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Sample records for tio2 thin films

  1. TiO2 thin film photocatalyst

    YU Jiaguo

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 thin films strongly depends on the preparing methods and post-treatment conditions, since they have a decisive influence on the chemical and physical properties of TiO2 thin films.Therefore, it is necessary to elucidate the influence of the preparation process and post-treatment conditions on the photocatalytic activity and surface microstructures of the films. This review deals with the preparation of TiO2 thin film photocatalysts by wet-chemical methods (such as sol-gel, reverse micellar and liquid phase deposition) and the comparison of various preparation methods as well as their advantage and disadvantage. Furthermore, it is discussed that the advancement of photocatalytic activity, super-hydrophilicity and bactericidal activity of TiO2 thin film photocatalyst in recent years.

  2. Superhydrophilicity of TiO2 nano thin films

    Full text: Among the several oxide semiconductors, titanium dioxide has a more helpful role in our environmental purification due to its photocatalytic activity, photo-induced superhydrophilicity, and as a result of them non-toxicity, self cleaning, and antifogging effects. After the discovery of superhydrophilicity of titanium dioxide in 1997, several researches have been performed due to its nature and useful applications. The superhydrophilicity property of the surface allows water to spread completely across the surface rather than remains as droplets, thus making the surface antifog and easy-to-clean. The distinction of photo-induced catalytic and hydrophilicity properties of TiO2 thin films has been accepted although, the origin of hydrophilicity property has not been recognized completely yet. TiO2 thin films on soda lime glass were prepared by the sol-gel method and spin coating process. The calcination temperature was changed from 100 to 550 C. XRD patterns show increasing the content of polycrystalline anatase phase with increasing the calcination temperature. The AFM results indicate granular morphology of the films, which particle size changes from 22 to 166 nm by increasing the calcination temperature. The RBS, EDX and Raman spectroscopy of the films show the ratio of Ti:O∼0.5, and diffusion of sodium ions from substrate into the layer, by increasing the calcination temperature. The UV/Vis. spectroscopy of the films indicates a red shift by increasing the calcination temperature. The contact angle meter experiment shows that superhydrophilicity of the films depends on the formation of anatase crystal structure and diffused sodium content from substrate to the layer. The best hydrophilicity property was observed at 450 C calcination temperature, where the film is converted to a superhydrophilic surface after 10 minutes under 2mW/cm2 UV irradiation. TiO2 thin film on Si(111), Si(100), and quartz substrates needs less time to be converted to

  3. Birefringence enhancement in annealed TiO2 thin films

    van Popta, Andy C.; Cheng, June; Sit, Jeremy C.; Brett, Michael J.

    2007-07-01

    Postdeposition thermal annealing is used to enhance the form birefringence of nanostructured TiO2 thin films grown by electron-beam evaporation using the serial bideposition technique. Thin films were grown on fused silica substrates using oblique deposition angles between 60° and 75° and repetitive 180° substrate rotations to produce birefringent thin films that are structurally anisotropic. Postdeposition annealing in air, between 200 and 900°C, was used to increase the form birefringence of the films by changing the TiO2 phase from the as-deposited amorphous state to a polycrystalline state that exhibits a greater inherent density and larger bulk refractive index. The optical properties, microstructure, and crystallinity were characterized by Mueller matrix ellipsometry, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. It was found that the in-plane birefringence increased significantly upon thermal annealing, in some cases yielding birefringence values that doubled in magnitude, from 0.11 to 0.22 at a wavelength of 550nm for films annealed at 400°C.

  4. Properties of TiO2 Thin Films Prepared by Magnetron Sputtering

    2002-01-01

    With rapid progressive application of TiO2 thin films, magnetron sputtering becomes a very interesting method to prepare such multi-functional thin films. This paper focuses on influences of various deposition processes and deposition rate on the structures and properties of TiO2 thin films. Anatase, rutile or amorphous TiO2 films with various crystalline structures and different photocatalytic, optical and electrical properties can be produced by varying sputtering gases, substrate temperature, annealing process, deposition rate and the characteristics of magnetron sputtering. This may in turn affect the functions of TiO2 films in many applications. Furthermore, TiO2-based composites films can overcome many limitations and improve the properties of TiO2 films.

  5. Effect of Microstructure of TiO2 Thin Films on Optical Band Gap Energy

    TIAN Guang-Lei; HE Hong-Bo; SHAO Jian-Da

    2005-01-01

    @@ TiO2 coatings are prepared on fused silica with conventional electron beam evaporation deposition. After annealed at different temperatures for four hours, the spectra and XRD patterns of TiO2 thin film are obtained. XRD patterns reveal that only anatase phase can be observed in TiO2 coatings regardless of the different annealing temperatures, and with the increasing annealing temperature, the grain size gradually increases. The relationship between the energy gap and microstructure of anatase is determined and discussed. The quantum confinement effect is observed that with the increasing grain size of TiO2 thin film, the band gap energy shifts from 3.4eV to 3.21 eV. Moreover, other possible influence of the TiO2 thin-film microstructure, such as surface roughness and thin film absorption, on band gap energy is also expected.

  6. A Novel Synthesis of Two-dimensional Nanopatterned TiO2 Thin Film

    Ming Xian LIU; Li Hua GAN; Gen CHEN; Zi Jie XU; Zhi Xian HAO; Long Wu CHEN

    2006-01-01

    A novel two-dimensional nanopatterned TiO2 thin film has been synthesized through the interaction between cationic Gemini surfactant molecules and the prepared TiO2 colloid nanoparticles with average diameters of 8 nm by controlling the surface pressure of the monolayer. TEM photographs from the formed Gemini-TiO2 composite monolayer confirm that the prepared TiO2 film is of a branch nanopattem.

  7. Thin nanostructured crystalline TiO 2 films and their applications in solar cells

    Cheng, Yajun

    2007-01-01

    Research on thin nanostructured crystalline TiO2 films has attracted considerable interests because of their intriguing physical properties and potential applications in photovoltaics. Nanostructured TiO2 film plays an important role in the TiO2 based dye-sensitized solar cells because they act as a substrate for the adsorption of dye molecules and a matrix for the transportation of electrons as well. Thus they can influence the solar cell performance significantly. Consequently, the control ...

  8. Photocatalytic activity study of TiO2 thin films with and without Fe ion implantation

    Transparent and colourless TiO2 thin films were fabricated on microscope glass slides by d.c. magnetron reactive sputtering method using Ar and O2 as working gases. Then Fe ions were implanted into the TiO2 thin film to observe its effects on the photocatalytic activity. X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer technologies were used to characterize the films. The photocatalytic activities of the samples were evaluated by the degradation of Rhodamine B dye. The effects of Fe ion implantation on the decrease in the photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 thin film were discussed

  9. Photoinduced properties of nanocrystalline TiO2 sol–gel derived thin films

    Akbar Eshaghi; Mahmoud Pakshir; Reza Mozaffarinia

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, nanostructure TiO2 thin films were deposited on glass substrates by sol–gel dip coating technique. X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used to determine film behaviour. The super-hydrophilicity was assessed by contact angle measurement. Photocatalytic properties of these films were evaluated by degradation of methylene blue under UV irradiation. The XRD pattern of TiO2 powder samples confirmed the presence of polycrystalline anatase phase with a crystal size of 17 nm. The results indicated that UV light irradiation had significant effect on super-hydrophilic and photocatalytic properties of TiO2 thin films.

  10. PHOTOCATALYTIC DEGRADATION OF WASTE WATER ON. THIN FILMS OF TiO2

    Wu Zhenghuang

    2001-01-01

    The degradation of organic phosphorous pesticide waste water using thin films of TiO2, which was prepared in an atmospheric vertical chemical vapor deposition system, was studied. The results show that the wafer material for coating TiO2, the photocatalytic time, the TiO2 crystal phase, the pH value and the concentration of pesticides in waste water influence the degradation rate. These facts indicate some potential for photocatalytic treatment of waste water by utilizing sunlight.

  11. On the Crystal Structural Control of Sputtered TiO2 Thin Films.

    Jia, Junjun; Yamamoto, Haruka; Okajima, Toshihiro; Shigesato, Yuzo

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we focused on the origin on the selective deposition of rutile and anatase TiO2 thin films during the sputtering process. The observation on microstructural evolution of the TiO2 films by transmission electron microscopy revealed the coexistence of rutile and anatase TiO2 phases in the initial stage under the preferential growth conditions for the anatase TiO2; the observations further revealed that the anatase phase gradually dominated the crystal structure with increasing film thickness. These results suggest that the bombardment during the sputtering deposition did not obviously affect the TiO2 crystal structure, and this was also confirmed by off-axis magnetron sputtering experiments. We also investigated the mechanism of the effect of Sn impurity doping on the crystal structure using first-principles calculations. It is found that the formation energy of Sn-doped rutile TiO2 is lower than that of Sn-doped anatase TiO2; this suggests that the Sn-doped TiO2 favours the rutile phase. These results offer a guideline for the utilization of selective deposition of rutile and anatase TiO2 thin films in various industrial applications. PMID:27389344

  12. On the Crystal Structural Control of Sputtered TiO2 Thin Films

    Jia, Junjun; Yamamoto, Haruka; Okajima, Toshihiro; Shigesato, Yuzo

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we focused on the origin on the selective deposition of rutile and anatase TiO2 thin films during the sputtering process. The observation on microstructural evolution of the TiO2 films by transmission electron microscopy revealed the coexistence of rutile and anatase TiO2 phases in the initial stage under the preferential growth conditions for the anatase TiO2; the observations further revealed that the anatase phase gradually dominated the crystal structure with increasing film thickness. These results suggest that the bombardment during the sputtering deposition did not obviously affect the TiO2 crystal structure, and this was also confirmed by off-axis magnetron sputtering experiments. We also investigated the mechanism of the effect of Sn impurity doping on the crystal structure using first-principles calculations. It is found that the formation energy of Sn-doped rutile TiO2 is lower than that of Sn-doped anatase TiO2; this suggests that the Sn-doped TiO2 favours the rutile phase. These results offer a guideline for the utilization of selective deposition of rutile and anatase TiO2 thin films in various industrial applications.

  13. Deposition of Co-doped TiO2 Thin Films by sol-gel method

    Boutlala, A.; Bourfaa, F.; Mahtili, M.; Bouaballou, A.

    2016-03-01

    Cobalt doped TiO2 thin films have been prepared by sol-gel method onto glass substrate at room temperature. in this present work, we are interesting to study the effect of Cobalt doped TiO2 thin films.the concentration of Co was varied from 0 to 6%at .The obtained films have been annealed at 500°C for 2 hours. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that Co: TiO2 films are polycrystalline with a tetragonal anatase and orthorhombic brookite types structures. The surface morphologies of the TiO2 doped with cobalt thin films were evaluated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The optical properties were studied by mean of UV-visible and near infrared spectroscopy.The calculated optical band gap decreases from 3.30 to 2.96 eV with increasing Co doping.

  14. Preparation and antibacterial behavior of Fe3+-doped nanostructured TiO2 thin films

    Fe3+-doped nanostructured TiO2 thin films with antibacterial activity were prepared on soda-lime-silica glass slides by using sol-gel technology. Water containing Escherichia coli K-12 with TiO2 thin films in was exposed to low intensity fluorescent light and antibacterial efficiency was evaluated with spread plate techniques. The films are porous and have anatase phase. Iron ions increased luminous energy utilization as the absorption edge of the Fe3+-doped film has a red shift compared to that of the pure TiO2 film in the UV-VIS absorption spectrum. The bacterial removal efficiency reached 95% at the optimum concentration of iron ion (about 0.5% (mol)) after 120 min irradiation. The antibacterial behavior of the doped TiO2 films was explicitly observed using scanning electron microscopy and cell wall damage was found

  15. Fabrication and characterization of nano TiO2 thin films at low temperature

    Anatase TiO2 thin films were successfully prepared on glass slide substrates via a sol-gel method from refluxed sol (RS) containing anatase TiO2 crystals at low temperature of 100 deg. C. The influences of various refluxing time on crystallinity, morphology and size of the RS sol and dried TiO2 films particles were discussed. These samples were characterized by infrared absorption spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis). The photocatalytic activities of the TiO2 thin films were assessed by the degradation of methyl orange in aqueous solution. The results indicated that titania films thus obtained were transparent and their maximal light transmittance exceeded 80% under visible light region. The TiO2 thin films prepared from RS-6 sol showed the highest photocatalytic activity, when the calcination temperature is higher than 300 deg. C. The degradation of methyl orange of RS-6 thin films reached 99% after irradiated for 120 min, the results suggested that the TiO2 thin films prepared from RS sol exhibited high photoactivities

  16. Photocatalytic properties of TiO2 thin films obtained by glancing angle deposition

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films with different nanostructures such as nano-particles and separated vertical columns were grown by glancing angle deposition (GLAD) in an electron beam evaporation system. The photocatalytic properties of grown TiO2 films with different deposition angles and different annealing temperatures were evaluated by following decomposition of methyl orange under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation. The results suggest that increased surface area due to the GLAD process could improve the photocatalytic properties of TiO2 films.

  17. Effects of annealed temperature on the properties of TiO2 thin films

    Kumar, Avesh

    2016-05-01

    In this work, the structural, morphological and electrical properties of TiO2 thin films are studied. The phase transformation of TiO2 from anatase to rutile is occurred at a certain temperature. This transformation increases defects concentration onthe surface of the film which acts as trapping sites for carriers, thereby affecting the Fermi level of TiO2 film.Quantitative estimation of Fermi level shifting is measured in terms of work function measurement using scanning Kelvin probe measurement. Work function of TiO2 was found to decrease with increasing annealed temperature indicating shifting of Fermi level towards conduction band. Position of Fermi level plays an important role in phase transformation and electronic properties of TiO2.

  18. Controlling the particle size of nanobrookite TiO2 thin films

    Highlights: → Nanobrookite TiO2 films were deposited on glass substrates by spin-coating method. → We produced the pure nanobrookite films using titanium butoxide and acetic acid. → Particle size of the TiO2 films was controlled by volume ratios of water:acid. → We determined that it is possible to obtain the films with single orientation. → Particle sizes of the TiO2 films decrease with the decreasing water:AcAc volume ratio. → It has been found that the spectrum red-shifts with increasing water concentration. - Abstract: In this study, pure nanobrookite TiO2 thin films were successfully deposited on glass substrates with the spin-coating method using titanium butoxide and acetic acid. The particle size of TiO2 films was controlled by the water:AcAc volume ratio. This study shows that it is possible to obtain single oriented pure brookite films. The structural and optical properties of the nanobrookite TiO2 thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), spectrophotometer (NKD), and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR).

  19. EFFECT OF ZnFe2O4 DOPING ON THE OPTICALPROPERTIES OF TiO2 THIN FILMS

    李广海; 吴玉程; 张立德

    2001-01-01

    Amorphous TiO2 thin films and ZnFe2O4-doped TiO2 composite films were deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The effect of ZnFe2O4 doping on the optical properties of TiO2 thin films was reported. Our results show that the absorption edge of TiO2 thin films and composite films exhibits a blueshift with decreasing annealing temperature. The absorption edge of composite films has moved to a visible spectrum range, and a very large redshift occurs in comparison with TiO2 thin films. An enhanced photoluminescence was observed in ZnFe2O4-doped anatase TiO2 thin films at room temperature.

  20. Superhydrophilic graphene-loaded TiO2 thin film for self-cleaning applications.

    Anandan, Srinivasan; Rao, Tata Narasinga; Sathish, Marappan; Rangappa, Dinesh; Honma, Itaru; Miyauchi, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    We develop a simple approach to fabricate graphene-loaded TiO(2) thin films on glass substrates by the spin-coating technique. Our graphene-loaded TiO(2) films were highly conductive and transparent and showed enhanced photocatalytic activities. More significantly, graphene/TiO(2) films displayed superhydrophilicity within a short time even under a white fluorescent light bulb, as compared to a pure TiO(2) film. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of graphene/TiO(2) films is attributed to its efficient charge separation, owing to electrons injection from the conduction band of TiO(2) to graphene. The electroconductivity of the graphene-loaded TiO(2) thin film also contributes to the self-cleaning function by its antifouling effect against particulate contaminants. The present study reveals the ability of graphene as a low cost cocatalyst instead of expensive noble metals (Pt, Pd), and further shows its capability for the application of self-cleaning coatings with transparency. The promising characteristics of (inexpensive, transparent, conductive, superhydrophilic, and highly photocatalytically active) graphene-loaded TiO(2) films may have the potential use in various indoor applications. PMID:23240759

  1. Magnetic and electrical properties of TiO2:Nb thin films

    Yu, Chang-Feng; Sun, Shih-Jye; Chen, Jian-Ming

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the electrical and especially the magnetic properties of Niobium (Nb) doped TiO2 (TiO2:Nb) thin films. Experiments evidently present that both minimum of ferromagnetism and resistivity exist in a same Nb doping ratio (3.0%). The XPS experiments revealed that Nb doping simultaneously increases and compensates for oxygen vacancies. The proposed model explains magnetic and electrical properties by analyzing oxygen vacancies induced by vacuum annealing or by Nb doping.

  2. Application of Pcvd Process to Uniform Coating of TiO2 Thin Films on Polypropylene Beads

    Kim, Dong-Joo; Pham, Hung Cuong; Kim, Kyo-Seon

    The growth of the TiO2 thin films coated on the polypropylene beads was analyzed experimentally in a rotating cylindrical plasma chemical vapor deposition (PCVD) reactor. The precursors for the thin films were generated by plasma reactions, and they deposited on the polypropylene beads to become the uniform thin films. The TiO2 thin films grow more quickly on the polypropylene beads by increasing the mass flow rate of TTIP, or the rotation speed of the reactor. The smaller number of polypropylene beads in the reactor increases the growth rate of the thin films. The high-quality TiO2 thin films can be coated on particles uniformly by using the rotating cylindrical PCVD process. The particles coated with high-quality TiO2 thin films can be applied to the removal of air and water pollutants by a photodegradation reaction of TiO2.

  3. Visible-light photocatalytic activity of nitrided TiO2 thin films

    TiO2 thin films have been applied in UV-light photocatalysis. Nevertheless visible-light photocatalytic activity would make this material more attractive for applications. In this work we present results on the modification of titanium oxide (anatase) sol-gel thin films, via a nitriding process using a microwave plasma source. After the treatment in the nitrogen plasma, the nitrogen content in the TiO2 films varied in the range from 14 up to 28 at%. The titanium oxide films and the nitrided ones were characterized by XPS, micro-Raman spectroscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy. Photocatalytic activity tests were done using a Methylene Blue dye solution, and as catalyst TiO2 and nitrided TiO2 films. The irradiation of films was carried out with a lamp with emission in the visible (without UV). The results showed that the nitrided TiO2 films had photocatalytic activity, while the unnitrided films did not.

  4. Preparation and antimicrobial assay of ceramic brackets coated with TiO2 thin films

    Cao, Shuai; Wang, Ye; Cao, Lin; Wang, Yu; Lin, Bingpeng; Lan, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objective Different methods have been utilized to prevent enamel demineralization and other complications during orthodontic treatment. However, none of these methods can offer long-lasting and effective prevention of orthodontic complications or interventions after complications occur. Considering the photocatalytic effect of TiO2 on organic compounds, we hoped to synthesize a novel bracket with a TiO2 thin film to develop a photocatalytic antimicrobial effect. Methods The sol-gel dip coating method was used to prepare TiO2 thin films on ceramic bracket surfaces. Twenty groups of samples were composed according to the experimental parameters. Crystalline structure and surface morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively; film thickness was examined with a surface ellipsometer. The photocatalytic properties under ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation were analyzed by evaluating the degradation ratio of methylene blue (MB) at a certain time. Antibacterial activities of selected thin films were also tested against Lactobacillus acidophilus and Candida albicans. Results Films with 5 coating layers annealed at 700℃ showed the greatest photocatalytic activity in terms of MB decomposition under UV light irradiation. TiO2 thin films with 5 coating layers annealed at 700℃ exhibited the greatest antimicrobial activity under UV-A light irradiation. Conclusions These results provide promising guidance in prevention of demineralization by increasing antimicrobial activities of film coated brackets. PMID:27226960

  5. Optical properties of TiO2 thin films after Ag ion implantation

    Metal plasma ion implantation has being successfully developed for improving the electronic and optical properties of semiconductor materials. Prior to deposition, a TiO2 colloidal suspension was synthesized by microwave-induced thermal hydrolysis of the titanium tetrachloride aqueous solution. The TiO2 thin film was optimized to obtain a high-purity crystalline anatase phase by calcinations at 550 deg. C. The TiO2 coating was uniform without aggregation, which provided good photo conversion efficiency. Ag ion implantation into the as-calcined TiO2 thin films was conducted with 1 x 1015 ∼ 1 x 1016 ions/cm2 at 40 keV. The peak position and intensity of the photoluminescence and UV-Vis absorption spectra are quite sensitive to Ag doping. The optical characterization showed a shift in optical absorption wavelength towards infrared ray side, which was correlated with the structure variation of the Ag+ implanted TiO2. Due to the strong capability of forming compounds between the energetic silver ions and TiO2, the photoluminescence emission and UV-Vis absorption efficiencies were improved.

  6. A versatile new method for synthesis and deposition of doped, visible light-activated TiO2 thin films

    In, Su-il; Kean, A.H.; Orlov, A.; Tikhov, M.S.; Lambert, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    A flexible and widely applicable method allows the deposition of carbon-doped visible light-activated photocatalytic TiO2 thin films on a variety of substrates.......A flexible and widely applicable method allows the deposition of carbon-doped visible light-activated photocatalytic TiO2 thin films on a variety of substrates....

  7. Uniform coating of TiO2 thin films on particles by rotating cylindrical PCVD reactor.

    Kim, Dong-Joo; Baeg, Jin-Ook; Moon, Sang-Jin; Kim, Kyo-Seon

    2009-07-01

    We analyzed TiO2 thin film growth on glass particles in a rotating cylindrical plasma chemical vapor deposition (PCVD) reactor and numerically investigated the effects of several process variables on the film growth. An increase in titanium tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) or O2 partial pressure can enhance the film growth rate on the particles because the concentration of TiO(x), which is the main precursor for thin film growth, becomes higher in the reactor. As the particle diameter decreases, the TiO(x) concentration increases and the thin film on the particles grows more quickly. The neutral-radical reaction between TTIP and O radicals for TiO(x) generation in TTIP + O2 plasmas can be important to enhance the thin film growth rate on the particles. The growth rate of TiO2 film predicted in this study was 1 approximately 20 nm/min, which is in good agreement with the published experimental results. This study suggests that a uniform TiO2 thin film on particles can be obtained by using a rotating cylindrical PCVD reactor. PMID:19916444

  8. Characterization of TiO2 Thin Films on Glass Substrate Growth Using DC Sputtering Technique

    It has been fabricated and characterization a TiO2 thin films deposited on glass substrate using DC sputtering technique. Fabrication of TiO2 thin films were carried out at electrode voltage 4 kV, sputtering current 5 mA, vacuum pressure 5 x 10-4 torr, deposition time 150 minutes, and temperature of the substrate were varied from 150 -350 oC, while as a gas sputter was argon. The results was tested their micro structure using SEM, and crystal structure using XRD and found that the crystal structure of TiO2 powder before deposited on glass substrate was rutile and anatase with orientation (110) and (200) for anatase and (100) and (111) rutile structure. While the crystal structure which deposited at temperature 150 oC and deposition time 2.5 hours was anatase with orientation (001) and (200). (author)

  9. Optical Spectra of Graded Nanostructured TiO2 Chiral Thin Films

    Babaei, F; Savaloni, H; 10.1016/j.optcom.2010.03.005

    2010-01-01

    The rigorous coupled wave analysis method (RCWA) is applied to the graded chiral TiO2 thin films in axial and non-axial excited states using the Bruggeman homogenization formalism. The dependence of the filtering frequency and polarization selectivity as a function of different structural parameters, are investigated. A good agreement with experimental results reported by other researchers is achieved.

  10. Characteristics and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 thin film sensitized with a porphyrin dye.

    Yao, K S; Wang, D Y; Chang, C Y; Ho, W Y; Yang, L Y

    2008-05-01

    In this study, a novel porphyrin dye, 5, 10, 15, 20-tetraphenyl-21H, 23H-porphine nickel (TPPN) doped TiO2 (TiO2/TPPN) thin film with visible light respondency was prepared using a sol-gel method and characterized with XRD, SEM, UV-Vis instruments. The observation showed that the absorption edge of TPPN dye-doped thin film shifted into the visible light region. The photocatalytic indigo carmine degradation results showed that under visible light irradiation (lambda > 400 nm) for 6 hrs, the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 thin film sensitized with 200 microM of TPPN dye showed the best performance, with an indigo degradation ratio up to 96%. Moreover, the TiO2/TPPN thin film showed a relevant photocatalytic bactericidal effect on Erwinia carotovora subsp. carotovora 7 induced vegetable soft rot disease in the visible spectral region. Evidence for the photocatalytic disinfection technique against a plant pathogen under visible light irradiation will have potential for direct application in future control of plant diseases in irrigation water systems. PMID:18572711

  11. Structural, optical and electrochemical properties of TiO2 thin films grown by APCVD method

    Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of TiO2 thin films has been achieved onto glass and onto ITO-coated glass substrates, from the reaction of TiCl4 with ethyl acetate (EtOAc). The effect of the synthesis temperature on the optical, structural and electrochemical properties was studied through spectral transmittance, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. It was established that the TiO2 films deposited onto glass substrate, at temperatures greater than 400 deg. C grown with rutile type tetragonal structure, whereas the TiO2 films deposited onto ITO-coated glass substrate grown with anatase type structure. EIS was applied as suitable method to determine the charge transfer resistance in the electrolyte/TiO2 interface, typically found in dye-sensitized solar cells.

  12. Nanocrystalline TiO2 thin film electrodes prepared by common pressure hydrothermal method at low temperature

    LI Chengyu; LIN Yuan; LI Xueping; WANG Zhengping; MA Yutao; ZHOU Xiaowen; FENG Shujing; XIAO Xurui

    2005-01-01

    Nanocrystalline TiO2 thin film electrodes have been prepared from mixed pastes of tetrabutyl titanate and nanocrystalline TiO2 particles by common pressure hydrothermal method at low temperature. The tetrabutyl titanate was hydrolyzed and crystallized into anatase TiO2 to interconnect nanocrystalline TiO2 particles and adhere them to conductive substrates, obtaining highly porous and mechanically stable TiO2 nanocrystalline film. The conversion efficiencies of the dye-sensitized solar cells based on prepared electrodes on conductive glass substrates and flexible substrates were 4.8% and 1.9% under illumination of 100 mW/cm2, respectively.

  13. Synthesis of photosensitive nanograined TiO2 thin films by SILAR method

    Nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films are deposited by simple successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method on glass and fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrate from aqueous solution. The as-deposited films are heat treated at 673 K for 2 h in air. The change in structural, morphological and optical properties are studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-vis-NIR spectrophotometer. The results show that the SILAR method allows the formation of anatase, nanocrystalline, and porous TiO2 thin films. The heat-treated film showed conversion efficiency of 0.047% in photoelectrochemical cell with 1 M NaOH electrolyte.

  14. TiO2 thin film based transparent flexible resistive switching random access memory

    Pham, Kim Ngoc; Dung Hoang, Van; Tran, Cao Vinh; Thang Phan, Bach

    2016-03-01

    In our work we have fabricated TiO2 based resistive switching devices both on transparent substrates (ITO, IGZO/glass) and transparent flexible substrate (ITO/PET). All devices demonstrate the reproducibility of forming free bipolar resistive switching with high transparency in the visible light range (∼80% at the wavelength of 550 nm). Particularly, transparent and flexible device exhibits stable resistive switching performance at the initial state (flat) and even after bending state up to 500 times with curvature radius of 10% compared to flat state. The achieved characteristics of resistive switching of TiO2 thin films seem to be promising for transparent flexible random access memory.

  15. RBS analysis of substoichiometric TiO2-anatase thin films for visible-light photocatalysis

    The anatase phase of TiO2 is the most promising photocatalyst for organic pollutants degradation. However, due to the large anatase band gap energy the possibility of using visible sunlight as energy source for the photocalatysis activation is ruled out and ultraviolet (UV) radiation with a wave length below the critical limit is thus required. Inducing defects in the anatase crystalline structure in the form of oxygen substoichiometry may theoretically reduce this large band gap energy. This paper focuses on the determination of the stoichiometry of TiO2 thin films and its influence on the photodegradation properties

  16. Low Loss Sol-Gel TiO2 Thin Films for Waveguiding Applications

    Alexis Fischer

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 thin films were synthesized by sol-gel process: titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP was dissolved in isopropanol, and then hydrolyzed by adding a water/isopropanol mixture with a controlled hydrolysis ratio. The as prepared sol was deposited by “dip-coating” on a glass substrate with a controlled withdrawal speed. The obtained films were annealed at 350 and 500 °C (2 h. The morphological properties of the prepared films were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM. The optical waveguiding properties of TiO2 films were investigated for both annealing temperature using m-lines spectroscopy. The refractive indices and the film thickness were determined from the measured effective indices. The results show that the synthesized planar waveguides are multimodes and demonstrate low propagation losses of 0.5 and 0.8 dB/cm for annealing temperature 350 and 500 °C, respectively.

  17. Nano porous Al2O3-TiO2 thin film based humidity sensor prepared by spray pyrolysis technique

    Chandrashekara, H. D.; Angadi, Basavaraj; Ravikiran, Y. T.; Poornima, P.; Shashidhar, R.; Murthy, L. C. S.

    2016-05-01

    The nano porous surface structured TiO2 and Al2O3-TiO2 thin films were prepared using spray pyrolysis technique at 350°C. The XRD pattern of Al2O3-TiO2 film shows anatase phase and mixed phase of Al2TiO5. The surface morphology of films show a uniformly distributed nano porous structure. The elemental analysis through EDAX shows good stoichiometry. The sensitivity for humidity sensing were determined for both films of TiO2 and Al2O3-TiO2 and corresponding values are found to be 74.2% and 84.02%, this result reveal that Al2O3-TiO2 films shows higher sensing percent than the TiO2 due to the nano porous surface nature. The Al2O3-TiO2 film shows fast response time and long recovery time than the TiO2 film, this may be due to the meso-porous morphology of these films.

  18. Micro-porous TiO2 thin films grown on surface of Ti substrate

    WU Xiao-hong; QIN Wei; JIANG Zhao-hua; HU Xin-guo; Li Qing-fen

    2004-01-01

    Microporous titanium dioxide thin films have been grown on titanium plates by the micro-plasma oxidation method with different current densities (4, 6, 10 and 14 A/dm2). X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy and UV-Vis spectrophotometry were used to characterize the films. It is found that the films grown are microporous and consist of crystalline titanium dioxide. The micropore size and the content of anatase and rutile TiO2 phase increase with the applied voltage. The relatively higher degradation efficiency for rhodamine B is obtained in the film produced with a current density of 10 A/dm2.

  19. Photoelectrocatalytic Degradation of Sodium Oxalate by TiO2/Ti Thin Film Electrode

    Chen-Yu Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytically active TiO2 thin film was deposited on the titanium substrate plate by chemical vapor deposition (CVD method, and the photoelectrocatalytic degradation of sodium oxalate was investigated by TiO2 thin film reactor prepared in this study with additional electric potential at 365 nm irradiation. The batch system was chosen in this experiment, and the controlled parameters were pH, different supporting electrolytes, applied additional potential, and different electrolyte solutions that were examined and discussed. The experimental results revealed that the additional applied potential in photocatalytic reaction could prohibit recombination of electron/hole pairs, but the photoelectrocatalytic effect was decreased when the applied electric potential was over 0.25 V. Among the electrolyte solutions added, sodium sulfate improved the photoelectrocatalytic effect most significantly. At last, the better photoelectrocatalytic degradation of sodium oxalate occurred at pH 3 when comparing the pH influence.

  20. Bimodal nanostructured TiO2 thin films for dye sensitized solar cells

    Zukalová, Markéta; Kavan, Ladislav; Zukal, Arnošt; Graetzel, M.

