); Wendel, U. [Children`s Hospital, Univ. Duesseldorf (Germany); Roth, B. [Children`s Hospital, Univ. Koeln (Germany); Benz-Bohm, G. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. Koeln (Germany)

1995-06-01

179

CLINICAL EFFICACY OF CRUX SYRUP IN THE MANAGEMENT OF COUGH DUE TO VARIOUS ETIOLOGICAL CONDITIONS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cough associated with acute and chronic respiratory conditions is common in patients of all ages. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical efficacy of CRUX syrup, a proprietary mixture of herbal ingredients in the management of cough of various etiological conditions in open label, uncontrolled, prospective cohort study. 55 Patients aged 9 - 64 years with cough of more than 1 day but less than 14 days duration was recruited. They were prescribed dose of CRUX syrup according to severity of cough for three days. Treatment results were assessed on the basis of Investigator’s evaluation. At the end of three days prescribed treatment, evaluator’s assessment shown that 29 % patient gave excellent, 55 % patient gave good, 11 % patient gave fair and 5 % patient gave poor response to treatment. The results demonstrate that CRUX treatment has significant decrease in the frequency and severity of cough without any significant side effect in patients of all ages.

Patel Girish

2013-10-01

180

Optimization of the production of maltose syrups by different enzyme combinations  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Maltose syrups are of importance for the production of many sweets and baking goods. These starch hydrolysates show reduced browning capacity, retarded crystallization phenomena, and are less sweet, less viscous and less hygroscopic in comparison with syrups of higher glucose content. Enzymatic preparation of such products with regard to the influence of substrate and enzyme concentration, reaction time and added calcium on maltose formation by fungal-..cap alpha..-amylase or barley-..beta..-amylase was investigated. For increasing the maltose content pullulanase as a debranching enzyme was applied. Commercial maltodextrin was used as substrate. The maltogenic enzymes showed different substrate tolerances. High amounts of enzyme did not lead to the expected high amounts of maltose. On the other hand, low enzyme concentrations could not be compensated by extended reaction times. Different substrate tolerances also appeared when mixtures of maltogenic and debranching enzymes came into use.

Tegge, G.; Richter, G.; Richter, G.

1986-02-01

181

Oral histoplasmosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Histoplasmosis is a systemic fungal disease that takes various clinical forms, among which oral lesions are rare. The disseminated form of the disease that usually occurs in association with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV is one of the AIDS-defining diseases. Isolated oral histoplasmosis, without systemic involvement, with underlying immunosuppression due to AIDS is very rare. We report one such case of isolated oral histoplasmosis in a HIV-infected patient.

Patil Karthikeya

2009-01-01

182

Oral histoplasmosis  

OpenAIRE

Histoplasmosis is a systemic fungal disease that takes various clinical forms, among which oral lesions are rare. The disseminated form of the disease that usually occurs in association with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is one of the AIDS-defining diseases. Isolated oral histoplasmosis, without systemic involvement, with underlying immunosuppression due to AIDS is very rare. We report one such case of isolated oral histoplasmosis in a HIV-infected patient.

Patil Karthikeya; Mahima V; Prathibha Rani R

2009-01-01

183

Hypovolemic shock due to severe gastrointestinal bleeding in a child taking an herbal syrup  

OpenAIRE

We report the case of a 4-years-old boy who was admitted with hypovolemic shock due to a severe gastrointestinal bleeding. The esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGDS) showed hiatus hernia, erosions and ulcerations of the lower esophagus, possibly due to a gastroesophageal reflux, and a small duodenal erosion. The child was previously healthy and he had never shown any symptoms related to this condition. The only product taken by the child in the previous days was a syrup containing several herbs, a...

Chiesa, Giulia Maria

2011-01-01

184

Alternatives for clarifying glucose syrup obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of starch  

OpenAIRE

The present paper studies some routes for separating and purifying glucose syrup obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of potato starch. The clarifying process is done in three stages. The first one (solids remotion) is done by applying conventional solid-liquid separation techniiques such as sedimentation, centrifugation and filtration, as well as studying the effect of using flocculant and coagulant agents, prior to the already mentioned operations. Purification is done by adding decolouring age...

Gloria Teresa Cruz Guerrero; Gloria Helena González Blair; Andira Yesil Rentería Ayala; Óscar Fernando Castellanos Domínguez

2010-01-01

185

Production and characterization of murine models of classic and intermediate maple syrup urine disease  

OpenAIRE

Abstract Background Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of metabolism caused by a deficiency of branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase. MSUD has several clinical phenotypes depending on the degree of enzyme deficiency. Current treatments are not satisfactory and require new approaches to combat this disease. A major hurdle in developing new treatments has been the lack of a suitable animal model. Methods To create a murine model of classic MSUD, we used gene targeting and embr...

Watkins Simon; Ferguson Carolyn; Skvorak Kristen; Homanics Gregg E; Paul Harbhajan S

2006-01-01

186

Absence of branched chain acyl-transferase as a cause of maple syrup urine disease.  

OpenAIRE

Decreased function of human mitochondrial branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex results in branched chain ketoacidemia or maple syrup urine disease. Activity of this multienzyme complex varies from 0 to approximately 15% of wild type branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex activity within the population of homozygous affected individuals. We used the technique of Western Blotting with antibodies against purified bovine liver branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenas...

Danner, D. J.; Armstrong, N.; Heffelfinger, S. C.; Sewell, E. T.; Priest, J. H.; Elsas, L. J.

1985-01-01

187

Classical maple syrup urine disease and brain development: Principles of management and formula design  

OpenAIRE

Branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase deficiency results in complex and volatile metabolic derangements that threaten brain development. Treatment for classical maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) should address this underlying physiology while also protecting children from nutrient deficiencies. Based on a 20-year experience managing 79 patients, we designed a study formula to (1) optimize transport of seven amino acids (Tyr, Trp, His, Met, Thr, Gln, Phe) that compete with branched-chain amino ...

Strauss, Kevin A.; Wardley, Bridget; Robinson, Donna; Hendrickson, Christine; Rider, Nicholas L.; Puffenberger, Erik G.; Shelmer, Diana; Moser, Ann B.; Morton, D. Holmes

2010-01-01

188

Identification of a founder mutation for maple syrup urine disease in Hutterites.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an organic acidemia detected on newborn screening. The condition has been reported with increased frequency in certain founder populations including Hutterites. We present a case of MSUD in a Hutterite boy. Mutation analysis was completed and identified a candidate founder mutation in the BCKDHB gene, specifically c.595_596delAG. Further testing of other Hutterites with MSUD is needed to determine whether additional mutations may exist. PMID:24791375

Mroch, Amelia; Davis-Keppen, Laura; Matthes, Cindy; Stein, Quinn

2014-04-01

189

Cerebral Edema in Maple Syrup Urine Disease Despite Newborn Screening Diagnosis and Early Initiation of Treatment  

OpenAIRE

A 7-day-old girl had an elevated leucine level on newborn screen drawn at 2 days of age and was suspected of having maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). When reported, the patient was immediately admitted to hospital, and started on a modified diet involving high calories with reduced branched chain amino acid (BCAA) formula. Clinical exam was normal at initial assessment. Despite rapid initiation of treatment, the baby became lethargic and somnolent over the next day. Diet was stopped and infus...

Myers, Kenneth A.; Reeves, Melanie; Wei, Xing-chang; Khan, Aneal

2011-01-01

190

Imaging in Classic Form of Maple Syrup Urine Disease: A Rare Metabolic Central Nervous System  

OpenAIRE

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism. The condition gets its name from the distinctive sweet odour of affected infants’ urine. MSUD is caused by a deficiency of the branched-chain ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase enzyme complex, leading to accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, and valine) and their toxic by-products (ketoacids) in the blood and urine. Imaging is characterestized by MSUD oedema...

Jain, Aditi; Jagdeesh, K.; Mane, Ranoji; Singla, Saurabh

2013-01-01

191

Clinical and Biochemical Profiles of Maple Syrup Urine Disease in Malaysian Children  

OpenAIRE

Introduction: Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by defects in the branched-chain ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex resulting in accumulation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and corresponding branched-chain ketoacids (BCKAs) in tissues and plasma, which are neurotoxic. Early diagnosis and subsequent nutritional modification management can reduce the morbidity and mortality. Prior to 1990s, the diagnosis of MSUD and other inborn errors of metabolis...

Yunus, Z. Md; Kamaludin, Dp Abg; Mamat, M.; Choy, Y. S.; Ngu, Lh

2011-01-01

192

Successful domino liver transplantation in maple syrup urine disease using a related living donor  

OpenAIRE

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive disease associated with high levels of branched-chain amino acids. Children with MSUD can present severe neurological damage, but liver transplantation (LT) allows the patient to resume a normal diet and avoid further neurological damage. The use of living related donors has been controversial because parents are obligatory heterozygotes. We report a case of a 2-year-old child with MSUD who underwent a living donor LT. ...

Feier, F. H.; Miura, I. K.; Fonseca, E. A.; Porta, G.; Pugliese, R.; Porta, A.; Schwartz, I. V. D.; Margutti, A. V. B.; Camelo, J. S.; Yamaguchi, S. N.; Taveira, A. T.; Candido, H.; Benavides, M.; Danesi, V.; Guimaraes, T.

2014-01-01

193

The Management of Pregnancy in Maple Syrup Urine Disease: Experience with Two Patients  

OpenAIRE

We describe the management and outcomes of pregnancy in two women affected with Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). Both patients had classical disease diagnosed in the newborn period and were managed with low-protein diets and supplements, although compliance was moderately poor throughout life. Both pregnancies were complicated by poor compliance and one patient had a metabolic decompensation, which included seizures and profound encephalopathy, at the end of the first trimester. Peri-partum ...

Tchan, Michel; Westbrook, M.; Wilcox, G.; Cutler, R.; Smith, N.; Penman, R.; Strauss, B. J. G.; Wilcken, B.

2013-01-01

194

Placental Stem Cell Correction of Murine Intermediate Maple Syrup Urine Disease  

OpenAIRE

We previously reported improved survival and partial metabolic correction of a mouse intermediate maple syrup urine disease (iMSUD) model post allogenic hepatocyte transplant, confirming that a small number of enzyme proficient liver-engrafted cells can improve phenotype. However, clinical shortages of suitable livers for hepatocyte isolation indicate a need for alternative cell sources. Human amnion epithelial cells (hAEC) share stem cell characteristics while lacking many safety and ethical...

Skvorak, Kristen J.; Dorko, Kenneth; Marongiu, Fabio; Tahan, Veysel; Hansel, Marc C.; Gramignoli, Roberto; Gibson, K. Michael; Strom, Stephen C.

2013-01-01

195

Dual mechanism of brain injury and novel treatment strategy in maple syrup urine disease  

OpenAIRE

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism presenting with life-threatening cerebral oedema and dysmyelination in affected individuals. Treatment requires life-long dietary restriction and monitoring of branched-chain amino acids to avoid brain injury. Despite careful management, children commonly suffer metabolic decompensation in the context of catabolic stress associated with non-specific illness. The mechanisms underlying this decompe...

Zinnanti, William J.; Lazovic, Jelena; Griffin, Kathleen; Skvorak, Kristen J.; Paul, Harbhajan S.; Homanics, Gregg E.; Bewley, Maria C.; Cheng, Keith C.; Lanoue, Kathryn F.; Flanagan, John M.

2009-01-01

196

A novel probiotic fermented beverage based on soymilk and sea buckthorn syrup  

OpenAIRE

In the last decade, there is an increasing interest in using nondairyingredients as substrates for certain strains of bifidobacteria to deliver the benefits of probiotics to a wider group of consumers. This research aimed to explore the use of soymilk and sea buckthorn syrup as substrates for bifidobacteria fermentation. Microbial population, pH, and titratable acidity were measured during the fermentation period while the viability, pH, titratable acidity and water holding capacity were dete...

Nicoleta Maricica Maftei; Rodica Dinica; Gabriela Bahrim

2012-01-01

197

Consumer study and sensorial evaluation of a newly developed spicy strawberry syrup  

OpenAIRE

The potential beneficial effects of strawberry allied to those of chilly in many aspects of human health lead to the development of a spicy strawberry syrup. The work included the development of the product, including formulation, processing and industrialization aspects, chemical and sensorial analyses as well as a consumer study, of which some will be analysed in the present manuscript. The sensorial evaluation was performed with a panel of 25 tasters, of which 17 were women and 8 men. T...

Guine?, Raquel; Lima, Maria Joa?o; Pato, Lu?cia; Correia, Ana Cristina; Gonc?alves, Fernando; Costa, Elisa; Santos, Sandra

2010-01-01

198

Comparison of sprinkle versus syrup formulations of valproate for bioavailability, tolerance, and preference.  

Science.gov (United States)

We compared a new coated-particle formulation of valproate (Depakote Sprinkle) capsules with valproic acid (Depakene) syrup for bioavailability, side effects, and patient and parent preference. Twelve children with epilepsy, aged 5 to 16 years, participated in this randomized, two-period, crossover study. They were assigned to a 7-day regimen with one formulation and then crossed over to the other; the drug was given every 12 hours. On day 7, blood samples collected during a 12-hour period were analyzed for the presence of valproate. At the study's end, parents and children were asked structured questions regarding formulation preference and adverse events. The extent of absorption from sprinkle equaled that from syrup (relative bioavailability = 1.02), but absorption was slower (time to maximum concentration = 4.2 vs 0.9 hour; p less than 0.01). Fluctuations in serum concentrations were less with sprinkle (34.8% vs 62.3%; p less than 0.01). Sprinkle was preferred by 9 of the 12 parents because of east of administration, and by nine of the children because of improved palatability. We conclude that sprinkle may be substituted for syrup without changing the daily dose. Furthermore, sprinkle, because of its prolonged absorption, may be given every 12 hours to children receiving monotherapy. Compliance may be enhanced because of the more convenient dosing schedules and the high degree of patient and parent acceptance. PMID:1552406

Cloyd, J C; Kriel, R L; Jones-Saete, C M; Ong, B Y; Jancik, J T; Remmel, R P

1992-04-01

199

Alternatives for clarifying glucose syrup obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of starch  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The present paper studies some routes for separating and purifying glucose syrup obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of potato starch. The clarifying process is done in three stages. The first one (solids remotion is done by applying conventional solid-liquid separation techniiques such as sedimentation, centrifugation and filtration, as well as studying the effect of using flocculant and coagulant agents, prior to the already mentioned operations. Purification is done by adding decolouring agents, followed by ultrafiltration of the syrup. The last step (concentration is done by vacuum evaporation. The results showed that separation, centrifuging and sedimation reached 50% yield whilst filtration and ultrafiltration achieved 78% and 98% respectively. It was found that adsorbent agents such as activated carbon and diatomaceous earth were effective in removing colour during the purification stage. The most suitable alternative for separation can be suggested from the foregoing, allowing a syrup to be obtained having similar characteristics and propierties to the commercial product. The most appropriate technological module for carrying out the operation is also represented.

Gloria Teresa Cruz Guerrero

2010-03-01

200

Oral Communication across the Curriculum  

Science.gov (United States)

Proficiency in oral communication is necessary in school and in society. To do well in the different curriculum areas, pupils must speak with clarity and understanding. For example, in a discussion group in the social studies involving the topic "the pros and cons of raising taxes," pupils need to express knowledgeable ideas with appropriate voice…

Ediger, Marlow

2011-01-01

201

Evaluation of topical erythromycin and topical lactate with or without systemic ketoconazole in acne vulgaris  

OpenAIRE

Four groups of 16 patients each, having acne vulgaris, were treated with (1) 5% lactate lotion, applied all over the face twice a day, (2) 5% lactate lotion topically along with 200 mg ketoconazole orally per day, (3) 2% erythromycin lotion topically all over the face twice a day, and (4) 2% topical erythromycin lotion with oral ketoconazole, respectively. The efficacy of these regimes was evaluated by counting the number of comedones, inflammatory lesions, and cys...

Liani Lalthleng; Pasricha J

1992-01-01

202

Methods to Oral English Practice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In recent years, the people wake up gradually that oral English takes an important position in communication. According to College English Curriculum Requirements, the objective of College English is to develop students’ ability to use English in a well-rounded way, especially in listening and speaking. The basic requirement of oral English is that students should be able to communicate in English in the course of learning, to conduct discussions on a given theme, and to talk about everyday topics in English. They should be able to give, after some preparation, short talks on familiar topics with clear articulation and basically correct pronunciation and intonation. They are expected to be able to use basic conversational strategies in dialogue. In order to improve oral English, the students should use some effective approaches to practice.

Liangguang Huang

2010-05-01

203

Oral Cancer  

Science.gov (United States)

... changes in food consistency to exercises for weak oral muscles to learning totally new ways to swallow. In many cases, improvement is evident within several months. What other organizations have information about oral cancer? This list is not exhaustive and inclusion ...

204

Stability of itraconazole in an extemporaneously compounded oral liquid.  

Science.gov (United States)

The stability of itraconazole in an extemporaneously compounded oral liquid formulation was studied. A suspension was prepared from the beads contained in commercially available 100-mg itraconazole capsules and sufficient Simple Syrup, NF, to make a final volume of 60 mL. The final concentration of itraconazole in the suspension was 40 mg/mL. Three identical volumes of each suspension were prepared and stored in 2-oz capped, amber glass prescription bottles and refrigerated at 4 degrees C (range, 2-6 degrees C). Immediately after preparation and at 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days, samples were visually inspected and assayed in duplicate by high-performance liquid chromatography; the pH of the samples was also determined. On day 35, the mean +/- S.D. percentage of initial itraconazole concentration remaining in the three suspensions was 95.3 +/- 2.2%. The color, odor, and pH of the samples did not change appreciably over the study period. Itraconazole 40 mg/mL in an oral liquid compounded from simple syrup and beads from capsules, stored in amber glass bottles, was stable for 35 days at 4 degrees C. PMID:12879547

Jacobson, P A; Johnson, C E; Walters, J R

1995-01-15

205

Oral History in the Digital Age  

Science.gov (United States)

The Oral History in the Digital Age website connects interested persons and organizations to a range of resources related to crafting a meaningful and dynamic oral history project. Crafted by people at Michigan State University with funds from the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS), the site contains critical essays, How-To guides, and an elaborate wiki. The Getting Started area is a good place to begin, as it features helpful playlists about oral history projects. The Essays tab leads to another highly informative section of the site. The short pieces in this section are divided into three topics: Collecting, Curating, and Disseminating. The individual essays include "Enhancing Discovery: Connecting Users to Your Oral History Collections Online" and "Oral History and Social Networks: From Promotion to Relationship Building." Finally, the Ask Doug option features expert responses to key questions on oral history projects from noted oral historian Doug Boyd.

2013-01-01

206

Oral Myiasis  

OpenAIRE

Oral myiasis is a rare disease that is most common in developing countries and is associated with poor oral hygiene, suppurating lesions, severe halitosis and other predisposing conditions. This paper describes a case of oral myiasis in a 22-year-old female patient who presented with acute upper lip swelling with an extensive necrotic area in the anterior region of the maxilla and fetid odor. The diagnosis was based on the typical clinical features and the visual presence of the larvae. The p...

Leite Cavalcanti Alessandro; Lucas Neto Alfredo; de Farias Aires Júnior Fernando Antonio; Morais Lucas João; de Castro Cardoso Lucas Rilva Suely

2011-01-01

207

Oral Thrush (For Parents)  

Science.gov (United States)

... Sports: Keeping Kids Safe Concussions: What to Know Oral Thrush KidsHealth > Parents > Infections > Skin Infections & Rashes > Oral ... article? About Oral Thrush Symptoms Prevention Treatment About Oral Thrush Oral thrush is a very common infection ...

208

Irradiation mucositis and oral flora  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This study, which is motivated by the substantial morbidity of local signs of mucositis and generalized symptoms that result from mucositis induced by therapeutic irradiation, has the following objectives: To investigate if it is possible to prevent irradiation mucositis via oral flora elimination, and, if it is true that flora plays a role in irradiation mucositis, what fraction of the oral flora may be involved; to evaluate oral Gram-negative bacillary carriage; to investigate the possibility to eradicate Gram-negative bacilli from the oral cavity; to evaluate oral yeast carriage; to investigate the possibility to eradicate yeasts stomatitis and the 'selectivity' of elimination of flora. Two methods are described for monitoring alterations of mucositis of the oral cavity and changes in oral flora. Chlorhexidine has been tested as the commonly used prophylaxis. The effect of chlorhexidine 0.1% rinses on oral flora and mucositis has been studied in a prospective placebo controlled double blind randomized programme. The results of the influence of saliva on the antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine and the results of selective elimination of oral flora in irradiated patients who have head and neck cancer are reported. Salivary inactivation of the topical antimicrobials used for selective elimination of oral flora has been studied and the results are reported. Finally, the objectives that have been achieved (or not) are delineated. The significance of the results of tated. The significance of the results of the study are discussed in terms of published information and further lines of research are suggested. (author). 559 refs.; 29 figs.; 20 tabs

209

Oral myiasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oral myiasis is a rare disease that is most common in developing countries and is associated with poor oral hygiene, suppurating lesions, severe halitosis and other predisposing conditions. This paper describes a case of oral myiasis in a 22-year-old female patient who presented with acute upper lip swelling with an extensive necrotic area in the anterior region of the maxilla and fetid odor. The diagnosis was based on the typical clinical features and the visual presence of the larvae. The patient's management included surgical exploration to remove the larvae and the necrotic tissue, followed by scaling and oral hygiene instruction. Upon treatment, the larvae were eliminated, and complete lesion healing and remission of symptoms were observed within 21 days.

Leite Cavalcanti Alessandro

2008-01-01

210

Propranolol Oral  

Science.gov (United States)

... whole. Dilute the concentrated oral liquid with water, juice, or soft drinks, or mix it with applesauce ... your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

211

A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial of active manuka honey and standard oral care for radiation-induced oral mucositis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our aim was to investigate the effect of active manuka honey on radiation-induced mucositis. A total of 131 patients diagnosed with head and neck cancer who were having radiotherapy to the oral cavity or oropharyngeal area were recruited into the study, and were randomly allocated to take either manuka honey or placebo (golden syrup) 20 ml 4 times daily for 6 weeks. Mucositis was assessed according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) scale at baseline, weekly during radiotherapy, and twice weekly thereafter until the mucositis resolved. The patient's weight was recorded at the same time as the mucositis was assessed. Throat swabs to identify bacterial or fungal infections were taken at baseline, and during and after radiotherapy. There was no significant difference between honey and golden syrup in their effects on mucositis. Active manuka honey did not improve mucositis, but both the honey and the syrup seemed to be associated with a reduction in bacterial infections. Compliance was a problem after the onset of mucositis, which may have affected the findings. PMID:21636188

Bardy, Joy; Molassiotis, Alex; Ryder, W David; Mais, Kathleen; Sykes, Andrew; Yap, Beng; Lee, Lip; Kaczmarski, Ed; Slevin, Nicholas

2012-04-01

212

Evaluation of the Nutritional Value of Functional Yogurt Resulting from Combination of Date Palm Syrup and Skim Milk  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this study was to use date palm syrup as a part of water (v/v used in reconstituting skim milk powder in processing yogurt with 14% total solids. Physical properties such as sensory characteristics and apparent viscosity were evaluated. To evaluate the nutritional value of yogurt, antioxidant values were monitored during storage and the sample which recorded the highest values would determine its chemical composition. In addition, some micronutrients (HCl-soluble minerals and (folate and C vitamins compared to plain yogurt. Results showed that yogurt enriched with 10% date syrup had a significant sweetness, recorded the highest antioxidant values, higher in HCl-soluble minerals and folate concentration compared to plain yogurt. It could be concluded that numerous health benefits beyond its nutritional value have been associated with consuming yogurt enriched with 10% date palm syrup.

A.F. Sayed

2010-01-01

213

Headache Topics  

Science.gov (United States)

Home » My Headache » Headache Topic Sheets Headache Topic Sheets Consumer Topics Consumer Medications Spanish Abdominal Migraine Acupuncture Alcohol and Headaches Allergy and Headaches Analgesic Rebound Anemia Arteriovenous Malformation Arthritis Aura Basilar ...

214

Fast determination of diphenhydramine hydrochloride in reconstitutable syrups by CWT, PLS AND PCR methods.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diphenhydramine hydrochloride (DPH), a histamine H1-receptor antagonist, is widely used as antiallergic, antiemetic and antitussive drug found in many pharmaceutical preparations. In this study, a new reconstitutable syrup formulation of DPH was prepared because it is more stable in solid form than that in liquid form. The quantitative estimation of the DPH content of a reconstitutable syrup formulation in the presence of pharmaceutical excipients, D-sorbitol, sodium citrate, sodium benzoate and sodium EDTA is not possible by the direct absorbance measurement. Therefore, a signal processing approach based on continuous wavelet transform was used to determine the DPH in the reconstitutable syrup formulations and to eliminate the effect of excipients on the analysis. The absorption spectra of DPH in the range of 5.0-40.0 ?g/mL were recorded between 200-300 nm. Various wavelet families were tested and Biorthogonal1.1 continuous wavelet transform (BIOR1.1-CWT) was found to be optimal signal processing family to get fast and desirable determination results and to overcome excipient interference effects. For a comparison of the experimental results obtained by partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR) methods were applied to the quantitative prediction of DPH in the mentioned samples. The validity of the proposed BIOR1.1-CWT, PLS and PCR methods were achieved analyzing the prepared samples containing the mentioned excipients and using standard addition technique. It was observed that the proposed graphical and numerical approaches are suitable for the quantitative analysis of DPH in samples including excipients. PMID:25362800

Devrim, Burcu; Dinç, Erdal; Bozkir, Asuman

2014-01-01

215

Minerais em melados e em caldos de cana Minerals in sugar cane syrup and cane juice  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A cana-de-açúcar está entre as culturas que apresenta larga escala de adaptações às condições climáticas, sendo utilizada para a fabricação de diversos produtos. Dentre os produtos derivados da cana-de-açúcar, o melado é tido popularmente como um alimento rico em ferro. Este trabalho objetivou conhecer a concentração de alguns minerais em melados comerciais e em melados preparados com equipamentos de aço inoxidável. Ao todo foram 20 amostras, 10 de cada tipo. As amostras foram preparadas para análise por oxidação da matéria orgânica por via úmida e os teores de Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn e Fe foram determinados por espectroscopia de absorção atômica, Na e K por fotometria de chama e P por colorimetria. Concluiu-se, com este trabalho, que os teores médios dos minerais Fe, P, Na e Mg foram significativamente mais elevados nos melados comerciais do que nos melados feitos com equipamentos inox. O contrário foi encontrado para o mineral cálcio, que apresentou teor mais elevado nos melados feitos no laboratório, mas condizentes com os teores encontrados nos caldos de cana. Não houve diferença significativa nos teores dos demais minerais.Sugar cane is an easily adaptable crop to diverse climate conditions, and it is used in the manufacturing of many different products. Among those products is the syrup, which is popularly known to be good sources of iron. In this work, we aimed to measure the concentration of some minerals in commercial sugar cane syrup brands and syrup prepared in the laboratory using stainless steel equipment. A total of 20 samples were analyzed, 10 of commercial brands and ten prepared in the laboratory. The samples were prepared by wet-air oxidation of organic matter and the contents of Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Fe were determined by atomic absorption. Na and K were determined by photometry and P by colorimetry. It was found that the mean concentration of Fe, P, Na, and Mn were higher in the commercial products than in that prepared in the laboratory using stainless steel equipment. On the other hand, it was found that the calcium content was higher in the laboratory made syrup, which is in agreement with the Ca content found for the sugarcane juice. There was no significant difference in the concentration of the other tested minerals.

Fernanda dos Santos Nogueira

2009-12-01

216

Minerais em melados e em caldos de cana / Minerals in sugar cane syrup and cane juice  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available A cana-de-açúcar está entre as culturas que apresenta larga escala de adaptações às condições climáticas, sendo utilizada para a fabricação de diversos produtos. Dentre os produtos derivados da cana-de-açúcar, o melado é tido popularmente como um alimento rico em ferro. Este trabalho objetivou conhe [...] cer a concentração de alguns minerais em melados comerciais e em melados preparados com equipamentos de aço inoxidável. Ao todo foram 20 amostras, 10 de cada tipo. As amostras foram preparadas para análise por oxidação da matéria orgânica por via úmida e os teores de Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn e Fe foram determinados por espectroscopia de absorção atômica, Na e K por fotometria de chama e P por colorimetria. Concluiu-se, com este trabalho, que os teores médios dos minerais Fe, P, Na e Mg foram significativamente mais elevados nos melados comerciais do que nos melados feitos com equipamentos inox. O contrário foi encontrado para o mineral cálcio, que apresentou teor mais elevado nos melados feitos no laboratório, mas condizentes com os teores encontrados nos caldos de cana. Não houve diferença significativa nos teores dos demais minerais. Abstract in english Sugar cane is an easily adaptable crop to diverse climate conditions, and it is used in the manufacturing of many different products. Among those products is the syrup, which is popularly known to be good sources of iron. In this work, we aimed to measure the concentration of some minerals in commer [...] cial sugar cane syrup brands and syrup prepared in the laboratory using stainless steel equipment. A total of 20 samples were analyzed, 10 of commercial brands and ten prepared in the laboratory. The samples were prepared by wet-air oxidation of organic matter and the contents of Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn, Zn, and Fe were determined by atomic absorption. Na and K were determined by photometry and P by colorimetry. It was found that the mean concentration of Fe, P, Na, and Mn were higher in the commercial products than in that prepared in the laboratory using stainless steel equipment. On the other hand, it was found that the calcium content was higher in the laboratory made syrup, which is in agreement with the Ca content found for the sugarcane juice. There was no significant difference in the concentration of the other tested minerals.