    Málaga: BrownWalker Press, 2012. s. 99-99. ISBN 978-1-61233-558-2. [EMR 2012 : The Energy and Materials Research Conference. 20.06.2012-22.06.2012, Torremolinos] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/0814 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : TiO2 * thin films * dye-sensitized solar cell Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry

  1. S180 cell growth on low ion energy plasma treated TiO2 thin films

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to characterise the effects of low energy (2 thin films deposited by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputter system. The low energy argon ion plasma surface modification of TiO2 in a two-stage hybrid system had increased the proportion of surface states of TiO2 as Ti3+. The proportion of carbon atoms as alcohol/ether (C-OX) was decreased with increase the RF power and carbon atoms as carbonyl (C=O) functionality had increased for low RF power treatment. The proportion of C(=O)OX functionality at the surface was decreased at low power and further increase in power has showed an increase in its relive proportion at the surface. The growth of S180 cells was observed and it seems that cells are uniformly spreads on tissue culture polystyrene surface and untreated TiO2 surfaces whereas small-localised cell free area can be seen on plasma treated TiO2 surfaces which may be due to decrease in C(=O)OX, increase in C=O and active sites at the surface. A relatively large variation in the surface functionalities with no change in the surface roughness was achieved by different RF plasma treatments of TiO2 surface whereas no significant change in S180 cell growth with different plasma treatments. This may be because cell growth on TiO2 was mainly influenced by nano-surface characteristics of oxide films rather than surface chemistry

  2. Low Loss Sol-Gel TiO2 Thin Films for Waveguiding Applications

    Alexis Fischer; Ovidiu Brinza; Iva Ninova-Kuznetsova; Dominique Vrel; Tahar Touam; Lamia Znaidi; Azzedine Boudrioua

    2013-01-01

    TiO2 thin films were synthesized by sol-gel process: titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) was dissolved in isopropanol, and then hydrolyzed by adding a water/isopropanol mixture with a controlled hydrolysis ratio. The as prepared sol was deposited by “dip-coating” on a glass substrate with a controlled withdrawal speed. The obtained films were annealed at 350 and 500 °C (2 h). The morphological properties of the prepared films were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force ...

  3. Fe ion-implanted TiO2 thin film for efficient visible-light photocatalysis

    Impellizzeri, G.; Scuderi, V.; Romano, L.; Sberna, P. M.; Arcadipane, E.; Sanz, R.; Scuderi, M.; Nicotra, G.; Bayle, M.; Carles, R.; Simone, F.; Privitera, V.

    2014-11-01

    This work shows the application of metal ion-implantation to realize an efficient second-generation TiO2 photocatalyst. High fluence Fe+ ions were implanted into thin TiO2 films and subsequently annealed up to 550 °C. The ion-implantation process modified the TiO2 pure film, locally lowering its band-gap energy from 3.2 eV to 1.6-1.9 eV, making the material sensitive to visible light. The measured optical band-gap of 1.6-1.9 eV was associated with the presence of effective energy levels in the energy band structure of the titanium dioxide, due to implantation-induced defects. An accurate structural characterization was performed by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and UV/VIS spectroscopy. The synthesized materials revealed a remarkable photocatalytic efficiency in the degradation of organic compounds in water under visible light irradiation, without the help of any thermal treatments. The photocatalytic activity has been correlated with the amount of defects induced by the ion-implantation process, clarifying the operative physical mechanism. These results can be fruitfully applied for environmental applications of TiO2.

  4. Preparation of titanium dioxide porous thin films via photopolymerization of the colloidal TiO2 dispersion

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films with porous structures have been successfully achieved by photopolymerization stimulating the particle dispersion combined TiO2 colloid with photoinitiator and monomer. The photopolymerization monomer Pentaerythritol Triacrylate (PETA) and photoinitiator 2-Hydroxy-2-methyl-propiophenone (HMPP) are added to the TiO2 colloidal solution to form the new colloidal TiO2 dispersion. After coating the dispersion on the substrate, the coating is cured with UV light. With the evaporation of solvent and the formation of microgels induced by polymerization, a phase separation occurs in the system. A porous TiO2 film with various pore sizes from mesoporous to macroporous could be produced after heat treatment. The morphology and size of pores could be tuned by changing the process of phase separation, which is controlled by the composition of colloidal TiO2 dispersion. The content of photoinitiator and the temperature of heat treatment were decided by UV–vis absorption spectra and thermal analysis (DTA–TGA), respectively; Real-Time Fourier-transform infrared (RT-FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) were used to characterize the TiO2 films. The as-prepared TiO2 porous films exhibited higher photocatalytic activity for degradation methylene blue in comparison with conventional TiO2 dense film due to its porous structure. - Highlights: • TiO2 porous film was prepared by photopolymerization stimulating particle dispersion. • Colloidal TiO2 dispersion contained photoinitiator and monomer for curing reaction. • The morphology and size of pores were dependent on the composition of dispersion. • The phase separation mechanism occurred during the photopolymerization was proposed. • TiO2 porous films showed high photocatalytic activity

  5. Study on fabrication of TiO2 thin films by spin - coating and their optical properties

    Zharvan, Vicran; Daniyati, Risqa; Nur Ichzan A., S.; Yudoyono, Gatut; Darminto

    2016-03-01

    Study on fabrication of TiO2 thin films and their optical properties in UV-VIS spectrum has been conducted. TiO2 nanopowders were prepared by co-precipitation method with varying mixing duration for 5, 10 and 25 hours using TiCl3 as precursor. The as-synthesized TiO2 phase is anatase having crystalline size of 14.25 nm, 13.75 nm and 12.62, respectively for the corresponding mixing duration. Thin films of TiO2 were fabricated by spin coating method and then checked by XRD diffractometer and UV-Vis Spectrophotometer to examine their structure and band gap energy. The prepared films also contain anatase phase of TiO2 with respective band gap of 3.70 eV, 3.74 eV and 3.76 eV, depending on the powders and their treatment.

  6. Thin Functional Films of TiO2 Nanoparticles

    Morozová, Magdalena; Klusoň, Petr; Hejda, S.; Kment, Štěpán; Šolcová, Olga

    Praha : J.Heyrovský Institute of Physical Chemistry, v. v. i, 2011 - (Mansfeldová, V.; Tarábková, H.), s. 56 ISBN 978-80-87351-17-8. [Heyrovský Discussion - Nanostructures on Electrodes /44./. Třešť (CZ), 26.06.2011-30.06.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GD203/08/H032; GA AV ČR KAN400720701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : spectroscopy * films * nanoparticles Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  7. Controlled formation of anatase and rutile TiO2 thin films by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Damon Rafieian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the formation of TiO2 thin films via DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The oxygen concentration during sputtering proved to be a crucial parameter with respect to the final film structure and properties. The initial deposition provided amorphous films that crystallise upon annealing to anatase or rutile, depending on the initial sputtering conditions. Substoichiometric films (TiOx<2, obtained by sputtering at relatively low oxygen concentration, formed rutile upon annealing in air, whereas stoichiometric films formed anatase. This route therefore presents a formation route for rutile films via lower (<500 °C temperature pathways. The dynamics of the annealing process were followed by in situ ellipsometry, showing the optical properties transformation. The final crystal structures were identified by XRD. The anatase film obtained by this deposition method displayed high carriers mobility as measured by time-resolved microwave conductance. This also confirms the high photocatalytic activity of the anatase films.

  8. Preparation of TiO2-based nanotubes/nanoparticles composite thin film electrodes for their electron transport properties

    The composite thin film electrodes were prepared with one-dimensional (1D) TiO2-B nanotubes (NTs) and zero-dimensional TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) based on different weight ratios. The electron transport properties of the NTs/NPs composite thin film electrodes applied for dye-sensitized solar cells had been investigated systematically. The results indicated that although the amount of dye adsorption decreased slightly, the devices with the NTs/NPs composite thin film electrodes could obtain higher open-circuit voltage and overall conversion efficiency compared to devices with pure TiO2 NPs electrodes by rational tuning the weight ratio of TiO2-B NTs and TiO2 NPs. When the weight ratio of TiO2-B NTs in the NTs/NPs composite thin film electrodes increased, the density of states and recombination rate decreased. The 1D structure of TiO2-B NTs can provide direct paths for electron transport, resulting in higher electron lifetime, electron diffusion coefficient and electron diffusion length. The composite thin film electrodes possess the merits of the rapid electron transport of TiO2-B NTs and the high surface area of TiO2 NPs, which has great applied potential in the field of photovoltaic devices. - Highlights: • The composite thin film electrodes (CTFEs) were prepared with nanotubes and nanoparticles. • The CTFEs possess the rapid electron transport and high surface area. • The CTFEs exhibit lower recombination rate and longer electron life time. • The CTFEs have great applied potential in the field of photovoltaic devices

  9. Flame-Made Pt-Loaded TiO2 Thin Films and Their Application as H2 Gas Sensors

    Weerasak Chomkitichai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrogen gas sensors were developed successfully using flame-made platinum-loaded titanium dioxide (Pt-loaded TiO2 nanoparticles as the sensing materials. Pt-loaded TiO2 thin films were prepared by spin-coating technique onto Al2O3 substrates interdigitated with Au electrodes. Structural and gas-sensing characteristics were examined by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM and showed surface morphology of the deposited film. X-ray diffraction (XRD patterns can be confirmed to be the anatase and rutile phases of TiO2. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM showed that Pt nanoparticles deposited on larger TiO2 nanoparticles. TiO2 films loaded with Pt nanoparticles were used as conductometric sensors for the detection of H2. The gas sensing of H2 was studied at the operating temperatures of 300, 350, and 400°C in dry air. It was found that 2.00 mol% Pt-loaded TiO2 sensing films showed higher response towards H2 gas than the unloaded film. In addition, the responses of Pt-loaded TiO2 films at all operating temperatures were higher than that of unloaded TiO2 film. The response increased and the response time decreased with increasing of H2 concentrations.

  10. Random lasing at the edge of a TiO2 nanotube thin film.

    Zhu, Shu; Shen, Zhenhua; Jiang, Bei; Chen, Xianfeng

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we introduce a random laser in which lasing action is observed at the edge of a dye-doped TiO2 thin film. A TiO2 nanotube membrane serves as a disordered structure that enhances the optical multiple scattering effect, while Rhodamine 6G dissolved in ethylene glycol is used as a gain medium. In the experiment, a random laser with a low threshold is observed when optically pumped at the fringe of a TiO2 nanotube membrane, which makes it practical for microfluidic integration. Simulation results show that multiple scattered light between the nanotubes and ethylene glycol solution is more likely to form a resonance loop with the help of a random edge structure. This well interrupted the appearance of coherent spikes in the emission laser spectrum in the experiment. The edge random laser offers simplicity and convenience in both fabrication and operation, which makes it a promising component for optofluidic laser integration with TiO2 functional material. PMID:27409195

  11. A short literature survey on iron and cobalt ion doped TiO2 thin films and photocatalytic activity of these films against fungi

    Highlights: ► Co or Fe doped TiO2 thin films were prepared by sol–gel method. ► We obtained lower Eg values for Fe-doped and Co-TiO2 thin films. ► Doping greatly affected the size and shape of the TiO2 nanoparticles. ► Photocatalytic killing effect of the doped TiO2 thin films on C. albicans and A. niger was significantly higher than undoped TiO2 thin film for short exposure periods. - Abstract: In this study, a short recent literature survey which concentrated on the usage of Fe3+ or Co2+ ion doped TiO2 thin films and suspensions were summarized. Additionally, a sol–gel method was used for preparation of the 2% Co or Fe doped TiO2 thin films. The surface of the prepared materials was characterised using scanning-electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and band gap of the films were calculated from the transmission measurements that were taken over the range of 190 and 1100 nm. The Eg value was 3.40 eV for the pure TiO2, 3.00 eV for the Fe-doped TiO2 film and 3.25 eV for Co-TiO2 thin film. Iron or cobalt doping at lower concentration produce more uniformed particles and doping greatly affected the size and shape of the TiO2 nanoparticles. Photocatalytic killing effect of the 2% Co doped TiO2 thin film on Candida albicans was significantly higher than Fe doped TiO2 thin film for short and long exposure periods. Doped thin films were more effective on Aspergillus niger for short exposure periods.

  12. Tio2 Nanoparticles Coated With Porphyrin Dye Thin Film As Fluorescence Gas Sensor

    This research explores the possibility of using fluorescence technique to detect the presence of volatile organic compounds based on a single sensing material. The material used was TiO2 nanoparticles coated with porphyrin dye. The TiO2 nanoparticles colloid is in a sol-gel form synthesized from titanium (IV) ethoxide in ethanol with addition of potassium chloride (KCl) as stabilizer. TiO2 nanoparticles were then coated with porphyrin dye, Manganese (III) 5,10,15,20 tetra (4-pyridyl)-21H, 23H porphine chloride tetrakis (meta chloride). The coated nanoparticles were deposited on quartz substrate using self-assembly through dip coating technique. The sensing properties of the thin film toward volatile organic compounds; ethanol, acetone, cyclohexane and 2-propanol were studied using luminescence spectrometer. It was found that the thin film produced different emission spectra peaks for different volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Hence, it eases chemical identification process and potentially be use as fluorescence gas sensor. (author)

  13. Basella alba rubra spinach pigment-sensitized TiO2 thin film-based solar cells

    Gokilamani, N.; Muthukumarasamy, N.; Thambidurai, M.; Ranjitha, A.; Velauthapillai, Dhayalan

    2015-03-01

    Nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films have been prepared by sol-gel dip coating method. The X-ray diffraction results showed that TiO2 thin films annealed at 400, 450 and 500 °C are of anatase phase and the peak corresponding to the (101) plane is present in all the samples. The grain size of TiO2 thin films was found to increase with increasing annealing temperature. The grain size is found to be 20, 25 and 33 nm for the films annealed at 400, 450 and 500 °C. The structure of the TiO2 nanocrystalline thin films have been examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscope, Raman spectroscopy and FTIR spectroscopy. TiO2 thin films were sensitized by natural dyes extracted from basella alba rubra spinach. It was found that the absorption peak of basella alba rubra extract is at about 665 nm. The dye-sensitized TiO2-based solar cell sensitized using basella alba rubra exhibited a J sc of 4.35 mA cm-2, V oc of 0.48 V, FF of 0.35 and efficiency of 0.70 %. Natural dyes as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells are promising because of their environmental friendliness, low-cost production and fully biodegradable.

  14. Highly Crystalline Nanoparticle Suspensions for Low-Temperature Processing of TiO2 Thin Films.

    Watté, Jonathan; Lommens, Petra; Pollefeyt, Glenn; Meire, Mieke; De Buysser, Klaartje; Van Driessche, Isabel

    2016-05-25

    In this work, we present preparation and stabilization methods for highly crystalline TiO2 nanoparticle suspensions for the successful deposition of transparent, photocatalytically active TiO2 thin films toward the degradation of organic pollutants by a low temperature deposition method. A proof-of-concept is provided wherein stable, aqueous TiO2 suspensions are deposited on glass substrates. Even if the processing temperature is lowered to 150-200 °C, the subsequent heat treatment provides transparent and photocatalytically active titania thin layers. Because all precursor solutions are water-based, this method provides an energy-efficient, sustainable, and environmentally friendly synthesis route. The high load in crystalline titania particles obtained after microwave heating opens up the possibility to produce thin coatings by low temperature processing, as a conventional crystallization procedure is in this case superfluous. The impact of the precursor chemistry in Ti(4+)-peroxo solutions, containing imino-diacetic acid as a complexing ligand and different bases to promote complexation was studied as a function of pH, reaction time and temperature. The nanocrystal formation was followed in terms of colloidal stability, crystallinity and particle size. Combined data from Raman and infrared spectroscopy, confirmed that stable titanium precursors could be obtained at pH levels ranging from 2 to 11. A maximum amount of 50.7% crystallinity was achieved, which is one of the highest reported amounts of anatase nanoparticles that are suspendable in stable aqueous titania suspensions. Decoloring of methylene blue solutions by precipitated nanosized powders from the TiO2 suspensions proves their photocatalytic properties toward degradation of organic materials, a key requisite for further processing. This synthesis method proves that the deposition of highly crystalline anatase suspensions is a valid route for the production of photocatalytically active, transparent

  15. Hydrogen irradiation on TiO2 nano-thin films

    Heidari, Sh.; Mohammadizadeh, M. R.; Mahjour-Shafiei, M.; Larijani, M. M.; Malek, M.

    2015-10-01

    Titanium dioxide thin films were coated on soda-lime glass substrates using spray pyrolysis method with a thickness of 152 ± 10 nm. The films were irradiated with hydrogen ions at room temperature at various beam energies and fluences. Optimized incident beam energy and beam fluence were obtained to improve photocatalytic and hydrophilicity properties of TiO2 thin films by narrowing the band gap. Samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy to study the surface morphology and by UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy to measure the band gap. The optical band gap of H-doped anatase TiO2 thin films irradiated with hydrogen beam with energies of 2 and 4 keV and a fluence of 1015 ions/cm2 was narrowed from 3.34 eV (before irradiation) to 3.04 and 2.92 eV (after irradiation), respectively. The irradiated sample with energy of 4 keV with a fluence of 1015 ions/cm2 has the best improvement. This is attributed to the contraction of the band gap and to the increase in surface active site. Furthermore, it was observed that photocatalytic and hydrophilicity properties of this sample were improved, as well.

  16. TiO2 thin film growth using the MOCVD method

    Bernardi M.I.B.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium oxide (TiO2 thin films were obtained using the MOCVD method. In this report we discuss the properties of a film, produced using a ordinary deposition apparatus, as a function of the deposition time, with constant deposition temperature (90 °C, oxygen flow (7,0 L/min and substrate temperature (400 °C. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, atomic force microscopy (AFM and visible and ultra-violet region spectroscopy (UV-Vis. The films deposited on Si (100 substrates showed the anatase polycrystalline phase, while the films grown on glass substrates showed no crystallinity. Film thickness increased with deposition time as expected, while the transmittance varied from 72 to 91% and the refractive index remained close to 2.6.

  17. Preparation of TiO2 thin films from autoclaved sol containing needle-like anatase crystals

    A new inorganic sol-gel method was introduced in this paper to prepare TiO2 thin films. The autoclaved sol with needle-like anatase crystals was synthesized using titanyl sulfate (TiOSO4) and peroxide (H2O2) as starting materials. The transparent anatase TiO2 thin films were prepared on glass slides from the autoclaved sol by sol-gel dip-coating method. A wide range of techniques such as Fourier transform infrared transmission spectra (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), scanning electron microscopes, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet-visible spectrum were applied to characterize the autoclaved sol and TiO2 thin films. The results indicate that the autoclaved sol is flavescent, semitransparent and stable at room temperature. The anatase crystals of TiO2 films connect together to form net-like structure after calcined and the films become uniform with increasing heating temperature. The surface of the TiO2 films contain not only Ti and O elements, but also a small amount of N and Na elements diffused from substrates during heat treatment. The TiO2 films are transparent and their maximal light transmittances exceed 80% under visible light region

  18. Gas sensing properties of very thin TiO2 films prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD)

    Very thin titanium dioxide (TiO2) films of less than 10 nm were deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) in order to study their gas sensing properties. Applying the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) method, prototype structures with the TiO2 ALD deposited thin films were tested for sensitivity to NO2. Although being very thin, the films were sensitive at room temperature and could register low concentrations as 50-100 ppm. The sorption is fully reversible and the films seem to be capable to detect for long term. These initial results for very thin ALD deposited TiO2 films give a promising approach for producing gas sensors working at room temperature on a fast, simple and cost-effective technology

  19. Growth of TiO2 Thin Film on Various Substrates using RF Magnetron Sputtering

    The conductivity of Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) thin film fabricated using Radio Frequency (RF) Magnetron Sputtering on Silicon (Si), Indium doped--Tin Oxide (ITO) and microscope glass (M) substrates is presented in this paper. The dependant of thin film thickness and type of substrate been discussed. TiO2 was deposited using Ti target in Ar+O2(45:10) mixture at 250 W for 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 and 120 minute. Resultant thickness varies from 295 nm to 724 nm with deposition rate 6.4 nm/min. On the other hand, resistivity, Rs value for ITO substrate is between 5.72x10-7 to 1.54x10-6Ω.m, Si substrate range is between 3.52x10-6 to 1.76x10-5Ω.m and M substrate range is between 99 to 332 Ω.m. The value of resistivity increases with the thickness of the thin film.

  20. Preparation and Characterization of TiO2-SiO2 Thin Films

    Sol-gel, is a method being used for preperation of thin films for a very long time. Its easy application process with easily available equipments that are used and the low process temperatures are the reasons for being utilized this much. A very common thin film type, TiO2-SiO2, that has been used in optical applications for a long time, is the basic structure involved in this research. In this work, the titania (TiO2) and the silica (SiO2) solutions which had been preperated seperately, were mixed with different ratios, and the differences between these mixtures that might had been occurred were investigated. The glass substrates, which had been cleaned with a special method were dipped into the mixed solutions with a constant speed which they had exactly the same while they were being withdrawned. After being dried in mid-air for a while, they were heated to 150 degree and then were dipped again. Once the number of the layers that was required is reached with reprocesses, the substrates were heated to 600 degree. The optical and the structural properties of the films deposited on the substrates were investigated. Some differences in optical properties of these films that were produced from different ratios of solutions were observed as result

  1. Inductive couple plasma reactive ion etching characteristics of TiO2 thin films

    Changes in the inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching characteristics of TiO2 thin films in response to the addition of HBr, Cl2 and C2F6 to Ar gas were investigated. As the HBr, Cl2 and C2F6 concentration increased, the etch rate increased; however, the etch profile degree of anisotropy followed a different trend. As HBr concentration increased, the greatest anisotropic etch profile was obtained at 100% HBr, while the greatest anisotropic etch profile was obtained at concentrations of 25% when etching was conducted under C2F6 and Cl2. Field emission scanning electron microscopy revealed that 25% C2F6 generated the greatest vertical etch profile; hence, etch parameters were varied at this concentration. The effects of rf power, dc-bias voltage and gas pressure on the etch rate and etch profile were also investigated. The etch rate and degree of anisotropy in the etch profile increased with increasing rf power and dc-bias voltage and decreasing gas pressure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the films etched under a C2F6/Ar gas mixture revealed the existence of etch byproducts containing F (i.e. TiFx) over the film. CxFy compounds were not detected on the film surface, probably due to contamination with atmospheric carbon. - Highlights: • Reactive ion etching of TiO2 films under HBr, C2F6, and Cl2 gases was studied. • Etch rate and etch profile of TiO2 films were investigated under each gas chemistry. • The highest degree of anisotropy was achieved at 25% C2F6/Ar. • Strong etch conditions at 25% C2F6/Ar increased etch rate and degree of anisotropy. • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the existence of F-containing etch residues

  2. Fabrication and evaluation of TiO2/graphite silica bilayer thin films prepared by laser ablation method

    The bilayer thin film composed of graphite silica (GS) and TiO2 was prepared by the laser ablation technique. The properties of the thin films considerably depended on the laser ablation conditions such as gas pressure and substrate temperature in a chamber. The laser ablation of GS caused complete disappearance of the quartz XRD (X-ray diffraction) peaks in GS. The GS loading, especially at a thickness of around 200 nm, led to significant enhancement in the photocatalytic activity of the TiO2 thin film for the hydrogen production and the methylene blue decomposition in spite of the destruction of the quartz crystal in GS

  3. Nano-morphology of lithiated thin film TiO2 anatase probed with in situ neutron reflectometry

    In situ neutron reflectometry reveals the intercalation scheme of lithiated thin film TiO2 anatase in terms of phase boundary movement. The Li-rich lithium titanate phase progressively moves inside the TiO2 anatase electrode as a front parallel to the interface. In contrast to previous suggestions for this system, the phase front moves back during lithium extraction exactly in the way it came in. The electrochemical side reactions result in a ∼5.5 nm-thick film on top of the TiO2 electrode extending into the organic electrolyte which is believed to passivate the Li-intercalation

  4. Phase determination of filtered vacuum arc deposited TiO2 thin films by optical modeling

    Thin films of TiO2 were produced using filtered vacuum arc deposition. Arc currents were 275, 300, 325 A, and the oxygen pressure during deposition was 0.93 Pa. The substrates were glass microscope slides, at temperatures of 25 oC (RT), 200 oC, and 400 oC. Film thickness was in the range 100 to 250 nm, depending on the deposition conditions. Film structure and chemical composition were determined using XRD and XPS analyses, respectively. As-deposited films were amorphous, except to two samples that were found to be crystalline (deposited with 300 A, 325 A at 400 oC), and the crystalline phase was close to that of anatase. All of the films were partially crystallized by annealing in air at 450 oC for 1 h. The O:Ti atomic concentration ratio was in the range 1.6:1-2:1, independent of deposition conditions. The optical parameters, refractive index and the extinction coefficient of the films were determined using variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. In addition, the optical transmission of the films were determined in the UV-VIS and IR regions. The average optical transmission in the VIS spectrum was 70-85%, affected by the interference in the film with 90% maxima and 60% minima. The refractive index at λ = 550 nm was in the range 2.4 to 2.7, depending on the deposition conditions and annealing. Using the semi-empirical model of Wemple and DiDomenico for the dielectric function below the interband absorption edge of ionic and covalent solids, the dispersion energy parameters of TiO2 (Eo, Ed) were calculated. The underlying structural order of the amorphous films was inferred by comparing the dispersion energy parameters of the amorphous films with those of crystalline TiO2. As expected, the refractive index of the amorphous films depended on the underlying phase of the film. The optical analyses indicated that the underlying phase of the amorphous films deposited on RT substrates was close to anatase, whereas the underlying phase of the amorphous films deposited

  5. Effects of Ni doping on photocatalytic activity of TiO2 thin films prepared by liquid phase deposition technique

    Noor Shahina Begum; H M Farveez Ahmed; K R Gunashekar

    2008-10-01

    The TiO2 thin films doped by Ni uniformly and non-uniformly were prepared on glass substrate from an aqueous solution of ammonium hexa-fluoro titanate and NiF2 by liquid phase deposition technique. The addition of boric acid as an – scavenger will shift the equilibrium to one side and thereby deposition of the film is progressed. The rate of the reaction and the nature of deposition depend on growing time and temperature. The resultant films were characterized by XRD, EDAX, UV and SEM. The result shows that the deposited films have amorphous background, which becomes crystalline at 500°C. The EDAX data confirms the existence of Ni atoms in TiO2 matrix. XRD analysis reveals the peaks corresponding to Ni but no peak of crystalline NiO was found. The transmittance spectra of Ni uniformly and non-uniformly doped TiO2 thin films show `blue shift and red shift’, respectively. Ni-doped TiO2 thin films can be used as photocatalyst for the photodegradation of methyl orange dye. It was found that, organic dye undergoes degradation efficiently in presence of non-uniformly Ni-doped TiO2 thin films when compared to uniformly doped films and pure TiO2 films under visible light. The photocatalytic activity increases with increase in the concentration of Ni in case of nonuniformly doped thin films but decreases with the concentration when uniformly doped thin films were used.

  6. TiO 2 Thin Films Prepared via Adsorptive Self-Assembly for Self-Cleaning Applications

    Xi, Baojuan

    2012-02-22

    Low-cost controllable solution-based processes for preparation of titanium oxide (TiO 2) thin films are highly desirable, because of many important applications of this oxide in catalytic decomposition of volatile organic compounds, advanced oxidation processes for wastewater and bactericidal treatments, self-cleaning window glass for green intelligent buildings, dye-sensitized solar cells, solid-state semiconductor metal-oxide solar cells, self-cleaning glass for photovoltaic devices, and general heterogeneous photocatalysis for fine chemicals etc. In this work, we develop a solution-based adsorptive self-assembly approach to fabricate anatase TiO 2 thin films on different glass substrates such as simple plane glass and patterned glass at variable compositions (normal soda lime glass or solar-grade borofloat glass). By tuning the number of process cycles (i.e., adsorption-then-heating) of TiO 2 colloidal suspension, we could facilely prepare large-area TiO 2 films at a desired thickness and with uniform crystallite morphology. Moreover, our as-prepared nanostructured TiO 2 thin films on glass substrates do not cause deterioration in optical transmission of glass; instead, they improve optical performance of commercial solar cells over a wide range of incident angles of light. Our as-prepared anatase TiO 2 thin films also display superhydrophilicity and excellent photocatalytic activity for self-cleaning application. For example, our investigation of photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange indicates that these thin films are indeed highly effective, in comparison to other commercial TiO 2 thin films under identical testing conditions. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  7. TiO2 thin films prepared via adsorptive self-assembly for self-cleaning applications.

    Xi, Baojuan; Verma, Lalit Kumar; Li, Jing; Bhatia, Charanjit Singh; Danner, Aaron James; Yang, Hyunsoo; Zeng, Hua Chun

    2012-02-01

    Low-cost controllable solution-based processes for preparation of titanium oxide (TiO(2)) thin films are highly desirable, because of many important applications of this oxide in catalytic decomposition of volatile organic compounds, advanced oxidation processes for wastewater and bactericidal treatments, self-cleaning window glass for green intelligent buildings, dye-sensitized solar cells, solid-state semiconductor metal-oxide solar cells, self-cleaning glass for photovoltaic devices, and general heterogeneous photocatalysis for fine chemicals etc. In this work, we develop a solution-based adsorptive self-assembly approach to fabricate anatase TiO(2) thin films on different glass substrates such as simple plane glass and patterned glass at variable compositions (normal soda lime glass or solar-grade borofloat glass). By tuning the number of process cycles (i.e., adsorption-then-heating) of TiO(2) colloidal suspension, we could facilely prepare large-area TiO(2) films at a desired thickness and with uniform crystallite morphology. Moreover, our as-prepared nanostructured TiO(2) thin films on glass substrates do not cause deterioration in optical transmission of glass; instead, they improve optical performance of commercial solar cells over a wide range of incident angles of light. Our as-prepared anatase TiO(2) thin films also display superhydrophilicity and excellent photocatalytic activity for self-cleaning application. For example, our investigation of photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange indicates that these thin films are indeed highly effective, in comparison to other commercial TiO(2) thin films under identical testing conditions. PMID:22260264

  8. A non-labeled DNA biosensor based on light addressable potentiometric sensor modified with TiO_2 thin film

    Xiao-lin ZONG; Chun-sheng WU; Xiao-ling WU; Yun-feng LU; Ping WANG

    2009-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO_2) thin film was deposited on the surface of the light addressable potentiometric sensor (LAPS) to modify the sensor surface for the non-labeled detection of DNA molecules. To evaluate the effect of ultraviolet (UV) treatment on the silanization level of TiO_2 thin film by 3-aminopropyltrietboxysilane (APTS), fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) was used to label the amine group on the end of APTS immobilized onto the TiO_2 thin film. We found that, with UV irradiation, the silani-zation level of the irradiated area of the TiO_2 film was improved compared with the non-irradiated area under well-controlled conditions. This result indicates that TiO_2 can act as a coating material on the biosensor surface to improve the effect and effi-ciency of the covalent immobilization of biomolecules on the sensor surface. The artificially synthesized probe DNA molecules were covalently linked onto the surface of TiO_2 film. The hybridization of probe DNA and target DNA was monitored by the recording of Ⅰ-Ⅴ curves that shift along the voltage axis during the process of reaction. A significant LAPS signal can be detected at 10 μmol/L of target DNA sample.

  9. TiO2 compact layer for dye-sensitized SnO2 nanocrystalline thin film

    A TiO2 compact layer was coated on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate prior to deposition of SnO2 nanocrystalline thin film to suppress backflow of electrons from FTO to the SnO2 nanocrystalline thin film. The resultant thin film was used as a photoelectrode to fabricate dye-sensitized solar cell. For comparison, a SnO2 compact layer was also prepared to discuss the effect of the TiO2 compact layer on the electron backflow process. Compared with the dye-sensitized SnO2 nanocrystalline thin film solar cell without the compact layer, light-to-electric conversion efficiency for the solar cell with the TiO2 compact layer was improved by 82.1% and it was even improved by 41.7% compared with the cell with the SnO2 compact layer. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and open-circuit voltage decay of dye-sensitized solar cells were measured to demonstrate the improvement mechanism due to the TiO2 compact layer. Both recombination resistance at the photoelectrode/electrolyte interface and lifetime of electrons on the SnO2 nanocrystalline thin film were increased due to introduction of the TiO2 compact layer. Because the conduction band of TiO2 is higher than that of SnO2, the TiO2 compact layer acts as not only a physical barrier to separate FTO substrate from electrolyte, thus suppressing recombination of electrons on FTO with the electrolyte, but also a potential barrier to effectively block the backflow of electrons from FTO substrate to the SnO2 thin film

  10. Photocatalytic Functional Coating of TiO2 Thin Film Deposited by Cyclic Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition at Atmospheric Pressure

    Kwon, Jung-Dae; Rha, Jong-Joo; Nam, Kee-Seok; Park, Jin-Seong

    2011-08-01

    Photocatalytic TiO2 thin films were prepared with titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) using cyclic plasma chemical vapor deposition (CPCVD) at atmospheric pressure. The CPCVD TiO2 films contain carbon-free impurities up to 100 °C and polycrystalline anatase phases up to 200 °C, due to the radicals and ion-bombardments. The CPCVD TiO2 films have high transparency in the visible wavelength region and absorb wavelengths below 400 nm (>3.2 eV). The photocatalytic effects of the CPCVD TiO2 and commercial sprayed TiO2 films were measured by decomposing methylene blue (MB) solution under UV irradiation. The smooth CPCVD TiO2 films showed a relatively lower photocatalytic efficiency, but superior catalyst-recycling efficiency, due to their high adhesion strength on the substrates. This CPCVD technique may provide the means to produce photocatalytic thin films with low cost and high efficiency, which would be a reasonable candidate for practical photocatalytic applications, because of the reliability and stability of their photocatalytic efficiency in a practical environment.

  11. Electrochromic TiO2, ZrO2 and TiO2-ZrO2 thin films by dip-coating method

    Sol-gel processing of TiO2, ZrO2 and mixed Ti/Zr oxide thin films has been studied as application of these coatings in electrochromic devices. Their structural transformations as a function of annealing temperatures were analyzed by XRD and FTIR techniques. Electrochromic behavior of the three kind materials was investigated by cyclic voltammetry and the basic electrochromic characteristics were determined.

  12. Photocatalytical Antibacterial Activity of Mixed-Phase TiO2 Nanocomposite Thin Films against Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans

    Sinem Yeniyol

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed-phase TiO2 nanocomposite thin films consisting of anatase and rutile prepared on commercially pure Ti sheets via the electrochemical anodization and annealing treatments were investigated in terms of their photocatalytic activity for antibacterial use around dental implants. The resulting films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The topology was assessed by White Light Optical Profiling (WLOP in the Vertical Scanning Interferometer (VSI mode. Representative height descriptive parameters of roughness Ra and Rz were calculated. The photocatalytic activity of the resulting TiO2 films was evaluated by the photodegradation of Rhodamine B (RhB dye solution. The antibacterial ability of the photocatalyst was examined by  Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans suspensions in a colony-forming assay. XRD showed that anatase/rutile mixed-phase TiO2 thin films were predominantly in anatase and rutile that were 54.6 wt% and 41.9 wt%, respectively. Craters (2–5 µm and protruding hills (10–50 µm on Ti substrates were produced after electrochemical anodization with higher Ra and Rz surface roughness values. Anatase/rutile mixed-phase TiO2 thin films showed 26% photocatalytic decolorization toward RhB dye solution. The number of colonizing bacteria on anatase/rutile mixed-phase TiO2 thin films was decreased significantly in vitro. The photocatalyst was effective against A. actinomycetemcomitans colonization.

  13. OPTICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF TiO2 THIN FILM ON SILICON SUBSTRATE DEPOSITED BY DC REACTIVE MAGNETRON SPUTTERING

    H.Q. Wang; H. Shen; D.C. Ba; B.W. Wang; L.S. Wen; D. Chen

    2005-01-01

    TiO2 thin film has attracted considerable attention in recent years, due to its different refractive index and transparency with amorphous and different crystals in the visible and near-infrared wavelength region, high dielectric constant, wide band gap, high wear resistance and stability, etc, for which make it being used in many fields. This paper aims to investigate the optical characterization of thin film TiO2 on silicon wafer. The TiO2 thin films were prepared by DC reactive magnetron sputtering process from Ti target. The reflectivity of the films was measured by UV-3101PC, and the index of refraction (n) and extinction coefficient (k) were measured by n & k Analyzer 1200.

  14. Hybrid functional IrO2-TiO2 thin film resistor prepared by atomic layer deposition for thermal inkjet printheads

    Won-Sub KWACK; Hyoung-Seok MOON; Seong-Jun JEONG; Qi-min WANG; Se-Hun KWON

    2011-01-01

    IrO2-TiO2 thin films were prepared by atomic layer deposition using Ir(EtCp)(COD) and titanium isopropoxide (TTIP).in the IrO2-TiO2 thin films. The low temperature coefficient of resistance(TCR) values can be obtained by adopting IrO2-TiO2 composite thin films. Moreover, the change in the resistivity of lrO2-TiO2 thin films was below 10% even after O2 annealing process at 600 ℃. The step stress test results show that IrO2-TiO2 films have better characteristics than conventional TaN08 heater resistor.Therefore, IrO2-TiO2 composite thin films can be used as a heater resistor material in thermal inkjet printhead.

  15. Study of nanoparticles TiO2 thin films on p-type silicon substrate using different alcoholic solvents

    Muaz, A. K. M.; Hashim, U.; Arshad, M. K. Md.; Ruslinda, A. R.; Ayub, R. M.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Voon, C. H.; Liu, Wei-Wen; Foo, K. L.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, sol-gel method spin coating technique is adopted to prepare nanoparticles titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films. The prepared TiO2 sol was synthesized using titanium butoxide act as a precursor and subjected to deposited on the p-type silicon oxide (p-SiO2) and glass slide substrates under room temperature. The effect of different alcoholic solvents of methanol and ethanol on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties were systematically investigated. The coated TiO2 thin films were annealed in furnace at 773 K for 1 h. The structural properties of the TiO2 films were examined with X-ray Diffraction (XRD). From the XRD analysis, both solvents showing good crystallinity with anatase phase were the predominant structure. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was employed to study the morphological of the thin films. The optical properties were investigated by Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy were found that ethanol as a solvent give a higher optical transmittance if compare to the methanol solvent. The electrical properties of the nanoparticles TiO2 thin films were measured using two-point-probe technique.

  16. The enhanced conductivity and stability of AZO thin films with a TiO2 buffer layer

    Aluminum doped zinc oxide (AZO) films were substitutes of the SnO2:F films on soda lime glass substrate in the amorphous thin-film solar cells due to good properties and low cost. In order to improve properties of AZO films, the TiO2 buffer layer had been introduced. AZO films with and without TiO2 buffer layer were deposited on soda lime glass substrates by r.f. magnetron sputtering. Subsequently, one group samples were annealed in vacuum (0.1 Pa) at 500 °C for 120 s using the RTA system, and the influence of TiO2 thickness on the properties of AZO films had been discussed. The XRD measurement results showed that all the films had a preferentially oriented (0 0 2) peak, and the intensity of (0 0 2) peak had been enhanced for the AZO films with TiO2 buffer layer. The resistivity of TiO2 (3.0 nm)/AZO double-layer film is 4.76×10-4 Ω cm with the maximum figure merit of 1.92×10-2 Ω-1, and the resistivity has a remarkable 28.7% decrease comparing with that of the single AZO film. The carrier scattering mechanism of TiO2 (3.0 nm)/AZO double-layer film had been described by Hall measurement in different temperatures. The average transmittance of all the films exceeded 92% in the visible spectrum. Another group samples were heat treated in the quartz tube in air atmosphere, and the effect of TiO2 thickness on thermal stability of AZO films had been discussed.

  17. Titanium dioxide (TIO2) thin film and plasma properties in RF magnetron sputtering

    Lately, titanium dioxide (TiO2) films with anatase crystalline property received numerous attentions as unique material properties. There are wide applications of TiO2 thin film such as for photocatalytic application in solar cell. In the present study, radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering technique has been used to produce high dense, homogeneously controllable film layer at low deposition temperature using titanium (Ti) target. The diameter of the Ti target is 3 inch with fixed discharge power of 400W. Magnetron sputtering plasma has been produced in high purity 99.99% Argon (Ar) and 99.99% Oxygen (O2) environment pressure ranging from 5 to 20 mTorr. The TiO2 were growth on silicon and glass substrates. Substrate temperature during deposition was kept constant at 400°C. The distance between target and substrate holder was maintain at 14 cm with rotation of 10 rotation-per-minutes. Our X-ray diffraction result, shows anatase crystalline successfully formed with characterization peaks of plane (101) at 2θ = 25.28°, plane (202) at 2θ = 48.05° and plane (211) at 2θ = 55.06°. In addition, it is our interest to study the plasma properties and optical spectrum of Ti, Ti+ , O- , ArM and Ar+ in the chamber during the deposition process. Result of emission line intensities, electron density and temperature from optical spectroscope and Langmuir probe will be discuss further during the workshop. This works were supported by Graduate Incentive Scheme of Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) and Fundamental Research Grant Scheme of Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia. (author)

  18. Post-deposition annealing effect on RF-sputtered TiO2 thin-film properties for photonic applications

    Hadjoub, Ilhem; Touam, Tahar; Chelouche, Azeddine; Atoui, Mohamed; Solard, Jeanne; Chakaroun, Mahmoud; Fischer, Alexis; Boudrioua, Azzedine; Peng, Lung-Han

    2016-02-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films were grown on glass substrates at room temperature using RF magnetron sputtering technique. Effect of the post-annealing for 1 h at 400-600 °C on the structural, morphological, optical and waveguide properties was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), UV-visible spectrophotometry and m-lines spectroscopy (MLS). XRD studies show that as-grown and post-annealed TiO2 films exhibit (101) XRD peak corresponding to the anatase phase of TiO2. Higher annealing temperatures result in a significant increase in crystallinity. The grain size values were calculated and found to be about 15-37 nm. From the analyses made on the SEM micrographs and AFM images, it was revealed that the morphology and surface roughness of the thin films were influenced by the heat treatment temperature. The UV-visible spectroscopy analyses show that as-grown TiO2 films were transparent in the visible region with an average transmittance of more than 75 % and the transmittance decreases slightly with an increase in annealing temperature. Annealed TiO2 films also exhibit an increase in the values of direct optical band gap. MLS measurements at 633-nm wavelength put into evidence that TiO2 planar waveguides demonstrate a well-guided fundamental mode for both transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarized light. Moreover, the refractive index was found to increase with temperature and to approach to the anatase TiO2 single-crystal value for the TiO2 film annealed at 600 °C.

  19. Photocatalytic degradation of phenol in aqueous solution using TiO2/Ti thin film photocatalyst

    樊彩梅; 孙彦平; 闵延琴; 郝晓刚; 李新军; 李芳柏

    2003-01-01

    In order to clarify the respective role of the UV light, catalyst, external bias as well as their combined effects on the photodegradation process and to clarify the photocatalytic mechanism under different experimental conditions, a series of experiments were conducted in a shallow pond photoreactor with an effective volume of 100 mL using TiO2/Ti thin film prepared by anodization as photocatalyst. A 300W UV lamp(Emax=365 nm)was used as side light source. The effect of light intensity on photocatalysis was also conducted. The results show that photocatalytic oxidation is an effective method for phenol removal from waters. The degradation rate can be improved by applying an anodic bias to the TiO2/Ti film electrode, phenol can not be decomposed under only 365 nm UV light irradiation even in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. In the range of our research, the phenol removal rate can be described in terms of pseudo-first order kinetics.

  20. Structural and optical studies of nanostructured TiO2–Ge multi-layer thin films

    This paper reports the effects of annealing on structural and optical properties of nanostructured multi-layer TiO2–Ge thin films. These films were characterized using different techniques such as X-ray diffraction, X-ray reflectivity, Rutherford backscattering (RBS), and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. Annealing was responsible for pronounced changes in structural and optical properties of these films, as associated with changes in their structures, stoichiometry and stress-state. Three sets of TiO2–Ge multi-layer films were deposited by electron beam evaporation and resistive heating with different Ge layer thickness (5, 10 and 15 nm), and TiO2 layer thickness was fixed to 20 nm. The films were annealed in air up to 500 °C for 2 h. RBS studies showed that the layer structure of TiO2–Ge multi-layer films had been formed. The absorption spectra and band gap energy showed a blue shift with decrease in Ge layer thickness. The absorption spectra of these films suggest quantum confinement that increases with annealing temperature before the complete oxidation of Ge. Apparently complete oxidation results in sudden or sharp rise in band gap energy that matches with that of TiO2. RBS study reveals that layered structure of TiO2–Ge multi-layer films is not destroyed by annealing, which may be due to non-wetting behavior of Ge and its oxide with TiO2. These results imply that nanostructured TiO2–Ge multi-layer thin films may be employed as heterojunctions (with tunable band gap energy) based on quantum confinement effects for use in photovoltaics. - Highlights: • Nanostructured multi-layer TiO2–Ge films were deposited by electron beam evaporation. • The layered structure of the films was not destroyed by annealing. • The band gap energy showed a blue shift with Germanium (Ge) layer thickness. • The absorption spectra of these films suggest quantum confinement. • The films with lower Ge thickness oxidize at lower annealing temperatures

  1. Nb-doped TiO2 thin films as photocatalytic materials

    Catalin Adomnitei; Sorin Tascu; Dumitru Luca; Marius Dobromir; Mihaela Girtan; Diana Mardare

    2015-09-01

    Amorphous undoped and Nb-doped films were obtained by the spin coating method. The films have a compact structure, as revealed by scanning electron microscopy, and are very thin, with thickness values under 100 nm. The photocatalytic activity of the films was evaluated by observing the decomposition of an oleic acid solution under UV irradiation, and by studying the change in the optical transmittance of an aqueous solution containing methylene blue, in the presence of the UV-irradiated films. More than 30 h, depending on doping, are needed to recover their initial contact angles before applying oleic acid. The increase of the optical transmittance of the methylene blue solution confirms the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue on the Nb-doped TiO2 films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies, performed to detect the presence of the carbon on the irradiated surface of the films, drive to the conclusion that at the surface of the films, even for contact angles close to 0°, the presence of carbon still can be detected, which demonstrates that hydrophilicity is ruled by a different mechanism than photocatalysis.

  2. Investigation of optical, structural and morphological properties of nanostructured boron doped TiO2 thin films

    Savaş Sönmezoǧlu; Banu Erdoǧan; İskender Askeroǧlu

    2013-12-01

    Pure and different ratios (1, 3, 5, 7 and 10%) of boron doped TiO2 thin films were grown on the glass substrate by using sol–gel dip coating method having some benefits such as basic and easy applicability compared to other thin film production methods. To investigate the effect of boron doped on the physical properties of TiO2, structural, morphological and optical properties of growth thin films were examined. 1% boron-doping has no effect on optical properties of TiO2 thin film; however, optical properties vary with > 1%. From X-ray diffraction spectra, it is seen that TiO2 thin films together with doping of boron were formed along with TiB2 hexagonal structure having (111) orientation, B2O3 cubic structure having (310) orientation, TiB0.024O2 tetragonal structure having rutile phase (110) orientation and polycrystalline structures. From SEM images, it is seen that particles together with doping of boron have homogeneously distributed and held onto surface.

  3. Examination of interfacial charge transfer in photocatalysis using patterned CuO thin film deposited on TiO2

    Osako, K; Matsuzaki, K.; Hosono, H.; G. Yin; D. Atarashi; Sakai, E.; Susaki, T.; Miyauchi, M

    2015-01-01

    We examined the interfacial charge transfer effect on photocatalysts using a patterned CuO thin film deposited on a rutile TiO2 (110) substrate. Photocatalytic activity was visualized based on the formation of metal Ag particles resulting from the photoreduction of Ag+ ions under visible-light illumination. Ag particles were selectively deposited near the edge of CuO film for several nanometer thick CuO film, indicating that interfacial excitation from the valence band maximum of TiO2 to the ...

  4. Preparation of cross sections of TiO2 thin films for TEM by ultramicrotomy

    Full text: Considerable research is being carried out on dye-sensitised solar cells, the most extensively studied of which are based on a nanostructured titania semiconducting film deposited on a conducting glass substrate. The preparation of cross-sections of these films is essential for investigating of the shape, size and distribution of the TiO2 particles by TEM. In the present work, we have used a relatively simple and rapid procedure involving ultramicrotomy to prepare cross-sections of the films for initial TEM examination. Titania thin films were produced by screen-printing a nanoparticle titania paste onto SnO2-coated glass substrates, followed by heating in air at 500 deg C for 1 hour. The nanoporous films are optically transparent, have a high surface area, and are 7 to 8 μm thick. The thickness could be checked with a confocal laser scanning microscope using x-z scans in reflection mode. The method for preparing cross-sections was adapted from one used with tissue culture cells on substrates, and which has also been employed with clay minerals. A BEEM capsule half filled with embedding resin was inverted over the glass substrate and TiO2 film, so that the resin was in contact with the film. After polymerisation at 60 deg C overnight, the block was pried away from the glass using a single edged razor blade, leaving the titania film in the resin. The final height of block was about 4-5 mm, and could be directly fitted into an ultramicrotome chuck for sectioning without requiring re-embedding. Ultrathin 60-80 nm sections were cut with a diamond knife, collected on 200 mesh copper grids, then coated with carbon to stabilise the unsupported resin. The sections were examined at 200kV in a Philips CM200 TEM. It was found that the film had detached fully from the glass. The TiO2 grains were observed as mixtures of tetrahedral and rhombohedral geometries with a size distribution in the range 10-25 nm. Anatase and brookite phases present could be identified by

  5. Effect of Annealing on Structure, Morphology, Electrical and Optical Properties of Nanocrystalline TiO2 Thin Films

    B.T. Raut

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Semi-transparent and highly conducting nanostructured titanium oxide thin films have been prepared by sol-gel method. Thin films of TiO2 deposited on glass substrates using spin coating technique and the effect of annealing temperature (400 - 700 °C on structural, microstructural, electrical and optical properties were studied. The X-ray diffraction and Atomic force microscopy measurements confirmed that the films grown by this technique have good crystalline tetragonal mixed anatase and rutile phase structure and homogeneous surface. The study also reveals that the rms value of thin film roughness increases from 7 to 19 nm. HRTEM image of TiO2 thin film (annealed at 700 °C shows that a grain of about 50 - 60 nm in size is really aggregate of many small crystallites of around 10 - 15 nm. Electron diffraction pattern shows that the TiO2 films exhibited tetragonal structure. The surface morphology (SEM of the TiO2 film showed that the nanoparticles are fine with an average grain size of about 50 - 60 nm. The optical band gap slightly decreases from 3.26 - 3.24 eV and the dc electrical conductivity was found in the range of 10-6 to 10-5(Ω·cm-1 when the annealing temperature is changed from 400 to 700 °C. It is observed that TiO2 thin film annealed at 700 °C after deposition provide a smooth and flat texture suited for optoelectronic applications.

  6. Plasmonic enhancement of CO2 conversion to methane using sculptured copper thin films grown directly on TiO2

    Columnar Cu nanostructures with tunable lengths are formed directly on porous TiO2 by oblique-angle electron beam evaporation and used as a cocatalyst for photocatalytic conversion of CO2 to methane. A remarkable enhancement in methane production rate is measured using the sculptured copper films with a maximum of 124.3 ppm · cm−2 · h−1 for 160 nm long Cu columnar structures under AM 1.5 illumination. This high methane production rate is attributed to a plasmonic enhancement effect due to the columnar Cu nanostructures. - Highlights: • Cu sculptured thin films (STFs) directly grown on TiO2 catalytic films • Excellent performance in methane production rate by TiO2/Cu STFs films • Enhancement in methane production by plasmonic effect of Cu STFs

  7. Waveguiding Properties of Nano-Structured TiO2 Thin Films Synthesized by Sol-Gel Process

    Znaidi, L.; Touam, T.; Vrel, D.; Kunetsova, I. N.; Fischer, A.; Boudrioua, A.

    2011-12-01

    TiO2 thin films were synthesized by sol-gel process: titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) was dissolved in isopropanol, and then hydrolyzed by adding a water/isopropanol mixture with a controlled hydrolysis ratio. The as prepared sol was deposited by `dip-coating' on a glass substrate with a controlled withdrawal speed. The obtained films were annealed at 350 and 500 °C (2 h). The structural, morphological and optical properties of the prepared films were analyzed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The optical and waveguiding properties of TiO2 films were investigated for both annealing temperatures using m-lines spectroscopy. The results show that our fabricated TiO2 waveguides are multimodes and demonstrate low propagation losses of 0.9 dBṡcm-1.

  8. Sol-Gel TiO2 thin films sensitized with the mulberry pigment cyanidin

    Emerson Henrique de Faria

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 films have various applications, among them solar cells and photodegradation of pollutants. In this study, we investigated TiO2 films functionalized with the organic dye cyanidin extracted from black mulberry (Morus nigra. The TiO2 was functionalized by the sol-gel method and the film was deposited on glass substrates by dip-coating. Our aim was to investigate the interaction between the semiconductor and the dye, as well as the influence of the velocity and number of deposits on the characteristics of the film. Using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, we observed a shift from the maximum absorption band at 545 nm for the dye’s ethanol solution to 595 nm for the film, indicating interaction of the cyanidin with the TiO2. The absorption spectra in the infrared region of the functionalized TiO2 particles showed bands characteristic of the oxide and indicated their interaction with the dye. Using profilometry and m-line techniques, we found that the films presented thicknesses in the order of 100 nm. A SEM analysis confirmed the high density of the films.

  9. Low-temperature preparation of high-n TiO2 thin film on glass by pulsed laser deposition

    Ishii, Akihiro; Nakamura, Yoko; Oikawa, Itaru; Kamegawa, Atsunori; Takamura, Hitoshi

    2015-08-01

    Single-phase rutile-type TiO2 thin films with a high refractive index (n) and a low extinction coefficient (k) prepared on glass are expected to improve the performance of anti-reflection coatings. In this study, TiO2 thin films were prepared by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 600 °C under an oxygen partial pressure of 1-9 Pa or a 10-5 Pa vacuum, and their crystal structure, microstructure and optical properties were investigated. A single-phase rutile-type TiO2 thin film was successfully prepared on a glass substrate by depositing at room temperature in a vacuum followed by post-annealing at 450 °C in air. A nanocrystalline oxygen-deficient phase in the as-deposited films plays an important role in the formation of the single rutile phase during post-annealing. The single-phase rutile-type TiO2 thin films showed excellent optical properties, with n = 3.14 and k < 0.05 at λ = 400 nm.

  10. A new room temperature gas sensor based on pigment-sensitized TiO2 thin film for amines determination.

    Yanxiao, Li; Xiao-bo, Zou; Xiao-wei, Huang; Ji-yong, Shi; Jie-wen, Zhao; Holmes, Mel; Hao, Limin

    2015-05-15

    A new room temperature gas sensor was fabricated with pigment-sensitized TiO2 thin film as the sensing layer. Four natural pigments were extracted from spinach (Spinacia oleracea), red radish (Raphanus sativus L), winter jasmine (Jasminum nudiflorum), and black rice (Oryza sativa L. indica) by ethanol. Natural pigment-sensitized TiO2 sensor was prepared by immersing porous TiO2 films in an ethanol solution containing a natural pigment for 24h. The hybrid organic-inorganic formed films here were firstly exposed to atmospheres containing methylamine vapours with concentrations over the range 2-10 ppm at room temperature. The films sensitized by the pigments from black-rice showed an excellent gas-sensitivity to methylamine among the four natural pigments sensitized films due to the anthocyanins. The relative change resistance, S, of the films increased almost linearly with increasing concentrations of methylamine (r=0.931). At last, the black rice pigment sensitized TiO2 thin film was used to determine the biogenic amines generated by pork during storage. The developed films had good sensitivity to analogous gases such as putrscine, and cadaverine that will increase during storage. PMID:24934102

  11. Surface Plasmons and Optical Properties of TiO2/X(X = Au and Ag) Nanostructure Thin Films

    Zolanvari, A.; Sadeghi, H.; Norouzi, R.; Ranjgar, A.

    2013-09-01

    TiO2/X(X = Au and Ag) nanolayers are fabricated by depositing TiO2 films using rf magnetron sputtering on thin quartz substrates embedded with Au and Ag nanoparticles. Enhancement of light absorption of the nanostructural layers is observed. These plasmonic and non-plasmonic materials are ordered in geometric arrangements with dimensions that are fractions of the wavelength of light. The light absorption enhancement of synthesized structure in comparison to TiO2 is originated from near-field enhancement caused by the plasmonic effect of metallic nanoparticles, which can be demonstrated by the optical absorption spectra. We show that plasmon modes can exist for the infrared region of the optical spectrum. Also, we analyze the optical properties of the metal-insulator films, in order to clarify the role of metal inclusions in the TiO2 dielectric matrix. Optical band gaps of the nanolayer films are calculated by using Tauc's relation, and the n values of optical band gaps with the variation composition are found from 1.80 to 3.69 eV. Band gap narrowing and absorption in the visible spectral region induced by the incorporation of TiO2/X(X=Au and Ag) nanolayers enable the design of nanostructured thin films to be achieved for photocatalysts and solar energy converters.

  12. The oxidation stability of boron nitride thin films on MgO and TiO2 substrates

    The stability of BN thin film coatings (2--5 nm thick) on MgO and TiO2 substrates was investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The samples were heated in air for at least 16 hours at temperatures ranging from 773 K--1,273 K. On MgO supports, the BN thin film coating was lost by 1,073 K due to a solid state reaction with the substrate leading to formation of Mg2B2O5. No such reaction occurred with the TiO2 substrate and the BN was stable even at 1,273 K. However, the coating appeared to ball up and phase segregate into islands of near-graphitic BN and clumps of TiO2 (rutile). The oxidizing treatment appears to promote the transformation from turbostratic BN to graphitic BN

  13. Characterization and photocatalytic activity of boron-doped TiO2 thin films prepared by liquid phase deposition technique

    Noor Shahina Begum; H M Farveez Ahmed; O M Hussain

    2008-10-01

    Boron doped TiO2 thin films have been successfully deposited on glass substrate and silicon wafer at 30°C from an aqueous solution of ammonium hexa-fluoro titanate and boron trifluoride by liquid phase deposition technique. The boric acid was used as an – scavenger. The resultant films were characterized by XRD, EDAX, UV and microstructures by SEM. The result shows the deposited film to be amorphous which becomes crystalline between 400 and 500°C. The EDAX and XRD data confirm the existence of boron atom in TiO2 matrix and a small peak corresponding to rutile phase was also found. Boron doped TiO2 thin films can be used as photocatalyst for the photodegradation of chlorobenzene which is a great environmental hazard. It was found that chlorobenzene undergoes degradation efficiently in presence of boron doped TiO2 thin films by exposing its aqueous solution to visible light. The photocatalytic activity increases with increase in the concentration of boron.

  14. Structural and Optical Characteristics of TiO2 Nanoparticles-Containing Mesoporous Silica (SBA-15) Thin Films

    The thin films of ordered mesoporous silica (SBA-15) with nanometer-sized pores have been formed on silicon substrates. It was confirmed that the pores were hexagonally ordered as the stacking of rows of pores and silica walls in the direction normal to the substrate surface. From the results of X-ray reflectivity and diffraction the pore size and wall thickness were evaluated to be ∼4.8 nm and ∼2.1 nm, respectively. Furthermore, titanium dioxide nanoparticles were successfully synthesized in the pores of SBA-15 thin film. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of SBA-15 thin film after TiO2 synthesis indicated that the nanoparticles in the pores were titanium dioxide which included a small amount of defects. The optical reflectance of TiO2-containing SBA-15 film decreased at wavelengths shorter than 350 nm as compared with that of SBA-15 film before the TiO2 synthesis, resulting in optical absorption by the TiO2 nanoparticles in the pores of SBA-15.

  15. Surface chemistry and optical property of TiO2 thin films treated by low-pressure plasma

    The low temperature RF plasma treatment was used to control the surface chemistry and optical property of TiO2 thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering with a very good uniformity at 300 deg. C substrate heating temperature. The XRD pattern indicates the crystalline structure of the film could be associated to amorphous structure of TiO2 in thin film. The plasma treatment of TiO2 film can increase the proportion of Ti3+ in Ti2p and decrease in carbon atoms as alcohol/ether group in C1s at the surface. The optical transmittance of the film was enhanced by 50% after the plasma treatment. The surface structure and morphology remain the same for untreated and low-pressure plasma-treated films. Therefore, increase in the optical transmission could be due to change in surface chemistry and surface cleaning by plasma treatment. - Graphical abstract: The surface chemistry and surface states of TiO2 films was modified using low-pressure RF plasma treatment. The surface roughness and crystalline structure remain unchanged for low-pressure plasma-treated films. There was an increase in the Ti3+ surface states of Ti2p at the surface and this can be useful to increase the photocatalytic activities of TiO2 films. The proportion of carbon atoms as carboxyl group in C1s was also increased after plasma treatment. All the plasma-treated films show a higher optical transmittance when untreated and it was increased when the power was increased. The increase in the optical transmission could be due to surface cleaning of films by plasma treatment and possibly due to change in the surface chemistry

  16. Hydrophobic–hydrophilic conversion in microfluidic polymer channels with TiO2 thin films

    In this study, recoverable and maintainable hydrophilic micropatterns on polymer-based microfluidic devices were developed through liquid phase deposition of a photocatalytic TiO2. The TiO2-coated region in the microchannel could be hydrophilized through brief UV irradiation upon request. A titanium oxide film was deposited either on bare polymer substrates or on a titanium-sputtered surface using an aqueous TiCl3 solution at 80 °C. A cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) coated with the TiO2 film displayed effective photocatalytic activity, which reduced the water contact angle from 50° to less than 5°. The Ti seed layer was facilitated to pave the substrate with TiO2 grains during the liquid phase deposition. Thus, the photocatalytic effect could be achieved with less number of LPD cycles. Even after contamination from an organic solvent or photoresist, the surface became hydrophilic upon 5 min of UV irradiation. The photocatalytic effect was so stable that super-hydrophilicity of the surface could be promptly recovered after a month of storage under atmospheric conditions. A COC microchannel was fabricated with TiO2 patterns to allow for controlled delivery of the aqueous liquid without the need for external pumps or valves. A hydrogel pattern self-organized along the TiO2 pattern demonstrated a practical application of the recoverable hydrophilicity in microchannels. Functional hydrogels can easily and stably be integrated into a polymer microchannel using this approach

  17. Structural and Electrical Properties of TiO2 Thin Film Derived from Sol-gel Method using Titanium (IV Butoxide

    Isrihetty Senain

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fabrication of titanium dioxide (TiO2 thin film on microscope glass using sol-gel method has been studied intensively. The starting materials were titanium (IV butoxide, ethanol, acetic acid, triton x-100, hydrochloric acid and deionized water. The materials were mixed together to form the sols. Then, the heat and ageing treatment was applied to form stable sols. The sols were then spin coated on the glass substrate to form the homogenous and transparent TiO2 thin film. The TiO2 thin film was coated at several layers using specific conditions. To evaluate the performance of thin film, the crystallinity of the thin film was determined by using the x-ray diffractometer  (XRD. The change on the surface morphology was observed using atomic force microscope (AFM. The electrical property of the thin film was determined by doing the current-voltage (I-V analysis on the thin film. It has been successfully shown that the anatase crystalline phase was observed when the TiO2 thin film was heated at 500°C. The roughness and the crystalline phase of TiO2 thin film changed drastically with the growth conditions. Finally, the effect of film preparation to the film resistivity also showed a critical aspect where we should take into account during the preparation of TiO2 thin film.

  18. Correlation of structural, optical and surface morphological properties of N-doped TiO2 thin films prepared by facing targets sputtering technique

    In this study, N-doped TiO2 films were prepared by facing targets sputtering technique without substrate heating. Nitrogen partial pressure (PN) was varied from 0 Pa to 0.08 Pa to vary the amount of nitrogen doping in TiO2 thin film. The X-ray diffraction study indicates that increase of nitrogen partial pressure increases replacement of oxygen by nitrogen in TiO2 crystal. An abrupt change of crystal structure, crystallinity, porosity and surface morphological property of N-doped TiO2 thin films is observed for the samples, prepared over nitrogen partial pressure 0.05 Pa

  19. Formation of TiO2 Thin Films using NH3 as Catalyst by Metalorganic Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Jung, Sung-Hoon; Kang, Sang-Won

    2001-05-01

    We have studied metalorganic chemical vapor deposition of TiO2 thin films using titanium tetra-isopropoxide [TTIP, Ti(O--C3H7)4] and NH3 as a catalyst at deposition temperatures ranging from 250 to 365°C. At deposition temperatures above 330°C, pyrolytic self-decomposition of TTIP is dominant regardless of the use of NH3, and the activation energy for TiO2 film formation is 152 kJ/mol. At deposition temperatures below 330°C, the films can be formed with the help of the catalytic activity of NH3, and the activation energy is reduced to 55 kJ/mol. TiO2 films deposited through the pyrolytic self-decomposition of TTIP have an anatase structure before and after performing post-deposition annealing in oxygen ambient for 30 min at 750°C. On the other hand, the as-deposited films formed through the catalytic reaction of TTIP with NH3 incorporate nitrogen impurities and have microcrystallites of the rutile structure within the amorphous matrix. However, the post-deposition annealing, the nitrogen impurities are completely removed from the films, and the films are converted into polycrystalline TiO2 films with the rutile structure, which have a high dielectric constant of 82 and a low leakage current.