Fernanda dos Santos, Nogueira; Karla Silva, Ferreira; Josil de Barros, Carneiro Junior; Luís César, Passoni.

2009-12-01

217

Unusual imaging findings in brain and spinal cord in two siblings with maple syrup urine disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare metabolic disease affecting the neural tissue. While the brain abnormalities present on MRI are well known, spinal imaging features have not been studied. We herewith report an unusual finding of enlarged Virchow Robin spaces in brain and novel spinal cord changes in two biochemically diagnosed cases of MSUD. To the best of our knowledge, spinal MRI findings in cases of MSUD have not been previously reported. Knowledge of spinal MRI findings may be useful in diagnosis of this rare disorder. PMID:23279201

Bhat, Maya; Prasad, Chandrajit; Bindu, Parayil Sankaran; Aziz, Zarina; Christopher, Rita; Saini, Jitender

2013-10-01

218

Management of a Woman With Maple Syrup Urine Disease During Pregnancy, Delivery, and Lactation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inherited disorder of metabolism of the branched-chain amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Complications of acute elevation in plasma leucine include ketoacidosis and risk of cerebral edema, which can be fatal. Individuals with MSUD are at risk of metabolic crisis throughout life, especially at times of physiological stress. We present a case of successful management of a woman with MSUD through pregnancy, delivery, postpartum, and lactation, including nutrition therapy using modified parenteral nutrition. PMID:24618664

Wessel, Ann E; Mogensen, Kris M; Rohr, Frances; Erick, Miriam; Neilan, Edward G; Chopra, Sameer; Levy, Harvey L; Gray, Kathryn J; Wilkins-Haug, Louise; Berry, Gerard T

2014-03-11

219

Characterization of various fruit syrups by UV - Vis and HPLC analysis.  

Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

Messina : Chromaleont S.r.L, 2012 - (Sandra, P.; Mondello, L.). s. 491 [International Symposium on Capillary Chromatography /36./ and GC x GC Symposium /9./. 27.5.2012-01.06.2012, Riva del Garda] R&D Projects: GA ?R(CZ) GPP503/11/P523; GA ?R(CZ) GAP206/11/0138; GA ?R(CZ) GAP106/12/0522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : UV-Vis and HPLC * phenolic antioxidants * fruit syrups Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation

Š?avíková, Lenka; Hohnová, Barbora; Roth, Michal

220

New rapid Derivative spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods for assay of loratadine in tablets and syrups  

OpenAIRE

New rapid first-derivative spectrophotometric (UVDS) and a stability-indicating high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) methods were developed, validated and successfully applied in the analysis of loratadine (LT) in tablets and syrups. In the UVDS method, 0.1 M HCl was used as solvent. The measurements were made at 312.4 nm in the first order derivative spectra. The HPLC method was carried out on a RP-18 column with a mobile phase composed of methanol-water-tetrahydrofuran (50:30:20, ...

Nogueira, Nayane M.; Alves, Joa?o M. P.; Santoro, Maria Ines Rocha Miritello; Singh, Anil K.

2010-01-01

221

Improvement of effect of water-in-oil microemulsion as an oral delivery system for fexofenadine: in vitro and in vivo studies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available E Gundogdu1,2, I Gonzalez Alvarez3, E Karasulu1,21Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Biopharmaceutics and Pharmacokinetics, 2Center For Drug Research and Development and Pharmacokinetic Applications, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey; 3Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Engineering, Pharmaceutical Technical Section, Research Group on Drug Absorption, Universidad Miguel Hernández, Alicante, SpainAbstract: Fexofenadine (FEX has high solubility and low permeability (BCS, Class III. In this work, novel FEX loaded water in oil microemulsion (w/o was designed to improve bioavailability and compared with Fexofen® syrup in in vitro and in vivo studies. In addition, pharmacokinetic parameters in permeability studies were estimated by using WinNonLin software program. w/o microemulsion system was optimized using a pseudoternary phase diagram, composed of span 80/lutrol F 68 (9.5:0.5 w/w, oleic acide, isopropyl alcohol and water as surfactant mixture; oil and cosurfactant was developed for oral drug delivery. w/o microemulsion systems were characterized by phase behavior, particle size, viscosity and solubilization capacity. In vitro studies were studied using Caco-2 cell monolayer. Pharmacokinetic parameters of w/o microemulsion were investigated in rabbits and compared to Fexofen® syrup. Fexofen® syrup and microemulsion were administered by oral gavage at 6 mg/kg of the same concentration. The experimental results indicated that microemulsion (HLB = 5.53 formed nanometer sized droplets (33.29 ± 1.76 and had good physical stability. This microemulsion increased the oral bioavailability of FEX which was highly water-soluble but fairly impermeable. The relative bioavailability of FEX microemulsion was about 376.76% compared with commercial syrup in rabbits. In vitro experiments were further employed for the enhanced effect of the microemulsion for FEX. These results suggest that novel w/o microemulsion plays an important role in enhancing oral bioavailability of low permeability drugs.Keywords: pharmacokinetic, bioavailability, permeability, oleic acid

Gundogdu E

2011-08-01

222

Topical treatment of melasma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Melasma is a common hypermelanotic disorder affecting the face that is associated with considerable psychological impacts. The management of melasma is challenging and requires a long-term treatment plan. In addition to avoidance of aggravating factors like oral pills and ultraviolet exposure, topical therapy has remained the mainstay of treatment. Multiple options for topical treatment are available, of which hydroquinone (HQ is the most commonly prescribed agent. Besides HQ, other topical agents for which varying degrees of evidence for clinical efficacy exist include azelaic acid, kojic acid, retinoids, topical steroids, glycolic acid, mequinol, and arbutin. Topical medications modify various stages of melanogenesis, the most common mode of action being inhibition of the enzyme, tyrosinase. Combination therapy is the preferred mode of treatment for the synergism and reduction of untoward effects. The most popular combination consists of HQ, a topical steroid, and retinoic acid. Prolonged HQ usage may lead to untoward effects like depigmentation and exogenous ochronosis. The search for safer alternatives has given rise to the development of many newer agents, several of them from natural sources. Well-designed controlled clinical trials are needed to clarify their role in the routine management of melasma.

Bandyopadhyay Debabrata

2009-01-01

223

The effects of 90-day feeding of D-psicose syrup in male wistar rats  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available D-Psicose is a rare sugar present in small quantities in natural products. In a previous study, we showed that D-psicose suppresses increase in plasma glucose and reduces body fat accumulation in rats. Based on acute and chronic toxicity testing in rats, D-psicose is classified as an ordinary and safe substance. Recently, we developed a high D-psicose syrup (PS made from high fructose corn syrup (HFCS by the alkaline isomerization method. However, the safety of PS as a food additive has not been demonstrated. In this study, we investigated the effects of 90-day feeding of PS in male Wistar rats. The rats were fed diets containing 3% D-psicose (control or 4.3% PS for 90 days. The body weight gain and intra-abdominal adipose tissue weight did not differ between the control and PS group. The weights of the tissues did not differ between the two dietary groups. In clinical chemistry and hematological analyses, no differences were found between the control and PS groups. No gross pathological findings were evident at dietary doses of 4.3% PS. Therefore, the present study found no adverse effects of PS in rats fed a diet containing 4.3% PS for 90 days.

Tatsuhiro Matsuo

2011-08-01

224

Optimization of biohydrogen production from sweet sorghum syrup using statistical methods  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This study employed statistically based experimental designs to optimize fermentation conditions for hydrogen production from sweet sorghum syrup by anaerobic mixed cultures. Initial screening of important factors influencing hydrogen production, i.e., total sugar, initial pH, nutrient solution, iron (II) sulphate (FeSO{sub 4}), peptone and sodium bicarbonate was conducted by the Plackett-Burman method. Results indicated that only FeSO{sub 4} had statistically significant (P {<=} 0.005) influences on specific hydrogen production (P{sub s}) while total sugar and initial pH had an interdependent effect on P{sub s}. Optimal conditions for the maximal P{sub s} were 25 g/L total sugar, 4.75 initial pH and 1.45 g/L FeSO{sub 4} in which P{sub s} of 6897 mL H{sub 2}/L was estimated. Estimated optimum conditions revealed only 0.04% difference from the actual P{sub s} of 6864 mL H{sub 2}/L which suggested that the optimal conditions obtained can be practically applied to produce hydrogen from sweet sorghum syrup with the least error. (author)

Saraphirom, Piyawadee [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Rajabhat Maha Sarakham University, A.Muang, Maha Sarakham 44000 (Thailand); Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Khon Kaen University, A. Muang, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Reungsang, Alissara [Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Technology, Khon Kaen University, A. Muang, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Fermentation Research Center for Value Added of Agricultural Products, Faculty of Technology, Khon Kaen University, A. Muang, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)

2010-12-15

225

[Production of sugar syrup containing rare sugar using dual-enzyme coupled reaction system].  

Science.gov (United States)

Enzymatic conversion is very important to produce functional rare sugars, but the conversion rate of single enzymes is generally low. To increase the conversion rate, a dual-enzyme coupled reaction system was developed. Dual-enzyme coupled reaction system was constructed using D-psicose-3-epimerase (DPE) and L-rhamnose isomerase (L-RhI), and used to convert D-fructose to D-psicose and D-allose. The ratio of DPE and L-RhI was 1:10 (W/W), and the concentration of DPE was 0.05 mg/mL. The optimum temperature was 60 degrees C and pH was 9.0. When the concentration of D-fructose was 2%, the reaction reached its equilibrium after 10 h, and the yield of D-psicose and D-allose was 5.12 and 2.04 g/L, respectively. Using the dual-enzymes coupled system developed in the current study, we could obtain sugar syrup containing functional rare sugar from fructose-rich raw material, such as high fructose corn syrup. PMID:24818483

Han, Wenjia; Zhu, Yueming; Bai, Wei; Izumori, Ken; Zhang, Tongcun; Sun, Yuanxia

2014-01-01

226

Pharmacological studies on siculine syrup. II: effects on smooth, skeletal and cardiovascular muscle preparations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Earlier pharmacological screening showed that siculine syrup (a traditional herbal remedy purported to be useful in the prevention and treatment of sickle cell pain - crises, due to sickle cell anaemia - SCA) had antisickling and analgesic activities as well as antimicrobial and diuretic effects. SCA is an important haemoglobinopathy in Africa and many other communities/countries worldwide, with relatively high morbidity and mortality. The present study was to determine the effects of the extract on various isolated muscle preparations - smooth, skeletal and cardiovascular. Siculine (4-20 microg/mL), like acetylcholine (40-400 microg/mL), contracted the isolated rat uterus concentration dependently. Similar effects were observed with the guinea-pig ileum and rabbit jejunum (2-20 microg/mL). In contrast to these effects, the direct (muscle) and indirect (nerve) stimulations of rat phrenic nerve-diaphragm were relaxed by siculine (4 and 8 microg/mL) and d-tubocurarine (0.8 microg/mL). Siculine also concentration-dependently decreased both the rate and force of contraction of guinea-pig atria and rabbit heart and also resulted in a fall in cat blood pressure in a manner similar to those of acetylcholine. The possible therapeutic and/or toxicological consequences of these effects including the hypotensive activity is noteworthy since siculine syrup is used by the local population for the prevention and treatment of sickle cell pain crises. PMID:19003939

Kwanashie, H O; Ejiofor, J I; Abdu-Aguye, I; Nkweteyim, J N; Olanipekun, M R

2009-02-01

227

Photodynamic treatment of oral lesions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Photodynamic treatment (PDT) was first started in the oral cavity in the mid 1980s. Hematoporphyrins were rapidly replaced by Photofrin and meta-tetrahydroxyphenylchlorin (mTHPC) as photosensitisers of choice, and over the years these two have been approved by several health authorities for PDT. 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and some dyes (e.g., toluidine and methyene blue) have also been tested. Several different nonthermal lasers have been used and lately light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have been tried. Most of the clinical treatments have been carried out on oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSSC), either primary or metastatic lesions, with good results. The treatment leaves little scarring and can be used before, in conjunction with, and adjunctive to other treatment modalities. The greatest disadvantage is that the patients are photosensitive for several weeks following systemic administration of the photosensitiser. PDT is now an accepted palliative treatment. Systemic administration of ALA has been more successful than local application in the treatment of precancerous lesions such as oral leukoplakia. PDT following topical application of photosensitiser (metylene blue and methyl-ALA) has shown improvement in cutaneous diseases of the oral mucous membrane such as oral lichen planus. The bactericidal effect of PDT has also been tested on oral plaque, but little clinical work has been performed so far. Instead of mechanical cleaning or antibiotic therapy, PDT may also play a role in dental diseases. PMID:17725538

Kvaal, Sigrid I; Warloe, Trond

2007-01-01

228

Further investigation into maple syrup yields 3 new lignans, a new phenylpropanoid, and 26 other phytochemicals.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup is made by boiling the sap collected from certain maple ( Acer ) species. During this process, phytochemicals naturally present in tree sap are concentrated in maple syrup. Twenty-three phytochemicals from a butanol extract of Canadian maple syrup (MS-BuOH) had previously been reported; this paper reports the isolation and identification of 30 additional compounds (1-30) from its ethyl acetate extract (MS-EtOAc) not previously reported from MS-BuOH. Of these, 4 compounds are new (1-3, 18) and 20 compounds (4-7, 10-12, 14-17, 19, 20, 22-24, 26, and 28-30) are being reported from maple syrup for the first time. The new compounds include 3 lignans and 1 phenylpropanoid: 5-(3?,4?-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-3-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxybenzyl)-4-(hydroxymethyl)dihydrofuran-2-one (1), (erythro,erythro)-1-[4-[2-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy]-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl]-1,2,3-propanetriol (2), (erythro,threo)-1-[4-[2-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy]-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl]-1,2,3-propanetriol (3), and 2,3-dihydroxy-1-(3,4- dihydroxyphenyl)-1-propanone (18), respectively. In addition, 25 other phenolic compounds were isolated including (threo,erythro)-1-[4-[(2-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy]-3-methoxyphenyl]-1,2,3-propanetriol (4), (threo,threo)-1-[4-[(2-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy]-3-methoxyphenyl]-1,2,3-propanetriol (5), threo-guaiacylglycerol-?-O-4'-dihydroconiferyl alcohol (6), erythro-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-[4-(3-hydroxypropyl)-2,6-dimethoxyphenoxy]-1,3-propanediol (7), 2-[4-[2,3-dihydro-3-(hydroxymethyl)-5-(3-hydroxypropyl)-7-methoxy-2-benzofuranyl]-2,6-dimethoxyphenoxy]-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,3-propanediol (8), acernikol (9), leptolepisol D (10), buddlenol E (11), (1S,2R)-2-[2,6-dimethoxy-4-[(1S,3aR,4S,6aR)-tetrahydro-4-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1H,3H-furo[3,4-c]furan-1-yl]phenoxy]-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,3-propanediol (12), syringaresinol (13), isolariciresinol (14), icariside E4 (15), sakuraresinol (16), 1,2-diguaiacyl-1,3-propanediol (17), 2,3-dihydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-propanone (19), 3-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)propan-1-one (20), dihydroconiferyl alcohol (21), 4-acetylcatechol (22), 3',4',5'-trihydroxyacetophenone (23), 3,4-dihydroxy-2-methylbenzaldehyde (24), protocatechuic acid (25), 4-(dimethoxymethyl)pyrocatechol (26), tyrosol (27), isofraxidin (28), and 4-hydroxycatechol (29). One sesquiterpene, phaseic acid (30), which is a known metabolite of the phytohormone abscisic acid, was also isolated from MS-EtOAc. The antioxidant activities of MS-EtOAc (IC(50) = 75.5 ?g/mL) and the pure isolates (IC(50) ca. 68-3000 ?M) were comparable to that of vitamin C (IC(50) = 40 ?M) and the synthetic commercial antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene (IC(50) = 3000 ?M), in the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay. The current study advances scientific knowledge of maple syrup constituents and suggests that these diverse phytochemicals may impart potential health benefits to this natural sweetener. PMID:21675726

Li, Liya; Seeram, Navindra P

2011-07-27

229

Oral Sex, Oral Health and Orogenital Infections  

OpenAIRE

Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Althou...

Saini Rajiv; Saini Santosh; Sharma Sugandha

2010-01-01

230

Oral Cancer Foundation  

Science.gov (United States)

... Other People Helping People Patient Support Forum Resources Oral Cancer News Oral Cancer News Other Resources Insurance Information ... Event Calendar Videos & Images OCF YouTube Channel | The Oral Cancer Foundation The Oral Cancer Foundation is a national ...

231

Formation of Hydroxymethylfurfural in Domestic High Fructose Corn Syrup and Its Toxicity to the Honey Bee (Apis mellifera)  

Science.gov (United States)

In the U.S. high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has become a sucrose replacement for honey bees and has widespread use as a sweetener in many processed foods and beverages for human consumption. It is utilized by commercial beekeepers as a food for honey bees for several reasons: to promote brood produ...

232

Physiological characterization of brewer's yeast in high-gravity beer fermentations with glucose or maltose syrups as adjuncts  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

High-gravity brewing, which can decrease production costs by increasing brewery yields, has become an attractive alternative to traditional brewing methods. However, as higher sugar concentration is required, the yeast is exposed to various stresses during fermentation. We evaluated the influence of high-gravity brewing on the fermentation performance of the brewer’s yeast under model brewing conditions. The lager brewer’s strain Weihenstephan 34/70 strain was characterized at three different gravities by adding either glucose or maltose syrups to the basic wort. We observed that increased gravity resulted in a lower specific growth rate, a longer lag phase before initiation of ethanol production, incomplete sugar utilization, and an increase in the concentrations of ethyl acetate and isoamyl acetate in the final beer. Increasing the gravity by adding maltose syrup as opposed to glucose syrup resulted in more balanced fermentation performance in terms of higher cell numbers, respectively, higher wort fermentability and a more favorable flavor profile of the final beer. Our study underlines the effects of the various stress factors on brewer’s yeast metabolism and the influence of the type of sugar syrups on the fermentation performance and the flavor profile of the final beer.

Piddocke, Maya Petrova; kreisz, Stefan

2009-01-01

233

Oral calcitonin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ronald C Hamdy,1,2 Dane N Daley11Osteoporosis Center, College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, 2Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Johnson City, TN, USAAbstract: Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the C-cells of the thyroid gland in response to elevations of the plasma calcium level. It reduces bone resorption by inhibiting mature active osteoclasts and increases renal calcium excretion. It is used in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget's disease of bone, and malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Synthetic and recombinant calcitonin preparations are available; both have similar pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. As calcitonin is a peptide, the traditional method of administration has been parenteral or intranasal. This hinders its clinical use: adherence with therapy is notoriously low, and withdrawal from clinical trials has been problematic. An oral formulation would be more attractive, practical, and convenient to patients. In addition to its effect on active osteoclasts and renal tubules, calcitonin has an analgesic action, possibly mediated through ?-endorphins and the central modulation of pain perception. It also exerts a protective action on cartilage and may be useful in the management of osteoarthritis and possibly rheumatoid arthritis. Oral formulations of calcitonin have been developed using different techniques. The most studied involves drug-delivery carriers such as Eligen® 8-(N-2hydroxy-5-chloro-benzoyl-amino-caprylic acid (5-CNAC (Emisphere Technologies, Cedar Knolls, NJ. Several factors affect the bioavailability and efficacy of orally administered calcitonin, including amount of water used to take the tablet, time of day the tablet is taken, and proximity to intake of a meal. Preliminary results looked promising. Unfortunately, in two Phase III studies, oral calcitonin (0.8 mg with 200 mg 5-CNAC, once a day for postmenopausal osteoporosis and twice a day for osteoarthritis failed to meet key end points, and in December 2011, Novartis Pharma AG announced that it would not pursue further clinical development of oral calcitonin for postmenopausal osteoporosis or osteoarthritis. A unique feature of calcitonin is that it is able to uncouple bone turnover, reducing bone resorption without affecting bone formation and therefore increasing bone mass and improving bone quality. This effect, however, may be dose-dependent, with higher doses inhibiting both resorption and formation. Because so many factors affect the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of calcitonin, especially orally administered calcitonin, much work remains to be done to explore the full pharmacologic spectrum and potential of calcitonin and determine the optimum dose and timing of administration, as well as water and food intake.Keywords: oral calcitonin, osteoporosis, fractures, arthritis, pain

Hamdy RC

2012-09-01

234

Stability of tacrolimus in an extemporaneously compounded oral liquid.  

Science.gov (United States)

The stability of tacrolimus in an extemporaneously compounded oral liquid formulation was studied. A suspension was prepared by mixing the contents of commercially available 5-mg capsules of tacrolimus with equal amounts of Ora-Plus and Simple Syrup, NF, to make a final volume of 60 mL. The final concentration of tacrolimus in the suspension was 0.5 mg/mL. Six identical suspensions were prepared, placed in three glass and three plastic amber prescription bottles, and stored at room temperature (24-26 degrees C). Immediately after preparation and at 7, 15, 30, 45, and 56 days, samples were removed and assayed in duplicate by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography. At least 98% of the initial tacrolimus concentrations remained in all suspensions throughout the study period. Color, order, and pH did not change appreciably over the study period. Tacrolimus 0.5 mg/mL compounded extemporaneously in equal amounts of Ora-Plus and Simple Syrup, NF, was stable at 24-26 degrees C for at least 56 days in both glass and plastic amber prescription bottles. PMID:9117806

Jacobson, P A; Johnson, C E; West, N J; Foster, J A

1997-01-15

235

Oral care.  

Science.gov (United States)

Adequate dental and oral hygiene may become a challenge for all users and especially for elderly people and young children because of their limited motor skills. The same holds true for patients undergoing/recovering from chemo-/radiotherapy with accompanying sensitive mucosal conditions. Poor dental hygiene can result in tooth decay, gingivitis, periodontitis, tooth loss, bad breath (halitosis), fungal infection and gum diseases. The use of a toothbrush is the most important measure for oral hygiene. Toothbrushes with soft bristles operated carefully by hand or via an electric device help to remove plaque and to avoid mucosal trauma. A handlebar with a grip cover can be helpful for manually disabled patients or for those with reduced motor skills. In case of oral hygiene at the bedside or of patients during/after chemo-/radiotherapy a gauze pad can be helpful for gently cleaning the teeth, gums and tongue. The use of fluoride toothpaste is imperative for the daily oral hygiene. Detergents such as sodium lauryl sulphate improve the cleaning action but may also dehydrate and irritate the mucous membrane. The use of products containing detergents and flavouring agents (peppermint, menthol, cinnamon) should therefore be avoided by bedridden patients or those with dry mouth and sensitive mucosa. Aids for suitable interdental cleaning, such as dental floss, interdental brushes or dental sticks, are often complicated to operate. Their correct use should be instructed by healthcare professionals. To support dental care, additional fluoridation with a fluoride gel or rinse can be useful. Products further containing antiseptics such as chlorhexidine or triclosan reduce the quantity of bacteria in the mouth. For patients undergoing or having undergone radio-/chemotherapy, a mouthwash that concomitantly moisturizes the oral mucosa is advisable. PMID:21325845

Hitz Lindenmüller, Irène; Lambrecht, J Thomas

2011-01-01

236

In vitro evaluation of alternative oral contrast agents for MRI of the gastrointestinal tract  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: In vitro evaluation of different materials as potential alternative oral contrast agents for small bowel MRI. Materials and methods: The T1 and T2 relaxation times of rose hip syrup, black currant extract, cocoa, iron-deferoxamine solution and a commonly used oral contrast material (1 mM Gd-DTPA) were determined in vitro at different concentrations on a 1.0 T clinical MR scanner. T1 values were obtained with an inversion prepared spoiled gradient echo sequence. T2 values were obtained using multiple echo sequences. Finally the materials were visualized on T1-, T2- and T2*-weighted MR images. Results: The relaxation times of the undiluted rose hip syrup (T1 = 110 ± 5 ms, T2 = 86 ± 3 ms), black currant extract (T1 = 55 ± 3 ms, T2 = 39 ± 2 ms) and 5 mM iron-deferoxamine solution (T1 = 104 ± 4 ms, T2 = 87 ± 2 ms) were much shorter than for a 1 mM Gd-DTPA solution (T1 = 180 ± 8 ms, T2 = 168 ± 5 ms). Dilution of black currant extract to 30% or a 3 mM iron-deferoxamine solution conducted to T1 relaxation times which are quite comparable to a 1 mM Gd-DTPA solution. Despite its much lower metal content an aqueous cocoa suspension (100 g/L) produced T2 relaxation times (T1 = 360 ± 21 ms, T2 = 81 ± 3 ms) more or less in the same range like the 5 mM iron-deferoxamine solution. Imaging of our in vitro model using clinical sequences allowed to anticipate the T1-, T2- and T2*-depiction of all used substances. Cocoa differed from all other materials with its low to other materials with its low to moderate signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted sequences. While all substances presented a linear 1/T1 and 1/T2 relationship towards concentration, rose hip syrup broke ranks with a disproportionately high increase of relaxation at higher concentrations. Conclusions: Rose hip syrup, black currant extract and iron-deferoxamine solution due to their positive T1 enhancement characteristics and drinkability appear to be valuable oral contrast agents for T1-weighted small bowel MRI. Cocoa with its differing relaxation and signal enhancement properties is a promising oral contrast agent but needs further clinical evaluation

237

Microbial and physicochemical assays of paracetamol in different brands of analgesic syrups sold in Sana’a City-Yemen  

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Full Text Available Context: Contamination of pharmaceuticals with microorganisms irrespective whether they are harmful or nonpathogenic can bring about changes in physicochemical characteristics of the drugs. Aims: To assay the microbial and physicochemical characteristics of paracetamol of two hundreds samples of different brands of analgesic syrups sold in Sana’a City, Yemen. Methods: Total viable aerobic count, type of isolated microorganisms, physical properties, and content of active ingredients were identified and evaluated by standard methods and techniques. The SPSS program was used to statistical analysis of variance for results obtained. Results: The total bacterial count of <10 CFU/mL and <100 CFU/mL in 179 (89.5% and 21 (10.5% samples, respectively was recorded, while the total fungal count was ?10 CFU/mL in all analyzed syrup samples. The isolated bacteria were Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus fulvum, and Staphylococcus epidermidis while isolated fungi were Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Penicillium notatum. Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger were the predominant bacteria and fungi isolated. The color results had a light red liquid with a sweet taste in the analyzed analgesic syrups. The pH values were ranged from 4.44–5.88. However, the density fluctuated from 1.149–1.184 g/mL. The paracetamol concentration as an active ingredient in the analgesic syrup was recorded from 98.19% – 106.53%. Conclusions: This finding showed that all analgesic syrups sold in Sana’a City followed Pharmacopeia specifications on microbial and physicochemical qualities.

Ali G. Al?Kaf

2015-02-01

238

Actividad antiartrítica del jarabe de Allium sativum L / Antiarthritic activity of Allium sativum L syrup  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Allium sativum L. es ampliamente utilizado por la población cubana en la medicina tradicional y natural para aliviar procesos inflamatorios y en especial en la artritis reumatoide; sin embargo, su actividad no ha sido demostrada científicamente como para poder establecer un ensayo clínico para su re [...] gistro y producción industrial. En el presente trabajo se evaluó la acción de un jarabe de Allium sativum L. sobre la artritis reumatoide experimental, empleando los modelos de edema de la pata y pleuresía en ratas Wistar, basados en la reacción pasiva de Arthus. En los dos modelos, se ensayaron placebo y dosis de 45, 90 y 180 mg/kg de peso corporal, en base a sólidos totales contenido en el jarabe de A. sativum. Como controles positivos se utilizó ibuprofeno y prednisona a las dosis de 200 y 10 mg/kg respectivamente. Tanto los controles positivos, como las dosis de jarabe de Allium sativum L. ensayadas disminuyeron el proceso inflamatorio desencadenado por la reacción antígeno anticuerpo que se logra mediante la reacción pasiva de Arthus, el antisuero de albúmina de huevo y antisuero de albúmina bovina para el edema de la pata y el desarrollo de pleuresía respectivamente. Abstract in english Allium sativum L is widely used by Cuban people in folk and natural medicine to alliviate inflammatory processes and specially in rheumatoid arthritis; however, its activity hasn’t scientifically enough demonstrated to stablish a clinical assay for its registration and industrial production. In pres [...] ent paper, action of a Allium sativum syrup on experimental rheumatoid arthritis was assessed, using models of leg edema and pleurisy in Wistar rats, based on passive reaction of Arthus. In two models, placebo and doses of 45, 90, and 180 mg/kg of body weight were assayed based on total solids in A.sativum syrup. As positive controls Ibuprofen and Prednisone were used at dosis of 200 and 10 mg/kg, respectively. Positive controls and assayed dosis of Allium sativum L syrup decreased inflammatory process triggered by antigen-antibody reaction achieved by means of passive reaction of Arthus, by means of egg albumin antiserum, and bovine albumin antiserum for leg edema and development of pleurisy, recpectively.

Juana I., Tillán Capó; Annia, Benítez López; Ivette, Hernández Paderni; Carmen, Carrillo.