  20. Photocatalytic degradation of spill oils on TiO2 nanotube thin films

    The nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanotube (N-TNT) thin films were synthesized using ZnO nanorods as the template and doped with urea at 623 K. Under ultraviolet (UV) and visible light irradiation, the efficiencies for photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue is as high as 30%. About 10% of toluene (representing aromatics in the spill oils) in sea water can be photocatalytically degraded under visible light radiation for 120 min. The aliphatic model compound (1-hexadecene) has, on the contrary, a less efficiency (8%) on the N-TNT photocatalyst. On the average, under visible light radiation, the effectnesses of the N-TNT for photocatalytic degradation of model compounds in the spill oils in sea water are 0.38 mg toluene/gN-TNT h and 0.25 mg 1-hexadecene/gN-TNT h. It is expected that spill oils in the harbors or seashores can be adsorbed and photocatalytically degraded on the N-TNT thin films that are coated onto levee at the sea water surface level

  1. Investigations on the synthesis, optical and electrical properties of TiO2 thin films by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) method

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) thin films were prepared by Chemical Bath Deposition (CBD) method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was used to examine the structure and to determine the crystallite size of TiO2 thin film. The surface morphology of the film was studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).The optical properties were studied using the UV-Visible and photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. Optical constants such as band gap, refractive index, extinction coefficient and electric susceptibility were determined. The FTIR spectrum revealed the strong presence of TiO2 . The dielectric properties of TiO2 thin films were studied for different frequencies and different temperatures. The AC electrical conductivity test revealed that the conduction depended both on the frequency and the temperature. Photoconductivity study was carried out in order to ascertain the positive photoconductivity of the TiO2 thin films. (author)

  2. Preparation of anatase TiO2 thin film by low temperature annealing as an electron transport layer in inverted polymer solar cells

    Highlights: • Anatase thin film of TiO2 was prepared by low temperature annealing. • Anatase TiO2 colloidal solution was obtained from amorphous form through solvothermal process. • Anatase TiO2 colloidal solution was used to prepare thin film on ITO glass. • Polymer solar cell fabricated on anatase TiO2 thin film showed 2.6% of PCE. - Abstract: To prepare the anatase TiO2 thin films on ITO glass, amorphous TiO2 colloidal solution was synthesized through the simple sol-gel method by using titanium (IV) isopropoxide as a precursor. This amorphous TiO2 colloidal solution was spread on ITO glass by spin-coating, then treated at 450 °C to obtain anatase TiO2 film (for device A). For other TiO2 films, amorphous TiO2 colloidal solution was treated through solvothermal process at 180 °C to obtain anatase TiO2 colloidal solution. This anatase TiO2 colloidal solution was spread on ITO glass by spin coating, and then annealed at 200 °C (for device B) and 130 °C (for device C), respectively. The average particle size of amorphous TiO2 colloidal solution was about 1.0 nm and that of anatase TiO2 colloidal solution was 10 nm. The thickness of TiO2 films was about 15 nm for all cases. When inverted polymer solar cells were fabricated by using these TiO2 films as an electron transport layer, the device C showed the highest PCE (2.6%) due to the lack of defect, uniformness and high light absorbance of TiO2 films. The result of this study can be applied for the preparation of inverted polymer solar cell using TiO2 films as a buffer layer at low temperature on plastic substrate by roll-to roll process

  3. Electrical property measurements of Cr-N codoped TiO2 epitaxial thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition,

    Jacimovic, Jacim; Gaal, Richard; Magrez, Arnaud; Forró, László; Regmi, Mauri; Eres, Gyula

    2013-01-01

    The temperature dependent resistivity and thermo-electric power of Cr-N codoped TiO2 were compared with that of single element N and Cr doped and undoped TiO2 using epitaxial anatase thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition on (100) LaAlO3 substrates. The resistivity plots and especially the thermoelectric power data confirm that codoping is not a simple sum of single element doping. However, the negative sign of the Seebeck coefficient indicates electron dominated transport independent of...

  4. Self-Assembled Multilayer Structure and Enhanced Thermochromic Performance of Spinodally Decomposed TiO2-VO2 Thin Film.

    Sun, Guangyao; Zhou, Huaijuan; Cao, Xun; Li, Rong; Tazawa, Masato; Okada, Masahisa; Jin, Ping

    2016-03-23

    Composite films of VO2-TiO2 were deposited on sapphire (11-20) substrate by cosputtering method. Self-assembled well-ordered multilayer structure with alternating Ti- and V-rich epitaxial thin layer was obtained by thermal annealing via a spinodal decomposition mechanism. The structured thermochromic films demonstrate superior optical modulation upon phase transition, with significantly reduced transition temperature. The results provide a facile and novel approach to fabricate smart structures with excellent performance. PMID:26937588

  5. Preparation of TiO2 thin film by the LPD method on functionalized organic self-assembled monolayers

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, uniform titania (TiO2) films have been formed at 50℃ on silanol SAMs by the liquid-phase deposition (LPD) method at a temperature below 100℃. OTS (Octadecyltrichloro-Silane) selfassembled monolayers (SAMs) on glass wafers were used as substrates for the deposition of titanium dioxide thin films. This functionalized organic surface has shown to be effective for promoting the growth of films from titanic aqueous solutions by the LPD method at a low temperature below 100℃. The crystal phase composition, microstructure and topography of the as-prepared films were characterized by various techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results indicate that the as-prepared thin films are purely crystallized anatase TiO2 constituted by nanorods after being annealed at 500℃. The pH values, concentration of reactants, and deposition temperatures play important roles in the growth of TiO2 thin films.

  6. Preparation of TiO2 thin film by the LPD method on functionalized organic self-assembled monolayers

    HE ZhongLiang; YU ZhiWei; MIAO HongYan; TAN GuoQiang; LIU Yan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, uniform titania (TiO2) films have been formed at 50℃ on silanol SAMs by the liquid-phase deposition (LPD) method at a temperature below 100℃. OTS (Octadecyltrichloro-Silane) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on glass wafers were used as substrates for the deposition of titanium dioxide thin films. This functionalized organic surface has shown to be effective for promoting the growth of films from titanic aqueous solutions by the LPD method at a low temperature below 10012. The crystal phase composition, microstructure and topography of the as-prepared films were characterized by various techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results indicate that the as-prepared thin films are purely crystallized anatase TiO2 constituted by nanorods after being annealed at 500℃. The pH values, concentration of reactants, and deposition temperatures play important roles in the growth of TiO2 thin films.

  7. Role of water adsorption in photoinduced superhydrophilicity on TiO2 thin films

    The ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of a titanium dioxide (TiO2) film surface gives rise to two simultaneous phenomena: photocatalysis and superhydrophilicity. Photocatalysis has been thoroughly studied, but the mechanism governing superhydrophilicity remains controversial. The authors' investigations show the effects induced by UV irradiation on the water adsorption and desorption on the TiO2 surface. The observations prove that superhydrophilicity cannot be solely induced by the removal of organic contamination via photocatalysis, but is associated with water adsorption most probably due to the appearance of hydroxyl groups on surface defects

  8. Nanocrystalline Pt-doped TiO2 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis for hydrogen gas detection

    Lalchand A Patil; Dinesh N Suryawanshi; Idris G Pathan; Dhanashri G Patil

    2014-05-01

    Nanostructured pure and Pt-doped TiO2 thin films were prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis technique. Aqueous solution of TiCl3.6H2O (0.01 M) was chosen as the starting solution for the preparation of pure TiO2 thin film. Aqueous solutions of PtCl6.6H2O (0.01 M) and TiCl3.6H2O (0.01 M) were mixed in volume % of 1 : 99, 2.5 : 97.5 and 5 : 95 respectively to obtain Pt-doped TiO2 thin films. The solutions were sprayed onto quartz substrate heated at 350 °C temperature to obtain the films. These thin films were fired for one hour at 550 °C. The sensing performance of these films was tested for various gases such as LPG, H2, CO2, ethanol, NH3 and Cl2 (1000 ppm). The Pt-doped TiO2 (1 : 99) was observed to be most sensitive (572) to H2 at 400 °C with high selectivity against other gases. Its response time was short (10 s) and recovery was also fast (14 s). To understand the reasons behind the gas-sensing performance of the films, their structural and micro-structral properties were studied using X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy (FE–SEM and TEM), respectively. Thicknesses of all these samples were determined using Surface Profiler. The results are interpreted.

  9. Heteroepitaxial growth and structural characterization of rutile TiO2 thin films on GaN (0 0 0 1) templates prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    Rutile TiO2 (1 0 0) thin films have been prepared on GaN (0 0 0 1) surfaces in the temperature range 300–600 °C by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. The effects of both the oxygen pressure and the substrate temperature on the properties of the TiO2 films were investigated. TiO2 thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). Optimum parameters have been determined for growing high-quality TiO2 thin films with a sharp interface, in which the epitaxial orientation relationship between rutile TiO2 and GaN is TiO2 [001] //GaN [112¯0]. The surface morphology of TiO2 thin films exhibited a marked dependence on the substrate temperature, and the better crystallinity of the TiO2 thin films can be obtained at lower oxygen pressure

  10. Surface functionalization of cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) with evaporated TiO2 thin film

    El Fissi, Lamia; Vandormael, Denis; Houssiau, Laurent; Francis, Laurent A.

    2016-02-01

    Cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) is a new class of thermoplastic polymers used for a variety of applications ranging from bio-sensing to optics. However, the hydrophobicity of native COC hampers the further development and application of this material [1]. In this work, we report the structural, morphological, and optical properties of the TiO2/COC hybrid material, which provides a desirable substrate for optical devices and subsequent surface modifications. The TiO2 film on COC substrate was deposited by the evaporation method, and it was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), profilometry and atomic force microscope (AFM). Using an UV-vis spectrophotometer, we found that the transmittance of the TiO2/COC hybrid material in the visible domain reached 80%. The TiO2/COC hybrid appeared to be stable in most of the assessed polar solvents and acid/basic solutions. The new TiO2/COC hybrid material and the robust fabrication method are expected to enable a variety of BioMEMS applications.

  11. Properties of sputtered TiO2 thin films as a function of deposition and annealing parameters

    The influence of sputtering parameters and annealing on the structure and optical properties of TiO2 thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering is reported. A pure TiO2 target was used to deposit the films on Si(100) and glass substrates, and Ar/O2 gas mixture was used for sputtering. It was found that both the structure and the optical properties of the films depend on deposition parameters and annealing. In all cases the as-deposited films were oxygen deficient, which could be compensated by post-deposition annealing. Changes in the Ar/O2 mass flow rate affected the films from an amorphous-like structure for samples deposited without oxygen to a structure where nano-crystalline rutile phase is detected in those deposited with O2. Annealing of the samples yielded growth of both, rutile and anatase phases, the ratio depending on the added oxygen content. Increasing mass flow rate of O2 and annealing are responsible for lowering of the energy band gap values and the increase in refractive index of the films. The results can be interesting towards the development of TiO2 thin films with defined structure and properties

  12. Preparation of Oleyl Phosphate-Modified TiO2/Poly(methyl methacrylate Hybrid Thin Films for Investigation of Their Optical Properties

    Masato Fujita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs modified with oleyl phosphate were synthesized through stable Ti–O–P bonds and were utilized to prepare poly(methyl methacrylate- (PMMA- based hybrid thin films via the ex situ route for investigation of their optical properties. After surface modification of TiO2 NPs with oleyl phosphate, IR and 13C CP/MAS NMR spectroscopy showed the presence of oleyl groups. The solid-state 31P MAS NMR spectrum of the product revealed that the signal due to oleyl phosphate (OP shifted upon reaction, indicating formation of covalent Ti–O–P bonds. The modified TiO2 NPs could be homogeneously dispersed in toluene, and the median size was 16.1 nm, which is likely to be sufficient to suppress Rayleigh scattering effectively. The TEM images of TiO2/PMMA hybrid thin films also showed a homogeneous dispersion of TiO2 NPs, and they exhibited excellent optical transparency even though the TiO2 content was 20 vol%. The refractive indices of the OP-modified TiO2/PMMA hybrid thin films changed higher with increases in TiO2 volume fraction, and the hybrid thin film with 20 vol% of TiO2 showed the highest refractive index (n = 1.86.

  13. Influence of thickness and air annealing on structural, morphological, compositional, electrical properties of sprayed TiO2 thin films

    R.SHASHIDHAR

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 thin films were prepared by spray pyrolysis technique at a substrate temperature of 3500C under optimum conditions. Films have uniform thickness varying from 0.3–6 μm and good adhesion to substrate. The films were characterized by XRD, SEM and EDAX measurements. XRD profile shows poly crystalline nature of films. As deposited films have anatase phase. Transformation from anatase to anatase–rutile mixed phase may be due to annealing at 4000C and thickness variation of films. The microstructural properties such as crystallite size, microstrain and dislocation density found to increase due to concentration of lattice imperfections and crystallization of amorphous TiO2 films. SEM micrographs exhibit spherical, square, flower shaped grains and grain boundary formation. EDAX analysis revealed the formation of stoichiometric TiO2 films. Electrical studies show that the films are of n-type nature and increase in resistivity is attributed to surface oxidation and formation of Ti2O3 structure, a perfect insulator.

  14. Effect of C doping on the structural and optical properties of sol-gel TiO2 thin films

    Undoped and C-doped TiO2 thin films have been prepared by sol-gel process. Their structure and optical properties have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-vis spectroscopy. It has been observed that C dopants retard the transformation from anatase-to-rutile phase. Namely, C doping effect is attributed to the anatase phase stabilization. The optical analyses show that the optical band gap of anatase C-doped TiO2 decreases with increasing amount of C. Also, it is founded that C dopants have been shown to make TiO2 have a visible light photoresponse.

  15. Thickness-dependent photocatalytic performance of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films prepared by sol-gel spin coating

    Wu, Chung-Yi; Lee, Yuan-Ling; Lo, Yu-Shiu; Lin, Chen-Jui; Wu, Chien-Hou

    2013-09-01

    TiO2 nanocrystalline thin films on soda lime glass have been prepared by sol-gel spin coating. The thin films were characterized for surface morphology, crystal structure, chemical composition, thickness, and transparency by atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ellipsometry, and UV-vis spectrophotometry. The films prepared by titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) as the precursor under pH of 3.5 ± 0.5 and with calcination temperature of 450 ̊C for 3 h exhibited superior homogeneous aggregation, good optical transparency, superhydrophilicity, and reliable thickness. The effect of film thickness on the photocatalytic degradation of acid yellow 17 was investigated under UV irradiation. The photocatalytic activity was strongly correlated with the number of coatings and followed Langmuir-type kinetics. Under the same film thickness, TiO2 thin films prepared by 0.1 M TTIP exhibited more efficient photocatalytic activity than those prepared by 0.3 M TTIP. For thin films prepared by 0.1 M TTIP, the maximum specific photocatalytic activity occurred at 5 coatings with thickness of 93 ± 1 nm. A model was proposed to rationalize the dependence of the film thickness on the photocatalytic activity, which predicts the existence of an optimum film thickness.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of the Pd/InVO4-TiO2 co-doped thin films with visible light photocatalytic activities

    Novel Pd/InVO4-TiO2 thin films with visible light photocatalytic activity were synthesized from the Pd and InVO2 co-doped TiO2 sol via sol-gel method. The photocatalytic activities of Pd/InVO4-TiO2 thin films were investigated based on the oxidative decomposition of methyl orange in aqueous solution. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis). The results indicate that the Pd/InVO4-TiO2 thin films are compact, uniform and consist of sphere nanoparticles with diameters about 80-100 nm. The UV-vis spectra show that the Pd/InVO4-TiO2 thin films extend the light absorption spectrum toward the visible region. XPS results reveal that doped Pd exist in the form of metallic palladium. The photocatalytic experiments demonstrate that Pd doping can effectively enhance the photocatalytic activities of InVO4-TiO2 thin films in decomposition of aqueous methyl orange under visible light irradiation. It has been confirmed that Pd/InVO4-TiO2 thin films could be excited by visible light (E 4 doped in the films

  17. A Spectroscopic Ellipsometry Study of TiO2 Thin Films Prepared by dc Reactive Magnetron Sputtering: Annealing Temperature Effect

    Mati Horprathum; Pongpan Chindaudom; Pichet Limsuwan

    2007-01-01

    TiO2 thin Rims are obtained by dc reactive magnetron sputtering. A target of titanium (99.995%) and a mixture of argon and oxygen gases are used to deposit TiO2 films on to silicon wafers (100). The crystalline structure of deposited and annealed film are deduced by variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE) and supported by x-ray diffractometry. The optical properties of the Sims are examined by VASE. Measurements of ellipsometry are performed in the spectral range 0.72-3.55 eV at incident angle 75°. Several SE models, categorized by physical and optical models, are proposed based on the 'simpler better' rule and curve-fits, which are generated and compared to the experimental data using the regression analysis. It has been found that the triple-layer physical model together with the Cody-Lorentz dispersion model offer the most convincing result. The as-deposited films are found to be inhomogeneous and amorphous, whereas the annealed films present the phase transition to anatase and rutile structures. The refractive index of TiO2 thin films increases with annealing temperature. A more detailed analysis further reveals that thickness of the top sub-layer increases, whereas the region of the bottom amorphous sub-layer shrinks when the films are annealed at 300°C.

  18. ALD TiO2 thin film as dielectric for Al/p-Si Schottky diode

    Sefa B K Aydin; Dilber E Yildiz; Hatice Kanbur Çavuş; Recep Şahingöz

    2014-12-01

    Electrical analysis of Al/p-Si Schottky diode with titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin film was performed at room temperature. The forward and reverse bias current–voltage (–) characteristics of diode were studied. Using thermionic emission (TE) theory, the main electrical parameters of the Al/TiO2/p-Si Schottky diode such as ideality factor (), zero bias barrier height (Bo) and series resistance (s) were estimated from forward bias – plots. At the same time, values of , Bo and s were obtained from Cheung’s method. It was shown that electrical parameters obtained from TE theory and Cheung’s method exhibit close agreement with each other. The reverse-bias leakage current mechanism of Al/TiO2/p-Si Schottky barrier diodes was investigated. The – curves in the reverse direction are taken and interpreted via both Schottky and Poole–Frenkel effects. Schottky effect was found to be dominant in the reverse direction. In addition, the capacitance–voltage (–) and conductance–voltage (/–) characteristics of diode were investigated at different frequencies (50–500 kHz). The frequency dependence of interface states density was obtained from the Hill–Coleman method and the voltage dependence of interface states density was obtained from the high–low frequency capacitance method.

  19. Localised modifications of anatase TiO2 thin films by a Focused Ion Beam

    A Focused Ion Beam (FIB) has been used to implant micrometer-sized areas of polycrystalline anatase TiO2 thin films with Ga+ ions using fluencies from 1015 to 1017 ions/cm2. The evolution of the surface morphology was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). In addition, the chemical modifications of the surface were followed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The implanted areas show a noticeable change in surface morphology as compared to the as-deposited surface. The surface loses its grainy morphology to gradually become a smooth surface with a RMS roughness of less than 1 nm for the highest ion fluence used. The surface recession or depth of the irradiated area increases with ion fluence, but the rate with which the depth increases changes at around 5 x 1016 ions/cm2. Comparison with implantation of a pre-irradiated surface indicates that the initial surface morphology may have a large effect on the surface recession rate. Detailed analysis of the XPS spectra shows that the oxidation state of Ti and O apparently does not change, whereas the implanted gallium exists in an oxidation state related to Ga2O3.

  20. Optical properties analysis of Ta-doped TiO2 thin films on LaAlO3 substrates

    We study optical properties of Ta-doped TiO2 thin film on LaAlO3 substrate using spectroscopy ellipsometry (SE) analysis at energy range of 0.5 – 6.5 eV. Room temperature SE data for Ψ (amplitude ratio) and Δ (phase difference) between p- and s- polarized light waves are taken with multiple incident angles at several spots on the samples. Here, absorption coefficient has been extracted from SE measurements at photon incident angle of 70° for different Ta concentration (0.01, 0.4, and 5 at. %). Multilayer modelling is performed which takes into account reflections at each interface through Fresnel coefficients to obtain reasonably well the fitting of Ψ and Δ data simultaneously. As the results, we estimate that film thickness increases by increasing Ta concentration accompanied by the formation of a new electronic structure. By increasing Ta impurities, the blueshift of absorption coefficient (α) peaks is observable. This result indicates that TiO2 thin film becomes optically resistive by introducing Ta doping. Schematic model of interband transition inTiO2:Ta will be proposed base on obtained optical properties. This study enables us to predict the role of Ta doping on the electronic and optical band structures of TiO2 thin film

  1. 大规模生产TiO2薄膜的方法%Approach for Producing TiO2 Thin Films in Large Scale

    汪洋; 彭晓光; 陈樱

    2007-01-01

    @@ Introduction Metal oxides are in use as catalysts in industrial processes. The surfaces of titanium dioxide (TiO2)has been of great interest because of its capability of heterogeneous catalysis and photocatalysis, and the adsorption of small molecules on TiO2 has received considerable attention in relation to the elimination of atmospheric pollutants. So that It is important to produce TiO2 thin films in large scale.

  2. Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering Deposition of TiO2 Thin Films and Their Perovskite Solar Cell Applications

    Cong Chen; Yu Cheng; Qilin Dai; Hongwei Song

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we report a physical deposition based, compact (cp) layer synthesis for planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. Typical solution-based synthesis of cp layer for perovskite solar cells involves low-quality of thin films, high-temperature annealing, non-flexible devices, limitation of large-scale production and that the effects of the cp layer on carrier transport have not been fully understood. In this research, using radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS), TiO2 cp lay...

  3. Photocatalytic degradation of TCE in air using TiO2 porous thin films:Influence of the relative humidity

    Suárez, S.; Arconada, N.; De Castro, Y; Coronado, J.; Portela,R; Durán, A.; B. Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Porous TiO2-anatase thin films were prepared by the sol-gel route and used for the study of the influence of structural properties in their photocatalytic activity. Sols were prepared by using titanium isopropoxide with two types of modifier ligands, namely acetic acid and acetyl acetone, and pore generating agents such as polyethylene glycol, pluronic F-127 and polyethylene glycol hexadecyl ether (Brij 58). The photocatalytic activity for the degradation of trichloroethylene i...

  4. Photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue by TiO2-Cu thin films: Theoretical and experimental study

    Research highlights: → The depth and surface Cu dopant concentration can be modulated by thermal treatment of TiO2. → H2O2 can be degraded by TiO2 electron/hole pair as well as by Cu metallic and ionic species, trough of a Like-Fenton mechanism. → The colorant degradation occurs due successive hydoxylations. - Abstract: In this work the effect of doping concentration and depth profile of Cu atoms on the photocatalytic and surface properties of TiO2 films were studied. TiO2 films of about 200 nm thickness were deposited on glass substrates on which a thin Cu layer (5 nm) was deposited. The films were annealed during 1 s to 100 deg. C and 400 deg. C, followed by chemical etching of the Cu film. The grazing incidence X-ray fluorescence measurements showed a thermal induced migration of Cu atoms to depths between 7 and 31 nm. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis detected the presence of TiO2, Cu2O and Cu0 phases and an increasing Cu content with the annealing temperature. The change of the surface properties was monitored by the increasing red-shift and absorption of the ultraviolet-visible spectra. Contact angle measurements revealed the formation of a highly hydrophilic surface for the film having a medium Cu concentration. For this sample photocatalytic assays, performed by methylene blue discoloration, show the highest activity. The proposed mechanism of the catalytic effect, taking place on Ti/Cu sites, is supported by results obtained by theoretical calculations.

  5. Influence of the growth parameters on TiO2 thin films deposited using the MOCVD method

    Bernardi M. I. B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report the synthesis of TiO2 thin films by the Organometallic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD method. The influence of deposition parameters used during the growth in the obtained structural characteristics was studied. Different temperatures of the organometallic bath, deposition time, temperature and type of the substrate were combined. Using Scanning Electron Microscopy associated to Electron Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy and X-ray Diffraction, the strong influence of these parameters in the thin films final microstructure was verified.

  6. TRANSPARENT SUPERHYDROPHILIC SiO2/TiO2/SiO2 TRI-LAYER NANOSTRUCTURED ANTIFOGGING THIN FILM

    Eshaghi A.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available SiO2/TiO2/SiO2 thin films were deposited on glass substrates using an electron beam physical vapor deposition technique. The structure, morphology, surface composition, surface roughness, optical properties, and hydrophilic properties of the thin film were investigated. The structure measurement shows that only anatase phase was exhibited in the thin film. In the TiO2 thin film, the crystals nucleated from the thin films was homogeneous and the average crystalline sizes were 35 nm. The transmittance spectra of the films revealed transparency in the visible region of the spectrum. SiO2/TiO2/SiO2 thin film showed better hydrophilicity under irradiation and storage in comparison to SiO2/TiO2 thin film. SiO2/TiO2/SiO2 tri-layer thin film showed superhydrophilicity which greatly encourages the antifogging function of the film.

  7. Adsorption and solar light decomposition of acetone on anatase TiO2 and niobium doped TiO2 thin films.

    Mattsson, Andreas; Leideborg, Michael; Larsson, Karin; Westin, Gunnar; Osterlund, Lars

    2006-01-26

    Adsorption and solar light decomposition of acetone was studied on nanostructured anatase TiO2 and Nb-doped TiO2 films made by sol-gel methods (10 and 20 mol % NbO2.5). A detailed characterization of the film materials show that films contain only nanoparticles with the anatase modification with pentavalent Nb oxide dissolved into the anatase structure, which is interpreted as formation of substituted Nb=O clusters in the anatase lattice. The Nb-doped films displayed a slight yellow color and an enhanced the visible light absorption with a red-shift of the optical absorption edge from 394 nm for the pure TiO2 film to 411 nm for 20 mol % NbO2.5. In-situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) transmission spectroscopy shows that acetone adsorbs associatively with eta1-coordination to the surface cations on all films. On Nb-doped TiO2 films, the carbonyl bonding to the surface is stabilized, which is evidenced by a lowering of the nu(C=O) frequency by about 20 cm(-1) to 1672 cm(-1). Upon solar light illumination acetone is readily decomposed on TiO2, and stable surface coordinated intermediates are formed. The decomposition rate is an order of magnitude smaller on the Nb-doped films despite an enhanced visible light absorption in these materials. The quantum yield is determined to be 0.053, 0.004 and 0.002 for the pure, 10% Nb:TiO2, and 20%Nb:TiO2, respectively. Using an interplay between FTIR and DFT calculations we show that the key surface intermediates are bidentate bridged formate and carbonate, and H-bonded bicarbonate, respectively, whose concentration on the surface can be correlated with their heats of formation and bond strength to coordinatively unsaturated surface Ti and Nb atoms at the surface. The oxidation rate of these intermediates is substantially slower than the initial acetone decomposition rate, and limits the total oxidation rate at t>7 min on TiO2, while no decrease of the rate is observed on the Nb-doped films. The rate of degradation of key surface

  8. Analysis The Electrical Properties of Co, TiO2 and Co/TiO2 Multilayer Thin Films of Different Thickness Deposited by EBeam Technique.

    Md. Faruk Hossain

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the fabrication of the Co doped TiO2 film for studying the electrical properties. In this case, at first Co/TiO2 multilayer films were prepared by e-beam evaporation in a vacuum better than 10-5 Torr. The electrical properties of the deposited Co, TiO2, Co/TiO2 films had been studied. The surface morphology had been studied by Atomic Force Microscopy. In the multilayer, the thickness of Co and TiO2 was kept same. Each layer thickness was varied from 5nm to 15 nm and repeated three times. The deposition rate of the Co and TiO2 thin films are about 1.33 nm/sec &.1.25 nm/sec respectively. Electrical conductivity for the deposited Co, TiO2 and Co/TiO2 multilayer thin films had been measured as a function of temperature ranging from 300K to 470K. The deposited Co thin film, conductivity is of the order of 106 (Ω-m- 1 that decreases with increasing temperature and the value for deposited TiO2 and Co/TiO2 multilayer thin films is of the order of 102 (Ω-m-1 and 105 (Ω-m-1 respectively. Again, the conductivity of the deposited TiO2 thin films decreases with film thickness where in the case of as deposited Co, Co/ TiO2 multilayer thin films increases with increasing film thickness. The sheet resistance of the as deposited Co thin films increases with increasing temperature which is to be the order of 102 Ω/sheet. It is found that the sheet resistance of the as deposited TiO2 and Co/TiO2 multilayer thin films to be the order of 107 Ω/sheet and 102 Ω/sheet respectively which decreases with increasing temperature. Variation of temperature coefficient of resistance (T.C.R for Co and TiO2 thin films are metallic and insulating in nature respectively. The T.C.R. of deposited Co/TiO2 multilayer thin films in all cases are semiconducting in nature.

  9. Directly patterned TiO2 nanostructures for efficient light harvesting in thin film solar cells

    Ram, Sanjay K.; Rizzoli, Rita; Desta, Derese; Jeppesen, Bjarke R.; Bellettato, Michele; Samatov, Ivan; Tsao, Yao-Chung; Johannsen, Sabrina R.; Neuvonen, Pekka T.; Pedersen, Thomas Garm; Pereira, Rui N.; Pedersen, Kjeld; Balling, Peter; Nylandsted Larsen, Arne

    2015-09-01

    A novel, scalable, and low-cost strategy for fabricating sub-wavelength scale hierarchical nanostructures by direct patterning of TiO2 nanoparticles on glass substrates is reported. Two nanostructural designs of light-trapping back-surface reflectors (BSR) have been fabricated for increasing the photon-harvesting properties of thin-film solar cells: a quasi-periodic nano-crater design and a random nano-bump design. The efficient light-scattering properties of the nano-crater design over a broad wavelength range are demonstrated by the measured haze factor being larger than 40% at wavelengths (~700 nm) near the band edge of amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). The a-Si:H-based n-i-p solar cell fabricated with an only ~200 nm thick absorber layer on the nano-crater BSR shows a short-circuit current density (J sc) of ~16.1 mA cm-2 representing a 28% enhancement compared to the cell deposited on a non-textured flat substrate. Measurements of the external quantum efficiency of the cell fabricated on the quasi-periodic nano-crater surface at long wavelengths, λ  >  700 nm, demonstrate an increase of a factor of 5 relative to that of a flat reference solar cell. The theoretical modeling results of optical absorption corroborate well with the experimental findings and are used to identify the volumes of strong optical absorption in the a-Si:H active layer of the textured BSR devices.

  10. Directly patterned TiO2 nanostructures for efficient light harvesting in thin film solar cells

    A novel, scalable, and low-cost strategy for fabricating sub-wavelength scale hierarchical nanostructures by direct patterning of TiO2 nanoparticles on glass substrates is reported. Two nanostructural designs of light-trapping back-surface reflectors (BSR) have been fabricated for increasing the photon-harvesting properties of thin-film solar cells: a quasi-periodic nano-crater design and a random nano-bump design. The efficient light-scattering properties of the nano-crater design over a broad wavelength range are demonstrated by the measured haze factor being larger than 40% at wavelengths (∼700 nm) near the band edge of amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). The a-Si:H-based n-i-p solar cell fabricated with an only ∼200 nm thick absorber layer on the nano-crater BSR shows a short-circuit current density (J sc) of ∼16.1 mA cm−2 representing a 28% enhancement compared to the cell deposited on a non-textured flat substrate. Measurements of the external quantum efficiency of the cell fabricated on the quasi-periodic nano-crater surface at long wavelengths, λ  >  700 nm, demonstrate an increase of a factor of 5 relative to that of a flat reference solar cell. The theoretical modeling results of optical absorption corroborate well with the experimental findings and are used to identify the volumes of strong optical absorption in the a-Si:H active layer of the textured BSR devices. (paper)

  11. Mechanical characterization of thin TiO2 films by means of microelectromechanical systems-based cantilevers.

    Adami, A; Decarli, M; Bartali, R; Micheli, V; Laidani, N; Lorenzelli, L

    2010-01-01

    The measurement of mechanical parameters by means of microcantilever structures offers a reliable and accurate alternative to traditional methods, especially when dealing with thin films, which are extensively used in microfabrication technology and nanotechnology. In this work, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based piezoresistive cantilevers were realized and used for the determination of Young's modulus and residual stress of thin titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) deposited by sputtering from a TiO(2) target using a rf plasma discharge. Films were deposited at different thicknesses, ranging from a few to a hundred nanometers. Dedicated silicon microcantilevers were designed through an optimization of geometrical parameters with the development of analytical as well as numerical models. Young's modulus and residual stress of sputtered TiO(2) films were assessed by using both mechanical characterization based on scanning profilometers and piezoresistive sensing elements integrated in the silicon cantilevers. Results of MEMS-based characterization were combined with the tribological and morphological properties measured by microscratch test and x-ray diffraction analysis. PMID:20113131

  12. Mechanical characterization of thin TiO2 films by means of microelectromechanical systems-based cantilevers

    The measurement of mechanical parameters by means of microcantilever structures offers a reliable and accurate alternative to traditional methods, especially when dealing with thin films, which are extensively used in microfabrication technology and nanotechnology. In this work, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based piezoresistive cantilevers were realized and used for the determination of Young's modulus and residual stress of thin titanium dioxide (TiO2) deposited by sputtering from a TiO2 target using a rf plasma discharge. Films were deposited at different thicknesses, ranging from a few to a hundred nanometers. Dedicated silicon microcantilevers were designed through an optimization of geometrical parameters with the development of analytical as well as numerical models. Young's modulus and residual stress of sputtered TiO2 films were assessed by using both mechanical characterization based on scanning profilometers and piezoresistive sensing elements integrated in the silicon cantilevers. Results of MEMS-based characterization were combined with the tribological and morphological properties measured by microscratch test and x-ray diffraction analysis.

  13. Surface Modification of Aerosol-Assisted CVD Produced TiO2 Thin Film for Dye Sensitised Solar Cell

    SuPei Lim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a simple and convenient method for the preparation of Ag/TiO2 thin films supported on indium tin oxide, which was achieved by sonochemical deposition of Ag+ on aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposited TiO2 thin films. Posttreatment was performed on the film by immersion in HCl. The as-prepared composite film was characterised by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The photoelectrochemical measurements and J-V characterisation showed approximately fivefold increase in photocurrent density generation and approximately sevenfold enhancement in dye sensitiser solar cell (DSSC conversion efficiency, which was achieved after modification of the TiO2 film with HCl posttreatment and Ag particle deposition. The improved photocurrent density of 933.30 μA/cm2, as well as DSSC power conversion efficiency of 3.63% with high stability, is an indication that the as-synthesised thin film is a potential candidate for solar energy conversion applications.

  14. Electrical and structural properties of TiO2‑δ thin film with oxygen vacancies prepared by RF magnetron sputtering using oxygen radical

    Kawamura, Kinya; Suzuki, Naoya; Tsuchiya, Takashi; Shimazu, Yuichi; Minohara, Makoto; Kobayashi, Masaki; Horiba, Koji; Kumigashira, Hiroshi; Higuchi, Tohru

    2016-06-01

    Anatase TiO2‑δ thin film was prepared by RF magnetron sputtering using oxygen radical and Ti-metal target. Degrees of the TiO2‑δ crystal orientation in the thin film depends of the oxygen gas pressure (P\\text{O2}) in the radical gun. The (004)- and (112)-oriented TiO2‑δ thin films crystallized without postannealing have the mixed valence Ti4+/Ti3+ state. The electrical conductivities, which corresponds to n-type oxide semiconductor, is higher in the case of (004)-oriented TiO2‑δ thin film containing with high concentration of oxygen vacancy. The donor band of TiO2‑δ thin film is observed at ∼1.0 eV from the Fermi level (E F). The density-of-state at E F is higher in (004)-oriented TiO2‑δ thin film. The above results indicate that the oxygen vacancies can control by changing the P\\text{O2} of the oxygen radical.

  15. Influences of the Pd doping on the visible light photocatalytic activities of InVO4-TiO2 thin films

    Novel Pd/InVO4-TiO2 thin films with visible light photo activity were synthesized via a sol-gel method from the Pd and InVO2 co-doped TiO2 sol. The photocatalytic activities of Pd/InVO4-TiO2 thin films were investigated based on the oxidation decomposition of methyl orange in aqueous solution. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis). The results indicate that the Pd/InVO4-TiO2 thin films are compact, uniform and consist of sphere nanoparticles with diameters about 80-100 nm. The UV-vis spectra show that the Pd/InVO4-TiO2 thin films extend the light absorption spectrum toward the visible region. XPS result reveal that doped Pd exist in the form of metallic palladium. The photocatalytic experiments demonstrate that Pd doping can effectively enhance the photo activities of InVO4-TiO2 thin films in decomposition of aqueous methyl orange under visible light irradiation. It has been confirmed that Pd/InVO4-TiO2 thin films could be excited by visible light (E 4 doped in the films. The photocatalytic mechanism of Pd/InVO4-TiO2 thin films is investigated in this paper

  16. TiO2 thin films self-assembled with a partly fluorinated surfactant template.

    Henderson, Mark J; Zimny, Kevin; Blin, Jean-Luc; Delorme, Nicolas; Bardeau, Jean-François; Gibaud, Alain

    2010-01-19

    New TiO(2) films have been self-assembled on solid substrate by dip-coating using TiCl(4) as the titanium source and the partly fluorinated surfactant F(CF(2))(8)C(2)H(4)(OC(2)H(4))(9)OH as the liquid crystal template. By control over the dip-withdrawal speed, film thicknesses from a minimum of 43 nm were produced with rms roughnesses of 0.5-0.7 nm. The films were characterized by X-ray reflectivity, grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering, atomic force microscopy, contact angle measurements, and Raman spectroscopy. Their GI-SAXS patterns are characteristic of a 2-D hexagonal structure in which tubular rods of the fluorinated surfactant are packed hexagonally and aligned parallel to the substrate. Reflectivity and contact angle measurements of the as-prepared film indicate that a low-density hydrophilic TiO(2) surface presents to the air. PMID:19754061

  17. Photocatalytic Oxidation of NOx with Porous TiO2 Nanometer Thin Film

    WANG Song-lin; TIAN Li-hong; ZHONG Jia-cheng; ZAN Ling

    2005-01-01

    A new kind of porous nano-TiO2 composite films was prepared on the glass substrate with the water glass as binders and the sodium fluorosilicate as solidifying reagent.The morphologies of the films were studied by scanning dectron microscope(SEM). The UV-Vis spectrophotometer was also used to investigate the absorption of the films. The gasphase photocatalytic oxidation of nitrogen oxides on the composite film was carried out in TiO2/UV system, and some important factors affecting the photocatalytic oxidation were also studied such as the catalyst concentration, vapor pressure and the presence of oxygen. The results showed the conversion of NOx reached 97. 5% after 2 h UV-irradiation. The final product of photo-oxidation was detected to be HNO3 by FTIR. The way of photocatalytic oxidation of NOx was possibly useful in the practical application.

  18. Structural and photodegradation behaviors of Fe3+-doping TiO2 thin films prepared by a sol–gel spin coating

    Highlights: • Pure and various Fe3+-doped TiO2 thin films have been successfully fabricated. • The phase of all thin films was single phase of anatase TiO2 when calcined at 823 K. • The crystallinity of TiO2 thin films decreased as Fe3+-doping increased. • The photodegradation of each sample increased as the irradiation time increased. • The photodegradation increased as Fe3+-doping increased at a fixed irradiation time. - Abstract: Pure and various Fe3+-doping TiO2 thin films have been successfully fabricated on glass substrate prepared by a sol–gel spin coating route. The structural and photodegradation behavior of these films after calcined at various temperatures for 1 h were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence (PL) spectrum and degradation of 1.0 × 10−5 M methylene blue solution. When all thin films after calcined at 823 K for 1 h, the crystalline phase are comprised only contained single phase of anatase TiO2. The crystallinity of various Fe3+-doping TiO2 thin films decreases with Fe3+-doping concentration increased. The PL intensity of all thin films also decreases with Fe3+-doping concentration increased. When all various Fe3+-doping TiO2 thin films after calcined at 823 K for 1 h, the photodegradation of each sample increases with irradiation time increased. Moreover, the photodegradation also increases with Fe3+-doping concentration increased when fixed at constant irradiation time

  19. Photocatalytic properties of dense plasma focus deposited nano phase TiO2 thin films: annealing effect

    Successful deposition of nano phase TiO2 thin films on silicon and glass substrates were achieved using the dense plasma focus (DPF) device. TiO2 thin films were prepared from a 99.95% pure titanium rod in oxygen–argon working gas mixture at ambient room temperature. The EDX and XPS results give the elemental composition of the films as Ti and O2. The XRD shows that amorphous films are predominant for low number of plasma focus shots. The SEM micrographs confirm the presence of nano-sized grains at smaller number of deposition shots or higher distance of deposition. Agglomeration was found to increase with the number of deposition shots. On annealing, the XRD diffractograms exhibit an increased in intensity and line width of the anatase (101) with the rutile phase R (110) emerging above 400°C. UV-Vis absorbance spectra for both as deposited and annealed films show a red shift for depositions from 20 plasma focus shots. The films showed visible light catalytic activity through decolouration of methylene blue solution. Visible light activity reached a maximum and decreased after 600 °C. Red shift and visible light catalysis can be explained in terms of the special feature effects of the plasma focus characteristic emissions. (author)

  20. Characteristics of N-doped TiO2 thin films grown on unheated glass substrate by inductively coupled plasma assisted dc reactive magnetron sputtering

    N-doped TiO2 thin films have been deposited on unheated glass substrates by an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) assisted direct current (dc) reactive magnetron sputtering. All films were produced in the metallic mode of sputtering in order to achieve a high deposition rate. The structures and properties of the N-doped TiO2 films were studied by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Experimental results show that we can obtain well crystallized N-doped anatase phase TiO2 thin films at low deposition temperature and at high deposition rate by using the ICP assisted dc reactive magnetron sputtering process. The doping of nitrogen into TiO2 lattices leads to a smooth shift of the absorption band toward visible light regions.

  1. Investigation of thin TiO 2 films cosputtered with Si species

    Hsu, Jin-Cherng; Lee, Cheng-Chung; Chen, Huang-Lu; Kuo, Chien-Cheng; Wang, Paul W.

    2009-02-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2) films were fabricated by cosputtering titanium (Ti) target and SiO 2 or Si slice with ion-beam-sputtering deposition (IBSD) technique and were postannealed at 450 °C for 6 h. The variations of oxygen bonding, which included high-binding-energy oxygen (HBO), bridging oxygen (BO), low-binding-energy oxygen (LBO), and three chemical states of titanium (Ti 4+, Ti 3+ and Ti 2+) were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The enhancement of HBO and reduction of BO in O 1s spectra as functions of SiO 2 or Si amount in cosputtered film imply the formation of Si-O-Ti linkage. Corresponding increase of Ti 3+ in Ti 2p spectra further confirmed the property modification of the cosputtered film resulting from the variation of the chemical bonding. An observed correlation between the chemical structure and optical properties, refractive index and extinction coefficient, of the SiO 2 or Si cosputtered films demonstrated that the change of chemical bonding in the film results in the modification of optical properties. Furthermore, it was found that the optical properties of the cosputtered films were strongly depended on the cosputtering targets. In case of the Si cosputtered films both the refractive indices and extinction coefficients were reduced after postannealing, however, the opposite trend was observed in SiO 2 cosputtered films.

  2. Preparation and characterization of Fe2O3-TiO2 thin films on glass substrate for photocatalytic applications

    Fe2O3-TiO2 coatings were successfully prepared on glass slide substrates using sol-gel method for photocatalytic applications. The phase structure, thermal, microstructure and surface properties of the coatings were extensively characterized by using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), differential thermal analysis/thermograviometry (DTA/TG), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Their adhesion and absorbance properties were investigated by a scratch tester and UV-vis spectroscopy. Four different solutions were prepared by changing Fe/Ti molar ratios. Glass substrates were coated by solutions of Ti-alkoxide, Fe-chloride, glaciel acetic acid and isopropanol. The obtained gel films were dried at 300 deg. C for 10 min and subsequently heat-treated at 500 deg. C for 5 min in air. The oxide thin films were annealed at 600 deg. C for 60 min in air. The influence of Fe3+ concentration and number of layers on structure of the films was established. In addition, XRD results revealed that Fe2O3-TiO2 films composed of TiO2, Fe2Ti3O9, Ti3O5 and Fe3O4 phases. According to DTA/TG result, it was determined that endothermic and exothermic reactions were formed at temperatures between 80 and 650 deg. C due to solvent removal, combustion of carbon based materials and oxidation of Fe and Ti. SEM observations exhibited that the coating structure becomes more homogeneous depending on an increase of Fe/Ti molar ratios and thus a regular surface morphology forms with increasing Fe/Ti ratio. It was also seen that as the Fe/Ti ratio increases the surface roughness of the films increases. Critical adhesion force of thin films with Fe/Ti ratio of 0, 0.07, 0.18 and 0.73 were found to be 9, 25, 28 and 21 mN, respectively. The methylene blue solutions photocatalyzed by TiO2 based thin films shows characteristic absorption bands at 420 nm

  3. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy for VO2 thin films grown on TiO2 (0 0 1) substrates

    We present the results of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) measurements of metallic VO2 thin films. The VO2 thin films have been grown on TiO2 (0 0 1) single crystal substrates using pulsed laser deposition. The films exhibit a first-order metal-insulator transition (MIT) at 305 K. In the ARPES spectra of the metallic phase for the films, the O 2p band shows highly dispersive feature in the binding energy range of 3-8 eV along the Γ-Z direction. The periodicity of the dispersive band is found to be 2.2 A-1 which is almost identical with the periodicity expected from the c-axis length of the VO2 thin films. The overall feature of the experimental band structure is similar to the band structure calculations, supporting that we have succeeded in observing the dispersive band of the O 2p state in the metallic VO2 thin film. The present work indicates that the ARPES measurements using epitaxial thin films are promising for determining the band structure of VO2.

  4. Dielectric relaxation and conduction mechanisms in sprayed TiO2 thin films as a function of the annealing temperature

    Juma, Albert; Acik, Ilona Oja; Mere, Arvo; Krunks, Malle

    2016-04-01

    The electrical properties of TiO2 thin films deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis onto Si substrates were investigated in the metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) configuration using current-voltage characteristics and impedance spectroscopy. The electrical properties were analyzed in relation to the changes in microstructure induced during annealing in air up to a temperature of 950 °C. Anatase to rutile transformation started after annealing at 800 °C, and at 950 °C, only the rutile phase was present. The dielectric relaxation strongly depended upon the microstructure of TiO2 with the dielectric constant for the anatase phase between 45 and 50 and that for the rutile phase 123. Leakage current was reduced by three orders of magnitude after annealing at 700 °C due to the densification of the TiO2 film. A double-logarithmic plot of the current-voltage characteristics showed a linear relationship below 0.12 V consistent with Ohmic conduction, while space-charge-limited conduction mechanism as described by Child's law dominated for bias voltages above 0.12 V.

  5. Highly oriented and physical properties of sprayed anatase Sn-doped TiO2 thin films with an enhanced antibacterial activity

    Dhanapandian, S.; Arunachalam, A.; Manoharan, C.

    2016-03-01

    Pristine TiO2 and Sn-doped TiO2 thin films with different Sn doping levels (2, 4, 6 and 8 at.%) were deposited by employing a simplified spray pyrolysis technique. The XRD pattern of the films confirmed tetragonal structure with the polycrystalline nature. The films exhibited a pure anatase titanium dioxide (TiO2) with a strong orientation along (101) plane. The scanning electron microscopy image of 6 at.% Sn-doped TiO2 thin film depicted nanosized grains with porous nature. The atomic force microscopy study had shown the columnar arrangement of grains with the increase in particle size and surface roughness for 6 at.% Sn-doped TiO2 thin films. The optical transmittance was increased with the decrease in the optical energy band gap. The optical constants such as extinction coefficient and refractive index were determined. The intensity of the photoluminescence emission was observed at 398 nm for doped films. The resistivity decreased with the increasing carrier concentration and Hall mobility. The incorporation of Sn into TiO2 matrix yielded a well-pronounced antibacterial activity for Bacillus subtilis.

  6. Controllable preparation of nanosized TiO2 thin film and relationship between structure of film and its photocatalytic activity

    魏刚; 张元晶; 熊蓉春

    2003-01-01

    TiO2 nano-crystalline film and fixed bed photocatalytic reactor were prepared by the sol-gel process using tetrabutylorthotitanate as a precursor and glass tube as the substrate. XRD, AFM, SEM and thickness analysis results indicate that the preparation of nano-crystalline film can be controlled by optimizing experiment process. Under the optimized process, the phase of TiO2 in film is anatase, and the grain size is 3-4 nm. The size of particles, which is about 20-80 nm, can be controlled. The thickness of monolayer film is in nanometer grade. The thickness and particles size in films growing on nanometer film can also be controlled in nanometer grade. As a result, the crack of film can be effectively avoided. Rhodamine B degradation results using UV-Vis spectrophotometer show that the activity of nano-crystalline film in the photocatalytic reactor has a good relation with the diameter of TiO2 particles, that is, the film shows high activity when the size is 20-30 nm and greatly reduced when the size is above 60 nm. The activity of film does not decrease with the increase of film thickness, and this result indicates that nano-crystalline film has no ill influence on the transmissivity of ultraviolet light.

  7. The Influence of Various Deposition Techniques on the Structural and Photoelectrochemical Properties of the thin TiO2 Films

    Morozová, Magdalena; Klusoň, Petr; Dzik, P.; Veselý, M.; Baudys, M.; Krýsa, J.; Šolcová, Olga

    Prague: KANAG -TISK, 2014 - (Krýsa, J.; Klusoň, P.), s. 14-15 ISBN 978-80-7080-886-3. [Czech-Austrian Workshop: New Trends in Photo and Electro Catalysis /6./. Hnanice (CZ), 02.12.2013-04.12.2013] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TA01020804 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GP104/09/P165; GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/2104 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : thin films * nanostructured electrode material * TiO2 layers Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  8. Growth and characterization of nitrogen-doped TiO2 thin films prepared by reactive pulsed laser deposition

    Nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films were grown on (001) SiO2 substrates by reactive pulsed laser deposition. A KrF* excimer laser source (λ = 248 nm, τFWHM ≅ 10 ns, ν = 10 Hz) was used for the irradiations of pressed powder targets composed by both anatase and rutile phase TiO2. The experiments were performed in a controlled reactive atmosphere consisting of oxygen or mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen gases. The obtained thin film crystal structure was investigated by X-ray diffraction, while their chemical composition as well as chemical bonding states between the elements were studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. An interrelation was found between nitrogen concentration, crystalline structure, bonding states between the elements, and the formation of titanium oxinitride compounds. Moreover, as a result of the nitrogen incorporation in the films a continuous red-shift of the optical absorption edge accompanied by absorption in the visible spectral range between 400 and 500 nm wavelength was observed.

  9. Optical parameters induced by phase transformation in RF magnetron sputtered TiO2 nanostructured thin films

    Prabitha B.Nair; V.B.Justinvictor; Georgi P.Daniel; K.Joy; K.C.James Raju; David Devraj Kumar; P.V.Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Pure TiO2 thin films were deposited onto quartz substrates using a ceramic TiO2 target at an elevated substrate temperature of 573 K by RF magnetron sputtering, and an analysis of structural, optical and photoluminescence characteristics of the films upon phase transformation is reported in this paper. Structural investigations using X-ray diffraction revealed that the as-deposited film was amorphous in nature. Thermal annealing for 2 h at 873 K in air resulted in the formation of anatase phase, and a phase transformation to rutile was observed at 1073 K. An increase in grain size and an improvement in crystallinity were also observed on annealing. Rod-like rutile crystallites were observed in the SEM images of the film annealed at 1273 K. As-deposited films and films annealed up to 1073 K were highly transparent in the visible region with a transparency 4 80%. Optical band gap of the films decreased upon thermal annealing which is attributed to phase transformation from amorphous to anatase and then to rutile. Optical parameters such as refractive index, optical conductivity and optical dielectric constant increased with increase in annealing temperature. Since rutile is the optically active phase, the superior refractive index of the film annealed at 1073 K along with its high transparency in visible region suggests the application of this film in antireflective coatings. Photoluminescence emission of maximum intensity was observed for the film annealed at 873 K, which exhibits anatase phase. Intense blue emission observed in this film makes it suitable for use in optoelectronic display devices.

  10. Photocatalytic activity of Al2O3-doped TiO2 thin films activated with visible light on the bacteria Escherichia coli

    Al2O3-doped TiO2 thin films were prepared by combining electrophoretic deposition (EPD) with sputtering. A Corning* glass was used as a substrate, in which a titanium film was deposited by sputtering. Then, a precursor sol was prepared with Ti(n-OBu)4 and Al(s-OBu)3 and used as the medium for EPD. Next, the thin films were sintered and, finally, characterised by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Several cultures of Escherichia coli, strain XL1-Blue, were prepared. Nine experiments were carried out. In three of them, an inoculum (a low amount of a product that contains bacteria) was prepared without a film; in the other six Al2O3-doped TiO2 film-coated glass substrates were irradiated with visible light before they were introduced in the inoculum. The SEM and EDS results showed that TiO2-Al2O3 films were obtained, covering all the glass substrate and with uniform size of particles forming them, and that the aluminium was distributed uniformly on the film. XRD results showed that rutile phase was obtained. By TEM, the structure of TiO2 was demonstrated. Al2O3-doped TiO2 thin films were successful at eliminating E. coli.

  11. Synergistic effect on the photocatalytic degradation of 2-chlorophenol using TiO2 thin films doped with some transition metals in water

    The metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method has been used to prepare TiO2 thin films for the degradation of hazardous organic compounds, such as 2-chlorophenol (2-CP). The effect of supporting materials and metal doping on the photocatalytic activity of TiO2 thin films also has been studied. TiO2 thin films were coated onto various supporting materials, including stainless steel cloth(SS), quartz glass tube(QGT), and silica gel (SG). Transition metals,such as Pd(II), Pt(IV), Nd(III) and Fe(III), were doped onto TiO2 thin film. The results indicate that Nd(III) doping improves the photodegradation of 2-CP. Among all supporting materials studied, SS(37 μm) appears to be the best support. An optimal amount of doping material at 1.0 percent (w/w) of TiO2-substrate thin film gives the best photodegradation 2-CP

  12. Strategies to prepare TiO2 thin films, doped with transition metal ions, that exhibit specific physicochemical properties to support osteoblast cell adhesion and proliferation

    Metal ion doped titanium oxide (TiO2) thin films, as bioactive coatings on metal or other implantable materials, can be used as surfaces for studying the cell biological properties of osteogenic and other cell types. Bulk crystallite phase distribution and surface carbon–oxygen constitution of thin films, play an important role in determining the biological responses of cells that come in their contact. Here we present a strategy to control the polarity of atomic interactions between the dopant metal and TiO2 molecules and obtain surfaces with smaller crystallite phases and optimal surface carbon–oxygen composition to support the maximum proliferation and adhesion of osteoblast cells. Our results suggest that surfaces, in which atomic interactions between the dopant metals and TiO2 were less polar, could support better adhesion, spreading and proliferation of cells. - Highlights: • Electrochemical properties of dopants control the nature of TiO2 thin films. • A model explains the correlation of dopant properties and behaviour of TiO2 films. • Dopants with less polar interaction with TiO2 exhibit better biological activity

  13. Investigation of photocatalytic activity of TiO2/WO3 bilayered thin films with various amounts of WO3 exposed surface

    Transparent WO3/TiO2 bilayered thin films were deposited on glass substrates by facing target sputtering technique with different amounts of WO3 exposed surface (0%, 30%, 50%, 80%, and 100%) to study the separate role of WO3 and TiO2 in the photocatalytic activity of the composite system. The crystallographic and optical properties of WO3 and the TiO2 layers were investigated in detail. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by the measurement of decomposition of methanol in gas phase under visible light irradiation with very little ultraviolet content. The rate of decomposition of gaseous methanol largely depends on the ratio of WO3/TiO2 exposed surface. The decomposition efficiency of WO3/TiO2 films increased with an increase in TiO2 exposed surface and the sample with 70%TiO2 exposed area showed the highest efficiency. The surface morphology of all the layers was investigated by the measurement of field emission scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. The variation in photocatalytic activity has been tried to be explained on the basis of methanol-photodecomposition mechanism and the intrinsic properties of WO3 and TiO2 semiconductor.

  14. Compositional and Structural Properties of TiO2-xNx Thin Films Deposited by Radio-Frequency Magnetron Sputtering

    JING Shi-Wei; LIU Yi-Chun; LIANG Yu; MA Jian-Gang; LU You-Ming; SHEN De-Zhen; ZHANG Ji-Ying; FAN Xi-Wu; MU Ri-Xiang

    2006-01-01

    @@ TiO2-xNx thin films are deposited onto Si(100) and quartz substrates by a rf magnetron sputtering method using a titanium metal disc as a target in Ar, N2, and O2 atmospheres. The substrate temperature is kept at 300°C. The O2 and Ar gas flow rates are kept to be constants and the N gas flow rate is varied. TiO2-xNx films with different N contents are characterized by x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results indicate that the TiO2-xNx thin films can be obtained at 13% N and 15% N contents in the film, and the films with mixed TiO2 and TiN crystal can be obtained at 13% N and 15% N contents in the film. In terms of the results of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, N 1s of β-N (396 eV) is the main component in the TiO2-xNx thin films.

  15. A Micro Oxygen Sensor Based on a Nano Sol-Gel TiO2 Thin Film

    Hairong Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An oxygen gas microsensor based on nanostructured sol-gel TiO2 thin films with a buried Pd layer was developed on a silicon substrate. The nanostructured titania thin films for O2 sensors were prepared by the sol-gel process and became anatase after heat treatment. A sandwich TiO2 square board with an area of 350 μm × 350 μm was defined by both wet etching and dry etching processes and the wet one was applied in the final process due to its advantages of easy control for the final structure. A pair of 150 nm Pt micro interdigitated electrodes with 50 nm Ti buffer layer was fabricated on the board by a lift-off process. The sensor chip was tested in a furnace with changing the O2 concentration from 1.0% to 20% by monitoring its electrical resistance. Results showed that after several testing cycles the sensor’s output becomes stable, and its sensitivity is 0.054 with deviation 2.65 × 10−4 and hysteresis is 8.5%. Due to its simple fabrication process, the sensor has potential for application in environmental monitoring, where lower power consumption and small size are required.

  16. Enhanced photoelectrochemical properties of F-containing TiO2 sphere thin film induced by its novel hierarchical structure

    The novel nanostructured F-containing TiO2 (F-TiO2) sphere was directly synthesized on the surface of Ti foil in the solution of NH4F and HCl by one-step hydrothermal approach under low-temperature condition. The samples were characterized respectively by means of field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results showed that the F-TiO2 sphere was hierarchical structure, which composed of porous octahedron crystals with one truncated cone, leading to a football-like morphology. XPS results indicated that F- anions were just physically adsorbed on the surface of TiO2 microspheres. The studies on the optical properties of the F-TiO2 were carried out by UV-vis light absorption spectrum. The surface fluorination of the spheres, the unique nanostructure induced accessible macropores or mesopores, and the increased light-harvesting abilities were crucial for the high photoelectrochemical activity of the synthesized F-TiO2 sphere for water-splitting. The photocurrent density of the F-TiO2 sphere thin film was more than two times than that of the P25 thin film. Meanwhile, a formation mechanism was briefly proposed. This approach could provide a facile method to synthesize F-TiO2 microsphere with a special morphology and hierarchical structure in large scale.

  17. Crystal Structure And Optical Properties Of TiO2 Thin Films Prepared By Reactive RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Goto S.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In sputtering deposition process of TiO2, metal Ti or sintered TiO2 target is used as deposition source. In this study, we have compared the characteristic of target materials. When TiO2 target was used, stoichiometric TiO2 films was deposited under the Ar atmosphere containing 1.0% of oxygen. The highest sputtering rate under this atmosphere was 3.9nm/min at 3.4W/cm2. But, sintered TiO2 target is fragile and cannot endure higher density of input power than 3.4W/cm2. On the other hand, Ti target needs higher oxygen concentration (8% in sputtering gas atmosphere for obtaining rutile/anatase. Even though Ti target can be input twice power density of 7.9W/cm2, the highest deposition rate for Ti target was 1.4/nm, which was ~35% of the highest rate for TiO2 target. Then we have study out the composite target consisting of Ti plate and TiO2 chips. Using the composite target, stoichiometric TiO2 films were prepared in the rate of 9.6nm/min at 6.8 W/cm2 under the atmosphere of Ar/2.5%O2. Furthermore, we have found that the TiO2 films obtained from the composite target consisted of about 100% anatase, whereas TiO2 films obtained from other target have rutile dominant structure. The optical band gap energy of the film is determined by using the Tauc plot. The calculated band gap energies for the films deposited by Ti target and composite target were 2.95 and 3.24eV, which are equivalent to that of rutile and anatase structure, respectively.

  18. Charge Separation in TiO2/BDD Heterojunction Thin Film for Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Performance.

    Terashima, Chiaki; Hishinuma, Ryota; Roy, Nitish; Sugiyama, Yuki; Latthe, Sanjay S; Nakata, Kazuya; Kondo, Takeshi; Yuasa, Makoto; Fujishima, Akira

    2016-01-27

    Semiconductor photocatalysis driven by electron/hole has begun a new era in the field of solar energy conversion and storage. Here we report the fabrication and optimization of TiO2/BDD p-n heterojunction photoelectrode using p-type boron doped diamond (BDD) and n-type TiO2 which shows enhanced photoelectrochemical activity. A p-type BDD was first deposited on Si substrate by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) method and then n-type TiO2 was sputter coated on top of BDD grains for different durations. The microstructural studies reveal a uniform disposition of anatase TiO2 and its thickness can be tuned by varying the sputtering time. The formation of p-n heterojunction was confirmed through I-V measurement. A remarkable rectification property of 63773 at 5 V with very small leakage current indicates achieving a superior, uniform and precise p-n junction at TiO2 sputtering time of 90 min. This suitably formed p-n heterojunction electrode is found to show 1.6 fold higher photoelectrochemical activity than bare n-type TiO2 electrode at an applied potential of +1.5 V vs SHE. The enhanced photoelectrochemical performance of this TiO2/BDD electrode is ascribed to the injection of hole from p-type BDD to n-type TiO2, which increases carrier separation and thereby enhances the photoelectrochemical performance. PMID:26756353

  19. Optical and morphological characterization of photocatalytic TiO2 thin films doped with silver

    Silver-doped titanium dioxide thin films were deposited on glass substrates by the sol-gel process. Undoped films and films doped with 1 and 3 mol% Ag were annealed at 100 or 500 oC. The optical and morphological properties of the films were analyzed by optical absorption spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, the films were evaluated for their ability to degrade methylene blue. It was found that the photocatalytic activity is barely sensitive to silver doping for films annealed at 100 oC, whereas the effect of silver resulted in enhanced photocatalytic activity for films annealed at 500 oC. For the latter annealing temperature, the photocatalytic activity increased with increasing Ag doping concentration.

  20. Studies on the performance of TiO2 thin films as protective layer to chlorophyll in Ocimum tenuiflorum L from UV radiation

    Thin films of TiO2 were prepared on glass substrates using sol-gel dip coating technique. The films with 10 coatings were prepared and annealed at temperatures 350°C, 450°C and 550°C for 1 hour in muffle furnace. The annealed films were characterized by X – Ray diffraction (XRD), UV – Visible, AFM, Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and EDAX studies. Chlorophyll has many health benefits due to its structural similarity to human blood and its good chelating ability. It has antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. UV light impairs photosynthesis and reduces size, productivity, and quality in many of the crop plant species. Increased exposure of UV light reduces chlorophyll contents a, b and total content in plants. Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) is a wide band gap semiconductor and efficient light harvester. TiO2 has strong UltraViolet (UV) light absorbing capability. Here, we have studied the performance of TiO2 thin films as a protective layer to the chlorophyll contents present in medicinal plant, tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum L) from UV radiation. The study reveals that crystallite size increases, transmittance decreases and chlorophyll contents increases with increase in annealing temperature. This study showed that TiO2 thin films are good absorber of UV light and protect the chlorophyll contents a, b and total content in medicinal plants

  1. Studies on the performance of TiO2 thin films as protective layer to chlorophyll in Ocimum tenuiflorum L from UV radiation

    Malliga, P.; Selvi, B. Karunai; Pandiarajan, J.; Prithivikumaran, N.; Neyvasagam, K.

    2015-06-01

    Thin films of TiO2 were prepared on glass substrates using sol-gel dip coating technique. The films with 10 coatings were prepared and annealed at temperatures 350°C, 450˚C and 550˚C for 1 hour in muffle furnace. The annealed films were characterized by X - Ray diffraction (XRD), UV - Visible, AFM, Field Effect Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and EDAX studies. Chlorophyll has many health benefits due to its structural similarity to human blood and its good chelating ability. It has antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties. UV light impairs photosynthesis and reduces size, productivity, and quality in many of the crop plant species. Increased exposure of UV light reduces chlorophyll contents a, b and total content in plants. Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) is a wide band gap semiconductor and efficient light harvester. TiO2 has strong UltraViolet (UV) light absorbing capability. Here, we have studied the performance of TiO2 thin films as a protective layer to the chlorophyll contents present in medicinal plant, tulsi (Ocimum tenuiflorum L) from UV radiation. The study reveals that crystallite size increases, transmittance decreases and chlorophyll contents increases with increase in annealing temperature. This study showed that TiO2 thin films are good absorber of UV light and protect the chlorophyll contents a, b and total content in medicinal plants.

  2. Physical properties of Zn doped TiO2 thin films with spray pyrolysis technique and its effects in antibacterial activity.