2007-06-01

239

Actividad antiartrítica del jarabe de Allium sativum L Antiarthritic activity of Allium sativum L syrup  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Allium sativum L. es ampliamente utilizado por la población cubana en la medicina tradicional y natural para aliviar procesos inflamatorios y en especial en la artritis reumatoide; sin embargo, su actividad no ha sido demostrada científicamente como para poder establecer un ensayo clínico para su registro y producción industrial. En el presente trabajo se evaluó la acción de un jarabe de Allium sativum L. sobre la artritis reumatoide experimental, empleando los modelos de edema de la pata y pleuresía en ratas Wistar, basados en la reacción pasiva de Arthus. En los dos modelos, se ensayaron placebo y dosis de 45, 90 y 180 mg/kg de peso corporal, en base a sólidos totales contenido en el jarabe de A. sativum. Como controles positivos se utilizó ibuprofeno y prednisona a las dosis de 200 y 10 mg/kg respectivamente. Tanto los controles positivos, como las dosis de jarabe de Allium sativum L. ensayadas disminuyeron el proceso inflamatorio desencadenado por la reacción antígeno anticuerpo que se logra mediante la reacción pasiva de Arthus, el antisuero de albúmina de huevo y antisuero de albúmina bovina para el edema de la pata y el desarrollo de pleuresía respectivamente.Allium sativum L is widely used by Cuban people in folk and natural medicine to alliviate inflammatory processes and specially in rheumatoid arthritis; however, its activity hasn’t scientifically enough demonstrated to stablish a clinical assay for its registration and industrial production. In present paper, action of a Allium sativum syrup on experimental rheumatoid arthritis was assessed, using models of leg edema and pleurisy in Wistar rats, based on passive reaction of Arthus. In two models, placebo and doses of 45, 90, and 180 mg/kg of body weight were assayed based on total solids in A.sativum syrup. As positive controls Ibuprofen and Prednisone were used at dosis of 200 and 10 mg/kg, respectively. Positive controls and assayed dosis of Allium sativum L syrup decreased inflammatory process triggered by antigen-antibody reaction achieved by means of passive reaction of Arthus, by means of egg albumin antiserum, and bovine albumin antiserum for leg edema and development of pleurisy, recpectively.

Juana I. Tillán Capó

2007-06-01

240

Topical ketoprofen patch.  

Science.gov (United States)

Although oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are effective in the treatment of a variety of acute and chronic pain conditions, their use may be associated with serious systemic adverse effects, particularly gastrointestinal disorders. In order to minimise the incidence of systemic events related to such agents, topical NSAIDs have been developed. Topical NSAIDs, applied as gels, creams or sprays, penetrate the skin, subcutaneous fatty tissue and muscle in amounts that are sufficient to exert a therapeutic effect on peripheral and central mechanisms in the absence of high plasma concentrations. Data indicate that topical NSAIDs are effective at relieving pain in a number of acute and chronic pain indications. This review article discusses the pharmacokinetics, efficacy and tolerability of a new formulation of ketoprofen available as a topical patch. The topical patch containing ketoprofen 100mg as the active principle has been developed using a novel delivery system that dispenses therapeutic doses of the drug directly to the site of injury. Pharmacokinetic data indicate that although plasma levels of ketoprofen are higher when the drug is administered as a patch versus a gel, the total systemic bioavailability of ketoprofen 100 mg administered via a patch is no more than 10% of that reported for ketoprofen 100 mg administered orally. Because the patch facilitates ketoprofen delivery over a 24-hour period, the drug remains continually present in the tissue subjacent to the site of application. High tissue but low plasma ketoprofen concentrations mean that while tissue concentrations are high enough to exert a therapeutic effect, plasma concentrations remain low enough to not result in systemic adverse events caused by elevated serum NSAID levels. Phase III clinical trials in patients with non-articular rheumatism and traumatic painful soft tissue injuries showed that the topical ketoprofen patch was significantly more effective than placebo at reducing pain during daily activities and spontaneous pain after 7 days' treatment. Moreover, the topical ketoprofen patch was well tolerated; adverse events were primarily cutaneous in nature and occurred in a similar number of ketoprofen and placebo recipients suggesting that these events were related to the patch itself rather than the active ingredient. The incidence of gastrointestinal adverse events was low (ketoprofen and placebo. Thus, the topical ketoprofen patch appears to be a simple, effective and safe therapeutic option for the treatment of local painful inflammation. PMID:16274258

Mazières, Bernard

2005-01-01

241

Hypokalemic paralysis and respiratory failure due to excessive intake of licorice syrup  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Licorice is the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra, which has a herbal ingredient, glycyrrhizic acid. Excessive intake of licorice may cause a hypermineralocorticoidism-like syndrome characterized by sodium and water retention, hypokalemia, hypertension, metabolic alkalosis, low-renin activity, and hypoaldosteronism. In this paper, an 34 years old man who admitted to the emergency department with respiratory failure and marked muscle weakness of all extremities that progressed to paralysis after excessive intake of licorice syrup was presented. It was aimed to draw attention to the necessity of questioning whether there is excessive intake of licorice or not in patients who admitted to emergency department with paralysis and dyspnea. Plasma potassium concentration of the patient was 1.4 mmol/L. The patient\\'s respiratory distress and loss of muscle strength recovered completely after potassium replacement. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(2.000: 387-391

Mehmet Oguzhan Ay

2014-04-01

242

Imaging in classic form of maple syrup urine disease: a rare metabolic central nervous system.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism. The condition gets its name from the distinctive sweet odour of affected infants' urine. MSUD is caused by a deficiency of the branched-chain ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase enzyme complex, leading to accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, and valine) and their toxic by-products (ketoacids) in the blood and urine. Imaging is characterestized by MSUD oedema affecting the myelinated white matter. We present a neonate with classic type of MSUD and its imaging features on computed tomography, conventional magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. PMID:24049754

Jain, Aditi; Jagdeesh, K; Mane, Ranoji; Singla, Saurabh

2013-04-01

243

Detection of jaggery syrup in honey using near-infrared spectroscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, a near-infrared (NIR) filter-based technique along with chemometrics as an analytical tool was used for determination of adulteration of Indian honey with jaggery. A total of 56 honey samples adulterated with different concentrations of jaggery syrup were analyzed using the NIR transflectance method at different wavelengths for multivariate analysis to develop a calibration model for jaggery adulteration in honey samples. The data were compressed using principal component analysis method and the model was developed using partial least square regression. The adulteration of all of the samples can be predicted with a standard error of calibration of 4.55 and a coefficient of determination (R(2)) of 0.81. The results demonstrate that the NIR technique along with chemometrics can be successfully used to determine jaggery adulteration in honey non-destructively. PMID:20109130

Mishra, Sunita; Kamboj, Uma; Kaur, Harpreet; Kapur, Pawan

2010-05-01

244

A novel probiotic fermented beverage based on soymilk and sea buckthorn syrup  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In the last decade, there is an increasing interest in using nondairyingredients as substrates for certain strains of bifidobacteria to deliver the benefits of probiotics to a wider group of consumers. This research aimed to explore the use of soymilk and sea buckthorn syrup as substrates for bifidobacteria fermentation. Microbial population, pH, and titratable acidity were measured during the fermentation period while the viability, pH, titratable acidity and water holding capacity were determined during the storage time at 4°C ± 1°C within 14 days. Survival and stability of Bifidobacterium bifidus (Bb-12®, Bb inoculated into a beverage when exposed to simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions, were assessed. TheBb-12® strain exhibited the highest viable cell numbers when exposed to simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions.

Nicoleta Maricica Maftei

2012-08-01

245

Análisis comparativo entre jarabe de agave azul (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul) y otros jarabes naturales / Comparative analysis between blue agave syrup (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul) and other natural syrups  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available El jarabe de agave azul (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul) es la sustancia dulce natural producida por hidrólisis de los fructanos almacenados en la planta de maguey. Este endulzante se ha popularizado por su capacidad prebiótica e índice glucémico bajo respecto a otros jarabes y mieles naturales. La [...] s marcas comerciales, distribuidores, producción y comercialización de estos jarabes han incrementado, por ello es conveniente conocer sus características físicas y químicas y contrastarlas con las de otros productos del mismo tipo. En el presente estudio se determinaron el contenido de sólidos solubles totales (SST) y de humedad, pH, perfil de carbohidratos y algunas características sensoriales de 29 muestras de jarabes de agave azul, maíz y caña, y miel de abeja. El jarabe de agave azul, en promedio tuvo SST equivalentes a 76 °Brix, 22 % de humedad (% H) y pH 4; en contraste la miel presentó el contenido mayor de SST (82 °Brix), el menor de humedad (16 % H) y pH (pH 3.7). La cromatografía en capa fina (TLC) y cromatografía de intercambio aniónico de alta resolución, acoplada a un detector de pulso amperométrico (HPAEC-PAD), mostró que el jarabe de agave azul contiene principalmente fructosa y fructooligosacáridos; los de maíz y caña y la miel contienen glucosa, sacarosa y maltooligosacáridos con perfiles diferenciables. Abstract in english The blue agave syrup (Agave tequilana Weber var. azul) is the natural sweet substance produced by hydrolysis of fructans stored in the agave plant. This sweetener has become popular for its prebiotic capacity and low glycemic index compared to other natural syrups and honeys. The trademarks, distrib [...] utors, production and commercialization of these syrups have increased; therefore, it is important to know their physical and chemical characteristics and contrast them with other products of the same type. In this study we determined the content of total soluble solids (TSS) and of humidity, pH, carbohydrate profile and some sensorial characteristics of 29 samples of blue agave and corn, sugarcane syrups, and honey. The blue agave syrup, on average, had TSS equivalent to 76 °Brix, 22 % humidity (% H) and pH 4; in contrast, honey showed the highest TSS content (82 °Brix), the lowest values of humidity (16 % H) and pH (pH 3.7). Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and anion-exchange chromatography with high-performance coupled to a pulsed amperometric detector (HPAEC-PAD), showed that the blue agave syrups contains mainly fructose and fructooligosaccharides; those of corn, sugarcane, and honey contain glucose, sucrose and maltooligosaccharides with differentiated profiles.

Erika, Mellado-Mojica; Mercedes Gpe., López-Pérez.

2013-05-01

246

Oral myiasis: A case report  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Oral Myiasis is a rare pathology in humans and is associated with poor oral hygiene, alcoholism, senility, supuranting lesions, severe halitosis and others conditions. The treatment is a mechanical removal of the maggots one by one but a systemic treatment with Ivermectin, a semi-synthetic macrolide [...] antibiotic, have been used for treatment for oral myiasis. We present a case report of a 32-year-old man indigent, alcohol-dependent with an extensive necrotic area and acute swelling in upper lip and fetid odor. The patient’s manegement included topic use of gencian violet, oral therapy with ivermectin (6 mg orally), surgical exploration to remove the larvae and necrotic tissue. After the complete larvae removal the swelling and the wounds were healing normally, the patients was referred to plastic surgery to repair tissue damage. The prevention of human myiasis is by education, but unfortunately in the developing countries some people live in low social condition, predisposing the occurrence of the infestation.

Evandro Neves, Abdo; Ausgusto César, Sette-Dias; Cláudio Rômulo, Comunian; Carlos Eduardo Assis, Dutra; Evandro Guimarães de, Aguiar.

2006-04-01

247

Contribution of the diffusion-weighted MRI in the diagnosis and follow-up of encephalopathy caused by maple syrup urine disease in a full-term newborn  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The purpose of this case report is to show conventional MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) findings of the different evolutionary phases in MSUD (Maple syrup urine disease) of a newborn that evolved with brain white matter lesions (author)

Ferraz-Filho, Jose Roberto Lopes; Floriano, Valdeci Helio; Quirici, Marcelo Bianco; Souza, Antonio Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Albuquerque, Regina Pires de [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Pediatria

2009-07-01

248

Contribution of the diffusion-weighted MRI in the diagnosis and follow-up of encephalopathy caused by maple syrup urine disease in a full-term newborn  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this case report is to show conventional MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) findings of the different evolutionary phases in MSUD (Maple syrup urine disease) of a newborn that evolved with brain white matter lesions (author)

249

Severe NAFLD with hepatic necroinflammatory changes in mice fed trans fats and a high-fructose corn syrup equivalent  

OpenAIRE

The aims of this study were to determine whether combining features of a western lifestyle in mice with trans fats in a high-fat diet, high-fructose corn syrup in the water, and interventions designed to promote sedentary behavior would cause the hepatic histopathological and metabolic abnormalities that characterize nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Male C57BL/6 mice fed ad libitum high-fat chow containing trans fats (partially hydrogenated vegetable oil) and relevant amounts of a high-fr...

Tetri, Laura H.; Basaranoglu, Metin; Brunt, Elizabeth M.; Yerian, Lisa M.; Neuschwander-tetri, Brent A.

2008-01-01

250

Maple syrup urine disease encephalopathy: a follow-up study in the acute stage using diffusion-weighted MRI  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Neonatal maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is associated with diffuse oedema and characteristic MSUD oedema. We present a newborn infant with two coexisting different types of oedema. The myelinated white matter showed a marked decrease in the water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) compatible with cytotoxic oedema. The unmyelinated white matter showed an increase in ADC, consistent with vasogenic-interstitial oedema. On follow-up studies, the cytotoxic oedema showed improvement, but the vasogenic-interstitial oedema progressed into brain atrophy. (orig.)

251

Hepatocyte Transplantation Improves Phenotype and Extends Survival in a Murine Model of Intermediate Maple Syrup Urine Disease  

OpenAIRE

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD; OMIM 248600) is an inborn error of metabolism of the branched chain ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex that is treated primarily by dietary manipulation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). Dietary restriction is lifelong and compliance is difficult. Liver transplantation significantly improves outcomes; however, alternative therapies are needed. To test novel therapies such as hepatocyte transplantation (HTx), we previously created a murine model of i...

Skvorak, Kristen J.; Paul, Harbhajan S.; Dorko, Kenneth; Marongiu, Fabio; Ellis, Ewa; Chace, Donald; Ferguson, Carolyn; Gibson, K. Michael; Homanics, Gregg E.; Strom, Stephen C.

2009-01-01

252

ENU mutagenesis identifies mice with mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase deficiency resembling human maple syrup urine disease  

OpenAIRE

Tandem mass spectrometry was applied to detect derangements in the pathways of amino acid and fatty acid metabolism in N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea–treated (ENU-treated) mice. We identified mice with marked elevation of blood branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), ketoaciduria, and clinical features resembling human maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), a severe genetic metabolic disorder caused by the deficiency of branched-chain ?-keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKD) complex. However, the BCKD genes and enz...

Wu, Jer-yuarn; Kao, Hsiao-jung; Li, Sing-chung; Stevens, Robert; Hillman, Steven; Millington, David; Chen, Yuan-tsong

2004-01-01

253

Maple syrup urine disease encephalopathy: a follow-up study in the acute stage using diffusion-weighted MRI  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Neonatal maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is associated with diffuse oedema and characteristic MSUD oedema. We present a newborn infant with two coexisting different types of oedema. The myelinated white matter showed a marked decrease in the water apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) compatible with cytotoxic oedema. The unmyelinated white matter showed an increase in ADC, consistent with vasogenic-interstitial oedema. On follow-up studies, the cytotoxic oedema showed improvement, but the vasogenic-interstitial oedema progressed into brain atrophy. (orig.)

Ha, Jong Su; Kim, Taik-Kun; Lee, Ki Yeol; Seol, Hae Young; Cha, Sang Hoon [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Ansan Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Ansan City, Kyungki-Do (Korea); Eun, Baik-Lin; Lee, Hee Sun [Department of Paediatrics, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea)

2004-02-01

254

Evaluation of the Nutritional Value of Functional Yogurt Resulting from Combination of Date Palm Syrup and Skim Milk  

OpenAIRE

The objective of this study was to use date palm syrup as a part of water (v/v) used in reconstituting skim milk powder in processing yogurt with 14% total solids. Physical properties such as sensory characteristics and apparent viscosity were evaluated. To evaluate the nutritional value of yogurt, antioxidant values were monitored during storage and the sample which recorded the highest values would determine its chemical composition. In addition, some micronutrients (HCl-soluble minerals) a...

Sayed, A. F.; Kholif, A. M.; Gad, A. S.

2010-01-01

255

Oral sex, oral health and orogenital infections  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection and safer sex precautions. There are various methods of preventing infection during oral sex such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues and oral hygiene and dental issues. The lesions or unhealthy periodontal status of oral cavity accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex.

Saini Rajiv

2010-01-01

256

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the mouth for signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes ... step description of the oral cancer examination so patients know what to expect. What You Need to ...

257

Desmame precoce: implicações para o desenvolvimento motor-oral Early weaning: implications to oral motor development  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Objetivo: revisar as estreitas relações entre o desmame precoce e seus reflexos no desenvolvimento motor-oral, enfocando as conseqüências na oclusão, respiração e aspectos motores orais da criança. Fonte de dados: foi realizada uma pesquisa bibliográfica relacionada às áreas de pediatria, odontologia e fonoaudiologia, através do Medline, entre o ano de 1960 e o ano 2001. Síntese dos dados: a partir da literatura levantada, pode-se observar que o desmame precoce pode levar à ruptura do desenvolvimento motor-oral adequado, podendo prejudicar as funções de mastigação, deglutição, respiração e articulação dos sons da fala, ocasionar má-oclusão, respiração oral e alteração motora oral. Conclusões: pode-se concluir que além dos inúmeros benefícios do aleitamento materno, este contribui para o desenvolvimento motor-oral adequado e previne alterações fonoaudiológicas, no que se refere ao sistema motor-oral.Objective: this article aims at reviewing the relationship between early weaning and its consequences to oral motor development, focusing on the consequences to occlusion, breathing and children's oral motor aspects. Sources: a literature review based on Medline database from the early 60's up to 2001 was performed taking into consideration the following topics: pediatrics, dentistry and speech language pathology. Summary of the findings: based on this review of literature, we could verified that early weaning may lead to a proper oral motor development rupture, which may cause negative consequences to swallowing, breathing and speaking activities as well as malocclusion, oral breathing and oral motor disorders. Conclusions: in addition to several benefits of breastfeeding, it contributes to a proper oral motor development and also avoids speech-language disorders, regarding oral motor system.

Flávia Cristina Brisque Neiva

2003-02-01

258

Maple syrup analysis for 137Cs, K, and B, using a low-background counting system and PGAA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fifteen maple syrups were analyzed for 137Cs and K (via 40K) by using a low-background ?-ray counting system, and for B and K by using neutron capture prompt ?-ray activation analysis (PGAA). For low-background ?-ray counting, 3 ? limits of detection (24-hour counts) were 0.03 Bq 137Cs/kg and 10 mg K/kg for 3.5-L portions and 0.08 Bq 137Cs/kg and 20 mg K/kg for 1.0-L portions. K concentrations determined by the two methods (using 2-g portions for PGAA) were in excellent agreement. The products were obtained in 1991, with one produced in Maryland, three in New York, four in Pennsylvania, two in New Hampshire, and five in Canada. The average activity concentration for Canadian syrups (2.8 Bq 137Cs/kg) was nearly a factor 20 greater than the average (0.15 Bq 137Cs/kg) for the other syrups, but all 137Cs activity concentrations were at least 100 times lower than those for which controls would be recommended according to Federal Radiation Council guidance. The data exhibited distinct groupings related to the sources of the products when the ratios 137Cs activity to K content (BqCs/mgK) were plotted vs. B concentrations. (author). 15 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

259

An abrupt outgassing revealed by a slow decompression experiment of cristal-bearing syrup foam  

Science.gov (United States)

Distribution of volcanic gasses in a conduit determines eruption style. Outgassing changes the distribution of volcanic gasses in a conduit.We here simulated the outgassing from ascending magma by slow decompression experiments. As molten magma ascends in a conduit, surrounding pressure becomes low and bubbles in magma expand. In our previous work, we found that the bubble expansion causes film rupturing and makes paths for outgassing. The crystals in magma may affect this newly found outgassing style. Accordingly, we slowly decompressed syrup foam including solid particles as a magma analogue. Experiments are conducted in an acrylic tank. We observed the expansion of three-phase magma analog from the front of the tank using a digital video camera. From the images and pressure measurements, we calculated time evolution of the syrup volume and permeability. We consider that there is no bubble segregation by the ascent of individual bubbles from the Stoke's velocity. We conducted our experiments with a viscosity range of 10-20 Pa s which is the same orders of magnitude of that of basaltic magma, 10-103 Pa s. At the beginning of the decompression, the volume change of the syrup foam is well explained by isothermal expansion. When the gas fractions reached to the 85-90%, we observed that deformations of bubble films caused film rupturing so that bubbles coalesce vertically to clear a path. As time elapsed, the measured gas volume in the foam becomes smaller than that estimated by the isothermal expansion, indicating the occurrence of outgassing. In the experiments with high volume fraction of solid particles (>30 vol.% for bubble-free liquid), we observed another new style of outgassing. Several large voids (> 10 mm in radius) appear at a middle height of the foam and connect each other to make a horizontally elongated cavity. The roof of the cavity collapses, and then massive outgassing occurs. At the beginning of the decompression until the foam collapses, outgassing occurs intermittently. We calculated the apparent permeability of the foam before the collapse occurs assuming the Darcy's law. Calculated permeability observed for the experiments with large volume fraction of solid particles has temporal variation and they varies from 10-7 -10-9. This value is quite larger than those measured for natural pumices and scoriae. From our experiments, we infer that there is a skin depth of the outgassing. At the beginning, the upper most part of the foam has a high apparent permeability to cause outgassing energetically. However, the gas within this region decreases eventually to be impermeable. Beneath the impermeable layer, the gas transported from a depth accumulates to make a cavity. The cavity is gravitationally unstable and collapses at the end. It has been widely recognized that the Vulcanian eruption occurs by a sudden expansion of the accumulated gas beneath an impermeable plug. Our experimental results may explain the mechanism generating an impermeable plug.

Kanno, Y.; Namiki, A.

2013-12-01

260

Desenvolvimento de forma farmacêutica líquida de uso oral, isenta de substâncias glicogênicas, com extrato fluido de Mikania glomerata Sprengel - Asteraceae (guaco)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Mikania glomerata Sprengel, Asteraceae (guaco) é tradicionalmente empregado como expectorante na forma de infusão, extrato fluido, tintura e xarope. Este trabalho teve como objetivo o desenvolvimento de uma forma farmacêutica líquida, isenta de substâncias glicogênicas, veiculando o extrato fluido d [...] esta, como substituto do xarope de guaco para pessoas, que por alguma restrição não possam ingerir sacarose ou açúcar invertido, componente dos xaropes em geral. Desenvolveu-se uma formulação líquida, definindo-se as concentrações de conservantes, agentes umectantes, edulcorantes e flavorizantes, testaram-se polímeros, espessantes usuais em processos tecnológicos, para reproduzir a viscosidade fornecida pelos xaropes. Analisou-se o comportamento reológico e uma avaliação preliminar das características físicas do produto. Dos polímeros testados, o alginato de sódio (1%) foi o que apresentou melhores resultados frente aos parâmetros analisados, com comportamento reológico semelhante ao dos fluidos Newtonianos, e pH adequado ao uso oral, além da compatibilidade frente ao extrato fluido de guaco. Abstract in english Mikania glomerata Sprengel, Asteraceae (guaco), is traditionally used against cough as an infusion, a fluid-extract, a tincture or a syrup. The present investigation had as objective the development of a sugarless pharmaceutical liquid form to carry the guaco fluid extract, a substitute to the guaco [...] syrup, it would specially help those who cannot ingest the glycogenic substances found in syrups. Liquid formulation was developed, in which the preservants concentration, the humectants agents, and sweeteners and flavors were defined, thickening polymers commonly used in technological processes in order to reduce the syrups viscosity were tested. The rheological behavior was analyzed and the preliminary evaluation of physical characteristic was done. Of all the tested polymers, the sodium alginate (1%) showed itself the most stable, regarding the analyzed parameters. It had a rheological behavior similar to the Newtonian fluids and has adequate pH of oral use, as well as compatibility to the fluid guaco extract.

N.C., Lubi; M.E.O., Sato; F., Gaensly.

261

AI Topics  

OpenAIRE

The debut of the AI in the News column elsewhere in this issue of AI Magazine created a good opportunity to introduce the professional community to the AI Topics web site, home of the AI in the news virtual page. Although AI Topics is designed for the lay public, it serves a much larger audience.

Buchanan, Bruce G.; Glick, Jonathan

2002-01-01

262

The effects of oral Acyclovir in the treatment of necrotizing Herpetic keratouveitis  

OpenAIRE

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of administering oral acyclovir in conjunction with topical acyclovir and steroids in the treatment of necrotizing herpetic keratouveitis. All patients with necrotizing herpetic keratouveits who have been consulted during 1996-1997 at the farbi Eye Hospital were studied . the patients were randomly assigned to two groups. In the first group, topical acyclovir ointment and topical steroids were administered, while the second group took oral acyc...

"Hosseini Tehrani M;Poormostadam B;Vallaei N;Raiszadeh F "

2000-01-01

263

The use of oral pentobarbital sodium (Nembutal) versus oral chloral hydrate in infants undergoing CT and MR imaging - a pilot study  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Background. Chloral hydrate, a commonly used oral sedative for infants undergoing imaging examinations, has a bitter taste and requires relatively large volume, provoking unpleasant reactions from the infants. Experience with an alternative sedative, oral pentobarbital (Nembutal), has not been reported for infants Objective. To compare patient acceptance of oral Nembutal and oral chloral hydrate for sedation of infants up to 12 months of age. Methods and materials. Fifty-four infants (mean age: 7 months) were prospectively enrolled. Parents chose Nembutal, chloral hydrate, or no preference. Thirty-eight infants received Nembutal (4-6 mg/kg) mixed with cherry syrup and 16 received chloral hydrate (50-100 mg/kg). We recorded infant's acceptance of sedative, parental impression of infant's acceptance, time to sedation, time to discharge, adverse effects, parental preference of future sedative. Results. Infant acceptance and parental impression were better for Nembutal (P < 0.0001). Fewer parents in the Nembutal group preferred another sedative (P = 0.05). There was a trend toward shorter time to discharge with Nembutal (P = 0.03). There were no adverse effects in either group. One infant failed to sedate with Nembutal. Conclusions. Compared with chloral hydrate, oral Nembutal has significantly better acceptance by infants and parents, equal effectiveness, and may result in a shorter time to discharge. (orig.)

264

The use of oral pentobarbital sodium (Nembutal) versus oral chloral hydrate in infants undergoing CT and MR imaging - a pilot study  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Background. Chloral hydrate, a commonly used oral sedative for infants undergoing imaging examinations, has a bitter taste and requires relatively large volume, provoking unpleasant reactions from the infants. Experience with an alternative sedative, oral pentobarbital (Nembutal), has not been reported for infants Objective. To compare patient acceptance of oral Nembutal and oral chloral hydrate for sedation of infants up to 12 months of age. Methods and materials. Fifty-four infants (mean age: 7 months) were prospectively enrolled. Parents chose Nembutal, chloral hydrate, or no preference. Thirty-eight infants received Nembutal (4-6 mg/kg) mixed with cherry syrup and 16 received chloral hydrate (50-100 mg/kg). We recorded infant's acceptance of sedative, parental impression of infant's acceptance, time to sedation, time to discharge, adverse effects, parental preference of future sedative. Results. Infant acceptance and parental impression were better for Nembutal (P < 0.0001). Fewer parents in the Nembutal group preferred another sedative (P = 0.05). There was a trend toward shorter time to discharge with Nembutal (P = 0.03). There were no adverse effects in either group. One infant failed to sedate with Nembutal. Conclusions. Compared with chloral hydrate, oral Nembutal has significantly better acceptance by infants and parents, equal effectiveness, and may result in a shorter time to discharge. (orig.)

Chung, T.; Hoffer, F.A.; Connor, L.; Burrows, P.E. [Dept. of Radiology, Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Zurakowski, D. [Research Computing, Children' s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

2000-05-01

265

The bioequivalence of nizatidine (Axid) in two extemporaneously and one commercially prepared oral liquid formulations compared with capsule.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nizatidine (Axid) is an H2-receptor antagonist used for the treatment of acid-related gastrointestinal disorders. Given the frequency of these conditions in children and the potential for pediatric use of nizatidine, an oral liquid dosage formulation would provide an alternative treatment option for patients unable to swallow solid oral dosage forms. This study was designed as an open-label, single-dose, four-way crossover trial to investigate the bioequivalence of 150 mg nizatidine administered in three oral liquid formulations (a commercially prepared oral syrup, an extemporaneous solution in apple juice, and an extemporaneous suspension in infant formula) relative to the marketed capsule formulation. Twenty-four adult subjects (ages 31.2 +/- 7.5 years; weight 71.1 +/- 11.8 kg) were enrolled, and blood samples for determination of plasma nizatidine concentrations were collected prior to drug administration and at 19 discrete intervals over a 24-hour postdose interval. Nizatidine was quantitated from plasma using a validated HPLC-MS assay, and a noncompartmental approach was used to describe nizatidine biodisposition in all subjects. Significant treatment effects were observed for log-normalized Cmax, AUC0-n, and AUC0-infinity (p nizatidine prepared in apple juice was markedly less bioavailable than the reference capsule, with 90% confidence intervals (CIs) of 0.518-0.626, 0.682-0.751, and 0.696-0.763 for Cmax, AUC0-n, and AUC0-infinity, respectively. The remaining two oral formulations demonstrated 90% CI within the guidelines established by the Food and Drug Administration (e.g., 0.80-1.25). Thus, nizatidine in infant formula and the commercially prepared oral syrup can be considered bioequivalent to the reference capsule. PMID:12616667

Abdel-Rahman, Susan M; Johnson, Franklin K; Gauthier-Dubois, Ginette; Weston, Irving E; Kearns, Gregory L

2003-02-01

266

Stability of labetalol hydrochloride in distilled water, simple syrup, and three fruit juices.  