    Arunachalam, A; Dhanapandian, S; Manoharan, C; Sivakumar, G

    2015-03-01

    Zinc doped Titanium dioxide (TiO2: Zn) thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by the spray pyrolysis technique with the substrate temperature 450°C. The structural, optical, photoluminescence (PL) properties and morphological studies were investigated for the films deposited with various doping concentration (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8at.%) of zinc. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD) had shown the presence of anatase peak with a strong orientation along (101) plane at 8at.% of Zn-doped TiO2 film. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study showed the uniform distribution of grains with porous nature. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations indicated the tetragonal shape at 8at.% of Zn-doped TiO2 with the particle size and decrease in surface roughness. The emission at 398nm was observed at the 8at.% of Zn-doped TiO2 thin film. The carrier concentration and Hall mobility was increased with doping. The antibacterial activity was highly yielded for the Zn-doped TiO2 thin films. PMID:25479105

  3. Thickness-dependent electron transport performance of mesoporous TiO2 thin film for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Anatase titania (TiO2) nanocrystals with an average size of 12 nm were synthesized by combining sol–gel method and hydrothermal crystallization technology. Mesoporous TiO2 thin film electrodes (MTTFEs) were prepared by variations in layer of screen-printed TiO2 nanocrystals pastes, and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs) based on different thickness of MTTFEs were fabricated with dye C106. Under the irradiation of 100 mW cm−2 air mass 1.5 global (AM1.5G) sunlight, the short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) and overall conversion efficiency (η) was improved when the thickness of MTTFEs increased from 2.1 μm to 9.8 μm, and obvious decreases of the Jsc and η were found when the film thickness was further increased over 9.8 μm. The kinetic parameters of electron transport were investigated by the transient photoelectrical and electrical impedance measurements, and then the influence of MTTFEs thickness on electron transport performance in DSCs were further discussed. The results showed that the density of states (DOS) and recombination rate (Kr) increased with the MTTFEs thickness increasing. Furthermore, when the thickness of MTTFEs was in the range of 2.1–9.8 μm, the electron lifetime (τn), the electron diffusion coefficient (Dn), and the electron diffusion length (Ln) of devices increased, but these parameters decreased gradually with the further increased thickness of MTTFEs, which influenced the electronic transport performance of DSCs

  4. A Novel Multi-Tube Photoreactor with UV Light and Immobilized TiO2 Thin Film for Water Treatment

    谢一兵; 沈迅伟; 等

    2003-01-01

    A novel multi-tube photoreactor with 0.0188m3 valid reaction volume was constructed in pilot-scale.This rectangular reactor consisted of 13 regularly distributed silica glass tubes coating with TiO2 thin film photocatalyst.Total active area of TiO2 thin is 0.3916m2,The ratio of surface area to volume achieves 20.8m-1 .Photocatalytic experiment of phenol red demonstrates that the apparent reaction rate constant(k) is 0.07465h-1 and 0.16502h-1 for reaction system with and without micro-bubbles mixing.The corresponding apparent quantum efficiency( Φa) is 8.1771×10-7g·J-1 and 4.9036×10-7g·J-1,rspectively,COD value of reactant could decrease to 17mg·L-1 and high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) only shows two absorption peaks in 24h photocatalytic process time,so this photoreactor has good photomineralization effect.Experimental results reveal that photocatalytic destruction of organics is possible by using the multi-tube photoreactor.

  5. Nanoindentation of nanocolumnar TiO2 thin films with single and stacked zig-zag layers

    Jiménez-Piqué, E. [Material Science and Metallurgical Engineering Department and Center for Research in Nanoengineering, UniversistatPolitècnica de Catalunya, Avda. Diagonal 647 (ETSEIB), 08028 Barcelona (Spain); González-García, L.; Rico, V.J.; González-Elipe, A.R. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla (CSIC-Univ. Sevilla), Avda. Américo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain)

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports a systematic analysis of the mechanical properties of nanocolumnar TiO{sub 2} thin films prepared by evaporation at a glancing geometry. A systematic study of the mechanical properties is carried out by comparing the hardness and the Young's modulus determined by nanoindentation for thin films prepared at different deposition angles and characterized by a tilted nanocolumnar structure and others where the nanocolumns are perpendicular to the substrate or are arranged as zig-zag stacked layers. A correlation between mechanical properties and glazing angle geometry is proposed. Differences in the results are discussed in view of the cross section images obtained by focused ion beam and of the deformed areas. Zig-zagged layers present lower values of hardness and Young's modulus due to the collapse of the angles of the columns, but at the same time this configuration impedes the appearance of fracture or delamination, as observed for tilted columns. - Highlights: • TiO2 thin films with tilted columns and zigzag microstructures were deposited. • Nanoindentation was performed on the different films. • Deformation mechanisms were identified with focused ion beam cross sections. • Mechanical response was rationalized in terms of depositing parameters.

  6. Radio Frequency Magnetron Sputtering Deposition of TiO2 Thin Films and Their Perovskite Solar Cell Applications

    Chen, Cong; Cheng, Yu; Dai, Qilin; Song, Hongwei

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we report a physical deposition based, compact (cp) layer synthesis for planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells. Typical solution-based synthesis of cp layer for perovskite solar cells involves low-quality of thin films, high-temperature annealing, non-flexible devices, limitation of large-scale production and that the effects of the cp layer on carrier transport have not been fully understood. In this research, using radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS), TiO2 cp layers were fabricated and the thickness could be controlled by deposition time; CH3NH3PbI3 films were prepared by evaporation & immersion (E & I) method, in which PbI2 films made by thermal evaporation technique were immersed in CH3NH3I solution. The devices exhibit power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 12.1% and the photovoltaic performance can maintain 77% of its initial PCE after 1440 h. The method developed in this study has the capability of fabricating large active area devices (40 × 40 mm2) showing a promising PCE of 4.8%. Low temperature and flexible devices were realized and a PCE of 8.9% was obtained on the PET/ITO substrates. These approaches could be used in thin film based solar cells which require high-quality films leading to reduced fabrication cost and improved device performance.

  7. Influence of O2 partial pressure on the growth of nanostructured anatase phase TiO2 thin films prepared by DC reactive magnetron sputtering

    Research highlights: → Growth of crystalline anatase TiO2 can be controlled by % O2 and sputtering power. → Agglomeration of TiO2 nano-sized grains is observed and rises with decrease in % O2. → Nano-sized grains promote the formation of porous TiO2 films. → Deposition parameters have great influence on the optical properties of TiO2 films. - Abstract: Nanostructured titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films were deposited on unheated glass substrates by DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The influence of the oxygen percentage in the discharge and the sputtering power (P) on the phase composition, crystallinity, surface morphology and optical properties of the films was investigated. The structure of the as-sputtered TiO2 films prepared in different oxygen concentrations for P = 500 W and 1000 W varies from amorphous to crystalline. X-ray diffraction revealed that, excluding the lowest oxygen concentration (1% O2), all annealed TiO2 thin films at 400 deg. C/4 h have an anatase crystal structure and the crystallinity decreases with the oxygen percentage. However, for 5 and 10% O2, the films are textured with the (1 0 1) crystal direction normal to the substrate surface and for O2 ≥ 15% the films have the preferred orientation (0 0 4), which is accounted for different surface energies associated with different planes. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) evidence distinct modifications in the morphology of the thin films which are corroborated with the crystallite sizes estimated from the typical diffraction peaks. Agglomeration of smaller TiO2 nano-sized grains to form bigger sized particulates is observed and enhanced by the decrease in oxygen content. With the variation in oxygen concentration, the optical properties (refractive index and optical band gap) of TiO2 films also change strongly being dependent on crystallinity, crystallite size and oxygen vacancies.

  8. Synthesis of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films by liquid phase deposition technique and its application for photocatalytic degradation studies

    Noor Shahina Begum; H M Farveez Ahmed

    2008-02-01

    A transparent, high purity titanium dioxide thin film composed of densely packed nanometer sized grains has been successfully deposited on a glass substrate at 30°C from an aqueous solution of TiO2–HF with the addition of boric acid as a scavenger by liquid phase deposition technique. From X-ray diffraction measurement, the deposited film was found to be amorphous and turns crystalline at 500°C. The deposited film showed excellent adherence to the substrate and was characterized by homogeneous flat surface. TiO2 thin films can be used as a photocatalyst to clean up organohalides, a class of compound in pesticides that pollute the ground water. Photocatalytic degradation experiments show that indanthrene golden orange dye undergoes degradation efficiently in presence of TiO2 thin films by exposing its aqueous solution to ultraviolet light. The suitable surface structure and porosity increases the photocatalytic activity. It was also observed that hemin doped TiO2 thin films break up organohalides at a surprisingly high rate under visible light.

  9. Preparation and photo-induced superhydrophilicity of composite TiO2-SiO2-In2O3 thin film

    In this work, TiO2-SiO2-In2O3 composite thin films on glass substrates were prepared by the sol-gel dip coating process. X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to evaluate the structural and chemical properties of the films. UV-vis spectrophotometer was used to measure the transmittance spectra of thin films. The water contact angle (WCA) of thin films during UV/vis irradiation and storage in a dark place was measured by a contact angle analyzer. The results indicated that fabrication of composite film has a significant effect on transmittance and superhydrophilicity of TiO2 films.

  10. Effect of sputtering pressure and post-annealing on hydrophilicity of TiO2 thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering

    A series of TiO2 thin films was deposited onto glass substrates without intentional heating or biasing by magnetron sputtering of a titanium target using Ar/O2 reactive mixtures over a broad range of total sputtering pressures from 0.12 Pa to 2.24 Pa. Each of the film types was deposited by the threshold poisoned mode at a specific given oxygen flow rate monitored in-situ by optical emission spectroscopy. Both the sputtering pressure and thermal annealing are the key factors for the TiO2 films to yield fast-response superhydrophilicity with a water contact angle of 5o. The mechanism of superhydrophilicity for the TiO2 films deposited by high-pressure sputtering will be discussed based on empirical studies of X-ray diffractometry, high-resolution scanning microscopy and atomic force spectroscopy.

  11. Photocatalytic removal of hazardous Ponceau S dye using Nano structured Ni-doped TiO2 thin film prepared by chemical method

    Marathe, Sunil D.; Shrivastava, Vinod S.

    2015-02-01

    Many attempts have been made by researchers for the removal of various dyes using nano structured Ni-doped TiO2; however, removal of `hazardous Ponceau S dye' using nano structured Ni-doped TiO2 has been not studied yet. In the present work, environmental application of Nano structured Ni doped TiO2 has been studied. Nano structured Ni-doped TiO2 thin films were deposited by the chemical method on a glass substrate. The prepared thin film was characterized by XRD, SEM, and EDX. The crystal size calculated from XRD is about 26.2 nm. The SEM analysis reveals nano spherical morphology of average particle size about 92 nm. The optical analysis was carried by using UV-visible spectroscopy. The band gap estimated from absorbance spectra for thin film was around 3.5 eV, making suitable Ni-doped TiO2 for photocatalytic removal of hazardous Ponceau S dye. In photocatalytic application different parameters like dye concentration, contact time, pH, UV light and sunlight were optimized for the removal of Ponceau S dye, respectively. The change in chemical oxygen demand after photo catalytic treatment was also studied.

  12. Initial stages of TiO 2 thin films MOCVD growth studied by in situ surface analyses

    Brevet, A.; Peterlé, P. M.; Imhoff, L.; Marco de Lucas, M. C.; Bourgeois, S.

    2005-02-01

    In situ chemical surface analyses using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were performed to understand the initial stages of TiO 2 thin-film MOCVD growth. Deposits on Si (1 0 0), a few nanometres thick, were obtained at a fixed temperature of 650 °C and for two different pressures, 2.9 and 0.05 mbar, using titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) as precursor. Pressure lowering led to a higher deposit growth rate. Reduction of titanium with respect to stoichiometric titanium dioxide and oxidation of the wet-cleaned silicon substrate are observed from decomposition of the Ti 2p and Si 2p peaks. The formation of a TiSi xO y mixed oxide is also pointed out and confirmed by the presence of a characteristic component in the O 1 s peak.

  13. Room temperature deposition of highly dense TiO2 thin films by filtered cathodic vacuum arc

    Guillén, E.; Heras, I.; Rincón Llorente, G.; Lungwitz, F.; Alcon-Camas, M.; Escobar-Galindo, R.

    2015-08-01

    A systematic study of TiO2 films deposited by dc filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) was carried out by varying the deposition parameters in a reactive oxygen atmosphere. The influence of the oxygen partial pressure on film properties is analyzed. Composition was obtained by Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) measurements, which also allow us to obtain the density of the films. Morphology of the samples was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and their optical properties by ellipsometry. Transparent, very dense and stoichiometric TiO2 films were obtained by FCVA at room temperature.

  14. The effect of aeration and solar intensity power on photocatalytic degradation of textile industrial wastewater using TiO2 thin film

    Solar photo catalytic degradation of the textile industry wastewater using TiO2 thin films was studied. This experiment was performed to investigate the effect of aeration and solar intensity power on decreasing of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). A serpentine flow photo catalytic reactor was developed for this purpose. TiO2 thin films photo catalyst supported on the stainless steel 304 substrates were prepared using sol-gel dip coating method. The results of thin films were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD). XRD result showed that the prepared thin films gave the anatase crystallite formation whilst SEM demonstrated the macro pores were formed. Finally, the aeration and solar intensity power factors are considered to be responsible for the photo catalytic degradation. (Author)

  15. Interdigitated electrode (IDE) based on titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films for biosensor application

    Nordin, N.; Hashim, U.; Azizah, N.

    2016-07-01

    Sensor is the device that can detect and produce output or response that comes from any input from the physical environment. In this study, sensor is developed by simple photolithography process to create a small IDE device. The device is coated with Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) to give the positive result in detection. The result shows the device with coating stabilized at 2.46×10-10 compare to device without TiO2 which only at 2.24×10-10. IDE device is reusable and can use many times for different kind of detection.

  16. Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Thin Films Obtained by the Sputtering RF in Wastewater

    Cardona Bedoya, Jairo Armando; Sanchez Velandia, Wilmer Asmed; Delgado Rosero, Miguel Iban; Florido Cuellar, Alex Enrique; Zelaya Angel, Orlando; Mendoza Alvarez, Julio G.

    2011-03-01

    The photocatalytic activity of Ti O2 thin films in wastewater, under an UV irradiation, is studied. The films were prepared on corning glass substrates by the sputtering RF technique. We present evidence on the photocatalytic degradation, carried out by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) in domestic wastewater pretreated with UASB (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket) reactors. Ti O2 films were illuminated with ultraviolet light during a time of 4 hours (λ ≅ 264 nm). We could see the effect of degraded operation in the absorbance measurement using UV-VIS spectrophotometry. The results show an increased rate of degradation of the wastewater by 30% compared to the values reflected biologically treated wastewater by anaerobic reactors.

  17. Combining a molecular modelling approach with direct current and high power impulse magnetron sputtering to develop new TiO2 thin films for antifouling applications

    Guillot, Jérôme; Lecoq, Elodie; Duday, David; Puhakka, Eini; Riihimäki, Markus; Keiski, Riitta; Chemin, Jean-Baptiste; Choquet, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    The accumulation of crystallization deposits at the surface of heat exchangers results in the increase of the heat transfer resistance and a drastic loss of efficiency. Coating surfaces with a thin film can limit the scale-surface adhesion force and thus the fouling process. This study compares the efficiency of TiO2 layers exhibiting various crystalline planes and microstructures to reduce the kinetic of fouling. Molecular modelling with density functional theory is first carried out to determine the energy of CaCO3 deposition on anatase (1 0 1), (0 0 4), and (2 0 0) surfaces as well as on a rutile (1 0 1) one. TiO2 thin films (thickness fouling results allows to draw general trends on the potential anti-scaling properties of TiO2 crystallized under various forms. Until now, such a comparison combining a theoretical approach with experimental fouling tests has never been reported in the literature.

  18. Microstructure optimization and optical and interfacial properties modulation of sputtering-derived HfO2 thin films by TiO2 incorporation

    Highlights: • Sputtering-derived Hf1−xTixO2 gate dielectrics have been deposited on Si substrates. • Increase in crystallization temperature and reduction in Eg have been observed. • Formation of silicate layer for 9% TiO2-doped HfO2/Si sample has been detected. - Abstract: TiO2-doped HfO2 gate dielectric thin films have been deposited on Si(1 0 0) substrates by RF sputtering. The component, morphology, structure, optical and interfacial properties of Hf1−xTixO2 films related to TiO2 concentration are systematically investigated by atomic force microscope (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transformation infrared (FTIR). By employing Cauchy–Urbach model, the optical constants, such as refractive index (n), extinction coefficient (k), absorption coefficient (α), and optical band gap (Eg) have been determined precisely. Measurements from XRD have confirmed that TiO2 incorporating into HfO2 films leads to the increase of the crystallization temperature of HfO2 films with increasing the TiO2 concentration. SE analyses have indicated that reduction in band gap and refractive index has been observed with increasing the TiO2 component in Hf1−xTixO2 films. The increase in Urbach parameter EU with the increase of TiO2 concentration also suggests the rise in disorder for Hf1−xTixO2 films. FTIR measurements for Hf1−xTixO2/Si gate stack indicate the existence of the interfacial layer regardless of the TiO2 concentration. For the 9% TiO2-doped HfO2 samples, the shift in FTIR characteristic peak suggests the formation of the silicate layer, which leads to the suppressed interfacial layer growth during deposition. As a result, it can be conclude that the TiO2 component in Hf1−xTixO2 films should be controlled precisely to guarantee interfacial properties of Hf1−xTixO2/Si gate stacks

  19. Substrate dependant capacitive performance of spray pyrolysed titanium oxide (TiO2) thin films

    Fugare, B. Y.; Ingole, R. S.; Ambare, R. C.; Lokhande, B. J.

    2016-04-01

    Using 60 ml, 0.06 M aqueous solution of potassium titanium oxalate (pto), thin films of titanium oxide were prepared by using well known spray pyrolysis technique. Depositions of the films carried out at 723° K by maintain the spray rate 12 Cc/min. prepared thin films were characterized structurally, morphologically and electrochemically. Sample shows tetragonal crystal structure with rutile as prominent phase at very low deposition temperature. SEM morphology shows porous, dense, nanorods and nanoplates like morphology. The electrochemical cyclic voltammetery shows mixed capacitive behavior. The specific capacitance values observed from cyclic voltammetery in 1 M NaOH are 2497.19, 29.60, 424.22 F/g. for the electrode deposited on copper, FTO and stainless steel (SS) respectively. Charge discharge behavior was observed for the samples deposited on stainless steel gives specific energy (SE), specific power (SP) and efficiency (η) are 43.25 Wh/kg, 35.25 kW/kg and 98.22 % respectively. Impedance study was carried out in the frequency range 1 mHz to 1 MHz exhibits very less internal resistance 1.066 Ohm for the deposited electrode.

  20. Control of the visible and UV light water splitting and photocatalysis of nitrogen doped TiO2 thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Fakhouri, Houssam; Pulpytel, Jerome; Smith, Wilson; Zolfaghari, Alireza; Mortaheb, Hamid Reza; Meshkini, Fateme; Reza JAFARI; Sutter, Eliane; Arefi-Khonsari, Farzaneh

    2014-01-01

    N-doped TiO2 thin films have been prepared by reactive RF magnetron sputtering at different pressures and with different compositions using a dual reactive gas mixture of nitrogen and oxygen. The morphological, optical, photo-electrochemical and photocatalytic properties have been studied in order to investigate the white light and visible light photoactivities of the films. Significant control over the band gap energy in the films was achieved by varying the deposition parameters. Photoelect...

  1. Investigation of TiO2 Thin Film Growth by Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembly for Application to Optical Devices

    Kyung, Kyu-Hong; Fujimoto, Kouji; Shiratori, Seimei; Kim, Jin-Ho; Kim, Sae-Hoon

    2010-04-01

    Recently, optical thin films fabricated using a water-based process have been strongly demanded. We fabricated TiO2 thin films consisting of poly(diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (PDDA) and titanium(IV) bis(ammonium lactate) dihydroxide (TALH) for optical devices fabricated using layer-by-layer self-assembly. We report the effects of the pH and concentration of a solution, immersion time, and the amount of NaCl added to a solution on the thickness, morphology, surface roughness, and transmittance of fabricated thin films. The thickness, surface morphology, and transparency of (PDDA/TALH) thin films were determined by ellipsometry, field-emission scanning microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrometry. It was found that the thickness and surface morphology of (PDDA/TALH) multilayer films can be controlled by adjusting the TiO2 particle size of TALH solution. TiO2 particle size was controlled by adjusting the pH of TALH solution and the concentration of PDDA solution, and by adding NaCl to PDDA solution. It was found that we can increase deposition speed while maintaining optical quality by suppressing the surface roughness within 10 nm. These experimental results showed that the fabrication speed of thin films can be markedly increased, by approximately 6-fold.

  2. Effect of annealing temperature on structural, morphological and electrical properties of nanoparticles TiO2 thin films by sol-gel method

    Muaz, A. K. M.; Hashim, U.; Arshad, M. K. Md.; Ruslinda, A. R.; Ayub, R. M.; Gopinath, Subash C. B.; Voon, C. H.; Liu, Wei-Wen; Foo, K. L.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the sol-gel method is used to prepare nanoparticles titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films at different annealing temperature. The prepared sol was deposited on the p-SiO2 substrates by spin coating technique under room temperature. The nanoparticles TiO2 solution was synthesized using Ti{OCH(CH3)2}4 as a precursor with an methanol solution at a molar ratio 1:10. The prepared TiO2 sols will further validate through structural, morphological and electrical properties. From the X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, as-deposited films was found to be amorphous in nature and tend to transform into tetragonal anatase and rutile phase as the films annealed at 573 and 773 K, respectively. The diversification of the surface roughness was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicated the roughness and thickness very dependent on the annealing temperature. The two-point probe electrical resistance and conductance of nanoparticles TiO2 thin films were determined by the DC current-voltage (IV) analysis. From the I-V measurement, the electrical conductance increased as the films annealed at higher temperature.

  3. PVD-Grown photocatalytic TiO2 thin films on PVDF substrates for sensors and actuators applications

    Titanium dioxide's self-cleaning effect has been broadly used in textiles, paints, windows, residual water treatment, amongst various other photocatalytic applications. Polymer substrates have found their way in the semiconductor industry as a base layer for flexible electronics, as well as in sensor and actuator applications. The optimum performance of these systems may be affected by dirt adsorbed on its surface, which can also originate mechanisms for the degradation of the polymer. These thin films have been deposited on electroactive poly(vinilidene fluoride) - PVDF - polymer substrates by unbalanced reactive magnetron sputtering. Rutherford Backscattering experiments evidenced that these coatings have a TiO2 stoichiometry. Raman spectroscopy experiments revealed that the as-deposited coatings on polymer substrates are mostly amorphous, however evidence of anatase and rutile nano-crystalline phases can be found. The photocatalytic behavior of the titanium dioxide coatings was determined by combined ultra-violet irradiation and absorption measurements of a particular dye in the presence of the catalyst. In order to assess the mechanical behavior of the as-sputtered films, the film/substrate composite system was loaded unidirectionally using a tensile testing machine. The stress-strain curves were analyzed and correlated with photocatalytic efficiency along these curves, as well as with the structural data

  4. Effect of pulsed bias on TiO2 thin films prepared on silicon by arc ion plating and simulation of pulsed plasma sheath dynamics

    Dielectric TiO2 thin films were fabricated on p-(100) Si substrates by arc ion plating. A pulsed substrate bias ranging from 0 V to − 900 V was applied to investigate the effect of pulsed bias on phase structure and growth of the films. Phase, microstructure, and growth morphology of TiO2 films prepared at different bias voltages were evaluated with grazing incident x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that pulsed bias exerts an evident influence on phase structure and growth morphology. High substrate bias facilitates the formation of rutile phase, a (220) preferred orientation is observed in TiO2 films obtained at − 900 V. AFM images show that pulsed substrate bias exerts a strong influence on the growth of TiO2 films. With increasing bias voltage, the film is initially composed of tiny surface islands separated by shallow boundaries, then of large and spiky surface islands isolated by deep boundaries. Correspondingly, surface roughness increases from 1.1 nm at 0 V to 3.8 nm at − 900 V. To explain the phenomena observed in this study, pulsed plasma sheath model was used to simulate the ion sheath dynamics. By analyzing experimental and simulated results, it can be concluded that film growth and property relate close to ion density and energy in the sheath, which is dominantly governed by negative substrate bias.

  5. Prediction of TiO2 thin film growth on the glass beads in a rotating plasma chemical vapor deposition reactor.

    Kim, Dong-Joo; Kim, Kyo-Seon

    2010-05-01

    We calculated the concentration profiles of important chemical species for TiO2 thin film growth on the glass beads in the TTIP + O2 plasmas and compared the predicted growth rates of thin films with the experimental measurements. The film thickness profile depends on the concentration profile of TiO(OC3H7)3 precursors in the gas phase because TiO(OC3H7)3 is the main precursor of the thin film. The TTIP concentration decreases with time, while the TiO(OC3H7)3 concentration increases, and they reach the steady state about 2 approximately 3 sec. The growth rate of TiO2 film predicted in this study was 9.2 nm/min and is in good agreements with the experimental result of 10.5 nm/min under the same process conditions. This study suggests that a uniform TiO2 thin film on particles can be obtained by using a rotating cylindrical PCVD reactor. PMID:20358924

  6. ESR study of Co-doped TiO2 thin films

    Co:TiO2 thin films prepared by reactive co-sputtering deposition were studied by electron spin resonance (ESR) technique. Magnetization measurements showed hysteretic behavior with the coercive field between 55 and 65 Oe and the saturation magnetization at room temperature ranging from 7 (2.2% Co) to 28 emu/cm3 (8.5% Co). ESR measurements at X-band (9.5 GHz) revealed an anomaly in the temperature behavior of the absorption intensity near the temperature at 60 K. This behavior is attributed to an unconventional spin-glass-like behavior, which results from competition of long-range dipole-dipole interaction and anisotropy fields in ferromagnetic Co nanoparticles

  7. Microstructure Characterization of Sol-gel Prepared MoO3-TiO2 Thin Films for Oxygen Gas Sensors

    Yongxiang Li

    2000-01-01

    Binary metal oxide MoO3-TiO2 films have been prepared using the sol-gel technique. The thin films were annealed at several temperatures including 400℃,450℃,500℃,550℃ and 600℃ for lhour. The morphology, crystalline structure and chemical composition of the films have been analysed using SEM,XRD,RBS and XPS techniques. The SEM analysis showed that the films annealed at 450℃ are mainly smooth and uniform with 20-100nm-sized grains and with few particles as large as a micrometre or more. The XRD analysis revealed that the films annealed at 400℃ were a mixture of orthorhombic and hexagonal MoO3phases. The films annealed at 450℃ increased in hexagonal phase. The preferential orientation growth along(100) plane of the hexagonal phase and (010) plane of the orthorhombic phase has been found in both samples. RBS and XPS analysis showed that the films were stoichiometric. When the annealing temperature is increased to more than 500℃, the concentration ratio of MoO3 to TiO2 decreased due to the evaporation of MoO3. For the study of the electrical and gas sensing properties, films were deposited on sapphire substrates with interdigital electrodes on the front-side and a Pt heater on the backside. The O2 gas sensing properties of MoO3-TiO2 thin films are discussed.

  8. Solar photocatalytic degradation of gaseous formaldehyde by sol-gel TiO2 thin film for enhancement of indoor air quality

    Solar photocatalytic degradation of formaldehyde in the gaseous phase has been investigated. The tested photoreactor is made of a borosilicate glass tube with the inner surface coated with a sol-gel TiO2 thin film. In a pseudo-first-order Langmuir-Hinshelwood (L-H) model, the maximum reaction rate constant obtained is 0.148 min-1 under an exposure to sunlight with solar UVA irradiance of 1.56 mW/cm2. The solar photolysis effect is found to be negligible. It is also found that the sol-gel TiO2 thin film has a lower apparent photonic efficiency of solar photocatalysis than a Degussa P25 TiO2 coating. However, for the photonic efficiency taking into account the absorbed and scattered photons only and, in other words, excluding the transmitted photons, the thin film has a higher value. Based on a total of 28 measured data, an empirical-correlation equation has been developed to express the reactant residue with respect to the solar UVA irradiance and exposure time. A reasonable agreement between the correlation and experimental data is obtained. The findings of this investigation can be applied to design optimization of a honeycomb photoreactor made up of TiO2-coated glass tubes or polygonal cells. (author)

  9. High-κ TiO2 thin film prepared by sol-gel spin-coating method

    High-k TiO2 thin film on p-type silicon substrate was fabricated by a combined sol-gel and spin coating method. Thus deposited titania film had anatase phase with a small grain size of 16 nm and surface roughness of ≅ 0.6 nm. The oxide capacitance (Cox), flat band capacitance (CFB), flat band voltage (VFB), oxide trapped charge (Qot), calculated from the high frequency (1 MHz) C-V curve were 0.47 nF, 0.16 nF, − 0.91 V, 4.7x10−12 C, respectively. As compared to the previous reports, a high dielectric constant of 94 at 1 MHz frequency was observed in the devices investigated here and an equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) was 4.1 nm. Dispersion in accumulation capacitance shows a linear relationship with AC frequencies. Leakage current density was found in acceptable limits (2.1e-5 A/cm2 for −1 V and 5.7e-7 A/cm2 for +1 V) for CMOS applications

  10. Effects Of Tin Doping On Ethanol And Isopropyl Alcohol Sensing Properties Of Sol-Gel Derived TiO2 Thin Films

    In this work, ethanol and isopropyl alcohol sensing properties of Sn-doped TiO2 thin films were investigated. Sn-doped titanium dioxide (TiO2) films were prepared by sol-gel dipping technique using titanium (IV) n-butoxide and tin (IV) chloride pentahydrate as starting materials. The starting materials were dissolved in ethanol separately. Mixture of the solutions was stirred for 1 h. Sn-doped and undoped TiO2 thin films were deposited onto glass substrate patterned with interdigitated electrodes (IDT) by a sol-gel dipping process. Final curing were performed at 820 K in air for 2 h. The structure of the films was studied by X-ray diffraction. Sn:Ti ratio (wt.) was kept between the values of 5% and 11%. Response characteristics of the films were determined in the gas concentrations range of 10%-30%. Gas concentrations were controlled by mass flow controller. Gas sensing characteristics were obtained by recording the current values of the films versus time as a function of gas concentration at the temperatures of 300 and 525 K. The results showed that sensitivity of the films increases with increasing tin doping. We can conclude that tin doping to SnO2 films improve the sensing parameters.

  11. 锌掺杂多孔SiO2/TiO2薄膜制备及光催化性能研究%Preparation of Zn-doped SiO2/TiO2 thin films by sol-gel processing and their photocatalytic properties

    胡张顺; 姚伯龙; 鲍雪钦

    2013-01-01

    锌掺杂多孔SiO2/TiO2(多孔 Zn-SiO2/TiO2)复合薄膜自清洁玻璃以含聚乙二醇的钛醇盐和硅醇盐的复合溶胶前驱体通过浸渍提拉法制备.结果表明,在TiO2薄膜中添加SiO2可抑制TiO2晶粒长大,并提高TiO2薄膜的亲水性;随着聚乙二醇添加量的增加,锌掺杂多孔SiO2/TiO2薄膜的孔隙增多,表面积增大;经500℃煅烧的多孔Zn-SiO2/TiO2复合薄膜中,TiO2主要为催化效率高的锐钛矿相;多孔Zn-SiO2/TiO2复合薄膜表观光催化降解速率明显高于未掺锌多孔SiO2/TiO2薄膜.%The porous Zn-doped SiO2/TiO2(porous Zn-SiO2/TiO2) composite thin films on the glass substrate were prepared from alkoxide solutions containing polyethylene glycol(PEG) by sol-gel method. The results showed that the addition of SiO2 to TiO2 thin films can suppress the grain growth of TiO2 crystal in the TiO2 thin films, low the contact angle for water of TiO2 films; the pore size is adjusted by adding different amount of PEG, the anatase TiO2 can grow on the porous Zn-SiO2/TiO2 composite thin films at 500 ℃; studies of photocatalytic degradation show that the degradation rate of porous Zn-SiO2/TiO2 composite thin films were higher than that of un-doped porous SiO2/TiO2 composite thin films.

  12. Photooxidation of dibenzothiophene on TiO(2)/hectorite thin films layered catalyst.

    Robertson, Jamie; Bandosz, Teresa J

    2006-07-01

    A new titanium(IV) oxide-hectorite nanofilm photocatalyst was prepared on quartz slides. It was evaluated in the photooxidation of dibenzothiophene (DBT) in nonpolar organic solution (tetradecane), as a model for diesel fuel. A removal regimen was developed consisting of catalytic photooxidation followed by adsorption of products on silica gel. Photooxidation of DBT was performed with and without catalyst, at 254 and 300 nm. Comparison was made with a commercially available TiO(2) catalyst, Degussa P25. The catalyst was analyzed by nitrogen adsorption, XRD, SEM, and TGA-DTA. DBT concentrations were measured by HPLC and UV spectrophotometry. Preliminary qualititative analysis of products was performed by UV and HPLC. Results indicated that the outlined process was effective in reducing sulfur levels to below 10 ppm sulfur. PMID:16600276

  13. Interdigitated electrode (IDE) for porcine detection based on titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films

    Nordin, N.; Hashim, U.; Azizah, N.

    2016-07-01

    Interdigited Electrode (IDE) porcine detection can be accomplished to authenticate the halal issue that has been a concern to Muslim not only in Malaysia but all around the world. The method used is photolithography that used the p-type photoresist on the spin coater with 2500 rpm. Bare IDEs device is deposited with Titanium Dioxide (TiO2) to improve the performance of the device. The result indicates that current-voltage (I-V) measurement of porcine probe line slightly above porcine target due to negative charges repelled each other. The IDE device can detect the porcine presence in food as lowest as 1.0 µM. Better performance of the device can be achieved with the replacement of gold deposited to trigger more sensitivity of the device.

  14. Atomic layer deposition of TiO2 thin films on nanoporous alumina templates: Medical applications

    Narayan, Roger J.; Monteiro-Riviere, Nancy A.; Brigmon, Robin L.; Pellin, Michael J.; Elam, Jeffrey W.

    2009-06-01

    Nanostructured materials may play a significant role in controlled release of pharmacologic agents for treatment of cancer. Many nanoporous polymer materials are inadequate for use in drug delivery. Nanoporous alumina provides several advantages over other materials for use in controlled drug delivery and other medical applications. Atomic layer deposition was used to coat all the surfaces of a nanoporous alumina membrane in order to reduce the pore size in a controlled manner. Neither the 20 nm nor the 100 nm TiO2-coated nanoporous alumina membranes exhibited statistically lower viability compared to the uncoated nanoporous alumina membrane control materials. Nanostructured materials prepared using atomic layer deposition may be useful for delivering a pharmacologic agent at a precise rate to a specific location in the body. These materials may serve as the basis for “smart” drug delivery devices, orthopedic implants, or self-sterilizing medical devices.

  15. Fabrication of TiO2/EP super-hydrophobic thin film on filter paper surface.

    Gao, Zhengxin; Zhai, Xianglin; Liu, Feng; Zhang, Ming; Zang, Deli; Wang, Chengyu

    2015-09-01

    A composite filter paper with super-hydrophobicity was obtained by adhering micro/nano structure of amorphous titanium dioxide on the filter paper surface with modifying low surface energy material. By virtue of the coupling agent, which plays an important part in bonding amorphous titanium dioxide and epoxy resin, the structure of super-hydrophobic thin film on the filter paper surface is extremely stable. The microstructure of super-hydrophobic filter paper was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the images showed that the as-prepared filter paper was covered with uniform amorphous titanium dioxide particles, generating a roughness structure on the filter paper surface. The super-hydrophobic performance of the filter paper was characterized by water contact angle measurements. The observations showed that the wettability of filter paper samples transformed from super-hydrophilicity to super-hydrophobicity with the water contact angle of 153 ± 1°. Some experiments were also designed to test the effect of water-oil separation and UV-resistant by the super-hydrophobic filter paper. The prepared super-hydrophobic filter paper worked efficiently and simply in water-oil separation as well as enduringly in anti-UV property after the experiments. This method offers an opportunity to the practical applications of the super-hydrophobic filter paper. PMID:26005136

  16. TiO2 thin films with rutile phase prepared by DC magnetron co-sputtering at room temperature: Effect of Cu incorporation

    Wang, Hui; Li, Yujie; Ba, Xin; Huang, Lin; Yu, Ying

    2015-08-01

    The thin films for pure TiO2 and that incorporated with Cu ion were deposited by DC magnetron co-sputtering with Ar gas. The crystal texture, surface morphology, energy gap and optical properties of the prepared films have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), UV-vis spectrophotometer, and Raman spectroscopy. The results show that as-deposited TiO2 film mainly possesses anatase structure at room temperature with pure Ar gas, but the introduction of Cu can alter the phase structure of crystallite TiO2. XRD patterns and Raman spectra indicate that the Cu incorporation with high concentration (ACu/ATi + ACu ≈ 20%) favors the formation of rutile phase. Moreover, the Cu incorporation into TiO2 lattice induces band gap narrowing. Band structures and density of states have been analyzed based on density functional theory (DFT) and periodic models in order to investigate the influence of the Cu incorporation on the electronic structure of TiO2. Both experimental data and electronic structure calculations evidence the fact that the change in film structure from the anatase to the rutile phase can be ascribed to the possible incorporation of Cu1+ in the sites previously occupied by Ti4+, and the presence of Cu results in important effect on the electronic states, which is mainly related to the 3d Cu orbitals in the gap and in the vicinity of the valence band edges for TiO2.

  17. KARAKTERISTIK FILM TIPIS TiO2 DOPING NIOBIUM

    Bilalodin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Niobium (Nb doped Titanium dioxide (TiO2 thin films have been successfully grown using spin coating method. Characterizations of thin films was carried out using EDAX (Energy Dispersion Analysis for X-Ray, XRD (X-Ray Diffaction and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope to determine the microstructure of thin films. Determination microstructure, particularly of crystal structure was examined using ICDD data, whereas porosity calculation was done using the toolbox application on Matlab 6.1 software. EDAX, XRD and SEM characterization show that the thin films grown well at the Si substrates with the (002 field orientation is dominant and the thin film has the rutile structure. The TiO2 : Nb thin films product have granules round, uniform grain size and porosity value of about 41%.

  18. Effects of reductive annealing on insulating polycrystalline thin films of Nb-doped anatase TiO2: recovery of high conductivity

    Nakao, Shoichiro; Hirose, Yasushi; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2016-02-01

    We studied the effects of reductive annealing on insulating polycrystalline thin films of anatase Nb-doped TiO2 (TNO). The insulating TNO films were intentionally fabricated by annealing conductive TNO films in oxygen ambient at 400 °C. Reduced free carrier absorption in the insulating TNO films indicated carrier compensation due to excess oxygen. With H2-annealing, both carrier density and Hall mobility recovered to the level of conducting TNO, demonstrating that the excess oxygen can be efficiently removed by the annealing process without introducing additional scattering centers.

  19. Humidity sensing properties of La~(3+)/Ce~(3+)-doped TiO_2-20 wt.% SnO_2 thin films derived from sol-gel method

    李红霞; 史志铭; 刘红伟

    2010-01-01

    The humidity sensing properties of La3+/Ce3+-doped TiO2-20 wt.%SnO2 thin films were studied.Sol-gel method was employed to prepare the films on alumina substrates.By constructing a humidity-impedance measuring system,the sensing behaviors were inspected for the films sintered at different temperatures.Experimental results showed that,0.5 wt.% of La2O3 or Ce2O3 doped films sintered at 500 °C for 2 h had the best humidity sensing properties,the impedance decreasing from 109 ? to below 104 ? in the humidity ra...

  20. Effects of the interfacial layer on electrical characteristics of Al 2O 3/TiO 2/Al 2O 3 thin films for gate dielectrics

    Kim, Chang Eun; Yun, Ilgu

    2012-01-01

    Effects of thermal annealing on the electrical properties of Al2O3/TiO2/Al2O3 (ATA) dielectric thin films prepared by atomic layer deposition are investigated. The structural properties and chemical states in the interfacial layer are analyzed with varying the annealing temperature. The dielectric constant and leakage current are affected by the formation of Al2O3-TiO2 composite and interfacial layer including SiOx in the interface by the annealing. The transformation of interfacial layer at the interface of the ATA/Si substrate due to the annealing is a critical point to apply ATA thin films as gate dielectric layers.

  1. Wet Etching of Amorphous TiO2 Thin Films Using H3PO4-H2O2 Aqueous Solution

    Okazaki, Sohei; Ohhashi, Takuya; Nakao, Shoichiro; Hirose, Yasushi; Hitosugi, Taro; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2013-09-01

    We report on the wet etching of amorphous undoped and Nb-doped TiO2 thin films using H3PO4-H2O2 etching solution. The etching rate (R) showed a maximum at a H3PO4 concentration of approximately 50 wt % at 80 °C, suggesting that H2PO4- and/or H3O+ is responsible for the etching reaction. The addition of H2O2 to H3PO4 solution significantly enhanced R, and an optimized solution exhibited an R of 13 nm/min at 80 °C, which is one order of magnitude higher than that using H2SO4. These results demonstrate that H3PO4-H2O2 aqueous solution is an effective etchant for TiO2-based amorphous thin films.

  2. Processing, characterization and photocatalytic properties of Cu doped TiO2 thin films on glass substrate by sol-gel technique

    The present paper describes processing, properties and photocatalytic application of Cu doped TiO2 thin films on glass substrate. Cu doped TiO2 coatings were successfully prepared on glass slide substrates using sol-gel method. The obtained solutions exhibit acidic characteristics. The phase structure, thermal, microstructure and surface properties of the coatings were characterized by using XRD, DTA/TG, SEM and AFM. Their adhesion properties and spectroscopic analysis were investigated by a scratch tester and UV-vis spectroscopy. Four different solutions were prepared by changing Cu/Ti ratios. Glass substrates were coated by solutions of Ti-alkoxide, Cu-chloride, glacial acetic acid and isopropanol. The obtained gel films were dried at 300 deg. C for 10 min and subsequently heat-treated at 500 deg. C for 5 min in air. The oxide thin films were annealed at 600 deg. C for 60 min in air. TiO2, CuO, Cu4Ti, Ti3O5 and Cu3TiO4 phases were found in the coating. The organic matters were burned at temperatures between 200 and 350 deg. C and TiO2 crystallization was formed at 450 deg. C. The weight loss of the powder during process up to 600 deg. C is approximately 70%. The microstructural observations demonstrated that CuO content was led an improved surface morphology while thickness of the film and surface defects were increased in accordance with number of dipping. According to AFM results, it was found that as the Cu/Ti content increases the surface roughness of the films increases. In addition structural, thermal and microstructural results, it was found that the films of 0.73 ratio have better adhesion strength to the glass substrate among other coatings. The oxide films were found to be active for photocatalytic decomposition of metylene blue

  3. Antifungal activity of Ag:hydroxyapatite thin films synthesized by pulsed laser deposition on Ti and Ti modified by TiO2 nanotubes substrates

    Eraković, S.; Janković, A.; Ristoscu, C.; Duta, L.; Serban, N.; Visan, A.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Stan, G. E.; Socol, M.; Iordache, O.; Dumitrescu, I.; Luculescu, C. R.; Janaćković, Dj.; Miškovic-Stanković, V.

    2014-02-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a widely used biomaterial for implant thin films, largely recognized for its excellent capability to chemically bond to hard tissue inducing the osteogenesis without immune response from human tissues. Nowadays, intense research efforts are focused on development of antimicrobial HA doped thin films. In particular, HA doped with Ag (Ag:HA) is expected to inhibit the attachment of microbes and contamination of metallic implant surface. We herewith report on nano-sized HA and Ag:HA thin films synthesized by pulsed laser deposition on pure Ti and Ti modified with 100 nm diameter TiO2 nanotubes (fabricated by anodization of Ti plates) substrates. The HA-based thin films were characterized by SEM, AFM, EDS, FTIR, and XRD. The cytotoxic activity was tested with HEp2 cells against controls. The antifungal efficiency of the deposited layers was tested against the Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger strains. The Ti substrates modified with TiO2 nanotubes covered with Ag:HA thin films showed the highest antifungal activity.

  4. Low temperature growth study of nano-crystalline TiO2 thin films deposited by RF sputtering

    Safeen, K.; Micheli, V.; Bartali, R.; Gottardi, G.; Laidani, N.

    2015-07-01

    Precise control of the various structural phases of TiO2 at a low temperature is particularly important for practical applications. In this work, the deposition conditions for the growth of anatase and rutile phase at a low temperature (⩽300 °C) were optimized. TiO2 films were deposited by radio frequency (RF) sputtering of a ceramic TiO2 target in argon and argon-oxygen plasma (10 and 20% O2) at room temperature. For the films deposited in pure Ar and 20% O2, the growth temperature was varied from 25 to 400 °C. The plasma properties were investigated using optical emission spectroscopy (OES) in a wide range of values of gas composition (0-50% O2 in Ar-O2 mixture). The structural and chemical properties were characterized by means of x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that O2 addition to the Ar-O2 gas mixture significantly changed the density of the plasma species (Ar, Ar+, Ti, Ti+ and O), which in turn influence the crystal structure and surface chemistry of the prepared films. Anatase phase was obtained for the films grown in Ar-O2 plasma over the whole range of temperature. In contrast, the films deposited in argon discharge largely persist in amorphous phase at temperature ⩽200 °C and revealed the formation of single rutile phase at ⩾300 °C. The oxygen vacancies detected by XPS analysis for the films deposited in Ar plasma facilitate the growth of a rutile phase at low temperature (˜300 °C). Our results demonstrate that oxygen negative ions, oxygen vacancies and surface energy conditions at the substrate are the key parameters controlling the phase of the prepared films at low temperature.

  5. Low temperature growth study of nano-crystalline TiO2 thin films deposited by RF sputtering

    Precise control of the various structural phases of TiO2 at a low temperature is particularly important for practical applications. In this work, the deposition conditions for the growth of anatase and rutile phase at a low temperature (⩽300 °C) were optimized. TiO2 films were deposited by radio frequency (RF) sputtering of a ceramic TiO2 target in argon and argon-oxygen plasma (10 and 20% O2) at room temperature. For the films deposited in pure Ar and 20% O2, the growth temperature was varied from 25 to 400 °C. The plasma properties were investigated using optical emission spectroscopy (OES) in a wide range of values of gas composition (0–50% O2 in Ar-O2 mixture). The structural and chemical properties were characterized by means of x-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicate that O2 addition to the Ar-O2 gas mixture significantly changed the density of the plasma species (Ar, Ar+, Ti, Ti+ and O), which in turn influence the crystal structure and surface chemistry of the prepared films. Anatase phase was obtained for the films grown in Ar-O2 plasma over the whole range of temperature. In contrast, the films deposited in argon discharge largely persist in amorphous phase at temperature ⩽200 °C and revealed the formation of single rutile phase at ⩾300 °C. The oxygen vacancies detected by XPS analysis for the films deposited in Ar plasma facilitate the growth of a rutile phase at low temperature (∼300 °C). Our results demonstrate that oxygen negative ions, oxygen vacancies and surface energy conditions at the substrate are the key parameters controlling the phase of the prepared films at low temperature. (paper)

  6. Structural Modification of Sol-Gel Synthesized V2O5 and TiO2 Thin Films with/without Erbium Doping

    Fatma Pınar Gökdemir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative work of with/without erbium- (Er- doped vanadium pentoxide (V2O5 and titanium dioxide (TiO2 thin films were carried out via sol-gel technique by dissolving erbium (III nitrate pentahydrate (Er(NO33·5H2O in vanadium (V oxoisopropoxide (OV[OCH(CH32]3 and titanium (IV isopropoxide (Ti[OCH(CH32]4. Effect of Er doping was traced by Fourier transform IR (FTIR, thermogravimetric/differential thermal (TG/DTA, and photoluminescence measurements. UV-Vis transmission/absorption measurement indicated a blue shift upon Er doping in V2O5 film due to the softening of V=O bond while appearance of typical absorption peaks in Er-doped TiO2 film. Granule size of the films increased (reduced upon Er substitution on host material compared to undoped V2O5 and TiO2 films, respectively.

  7. Electrical investigation of TiO2 thin films coated on glass and silicon substrates—effect of UV and visible light illumination

    Amirtharajan, Saranya; Jeyaprakash, Pandiarajan; Natarajan, Jeyakumaran; Natarajan, Prithivikumaran

    2016-04-01

    The conducting nature of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin film coated on glass and silicon (Si) substrates was studied in detail. The films were prepared through sol-gel spin-coating method with variation in coating parameters viz, the thickness of the film and the post annealing temperature. The thickness of the films was measured using Stylus profilometer. The resistivity of the film, as a function of film thickness, under the illumination of UV, visible light, and dark conditions was found using the four-probe method. The results show that the resistivity of the film decreases with increase in thickness of the film. The decrease in resistivity of the film is attributed to increase in cross-sectional area and rearrangement and removal of defects. Illumination of the samples under visible and UV light further decreases the resistivity of the film. The electrical resistivity of TiO2 film coated on Si substrate was observed to be lesser than that of the glass substrate.

  8. Optimization and comparative evaluation of optical and photocatalytic properties of TiO2 thin films prepared via sol–gel method

    Mohd. Danish

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 thin films were fabricated with optimization of the synthesis parameters for efficient photocatalysis. The films were sculptured from gels obtained from Ti(OiPr4 and Ti(OBus4 via spin coating at different rotation speed ranging from 1000 rpm to 3000 rpm. Thicknesses of the films were in the range of ≈112–160 nm. The X-ray diffractograms showed a phase transformation from anatase to rutile along with an increase in average crystallite size from 11 nm to 18 nm with a decrease in thickness of the films. Refractive index (n values of the films were in the range of 2.50–3.45 while extinction coefficient (k values ranged from 0.090 to 0.860. These films were transparent with high transmittance (T ⩽ 95% in the visible region. The optical band gaps for films were calculated to be in the range of 3.00–3.95 eV. Photocatalytic degradations of methylene blue by the fabricated TiO2 thin films have also been investigated.

  9. STS study of TiO2 film and Pt-deposited TiO2 film in air

    Zhang Min; Jin Zhensheng

    2004-01-01

    Direct investigation of the electronic structure of catalyst surfaces on the near-atomic scale in general has not been impossible in the past. However, with the advent of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM), the opportunity arises for incorporating the scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) for correlation in-situ surface electronic structure with topography on a sub-nanometer scale. In this paper, we report the STS results of thin film TiO2 and Pt-deposited TiO2 annealed at 450℃. It was found that the TiO2 semiconductor changes from n-type to p-type after Pt deposition.Fig. 1 shows the surface electronic property (Ⅰ-Ⅴ curve) of thin TiO2 film measured in air by STS. A steep descent of the anodic tunneling current at ca.- 1.0 Ⅴ and a rapid ascent of cathodic tunneling current at ca. +2.0V. The zero bias represents the Fermi level (Ef). Ef is situated at the Ecb side indicating that the thin TiO2 film possesses the same band gap as that of bulk TiO2 phase ( Egs =3.0 to 3.2 eV). For the sample of Pt-deposited TiO2 film, Pt/(Pt+Ti+O) atomic ratio≈0.2, which indicates that the surface of TiO2 film is partly covered by Pt particles, and there are two types of Ⅰ-Ⅴ curves to be detected. One of them (Fig.2a)is attributed to the electronic property of TiO2, which has same Egs as that shown in Fig. 1. However, the Ef is transferred to valence side (△≈1eV). This phenomenon hints that TiO2 is doped by an impurity which can introduce h+ into TiO2 lattice.Such a type of defects may be described by Ti1-xPtxO2(h )2x, here Pt+2 as a substitutional site of Ti+4. Fig.2b is the Ⅰ-Ⅴ curve of a Pt particle situated on a TiO2 particle contained Ti1-xPtxO2(h )2x.

  10. Photocatalytic performance of Sn-doped and undoped TiO2 nanostructured thin films under UV and vis-lights

    Sn-doped and undoped nano-TiO2 particles have been synthesized by hydrotermal process without solvent at 200 deg. C in 1 h. Nanostructure-TiO2 based thin films have been prepared on glass substrate by spin-coating technique. The structure, surface morphology and optical properties of the thin films and the particles have been investigated by element analysis and XRD, SEM, BET and UV-vis-NIR techniques. The photocatalytic performance of the films were tested for degradation of Malachite Green dye in solution under UV and vis-lights. The results showed that (a) hydrothermally synthesized nano-TiO2 particles are fully anatase crystalline form and are easily dispersed in water, (b) the coated surfaces have nearly super-hydrophilic properties and (c) the doping of transition metal ion efficiently improved the photocatalytic performance of the TiO2 thin film

  11. Photocatalytic performance of Sn-doped TiO2 nanostructured thin films for photocatalytic degradation of malachite green dye under UV and VIS-lights

    Sn-doped and undoped nano-TiO2 particles have been synthesized by hydrotermal process without acid catalyst at 225 deg. C in 1 h. Nanostructure-TiO2 based thin films, contain at different solid ratio of TiO2 in coating, have been prepared on glass surfaces by spin-coating technique. The structure, surface morphology and optical properties of the thin films and the particles have been investigated by element analysis and XRD, BET and UV/VIS/NIR techniques. The photocatalytic performance of the films was tested for degradation of malachite green dye in solution under UV and VIS-lights. The results showed that the hydrothermally synthesized nano-TiO2 particles are fully anatase crystalline form and are easily dispersed in water, the coated surfaces have nearly super-hydrophilic properties and, the doping of transition metal ion efficiently improved the photocatalytic performance of the TiO2 thin film. The results also proved that malachite green is decomposed catalytically due to the pseudo first-order reaction kinetics

  12. Effect of crystal structure on photoinduced superhydrophilicity of copper grafted TiO2 nanostructure thin film

    Akbar Eshaghi; Ameneh Eshaghi

    2013-02-01

    In this work, copper grafted titanium dioxide (rutile and brookite) thin films were deposited on glass substrates using the dip-coatingmethod. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to evaluate the surface morphology and properties of the film surfaces. The water contact angle on the film surfaces during irradiation and storage in a dark place was measured by a contact angle analyser. The results indicate that copper grafted titanium dioxide brookite thin film showed higher hydrophilicity than copper grafted titania rutile thin film.

  13. Dye sensitized solar cell applications of CdTiO3-TiO2 composite thin films deposited from single molecular complex

    Ehsan, Muhammad Ali; Khaledi, Hamid; Pandikumar, Alagarsamy; Huang, Nay Ming; Arifin, Zainudin; Mazhar, Muhammad

    2015-10-01

    A heterobimetallic complex [Cd2Ti4(μ-O)6(TFA)8(THF)6]·1.5THF (1) (TFA=trifluoroacetato, THF=tetrahydrofuran) comprising of Cd:Ti (1:2) ratio was synthesized by a chemical reaction of cadmium (II) acetate with titanium (IV) isopropoxide and triflouroacetic acid in THF. The stoichiometry of (1) was recognized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, spectroscopic and elemental analyses. Thermal studies revealed that (1) neatly decomposes at 450 °C to furnish 1:1 ratio of cadmium titanate:titania composite oxides material. The thin films of CdTiO3-TiO2 composite oxides were deposited at 550 °C on fluorine doped tin oxide coated conducting glass substrate in air ambient. The micro-structure, crystallinity, phase identification and chemical composition of microspherical architectured CdTiO3-TiO2 composite thin film have been determined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. The scope of composite thin film having band gap of 3.1 eV was explored as photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cell application.

  14. Semi-transparent ordered TiO2 nanostructures prepared by anodization of titanium thin films deposited onto the FTO substrate

    Szkoda, Mariusz; Lisowska-Oleksiak, Anna; Grochowska, Katarzyna; Skowroński, Łukasz; Karczewski, Jakub; Siuzdak, Katarzyna

    2016-09-01

    In a significant amount of cases, the highly ordered TiO2 nanotube arrays grow through anodic oxidation of a titanium metal plate immersed in electrolyte containing fluoride ions. However, for some practical applications, e.g. solar cells or electrochromic windows, the semi-transparent TiO2 formed directly on the transparent, conductive substrate is very much desired. This work shows that high-quality Ti coating could be formed at room temperature using an industrial magnetron sputtering system within 50 min. Under optimized conditions, the anodization process was performed on 2 μm titanium films deposited onto the FTO (fluorine-tin-oxide) support. Depending on the electrolyte type, highly ordered tubular or porous titania layers were obtained. The fabricated samples, after their thermal annealing, were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy in order to investigate their morphology, crystallinity and absorbance ability. The photocurrent response curves indicate that materials are resistant to the photocorrosion process and their activity is strongly connected to optical properties. The most transparent TiO2 films were fabricated when Ti was anodized in water electrolyte, whereas the highest photocurrent densities (12 μA cm-2) were registered for titania received after Ti anodization in ethylene glycol solution. The obtained results are of significant importance in the production of thin, semi-transparent titania nanostructures on a commercial scale.

  15. Photocatalytic activity of bipolar pulsed magnetron sputter deposited TiO2/TiWOx thin films

    Weng, Ko-Wei; Hu, Chung-Hsuan; Hua, Li-Yu; Lee, Chin-Tan; Zhao, Yu-Xiang; Chang, Julian; Yang, Shu-Yi; Han, Sheng

    2016-08-01

    Titanium oxide films were formed by sputtering and then TiWOx films were deposited by bipolar pulsed magnetron sputtering with pure titanium and tungsten metal targets. The sputtering of titanium oxide with tungsten enhanced the orientation of the TiO2 (1 0 1) plane of the specimen assemblies. The main varying parameter was the tungsten pulse power. Titanium oxide sputtered with tungsten using a pulsing power of 50 W exhibited a superior hydrophilic property, and a contact angle of 13.1°. This fabrication conditions maximized the photocatalytic decomposition of methylene blue solution. The mechanism by which the titanium oxide was sputtered with tungsten involves the photogeneration of holes and electron traps, inhibiting the hole-electron recombination, enhancing hydrophilicity and reducing the contact angle.

  16. The structural studies of Ag containing TiO2-SiO2 gels and thin films deposited on steel

    Adamczyk, Anna; Rokita, Magdalena

    2016-06-01

    FTIR spectroscopic structural studies of titania-silica monolith samples as well as thin films deposited on steel were described in this work. Thin films were synthesized by the sol-gel method applying the dip coating as separate one-component TiO2 and/or SiO2 layers or as two-component TiO2-SiO2 thin films. Silver nanoparticles were incorporated into the structure from pure SiO2 sol, deposited then as an additional layer in those hybrid multilayers systems. Except the spectroscopic studies, XRD diffraction, SEM microscopy with EDX analysis and AFM microscopy were applied. The structural studies allow to describe and compare the structure and the morphology of thin films, as well those Ag free as Ag containing ones, also by the comparison with the structure of bulk samples. In FTIR spectra, the band observed at about 613 cm-1 can be connected with the presence of the non-tetrahedral cation in the structure and is observed only in the spectra of Ag containing bulk samples and thin films. The bands at 435-467 cm-1 are due to the stretching vibrations of Ti-O bonds or as well to the bending vibrations of O-Si-O one. In the ranges of 779-799 cm-1 and 1027-1098 cm-1, the bands ascribed to the symmetric stretching vibrations and asymmetric vibrations of Si-O-Si connections, respectively, are observed. SEM and AFM images gave the information on the microstructure and the topography of samples surface. XRD measurements confirmed the presence of only amorphous phase in samples up to 500 °C and allowed to observe the tendency of their crystallization.

  17. Real-time identification of the evolution of conducting nano-filaments in TiO2 thin film ReRAM.

    Song, Seul Ji; Seok, Jun Yeong; Yoon, Jung Ho; Kim, Kyung Min; Kim, Gun Hwan; Lee, Min Hwan; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2013-01-01

    Unipolar resistance switching (RS) in TiO2 thin films originates from the repeated formation and rupture of the Magnéli phase conducting filaments through repeated nano-scale phase transitions. By applying the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami (JMA) type kinetic model to the careful analysis on the evolution of transient current in a pulse-switching, it was possible to elucidate the material specific evolution of the Magnéli phase filament. This methodology was applied to the two types of TiO2 films grown by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) and sputtering. These two samples have structurally and electrically distinctive properties: PEALD film exhibited high variability in switching parameters and required an electroforming while sputtered film showed higher uniformity without distinct electroforming process. The JMA-type kinetic analysis of the RS behaviors revealed that the rejuvenation of the filament is accomplished by repeated one-dimensional nucleation followed by a two-dimensional growth in PEALD samples, whereas one-dimensional nucleation-free mechanism dominates in sputtered films. PMID:24309421

  18. Effect of variation of precursor concentration on structural, microstructural, optical and gas sensing properties of nanocrystalline TiO2 thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis techniques

    Lalchand A Patil; Dinesh N Suryawanshi; Idris G Pathan; Dhanashri G Patil

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the present paper is to investigate the effect of variation of precursor concentration (0.01, 0.02 and 0.03 M) on the structural, microstructural, optical and gas sensing properties of TiO2 thin films. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) films were prepared from aqueous solution of titanium chloride (TiCl3.6H2O, 99.9%pure, Merckmade, Germany) onto the glass substrates heated at a temperature of 350 °C by the spray pyrolysis technique. Bandgap energy of the films vary from 3.28 to 3.29 eV. X-ray diffraction shows that films to be nanocrystalline with anatase phase having tetragonal crystal structure. The values calculated from electron diffraction patterns (TEM) were observed to be matching with values calculated from XRD. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveled that grain sizes were observed to increase (10–29 nm) with an increase in the concentration of precursor solution. The gas sensing performance of the films was tested.

  19. Interposition fixing structure of TiO2 film deposited on activated carbon fibers

    FU Ping-feng; LUAN Yong; DAI Xue-gang

    2006-01-01

    The immobilized photocatalyst, TiO2 film supported on activated carbon fibers (TiO2/ACFs) prepared with molecular adsorption-deposition (MAD), exhibits high stability in cyclic photodegradation runs. The interposition fixing structure between TiO2 film and carbon fiber was investigated by means of SEM-EDX, XRD, XPS and FTIR, and a model was proposed to explain this structure. With SEM examination of carbon fiber surface after removing the deposited TiO2 film, a residual TiO2 super-thin film was found to exist still. By determining surface groups on ACFs, titanium sulfate (Ti2(SO4)3) in burnt remainders of the TiO2/ACFs was thought to be formed with an interfacial reaction between TiO2 film and carbon fibers. These provide some evidence of firm attachment of TiO2 film to carbon fiber surface. In the consideration of characteristics of the MAD, the deposition mechanism of TiO2 film on ACFs was proposed, and the interposition fixing structure was inferred to intercrossedly form between TiO2 film and ACFs' surface. This structure leaded to firm attachment and high stability of the TiO2 film.

  20. Photocatalytic Antibacterial Performance of Glass Fibers Thin Film Coated with N-Doped SnO2/TiO2

    Peerawas Kongsong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both N-doped and undoped thin films of 3SnO2/TiO2 composite were prepared, by sol-gel and dip-coating methods, and then calcined at 600°C for 2 hours. The films were characterized by FTIR, XRD, UV-Vis, SEM, and XPS, and their photocatalytic activities to degrade methylene blue in solution were determined, expecting these activities to correlate with the inactivation of bacteria, which was confirmed. The doped and undoped films were tested for activities against Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli and Salmonella typhi (S. typhi, and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus. The effects of doping on these composite films included reduced energy band gap, high crystallinity of anatase phase, and small crystallite size as well as increased photocatalytic activity and water disinfection efficiency.

  1. SiO2/TiO2/n-Si/Ag(Cr)/TiO2 thin films with superhydrophilicity and low-emissivity

    Loka, Chadrasekhar; Ryeol Park, Kyoung; Lee, Kee-Sun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, SiO2/TiO2/n-Si/Ag(Cr)/TiO2 multilayer structures have been designed and deposited by the RF and DC magnetron sputtering at room temperature. The as-deposited TiO2/glass films which are initially amorphous in nature were subjected to post annealing at 673 K for anatase phase TiO2. The anatase TiO2 films showed an optical bandgap ˜3.32 eV. The Ag(Cr)/TiO2 showed very low-emissivity (low-e) value ˜0.081 which is evaluated by using the sheet resistance (6.51 Ω/□) of the films. All the deposited films showed high visible transmittance (˜81%) and high infrared reflectance (72%) which are recorded by using the UV-vis-NIR spectrophotometer. In addition, experimentally obtained optical properties were in good agreement with the simulation data. The TiO2/n-Si heterojunction concept has been employed to enhance the superhydrophilicity of the deposited multilayer stack, TiO2/n-Si/Ag(Cr)/TiO2 films exhibited best superhydrophilicity with water contact angle ˜2°. The deposited multilayer structures SiO2/TiO2/n-Si/Ag(Cr)/TiO2 and TiO2/n-Si/Ag(Cr)/TiO2 achieved significant low-e and superhydrophilicity.

  2. TiO2/SiO2纳米薄膜的光催化活性和亲水性%Photocatalytic Activity and Hydrophilic Property of TiO2/SiO2 Composite Nanometer Thin Films

    余家国; 赵修建; 陈文梅; 林立; 张艾丽

    2001-01-01

    通过 sol-gel工艺在钠钙玻璃表面制备了均匀透明的 TiO2/SiO2复合纳米薄膜 .实验结果表明 : 当 SiO2添加量较高时 , TiO2/SiO2复合纳米薄膜的光催化活性明显降低 ;当 SiO2添加量较低时 ,TiO2/SiO2复合薄膜的光催化活性无明显变化 .在 TiO2薄膜中添加 SiO2,可以抑制薄膜中 TiO2晶粒的长大 ,同时薄膜表面的羟基含量增加 , 水在复合薄膜表面的润湿角下降 , 亲水能力增强 .当 SiO2含量为 10%- 20%(摩尔分数)时获得了润湿角为 0°的超亲水性薄膜 .%The uniform transparent TiO2/SiO2 composite nanometer thin films were prepared via sol-gel processing on the soda lime glass substrates.The photocatalytic activity of the as prepared TiO2/SiO2 composite nanometer thin films obviously decreases when the amount of SiO2 addition is large.However,the photocatalytic activity has no obvious change when the amount of SiO2 addition is small (Table 2).The addition of SiO2 can suppress the grain growth of TiO2 crystal,increase the hydroxyl content of TiO2 film,decrease the contact angle for water of TiO2 films and enhance the hydrophilic property of TiO2 films.The super-hydrophilic TiO2/SiO2 composite nanometer films with the contact angle of 0o were obtained by the addition of 10%- 20% (mole fraction) SiO2.