Science.gov (United States)

Labetalol hydrochloride (HCl) is an effective antihypertensive drug. It is available in a tablet dosage form, which may be difficult to administer to geriatric and pediatric patients. The tablets can be suspended in various liquid vehicles, but its stability under these conditions is unknown. The objective of our study was to determine the stability of labetalol HCl in five liquid vehicles, in both plastic and glass prescription bottles, over a four-week period at room temperature and under refrigeration. Labetalol HCl tablets (Trandate, Glaxo) were triturated, and suspended in distilled water, simple syrup, apple juice, grape juice, and orange juice to approximate concentrations of 7-10 mg/mL. After filtration, the liquids were stored in five amber, plastic prescription bottles, and five amber, glass prescription bottles at 4 degrees C and 23 degrees C. The samples were collected at 0, 24, and 72 hours, and 1, 2, and 4 weeks after initiation of the study. Labetalol HCl was measured by an HPLC method. Because there was no substantial change in labetalol HCl concentration during the study period, the tablet dosage from can be reformulated, stored, and administered to elderly or pediatric patients as a liquid dosage form. PMID:2068828

Nahata, M C

1991-05-01

267

Controlled release of thiamin in a glassy ?-carrageenan/glucose syrup matrix.  

Science.gov (United States)

The work dealt with the diffusional mobility of thiamin embedded in a high-solid matrix of ?-carrageenan with glucose syrup. It utilized thermomechanical analysis in the form of modulated differential scanning calorimetry and small-deformation dynamic oscillation in shear, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, wide angle X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV-vis spectrophotometry. The structural properties of the matrix were assessed in a temperature induced rubber-to-glass transformation. A thiamin-dye binding assay was employed to monitor the diffusion process of the vitamin from the high-solid preparation to ethylene glycol. The relationship between mechanical properties of the carbohydrate matrix and vitamin mobility was assessed via the application of the combined framework of the free volume theory and the predictions of the reaction rate theory. Results argue that the transport of the micronutrient is governed by the structural relaxation of the high-solid matrix. These were further treated with the concept of Fickian diffusion coefficient to provide the rate of the bioactive compound mobility within the present experimental settings. PMID:25439954

Panyoyai, Naksit; Bannikova, Anna; Small, Darryl M; Kasapis, Stefan

2015-01-22

268

Successful domino liver transplantation in maple syrup urine disease using a related living donor.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive disease associated with high levels of branched-chain amino acids. Children with MSUD can present severe neurological damage, but liver transplantation (LT) allows the patient to resume a normal diet and avoid further neurological damage. The use of living related donors has been controversial because parents are obligatory heterozygotes. We report a case of a 2-year-old child with MSUD who underwent a living donor LT. The donor was the patient's mother, and his liver was then used as a domino graft. The postoperative course was uneventful in all three subjects. DNA analysis performed after the transplantation (sequencing of the coding regions of BCKDHA, BCKDHB, and DBT genes) showed that the MSUD patient was heterozygous for a pathogenic mutation in the BCKDHB gene. This mutation was not found in his mother, who is an obligatory carrier for MSUD according to the family history and, as expected, presented both normal clinical phenotype and levels of branched-chain amino acids. In conclusion, our data suggest that the use of a related donor in LT for MSUD was effective, and the liver of the MSUD patient was successfully used in domino transplantation. Routine donor genotyping may not be feasible, because the test is not widely available, and, most importantly, the disease is associated with both the presence of allelic and locus heterogeneity. Further studies with this population of patients are required to expand the use of related donors in MSUD. PMID:24770567

Feier, F H; Miura, I K; Fonseca, E A; Porta, G; Pugliese, R; Porta, A; Schwartz, I V D; Margutti, A V B; Camelo, J S; Yamaguchi, S N; Taveira, A T; Candido, H; Benavides, M; Danesi, V; Guimaraes, T; Kondo, M; Chapchap, P; Neto, J Seda

2014-06-01

269

MR diffusion imaging and MR spectroscopy of maple syrup urine disease during acute metabolic decompensation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of amino acid metabolism, which affects the brain tissue resulting in impairment or death if untreated. Imaging studies have shown reversible brain edema during acute metabolic decompensation. The purpose of this paper is to describe the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and spectroscopy findings during metabolic decompensation and to assess the value of these findings in the prediction of patient outcome. Six patients with the diagnosis of MSUD underwent conventional MR imaging with DWI during acute presentation with metabolic decompensation. Spectroscopy with long TE was performed in four of the six patients. Follow-up examinations were performed after clinical and metabolic recovery. DWI demonstrated marked restriction of proton diffusion compatible with cytotoxic or intramyelinic sheath edema in the brainstem, basal ganglia, thalami, cerebellar and periventricular white matter and the cerebral cortex. This was accompanied by the presence of an abnormal branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and branched-chain alpha-keto acids (BCKA) peak at 0.9 ppm as well as elevated lactate on proton spectroscopy in all four patients. The changes in all six patients were reversed with treatment without evidence of volume loss or persistent tissue damage. The presence of cytotoxic or intramyelinic edema as evidenced by restricted water diffusion on DWI, with the presence of lactate on spectroscopy, could imply imminent cell death. However, in the context of metabolic decompensation in MSUD, it appears that changes in cell osmolarity and metabolism can reverse completely after metabolic correction. (orig.)

Jan, Wajanat; Wang, Zhiyue J. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Zimmerman, Robert A. [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th Street and Civic Center Boulevard, PA 19104, Philadelphia (United States); Berry, Gerard T.; Kaplan, Paige B.; Kaye, Edward M. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

2003-06-01

270

Diagnostic tools of early brain disturbances in an asymptomatic neonate with maple syrup urine disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare inherited metabolic disorder resulting from the defective activity of branched-chain 2-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex. Routine screening of newborn with tandem mass spectroscopy on the third day of life may detect elevated branched-chain amino acids in blood before the appearance of encephalopathic symptoms in MSUD cases. If undiagnosed by such a routine screening test, patients often present with encephalopathy and seizures. Clinical neurologic examination is supplemented by electroencephalography and imaging. Here, we report abnormal amplitude-integrated electroencephalography, electroencephalography, magnetic resonance imaging, and magnetic resonance imaging spectroscopy findings in a neurologically asymptomatic male newborn who was diagnosed with MSUD at the third week of life. These neurologic disturbances disappeared at the fourth month of life with appropriate special diet. Therefore, even in already asymptomatic cases, early neurologic deterioration of brain metabolism and structure can be detected with these early laboratory findings, indicating the importance of early diagnosis and management. Patients may also benefit from these investigations during the follow-up period. PMID:23341096

Terek, Demet; Koroglu, Ozge; Yalaz, Mehmet; Gokben, Sarenur; Calli, Cem; Coker, Mahmut; Kultursay, Nilgun

2013-08-01

271

Cranial computed tomography in a patient with a variant form of maple syrup urine disease  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A male infant, who was suspected to be a case of variant form of maple syrup urine disease has been given dietary treatment since the age of 9 months. Prior to the treatment, computed tomography showed abnormally high lucidity in the cerebral white matter area with the marked narrowness in size of the frontal horn of lateral ventricles. As the treatment proceeded, clinical symptoms alleviated, and CT findings have gradually changed with the result of improved density of the white matter. 2 months after starting the treatment, however, the patient suddenly developed a hyperaminoacidemic crisis that lasted 4-5 days. Despite this hyperaminoacidemia, CT scan taken during the crisis have revealed unexpectedly normal lucidity of the white matter as well as the normal width of the frontal horn. From these findings it was concluded that markedly lucent area in CT findings prior to the treatment was not due to an acute change in serum aminoacid concentration, but rather to chronic brain edema which had insidiously and gradually developed. (orig.)

272

Nutrition management guideline for maple syrup urine disease: an evidence- and consensus-based approach.  

Science.gov (United States)

In an effort to increase harmonization of care and enable outcome studies, the Genetic Metabolic Dietitians International (GMDI) and the Southeast Regional Newborn Screening and Genetics Collaborative (SERC) are partnering to develop nutrition management guidelines for inherited metabolic disorders (IMD) using a model combining both evidence- and consensus-based methodology. The first guideline to be completed is for maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). This report describes the methodology used in its development: formulation of five research questions; review, critical appraisal and abstraction of peer-reviewed studies and unpublished practice literature; and expert input through Delphi surveys and a nominal group process. This report includes the summary statements for each research question and the nutrition management recommendations they generated. Each recommendation is followed by a standardized rating based on the strength of the evidence and consensus used. The application of technology to build the infrastructure for this project allowed transparency during development of this guideline and will be a foundation for future guidelines. Online open access of the full, published guideline allows utilization by health care providers, researchers, and collaborators who advise, advocate and care for individuals with MSUD and their families. There will be future updates as warranted by developments in research and clinical practice. PMID:24881969

Frazier, Dianne M; Allgeier, Courtney; Homer, Caroline; Marriage, Barbara J; Ogata, Beth; Rohr, Frances; Splett, Patricia L; Stembridge, Adrya; Singh, Rani H

2014-07-01

273

Highly efficient production of inverted syrup in an analytical column with immobilized invertase.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper presents a procedure by which a simple and economical analytical column containing immobilized invertase was developed. This column has high efficiency of converting sucrose into inverted syrup rapidly. Gelatine beads were used for the immobilization of invertase. The enzyme was entrapped efficiently and was found to be stable and retained its activity over a period of 3 months. Immobilization parameters for maximum enzyme activity were estimated as temperature optima at 60 °C, pH optima 7.0 and 30 mg/mL enzyme concentration was found to give maximum immobilization (72 %). The reusability of the gelatine immobilized invertase was found to be seven times with a time interval of 24 h. The immobilized invertase presented a KM of 51.28 mM and Vmax of 0.334 mM/min. The time required to hydrolyse 50 % sucrose solution by a column of length 10 cm and diameter of 1.5 cm was found to be 15 min at room temperature. The column was found effective for inversion of biological samples like sugar cane juice. PMID:25477691

Upadhyay, Lata Sheo Bachan; Verma, Nishant

2014-12-01

274

Production of high fructose syrup from Asparagus inulin using immobilized exoinulinase from Kluyveromyces marxianus YS-1.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracellular exoinulinase from Kluyveromyces marxianus YS-1, which hydrolyzes inulin into fructose, was immobilized on Duolite A568 after partial purification by ethanol precipitation and gel exclusion chromatography on Sephadex G-100. Optimum temperature of immobilized enzyme was 55 degrees C, which was 5 degrees C higher than the free enzyme and optimal pH was 5.5. Immobilized biocatalyst retained more than 90% of its original activity after incubation at 60 degrees C for 3 h, whereas in free form its activity was reduced to 10% under same conditions, showing a significant improvement in the thermal stability of the biocatalyst after immobilization. Apparent K (m) values for inulin, raffinose and sucrose were found to be 3.75, 28.5 and 30.7 mM, respectively. Activation energy (E (a)) of the immobilized biocatalyst was found to be 46.8 kJ/mol. Metal ions like Co(2+) and Mn(2+) enhanced the activity, whereas Hg(2+) and Ag(2+) were found to be potent inhibitors even at lower concentrations of 1 mM. Immobilized biocatalyst was effectively used in batch preparation of high fructose syrup from Asparagus racemosus raw inulin and pure inulin, which yielded 39.2 and 40.2 g/L of fructose in 4 h; it was 85.5 and 92.6% of total reducing sugars produced, respectively. PMID:17665236

Singh, Ram Sarup; Dhaliwal, Rajesh; Puri, Munish

2007-10-01

275

Efficacy of Vasadi Syrup and Shwasaghna Dhuma in the patients of COPD (Shwasa Roga).  

Science.gov (United States)

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) threatens as emerging public health crisis. The two major drivers for this are the ageing of the world's population and the impressive, if deplorable, success of the multinational tobacco companies at forcing open world markets. One of the most striking aspect of COPD is that it is heterogenous. There are many different presentations with differing intensities of symptoms and even differing responses to the medication. Sorting out, what accounts for this phenomenon and how treatments can be best individualised, is of concern to both basic and clinical scientists. COPD is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and results in a substantial economic and social burden to society. It is the sixth most common cause of death worldwide and expected to rise to third position by 2020. Several national and international agencies like WHO, GOLD, ATS, ERS etc. are working in a direction of finding some solution of this wicked problem. In Ayurvedic texts Shwasa Roga has been described having symptomatology close to COPD. A study was carried out in P.G.Deptt. of Kayachikitsa in R.G.G.P.G.Ayu.College Paprola, H. P. where the role and efficacy of two Ayurvedic formulations -Vasadi Syrup and Shwasaghna Dhuma was evaluated on 30 patients of COPD selected on the basis of fixed inclusion and exclusion criteria in two different groups. In both the groups drugs provided significant results based on subjective symptomatological criteria and objective spirometric criteria. PMID:22131684

Sharma, Praveen Kumar; Johri, Sharad; Mehra, B L

2010-01-01

276

Comparative evaluation of the antitussive activity of butamirate citrate linctus versus clobutinol syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

In a double-blind randomized study 60 patients with either irritative cough due to seasonal respiratory disorders or chronic cough of any etiology were treated with either butamirate citrate linctus (Sinecod, Zyma) or with clobutinol syrup (Silomat, Boehringer, Ingelheim) for a period of 5 days at a dose regimen of 3 tablespoons daily. Efficacy was assessed based on the reduction of the severity as well as frequency of the cough and on the global opinion of the physician. Both groups showed highly significant improvements for the severity and frequency parameters (p less than 0.001), thus demonstrating the effectiveness of both treatments. No significant differences between groups were detected globally for the whole collective. For cough due to carcinomas (n = 14), however, a significantly better effect of butamirate on the frequency of cough (p = 0.026) was found which originated other significant differences in the global scores (p = 0.013) and in the physician's opinion (p = 0.026). Seven patients in both groups complained about side effects (mainly nausea and drowsiness). PMID:2095610

Charpin, J; Weibel, M A

1990-01-01

277

Protein and lipid damage in maple syrup urine disease patients: l-carnitine effect.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of metabolism biochemically characterized by elevated levels of the branched chain amino acids (BCAA) leucine, isoleucine, valine and the corresponding branched-chain ?-keto acids. This disorder is clinically characterized by ketoacidosis, seizures, coma, psychomotor delay and mental retardation whose pathophysiology is not completely understood. Recent studies have shown that oxidative stress may be involved in neuropathology of MSUD. l-Carnitine (l-Car) plays a central role in the cellular energy metabolism because it transports long-chain fatty acids for oxidation and ATP generation. In recent years many studies have demonstrated the antioxidant role of this compound. In this work, we investigated the effect of BCAA-restricted diet supplemented or not with l-Car on lipid peroxidation and in protein oxidation in MSUD patients. We found a significant increase of malondialdehyde and of carbonyl content in plasma of MSUD patients under BCAA-restricted diet compared to controls. Furthermore, patients under BCAA-restricted diet plus l-Car supplementation presented a marked reduction of malondialdehyde content in relation to controls, reducing the lipid peroxidation. In addition, free l-Car concentrations were negatively correlated with malondialdehyde levels. Our data show that l-Car may have an antioxidant effect, protecting against the lipid peroxidation and this could represent an additional therapeutic approach to the patients affected by MSUD. PMID:23137711

Mescka, Caroline Paula; Wayhs, Carlos Alberto Yasin; Vanzin, Camila Simioni; Biancini, Giovana Brondani; Guerreiro, Gilian; Manfredini, Vanusa; Souza, Carolina; Wajner, Moacir; Dutra-Filho, Carlos Severo; Vargas, Carmen Regla

2013-02-01

278

Oral myiasis in a maxillofacial trauma patient.  

Science.gov (United States)

Myiasis is a rare disease primarily caused by the invasion of tissue by larvae of certain dipteran flies. Oral myiasis is still more "rare" and "unique" owing to the fact that oral cavity rarely provides the necessary habitat conducive for a larval lifecycle. Common predisposing factors are poor oral hygiene, halitosis, trauma, senility, learning disabilities, physically and mentally challenged conditions. Oral myiasis can lead to rapid tissue destruction and disfigurement and requires immediate treatment. Treatment consists of manual removal of maggots from the oral cavity after application of chemical agents. Good sanitation, personal and environmental hygiene and cleanliness and special care for debilitated persons are the best methods to prevent oral myiasis. This case report describes the presentation of oral myiasis caused by musca nebulo (common house fly) in a 40-year-old male patient, with recent maxillofacial trauma. The patient was treated by manual removal larvae by topical application of turpentine oil, followed by surgical debridement of the wound and open reduction and internal fixation of the fracture. PMID:23956607

Vinit, Grandim Balarama Gupta; Jayavelu, Perumal; Shrutha, Santhebachali Prakasha

2013-07-01

279

Understanding Oral Learners  

Science.gov (United States)

A five-year research project of seminary students from various cultural backgrounds revealed that the slight majority of contemporary seminary students studied are oral learners. Oral learners learn best and have their lives most transformed when professors utilize oral teaching and assessment methods. After explaining several preferences of oral

Moon, W. Jay

2012-01-01

280

Oral pemphigus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pemphigus is a group of potentially life-threatening autoimmune diseases characterized by cutaneous and/or mucosal blistering, due to the presence circulating IgG antibodies directed against desmoglein 1 and 3 (Dsg 1 and 3). Differences in the particular distribution of these result in different clinical manifestations of the disease. The most common variant is pemphigus vulgaris (PV). There is a fairly strong genetic background to pemphigus with linkage to HLA class II alleles and ethnic groups such as Ashkenazi Jews and those of Mediterra-nean and Indian origin are especially liable. Oral lesions are commonly characterized by the presence of vesiculobullous and ulcerative lesions. Diagnosis is achieved via three different parameters: perilesional tissue biopsy, histological and immunological examinations. Serum autoantibodies to either Dsg1 or Dsg3 are best detected using both normal human skin and monkey esophagus or by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The main aim of treatment is to reduce inflammatory re-sponse and autoantibody production, in order to achieve disease remission in a short time. Before the advent of corticosteroids, PV was typically fatal due to dehydration or secondary systemic infections. Current treatment is largely based on systemic immunosuppression using corticosteroids, with azathioprine or other adjuvants or alternatives. Nonetheless, newer therapies, such as intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) or anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (Rituximab), with potentially fewer adverse effects also appear promising. PMID:19893475

Mignogna, M D; Fortuna, G; Leuci, S

2009-10-01

281

Formulation of budesonide mouthwash for the treatment of oral chronic graft-versus-host disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral involvement is (very) common in chronic graft-versus-host disease and can cause discomfort and impairment of oral function. Budesonide, a highly potent corticosteroid with low systemic activity, can be used as a topical treatment for oral chronic graft-versus-host disease. We describe the development of a formulation of budesonide and sodium bicarbonate for use as mouthwash in patients with oral chronic graft-versus-host disease. PMID:25411262

Van Schandevyl, Guy; Bauters, Tiene

2014-11-18

282

Literatura oral, oralidad ficticia / Oral literature, fictitious orality  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Se pretende una aproximación a las relaciones entre la contradictoria ‘literatura oral’ y redundante ‘literatura escrita’, entre lo oral (en tanto fenómeno de comunicación real), convertido en creación verbal, y la ficción de oralidad en la escritura (literaria). Todo, en el marco general de la prob [...] lemática oralidad/escritura tal como aparece en la práctica cultural latinoamericana. En este último caso, se trata, sin duda, de un esfuerzo por dialogar con la otredad, con lo excluido por el canon de la literatura y cultura oficial. Con ello no sólo se busca incorporar formas o estructuras propias del discurso oral en los textos literarios, sino, en algunos casos paradigmáticos, alcanzar una cierta certidumbre de que esos textos literarios obedecen a una lógica profunda de oralidad cultural. Abstract in english Within the framework of the conceptions of orality and writing prevalent in Latin American cultural practice, the author attempts an approach to the relationship between the contradictory notion of ‘oral literature’ and the redundant notion of ‘written literature’, that is, between orality as a real [...] communication phenomenon, when it occurs as verbal creation, and the fiction of orality found in literary writing. In this case, what one really discovers is an effort to establish a dialog with what has been omitted by the literary establishment and cultural standards. Along these lines, literary texts not only incorporate forms and structures proper of oral texts, but in some paradigmatic cases a true link with a deep cultural orality is found.

Mauricio, Ostria González.

283

Improved detection of sugar addition to maple syrup using malic acid as internal standard and in 13C isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS).  

Science.gov (United States)

Stable carbon isotope ratio mass spectrometry (delta13C IRMS) was used to detect maple syrup adulteration by exogenous sugar addition (beet and cane sugar). Malic acid present in maple syrup is proposed as an isotopic internal standard to improve actual adulteration detection levels. A lead precipitation method has been modified to isolate quantitatively malic acid from maple syrup using preparative reversed-phase liquid chromatography. The stable carbon isotopic ratio of malic acid isolated from this procedure shows an excellent accuracy and repeatability of 0.01 and 0.1 per thousand respectively, confirming that the modified lead precipitation method is an isotopic fractionation-free process. A new approach is proposed to detect adulteration based on the correlation existing between the delta13Cmalic acid and the delta13Csugars-delta13Cmalic acid (r = 0.704). This technique has been tested on a set of 56 authentic maple syrup samples. Additionally, authentic samples were spiked with exogeneous sugars. The mean theoretical detection level was statistically lowered using this technique in comparison with the usual two-standard deviation approach, especially when maple syrup is adulterated with beet sugar : 24 +/- 12% of adulteration detection versus 48 +/- 20% (t-test, p = 7.3 x 10-15). The method was also applied to published data for pineapple juices and honey with the same improvement. PMID:17227042

Tremblay, Patrice; Paquin, Réal

2007-01-24

284

Oral cavity and leprosy  

OpenAIRE

Although leprosy involves the oral cavity in up to 60% of the patients, examination of the oral cavity in leprosy clinics or oral health science clinics is often neglected. Oral involvement in leprosy can broadly be divided into non-specific and specific lesions. In this review, we discuss various oral manifestations in leprosy patients so as to increase the awareness about this aspect among dermatologists and dental surgeons.

Pallagatti, Shambulingappa; Sheikh, Soheyl; Kaur, Anupreet; Aggarwal, Amit; Singh, Ravinder

2012-01-01

285

Halcinonide Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

... you are taking, especially cancer chemotherapy agents, other topical medications, and vitamins.tell your doctor if you have an infection or have ever had diabetes, glaucoma, cataracts, a circulation disorder, or an immune disorder. ...

286

Flurandrenolide Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

... you are taking, especially cancer chemotherapy agents, other topical medications, and vitamins.tell your doctor if you have an infection or have ever had diabetes, glaucoma, cataracts, a circulation disorder, or an immune disorder. ...

287

Fluocinonide Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

... you are taking, especially cancer chemotherapy agents, other topical medications, and vitamins.tell your doctor if you have an infection or have ever had diabetes, glaucoma, cataracts, a circulation disorder, or an immune disorder. ...

288

Fluocinolone Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

... you are taking, especially cancer chemotherapy agents, other topical medications, and vitamins.tell your doctor if you have an infection or have ever had diabetes, glaucoma, cataracts, a circulation disorder, or an immune disorder. ...

289

Betamethasone Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

... you are taking, especially cancer chemotherapy agents, other topical medications, and vitamins.tell your doctor if you have an infection or have ever had diabetes, glaucoma, cataracts, a circulation disorder, or an immune disorder. ...

290

Estradiol Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

... symptoms are vaginal burning, itching, and dryness may benefit more from a medication that is applied topically ... your doctor about eating grapefruit and drinking grapefruit juice while taking this medicine.

291

Tacrolimus Topical  

Science.gov (United States)

Tacrolimus ointment is used to treat the symptoms of eczema (atopic dermatitis; a skin disease that causes ... whose eczema has not responded to another medication. Tacrolimus is in a class of medications called topical ...

292

In vitro activity of voriconazole against Mexican oral yeast isolates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral candidiasis is the most prevalent complication in HIV-infected and AIDS patients. Topical antifungal treatment is useful for the initial episodes of oral candidiasis, but most patients suffer more than one episode and fluconazole or itraconazole can help in the management, and voriconazole may represent a useful alternative agent for the treatment of recalcitrant oral and oesophageal candidiasis. The aim of this research was to study the in vitro activity of voriconazole and fluconazole against Mexican oral isolates of clinically relevant yeast. The in vitro susceptibility of 187 oral yeast isolates from HIV-infected and healthy Mexicans was determined for fluconazole and voriconazole by the M44-A disc diffusion method. At 24 h, fluconazole was active against 179 of 187 isolates (95.7 %). Moreover, a 100% susceptibility to voriconazole was observed. Voriconazole and fluconazole are highly active in vitro against oral yeast isolates. This study provides baseline data on susceptibilities to both antifungal agents in Mexico. PMID:19389066

Sánchez Vargas, Luis Octavio; Eraso, Elena; Carrillo-Muñoz, Alfonso Javier; Aguirre, José Manuel; Gaitán-Cepeda, Luis Alberto; Quindós, Guillermo

2010-05-01

293

Urinary biomarkers of oxidative damage in Maple syrup urine disease: The l-carnitine role.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a disorder of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA). The defect in the branched-chain ?-keto acid dehydrogenase complex activity leads to an accumulation of these compounds and their corresponding ?-keto-acids and ?-hydroxy-acids. Studies have shown that oxidative stress may be involved in neuropathology of MSUD. l-carnitine (l-car), which has demonstrated an important role as antioxidant by reducing and scavenging free radicals formation and by enhancing the activity of antioxidant enzymes, have been used in the treatment of some metabolic rare disorders. This study evaluated the oxidative stress parameters, di-tyrosine, isoprostanes and antioxidant capacity, in urine of MSUD patients under protein-restricted diet supplemented or not with l-car capsules at a dose of 50mgkg(-1) day(-1). It was also determined urinary ?-keto isocaproic acid levels as well as blood free l-car concentrations in blood. It was found a deficiency of carnitine in patients before the l-car supplementation. Significant increases of di-tyrosine and isoprostanes, as well as reduced antioxidant capacity, were observed before the treatment with l-car. The l-car supplementation induced beneficial effects on these parameters reducing the di-tyrosine and isoprostanes levels and increasing the antioxidant capacity. It was also showed a significant increase in urinary of ?-ketoisocaproic acid after 2 months of l-car treatment, compared to control group. In conclusion, our results suggest that l-car may have beneficial effects in the treatment of MSUD by preventing oxidative damage to the cells and that urine can be used to monitorize oxidative damage in patients affected by this disease. PMID:25680940

Guerreiro, Gilian; Mescka, Caroline Paula; Sitta, Angela; Donida, Bruna; Marchetti, Desirèe; Hammerschmidt, Tatiane; Faverzani, Jessica; Coelho, Daniella de Moura; Wajner, Moacir; Dutra-Filho, Carlos Severo; Vargas, Carmen Regla

2015-05-01

294

Brain–blood amino acid correlates following protein restriction in murine maple syrup urine disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Background Conventional therapy for patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) entails restriction of protein intake to maintain acceptable levels of the branched chain amino acid, leucine (LEU), monitored in blood. However, no data exists on the correlation between brain and blood LEU with protein restriction, and whether correction in blood is reflected in brain. Methods To address this question, we fed intermediate MSUD mice diets of 19% (standard) and 6% protein, with collection of sera (SE), striata (STR), cerebellum (CE) and cortex (CTX) for quantitative amino acid analyses. Results LEU and valine (VAL) levels in all brain regions improved on average 28% when shifting from 19% to 6% protein, whereas the same improvements in SE were on average 60%. Isoleucine (ILE) in brain regions did not improve, while the SE level improved 24% with low-protein consumption. Blood-branched chain amino acids (LEU, ILE, and VAL in sera (SE)) were 362-434 ?M, consistent with human values considered within control. Nonetheless, numerous amino acids in brain regions remained abnormal despite protein restriction, including glutamine (GLN), aspartate (ASP), glutamate (GLU), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), asparagine (ASN), citrulline (CIT) and serine (SER). To assess the specificity of these anomalies, we piloted preliminary studies in hyperphenylalaninemic mice, modeling another large neutral aminoacidopathy. Employing an identical dietary regimen, we found remarkably consistent abnormalities in GLN, ASP, and GLU. Conclusions Our results suggest that blood amino acid analysis may be a poor surrogate for assessing the outcomes of protein restriction in the large neutral amino acidopathies, and further indicate that chronic neurotransmitter disruptions (GLU, GABA, ASP) may contribute to long-term neurocognitive dysfunction in these disorders. PMID:24886632

2014-01-01

295

MR diffusion imaging and MR spectroscopy of maple syrup urine disease during acute metabolic decompensation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of amino acid metabolism, which affects the brain tissue resulting in impairment or death if untreated. Imaging studies have shown reversible brain edema during acute metabolic decompensation. The purpose of this paper is to describe the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and spectroscopy findings during metabolic decompensation and to assess the value of these findings in the prediction of patient outcome. Six patients with the diagnosis of MSUD underwent conventional MR imaging with DWI during acute presentation with metabolic decompensation. Spectroscopy with long TE was performed in four of the six patients. Follow-up examinations were performed after clinical and metabolic recovery. DWI demonstrated marked restriction of proton diffusion compatible with cytotoxic or intramyelinic sheath edema in the brainstem, basal ganglia, thalami, cerebellar and periventricular white matter and the cerebral cortex. This was accompanied by the presence of an abnormal branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and branched-chain alpha-keto acids (BCKA) peak at 0.9 ppm as well as elevated lactate on proton spectroscopy in all four patients. The changes in all six patients were reversed with treatment without evidence of volume loss or persistent tissue damage. The presence of cytotoxic or intramyelinic edema as evidenced by restricted water diffusion on DWI, with the presence of lactate on spectroscopy, could imply imminent cell death. Howcopy, could imply imminent cell death. However, in the context of metabolic decompensation in MSUD, it appears that changes in cell osmolarity and metabolism can reverse completely after metabolic correction. (orig.)

296

Production and characterization of murine models of classic and intermediate maple syrup urine disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Maple Syrup Urine Disease (MSUD is an inborn error of metabolism caused by a deficiency of branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase. MSUD has several clinical phenotypes depending on the degree of enzyme deficiency. Current treatments are not satisfactory and require new approaches to combat this disease. A major hurdle in developing new treatments has been the lack of a suitable animal model. Methods To create a murine model of classic MSUD, we used gene targeting and embryonic stem cell technologies to create a mouse line that lacked a functional E2 subunit gene of branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase. To create a murine model of intermediate MSUD, we used transgenic technology to express a human E2 cDNA on the knockout background. Mice of both models were characterized at the molecular, biochemical, and whole animal levels. Results By disrupting the E2 subunit gene of branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase, we created a gene knockout mouse model of classic MSUD. The homozygous knockout mice lacked branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase activity, E2 immunoreactivity, and had a 3-fold increase in circulating branched-chain amino acids. These metabolic derangements resulted in neonatal lethality. Transgenic expression of a human E2 cDNA in the liver of the E2 knockout animals produced a model of intermediate MSUD. Branched-chain keto acid dehydrogenase activity was 5–6% of normal and was sufficient to allow survival, but was insufficient to normalize circulating branched-chain amino acids levels, which were intermediate between wildtype and the classic MSUD mouse model. Conclusion These mice represent important animal models that closely approximate the phenotype of humans with the classic and intermediate forms of MSUD. These animals provide useful models to further characterize the pathogenesis of MSUD, as well as models to test novel therapeutic strategies, such as gene and cellular therapies, to treat this devastating metabolic disease.

Watkins Simon

2006-03-01

297

Maple Syrup Urine Disease: Identification and Carrier-Frequency Determination of a Novel Founder Mutation in the Ashkenazi Jewish Population  

OpenAIRE

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder of branched-chain amino acid metabolism. We noted that a large proportion (10 of 34) of families with MSUD that were followed in our clinic were of Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) descent, leading us to search for a common mutation within this group. On the basis of genotyping data suggestive of a conserved haplotype at tightly linked markers on chromosome 6q14, the BCKDHB gene encoding the E1? subunit was sequenced. Three novel ...

Edelmann, Lisa; Wasserstein, Melissa P.; Kornreich, Ruth; Sansaricq, Claude; Snyderman, Selma E.; Diaz, George A.

2001-01-01

298

Evidence for both a regulatory mutation and a structural mutation in a family with maple syrup urine disease.  

OpenAIRE

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) results from a deficiency of branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH). We have studied the etiology of MSUD by determining the enzyme activity, protein, and mRNA levels of BCKDH in fibroblasts from a classic MSUD patient and his parents. By enzymatic amplification of the patient's mRNA followed by cloning and DNA sequencing, we have identified a T to A transversion that alters a tyrosine to an asparagine at residue 394 of the E1 alpha subunit. Ampli...

Zhang, B.; Edenberg, H. J.; Crabb, D. W.; Harris, R. A.

1989-01-01

299

Comparison Effects of Sucrose and Date Palm Syrup on Somatic Embryogenesis of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L )  

OpenAIRE

The effect of different concentration of date palm syrup (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10%) and sucrose at concentration of 30 and 60 g/l in addition to the control (without carbon source) on the micro propagation of date palm "cv. Suckary" were investigated. The results indicated that date syrup was taken up from the media as shown by the increase in total dry weight of culture. Addition of sucrose at 60 g/l produced the highest number of somatic embryos and longest shoot equal to that produced by date sy...

Abdullatif Alkhateeb

2008-01-01

300

Maple Syrup Urine Disease in Cypriot Families: Identification of Three Novel Mutations and Biochemical Characterization of the p.Thr211Met Mutation in the E1? Subunit  

OpenAIRE

We report five mutations, three of them novel, responsible for maple syrup urine disease in four unrelated Cypriot families. The five children studied are the first cases of classic maple syrup urine disease to be reported among Cypriots. The first novel mutation identified is a single-base deletion in exon 6 of the El? gene (c.718delG), which leads to a frameshift after Ala240 and to a stop codon 89 residues further downstream. The other two novel mutations identified are in the El? subuni...

Georgiou, Theodoros; Chuang, Jacinta L.; Wynn, R. Max; Stylianidou, Goula; Korson, Mark; Chuang, David T.; Drousiotou, Anthi

2009-01-01

301

Stability of sumatriptan succinate in extemporaneously prepared oral liquids.  

Science.gov (United States)

The stability of sumatriptan succinate in extemporaneously prepared oral liquids was studied. Suspensions of sumatriptan (as the succinate salt) in Ora-Sweet, Ora-Sweet SF, and Syrpalta syrups (Paddock Laboratories and Humco Laboratory) were extemporaneously compounded to produce a sumatriptan concentration of 5 mg/mL. Each suspension was prepared in triplicate. The suspensions were stored at 4 degrees C in amber glass bottles for 60 days. Two 1-mL samples were removed from each bottle initially and on days 2, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 60. Sumatriptan concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The samples also underwent visual inspection and microbial testing. The mean concentration of sumatriptan in all suspensions remained above 90% of the initial concentration for up to 21 days. By day 28, the sumatriptan concentration of all suspensions had decreased to less than 90% of the initial concentration. None of the suspensions had microbial growth up to day 28, and there were no visible changes in the suspensions throughout the study period. Sumatriptan 5 mg/mL (as the succinate salt) in three oral suspensions was stable for up to 21 days when stored without light at 4 degrees C. PMID:9248606

Fish, D N; Beall, H D; Goodwin, S D; Fox, J L

1997-07-15

302

Stability of mycophenolate mofetil in an extemporaneously compounded oral liquid.  

Science.gov (United States)

The stability of mycophenolate mofetil in an extemporaneously prepared 100-mg/mL oral liquid was studied. The contents of 80 250-mg capsules of mycophenolate mofetil were combined with sterile water for irrigation and cherry-flavored syrup to produce 200 mL of suspension. Six 1-mL samples were analyzed immediately, and the rest of the suspension was poured into 12 2-oz amber polyethylene terephthalate [corrected] G(PETG) bottles; six bottles were stored at 23-25 degrees C and six at 2-8 degrees C. Samples were removed on days 14, 21, 28, 35, 49, 63, 92, and 121 for analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography; pH was measured initially and at each sampling time. The pH of the suspension was initially 6.1 and remained unchanged throughout the study. The suspension retained more than 90% of its initial drug concentration for 121 days at 23-25 and 2-8 degrees C. There was no detectable change in color or odor and no visible microbial growth in any sample. Mycophenolate mofetil in a 100-mg/mL oral liquid prepared with cherry-flavored vehicle and stored in amber PETG bottles was stable for 121 days at 23-25 and 2-8 degrees C. PMID:9588251

Anaizi, N H; Swenson, C F; Dentinger, P J

1998-05-01

303

Children's Oral Health  

Science.gov (United States)

... Evaluation Resources Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) Site Index Children's Oral Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Fact Sheet ... on Dental Sealants See also the overview of Children's Oral Health  Top of Page File Formats Help: How ...

304

Nicotine Oral Inhalation  

Science.gov (United States)

Nicotine oral inhalation is used to help people stop smoking. Nicotine oral inhalation should be used together with a smoking cessation ... groups, counseling, or specific behavioral change techniques. Nicotine inhalation is in a class of medications called smoking ...

305

Fluticasone Oral Inhalation  

Science.gov (United States)

Fluticasone oral inhalation is used to prevent difficulty breathing, chest tightness, wheezing, and coughing caused by asthma. Fluticasone is in a ... medications for asthma during your treatment with fluticasone inhalation. If you were taking an oral steroid such ...

306

Oral Cancer Prevention  

Science.gov (United States)

... of cancer. The following are risk factors for oral cancer: Tobacco use Using tobacco is the leading ... lip. The following is a protective factor for oral cancer: Quitting smoking Studies have shown that when ...

307

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Professionals A step-by-step, illustrated guide for health professionals that provides instruction on examining the mouth for signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, ...

308

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – ... Cancer A fact sheet that describes current and future efforts to improve detection and treatment of oral ...

309

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the mouth for signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes ... Viewers and Players Site Map FOIA Web Policies Privacy Policy National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research ...

310

Chrysomya Bezziana Oral Myiasis  

OpenAIRE

Myiasis is an opportunistic infestation of human and vertebrate animals with dipterous larvae. Oral myiasis is a rare condition associated with poor oral hygiene, mental disability, halitosis and other conditions. We present a case report of an adult mentally challenged woman with extensive necrotic oral lesion burrowing into the hard palate through which three live maggots (larvae) were seen emerging out. The larvae were removed using forceps and the patient was treated with oral ivermectin....

Kumar, Gs Vijay; Sowmya, Gs; Shivananda, S.

2011-01-01

311

Oral English Learning Strategies  

OpenAIRE

This thesis is concerned about the strategies of learning oral English. In the thesis, I introduce many strategies to help students to improve their oral English. Some of these strategies can directly influence their effectiveness of learning oral English such as cognitive strategies, but some do not have directly influence on oral English. The theory of individual differences is still another important one foe choosing effective strategies, which includes age, gender, learning style preferen...

Xiaoxue Yu

2013-01-01

312

Risk for oral cancer from smokeless tobacco  

OpenAIRE

Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs...

Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Qadir, M. Imran; Basser, Hibba Tul; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Bashir

2014-01-01

313

Efinaconazole: a new topical treatment for onychomycosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Efinaconazole is an emerging antifungal therapy for the topical treatment of onychomycosis. Efinaconazole is an inhibitor of sterol 14?-demethylase and is more effective in vitro than terbinafine, itraconazole, ciclopirox and amorolfine against dermatophytes, yeasts and non-dermatophyte molds. Phase II studies indicate that efinaconazole 10% nail solution is more effective than either the 5% strength or 10% solution with semi-occlusion. In duplicate Phase III clinical trials, complete cure rates of 17.8% and 15.2% were demonstrated. The mean mycological cure rate for efinaconazole is similar to the oral antifungal itraconazole and exceeds the efficacy of topical ciclopirox. Efinaconazole showed minimal localized adverse events, which ceased upon stopping treatment. Overall, efinaconazole 10% nail solution is an effective topical monotherapy for distal and lateral subungual onychomycosis (<65% nail involvement, excluding the matrix) that shows further potential use as an adjunct to oral and device-based therapies. PMID:24570290

Gupta, Aditya K; Simpson, Fiona C

2014-01-01

314

In-depth proteomic analysis of non-alcoholic beverages with peptide ligand libraries. I: Almond milk and orgeat syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

Combinatorial peptide ligand libraries, both commercial and home-made, have been adopted to investigate the proteome of non-alcoholic beverages, in order to assess their genuineness and detect also trace proteins, in search of potential allergens. Two such beverages have been studied: almond milk and orgeat syrup. In the first product we have been able to identify 132 unique protein species, the deepest investigation so far of the almond proteome. In the second beverage, a handful of proteins (just 14) have been detected, belonging to a bitter almond extract. In both cases, the genuineness of such products has been verified, as well as the fact that almond milk, judging on the total protein and fat content, must have been produced with 100g ground almonds per litre of beverage, as required by authorities. On the contrary, cheap orgeat syrups produced by local supermarkets and sold as their own brands, where found not to contain any residual proteins, suggesting that they contained only synthetic aromas and no natural plant extracts. This could be the starting point for investigating the myriad of beverages that in the last decades have invaded the shelves of supermarkets the world over, whose genuineness and natural origin have never been properly assessed. PMID:21440098

Fasoli, Elisa; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Kravchuk, Alexander V; Citterio, Attilio; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

2011-06-10

315

Immobilization of inulinase on concanavalin A-attached super macroporous cryogel for production of high-fructose syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, concanavalin A (Con A)-attached poly(ethylene glycol dimethacrylate) [poly(EGDMA)] cryogels were used for immobilization of Aspergillus niger inulinase. For this purposes, the monolithic cryogel column was prepared by radical cryocopolymerization of EGDMA as a monomer and N,N'-methylene bisacrylamide as a crosslinker. Then, Con A was attached by covalent binding onto amino-activated poly(EGDMA) cryogel via glutaraldehyde activation. Characterization of cryogels was performed by FTIR, EDX, and SEM studies. Poly(EGDMA) cryogels were highly porous and pore size was found to be approximately 50-100 ?m. Con A-attached poly(EGDMA) cryogels was used in the adsorption of inulinase from aqueous solutions. Adsorption of inulinase on the Con A-attached poly(EGDMA) cryogel was performed in continuous system and the effects of pH, inulinase concentration, and flow rate on adsorption were investigated. The maximum amount of inulinase adsorption was calculated to be 27.85 mg/g cryogel at 1.0 mg/mL inulinase concentration and in acetate buffer at pH 4.0. Immobilized inulinase was effectively used in continuous preparation of high-fructose syrup. Inulin was converted to fructose in a continuous system and released fructose concentration was found to be 0.23 mg/mL at the end of 5 min of hydrolysis. High-fructose content of the syrup was demonstrated by thin layer chromatography. PMID:23780342

Altunba?, Canan; Uygun, Murat; Uygun, Deniz Akta?; Akgöl, Sinan; Denizli, Adil

2013-08-01

316

Neonatal case of classic maple syrup urine disease: usefulness of (1) H-MRS in early diagnosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

We describe a male neonate with classic maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) in metabolic crisis. On day 7 of life, he was referred to hospital because of coma and metabolic acidosis with maple syrup odor. On day 4 after admission, brain magnetic resonance imaging findings were consistent with encephalopathy due to MSUD. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS) showed a large methyl resonance peak at 0.9?p.p.m. The diagnosis of MSUD was confirmed on low branched-chain ?-keto acid dehydrogenase complex activity in lymphocyte. (1) H-MR spectra were obtained in 10?min, while it took at least several days to obtain the results of other diagnostic examinations. In convalescence, the peak at 0.9?p.p.m. decreased. The large methyl resonance peak at 0.9?p.p.m. in brain (1) H-MRS would be one of the earliest clues to the diagnosis of classic MSUD in the neonatal period, especially in metabolic crisis. PMID:24548198

Sato, Takeshi; Muroya, Koji; Hanakawa, Junko; Asakura, Yumi; Aida, Noriko; Tomiyasu, Moyoko; Tajima, Go; Hasegawa, Tomonobu; Adachi, Masanori

2014-02-01

317

Comparison of response between food supplemented with powdered iron and iron in syrup form for iron deficiency anemia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective: To evaluate and compare the response between food supplemented with iron in powdered and iron in syrup forms for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in children aged 1-5 years. Results: Over half (51 %) of the patients were between 1-2 years of age. One hundred thirty-two were males and 68 females. Most of the patients belonged to poor socioeconomic class. The iron in powder form was better tolerated than iron syrup as this group witnessed fewer episodes of gastrointestinal disturbances. The rise in mean Hb level after 6 weeks of treatment in group A and B was 1.6 g/dl and 1.9 g/dl respectively. Hemoglobin rise in group B was more than group A but this was statistically non-significant (p>0.05). There was small but significant (p<0.05) rise in serum ferritin in both the groups. There was no significant difference between the two groups for response to the two forms of iron administration. Conclusion: The powdered form of iron is a cost-effective and better tolerated method of iron administration in children and can be considered as an alternate option for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia in children. (author)

318

Quality of breast and thigh meats when broilers are fed rations containing graded levels of sugar syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dietary energy for broiler chicken is provided through the inclusion of cereal grains and vegetable oil in the ration. The cost of corn is increasing exponentially, whereas sugar syrup (SS) is available with reasonable cost. Sugar syrup can be used as a substitute for starch/grains and vegetable oil. No research has been reported on the effect of SS on broiler meat quality. In this study, Hubbard commercial broiler chicks were fed a control basal diet (corn-soy basal diet on an ad libitum basis) alone or with graded levels of SS. A completely randomized design with 3 replications (n = 3, treatments = 4 with 4 subsamples per treatment) were used to investigate the effect of replacing part of the corn and oil in broiler chicken rations with graded levels of SS (5, 10, and 15%) on breast and thigh meat quality (proximate analysis, cooking loss, instrumental color, and texture and sensory properties). Rations containing up to 15% SS had a slight effect on proximate composition of raw and cooked broiler breast and thigh meats. Cooking loss of thigh meat decreased significantly with increasing SS but increased significantly for breast meats. No significant differences were detected (P > 0.05) among breast or thigh meats fed rations with a different level of SS on all sensory properties, except that cooked thigh meat had a slightly harder texture. Overall, results suggest that feeding broilers with SS rations (up to 15%) produced high-quality breast and thigh meats with minimal differences. PMID:23873569

Hashim, I B; Hussein, A S; Afifi, H S

2013-08-01

319

Oral Health and Swallowing Problems  

OpenAIRE

Oral health impacts systemic health. Therefore, oral care is an important consideration in maintaining quality of life (QOL). Previously, maintenance and improvement of oral hygiene was considered essential for achieving oral health. In addition to oral hygiene, oral care in terms of oral function is now considered to maintain QOL. Ingestion of exogenous nutrients via the oral cavity is fundamental to the function of all higher animals, not only human beings. Chewing and swallowing processes ...

Furuta, Michiko; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

2013-01-01

320

Helicobacter pylori and oral pathology: Relationship with the gastric infection  

OpenAIRE

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been found in the oral cavity and stomach, and its infection is one of the most frequent worldwide. We reviewed the literature and conducted a Topic Highlight, which identified studies reporting an association between H. pylori-infection in the oral cavity and H. pylori-positive stomach bacterium. This work was designed to determine whether H. pylori is the etiologic agent in periodontal disease, recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS), squamous cell carcinoma,...

Adler, Isabel; Muin?o, Andrea; Aguas, Silvia; Harada, Laura; Diaz, Mariana; Lence, Adriana; Labbrozzi, Mario; Muin?o, Juan Manuel; Elsner, Boris; Avagnina, Alejandra; Denninghoff, Valeria

2014-01-01

321

Aproveitamento industrial do umbu: processamento de geléia e compota Industrial use of umbu: jelly and fruit-in-syrup processing  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O umbu (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam. é uma fruta nativa da Região Nordeste do Brasil. Ainda não devidamente caracterizado, particularmente no que se refere ao seu potencial para industrialização, o umbu demanda pesquisas. Atualmente, esses frutos são consumidos restritamente na região Nordeste, principalmente na forma in natura, preparados como refresco, sorvete ou "umbuzada" (polpa do umbu cozida com leite e açúcar. Objetivou-se com este trabalho adequar a tecnologia convencional de processamento de geléia e compota para o umbu, avaliando a aceitação sensorial e as características físico-químicas desses produtos. Para o processamento de geléia, utilizaram-se duas proporções polpa/açúcar: 50:50 e 40:60, e três concentrações de sólidos insolúveis da polpa: 0%, 50% e 100% do teor de sólidos original da polpa. Para a compota, elaboraram-se produtos com diferentes teores de sólidos solúveis finais, 25°Brix, 30°Brix e 35°Brix, adicionados de 1% de cloreto de cálcio. As polpas, geléias e compotas dos diferentes tratamentos foram submetidas a análises físicas, físico-químicas, químicas e sensoriais. No processamento da geléia de umbu, os produtos obtidos apresentaram valores de acidez total titulável entre 0,60% e 0,90% e de sólidos soúveis totais entre 66,3°Brix e 68,6°Brix. Os tratamentos com proporção polpa:açúcar 50:50 foram significativamente (p The umbu (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam. is a native fruit of the Brazilian Northeast region.. The umbu demands research as it is not adequately characterized, particularly considering its potential for industrialization. Nowadays, these fruits are consumed, at the Northeast region, mainly in natura, prepared as juice, ice cream or "umbuzada" (pulp of the umbu cooked with milk and sugar. The objective of this work was to adapt conventional technology to process umbu jelly and fruit-in-syrup, by evaluating the sensorial acceptance and the physicochemical characteristics of these products. For the jelly processing, it was used two pulp:sugar proportions, 50:50 and 40:60, and three concentrations of insoluble solids of the pulp, 0%, 50% and 100% of the original insoluble solids pulp content. For the umbu-in-syrup, the products were elaborated with different concentration of final soluble solids, 25°Brix, 30°Brix and 35°Brix, added of 1% calcium chloride. The pulps, jellies and fruits-in-syrup of the different treatments were submitted to physical, physicochemical, chemical and sensorial analyses. In the processing of the umbu jelly, the end products presented values of total titratable acidity between 0.60% and 0.90% and soluble solid contents between 66.3°Brix and 68.6°Brix. The treatments with proportion pulp:sugar 50:50 had significantly (p < 0,05 highest sensorial acceptance in relation to the attributes appearance, color and texture. The global acceptance of the umbu fruit-in-syrup was highest for the treatments with 30°Brix and 35°Brix. The use of the umbu fruit as jelly or fruit-in-syrup is possible as these products presented good sensorial acceptance.

Marília I. S. Folegatti

2003-12-01

322

Further Investigation Into Maple Syrup Yields Three New Lignans, a New Phenylpropanoid, and Twenty-Six Other Phytochemicals  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup is made by boiling the sap collected from certain maple (Acer) species. During this process, phytochemicals naturally present in tree sap are concentrated in maple syrup. We previously reported 23 phytochemicals from a butanol extract of Canadian maple syrup (MS-BuOH). Here we report the isolation and identification of 30 additional compounds (1–30) from its ethyl acetate extract (MS-EtOAc) not previously reported from MS-BuOH. Of these, 4 compounds are new (1–3, 18) and 20 compounds (4–7, 10–12, 14–17, 19–20, 22–24, 26, 28–30) are being reported from maple syrup for the first time. The new compounds include 3 lignans and 1 phenylpropanoid: 5-(3?,4?-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxy-3-(4?-hydroxy-3?-methoxybenzyl)-4-hydroxymethyl-dihydrofuran-2-one (1), (erythro, erythro)-1-[4-[2-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy]-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl]-1,2,3-propanetriol (2), (erythro, threo)-1-[4-[2-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy]-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl]-1,2,3-propanetriol (3) and 2,3-dihydroxy-1-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-1-propanone (18), respectively. In addition, 25 other phenolic compounds were isolated including (threo, erythro)-1-[4-[(2-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy]-3-methoxyphenyl]-1,2,3-propanetriol (4), (threo, threo)-1-[4-[(2-hydroxy-2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethoxy]-3-methoxyphenyl]-1,2,3-propanetriol (5), threo-guaiacylglycerol-?-O-4?-dihydroconiferyl alcohol (6), erythro-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-[4-(3-hydroxypropyl)-2,6-dimethoxyphenoxy]-1,3-propanediol (7), 2-[4-[2,3-dihydro-3-(hydroxymethyl)-5-(3-hydroxypropyl)-7-methoxy-2-benzofuranyl]-2,6-dimethoxyphenoxy]-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,3-propanediol (8), acernikol (9), leptolepisol D (10), buddlenol E (11), (1S,2R)-2-[2,6-dimethoxy-4-[(1S,3aR,4S,6aR)-tetrahydro-4-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1H,3H-furo[3,4-c]furan-1-yl]phenoxy]-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,3-propanediol (12), syringaresinol (13), isolariciresinol (14), icariside E4 (15), sakuraresinol (16), 1,2-diguaiacyl-1,3-propanediol (17), 2,3-dihydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-1-propanone (19), 3-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)propan-1-one (20), dihydroconiferyl alcohol (21), 4-acetylcatechol (22), 3?,4?,5?-trihydroxyacetophenone (23), 3,4-dihydroxy-2-methylbenzaldehyde (24), protocatechuic acid (25), 4-(dimethoxymethyl)-pyrocatechol (26), tyrosol (27), isofraxidin (28) and 4-hydroxycatechol (29). One sesquiterpene, phaseic acid (30), which is a known metabolite of the phytohormone, abscisic acid, was also isolated from MS-EtOAc. The antioxidant activities of MS-EtOAc (IC50 = 75.5 ?g/mL), and the pure isolates (IC50 ca. 68–3000 ?M) were comparable to vitamin C (IC50 = 40 ?M) and the synthetic commercial antioxidant, butylated hydroxytoluene (IC50 = 3000 ?M), in the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay. The current study advances scientific knowledge of maple syrup constituents and suggest that these diverse phytochemicals may impart potential health benefits to this natural sweetener. PMID:21675726

LI, LIYA; SEERAM, NAVINDRA P.

2011-01-01

323

Maple syrup urine disease: further evidence that newborn screening may fail to identify variant forms.  

Science.gov (United States)

Newborn screening (NBS) by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has allowed for early detection and initiation of treatment in many patients with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) (OMIM 248600), however, a recent report suggests that variants forms may be missed. Information on these patients is limited. We present clinical, biochemical and molecular information on patients with variant forms of MSUD not detected by the California Newborn Screening Program. Between July 2005 and July 2009, 2200,000 newborns were screened in California by MS/MS. Seventeen cases of MSUD were detected and three (two siblings) were missed. Additionally, the NBS cards of two siblings with late onset MSUD, who were born pre-expanded NBS, were retrospectively analyzed. None of the five patients met criteria to be considered presumptive positive for MSUD (leucine>200micromol/L and a ratio of leucine/alanine>or=1.5). Alloisoleucine (allo-ile) was subsequently analyzed in the NBS cards of all five patients, two of whom were found to have elevated levels. The proband in each family was diagnosed following symptoms triggered by an intercurrent illness or increased protein intake. At diagnosis, leucine levels ranged between 561 and >4528micromol/L, and allo-ile ranged from 137 to 239micromol/L. Two affected siblings had normal plasma amino acids when asymptomatic; however, their biochemical profiles were diagnostic of MSUD during intercurrent illnesses. The median age at diagnosis of all patients was one year (range 0.8-6.7). Heterozygous BCKDHB (E1beta) mutations (c.832G>A/c.970C>T) were identified in one family and a homozygous DBT (E2) sequence variant (c.1430 T>G) in another. The third family had one identifiable DBT mutation (c.827T>G), however, a second mutation was not detected. This report provides further evidence that NBS by MS/MS is unable to detect all cases of MSUD. Second-tier testing with allo-ile may improve sensitivity; however, some children with variant forms will invariably be missed. PMID:20307994

Puckett, R L; Lorey, F; Rinaldo, P; Lipson, M H; Matern, D; Sowa, M E; Levine, S; Chang, R; Wang, R Y; Abdenur, J E

2010-06-01

324

Oral contraceptives induced hepatotoxicity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oral Contraceptives are the pharmacological agents used to prevent pregnancy. These are divided as the combined and progestogen methods and are administered orally, transdermally, systemically and via vaginal route. All these methods contain both oestrogen and progestogen. Vigorous usage of oral contraceptives and anabolic steroids as associated with cholestasis, vascular lesions and hepatic neoplasm. Benign hepatic neoplasms are clearly associated with oral contraceptives. In this article we discuss the various hepatocellular complications like cholestasis, benign neoplasm and hepatocellular carcinoma occurred by oral contraceptives. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(1.000: 91-93

B. Akshaya Srikanth

2013-02-01

325

Método espectroscópico para determinação de cumarina em xarope de Mikania glomerata Sprengel / Ultraviolet spectroscopy method for coumarin quantification in Mikania glomerata Sprengel syrup  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver uma metodologia analítica por espectroscopia UV, para doseamento de cumarina em xaropes de Mikania glomerata. A técnica foi baseada na extração da cumarina utilizando solventes como o clorofórmio e hexano. Após a seleção do solvente, o comprimento de onda [...] foi definido através da sobreposição dos espectros da cumarina, metil parabeno, diluição do xarope e solução extrativa do xarope. Foram preparadas curvas analíticas de cinco soluções de cumarina com concentração variando de 0,002 a 0,03 mg/mL. Para análise da exatidão do método, foram preparados três lotes de xarope de Mikania glomerata Sprengel e o teor de cumarina determinado pela técnica espectrofotométrica foi comparado a técnica por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. O solvente selecionado para extração foi o clorofórmio, o comprimento de onda 320 nm. A curva analítica apresentou R² de 0,99978, demonstrando linearidade. A comparação estatística do doseamento da cumarina pela técnica espectrofotométrica estudada com a técnica cromatográfica desenvolvida por Celeghini et al. (2001) demonstrou não existir diferenças significativas, indicativo de exatidão da técnica. Abstract in english A spectrophotometric procedure for coumarin determination in Mikania glomerata Sprengel (guaco) syrup is described in this work. Due to the high number of constituents in guaco syrups, the coumarin was extracted with apolar extractors (chloroform and hexane), in which chloroform was selected, becaus [...] e of its higher capacity of extraction. After the solvent choice, the wavelength at 320 nm, region where there is the lower interference of syrup constituents, was selected. The calibration curve showed linearity, R² of 0.99978. The spectrophotometric assay of coumarin in three samples of Mikania glomerata Sprengel syrup showed accuracy compared with the HPLC method. The results presented suggest that the spectrophotometric method may be useful for the quantitative analysis of coumarin in Mikania glomerata Sprengel syrup.