  3. Effect of defects in TiO2 nanotube thin film on the photovoltaic properties of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells

    In the liquid-phase-deposition (LPD) method, the deposition temperature is considered to be one of the most important factors in TiO2 nanotube crystal growth. We investigated the effects of the deposition temperature on the surface morphology and defects in TiO2 nanotube (NT–TiO2) thin film electrodes utilizing scanning-electron-microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and photoluminescence (PL), together with the effects of these on the photovoltaic characteristics of CdSe quantum dot (QD)-sensitized NT–TiO2 solar cells. In addition, we studied the effect of these defects on the physical properties, such as the carrier recombination and electron transport at the TiO2 and TiO2/QD interface. NT–TiO2 electrodes prepared at low temperatures have a more uniform surface and lower defects than those prepared at high temperatures. From the PL measurements and the photovoltaic characterization such as shunt resistance (Rsh) and open circuit voltage decay (OCVD), these defects can act as carrier recombination centers. The defect density increases with increasing deposition temperature, leading to an increase in carrier recombination. Series resistances (Rs) of the solar cells with NT–TiO2 electrodes prepared at high temperatures were larger than those of the solar cells with NT–TiO2 electrodes prepared at low temperatures, suggesting that the defects can also affect the carrier transport characteristics. Eventually, CdSe QD-sensitized NT–TiO2 solar cells employing NT–TiO2 prepared at low temperatures showed higher conversion efficiencies than those prepared at high temperatures

  4. Transport properties of ultra-thin VO2 films on (001) TiO2 grown by reactive molecular-beam epitaxy

    Paik, Hanjong; Moyer, Jarrett A.; Spila, Timothy; Tashman, Joshua W.; Mundy, Julia A.; Freeman, Eugene; Shukla, Nikhil; Lapano, Jason M.; Engel-Herbert, Roman; Zander, Willi; Schubert, Jürgen; Muller, David A.; Datta, Suman; Schiffer, Peter; Schlom, Darrell G.

    2015-10-01

    We report the growth of (001)-oriented VO2 films as thin as 1.5 nm with abrupt and reproducible metal-insulator transitions (MIT) without a capping layer. Limitations to the growth of thinner films with sharp MITs are discussed, including the Volmer-Weber type growth mode due to the high energy of the (001) VO2 surface. Another key limitation is interdiffusion with the (001) TiO2 substrate, which we quantify using low angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with electron energy loss spectroscopy. We find that controlling island coalescence on the (001) surface and minimization of cation interdiffusion by using a low growth temperature followed by a brief anneal at higher temperature are crucial for realizing ultrathin VO2 films with abrupt MIT behavior.

  5. Transport properties of ultra-thin VO2 films on (001) TiO2 grown by reactive molecular-beam epitaxy

    We report the growth of (001)-oriented VO2 films as thin as 1.5 nm with abrupt and reproducible metal-insulator transitions (MIT) without a capping layer. Limitations to the growth of thinner films with sharp MITs are discussed, including the Volmer-Weber type growth mode due to the high energy of the (001) VO2 surface. Another key limitation is interdiffusion with the (001) TiO2 substrate, which we quantify using low angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy in conjunction with electron energy loss spectroscopy. We find that controlling island coalescence on the (001) surface and minimization of cation interdiffusion by using a low growth temperature followed by a brief anneal at higher temperature are crucial for realizing ultrathin VO2 films with abrupt MIT behavior

  6. Photocatalytic performance of Sn-doped TiO2 nanostructured mono and double layer thin films for Malachite Green dye degradation under UV and vis-lights

    Nanostructure Sn4+-doped TiO2 based mono and double layer thin films, contain 50% solid ratio of TiO2 in coating have been prepared on glass surfaces by spin-coating technique. Their photocatalytic performances were tested for degradation of Malachite Green dye in solution under UV and vis irradiation. Sn4+-doped nano-TiO2 particle a doping ratio of about 5[Sn4+/Ti(OBu n)4; mol/mol%] has been synthesized by hydrotermal process at 225 deg. C. The structure, surface and optical properties of the thin films and/or the particles have been investigated by XRD, BET and UV/vis/NIR techniques. The results showed that the double layer coated glass surfaces have a very high photocatalytic performance than the other one under UV and vis lights. The results also proved that the hydrothermally synthesized nano-TiO2 particles are fully anatase crystalline form and are easily dispersed in water. The results also reveal that the coated surfaces have hydrophilic property

  7. Superhydrophobic ceramic coatings enabled by phase-separated nanostructured composite TiO2–Cu2O thin films

    By exploiting phase-separation in oxide materials, we present a simple and potentially low-cost approach to create exceptional superhydrophobicity in thin-film based coatings. By selecting the TiO2–Cu2O system and depositing through magnetron sputtering onto single crystal and metal templates, we demonstrate growth of nanostructured, chemically phase-segregated composite films. These coatings, after appropriate chemical surface modification, demonstrate a robust, non-wetting Cassie–Baxter state and yield an exceptional superhydrophobic performance, with water droplet contact angles reaching to ∼172° and sliding angles <1°. As an added benefit, despite the photo-active nature of TiO2, the chemically coated composite film surfaces display UV stability and retain superhydrophobic attributes even after exposure to UV (275 nm) radiation for an extended period of time. The present approach could benefit a variety of outdoor applications of superhydrophobic coatings, especially for those where exposure to extreme atmospheric conditions is required. (papers)

  8. Nanostructured Er3+-doped SiO2-TiO2 and SiO2-TiO2-Al2O3 sol-gel thin films for integrated optics

    Predoana, Luminita; Preda, Silviu; Anastasescu, Mihai; Stoica, Mihai; Voicescu, Mariana; Munteanu, Cornel; Tomescu, Roxana; Cristea, Dana

    2015-08-01

    The nanostructured multilayer silica-titania or silica-titania-alumina films doped with Er3+ were prepared by sol-gel method. The sol-gel method is a flexible and convenient way to prepare oxide films on several types of substrates, and for this reason it was extensively investigated for optical waveguides fabrication. The selected molar composition was 90%SiO2-10%TiO2 or 85%SiO2-10%TiO2-5% Al2O3 and 0.5% Er2O3. The films were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Spectroellipsometry (SE), as well as by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and photoluminescence (PL). The films deposited on Si/SiO2 substrate by dip-coating or spin-coating, followed by annealing at 900 °C, presented homogenous and continuous surface and good adherence to the substrate. Differences were noticed in the structure and properties of the prepared films, depending on the composition and the number of deposited layers. Channel optical waveguides were obtained by patterning Er3+-doped SiO2-TiO2 and SiO2-TiO2-Al2O3 sol-gel layers deposited on oxidized silicon wafers.

  9. Highly antibacterial activity of N-doped TiO2 thin films coated on stainless steel brackets under visible light irradiation

    Cao, Shuai; Liu, Bo; Fan, Lingying; Yue, Ziqi; Liu, Bin; Cao, Baocheng

    2014-08-01

    In this study, the radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method was used to prepare a TiO2 thin film on the surface of stainless steel brackets. Eighteen groups of samples were made according to the experimental parameters. The crystal structure and surface morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The photocatalytic properties under visible light irradiation were evaluated by measuring the degradation ratio of methylene blue. The sputtering temperature was set at 300 °C, and the time was set as 180 min, the ratio of Ar to N was 30:1, and annealing temperature was set at 450 °C. The thin films made under these parameters had the highest visible light photocatalytic activity of all the combinations of parameters tested. Antibacterial activities of the selected thin films were also tested against Lactobacillus acidophilus and Candida albicans. The results demonstrated the thin film prepared under the parameters above showed the highest antibacterial activity.

  10. Highly antibacterial activity of N-doped TiO2 thin films coated on stainless steel brackets under visible light irradiation

    In this study, the radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method was used to prepare a TiO2 thin film on the surface of stainless steel brackets. Eighteen groups of samples were made according to the experimental parameters. The crystal structure and surface morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The photocatalytic properties under visible light irradiation were evaluated by measuring the degradation ratio of methylene blue. The sputtering temperature was set at 300 °C, and the time was set as 180 min, the ratio of Ar to N was 30:1, and annealing temperature was set at 450 °C. The thin films made under these parameters had the highest visible light photocatalytic activity of all the combinations of parameters tested. Antibacterial activities of the selected thin films were also tested against Lactobacillus acidophilus and Candida albicans. The results demonstrated the thin film prepared under the parameters above showed the highest antibacterial activity.

  11. Anomalous C-V response correlated to relaxation processes in TiO2 thin film based-metal-insulator-metal capacitor: Effect of titanium and oxygen defects

    Kahouli, A.; Marichy, C.; Sylvestre, A.; Pinna, N.

    2015-04-01

    Capacitance-voltage (C-V) and capacitance-frequency (C-f) measurements are performed on atomic layer deposited TiO2 thin films with top and bottom Au and Pt electrodes, respectively, over a large temperature and frequency range. A sharp capacitance peak/discontinuity (C-V anomalous) is observed in the C-V characteristics at various temperatures and voltages. It is demonstrated that this phenomenon is directly associated with oxygen vacancies. The C-V peak irreversibility and dissymmetry at the reversal dc voltage are attributed to difference between the Schottky contacts at the metal/TiO2 interfaces. Dielectric analyses reveal two relaxation processes with degeneration of the activation energy. The low trap level of 0.60-0.65 eV is associated with the first ionized oxygen vacancy at low temperature, while the deep trap level of 1.05 eV is associated to the second ionized oxygen vacancy at high temperature. The DC conductivity of the films exhibits a transition temperature at 200 °C, suggesting a transition from a conduction regime governed by ionized oxygen vacancies to one governed by interstitial Ti3+ ions. Both the C-V anomalous and relaxation processes in TiO2 arise from oxygen vacancies, while the conduction mechanism at high temperature is governed by interstitial titanium ions.

  12. Photo-induced properties of thin TiO2 films deposited using the radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method

    Thin titanium oxide films were deposited with the help of radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique. The RF power of deposition was applied as the operational parameter of the process, and optical properties, transmittance in particular, of the films were utilized as criterion for their selection. Photo-induced properties of the films, including a change of water wettability under the effect of illumination and photocatalytic activity, were studied. A substantial decrease of water contact angle was observed upon the irradiation of the films with ultraviolet (UV) light. The largest increase of water wettability was obtained for the surfaces of the films exhibiting the highest value of index of refraction. Testing of the photo-catalytic activity of the titanium oxide films comprised UV light-induced decomposition of benzene and aniline dissolved in water and bactericidal action against the Escherichia coli strain DH5α. The largest bactericidal efficiency was observed in the case of the film characterized by the highest index of refraction. Auger Electron Spectroscopy measurements have shown that the film composition is that of a nearly stoichiometric TiO2, with a small chlorine contamination

  13. Photocatalytic degradation of methylorange Using TiO2, WO3 and mixed thin films under controlled pH and H2O2.

    Carcel, Radu Adrian; Andronic, Luminita; Duta, Anca

    2011-10-01

    Wastewaters resulting from textile industry sector have a different chemistry compared with most of the other wastewaters. The different dyes in excess are usually very stable and even small quantities can have a major impact to the effluent. In order to treat these wastewaters, photodegradation is a largely investigated process that can be up-scaled. Photocatalysts based on wide band gap semiconductors can be used in heterogeneous photocatalysis and mostly reported are TiO2 and WO3. Under UV irradiation they form electron-hole pairs that produce active species that can oxidize the dye molecules. The electron-hole recombination represents the main cause for low efficiencies and is limited by the use of oxidant systems like H2O2. Doctor blade technique, a reproducible, up-scalable and low cost technique was used to obtain thin films. The reference dye, used in this experiment is methylorange in solution of 0.0125 mM, corresponding to average polluted water. In order to reduce the recombination in the catalysts, H2O2 is used. Another important aspect of the dye photocatalysis process, investigated in the paper is the adsorption of the dye molecule on the photocatalyst surface, strongly depending on pH which affects the dye's structure and the surface charge. Experiments are conducted at fixed pH values: 3, and respectively 7 covering values below and over the ZPC of the photocatalysts. The results show that TiO2/WO3 films have higher efficiency then the TiO2 and WO3 films, mainly due to the surface morphology of the films. By adding H2O2, higher efficiencies are obtained, confirming that the electron-hole pair recombination is reduced. From the point of view of pH, higher efficiencies are obtained in acidic solutions and the results are comparatively discussed considering the dye's ionic/neutral structure and the photocatalyst surface charge. The efficiency was calculated using UV-VIS spectrophotometer measurements of the solution and the thin films were

  14. TiO2 thin layers with controlled morphology for ETA (extremely thin absorber) solar cells

    The paper presents the synthesis process of dense and nanoporous TiO2 anatase films obtained via Spray Pyrolysis Deposition (SPD). The deposition of dense and nanostructured TiO2 films uses ethanol solutions of titaniumtetraisopropoxid and acetilacetonate. The influence of the precursor's concentration and deposition parameters (temperature, pressure of the carrier gas and distance of spraying) in tailoring the TiO2 morphology is presented. The films are tested via X-ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The photoelectrical properties are tested by current-voltage (I-V) experiments in dark, at room temperature. According to the results, SPD proves to be a reliable technique in obtaining thin layers of TiO2 with controlled morphology

  15. Nb doping effect on TiO2-x films for bolometer applications

    Shin, Young Bong; Kumar Reddy, Y. Ashok; Kang, In-Ku; Lee, Hee Chul

    2016-04-01

    Nb-doped TiO2-x thin films were deposited using a 1 at% niobium doped titanium target by RF reactive magnetron sputtering at various oxygen partial pressures (pO2). The films appeared amorphous in the pO2 range of 4.4-4.7% with resistivity ranging from 0.39 Ω cm to 2.48 Ω cm. Compared to pure TiO2-x films, the resistivity of the Nb-doped TiO2-x films did not change sensitively with the oxygen partial pressure, indicating that the resistivity of the films can be accurately controlled. 1/f noise parameter of Nb-doped TiO2-x films were found to decrease largely while the measured temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of the films was still high. The obtained results indicate that Nb-doped TiO2-x films have great potential as an alternative bolometric material.

  16. Characterization of thin TiO2 films prepared by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition for optical and photocatalytic applications

    Thin titanium oxide films were deposited using a radio frequency (RF) plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition method. Their optical properties and thickness were determined by means of ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrophotometry. Films of the optical parameters very close to those of titanium dioxide have been obtained at the high RF power input. Their optical quality is high enough to allow for their use in a construction of stack interference optical filters. At the same time, these materials exhibit strong photocatalytic effects. The results of structural analysis, carried out by Raman Shift Spectroscopy, show that the coatings posses amorphous structure. However, Raman spectra of the same films subjected to thermal annealing at 450 oC disclose an appearance of a crystalline form, namely that of anatase. Surface morphology of the films has also been characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy revealing granular, broccoli-like topography of the films.

  17. Fabrication of mechanically robust, self-cleaning and optically high-performance hybrid thin films by SiO2&TiO2 double-shelled hollow nanospheres

    Yao, Lin; He, Junhui; Geng, Zhi; Ren, Tingting

    2015-07-01

    Low-cost antireflection (AR) thin films on large-area optical surfaces are important for high-performance optical devices, display devices and photovoltaic cells. In the current work, SiO2&TiO2 double-shell hollow nanospheres (DSHNs) were designed, synthesized and utilized as building blocks for fabricating multifunctional AR thin films. By optimizing the porosity of SiO2&TiO2 DSHN and thin film structure, substrates with DSHN thin films attained transmittance as high as 99.4% and average transmittance up to 98.5% in the visible region. The nano-composite SiO2-TiO2 films exhibited intrinsic superhydrophilicity, anti-fogging and high photocatalytic activity. Tape peeling test, sponge washing test, and high temperature and moisture proof test showed favorable robustness and functional durability of the thin films, which make them extremely attractive for applications in lenses, photovoltaic cells and windows of high-rise buildings.Low-cost antireflection (AR) thin films on large-area optical surfaces are important for high-performance optical devices, display devices and photovoltaic cells. In the current work, SiO2&TiO2 double-shell hollow nanospheres (DSHNs) were designed, synthesized and utilized as building blocks for fabricating multifunctional AR thin films. By optimizing the porosity of SiO2&TiO2 DSHN and thin film structure, substrates with DSHN thin films attained transmittance as high as 99.4% and average transmittance up to 98.5% in the visible region. The nano-composite SiO2-TiO2 films exhibited intrinsic superhydrophilicity, anti-fogging and high photocatalytic activity. Tape peeling test, sponge washing test, and high temperature and moisture proof test showed favorable robustness and functional durability of the thin films, which make them extremely attractive for applications in lenses, photovoltaic cells and windows of high-rise buildings. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02467f

  18. Silver film on nanocrystalline TiO2 support: Photocatalytic and antimicrobial ability

    Highlights: • Simple photocatalytic rout for deposition of Ag on nanocrystalline TiO2 films. • High antibactericidal efficiency of deposited Ag on TiO2 support. • Improved photocatalytic performance of TiO2 films in the presence of deposited Ag. - Abstract: Nanocrystalline TiO2 films were prepared on glass slides by the dip coating technique using colloidal solutions consisting of 4.5 nm particles as a precursor. Photoirradiation of nanocrystalline TiO2 film modified with alanine that covalently binds to the surface of TiO2 and at the same time chelate silver ions induced formation of metallic silver film. Optical and morphological properties of thin silver films on nanocrystalline TiO2 support were studied by absorption spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. Improvement of photocatalytic performance of nanocrystalline TiO2 films after deposition of silver was observed in degradation reaction of crystal violet. Antimicrobial ability of deposited silver films on nanocrystalline TiO2 support was tested in dark as a function of time against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. The silver films ensured maximum cells reduction of both bacteria, while the fungi reduction reached satisfactory 98.45% after 24 h of contact

  19. Nanostructured columnar heterostructures of TiO2 and Cu2O enabled by a thin-film self-assembly approach: Potential for photovoltaics

    Polat, Ozgur [ORNL; Aytug, Tolga [ORNL; Lupini, Andrew R [ORNL; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans [ORNL; Ertugrul, Memhet [Ataturk University; Bogorin, Daniela Florentina [ORNL; Meyer III, Harry M [ORNL; Wang, Wei [ORNL; Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL; Christen, David K [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Significant efforts are being devoted to the development of semiconductor thin film and nanostructured material architectures as components of solar energy harvesting and conversion devices. In particular, nanostructured assemblies with well-defined geometrical shapes have emerged as possible highly efficient and economically viable alternatives to planar junction thin film architectures , , , . However, fabrication of inorganic nanostructures generally requires complicated and multiple step processing techniques, making them less suitable for large-scale manufacturing. Hence, innovative cell architectures and materials processing schemes are essential to large-scale integration and practical viability in photovoltaic devices. Here we present here a new approach towards nanostructured thin film solar cells, by exploiting phase-separated self-assembly , . Through a single-step deposition by rf magnetron sputtering, we demonstrate growth of an epitaxial, composite film matrix formed as self-assembled, well ordered, phase segregated, and oriented p-n type interfacial nanopillars of Cu2O and TiO2. The composite films were structurally characterized to atomic resolution by a variety of analytical tools, and evaluated for preliminary optical properties using absorption measurements. We find nearly atomically distinct Cu2O-TiO2 interfaces (i.e. a p-n junction), and an absorption profile that captures a wide range of the solar spectrum extending from ultraviolet to visible wavelengths. This work opens a novel avenue for development of simple and cost-effective optically active thin film architectures, and offers promise for significantly increased photovoltaic device efficiencies using nanostructured cells that can be optimized for both incident light absorption and carrier collection.

  20. Influence of thickness on the structural properties of radio-frequency and direct-current magnetron sputtered TiO2 anatase thin films

    Thin films of TiO2 were deposited by reactive sputtering of a Ti target on unheated substrates and post-heated at 300 °C and 500 °C. They exhibit a granular structure. Direct current-sputtered films are amorphous as-deposited and crystallize (to pure anatase) only at 500 °C. Radio-frequency (rf)-sputtered films are already crystalline (pure anatase) as-deposited on unheated substrates. Above a thickness of 100 nm, the crystallite size, as deduced from the half-width of X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks, is constant at 35 nm and decreases to zero when the thickness decreases to 25 nm. Below a thickness of 25 nm, the films are X-ray amorphous. Height and half-width of the XRD peaks of rf-sputtered films do not change upon post-heating at 300 or 500 °C. A larger lattice parameter ratio c/a is observed with respect to the bulk value that decreases with increasing film thickness and is about 1% larger for a film thickness larger than 100 nm. - Highlights: • Anatase films without the presence of rutile were grown on unheated substrates. • Radio-frequency sputtered films are crystalline as-deposited. • Direct-current sputtered films become crystalline only after annealing at 500 °C. • The crystallite size approaches zero when the film thickness approaches 25 nm. • There is an expansive strain in the crystallites along the c-axis

  1. Poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid)-g-poly(ethylene glycol) graft copolymer templated synthesis of mesoporous TiO2 thin films for quasi-solid-state dye sensitized solar cells

    An amphiphilic graft copolymer, poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid)-graft-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEAA-g-PEG), consisting of a PEAA backbone and PEG side chains was synthesized via an esterification reaction. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance and Fourier-transformed infrared analysis demonstrated esterification between carboxylic acid of PEAA and hydroxyl group of PEG. Small angle X-ray scattering results revealed that the crystalline domain spacing of PEAA increased from 11.3 to 12.8 nm upon using a more polar solvent with a higher affinity for poly(acrylic acid), while the crystalline domain spacing of PEAA disappeared with PEG grafting, indicating structural change to an amorphous state. Mesoporous TiO2 thin films were synthesized via a sol–gel reaction using PEAA-g-PEG graft copolymer as a structure-directing agent. The hydrophilically-preformed TiO2 nanoparticles were selectively confined in the hydrophilic PEG domains of the graft copolymer, and mesoporous TiO2 thin films were formed, as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The morphology of TiO2 films was tunable by varying the concentrations of polymer solutions and the amount of preformed TiO2. A quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell fabricated with PEAA-g-PEG templated TiO2 film exhibited an energy conversion efficiency of 3.8% at 100 mW/cm2, which was greater than that of commercially-available paste (2.6%) at a similar film thickness (3 μm). The improved performance was due to the larger surface area for high dye loading and organized structure with good interconnectivity. - Highlights: • Poly(ethylene-co-acrylic acid)-g-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEAA-g-PEG) graft copolymer is synthesized. • Amphiphilic PEAA-g-PEG acts as a structure directing agent. • Mesoporous TiO2 thin films are prepared by sol–gel reaction using PEAA-g-PEG template. • Efficiency of DSSC with templated TiO2 is greater than with commercial TiO2 paste

  2. TiO2 thin and thick films grown on Si/glass by sputtering of titanium targets in an RF inductively coupled plasma

    Valencia-Alvarado, R.; de la Piedad-Beneitez, A.; López-Callejas, R.; Mercado-Cabrera, A.; Peña-Eguiluz, R.; Muñoz-Castro, A. E.; Rodríguez-Méndez, B. G.; de la Rosa-Vázquez, J. M.

    2015-03-01

    TiO2 thin and thick films were deposited on silicon/glass substrates using RF inductive plasma in continuous wave. The films thickness, as well as phases control, is achieved with a gradual increase in temperature substrates varying supplied RF power or working gas pressure besides deposition time as well. The deposition conditions were: argon 80%/oxygen 20% carefully calibrated mixture of 2 to 7×10-2 mbar as working gas pressure range. Deposition time 0.5 to 5 hours, 500 or 600 W RF power at 13.56 MHz frequency and 242-345 °C substrates temperature range. The titanium dioxide deposited on the substrates is grown by sputtering of a titanium target negatively polarized at 3-5 kV DC situated 14 mm in front of such substrates. The plasma reactor is a simple Pyrex-like glass cylindrical vessel of 50 cm long and 20 cm in diameter. Using the before describe plasma parameters we obtained films only anatase and both anatase/rutile phases with stoichiometric different. The films were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), stylus profilometer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy.

  3. Enhancement of NMP Degradation Under UV Light by Nitrogen-Doped TiO2 Thin Films Using a Design of Experiment

    F. Arefi-Khonsari

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Doping nitrogen within TiO2 is an effective way to enhance visible light photocatalysis due to a direct electron excitation from the N2p states within the band gap. However, nitrogen doping is not always efficient for UV photocatalytic activity. Here, different structures of N-doped TiO2 (TiOxNy have been prepared by reactive RF (13.56 MHz magnetron sputtering. The morphological, optical, structural, and photocatalytic properties of the films have been studied in order to investigate the competitive effect of the morphology and the chemical composition on the efficiency of the photocatalytic activity. The variation of surface wettability of the film over time in the dark and under visible and UV irradiation was also studied. The reduction in wettability by dark storage can be explained by the adsorption of hydrocarbon contamination on the thin film’s surface. Additionally, from water contact angle experiments, it was found that these films developed hydrophilic properties upon UV and visible illumination. The photoinduced change in the contact angle of water was due to the removal of hydrocarbon contamination on the surface and also the photo-oxidation of the water droplet. Samples prepared at high pressure gave the best photocatalytic activity, even though the deposition rate was lower at higher pressures (lower film thicknesses, due to the high specific surface area and the optimal presence of TiOxNy crystals in the lattice. However, at low pressure, the TiN crystals became more predominant, and acted as recombination centers for the photo-generated charge carriers. A design of experiments was used in order to optimize the deposition parameters to have the best photocatalytic activity. The high photocatalytic activity under UV light was found to be due to the introduction of discrete energy levels within the band gap, the increased sample wettability, and the higher specific surface area. However, the post annealing process did not effect

  4. 多孔TiO2薄膜的制备及其光催化活性%Preparation and Photo-catalytic Activity of the Porous TiO2 Thin Films

    邹旭华; 齐世学; 刘雪梅; 于文娟; 安立敦

    2001-01-01

    The porous TiO2 thin films on both of carriers, glass sheet and glass fiber, are prepared from titanium alkoxide solution containing polyethylene glycol (PEG) by a dip-coating technique. The photo-catalytic degradation experiments show that methyl orange aqueous solution is efficiently decolorized in the presence of the porous TiO2 thin films by illumination with a high-pressure mercury lamp. The photo-catalytic activity of the TiO2 thin films is enhanced with the increase of the coating cycles or the PEG addition to the precursor solution. Under the same condition, the photo-catalytic activity of the porous TiO2 thin films on glass fiber is better than that of the porous TiO2 thin films using glass sheet as carriers.%采用溶胶-凝胶法在玻璃片和玻璃纤维两种基体上制备了多孔TiO2薄膜.对甲基橙水溶液的光催化降解实验表明:在一定范围内,随着TiO2镀层层数的增加,薄膜的光催化活性增强;且相同条件下,以玻璃纤维为基体的薄膜的光催化活性明显优于以玻璃片为基体的薄膜的活性.

  5. Photocatalytic TiO2 thin films for air cleaning : Effect of facet orientation, chemical functionalization, and reaction conditions

    Stefanov, Bozhidar

    2015-01-01

    Poor indoor air quality is a source of adverse health effects. TiO2 coatings deposited on well-illuminated surfaces, such as window panes, can be used to fully mineralize indoor air pollutants by photocatalysis. In such applications it is important to ensure stable photocatalytic activity for a wide range of operating conditions, such as relative humidity and temperature, and to avoid deactivation of the catalyst. In this thesis photocatalytic removal of the indoor-pollutant acetaldehyde (CH3...

  6. Combination of TiO2-Film Photocatalysis and Ultrafiltration to Treat Wastewater

    Shu-Hai You

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a combination of TiO2-film photocatalysis reactor and ultrafiltration was used treat the secondary effluent from the manufacturing of thin film transistor-liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD. TiO2 particles, as a photocatalyst, were immobilized on silica glass to form TiO2-film by the sol-gel and dip coating methods. TiO2-film photocatalysis was done within three parameters, including number of coating times of TiO2-film, wavelengths of UV light source, and operating time. During ultrafiltration, the operating pressure and feed water temperature were controlled at 300 KN/m2 and 25°C, respectively. It was found that TiO2-film photocatalysis followed by ultrafiltration increased the removal of total organic carbon (TOC to 47.13% and 49.94% for 5 KDa and 10 KDa membranes, respectively. It was also found that the process increased the permeate flux rate (ca 23% for 10 KDa membrane after 6 hours of operation, since some larger organic matter had been broken into small organic matter and some small organic matter had been mineralized into CO2 following TiO2-film photocatalysis. Therefore, combining TiO2-film photocatalysis reactor and ultrafiltration can improve organic wastewater quality and increase the permeate flux of ultrafiltration membrane, which may enhance the recycling and reuse of wastewater.

  7. Photo-electrochemical studies of chemically deposited nanocrystalline meso-porous n-type TiO2 thin films for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using simple synthesized azo dye

    Ezema, C. G.; Nwanya, A. C.; Ezema, B. E.; Patil, B. H.; Bulakhe, R. N.; Ukoha, P. O.; Lokhande, C. D.; Maaza, Malik; Ezema, Fabian I.

    2016-04-01

    Nanocrystalline titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films were deposited by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method onto fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass substrate at room temperature (300 K). Titanium trichloride and sodium hydroxide were used as cationic and anionic sources, respectively. The as-deposited and annealed films were characterized for structural, morphological, optical, electrical and wettability properties. The photoelectrochemical study of TiO2 sensitized with a laboratory synthesized organic dye (azo) was evaluated in the polyiodide electrolyte at 40 mW cm-2 light illumination intensity. The photovoltaic characteristics show a fill factor of 0.24 and solar conversion efficiency value of 0.032 % for a TiO2 thickness of 0.96 µm as compared to efficiency of 0.014 % for rose Bengal of the same thickness.

  8. Surface characterisation and photocatalytic performance of N-doped TiO2 thin films deposited onto 200 nm pore size alumina membranes by sol–gel methods

    Membrane filtration is employed for water treatment and wastewater reclamation purposes, but membranes alone are unable to remove pollutant molecules and certain pathogens. Photocatalytically active N-doped TiO2 coatings have been deposited by sol–gel onto 200 nm pore size alumina membranes for water treatment applications using two different methods, via pipette droplets or spiral bar applicator. The uncoated and coated membranes were characterised by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Both coatings showed the presence of N-doped anatase, with a surface coverage between 84 and 92%, and nitrogen concentration (predominantly interstitial) of 0.9 at.%. The spiral bar applicator deposited coatings exhibit a thicker mud-cracked surface layer with limited penetration of the porous membrane, whilst the pipette deposited coatings have mostly penetrated into the bulk of the membrane and a thinner layer is present at the surface. The photocatalytic activity (PCA), measured through the degradation of carbamazepine (CBZ), under irradiation of a solar simulator was 58.6% for the pipette coating and 63.3% for the spiral bar coating. These photocatalytically active N-doped sol–gel coated membranes offer strong potential in forming the fundamental basis of a sunlight based water treatment system. - Highlights: • Sol gel N-doped TiO2 thin films were deposited on 200 nm pore size Al2O3 membranes. • Two sol–gel methods have been compared – pipette drop and spiral bar deposition. • The coatings showed a similar microstructure and composition but different morphology. • The PCA (degradation of carbamazepine) was ∼60% for both sol–gel coatings. • The coated membranes are promising for use in a membrane based water treatment system

  9. Porous (001-faceted anatase TiO2 nanorice thin film for efficient dye-sensitized solar cell

    Shah Athar Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatase TiO2 structures with nanorice-like morphology and high exposure of (001 facet has been successfully synthesized on an ITO surface using ammonium Hexafluoro Titanate and Hexamethylenetetramine as precursor and capping agent, respectively, under a microwave-assisted liquid-phase deposition method. These anatase TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared within five minutes of reaction time by utilizing an inverter microwave system at a normal atmospheric pressure. The morphology and the size (approximately from 6 to 70 nm of these nanostructures can be controlled. Homogenous, porous, 5.64 ± 0.002 μm thick layer of spongy-nanorice with facets (101 and (001 was grown on ITO substrate and used as a photo-anode in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC. This solar cell device has emerged out with 4.05 ± 0.10% power conversion efficiency (PCE and 72% of incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE under AM1.5 G illumination.

  10. Structural, magnetic and optical properties of Ni-doped TiO2 thin films deposited on silicon(1 0 0) substrates by sol–gel process

    Highlights: •Ni doping decreases the activation energy for the anatase-to-rutile transformation. •With increasing Ni content, the reversible ferromagnetism is found. •Sharp decrease of the EOBG at low Ni content is mainly related to phase composition. -- Abstract: Ni-doped TiO2 films were deposited on Si(1 0 0) substrates by sol–gel technique. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis suggests that the valence of Ni ion is in +2 and oxygen vacancies increase with increasing Ni content. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that Ni doping catalyzes the anatase-to-rutile transformation (ART) of TiO2 films, which is due to the decrease of the ART activation energy. The reversible ferromagnetism of the samples with Ni fraction is found, which is due to an anatase-to-rutile junction destroying an F-center bound magnetic polaron. Optical properties of Ni-doped TiO2 films were studied by the ellipsometric spectra. With increasing Ni content, the optical band gap of TiO2 films is decreased from 3.56 to 3.34 eV, which may be related to phase composition and impurity band