Cleinils R. da, Silva; Víctor S., Gomes; Irene C., Kulkamp; Luiz A., Kanis.

2008-12-01

326

Oral Health Education: 'delivering Better Oral Health’  

OpenAIRE

Abstract:Health is regarded by World Health Organization (WHO) as a fundamental human right, and correspondingly, all people should have access to basic resources for health. Health education is a process of transmission of knowledge and skills necessary for improvement in quality of life. Oral health education, an important part of oral health promotion, has been considered as essential & basic part of dental health services. The goal is to improve knowledge, which may lead to the adoption o...

Shitanshu Malhotra; Anuradha P.

2013-01-01

327

The pharmacology of topical analgesics.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pain management of patients continues to pose challenges to clinicians. Given the multiple dimensions of pain--whether acute or chronic, mild, moderate, or severe, nociceptive or neuropathic--a multimodal approach may be needed. Fortunately, clinicians have an array of nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment choices; however, each modality must be chosen carefully, because some often used oral agents are associated with safety and tolerability issues that restrict their use in certain patients. In particular, orally administered nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, opioids, antidepressants, and anticonvulsants are known to cause systemic adverse effects in some patients. To address this problem, a number of topical therapies in various therapeutic classes have been developed to reduce systemic exposure and minimize the risks of patients developing adverse events. For example, topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug formulations produce a site-specific effect (ie, cyclo-oxygenase inhibition) while decreasing the systemic exposure that may lead to undesired effects in patients. Similarly, derivatives of acetylsalicylic acid (ie, salicylates) are used in topical analgesic formulations that do not significantly enter the patient's systemic circulation. Salicylates, along with capsaicin, menthol, and camphor, compose the counterirritant class of topical analgesics, which produce analgesia by activating and then desensitizing epidermal nociceptors. Additionally, patches and creams that contain the local anesthetic lidocaine, alone or co-formulated with other local anesthetics, are also used to manage patients with select acute and chronic pain states. Perhaps the most common topical analgesic modality is the cautious application of cutaneous cold and heat. Such treatments may decrease pain not by reaching the target tissue through systemic distribution, but by acting more directly on the affected tissue. Despite the tolerability benefits associated with avoiding systemic circulation, topically applied analgesics are associated with application-site reactions in patients, such as dryness, erythema, burning, and discoloration. Furthermore, some adverse events that have been observed in patients may be suggestive of some degree of systemic exposure. This article reviews the mechanisms of action, pharmacokinetics, and tolerability of topical treatments for the management of patient pain. PMID:24547599

Barkin, Robert L

2013-07-01

328

Radiation induced oral mucositis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Patients receiving radiotherapy or chemotherapy will receive some degree of oral mucositis The incidence of oral mucositis was especially high in patients: (i With primary tumors in the oral cavity, oropharynx, or nasopharynx; (ii who also received concomitant chemotherapy; (iii who received a total dose over 5,000 cGy; and (iv who were treated with altered fractionation radiation schedules. Radiation-induced oral mucositis affects the quality of life of the patients and the family concerned. The present day management of oral mucositis is mostly palliative and or supportive care. The newer guidelines are suggesting Palifermin, which is the first active mucositis drug as well as Amifostine, for radiation protection and cryotherapy. The current management should focus more on palliative measures, such as pain management, nutritional support, and maintenance, of good oral hygiene

Satheesh Kumar P

2009-01-01

329

Oral microbiota and cancer  

OpenAIRE

Inflammation caused by infections may be the most important preventable cause of cancer in general. However, in the oral cavity the role of microbiota in carcinogenesis is not known. Microbial populations on mouth mucosa differ between healthy and malignant sites and certain oral bacterial species have been linked with malignancies but the evidence is still weak in this respect. Nevertheless, oral microorganisms inevitably up-regulate cytokines and other inflammatory mediators that affect the...

Meurman, Jukka H.

2010-01-01

330

The Human Oral Microbiome? † ?  

OpenAIRE

The human oral cavity contains a number of different habitats, including the teeth, gingival sulcus, tongue, cheeks, hard and soft palates, and tonsils, which are colonized by bacteria. The oral microbiome is comprised of over 600 prevalent taxa at the species level, with distinct subsets predominating at different habitats. The oral microbiome has been extensively characterized by cultivation and culture-independent molecular methods such as 16S rRNA cloning. Unfortunately, the vast majority...

Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Chen, Tuste; Izard, Jacques; Paster, Bruce J.; Tanner, Anne C. R.; Yu, Wen-han; Lakshmanan, Abirami; Wade, William G.

2010-01-01

331

INDUCTION OF ENZYME COCKTAILS BY LOW COST CARBON SOURCES FOR PRODUCTION OF MONOSACCHARIDE-RICH SYRUPS FROM PLANT MATERIALS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The production of cellulases, hemicellulases, and starch-degrading enzymes by the thermophilic aerobic fungus Talaromyces emersonii under liquid state culture on various food wastes was investigated. A comprehensive enzyme screening was conducted, which resulted in the identification of spent tea leaves as a potential substrate for hydrolytic enzyme production. The potent, polysaccharide-degrading enzyme-rich cocktail produced when tea leaves were utilised as sole carbon source was analysed at a protein and mRNA level and shown to exhibit high level production of key cellulose and hemicellulose degrading enzymes. As presented in this paper, the crude enzyme preparation produced after 120 h growth of Talaromyces emersonii on used tea leaves is capable of hydrolysing other lignocellulosic materials into their component monosaccharides, generating high value sugar syrups with a host of industrial applications including conversion to fuels and chemicals.

Caroline T. Gilleran

2010-05-01

332

Analytical method by high resolution liquid chromatography for the stability study of cloratidine syrup 0.1 %  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A high resolution liquid chromatography method was validated to study the stability of cloratidine syrup 0.1 %. The calibration curve in the range from 13.6 to 3.36 ?g/mL was lineal, with a coefficient of correlation equal to 0.99975. The intercept and slope statistical test was not significant. The recovery obtained was 100.2 % in the concentration range studied, and the Cochran and Student (t) tests results were not important. The variation coefficient in the repeatability study was equal to 0.41 % for 10 replications assayed, whereas in the reproducibility Fischer and Student tests were not remarkable. The method proved to be specific, lineal, accurate, and exact. (Author)

333

A new missense mutation in the BCKDHB gene causes the classic form of maple syrup urine disease (MSUD).  

Science.gov (United States)

Abstract Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an autosomal recessive metabolic disease caused by mutations in the BCKDHA, BCKDHB, DBT and DLD genes, which encode the E1?, E1?, E2 and E3 subunits of the branched chain ? ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKD) complex, respectively. This complex is involved in the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids. In this study, we analyzed the DNA sequences of BCKDHA and BCKDHB genes in an infant who suffered from MSUD and died at the age of 6 months. We found a new missense mutation in exon 5 of BCKDHB gene (c.508C>T). The heterozygosity of the parents for the mentioned nucleotide change was confirmed by direct sequence analysis of the corresponding segment. Another missense mutation has been found in the same codon previously and shown by in silico analyses to be deleterious. This report provides further evidence that this amino acid change can cause classic MSUD. PMID:25381949

Miryounesi, Mohammad; Ghafouri-Fard, Soudeh; Goodarzi, Hamedreza; Fardaei, Majid

2014-11-01

334

Influence of the ageing phenomenon on the low-frequency electrical impedance behavior of naphazoline hydrochloride solutions and paracetamol syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of the ageing process on the low frequency behavior of some electrical parameters of naphazoline hydrochloride solutions at 0.5% and 1% in concentration and of 2% paracetamol syrup, is studied. The impedance measurements were performed, in the range between 200 Hz and 1 MHz, using an impedance analyzer and a cell for liquids with plane parallel electrodes whose separation can be changed by using a set of spacers, provided by the manufacturer, in order to get better control of the influence of electrodes polarization effect. The ageing state was artificially generated by dilution and/or heating separated procedures. The results show that this dielectric technique can be used as a good quality complementary control technique. PMID:18781632

Brito, Pedro C; Mechetti, Magdalena; Gotter, Carlos M; Merep, David J

2009-05-01

335

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... for Clinical Researchers See All Browse Studies by Topic NIDCR-Sponsored Clinical Trials Why are clinical trials ... Science News Grants & Funding Funding Opportunity Announcements By Topic RFAs PAs Application Forms and Deadlines Grant Application ...

336

Preservation of high phenylalanine ammonia lyase activities in roots of Japanese Striped corn: a potential oral therapeutic to treat phenylketonuria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inherited metabolic disorder caused by deficient phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) activity, the enzyme responsible for the disposal of excess amounts of the essential amino acid phenylalanine (Phe). Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5) has potential to serve as an enzyme substitution therapy for this human genetic disease. Using 7-day-old Japanese Striped corn seedlings (Japonica Striped maize, Zea mays L. cv. japonica) that contain high activities of PAL, we investigated a number of methods to preserve the roots as an intact food and for long-term storage. The cryoprotectant effects of maple syrup and other edible sugars (mono- and oligosaccharides) were evaluated. Following thawing, the preserved roots were then examined to determine whether the rigid plant cell walls could protect the PAL enzyme from proteolysis during simulated (in vitro) digestion comprised of gastric and intestinal phases. While several treatments led to retention of PAL activity during freezing, upon thawing and in vitro digestion, root tissues that had been previously frozen in the presence of maple syrup exhibited the highest residual PAL activities (?50% of the initial enzyme activity), in marked contrast to all of the treatments using other edible sugars. The structural integrity of the root cells, and the stability of the functional PAL tetramer were also preserved with the maple syrup protocol. These results have significance for the formulation of oral enzyme/protein therapeutics. When plant tissues are adequately preserved, the rigid cell walls constitute a protective barrier even under harsh (e.g. gastrointestinal-like) conditions. PMID:24657198

López-Villalobos, Arturo; Lücker, Joost; López-Quiróz, Ana Angela; Yeung, Edward C; Palma, Kristoffer; Kermode, Allison R

2014-06-01

337

The 21st-Century Oral Presentation Tool Bag  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral presentations are pedagogically useful when there are many examples or subcategories for the topic at hand. For example, in the author's biology classes, students make presentations on different species of bacteria--highlighting morphology, benefits or detriments, transmissions, niches, and other relevant information. They also present on a…

LaBanca, Frank

2011-01-01

338

Taking the Floor: Oral Presentations in EFL Classrooms  

Science.gov (United States)

This article discusses theoretical and practical aspects pertaining to oral presentations in the EFL context. It discusses issues and proposes ideas concerning the advantages of presentations, types of presentations, ways of arranging presentations in the classroom, possible topics of presentations and sources of data and information obtained for…

Al-Issa, Ali Said; Al-Qubtan, Redha

2010-01-01

339

Carotenoid production by Rhodotorula rubra cultivated in sugarcane juice, molasses, and syrup Produção de carotenoides por Rhodotorula rubra cultivada em caldo, melaço e xarope de cana-de-açúcar  

OpenAIRE

The Rhodotorularubra biomass and carotenoids production was evaluated in sugarcane juice, molasses, and syrup based media. The effects of media supplementation with urea- nitrogen or the commercial nutrient called Nitrofos KL was also verified. The experimental design used was a completely randomized factorial with 3 substrates (juice, molasses, and syrup) and three supplementations (control, urea, and Nitrofos KL). The results were submitted to variance analysis and Tukey test at 5% probabil...

David Banzatto; Lidyane Aline de Freita; Márcia Justino Rossini Mutton

2013-01-01

340

Iododerma following topical povidone-iodine application.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 43-year-old male patient presented with two well-demarcated, elevated plaques, measuring 4?cm in diameter, with yellow-black crusts over it that appeared 3?d earlier. With the help of history, physical examination and histopathological features, the patient was diagnosed with iododerma secondary to topical povidone-iodine use. Iododerma develops frequently after oral or intravenous but rarely after topical use of iodine. Its pathogenesis is not well-known though it is widely believed that it is a delayed hypersensitivity reaction. PMID:23560395

Aliagaoglu, Cihangir; Turan, Hakan; Uslu, Esma; Albayrak, Hulya; Yazici, Serkan; Kaya, Ertugrul

2013-10-01

341

The Structure of Wolof Sufi Oral Narratives: Expanding the Labovian and Longacrean Models to Accommodate Wolof Oral Tradition  

Science.gov (United States)

This dissertation investigates Wolof Sufi oral narrative structure and its relationship with the context of production of the narratives. The findings of this study indicate that the structure of these narratives is characterized by (1) the salience of the complicating action, (2) the presence a pre-story stage, which announces the general topic,…

Seck, Mamarame

2009-01-01

342

Oral Contraceptive Pill and PCOS  

Science.gov (United States)

PCOS: The Oral Contraceptive Pill Posted under Health Guides . Updated 25 February 2014. +Related Content Key Facts PCOS is a hormone ... hormone levels in girls with PCOS. What are oral contraceptive pills? Oral contraceptive pills contain two types ...

343

American Academy of Oral Medicine  

Science.gov (United States)

... Fall Meeting AAOM: Representing the Discipline of Oral Medicine Oral Medicine is the discipline of dentistry concerned with the ... offers credentialing, resources and professional community for oral medicine practitioners. Our membership provides care to thousands We ...

344

Older Adults (and Oral Health)  

Science.gov (United States)

... disabilities and offers strategies for providing oral care. Older Adults NIDCR > OralHealth > Oral Health Information Sorted by ... > ... an endorsement by NIH or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products ...

345

Oral cavity and jaw  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Radioanatome of oral cavity and jaw is described. Diseases of the teeth, jaw, large salivary glands, temporo-mandibular articulation are considered. Roentgenograms of oral cacity and jaw of healthy people are presented and analyzed as well as roentgenograms in the above-mentioned diseases

346

Diagnosing oral ulcers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral ulcers are common and can have many causes, making diagnosis challenging. This article provides an overview of common oral ulcers and an algorithmic approach to establishing the correct diagnosis. Factors such as duration, pattern of recurrence, clinical appearance, mucosal location, and presence or absence of systemic symptoms are useful clues to determining an ulcer's cause. PMID:25621959

Bruce, Alison J; Dabade, Tushar S; Burkemper, Nicole M

2015-02-01

347

Oral helminthic infestations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral infections caused by helminths (worms) are rarely encountered in clinical practice, and consequently, there is a paucity of information in the medical and dental literature about these conditions. In the present article, we review the English literature related to oral helminthic infestations. The main oral infections caused by helminths include four roundworm (trichinosis, trichuriasis, filariasis, and larva migrans) and three tapeworm infections (cysticercosis, sparganosis, and echinococcosis). Cases are mainly encountered in endemic areas and mainly present a benign clinical picture. The diagnosis of oral helminthic infections is mostly established after histopathological examination, which shows parasitic larvae lined by fibrous tissue and inflammatory cells. Surgical excision is the preferred treatment of isolated oral lesions caused by helminths; however, patients should undergo thorough medical evaluation to exclude the possible involvement of other body systems. PMID:24574305

Hassona, Yazan; Scully, Crispian; Delgado-Azanero, Wilson; de Almeida, Oslei P

2014-02-27

348

Oral English Learning Strategies  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This thesis is concerned about the strategies of learning oral English. In the thesis, I introduce many strategies to help students to improve their oral English. Some of these strategies can directly influence their effectiveness of learning oral English such as cognitive strategies, but some do not have directly influence on oral English. The theory of individual differences is still another important one foe choosing effective strategies, which includes age, gender, learning style preferences, etc. In the last part, I carry out a SBI (strategies-based instruction to test the effectiveness of the strategies I introduce. I get two major findings: one is that learning strategies do have effect on learning oral English; the other is that not a strategy is fit for all learners. The effectiveness of a strategy depends not only on what task it applies to but on personal characteristics.

Xiaoxue Yu

2013-10-01

349

Stability of famotidine in an extemporaneously prepared oral liquid.  

Science.gov (United States)

The stability of famotidine in an extemporaneously prepared oral liquid stored at 4 and 24 degrees C for 30 days was studied. Famotidine liquid was prepared by pulverizing and suspending 12 40-mg tablets in distilled water. This mixture was diluted with cherry syrup to a total volume of 60 mL, resulting in a famotidine concentration of 8 mg/mL. The liquid was divided into two 30-mL amber glass bottles and stored at 4 degrees C and at room temperature (24 degrees C). Samples from each of the two bottles were assayed for famotidine content by high-performance liquid chromatography. Each sample was assayed in duplicate at time 0 and on days 2, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30. The concentration of famotidine remained above 90% of original concentration for 20 days at 4 degrees C and for 15 days at room temperature. After 30 days, famotidine concentration was reduced by 15% and 24% at 4 degrees C and room temperature respectively. Famotidine liquid 8 mg/mL compounded extemporaneously from tablets was stable for 20 days at 4 degrees C and for 15 days at 24 degrees C. PMID:8470686

Quercia, R A; Jay, G T; Fan, C; Chow, M S

1993-04-01

350

Effect of oral cephalexin in the treatment of BCG lymphadenitis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Lymphadenitis and abscess formation are the most common side effects of vaccination with Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG). The lower the child's age at the time of vaccination, the higher the incidence of BCG lymphadenitis tends to be. Although various therapeutic approaches are in use for the treatment of BCG lymphadenitis, there is no consensus on which of them is optimal. This study aimed to determine whether oral cephalexin treatment hastens recovery from BCG lymphadenitis. The study involved 40 children (24 boys and 16 girls) with BCG lymphadenitis who were referred to Qazvin Children's Hospital, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences between December 2008 and the end of September 2009. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups of 20 patients each (12 boys and 8 girls in each group): group A patients did not receive any treatment and served as controls, and group B patients were treated with 50 mg/kg/day cephalexin syrup, administered in four doses, for 10 days. In all patients, clinical examination was normal, except for lymphadenitis. In all patients, BCG vaccination had been performed at birth, and polymerase chain reaction tests were positive for tuberculous bacilli. The recovery period and requirement of fine needle aspiration did not significantly differ between the two groups (P 0.05). This study showed that treatment with cephalexin does not hasten recovery from BCG lymphadenitis. PMID:24955797

Ayazi, Parviz; Mahyar, Abolfazl; Taremiha, Alireza; Ghorani, Najmeh; Esmailzadehha, Neda

2014-06-01

351

Iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome and topical steroid therapy: case series and review of the literature.  

Science.gov (United States)

Topical corticosteroids are considered first-line therapy in patients with chronic inflammatory oral mucosal diseases; among them, clobetasol propionate is one of the most widely used in oral medicine. Under physiological conditions, the transmucosal application is characterized by a significantly greater absorption than the skin application. Contrary to many publications about the side effects of topical corticosteroids in dermatology, few studies have investigated the systemic effects due to local application of these drugs on oral mucosa. Although topical steroid therapy for the management of oral diseases is generally associated with local adverse effects (candidiasis, stomatopyrosis, and hypogeusia), these drugs can also lead to systemic side effects, such as suppression of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and Cushing's syndrome. This review reports five cases of systemic adverse effects caused by clobetasol propionate topical treatment. PMID:23210698

Decani, Sem; Federighi, Veronica; Baruzzi, Elisa; Sardella, Andrea; Lodi, Giovanni

2014-12-01

352

The efficacy of sucralfate suspension in the prevention of oral mucositis due to radiation therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to assess the value of sucralfate suspension in prevention of oral mucositis and for reduction of oral pain in patients who develop mucositis during radiation therapy. The study was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized prospective trial of a sucralfate suspension in the prevention and management of oral mucositis during radiation therapy. Oral mucositis was assessed using a quantitative scale and symptoms were assessed using visual analogue scales. The statistical model was developed to detect a 40% reduction in mucositis. No statistically significant reduction in mucositis was seen. Early during radiation therapy less oral pain was reported in the sucralfate group, but as treatment progressed all patients experienced pain. Patients in the sucralfate group were prescribed topical and systemic analgesics later in the course of radiation therapy. Prophylactic oral rinsing with sucralfate did not prevent oral ulcerative mucositis. Sucralfate may reduce the experience of pain during radiation therapy. 32 refs., 3 tabs

353

Estudo de toxicologia clínica de um fitoterápico a base de associações de plantas, mel e própolis / Clinical toxicology study of a phytomedicine syrup composed of plants, honey and propolis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available O estudo objetivou avaliar a segurança clínica do uso de uma formulação fitoterápica composta da associação de Mikania glomerata, Mentha piperita, Eucalyptus globulus e Copaifera multijuga, incorporadas à própolis e mel para tratar doenças respiratórias. O ensaio clínico consistiu de um estudo abert [...] o, com 26 voluntários adultos de ambos os sexos, que receberam quatro doses orais de 15 mL de Saratosse®, durante 28 dias ininterruptos. Os voluntários foram incluídos somente se considerados saudáveis, após exames clínico e complementares que antecederam o estudo. A avaliação laboratorial incluía análises hematológicas, bioquímicas e sorológicas. A mesma avaliação foi repetida após cada semana de tratamento e no pós-estudo, sete dias após a última administração. Os resultados foram submetidos à Análise de Variância (teste de Dunnett), obtendo-se, a menor diferença significante (p Abstract in english The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety of the use of a phytomedicine syrup (Saratosse®) composed of several medicinal plants: Mikania glomerata, Mentha piperita, Eucalyptus globulus and Copaifera multijuga, along with honey and propolis to treat respiratory diseases. The clinical trial cons [...] isted of an open study with 26 adult volunteers of both sexes, who were given an oral dose of 15 mL of Saratosse® for 28 consecutive days, four times a day. Only volunteers who were found healthy after a clinical and physical examination were included. The laboratory tests included: hematological, biochemical and serological analysis. This evaluation was repeated after each week of treatment and seven days after the last administration. ANOVA analysis (Dunnett's test) showed a significant difference, albeit at low statistical level (p

Janaina P., Tavares; Ismael L., Martins; Ariane S., Vieira; Francisco A.V., Lima; Fernando A.F., Bezerra; Manoel O., Moraes; Maria E.A., Moraes.

2006-09-01

354

Amiloidosis oral nodular Oral nodular amyloidosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introducción. La amiloidosis constituye una entidad marcada por el depósito de amiloide en diferentes tejidos. En la cavidad oral se manifiesta habitualmente en forma de macroglosia, y más raramente, como nódulos dispuestos en la superficie. Caso clínico. Varón afecto de Mieloma Múltiple, que comienza con lesiones nodulares en labio inferior y lengua. A raíz de estas lesiones, mediante estudio histológico, es diagnosticado de Amiloidosis Sistémica. Discusión. Los nódulos amiloideos en la cavidad oral, constituyen una manifestación rara de la amiloidosis sistémica. Su aparición conlleva la necesidad de realizar un diagnostico diferencial con otras entidades y el diagnostico de certeza se obtiene mediante el análisis histológico.Introduction. Amyloidosis is a condition characterized by the deposit of amyloid in different tissues. In the oral cavity it is usually manifested as macroglossia and, more rarely, as nodules on the surface. Clinical case. A man had multiple myeloma that began with nodular lesions of the lower lip and tongue. As a result of these lesions, the patient was diagnosed of systemic amyloidosis by histological study. Discussion. Amyloid nodules in the oral cavity are a rare manifestation of systemic amyloidosis. Its appearance entails the necessity to make I diagnose differential with other organizations and I diagnose of certainty is obtained by means of the histological analysis.

P. Martos Díaz

2008-02-01

355

Oral History Research Center at UNLV  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral history projects associated with certain places or locales tend to document their own areas quite well, and the Oral History Research Center at the University of Nevada-Las Vegas is definitely no exception. Established in September 2003, the Center is committed to conducting and collecting audiotaped interviews (with the occasional video segment) with persons who can give first-hand reflections and commentary on historical topics that relate the history of Southern Nevada and its environs. To that end, visitors should not be at all surprised to learn that some of their current work includes taping interviews with Las Vegas showgirls and documenting the experiences of tappers working in that same city. The recollections of tap dancers are a real treat, as visitors can learn about the work of Carolyn Freeman, Toby Uriosts, and Marjorie Pierce. As one might hope, this particular area of the site also includes a few video clips of the dancers in action.

356

Topical Curcumin-Based Cream Is Equivalent to Dietary Curcumin in a Skin Cancer Model  

OpenAIRE

Skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), the most common cancer in the USA, is a growing problem with the use of tanning booths causing sun-damaged skin. Antiproliferative effects of curcumin were demonstrated in an aggressive skin cancer cell line SRB12-p9 (P < 0.05 compared to control). Topical formulation was as effective as oral curcumin at suppressing tumor growth in a mouse skin cancer model. Curcumin at 15?mg administered by oral, topical, or combined formulation significantly reduced tum...

Kunal Sonavane; Jeffrey Phillips; Oleksandr Ekshyyan; Tara Moore-Medlin; Jennifer Roberts Gill; Xiaohua Rong; Raghunatha Reddy Lakshmaiah; Fleurette Abreo; Douglas Boudreaux; Clifford, John L.; Nathan, Cherie-ann O.

2012-01-01

357

Molecular genetic basis of maple syrup urine disease in a family with two defective alleles for branched chain acyltransferase and localization of the gene to human chromosome 1.  

OpenAIRE

Maple syrup urine disease in humans results from inherited defects in branched chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase, a mitochondrial multienzyme complex. A variety of genetic changes may produce this phenotype by affecting the function of any of the three complex-specific subunits. The varied clinical expression observed in patients may be partially explained by the defects in the involved subunit. Here we report localization of the gene for the branched chain acyltransferase component of the c...

Herring, W. J.; Litwer, S.; Weber, J. L.; Danner, D. J.

1991-01-01

358

Detection of heterozygotes in maple-syrup-urine disease: measurements of branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase and its components in cell cultures.  

OpenAIRE

To detect heterozygotes for maple-syrup-urine disease (MSUD), activities of branched-chain-alpha-ketoacid (BCKA) dehydrogenase and its components in skin fibroblasts of two obligatory heterozygotes and amnion cells of a fetus at risk were measured. Intact heterozygous cells were found to decarboxylate [1-14C] alpha-ketoisovalerate at rates equal to or only slightly lower than normal subjects. The inability to differentiate heterozygotes from normals with the intact cell assay confirms earlier...

Chuang, D. T.; Ku, L. S.; Kerr, D. S.; Cox, R. P.

1982-01-01

359

Sequence of the E1 alpha subunit of branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase in two patients with thiamine-responsive maple syrup urine disease.  

OpenAIRE

Some patients with maple syrup urine disease respond to thiamine administration with a reduction in ketoaciduria and increase in activity of branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase. The biochemical mechanism underlying this effect is unknown but may result from decreased affinity of the mutant enzyme for thiamine or from stabilization of the abnormal enzyme by thiamine. The E1 alpha subunit of the complex participates in the thiamine-dependent decarboxylation of branched-chain alpha-ketoa...

Zhang, B.; Wappner, R. S.; Brandt, I. K.; Harris, R. A.; Crabb, D. W.

1990-01-01

360

Branched Chain Amino Acids Induce Apoptosis in Neural Cells without Mitochondrial Membrane Depolarization or Cytochrome c Release: Implications for Neurological Impairment Associated with Maple Syrup Urine Disease  

OpenAIRE

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is an inborn error of metabolism caused by a deficiency in branched chain ?-keto acid dehydrogenase that can result in neurodegenerative sequelae in human infants. In the present study, increased concentrations of MSUD metabolites, in particular ?-keto isocaproic acid, specifically induced apoptosis in glial and neuronal cells in culture. Apoptosis was associated with a reduction in cell respiration but without impairment of respi...

Jouvet, Philippe; Rustin, Pierre; Taylor, Deanna L.; Pocock, Jennifer M.; Felderhoff-mueser, Ursula; Mazarakis, Nicholas D.; Sarraf, Catherine; Joashi, Umesh; Kozma, Mary; Greenwood, Kirsty; Edwards, A. David; Mehmet, Huseyin

2000-01-01

361

Oral manifestation in inflammatory bowel disease: a review.  

Science.gov (United States)

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), including Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis, not only affect the intestinal tract but also have an extraintestinal involvement within the oral cavity. These oral manifestations may assist in the diagnosis and the monitoring of disease activity, whilst ignoring them may lead to an inaccurate diagnosis and useless and expensive workups. Indurated tag-like lesions, cobblestoning, and mucogingivitis are the most common specific oral findings encountered in CD cases. Aphthous stomatitis and pyostomatitis vegetans are among non-specific oral manifestations of IBD. In differential diagnosis, side effects of drugs, infections, nutritional deficiencies, and other inflammatory conditions should also be considered. Treatment usually involves managing the underlying intestinal disease. In severe cases with local symptoms, topical and/or systemic steroids and immunosuppressive drugs might be used. PMID:24379574

Lankarani, Kamran B; Sivandzadeh, Gholam Reza; Hassanpour, Shima

2013-12-14

362

Assessment of the stability of proanthocyanidins and other phenolic compounds in cranberry syrup after gamma-irradiation treatment and during storage.  

Science.gov (United States)

Shelf life of commercial cranberry syrup irradiated with gamma radiation at a rate of 5 kGy and stored for 6 months at 25 °C and 60% relative humidity (RH) and under accelerated stability conditions was investigated. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS) was used to characterise cranberry syrup. Afterwards, these compounds were quantified by HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS and 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMAC) assay. A significant increase in the content of procyanidin B isomer 1 (from 4.4 to 7.0 ?g/ml) and procyanidin A2 (from 83 to 93 ?g/ml) was observed after irradiation and compared with the non-irradiated syrup. Procyanidin B isomers and prodelphinidin were stable at 25 °C during the first month of storage, whereas quercetin and some derivatives remained constant for 3 months of storage at this temperature. In short, after gamma-irradiation in dose of 5 kGy, most compounds were highly stable for a month at 25 °C. PMID:25529697

Rodríguez-Pérez, C; Quirantes-Piné, R; Contreras, M del M; Uberos, J; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A; Segura-Carretero, A

2015-05-01

363

Antimicrobial Properties of Topical Anesthetic Liquids Containing Lidocaine or Benzocaine  

OpenAIRE

Six species of microorganisms commonly found within the oral cavity were exposed for either one minute or two hours to 5% lidocaine liquid topical anesthetic and benzocaine liquid topical anesthetic. Mixtures of microorganisms and anesthetics were diluted and plated onto a brain heart infusion medium. Reduction in cell viability was 73-100% after exposure to the anesthetic agents when compared with the saline/buffer controls. A significant reduction (p < .005) in cell growth by Streptococcus ...

Morrow, Mark E.; Berry, Charles W.

1988-01-01

364

Aproveitamento industrial do umbu: processamento de geléia e compota / Industrial use of umbu: jelly and fruit-in-syrup processing  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O umbu (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam.) é uma fruta nativa da Região Nordeste do Brasil. Ainda não devidamente caracterizado, particularmente no que se refere ao seu potencial para industrialização, o umbu demanda pesquisas. Atualmente, esses frutos são consumidos restritamente na região Nordeste, prin [...] cipalmente na forma in natura, preparados como refresco, sorvete ou "umbuzada" (polpa do umbu cozida com leite e açúcar). Objetivou-se com este trabalho adequar a tecnologia convencional de processamento de geléia e compota para o umbu, avaliando a aceitação sensorial e as características físico-químicas desses produtos. Para o processamento de geléia, utilizaram-se duas proporções polpa/açúcar: 50:50 e 40:60, e três concentrações de sólidos insolúveis da polpa: 0%, 50% e 100% do teor de sólidos original da polpa. Para a compota, elaboraram-se produtos com diferentes teores de sólidos solúveis finais, 25°Brix, 30°Brix e 35°Brix, adicionados de 1% de cloreto de cálcio. As polpas, geléias e compotas dos diferentes tratamentos foram submetidas a análises físicas, físico-químicas, químicas e sensoriais. No processamento da geléia de umbu, os produtos obtidos apresentaram valores de acidez total titulável entre 0,60% e 0,90% e de sólidos soúveis totais entre 66,3°Brix e 68,6°Brix. Os tratamentos com proporção polpa:açúcar 50:50 foram significativamente (p Abstract in english The umbu (Spondias tuberosa Arr. Cam.) is a native fruit of the Brazilian Northeast region.. The umbu demands research as it is not adequately characterized, particularly considering its potential for industrialization. Nowadays, these fruits are consumed, at the Northeast region, mainly in natura, [...] prepared as juice, ice cream or "umbuzada" (pulp of the umbu cooked with milk and sugar). The objective of this work was to adapt conventional technology to process umbu jelly and fruit-in-syrup, by evaluating the sensorial acceptance and the physicochemical characteristics of these products. For the jelly processing, it was used two pulp:sugar proportions, 50:50 and 40:60, and three concentrations of insoluble solids of the pulp, 0%, 50% and 100% of the original insoluble solids pulp content. For the umbu-in-syrup, the products were elaborated with different concentration of final soluble solids, 25°Brix, 30°Brix and 35°Brix, added of 1% calcium chloride. The pulps, jellies and fruits-in-syrup of the different treatments were submitted to physical, physicochemical, chemical and sensorial analyses. In the processing of the umbu jelly, the end products presented values of total titratable acidity between 0.60% and 0.90% and soluble solid contents between 66.3°Brix and 68.6°Brix. The treatments with proportion pulp:sugar 50:50 had significantly (p

Marília I. S., Folegatti; Fernando C. A. U., Matsuura; Ricardo L., Cardoso; Sérly S., Machado; Andréa S., Rocha; Renata R., Lima.

1308-13-01

365

Oral Health and its Etiological Role in Behcet’s Disease  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The etiological role of microbial factors has been hypothesized by Dr. Hulusi Behçet while he first described the entitiy. Although mechanisms of disease have not been clarified so far, significant data regarding the importance of microbial factors has been obtained. This data is concentrated mainly on oral health, oral flora elements and Streptococci. Accordingly, the role of oral health and microbial factors in the aetiology of the disease will be discussed in the first part of this review. Then, oral health care related topics will be highlighted for clinicians who treat and follow patients with Behcet’s disease.

Gonca Mumcu

2009-12-01

366

Clinical efficacy of farcosolvin syrup (ambroxol–theophylline–guaiphenesin mixture in the treatment of acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mostafa Yakoot1, Amel Salem2, Abdel-Mohsen Omar31Green Clinics and Research Center, Alexandria, Egypt; 2Al-Mabarah Hospital, 3Faculty of Pharmacy, Alexandria University, Alexandria, EgyptBackground: Acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB are defined as recurrent attacks of worsening bronchial inflammation that are marked by an increase in the volume of daily sputum produced, a change in color of the expectorated sputum, and worsening dyspnea. Farcosolvin® (Pharco Pharmaceuticals, Alexandria, Egypt is a mixture of ambroxol (15 mg; theophylline (50 mg; and guaiphenesin (30 mg, per 5 mL syrup.Objective: To test the clinical efficacy of Farcosolvin in the treatment of AECB in a randomized, single-blinded, controlled study design.Patients and methods: One hundred patients with AECB were randomized to either Farcosolvin or guaiphenesin treatment groups, in addition to the standard medical treatment for their cases. Baseline clinical symptomatolgy of breathlessness, cough, and sputum severity scoring were compared before and after 3 and 7 days of treatment in both groups and the differences compared between groups. Changes in perceived improvement were also compared between groups using the Clinical Global Impression of Improvement or Change Scale (CGIC.Results: There were statistically significant improvements in breathlessness and cough scores in both groups (pretreatment versus posttreatment at day 3 and at day 7; P < 0.05. There were highly statistically significant differences between groups in improvement in ­breathlessness and cough scores, after 3 and 7 days treatment, in favor of the Farcosolvin ­treatment group (P < 0.001. Out of 50 patients, 48 (96% in the Farcosolvin-treated group rated their ­improvement on the CGIC scale as “much” and “very much” improved, while only 41 patients (82% reported such a degree of improvement in the control group. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05.Conclusion: We concluded from our study that Farcosolvin syrup might be safe and effective in improving symptoms in cases of acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis.Keywords: acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis, ambroxol, theophylline

Mostafa Yakoot

2010-07-01

367

Oral Carcinogenesis and Oral Cancer Chemoprevention: A Review  

OpenAIRE

Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. The development of oral cancer is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are possible to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will yield important adv...

Takahiro Tanaka; Mayu Tanaka; Takuji Tanaka

2011-01-01

368

Oral microbiome and oral and gastrointestinal cancer risk  

OpenAIRE

A growing body of evidence implicates human oral bacteria in the etiology of oral and gastrointestinal cancers. Epidemiological studies consistently report increased risks of these cancers in men and women with periodontal disease or tooth loss, conditions caused by oral bacteria. More than 700 bacterial species inhabit the oral cavity, including at least 11 bacterial phyla and 70 genera. Oral bacteria may activate alcohol and smoking-related carcinogens locally or act systemically, through c...

Ahn, Jiyoung; Chen, Calvin Y.; Hayes, Richard B.

2012-01-01

369

Umeclidinium Oral Inhalation  

Science.gov (United States)

Umeclidinium oral inhalation is used in adults to control wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and chest tightness caused by chronic obstructive ... airways, that includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema). Umeclidinium inhalation is in a class of medications called anticholinergics. ...

370

Levalbuterol Oral Inhalation  

Science.gov (United States)

... mouth using an inhaler. The solution for oral inhalation is usually used three times a day, once ... If your asthma symptoms become worse, if levalbuterol inhalation becomes less effective, or if you need more ...

371

Triamcinolone Oral Inhalation  

Science.gov (United States)

... comes as an aerosol to use by oral inhalation. It usually is inhaled three or four times ... these changes may be signs of an infection.Inhalation devices require regular cleaning. Once a week, remove ...

372

Ciclesonide Oral Inhalation  

Science.gov (United States)

Ciclesonide oral inhalation is used to prevent difficulty breathing, chest tightness, wheezing and coughing caused by asthma. Ciclesonide is in a ... any part you do not understand. Use ciclesonide inhalation exactly as directed. Do not use more or ...

373

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Graduates Dental and Medical Students See All Careers & Training Opportunities Job Openings Loan Repayment Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – ...

374

Diabetes: Oral Effects  

Science.gov (United States)

... Poor healing in the mouth Oral candidiasis ( thrush ) Burning mouth and/or tongue Uncontrolled diabetes hurts your white ... conditions related to diabetes also can cause a burning sensation in the mouth. Your dentist or a specialist can examine you ...

375

Oral Tradition Journal  

Science.gov (United States)

Stretching back thousands of years, the oral traditions that have enriched and documented human existence remain a subject of much fascination. The Oral Tradition Journal was founded in 1986 in order to "serve as an international and interdisciplinary forum for discussion of worldwide oral traditions and related forms." The journal is based at the University of Missouri, and visitors to the site can search the entire run of the journal on this site by keyword or author. Clicking over to the "Browse the Journal" area, visitors can look over back issues that include special issues on the Serbo-Croatian oral tradition, performance literature, and the performance artistry of Bob Dylan. The site is a real treat for anyone interested in the subject, and visitors can also learn how to submit their own work for possible inclusion in a forthcoming volume.

2008-01-01

376

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Skip to Main Content National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral Health National Institutes of Health Español Staff Directory A–Z Index ...

377

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Disabilities – This booklet presents an overview of physical, mental, and behavioral challenges common in patients with developmental disabilities and offers ... Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide for Health ...

378

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide for Health Care Professionals A step-by-step, illustrated guide for health professionals that provides instruction on examining the mouth ...

379

Oral Melanotic Macule  

Science.gov (United States)

... dark-skinned people, and in females. Signs and Symptoms The most common locations for an oral melanotic macule include: Lips, especially the lower lip Gums (gingiva) Inner cheek (buccal mucosa) Roof of the mouth (hard or soft palate) ...

380

Oral Hypersensitivity Reactions  

Science.gov (United States)

... lesions begin as swelling and redness of the oral mucosa, followed by the formation of blisters which break ... reversible condition is different than gum disease, and symptoms resolve once the cause is removed. QUESTIONS AND ...

381

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Main Content National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) Improving the Nation's Oral Health National Institutes ... show: The Way We Make Progress Against Disease Research NIDCR Strategic Plan Research Results Tools for Researchers ...

382

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Research Programs (Extramural Research) NIDCR Laboratories (Intramural Research) Science News in Brief Study Takes First Comprehensive Look ... Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – ...

383

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Research Programs (Extramural Research) NIDCR Laboratories (Intramural Research) Science News in Brief Study Takes First Comprehensive Look ... early—when it can be treated more successfully. Publications? For Health Professionals Detecting Oral Cancer: A Guide ...

384

Detection of adulterated honey produced by honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) colonies fed with different levels of commercial industrial sugar (C? and C? plants) syrups by the carbon isotope ratio analysis.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, one hundred pure and adulterated honey samples obtained from feeding honeybee colonies with different levels (5, 20 and 100 L/colony) of various commercial sugar syrups including High Fructose Corn Syrup 85 (HFCS-85), High Fructose Corn Syrup 55 (HFCS-55), Bee Feeding Syrup (BFS), Glucose Monohydrate Sugar (GMS) and Sucrose Sugar (SS) were evaluated in terms of the ?(13)C value of honey and its protein, difference between the ?(13)C value of protein and honey (??(13)C), and C4% sugar ratio. Sugar type, sugar level and the sugar type*sugar level interaction were found to be significant (Psugar types when the ?(13)C value of honey, ??(13)C (protein-honey), and C4% sugar ratio were used as criteria according to the AOAC standards. However, it was possible to detect the adulteration by using the same criteria in the honeys taken from the 20 and 100 L/colony of HFCS-85 and the 100L/colony of HFCS-55. Adulteration at low syrup level (20 L/colony) was more easily detected when the fructose content of HFCS syrup increased. As a result, the official methods (AOAC, 978.17, 1995; AOAC, 991.41, 1995; AOAC 998.12, 2005) and Internal Standard Carbon Isotope Ratio Analysis could not efficiently detect the indirect adulteration of honey obtained by feeding the bee colonies with the syrups produced from C3 plants such as sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) and wheat (Triticium vulgare). For this reason, it is strongly needed to develop novel methods and standards that can detect the presence and the level of indirect adulterations. PMID:24594168

Guler, Ahmet; Kocaokutgen, Hasan; Garipoglu, Ali V; Onder, Hasan; Ekinci, Deniz; Biyik, Selim

2014-07-15

385

Oral myiasis in children  

OpenAIRE

Oral myiasis is a rare condition in humans and is associated with poor oral hygiene, severe halitosis, mouth breathing during sleep, mental handicap, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, anterior open bite, incompetent lips, and other conditions. In this report, a 14 year-old boy who had an orofacial trauma in the maxillary dentoalveolar region,which was neglected, has been described. There was a deep lacerated wound on the upper vestibule which was infected and maggots were found on the same wound. The...

Reddy, M. H. Raghunath; Das, Nagarajappa; Vivekananda, M. R.

2012-01-01

386

Oral pregnancy tumor  

OpenAIRE

Pyogenic granuloma is one of the inflammatory hyperplasias seen in the oral cavity. This term is a misnomer because the lesion is unrelated to infection and in reality arises in response to various stimuli such as low-grade local irritation, traumatic injury, or hormonal factors. It predominantly occurs in the second decade of life in young females, possibly because of the vascular effects of female hormones. Clinically, oral pyogenic granuloma is a smooth or lobulated exophytic lesion manife...

Gondivkar, Shailesh M.; Gadbail, Amol; Chole, Revant

2010-01-01

387

Oral health policies in Brazil  

OpenAIRE

Since Oral Health policies in Brazil have been constructed according to circumstances and possibilities, they should be understood within a given context. The present analysis contextualizes several issues of the Brazilian Oral Health Policy, called "Smiling Brazil", and describes its present stage of development. Today it involves re-organizing basic oral health care by deploying Oral Health Teams within the Family Health strategy, setting up Centers of Dental Specialists within an Oral Heal...

Gilberto Alfredo Pucca Junior; José Felipe Riani Costa; Luciana de Deus Chagas; Rosa Maria Sivestre

2009-01-01

388

Topic: A Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available There is a wide discussion for Chinese topic structure and topic-sentence acquisition in Second Language Acquisition since Li & Thompson (1976. This paper reviews the contribution made by Li & Thompson on topic and later researches on the basis of them. The relationship between subject and topic also is concentrated.

Dandan Zhang

2009-08-01

389

ORAL ANTIBIOTICS IN ACNE VULGARIS: THERAPEUTIC RESPONSE OVER 5 YEARS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction: Antibiotic resistant P. acnes have influenced acne therapy worldwide resulting in increased use of topicaland systemic retinoids. Judicious use of oral antibiotic is important for effective therapeutic outcome. Objectives: To determine the response and side effects of oral antibiotic treatment in acne vulgaris. To determine the typeof antibiotic used, therapy duration and the types of concomitant topical therapy. Methods: Retrospective analysis of the therapeutic response to oral antibiotics therapy in acne vulgaris in the Dermatology Department, Hospital Kuala Lumpur. New cases of acne vulgaris from 2005 to 2009 were randomly selected. The clinical notes of 250 patients treated with oral antibiotics were reviewed. Results: About 60% of patients achieved good to excellent response to therapy while satisfactory response was seen in 26%. Only 8% patients experienced minor side effects. Doxycycline was the most frequently prescribed antibiotic, followed by tetracycline and erythromycin ethylsuccinate. The prescribing pattern was consistent over the years. The mean duration of treatment is four to five months. Oral antibiotic was augmented with topical therapy in 98.8% of patients. Conclusion: Good to excellent therapeutic response was achieved in the majority of patients and results observed have remained stable over the last five years.

ROSHIDAH B

2010-01-01

390

Paracoccidioidomicosis en cavidad oral / Oral cavity paracoccidioidomycosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La paracoccidioidomicosis (PCM) o blastomicosis suramericana es la micosis sistémica más importante de América latina que es relativamente común en Brasil, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador y Argentina. Los casos esporádicos también pueden verse en algunos otros países, la cual es progresiva y con un inf [...] recuente desenlace fatal si no es tratada a tiempo. Se considera como una enfermedad multifocal, con lesiones orales como la característica prominente. Es causada por un hongo dimórfico, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, que afecta principalmente la piel, los ganglios linfáticos, los pulmones y membranas mucosas oral, nasal y gastrointestinal. Dependiendo de la inmunidad específica del huésped, la infección puede asumir muchas formas y afecta a uno o varios órganos, llegando a ser una enfermedad grave y potencialmente fatal. Es muy importante para los profesionales de la salud de todo el mundo tener conocimiento acerca de la Paracoccidioidomicosis porque a veces la enfermedad sólo se manifiesta muchos años después de que haya abandonado la zona endémica. Para proporcionar información útil sobre el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la enfermedad se presenta caso clínico de un paciente masculino de 48 años de edad procedente de una zona rural de Juramento Brasil, por presentar múltiples úlceras dolorosas en encía y paladar de 3 meses de evolución; refiere antecedentes de fumador crónico, al examen clínico extraoral se descartan lesiones en otros órganos y al examen intraoral se observan múltiples úlceras con fondo necrótico y granulomatoso localizadas en encía y paladar. Se realizó una biopsia incisional de la lesión y el material fue enviado para estudio anatomopatológico. El informe histopatológico confirmó la impresión clínica de Paracoccidioidomicosis. El paciente fue tratado con el uso de sulfametoxazol + trimetoprima - 800/60 mg/día, vía oral, cada 12 horas durante 30 días. Las lesiones bucales desaparecieron completamente y el paciente continúa bajo control en el servicio. Abstract in english Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) or South-american Blastomycosis is the most important systemic mycosis in Latin America, is relatively common in Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and Argentina. Sporadic cases can also be seen in some other countries, which is a rare progressive and fatal if not trea [...] ted. It has been regarded as a multifocal disease with oral lesions as the prominent feature. It is caused by a dimorphic fungus, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, which mainly affects the skin, lymph nodes, lungs and mucous membranes, oral, nasal and gastrointestinal. Depending on the specific immunity of the host, the infection can take many forms and affects one or more organs, becoming a serious and potentially fatal disease. It is very important for health professionals worldwide have knowledge about Paracoccidioidomycosis because sometimes the disease only manifests itself many years after you have left the endemic area. To provide useful information about the diagnosis and treatment of disease A case report of case of male patient 48 years old from a rural area of Brazil Oath, presenting multiple painful ulcers on the gums and palate of 3 months duration, referred to chronic smoking history, clinical examination extraoral lesions are discarded in other intraoral examination bodies and multiple ulcers were observed necrotic and granulomatous background located on the gums and palate. We performed an incisional biopsy of the lesion and the material was sent for pathologic examination. The pathology report confirmed the clinical impression of Paracoccidioidomycosis. The patient was treated with the use of sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim - 800/60 mg/day, orally every 12 hours for 30 days. The oral lesions disappeared completely and the patient remains under control in the service.

D., Antunes Freitas; C.I., Vergara Hernández; A., Díaz Caballero; G., Moreira.

2012-02-01

391

Paracoccidioidomicosis en cavidad oral Oral cavity paracoccidioidomycosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La paracoccidioidomicosis (PCM o blastomicosis suramericana es la micosis sistémica más importante de América latina que es relativamente común en Brasil, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador y Argentina. Los casos esporádicos también pueden verse en algunos otros países, la cual es progresiva y con un infrecuente desenlace fatal si no es tratada a tiempo. Se considera como una enfermedad multifocal, con lesiones orales como la característica prominente. Es causada por un hongo dimórfico, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, que afecta principalmente la piel, los ganglios linfáticos, los pulmones y membranas mucosas oral, nasal y gastrointestinal. Dependiendo de la inmunidad específica del huésped, la infección puede asumir muchas formas y afecta a uno o varios órganos, llegando a ser una enfermedad grave y potencialmente fatal. Es muy importante para los profesionales de la salud de todo el mundo tener conocimiento acerca de la Paracoccidioidomicosis porque a veces la enfermedad sólo se manifiesta muchos años después de que haya abandonado la zona endémica. Para proporcionar información útil sobre el diagnóstico y tratamiento de la enfermedad se presenta caso clínico de un paciente masculino de 48 a?os de edad procedente de una zona rural de Juramento Brasil, por presentar múltiples úlceras dolorosas en encía y paladar de 3 meses de evolución; refiere antecedentes de fumador crónico, al examen clínico extraoral se descartan lesiones en otros órganos y al examen intraoral se observan múltiples úlceras con fondo necrótico y granulomatoso localizadas en encía y paladar. Se realizó una biopsia incisional de la lesión y el material fue enviado para estudio anatomopatológico. El informe histopatológico confirmó la impresión clínica de Paracoccidioidomicosis. El paciente fue tratado con el uso de sulfametoxazol + trimetoprima - 800/60 mg/día, vía oral, cada 12 horas durante 30 días. Las lesiones bucales desaparecieron completamente y el paciente continúa bajo control en el servicio.Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM or South-american Blastomycosis is the most important systemic mycosis in Latin America, is relatively common in Brazil, Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador and Argentina. Sporadic cases can also be seen in some other countries, which is a rare progressive and fatal if not treated. It has been regarded as a multifocal disease with oral lesions as the prominent feature. It is caused by a dimorphic fungus, Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, which mainly affects the skin, lymph nodes, lungs and mucous membranes, oral, nasal and gastrointestinal. Depending on the specific immunity of the host, the infection can take many forms and affects one or more organs, becoming a serious and potentially fatal disease. It is very important for health professionals worldwide have knowledge about Paracoccidioidomycosis because sometimes the disease only manifests itself many years after you have left the endemic area. To provide useful information about the diagnosis and treatment of disease A case report of case of male patient 48 years old from a rural area of Brazil Oath, presenting multiple painful ulcers on the gums and palate of 3 months duration, referred to chronic smoking history, clinical examination extraoral lesions are discarded in other intraoral examination bodies and multiple ulcers were observed necrotic and granulomatous background located on the gums and palate. We performed an incisional biopsy of the lesion and the material was sent for pathologic examination. The pathology report confirmed the clinical impression of Paracoccidioidomycosis. The patient was treated with the use of sulfamethoxazole + trimethoprim - 800/60 mg/day, orally every 12 hours for 30 days. The oral lesions disappeared completely and the patient remains under control in the service.

D. Antunes Freitas

2012-02-01

392

Selected reaction monitoring as an effective method for reliable quantification of disease-associated proteins in maple syrup urine disease  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry can quantitatively measure proteins by specific targeting of peptide sequences, and allows the determination of multiple proteins in one single analysis. Here, we show the feasibility of simultaneous measurements of multiple proteins in mitochondria-enriched samples from cultured fibroblasts from healthy individuals and patients with mutations in branched-chain ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex. BCKDH is a mitochondrial multienzyme complex and its defective activity causes maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), a rare but severe inherited metabolic disorder. Four different genes encode the catalytic subunits of BCKDH: E1? (BCKDHA), E1? (BCKDHB), E2 (DBT), and E3 (DLD). All four proteins were successfully quantified in healthy individuals. However, the E1? and E1? proteins were not detected in patients carrying mutations in one of those genes, whereas mRNA levels were almost unaltered, indicating instability of E1? and E1? monomers. Using SRM we elucidatedthe protein effects of mutations generating premature termination codons or misfolded proteins. SRM is a complement to transcript level measurements and a valuable tool to shed light on molecular mechanisms and on effects of pharmacological therapies at protein level. SRM is particularly effective for inherited disorders caused by multiple proteins such as defects in multienzyme complexes.

Fernández-Guerra, Paula; Birkler, Rune I D

2014-01-01

393

A Validated RP HPLC-PAD Method for the Determination of Hederacoside C in Ivy-Thyme Cough Syrup  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A simple reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC method coupled with a photodiode array detector (PAD has been developed and validated for the analysis of hederacoside C, the marker of ivy plant, in Ivy-Thyme cough syrup. Separation of hederacoside C was achieved using a Phenomenex-Gemini C18 column isothermally at 40°C. A mobile phase system constituted of solvent A (water: acetonitrile: orthophosphoric acid (85%, 860?:?140?:?2?v/v and solvent B (acetonitrile: orthophosphoric acid (85%, 998?:?2?v/v was used, at gradient conditions, at a flow rate of 1.5?mL/min. Analysis was performed using UV-detection (205?nm. The method was linear over the range (0.03–0.15?mg/mL of hederacoside C (r=0.9992. Repeatability and intermediate precision were acceptable (RSD <2%. Limits of detection (LOD and quantitation (LOQ were 0.011 and 0.032?mg/mL, respectively. Percentage recovery was found to lie between 99.69% and 100.90% (RSD <2%. The method was also proved to be specific (peak-purity coefficient=0.996.

Ayman Khdair

2010-01-01

394

Production of high fructose syrup from cassava and sweet potato flours and their blends with cereal flours.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite being a rich source of starch, root crops such as cassava and sweet potato have not been widely exploited for the production of high fructose syrup (HFS), which is a highly valued sweetener for the food and beverage industries. The major factors contributing to the cost of production of HFS are the cost and labor-intensive steps in the production of starch, different processing temperatures and pH for the enzyme reactions, poor extractability of starch, etc. With the objective of overcoming the cost associated with the preparation of starch, the feasibility of using native cassava/sweet potato flours and their blends with rice flour and wheat flour, as the raw material for HFS production was investigated. The saccharified slurry from cassava--rice flour blends contained 70-72 g reducing sugars/100 g, which was higher than that released from native cassava flour (~69%). Blends of sweet potato with rice or wheat yielded saccharified mash with lower content of reducing sugars (60-66%). Although the percentage conversion to fructose after isomerization was similar for cassava/sweet potato or their blends with cereal flours (42-43%), fructose yield was higher in native cassava flour and cassava-rice blends (28-29 g/100 g) than the other flour blends. PMID:21339141

Johnson, Regy; Moorthy, S N; Padmaja, G

2010-06-01

395

Formation of hydroxymethylfurfural in domestic high-fructose corn syrup and its toxicity to the honey bee (Apis mellifera).  

Science.gov (United States)

In the United States, high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) has become a sucrose replacement for honey bees and has widespread use as a sweetener in many processed foods and beverages for human consumption. It is utilized by commercial beekeepers as a food for honey bees for several reasons: to promote brood production, after bees have been moved for commercial pollination, and when field-gathered nectar sources are scarce. Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is a heat-formed contaminant and is the most noted toxin to honey bees. Currently, there are no rapid field tests that would alert beekeepers of dangerous levels of HMF in HFCS or honey. In this study, the initial levels and the rates of formation of HMF at four temperatures were evaluated in U.S.-available HFCS samples. Different HFCS brands were analyzed and compared for acidity and metal ions by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Levels of HMF in eight HFCS products were evaluated over 35 days, and the data were fit to polynomial and exponential equations, with excellent correlations. The data can be used by beekeepers to predict HMF formation on storage. Caged bee studies were conducted to evaluate the HMF dose-response effect on bee mortality. Finally, commercial bases such as lime, potash, and caustic soda were added to neutralize hydronium ion in HMF samples, and the rates of HMF formation were compared at 45 degrees C. PMID:19645504

LeBlanc, Blaise W; Eggleston, Gillian; Sammataro, Diana; Cornett, Charles; Dufault, Renee; Deeby, Thomas; St Cyr, Eldwin

2009-08-26

396

Selected reaction monitoring as an effective method for reliable quantification of disease-associated proteins in maple syrup urine disease.  

Science.gov (United States)

Selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mass spectrometry can quantitatively measure proteins by specific targeting of peptide sequences, and allows the determination of multiple proteins in one single analysis. Here, we show the feasibility of simultaneous measurements of multiple proteins in mitochondria-enriched samples from cultured fibroblasts from healthy individuals and patients with mutations in branched-chain ?-ketoacid dehydrogenase (BCKDH) complex. BCKDH is a mitochondrial multienzyme complex and its defective activity causes maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), a rare but severe inherited metabolic disorder. Four different genes encode the catalytic subunits of BCKDH: E1? (BCKDHA), E1? (BCKDHB), E2 (DBT), and E3 (DLD). All four proteins were successfully quantified in healthy individuals. However, the E1? and E1? proteins were not detected in patients carrying mutations in one of those genes, whereas mRNA levels were almost unaltered, indicating instability of E1? and E1? monomers. Using SRM we elucidated the protein effects of mutations generating premature termination codons or misfolded proteins. SRM is a complement to transcript level measurements and a valuable tool to shed light on molecular mechanisms and on effects of pharmacological therapies at protein level. SRM is particularly effective for inherited disorders caused by multiple proteins such as defects in multienzyme complexes. PMID:25333063

Fernández-Guerra, Paula; Birkler, Rune I D; Merinero, Begoña; Ugarte, Magdalena; Gregersen, Niels; Rodríguez-Pombo, Pilar; Bross, Peter; Palmfeldt, Johan

2014-09-01

397

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD): a case with long-term follow-up after liver transplantation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is a rare hereditary metabolic condition where the body is unable to breakdown amino acids causing toxic buildup. Acute and long-term management of MSUD involves a restricted diet and regular monitoring of amino acid levels; however, more recently liver transplants have been shown to be successful in treating this condition. Even with successful management of MSUD there is evidence from pediatric cases that shows a distinct pattern of neurocognitive deficits associated with this condition, including impaired nonverbal skills and psychomotor functioning with relatively intact verbal abilities. In the present paper, we report an adult case of MSUD with associated neurocognitive deficits and functional limitations following liver transplantation. Neuroimaging revealed no structural abnormalities, while the results from the neuropsychological evaluation showed impairment in visual-spatial processing, attention, executive functioning, and psychomotor abilities, with relative strengths in verbal skills. The patient also showed reduced adaptive functioning and mild anxiety. This case demonstrates neurocognitive deficiencies within the context of normal magnetic resonance imaging. The possible underlying mechanism of this neuropsychological profile is discussed in relation to other neurodevelopmental models. PMID:23829516

McLaughlin, Paula M; Hinshaw, Jessica; Stringer, Anthony Y

2013-01-01

398

Partial purification and characterization of exoinulinase from Kluyveromyces marxianus YS-1 for preparation of high-fructose syrup.  

Science.gov (United States)

An extracellular exoinulinase (2,1-beta-D fructan fructanohydrolase, EC 3.2.1.7), which catalyzes the hydrolysis of inulin into fructose and glucose, was purified 23.5-fold by ethanol precipitation, followed by Sephadex G-100 gel permeation from a cell-free extract of Kluyveromyces marxianus YS-1. The partially purified enzyme exhibited considerable activity between pH 5 to 6, with an optimum pH of 5.5, while it remained stable (100%) for 3 h at the optimum temperature of 50 degrees C. Mn2+ and Ca2+ produced a 2.4-fold and 1.2-fold enhancement in enzyme activity, whereas Hg2+ and Ag2+ completely inhibited the inulinase. A preparation of the partially purified enzyme effectively hydrolyzed inulin, sucrose, and raffinose, yet no activity was found with starch, lactose, and maltose. The enzyme preparation was then successfully used to hydrolyze pure inulin and raw inulin from Asparagus racemosus for the preparation of a high-fructose syrup. In a batch system, the exoinulinase hydrolyzed 84.8% of the pure inulin and 86.7% of the raw Asparagus racemosus inulin, where fructose represented 43.6 mg/ml and 41.3 mg/ml, respectively. PMID:18051293

Singh, Ram Sarup; Dhaliwal, Rajesh; Puri, Munish

2007-05-01

399

Mass spectrometric detection and formation of D-amino acids in processed plant saps, syrups, and fruit juice concentrates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Liquid and syrupy dietary saps and juices of plant origin, characterized by the presence of large quantities of saccharides (glucose, fructose, or sucrose) and containing amino acids, were analyzed for the presence of D-amino acids using enantioselective gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. D-amino acids were detected in processed saps and juices of trees (maple, palm, birch), fruits (grape, apple, pear, pomegranate, date), and various other plants (agave, beetroot, sugar cane, carob). D-Ala was detected in all plant products and amounted to approximately 34% D-Ala (relative to L-Ala + D-Ala) in Canadian maple syrups, to approximately 13% in palm saps, and to 48 and 13% D-Ala, respectively, in concentrated grape juices (Spanish Arrope and Turkish Pekmez). Varying amounts and kinds of other D-amino acids were also detected. To test the hypothesis that racemization, that is, partial conversion of L-amino acids into their corresponding D-enantiomers, occurs at reversible stages of the Maillard reaction, the Amadori compound fructose-L-phenylalanine was synthesized. On heating at 200 degrees C for 5 (20) min, release of 10.8% (24.2%) D-Phe was detected. From the data it is concluded that the Amadori compounds formed in the course of the Maillard reaction are pecursors of D-amino acids in foodstuffs. PMID:16332121

Pätzold, Ralf; Brückner, Hans

2005-12-14

400

Leucoplasia oral: Conceptos actuales / Oral leukoplakia: Current considerations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available La leucoplasia es la lesión premaligna más frecuente de la cavidad oral. La Organización Mundial de la Salud la define clínicamente como una lesión predominantemente blanca de la mucosa oral que no puede caracterizarse como ninguna otra lesión conocida y con una elevada tendencia a convertirse en un [...] cáncer oral. El objetivo de esta revisión es hacer un repaso al conocimiento actual acerca de la leucoplasia oral prestando especial atención a su nomenclatura, su etiología, su potencial maligno y su tratamiento. Abstract in english The oral leukoplakia is the most frequent premalignancy of the oral cavity. Clinically, it was defined by the WHO as a predominantly white lesion of the oral mucosa that cannot be characterized as any other definable lesion, with an obvious tendency to become an oral cancer. The aim of this article [...] is to review the current concepts related with the oral leukoplakia, paying special attention to terminology, aetiology, malignant potential and treatment.

M., Escribano-Bermejo; A., Bascones-Martínez.

2009-04-01

401

Leucoplasia oral: Conceptos actuales Oral leukoplakia: Current considerations  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La leucoplasia es la lesión premaligna más frecuente de la cavidad oral. La Organización Mundial de la Salud la define clínicamente como una lesión predominantemente blanca de la mucosa oral que no puede caracterizarse como ninguna otra lesión conocida y con una elevada tendencia a convertirse en un cáncer oral. El objetivo de esta revisión es hacer un repaso al conocimiento actual acerca de la leucoplasia oral prestando especial atención a su nomenclatura, su etiología, su potencial maligno y su tratamiento.The oral leukoplakia is the most frequent premalignancy of the oral cavity. Clinically, it was defined by the WHO as a predominantly white lesion of the oral mucosa that cannot be characterized as any other definable lesion, with an obvious tendency to become an oral cancer. The aim of this article is to review the current concepts related with the oral leukoplakia, paying special attention to terminology, aetiology, malignant potential and treatment.

M. Escribano-Bermejo

2009-04-01

402

Relative bioavailability of different butamirate citrate preparations after single dose oral administration to 18 healthy volunteers.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eighteen volunteers have been treated with different oral formulations of butamirate citrate according to 2 randomized 2-way crossover designs. In the first study (study I) the test preparation was a syrup (Demotussol Hustensirup, Demopharm), and the reference preparation was a syrup already marketed (Sinecod Sirup, Zyma SA). A test preparation (Demotussol Tabletten) was compared to a solution (Demotussol Hustentropfen) in the second study (study II). Within the 2 study periods the volunteers received single 45 mg doses of the test and the reference formulation, respectively. Blood samples have been drawn immediately prior to each administration and at 17 sampling points within 96 h after dosing. A wash-out period of 1 week was maintained between successive drug doses. The plasma concentration of one of the main metabolites, 2-phenylbutyric acid, was determined by a validated reversed-phase HPLC method with UV detection, with a lower limit of quantification of 50 ng/ml. The following mean values have been obtained in study I (syrup preparations) for the test: AUC0-infinity 46.9 micrograms x h/ml, Cmax of 1.77 micrograms/ml at 1.1 h, t1/2 28 h and after administration of the reference: AUC0-infinity 50.4 micrograms x h/ml, Cmax 1.86 micrograms/ml, tmax 1.5 h, t1/2 26 h. In study II the following mean values have been obtained for the test preparation (tablet): AUC0-infinity 54.7 micrograms x h/ml, Cmax of 1.88 micrograms/ml at 1.1 h, t1/2 27 h and for the reference (solution): AUC0-infinity 54.5 micrograms x h/ml, Cmax 1.94 micrograms/ml, tmax 1.1 h, t1/2 26 h. Both preparations have been proven to be bioequivalent to their corresponding references regarding extent and rate of absorption. PMID:9089001

Bohner, H; Janiak, P S; Nitsche, V; Eichinger, A; Schütz, H

1997-03-01

403

Topical report review status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This report provides industry with procedures for submitting topical reports, guidance on how the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) processes and responds to topical report submittals, and an accounting, with review schedules, of all topical reports currently accepted for review schedules, of all topical reports currently accepted for review by the NRC. This report will be published annually. Each sponsoring organization with one or more topical reports accepted for review copies

404

Topical report review status  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This report provides industry with procedures for submitting topical reports, guidance on how the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) processes and responds to topical report submittals, and an accounting, with review schedules, of all topical reports currently accepted for review schedules, of all topical reports currently accepted for review by the NRC. This report will be published annually. Each sponsoring organization with one or more topical reports accepted for review copies.

NONE

1997-08-01

405

Prevalence of oral leukoplakia  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Introduction This paper reviews epidemiologic studies on prevalence of oral leukoplakia. Special emphasis is placed on population selection, diagnostic criteria, type and training of examiners and risk factor assessment. Prevalence of leukoplakia in these studies has ranged from 0.6% to 4.6%. Variations in prevalence among the studies could depend on methodology, especially studied populations and diagnostic criteria. Most investigations have investigated the entire available adult population in a geographic region or a random sample. Others have comprised selected populations, such as hospital or clinic patients. Our study has shown that prevalence of oral leukoplakia was 2.2% in a relatively small and highly selected population. Age and gender The onset of leukoplakia usually takes place after the age of 30 years. Our study showed that oral leukoplakia occurred in men over 40 years of age and in women over 50 years of age. These results are supported most previous findings. Gender distribution varies in most studies, ranging from a strong male predominance (4:1, to almost 1:1 in the Netherlands. Smoking and prevalence of oral leukoplakia Tobacco smoking is the most important known etiological factor in development of oral leukoplakia. Smokers have a six-fold increase in the risk of developing leukoplakia of the oral mucosa in regard to non-smokers. Six European studies, including our study, found a prevalence of smoking between 56 and 97 percent in leukoplakia patients. Our study also showed that the majority of smokers with leukoplakia (74.0% smoked more than 20 cigarettes per day compared to 34.5 % of those without leukoplakia. Alcohol and prevalence of oral leukoplakia Smoking and alcohol consumption are often coexistent factors making it difficult to assess the effects of these factors individully. In our study the higest prevalence of leukoplakia (33.3% was established in subjects who smoked cigarettes and consumed alcohol, compared to those who smoke tobacco only (18.2%.

Bokor-Brati? Marija

2003-01-01

406

The Canine Oral Microbiome  

Science.gov (United States)

Determining the bacterial composition of the canine oral microbiome is of interest for two primary reasons. First, while the human oral microbiome has been well studied using molecular techniques, the oral microbiomes of other mammals have not been studied in equal depth using culture independent methods. This study allows a comparison of the number of bacterial taxa, based on 16S rRNA-gene sequence comparison, shared between humans and dogs, two divergent mammalian species. Second, canine oral bacteria are of interest to veterinary and human medical communities for understanding their roles in health and infectious diseases. The bacteria involved are mostly unnamed and not linked by 16S rRNA-gene sequence identity to a taxonomic scheme. This manuscript describes the analysis of 5,958 16S rRNA-gene sequences from 65 clone libraries. Full length 16S rRNA reference sequences have been obtained for 353 canine bacterial taxa, which were placed in 14 bacterial phyla, 23 classes, 37 orders, 66 families, and 148 genera. Eighty percent of the taxa are currently unnamed. The bacterial taxa identified in dogs are markedly different from those of humans with only 16.4% of oral taxa are shared between dogs and humans based on a 98.5% 16S rRNA sequence similarity cutoff. This indicates that there is a large divergence in the bacteria comprising the oral microbiomes of divergent mammalian species. The historic practice of identifying animal associated bacteria based on phenotypic similarities to human bacteria is generally invalid. This report describes the diversity of the canine oral microbiome and provides a provisional 16S rRNA based taxonomic scheme for naming and identifying unnamed canine bacterial taxa. PMID:22558330

Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Klein, Erin A.; Thompson, Emily C.; Blanton, Jessica M.; Chen, Tsute; Milella, Lisa; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Davis, Ian J.; Bennett, Marie-Lousie; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V.

2012-01-01

407

Oral myiasis in an adult associated with filariasis and Hansen's disease  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral myiasis is a common parasitic infestation of live human and animals caused by species of dipteran fly larvae known as maggots which may be secondary to medical disease. This case involves a 51-year-old female, poorly debilitated with advanced periodontal disease infected by the dipteral larvae in the anterior maxillary region which belonged to the family Calliphoridae and Chrysomya bezziana species. This lady was neglected from her family and presented oral myiasis with the previous history of filariasis and Hansen's disease. Secondary infestations may occur in cancrum oris, oral extraction wounds, jaw bone wounds, oral leprosy lesion, filariasis, and carcinoma. Hansen's disease (leprosy) is bacterial in origin whereas filariasis (elephantiasis) is parasitic in origin like-myiasis. The treatment consisted of manual removal of the larvae by topical application of turpentine oil, oral therapy, and surgical debridement of the oral wound. PMID:23633879

Candamourty, Ramesh; Venkatachalam, Suresh; Yuvaraj, Vaithilingam; Sujee, Chembilary

2013-01-01

408

Nuevos anticoagulantes orales / New oral anticoagulant drugs  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Thromboembolic disease (TED) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The hallmark of oral long-term anticoagulant therapy has been the use of vitamin K antagonists, whose anticoagulant effect is exerted inhibiting vitamin K epoxide reductase. Warfarin and acenocoumarol are the mos [...] t commonly used. In the last five years several new drugs for long term anticoagulation have been developed, which can inhibit single clotting factors with the purpose of improving drug therapeutic range and, ideally, minimizing bleeding risks. This review addresses the state of the art on the clinical use of inhibitors of activated factor X and thrombin.

Alejandro, Berkovits; Andrés, Aizman; Pamela, Zúñiga; Jaime, Pereira; Diego, Mezzano.

1347-13-01

409

Group Oral Presentation  

Science.gov (United States)

One topic I suggest to students is under the umbrella topic of Tectonics and Igneous Activity: Mt. Vesuvius. I expect the student group to research the area, explain WHY Mt. Vesuvius is there, what's gone on in the past, and evaluate whether or not they think the threat still exists. Once the physical world is addressed, I also enjoy when students discuss cultural aspects of the area. With this particular topic, we always hear about the 79AD eruption, and this adds a richness to each presentation.

Karen Bridges

410

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Research Programs (Extramural Research) NIDCR Laboratories (Intramural Research) Science News in Brief Study Takes First Comprehensive Look at Methylation Patterns in Salivary Gland Tumors More Science News Grants & Funding Funding Opportunity Announcements By Topic ...

411

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Clinical Trials? About Clinical Trials Information for Clinical Researchers See All Browse Studies by Topic NIDCR-Sponsored ... Research NIDCR Strategic Plan Research Results Tools for Researchers Grant Research Programs (Extramural Research) NIDCR Laboratories (Intramural ...

412

Oral Cancer Exam  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Programs (Extramural Research) NIDCR Laboratories (Intramural Research) Science News in Brief Study Takes First Comprehensive Look at Methylation Patterns in Salivary Gland Tumors More Science News Grants & Funding Funding Opportunity Announcements By Topic RFAs ...

413

Oral myiasis: case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Oral myiasis is a rare disease caused by larvae of dipteran flies. Houseflies are strongly suspected of transmitting at least 65 diseases to humans, including typhoid fever, dysentery and cholera. Flies regurgitate and excrete wherever they come to rest and thereby mechanically are the root cause for disease organisms. A case of oral myiasis caused by Chrysomya bezziana in the maxillary anterior region in a 40-year-old patient is presented. Manual removal of maggots, and surgical debridement of wound was done followed by broad-spectrum anti-parasitic medications. A note on the identification of the larva and histopathology of the tissue is also highlighted here. PMID:24552939

Jimson, S; Prakash, C A; Balachandran, C; Raman, M

2013-01-01

414

Aetiology of oral cancer  

OpenAIRE

Oral cancer (OC) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) are used interchangeably, as more than 95% of all OCs are OSCCs. Worldwide up to 275 000 new cases of OC are seen every year. Most of these cases are seen in developing countries such as South Africa. Up to 50% of all patients living with OC will die within five years, and this survival rate has not improved over the last few decades. Tobacco and alcohol usage account for up to 75% of all OC cases. As these causa...

Zyl, Andre W.; Marnewick, J. C.

2012-01-01

415

Oral and oropharyngeal tumors  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

There is a large variability of tumors and tumor-like lesions, which are located in the oral cavity and oropharynx. But more than 90% of all tumors in this area are squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Other malignancies in this location are rare. About 10% of all oral and oropharyngeal tumors are benign. Congenital lesions, like vascular malformations, lingual thyroid or (epi-)dermoid cyst, usually become present in youth or childhood. Acquired lesions can be inflammatory (abscess) or neoplastic (pleomorphic adenoma and hemangioma). Preferred imaging in childhood are ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), while in adults usually computed tomography (CT) and MRI are more frequently used.

Beil, C.M. [Institut fuer Radiologie, Medizinische Hochschule, Carl-Neuberg-Str. 1, 30625 Hannover (Germany)], E-mail: beil.christoph@mh-hannover.de; Keberle, M. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik und Nuklearmedizin, Bruederkrankenhaus St. Josef Paderborn (Germany)

2008-06-15

416

Oral and oropharyngeal tumors  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

There is a large variability of tumors and tumor-like lesions, which are located in the oral cavity and oropharynx. But more than 90% of all tumors in this area are squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Other malignancies in this location are rare. About 10% of all oral and oropharyngeal tumors are benign. Congenital lesions, like vascular malformations, lingual thyroid or (epi-)dermoid cyst, usually become present in youth or childhood. Acquired lesions can be inflammatory (abscess) or neoplastic (pleomorphic adenoma and hemangioma). Preferred imaging in childhood are ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), while in adults usually computed tomography (CT) and MRI are more frequently used

417

Disparities in children's oral health and access to dental care.  

Science.gov (United States)

Dental caries can be prevented by a combination of community, professional, and individual measures including water fluoridation, professionally applied topical fluorides and dental sealants, and use of fluoride toothpastes. Yet, tooth decay is the most common chronic disease of childhood. Dental care is the most prevalent unmet health need in US children with wide disparities existing in oral health and access to care. Only 1 in 5 children covered by Medicaid received preventive oral care for which they are eligible. Children from low income and minority families have poorer oral health outcomes, fewer dental visits, and fewer protective sealants. Water fluoridation is the most effective measure in preventing caries, but only 62% of water supplies are fluoridated, and lack of fluoridation may disproportionately affect poor and minority children. Childhood oral disease has significant medical and financial consequences that may not be appreciated because of the separation of medicine and dentistry. The infectious nature of dental caries, its early onset, and the potential of early interventions require an emphasis on preventive oral care in primary pediatric care to complement existing dental services. However, many pediatricians lack critical knowledge to promote oral health. We recommend financial incentives for prioritizing Medicaid Early and Periodic Screening, Diagnostic, and Treatment dental services; managed care accountability; integration of medical and dental professional training, clinical care, and research; and national leadership. JAMA. 2000;284:2625-2631. PMID:11086371

Mouradian, W E; Wehr, E; Crall, J J

418

Desidratação osmótica de frutos de duas cultivares de abacaxi em xarope de açúcar invertido / Osmotic dehydration of sliced pineapple of two cultivars in inverted sugar syrup  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Propôs-se, neste trabalho, avaliar a cinética da desidratação osmótica de fatias de frutos de duas cultivares de abacaxi, Pérola e Smooth Cayenne, em xarope de açúcar líquido invertido sem diluição. Empregaram-se dois níveis de temperatura da solução de desidratação, 40 e 50 ºC, dois níveis de agita [...] ção, zero e 60 min-1, tempo de imersão de 2 h e a relação fruta:xarope de 1:10. Verificou-se que a relação fruta:xarope usada, foi suficiente para manter inalterada a concentração da solução osmótica ao longo da desidratação. Houve aumento de cerca de três vezes no teor de sólidos solúveis totais das fatias de abacaxi, não se observando diferenças em função da cultivar e da temperatura de desidratação; observou-se, também, que a redução de massa, a perda de água e o ganho de sólidos, foram maiores para amostras da cultivar Pérola que para aquelas da cultivar Smooth Cayenne. Abstract in english The objective of the present study was to investigate the kinetics of the osmotic dehydration of sliced pineapple of two cultivars, Pérola and Smooth Cayenne, in undiluted inverted sugar syrup. Osmotic dehydration was carried out using a fruit to syrup weight ratio of 1:10, and employing two levels [...] of temperature of the solutions (40 and 50 ºC), two levels of agitation (zero and 60 min-1) for a total immersion time of 2 h. Results showed that the fruit to syrup ratio employed did not alter the total soluble solids content of the osmotic solution at the end of the dehydration process. A threefold increase in the total soluble solids content in pineapple slices was observed after dehydration, irrespective of cultivar and temperature of the solution. Highest values of mass reduction, water loss and solids gain were observed for fruit slices of cultivar Pérola.

Rafael G., Dionello; Pedro A., Berbert; Marília A. B., Molina; Rozimar C., Pereira; Alexandre P., Viana; Vinicius O., Carlesso.

2009-10-01

419

Oral Health and Bone Disease  

Science.gov (United States)

... supported by your browser. Home Bone Basics Lifestyle Oral Health and Bone Disease Publication available in: PDF ( ... Imperfecta Overtraining Risks for Women Smoking Partner Resources Oral Health FAQs (OWH) Periodontal (Gum) Disease (NIDCR) Seal ...

420

Oral prednisolone administration in horses  

OpenAIRE

Oral prednisolone is frequently used in dermatological and respiratory treatments. Aims were to study the effects of oral prednisolone on endogenous cortisol concentrations, adrenal suppression and detection time in urine (‘dopingpositive’).

Sloet Oldruitenborgh-oosterbaan, M. M.

2012-01-01

421

Analysis of gene mutations among South Indian patients with maple syrup urine disease: identification of four novel mutations.  

Science.gov (United States)

Maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) is predominantly caused by mutations in the BCKDHA, BCKDHB and DBT genes, which encode for the E1alpha, E1beta and E2 subunits of the branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex, respectively. Because disease causing mutations play a major role in the development of the disease, prenatal diagnosis at gestational level may have significance in making decisions by parents. Thus, this study was aimed to screen South Indian MSUD patients for mutations and assess the genotype-phenotype correlation. Thirteen patients diagnosed with MSUD by conventional biochemical screening such as urine analysis by DNPH test, thin layer chromatography for amino acids and blood amino acid quantification by HPLC were selected for mutation analysis. The entire coding regions of the BCKDHA, BCKDHB and DBT genes were analyzed for mutations by PCR-based direct DNA sequencing. BCKDHA and BCKDHB mutations were seen in 43% of the total ten patients, while disease-causing DBT gene mutation was observed only in 14%. Three patients displayed no mutations. Novel mutations were c.130C>T in BCKDHA gene, c. 599C>T and c.121_122delAC in BCKDHB gene and c.190G>A in DBT gene. Notably, patients harbouring these mutations were non-responsive to thiamine supplementation and other treatment regimens and might have a worse prognosis as compared to the patients not having such mutations. Thus, identification of these mutations may have a crucial role in the treatment as well as understanding the molecular mechanisms in MSUD. PMID:24772966

Narayanan, M P; Menon, Krishnakumar N; Vasudevan, D M

2013-10-01

422

Straight talk about high-fructose corn syrup: what it is and what it ain't.  

Science.gov (United States)

High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is a fructose-glucose liquid sweetener alternative to sucrose (common table sugar) first introduced to the food and beverage industry in the 1970s. It is not meaningfully different in composition or metabolism from other fructose-glucose sweeteners like sucrose, honey, and fruit juice concentrates. HFCS was widely embraced by food formulators, and its use grew between the mid-1970s and mid-1990s, principally as a replacement for sucrose. This was primarily because of its sweetness comparable with that of sucrose, improved stability and functionality, and ease of use. Although HFCS use today is nearly equivalent to sucrose use in the United States, we live in a decidedly sucrose-sweetened world: >90% of the nutritive sweetener used worldwide is sucrose. Here I review the history, composition, availability, and characteristics of HFCS in a factual manner to clarify common misunderstandings that have been a source of confusion to health professionals and the general public alike. In particular, I evaluate the strength of the popular hypothesis that HFCS is uniquely responsible for obesity. Although examples of pure fructose causing metabolic upset at high concentrations abound, especially when fed as the sole carbohydrate source, there is no evidence that the common fructose-glucose sweeteners do the same. Thus, studies using extreme carbohydrate diets may be useful for probing biochemical pathways, but they have no relevance to the human diet or to current consumption. I conclude that the HFCS-obesity hypothesis is supported neither in the United States nor worldwide. PMID:19064536

White, John S

2008-12-01

423

Effects of sucrose and high fructose corn syrup consumption on spatial memory function and hippocampal neuroinflammation in adolescent rats.  

Science.gov (United States)

Excessive consumption of added sugars negatively impacts metabolic systems; however, effects on cognitive function are poorly understood. Also unknown is whether negative outcomes associated with consumption of different sugars are exacerbated during critical periods of development (e.g., adolescence). Here we examined the effects of sucrose and high fructose corn syrup-55 (HFCS-55) intake during adolescence or adulthood on cognitive and metabolic outcomes. Adolescent or adult male rats were given 30-day access to chow, water, and either (1) 11% sucrose solution, (2) 11% HFCS-55 solution, or (3) an extra bottle of water (control). In adolescent rats, HFCS-55 intake impaired hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and memory in a Barne's maze, with moderate learning impairment also observed for the sucrose group. The learning and memory impairment is unlikely based on nonspecific behavioral effects as adolescent HFCS-55 consumption did not impact anxiety in the zero maze or performance in a non-spatial response learning task using the same mildly aversive stimuli as the Barne's maze. Protein expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6, interleukin 1?) was increased in the dorsal hippocampus for the adolescent HFCS-55 group relative to controls with no significant effect in the sucrose group, whereas liver interleukin 1? and plasma insulin levels were elevated for both adolescent-exposed sugar groups. In contrast, intake of HFCS-55 or sucrose in adults did not impact spatial learning, glucose tolerance, anxiety, or neuroinflammatory markers. These data show that consumption of added sugars, particularly HFCS-55, negatively impacts hippocampal function, metabolic outcomes, and neuroinflammation when consumed in excess during the adolescent period of development. PMID:25242636

Hsu, Ted M; Konanur, Vaibhav R; Taing, Lilly; Usui, Ryan; Kayser, Brandon D; Goran, Michael I; Kanoski, Scott E

2015-02-01

424

Produção de xarope de açúcar invertido obtido por hidrólise heterogênea, através de planejamento experimental Improvement of invert syrup production using heterogeneous hidrolysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A utilização de açúcar líquido na indústria alimentícia constitui em vantagem nas aplicações onde o açúcar é adicionado em solução. O xarope de açúcar invertido reúne a elevada solubilidade da frutose à difícil cristalização da glicose, aumentando seu poder edulcorante e diminuindo os riscos de cristalização. Essas propriedades contribuem para aumentar o valor desses xaropes para uso em vários produtos alimentícios, sobretudo na indústria de refrigerantes. O produto de maior interesse comercial é aquele com nível de inversão próximo a 55%, pois nessa faixa a solubilidade é máxima possibilitando trabalhar com concentrações em torno de 76,5% de sólidos solúveis, diminuindo assim a susceptibilidade à contaminação microbiana, sem riscos de cristalização. O objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver as etapas de produção do xarope de açúcar invertido produzido a partir de resinas de troca-iônica, visando obter um produto final de alta qualidade que atenda às necessidades da indústria de refrigerantes, utilizando como ferramenta o planejamento experimental. O processo de obtenção do xarope invertido foi iniciado com a descoloração do xarope de sacarose através de duas colunas contendo resina aniônica, para então ser invertido pela eluição numa coluna de resina catiônica. O produto obtido foi isento de qualquer objeção ao paladar, inodoro, praticamente livre de cor (56 ICUMSA e hidroximetil furfural (11ppm. A contagem microbiológica para fungos, leveduras e bactérias foi menor que 1 unidade/mL.The use of liquid sugar in the food industry constitutes a great advantage in applications where the sugar is added in solution. The invert syrup gathers the high solubility of the frutose to the difficult crystallization of the glucose, increasing its sweetness and decreasing the crystallization risks. Those properties contribute to increase the value of those syrups for use in several products, above all in the industry of soft drinks. The objective of this work was improve the stages of invert syrup production using ion exchange resins, seeking to obtain a final product of high quality that assists to the needs of the industry of soft drinks using the experimental design. The production of inverted syrup began with sucrose decolorization process employing two anionic resins columns and subsequent elution through a cationic resin column, which promoted sucrose hydrolysis until inversion level desired. The obtained product was exempted practically of any objection to the palate, scentless, low levels of color (56 I